What does Peter mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
πέτρος one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 100
πέτρον one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 26
πέτρῳ one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 15
πέτρου one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 12
πέτρε one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. 3
κηφᾶς another name for the apostle Peter. 1
κηφᾷ another name for the apostle Peter. 1

Definitions Related to Peter

G4074


   1 one of the twelve disciples of Jesus.
   Additional Information: Peter = “a rock or a stone”.
   

Frequency of Peter (original languages)

Frequency of Peter (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Feast of Saint Peter in Chains
Memorial August 1,
About the Feast Originally kept in Rome to commemorate the dedication of the Church of Saint Peter on the Esquiline Hill built by Eudoxia Licinia in 442, and rebuilt by Adrian I in the 8th century. When the chains which Saint Peter had worn in prison were later venerated there, the feast received its present name. The date when these chains were brought from Jerusalem is disputed; some claim they were brought in 116 by travellers sent in search of them by Saint Balbina and her father Saint Quirinus, while others think Saint Eudoxia brought them in 439. Pope Saint Leo the Great united them to the chains with which Saint Peter had been fettered in the Mamertine Prison, forming a chain about two yards long which is preserved in a bronze safe and guarded by a special confraternity.
Patronage Donnas, Italy
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Peter
Peter (pç'ter), stone, or rock; Syriac Cephas; Greek Petros. One of the twelve apostles, one of the three favorite disciples, with John and James. His original name was "Simon" or "Simeon." He was a son of Jonas (John, so read the best manuscripts), a brother of Andrew, probably a native of Bethsaida in Galilee. He was a fisherman and lived at Capernaum with his wife and mother-in-law, whom Christ healed of a fever. See John 1:42; John 21:15; Matthew 16:18; Luke 5:3-10; Matthew 8:14-15; Mark 1:29-31; Luke 4:38. Peter forsook all to follow Christ. His new name "Peter" ("rock-man") was given him when he was called to the apostleship. John 1:42. He made a remarkable confession of the divinity of our Lord. Matthew 16:18. The name "Peter" or "Cephas" was a prophecy of the prominent position which he, as the confessor of Christ, would occupy in the primitive age of the church. The church was built (not on Petros, but Petra—a rock), on his confession of the foundation, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God." Matthew 16:16; Matthew 16:18. The keys of the kingdom of heaven, to bind, and to loose, on earth and in heaven, were given to the church. Matthew 18:17-18; 1 Corinthians 5:11; 1 Corinthians 5:13; 2 Corinthians 2:7; 2 Corinthians 2:10. Peter was not infallible, for Paul "withstood him to the face because he was to be blamed." Galatians 2:11. He laid the foundation of the church among the Jews on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:1-47, and, after a special vision and revelation, among the Gentiles also, in the conversion of Cornelius. Acts 10:1-48. He appears throughout in the Gospels and the first part of the Acts as the head of the twelve. He was the first to confess and the first to deny his Lord and Saviour, yet he repented bitterly, and had no rest and peace till the Lord forgave him. He had a great deal of genuine human nature, but divine grace did its full work, and overruled even his faults for his advancement in humility and meekness. The labors of Peter are recorded in the Acts, chaps. 1 to 12 and chap. 15. He was the leading apostle from the day of Pentecost to the Council of Jerusalem, in a.d. 50. After that time his labors are involved in obscurity. According to the testimony of Christian antiquity, Peter suffered martyrdom in Rome under Nero, but his residence in Rome is disputed, and the year of his martyrdom is uncertain. When Paul arrived at Rome, a.d. 61, and during his imprisonment, a.d. 61-63, no mention is made of Peter. He is said to have been crucified, and thus he followed his Lord literally in the mode of his death. Comp. John 21:18-19. Origen adds, however, that Peter, deeming himself unworthy to suffer death in the same manner as his Master, was at his own request crucified with his head downward.
Epistles of Peter. The genuineness of 1 Peter has never been seriously questioned. It was addressed to Christian churches in Asia Minor, and written probably at Babylon on the Euphrates. 1 Peter 5:13. Some, however, interpret this of Some, and others of a town in Egypt called Babylon, near Old Cairo. 2 Peter was less confidently ascribed to Peter by the early church than the first epistle. There is no sufficient ground, however, for doubting its canonical authority, or that Peter was its author. 2 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 1:18; 2 Peter 3:1. Compare also 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5. In many passages it resembles the Epistle of Jude. Both epistles attest the harmony between the doctrines of Peter and Paul. "The faith expounded by Paul kindles into fervent hope in the words of Peter, and expands into sublime love in those of John."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Hermit, Peter the
Ascetic and preacher; born Amiens, France, c.1050;died Liege, Belgium, 1115. Contemporary historians agree that he was one of the numerous preachers of the Crusades; nothing supports the contention of later chroniclers that he instigated the First Crusade, of which Pope Urban II was sole initiator. The reason for imputing it to Peter was doubtless to attribute it to the asceties so popular at that time. The band he led to Constantinople (1096) was massacred nearby while he was away seeking help for them. Afterward joining Godfrey of Bouillon, his part was obscure, but in spite attempted desertion he was among the envoys to Kerbûga. Returning to Europe, he founded the monastery of Neufmoustier.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Dens, Peter
Belgian theologian. Born on September 12, 1690 at Boom, Belgium; died on February 15, 1775. Spent over 50 years as student, teacher and president of the archiepiscopal college of Mechelen. Author of Theologia Moralis et Dogmatica, a powerful vindication in catechetical form of the tenets of the Catholic Church; it was used as a text-book in Catholic colleges.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Faber, Peter, Blessed
Born Villaret, Savoy, 1506; died Rome, Italy, 1546. In 1525 he went to Paris and entered Saint-Barbe College, where he was a classmate and intimate friend of Saint Francis Xavier and where he met Saint Ignatius Loyola. He was ordained priest in 1534 and soon after joined the small band headed by Ignatius. He assisted at the diets of Worms and Ratisbon, and preached in Parma, Speyer, Mainz, Cologne, and Savoy, counteracting the influence of Lutheranism and reforming the decadent condition of Catholicism in those places. Part of his diary extant shows that he had an extraordinory devotion to the Angels. Beatified on September 5, 1872. Feast, in Jesuit churches, August 8,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Fourier, Peter, Saint
Confessor; called "the Good Father of Mattaincourt"; born Mireoourt, Lorraine, 1565; died Gray, Haute-Saone, 1640. He was educated at the University of Pont-a-Mousson and was ordained in 1589, having become a Canon Regular of Saint Augustine. He later reformed the Lorraine branch of this order, organizing with them, in 1629, the Congregation of Our Saviour, of which he became head. He restored the Faith in Mattaincourt and reclaimed the Principality of Salm from Calvinism. In 1598 he founded the Congregation of Notre Dame, who teach poor girls gratuitously; he is also founder of the Sodality of the Immaculate Conception, or "Children of Mary". His exile to Gray followed his refusal when the French Government asked him to swear allegiance to Louis XIII. Represented in art with a rochet, distributing pictures of the Blessed Virgin and chaplets to children. Canonized, 1897. Feast, December 9,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Damian, Peter, Saint
Doctor of the Church; Cardinal Bishop of Ostia; born Ravenna, Italy, 1007; died Faenza, Italy, 1072. Left an orphan at an early age, he was adopted by an elder brother and became a swineherd. He was later sent to school at Faenza and Parma and became a noted teacher. Having entered the monastery of Fonte Avellana, he was elected prior in 1043, and devoted himself to the reform of the monastery and the abolition of simony, incontinence, and other abuses. He attended a number of synods and was sent on many important missions. Relics at Faenza. Feast, Roman Calendar, February 21,.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Peter, First Epistle of
Its object is to confirm its readers in the doctrines they had been already taught. Peter has been called "the apostle of hope," because this epistle abounds with words of comfort and encouragement fitted to sustain a "lively hope." It contains about thirty-five references to the Old Testament.
It was written from Babylon, on the Euphrates, which was at this time one of the chief seats of Jewish learning, and a fitting centre for labour among the Jews. It has been noticed that in the beginning of his epistle Peter names the provinces of Asia Minor in the order in which they would naturally occur to one writing from Babylon. He counsels (1) to steadfastness and perseverance under persecution ((1-2:10);); (2) to the practical duties of a holy life ((2:11-3:13);); (3) he adduces the example of Christ and other motives to patience and holiness ((3:14-4:19);); and (4) concludes with counsels to pastors and people (ch. 5).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Feast of Saints Peter And Paul
One festival used for these two great Apostles because, according to tradition, they were martyred on the same day in Rome. It goes back to the 5th century. It occurs on June 29, and is a holy day of obligation in many countries.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canisius, Peter, Saint
Confessor; Doctor of the Church; born Nimwegen, Netherlands, 1521; died Fribourg, Switzerland, 1597. He was the second Apostle of Germany, theologian and leader of the Counter-Reformation. He studied arts, civillaw, and theology at the University of Cologne; at the instigation of Peter Faber he entered the Society of Jesus in 1543. Ordained in 1546. Studied under Ignatius at Rome. Received his doctorate in theology from Bologna. He introduced the Jesuits into Bavaria, Bohemia, Swabia, the Tyrol, and Hungary. Was employed on important missions by the Holy See. Was cathedral preacher at Augsburg, and was instrumental in procuring the erection of papal seminaries at Pragne, Fulda, Braunsberg, and Dillingen; encouraged Catholic printers and writers; wrote extensively. His Catechism appeared in over 200 editions during his lifetime and was translated into twelve languages. Canonized, 1925. Feast, Roman Calendar, April 27,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Chanel, Peter Louis Marie, Saint
Martyr; born Cuet, France, 1802; died Futuna Island, 1841. He was ordained, 1827, and in 1831 joined the Marists, who sent him to the South Pacific missions, and assigned him to Futuna in 1837. There he was martyred by the pagans. Beatified in 1889; canonized in 1954. Feast, April 28,.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Peter
Originally called Simon (=Simeon ,i.e., "hearing"), a very common Jewish name in the New Testament. He was the son of Jona (Matthew 16:17 ). His mother is nowhere named in Scripture. He had a younger brother called Andrew, who first brought him to Jesus (John 1:40-42 ). His native town was Bethsaida, on the western coast of the Sea of Galilee, to which also Philip belonged. Here he was brought up by the shores of the Sea of Galilee, and was trained to the occupation of a fisher. His father had probably died while he was still young, and he and his brother were brought up under the care of Zebedee and his wife Salome (Matthew 27:56 ; Mark 15:40 ; 16:1 ). There the four youths, Simon, Andrew, James, and John, spent their boyhood and early manhood in constant fellowship. Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. They did not probably enjoy, however, any special training in the study of the law under any of the rabbis. When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13 ). "Simon was a Galilean, and he was that out and out...The Galileans had a marked character of their own. They had a reputation for an independence and energy which often ran out into turbulence. They were at the same time of a franker and more transparent disposition than their brethren in the south. In all these respects, in bluntness, impetuosity, headiness, and simplicity, Simon was a genuine Galilean. They spoke a peculiar dialect. They had a difficulty with the guttural sounds and some others, and their pronunciation was reckoned harsh in Judea. The Galilean accent stuck to Simon all through his career. It betrayed him as a follower of Christ when he stood within the judgment-hall (Mark 14:70 ). It betrayed his own nationality and that of those conjoined with him on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:7 )." It would seem that Simon was married before he became an apostle. His wife's mother is referred to (Matthew 8:14 ; Mark 1:30 ; Luke 4:38 ). He was in all probability accompanied by his wife on his missionary journeys (1 Corinthians 9:5 ; Compare 1 Peter 5:13 ).
He appears to have been settled at Capernaum when Christ entered on his public ministry, and may have reached beyond the age of thirty. His house was large enough to give a home to his brother Andrew, his wife's mother, and also to Christ, who seems to have lived with him (Mark 1:29,36 ; 2:1 ), as well as to his own family. It was apparently two stories high (2:4).
At Bethabara (RSV, John 1:28 , "Bethany"), beyond Jordan, John the Baptist had borne testimony concerning Jesus as the "Lamb of God" (John 1:29-36 ). Andrew and John hearing it, followed Jesus, and abode with him where he was. They were convinced, by his gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he was the Messiah (Luke 4:22 ; Matthew 7:29 ); and Andrew went forth and found Simon and brought him to Jesus (John 1:41 ).
Jesus at once recognized Simon, and declared that hereafter he would be called Cephas, an Aramaic name corresponding to the Greek Petros, which means "a mass of rock detached from the living rock." The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him (Matthew 4:18-22 ; Mark 14:37 ; Luke 22:31 , comp 21:15-17). We are not told what impression the first interview with Jesus produced on the mind of Simon. When we next meet him it is by the Sea of Galilee (Matthew 17:25 ). There the four (Simon and Andrew, James and John) had had an unsuccessful night's fishing. Jesus appeared suddenly, and entering into Simon's boat, bade him launch forth and let down the nets. He did so, and enclosed a great multitude of fishes. This was plainly a miracle wrought before Simon's eyes. The awe-stricken disciple cast himself at the feet of Jesus, crying, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord" (Luke 5:8 ). Jesus addressed him with the assuring words, "Fear not," and announced to him his life's work. Simon responded at once to the call to become a disciple, and after this we find him in constant attendance on our Lord.
He is next called into the rank of the apostleship, and becomes a "fisher of men" (Matthew 4:19 ) in the stormy seas of the world of human life (Matthew 10:2-4 ; Mark 3:13-19 ; Luke 6:13-16 ), and takes a more and more prominent part in all the leading events of our Lord's life. It is he who utters that notable profession of faith at Capernaum (John 6:66-69 ), and again at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13-20 ; Mark 8:27-30 ; Luke 9:18-20 ). This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church."
"From that time forth" Jesus began to speak of his sufferings. For this Peter rebuked him. But our Lord in return rebuked Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any other of his disciples (Matthew 16:21-23 ; Mark 8:31-33 ). At the close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was transfigured before them. Peter on that occasion, under the impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it is good for us to be here: let us make three tabernacles" (Matthew 17:1-9 ).
On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Exodus 30:15 ), came to Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matthew 17:24-27 ). Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the tax, viz., a stater, or two half-shekels. "That take," said our Lord, "and give unto them for me and thee."
As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John (Luke 22:7-13 ) into the city to prepare a place where he should keep the feast with his disciples. There he was forewarned of the fearful sin into which he afterwards fell (22:31-34). He accompanied our Lord from the guest-chamber to the garden of Gethsemane (Luke 22:39-46 ), which he and the other two who had been witnesses of the transfiguration were permitted to enter with our Lord, while the rest were left without. Here he passed through a strange experience. Under a sudden impulse he cut off the ear of Malchus (47-51), one of the band that had come forth to take Jesus. Then follow the scenes of the judgment-hall (54-61) and his bitter grief (62).
He is found in John's company early on the morning of the resurrection. He boldly entered into the empty grave (John 20:1-10 ), and saw the "linen clothes laid by themselves" (Luke 24:9-12 ). To him, the first of the apostles, our risen Lord revealed himself, thus conferring on him a signal honour, and showing how fully he was restored to his favour (Luke 24:34 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 ). We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?" (John 21:1-19 ). (See LOVE .)
After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he again appears with the others at the ascension ( Acts 1:15-26 ). It was he who proposed that the vacancy caused by the apostasy of Judas should be filled up. He is prominent on the day of Pentecost (2:14-40). The events of that day "completed the change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall and all the lengthened process of previous training had been slowly making. He is now no more the unreliable, changeful, self-confident man, ever swaying between rash courage and weak timidity, but the stead-fast, trusted guide and director of the fellowship of believers, the intrepid preacher of Christ in Jerusalem and abroad. And now that he is become Cephas indeed, we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5,32 ; 15:14 ), and he is known to us finally as Peter."
After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3 ) persecution arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. He boldly defended himself and his companions at the bar of the council (4:19,20). A fresh outburst of violence against the Christians (5:17-21) led to the whole body of the apostles being cast into prison; but during the night they were wonderfully delivered, and were found in the morning teaching in the temple. A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts 5:29-32 ), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go."
The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem. After labouring for some time in Samaria, he returned to Jerusalem, and reported to the church there the results of his work (Acts 8:14-25 ). Here he remained for a period, during which he met Paul for the first time since his conversion (9:26-30; Galatians 1:18 ). Leaving Jerusalem again, he went forth on a missionary journey to Lydda and Joppa (Acts 9:32-43 ). He is next called on to open the door of the Christian church to the Gentiles by the admission of Cornelius of Caesarea (ch. 10).
After remaining for some time at Caesarea, he returned to Jerusalem (Acts 11:1-18 ), where he defended his conduct with reference to the Gentiles. Next we hear of his being cast into prison by Herod Agrippa (12:1-19); but in the night an angel of the Lord opened the prison gates, and he went forth and found refuge in the house of Mary.
He took part in the deliberations of the council in Jerusalem (Acts 15:1-31 ; Galatians 2:1-10 ) regarding the relation of the Gentiles to the church. This subject had awakened new interest at Antioch, and for its settlement was referred to the council of the apostles and elders at Jerusalem. Here Paul and Peter met again.
We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the Apostles. He seems to have gone down to Antioch after the council at Jerusalem, and there to have been guilty of dissembling, for which he was severely reprimanded by Paul (Galatians 2:11-16 ), who "rebuked him to his face."
After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east, and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1 Peter 5:13 ). There is no satisfactory evidence that he was ever at Rome. Where or when he died is not certainly known. Probably he died between A.D. 64,67.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Chair of Peter
Portable chair preserved at the Vatican and believed to be a chair used by Saint Peter, the extant testimony referring to it dating from the 2century. The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter at Rome has been celebrated from the early days of the Christian era on January 18, in commemoration of the day when Saint Peter held his first service in Rome. The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch, commemorating his foundation of the See of Antioch, has also been long celebrated at Rome, on February 22,. At each place a chair (cathedra) was venerated which the Apostle had used while presiding at Mass. One of the chairs is referred to about 600 by an Abbot Johannes who had been commissioned by Pope Gregory the Great to collect in oil from the lamps which burned at the graves of the Roman martyrs. One of these phials, preserved in the cathedral treasury of Monza, Italy, had a label reading, "oleo de sede ubi prius sedit sanctus Petrus" (oils from the chair where Saint Peter first sat). The Mass for both feast days is the same; the Collect is as follows:
"Oh, God, who, together with the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven, didst bestow on blessed Peter Thy Apostle the pontificate of binding and loosing, grant that by the aid of his intercession we may be released from the yoke of our sins."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Catechism of Saint Peter Canisius
Published in three forms: major (1555), minor (1558), and minimus (1556). The division of the subject-matter is as follows: Faith (Apostles' Creed); Hope and Prayer (Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary); Charity and the Commandments of God and the Church; the Sacraments; Christian Justice, i.e.,the shunning of evil and the doing of good. Through his catechisms Saint Canisius became the "mallet of heretics"; they were translated into every language in Europe and reprinted in countless editions, so that the name Canisius became synonymous with catechism.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Campanora, Peter
Reigned from 983 to 984) Born in Pavia, Italy as Peter Campanora; died in Rome, Italy. Prior to his election, he was Bishop of Pavia and chancellor of the empire under Otto II. After the death of Otto, the pope was incarcerated by the antipope, Boniface VII, in the Castle of Sant' Angelo where he died, possibly by violence.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Peter, Second Epistle of
The question of the authenticity of this epistle has been much discussed, but the weight of evidence is wholly in favour of its claim to be the production of the apostle whose name it bears. It appears to have been written shortly before the apostle's death (1:14). This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament. It also contains (3:15,16) a remarkable reference to Paul's epistles. Some think this reference is to 1 Thessalonians 4:13-5:11 .. A few years ago, among other documents, a parchment fragment, called the "Gospel of Peter," was discovered in a Christian tomb at Akhmim in Upper Egypt. Origen (obiit A.D. 254), Eusebius (obiit 340), and Jerome (obiit 420) refer to such a work, and hence it has been concluded that it was probably written about the middle of the second century. It professes to give a history of our Lord's resurrection and ascension. While differing in not a few particulars from the canonical Gospels, the writer shows plainly that he was acquinted both with the synoptics and with the Gospel of John. Though apocryphal, it is of considerable value as showing that the main facts of the history of our Lord were then widely known.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Peter
Simon Peter was one of the earliest believers in Jesus. Like his brother Andrew, he was probably a disciple of John the Baptist, till John directed them to Jesus (John 1:40-41; cf. Acts 1:15; Acts 1:21-22). Jesus immediately saw the man’s leadership qualities and gave him a new name, Peter (or Cephas), meaning ‘a rock’ (John 1:42). (The two names are from the words for ‘rock’ in Greek and Aramaic respectively.)
This initial meeting with Jesus took place in the Jordan Valley (John 1:28-29; John 1:35). Not long after, there was another meeting, this time in Galilee, when Peter became one of the first believers to leave their normal occupations and become active followers of Jesus (Matthew 4:18-22). When Jesus later selected twelve men from among his followers and appointed them as his special apostles, Peter was at the head of the list (Matthew 10:2).
Peter and Jesus
The son of a man named John (or Jonah) (Acts 5:29-325; John 1:42; John 21:15), Peter came from Bethsaida on the shore of Lake Galilee (John 1:44). Either he or his wife’s parents also had a house in the neighbouring lakeside town of Capernaum, which became a base for Jesus’ work in the area (Mark 1:21; Mark 1:29-30; Mark 2:1). Peter and Andrew worked as fishermen on the lake, in partnership with another pair of brothers, James and John (Matthew 4:18; Luke 5:10). These men all became apostles of Jesus. Although they had never studied in the Jewish religious colleges, they developed skills in teaching and debate through their association with Jesus (Acts 4:13).
From the beginning Peter showed himself to be energetic, self-confident and decisive. Sometimes he spoke or acted with too much haste and had to be rebuked (Matthew 14:28-31; Matthew 16:22-23; Matthew 19:27-28; Mark 9:5-7; Luke 5:4-5; John 13:6-11; John 18:10-11; John 21:7), but he never lost heart. He went through some bitter experiences before he learnt of the weakness that lay behind his over-confidence. Jesus knew that Peter had sufficient quality of character to respond to the lessons and so become a stronger person in the end (Mark 14:29; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:31-34).
As Jesus’ ministry progressed, Peter, James and John became recognized as a small group to whom Jesus gave special responsibilities and privileges (Acts 10:17-48; Mark 9:2; Mark 14:33). Peter was the natural leader of the twelve and was often their spokesman (Mark 1:36-37; Mark 10:27-28; Luke 12:41; John 6:67-68; John 13:24; John 21:2-3; Acts 1:15-16). On the occasion when Jesus questioned his disciples to see if they were convinced he was the Messiah, Jesus seems to have accepted Peter’s reply as being on behalf of the group. In responding to Peter, Jesus was telling the apostles that they would form the foundation on which he would build his unconquerable church (Matthew 16:13-18; cf. Ephesians 2:20).
When Peter’s testing time came, however, he denied Jesus three times (Luke 22:61-62). Jesus therefore paid special attention to Peter in the days after the resurrection. He appeared to Peter before he appeared to the rest of the apostles (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5; cf. Mark 16:7), and later gained from Peter a public statement of his devotion to his Lord (John 21:15).
In accepting Peter’s statement and entrusting to him the care of God’s people, Jesus showed the other disciples that he had forgiven and restored Peter. At the same time he told Peter why he needed such strong devotion. As a prominent leader in the difficult days of the church’s beginning, Peter could expect to receive the full force of the opposition (John 21:17-19; cf. Luke 22:32).
Peter and the early church
The change in Peter was evident in the early days of the church. He took the lead when important issues had to be dealt with (Acts 1:15; Acts 5:3; Acts 5:9), and he was the chief preacher (Acts 2:14; Acts 3:12; Acts 8:20). But no longer did he fail when his devotion to Jesus was tested. He was confident in the living power of the risen Christ (Acts 2:33; Acts 3:6; Acts 3:16; Acts 4:10; Acts 4:29-30). Even when dragged before the Jewish authorities, he boldly denounced them and unashamedly declared his total commitment to Jesus (Acts 4:8-13; Acts 4:19-20; Acts 5:18-21; 1618105171_58; Acts 5:40-42). On one occasion the provincial governor tried to kill him, but through the prayers of the church he escaped unharmed (Acts 12:1-17; cf. 1 Peter 2:21-23; 1 Peter 4:19).
Peter had been brought up an orthodox Jew and did not immediately break his association with traditional Jewish practices (Acts 3:1; Acts 5:12-17). Yet he saw that the church was something greater than the temple, and he readily accepted Samaritans into the church on the same bases as the Jews (Acts 8:14-17). He showed his increasing generosity of spirit by preaching in Samaritan villages and in the towns of Lydda and Joppa on the coastal plain (Acts 8:25; Acts 9:32; Acts 9:36).
In spite of all this, a special vision from God was necessary to convince Peter that uncircumcised Gentiles were to be accepted into the church freely, without their first having to submit to the Jewish law (Acts 10:9-16). As a result of the vision he went to Caesarea, where a God-fearing Roman centurion, along with his household, believed the gospel and received the Holy Spirit the same as Jewish believers (Mark 5:37). More traditionally minded Jews in the Jerusalem church criticized Peter for his broad-mindedness. Peter silenced them by describing his vision and telling them of the events at Caesarea (Acts 11:1-18).
Another factor in Peter’s changing attitudes towards Gentiles was the influence of Paul. The two men had met when Paul visited Jerusalem three years after his conversion (Galatians 1:18). They met again eleven years later, when Peter and other Jerusalem leaders expressed fellowship with Paul and Barnabas in their mission to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:9).
Although Peter understood his mission as being primarily to the Jews (Galatians 2:7), he visited the mainly Gentile church in Syrian Antioch and ate freely with the Gentile Christians. When Jewish traditionalists criticized him for ignoring Jewish food laws, he withdrew from the Gentiles. Paul rebuked him publicly and Peter readily acknowledged his error (Galatians 2:11-14). When church leaders later met in Jerusalem to discuss the matter of Gentiles in the church, Peter openly and forthrightly supported Paul (Acts 15:7-11).
A wider ministry
Little is recorded of Peter’s later movements. He travelled over a wide area (accompanied by his wife) and preached in many churches, including, it seems, Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 9:5). Early records indicate that he did much to evangelize the northern parts of Asia Minor. The churches he helped establish there were the churches to which he sent the letters known as 1 and 2 Peter (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1).
During this time Mark worked closely with Peter. In fact, Peter regarded Mark as his ‘son’ (1 Peter 5:13). There is evidence that at one stage they visited Rome and helped the church there. When Peter left for other regions, Mark remained in Rome, where he helped the Christians by recording for them the story of Jesus as they had heard it from Peter. (For the influence of Peter in Mark’s account see MARK, GOSPEL OF.)
Later, Peter revisited Rome. Mark was again with him, and so was Silas, who acted as Peter’s secretary in writing a letter to the churches of northern Asia Minor. In this letter Peter followed the early Christian practice of referring to Rome as Babylon (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12-13). The letter shows how incidents and teachings that Peter witnessed during Jesus’ life continued to have a strong influence on his preaching (cf. 1 Peter 1:22 with John 15:12; cf. 1 Peter 2:7 with Matthew 21:42; cf. 1 Peter 2:12 with Matthew 5:16; cf. 1 Peter 3:9 with Matthew 5:39; cf. 1 Peter 4:15-16 with Mark 14:66-72; cf. 1 Peter 4:7 with Luke 22:45-46; cf. 1 Peter 4:19 with Luke 23:46; cf. 1 Peter 5:1 with Mark 9:2-8; cf. 1 Peter 5:2 with John 21:16; cf. 1 Peter 5:5 with John 13:4; John 13:14; cf. 1 Peter 5:7 with Matthew 6:25).
At this time Nero was Emperor and his great persecution was about to break upon the Christians. Peter wrote his First Letter to prepare Christians for what lay ahead. He wrote his Second Letter to give various reminders and warn against false teaching. (For details see PETER, LETTERS OF.) By the time he wrote his Second Letter he was in prison, awaiting the execution that Jesus had spoken of about thirty years earlier (2 Peter 1:13-15; cf. John 21:18-19). According to tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome some time during the period AD 65-69.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Peter, Letters of
The Christians addressed in 1 Peter lived mainly in the northern provinces of Asia Minor bordering the Black Sea (1 Peter 1:1). These were places that Paul had not been allowed to enter (Acts 16:7-8), but that Peter had helped to evangelize, most likely with John Mark as his assistant (1 Peter 5:13).
Purpose in writing 1 Peter
It was the era of the Roman Emperor Nero (who ruled from AD 54 to 68) and persecution against Christians was increasing everywhere. At the time of writing, Peter was apparently in Rome. This was the heart of the Empire and the place that Christians referred to as Babylon, the symbol of arrogant opposition to God and his people (1 Peter 5:13). Paul had recently been executed (2 Timothy 4:6), and Peter felt that a more violent persecution was about to break out.
Peter therefore wrote to warn Christians not to be surprised or ashamed when they met persecution (1 Peter 4:12; 1 Peter 4:16). They were to bear their sufferings with patience, even if it meant death, and they were to bear intelligent witness to their faith in Christ (1 Peter 2:20-23; 1 Peter 3:14-15; 1 Peter 4:19). Always, however, they had the assurance of a living hope and a glorious future (1 Peter 1:3-8).
Contents of 1 Peter
At the outset Peter reminds his readers that although God wants his people to have assurance of their salvation, he also tests their faith to prove its genuineness (1:1-12). True faith produces qualities of holiness and love in the lives of Christ’s followers (1:13-2:3) and builds them into a community whose life and vigour should bring blessing to people everywhere (2:4-10).
This leads Peter to consider the responsibility Christians have to maintain good conduct in society (2:11-17), even when people in general are against them (2:18-25). Likewise in the home and in the church they must work towards peace and harmony (3:1-12).
Suffering is inevitable if Christians live rightly, and in this matter Christ is the perfect example (3:13-22). But just as Christ’s suffering was not without purpose, so neither is the suffering of his followers. It should lead them to more disciplined and fruitful lives for God (4:1-11) and help them to experience that deep-seated joy that Christ himself experienced (4:12-19).
Because church leaders have such a vital work to do among believers in times of difficulty, Peter gives some special instruction for them (5:1-5). He concludes his letter by urging all his readers to be humble and to keep alert at all times (5:6-14).
Purpose in writing 2 Peter
It seems that Peter wrote the letter known as Second Peter only a year or so after he wrote First Peter, and that he sent it to the same people (cf. 2 Peter 3:1 with 1 Peter 1:1). It seems also that Peter was in prison, most likely in Rome, and expected to be executed soon (2 Peter 1:14-15). When he heard that false teachers were moving around the churches causing trouble, he promptly sent off this short but uncompromising letter.
The main error that Peter opposed was the claim by the false teachers that, since faith alone was necessary for salvation, Christians could live as they pleased. Immoral practices were not wrong for those who had gained a higher knowledge of spiritual things, and in fact were evidence that they had gained true freedom (2 Peter 2:1-3). (Concerning the similarities between 2 Peter and Jude see JUDE.) The other error of the false teachers was their mockery of the return of Jesus Christ.
Contents of 2 Peter
Peter counters the false teaching about Christian behaviour by showing that when people are saved by faith, their lives are changed in the direction of virtue, morality, self-control, godliness and love (1:1-15). God’s power to change lives is a fact to which Old Testament writers and New Testament apostles bear witness (1:16-21). Then, in a strong denunciation of the false teachers, Peter describes their immoral character and announces their certain punishment (2:1-22).
As for Christ’s return, it also is certain, and the scoffers are only deceiving themselves (3:1-7). Any apparent delay in his return is for the purpose of giving sinners the opportunity to repent and escape the coming judgment. Christians likewise must be ready for his return, for they too are accountable to God (3:8-18).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Peter
(pee' tehr) Personal name meaning, “Rock.” Four names are used in the New Testament to refer to Peter: the Hebrew name Simeon ( Acts 15:14 ); the Greek equivalent Simon (nearly fifty times in the Gospels and Acts); Cephas , most frequently used by Paul (1 Corinthians 1:12 ; 1 Corinthians 3:22 ; 1 Corinthians 9:5 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 ; Galatians 1:18 ; Galatians 2:9 ,Galatians 2:9,2:11 ,Galatians 2:11,2:14 ) and occurring only once outside his writings (John 1:42 ). Cephas and Peter both mean rock . Simon is often found in combination with Peter , reminding the reader that Simon was the earlier name and that Peter was a name given later by Jesus. The name Peter dominates the New Testament usage.
Family of Peter The Gospels preserve a surprising amount of information about Peter and his family. Simon is the son of Jona or John (Matthew 16:17 ; John 1:42 ). He and his brother, Andrew, came from Bethsaida (John 1:44 ) and were Galilean fishermen (Mark 1:16 ; Luke 5:2-3 ; John 21:3 ), in partnership with the sons of Zebedee, James and John (Luke 5:10 ). Peter was married (Mark 1:29-31 ; 1 Corinthians 9:5 ) and maintained a residence in Capernaum (Mark 1:21 ,Acts 5:1-67:29 ). Before becoming disciples of Jesus, Peter and Andrew had been influenced by the teaching of John the Baptist (John 1:35-42 ).
Role of Peter Among the Disciples Peter is credited with being a leader of the twelve disciples whom Jesus called. His name always occurs first in the lists of disciples (Mark 3:16 ; Luke 6:14 ; Matthew 10:2 ). He frequently served as the spokesman for the disciples (compare Mark 8:29 ) and was usually he one who raised the questions which they all seemed to be asking (Mark 10:28 ; Mark 11:21 ; Matthew 15:15 ; Mark 14:43-50 ; Luke 12:41 ). Jesus often singled out Peter for teachings intended for the entire group of disciples (see especially Mark 8:29-33 ). As a member of the inner circle, Peter was present with Jesus at the raising of the synagogue ruler's daughter (Mark 5:35-41 ), at the Transfiguration (Mark 9:2-8 ), and at the arrest of Jesus in Gethsemene (Matthew 18:21 ). As representative disciple, Peter frequently typified the disciple of little faith . His inconsistent behavior (see Matthew 14:27-31 ) reached a climax with his infamous denial scene (Mark 14:66-72 ). Peter was, however, rehabilitated in the scene where the resurrected Jesus restored Peter to his position of prominence (John 21:15-19 ; compare Mark 16:7 ).
Peter's Role in the Early Church Despite Peter's role among the disciples and the promise of his leadership in the early church (see especially Matthew 16:17-19 ), Peter did not emerge as the leader of either form of primitive Christianity. Though he played an influential role in establishing the Jerusalem church (see the early chapters of Acts), James, the brother of Jesus, assumed the leadership role of the Jewish community. Though Peter was active in the incipient stages of the Gentile mission (see Acts 10-11 ), Paul became the “apostle to the gentiles.”
Peter probably sacrificed his chances to be the leader of either one of these groups because of his commitment to serve as a bridge in the early church, doing more than any other to hold together the diverse strands of primitive Christianity.
The Legacy of Peter Tradition holds that Peter died as a martyr in Rome in the 60s (1Clem. 1618105171_11:1 ). His legacy, however, lived on long after his death. Both 1,2Peter in the New Testament are traditionally attributed to the apostle Peter. Significant also was the presence of a group of devotees of Peter who produced several writings in the name of the apostle—the Acts of Peter, the Gospel of Peter (and some would include 2Peter). To a great extent, subsequent generations of the church rely
on the confession, witness, and ministry of Peter, the devoted, but fallible follower of Christ. (See Peter, Epistles of; Jerusalem conference; Jerusalem church; Jewish Christianity; Disciples, Apostles.
Mikeal C. Parsons
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Lombard, Peter
Archbishop of Armagh, born Waterford, Ireland, c.1555;died Rome, Italy, 1625. He studied at Louvain and was made archbishop, 1601; as he was unable to go to his see, the diocese was administered by David Rothe. Lombard wrote a treatise on Ireland and for a time presided over the "Congregatio de Auxiliis" which examined into the Jesuit and Dominican controversy on grace.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Nolasco, Peter, Saint
Confessor; one of the founders of the Mercedarians; born Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, France, c.1189;died Barcelona, Spain, c1256 Dividing his wealth among the poor, he took a vow of chastity. He went to Spain and there ransomed the Christians enslaved by the Moors, and in 1218 decided to found a religious order for the redemption of Christian captives, called Mercedarians; it was approved, 1230. Canonized, 1628. Feast, Roman Calendar, January 31,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Martyr d'Anghiera, Peter
Historian of Spain, born near Anghiera, Italy, 1451; died Granada, Spain, 1526. At Rome he met the Spanish ambassador whom he accompanied to Spain, where he became noted among the humanists, and was patronized by Ferdinand and Isabella. He was sent to Egypt on a mission to the sultan. Charles V made him Count Palatine, and Pope Clement VII, Abbot of Jamaica, an island which he never visited. He was the first to realize the significance of the Gulf Stream. His work as chronicler to the State Council of India is notable. His writings include the first account of Spanish discoveries in the New World, the voyages of Columbus, Balboa, etc., and an account of Egypt. He collected letters of contemporary Spanish history.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Peter-Pence
Was an annual tribute of one penny paid at Rome out of every family at the feast of St. Peter. This, Ina, the Saxon king, when he went in pilgrimage to Rome, about the year 740, gave to the pope, partly as alms, and partly in recompence of a house erected in Rome for English pilgrims. It continued to be paid generally until the time of king Henry VIII. when it was enacted, that henceforth no persons shall pay any pensions, peter-pence, or other impositions, to the use of the bishop and see of Rome.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Peter
A rock or stone
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Peter, First, Theology of
First Peter was written as a circular letter to churches in five provinces of northwestern Asia Minor. Because of their conversion to Christ these people had been alienated from their culture and their former friends (1:14,18; 2:9; 4:3-4), and the letter encourages them in the midst of slander, personal abuse, and ostracism (1:6; 2:12; 3:15-16; 4:4). Peter instructs them to understand their sufferings as an emulation of the passion of Christ (2:21; 4:13), to anticipate the glory they will enjoy when Christ is revealed to the whole world (1:13; 4:13), and to recognize that the church has become their primary social group (2:1-10; 3:8-12; 4:7-11). The message of this letter is the genuine grace of God (5:12) to be realized in their disciplined response to persecution.
The author calls himself Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ (1:1), a fellow elder, a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and a participant in the eschatological glory (5:1). He has written by means of Silvanus (5:12, or Silas; cf. Acts 15:22,27 , 32 ), with greetings from his "son, " Mark (Acts 12:12 ; 15:37 ; Colossians 4:10 ) as well as from the elect church in "Babylon"—a symbolic name for Rome (5:13; cf. Revelation 17:5,18 ; 18:2,10 ).
Some scholars have questioned apostolic authorship on the basis of the quality of Greek, the absence of personal references to the life of Jesus, and the absence of persecution by the state during the lifetime of Peter. Yet Peter was to some degree bilingual with thirty years of preaching experience, and the skills of Silvanus would have been significant. The purpose of the letter is exhortation, not a rehearsal of the gospel or personal experiences. And finally, the internal description of persecution is that it was spontaneous, local, and sporadic (3:13-15), not official persecution by the state (2:13-17). This would suggest that the letter was written prior to Nero's attack on Christians in a.d. 64. Peter's authorship is also supported by the early use of the letter, the consistent affirmation in Christian tradition that he was its author, and its early acceptance in the developing canon.
The dominant theological emphasis of 1Peter is an ecclesiology that provides believers a self-understanding for the outworking of their salvation in a hostile society. The importance of ecclesiology is indicated by the appearance of ecclesiological emphases at the end of each major section in the letter (2:1-10; 3:8-12; 4:7-11; 5:1-7), even though the word "church" is not used in the letter.
The church is comprised of the elect (1:1), regenerate persons (1:3) who have been baptized (3:21) and are being built into the temple of God (2:5) as a royal priesthood; they thus actualize the titles and purposes of Israel (2:9-10). The church's members engage in the disciplines of eschatological hope, reverent fear of God, love for each other, and worship of Christ (1:13-2:10).
The church lives in the world as an alternate society. Her members have been marginalized by their conversion and departure from the ignorance and evils of the traditions of their former culture, and have thereby become aliens and sojourners in the world (1:1; 2:11). Their purpose is to live in the fear of God as his slaves (2:16) and still fulfill the obligations placed on each of them by their position in society. By this submission to their societal counterpartsthe unconverted governors, masters, and husbandsbelievers maintain an honorable lifestyle that will repudiate false accusations and prepare those "Gentiles" for divine visitation (2:12). Even husbands must reject the shameful way that society treats women and give honor to their wives as equals (3:7), who of necessity converted with them. The secret to a good and happy life comes from living with other members of the church in harmony, love, and humility, not from societal recognition or personal achievement (3:8-12). Peter thus recognizes the affirmative nature of a societal organization and emphasizes that while these Christians were in no position to modify social structures, yet they were able to live within them and have a dynamic effect on the non-Christian members of society.
The church must understand the accusations, abuse, and ostracism she experiences from hostile neighbors. This is her opportunity to articulate her faith (3:15-17), to enjoy a fresh release from sin (4:1-6), and to express, with eschatological expectation, the gifts of the Spirit in the life of the church (4:7-11).
Persecution is to be accepted as a blessed partnership in the messianic sufferings. Like Christ, believers must commit their lives to God, who is the faithful Creator (4:19), and realize that if judgment begins with God's people in this life, then the final judgment of the unrepentant is incomprehensible (4:17-18). In contrast the church will share in the glory that belongs to Jesus Christ when he is revealed to the entire world (5:1,10). That is why she must resist the devil, who, as the ultimate source of all persecution, seeks to destroy the church.
The church lives under the authority of Jesus Christ through his apostle (1:1) and the elders (5:1-4). The elders are responsible for the particular implementation of this letter, which they must do in an exemplary and honorable fashion. Younger men must submit to these elders, and all Christians must live in humility toward each other (5:5-7), especially before God, who gives honor at the appropriate time, when they will inherit the fullness of their salvation (1:4-5).
Christology is central to the church's understanding of salvation and persecution. By Christ's sacrificial death she has been redeemed from her vain and futile life, and by his resurrection she has been regenerated to a living hope and an imperishable inheritance (1:3,18-20; 3:18). According to God's eternal plan Christ has already been presented to the church (1:11; 20,25), and his revelation to the entire world will be the completion of her salvation when she will share in his glory (1:11; 4:13; 5:4,10).
Jesus Christ is the cornerstone (or capstone) of the church, and the priest through whom she offers spiritual sacrifices to God (2:5-7). He is also the model for understanding and enduring abuse and persecution (1:11; 4:1,13-15). His demeanor in crucifixion is exemplary for slaves with cruel masters (2:21-25). His resurrection and ascension affirm the church's ultimate triumph over her enemies, just as Jesus announced his triumph to the spirits in prison on his journey through the heavens (3:18-22). Jesus Christ is the Son of God (1:3), seated at his right hand; he shares with God the title of Lord (1:25; 2:3; 3:12,15).
The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of Christ who spoke through the prophets (1:11), has been given to the church through the preaching of the gospel (1:12), and is engaged in the sanctification of the church (1:2). This unity of the Godhead is made explicit in salvation by the election of the Father, the sanctifying of the Spirit, and the sacrificial death of Christ (1:2).
God is also the caring Father of believers by regeneration (1:2,17, 23). The church has placed her faith in him who is the Creator (1:21; 4:19) and who provides the gifts of the Spirit (4:10-11). She humbly fears God as her impartial judge (1:17; 4:17) in order to live according to his will and holiness (1:15; 2:16,19; 4:2) and to be honored by him (5:5). The ultimate purpose of the church is to glorify God (1:3; 2:12; 4:11,16; 5:11).
Norman R. Ericson
See also Capstone ; Cornerstone ; Persecution ; Peter, Second, Theology of ; Spirits in Prison
Bibliography . R. J. Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; P. Davids, The Book of 1Peter ; D. Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; S. J. Kistemaker, Peter and Jude ; G. E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; J. R. Michaels, 1Peter ; L. Morris, New Testament Theology .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Peter, Second, Theology of
Second Peter was written to believers who were being influenced by false teachers who advocated an indulgent, libertine lifestyle and denied the second coming of the Lord. In conformity to the evil influences of their pagan culture, they distorted the apostolic teachings about freedom from the law (1:20-21; 2:21; 3:15-16; cf. Romans 6:1,15 ) and claimed a superior spirituality that freed them from regulation and judgment.
The author identifies himself as "Simon Peter, " a combination of names that occurs only here in the New Testament and early Christian literature. Due to the internal features such as the mention of Peter's death (1:14), the difference in the style of the Greek, and the relatively slow recognition of the letter, some scholars argue that this letter was not written by the apostle, but by a disciple soon after Peter's death or by a second-century pseudepigrapher. Yet early Christian evidence affirms the apostolicity of the letter, and, unlike some more popular writing, it was actually accepted into the canon. In addition, critical issues can be explained, such as the difference in style being due to the use of a different amanuensis than Silvanus (1 Peter 5:12 ).
Peter wrote this letter to announce the certainty of divine judgment on the false teachers (chap. 2) and to declare that God is able to preserve all who engage in the spiritual disciplines of grace and knowledge (3:18). Jesus Christ will certainly appear, and those who have fallen from the faith will be judged along with this evil world. Peter's second letter is presumably addressed, like 1Peter, from Rome to the churches in northern Asia Minor about a.d. 65.
Eschatology is the dominant theological focus in 2Peter, with an emphasis on the certainty of divine judgment on ungodliness and apostasy. This judgment has happened in the past, continues in the present, and will find ultimate expression on the day of the Lord (3:10). This is proven by the destruction of the ancient world in its ungodliness, the continuing detention of insubordinate angels, and the catastrophic destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah for their evil and immorality (2:4-10).
These models of judgment correspond directly to the sins of the false teachers, including audacity, insurrection, blasphemy, immorality, indulgence, and deception (2:10b-19). They have compounded their guilt and punishment by turning against Jesus Christ and by luring recent converts back into their original corruption (2:20-22). Additional images of sin include idleness, fruitlessness, blindness (1:8-9); falling (1:10); returning to filth (2:22); defilement (2:20); a lustful journey (3:3).
The final judgment of ungodly persons will occur at the second coming of Christ (1:16; 3:4). It will be so severe and comprehensive that it will include the destruction of the heavens, the earth, and everything in them. All evil will be brought under the scrutiny of God and will be punished by him (3:5-7,10-12).
Salvation is God's ability to protect the righteous and deliver them from their evil environment, like Noah and Lot (2:5,7-8), which will be completed at the appearing of Jesus Christ. Because of the divine provision (1:3-4), which must be complemented by their own spiritual discipline (1:5-11), the righteous will not fall away under the testings that arise from their evil surroundings or from the false teachers (3:17).
This spiritual discipline requires the development of Christian character (1:5-7), adhering to the faith and true teaching of the apostles (1:12-21; 3:15-16), anticipating the day of the Lord (3:11-12), and keeping oneself blameless and unspotted by the world (1:4; 3:14).
Such is the essence of participating in the divine nature (1:4). It is the means by which the faithful increase in godly grace and in the true knowledge of Jesus Christ (3:17). Traveling on this righteous road (2:21) is the way to confirm their calling and election (1:10-11), and to enjoy the new heaven and earth (3:13). All three persons of the Trinity are mentioned in 2Peter, with strong expressions of the unity of the Father and the Son, and evidence of the unity of the Godhead in divine revelation.
God the Father is glorious and virtuous, and by these virtues he called a people to himself. By his divine power he provides for them all that is necessary for life and holiness (1:3). He is patient and wishes for all people to be saved. Even when people are most sinful, he delays judgment so that more people will respond to his call (3:9). Since he is unaffected by time, he can be patient without contradicting his promises (3:9). And because he is just, he imposes judgment on all unrighteousness (2:4-10; 3:12), and he will provide a new heaven and a new earth as the abode of the righteous (3:13).
Jesus Christ is the beloved Son of the Father (1:17), the Lord over the apostles (1:10), the Lord and Savior of the church (1:8,11; 2:20), and the Lord of the eternal kingdom (1:11).
The unity of the Father and Son is shown by the grammatical constructions that declare that they have a common righteousness (1:1) and that as one they are the object and essence of Christian knowing (1:2). The Father displayed his glory and honor on the Son at the transfiguration (1:17), and they share the title "Lord" (1:2,11, 14,16; 2:9,11; 3:8). They are interchangeably identified with eschatological events (1:16; 2:4,9-10; 3:4,12), and the Son receives the final doxology in words commonly addressed to the Father (3:18).
Divine revelation is foundational to the message of 2Peter. It not only describes the inspiration of Scripture (1:21-22), but also presents the unity of the Godhead in revelation. It is the Spirit who spoke through the prophets (1:21; 3:2), the Father who spoke to the disciples (1:17), and Jesus who delivered his commandment(s) to the churches through the apostles (3:2).
The ecclesiology of 2Peter is implicit, yet of great importance since the preservation of holiness in the church is the intended outcome of the letter. The church is equated with Israel by their common experience of false prophets or teachers within the community (2:1), by their common possession of divine revelation in the prophetic word (1:19; 3:2), and by their common claim to the patriarchs who have long since fallen asleep (3:4).
The church is governed by the authority of Jesus Christ mediated through the apostles (1:1; 3:2). Their primary task is to remind the churches of the apostolic teaching received from Jesus Christ (3:2) and to transmit it in a manner that will be effective even after their death (1:15). This apostolic teaching, like the writings of Paul (3:15-16), has a divine authority (1:18-19) equal to that of the prophets of Israel and the Hebrew Scriptures.
Norman R. Ericson
See also Peter, First, Theology of
Bibliography . R. Bauckham, Jude, 2Peter ; D. Guthrie, New Testament Theology: A Thematic Study ; G. E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; L. Morris, New Testament Theology .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Simon Peter
See Peter.
Webster's Dictionary - Peter
(1):
(v. i.) To become exhausted; to run out; to fail; - used generally with out; as, that mine has petered out.
(2):
(n.) A common baptismal name for a man. The name of one of the apostles,
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Gallwey, Peter
Jesuit preacher and spiritual director, born Killarney, Ireland, 1820; died London, England, 1906. Among his writings is "Watches of the Passion."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Abbey Nullius of Saint Peter
Muenster, Saskatchewan. Founded in Illinois in 1892 as Saint Peter's Priory. Transferred to Muenster in 1903. Erected into an abbey in1911. Made an Abbey Nullius on May 6, 1921. Comprised the 50 townships which constitute Saint Peter's Colony. Supressed and made part of the diocese of Saskatoon on September 14, 1998.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Epistles of Saint Peter
Saint Peter the Apostle wrote two Epistles, both addressed to converts from paganism in Asia Minor. Both were sent from Rome. The second seems to hint at his approaching death. The first abounds with admonitions to lead a Christian life, outlining the duties of subjects to the emperor, of slaves towards masters, of wives and husbands, mutual charity, patience, and humility. The second seems more of an attack on abuses; some seemed to have lost faith because Christ did not come in glory as soon as they had hoped. Saint Peter explains the delay, warns against and describes the punishment inflicted on teachers of false doctrines, and bids his readers await Christ's coming in patience and good works.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Garesche, Julius Peter
Soldier, born near Havana, Cuba, 1821; died Murfreesboro, Tennessee, 1862. He entered the United States Army and took part in the Mexican War. Wherever stationed, he made himself a center of Catholic activities, being knighted by Pius IX for his services to religion. During the Civil War as chief of staff to General Rosecrans he fell at the battle of Stone River.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Peter
The apostle. We have a very circumstantial account of this man in the New Testament, so that it supersedes the necessity of any observations here. His name was altered to Cephas, a Syriac word for rock. We must not however totally pass by our improvements on the apostle's life and character, though we do not think it necessary to go over the history of this great man. Certainly the Holy Ghost intended, that the very interesting particulars in the life of Peter should have their due operation in the church through all ages; and it must be both the duty and the privilege of the faithful to follow up the will of God the Spirit in this particular, and to regard, the striking features which mark his character. As a faithful servant of Jesus how very eminent Peter stands forth to observation; for who among the apostles so zealous, so attached to his Lord, as Peter? And that such an one should fall from his integrity, even to the denial of his Lord, what caution doth it teach to the highest servants of Jesus! But when we have paid all due attention to those striking particularities in the life of Peter, the most blessed and most important instruction the life of this apostle exhibits, is in the display of that sovereign grace of Jesus manifested in Peter's recovery. Oh, how blessedly hath the Holy Ghost taught, in this man's instance, the vast superiority of God's grace over man's undeservings! However great our unworthiness, the Lord's mercies are greater. Divine love riseth above the highest tide of human transgression. "Where sin aboundeth, grace doth much more abound; that as sin hath reigned unto death, so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, through Jesus Christ our Lord." (Romans 5:21)
I cannot close my observations on the character of Peter without first expressing my surprize that the apostle did not adopt the name of Cephas from the first moment Jesus called him so. (John 1:42) Paul indeed did call Peter by this name, Galatians 2:9; but it doth not seem to have been in general use among the brethren. And yet we find, in the instance of Abraham and Jacob, the Lord when he changed their names seemed to express his pleasure in calling them by those names. I would ask, is not this change of name among the Lord's people now a part of their high calling and character? Did not the Lord so promise the church when he said, "And thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the Lord shall name?" (Isaiah 62:2) And did not Jesus confirm this when he said, "Him that overcometh will I make a pillar in the temple of my God; and I will write upon him my new name." (Revelation 3:12) Reader, is not this done now as much as in the instance of Old Testament saints, and New Testament believers in the ages past? Let us cherish the thought.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Paul's Visit to Jerusalem to See Peter
BUT yourself back into Paul's place. Suppose yourself born in Tarsus, brought up at Gamaliel's feet in Jerusalem, and keeping the clothes of Stephen's executioners. Think of yourself as a blasphemer, and a persecutor, and injurious. And-then imagine yourself apprehended of Christ Jesus, driven of the Spirit into the wilderness of Arabia, and coming back with all your bones burning within you to preach Jesus Christ and Him crucified. But, all the time, you have never once seen your Master in the flesh, as His twelve disciples had seen Him. He had been for thirty years with His mother and His sisters and His brethren in Galilee. And then He had been for three years with the twelve and the seventy. But Paul had been born out of due time. And thus it was that Paul went up to Jerusalem to see Peter about all that. Paul had a great desire to see Peter about all that before he began his ministry. And you would have had that same great desire, and so would I.
At the same time, even with the prospect of seeing Peter, it must have taken no little courage on Paul's part to face Judea and Jerusalem again. To face the widows and the orphans of the men he had put to death in the days of his ignorance and unbelief. To Paid the very streets of Jerusalem were still wet with that innocent blood. Led in by Peter Paul sat at the same Lord's table, and ate the same bread, and drank the same wine, with both old and young communicants, who had not yet put off their garments of mourning because of Paul. Deliver me from blood-guiltiness, O God, Thou God of my salvation. Then will I teach transgressors Thy ways. Do good in Thy good pleasure unto Zion; build Thou the walls of Jerusalem. And thus it was that, to the end of his days, Paul was always making collections for those same poor saints that were in Jerusalem. Paul would have pensioned every one of them out of his own pocket, had he been able. But how could he do that off a needle and a pair of shears? And thus it was that he begged so incessantly for the fatherless families that he had made fatherless in Judea and in Jerusalem. Now, if any of you have ever made any woman a widow, or any child an orphan, or done anything of that remorseful kind, do not flee the country. You cannot do it, and you need not try. Remain where you are. Go back to the place. Go back often in imagination, if not in your bodily presence. Do the very utmost that in you lies, to repair the irreparable wrong that you did long ago. And, when you cannot redeem that dreadful damage, commit it to Him who can redeem both it and you. And say to Him continually:-Count me a partner with Thee. And put that also down to my account.
"To see Peter," our Authorised Version is made to say. "To visit Peter," the Revised Version is made to say. And, still, to help out all that acknowledged lameness, the revised margin is made to say, "to become acquainted with Peter." But Paul would not have gone so far, at that time at any rate, to see Peter or any one else. Any one else, but Peter's Master. But to see Him even once, as He was in the flesh, Paul would have gone from Damascus to Jerusalem on his hands and his knees, "I went up to Jerusalem to history Peter," is what Paul really says. Only, that is not good English. But far better bad English, than an utterly meaningless translation of such a text. "To interview Peter," is not good English either, but it conveys Paul's meaning exactly. The great Greek historians employ Paul's very identical word when they tell their readers the pains they took to get first-hand information before they began to write their books. "I went up to interrogate and to cross-question Peter all about our Lord," that would be rough English indeed, but it would be far better than so feebly to say, "to see Peter," which positively hides from his readers what was Paul's real errand to Jerusalem, and to Peter.
Had Landor been led to turn his fine dramatic genius and his ripe scholarship to Scriptural subjects, he would, to a certainty, have given us the conversations that took place for fifteen days between Peter and Paul. Landor's Epictetus and Seneca, his Diogenes and Plato, his Melanchthon and Calvin, his Galileo and Milton and a Dominican, and his Dante and Beatrice, are all among his masterpieces. But his Paul and Peter, and his Paul and James the brother of our Lord, and especially his Paul and the mother of our Lord, would have eclipsed clean out of sight his most classical compositions. For, on no possible subject, was Peter so ready always to speak, to all comers, as just about his Master. And never before nor since had Peter such a hungry hearer as just his present visitor and interrogator from Arabia and Damascus. Peter began by telling Paul all about that day when his brother Andrew so burst in upon him about the Messiah. And then that day only second to it, on the Lake of Gennesaret. And then Matthew the publican's feast, and so on, till Peter soon saw what it was that Paul had come so far to hear. And then he went on with the good Samaritan, and the lost piece of silver, and the lost sheep, and the lost son. For fifteen days and fifteen nights this went on till the two prostrate men took their shoes off their feet when they entered the Garden of Gethsemane. And both at the cock-crowing, and at Calvary, Peter and Paul wept so sore that Mary herself, and Mary Magdalene, did not weep like it. Now, just trust me and tell me what you would have asked at Peter about his Master. Would you have asked anything? How far would you go tonight to have an interview with Peter? Honestly, have you any curiosity at all about Jesus Christ, either as He is in heaven now, or as He was on earth then? Really and truly, do you ever think about Him, and imagine Him, and what He is saying and doing? Or are you like John Bunyan, who never thought whether there was a Christ or no? If you would tell me two or three of the questions you would have put to Peter, I would tell you in return just who and what you are; just how you stand tonight to Jesus Christ, and how He stands to you: and what He thinks and says about you, and intends toward you.
And then if Mary, the mother of our Lord, was still in this world, it is certain to me that Paul both saw her in James's house, and kissed her hand, and called her Blessed. You may depend upon it that Mary did not remain very long away from James's house after his conversion. It was all very good to have a lodging with the disciple whom Jesus loved, till her own slow-hearted son believed. But I put it to you who are mothers in Israel, to put yourselves in Mary's place in those days, and to say if you would have been to be found anywhere, by that time, but in the house of your own believing son. And what more sure and certain than that God, here again, revealed His Son to Paul out of Mary's long hidden heart. 'I have the most perfect, and at first-hand, assurance of all these things from them that were eye-witnesses and ministers of the Word,' says Paul's physician and private secretary. Nowhere, at any rate, in the whole world, could that miraculous and mystery-laden woman have found such another heart as Paul's into which to pour out all that had been for so long sealed up in her hidden heart. 'Whether we were in the body, or out of the body, as she told me about Nazareth, and as I told her about Damascus and Arabia, I cannot tell: God knoweth.'
"From the Old Testament point of view," says Bengel in his own striking and suggestive way, "the progress is made from the knowledge of Christ to the knowledge of Jesus. From the New Testament point of view, the progress is made from the knowledge of Jesus to the knowledge of Christ." And have we not ourselves already seen how Paul's progress was made? Paul's progress was made from the knowledge of Jesus of Nazareth risen from the dead, to the knowledge of the Son of God; and then from the knowledge of both back to the knowledge of the Holy Child Jesus, and the Holy Man Jesus, as He was known to His mother, to James His brother, and to Peter His so intimate disciple. Paul went "back to Jesus," as the saying sometimes is; but when he went back he took back with him all the knowledge of the Son of God that he has put into his Epistles, ay, and much more than the readers of his Epistles were able to receive. And God's way with Paul is His best way with us also. You will never read the four Gospels with true intellectual understanding, and with true spiritual appreciation, till you have first read and understood and appreciated Paul's Epistles. But after you have had God's Son revealed in you by means of Paul's Epistles, you will then be prepared for all that Matthew and Mark and Luke and John have to tell you about the Word made flesh in their day. Paul's hand holds the true key to all the mysteries that are hid in the Prophets and in the Psalms and in the Gospels. Take back Paul with you, and all the prophecies and all the types of the Old Testament, and all the wonderful works of God in the New Testament,-His Son's sinless conception, His miracles, His teaching and preaching, His agony in the garden, His death on the Cross, and His resurrection and ascension,-will all fall into their natural and necessary places. It is in the very same order in which the great things of God were revealed to Paul, and apprehended by Paul, that they will best be revealed to us, and best apprehended by us. First our conversion; and then the Pauline, Patristic, and Puritan doctrine of the Son of God; and then all that taken back by us to the earthly life of our Blessed Lord as it is told to us by the four Evangelists. Damascus, Arabia, Jerusalem,-this, in our day also, is the God-guided progress, in which the true successors of the Apostle Paul are still travelling, in their spiritual experience, and in their evangelical scholarship.
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Peter
THE Four Gospels are full of Peter After the name of our Lord Himself, no name comes up so often in the Four Gospels as Peter's name. No disciple speaks so often and so much as Peter. Our Lord speaks oftener to Peter than to any other of His disciples; sometimes in blame and sometimes in praise. No disciple is so pointedly reproved by our Lord us Peter, and no disciple ever ventures to reprove his Master but Peter. No other disciple ever so boldly confessed and outspokenly acknowledged and encouraged our Lord as Peter repeatedly did; and no one ever intruded, and interfered, and tempted Him as Peter repeatedly did also. His Master spoke words of approval, and praise, and even blessing to Peter the like of which He never spoke to any other man. And at the same time, and almost in the same breath, He said harder things to Peter than He ever said to any other of His twelve disciples, unless it was to Judas.
No disciple speaks so often as Peter. "Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord. Lo, we have left all and followed Thee; what shall we have therefore? Be it far from Thee, Lord; this shall never be to Thee. Lord, if it be Thou, bid me come unto Thee on the water. Lord, save me. The crowd press Thee, and how sayest Thou, Who touched me? Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. To whom can we go but unto Thee? Thou hast the words of eternal life. Lord, it is good for us to be here; let us make three tabernacles: one for Thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. How oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? Though all men deny Thee, yet will not I. Thou shalt never wash my feet. Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. I know not the man. Lord, Thou knowest all things: thou knowest that I love Thee." And, to crown all his impertinent and indecent speeches, "Not so, Lord, for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean." And then, in that charity which shall cover the multitude of sins, "Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us; what was I that I could withstand God?" These are Peter's unmistakable footprints. Hasty, headlong, speaking impertinently and unadvisedly, ready to repent, ever wading into waters too deep for him, and ever turning to his Master again like a little child. Peter was grieved because He said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto Him, Lord, thou knowest all things: Thou knowest that I love Thee.
The evangelical Churches of Christendom have no duty and no interest to dispute with the Church of Rome either as to Peter's primacy among the twelve disciples, or as to his visits to Rome, or as to his death by martyrdom in that city. If the Church of Rome is satisfied about the historical truth of Peter's missionary work in the west, we are satisfied. All that can be truthfully told us about Peter we shall welcome. We cannot be told too much about Peter. And as to his primacy that Rome makes so much of, we cannot read our New Testament without coming on proofs on every page that Peter held a foremost place among the twelve disciples. In that also we agree with our friends. Four times the list of elected men is given in the Gospels; and, while the order of the twelve names varies in all other respects, Peter's name is invariably the first in all the lists, as Judas's name is as invariably the last. The difference is this: The New Testament recognises a certain precedency in Peter, whereas the Church of Rome claims for him an absolute supremacy. The truth is this. The precedency and the supremacy that Peter holds in the Four Gospels was not so much appointed him by his Master; what supremacy he held was conferred upon him by nature herself. Peter was born a supreme man. Nature herself, as we call her, had, with her ever-bountiful and original hands, stamped his supremacy upon Peter before he was born. And when he came to be a disciple of Jesus Christ he entered on, and continued to hold, that natural and aboriginal supremacy over all inferior men, till a still more superior and supreme man arose and took Peter's supremacy away from him. We all have the same supremacy that Peter had when we are placed alongside of men who are less gifted in intellect, and in will, and in character, than we are gifted. Peter's gifts of mind, and force of character, and warmth of heart, and generosity of utterance-all these things gave Peter the foremost place in the Apostolic Church till Paul arose. But Peter, remarkable and outstanding man as he was, had neither the natural ability nor the educational advantages of Saul of Tarsus. His mind was neither so deep nor so strong nor so many-sided nor at all so fine and so fruitful as was Paul's incomparable mind. And as a consequence he was never able to come within sight of the work that Paul alone could do. But, at the same time, and till Paul arose and all but totally eclipsed all the disciples who had been in Christ before him, Peter stood at the head of the apostolate, and so leaves a deeper footprint on the pages of the Four Gospels at any rate, than any of the other eleven disciples.
John was intuitive, meditative, mystical. Philip was phlegmatic, perhaps. Thomas would appear to have been melancholy and morose. While Peter was sanguine and enthusiastic and extreme both for good and for evil, beyond them all. Peter was naturally and constitutionally of the enthusiastic temperament, and his conversion and call to the discipleship did not decompose or at all suppress his true nature; the primal elements of his character remained, and the original balance and the proportion of those elements remained. The son of Jonas was, to begin with, a man of the strongest, the most wilful, and the most wayward impulses; impulses that, but for the watchfulness and the prayerfulness of his Master, might easily have become the most headlong and destructive passions. "Christ gives him a little touch," says Thomas Goodwin, "of some wildness and youthfulness that had been in Peter's spirit before Christ had to do with him. When thou wast young thou girdedst thyself and walkedst whither thou wouldest. But when thou art old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry thee whither thou wouldest not. Peter had had his vagaries, and had lived as he liked, and, Peter, says Christ to him, when thou art hung up by the heels upon a cross, there to be bound to thy good behaviour, see that thou, remembering what thou wast when young, show them thy valour and thy resolution when thou comest to that conflict; and Peter remembered it, and was moved by it.- 2 Peter 1:14." Such, then, was Peter's so perilous temperament, which he bad inherited from his father Jonas. But by degrees, and under the teaching, the example, and the training of his Master, Peter's too-hot heart was gradually brought under control till it became the seat in Peter's bosom of a deep, pure, deathless love and adoration for Jesus Christ. Amid all Peter's stumbles and falls this always brought him right again and set him on his feet again-his absolutely enthusiastic love and adoration for his Master. This, indeed, after his Master's singular grace to Peter, was always the redeeming and restraining principle in Peter's wayward and wilful life. To the very end of his three years with his Master, Peter was full of a most immature character and an unreduced and unbridled mind and heart. He had the making of a very noble man in him, but he was not easily made, and his making cost both him and his Master dear. At the same time, blame Peter as much as you like; dwell upon the faults of his temperament, and the defects of his character, and the scandals of his conduct, as much as you like; I defy you to deny that, with it all, he was not a very attractive and a very lovable man. "The worst disease of the human heart is cold." Well, with all his faults, and he was full of them, a cold heart was not one of them. All Peter's faults, indeed, lay in the heat of his heart. He was too hot-hearted, too impulsive, too enthusiastic. His hot heart was always in his mouth, and he spoke it all out many a time when he should have held his peace. So many faults had Peter, and so patent and on the surface did they lie, that you might very easily take a too hasty and a too superficial estimate of Peter's real depth and strength and value. And if Peter was for too long like the sand rather than like the rock his Master had so nobly named him, the sand will one day settle into rock, and into rock of a quality and a quantity to build a temple with. If Peter is now too forward to speak, he will in the end be as forward to suffer. The time will come when Peter will act up to all his outspoken ardours and high enthusiasms. In so early designating the son of Jonas a rock, his Master was but antedating some of Simon's coming and most characteristic graces. His Divine Master saw in Simon latent qualities of courage, and fidelity, and endurance, and evangelical humility that never as yet had fully unfolded themselves amid the untoward influences round about his life. In any case, an absolute master may surely name his own servant by any name that pleases him; especially a Royal Master; for the Sovereign in every kingdom is the true fountain of honour. Whatever, then, may be the true and full explanation, suffice it to us to know that our Lord thus saluted Simon, and said to him, Simon, son of Jonas, thou shalt be called Cephas, which is, by interpretation, a rock.
Of the four outstanding temperaments then, Peter's temperament was of the ardent and enthusiastic order. And, indeed, a deep-springing, strong-flowing, divinely-purified, and divinely-directed enthusiasm is always the best temperament for the foundation and the support of the truly prophetic, apostolic, and evangelic character. For what is enthusiasm? What is it but the heart, and the imagination, and the whole man, body and soul, set on fire? And the election, the call, the experience, and the promised reward of the true prophet, apostle, and evangelist, are surely enough to set on fire and keep on fire a heart of stone. It was one of the prophetic notes of the coming Messiah's own temperament that the zeal of God's house would eat Him up. And there is no surer sign that the same mind that was found in Jesus Christ is taking possession of one of His disciples than that he more and more manifests a keen, kindling, enthusiastic temper toward whatsoever persons and causes are honest, and just, and pure, and lovely, and of good report; just as there is nothing more unlike the mind and heart of Jesus Christ than the mind and heart of a man who cares for none of these things. Let us take Peter, come to perfection, for our pattern and our prelate; and, especially, let us watch, and work, and pray against a cold heart, a chilling temper, a distant, selfish, indifferent mind.
Closely connected with Peter's peculiar temperament, and, indeed, a kind of compensation for being so possessed by it, was his exquisite sense of sin. We see Peter's singular sensitiveness and tenderness of spirit in this respect coming out in a most impressive and memorable way on the occasion of his call to the discipleship. Andrew was not an impenitent man. John was not a hard-hearted man. But though they both saw and shared in the miraculous draught of fishes on the sea of Galilee, Peter alone remembered his sins, and broke down under them, in the presence of the power and grace of Christ. "Depart from me, O Lord, for I am a sinful man." "No; fear not," said his Master to Peter, "for from henceforth thou shalt so catch men." Peter's prostrating penitence at such a moment marked Peter out as the true captain of that fishing fleet that was so soon to set sail under the colours of the Cross to catch the souls of men for salvation. That sudden and complete prostration before Christ at that moment seated Peter in a supremacy and in a prelacy that has never been taken from him. And there is no surer sign of an evangelically penitent and a truly spiritual man than this-that his prosperity in life always calls back to him his past sins and his abiding ill-desert. He is not a novice in the spiritual life to whom prosperity is as much a means of grace as adversity. They are wise merchantmen who make gain in every gale; who are enriched in their souls not only in times of trial and loss, but are still more softened and sanctified amid all their gains and all their comforts both of outward and inward estate. Well may those mariners praise the Lord for His goodness whose ships come home sinking with the merchandise they have made in the deep waters. But still more when, with all their prosperity, they have the broken heart to say, He hath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewarded us according to our iniquities.
It was Peter's deep and rich temperament, all but completely sanctified, that made Peter so forgetful of himself as a preacher, and so superior to all men's judgments, and so happy, to use his own noble words, to be reproached for the name of Christ. Can you imagine, have you come through any experience that enables you to imagine, what Peter's thoughts would be as he mounted the pulpit stairs to preach Judas's funeral sermon? Judas had betrayed his Master. Yes. But Peter himself; Peter the preacher; had denied his Master with oaths and curses. And yet, there is Peter in the pulpit, while. Judas lies a cast-out suicide in Aceldama! 'O the depths of the Divine mercy to me! That I who sinned with Judas; that I who had made my bed in hell beside Judas; should be held in this honour, and should be ministering to the holy brethren! O to grace how great a debtor!' And again, just think what all must have been in Peter's mind as he stood up in Solomon's porch to preach the Pentecost sermon. That terrible sermon in which he charged the rulers and the people of Jerusalem with the dreadful crime of denying the Holy One and the Just in the presence of Pilate. While he, the preacher, had done the very same thing before a few serving men and serving women. You may be sure that it was as much to himself as to the murderers of the Prince of Life that Peter went on that day to preach and say, "Repent, therefore, that your sins may be blotted out; since God hath sent His Son to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities." The truth is, by this time, the unspeakably awful sinfulness of Peter's own sin had completely drunk up all the human shame of it. If they who know about Peter's sin choose to reproach him for it, let them do it. It is now a small matter to Peter to be judged of men's judgment. They sang David's Psalms in Solomon's porch; and that day Peter and the penitent people must surely have sung and said, "Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. For I acknowledge my transgression, and my sin is ever before me. Restore to me the joy of thy salvation, and uphold me with thy free spirit. Then will I teach transgressors thy ways, and sinners shall be converted unto thee." And if preachers pronounced benedictions after their sermons in those days, then we surely have Peter's Solomon's-porch benediction preserved to us in these apostolic words of his: "Ye therefore, beloved, seeing ye know all these things, beware lest ye also fall from your steadfastness. But grow in grace, and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, to whom be glory both now and for ever. Amen"
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Peter, Second Epistle of
The object of this epistle appears to be primarily the confirmation of the minds of Jewish believers in the certainty of the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ. We have in it the only record by an eye-witness of what took place on the Mount of Transfiguration. This vision made more sure the word of prophecy to which saints did well in taking heed, as to a light shining in a dark place, till the day dawned, and the day-star arose in their hearts.
But before the kingdom could be displayed, it was necessary that the corruption of Christianity, which had already set in, should be complete and the course and climax of this corruption are vividly portrayed in 2 Peter 2 . It originated in false teachers privily bringing in destructive heresies, denying the Lord that bought them. The development of this evil is viewed in the light of wickedness (rather than of apostasy, as in the Epistle of Jude), as that which is specially obnoxious to the government of God. While in Jude the gainsaying of Core is shown to be the culminating point of apostasy, here the incitement to abominable wickedness by Balaam is before the mind of the Spirit, indicating how corrupting the influence of those who held the place of 'prophet' would become.
In the concluding part of the epistle (2 Peter 3 ) we have also the closing phase of unbelief (perhaps Jewish), namely, scepticism, built up on the assumed unchangeability of the creation, as to the coming of the day of the Lord. And this becomes the occasion of the apostle's leading the minds of the saints beyond the thoughts of the kingdom to that which, resting on perfect moral foundations, is eternal and unchangeable. The day of the Lord was a means to an and, and would make way for the day of God, and the fulfilment of His promise of new heavens and a new earth, in which righteousness would reside, and in view of which the existing heavens and earth would pass away. Saints, knowing these things before, were not to fall from their stedfastness, but to grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Peter
The son of Jonas and one of the twelve apostles. His name was originally Simon, and apparently at his first interview with the Lord he received from Him the surname CEPHAS. This is an Aramaic word, the same as Peter in Greek, both signifying 'a stone.' John 1:42 . (In Acts 10:5 he is called "Simon, whose surname is Peter.") The next notice of Peter is in Luke 5 when he was called to the apostleship. Overpowered at the draught of fishes, he exclaimed, "Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord;" but at the bidding of Christ he forsook all and followed Him. Matthew 4:18 ; Mark 1:16,17 ; Luke 5:3-11 .
He had a sort of prominence among the apostles: when a few of them were selected for any special occasion, Peter was always one of them, and is named first. The three names 'Peter, James, and John' occur often together, still we do not read of Peter having any authority over the others: cf. Matthew 20:25-28 . Peter was in character energetic and impulsive: he wanted to walk on the water to go to Christ, and his strong affection for the Lord led him to oppose when the Lord spoke of His coming sufferings, for which he was rebuked as presenting Satan's mind. His self-confidence led him into a path of temptation, in which he thrice denied his Lord. But the Lord had prayed for him that his faith should not fail, and his repentance was real and instant. He was fully restored by the Lord, who significantly demanded thrice if he loved Him, and then committed to him the care of His sheep and His lambs. John 21 .
When Peter confessed to Jesus, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," theLord said that He would build His church upon that foundation, and added, "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," with assurancethat what he bound or loosed on earth would be ratified in heaven. Matthew 16 . On the day of Pentecost we find Peter accordingly using these keys, and opening to three thousand Jews the doors of the kingdom. He afterwards admitted Gentiles in the person of Cornelius and those that were gathered with him.
Peter was the apostle of the circumcision, as Paul was of the Gentiles, and was a long time getting entirely clear of Jewish prejudices. Paul had to withstand him to the face at Antioch, for refusing under Jewish influence to continue eating with Gentiles. On the other hand, Peter, while confessing that in some of Paul's writings there were things hard to be understood, recognises them as scripture.
In the beginning of the Acts Peter's boldness in testimony is conspicuous. He was leaning on One stronger than himself and was carried on by the power of the Holy Spirit. He was miraculously delivered out of prison. The Lord had intimated to him that he would die the death of a martyr (John 21:19 ), and historians relate that he was crucified, and with his head downward by his own request: they also state that his wife died with him. He was the writer of the two epistles bearing his name.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Peter, First Epistle of
This was addressed to believing Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. It was apparently sent from Babylon on the Euphrates, where many Jews were located. There is nothing in the epistle itself that fixes its date: but it is generally dated A.D. 60 to 63. The teaching of the epistle is based upon a living hope by the resurrection of Christ, in contrast to the portion of the Jews on earth. Believers are contemplated as strangers and pilgrims, salvation being regarded in its completeness as future, soul salvation being the point of consequence in the present, in contrast to temporal deliverances. The thought of a 'spiritual house' composed of living stones, in 1 Peter 2 connects the epistle with the revelation given to Peter in Matthew 16 — as the reference to the Mount of Transfiguration in the second epistle brings before our minds the vision of the kingdom in Matthew 17 , of which Peter was eye-witness.
The epistle may be briefly summed up as a gracious leading of Christians into the sense and reality of their spiritual privileges, but, at the same time, pressing on them the recognition of their being subjects of God's moral government on earth. They were placed here between the time of Christ's sufferings and the glories that were to follow. They called on God as Father; are viewed as redeemed and born again, and by the sincere milk of the word were to grow up to salvation, having tasted that the Lord is gracious.
And further, though suffering under the government of God, they had, in coming to Christ as the Living Stone (disallowed of men but chosen of God and precious), acquired in a spiritual way privileges which, after a carnal sort, the Jews had lost. They were built up a spiritual house, a holy priesthood — were a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar people. They had thus the means for the service of God and for testimony to man. The calling of Christians is herein fully brought out.
But with all these privileges, Christians had to remember that they had nothing in which to boast after the flesh. They were among the Gentiles as strangers and pilgrims, the subjects of God's moral government, suffering for the state of Israel; and hence had to recognise those to whom God had entrusted honour and power here. But theeyes of the Lord were over the righteous, and His ears open to their prayers: the face of the Lord was against evil-doers. The general bearing of government was in favour of those who did good, and if they suffered for righteousness' sake they were happy. The point of importance was that none of them should suffer as evil-doers.
It is remarkable that, in touching on duties connected with social relationships, the apostle addresses himself to husbands and wives and domestic servants (not slaves), and the peculiar delicacy of his reference to the conduct relatively of the two former classes is a marked feature of beauty in the epistle.
The peculiar character of this moment, in which judgement as the issue of God's moral government is imminent, is marked by the reference to the time of Noah, whose testimony in preparing the ark was that of coming judgement; but at the same time of a way of salvation. Baptism has, in the case of Christians, much of the same character and import. Again, in 1 Peter 4 it is said that the time has come for judgement to begin at the house of God; and if it begin first at us, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?
The epistle closes with special and touching admonitions to the elders and the younger, the former being especially exhorted to shepherd the flock of God. This is deeply interesting as coming from one who himself received the charge recorded in John 21 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Arnoudt, Peter Joseph
(1811-1865) Writer, born Moere, Belgium; died Cincinnati, Ohio. He entered the Society of Jesus at Florissant, Missouri, and taught in the Jesuit colleges of that state. His Imitation of the Sacred Heart of Jesus has been translated into many languages.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Peter
(See JESUS CHRIST.) Of Bethsaida on the sea of Galilee. The Greek for Hebrew Κephas , "stone" or "rock." Simon his original name means "hearer"; by it he is designated in Christ's early ministry and between Christ's death and resurrection. Afterward he is called by his title of honour, "Peter". Son of Jonas (Matthew 16:17; John 1:43; John 21:16); tradition makes Johanna his mother's name. Brought up to his father's business as a fisherman on the lake of Galilee. He and his brother Andrew were partners with Zebedee's sons, John and James, who had "hired servants," which implies a social status and culture not the lowest. He lived first at Bethsaida, then in Capernaum, in a house either his own or his mother-in-law's, large enough to receive Christ and his fellow apostles and some of the multitude who thronged about Him. In" leaving all to follow Christ," he implies he made a large sacrifice (Mark 10:28). The rough life of hardship to which fishing inured him on the stormy lake formed a good training of his character to prompt energy, boldness, and endurance.
The Jews obliged their young to attend the common schools. In Acts 4:13, where Luke writes the Jewish council regarded him and John as "unlearned and ignorant," the meaning is not absolutely so, but in respect to professional rabbinical training "lairs," "ignorant" of the deeper sense which the scribes imagined they found in Scripture. Aramaic, half Hebrew half Syriac, was the language of the Jews at that time. The Galileans spoke this debased Hebrew with provincialisms of pronunciation and diction. So at the denial Peter betrayed himself by his "speech" (Matthew 26:73; Luke 22:59). Yet lie conversed fluently with Cornelius seemingly without an interpreter, and in Greek His Greek style in his epistles is correct; but Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, and Tertullian allege he employed an interpreter for them. He was married and led about his wife in his apostolic journeys (1 Corinthians 9:5).
The oblique coincidence; establishing his being a married man, between Matthew 8:14, "Peter's wife's mother ... sick of a fever," and 1 Corinthians 9:5, "have we not power to lead about a sister, a wife, as well as Cephas?" is also a delicate confirmation of the truth of the miraculous cure, as no forger would be likely to exhibit such a minute and therefore undesigned correspondence of details. Alford translated 1 Peter 5:13 "she in Babylon" (compare 1 Peter 3:7); but why she should be called "elected together with you in Babylon," as if there were no Christian woman in Babylon besides, is inexplicable. Peter and John being closely associated, Peter addresses the church in John's province, Asia, "your co-elect sister church in Babylon saluteth you"; so 2 John 1:13 in reply. Clemens Alex. gives the name of Peter's wife as Perpetua. Tradition makes him old at the time of his death. His first call was by Andrew his brother, who had been pointed by their former master John the Baptist to Jesus, "behold the Lamb of God" (Matthew 26:33-357).
That was the word that made the first Christian; so it has been ever since. "We have found (implying they both had been looking for) the Messias," said Andrew, and brought him to Jesus. "Thou art Simon son of Jona (so the Alexandrinus manuscript but Vaticanus and Sinaiticus 'John'), thou shalt be called Cephas" (John 1:41-42). As "Simon" he was but an hearer; as Peter or Cephas he became an apostle and so a foundation stone of the church, by union to the one only Foundation Rock (Ephesians 2:20; 1 Corinthians 3:11). Left to nature, Simon, though bold and stubborn, was impulsive and fickle, but joined to Christ lie became at last unshaken and firm. After the first call the disciples returned to their occupation. The call to close discipleship is recorded Luke 5:1-11. The miraculous draught of fish overwhelmed Simon with awe at Jesus' presence; He who at creation said, "let the waters bring forth abundantly" (Genesis 1:20), now said, "let down your nets for a draught."
Simon, when the net which they had spread in vain all night now broke with the multitude of fish, exclaimed, "depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord!" He forgot Hosea 9:12 end; our sin is just the reason why we should beg Christ to come, not depart. "Fear not, henceforth thou shalt catch to save alive (zoogroon ) men," was Jesus' explanation of the typical meaning of the miracle. The call, Matthew 4:18-22 and Mark 1:16-20, is the same as Luke 5, which supplements them. Peter and Andrew were first called; then Christ entered Peter's boat, then wrought the miracle, then called James and John; Jesus next healed of fever Simon's mother-in-law. His call to the apostleship is recorded Matthew 10:2-4. Simon stands foremost in the list, and for the rest of Christ's ministry is mostly called "Peter." His forward energy fitted him to be spokesman of the apostles. So in John 6:66-69, when others went back (2 Timothy 4:10), to Jesus' testing question, "will ye also go away?" Simon replied, "Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal life, and we believe and are sure that Thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God." Compare his words, Acts 4:12.
He repeated this testimony at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:16). Then Jesus said: "blessed art thou, Simon Barjona, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee (John 1:13; Ephesians 2:8) but My Father in heaven, and ... thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prewill against it." Peter by his believing confession identified himself with Christ the true Rock (1 Corinthians 3:11; Isaiah 28:16; Ephesians 2:20), and so received the name; just as Joshua bears the name meaning "Jehovah Saviour", because typifying His person and offices. Peter conversely, by shrinking from a crucified Saviour and dissuading Him from the cross, "be it far from Thee," identified Himself with Satan who tempted Jesus to take the world kingdom without the cross (Matthew 4:8-10), and is therefore called "Satan," cf6 "get thee behind Me, Satan," etc. Instead of a rock Peter became a stumbling-block ("offense," scandalous). "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," namely, to open the door of faith to the Jews first, then to Cornelius and the Gentiles (Acts 10:11-48).
Others and Paul further opened the door (Acts 14:27; Acts 11:20-26). The papal error regards Peter as the rock, in himself officially, and as transmitting an infallible authority to the popes, as if his successors (compare Galatians 1:17-185). The "binding" and "loosing" power is given as much to the whole church, layman and ministers, as to Peter (Matthew 18:18; John 20:23.) Peter exercised the power of the keys only in preaching, as on Pentecost (Acts 2), He never exercised authority over the other apostles. At Jerusalem James exercised the chief authority (Acts 15:19; Acts 21:18; Galatians 1:19; Galatians 2:9). Peter "withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed," "not walking uprightly in the truth of the gospel," but in "dissimulation" (Galatians 2:10-14). (On the miraculous payment of the temple tribute of the half shekel (two drachms) each, see JESUS CHRIST.)
Matthew alone (Matthew 17:24-27) records it, as appropriate to the aspect of Jesus as theocratic king, prominent in the first Gospel. Peter too hastily had answered for his Master as though He were under obligation to pay the temple tribute; Peter forgot his own confession (Matthew 16:16). Nevertheless, the Lord, in order not to "offend." i.e. give a handle of reproach, as if lie despised the temple and law, caused Peter the fisherman again to resume his occupation and brought a fish (Psalms 8:8; Jonah 1:17) with a starer, i.e. shekel, in its mouth, the exact sum required, four drachmas, for both. Jesus said, "for ME and thee," not for us; for His payment was on an altogether different footing from Peter's (compare John 20:17). Peter needed a "ransom for his soul" and could not pay it; but Jesus needed none; nay, came to pay it Himself (John 20:28), first putting Himself under the same yoke with us (Galatians 4:4-5). Peter, James, and John were the favored three alone present at the raising of Jairus' daughter, the transfiguration, and the agony in Gethsemane.
His exaltations were generally, through his self sufficiency giving place to weakness, accompanied with humiliations, as in Matthew 16. In the transfiguration he talks at random, "not knowing what to say ... sore afraid," according to the unfavourable account given of himself in Mark (Mark 9:6). Immediately after faith enabling him to leave the ship and walk on the water to go to Jesus (Matthew 14:29), he became afraid because of the boisterous wind, and would have sunk but for Jesus, who at the same time rebuked his "doubts" and "little faith" (Psalms 94:18). His true boast, "behold we have forsaken all and followed Thee," called forth Jesus' promise, "in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel," and Jesus' warning, illustrated by the parable of the labourers in reproof of the hireling spirit, "the last shall be first and the first last ... many be called ... few chosen" (Matthew 19:27-20;Matthew 19:16).
Peter, Andrew, James, and John heard the solemn discourse (on the second advent (Matthew 24). At the last supper Peter shrank with a mixture of humility and self will from Jesus' stooping to wash his feet. Jesus replied, cf6 "if I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me" (John 13). With characteristic warmth Peter passed to the opposite extreme, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head." Jesus answered, cf6 "he that is bathed (all over, namely, regenerated once for all, leloumenos ) cf6 needeth not save to wash (nipsasthai , a part) cf6 his feet, but is clean every whit." Simon in anxious affection asked, "Lord, where guest Thou?" when Jesus said, cf6 "where I go, ye cannot come." Jesus promised Peter should follow Him afterward, though not now. Then followed his protestations of faithfulness unto death, thrice repeated as well as the thrice repeated warnings (1618105171_53; Mark 14:29-31; Mark 14:72; Luke 22:33-34; John 13:36-38).
Satan would" sift" (Amos 9:9) all the disciples, but Peter especially; and therefore for him especially Jesus interceded. Mark mentions the twice cockcrowing and Peter's protesting the more vehemently. Love, anti a feeling of relief when assured he was not the traitor, prompted his protestations. Animal courage Peter showed no small amount of, in cutting off Malthus' ear in the face of a Reman band; moral courage he was deficient in. Transpose the first and second denials in John; then the first took place at the fire (Matthew 26:69; Mark 14:66-67; Luke 22:56; John 18:25), caused by the fixed recognition of the maid who admitted Peter (Luke 22:56); the second took place at the door leading out of the court, where he had withdrawn in fear (Matthew 26:71; Mark 14:68-69; Luke 22:58; John 18:17); the third took place in the court an hour after (Luke 22:59), before several witnesses who argued from his Galilean accent and speech, near enough for Jesus to cast that look on Peter which pierced his heart so that he went out and wept bitterly. The maid in the porch knew him, for John had spoken unto her that kept the door to let in Peter (John 18:16.)
On the resurrection morning Peter and John ran to the tomb; John outran Peter (being the younger man; John 21:18 implies Peter was then past his prime, also the many years by which John outlived Peter imply the same), but Peter was first to enter. John did not venture to enter until Peter set the example; fear and reverence held him back, as in Matthew 14:26, but Peter was especially bold and fearless. To him Jesus sends through Mary Magdalene a special message of His resurrection to assure him of forgiveness (Mark 16:7). To Peter first of the apostles Jesus appeared (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5). "Simon" is resumed until at the supper (John 21) Jesus reinstates him as Peter, that being now "converted" he may "feed the lambs and sheep" and "strengthen his brethren." Peter in the first 12 chapters of (See ACTS is the prominent apostle. His discourses have those undesigned coincidences with his epistles which mark their genuineness. (Acts 2:20; 1 Peter 1:10-11. Acts 2:23-24; 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 1:21. Acts 3:18; 2 Peter 3:10.)
As in the Gospels, so in Acts, Peter is associated with John. His words before the high priest and council (Acts 4:19-20), "whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye, for we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard," and again Acts 5:29, evince him as the rock-man; and after having been beaten in spite of Gamaliel's warning, Peter's rejoicing with the other apostles at being counted worthy to suffer for Christ (Acts 5:41) accords with his precept (1 Peter 4:12-16; compare 1 Peter 2:24 with Acts 5:30 end). Peter's miracle of healing (Acts 3) was followed by one of judgment (Acts 5) (See ANANIAS.) As he opened the gospel door to penitent believers (Acts 2:37-38), so he closed it against hypocrites as Ananias, Sapphira, and Simon Magus (Acts 8). Peter with John confirmed by laying on of hands the Samaritan converts of Philip the deacon. (See BAPTISM; LAYING ON HANDS.)
Insofar as the bishops represent the apostles, they rightly follow the precedent of Peter and John in confirming after an interval those previously baptized and believing through the instrumentality of lower ministers as Philip. The ordinary graces of the Holy Spirit continue, and are received through the prayer of faith; though the extraordinary, conferred by the apostles, have ceased. Three years later Paul visited Jerusalem in order to see Peter (1618105171_85; historeesai means "to become personally acquainted with as one important to know"; Acts 9:26). Peter was prominent among the twelve, though James as bishop had chief authority there. It was important that Paul should communicate to the leading mover in the church his own independent gospel revelation; next Peter took visitation tour through the various churches, and raised Aeneas from his bed of sickness and Tabitha from the dead (Acts 9:32). A special revelation, abolishing distinctions of clean and unclean, prepared him for ministering and for seeking the gospel (Acts 10). (See CORNELIUS.)
Peter was the first privileged to open the gospel to the Gentiles, as he had before to the Jews, besides confirming the Samaritans. Peter justified his act both by the revelation and by God's sealing the Gentile converts with the Holy Spirit. "Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as He did unto us who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ (the true test of churchmanship), what was I that I could withstand God?" (Acts 11:17-18.) The Jews' spite at the admission of the Gentiles moved Herod Agrippa I to kill James and imprison Peter for death. (See HEROD.) But the church's unceasing prayer was stronger than his purpose; God brought Peter to the house of Mark's mother while they were in the act of praying for him (Isaiah 65:24). It was not Peter but his persecutor who died, smitten of God. From this point Peter becomes "apostle of the circumcision," giving place, in respect to prominence, to Paul, "apostle of the uncircumcision." Peter the apostle of the circumcision appropriately, as representing God's ancient church, opens the gates to the Gentiles
It was calculated also to open his own mind, naturally prejudiced on the side of Jewish exclusiveness. It also showed God's sovereignty that He chose an instrument least of all likely to admit Gentiles if left to himself. Paul, though the apostle of the Gentiles, confirmed the Hebrew; Peter, though the apostle of the Jews, admits the Gentiles (See the "first" in Acts 3:26, implying others); thus perfect unity reigned amidst the diversity of the agencies. At the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) Peter led the discussion, citing the case of Cornelius' party as deciding the question, for" God which knoweth the hearts bore them witness, giving them the Holy Spirit even as He did unto us, and put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith," "but we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they"; compare his epistles in undesigned coincidence (1 Peter 1:22; 2 Peter 1:9). James gave the decision.
Peter neither presided, nor summoned, nor dismissed the council, nor took the votes, nor pronounced the decision; he claimed none of the powers which Rome claims for the pope. (On his vacillation as to not eating with Gentiles, and Paul's withstanding him at Antioch (Galatians 2), see PAUL.) The Jerusalem decree only recognized Gentiles as fellow Christians on light conditions, it did not admit them necessarily to social intercourse Though Peter and Paul rightly inferred the latter, yet their recognition of the ceremonial law (Acts 18:18-21; Acts 20:16; Acts 21:18-24) palliates Peter's conduct, if it were not for its inconsistency (through fear of the Judaizers) which is the point of Paul's reproof. His "dissimulation" consisted in his pretending to consider it unlawful to eat with Gentile Christians, whereas his previous eating with them showed his conviction of the perfect equality of Jew and Gentile.
Peter's humility and love are beautifully illustrated in his submitting to the reproach of a junior, and seemingly adopting Paul's view, and in calling him '"our beloved brother," and confirming the doctrine of "God's longsuffering being for salvation," from Paul's epistles: Romans 2:4 (2 Peter 3:15-16). Peter apparently visited Corinth before the first epistle to the Corinthians was written, for it mentions a party there who said "I am of Cephas" (1 Corinthians 1:12). Clemens Romanus (1 Corinthians 4) implies the same, Dionysius of Corinth asserts it, A.D. 180. Babylon, a chief seat of the dispersed Jews, was his head quarters when he wrote 1 Peter 5:13, not Rome as some have argued. (See BABYLON, (See MYSTICAL.)
The mixture of Hebrew and Nabathaean spoken there was related to his Galilean dialect. The well known progress that Christianity made in that quarter, as shown by the great Christian schools at Edessa anti Nisibis, was probably due to Peter originally. Mark (Colossians 4:10), Paul's helper at Rome, from whence he went to Colosse, was with Peter when he wrote 1 Peter 5:13. From Colosse Mark probably went on to Peter at Babylon. Paul wished Timothy to bring him again to Rome during his second imprisonment (2 Timothy 4:11). Silvanus, also Paul's companion, was the bearer of Peter's epistle (1 Peter 5:12). All the authority of Acts and epistle to the Romans and 1 and 2 Peter is against Peter having been at Rome previous to Paul's first imprisonment, or during its two years' duration (otherwise he would have mentioned Peter in the epistles written from Rome, Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians), or during his second imprisonment when he wrote to Timothy.
Eusebius' statement (Chronicon, 3) that Peter went to Rome A.D. 42 and stayed twenty years is impossible, as those Scriptures never mention him. Jerome (Script. Ecclesiastes, 1) makes Peter bishop of Antioch, then to have preached in Pontus (from 1 Peter 1:1), then to have gone to Rome to refute Simon Magus (from Justin's story of a statue found at Rome to Semosanctus, the Sabine Hercules, which was confounded with Simon Magus), and to have been bishop there for 25 years (!) and to have been crucified with head downward, declaring himself unworthy to be crucified as his Lord, and buried in the Vatican near the triumphal way. John (John 21:18-19) attests his crucifixion. Dionysius of Corinth (in Eusebius, H. E. 2:25) says Paul and Peter both planted the Roman and Corinthian churches and endured martyrdom in Italy at the same time. So Tertullian (contra Marcion, 4:5; Praeser. Haeret., 36:38). Caius Romans Presb. (in Eusebius, H. E. 2:25) says memorials of their martyrdom were still to be seen on the road to Ostia, and that Peter's tomb was in the Vatican.
He may have been at the very end of life at Rome after Paul's death, and been imprisoned in the Mamertine dungeon, crucified on the Janiculum on the height Pietro in Montorio, and buried where the altar in Peter's now is. But all is conjecture. Ambrose (Ep. 33) says that at his fellow Christians' solicitation he was fleeing from Rome at early dawn, when he met the Lord, and at His feet asked "Lord, where goest Thou?" His reply "I go to be crucified afresh" turned Peter back to a joyful martyrdom. The church "Domine Quo Vadis? " commemorates the legend. The whole tradition of Peter and Paul's association in death is probably due to their connection in life as the main founders of the Christian church. Clemens Alex. says Peter encouraged his wife to martyrdom, saying "remember, dear, our Lord." Clemens Alex. (Strom. 3:448) says that Peter's and Philip's wives helped them in ministering to women at their homes, and by them the doctrine of the Lord penetrated, without scandal, into the privacy of women's apartments. (See MARK on Peter's share in that Gospel.)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Peter, the Epistles of
FIRST EPISTLE. Genuineness. Attested by 1 Peter 2:11-30. Polycarp (in Eusebius 4:14); who in writing to the Philippians (Philippians 2) quotes 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 1:21; 1 Peter 3:9; in Philippians 5; 1 Peter 2:11. Eusebius (H. E. 3:39) says of Papins that he too quotes 1 Peter. Irenaeus (Haer. 4:9, section 2) expressly mentions it; in 4:16, section 5, 1 Peter 2:16. Clemens Alex. (Strom. 1:3, 544) quotes 1 Peter 2:11-12; 1 Peter 2:15-16; and p. 562, 1 Peter 1:21-22; and James 1:2-3 1 Peter 3:14-17; and p. 585, 1 Peter 4:12-14. Origen (in Eusebius H. E. 6:25) mentions it; in Homily 7 on Joshua (vol. 2:63), both epistles; and in Commentary on Psalms and John 1 Peter 3:18-21. Tertullian (Scorp. 12) quotes 1 Peter 2:20-21; and in 14 1 Peter 2:13; 1 Peter 2:17. Eusebius calls 1 Peter one of "the universally acknowledged epistles.
The Peshito Syriac has it. Muratori's Fragm. of Canon omits it. The Paulicians alone rejected it. The internal evidence for it is strong. The author calls himself the apostle Peter (1 Peter 1:1), "a witness of Christ's sufferings," and "an elder" (Romans 12:6-86). The energetic style accords with Peter's character. Erasmus remarks this epistle is full of apostolical dignity and authority, worthy of the leader among the apostles.
PERSONS ADDRESSED. 1 Peter 1:1; "to the elect strangers (pilgrims spiritually) of the dispersion," namely, Jewish Christians primarily. 1 Peter 1:14. 1 Peter 2:9-10; 1 Peter 4:3, prove that Gentile Christians, as grafted into the Christian Jewish stock and so becoming of the true Israel, are secondarily addressed. Thus the apostle of the circumcision seconded the apostle of the uncircumcision in uniting Jew and Gentile in the one Christ. Peter enumerates the provinces in the order from N.E, to S. and W. Pontus was the country of the Christian Jew Aquila.
Paul twice visited Galatia, founding and confirming churches. Crescens, his companion, went there just before Paul's last imprisonment (1 Peter 5:2-34). Men of Cappadocia, as well as of "Pontus" and "Asia" (including Mysia, Lydia, Curia, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia), were among Peter's hearers on Pentecost; these brought home to their native lands the first tidings of the gospel. In Lycaonia were the churches of Iconium, founded by Paul and Barnabas; of Lystra, Timothy's birthplace, where Paul was stoned; and of Derbe, the birthplace of Gains or Caius. In Pisidia was Antioch, where Paul preached (Acts 13) so effectively, but from which he was driven out by the Jews. In Caria was Miletus, where Paul convened the Ephesian elders.
In Phrygia Paul preached when visiting twice the neighbouring Galatia. The churches of Laodicea were Hierapolis and Colesse (having as members Philemon and Onesimus, and leaders Archippus and Epaphras). In Lydia was the Philadelphian church favorably noticed Revelation 3:7; that of Sardis the capital; Thyatira; and Ephesus, founded by Paul, laboured in by Aquila, Priscilla, Apollos, and Paul for three years, censured for leaving its first love (Revelation 2:4). Smyrna received unqualified praise. In Mysia was Pergamos. Troas was the scene of Paul's preaching, raising Eutychus, and staying with Carpus long subsequently.
Into Bithynia when Paul "assayed to go" the Spirit suffered him not; afterward the Spirit imparted to Bithynia the gospel, as 1 Peter 1:1 implies, probably through Peter. These churches were in much the same state (1 Peter 5:1-2 "feed") as when Paul addressed the Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28, "feed".) Presbyter bishops ruled, Peter exercising a general superintendence. The persecutions to which they were exposed were annoyances and reproach for Christ's sake, because of their nut joining pagan neighbours in riotous living; so they needed warning lest they should fall. Ambition and lucre seeking are the evil tendencies against Which Peter warns the presbyters (1618105171_50), evil thoughts and words, and a lack of mutual sympathy among the members.
OBJECT. By the heavenly prospect before them, and by Christ the example, Peter consoles the partially persecuted, and prepares them for a severer ordeal coming. He exhorts all, husbands, wives, servants, elders, and people, by discharging relative duties to give the foe no handle for reproaching Christianity, rather to attract them to it; so Peter seeks to establish them in "the true grace of God wherein they stand "; but the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus manuscripts read "stand ye," imperatively (1 Peter 5:12), "Grace" is the keynote of Paul's doctrine which Peter confirms (Ephesians 2:5; Ephesians 2:8; Romans 5:2). He "exhorts and testifies" in this epistle on the ground of the gospel truths already well known to his readers by Pupil's teaching in those churches. He does not state the details of gospel grace, but takes them for granted (1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 1:18; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Peter 2:5-7).
DIVISIONS.
(I) Inscription (1 Peter 1:2).
(II) Stirs up believers' pure feeling, as born again of God, by the motive of hope to which God has regenerated us (1 Peter 1:3-12), to bring forth faith's holy fruits, seeing that Christ redeemed us from sin at so costly a price (1 Peter 1:13-21). Purified by the Spirit unto love of the brethren, as begotten of God's abiding word, spiritual priest-kings, to whom alone Christ is precious (1 Peter 1:22-2:10). As Paul is the apostle of faith and John of love, so Peter of hope. After Christ's example in suffering, maintain a good "conversation" (conduct) in every relation (2 Peter 1:14,:14), and a good "profession" of faith, having in view Christ's once offered sacrifice and His future coming to judgment (1 Peter 3:15-4:11); showing patience in adversity, as looking for future glorification with Christ
(1) in general as Christians (1 Peter 4:12-19),
(2) each in his own relation (1 Peter 5:1-11). "Beloved" separates the second part from the first (1 Peter 2:11), and the third from the second (1 Peter 4:12).
(III) The conclusion. Time and place of writing. It was before the systematic persecution of Christians in Nero's later years. The acquaintance evidenced with Paul's epistles written previous to or during his first imprisonment at Rome (ending A.D. 63) shows it was after them. Compare 1 Peter 2:13 with Romans 13; 1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 6:5; 1 Peter 1:2; Ephesians 1:4-7; 1 Peter 1:3; Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:14; Romans 12:2; 1 Peter 2:6-10; Romans 9:32-33; 1 Peter 2:13; Romans 13:1-4; 1 Peter 2:16; Galatians 5:13; 1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 6:5; 2 Peter 2:4-57; Ephesians 5:22; 1 Peter 3:9; Romans 12:17; 1 Peter 4:9; Romans 12:13; Philippians 2:14; Hebrews 13:2; 1 Peter 4:10; 1618105171_26; 1 Peter 5:1; Romans 8:18; 1 Peter 5:5; Ephesians 5:21; Philippians 2:3-8; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 1 Peter 5:14; 1 Corinthians 16:20.
In 1 Peter 5:13 Mark is mentioned as at Babylon; this must have been after Colossians 4:10 (A.D. 61-63), when Mark was with Paul at Rome but intending to go to Asia. It was either when he went to Colosse that he proceeded to Peter, thence to Ephesus, from whence (2 Timothy 4:11) Paul tells Timothy to bring him to Rome (A.D. 67 or 68); or after Paul's second imprisonment and death Peter testified to the same churches, those of Asia Minor, following up Paul's teachings. This is more likely, for Peter would hardly trench on Paul's field of labour during Paul's life. The Gentile as well as the Hebrew Christians would after Paul's removal naturally look to Peter and the spiritual fathers of the Jerusalem church for counsel wherewith to meet Judaizing Christians and heretics; false teachers may have appealed from Paul to James and Peter. Therefore Peter confirms Paul and shows there is no difference between their teachings. Origen's and Eusebius' statement that Peter visited the Asiatic churches in person seems probable.
PLACE. Peter wrote from Babylon (1 Peter 5:13). He would never use a mystical name for Rome, found only in prophecy, in a matter of fact letter amidst ordinary salutations. The apostle of the circumcision would naturally be at Chaldaean Babylon where was "a great multitude of Jews" (Josephus, Ant. 15:2, section 2; 3, section 1). Cosmas Indicopleustes (sixth century) understood the Babylon to be outside the Roman empire. The order in which Peter enumerates the countries, from N.E. to S. and W., is such as one writing from Babylon would adopt. Silvanus, Paul's companion, subsequently Peter's, carried the epistle.
STYLE. Fervor and practical exhortation characterize this epistle, as was to be expected from the warm hearted writer. The logical reasoning of Paul is not here; but Paul's gospel, as communicated to Peter by Paul (Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:2), is evidently before Peter's mind. Characteristic of Peter are the phrases "baptism ... the answer of a good conscience toward God" (1 Peter 3:21); "consciousness of God" (1 Peter 2:19 Greek), i.e. conscientiousness, a motive for enduring sufferings; "living hope" (1 Peter 1:3); "an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away" (1 Peter 1:4); "kiss of charity" (1 Peter 5:14). Christ is viewed more in His present exaltation and coming manifestation in glory than in His past suffering. Glory and hope are prominent. Future bliss being near, believers are but "strangers" and "sojourners" here. Chastened fervor, deep humility, and ardent love breathe throughout. Exuberant feeling causes the same thought to be often repeated. He naturally quotes the epistle of James as having most weight with the Jewish party to whom especially he ministered.
He thus confirms James' inspired writings: compare 1 Peter 1:6-7; in 4:584,; 1 Peter 1:24. James 1:10; 1 Peter 2:1; James 1:21; 1 Peter 4:8; James 5:20; Proverbs 10:12; 1 Peter 5:5; James 4:6; Proverbs 3:34. Old Testament quotations are the common ground of both. Susceptibility to outward impressions, liveliness of feeling, and dexterity in handling subjects, disposed him to repeat others' thoughts. His speeches in the independent history, Acts, accord with his language in his epistles, an undesigned coincidence and mark of truth: 1 Peter 2:7, "the stone ... disallowed," Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 1:12, "preached ... with the Holy Spirit," Acts 5:32; 1 Peter 2:24, "bare our sins ... on the tree," Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; 1 Peter 5:1, "witness of the sufferings of Christ," Acts 2:32; Acts 3:15; 1 Peter 1:10, "the prophets ... of the grace," Acts 3:18; Acts 10:43; 1 Peter 1:21, "God raised Him from the dead," Acts 3:15; Acts 10:40; 1 Peter 4:5, "Him ... ready to judge," Acts 10:42; 1 Peter 2:24, "that we being dead to sins," Acts 3:19; Acts 3:26.
Also he alludes often to Christ's language, John 21:15-19; "Shepherd of souls," 1 Peter 2:25; "feed the flock of God ... the chief Shepherd," 1 Peter 5:2; 1 Peter 5:4; "whom ye love," 1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 2:7; also 1618105171_97 "shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath showed me." He who in loving impatience cast himself into the sea to meet the Lord is also the man who most earnestly testifies to the hope of His return; he before whom a martyr's death is in assured expectation is the man who in greatest variety of aspects sets forth the duty, as well as the consolation, of suffering for Christ. As a rock of the church he grounds his readers against the storm of tribulation on the true Rock of ages. (Wiesinger.)
SECOND EPISTLE. Authenticity and genuineness. "Simon Peter a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ" stands at its heading. He reminds us at the close of his life that he is the Peter who was originally "Simon" before his call. In 2 Peter 1:16-18 he mentions his presence at the transfiguration, and Christ's prophecy of his death; and 2 Peter 3:15 his brotherhood to his beloved Paul. In 2 Peter 3:1 he identifies himself as author of the former epistle. The second epistle includes in its address the same persons as the first epistle. He presumes their acquaintance with Paul's epistles, by that time acknowledged as Scripture; 2 Peter 3:15, "the longsuffering of God," alluding to Romans 2:4. A late date is implied, just before Peter's death, when Paul's epistles (including Romans) had become generally circulated and accepted as Scripture. The church in the fourth century had, beside the testimony which we have of its acceptante though with doubts by earlier Christians. other external evidence which, under God's guiding Spirit, decided them in accepting it.
If Peter were not the author the epistle would be false, as it expressly claims to be his; then the canon of the council of Laodicea, A.D. 360) (if the 59th article is genuine) and that of Hippo and Carthage (A.D. 393 and 397) would never have accepted it. Its whole tone disproves imposture. The writer writes not of himself, but "moved by the Holy Spirit" (2 Peter 1:21). Shame and suffering were all that was to be gained by a forgery in the first age. There was no temptation then to "pious frauds," as in after ages. A wide gulf separates its New Testament style from the earliest and best of the post apostolic period. "God has allowed a fosse to be drawn by human weakness around the sacred canon, to protect it from all invasion" (Daille). Hermas (Simil. 6:4; 2 Peter 2:13, and Shep. 3:7; 4:3; 2 Peter 2:15; 2 Peter 2:20) quotes its words. Clemens Romans (ad Cor. 7; 9; 10) alludes to its references to Noah's preaching and Lot's deliverance (compare 2 Peter 3:1; 2 Peter 2:9). Irenaeous (A.D. 178) and Justin Martyr allude to 2 Peter 3:8.
Hippolytus (de Antichristo) refers to 2 Peter 1:21. But the first writer who expressly names it as "Scripture" is Origen, third century (Hem. on Josh., 4th Hom. on Lev., and 13th on Num.), quoting 2 Peter 1:4; 2 Peter 2:16. In Eusebius H. E. 6:24 he mentions that some doubted the second epistle. Tertullian, Clemens Alex., Cyprian, the Peshito Syriac (the later Syriac has it), and Muratori's Fragm. Canon do not mention it. Firmilian of Cappadocia (Ep. ad Cyprian) says Peter's epistles warn us to avoid heretics; this warning is in the second epistle, not the first. Now Cappadocia (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1) is among the countries addressed; so it is from Cappadocia we get the earliest testimony. Internally it professes Peter is its writer; Christians of the very country to whose custody it was committed confirm this. (See CANON; NEW TESTAMENT.)
Though not of "the universally confessed" (homologoumea ) Scriptures, but of "the disputed" (antilegomena ), 2 Peter is altogether distinct from "the spurious" (notha ); of these there was no dispute, they were universally rejected as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Revelation of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas. Cyril of Jerusalem (A.D. 348) enumerates seven universal epistles including 2 Peter. So Gregory of Nazianzum (A.D. 389) and Epiphanius (A.D. 367). The oldest Greek manuscripts (fourth century) contain "the disputed Scriptures." Jerome (de Viris Illustr.) guessed from a presumed difference of style that Peter, being unable to write Greek, employed a different Greek translator of his Hebrew dictation in the second epistle from the translator of first epistle. So Mark's Gospel was derived from Peter. Silvanus, the bearer, Paul's companion, may have been employed in the composition, and Peter with him probably read carefully Paul's epistles, from whence arise correspondences of style and thought: as 1 Peter 1:3 with Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 2:18 with Ephesians 6:5; 1 Peter 3:1 with Ephesians 5:22; 1 Peter 5:5 with Ephesians 5:21.
STYLE AND THOUGHTS. Both epistles contain similar sentiments. Peter looks for the Lord's sudden coming and the end of the world (2 Peter 3:8-10; 1 Peter 4:5). The prophets' inspiration (1 Peter 1:10-12; 2 Peter 1:19; 1 Peter 5:1; 2 Peter 3:2). New birth by the Divine Word a motive to abstinence from worldly lusts (1 Peter 1:22; 1 Peter 2:2; 2 Peter 1:4; also 1 Peter 2:9 margin; 2 Peter 1:3, the rare word "virtue," 1 Peter 4:17; 2 Peter 2:3). The distinctness of style in the two epistles accords with their distinctness of design. Christ's sufferings are prominent in 1 Peter, its design being to encourage Christians under sufferings; His glory in the second epistle, its design being to communicate fuller "knowledge" of Him, as the antidote to the false teaching against which Peter forewarns his readers. So His title as Redeemer, "Christ," is in 1 Peter, "the Lord" in 2 Peter. Hope characterizes 1 Peter, full knowledge 2 Peter. In 2 Peter, where he designs to warn against false teachers, he puts forward his apostolic authority more than in 1 Peter.
So contrast Paul in Philippians 1:1; 1 Thessalonians 1:1; 2 Thessalonians 1:1, with 1 Corinthians 1:1; Galatians 1:1. Verbal coincidences, marking identity of authorship, occur (1 Peter 1:19 end; 2 Peter 3:14 end; 1 Peter 3:1; 1 Peter 3:5; 2 Peter 2:16; "own," idiot, 2 Peter 3:17). The Greek article omitted 1 Peter 2:13; 2 Peter 1:21; 1618105171_77; 2 Peter 2:7. "Tabernacle," i.e. the body, and "decease" (2 Peter 1:13; 2 Peter 1:15) are the very words in Luke's narrative of the transfiguration (Luke 9:31; Luke 9:33), an undesigned coincidence confirming genuineness. The deluge and Noah, the "eighth," saved are referred to in both epistles. The first epistle often quotes Old Testament, the second epistle often (without quoting) refers to it (2 Peter 1:21; 2 Peter 2:5-8; 2 Peter 2:15; 2 Peter 3:5-6; 2 Peter 3:10; 2 Peter 3:13). So "putting away" (apothesis ) occurs in both (1 Peter 3:21; 2 Peter 1:14).
"Pass the time" (anastrafeste ), 1 Peter 1:17; 2 Peter 2:18; 1 Peter 4:3 "walked in" (peporeumenois ), 2 Peter 2:10; 2 Peter 3:3. "Called you," 1 Peter 1:15; 1 Peter 2:9; 1 Peter 5:10; 2 Peter 1:3. Besides, the verbal coincidences with Peter's speeches in Acts are more in 2 Peter than in 1 Peter; as (lachousin ) "obtained," 2 Peter 1:1, with Acts 1:17; 2 Peter 1:6, "godliness," Acts 3:12 (eusebeia , translated "godliness"); 2 Peter 2:9; Acts 10:2; Acts 10:7, eusebeis in both, "godly"; 2 Peter 2:9, "punished," Acts 4:21 (the only places where kolazomai , is used); 2 Peter 3:10; Acts 2:20, "day of the Lord," peculiar to these two passages and 1 Thessalonians 5:2. Judges 1:17-18 attest its genuineness and inspiration by adopting its words, as received by the churches to whom he wrote: "remember the words ... of the apostles of our Lord Jesus, how they told you there should be mockers in the last time who should walk after their own ungodly lusts" (
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Abelard, Peter
(1079-1142). Philosopher and theologian, born Pallet, Brittany, France; died Chalons-sur-Saone, France. While still quite young, c.1101,he established schools of his own at Melun and Corbeil, and in 1108 at Mount Sainte. Genevieve. Later he taught at the cathedral school in Paris, where he enjoyed great fame as a teacher of rhetoric and logic. At the height of his popularity when still a cleric in the minor orders, he fell in love with Heloise, niece of Canon Fulbert; the discovery of their alliance wrecked his academic career. Abelard became a Benedictine, while Heloise became a nun. His knowledge of theology was not as great as his eloquence, and his orthodoxy was questioned by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, who obtained a condemnation at Rome of some of his teachings. He was of a restless and quarrelsome disposition. Teacher of the future Pope Celestine II. His Story of My Calamities has invested his career with romantic interest, but it shows how he was constantly provoking opposition. Though more brilliant than solid, he was an important contributor to Scholastic method, an opponent of obscurantism, and a continuator of the Carolingian renaissance. He spent his last years at Cluny.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alcantara, Peter of, Saint
Confessor; founder of the Reform Congregation of the Spanish Discalceates (Alcantarini); born Alcantara, Spain, 1499; died Arenas, 1562. He was educated at the University of Salamanca; entered the Franciscan Order at Manxarretes, 1515; ordained, c.1524;made superior of the province of Saint Gabriel, 1538; he drew up the Constitutions of the Stricter Obseriants, 1540. He retired with John of Avila to the mountains of Arilbida, Portugal, and established there several small communities, which were united in the Provlnce of Arabida, 1560. The order spread through Spain and Portugal, and Peter was elected superior, 1556. Associated with him in his work were Saint Francis Borgia, Saint John of Avila, Saint Louis of Granada, and Saint Teresa of Avila. Patron of night watchmen. Canonized, 1669. Relics at Arenas, Old Castile. Feast, Roman Calendar, October 19,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Alexandria, Peter of, Saint
Martyr. Bishop of Alexandria. He suffered in the Decian persecution and was at one time head of the famous catechetical school at Alexandria. He probably initiated the reaction there against extreme Origenism. When during the Diocletian persecution Peter left Alexandria for concealment, the Meletian schism broke out among his own clergy, and he had this to contend with at a time when it was all he could do to comfort and guide the captive Christians. He was probably the first to discover the heresy of Arius. On his return to Alexandria he convened a synod of bishops against Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis, who had usurped his authority. Soon after this he was martyred at Alexandria in 311 at the command of Maximinus Daja, and was buried in the cemetery for martyrs. Most of his relics were enshrined in a church at Grasse, France. Feast, Roman Calendar, November 26,.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Peter
the great Apostle of the circumcision, was the son of Jona, and born at Bethsaida, a town situated on the western shore of the lake of Gennesareth, but in what particular year we are not informed, John 1:42-43 . His original name was Simon or Simeon, which his divine Master, when he called him to the Apostleship, changed for that of Cephas, a Syriac word signifying a stone or rock; in Latin, petra, from whence is derived the term Peter. He was a married man, and had his house, his mother-in-law and his wife, at Capernaum, on the lake of Gennesareth, Matthew 8:14 ; Mark 1:29 ; Luke 4:38 . He had also a brother of the name of Andrew, who had been a disciple of John the Baptist, and was called to the knowledge of the Saviour prior to himself. Andrew was present when the venerable Baptist pointed his disciples to Jesus, and added. "Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world;" and, meeting Simon shortly afterward, said, "We have found the Messiah," and then brought him to Jesus, John 1:41 . When the two brothers had passed one day with the Lord Jesus, they took their leave of him, and returned to their ordinary occupation of fishing. This appears to have taken place in the thirtieth year of the Christian era. Toward the end of the same year, as Jesus was one morning standing on the shore of the lake of Gennesareth, he saw Andrew and Peter engaged about their employment. They had been fishing during the whole night, but without the smallest success; and, after this fruitless expedition, were in the act of washing their nets, Luke 5:1-3 . Jesus entered into their boat, and bade Peter throw out his net into the sea, which he did; and now, to his astonishment, the multitude of fishes was so immense that their own vessel, and that of the sons of Zebedee, were filled with them. Peter evidently saw there was something supernatural in this, and, throwing himself at the feet of Jesus, he exclaimed, "Depart from me, O Lord, for I am a sinful man." The miracle was no doubt intended for a sign to the four disciples of what success should afterward follow their ministry in preaching the doctrine of his kingdom; and therefore Jesus said unto them, "Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men;" on which they quitted their boats and nets, and thenceforth became the constant associates of the Saviour, during the whole of his public ministry, Luke 18:28 .
From the instant of his entering upon the apostolic office, we find St. Peter on almost every occasion evincing the strength of his faith in Jesus as the Messiah, and the most extraordinary zeal in his service, of which many examples are extant in the Gospels. When Jesus in private asked his disciples, first, what opinion the people entertained of him; next, what was their own opinion: "Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," Matthew 16:16 . Having received this answer, Jesus declared Peter blessed on account of his faith; and in allusion to the signification of his name, added, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth," &c. Many think these things were spoken to St. Peter alone, for the purpose of conferring on him privileges and powers not granted to the rest of the Apostles. But others, with more reason, suppose that, though Jesus directed his discourse to St. Peter, it was intended for them all; and that the honours and powers granted to St. Peter by name were conferred on them all equally. For no one will say that Christ's church was built upon St. Peter singly: it was built on the foundation of all the Apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. As little can any one say that the power of binding and loosing was confined to St. Peter, seeing it was declared afterward to belong to all the Apostles, Matthew 18:18 ; John 20:23 . To these things add this, that as St. Peter made his confession in answer to a question which Jesus put to all the Apostles, that confession was certainly made in the name of the whole; and, therefore, what Jesus said to him in reply was designed for the whole without distinction; excepting this, which was peculiar to him, that he was to be the first who, after the descent of the Holy Ghost, should preach the Gospel to the Jews, and then to the Gentiles: an honour which was conferred on St. Peter in the expression, "I will give thee the keys," &c.
St. Peter was one of the three Apostles whom Jesus admitted to witness the resurrection of Jairus's daughter, and before whom he was transfigured, and with whom he retired to pray in the garden the night before he suffered. He was the person who in the fervour of his zeal for his Master cut off the ear of the high priest's slave, when the armed band came to apprehend him. Yet this same Peter, a few hours after that, denied his Master three different times in the high priest's palace, and that with oaths. In the awful defection of the Apostle on this occasion we have melancholy proof of the power of human depravity even in regenerate men, and of the weakness of human resolutions when left to ourselves. St. Peter was fully warned by his divine Master of his approaching danger; but confident in his own strength, he declared himself ready to accompany his Lord to prison and even to judgment. After the third denial "Jesus turned and looked upon Peter;" that look pierced him to the heart; and, stung with deep remorse, "he went out, and wept bitterly." St. Peter, however, obtained forgiveness; and, when Jesus had risen from the dead, he ordered the glad tidings of his resurrection to be conveyed to St. Peter by name: "Go tell my disciples and Peter," Mark 16:8 . He afterward received repeated assurances of his Saviour's love, and from that time uniformly showed the greatest zeal and fortitude in his Master's service.
Soon after our Lord's ascension, in a numerous assembly of the Apostles and brethren, St. Peter gave it as his opinion, that one should be chosen to be an Apostle in the room of Judas. To this they all agreed; and, by lot, chose Matthias, whom on that occasion they numbered with the eleven Apostles. On the day of pentecost following, when the Holy Spirit fell on the Apostles and disciples, St. Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice; that is, St. Peter, rising up, spake with a loud voice, in the name of the Apostles, as he had done on various occasions in his Master's lifetime, and gave the multitude an account of that great miracle, Acts 2:14 . St. Peter now began to experience the fulfilment of Christ's promise to make him a fisher of men, and also that he would give him the keys of the kingdom of heaven. His sermon on this occasion produced an abundant harvest of converts to Christ. Three thousand of his audience were pricked to the heart, and cried out, "Men and brethren, what shall we do?" St.
Peter proclaimed to them the riches of pardoning mercy through the divine blood of the Son of God; and they that gladly received his doctrine were baptized and added to the church, Acts 2:37-43 . The effects produced on the mind of this great Apostle of the circumcision by the resurrection of his divine Master, and the consequent effusion of the Holy Spirit, were evidently of the most extraordinary kind, and such as it is impossible to account for upon natural principles. He was raised superior to all considerations of personal danger and the fear of man. And though all the Apostles could now say, "God hath not given us the spirit of fear, but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind;" yet an attentive reader of the Acts of the Apostles cannot fail to perceive that upon almost every occasion of difficulty St. Peter is exhibited to our view as standing foremost in the rank of Apostles. When St. Peter and John were brought before the council to be examined concerning the miracle wrought on the impotent man, St. Peter spake. It was St. Peter who questioned Ananias and Sapphira about the price of their lands; and for their lying in that matter, punished them miraculously with death. It is remarkable, also, that although by the hands of the Apostles many signs and wonders were wrought, it was by St. Peter's shadow alone that the sick, who were laid in the streets of Jerusalem, were healed as he passed by. Lastly: It was St. Peter who replied to the council in the name of the Apostles, not obeying their command to preach no more in the name of Jesus.
St. Peter's fame was now become so great, that the brethren of Joppa, hearing of his being in Lydda, and of his having cured Eneas miraculously of a palsy, sent, desiring him to come and restore a disciple to life, named Tabitha, which he did. During his abode in Joppa, the Roman centurion, Cornelius, directed by an angel, sent for him to come and preach to him. On that occasion the Holy Ghost fell on Cornelius and his company, while St. Peter spake. St. Peter, by his zeal and success in preaching the Gospel, having attracted the notice of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Herod Agrippa, who, to please the Jews, had killed St. James, the brother of St. John, still farther to gratify them, cast St. Peter into prison. But an angel brought him out; after which he concealed himself in the city, or in some neighbouring town, till Herod's death, which happened about the end of the year. Some learned men think St. Peter at that time went to Antioch or to Rome. But if he had gone to any celebrated city, St. Luke, as L'Enfant observes, would probably have mentioned it. Beside, we find him in the council of Jerusalem, which met not long after this to determine the famous question concerning the circumcision of the Gentiles. The council being ended, St. Peter went to Antioch, where he gave great offence, by refusing to eat with the converted Gentiles. But St. Paul withstood him to the face, rebuking him before the whole church for his pusillanimity and hypocrisy, Galatians 2:11-21 .
In the Acts of the Apostles, no mention is made of St. Peter after the council of Jerusalem. But from Galatians 2:11 , it appears that after that council he was with St. Paul at Antioch. He is likewise mentioned by St. Paul, 1 Corinthians 1:12 ; 1 Corinthians 3:22 . It is generally supposed that after St. Peter was at Antioch with St. Paul, he returned to Jerusalem. What happened to him after that is not told in the Scriptures. But Eusebius informs us that Origen wrote to this purpose: St. Peter is supposed to have preached to the Jews of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia; and at length, coming to Rome, was crucified with his head downward.
We are indebted to this Apostle for two epistles, which constitute a valuable part of the inspired writings. The first epistle of St. Peter has always been considered as canonical; and in proof of its genuineness we may observe that it is referred to by Clement of Rome, Hermes, and Polycarp; that we are assured by Eusebius, that it was quoted by Papias; and that it is expressly mentioned by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and most of the later fathers. The authority of the second Epistle of St. Peter was for some time disputed, as we learn from Origen, Eusebius, and Jerom; but since the fourth century it has been universally received, except by the Syriac Christians. It is addressed to the same persons as the former epistle, and the design of it was to encourage them to adhere to the genuine faith and practice of the Gospel.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Saint Peter in Chains, Feast of
Memorial August 1,
About the Feast Originally kept in Rome to commemorate the dedication of the Church of Saint Peter on the Esquiline Hill built by Eudoxia Licinia in 442, and rebuilt by Adrian I in the 8th century. When the chains which Saint Peter had worn in prison were later venerated there, the feast received its present name. The date when these chains were brought from Jerusalem is disputed; some claim they were brought in 116 by travellers sent in search of them by Saint Balbina and her father Saint Quirinus, while others think Saint Eudoxia brought them in 439. Pope Saint Leo the Great united them to the chains with which Saint Peter had been fettered in the Mamertine Prison, forming a chain about two yards long which is preserved in a bronze safe and guarded by a special confraternity.
Patronage Donnas, Italy
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Simon Peter
(Greek: petra, rock)
Peter, originally Simon, son of Jona, was a fisherman of Bethsaida, a town on Lake Genesareth. He was a disciple of Saint John the Baptist, at whose bidding he followed Jesus from the beginning of His ministry. Because of his faith, fidelity, enthusiasm, and love, although he was somewhat irresolute of character, Jesus showered him with many favors; He gave him the name Peter, cured his mother-in-law, appointed him chief of the Apostolic band, made him head of the Church, chose him as one of the witnesses of the raising of Jairus's daughter from the dead, and of the Transfiguration, and of the Agony in the Garden; and after the Resurrection, lest Peter's denial make him lose prestige, Our Lord renewed his commission as chief pastor of the flock. After the Ascension Peter, by virtue of this commission, repeatedly acted as spokesman and head of the infant Church. After his deliverance from prison by an angel he left Jerusalem and began his Apostolic journeys. His first see was at Antioch. Just when he established himself at Rome is disputed, but that be did go to Rome and make it the center of the Church is too evident from tradition, from his first Epistle (1 Peter 5), and from data found in the catacombs and ancient churches of Rome, to bear successful contradiction. He died a martyr's death at Rome during the persecution of Nero by being crucified head downwards, according to legend. He was buried at the foot of the Vatican Hill near the Via Cornelia; at the beginning of the Valerian persecution (c.258) his remains were placed with those of Saint Paul in a catacomb on the Appian Way, where the Church of Saint Sebastian now stands; they were restored to their original place of burial by Constantine the Great, who built a basilica over the grave at the foot of the Vatican Hill; this basilica was replaced by the present Saint Peter's, where one half of his body now rests; the other half is in the Church of Saint Paul on the Ostian Way; his head is in the Lateran Church. Patron of Rome. Emblems: a boat, keys, and a cock. Feast, June 29,. The dedication of his chair at Rome is celebrated January 18,; at Antioch, February 22,. Representations of Saint Peter are found in Christian art as early as the 2century. He is shown as a man of energy, with short curly hair. and beard, receiving the scroll of the Law, with veiled hands. He is the only Apostle represented with a wand or staff, and in the 5th century he is shown wIth the keys, which afterward became customary. The famous bronze statue in Rome is not earlier than the 5th or 6th century.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Schubert, Franz Peter
Composer. Born on January 31, 1797 in Vienna, Austria; died there on November 19, 1828. A pupil of Holzer and Salieri, he gave early promise of genius. His first mass in F was performed in 1814. He composed the Erl King at eighteen. Rosamunde and the Mass in E flat date from 1821 to 1824, his prolific period. The celebrated Ave Maria was written in 1825. The songs, with which his fame is perhaps most closely associated, number over 500. A dozen of them, including the three Shakespearean songs of 1826, and the "Winterreise" cycle of 1827, are considered masterpieces. His orchestral compositions culminated in the C major Symphony of 1828. His gift is illustrated by the wide range of forms in which he composed. He is compared with Beethoven, his contemporary; but he was incapable of that master's labors for perfection, whatever he produced being spontaneous and rarely revised. Dying at the age of 31, as he had lived, in abject poverty and disappointment, unmourned by the world at large, it required the publication of his abundant posthumous works to bring him into prominence. His music is in itself a complete memoir of his life.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Rubens, Peter Paul
Flemish painter. Born on June 28, 1577 in Siegen, Westphalia, Germany; died on May 30, 1640 in Antwerp, Nederlands. He was born while his family were in exile on account of the father's Calvinism. His mother was a Catholic, and he was first taught by the Jesuits in Cologne. After his father's death in 1587, the family returned to Antwerp. He studied art from his fourteenth year and went to Italy in 1600 for eight years of study and travel, including a diplomatic mission to Spain. Settling in Antwerp in 1608, he was aided in his work by many pupils, among them Van Dyck, Teniers, and Jordaens. In 1622 he was commissioned by Marie de' Medici to decorate the Luxembourg Palace. On a mission to Spain, 1628, he met Velasquez, and painted the portrait of Philip IV. Going to London as a diplomatic messenger in 1629 he was knighted by Charles I, and painted the Peace and War now in the National Gallery. On his return to Antwerp he was made court-painter by the Archduke Ferdinand. The amount of his work, whether done exclusively by him or with the aid of pupils, is extraordinary. His masterpiece is The Descent from the Cross in the Antwerp cathedral. Other paintings are The Elevation of the Cross; The Madonna Surrounded by Children; The Judgment of Paris; The Rainbow Landscape, and many portraits of his second wife, Helena Fourment.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sodality of Saint Peter Claver
Founded at Salzburg, Austria in 1894 by Countess M. Theresia Ledóchowska to aid the African missions and to foster the work of freeing slaves. It includes members of a female religious institute who are entirely engaged in the work of the African missions (these lead a community life in civilized countries, and have their headquarters at Rome); laymen and women who devote themselves as far as their state in life permits, to the work of the sodality, especially by managing the succursals; and common helpers of either sex who foster the work by contributions and other means. There are also sodalities of this name in missions.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baptist, Peter, Saint
Martyr; born San Esteban, Avila, Spain, 1545; died Nagasaki, Japan, 1597. He joined the Franciscan Order, 1567, and was sent to Manila, 1583. There he worked among the natives and established several foundations of his order. In 1593 he was sent by the governor of the Philippines to negotiate with the emperor of Japan. He was received favorably, established schools, hospitals, and convents. The indiscreet boast of a Spanish sea captain that the missionaries had been sent to prepare for the conquest of Japan by Spain, aroused the anger of the emperor, and he ordered the missionaries to be imprisoned. With him were crucified six Franciscan friars, 17 native Franciscan tertiaries, and the Jesuits, Paul Miki, John Goto, and James Kisai. Patron of Japan. Canonized, 1862. Feast, February 5,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Saint Peter, Abbey Nullius of
Muenster, Saskatchewan. Founded in Illinois in 1892 as Saint Peter's Priory. Transferred to Muenster in 1903. Erected into an abbey in1911. Made an Abbey Nullius on May 6, 1921. Comprised the 50 townships which constitute Saint Peter's Colony. Supressed and made part of the diocese of Saskatoon on September 14, 1998.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Healy, George Peter Alexander
Painter, born Boston, Massachusetts, 1808; died Chicago, Illinois, 1894. He studied in Europe, 1834-1850, a pupil of Baron Antoine Gros and Thomas Couture among others, and lived there again from 1869-1890. The interval was spent mainly in Chicago, where he finally established himself in 1892. He is chiefly known as a portrait painter. Among his subjects were Pius IX, Ulysses S Grant, Louis Philippe, Cardinal McCloskey, and Henry W. Longfellow. His most celebrated historical painting, "Webster's Reply to Hayne," is in Faneuil Hall, Boston.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Peter, First Epistle of
PETER, FIRST EPISTLE OF . No Epistle of the NT has caught more of the spirit of Jesus than 1Peter . Imbued with a strong love for the risen Christ, and a profound conviction of the truth of the gospel as established in the world by the life, death, and resurrection of the Messiah, the author delineates a rich Christian life on the basis of these evangelical facts.
1. Contents .
I. Thanksgiving and exhortation in view of the Christian salvation , 1 Peter 1:3 to Ephesians 2:18-22 .
(i.) The glorious character of the Christian salvation, 1 Peter 1:3-12 .
( a ) A sure inheritance, 1 Peter 1:3-5 1 Peter 1:3-5 . To God our Father is ascribed all praise, because by raising Jesus Christ from the dead He has begotten us into a living hope certain to be soon realized.
( b ) A present joy, notwithstanding manifold trials, 1 Peter 1:5-9 1 Peter 1:5-9 . Sufferings refine faith as fire does gold, and even now the unseen Christ is an object of unspeakable joy, and gives a foretaste of full salvation.
( c ) The fulfilment of the promises made to the prophets, and a wonder even to angels, 1 Peter 1:10-12 1 Peter 1:10-12 .
(ii.) Exhortation to realize this hope in a holy life as members of a Divine brotherhood, 1 Peter 3:8-12 to 1 Peter 2:10 .
( a ) The holy and absolutely just Father requires filial obedience, 1 Peter 1:16-17 1 Peter 1:16-17 .
( b ) To redeem us from sin the eternal and spotless Messiah was slain, and by His resurrection has awakened us to true faith in God. It is in the Holy God thus revealed that all your faith and hope rest, 1 Peter 1:18-21 .
( c ) The family of God, begotten of the imperishable seed of the gospel, must obey the truth with sincere mutual love and grow into maturity. As living stones built into the living but once rejected Christ, they form a spiritual temple and also a holy priesthood to offer spiritual sacrifices to God. They have become the new Israel, the people of God, 1 Peter 1:22 1 Peter 1:22 to 1 Peter 2:10 1 Peter 2:10 .
II. The behaviour of the Christian in the world and in the brotherhood , 1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 3:12 .
It must be pure and honourable in the midst of the heathen,1 Peter 2:11-12 1 Peter 2:11-12 .
( a ) Though free servants of God, Christians must be loyal to the earthly government, and observe their duties to all men in their several stations, 1 Peter 2:13-17 .
( b ) Slaves must be obedient even to harsh masters, showing their possession of Divine grace and their discipleship to Jesus, by enduring suffering like Him whose unmerited death has brought us salvation, 1 Peter 2:18-25 1 Peter 2:18-25 .
( c ) Wives are to exercise a quiet and gentle spirit, like true mothers in Israel, submitting to their husbands, in the hope that if they are heathen they may be won to the faith by their Christian life. Likewise husbands must honour their wives as equally with themselves heirs of life, 1 Peter 3:1-7 1 Peter 3:1-7 .
( d ) The duty of a peaceful and kindly life to strengthen the unity within the brotherhood, 1 Peter 3:8-12 1 Peter 1:13 .
III. The uses of suffering , 1 Peter 3:13 to 1 Peter 4:19 .
( a ) Suffering cannot really harm one who has Christ in his heart; nay, gentle steadfastness under persecution may, like our Master’s, win over others to God, 1 Peter 3:13-17 1 Peter 3:13-17 .
Digression. Quickened in spirit by death, Christ carried the gospel to the godless world that perished in the Flood, through which Noah and his family were saved, a type of the Christian who in his baptism asks God for a good conscience, and is cleansed through the risen Christ now triumphant over all His enemies,1 Peter 3:18-22 1 Peter 3:18-22 .
( b ) Suffering delivers us from our sinful life. Though your former heathen comrades revile you for abandoning their life of sensuality, you must have done with them and leave them to the just Judge of all, 1 Peter 4:1-6 .
Digression. In the short time that remains until the return of the Lord, Christians should live a life of self-control, exercising brotherly love, hospitality, and spiritual gifts, 1 Peter 4:7-11 .
( c ) Your sufferings are not unique, but become a blessing if they are the result of fidelity to your Christian profession, and not of evil conduct. They are a sign that judgment is near, which you may await in a life of well-doing, trusting your faithful Creator, 1 Peter 4:12-19 .
IV. Miscellaneous advice , 1 Peter 5:1-14 .
( a ) Counsel to elder of the Church, and to the younger men, 1 Peter 5:1-6 1 Peter 5:1-6 .
( b ) Exhortation to resignation, watchfulness, and trust in the midst of the terrible sufferings that are being endured by the brotherhood everywhere, 1 Peter 5:6-11 1 Peter 5:6-11 .
( c ) Personal greetings, 1 Peter 5:12-14 .
2. Readers . Of the provinces in which the readers lived, Galatia and Asia were evangelized by St. Paul, but nothing is known of the evangelization of the rest, nor does the letter assume that St. Peter had any share in it. At first sight it would appear that the readers were Jewish Christians, as some scholars hold that they were, but the body of the Epistle clearly shows that the prevailing element was Gentile, and the words of 11 are to be taken figuratively of the sojourn of the Christian as a resident alien on earth, absent from his heavenly fatherland ( 1 Peter 2:8 ; 1 Peter 2:10 , 1 Peter 4:1-4 ). Doubtless, however, very many who had been Jews were found in all the Churches of the large cities. The former life of the readers, on the average low level of Asia Minor, had been given over to the vices of the flesh; perhaps, indeed, their past conduct was the source from which the criminal charges were brought against them afterwards as Christians ( 1 Peter 2:12 , 1 Peter 4:15-16 ). The Churches were suffering severely, though there does not seem to have been an official persecution, or a systematic attempt at extermination, for it is assumed that most will remain until the Parousia ( 1 Peter 4:7 ). So severe was their suffering, that only the strong arm of God could protect them in their temptation ( 1 Peter 1:6-7 , 1 Peter 4:12 , 1 Peter 5:6 ). Christians are easily confounded with criminals ( 1 Peter 2:12 ; 1Pe 2:15-16 , 1 Peter 3:13 ; 1 Peter 3:16-17 , 1 Peter 4:15 ; 1 Peter 3:18-19 ), slaves suffer at the hands of their masters, wives from their husbands, but their experience was of the same character as that of the Christian brotherhood throughout the world ( 1 Peter 5:9 ). The Churches are ‘islands in an ocean of heathenism.’
3. Purpose . This letter is an encouragement to readers who are in danger of lapsing, through suffering, into the unholy life of their neighbours. By recalling the fact of the resurrection of Christ, and by an appeal to the example of His remedial sufferings, the author seeks to awaken their faith and hope in God. They are urged to sustain their moral life in the exercise of a calm and sober confidence in the grace of God soon to be revealed more fully ( 1 Peter 1:18 , 1 Peter 4:7 , 1 Peter 5:8-10 ), and to commend their gospel to the heathen world by their lives of goodness, entrusting themselves in well-doing to a faithful Creator ( 1 Peter 4:19 ).
4. Teaching
( a ) Doctrine . Faith in God as the holy Father and faithful Creator is built upon the solid facts of the gospel, in particular, the life, death, and resurrection of Christ the eternal Messiah ( 1 Peter 1:8-21 ). The life of Jesus Christ has made an ineffaceable impression upon the author. He was spotless, the perfect pattern for men, but also the Messiah, who as the Servant of the Lord has by His death ransomed a new people and ratified a new covenant ( 1Pe 1:2 ; 1 Peter 1:18-20 , 1 Peter 2:22-24 ). By His resurrection He has been exalted to God’s right hand, and will soon return to unveil further glories ( 1 Peter 1:13 , 1 Peter 3:22 ). The most probable interpretation of 1 Peter 3:18 ff. is that Christ went, during the period between His death and resurrection, to the abode of the dead, and, having preached His gospel to those who had been the wicked antediluvian world, has made it of universal efficacy (cf. Ephesians 4:8-19 ). In this life Christ becomes an object of inexpressible joy to believers on whom the Spirit has been poured forth ( 1 Peter 1:2 ; 1 Peter 1:8 ; 1 Peter 1:12 ). Peter does not regard the Spirit as the source of Christian virtues, but as the pledge of our future inheritance, as well as of present Divine grace manifested in the ability to endure suffering ( 1 Peter 4:14 ). This Spirit was also identified with the pre-existent Messiah, and was the means of His persistence through death ( 1 Peter 1:11 , 1 Peter 4:19 , 1 Peter 4:14 ). By the Spirit the brethren are also consecrated in a new covenant to Jehovah, thereby receiving the fulfilment of the promise of the Messianic age ( 1 Peter 1:2 ). The risen Christ has become the object of the believer’s utter love and devotion, and has begotten in him the living hope of an eternal inheritance.
( b ) The Christian life . At baptism the believer has his conscience cleansed through the risen Christ; and the new life springing from the seed of the word of God planted in the heart grows by feeding upon that word. Holiness is its quality, involving obedience to the truth, freedom from fleshly lusts, self-control under suffering, joy in a present salvation, and hope of life in the incorruptible inheritance. Faith is the act whereby the believer, realizing the worth of the unseen world through the revelation of Jesus Christ, puts complete trust in God. With Christ, the living stone, Christians form the new temple in which the brethren are a royal priesthood. They are the true Israel, a brotherhood which is God’s home on earth. The Christian is a pilgrim on earth, his life one of love to the brethren and of gentle endurance towards the unbeliever, whom he seeks to win to the gospel, while he stands ready girt for his Master’s coming ( 1 Peter 1:18 , 1 Peter 5:5-11 ).
5. Literary affinities
( a ) The OT . This Epistle is greatly indebted to the LXX [1] , especially to the Psalms and to Isaiah, whose teaching as to the holiness of God and the redemptive efficacy of the sufferings of the Servant of the Lord is echoed ( 1 Peter 1:18-20 , Isaiah 52:3 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ; 1 Peter 1:24-25 , Isaiah 40:6 ff.; 1 Peter 2:6 ff., Isaiah 28:18 , Psa 118:22 ; 1 Peter 2:21 ff.; Isaiah 53 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ff., Psalms 34:12 ff.). Proverbs also is used ( 1 Peter 2:17 , Acts 10:42-433 ; 1 Peter 4:8 , Proverbs 10:12 ; 1 Peter 4:18 , Proverbs 11:31 ; 1 Peter 5:5 , Proverbs 3:34 ).
( b ) Book of Enoch . An acquaintance with this pseudepigraphic book may be traced in 1Pe 1:12 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ; 1 Peter 3:20 . Cf. Enoch 9.1, 10.4, 6, 12, 13, 64.1, 2, 69.26.
( c ) The Gospels . While the Epistle affords no proof of acquaintance with our Gospels, it contains many suggestions of the life and teachings of Jesus. Peter claims to have been a witness of the sufferings and the glory of Jesus ( 1 Peter 5:1 ), which may refer both to the Transfiguration and to the appearances of the risen Christ. Christ is set forth as the example for the sufferer, as though His silent endurance of reviling and the agony of the sinless One had been indelibly impressed on the author’s memory; and, as in the Synoptics, Jesus Christ fulfils the prophecy of the Suffering Servant. The great command of Jesus to His disciples to renounce the world, take up the cross and follow Him, seems to re-echo in this Epistle; as Jesus pronounced blessings on those who were persecuted for righteousness’ sake, so does Peter ( 1 Peter 3:14 , Acts 5:30-31 ), and other words from the Sermon on the Mount ( Matthew 5:10-11 ; Matthew 5:16 ; Matthew 6:25 ) seem to speak in 1Pe 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:13-16 ; 1 Peter 5:6 . The parable of the Sower may have supplied the figure of 1 Peter 1:23 ff.; the lesson of the tribute money may underlie 1 Peter 2:13-14 ; and Christ’s utterance of doom on apostate Israel, especially the parable of Mark 12:1-12 , probably suggested the thought of Mark 2:5-10 . That the Kingdom of God, so common in the teaching of Jesus, is not referred to, may be due to the fact that the term had no worthy association for the readers. They had learned to call God ‘Father,’ not ‘King.’
( d ) Acts . There are similarities with Peter’s speeches in Acts, e.g ., the witness of the prophets to the Messiah; Jesus Christ as the Suffering Servant whose death was foreknown to God, and was endured for our sins; His exaltation and near return to judge the living and the dead ( Acts 2:23 ; Acts 2:33 ; Acts 3:18 ; 1 Peter 4:14 ; 1618105171_93 ). Cf. also 1 Peter 3:20 with Acts 3:19-21 .
( e ) The Pauline Epistles . A comparison of Romans with this Epistle reveals striking resemblances between them ( 1 Peter 1:14 , Rom 12:2 ; 1 Peter 1:22 , Romans 12:9 ; 1 Peter 2:5 , Romans 12:1 ; 1 Peter 2:6-8 ; 1 Peter 2:10 , Romans 9:25 ; Romans 9:32-33 , 1 Peter 2:13-17 , Romans 13:1 ; Romans 13:8 ; Romans 13:4 ; Rom 13:7 ; 1 Peter 3:8-9 , Romans 12:16 ; 1 Peter 4:7-11 , Romans 12:3 ; Romans 12:6 ), so close, indeed, in 1 Peter 2:6 and Romans 9:32 , that it is all but certain that one Epistle was known to the writer of the other; and Romans must have been the earlier. The more or less obvious relations of Ephesians with 1Peter ( 1Pe 1:3-5 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ; 1 Peter 1:9 , Ephesians 1:3-14 ; 1 Peter 2:4-8 , Ephesians 3:5 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; 1 Peter 1:12 , 1 Peter 2:10 ; 1 Peter 2:18 , Ephesians 6:5 ; 1 Peter 3:1-7 , Ephesians 5:22-33 ; 1 Peter 3:22 , Ephesians 1:20-22 ) justify the opinion that ‘the authors of both letters breathed the same atmosphere’ (v. Soden).
( f ) Hebrews . Many close verbal parallels are found between these Epistles, and their leading religious conceptions are similar. Both have the same view of faith, of Jesus Christ as an example, and as the One who introduces the believer to God, of His death as the sacrifice ratifying the new covenant and taking away sin. Similar stress is laid on hope and obedience; the fortunes of old Israel are employed in both to illustrate the demand for faith on the part of new Israel, and a similar use is made of the sufferings of the readers. Cf. 1 Peter 1:8 , Hebrews 11:1 : 1 Peter 1:20 , Hebrews 9:26 ; 1 Peter 2:21-23 , Hebrews 12:1-3 ; 1Pe 4:13 ; 1 Peter 5:1 , Hebrews 11:26 ; Heb 13:13 ; 1 Peter 4:11 , Hebrews 13:21 ; 1 Peter 5:10 , Hebrews 13:21 . Though direct literary relationship between the two Epistles cannot be affirmed, the authors may have been close friends, and the readers were perhaps similarly situated.
( g ) James . A comparison of 1 Peter 1:1 , James 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:6 f., James 1:2 f.; 1 Peter 1:23 to 1 Peter 2:1 , Jam 1:11-22 ; 1 Peter 5:5 f., James 4:6 f., James 4:10 proves close relationship, but the priority can be determined only on the basis of the date of James.
6. Authorship . According to the present greeting, this Epistle was written by the Apostle Peter, and this is supported by very strong tradition. Polycarp is the earliest writer who indubitably quotes the Epistle, though it was probably familiar to Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Papias, and perhaps Ignatius. Basilides seems to have known it, and it was rejected by Marclon on doctrinal grounds. It is first quoted as Peter’s by Irenæus and Tertullian, and is frequently used by Clement of Alexandria. Its omission from the Muratorian Fragment is not significant; it is contained in the oldest versions, and Eusebius, in full agreement with what we know of early Christian literature, places it among the books which the Church accepted without hesitation. In the Apostolic Fathers, e.g ., it is as well attested as Galatians or Ephesians. Harnack suggests that the opening and closing verses were later additions, and that Polycarp did not regard the letter as Peter’s; but this hypothesis is utterly without textual support, and both paragraphs are fitted compactly into the Epistle. The chief objections to the Petrine authorship are (1) the Epistle is said to be so saturated with Pauline ideas that it could not have been written by the Apostle Peter; (2) the readers are Gentile Christians living within territory evangelized by Paul, in which Peter would have been trespassing on the Gentiles ( Galatians 2:9 ); (3) there is a lack of personal reminiscences of the life of Jesus that would be strange in Peter; (4) the use of good Greek and of the LXX [1] would be remarkable in a Galilæan fisherman; (5) the persecution referred to in ch. 4 is said to be historically impossible until after the death of Peter.
In answer to (3) reference may be made to 5 ( c ). (4) is too conjectural to be serious, for ‘there is not the slightest presumption against the use of Greek in writings purporting to emanate from the circle of the first believers. They would write as men who had used the language from boyhood’ (J. H. Moulton). Silvanus also may have had a large share in the composition of the Epistle. The difficulty of (5) is removed if, as we have seen to be probable, no official Imperial persecution is involved. Little is known of its beginnings in the provinces, though from Acts we learn that the Jews soon stirred up hostility against the Christians. Rome is called Babylon, the idolatrous oppressor of the true Israel. This might have happened whenever the Christians began to realize the awakening hatred of the wicked city, mistress of an empire ruled by a deified Nero, even before the persecution of 64 a.d. Undoubtedly there is a close relationship between this Epistle and Paul’s Epistles, closer in thought than in vocabulary. Probably the approximation is nearest in the treatment of morals, as, e.g ., marriage, slavery, obedience to civil rulers; and how much of this was common Christian belief and practice. It is, however, striking that in an Epistle so indebted to the Romans the legalistic controversy is passed by, while a different view of righteousness, a change of emphasis as to the Import of Christ’s death, and a dissimilar conception of the work of the Spirit are manifest. Nor does the Ephesian idea of the Church appeal to this author. He cannot be called a Paulinist. He has been nurtured on prophetic, rather than on Pharisaic, ideals. Doubtless St. Paul, a broadly educated Jew, a Roman citizen, and a man of massive intellect and penetrating insight, influenced St. Peter. This much may be inferred from Galatians 2:15-17 . On the other hand, St. Paul did not resent St. Peter’s visit to Antioch in Galatians 2:11 . Why should not St. Peter, many years later, have written to Churches some of which at least seem not to have been evangelized by St. Paul? But greatly as St. Peter may have been impressed by St. Paul’s masterful construction of Christian thought, his character must have been immeasurably more moulded by Jesus, while his own strong temperament, responsive to the prophetic side of his people’s religion, would change little with the years. It is precisely the ground-tone of the Epistle in harmony with the spirit of OT prophecy and of the Jesus of the Synoptic Gospels that makes its Petrine authorship so reasonable.
7. Date . The belief that St. Peter died in Rome is supported by a very strong chain of evidence, being deducible from Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Papias; and it is held by Dionysius of Corinth, Irenæus, Tertullian, and Clement of Alexandria. Unless St. Peter had been definitely associated with Rome, it is difficult to understand how he supplanted St. Paul so soon in the capital as the chief Apostle. Evidently the tradition of a 25 years’ episcopate has no historical basis, but St. Peter probably came to Rome after St. Paul, and died perhaps in the Neronian persecution of 64, or possibly later. It is in the highest degree probable that St. Peter wrote this Epistle from Rome before a.d. 64.
R. A. Falconer.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Peter, Second Epistle of
PETER, SECOND EPISTLE OF. This Epistle cannot rank with 1Peter as a Christian classic; indeed, very many would agree with Jülicher that ‘2Peter is not only the latest document of the NT, but also the least deserving of a place in the canon.’ Nevertheless, it strikes a pure Christian note in its passion for righteousness.
1. Contents.
(i.) Greeting and exhortation , 2 Peter 1:1-11 . The Epistle opens with a salutation from Simon Peter to readers who, through the righteousness of God, have been admitted to the full privileges of the Apostolic faith. His prayer for increased blessing upon them, through the knowledge of God and Jesus our Lord, is based on the fact that by the revelation of His glorious excellence His Divine power has made a godly life possible for us and has given rich promises of our ultimately sharing His nature, when we have escaped from this present world perishing in its lust ( 2 Peter 1:1-4 ). They are therefore urged to enrich their character with virtues, because only from such a soil will a full knowledge of Jesus Christ grow; and entrance into His eternal Kingdom depends upon forgiveness of sins, and the zealous effort of the believer to make the gospel call effective by a life of virtue ( 2 Peter 1:6-11 ).
(ii.) The sure witness to the gospel , 2 Peter 1:12-21 . The Apostle will hold himself in readiness to remind his readers of the truth; and since; his death may be sudden, he will endeavour to leave them a trustworthy memorial of his teaching; for, unlike the false teachers, Peter was an eye-witness competent to set forth the power and the return of the Lord, having seen the Transfiguration on the Holy Mount. Hs also heard the Divine voice that confirmed prophecy, to which they must pay heed, since it was given by the Spirit; but prophecy having such an origin can be interpreted only by the voice of God, not by private opinion.
(iii.) The false teachers , ch. 2. An invasion of false teachers is foretold. These men will subvert the gospel of redemption from sin, and cause apostasy in the Church. But their doom at the hand of a righteous God, is no less certain than that of the angels who sinned, or the antediluvian world, or Sodom and Gomorrah; though now also, as theo, the few righteous will escape ( 2 Peter 1:1-9 ). Sensual, irreverent, brutish, and ignorant of spiritual things, they destroy even the sacred Christian feasts by their revelry, and, like Balaam, seek, for their selfish purposes, to lead their victims into fornication, deluding recently converted believers with a false doctrine of freedom. Had these apostates never known the truth, it would have been better for them ( 2 Peter 1:10-21 ).
(iv.) Warning against scepticism as to the return of the Lord , ch. 3. He reminds his readers that it was foretold as a sign of the end that mockers would deny that the Lord will return, but that both the prophets and the Lord proclaimed a day of Final Judgment. The memory of the Flood should be a warning to the scoffers ( 2 Peter 1:1-7 ). God’s delay is intended to give opportunity for repentance, and His purposes, though slowly maturing, will be brought to pass without warning; but the Day may be hastened by holy living and godliness. This is the teaching also of Paul, whose gospel of grace some are seeking to distort into licence. Safety lies in watchfulness and in growth in the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ ( 2 Peter 1:8-18 ).
2. Situation of the readers. Were it not that 2 Peter 3:1 seems to refer to 1Peter , no definite information would be found in this letter as to the locality of the readers. It appears to be an Epistle designed to counteract a particular error affecting a district rather than one Church. It may be inferred that the readers were Gentiles ( 2 Peter 1:1 ), and were being misled by distortions of the Pauline doctrine of grace ( 2 Peter 3:16 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ), though the Churches were undisturbed by any echoes of the Jewish-Christian controversy. Indifference to Christian morality, inducing a dulled spiritual sense, has made them liable to apostasy under the influence of false teachers who are about to invade the Churches. Some are already at work among them ( 2 Peter 2:13-18 ). They seem to have taken advantage of the privilege of porphecy to spread their libertinism, and to have turned the sacred love-feasts into bestial carousals, holding out, especially to recent converts, the distorted promise of Christain freedom. They satisfied their own avarice and lust, and scoffed at moral responsibility, teaching, it would appear, that there is no resurrection of the body or judgment to come, by playing upon the deferred Christian hope of the Return of the Lord. Apparently they were all of one type, and so wicked as to he compared with the worst sinners of the OT ( 2Pe 2:4 ; 2 Peter 2:8 ; 2 Peter 2:8 ; 2 Peter 2:18 ). There is no evidence of any speculative system like those of the 2nd cent. Gnosticism, but there are features in common with the practices of the Nicolaitans of the Churches of Pergamum and Thyatira ( Revelation 2:13-24 ), though no mention is made of idolatry. A greater affinity may be traced with the Sadducaic spirit of portions of the Jewish and semi-pagan world, where scepticism as to spiritual realities went hand in hand with practical immorality. The cities of Syria or Samaria would be a not improbable situation for the readers of 2Peter.
3. Purpose of the Epistle. It is a mistake to confine the purpose of 2Peter to the refutation of one error, as, e.g ., the denial of the Parousia. It is a loud appeal for godly living and faith in the affirmations of the gospel. Scripture, and the Christian conscience. God’s promises of mercy and threatenings of judgment are Yea and Amen. The writer aims to impress on his readers: (1) that saving knowledge of Jesus Christ is granted only to the virtuous heart; (2) that Jesus Christ is a present power for a godly life, and is certain to return for judgment; (3) the hideous character of the false teachers and the self-evident doom of themselves and their victims; (4) that delay in the Return of the Lord must be used for repentance, for that Day will surely come.
4. Literary affinities
( a ) The OT . Though the direct quotations are few ( Psalms 90:4 in 2 Peter 3:8 and probably Proverbs 26:11 in 2 Peter 2:22 , with reminiscences of Isaiah 34:4 in 2 Peter 3:12 , and Isaiah 65:17 ; Isaiah 66:22 in 2 Peter 3:13 ), the real indebtedness of 2Peter to the OT is very great in the historical examples of ch. 2, and in the view of Creation, the Flood, and the Day of the Lord ( 2 Peter 3:5-7 ). The influence of Isaiah is manifest (cf. Isaiah 13:9-13 ; Isaiah 34:4 ; Isaiah 51:6 ; Isaiah 66:15 f. with 2 Peter 3:7 ; 2 Peter 3:10 ); and the use of Proverbs may perhaps he seen in 2 Peter 2:17 ( Proverbs 10:11 ; Proverbs 21:6 ; Proverbs 25:14 ) and in 2 Peter 2:21 ( Proverbs 12:28 ; Proverbs 16:17 ; Proverbs 16:31 )
( b ) Book of Enoch . It cannot be doubted that Enoch 9.1, 10.4 6, 18.11 21 has influenced 2 Peter 2:4 ; 2 Peter 2:11 .
( c ) The Gospels . The most obvious references are in 2 Peter 1:16-18 , which agrees fundamentally, though not precisely, with the Synoptic narratives of the Transfiguration, and in 1:14, which seems to point to the incident in John 21:18-19 . The Synoptic eschatology also, along with OT prophecy, has influenced 2Peter (cf. Mark 13:24-26 ; Mark 13:31 || and 2 Peter 3:10-12 ; Matthew 19:28 ; Matthew 25:31 , Luke 21:26-28 and 2 Peter 3:12 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ). Matthew 11:27 ; Matthew 11:29 || and the parable of the Sower ( Luke 8:10 ; Luke 8:16 ) throw much light on 2 Peter 1:2-8 ; and Matthew 12:28-29 ; Matthew 12:43-45 on 2 Peter 2:19-21 .
( d ) The Pauline Epistles . Of these there are very few traces, though 2 Peter 1:13 may be compared with 2 Corinthians 5:1 ; 2 Peter 2:19 with Romans 6:13 ; 2 Peter 3:14 with 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , and 2 Peter 3:16 with Romans 2:4 ; Romans 9:22 . There are verbal similarities with the Pastoral Epistles, but probably they do not involve anything more than a wide-spread similar atmosphere. According to Romans 3:16 ; Romans 3:18 , the author seems to know all St. Paul’s correspondence, but he shows astonishingly little evidence of its influence.
( e ) Jude . One of these Epistles must have been used by the author of the other, but there is great diversity of opinion as to the priority, the prevailing view at present being apparently in favour of the priority of Jude, though Zahn and Bigg are strong advocates of 2Peter. The question is really indeterminable, and, apart from the external testimony of the one to the other, has little bearing on the authorship.
( f ) 1Peter
(i.) Differences . These are many and serious. 1Peter is written in fluent Hellenistic Greek while the style of 2Peter is almost pseudo-literary, and its words are often quite uncommon. 1Peter quotes largely from the LXX [1] , the use of which can hardly be detected in 2Peter. The Divine names are different, and different conceptions of Christ’s work and of the Christian life are emphasized in 1Peter Jesus is the Messiah whose sufferings, death, and resurrection are the leading motives for the Christian life; in 2Peter Christ is ‘Saviour,’ who brings power for a godly life to all who have knowledge of Him. Hope and joy are the notes of 1Peter , which was written to readers who are buoyed up in suffering by faith in and love to their risen Lord. In 2Peter false teaching instead of persecution is a source of danger; knowledge takes the place of hope, and piety that of holiness.
(ii.) Resemblances [2]. These are manifold and striking. Both Epistles are influenced greatly by Isaiah and in some measure by Proverbs and Enoch. Both teach that Jesus Christ is progressively revealed to the believer, the Parousia being the fulfilment of the Transfiguration or the Resurrection ( 1 Peter 1:13 ; 1 Peter 4:13 ; 1Pe 5:1 , 2 Peter 1:3-4 ; 2 Peter 1:16 ). Both emphasize the fact of the Parousia and of Divine judgment; Noah and the Flood are used as examples in both. A similar conception of the Holy Spirit, unique in the NT, is found in 1 Peter 1:10-12 and 2 Peter 1:19-21 . In both the Christian life is regarded as a growth from seed ( 1 Peter 1:23 , 2 Peter 1:8 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ); obedience to the truth, emphasized in 1 Peter 1:22 and 2 Peter 2:2 ; 2 Peter 2:21 , brings the favourite virtue of steadfastness ( 1 Peter 2:8 ; 1Pe 5:10 , 2 Peter 1:10 ; 2 Peter 3:17 ). The law of holy living confers true freedom ( 1 Peter 1:15-16 ; 1 Peter 2:15 ff., 2 Peter 2:19 ; 2 Peter 3:11 ; 2 Peter 3:14 ). The virtues of 2 Peter 1:5-7 are paralleled in 1Peter , being those of a gentle, orderly, patient, kindly life of goodness; and in both the Christian life is regarded as a pilgrimage to an eternal inheritance] ( 1 Peter 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:4 , 2 Peter 1:11 ; 2 Peter 1:13-14 ).
5. Testimony of later Christian Literature. Until the 3rd cent. the traces of 2Peter are very few. It was evidently known to the author of the Apocalypse of Peter ( c . 150 a.d.), though this is questioned without sufficient reason by some scholars. The first certain quotation is found in Firmilian of Cæsarea in Cappadocia ( c [3] . 250); probably it was used by Clement of Alexandria; and Origen knew it, but doubted its genuineness. While Eusebius himself did not accept the Epistle, be placed it, in deference to general opinion, among the ‘disputed’ books. It is not referred to by the scholars of Antioch, nor is it in the Peshitta, the common version of the Syrian Church. The oldest Latin versions also seem not to have contained it; possibly it was absent from the original of Codex B, but it is found in the Egyptian versions. Jerome, and afterwards Erasmus and Calvin, harboured doubts about its genuineness.
6. Authorship. It will have been evident that there is much in this Epistle to justify the doubt as to its genuineness which has been entertained by many of the greatest Christian teachers from the early centuries; and recent scholarship has not yet relieved the difficulties in the way of accepting the Petrine authorship. They are (1) the remarkable divergence from the First Epistle, which seems to be too radical to be explained by the employment of different amanuenses; (2) the inferior style of the Epistle, its lack of restraint and its discontinuity, notably in 2 Peter 1:12-21 and ch. 2; (3) the absence of an early Christian atmosphere, together with a tone of disappointment because the promise of Christ to return has been long deferred ( 2 Peter 3:3 f.); (4) the appeal to the three authorities of the primitive Catholic Church the Prophets, the Lord, and the Apostles ( 2 Peter 1:19-21 , 2 Peter 3:2 ); (5) the reference to St. Paul’s letters as ‘Scripture’; (6) the extremely meagre external evidence.
Of these difficulties the gravest are (1) and (6). It is almost impossible to hold that the author of 1Peter could have described his letter in the words of 2 Peter 3:1 , and have regarded 2Peter as a sequel to the same readers. It has, however, been suggested that 2Peter was written earlier than 1Peter , and that the Epistles were composed by different amanuenses for different readers. But this hypothesis has not met with much favour. The insufficient witness is also serious, and though singly the other difficulties may be removed, their cumulative effect is too much for a letter already heavily burdened. But if the evidence is against direct Petrine authorship, is the book to be summarily banished into the middle of the 2nd cent. as entirely pseudonymous? Probably not. (1) There are no features of the Epistle which necessarily extrude it from the 1st century. Doubts as to the Parousia and similar false teaching were not unknown in the Apostolic age, and some of the most distinctive features of the 2nd cent., such as developed Gnosticism and Chiliasm, are conspicuous by their absence. Also the reference to St. Paul’s letters as ‘Scripture’ is not decisive, for in view of the insistence upon ‘written prophecy’ and its origin ( 2 Peter 1:19-21 ) it is doubtful whether St. Paul is ranked with the OT prophets.’ But in any case, by the time of 1 Clement there was a collection of St. Paul’s letters which would be read in churches with some Scriptural authority. Finally, there is much to be said for the view that not the OT Scriptures, but other Christian writings, are referred to in 2 Peter 3:16 . (2) 2Peter contains a large distinctively Petrine element. It has already been shown that 1 and 2Peter have much in common. They present a non-Pauline conception of Christianity, shared by them in common with the Gospel of Mark and the speeches of Peter in Acts. In Mk. and in 2Peter Jesus Christ is the strong Son of God, whose death ransomed sinners, and whose return to judgment is described in generally similar outlines. In the Epistle stress is laid on repentance, as in the opening of Mk. and in Acts ( 2 Peter 3:9-15 ), and there is a striking similarity between Acts 3:19-21 and 2 Peter 3:11-12 . Likewise the Christian life is regarded as the fulfilment of the new law, and the parables in Mk. of the planting and growth of the seed, supply suggestive parallels for both 1 and 2Peter. Both Epistles, like the speeches in Acts, are Hebrew in spirit, and are influenced by prophetic motives.
Perhaps the solution that will best suit the facts is to assume that a disciple of Peter, who remembered how his master had dealt with an attack of Sadducaic sensuality in some of the Palestinian Churches, being confronted with a recrudescence of similar evil, re-edited his teaching. This will do justice to the moral earnestness and the true Christian note of the Epistle.
R. A. Falconer.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Peter
PETER. SIMON , surnamed Peter, was ‘the coryphœus of the Apostle choir’ (Chrysostom). His father was named Jonah or John ( Matthew 16:17 , John 1:42 ; John 21:15-17 RV [1] ). He belonged to Bethsaida ( John 1:44 ), probably the fisher-quarter of Capernaum (Bethsaida = ‘Fisher-home’). There he dwelt with his wife, his mother-in-law, and his brother Andrew ( Mark 1:28-31 = Matthew 8:14-15 = Luke 4:38-39 ). He and Andrew were fishermen on the Lake of Galilee ( Matthew 4:18 = Mark 1:18 ) in partnership with Zebedee and his sons ( Luke 5:7 ; Luke 5:11 , Matthew 4:21 ).
Simon first met with Jesus at Bethany beyond Jordan (John 1:28 RV [1] ), the scene of the Baptist’s ministry ( John 1:35-42 ). He had repaired thither with other Galilæns to participate in the mighty revival which was in progress. Jesus was there; and Andrew, who was one of the Baptist’s disciples, having been directed by his master to Him as the Messiah, told Simon of his glad discovery, and brought him to Jesus. Jesus ‘looked upon him’ (RV [1] ) with ‘those eyes of far perception’; and the look mastered him and won his heart. He was a disciple from that hour. Jesus read his character, seeing what he was and foreseeing what the discipline of grace would make him; and He gave him a surname prophetic of the moral and spiritual strength which would one day be his. ‘Thou art Simon the son of John: thou shalt be called Cephas.’ Cephas is the Aram. [4] = Gr. Petros , and means ‘rock.’ He was not yet Peter, but only Simon, impulsive and vacillating; and Jesus gave him the new name ere he had earned it, that it might be an incentive to him, reminding him of his destiny and inciting him to achieve it. In after days, whenever he displayed any weakness, Jesus would pointedly address him by the old name, thus gently warning him that he should not fall from grace (cf. Luke 22:31 , Mark 14:37 , John 21:15-17 ).
Presently the Lord began His ministry at Capernaum, and among His first acts was the calling of four of the men who had believed in Him to abandon their worldly employments and attach themselves to Him, following Him whithersoever He went (Matthew 4:18-22 = Mark 1:16-20 , Luke 5:1-11 ). Thus he began the formation of the Apostle-band. The four were James and John, Simon and Andrew. They were busy with their boats and nets, and He called them to become ‘fishers of men.’ It was the beginning of the second year of Jesus’ ministry ere He had chosen all the Twelve; and then He ordained them to their mission, arranging them in pairs for mutual assistance ( Mark 6:7 ), and coupling Simon Peter and Andrew ( Matthew 10:2 ).
The distinction of Peter lies less in the qualities of his mind than in those of his heart. He was impulsive, ‘ever ardent, ever leaping before his fellows’ (Chrysostom), and often speaking unadvisedly and incurring rebuke. This, however, was only the weakness of his strength, and it was the concomitant of a warm and generous affection. If John, says St. Augustine, was the disciple whom Jesus loved, Peter was the disciple who loved Jesus. This quality appeared on several remarkable occasions. (1) In the synagogue of Capernaum, after the feeding of the five thousand at Bethsaida, Jesus delivered His discourse on the Bread of Life, full of hard sayings designed to test the faith of His disciples by shattering their Jewish dream of a worldly Messiah, a temporal King of Israel, a restorer of the ancient monarchy (John 6:22-65 ). Many were offended, and ‘went back and walked no more with him.’ Even the Twelve were discomfited. ‘Would ye also go away?’ He asked; and it was Simon Peter, ‘the mouth of the Apostles’ (Chrysostom), who answered, assuring Him of their loyalty ( John 6:66-69 ). (2) During the season of retirement at Cæsarea Philippi in the last year of His ministry, Jesus, anxious to ascertain whether their faith in His Messiahship had stood the strain of disillusionment, whether they still regarded Him as the Messiah, though He was not the sort of Messiah they had expected, put to the Twelve the question: ‘Who do ye say that I am?’ Again it was Peter who answered promptly and firmly:’ Thou art the Christ,’ filling the Lord’s heart with exultant rapture, and proving that he had indeed earned his new name Peter, the rock on which Jesus would build His Church, the first stone of that living temple. Presently Jesus told them of His approaching Passion, and again it was Peter who gave expression to the horror of the Twelve: ‘Be it far from thee, Lord; this shall never be unto thee.’ Even here it was love that spoke. The Sinaitic Palimpsest reads: ‘Then Simon Cephas, as though he pitied Him , said to Him, “Be it far from Thee” ’ ( Matthew 16:18-23 = Mark 8:27-33 = Luke 9:18-22 ). (3) A week later Jesus went up to the Mount with Peter, James, and John, and ‘was transfigured before them,’ communing with Moses and Elijah, who ‘appeared in glory’ ( Matthew 17:1-8 = Mark 9:2-8 = Luke 9:28-36 ). Though awe-stricken, Peter spoke; ‘Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, I will make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah’ ( Matthew 17:4 RV [1] ). It was a foolish and inconsiderate speech ( Mark 9:6 , Luke 9:33 ), yet it breathed a spirit of tender affection. His idea was: ‘Why return to the ungrateful multitude and the malignant rulers? Why go to Jerusalem and die? Stay here always in this holy fellowship.’ (4) When Jesus washed the disciples’ feet in the Upper Room, it was Peter who protested ( John 13:6-9 ). He could not bear that the blessed Lord should perform that menial office on him. (5) At the arrest in Gethsemane, it was Peter who, seeing Jesus in the grasp of the soldiers, drew his sword and cut off the ear of Malchus ( John 18:10-11 ).
The blot on Peter’s life-story is his repeated denial of Jesus in the courtyard of the high priest’s palace (John 18:12-17 ; cf. Matthew 26:69-75 = Mark 14:66-72 = Luke 22:54-62 ). It was a terrible disloyalty, yet not without extenuations. (1) The situation was a trying one. It was dangerous just then to be associated with Jesus, and Peter’s excitable and impetuous nature was prone to panic. (2) It was his devotion to Jesus that exposed him to the temptation. He and John were the only two who rallied from the panic in Gethsemane ( Matthew 26:56 b) and followed their captive Lord ( John 18:15 ; cf. Matthew 26:58 = Mark 14:54 = Luke 22:54 ). (3) If he sinned greatly, he sincerely repented ( Matthew 26:75 = Mark 14:72 = Luke 22:62 ). A look of that dear face sufficed to break his heart ( Luke 22:51 ). (4) He was completely forgiven. On the day of the Resurrection Jesus appeared to him ( Luke 24:34 , 1 Corinthians 15:5 ). What happened during this interview is unrecorded, doubtless because it was too sacred to be divulged; but it would certainly be a scene of confession and forgiveness. The Lord had all the while had His faithless disciple in His thoughts, knowing his distress of mind (cf. Mark 16:7 ); and He had that solitary interview with him on purpose to reassure him.
At the subsequent appearance by the Lake of Galilee (John 21:1-25 ) Peter played a prominent part. On discovering that the stranger on the beach was Jesus, impatient to reach his Master, he sprang overboard and swam ashore (cf. his action in Matthew 14:28-31 ). And presently Jesus charged him to make good his protestation of love by diligent care of the flock for which He, the Good Shepherd, had died. ‘Be it the office of love to feed the Lord’s flock, if it was an evidence of fear to deny the Shepherd’ (Augustine). Jesus was not upbraiding Peter. On the contrary, He was publishing to the company His forgiveness of the erring Apostle and His confidence in him for the future.
Peter figures conspicuously in the history of the Apostolic Church. He was recognized as the leader. It was on his motion that a successor was appointed to Judas between the Ascension and Pentecost (Acts 1:15-26 ), his impetuosity appearing in this precipitate action (see Matthias); and it was he who acted as spokesman on the day of Pentecost ( Acts 2:14 ff.). He wrought miracles in the name of Jesus ( Acts 5:15 , Acts 9:32-42 ); he fearlessly confessed Jesus, setting the rulers at naught ( Acts 4:1-18 ); as head of the Church, he exposed and punished sin ( Acts 5:1-11 , Acts 8:14-24 ); he suffered imprisonment and scourging ( Acts 5:17-42 , Acts 12:1-19 ).
The persecution consequent on the martyrdom of Stephen, by scattering the believers, inaugurated a fresh development of Christianity, involving a bitter controversy. The refugees preached wherever they went, and thus arose the question, on what terms the Gentiles should be received into the Church. Must they become Jews and observe the rites of the Mosaic Law? In this controversy Peter acted wisely and generously. Being deputed with John to examine into it, he approved Philip’s work among the hated Samaritans, and invoked the Holy Spirit upon his converts, and before returning to Jerusalem made a missionary tour among the villages of Samaria (Acts 8:1-25 ). His Jewish prejudice was thoroughly conquered by his vision at Joppa and the conversion of Cornelius and his company at Cæsarea; and, when taken to task by the Judaistic party at Jerusalem for associating with uncircumcised Gentiles, he vindicated his action and gained the approval of the Church ( Acts 10:1 to Acts 11:19 ).
The controversy became acute when the Judaizers, taking alarm at the missionary activity of Paul and Barnabas, went to Antioch and insisted on the converts there being circumcised. The question was referred to a council of the Church at Jerusalem; and Peter spoke so well on behalf of Christian liberty that it was resolved, on the motion of James, the Lord’s brother, that the work of Paul and Barnabas should be approved, and that nothing should be required of the Gentiles beyond abstinence from things sacrificed to idols, blood, things strangled, and fornication (Acts 15:1-29 ; cf. Galatians 2:1-10 ). By and by Peter visited Antioch, and, though adhering to the decision at the outset, he was presently intimidated by certain Judaizers, and, together with Barnabas, separated himself from the Gentiles as unclean, and would not eat with them, incurring an indignant and apparently effective rebuke from Paul ( Galatians 2:11-21 ).
There are copious traditions about Peter. Suffice it to mention that he is said to have gone to Rome [6] and laboured there for 25 years [7], and to have been crucified (cf. John 21:18-19 ) in the last year of Nero’s reign (a.d. 68); being at his own request nailed to the cross head downwards, since he deemed himself unworthy to be crucified in the same manner as his Lord. According to the ancient and credible testimony of Papias of Hierapolis, a hearer of St. John at Ephesus, our Second Gospel is based upon information derived from Peter. Mark had been Peter’s companion, and heard his teaching and took notes of it. From these he composed his Gospel. He wrote it, Jerome says, at the request of the brethren at Rome when he was there with Peter; and on hearing it Peter approved it and authorized its use by the Church.
David Smith.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sarah Peter
Philanthropist; born Chillicothe, Ohio, 1800; died Cincinnati, Ohio, 1877. A Catholic convert in Rome (1855) and founder of the School of Design for Women in Philadelphia. She was a patron of art, and active in charitable and philanthropic works in Cincinnati. In 1862 she volunteered as a nurse in the Civil War.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Saint Peter Canisius, Catechism of
Published in three forms: major (1555), minor (1558), and minimus (1556). The division of the subject-matter is as follows: Faith (Apostles' Creed); Hope and Prayer (Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary); Charity and the Commandments of God and the Church; the Sacraments; Christian Justice, i.e.,the shunning of evil and the doing of good. Through his catechisms Saint Canisius became the "mallet of heretics"; they were translated into every language in Europe and reprinted in countless editions, so that the name Canisius became synonymous with catechism.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Peter
This name in Greek signifies a rock, as does also the name Cephas in Syriac. Peter was one of the twelve apostles, and was also called Simon, Matthew 16:17 , and Simeon, Acts 15:14 . He was of Bethsaida, and was the son of Jonas, a fisherman, which occupation he also followed. After his marriage he resided at Capernaum, Matthew 8:14 Luke 4:38 , though called at a later period to labor else where as an apostle, and it would seem often accompanied in his journeys by his wife, 1 Corinthians 9:5 . When first introduced to Jesus by his brother Andrew, he received from Him the name of Peter, John 1:42 , probably in reference to the boldness and firmness of his character, and his activity in promoting his Master's cause. He received his second call, and began to accompany Christ, at the Sea of Galilee near his residence, and thenceforth learned to be a "fisher of men," Matthew 4:18-20 Luke 5:1-11 . Many remarkable incidents are recorded in the gospels, which illustrate his character. Among these are, his attempt to walk on the water to meet Christ, Matthew 14:29 ; his avowal of the Messiahship and divinity of the Savior, Matthew 16:16 ; his errors as to the design of Christ's incarnation, Matthew 16:22-23 ; his warm attachment to the divine Teacher, John 6:67-69 ; his cutting off the ear of Malchus, John 18:10 ; his boastful determination to adhere to his Master under all circumstances, and his subsequent denial of Him with oaths, Matthew 26:74 Mark 14:29 John 13:37-38 ; his poignant repentance, Matthew 26:75 , and our Lord's forgiveness, after receiving an assurance of his love, which was thrice uttered as his denial of Christ had been, John 21:15-18 .
The death and resurrection of Christ, and the circumstances, which accompanied them, led to a wonderful change in the apostle's mind, and thenceforward his bold and steadfast course is worthy of his name. On the day of Pentecost, he was one of the principal witnesses for the Savior; in company with John he soon after healed a lame man at the temple gate, addressed the assembled crowd, was imprisoned, and fearlessly vindicated himself before the Sanhedrin, Acts 4:8-21 . We find him afterwards denouncing the judgment of God on a guilty couple who had dared to lie to the Holy Ghost, Acts 5:1-11 ; visiting Samaria, and rebuking Simon the magician, Acts 8:5-24 ; healing Eneas and raising Dorcas to life at Lydda, Acts 9:32-43 ; seeing at Joppa a vision which prepared him to preach the gospel to the gentile Cornelius, Acts 10:1-48 ; imprisoned by Herod Agrippa, and delivered by an angel, Acts 12:3-19 ; and taking a part in the council at Jerusalem, Acts 15:7-11 .
The Bible gives us little information as to his subsequent labors; but it is probable that the three apostles who were most distinguished by the Savior while upon earth continues to be favored as chief instruments in advancing his cause. Paul speaks of "James, Cephas, and John, who seemed to be pillars," Galatians 2:9 . Yet in the same chapter we find him publicly reproving Peter for his wavering course in respect to the demands of Judaizing Christians, which he had been one of the first to repel at Jerusalem, Acts 15:9 . He seems to have labored at Corinth, 1 Corinthians 1:12 3:22 , and at Babylon, 1 Peter 5:13 . Papal writers affirm that he was the bishop of Rome. But the evidence is strongly against this assertion. Paul wrote to the Roman Christians, giving them directions and saluting the principal persons by name; he also wrote six letters from Rome; but in none of these letters, nor in the narrative in Acts, is there the slightest intimation that Peter was or had been at Rome. And as Peter never resided at Rome, he was never made the head of the church universal. Whatever honor and authority he received from Christ, in establishing the first institutions of Christianity and declaring what it enjoined and from what it released, Matthew 16:18-19 , the other apostles also received, Matthew 18:18 John 20:23 1 Corinthians 5:3,5 Ephesians 2:20 Revelation 21:14 . There is no evidence that he had any supremacy over them, nor that he had any successor in that influence which was naturally accorded to him as one of the oldest, most active, and most faithful of those who had "seen the Lord".
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Peter, Epistles of
We have two epistles attributed to Peter by the common consent to the Christian church. The genuineness of the first has never been disputed; it is referred to as his accredited work by several of the apostolical fathers. It appears to have been addressed to Christian churches in Asia Minor, composed primarily of converted Jews and proselytes, but including many converts from paganism, 1 Peter 4.3 . It was written probably at Babylon on the Euphrates, 1 Peter 5:13 . See BABYLON. Some, however, interpret this of Rome, and others of a petty town in Egypt called Babylon. The "fiery trials" through which the church was then passing are supposed to have been the persecutions in the latter years of Nero's reign, which terminated A. D. 68. Peter exhorts them to faith, obedience, and patience, in view of the truth of the gospel and the certainty of salvation in Christ.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Peter, First Epistle of,
The external evidence of authenticity of this epistle is of the strongest kind and the internal is equally strong. It was addressed to the churches of Asia Minor which had for the most part been founded by Paul and his companions, Supposing it to have been written at Babylon, (1 Peter 5:13 ) it ia a probable conjecture that Silvanus, By whom it was transmitted to those churches, had joined Peter after a tour of visitation, and that his account of the condition of the Christians in those districts determined the apostle to write the epistle. (On the question of this epistle having been written at Babylon commentators differ. "Some refer it to the famous Babylon in Asia, which after its destruction was still inhabited by a Jewish colony; others refer it to Babylon in Egypt, now called Old Cairo; still others understand it mystically of heathen Rome, in which sense 'Babylon' is certainly used in the Apocalypse of John." --Schaff.) The objects of the epistle were --
To comfort and strengthen the Christians in a season of severe trial.
To enforce the practical and spiritual duties involved in their calling
To warn them against special temptations attached to their position.
To remove all doubt as to the soundness and completeness of the religious system which they had already received. Such an attestation was especially needed by the Hebrew Christians, who were to appeal from Paul's authority to that of the elder apostles, and above all to that of Peter. The last, which is perhaps the very principal object, is kept in view throughout the epistle, and is distinctly stated (1 Peter 5:12 ) The harmony of such teaching with that of Paul is sufficiently obvious. Peter belongs to the school, or to speak more correctly, is the leader of the school, which at once vindicates the unity of the law and the gospel, and puts the superiority of the latter on its true basis-that of spiritual development. The date of this epistle is uncertain, but Alford believes it to have been written between A.D. 63,67.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Peter, Second Epistle of
The following is a brief outline of the contents of this epistle: The customary opening salutation is followed by an enumeration of Christian blessings and exhortation to Christian duties. (2 Peter 1:1-13 ) Referring then to his approaching death, the apostle assigns as grounds of assurance for believers his own personal testimony as eye-witness of the transfiguration and the sure word of prophecy--that is the testimony of the Holy Ghost. vs. (2 Peter 1:14-21 ) The danger of being misled by false prophets is dwelt upon with great earnestness throughout the second chapter, which is almost identical in language and subject with the Epistle of Jude. The overthrow of all opponents of Christian truth is predicted in connection with prophecies touching the second advent of Christ, the destruction of the world by fire, and the promise of new heavens and a new earth wherein dwelleth righteousness. ch. 3. This epistle of Peter presents questions of difficulty. Doubts as to its genuineness were entertained by the early Church; in the time of Eusebius it was reckoned among the disputed books, and was not formally admitted into the canon until the year 393, at the Council of Hippo. These difficulties, however, are insufficient to justify more than hesitation in admitting its ,genuineness. A majority of names may be quoted in support of the genuineness and authenticity of this epistle. (It is very uncertain as to the time when it was written. It was written near the close of Peter's life--perhaps about A.D. 68--from Rome or somewhere on the journey thither from the East --Alford .)
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Peter
1. Names.-Peter is known by four different names in the NT. By far the most common designation is simply ‘Peter’ (20 times in Matthew , 18 times in Mark , 15 times in Luke , 16 times in Jn., 52 times in Ac., twice in Gal. [1], and once in 1 Peter [2]). ‘Simon,’ standing alone, occurs less frequently (twice in Matthew , 5 times in Mark , 10 times in Lk., once in Jn.), and ‘Symeon’ but once (Acts 15:14)._ With two exceptions (Galatians 2:7 f.), ‘Cephas’ is the term uniformly employed by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Corinthians 15:5, Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:9; Galatians 2:11; Galatians 2:14); and John once speaks of ‘Cephas (which is by interpretation, Peter)’ (John 1:42). ‘Simon’ and ‘Peter’ sometimes stand in conjunction with one another (3 times in Mt., once in Mk., twice in Luke , 18 times in John , 4 times in Acts, and once in 2 Pet. (2 Peter 1:1), where ‘Symeon’ rather than ‘Simon’ is, however, the better attested reading). Of the various names, ‘Symeon’ (‘Simeon’) and ‘Cephas’ are Semitic in origin, while ‘Simon’ and ‘Peter’ are Greek. ‘Symeon’ (Συμεών) appears frequently in the LXX_ as the rendering of the Heb. (Shimeôn = Simeon); but, since it is applied to Peter at most only twice in the NT (Acts 15:14; 2 Peter 1:1), it can hardly have been his real name. In these two instances the usage, if not accidental, may have been designed to add solemnity and force to the narrative, and was made all the easier because the Greek ‘Simon’ (Σίμων), the name by which Peter probably had been known from childhood, was so like the Hebrew in sound. But among the Jews in Hellenistic times the Hebrew name had been largely supplanted by the Greek, and the latter was even written in Semitic characters (îÄéîæÉï). Some examples of Jews with the Greek name are Simon the Maccabaean, although his great-grandfather was called ‘Symeon’ (1 Maccabees 2:3); Simon the son of Onias (Sirach 50:1); a certain Benjamite (2 Maccabees 3:4); and Simon Chosameus (1 Esdras 9:32). In Josephus’ writings Jewish persons are very frequently called ‘Simon,’ less often ‘Symeon.’ Both names seem to have been employed, and usually with discrimination, by Jews in the Hellenistic period; but ‘Simon’ was the more common, and this in all probability was the Apostle’s original name. In the Apostolic Age, however, he was known chiefly by his surname, ‘Peter.’ That this usage had been established already within the primitive Aramaic-speaking community is amply attested by St. Paul’s frequent ‘Cephas’ (Κηφᾶς), a Graecized transliteration of the Aramaic ëÌÅéôÈà (Kepha’), which when translated into Greek becomes ‘Peter’ (Πέτρος, ‘stone’).
There is some uncertainty as to the exact circumstances under which the Apostle first received this appellation. According to Mark 3:16, John 1:40-44 early in his Galilaean ministry Jesus set apart the Twelve to be His helpers and gave Simon the surname Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πἐτρον) In referring to the same incident, Matthew (Acts 11:1-189) speaks of ‘the so-called Peter’ (ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος), but seemingly intends to make the Apostle’s famous confession at Caesarea Philippi the occasion for the Messiah to bestow upon him the name ‘Peter’ and to designate him formal head of the Church (Matthew 16:17-19). In the Gospel of John, when Simon was first brought to Jesus, the latter exclaimed, ‘Thou art to be called Cephas’ (σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς [3]), probably meaning from this time forth, since John does not recur to this subject and henceforth always (except in 21) uses ‘Peter’ either alone (16 times) or in conjunction with ‘Simon’ (18 times). Finally, there are intimations, though these are very vague, that the special recognition of Simon’s supremacy may at one time have rested upon his early belief in Jesus’ resurrection. He was generally thought to have been the first disciple to see-if not to believe in (John 20:8)-the Risen Lord (1 Corinthians 15:5, Mark 16:7, Luke 24:34), and, as St. Paul had attained apostleship through a similar vision, so Peter had been ‘energized’ for his work as an apostle (Galatians 2:8). There is here no statement that Simon received his surname on this occasion-indeed, he is already known as ‘Peter’ (or ‘Cephas’) in this connexion-but it is possible that his initial vision, which made him the corner-stone of the new community, established, if not for the first time, at least more completely, the custom of referring to him as ‘Peter.’ The infrequency of the word as a proper name at that time, and the fact that ‘Simon’ would readily have served all ordinary needs either in Jewish or in Christian circles, make it still more evident that the designation ‘Cephas’ (Peter) was called forth by special circumstances, uncertain though some of the details may be at present. The usage undoubtedly originated early, probably in the lifetime of Jesus; and the significance of the appellation was at the outset, or soon became, intimately associated with Peter’s prominent position within the company of early disciples.
2. Peter in the NT writings.-The earliest literature preserved from apostolic times, the letters of St. Paul, contains explicit and important information about Peter. These documents do not, to be sure, purport to give any detailed account of his career, and the data which they do preserve are usually incidental to other interests, but this very fact makes the information all the more significant. St. Paul’s statements clearly represent items of general knowledge current at that early date regarding ‘Cephas.’ While St. Paul’s references are relatively few in number, they contain implications of much importance. Peter is seen to have been the first to obtain a vision of the Risen Lord (1 Corinthians 15:5); and thus from the outset he occupied a position of primacy in the community and was also first among the apostles, while St. Paul reckons himself last (1 Corinthians 15:9). St. Paul vigorously resented the insinuation of his enemies, to the effect that Peter’s chronological priority carried with it a superior authority, particularly for Gentile Christians; but, on the other hand, St. Paul did not think his apostleship or mission at all different in kind or superior in authority as compared with that of Peter. The seducers in Galatia were not really preaching Peter’s gospel-they were perverting it (Galatians 1:7); it was as truly founded upon faith in Jesus the Messiah as was St. Paul’s (Galatians 2:16); and both apostles had been equipped in the same authoritative way for the performance of their respective apostolic duties (Galatians 2:8). Peter had been commissioned to preach the gospel to the Jews, and this work must have seemed to St. Paul quite as important as-perhaps in some respects more important than-his own specific task of Gentile evangelization. He never doubted that God’s primary concern was for the welfare of the Jews, and that He had even designed them to be the ultimate heirs of the Kingdom, notwithstanding their temporary rejection of the gospel (Romans 11). In the meantime, the Gentiles were reaping the profits to be derived from the Jews’ rejection, St. Paul being especially commissioned to carry on this temporary enterprise of evangelizing the Gentiles, but the original and fundamental task was still Peter’s.
The importance of this phase of St. Paul’s thinking-an item sometimes obscured by a too one-sided emphasis upon the legalistic controversy-is further attested by the high estimate he continues to place upon Judaism, and the value he attaches to Christianity’s Jewish connexions. The Jew has had the advantage in every way (Romans 3:1; Romans 9:1 ff.), and St. Paul’s ancestry entitles him to a full share in that advantage (Romans 11:1, 2 Corinthians 11:22, Philippians 3:5). True, his ancestral heritage must now be brought to its proper consummation in the new faith, toward which all the Divine purposes down through the ages had been tending. From St. Paul’s point of view it was altogether essential, however, that Christianity should have had this Jewish origin; and so it was especially fitting, he thought, that those olive branches which had been temporarily severed from the Jewish trunk-as was the case with all Jews who rejected Christianity-should one day be restored to their rightful place along with the few wild olive branches that had in the meantime been grafted upon the native stock (Romans 11:11 ff.). It fell to Peter’s lot to engage in the work of preserving, or restoring, the original branches, a work with which St. Paul was in full sympathy and to which he would gladly have given himself at all costs had circumstances permitted (Acts 8:14-254). Hence it is not strange that he should cite the Jewish churches as models (1 Thessalonians 2:14), that he should refer with manifest satisfaction to their approval of his initial missionary activities (Galatians 1:24), that he should reckon his own evangelizing activity as formally beginning at Jerusalem (Romans 15:19), that he should take occasion to pay Peter a two weeks’ visit in Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18), or that he should in all sincerity seek the approval of the Jerusalem Church upon his Gentile work (Galatians 2:1 ff.). Furthermore, his high estimate of the Jewish community’s significance found very tangible expression in the collection, which was no mere perfunctory keeping of a past agreement, but an expression of genuine appreciation of the Jewish Christians’ willingness to share their special prerogatives with the Gentiles who fulfilled the condition of faith (Matthew 16:17-19 Romans 15:26-28). These facts must be borne in mind when attempting to evaluate St. Paul’s testimony to the significance of Peter’s position in the early history of Christianity. It is quite erroneous to conclude, as some interpreters have done, that St. Paul’s controversy with the legalists really meant any conscious effort on his part to oppose or to supplant Peter, whose unique position in the early community and whose leadership in the work of evangelizing the Jews are clearly attested and highly esteemed by St. Paul.
Unfortunately, St. Paul did not have occasion to mention Peter as often as we could wish; consequently, the latter’s career cannot be restored with any degree of fullness from the Pauline letters. Whether he was among the apostles in Jerusalem, whom St. Paul, had he so chosen, might have visited immediately after his conversion (Galatians 1:17), is not clear; but three years later he was there and entertained St. Paul for two weeks (Galatians 1:18). He was also in Jerusalem fourteen years later, when the legalistic controversy was going on (Galatians 2:1-10). Soon afterwards, perhaps accompanying St. Paul and Barnabas on their return, he came to Antioch in Syria, where his reactionary attitude upon the question of table-fellowship with Gentiles evoked St. Paul’s vigorous censure. An incidental reference to Peter as a travelling missionary accompanied by his wife and deriving support from those to whom he ministered (1 Corinthians 9:5), and mention of a Cephas party in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:22), complete the list of Pauline data. These scanty particulars do not permit of any very extended interpretation, yet they do make it clear that Peter was prominent in the counsels of the mother Church, that he continued to prosecute his work as an evangelist, and that his fame had reached even to Asia Minor and Greece early in the fifties.
Of the remaining Christian literature produced in apostolic times, the Gospels and Acts are the most important for our present purpose. In the first part of Acts, Peter is the leader of the apostolic company, and in the Gospels he occupies a position of prominence, commensurate with the dominant part he subsequently played in the life of the early Christian community. Remembering the ample attestation of Peter’s prominence given by his contemporary St. Paul, it is not at all surprising that the evangelists, in selecting gospel tradition and giving it written form, should mention Peter frequently and assign him a position second only to that of Jesus. His name does not appear in any of the non-Marcan sections common to Matthew and Luke (i.e. in the Logia [4]), but in Mark he is a conspicuous figure from first to last. He, with his brother Andrew, is the first to answer Jesus’ call to discipleship (Mark 1:16); they entertain Him at their home in Capernaum, where He heals Simon’s mother-in-law (Mark 1:29 f.); and the company of the disciples is now known as ‘Simon and those with him’ (Mark 1:36). He heads the list of the Twelve (Mark 3:16), he is named first among the favoured few to witness the raising of Jairus’ daughter (Mark 5:37), he is granted similar favours at the time of the Transfiguration (Mark 9:2), and in Gethsemane on the night of the betrayal (Mark 14:33), and it is to him in particular that the women are instructed to announce the resurrection of Jesus (Mark 16:7). On several occasions he is chief spokesman for the disciples, and is mentioned first among those receiving private instructions or explanations (Mark 8:29, Mark 9:5, Mark 10:28, Mark 11:21, Mark 13:3). Notices which reflect somewhat unfavourably upon him are also preserved. Although he is the first of the Twelve to affirm belief in Jesus’ Messiahship, his failure to understand the true Messianic programme calls forth a sharp rebuke from Jesus (Mark 8:32 f.); he is found asleep when left on duty in Gethsemane (Mark 14:37); and during the course of Jesus’ trial Peter persistently denies his Master (Mark 14:54-72; Mark 14:29).
With the exception of a few alterations and supplements, Matthew and Luke take over most of the Marcan statements regarding Peter. Matthew omits the paragraph in which ‘Simon and those with him’ seek Jesus to tell Him that the people of Capernaum desire His return to the city (Mark 1:36), nothing is said of Peter’s accompanying Jesus when the latter raised the daughter of Jairus (Mark 5:37), and Peter’s name is expunged from the instructions given to the women by the angel at the tomb of Jesus (Mark 16:7). These omissions are relatively insignificant when compared with the main body of Marcan material which Matthew has preserved. The additional data of Matthew are more important, especially the paragraph supplementing Mark’s account of Peter’s confession (Galatians 2:10,). In comparison with this incident, the other chief Petrine additions of Matthew-Peter’s walking on the water (Matthew 14:28 f.), and the story of the coin found in the fish’s mouth (Matthew 17:24-27)-are of only secondary interest. Into Mark’s narrative of Peter’s confession, otherwise copied rather closely, Matthew interjects three verses, ascribing Peter’s exceptional perceptive powers to revelation, designating him the corner-stone of the Church, and committing to his keeping the keys of the Kingdom. These statements are manifestly Matthaean insertions, for they do not stand in Mark, which Matthew is copying in both the preceding and the following contexts, nor do they appear in Luke, where the Marcan narrative at this point is also followed. But from what source the First Evangelist derived his information, and whether the words were actually spoken by Jesus, are much-debated problems. The balance of critical opinion at present inclines to the view that this tradition arose subsequently to the death of Jesus and at a time when the first vivid expectations of an imminent catastrophic end of the present world were being displaced by a growing interest in ecclesiasticism. However this may be, it is perfectly clear from Matthew’s language that Peter had lost none of the prestige which was his in St. Paul’s day, while his exact position with reference to all other Christians and to the Christian organization itself has been more specifically defined.
Luke furnishes scarcely any additional data to shed light upon the apostolic estimate of Peter. The Marcan account of the disciples’ call is omitted in favour of another tradition somewhat richer in descriptive details (Luke 5:1-11; cf. Mark 1:16-20); and in the account of Peter’s denial Luke seems to be following a slightly different source, yet the variations are formal rather than essential so far as the portrayal of Peter is concerned (Luke 22:31-62; cf. Mark 14:26-72). In copying Mark’s account of the Caesarea-Philippi incident, Luke omits the closing verses which tell of Jesus’ upbraiding Peter for his presumption in attempting to regulate the Messiah’s conduct (Mark 8:32 ff.). Similarly, in Luke’s version of the Gethsemane incident Peter is not singled out for rebuke as in Mark (Luke 22:46; cf. Mark 14:37). Nor does Luke report the special message of the angel to Peter, telling him that he will see the Risen Lord in Galilee (Luke 24:7; cf. Mark 16:7), because Luke records only Judaea n appearances; but he does note that the first appearance was made to Peter (Luke 24:34).
It is in the early chapters of Acts that Peter’s portrait is drawn most distinctly. He heads the list of the Eleven, and takes the initiative in the election of a successor to Judas (Acts 1:13; Acts 1:15). He is also the chief speaker on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 2:14 ff.), the immediate agent in healing the lame beggar at the Temple gate (Acts 3:1-10), and the principal defender of the new faith during the subsequent period of persecution (e.g. Acts 3:12 ff., Acts 4:8 ff., Acts 5:29 ff.). His miraculous activity is especially noticeable. Ananias and Sapphira fall dead at his word (Acts 5:3-10), and he stands out so prominently among the apostolic wonder-workers that apparently his very shadow possesses therapeutic power (Acts 5:12-16). He is next seen in Samaria, where he represents the Jerusalem Church in supervising and bringing to completion the evangelistic work of Philip (1618105171_95). Then we are told of missionary enterprises conducted by Peter himself ‘throughout all parts’ (Acts 9:32), and particularly of his wonderful miracles performed at Joppa (Acts 9:33-41). Here he experienced his remarkable vision, in which God showed him that he ‘should not call any man common or unclean,’ with the result that he went freely to the house of the Gentile Cornelius, preaching that God is no respecter of persons. Accordingly, Peter baptized Cornelius and his friends, thus establishing the first company of Gentile Christians (10). On returning to Jerusalem, Peter is criticized for having eaten with the uncircumcised, but he presents so adequate a defence of his conduct that the Jerusalem Church ultimately glorifies God for the establishment of Gentile missions through his work (1618105171_86). Later we learn of his arrest and imprisonment by Herod Agrippa I., and his miraculous release, after which ‘he departed and went to another place’ (Acts 12:1-19). He is in Jerusalem again at the time of the Council, where he affirms, and James reiterates, that ‘a good while ago God made choice among you, that by my mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of the gospel, and believe’ (Acts 15:7; Acts 15:14). At this point Peter disappears completely from the history of the Apostolic Age as recorded in Acts.
In the Fourth Gospel, likewise, Peter is a conspicuous figure, though he does not always occupy so unquestionably pre-eminent a position as in the Synoptists and early chapters of Acts. In the assembling of the first group of believers his brother Andrew takes precedence over him (Luke 6:14,), and is also spokesman for the disciples on the occasion of the miraculous feeding (John 6:8). But Andrew is each time identified as the ‘brother of Simon Peter,’ thus implying that the latter was really the better known. He is also foremost in John’s account of the disciples’ confession of belief in Jesus (John 6:68); and, as in the Synoptists, it is Peter who objects on a certain occasion to Jesus’ procedure-this time the act of foot-washing (John 13:6-9). Peter’s denial is also recorded by John (John 13:36 f., John 18:17-27), and his impetuosity is displayed in cutting off the ear of the high priest’s servant (John 18:10 f.). But Peter’s prominence is rivalled by that of the unnamed disciple ‘whom Jesus loved.’ He, together with Andrew, was the first to follow Jesus (John 1:35 f.); he had the position of honour at the Last Supper (John 13:24); he was acquainted with the high priest, and so procured Peter’s admission to the court (John 18:15); and he seems to have anticipated Peter in believing that Jesus had risen from the dead (John 20:2-8). In the so-called appendix to John (21) Simon Peter is the chief actor, but the beloved disciple standing in the background is certainly a formidable rival for the honour of first place.
Except in the salutations of the two Epistles commonly ascribed to Peter, there is no further mention of his name in the NT. For one who evidently occupied so prominent a place in the life and thinking of the Apostolic Age, the amount of information about him preserved in the literature of the period is relatively meagre. St. Paul’s statements are exceedingly fragmentary; the Gospels do not, of course, pretend to give information about apostolic history, yet indirectly they furnish some indications of how Peter was regarded at the time the documents were being produced; and Acts, while tolerably full in its description of Peter’s earlier activities, consigns him to absolute oblivion after the Jerusalem Council. It is not at all probable that so important an individual would thus suddenly drop completely out of sight in the actual history of the Christian movement, nor can we assume that the information supplied by our extant NT sources is at all exhaustive-to say nothing of the difficulty of harmonizing what sometimes appear to be striking discrepancies.
3. Peter’s earlier activities.-A résumé of such facts as are apparently beyond dispute yields a very definite picture of Peter’s earlier activities, notwithstanding some uncertainty in details. He was a Galilaean fisherman living in Capernaum when Jesus began His public ministry. Soon after coming into contact with Jesus he abandoned his business as a fisherman in order to accompany the new Teacher on His preaching tours. How Jesus, who had left His carpenter’s bench, and Peter and others, who had similarly forsaken their ordinary daily pursuits to engage in this new enterprise, now supported themselves and their families is not clear from our present sources of information; but this uncertainty can hardly reflect any serious doubt upon the fact of their procedure. Peter was one of the most prominent members in the company of disciples, and so strongly did Jesus and His work appeal to him that he saw in the new movement foreshadowings of the long-looked-for Messianic Kingdom, and ultimately he identified Jesus with the Messiah. But Peter’s conception of the Messiah’s programme underwent some radical readjustments in the course of time. At first his view seems to have been largely of the political nationalistic type-the earthly Jesus would some day don Messianic robes and set up the new Kingdom. In this schema there was no place for Jesus’ death, hence that event proved a stunning blow to Peter’s faith. According to one tradition, regarded by many scholars as the more reliable, he returned disappointed to Galilee, where he probably intended to resume his work of fishing. Doubtless he had still kept his home in Capernaum, and thither he would naturally go after his great disillusionment. Then came the experience which constituted the real turning-point in his life: he saw his Master alive again-no longer an earthly but now a heavenly Being. This vision gave him a solution of his difficulties, since it enabled him to resume his belief in Jesus’ Messiahship and look forward to the establishment of the new Kingdom. It necessitated, however, considerable readjustment in his thinking, for the Messiah in whom he now believed was not an earthly figure who would demonstrate the validity of His claims by leading a revolt against the Romans; He was a heavenly apocalyptic Being who would come on the clouds in glory when the day arrived for the final establishment of God’s rule upon earth.
This new way of thinking gave Peter a new conception of his mission. Now he, and the other disciples, must make haste in gathering members for the new Kingdom. Actuated by the genuinely altruistic motive of mediating this new knowledge to their Jewish kinsmen, and desiring to fulfil as quickly as possible the conditions preliminary to the Kingdom’s coming, they began a vigorous preaching activity to propagate the new faith. Whatever doubts may be entertained regarding the verbal accuracy of the speeches of Peter recorded in Acts, the accuracy of the main content is hardly to be disputed, so far at least as the interpretation of Jesus’ Messiahship is concerned. Here we have a primitive stage of
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Peter, Festival of Saint
A Holy Day of the Church observed onJune 29th in honor of the Apostle Saint Peter, and is one of theoldest of Christian Festivals, having been traced back to the SecondCentury. St. Peter was one of the first two disciples whom ourLord called. His original name was Simon or Simeon, which was changedinto Cephas, which in the Syrian language, signifies a stone orrock; from this it was derived into the Greek Petros, and sotermed by us Peter. This new name was to denote the firmness andconstancy which St. Peter should manifest in preaching the Gospeland in establishing the Church. He has left two Epistles whichappear in the New Testament as the "First and Second EpistlesGeneral of St. Peter." It is said that his later years were spentat Rome where he was crucified with his head downwards, on the hillwhere the Vatican now stands, on the same day, June 29th (as isgenerally believed) that St. Paul was beheaded A.D. 63. Inecclesiastical art St. Peter is variously represented, with a keyin his hand; with a key and church; with keys and cross; in chainsand in prison, etc.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Peter (2)
PETER.—The use of the names Simon and Simon Peter in the Gospels is instructive. Mt., when he first mentions the Apostle, calls him ‘Simon who is called Peter’ (Matthew 4:18); he uses the same language in his list of the Apostles (Matthew 10:2). Again, with most obvious appropriateness he calls him ‘Simon Peter’ at the time of his celebrated confession (Matthew 16:16), while on the two occasions on which our Lord addresses the disciple directly, he is ‘Simon bar-Jona’ (Matthew 16:17) and ‘Simon’ (Matthew 17:25). In Mk. the name ‘Simon’ is employed up to the selection of the Twelve, and thereafter ‘Peter’ is used; but when our Lord accosts him in Gethsemane, He names him ‘Simon’ (Mark 14:7). In Lk. also he is designated ‘Simon’ with a single exception (Luke 5:8) till the choice of the Apostles, after which he becomes ‘Peter’; but when our Lord speaks to him he is ‘Simon, Simon,’ which is softened to ‘Peter’ (Luke 22:31; Luke 22:34). His fellow-believers give him the same name when they relate that our Lord appeared to him after His resurrection (Luke 24:34). The practice of Jn. is equally notable. Before Peter appears on the scene at all, his brother Andrew is described as ‘the brother of Simon Peter’ (John 1:41). This double name is that which the Evangelist chiefly employs; in fact, he prefers it except when its repetition would seem pedantic. At the same time, he indicates clearly that the Apostle’s original name was ‘Simon’ (John 1:42), and he places this name on the lips of Jesus just as the other Evangelists do (John 1:43).
The life of Peter has a triple interest. (a) His personality is attractive because of its naturalness, buoyancy, and vigour. Belonging to the class of men who are readily understood, his impetuosity, candour, freedom of speech, transparency of motive, his large and genial humanity, appeal strongly to our hearts. Peter is the Luther among the Apostles, (b) Again, he is the most representative of the Apostles. Were it not for him, our knowledge of their views, tastes, hopes, prejudices, and difficulties would be scanty; but, owing to his words and acts, these stand out in bold relief. It is in Peter that we see the kind of men whom our Lord deliberately chose to be His closest friends and the agents for the fulfilment of His purposes. The methods, too, by which the disciples became qualified for their great functions are most fully revealed in the treatment of Peter by Jesus—the patient wisdom, the boundless charity, the humour, the severity, the perfect frankness, the unreserved intimacy. (c) Again, the career of Peter after the Ascension is the most striking evidence at once of his natural capacity and of the transformation effected in him by his friendship with Jesus. The disciple is now worthy of the designation ‘Rock.’ He snows himself to be the natural leader of the new community: its most powerful and energetic member both in counsel and in act.
The career of Peter falls into two great sections, divided by the Ascension: his life as a disciple and Apostle under our Lord, and his life as the first leader of the Christian Church.
1. Prior to our Lord’s Ascension.—Simon Peter was the son of a man called Jonas (Matthew 16:17) or John (John 1:42), or possibly Jonas John, a fisherman on the Sea of Galilee. His mother’s name is not recorded. The place of his birth was probably Bethsaida (John 1:44). No mention is made of the date of his birth; but, as he was a married man when our Lord’s ministry opened, it is likely that he was born about the same time as Jesus. How long his parents lived is not known: they may have died before he became intimate with Jesus. It may be assumed from his later life that he was brought up by them in habits of temperance, frugality, diligence, and piety. He could read and write, and had considerable acquaintance with the Greek tongue as spoken in Galilee. He followed his father’s occupation, obtaining by it an income adequate to all the wants of his household. By the time he is first spoken of in the Gospels he is married, and living in Capernaum, where he has a house of his own, which at a subsequent date appears to have been the centre of the labours of our Lord in Capernaum (Mark 1:21; Mark 1:29; Mark 9:33).
Attracted by the Baptist, Peter and his brother Andrew became his disciples. Andrew was one of the two disciples of the Baptist who heard him declare that Jesus was the Lamb of God (John 1:35), and who, after their interview with Jesus, were convinced that He was the Messiah. He communicated to his brother the great discovery he had made, and brought him to Jesus, who, reading his very soul, and perceiving what he was and what he was capable of becoming, announced that he should bear the name Peter or ‘Rock’ (John 1:42). The acquaintanceship thus formed passed after an interval of a few months, during part of which Peter was with Jesus, into discipleship and permanent fellowship. When our Lord began His ministry in Galilee, the two brothers Peter and Andrew were summoned by Him to become, in His own striking language, ‘fishers of men’: and this call was immediately followed by that of two other brothers, their partners in business, James and John (Mark 1:16; Mark 1:20). The final stage of Peter’s relationship to Jesus was that of Apostle. Our Lord had determined to select a very few persons from the larger number of His adherents to be constantly in His society, and to act as His messengers. Peter was the first to be chosen (Mark 3:13). This place was not given him by accident. He was the first of the Apostles, not in authority or rank or precedence, for ideas of this description were utterly foreign to the mind of our Lord; but his courage, resourcefulness, energy, and devotion constituted him the natural leader of the new body. He was their spokesman, the interpreter of their wishes, hopes, desires, and purposes. Many words specially uttered by him or spoken by our Lord to him are preserved in the Gospels, and in several of the miracles of our Lord he has a unique place. The perception of our Lord’s character, and familiarity with His views of God, of man, of righteousness and of salvation, as well as with His hatred of unreality and formalism, and with the depth and range of His sympathies for the common people and even for social outcasts—set up an intellectual ferment in the mind of Peter which ultimately engendered a fixed and definite view of our Lord’s Person. On two occasions that conviction was expressed in memorable terms. At Capernaum, Peter, undismayed and unmoved by the rapid fall in our Lord’s popularity due to His refusal to become a political instead of a religious leader, affirmed Him to be the only possessor of the words of eternal life, the Holy One of God (John 6:66 ff.). Then, not long after, when the common people had ceased to regard our Lord as the Messiah, and assigned Him only the subordinate place of a forerunner, Peter, without a moment’s hesitation, clothed in fit words the conviction which had now attained maturity and consistency in his mind—the ripe fruit of his intercourse with our Lord; he affirmed that He was the Messiah (Matthew 16:13 ff.). This confession was rewarded with the famous promise, the sense of which is still in dispute—‘Thon art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church.’ The common view among the Fathers that the rock is Jesus Himself has scarcely any support among the interpreters of to-day. A number of Protestant scholars agree with the Roman Catholic Church in understanding the rock of Peter himself; but this explanation fails to answer two questions. Why, if Peter is the rock, did not Jesus simply say ‘on thee’? Whence, too, the distinction in the present text between the two words for ‘rock’ (πέτρος and πέτρα), a distinction which must surely have been found in some form in the original Aramaic? But be the rock Peter himself or his confession, it is clear that our Lord was deeply gratified with the declaration, and that He recognized in it a spiritual insight and capacity which qualified the speaker for high office and service in the Kingdom of God. But, though Peter had grasped the truth that Jesus was the Messiah, he was still in bondage to the traditional conception of the Messiah as a conqueror. For hardly had our Lord, relying on his confession, proceeded for the first time to announce plainly His impending death, when Peter, shocked at His apparent despondency, remonstrated with Him, and thus drew from His lips the rebuke, ‘Get thee behind me, Satan’ (Matthew 16:23).
The prediction of His death was made by Jesus at least thrice, in language which admits of but one meaning; but neither Peter nor any of the Apostles appears to have believed that the words were intended to be taken literally. Not one among them seems to have accepted the truth that Jesus would be crucified. But that event drew near, and Peter, as was to be expected, figures largely in the closing scenes. He refuses to allow his Master to degrade Himself by washing his feet; but when told that this refusal involves forefeiture of all interest in Him, under the impulse of the reaction generated by this reproof, he wishes that his hands and head as well as his feet should be washed (John 13:6 ff.). Conscious of his devotion to his Lord, he declares that though all men should stumble at Him, he never will, but would die for His sake; and draws from our Lord’s lips the sorrowful announcement that he is about to deny Him thrice (Mark 14:29). When our Lord is arrested in Gethsemane, he has the courage, perhaps rather the rashness, to draw a sword and seek to cut down the very person who, it may be, was making the arrest (John 18:10); he follows our Lord into the palace of the high priest, and there, outworn, perplexed, thrown off his guard, unmanned, he three times declares that he knows nothing of Jesus. Then, having met the eye of his Master as He was led from one room to another, the sense of his guilt becomes intolerable, and he bursts forth into tears of deepest penitence and self-abasement (Luke 22:54 ff.). What the Apostle did after he quitted the palace of the high priest, has not been told us. Whether he was too overpowered by emotion to draw near the cross we cannot tell, but it is certain that his hopes were buried in the grave of Jesus. He and the rest of the disciples must have poured out their hearts to one another, suggesting, doubting, fearing, unable to resolve as to the future.
Not two days after the Crucifixion, Mary of Magdala informed Peter and John that the grave of Jesus was open and no body there. The two disciples started off in hot haste to verify the statement. John, the younger and fleeter, reached the tomb first, but awe prevented him from entering. Peter, unaffected by this ‘motive, went into the grave as soon as he arrived, and then both disciples saw the grave-cloths lying in orderly array, with the napkin which had bound the head rolled up in a place by itself: facts which excluded the view that the corpse had been removed by enemies. The meaning of the words which they had heard again and again from Jesus as to His rising again from the dead began to dawn on their understanding: He was risen from the dead (John 20:1 ff.). Soon the testimony of the women confirmed the inference they had drawn, and if any doubts continued to haunt the Apostle’s mind, they were finally dispelled by a personal appearance made by Jesus to himself. The interview stands with no record save the bare circumstance, but is possibly on that account only the more impressive (Luke 24:34). It formed perhaps the most important event of Peter’s life, and certainly produced on him the most extraordinary effects. What was soft and fluid in his ideas and convictions now hardened into rock: his courage acquired a new temper: his passionate loyalty to our Lord became measureless trust and devotion, chastened by a new reverence and awe. All that he had ever ventured to hope regarding Jesus was now confirmed, and rested on a basis of adamant.
Another scene is related in the appendix to the Fourth Gospel (ch. 21), which forms the fitting close to the earthly relations of the Master and His disciple. Here again Peter and John are the two chief actors, and each exhibits his distinctive characteristics. John is the first to identify the solitary figure on the shore of the Sea of Galilee with the Lord; while Peter is the first to try to reach Him, casting himself into the lake in his eagerness to welcome Him. There followed the triple question to Peter touching his love for Jesus, with answers from the Apostle which show that he had now been purged of presumption, boasting, and rash self-confidence. Then he in his turn is entrusted with the weightiest and most honourable of all charges: he is commissioned and commanded to feed and tend the flock of Christ. Finally, and as if it were the natural sequel of the high trust just allotted him, he is told that he will end his days by martyrdom. Accepting this declaration without a shadow of doubt, lie ventures to inquire as to the fate of his fellow-disciple John, but is forbidden to meddle with such questions, his task being to concentrate his energies on the fulfilment of the duties imposed on himself.
2. Subsequent to the Ascension.—If Peter was the foremost of the disciples before the Ascension, he was still more so, if possible, after that event. He is represented throughout the Acts as the leader of the Church; and this view is confirmed by the references that St. Paul (Galatians 2:7-9) makes to his position, which prove that his was the commanding personality in the Church. The suggestion that a successor to Judas should be appointed was made by him, and at once adopted by the body of believers (Acts 1:15 ff.). The explanation of the descent of the tongues of flame at Pentecost is given by him (Acts 2:14 ff.). He performs the first Christian miracle (Acts 3:6 f.). The defence of the new community when its leaders are arrested by the Sanhedrin falls on him (Acts 4:8 ff.). The doom of Ananias and Sapphira is pronounced by his lips (Acts 5:4; Acts 5:9). When the gospel is preached in Samaria, John and he are appointed commissioners to investigate the new situation (Acts 8:14). He is the first to throw open the Church to the Gentiles on the condition of faith only (ch. 10). Herod Agrippa sentences him to death as the chief leader of the sect of the Nazarenes (ch. 12). He takes a foremost place in the deliberations of the Congress at Jerusalem which determined the relations that should thereafter exist between the Gentiles and the Jews, pronouncing that the Gentiles should be exempt from all Jewish ordinances (ch. 15). At this point the account in the Acts terminates, and the remainder of his career is obscure. That he travelled about preaching the gospel, accompanied by his wife (1 Corinthians 9:5), is certain, but the one place he is known to have visited is Antioch (Galatians 2:11) in Syria, the second capital of Christianity. He may have gone to Greece (Euseb. Historia Ecclesiastica ii. xxv. 8); he may have preached in the provinces to which his first letter is addressed (1 Peter 1:1); it is possible that he spent some time in Babylon (1 Peter 5:13). From the far East he turned to Rome, where he died as a martyr according to our Lord’s prediction, but when and under what conditions cannot be ascertained (Clem. Rom. [1] Ep. ad Cor. v. 7).
Literature.—Lives of Christ; the Comm.; F. Godet, Studies on the NT (English translation 1879), 246; G. B. Stevens, The Messages of the Apostles (1900), 42; G. Matheson, Representative Men of the NT (1905), 93; H. T. Purchas, Johannine Problems (1901), 68; J. G. Greenhough, Apostles of our Lord (1904), 52, 221; W. M, Taylor, Peter the Apostle (1891); W. H. G. Thomas, The Apostle Peter (1904); H. A. Birks, Life and Character of St. Peter (1887); S. Cox, Genesis of Evil (1880), 280, 351; W. B. Carpenter, Son of Man (1893), 91; Expos. 3rd ser. iv. (1886) 183, ix. (1889) 187; JBL [2] xvii. (pt. 2, 1898) 31.
W. Patrick.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Peter Epistles of
The NT contains two writings bearing the name of Peter. Since the problems connected with these Epistles depend for their solution mainly upon the internal indicia of the documents themselves, a résumé of their content is first in order. It will also be convenient to treat the two letters separately.
A. First Peter
1. Content.-The content of this Epistle may be outlined as follows:
(a) Salutation (1 Peter 1:1 f.).-The apostle Peter greets Christians of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. These believers are reminded of the fact that they are merely temporary residents on earth, their real citizenship being in heaven. God the Father, knowing in advance their ultimate destiny, has given them a spiritual sanctification to the end that they may be obedient children and may receive the saving benefits accruing to those who have been sprinkled with the blood of Jesus Christ.
(b) Praise to God for the surety of ultimate salvation (1 Peter 1:3-12).-Since Christ has been raised from the dead those who are united to Him by faith are sure of obtaining the Divine salvation to be revealed in the near future when the present world-order shall be brought to an end. On the basis of this certainty believers rejoice exceedingly, notwithstanding temporary afflictions, which only serve to prove the genuineness of their faith. Their salvation has been prophesied by the ancients, it was preached by the spiritually equipped evangelists, and even angels desired to peer into these matters.
(c) The type of personal life befitting individuals who are to inherit so great salvation (1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 3:12).-(1) In view of believers’ blessed condition as heirs of the heavenly inheritance about to be disclosed, they should be pure in their personal life. Since God who has chosen them is holy, as is also Christ who redeemed them, they too should live righteously. They have been re-born to a new and incorruptible condition of being, and, like new-born infants, their nourishment is to be derived from the sphere of the new life into which they have come. They are a new race, a peculiar people, set apart to live the heavenly life while yet on earth (1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10).
(2) But as such they must also live fittingly in relation to their heathen environment. They are to shun all wickedness, and thereby give the lie to the popular charge that they are evil-doers. They are, however, to avoid giving any offence to the authorities. If they are servants in a heathen household, they are to discharge their duties faithfully, bearing buffetings and revilings with Christ-like fortitude. When believers find themselves married to unbelievers, they must exemplify the Christian virtues also in this relationship. In short, they should be living witnesses to the ideal type of conduct in all their relations with outsiders (1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 3:12).
(d) Encouragement to bear persecution with fortitude, in view of the Christians’ certainty of ultimate salvation (1 Peter 3:13 to 1 Peter 5:11).-(1) If zeal for righteousness brings them suffering, they are but following in the footsteps of Christ. Through His suffering they have been made heirs of a sure salvation; consequently they should continue loyally to confess His Lordship. When their opponents revile and persecute them for their peculiar faith, they may reassure themselves by recalling (i.) Christ’s saving mission, which extended even to the spirits in Hades; (ii.) the ordinance of baptism, which formally ensured their spiritual union with the Risen Jesus; and (iii.) the heavenly exaltation of Christ, whereby all authority has been committed to Him (1 Peter 3:13-22).
(2) Hence Christians have a ready answer to give their heathen critics who charge them with unsocial conduct. They are no longer men of the flesh, for, having been united in baptism with the heavenly spiritual Christ, they now enjoy a new state of existence; they are citizens of heaven (1 Peter 4:1-6).
(3) As their stay upon earth, along with all earthly things, draws to a close, their chief endeavour is to cultivate the true fruits of the Spirit in daily living-sobriety, prayerfulness, mutual love, hospitality, ministrations, and constant glorification of God (1 Peter 4:7-11).
(4) Christians ought not to be shocked by the outbreak of severe persecution. In the first place, they should rejoice at the opportunity of becoming actual imitators of Christ. And, secondly, since they do not suffer justly, being guilty of no sins for which God should bring this affliction upon them, their trials are a sign of the approaching end when they are to receive the salvation now being guarded for them in heaven. If the initial stages of the Final Judgment bring such afflictions upon the innocent, how infinitely more terrible will the ultimate fate of the wicked be! Therefore believers should not be ashamed to suffer innocently as Christians, since this is in accordance with the will of God, who always has in mind the ultimate salvation of their souls (1 Peter 4:12-19).
(5) Under these circumstances both the leaders of the community and the members of the congregation should order their lives according to the strictest ideals of perfection, knowing that they will ultimately receive their respective rewards. Their temporary affliction will, through the favour of God, issue in the perfect salvation about to be revealed from heaven (1 Peter 5:1-11).
(e) Conclusion (1 Peter 5:12-14).-The readers are informed of Silvanus’ connexion with the letter, they are exhorted to remain steadfast, greetings are conveyed to them, and they receive the apostolic benediction.
2. Purpose.-The main purpose of the Epistle is to comfort and encourage certain communities embarrassed by heathen opposition-an opposition which had broken out into a conflagration of persecution. The writer seeks to strengthen the Christians’ faith by turning their attention to the near future, when God will bring all their troubles to an end by sending Jesus Christ to conduct the Final Judgment and perfect the salvation of believers (1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 1:7; 1 Peter 1:9; 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 1:20, 1 Peter 2:12, 1 Peter 4:5; 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 4:17 f., 1 Peter 5:1; 1 Peter 5:4; 1 Peter 5:6; 1 Peter 5:10). Christians are strongly exhorted to refrain from doing anything for which they might be justly punished. Possibly some among them were disposed to take too literally the doctrine of soul-freedom and so to forget that the earthly order under which they were now living was really an appointment of God (1 Peter 2:13-17, 1 Peter 4:15). St. Paul had to give the Romans a similar warning (Romans 13:1-7; cf. Titus 3:1-3; Clement of Rome, ad Cor. 61). Not improbably the Christians’ sense of superiority to the world tended to engender an unconventional type of conduct which sometimes antagonized the authorities and readily suggested to outsiders that these seemingly recalcitrant people were accustomed within their own private assemblies to east off all moral restraints. The readers of this Epistle are especially exhorted to make their manner of life such that they can by no possible means be justly reckoned among evil-doers. In all their political, social, and personal relationships they are to exercise the utmost caution not to give offence. But they are not to compromise their ideals by resorting to the heathen mode of living, nor are they to hesitate in confessing Christ’s Lordship (1 Peter 3:15). They should always be prepared to give reasons for their unshaken faith in Christ and the coming deliverance, and their type of life should be so noble as to put to shame their accusers. Then, in all the attacks which are made upon them they will suffer unjustly, and such suffering will bring them a rich reward. Having seen to it that they themselves do not merit punishment, the trials through which they are passing must be merely premonitory signs of the approaching end when all sinners are to be condemned, while the righteous are to inherit eternal peace. Thus the author endeavours to cheer and strengthen his readers, and this is manifestly the chief aim of his letter.
3. Historical situation.-What, more exactly, were the conditions under which the readers were living? They are addressed as ‘sojourners of the Dispersion’ (παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς). This expression has sometimes been taken to mean that they were converts from the Jewish Diaspora._ But more probably the language is figurative, used of Christians in general, who are temporarily exiled from their heavenly home and scattered abroad upon the earth,_ just as the Jews were exiled from their holy city and dispersed in strange lands. In this sense these Christians may have been converts from both Judaism and paganism, but certain incidental references in the Epistle suggest that they belonged mainly to the latter class. Before conversion they had been in a state of ‘ignorance’ (1 Peter 1:14; cf. Ephesians 4:18) and had followed their passions as their Gentile contemporaries continued to do (1 Peter 1:14, 1 Peter 4:2 ff.); in time past they were in ‘darkness,’ they were ‘no people,’ and they had not obtained mercy, but now their situation is completely reversed (1 Peter 2:9 f.); at the outset they had been furthest from God, and now they are nearest to Him-all of which seems to point to Gentile antecedents. They are dwelling in different parts of Asia Minor-Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. Probably the geographical designations are used in the official sense of the territorial rearrangement into provinces under the Romans. The bearer of the Epistle is thought of as starting his journey from the eastern portion of the province of Bithynia-Pontus, and swinging in a circle back to the western end of it. But the readers will have lived in much the same territory, whether the geographical terms are taken in the technical or in the popular sense. The letter is so uniform in its emphasis upon suffering, and it makes so much of the hope that Christ will soon appear to remedy the present evil, that the writer evidently thought Christians generally throughout this territory were actually enduring, or were soon to experience, very severe persecution. For some of them at least it was already a stunning reality (1 Peter 4:12), but they are exhorted not to shrink from this affliction. They should, however, make sure that they are not guilty of any of the evil deeds which their enemies allege against them (1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 2:15, 1 Peter 3:16 f., 1 Peter 4:4; 1 Peter 4:14-16). They are admonished to refrain from needlessly provoking the authorities, recognizing in the latter Divinely appointed guardians of the civil order (1 Peter 2:13-17), and they are to suffer willingly for righteousness’ sake; that is, they are to stand loyal to their confession of Christ and to affirm unhesitatingly their hope of salvation, and thus they may congratulate themselves on suffering for the name of Christ, although formally they are being punished for crimes with which their opponents are-falsely, the author hopes-charging them. (1 Peter 3:13-17, 1 Peter 4:14-16). Moreover, their situation is not unique, but is characteristic of the brotherhood throughout the world (1 Peter 5:9).
4. Date.-There is much difference of opinion as to the date of composition (see J. Moffatt, LNT_, pp. 338-342). A most important question in this connexion is, When were the Christians of northern Asia Minor suffering this type of affliction? Of the various answers which have been given in the past, only three demand detailed consideration._ According to one hypothesis, these events took place in the latter part of the reign of Nero (54-68), a second view locates them under Domitian (81-96), while still another refers them to the time of Trajan (98-117). Notwithstanding numerous discussions of the subject, there is still much uncertainty regarding the exact extent and character of the persecutions which are commonly supposed to have occurred under these three Emperors._ Our first explicit information outside the NT about the persecution of Christians in Asia Minor is found in the extant correspondence which Pliny the Younger and Trajan carried on about the year 112 (Ep. xcvi. f.). When Pliny became governor of Bithynia he soon found himself in conflict with the Christians, of whom he put a number to death, or, if Roman citizens, held them for transportation to Rome. Pliny had not started out with any well-defined anti-Christian policy, and so he was much perplexed by the situation which early developed. When he found that the Christians were not guilty of the crimes usually charged against them, he was in doubt as to whether it was proper to punish them merely for their loyalty to the name of Christ, and he did not know what disposition ought to be made of those who were willing to recant. Further, he wanted to know to what extent Christians were to be deliberately sought out for punishment. To Pliny’s inquiries the Emperor replied that (1) flagrant cases were to be punished, but (2) no active search for Christians was to be made, nor (3) were anonymous accusations to be entertained, and (4) all who recanted, proving their sincerity by denying the name of Christian and observing the rites of the State religion, were to be pardoned regardless of any former suspicions against them. This, so far as our extant information is concerned, is the first time in history when the mere confession of the name ‘Christian’ itself constituted a punishable offence in the eyes of the law, but henceforth persecution for the ‘Name’ was the ordinary form of procedure._ In earlier times the name ‘Christian’ might have aroused suspicion, but apparently suspected persons had to be convicted of some particular crime-or at least the crime was assumed by the authorities to be capable of proof-before punishment was inflicted. This, indeed, seems to have been the principle upon which Pliny himself had acted at first, for he was at a loss to know what to do when he found that the Christians were innocent of the usual charges brought against them, and that they had even obeyed the edict forbidding private assemblies. In the case of those who refused to recant, he justified his own severity on the ground of their criminal obstinacy, but Trajan’s rescript removed all necessity for any such special justification. Henceforth, if one persistently confessed Christianity, that in itself was sufficient basis for legal action. Christianity was now, in the eyes of the law, a religio illicita.
Is this the situation of the Christians to whom 1 Peter is addressed? Scholars who answer this question in the affirmative do so mainly because of the reference in 1 Peter 4:14-16 to suffering for the Name._ But were the readers as yet technically suffering for the Name? Apparently not, in the formal sense. Their opponents are certainly bringing specific charges against them (1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 2:15; 1 Peter 2:19 f., 1 Peter 3:9; 1 Peter 3:16 f., 1 Peter 4:4), reviling their manner of life in order to persuade the authorities to act. Believers are not being arraigned because it is a crime per se to be a Christian, nor are they condemned on this charge; it is only from the point of view of their own clear conscience that they can glory in being reproached for the name of Christ. The stress which the writer places on false accusations, and his earnest admonitions to avoid all criminal conduct, show that the letter was written to persons who were being charged-though falsely, the author hoped-with specific crimes. Moreover, by a correct and cautious mode of conduct they may hope to gain the favour of the governor who is thought capable of giving praise to them that do well (1 Peter 2:14), while even their accusers may be silenced and put to shame by the Christians’ good manner of life in Christ (1 Peter 2:15, 1 Peter 3:16)._ This encouragement would have been quite pointless if the mere acknowledgment of the ‘Name’ already constituted a capital offence in the eyes of the law. The Christians might console themselves with the thought that they were in reality being reproached simply for the name of Christ, but apparently their enemies were still obliged to make specific criminal charges against believers in order to effect legal action.
1 Peter can hardly have been designed to meet the new condition of affairs following the rescript of Trajan, if, as seems probable, the mere confession of Christianity was henceforth the only point needing to be established in law (‘si deferantur et arguantur [1], puniendi sunt’). But a date shortly before Trajan’s rescript during Pliny’s preliminary activity, would suit admirably certain details in the situation. Under the immediately preceding governors little attention had been paid to the internal affairs of the province, which was in a wretched state generally. Pliny was a more efficient executive, and his efforts to establish better conditions must almost immediately have brought the Christians to his attention. They were held largely responsible for the general decline, because they had interfered with traditional religion and with that part of civic life which depended upon religion for prosperity. Even in the villages and country districts the temples had been forsaken and the trade in fodder for the victims had been almost ruined. So Pliny, in order to restore the commercial prosperity of the province, took action against the Christians. He put to death a few who had refused to recant and induced others to resume their former manner of life. This action encouraged the enemies of the new religion to bring still others to his attention, and even anonymous charges were entertained. This procedure must have seemed to the Christians like the sudden outburst of a devastating conflagration, a veritable activity of their adversary the devil (1 Peter 4:12, 1 Peter 5:8). But still there was a hopeful side to the situation. The governor had shown a disposition to investigate the charges, and if Christians would only take care always to be found innocent they might hope for favours from the courts and at the same time put their accusers to confusion. According to Pliny’s testimony, this was the course which the Christians of his province were actually pursuing. In obedience to his edict they had ceased holding meetings, and the criminal charges preferred against them proved on investigation to be wholly false.
Thus we might easily suppose, on the basis of conditions described by Pliny, that 1 Peter had shortly before been received by the Christian community and had borne good fruit. Furthermore, the problems which it treats have several points of correspondence with the situation presupposed in Pliny’s letter to the Emperor. He had called upon believers to revile Christ and worship Caesar, and they are especially admonished in 1 Peter to sanctify in their hearts Christ as Lord (1 Peter 3:15 ff.), to remain loyal to His name (1 Peter 4:14 ff.), and to refuse to return to their former mode of living (1 Peter 4:2 ff.). The last item was the thing which Pliny was especially desirous of bringing about, and he says that his efforts in this direction had been measurably successful. This fact may have furnished one of the incentives for the writing of 1 Peter, exhorting believers to maintain a firm defence of their faith in Christ, yet a defence to be made with meekness and fear, while they thus retain a good conscience and hope for the best (1 Peter 3:15 f.). Many items in the letter are admirably suited to the early days of Pliny’s governorship, previous to his appeal to Trajan and the issuance of the Emperor’s rescript.
On the other hand, several interpreters prefer a Domitianic date, believing that it furnishes a more appropriate setting for the conditions described in 1 Peter. The situation under Trajan is thought to exhibit a too advanced type of persecution._ Even in comparison with Revelation, which is supposed to have been written in the last years of Domitian’s reign, 1 Peter is believed to reflect a slightly earlier situation. The persecution seems to have broken out only recently (1 Peter 4:12), and resentment toward the authorities has not yet had time to develop (1 Peter 2:13-17); while in Revelation the persecutors are hated bitterly and Christians have been enduring afflictions for some time (Revelation 2:13, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24). It is also said that in 1 Peter Christians are not being called upon to pay homage to the Emperor’s image (but see 1 Peter 3:14), while this demand has become very offensive by the time Revelation was written (Revelation 13:15, Revelation 20:4). Therefore 1 Peter is placed in the earlier part of Domitian’s reign (e.g. von Soden, c._ 90; McGiffert, before 90; Knopf, 81-90; Harnack, 83-93).
This line of argument assumes that conditions north of the Taurus were practically identical with those of eastern Asia Minor, and that Revelation is a reliable witness to the Domitianic persecution. The former assumption might easily be disputed, and perhaps the latter is open to some question. Certainly the popular belief that Domitian instituted a vigorous persecution in the East is not substantiated by the earliest authorities._ Perhaps the Christians’ troubles described in Revelation may have been brought on by certain local authorities acting on their own initiative and being zealous for the cult of the Emperor which had been prominent in Asia since the time of Augustus, its chief seat being at Pergamum (Dio Cassius, li. 20; Tacitus, Annals, iv. 37; cf. Revelation 2:13). But there is manifestly little similarity between the situation reflected in 1 Peter and that of the Christians in Revelation, nor is it certain that the two situations stand to one another in the relation of antecedent to consequent.
Those who adopt a Neronian date-a view which has been widely accepted_-have even greater difficulties in obtaining substantial evidence for a persecution of the desired type in northern Asia Minor in the sixties. There is, however, very explicit evidence for a severe persecution in Rome during Nero’s reign. Tacitus (Annals, xv. 44), writing about a.d. 115, says that Nero, in order to free himself from the charge of incendiarism, alleged that the Christians were responsible for the great fire of the year 64. While Tacitus does not think they were guilty, he does regard them as malefactors deserving the severest of the punishments which they received at Nero’s hands. Likewise Suetonius (Nero, 16), writing about five years later, says that Nero severely punished the new and mischievous superstition, though he does not make the great fire the occasion for this action. Clement of Rome (ad Cor. 5-7), about the year 95, speaks less explicitly, but in the light of the statements of Tacitus and Suetonius it seems altogether probable that Clement has in mind the Neronian persecution. Whether Tacitus is right in connecting the fire with Nero’s action against the Christians is sometimes disputed,_ but the evidence for a Neronian persecution some time after the conflagration of the year 64 is overwhelming. The ground of the persecution was crimes of one sort or another commonly charged against these people who were ‘hated for their enormities’ (so Tacitus). Clement says that ‘envy’ was the cause of the trouble, and his language doubtless reflects the same popular animosity of which Tacitus speaks. The new religionists probably were hated ‘as Christians,’ and from their point of view they might regard themselves as suffering for the name of Christ, but legally they were being punished for crimes of which they were accused by their enemies.
This situation might be said to correspond fairly well with that of 1 Peter, but we have no certain knowledge that the Neronian persecution reached to the East, and particularly to the peoples addressed in 1 Peter 1:1. Advocates of the Neronian date quite plausibly remark that members of the new cult, because of their hostility to contemporary customs, would everywhere become objects of hatred, a hatred which might break out in fiery persecution at any time when the magistrates could be induced to act. Some such hypothetical situation may have existed in northern Asia Minor during the reign of Nero, but this is only a possibility and not a certainty.
From the standpoint of the persecutions, the advantage would seem to be with a date shortly before the rescript of Trajan and during the early days of Pliny’s governorship. But if the letter was written at this time, or even under Domitian, it must have been pseudonymous (or anonymous). Peter cannot possibly have been alive in the second decade of the 2nd cent., nor is he likely to have lived until the time of Domitian._ Pseudonymity of itself is not inconceivable. The use of some ancient worthy’s name to lend authority to a message, especially in crises, was a literary phenomenon familiar to that age._ But for many interpreters other considerations weigh

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Peter, the Epistles of - Attested by 2 Peter 3:1. Polycarp (in 1 Peter 2:11-124); who in writing to the Philippians (Philippians 2) quotes 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 1:21; 1 Peter 3:9; in Philippians 5; 1 Peter 2:11. 3:39) says of Papins that he too quotes 1 Peter. 4:9, section 2) expressly mentions it; in 4:16, section 5, 1 Peter 2:16. (John 21:15-19 544) quotes 1618105171_55; 1 Peter 2:15-16; and p. 562, 1 Peter 1:21-22; and 1 Peter 2:6-109 1 Peter 3:14-17; and p. 585, 1 Peter 4:12-14. 6:25) mentions it; in Homily 7 on Joshua (2 Peter 3:5-669), both epistles; and in Commentary on Psalms and John 1 Peter 3:18-21. 12) quotes 1 Peter 2:20-21; and in 14 1 Peter 2:13; 1 Peter 2:17. Eusebius calls 1 Peter one of "the universally acknowledged epistles. The author calls himself the apostle Peter (1 Peter 1:1), "a witness of Christ's sufferings," and "an elder" (1 Peter 5:1). The energetic style accords with Peter's character. 1 Peter 1:1; "to the elect strangers (pilgrims spiritually) of the dispersion," namely, Jewish Christians primarily. 1 Peter 1:14. 1 Peter 2:9-10; 1 Peter 4:3, prove that Gentile Christians, as grafted into the Christian Jewish stock and so becoming of the true Israel, are secondarily addressed. Peter enumerates the provinces in the order from N. Men of Cappadocia, as well as of "Pontus" and "Asia" (including Mysia, Lydia, Curia, Phrygia, Pisidia, and Lycaonia), were among Peter's hearers on Pentecost; these brought home to their native lands the first tidings of the gospel. ...
Into Bithynia when Paul "assayed to go" the Spirit suffered him not; afterward the Spirit imparted to Bithynia the gospel, as 1 Peter 1:1 implies, probably through Peter. These churches were in much the same state (1 Peter 5:1-2 "feed") as when Paul addressed the Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20:17; Acts 20:28, "feed". ) Presbyter bishops ruled, Peter exercising a general superintendence. Ambition and lucre seeking are the evil tendencies against Which Peter warns the presbyters (1 Peter 5:2-3), evil thoughts and words, and a lack of mutual sympathy among the members. By the heavenly prospect before them, and by Christ the example, Peter consoles the partially persecuted, and prepares them for a severer ordeal coming. He exhorts all, husbands, wives, servants, elders, and people, by discharging relative duties to give the foe no handle for reproaching Christianity, rather to attract them to it; so Peter seeks to establish them in "the true grace of God wherein they stand "; but the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus manuscripts read "stand ye," imperatively (1 Peter 5:12), "Grace" is the keynote of Paul's doctrine which Peter confirms (Ephesians 2:5; Ephesians 2:8; Romans 5:2). He does not state the details of gospel grace, but takes them for granted (1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 1:18; 1 Peter 3:15; 2 Peter 3:1). ...
(I) Inscription (1 Peter 1:2). ...
(II) Stirs up believers' pure feeling, as born again of God, by the motive of hope to which God has regenerated us (1 Peter 1:3-12), to bring forth faith's holy fruits, seeing that Christ redeemed us from sin at so costly a price (1 Peter 1:13-21). Purified by the Spirit unto love of the brethren, as begotten of God's abiding word, spiritual priest-kings, to whom alone Christ is precious (1 Peter 1:22-2:10). As Paul is the apostle of faith and John of love, so Peter of hope. After Christ's example in suffering, maintain a good "conversation" (conduct) in every relation (1 Peter 2:11-3:14), and a good "profession" of faith, having in view Christ's once offered sacrifice and His future coming to judgment (1 Peter 3:15-4:11); showing patience in adversity, as looking for future glorification with Christ...
(1) in general as Christians (1 Peter 4:12-19),...
(2) each in his own relation (1 Peter 5:1-11). "Beloved" separates the second part from the first (1 Peter 2:11), and the third from the second (1 Peter 4:12). Compare 1 Peter 2:13 with Romans 13; 1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 6:5; 1 Peter 1:2; Ephesians 1:4-7; 1 Peter 1:3; Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:14; Romans 12:2; Proverbs 3:34; Romans 9:32-33; 1 Peter 2:13; Romans 13:1-4; 1 Peter 2:16; Galatians 5:13; 1 Peter 2:18; Ephesians 6:5; 1 Peter 3:1; Ephesians 5:22; 1 Peter 3:9; Romans 12:17; 1 Peter 4:9; Romans 12:13; Philippians 2:14; Hebrews 13:2; 1 Peter 4:10; Romans 12:6-8; 1 Peter 5:1; Romans 8:18; 1 Peter 5:5; Ephesians 5:21; Philippians 2:3-8; 1 Peter 5:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:6; 1 Peter 5:14; 1 Corinthians 16:20. ...
In 1 Peter 5:13 Mark is mentioned as at Babylon; this must have been after Colossians 4:10 (A. It was either when he went to Colosse that he proceeded to Peter, thence to Ephesus, from whence (2 Timothy 4:11) Paul tells Timothy to bring him to Rome (A. 67 or 68); or after Paul's second imprisonment and death Peter testified to the same churches, those of Asia Minor, following up Paul's teachings. This is more likely, for Peter would hardly trench on Paul's field of labour during Paul's life. The Gentile as well as the Hebrew Christians would after Paul's removal naturally look to Peter and the spiritual fathers of the Jerusalem church for counsel wherewith to meet Judaizing Christians and heretics; false teachers may have appealed from Paul to James and Peter. Therefore Peter confirms Paul and shows there is no difference between their teachings. Origen's and Eusebius' statement that Peter visited the Asiatic churches in person seems probable. Peter wrote from Babylon (1 Peter 5:13). The order in which Peter enumerates the countries, from N. Silvanus, Paul's companion, subsequently Peter's, carried the epistle. The logical reasoning of Paul is not here; but Paul's gospel, as communicated to Peter by Paul (Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:2), is evidently before Peter's mind. Characteristic of Peter are the phrases "baptism . the answer of a good conscience toward God" (1 Peter 3:21); "consciousness of God" (1 Peter 2:19 Greek), i. conscientiousness, a motive for enduring sufferings; "living hope" (1 Peter 1:3); "an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth not away" (1 Peter 1:4); "kiss of charity" (1 Peter 5:14). ...
He thus confirms James' inspired writings: compare 1 Peter 1:6-7; James 1:2-3; 1 Peter 1:24. James 1:10; 1 Peter 2:1; James 1:21; 1 Peter 4:8; James 5:20; Proverbs 10:12; 1 Peter 5:5; James 4:6; 1618105171_25. His speeches in the independent history, Acts, accord with his language in his epistles, an undesigned coincidence and mark of truth: 1 Peter 2:7, "the stone . disallowed," Acts 4:11; 1 Peter 1:12, "preached . with the Holy Spirit," Acts 5:32; 1 Peter 2:24, "bare our sins . on the tree," Acts 5:30; Acts 10:39; 1 Peter 5:1, "witness of the sufferings of Christ," Acts 2:32; Acts 3:15; 1 Peter 1:10, "the prophets . of the grace," Acts 3:18; Acts 10:43; 1 Peter 1:21, "God raised Him from the dead," Acts 3:15; Acts 10:40; 1 Peter 4:5, "Him . ready to judge," Acts 10:42; 1 Peter 2:24, "that we being dead to sins," Acts 3:19; Acts 3:26. 1:3,; "Shepherd of souls," 1 Peter 2:25; "feed the flock of God . the chief Shepherd," 1 Peter 5:2; 1 Peter 5:4; "whom ye love," 1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 2:7; also 2 Peter 1:14, "shortly I must put off this my tabernacle, even as our Lord Jesus Christ hath showed me. "Simon Peter a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ" stands at its heading. He reminds us at the close of his life that he is the Peter who was originally "Simon" before his call. In 2 Peter 1:16-18 he mentions his presence at the transfiguration, and Christ's prophecy of his death; and 2 Peter 2:4-5 his brotherhood to his beloved Paul. In 2 Peter 3:1 he identifies himself as author of the former epistle. He presumes their acquaintance with Paul's epistles, by that time acknowledged as Scripture; 2 Peter 3:15, "the longsuffering of God," alluding to Romans 2:4. A late date is implied, just before Peter's death, when Paul's epistles (including Romans) had become generally circulated and accepted as Scripture. ...
If Peter were not the author the epistle would be false, as it expressly claims to be his; then the canon of the council of Laodicea, A. The writer writes not of himself, but "moved by the Holy Spirit" (2 Peter 1:21). 6:4; 2 Peter 2:13, and 2 Peter 2:15; 2 Peter 2:20) quotes its words. 7; 9; 10) alludes to its references to Noah's preaching and Lot's deliverance (compare 2 Peter 2:5-7; 2 Peter 2:9). 178) and Justin Martyr allude to 2 Peter 3:8. ...
Hippolytus (de Antichristo) refers to 2 Peter 1:21. ), quoting 2 Peter 1:4; 2 Peter 2:16. ad Cyprian) says Peter's epistles warn us to avoid heretics; this warning is in the second epistle, not the first. Now Cappadocia (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1) is among the countries addressed; so it is from Cappadocia we get the earliest testimony. Internally it professes Peter is its writer; Christians of the very country to whose custody it was committed confirm this. )...
Though not of "the universally confessed" (homologoumea ) Scriptures, but of "the disputed" (antilegomena ), 2 Peter is altogether distinct from "the spurious" (notha ); of these there was no dispute, they were universally rejected as the Shepherd of Hermas, the Revelation of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas. 348) enumerates seven universal epistles including 2 Peter. ) guessed from a presumed difference of style that Peter, being unable to write Greek, employed a different Greek translator of his Hebrew dictation in the second epistle from the translator of first epistle. So Mark's Gospel was derived from Peter. Silvanus, the bearer, Paul's companion, may have been employed in the composition, and Peter with him probably read carefully Paul's epistles, from whence arise correspondences of style and thought: as 1 Peter 1:3 with Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 2:18 with Ephesians 6:5; 1 Peter 3:1 with Ephesians 5:22; 1 Peter 5:5 with Ephesians 5:21. Peter looks for the Lord's sudden coming and the end of the world (2 Peter 3:8-10; 1 Peter 4:5). The prophets' inspiration (1 Peter 1:10-12; 2 Peter 1:19; 2 Peter 1:21; 2 Peter 3:2). New birth by the Divine Word a motive to abstinence from worldly lusts (1 Peter 1:22; 1 Peter 2:2; 2 Peter 1:4; also 1 Peter 2:9 margin; 2 Peter 1:3, the rare word "virtue," 1 Peter 4:17; 2 Peter 2:3). Christ's sufferings are prominent in 1 Peter, its design being to encourage Christians under sufferings; His glory in the second epistle, its design being to communicate fuller "knowledge" of Him, as the antidote to the false teaching against which Peter forewarns his readers. So His title as Redeemer, "Christ," is in 1 Peter, "the Lord" in 2 Peter. Hope characterizes 1 Peter, full knowledge 2 Peter. In 2 Peter, where he designs to warn against false teachers, he puts forward his apostolic authority more than in 1 Peter. Verbal coincidences, marking identity of authorship, occur (1 Peter 1:19 end; 2 Peter 3:14 end; 1 Peter 3:1; 1 Peter 3:5; 2 Peter 2:16; "own," idiot, 2 Peter 3:17). The Greek article omitted 1 Peter 2:13; 2 Peter 1:21; 2 Peter 3:15; 2 Peter 2:7. the body, and "decease" (2 Peter 1:13; 2 Peter 1:15) are the very words in Luke's narrative of the transfiguration (Luke 9:31; Luke 9:33), an undesigned coincidence confirming genuineness. The first epistle often quotes Old Testament, the second epistle often (without quoting) refers to it (2 Peter 1:21; 2 Peter 2:5-8; 2 Peter 2:15; 1618105171_2; 2 Peter 3:10; 2 Peter 3:13). So "putting away" (apothesis ) occurs in both (1 Peter 3:21; 2 Peter 1:14). ...
"Pass the time" (anastrafeste ), 1 Peter 1:17; 2 Peter 2:18; 1 Peter 4:3 "walked in" (peporeumenois ), 2 Peter 2:10; 2 Peter 3:3. "Called you," 1 Peter 1:15; 1 Peter 2:9; 1 Peter 5:10; 2 Peter 1:3. Besides, the verbal coincidences with Peter's speeches in Acts are more in 2 Peter than in 1 Peter; as (lachousin ) "obtained," 2 Peter 1:1, with Acts 1:17; 2 Peter 1:6, "godliness," Acts 3:12 (eusebeia , translated "godliness"); 2 Peter 2:9; Acts 10:2; Acts 10:7, eusebeis in both, "godly"; 2 Peter 2:9, "punished," Acts 4:21 (the only places where kolazomai , is used); 2 Peter 3:10; Acts 2:20, "day of the Lord," peculiar to these two passages and 1 Thessalonians 5:2
Rome Scot - See Peter pence, under Peter
Peter, Letters of - The Christians addressed in 1 Peter lived mainly in the northern provinces of Asia Minor bordering the Black Sea (1 Peter 1:1). These were places that Paul had not been allowed to enter (Acts 16:7-8), but that Peter had helped to evangelize, most likely with John Mark as his assistant (1 Peter 5:13). ...
Purpose in writing 1 Peter...
It was the era of the Roman Emperor Nero (who ruled from AD 54 to 68) and persecution against Christians was increasing everywhere. At the time of writing, Peter was apparently in Rome. This was the heart of the Empire and the place that Christians referred to as Babylon, the symbol of arrogant opposition to God and his people (1 Peter 5:13). Paul had recently been executed (2 Timothy 4:6), and Peter felt that a more violent persecution was about to break out. ...
Peter therefore wrote to warn Christians not to be surprised or ashamed when they met persecution (1 Peter 4:12; 1 Peter 4:16). They were to bear their sufferings with patience, even if it meant death, and they were to bear intelligent witness to their faith in Christ (1 Peter 2:20-23; 1 Peter 3:14-15; 1 Peter 4:19). Always, however, they had the assurance of a living hope and a glorious future (1 Peter 1:3-8). ...
Contents of 1 Peter...
At the outset Peter reminds his readers that although God wants his people to have assurance of their salvation, he also tests their faith to prove its genuineness (1:1-12). ...
This leads Peter to consider the responsibility Christians have to maintain good conduct in society (2:11-17), even when people in general are against them (2:18-25). ...
Because church leaders have such a vital work to do among believers in times of difficulty, Peter gives some special instruction for them (5:1-5). ...
Purpose in writing 2 Peter...
It seems that Peter wrote the letter known as Second Peter only a year or so after he wrote First Peter, and that he sent it to the same people (cf. 2 Peter 3:1 with 1 Peter 1:1). It seems also that Peter was in prison, most likely in Rome, and expected to be executed soon (2 Peter 1:14-15). ...
The main error that Peter opposed was the claim by the false teachers that, since faith alone was necessary for salvation, Christians could live as they pleased. Immoral practices were not wrong for those who had gained a higher knowledge of spiritual things, and in fact were evidence that they had gained true freedom (2 Peter 2:1-3). (Concerning the similarities between 2 Peter and Jude see JUDE. ...
Contents of 2 Peter...
Peter counters the false teaching about Christian behaviour by showing that when people are saved by faith, their lives are changed in the direction of virtue, morality, self-control, godliness and love (1:1-15). Then, in a strong denunciation of the false teachers, Peter describes their immoral character and announces their certain punishment (2:1-22)
Peter, First Epistle of - Peter, FIRST EPISTLE OF . No Epistle of the NT has caught more of the spirit of Jesus than 1Peter . Thanksgiving and exhortation in view of the Christian salvation , 1 Peter 1:3 to 1 Peter 2:10 . ) The glorious character of the Christian salvation, 1 Peter 1:3-12 . ...
( a ) A sure inheritance, 1 Peter 1:3-5 1 Peter 1:3-5 . ...
( b ) A present joy, notwithstanding manifold trials, 1 Peter 1:5-9 1 Peter 1:5-9 . ...
( c ) The fulfilment of the promises made to the prophets, and a wonder even to angels, 1 Peter 1:10-12 1 Peter 1:10-12 . ) Exhortation to realize this hope in a holy life as members of a Divine brotherhood, 1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10 . ...
( a ) The holy and absolutely just Father requires filial obedience, 1 Peter 1:16-17 1 Peter 1:16-17 . It is in the Holy God thus revealed that all your faith and hope rest, 1 Peter 1:18-21 . They have become the new Israel, the people of God, 1 Peter 1:22 1 Peter 1:22 to 1 Peter 2:10 1 Peter 2:10 . The behaviour of the Christian in the world and in the brotherhood , 1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 2:22-24 . ...
It must be pure and honourable in the midst of the heathen,1 Peter 2:11-12 1 Peter 2:11-12 . ...
( a ) Though free servants of God, Christians must be loyal to the earthly government, and observe their duties to all men in their several stations, 1 Peter 2:13-17 . ...
( b ) Slaves must be obedient even to harsh masters, showing their possession of Divine grace and their discipleship to Jesus, by enduring suffering like Him whose unmerited death has brought us salvation, 1 Peter 2:18-25 1 Peter 2:18-25 . Likewise husbands must honour their wives as equally with themselves heirs of life, 1 Peter 3:1-7 1 Peter 3:1-7 . ...
( d ) The duty of a peaceful and kindly life to strengthen the unity within the brotherhood, 1 Peter 3:8-12 1 Peter 3:8-12 . The uses of suffering , 1 Peter 3:13 to 1 Peter 4:19 . ...
( a ) Suffering cannot really harm one who has Christ in his heart; nay, gentle steadfastness under persecution may, like our Master’s, win over others to God, 1 Peter 3:13-17 1 Peter 3:13-17 . Quickened in spirit by death, Christ carried the gospel to the godless world that perished in the Flood, through which Noah and his family were saved, a type of the Christian who in his baptism asks God for a good conscience, and is cleansed through the risen Christ now triumphant over all His enemies,1 Peter 3:18-22 1 Peter 3:18-22 . Though your former heathen comrades revile you for abandoning their life of sensuality, you must have done with them and leave them to the just Judge of all, 1 Peter 4:1-6 . In the short time that remains until the return of the Lord, Christians should live a life of self-control, exercising brotherly love, hospitality, and spiritual gifts, 1 Peter 4:7-11 . They are a sign that judgment is near, which you may await in a life of well-doing, trusting your faithful Creator, 1 Peter 4:12-19 . Miscellaneous advice , 1 Peter 5:1-14 . ...
( a ) Counsel to elder of the Church, and to the younger men, 1 Peter 5:1-6 1 Peter 5:1-6 . ...
( b ) Exhortation to resignation, watchfulness, and trust in the midst of the terrible sufferings that are being endured by the brotherhood everywhere, 1 Peter 5:6-11 1 Peter 5:6-11 . ...
( c ) Personal greetings, 1 Peter 5:12-14 . Peter had any share in it. At first sight it would appear that the readers were Jewish Christians, as some scholars hold that they were, but the body of the Epistle clearly shows that the prevailing element was Gentile, and the words of 11 are to be taken figuratively of the sojourn of the Christian as a resident alien on earth, absent from his heavenly fatherland ( 1 Peter 2:8 ; 1 Peter 2:10 , 1 Peter 4:1-4 ). The former life of the readers, on the average low level of Asia Minor, had been given over to the vices of the flesh; perhaps, indeed, their past conduct was the source from which the criminal charges were brought against them afterwards as Christians ( 1 Peter 2:12 , 1 Peter 4:15-16 ). The Churches were suffering severely, though there does not seem to have been an official persecution, or a systematic attempt at extermination, for it is assumed that most will remain until the Parousia ( 1 Peter 4:7 ). So severe was their suffering, that only the strong arm of God could protect them in their temptation ( 1 Peter 1:6-7 , 1 Peter 4:12 , 1 Peter 5:6 ). Christians are easily confounded with criminals ( 1 Peter 2:12 ; 1Pe 2:15-16 , 1 Peter 3:13 ; 1 Peter 3:16-17 , 1 Peter 4:15 ; 1 Peter 4:19 ), slaves suffer at the hands of their masters, wives from their husbands, but their experience was of the same character as that of the Christian brotherhood throughout the world ( 1 Peter 5:9 ). They are urged to sustain their moral life in the exercise of a calm and sober confidence in the grace of God soon to be revealed more fully ( 1 Peter 1:18 , 1 Peter 4:7 , 1 Peter 5:8-10 ), and to commend their gospel to the heathen world by their lives of goodness, entrusting themselves in well-doing to a faithful Creator ( 1 Peter 4:19 ). Faith in God as the holy Father and faithful Creator is built upon the solid facts of the gospel, in particular, the life, death, and resurrection of Christ the eternal Messiah ( 1 Peter 1:8-21 ). He was spotless, the perfect pattern for men, but also the Messiah, who as the Servant of the Lord has by His death ransomed a new people and ratified a new covenant ( 1Pe 1:2 ; 1 Peter 1:18-20 , 1 Peter 3:12 ). By His resurrection He has been exalted to God’s right hand, and will soon return to unveil further glories ( 1 Peter 1:13 , 1 Peter 3:22 ). The most probable interpretation of 1 Peter 3:18 ff. In this life Christ becomes an object of inexpressible joy to believers on whom the Spirit has been poured forth ( 1 Peter 1:2 ; 1 Peter 1:8 ; 1 Peter 1:12 ). Peter does not regard the Spirit as the source of Christian virtues, but as the pledge of our future inheritance, as well as of present Divine grace manifested in the ability to endure suffering ( 1 Peter 4:14 ). This Spirit was also identified with the pre-existent Messiah, and was the means of His persistence through death ( 1 Peter 1:11 , 1 Peter 3:18-19 , 1 Peter 4:14 ). By the Spirit the brethren are also consecrated in a new covenant to Jehovah, thereby receiving the fulfilment of the promise of the Messianic age ( 1 Peter 1:24-25 ). The Christian is a pilgrim on earth, his life one of love to the brethren and of gentle endurance towards the unbeliever, whom he seeks to win to the gospel, while he stands ready girt for his Master’s coming ( 1 Peter 1:18 , 1 Peter 5:5-11 ). ]'>[1] , especially to the Psalms and to Isaiah, whose teaching as to the holiness of God and the redemptive efficacy of the sufferings of the Servant of the Lord is echoed ( 1 Peter 1:18-20 , Isaiah 52:3 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ; 1 Peter 1:2 , Isaiah 40:6 ff. ; 1 Peter 2:6 ff. , Isaiah 28:18 , Psa 118:22 ; 1 Peter 2:21 ff. ; Isaiah 53 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ff. Proverbs also is used ( 1 Peter 2:17 , Pro 24:21 ; 1 Peter 4:8 , Proverbs 10:12 ; 1 Peter 4:18 , Proverbs 11:31 ; 1 Peter 5:5 , Proverbs 3:34 ). An acquaintance with this pseudepigraphic book may be traced in 1Pe 1:12 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ; 1 Peter 3:20 . Peter claims to have been a witness of the sufferings and the glory of Jesus ( 1 Peter 5:1 ), which may refer both to the Transfiguration and to the appearances of the risen Christ. The great command of Jesus to His disciples to renounce the world, take up the cross and follow Him, seems to re-echo in this Epistle; as Jesus pronounced blessings on those who were persecuted for righteousness’ sake, so does Peter ( 1 Peter 3:14 , Mark 2:5-10 ), and other words from the Sermon on the Mount ( Matthew 5:10-11 ; Matthew 5:16 ; Matthew 6:25 ) seem to speak in 1Pe 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:13-16 ; 1 Peter 5:6 . The parable of the Sower may have supplied the figure of 1 Peter 1:23 ff. ; the lesson of the tribute money may underlie 1 Peter 2:13-14 ; and Christ’s utterance of doom on apostate Israel, especially the parable of Mark 12:1-12 , probably suggested the thought of 1 Peter 4:14 . There are similarities with Peter’s speeches in Acts, e. also 1 Peter 3:20 with Acts 3:19-21 . A comparison of Romans with this Epistle reveals striking resemblances between them ( 1 Peter 1:14 , Rom 12:2 ; 1 Peter 1:22 , Romans 12:9 ; 1 Peter 2:5 , Romans 12:1 ; 1 Peter 2:6-8 ; 1 Peter 2:10 , Romans 9:25 ; Romans 9:32-33 , 1 Peter 2:13-17 , Romans 13:1 ; Romans 13:8 ; Romans 13:4 ; Rom 13:7 ; 1 Peter 3:8-9 , Romans 12:16 ; 1 Peter 4:7-11 , Romans 12:3 ; Romans 12:6 ), so close, indeed, in 1 Peter 2:6 and Romans 9:32 , that it is all but certain that one Epistle was known to the writer of the other; and Romans must have been the earlier. The more or less obvious relations of Ephesians with 1Peter ( 1Pe 1:3-5 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ; 1 Peter 1:9 , Ephesians 1:3-14 ; 1 Peter 1:12 , Ephesians 3:5 ; Ephesians 3:10 ; 1 Peter 2:4-8 , Ephesians 2:18-22 ; 1 Peter 2:18 , Ephesians 6:5 ; 1 Peter 3:1-7 , Ephesians 5:22-33 ; 1 Peter 3:22 , Ephesians 1:20-22 ) justify the opinion that ‘the authors of both letters breathed the same atmosphere’ (v. 1 Peter 1:8 , Hebrews 11:1 : 1 Peter 1:20 , Hebrews 9:26 ; 1 Peter 2:21-23 , Hebrews 12:1-3 ; 1Pe 4:13 ; 1 Peter 5:1 , Hebrews 11:26 ; Heb 13:13 ; 1 Peter 4:11 , Hebrews 13:21 ; 1 Peter 5:10 , Hebrews 13:21 . A comparison of 1 Peter 1:1 , James 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:6 f. ; 1 Peter 1:23 to 1 Peter 2:1 , Jam 1:11-22 ; 1 Peter 5:5 f. According to the present greeting, this Epistle was written by the Apostle Peter, and this is supported by very strong tradition. It is first quoted as Peter’s by Irenæus and Tertullian, and is frequently used by Clement of Alexandria. Harnack suggests that the opening and closing verses were later additions, and that Polycarp did not regard the letter as Peter’s; but this hypothesis is utterly without textual support, and both paragraphs are fitted compactly into the Epistle. The chief objections to the Petrine authorship are (1) the Epistle is said to be so saturated with Pauline ideas that it could not have been written by the Apostle Peter; (2) the readers are Gentile Christians living within territory evangelized by Paul, in which Peter would have been trespassing on the Gentiles ( Galatians 2:9 ); (3) there is a lack of personal reminiscences of the life of Jesus that would be strange in Peter; (4) the use of good Greek and of the LXX Peter - ” Four names are used in the New Testament to refer to Peter: the Hebrew name Simeon ( Acts 15:14 ); the Greek equivalent Simon (nearly fifty times in the Gospels and Acts); Cephas , most frequently used by Paul (1 Corinthians 1:12 ; 1 Corinthians 3:22 ; 1 Corinthians 9:5 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 ; Galatians 1:18 ; Galatians 2:9 ,Galatians 2:9,2:11 ,Galatians 2:11,2:14 ) and occurring only once outside his writings (John 1:42 ). Cephas and Peter both mean rock . Simon is often found in combination with Peter , reminding the reader that Simon was the earlier name and that Peter was a name given later by Jesus. The name Peter dominates the New Testament usage. ...
Family of Peter The Gospels preserve a surprising amount of information about Peter and his family. Peter was married (Mark 1:29-31 ; 1 Corinthians 9:5 ) and maintained a residence in Capernaum (Mark 1:21 ,Mark 1:21,1:29 ). Before becoming disciples of Jesus, Peter and Andrew had been influenced by the teaching of John the Baptist (John 1:35-42 ). ...
Role of Peter Among the Disciples Peter is credited with being a leader of the twelve disciples whom Jesus called. Jesus often singled out Peter for teachings intended for the entire group of disciples (see especially Mark 8:29-33 ). As a member of the inner circle, Peter was present with Jesus at the raising of the synagogue ruler's daughter (Mark 5:35-41 ), at the Transfiguration (Mark 9:2-8 ), and at the arrest of Jesus in Gethsemene (Mark 14:43-50 ). As representative disciple, Peter frequently typified the disciple of little faith . Peter was, however, rehabilitated in the scene where the resurrected Jesus restored Peter to his position of prominence (John 21:15-19 ; compare Mark 16:7 ). ...
Peter's Role in the Early Church Despite Peter's role among the disciples and the promise of his leadership in the early church (see especially Matthew 16:17-19 ), Peter did not emerge as the leader of either form of primitive Christianity. Though Peter was active in the incipient stages of the Gentile mission (see Acts 10-11 ), Paul became the “apostle to the gentiles. ”...
Peter probably sacrificed his chances to be the leader of either one of these groups because of his commitment to serve as a bridge in the early church, doing more than any other to hold together the diverse strands of primitive Christianity. ...
The Legacy of Peter Tradition holds that Peter died as a martyr in Rome in the 60s (1Clem. Both 1,2Peter in the New Testament are traditionally attributed to the apostle Peter. Significant also was the presence of a group of devotees of Peter who produced several writings in the name of the apostle—the Acts of Peter, the Gospel of Peter (and some would include 2Peter). To a great extent, subsequent generations of the church rely...
on the confession, witness, and ministry of Peter, the devoted, but fallible follower of Christ. (See Peter, Epistles of; Jerusalem conference; Jerusalem church; Jewish Christianity; Disciples, Apostles
Peter - Simon Peter was one of the earliest believers in Jesus. Jesus immediately saw the man’s leadership qualities and gave him a new name, Peter (or Cephas), meaning ‘a rock’ (John 1:42). Not long after, there was another meeting, this time in Galilee, when Peter became one of the first believers to leave their normal occupations and become active followers of Jesus (Matthew 4:18-22). When Jesus later selected twelve men from among his followers and appointed them as his special apostles, Peter was at the head of the list (Matthew 10:2). ...
Peter and Jesus...
The son of a man named John (or Jonah) (Matthew 16:17; John 1:42; John 21:15), Peter came from Bethsaida on the shore of Lake Galilee (John 1:44). Peter and Andrew worked as fishermen on the lake, in partnership with another pair of brothers, James and John (Matthew 4:18; Luke 5:10). ...
From the beginning Peter showed himself to be energetic, self-confident and decisive. Jesus knew that Peter had sufficient quality of character to respond to the lessons and so become a stronger person in the end (Mark 14:29; Mark 14:66-72; Luke 22:31-34). ...
As Jesus’ ministry progressed, Peter, James and John became recognized as a small group to whom Jesus gave special responsibilities and privileges (Mark 5:37; Mark 9:2; Mark 14:33). Peter was the natural leader of the twelve and was often their spokesman (Mark 1:36-37; Mark 10:27-28; Luke 12:41; John 6:67-68; John 13:24; John 21:2-3; Acts 1:15-16). On the occasion when Jesus questioned his disciples to see if they were convinced he was the Messiah, Jesus seems to have accepted Peter’s reply as being on behalf of the group. In responding to Peter, Jesus was telling the apostles that they would form the foundation on which he would build his unconquerable church (Matthew 16:13-18; cf. ...
When Peter’s testing time came, however, he denied Jesus three times (Luke 22:61-62). Jesus therefore paid special attention to Peter in the days after the resurrection. He appeared to Peter before he appeared to the rest of the apostles (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5; cf. Mark 16:7), and later gained from Peter a public statement of his devotion to his Lord (John 21:15). ...
In accepting Peter’s statement and entrusting to him the care of God’s people, Jesus showed the other disciples that he had forgiven and restored Peter. At the same time he told Peter why he needed such strong devotion. As a prominent leader in the difficult days of the church’s beginning, Peter could expect to receive the full force of the opposition (John 21:17-19; cf. ...
Peter and the early church...
The change in Peter was evident in the early days of the church. He was confident in the living power of the risen Christ (Acts 2:33; Acts 3:6; Acts 3:16; 1 Peter 5:12-1390; Acts 4:29-30). 1 Peter 2:21-23; 1 Peter 4:19). ...
Peter had been brought up an orthodox Jew and did not immediately break his association with traditional Jewish practices (Acts 3:1; Acts 5:12-17). ...
In spite of all this, a special vision from God was necessary to convince Peter that uncircumcised Gentiles were to be accepted into the church freely, without their first having to submit to the Jewish law (Acts 10:9-16). More traditionally minded Jews in the Jerusalem church criticized Peter for his broad-mindedness. Peter silenced them by describing his vision and telling them of the events at Caesarea (Acts 11:1-18). ...
Another factor in Peter’s changing attitudes towards Gentiles was the influence of Paul. They met again eleven years later, when Peter and other Jerusalem leaders expressed fellowship with Paul and Barnabas in their mission to the Gentiles (Galatians 2:1; Galatians 2:9). ...
Although Peter understood his mission as being primarily to the Jews (Galatians 2:7), he visited the mainly Gentile church in Syrian Antioch and ate freely with the Gentile Christians. Paul rebuked him publicly and Peter readily acknowledged his error (Galatians 2:11-14). When church leaders later met in Jerusalem to discuss the matter of Gentiles in the church, Peter openly and forthrightly supported Paul (Acts 15:7-11). ...
A wider ministry...
Little is recorded of Peter’s later movements. The churches he helped establish there were the churches to which he sent the letters known as 1 and 2 Peter (1 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 3:1). ...
During this time Mark worked closely with Peter. In fact, Peter regarded Mark as his ‘son’ (1 Peter 5:13). When Peter left for other regions, Mark remained in Rome, where he helped the Christians by recording for them the story of Jesus as they had heard it from Peter. (For the influence of Peter in Mark’s account see MARK, GOSPEL OF. )...
Later, Peter revisited Rome. Mark was again with him, and so was Silas, who acted as Peter’s secretary in writing a letter to the churches of northern Asia Minor. In this letter Peter followed the early Christian practice of referring to Rome as Babylon (1 Peter 1:1; 1618105171_7). The letter shows how incidents and teachings that Peter witnessed during Jesus’ life continued to have a strong influence on his preaching (cf. 1 Peter 1:22 with John 15:12; cf. 1 Peter 2:7 with Matthew 21:42; cf. 1 Peter 2:12 with Matthew 5:16; cf. 1 Peter 3:9 with Matthew 5:39; cf. 1 Peter 4:15-16 with Mark 14:66-72; cf. 1 Peter 4:7 with Luke 22:45-46; cf. 1 Peter 4:19 with Luke 23:46; cf. 1 Peter 5:1 with Mark 9:2-8; cf. 1 Peter 5:2 with John 21:16; cf. 1 Peter 5:5 with John 13:4; John 13:14; cf. 1 Peter 5:7 with Matthew 6:25). Peter wrote his First Letter to prepare Christians for what lay ahead. (For details see Peter, LETTERS OF. ) By the time he wrote his Second Letter he was in prison, awaiting the execution that Jesus had spoken of about thirty years earlier (2 Peter 1:13-15; cf. According to tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome some time during the period AD 65-69
Bar-Jona - Son of Jonah, the patronymic of Peter (Matthew 16:17 ; John 1:42 ), because his father's name was Jonas. (See Peter
John (2) - —The father of Simon Peter (John 1:42; John 21:15-17, Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885; Authorized Version Jonas). See Peter
Peter - Peter (pç'ter), stone, or rock; Syriac Cephas; Greek Petros. Peter forsook all to follow Christ. His new name "Peter" ("rock-man") was given him when he was called to the apostleship. The name "Peter" or "Cephas" was a prophecy of the prominent position which he, as the confessor of Christ, would occupy in the primitive age of the church. Peter was not infallible, for Paul "withstood him to the face because he was to be blamed. The labors of Peter are recorded in the Acts, chaps. According to the testimony of Christian antiquity, Peter suffered martyrdom in Rome under Nero, but his residence in Rome is disputed, and the year of his martyrdom is uncertain. 61-63, no mention is made of Peter. Origen adds, however, that Peter, deeming himself unworthy to suffer death in the same manner as his Master, was at his own request crucified with his head downward. ...
Epistles of Peter. The genuineness of 1 Peter has never been seriously questioned. 1 Peter 5:13. 2 Peter was less confidently ascribed to Peter by the early church than the first epistle. There is no sufficient ground, however, for doubting its canonical authority, or that Peter was its author. 2 Peter 1:1; 2 Peter 1:18; 2 Peter 3:1. Compare also 1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5. Both epistles attest the harmony between the doctrines of Peter and Paul. "The faith expounded by Paul kindles into fervent hope in the words of Peter, and expands into sublime love in those of John
Cephas - A rock, a Syriac or later Hebrew name given to Peter by Christ, John 1:42 . See Peter
Symeon - Acts 15:14 = Simon Peter (see Peter)
Precious - (1 Peter 2:4; 1 Peter 2:6, 1 Corinthians 3:12; cf. It is also applied to the great promises (2 Peter 1:4), to the blood of Christ (1 Peter 1:19), and to faith, ‘equally precious faith’ (2 Peter 1:1, RVm_). The AV_ rendering of 1 Peter 2:7, ‘Unto you therefore which believe he is precious’ is changed in RV_ to ‘For you therefore which believe is the preciousness
Foreknowledge, - Acts 2:23 ; Romans 8:29 ; Romans 11:2 ; 1 Peter 1:2 . The verb is also translated 'know before,' 2 Peter 3:17 ; and 'foreordain. ' 1 Peter 1:20
Holy, Holiness - As Christians we are called to be holy (1 Peter 1:16). We are to be holy in obedience (1 Peter 1:14). God has made us holy through His Son Jesus (Ephesians 1:4; 1 Peter 2:9)
Silas - ...
After his association with Paul, Silas worked closely with Peter. He visited Rome with Peter, and played a part in the writing of 1 Peter, a letter that Peter sent to the churches of northern Asia Minor (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 5:12-13; see Peter, LETTERS OF)
Peter, Festival of Saint - A Holy Day of the Church observed onJune 29th in honor of the Apostle Saint Peter, and is one of theoldest of Christian Festivals, having been traced back to the SecondCentury. Peter was one of the first two disciples whom ourLord called. His original name was Simon or Simeon, which was changedinto Cephas, which in the Syrian language, signifies a stone orrock; from this it was derived into the Greek Petros, and sotermed by us Peter. Peter should manifest in preaching the Gospeland in establishing the Church. Peter. Peter is variously represented, with a keyin his hand; with a key and church; with keys and cross; in chainsand in prison, etc
Symeon - See Peter
Simon Peter - See Peter
Cephas - See Peter
Peter, Second Epistle of - Peter, SECOND EPISTLE OF. This Epistle cannot rank with 1Peter as a Christian classic; indeed, very many would agree with Jülicher that ‘2Peter is not only the latest document of the NT, but also the least deserving of a place in the canon. ) Greeting and exhortation , 2 Peter 1:1-11 . The Epistle opens with a salutation from Simon Peter to readers who, through the righteousness of God, have been admitted to the full privileges of the Apostolic faith. His prayer for increased blessing upon them, through the knowledge of God and Jesus our Lord, is based on the fact that by the revelation of His glorious excellence His Divine power has made a godly life possible for us and has given rich promises of our ultimately sharing His nature, when we have escaped from this present world perishing in its lust ( 2 Peter 1:1-4 ). They are therefore urged to enrich their character with virtues, because only from such a soil will a full knowledge of Jesus Christ grow; and entrance into His eternal Kingdom depends upon forgiveness of sins, and the zealous effort of the believer to make the gospel call effective by a life of virtue ( 2 Peter 1:6-11 ). ) The sure witness to the gospel , 2 Peter 1:12-21 . The Apostle will hold himself in readiness to remind his readers of the truth; and since; his death may be sudden, he will endeavour to leave them a trustworthy memorial of his teaching; for, unlike the false teachers, Peter was an eye-witness competent to set forth the power and the return of the Lord, having seen the Transfiguration on the Holy Mount. But their doom at the hand of a righteous God, is no less certain than that of the angels who sinned, or the antediluvian world, or Sodom and Gomorrah; though now also, as theo, the few righteous will escape ( 2 Peter 1:1-9 ). Had these apostates never known the truth, it would have been better for them ( 2 Peter 1:10-21 ). The memory of the Flood should be a warning to the scoffers ( 2 Peter 1:1-7 ). Safety lies in watchfulness and in growth in the grace and knowledge of Jesus Christ ( 2 Peter 1:8-18 ). Were it not that 2 Peter 3:1 seems to refer to 1Peter , no definite information would be found in this letter as to the locality of the readers. It may be inferred that the readers were Gentiles ( 2 Peter 1:1 ), and were being misled by distortions of the Pauline doctrine of grace ( 2 Peter 3:16 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ), though the Churches were undisturbed by any echoes of the Jewish-Christian controversy. Some are already at work among them ( 2 Peter 2:13-18 ). Apparently they were all of one type, and so wicked as to he compared with the worst sinners of the OT ( 2Pe 2:4 ; 2 Peter 2:8 ; 2 Peter 2:8 ; 2 Peter 2:18 ). The cities of Syria or Samaria would be a not improbable situation for the readers of 2Peter. It is a mistake to confine the purpose of 2Peter to the refutation of one error, as, e. Though the direct quotations are few ( Psalms 90:4 in 2 Peter 3:8 and probably Proverbs 26:11 in 2 Peter 2:22 , with reminiscences of Isaiah 34:4 in 2 Peter 3:12 , and Isaiah 65:17 ; Isaiah 66:22 in 2 Peter 3:13 ), the real indebtedness of 2Peter to the OT is very great in the historical examples of ch. 2, and in the view of Creation, the Flood, and the Day of the Lord ( 2 Peter 3:5-7 ). with 2 Peter 3:7 ; 2 Peter 3:10 ); and the use of Proverbs may perhaps he seen in 2 Peter 2:17 ( 2 Peter 1:3-42 ; Proverbs 21:6 ; Proverbs 25:14 ) and in 2 Peter 2:21 ( Proverbs 12:28 ; Proverbs 16:17 ; Proverbs 16:31 )...
( b ) Book of Enoch . 11 21 has influenced 2 Peter 2:4 ; 2 Peter 2:11 . The most obvious references are in 2 Peter 1:16-18 , which agrees fundamentally, though not precisely, with the Synoptic narratives of the Transfiguration, and in 1:14, which seems to point to the incident in John 21:18-19 . The Synoptic eschatology also, along with OT prophecy, has influenced 2Peter (cf. Mark 13:24-26 ; Mark 13:31 || and 2 Peter 3:10-12 ; Matthew 19:28 ; Matthew 25:31 , Luke 21:26-28 and 2 Peter 3:12 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ). Matthew 11:27 ; Matthew 11:29 || and the parable of the Sower ( Luke 8:10 ; Luke 8:16 ) throw much light on 2 Peter 1:2-8 ; and Matthew 12:28-29 ; Matthew 12:43-45 on 2 Peter 2:19-21 . Of these there are very few traces, though 2 Peter 1:13 may be compared with 2 Corinthians 5:1 ; 2 Peter 2:19 with Romans 6:13 ; 2 Peter 3:14 with 1 Thessalonians 3:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , and 2 Peter 3:16 with Romans 2:4 ; Romans 9:22 . One of these Epistles must have been used by the author of the other, but there is great diversity of opinion as to the priority, the prevailing view at present being apparently in favour of the priority of Jude, though Zahn and Bigg are strong advocates of 2Peter. ...
( f ) 1Peter ...
(i. 1Peter is written in fluent Hellenistic Greek while the style of 2Peter is almost pseudo-literary, and its words are often quite uncommon. 1Peter quotes largely from the LXX [1] , the use of which can hardly be detected in 2Peter. The Divine names are different, and different conceptions of Christ’s work and of the Christian life are emphasized in 1Peter Jesus is the Messiah whose sufferings, death, and resurrection are the leading motives for the Christian life; in 2Peter Christ is ‘Saviour,’ who brings power for a godly life to all who have knowledge of Him. Hope and joy are the notes of 1Peter , which was written to readers who are buoyed up in suffering by faith in and love to their risen Lord. In 2Peter false teaching instead of persecution is a source of danger; knowledge takes the place of hope, and piety that of holiness. Both teach that Jesus Christ is progressively revealed to the believer, the Parousia being the fulfilment of the Transfiguration or the Resurrection ( 1 Peter 1:13 ; 1 Peter 4:13 ; 1Pe 5:1 , 1618105171_13 ; 2 Peter 1:16 ). A similar conception of the Holy Spirit, unique in the NT, is found in 1 Peter 1:10-12 and 2 Peter 1:19-21 . In both the Christian life is regarded as a growth from seed ( 1 Peter 1:23 , 2 Peter 1:19-21 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ); obedience to the truth, emphasized in 1 Peter 1:22 and 2 Peter 2:2 ; 2 Peter 2:21 , brings the favourite virtue of steadfastness ( 1 Peter 2:8 ; 1Pe 5:10 , 2 Peter 1:10 ; 2 Peter 3:9-15 ). The law of holy living confers true freedom ( 1 Peter 1:15-16 ; 1 Peter 2:15 ff. , 2 Peter 2:19 ; 2 Peter 3:11 ; 2 Peter 3:14 ). The virtues of 2 Peter 1:5-7 are paralleled in 1Peter , being those of a gentle, orderly, patient, kindly life of goodness; and in both the Christian life is regarded as a pilgrimage to an eternal inheritance] ( 1 Peter 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:4 , 2 Peter 1:11 ; 2 Peter 1:13-14 ). the traces of 2Peter are very few. It was evidently known to the author of the Apocalypse of Peter ( c . They are (1) the remarkable divergence from the First Epistle, which seems to be too radical to be explained by the employment of different amanuenses; (2) the inferior style of the Epistle, its lack of restraint and its discontinuity, notably in 2 Peter 1:12-21 and ch. 2; (3) the absence of an early Christian atmosphere, together with a tone of disappointment because the promise of Christ to return has been long deferred ( 2 Peter 3:3 f. ); (4) the appeal to the three authorities of the primitive Catholic Church the Prophets, the Lord, and the Apostles ( 2 Peter 1:19-21 , 2 Peter 3:2 ); (5) the reference to St. It is almost impossible to hold that the author of 1Peter could have described his letter in the words of 2 Peter 3:1 , and have regarded 2Peter as a sequel to the same readers. It has, however, been suggested that 2Peter was written earlier than 1Peter , and that the Epistles were composed by different amanuenses for different readers. Paul’s letters as ‘Scripture’ is not decisive, for in view of the insistence upon ‘written prophecy’ and its origin ( 2 Peter 1:8 ) it is doubtful whether St. Finally, there is much to be said for the view that not the OT Scriptures, but other Christian writings, are referred to in 2 Peter 3:16 . (2) 2Peter contains a large distinctively Petrine element. It has already been shown that 1 and 2Peter have much in common. They present a non-Pauline conception of Christianity, shared by them in common with the Gospel of Mark and the speeches of Peter in Acts. and in 2Peter Jesus Christ is the strong Son of God, whose death ransomed sinners, and whose return to judgment is described in generally similar outlines. and in Acts ( 2 Peter 3:17 ), and there is a striking similarity between Acts 3:19-21 and 2 Peter 3:11-12 . of the planting and growth of the seed, supply suggestive parallels for both 1 and 2Peter. ...
Perhaps the solution that will best suit the facts is to assume that a disciple of Peter, who remembered how his master had dealt with an attack of Sadducaic sensuality in some of the Palestinian Churches, being confronted with a recrudescence of similar evil, re-edited his teaching
Cephas - See Peter
Simeon - See Peter, Tribes
Cephas (2) - —See Peter
Simeon - See Peter, Tribes
Cephas - (cee' fuhss) See Peter
Precious, Preciousness - , in James 5:7 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ; 2 Peter 1:4 ; in 1 Corinthians 3:12 , AV (RV, "costly"): see COSTLY , B, No. ...
2: ἔντιμος (Strong's #1784 — Adjective — entimos — en'-tee-mos ) "precious," 1 Peter 2:4,6 : see DEAR , No. ...
4: πολύτιμος (Strong's #4186 — Adjective — polutimos — pol-oot'-ee-mos ) "of great value;" comparative degree in 1 Peter 1:7 ; see COSTLY , B, No. ...
6: ἰσότιμος (Strong's #2472 — Adjective — isotimos — ee-sot'-ee-mos ) "of equal value, held in equal honor" (isos, "equal," and time), is used in 2 Peter 1:1 , "a like precious (faith)," RV (marg. ...
Note: In 1 Peter 2:7 , AV, the noun time, is translated "precious" (RV, "preciousness")
Conversation - (1) The noun anastrophç = ‘behaviour’ ( Galatians 1:13 , Eph 4:22 , 1 Timothy 4:12 , Hebrews 13:7 , Jam 3:13 , 1 Peter 1:15 ; 1 Peter 1:18 ; 1Pe 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:1-2 ; 1 Peter 3:16 , 2 Peter 2:7 ; 2 Peter 3:11 ), RV Domine Quo Vadis - A church situated on the Appian Way near Rome, on the traditional spot where, according to Saint Ambrose, Saint Peter was vouchsafed a vision of Christ. At the urgent request of the Christians, Peter was fleeing the persecution of Nero, when, seeing Christ, he fell at His feet crying "Lord, whither goest Thou?" Christ's reply that He was going to Rome to be crucified anew was interpreted by Peter as a sign to return to Rome, and he therefore retraced his steps to the city
Backbiter, Backbiting - Katalalia is translated "evil speaking" in 1 Peter 2:1 , "backbiting" in 2 Corinthians 12:20 . ...
Note: The corresponding verb katalaleo the RV translates "speak against," in its five occurrences, James 4:11 (three times); 1 Peter 2:12 , and 3:16; AV, "speak evil," in all the passages except 1 Peter 2:12
Petered - ) of Peter...
Bar-Jona(h) - —See Peter
Example - Of Christ (1 Peter 2:21 ; John 13:15 ); of pastors to their flocks (Philippians 3:17 ; 2 th 3:9 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 ; 1 Peter 5:3 ); of the Jews as a warning (Hebrews 4:11 ); of the prophets as suffering affliction (James 5:10 )
Petering - ) of Peter...
Grace - ...
The gospel as distinguished from the law (John 1:17 ; Romans 6:14 ; 1 Peter 5:12 ). ...
Christian virtues (2 Corinthians 8:7 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ). ...
The glory hereafter to be revealed (1 Peter 1:13 )
Petrojoannites - Were followers of Peter John, or Peter Joannis, that is, Peter the son of John, who flourished in the twelfth century
Cappadocia - Visitors from thence were at Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost, and Peter includes this district when he addresses his first Epistle to the dispersed Jews. Acts 2:9 ; 1 Peter 1:1
Babylon - See Apocalypse and Peter, First Epistle of
Spirits in Prison - 1 Peter 3:18-19. The argument is, Be not afraid (1 Peter 3:14; 1 Peter 3:17) of suffering for well doing even unto death, for death in the flesh leads to life in the spirit as in Christ's case, who was put to death in the flesh but quickened in spirit (i. in virtue of His divine nature: Romans 1:3-4; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 2 Corinthians 13:4) in which (as distinguished from in person) He went in the person of Noah (compare 1 Peter 1:11 "a preacher of righteousness" (2 Peter 2:5; He went not locally but as Ephesians 2:17, "He came and preached peace," namely, by His ministers) and preached unto the spirits in prison, namely, the antediluvian unbelievers; their bodies seemed free, but their spirits were in prison (Psalms 141:9) and they like "prisoners shut up in the prison" just as the fallen are judicially regarded as in chains of darkness, though for a time at large on the earth (2 Peter 2:4; Isaiah 24:18; Isaiah 24:22-23; Isaiah 61:1; Genesis 7:11, referred to in Isaiah 24:18)
Fisherman, Ring of the - It represents Saint Peter, fishing, with the name of the reigning pope around it. The earliest mention of it is in a letter of Pope Clement IV written in 1265 to his nephew Peter Grossi
Unrighteous - 1: ἄδικος (Strong's #94 — Adjective — adikos — ad'-ee-kos ) not conforming to dike, "right," is translated "unrighteous" in Luke 16:10 (twice), RV, 16:11; Romans 3:5 ; 1 Corinthians 6:1 , RV; 6:9; Hebrews 6:10 ; 1 Peter 3:18 , RV. 2 Peter 2:9 , RV: see UNJUST
Ring of the Fisherman - It represents Saint Peter, fishing, with the name of the reigning pope around it. The earliest mention of it is in a letter of Pope Clement IV written in 1265 to his nephew Peter Grossi
Magus, Simon - When the Apostles Peter and John came to give the Holy Ghost to the believers, Simon offered them money for the power of bestowing the Holy Spirit and was severely rebuked by Saint Peter. Another version makes him the chief antagonist of Saint Peter. By magic he rose into the air, but the prayers of the Apostles Peter and Paul caused him to fall, a scene depicted in the attached image
Simonans - When the Apostles Peter and John came to give the Holy Ghost to the believers, Simon offered them money for the power of bestowing the Holy Spirit and was severely rebuked by Saint Peter. Another version makes him the chief antagonist of Saint Peter. By magic he rose into the air, but the prayers of the Apostles Peter and Paul caused him to fall, a scene depicted in the attached image
Simon Magus - When the Apostles Peter and John came to give the Holy Ghost to the believers, Simon offered them money for the power of bestowing the Holy Spirit and was severely rebuked by Saint Peter. Another version makes him the chief antagonist of Saint Peter. By magic he rose into the air, but the prayers of the Apostles Peter and Paul caused him to fall, a scene depicted in the attached image
Peter - Afterward he is called by his title of honour, "Peter". So at the denial Peter betrayed himself by his "speech" (Matthew 26:73; Luke 22:59). ...
The oblique coincidence; establishing his being a married man, between Matthew 8:14, "Peter's wife's mother . Alford translated 1 Peter 5:13 "she in Babylon" (compare 1 Peter 3:7); but why she should be called "elected together with you in Babylon," as if there were no Christian woman in Babylon besides, is inexplicable. Peter and John being closely associated, Peter addresses the church in John's province, Asia, "your co-elect sister church in Babylon saluteth you"; so 2 John 1:13 in reply. gives the name of Peter's wife as Perpetua. As "Simon" he was but an hearer; as Peter or Cephas he became an apostle and so a foundation stone of the church, by union to the one only Foundation Rock (Ephesians 2:20; 1 Corinthians 3:11). Peter and Andrew were first called; then Christ entered Peter's boat, then wrought the miracle, then called James and John; Jesus next healed of fever Simon's mother-in-law. Simon stands foremost in the list, and for the rest of Christ's ministry is mostly called "Peter. thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of Hades shall not prewill against it. " Peter by his believing confession identified himself with Christ the true Rock (1 Corinthians 3:11; Isaiah 28:16; Ephesians 2:20), and so received the name; just as Joshua bears the name meaning "Jehovah Saviour", because typifying His person and offices. Peter conversely, by shrinking from a crucified Saviour and dissuading Him from the cross, "be it far from Thee," identified Himself with Satan who tempted Jesus to take the world kingdom without the cross (Matthew 4:8-10), and is therefore called "Satan," cf6 "get thee behind Me, Satan," etc. Instead of a rock Peter became a stumbling-block ("offense," scandalous). The papal error regards Peter as the rock, in himself officially, and as transmitting an infallible authority to the popes, as if his successors (compare Isaiah 22:22). The "binding" and "loosing" power is given as much to the whole church, layman and ministers, as to Peter (Matthew 18:18; John 20:23. ) Peter exercised the power of the keys only in preaching, as on Pentecost (Acts 2), He never exercised authority over the other apostles. Peter "withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed," "not walking uprightly in the truth of the gospel," but in "dissimulation" (Galatians 2:10-14). Peter too hastily had answered for his Master as though He were under obligation to pay the temple tribute; Peter forgot his own confession (Matthew 16:16). give a handle of reproach, as if lie despised the temple and law, caused Peter the fisherman again to resume his occupation and brought a fish (Psalms 8:8; Jonah 1:17) with a starer, i. Jesus said, "for ME and thee," not for us; for His payment was on an altogether different footing from Peter's (compare Matthew 26:33-35). Peter needed a "ransom for his soul" and could not pay it; but Jesus needed none; nay, came to pay it Himself (1 Peter 4:12-16), first putting Himself under the same yoke with us (Galatians 4:4-5). Peter, James, and John were the favored three alone present at the raising of Jairus' daughter, the transfiguration, and the agony in Gethsemane. ...
Peter, Andrew, James, and John heard the solemn discourse (on the second advent (Matthew 24). At the last supper Peter shrank with a mixture of humility and self will from Jesus' stooping to wash his feet. With characteristic warmth Peter passed to the opposite extreme, "Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. " Jesus promised Peter should follow Him afterward, though not now. ...
Satan would" sift" (Amos 9:9) all the disciples, but Peter especially; and therefore for him especially Jesus interceded. Mark mentions the twice cockcrowing and Peter's protesting the more vehemently. Animal courage Peter showed no small amount of, in cutting off Malthus' ear in the face of a Reman band; moral courage he was deficient in. Transpose the first and second denials in John; then the first took place at the fire (Matthew 26:69; Mark 14:66-67; Luke 22:56; John 18:25), caused by the fixed recognition of the maid who admitted Peter (Luke 22:56); the second took place at the door leading out of the court, where he had withdrawn in fear (Matthew 26:71; Mark 14:68-69; Galatians 1:17-180; John 18:17); the third took place in the court an hour after (Luke 22:59), before several witnesses who argued from his Galilean accent and speech, near enough for Jesus to cast that look on Peter which pierced his heart so that he went out and wept bitterly. The maid in the porch knew him, for John had spoken unto her that kept the door to let in Peter (John 18:16. )...
On the resurrection morning Peter and John ran to the tomb; John outran Peter (being the younger man; John 21:18 implies Peter was then past his prime, also the many years by which John outlived Peter imply the same), but Peter was first to enter. John did not venture to enter until Peter set the example; fear and reverence held him back, as in Matthew 14:26, but Peter was especially bold and fearless. To Peter first of the apostles Jesus appeared (Luke 24:34; 1 Corinthians 15:5). "Simon" is resumed until at the supper (John 21) Jesus reinstates him as Peter, that being now "converted" he may "feed the lambs and sheep" and "strengthen his brethren. " Peter in the first 12 chapters of (See ACTS is the prominent apostle. (Acts 2:20; 2 Peter 3:10. Acts 2:23-24; 1 Peter 1:2; 1 Peter 1:21. Acts 3:18; 1 Peter 1:10-11. )...
As in the Gospels, so in Acts, Peter is associated with John. His words before the high priest and council (Acts 4:19-20), "whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye, for we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard," and again Acts 5:29, evince him as the rock-man; and after having been beaten in spite of Gamaliel's warning, Peter's rejoicing with the other apostles at being counted worthy to suffer for Christ (Acts 5:41) accords with his precept (John 20:28; compare 1 Peter 2:24 with Acts 5:30 end). Peter's miracle of healing (Acts 3) was followed by one of judgment (Acts 5) (See ANANIAS. Peter with John confirmed by laying on of hands the Samaritan converts of Philip the deacon. )...
Insofar as the bishops represent the apostles, they rightly follow the precedent of Peter and John in confirming after an interval those previously baptized and believing through the instrumentality of lower ministers as Philip. Three years later Paul visited Jerusalem in order to see Peter (1618105171_75; historeesai means "to become personally acquainted with as one important to know"; Acts 9:26). Peter was prominent among the twelve, though James as bishop had chief authority there. It was important that Paul should communicate to the leading mover in the church his own independent gospel revelation; next Peter took visitation tour through the various churches, and raised Aeneas from his bed of sickness and Tabitha from the dead (Acts 9:32). )...
Peter was the first privileged to open the gospel to the Gentiles, as he had before to the Jews, besides confirming the Samaritans. Peter justified his act both by the revelation and by God's sealing the Gentile converts with the Holy Spirit. ) The Jews' spite at the admission of the Gentiles moved Herod Agrippa I to kill James and imprison Peter for death. ) But the church's unceasing prayer was stronger than his purpose; God brought Peter to the house of Mark's mother while they were in the act of praying for him (Isaiah 65:24). It was not Peter but his persecutor who died, smitten of God. From this point Peter becomes "apostle of the circumcision," giving place, in respect to prominence, to Paul, "apostle of the uncircumcision. " Peter the apostle of the circumcision appropriately, as representing God's ancient church, opens the gates to the Gentiles...
It was calculated also to open his own mind, naturally prejudiced on the side of Jewish exclusiveness. Paul, though the apostle of the Gentiles, confirmed the Hebrew; Peter, though the apostle of the Jews, admits the Gentiles (See the "first" in Acts 3:26, implying others); thus perfect unity reigned amidst the diversity of the agencies. At the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15) Peter led the discussion, citing the case of Cornelius' party as deciding the question, for" God which knoweth the hearts bore them witness, giving them the Holy Spirit even as He did unto us, and put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith," "but we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they"; compare his epistles in undesigned coincidence (1 Peter 1:22; 2 Peter 1:9). ...
Peter neither presided, nor summoned, nor dismissed the council, nor took the votes, nor pronounced the decision; he claimed none of the powers which Rome claims for the pope. ) The Jerusalem decree only recognized Gentiles as fellow Christians on light conditions, it did not admit them necessarily to social intercourse Though Peter and Paul rightly inferred the latter, yet their recognition of the ceremonial law (Acts 18:18-21; Acts 20:16; Acts 21:18-24) palliates Peter's conduct, if it were not for its inconsistency (through fear of the Judaizers) which is the point of Paul's reproof. ...
Peter's humility and love are beautifully illustrated in his submitting to the reproach of a junior, and seemingly adopting Paul's view, and in calling him '"our beloved brother," and confirming the doctrine of "God's longsuffering being for salvation," from Paul's epistles: Romans 2:4 (2 Peter 3:15-16). Peter apparently visited Corinth before the first epistle to the Corinthians was written, for it mentions a party there who said "I am of Cephas" (1 Corinthians 1:12). Babylon, a chief seat of the dispersed Jews, was his head quarters when he wrote 1 Peter 5:13, not Rome as some have argued. The well known progress that Christianity made in that quarter, as shown by the great Christian schools at Edessa anti Nisibis, was probably due to Peter originally. Mark (Colossians 4:10), Paul's helper at Rome, from whence he went to Colosse, was with Peter when he wrote 1 Peter 5:13. From Colosse Mark probably went on to Peter at Babylon. Silvanus, also Paul's companion, was the bearer of Peter's epistle (1 Peter 5:12). All the authority of Acts and epistle to the Romans and 1 and 2 Peter is against Peter having been at Rome previous to Paul's first imprisonment, or during its two years' duration (otherwise he would have mentioned Peter in the epistles written from Rome, Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians), or during his second imprisonment when he wrote to Timothy. ...
Eusebius' statement (Chronicon, 3) that Peter went to Rome A. Ecclesiastes, 1) makes Peter bishop of Antioch, then to have preached in Pontus (from 1 Peter 1:1), then to have gone to Rome to refute Simon Magus (from Justin's story of a statue found at Rome to Semosanctus, the Sabine Hercules, which was confounded with Simon Magus), and to have been bishop there for 25 years (!) and to have been crucified with head downward, declaring himself unworthy to be crucified as his Lord, and buried in the Vatican near the triumphal way. 2:25) says Paul and Peter both planted the Roman and Corinthian churches and endured martyrdom in Italy at the same time. 2:25) says memorials of their martyrdom were still to be seen on the road to Ostia, and that Peter's tomb was in the Vatican. ...
He may have been at the very end of life at Rome after Paul's death, and been imprisoned in the Mamertine dungeon, crucified on the Janiculum on the height Pietro in Montorio, and buried where the altar in Peter's now is. 33) says that at his fellow Christians' solicitation he was fleeing from Rome at early dawn, when he met the Lord, and at His feet asked "Lord, where goest Thou?" His reply "I go to be crucified afresh" turned Peter back to a joyful martyrdom. The whole tradition of Peter and Paul's association in death is probably due to their connection in life as the main founders of the Christian church. says Peter encouraged his wife to martyrdom, saying "remember, dear, our Lord. 3:448) says that Peter's and Philip's wives helped them in ministering to women at their homes, and by them the doctrine of the Lord penetrated, without scandal, into the privacy of women's apartments. (See MARK on Peter's share in that Gospel
Head Cleft by Axe - Emblem in art associated with Saint Peter Veronese as first means of his martyrdom. Health and Apostolical Benediction, form of salutation in letters written by the pope, first used by Pope Cletus (Anacletus ), second successor of Saint Peter
Unlawful - 1: ἀθέμιτος (Strong's #111 — Adjective — athemitos — ath-em'-ee-tos ) a late form for athemistos (themis, "custom, right;" in classical Greek, "divine law"), "contrary to what is right," is rendered "an unlawful thing" (neuter) in Acts 10:28 ; in 1 Peter 4:3 , "abominable. " ...
Note: For 2 Peter 2:8 , AV, see LAWLESS
f.s.s.p. - = Priestly Fraternity of Saint Peter; Fraternitas Sacerdotalis Sancti Petri ...
Pernicious - * For PERNICIOUS, 2 Peter 2:2 , AV, see LASCIVIOUS ...
Scoffers - * For SCOFFERS, 2 Peter 3:3 , AV, see MOCKERS ...
Peterman - ) A fisherman; - so called after the apostle Peter
Barjona - 'Son of Jonas,' surname of Peter
Animals - * For ANIMALS (2 Peter 2:12 , RV), see NATURAL
Jona - Father of Simon Peter (John 1:42)
Sober - Characterized by self-control, seriousness, and sound moral judgment (1Thessalonians 5:6,1 Thessalonians 5:8 ; 1Timothy 3:2,1 Timothy 3:11 ; Titus 1:8 ; Titus 2:2 ,Titus 2:2,2:6 ; 1 Peter 1:13 ; 1 Peter 5:8 )
Railing - 2 Peter 2 . 1 Peter 3
Chair of Peter - Portable chair preserved at the Vatican and believed to be a chair used by Saint Peter, the extant testimony referring to it dating from the 2century. The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter at Rome has been celebrated from the early days of the Christian era on January 18, in commemoration of the day when Saint Peter held his first service in Rome. The feast of the Chair of Saint Peter at Antioch, commemorating his foundation of the See of Antioch, has also been long celebrated at Rome, on February 22,. One of these phials, preserved in the cathedral treasury of Monza, Italy, had a label reading, "oleo de sede ubi prius sedit sanctus Petrus" (oils from the chair where Saint Peter first sat). The Mass for both feast days is the same; the Collect is as follows: ...
"Oh, God, who, together with the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven, didst bestow on blessed Peter Thy Apostle the pontificate of binding and loosing, grant that by the aid of his intercession we may be released from the yoke of our sins
Peter, Epistles of - We have two epistles attributed to Peter by the common consent to the Christian church. It appears to have been addressed to Christian churches in Asia Minor, composed primarily of converted Jews and proselytes, but including many converts from paganism, 1 Peter 4. It was written probably at Babylon on the Euphrates, 1 Peter 5:13 . Peter exhorts them to faith, obedience, and patience, in view of the truth of the gospel and the certainty of salvation in Christ
Bar-jo'na - See Peter
Lively - ’ Thus in 1 Peter 2:5 Christians are ‘lively stones,’ while in the previous verse Christ is a ‘living stone,’ though the Gr. The other passages are Acts 7:38 ‘lively oracles’ and 1 Peter 1:3 ‘lively hope
Cornelius - A devout centurion of Caesarea, to whom God spoke in a vision, and to whom He sent Peter, who preached the gospel to him and to those he had invited. Peter was thus opening the door of the kingdom to the Gentiles
Plait - KJV term meaning, “to braid” (1 Peter 3:3 )
Aeneas - A paralytic, healed at Lydda by Peter (Acts 9:33-34)
Lydda - Here Peter came and healed Æneas
Newborn - * For NEWBORN, 1 Peter 2:2 , see BEGET , C, No
Revel, Reveling - 1: τρυφή (Strong's #5172 — Noun Feminine — truphe — troo-fay' ) "luxuriousness, daintiness, reveling," is translated freely by the verb "to revel" in 2 Peter 2:13 , RV (AV, "to riot"), lit. ...
2: κῶμος (Strong's #2970 — Noun Masculine — komos — ko'-mos ) "a revel, carousal," the concomitant and consequence of drunkenness, is used in the plural, Romans 13:13 , translated by the singular, RV, "reveling" (AV, "rioting"); Galatians 5:21 ; 1 Peter 4:3 , "revelings. ...
Note: For entruphao, 2 Peter 2:13 , RV, "to revel," see SPORTING
Order of Our Lady of Mercy For the Ransom of Capti - A congregation founded at Barcelona in 1218 by Saint Peter Nolasco, especially devoted to the ransom of captives from the Moors, and following the rule drawn up by Saint Augustine. Notable Mercedarians include ...
Blessed Margarita de Maturana
Blessed Mariana of Jesus
Blessed Mary de Cerevellon
Blessed Peter Armengol
Saint Peter Nolasco
Blessed Peter Paschal
Saint Raymond Nonnatus
Mercedarians - A congregation founded at Barcelona in 1218 by Saint Peter Nolasco, especially devoted to the ransom of captives from the Moors, and following the rule drawn up by Saint Augustine. Notable Mercedarians include ...
Blessed Margarita de Maturana
Blessed Mariana of Jesus
Blessed Mary de Cerevellon
Blessed Peter Armengol
Saint Peter Nolasco
Blessed Peter Paschal
Saint Raymond Nonnatus
Aene'as - Peter
Well, Well-Doing - A — 1: ἀγαθοποιέω (Strong's #15 — Verb — agathopoieo — ag-ath-op-oy-eh'-o ) "to do good" (agathos, "good," poieo, "to do"), is used (a) of such activity in general, 1 Peter 2:15 , "well-doing;" 1 Peter 2:20 , "do well;" 1 Peter 3:6,17 ; 3 John 1:11 , "doeth good;" (b) of "acting for another's benefit," Mark 3:4 ; Luke 6:9,33,35 . 1), occurs in 1 Peter 4:19 . ...
C — 1: ἀγαθοποιός (Strong's #17 — Adjective — agathopoios — ag-ath-op-oy-os' ) "doing good, beneficent," is translated "them that do well" in 1 Peter 2:14 , lit
Cephas - Peter belonged to CHRIST and therefore was recognized by GOD as a part of CHRIST. The name "Peter" has the same meaning
Joppa - (Jonah 1:3) Here Peter dwelt when sent for by Cornelius And Tabitha also lived here, whom Peter by the Lord raised from the dead
Mark - ) Mark’s house must have been a regular meeting place for the apostles and other Christians in Jerusalem, as Peter, on escaping from prison, knew that he would find the Christians there (Acts 12:12). ...
With Paul and Barnabas...
Whether the house of the upper room was Mark’s home or not, Mark certainly would have known Peter and the other leading Christians who often visited his home (Acts 12:12-14). But there is evidence in other early records that he spent some time with Peter, helping Peter to evangelize the provinces of northern Asia Minor where God had not allowed Paul to preach (1 Peter 1:1; cf. ...
Peter and Mark then visited Rome and taught the Christians there. When Peter left Rome, the Roman Christians asked Mark (who had stayed behind) to preserve the story of Jesus as they had heard it from Peter. In due course Mark produced the book known as Mark’s Gospel, a book that strongly carries the flavour of Peter (see MARK, GOSPEL OF). ...
Whether the two reached Rome before Paul’s execution is uncertain, but Mark was certainly in Rome at the time of Peter’s visit soon after. Over their years of working together, Mark and Peter had become so close that Peter called Mark his son. Mark may even have been converted through Peter, back in the days when Peter frequented Mark’s house in Jerusalem. Now, as Peter neared the end of his life, he linked Mark’s name with his own in writing a letter to the churches of Asia Minor that together they had helped to establish (1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 5:13)
Adorning - 1 Peter 3
Petrus, Surnamed Mongus - On the death of the Monophysite patriarch Timotheus Aelurus in 477, and in the absence of the orthodox Salofaciolus whom he had displaced, the Monophysites determined to place Peter in the see. 17), ejected Peter, and ordered his expulsion from Alexandria (Mansi, vii. Accordingly, Peter was driven out of Egypt; John, surnamed Talaia, steward of the great church, was chosen patriarch, but neglected to announce his accession to Acacius, who, piqued by this omission, prevailed on Zeno to expel John, and to restore Peter on condition that he should support an attempt to promote doctrinal unity without enforcing the authority of the council of Chalcedon. Zeno ordered Talaia to be expelled from Alexandria and Peter Mongus enthroned after accepting the HENOTICON, or instrument of unity (a. Peter was accordingly enthroned amid a great concourse, at Alexandria. Peter could not afford to quarrel with them, and probably thought himself secure enough to shew his hand. This caused a great excitement; the earnest Catholics renounced Peter's communion; and tidings of this turn of events disturbed the mind of Acacius, who sent to Alexandria for an authentic account. Peter then surpassed himself in an evasive letter, which Evagrius has preserved. 20) against Peter, and sent two bishops, Vitalis and Misenus, to Constantinople to denounce Peter and summon Acacius to defend himself before a council at Rome. The legates were partly coaxed and partly frightened into communicating with the resident agents of Peter at Constantinople, and brought back to Rome letters in which Zeno and Acacius assured Felix that Peter was an orthodox and meritorious prelate (Evagr. Their weakness was punished by deposition; and Felix, with his synod, proceeded not only to anathematize Peter as an "Eutychian" usurper, but even to excommunicate the bp. He then wrote again to Zeno, desiring him to "choose between the communion of Peter the apostle and that of Peter the Alexandrian" (Mansi, vii. Nothing daunted, Acacius broke off communion with Rome and upheld Peter to the last, although he must have felt his conduct highly embarrassing, for Peter again anathematized the proceedings of Chalcedon and the Tome of Leo, and those who would not accept the writings of Dioscorus and Timotheus Aelurus (Evagr. These proceedings being reported to Zeno, he sent Cosmas to rebuke Peter and restore peace. Peter again modified his tone, and wrote to Acacius, as if acknowledging Chalcedon. 18) and Peter (Evagr. 23); but after four months he died, and was succeeded by Euphemius, who, on discovering Peter's real position in regard to the council of Chalcedon, indignantly broke off all relations with him (Evagr. A new strife between Constantinople and Alexandria was imminent, when Peter Mongus, respected by none, died at the end of Oct
Bosor - (boh' ssawr) KJV New Testament spelling of Beor (2 Peter 2:15 )
Tend - * For TEND, John 21:16 ; 1 Peter 5:2 , RV, see FEED , No
Vigilant - * For VIGILANT, 1 Timothy 3:2 , see TEMPERATE; 1 Peter 5:8 , see WATCHFUL ...
Reversed Cross - Emblem in Christian art associated with Saint Peter, symbolizing the manner of his martyrdom
Phaisur - PHAISUR ( 1E Esther 9:22 ) = Ezra 10:22 Peter ashhur , 1Es 5:25 Phassurus
Anacletus i - According to tradition he was a Greek he was a convert of Saint Peter, was ordained by him, and was his second successor. He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass as Cletus, was martyred, and buried near Saint Peter
Anacletus, Saint, Pope - According to tradition he was a Greek he was a convert of Saint Peter, was ordained by him, and was his second successor. He is mentioned in the Canon of the Mass as Cletus, was martyred, and buried near Saint Peter
Bithynia - Peter addressed his first Epistle to those of the dispersion of Bithynia, etc. 1 Peter 1:1
Chislon - Father of Elidad, Benjamin’s representative for dividing the land ( Numbers 34:21 Peter)
Adversary - The meaning of Satan (1 Peter 5:8); also divine justice (Luke 12:58-59)
Hereunto - , "unto this," in 1 Peter 2:21
Peter - His original name was Simon or Simeon, which his divine Master, when he called him to the Apostleship, changed for that of Cephas, a Syriac word signifying a stone or rock; in Latin, petra, from whence is derived the term Peter. Toward the end of the same year, as Jesus was one morning standing on the shore of the lake of Gennesareth, he saw Andrew and Peter engaged about their employment. Jesus entered into their boat, and bade Peter throw out his net into the sea, which he did; and now, to his astonishment, the multitude of fishes was so immense that their own vessel, and that of the sons of Zebedee, were filled with them. Peter evidently saw there was something supernatural in this, and, throwing himself at the feet of Jesus, he exclaimed, "Depart from me, O Lord, for I am a sinful man. Peter on almost every occasion evincing the strength of his faith in Jesus as the Messiah, and the most extraordinary zeal in his service, of which many examples are extant in the Gospels. When Jesus in private asked his disciples, first, what opinion the people entertained of him; next, what was their own opinion: "Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," Matthew 16:16 . Having received this answer, Jesus declared Peter blessed on account of his faith; and in allusion to the signification of his name, added, "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth," &c. Peter alone, for the purpose of conferring on him privileges and powers not granted to the rest of the Apostles. Peter, it was intended for them all; and that the honours and powers granted to St. Peter by name were conferred on them all equally. Peter singly: it was built on the foundation of all the Apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner stone. Peter, seeing it was declared afterward to belong to all the Apostles, Matthew 18:18 ; John 20:23 . Peter made his confession in answer to a question which Jesus put to all the Apostles, that confession was certainly made in the name of the whole; and, therefore, what Jesus said to him in reply was designed for the whole without distinction; excepting this, which was peculiar to him, that he was to be the first who, after the descent of the Holy Ghost, should preach the Gospel to the Jews, and then to the Gentiles: an honour which was conferred on St. Peter in the expression, "I will give thee the keys," &c. Peter was one of the three Apostles whom Jesus admitted to witness the resurrection of Jairus's daughter, and before whom he was transfigured, and with whom he retired to pray in the garden the night before he suffered. Yet this same Peter, a few hours after that, denied his Master three different times in the high priest's palace, and that with oaths. Peter was fully warned by his divine Master of his approaching danger; but confident in his own strength, he declared himself ready to accompany his Lord to prison and even to judgment. After the third denial "Jesus turned and looked upon Peter;" that look pierced him to the heart; and, stung with deep remorse, "he went out, and wept bitterly. Peter, however, obtained forgiveness; and, when Jesus had risen from the dead, he ordered the glad tidings of his resurrection to be conveyed to St. Peter by name: "Go tell my disciples and Peter," Mark 16:8 . Peter gave it as his opinion, that one should be chosen to be an Apostle in the room of Judas. Peter, standing up with the eleven, lifted up his voice; that is, St. Peter, rising up, spake with a loud voice, in the name of the Apostles, as he had done on various occasions in his Master's lifetime, and gave the multitude an account of that great miracle, Acts 2:14 . Peter now began to experience the fulfilment of Christ's promise to make him a fisher of men, and also that he would give him the keys of the kingdom of heaven. ...
Peter proclaimed to them the riches of pardoning mercy through the divine blood of the Son of God; and they that gladly received his doctrine were baptized and added to the church, Acts 2:37-43 . Peter is exhibited to our view as standing foremost in the rank of Apostles. Peter and John were brought before the council to be examined concerning the miracle wrought on the impotent man, St. Peter spake. Peter who questioned Ananias and Sapphira about the price of their lands; and for their lying in that matter, punished them miraculously with death. Peter's shadow alone that the sick, who were laid in the streets of Jerusalem, were healed as he passed by. Peter who replied to the council in the name of the Apostles, not obeying their command to preach no more in the name of Jesus. Peter's fame was now become so great, that the brethren of Joppa, hearing of his being in Lydda, and of his having cured Eneas miraculously of a palsy, sent, desiring him to come and restore a disciple to life, named Tabitha, which he did. Peter spake. Peter, by his zeal and success in preaching the Gospel, having attracted the notice of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, Herod Agrippa, who, to please the Jews, had killed St. Peter into prison. Peter at that time went to Antioch or to Rome. Peter went to Antioch, where he gave great offence, by refusing to eat with the converted Gentiles. Peter after the council of Jerusalem. Peter was at Antioch with St. Peter is supposed to have preached to the Jews of the dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and Asia; and at length, coming to Rome, was crucified with his head downward. Peter has always been considered as canonical; and in proof of its genuineness we may observe that it is referred to by Clement of Rome, Hermes, and Polycarp; that we are assured by Eusebius, that it was quoted by Papias; and that it is expressly mentioned by Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, and most of the later fathers. Peter was for some time disputed, as we learn from Origen, Eusebius, and Jerom; but since the fourth century it has been universally received, except by the Syriac Christians
Mark, Marcus - ' When Peter was miraculously delivered from prison he resorted to the house of Mary, who was Mark's mother. Peter may have been the means of his conversion, for he calls him his 'son. ' 1 Peter 5:13 . He was with Peter at Babylon, and when Paul was a second time a prisoner at Rome, he asked for Mark, saying he was serviceable for the ministry
Rhoda - A maid in the house of Mary when Peter was delivered from prison
Peter Epistles of - The NT contains two writings bearing the name of Peter. First Peter...
1. -The content of this Epistle may be outlined as follows:...
(a) Salutation (1 Peter 1:1 f. -The apostle Peter greets Christians of Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. ...
(b) Praise to God for the surety of ultimate salvation (1 Peter 1:3-12). ...
(c) The type of personal life befitting individuals who are to inherit so great salvation (1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 3:12). They are a new race, a peculiar people, set apart to live the heavenly life while yet on earth (1 Peter 1:13 to 1 Peter 2:10). In short, they should be living witnesses to the ideal type of conduct in all their relations with outsiders (1 Peter 2:11 to 1 Peter 3:12). ...
(d) Encouragement to bear persecution with fortitude, in view of the Christians’ certainty of ultimate salvation (1 Peter 3:13 to 1 Peter 5:11). ) the heavenly exaltation of Christ, whereby all authority has been committed to Him (1 Peter 3:13-22). They are no longer men of the flesh, for, having been united in baptism with the heavenly spiritual Christ, they now enjoy a new state of existence; they are citizens of heaven (1 Peter 4:1-6). ...
(3) As their stay upon earth, along with all earthly things, draws to a close, their chief endeavour is to cultivate the true fruits of the Spirit in daily living-sobriety, prayerfulness, mutual love, hospitality, ministrations, and constant glorification of God (1 Peter 4:7-11). If the initial stages of the Final Judgment bring such afflictions upon the innocent, how infinitely more terrible will the ultimate fate of the wicked be! Therefore believers should not be ashamed to suffer innocently as Christians, since this is in accordance with the will of God, who always has in mind the ultimate salvation of their souls (1 Peter 4:12-19). Their temporary affliction will, through the favour of God, issue in the perfect salvation about to be revealed from heaven (1 Peter 5:1-11). ...
(e) Conclusion (1 Peter 5:12-14). The writer seeks to strengthen the Christians’ faith by turning their attention to the near future, when God will bring all their troubles to an end by sending Jesus Christ to conduct the Final Judgment and perfect the salvation of believers (1 Peter 1:5; 1 Peter 1:7; 1 Peter 1:9; 1 Peter 1:13; 1 Peter 1:20, 1 Peter 2:12, 1 Peter 4:5; 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 4:17 f. , 1 Peter 5:1; 1 Peter 5:4; 1 Peter 5:6; 1 Peter 5:10). Possibly some among them were disposed to take too literally the doctrine of soul-freedom and so to forget that the earthly order under which they were now living was really an appointment of God (1 Peter 2:13-17, 1 Peter 4:15). But they are not to compromise their ideals by resorting to the heathen mode of living, nor are they to hesitate in confessing Christ’s Lordship (1 Peter 3:15). Before conversion they had been in a state of ‘ignorance’ (1 Peter 1:14; cf. Ephesians 4:18) and had followed their passions as their Gentile contemporaries continued to do (1 Peter 1:14, 1 Peter 4:2 ff. ); in time past they were in ‘darkness,’ they were ‘no people,’ and they had not obtained mercy, but now their situation is completely reversed (1 Peter 2:9 f. For some of them at least it was already a stunning reality (1 Peter 4:12), but they are exhorted not to shrink from this affliction. They should, however, make sure that they are not guilty of any of the evil deeds which their enemies allege against them (1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 2:15, 1 Peter 3:16 f. , 1 Peter 4:4; 1 Peter 4:14-16). They are admonished to refrain from needlessly provoking the authorities, recognizing in the latter Divinely appointed guardians of the civil order (1 Peter 2:13-17), and they are to suffer willingly for righteousness’ sake; that is, they are to stand loyal to their confession of Christ and to affirm unhesitatingly their hope of salvation, and thus they may congratulate themselves on suffering for the name of Christ, although formally they are being punished for crimes with which their opponents are-falsely, the author hopes-charging them. (1 Peter 3:13-17, 1 Peter 4:14-16). Moreover, their situation is not unique, but is characteristic of the brotherhood throughout the world (1 Peter 5:9). ...
Is this the situation of the Christians to whom 1 Peter is addressed? Scholars who answer this question in the affirmative do so mainly because of the reference in 1 Peter 4:14-16 to suffering for the Name. Their opponents are certainly bringing specific charges against them (1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 2:15; 1 Peter 2:19 f. , 1 Peter 3:9; 1 Peter 3:16 f. , 1 Peter 4:4), reviling their manner of life in order to persuade the authorities to act. Moreover, by a correct and cautious mode of conduct they may hope to gain the favour of the governor who is thought capable of giving praise to them that do well (1 Peter 2:14), while even their accusers may be silenced and put to shame by the Christians’ good manner of life in Christ (1 Peter 2:15, 1 Peter 3:16). ...
1 Peter can hardly have been designed to meet the new condition of affairs following the rescript of Trajan, if, as seems probable, the mere confession of Christianity was henceforth the only point needing to be established in law (‘si deferantur et arguantur
Thus we might easily suppose, on the basis of conditions described by Pliny, that 1 Peter had shortly before been received by the Christian community and had borne good fruit. He had called upon believers to revile Christ and worship Caesar, and they are especially admonished in 1 Peter to sanctify in their hearts Christ as Lord (1 Peter 3:15 ff. ), to remain loyal to His name (1 Peter 4:14 ff. ), and to refuse to return to their former mode of living (1 Peter 4:2 ff. This fact may have furnished one of the incentives for the writing of 1 Peter, exhorting believers to maintain a firm defence of their faith in Christ, yet a defence to be made with meekness and fear, while they thus retain a good conscience and hope for the best (1 Peter 3:15 f. ...
On the other hand, several interpreters prefer a Domitianic date, believing that it furnishes a more appropriate setting for the conditions described in 1 Peter. _ Even in comparison with Revelation, which is supposed to have been written in the last years of Domitian’s reign, 1 Peter is believed to reflect a slightly earlier situation. The persecution seems to have broken out only recently (1 Peter 4:12), and resentment toward the authorities has not yet had time to develop (1 Peter 2:13-17); while in Revelation the persecutors are hated bitterly and Christians have been enduring afflictions for some time (Revelation 2:13, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24). It is also said that in 1 Peter Christians are not being called upon to pay homage to the Emperor’s image (but see 1 Peter 3:14), while this demand has become very offensive by the time Revelation was written (Revelation 13:15, Revelation 20:4). Therefore 1 Peter is placed in the earlier part of Domitian’s reign (e. But there is manifestly little similarity between the situation reflected in 1 Peter and that of the Christians in Revelation, nor is it certain that the two situations stand to one another in the relation of antecedent to consequent. ...
This situation might be said to correspond fairly well with that of 1 Peter, but we have no certain knowledge that the Neronian persecution reached to the East, and particularly to the peoples addressed in 1 Peter 1:1. Peter cannot possibly have been alive in the second decade of the 2nd cent
Jesus, Philip of, Saint - He joined the Discalced Franciscans of the province of Saint Didacus, founded by Saint Peter Baptist, but left the order in 1589 to engage in mercantile affairs which later brought him to the Philippines where he was re-admitted to the order, 1590. He was arrested with Peter Baptist and companions, tortured, and crucified
Bosor - The Chaldee or Aramaic form of the name Beor, the father of Balaam (2 Peter 2:15 )
Bar-Jona - (bahr-joh' nuh) The surname of Simon Peter (Matthew 16:17 )
Alcantarines - Members of the Spanish province of Discalced Friars Minor, of the reform of Saint Peter of Alcantara
Peter - This is an Aramaic word, the same as Peter in Greek, both signifying 'a stone. (In Acts 10:5 he is called "Simon, whose surname is Peter. ") The next notice of Peter is in Luke 5 when he was called to the apostleship. ...
He had a sort of prominence among the apostles: when a few of them were selected for any special occasion, Peter was always one of them, and is named first. The three names 'Peter, James, and John' occur often together, still we do not read of Peter having any authority over the others: cf. Peter was in character energetic and impulsive: he wanted to walk on the water to go to Christ, and his strong affection for the Lord led him to oppose when the Lord spoke of His coming sufferings, for which he was rebuked as presenting Satan's mind. ...
When Peter confessed to Jesus, "Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God," theLord said that He would build His church upon that foundation, and added, "I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven," with assurancethat what he bound or loosed on earth would be ratified in heaven. On the day of Pentecost we find Peter accordingly using these keys, and opening to three thousand Jews the doors of the kingdom. ...
Peter was the apostle of the circumcision, as Paul was of the Gentiles, and was a long time getting entirely clear of Jewish prejudices. On the other hand, Peter, while confessing that in some of Paul's writings there were things hard to be understood, recognises them as scripture. ...
In the beginning of the Acts Peter's boldness in testimony is conspicuous
Dominion - ...
τὸ κράτος is rendered thus in the doxologies in 1 Peter 4:11; 1 Peter 5:11, Judges 1:25, Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:13 (Revised Version ). Ephesians 1:21, Colossians 1:16 (plural), Judges 1:8, 2 Peter 2:10; Revised Version in all cases gives ‘dominion,’ Authorized Version in the first three, and in the margin of 2 Peter 2:10 (text, ‘government’). The meaning of the word in Peter and Jude presents some difficulty. (a) Many suppose that here also angels are referred to, which 2 Peter 2:11 and the reference to the sin of the Sodomites seem to support. κυριότης) says that in Peter evil angels are implied from the context, though not in Jude. Peter and St. 279), or the Lordship of Christ, in support of which 2 Peter 2:1; 2 Peter 2:6, Judges 1:4; Judges 1:15 may be quoted. Bennett inclines to this interpretation in Jude and regards it as included also in 2 Peter, where he gives the general principle of the argument thus: when good angels withstand dignities, i
Aeneas - The name of a paralytic at Lydda who was cured by Peter ( Acts 9:33-34 )
Utterly - * For UTTERLY, 1 Corinthians 6:7 , see ACTUALLY; 2 Peter 2:12 , see CORRUPT , A, No
Cephas - See Peter
jo'Nas - (Matthew 12:39,40,41 ; 16:4 ) ...
Father of Peter
Jonas, Jona - The father of Peter
Tabitha - Peter, who was sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over the dead body, and said, "Tabitha, arise. " And she opened her eyes and sat up; and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive" (Acts 9:36-43 )
Blemish - In the New Testament, Christ is the perfect sacrifice (without blemish, Hebrews 9:14 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ) intended to sanctify the church and remove all its blemishes (Ephesians 5:27 ). The children of God are commanded to live lives without blemishes (Philippians 2:15 ; 2 Peter 3:14 )
Silvanus - Whether Peter refers to the same person is not known. 1 Peter 5:12
Zeno - 474–491, is famous in church history for the publication of the HENOTICON and for his active part in the prolonged disputes about Timotheus Aelurus, Timotheus Salofaciolus, Peter Mongus, and Peter the Fuller
Marcus - ]'>[1] of Colossians 4:10 , Phm 1:24 , 1 Peter 5:13 = Mark (wh
Cunningly - 2 Peter 1
Malchus - The high priest's servant whose ear Peter cut off, but who was healed by the Lord
Zelo'Tes, - the epithet given to the apostle Simon to distinguish him from Simon Peter
Beloved Disciple - Matthew tells of the transfiguration in which Jesus chose an inner circle Peter, James, and John to be witnesses of His glory (Matthew 17:2 ). A disciple was known to the high priest and at the trial of Jesus managed to get Peter into the court area (John 18:15 ). The beloved disciple and Peter were told by Mary Magdalene that the tomb was open and Jesus' body was not there. The other disciple outran Peter, but Peter entered the tomb first. Peter asked Jesus what plans He had for the beloved disciple. Jesus told Peter not to meddle, but to obey His command to “follow me” (John 21:20-22 )
Pope - He is the alleged, visible successor of Peter
pe'Ter - Peter did not live, as a mere laboring man, in a hut by the seaside, but first at Bethsaida, and afterward in a house at Capernaum belonging to himself or his mother-in-law, which must have been rather a large one, since he received in it not only our Lord and his fellow disciples, but multitudes who were attracted by the miracles and preaching of Jesus. Peter was probably between thirty and forty pears of age at the date of his call. Peter and his brother Andrew, together with their partners James and John, the sons ,of Zebedee, were disciples of John the Baptist when he was first called by our Lord. It was upon this occasion that Jesus gave Peter the name Cephas, a Syriac word answering to the Greek Peter, and signifying a stone or rock. (John 1:35-42 ) This first call led to no immediate change in Peter's external position. It took place on the Sea of Galilee near Capernaum, where the four disciples Peter and Andrew, James and John were fishing. The special designation of Peter and his eleven fellow disciples took place some time afterward, when they were set apart as our Lord's immediate attendants. See (Matthew 10:2-4 ; Mark 3:13-19 ) (the most detailed account); Luke 6:13 They appear to have then first received formally the name of apostles, and from that time Simon bore publicly, and as it would seem all but exclusively, the name Peter, which had hitherto been used rather as a characteristic appellation than as a proper name. From this time there can be no doubt that Peter held the first place among the apostles, to whatever cause his precedence is to be attributed. In his affection and self-confidence Peter ventured to reject as impossible the announcement of the sufferings and humiliation which Jesus predicted, and heard the sharp words, "Get thee behind me, Satan; thou art an offence unto me, for thou savorest not the things that be of God but those that be of men. Peter signalized his faith and devotion, he displayed at the time, or immediately afterward, a more than usual deficiency in spiritual discernment and consistency. Toward the close of our Lord's ministry Peter's characteristics become especially prominent. At the last supper Peter seems to have been particularly earnest in the request that the traitor might be pointed out. On the morning of the resurrection we have proof that Peter, though humbled, was not crushed by his fall. It is observable; however, that on that occasion he is called by his original name, Simon not Peter; the higher designation was not restored until he had been publicly reinstituted, so to speak, by his Master. We have two accounts of the first meeting of Peter and Paul -- (Acts 9:26 ; Galatians 1:17,18 ) This interview was followed by another event marking Peter's position --a general apostolical tour of visitation to the churches hitherto established. That was the crown and consummation of Peter's ministry. The establishment of a church in great part of Gentile origin at Antioch and the mission of Barnabas between whose family and Peter there were the bonds of near intimacy, set the seal upon the work thus inaugurated by Peter. Peter was probably employed for the most part in building up and completing the organization of Christian communities in Palestine and the adjoining districts. The name of Peter as founder or joint founder is not associated with any local church save the churches of Corinth, Antioch or Rome, by early ecclesiastical tradition. Origen says that Peter felt himself to be unworthy to be put to death in the same manner as his Master, and was therefore, at his own request, crucified with his head downward. Of far more importance is the statement that Mark wrote his Gospel under the teaching of Peter, or that he embodied in that Gospel the substance of our apostle's oral instructions. [1] The only written documents which Peter has left are the First Epistle-- about which no doubt has ever been entertained in the Church-- and the Second, which has been a subject of earnest controversy
Slack, Slackness - A — 1: βραδύνω (Strong's #1019 — Verb — braduno — brad-oo'-no ) used intransitively signifies "to be slow, to tarry" (bradus, "slow"), said negatively of God, 2 Peter 3:9 , "is (not) slack;" in 1 Timothy 3:15 , translated "(if) I tarry. ...
B — 1: βραδύτης (Strong's #1022 — Noun Feminine — bradutes — brad-oo'-tace ) "slowness" (akin to A), is rendered "slackness" in 2 Peter 3:9
Tradition - Peter (1 Peter 1:18 ) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (Compare Acts 15:10 ; Matthew 15:2-6 ; Galatians 1:14 )
Solomon's Porch - When Peter and John had cured the lame man, the people congregated in the same place, and Peter addressed them
Peter - THE Four Gospels are full of Peter After the name of our Lord Himself, no name comes up so often in the Four Gospels as Peter's name. No disciple speaks so often and so much as Peter. Our Lord speaks oftener to Peter than to any other of His disciples; sometimes in blame and sometimes in praise. No disciple is so pointedly reproved by our Lord us Peter, and no disciple ever ventures to reprove his Master but Peter. No other disciple ever so boldly confessed and outspokenly acknowledged and encouraged our Lord as Peter repeatedly did; and no one ever intruded, and interfered, and tempted Him as Peter repeatedly did also. His Master spoke words of approval, and praise, and even blessing to Peter the like of which He never spoke to any other man. And at the same time, and almost in the same breath, He said harder things to Peter than He ever said to any other of His twelve disciples, unless it was to Judas. ...
No disciple speaks so often as Peter. " And then, in that charity which shall cover the multitude of sins, "Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us; what was I that I could withstand God?" These are Peter's unmistakable footprints. Peter was grieved because He said unto him the third time, Lovest thou me? And he said unto Him, Lord, thou knowest all things: Thou knowest that I love Thee. ...
The evangelical Churches of Christendom have no duty and no interest to dispute with the Church of Rome either as to Peter's primacy among the twelve disciples, or as to his visits to Rome, or as to his death by martyrdom in that city. If the Church of Rome is satisfied about the historical truth of Peter's missionary work in the west, we are satisfied. All that can be truthfully told us about Peter we shall welcome. We cannot be told too much about Peter. And as to his primacy that Rome makes so much of, we cannot read our New Testament without coming on proofs on every page that Peter held a foremost place among the twelve disciples. Four times the list of elected men is given in the Gospels; and, while the order of the twelve names varies in all other respects, Peter's name is invariably the first in all the lists, as Judas's name is as invariably the last. The difference is this: The New Testament recognises a certain precedency in Peter, whereas the Church of Rome claims for him an absolute supremacy. The precedency and the supremacy that Peter holds in the Four Gospels was not so much appointed him by his Master; what supremacy he held was conferred upon him by nature herself. Peter was born a supreme man. Nature herself, as we call her, had, with her ever-bountiful and original hands, stamped his supremacy upon Peter before he was born. And when he came to be a disciple of Jesus Christ he entered on, and continued to hold, that natural and aboriginal supremacy over all inferior men, till a still more superior and supreme man arose and took Peter's supremacy away from him. We all have the same supremacy that Peter had when we are placed alongside of men who are less gifted in intellect, and in will, and in character, than we are gifted. Peter's gifts of mind, and force of character, and warmth of heart, and generosity of utterance-all these things gave Peter the foremost place in the Apostolic Church till Paul arose. But Peter, remarkable and outstanding man as he was, had neither the natural ability nor the educational advantages of Saul of Tarsus. But, at the same time, and till Paul arose and all but totally eclipsed all the disciples who had been in Christ before him, Peter stood at the head of the apostolate, and so leaves a deeper footprint on the pages of the Four Gospels at any rate, than any of the other eleven disciples. While Peter was sanguine and enthusiastic and extreme both for good and for evil, beyond them all. Peter was naturally and constitutionally of the enthusiastic temperament, and his conversion and call to the discipleship did not decompose or at all suppress his true nature; the primal elements of his character remained, and the original balance and the proportion of those elements remained. "Christ gives him a little touch," says Thomas Goodwin, "of some wildness and youthfulness that had been in Peter's spirit before Christ had to do with him. Peter had had his vagaries, and had lived as he liked, and, Peter, says Christ to him, when thou art hung up by the heels upon a cross, there to be bound to thy good behaviour, see that thou, remembering what thou wast when young, show them thy valour and thy resolution when thou comest to that conflict; and Peter remembered it, and was moved by it. - 2 Peter 1:14. " Such, then, was Peter's so perilous temperament, which he bad inherited from his father Jonas. But by degrees, and under the teaching, the example, and the training of his Master, Peter's too-hot heart was gradually brought under control till it became the seat in Peter's bosom of a deep, pure, deathless love and adoration for Jesus Christ. Amid all Peter's stumbles and falls this always brought him right again and set him on his feet again-his absolutely enthusiastic love and adoration for his Master. This, indeed, after his Master's singular grace to Peter, was always the redeeming and restraining principle in Peter's wayward and wilful life. To the very end of his three years with his Master, Peter was full of a most immature character and an unreduced and unbridled mind and heart. At the same time, blame Peter as much as you like; dwell upon the faults of his temperament, and the defects of his character, and the scandals of his conduct, as much as you like; I defy you to deny that, with it all, he was not a very attractive and a very lovable man. All Peter's faults, indeed, lay in the heat of his heart. So many faults had Peter, and so patent and on the surface did they lie, that you might very easily take a too hasty and a too superficial estimate of Peter's real depth and strength and value. And if Peter was for too long like the sand rather than like the rock his Master had so nobly named him, the sand will one day settle into rock, and into rock of a quality and a quantity to build a temple with. If Peter is now too forward to speak, he will in the end be as forward to suffer. The time will come when Peter will act up to all his outspoken ardours and high enthusiasms. ...
...
Of the four outstanding temperaments then, Peter's temperament was of the ardent and enthusiastic order. Let us take Peter, come to perfection, for our pattern and our prelate; and, especially, let us watch, and work, and pray against a cold heart, a chilling temper, a distant, selfish, indifferent mind. ...
Closely connected with Peter's peculiar temperament, and, indeed, a kind of compensation for being so possessed by it, was his exquisite sense of sin. We see Peter's singular sensitiveness and tenderness of spirit in this respect coming out in a most impressive and memorable way on the occasion of his call to the discipleship. But though they both saw and shared in the miraculous draught of fishes on the sea of Galilee, Peter alone remembered his sins, and broke down under them, in the presence of the power and grace of Christ. " "No; fear not," said his Master to Peter, "for from henceforth thou shalt so catch men. " Peter's prostrating penitence at such a moment marked Peter out as the true captain of that fishing fleet that was so soon to set sail under the colours of the Cross to catch the souls of men for salvation. That sudden and complete prostration before Christ at that moment seated Peter in a supremacy and in a prelacy that has never been taken from him. ...
It was Peter's deep and rich temperament, all but completely sanctified, that made Peter so forgetful of himself as a preacher, and so superior to all men's judgments, and so happy, to use his own noble words, to be reproached for the name of Christ. Can you imagine, have you come through any experience that enables you to imagine, what Peter's thoughts would be as he mounted the pulpit stairs to preach Judas's funeral sermon? Judas had betrayed his Master. But Peter himself; Peter the preacher; had denied his Master with oaths and curses. And yet, there is Peter in the pulpit, while. Judas lies a cast-out suicide in Aceldama! 'O the depths of the Divine mercy to me! That I who sinned with Judas; that I who had made my bed in hell beside Judas; should be held in this honour, and should be ministering to the holy brethren! O to grace how great a debtor!' And again, just think what all must have been in Peter's mind as he stood up in Solomon's porch to preach the Pentecost sermon. You may be sure that it was as much to himself as to the murderers of the Prince of Life that Peter went on that day to preach and say, "Repent, therefore, that your sins may be blotted out; since God hath sent His Son to bless you, in turning away every one of you from his iniquities. " The truth is, by this time, the unspeakably awful sinfulness of Peter's own sin had completely drunk up all the human shame of it. If they who know about Peter's sin choose to reproach him for it, let them do it. It is now a small matter to Peter to be judged of men's judgment. They sang David's Psalms in Solomon's porch; and that day Peter and the penitent people must surely have sung and said, "Wash me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin. " And if preachers pronounced benedictions after their sermons in those days, then we surely have Peter's Solomon's-porch benediction preserved to us in these apostolic words of his: "Ye therefore, beloved, seeing ye know all these things, beware lest ye also fall from your steadfastness
Seemly, rv - * For SEEMLY, RV, see COMELY , Band Note (2) ...
Note: In 1 Peter 2:12 , RV, kalos, "good, fair," is rendered "seemly
Sententiary - ) One who read lectures, or commented, on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, Bishop of Paris (1159-1160), a school divine
Boyard - ) A member of a Russian aristocratic order abolished by Peter the Great
Woulfe Bottle - ) A kind of wash bottle with two or three necks; - so called after the inventor, Peter Woulfe, an English chemist
Sym'Eon - (The Jewish form of the name Simon, used in the Revised Version of (Acts 15:14 ) and referring to Simon Peter
Andrew - Andrew quickly went and told his brother Peter that the Messiah of whom John had spoken had arrived, with the result that Peter soon met Jesus and believed (John 1:35-42). (For further details of Andrew’s family see Peter
Pontus - Strangers from this province were at Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9 ), and to "strangers scattered throughout Pontus," among others, Peter addresses his first epistle (1 Peter 1:1 )
Eschew - ]'>[1] it occurs only in Job 1:1 ; Job 1:8 ; Job 2:3 of Job himself, as Job 1:1 ‘one that feared God, and eschewed evil,’ and in 1 Peter 3:11 ‘Let him eschew evil, and do good. ]'>[2] at 1 Peter 3:11 and Amer
And - John and Peter and James rode to New York, that is, John rode to New York add or further, Peter rode to New York add James rode to New York
Cappadocia - Some of its people were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, Acts 2:9, and afterward Christians of the province were addressed by Peter. 1 Peter 1:1
Jona - ” Father of Simon Peter (John 1:42 ; compare John 21:15-17 )
Huppim - The head of a Benjamite family ( Genesis 46:21 Peter, 1 Chronicles 7:12 ; 1 Chronicles 7:15 , Numbers 26:39 [1])
Aeneas - (AWeneawss) Personal name of a paralyzed man Peter healed at Lydda (Acts 9:33-34 ), resulting in great evangelistic victories in the area
Vomit - 1: ἐξέραμα (Strong's #1829 — Noun Neuter — exerama — ex-er'-am-ah ) "a vomit" (from exerao, "to disgorge"), occurs in 2 Peter 2:22
Pastor - Shepherd, one whose office it is to feed and guard the flock of Christ, Ephesians 4:11 1 Peter 5:2
Rhoda - Rose, a young damsel in the household of Mary mother of John Mark, when Peter was miraculously released from prison, Acts 12:13
Mark, Saint Evangelist - Evangelist, assumed to be the one referred to in Acts as John Mark (12:15), identical with Saint Mark mentioned by Saint Paul (Colossians 4; 2 Timothy 4; Philemon 1:24) and by Saint Peter (1 Peter 5). Mark, whom Saint Peter calls his son, is the son of Mary, whose house was a meeting-place for the Apostles, to which Saint Peter turned on his release from prison. After this he sailed to Cyprus with Barnabas; ten years later Mark was a fellow-worker of Saint Paul and in the company of Saint Peter at Rome. Roman tradition relates that Saint Mark wrote his Gospel at the request of the Roman Christians and under the direction of Saint Peter
Lascivious, Lasciviousness - 1: ἀσέλγεια (Strong's #766 — Noun Feminine — aselgeia — as-elg'-i-a ) denotes "excess, licentiousness, absence of restraint, indecency, wantonness;" "lasciviousness" in Mark 7:22 , one of the evils that proceed from the heart; in 2 Corinthians 12:21 , one of the evils of which some in the church at Corinth had been guilty; in Galatians 5:19 , classed among the works of the flesh; in Ephesians 4:19 , among the sins of the unregenerate who are "past feeling;" so in 1 Peter 4:3 ; in Jude 1:4 , of that into which the grace of God had been turned by ungodly men; it is translated "wantonness" in Romans 13:13 , one of the sins against which believers are warned; in 2 Peter 2:2 , according to the best mss. , "lascivious (doings)," RV (the AV "pernicious ways" follows those texts which have apoleiais); in 2 Peter 2:7 , RV, "lascivious (life)," AV "filthy (conversation)," of the people of Sodom and Gomorrah; in 2 Peter 2:18 , RV, "lasciviousness" (AV, "wantonness"), practiced by the same persons as mentioned in Jude
Bishop of Rome - The pope who, besides being head of the universal Church, occupies its central and principal see, Rome, in succession to its first bishop, Peter
s.p. - = Sanatissime Pater (Most Holy Father)...
= Sanatus Petrus (Saint Peter)...
= Servants of the Holy Paraclete (Piarist Fathers)...
= Sisters of Providence...
= Summus Pontifelli (Supreme Pontiff; Pope) ...
Rome, Bishop of - The pope who, besides being head of the universal Church, occupies its central and principal see, Rome, in succession to its first bishop, Peter
Elders - Peter called himself an elder. (1 Peter 5:1)...
Wilfully, Willfully - A — 1: ἑκουσίως (Strong's #1596 — Adverb — hekousios — hek-oo-see'-oce ) denotes "voluntarily, willingly," Hebrews 10:26 , (of sinning) "willfully;" in 1 Peter 5:2 , "willingly" (of exercising oversight over the flock of God). ...
B — 1: θέλω (Strong's #2309 — Verb — thelo — ) "to will," used in the present participle in 2 Peter 3:5 , is rendered "willfully (forget)" in the RV, AV, "willingly (are ignorant of)," lit
Feast of Saint Peter in Chains - Memorial August 1, ...
About the Feast Originally kept in Rome to commemorate the dedication of the Church of Saint Peter on the Esquiline Hill built by Eudoxia Licinia in 442, and rebuilt by Adrian I in the 8th century. When the chains which Saint Peter had worn in prison were later venerated there, the feast received its present name. Pope Saint Leo the Great united them to the chains with which Saint Peter had been fettered in the Mamertine Prison, forming a chain about two yards long which is preserved in a bronze safe and guarded by a special confraternity
Transfiguration, the - The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. Forty years after the event Peter distinctly makes mention of it (2 Peter 1:16-18 )
Virtue - 1: ἀρετή (Strong's #703 — Noun Feminine — arete — ar-et'-ay ) properly denotes whatever procures preeminent estimation for a person or thing; hence, "intrinsic eminence, moral goodness, virtue," (a) of God, 1 Peter 2:9 , "excellencies" (AV, "praises"); here the original and general sense seems to be blended with the impression made on others, i. , renown, excellence or praise (Hort); in 2 Peter 1:3 , "(by His own glory and) virtue," RV (instrumental dative), i. , the manifestation of His Divine power; this significance is frequently illustrated in the papyri and was evidently common in current Greek speech; (b) of any particular moral excellence, Philippians 4:8 ; 2 Peter 1:5 (twice), where virtue is enjoined as an essential quality in the excercise of faith, RV, "(in your faith supply) virtue
Saint Peter in Chains, Feast of - Memorial August 1, ...
About the Feast Originally kept in Rome to commemorate the dedication of the Church of Saint Peter on the Esquiline Hill built by Eudoxia Licinia in 442, and rebuilt by Adrian I in the 8th century. When the chains which Saint Peter had worn in prison were later venerated there, the feast received its present name. Pope Saint Leo the Great united them to the chains with which Saint Peter had been fettered in the Mamertine Prison, forming a chain about two yards long which is preserved in a bronze safe and guarded by a special confraternity
Bithynia - 1 Peter 1:1 , a providence in the northern part of Asia Minor, on the shore of the Black sea, having Paphlagonia on the east, Phrygia and Galatia on the south, and Mysia on the southwest. It is famous as being one of the provinces to which the apostle Peter addressed his first epistle; also as having been under the government of Pliny, who, in a letter to the emperor Trajan, makes honorable mention of the number, character, and customs of the persecuted Christians there, about A. It may be, with some justice, considered as a province taught by Peter; and we read that when Paul attempted to go into Bithynia, the Spirit suffered him not, Acts 16:7
Godliness - strictly taken, signifies right worship, or devotion; but, in general, it imports the whole of practical religion, 1 Timothy 4:8 ; 2 Peter 1:6
Marcus - (mahr' cuhss) Latin form of Mark (“large hammer”) used by the KJV at Colossians 4:10 ; Philippians 1:24 ; and 1 Peter 5:13
Vatican - Peter, including the pope's palace, a museum, a library, a famous chapel, etc
Jewels - 1: χρυσίον (Strong's #5553 — Noun Neuter — chrusion — khroo-see'-on ) "gold," is used of ornaments in 1 Peter 3:3 , RV, "jewels
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - To promote the peaceful succession of an orthodox bishop, Athanasius, being requested to recommend one who could be elected by anticipation, named Peter, whom Gregory Nazianzen describes as honoured for his wisdom and grey hairs ( Orat. Five days afterwards (May 2) Athanasius died, and Peter took possession of "the evangelical throne. Peter was commanded to withdraw; he refused; the church doors were forced, and the brutal orgies described in Athanasius's Encyclical were repeated: a youth in female dress danced upon the altar; another sat naked on the throne, and delivered a mock sermon in praise of vice (cf. Peter ap. At this point Peter quitted the church; Socrates says that he was seized and imprisoned (iv. Peter tells us that the pagans esteemed Lucius as the favourite of Serapis, because he denied the divinity of the Son; and dwells on the brave confessorship (1) of 19 priests and deacons whom Magnus, after vain attempts to make them Arianize, transported to the pagan city of Heliopolis in Phoenicia, sending also into penal servitude 23 monks and others who expressed their sympathy; (2) of 7 Egyptian bishops exiled to Diocaesarea, a city inhabited by Jews, while some other prelates were "handed over to the curia," their official immunity from onerous curial obligations being annulled in requital of their steadfastness in the faith. Damasus of Rome, hearing of this new persecution, sent a deacon with a letter of communion and consolation for Peter; the messenger was arrested, treated as a criminal, savagely beaten, and sent to the mines of Phenne. Peter adds that children were tortured, and intimates that some persons were actually put to death or died of cruel usage, and that, after the old usage in pagan persecutions, their remains were denied burial. Peter puts into the mouth of the 19 confessors an argument, quite Athanasian in tone, from the eternity of the Divine Fatherhood (cf. ...
Peter refers to the invocation of the Holy Spirit at the Eucharistic consecration, and intimates that monks used to precede a newly arrived bishop, chanting the Psalms. Peter remained for some time in concealment, whence he wrote his encyclical (Tillem. 10); and Facundus of Hermiane, in his Defence of the Three Articles, quotes part of a letter addressed by Peter to the exiled Egyptian confessors at Diocaesarea. Here Peter treats Paulinus, not Meletius, as the true bp. Peter had heard of it, but not from Basil; and had remonstrated with his exiled subordinates. Moreover, Basil's enemy Dorotheus, visiting Rome to enlist Western sympathies in favour of MeIetius as against Paulinus, met Peter in company with Damasus. Peter fired up at the name of Meletius and exclaimed, "He is no better than a Arian. " Dorotheus, angered in his turn, said something which offended Peter's dignity and Peter wrote to Basil, complaining of this and of his silence in regard to the exile's conduct. " ...
Peter's exile ended in the spring of 378. Fortified by a letter of commendation from Damasus, Peter returned to Alexandria; the people forthwith expelled Lucius, who went to Constantinople; and Peter was thenceforth undisturbed in his see. Yet ere long he allowed himself to become the tool of the ambitious Maximus, who pretended to have been a confessor for orthodoxy, and thus perhaps reached Peter's weak side. He aimed at "securing the see of Constantinople; and Peter, contradicting himself in writing," as Gregory words it ( de Vita Sua, 1015), commissioned some Egyptian prelates to go to Constantinople and consecrate Maximus. The scheme failed disgracefully: Maximus had to leave Constantinople, and after attempting in vain to propitiate Theodosius, went back to Alexandria and tried to intimidate Peter, "putting the old man into a difficulty" ( ib. Peter reconciled himself to Gregory, who panegyrized him as "a Peter in virtue not less than in name, who was very near heaven, but remained in the flesh so far as to render his final assistance to the truth," etc. Peter died Feb
Bishop - In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was no difference as to order between bishops and elders or presbyters (Acts 20:17-28 ; 1 Peter 5:1,2 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3 ). Christ is figuratively called "the bishop [1] of souls" (1 Peter 2:25 )
Spot - Jesus Himself was spoken of by Peter as “a lamb without blemish and without spot” (1 Peter 1:19 )
Catholic Epistles - Letters addressed by the Apostles not to any particular body, but to the Universal Church: two by Peter, one each by John, Jude, and James the Less
Ensue - The verb ‘ensue’ is used intransitively, meaning to follow , in Jdt 9:4 ; and transitively, with the full force of pursue , in 1 Peter 3:11
Epistles, Catholic - Letters addressed by the Apostles not to any particular body, but to the Universal Church: two by Peter, one each by John, Jude, and James the Less
Abbey, Saint Augustine - Benedictine monastery founded outside the city of Canterbury, England in 605, dedicated anew to Saints Peter, Paul, and Augustine by Saint Dunstan in 978
Saint Augustine Abbey - Benedictine monastery founded outside the city of Canterbury, England in 605, dedicated anew to Saints Peter, Paul, and Augustine by Saint Dunstan in 978
Silas, Silvanus - He accompanied both Peter and Paul on separate missionary journeys. Later in his ministry Silas teamed with Peter on missions in Pontus and Cappadocia. He also served as Peter's scribe, writing 1Peter and perhaps other letters. Many believe that he composed and arranged most of the letter since Peter probably had little education. See Paul ; 1Peter
Slander - This should cause each person to be very careful what they say about others (see Ephesians 4:31 ; 1 Peter 2:1 ). The Bible shows that slander is a mark of the unregenerate world (James 4:11-12 ; 1 Peter 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:16 )
Bishop - (1 Peter 5:2 ) ...
The work of teaching, both publicly and privately. (1 Timothy 3:2 ; Titus 1:8 ) Peter calls Christ "the shepherd and bishop of your souls. " (1 Peter 2:25 )
Mark - Peter styles Mark his son, 1 Peter 5:13; meaning his spiritual son—that he was converted by that apostle. We find him also with Peter, 1 Peter 5:13, with whom he is said to have travelled, and to have been his amanuensis
Cock - Though this bird is too well known to need any account being given of him, yet being rendered so memorable in Scripture, from the circumstance of the apostle Peter's denial of Christ, I cannot pass it by without remarking, in allusion to that striking event, how slender the means which the Lord is pleased sometimes to make use of, to answer the most important purposes! The crowing of a cock is enough, in the Lord's hand, to accomplish the Lord's design. No one but Peter understood what the crowing of this cock meant; but to him it became more powerful than the sound of thunder. For as Peter heard the first crowing of the cock without the least emotion, so do men hear the word of God, when unaccompanied with grace, untouched and unconcerned. But when that word of God is sent home to the heart, by the powerful conviction of the Spirit of God, like the eye of Jesus which looked upon Peter, as the cock crew the second time, then the word is rendered effectual, and, like Peter, the sinner is led forth to weep bitterly
Simon - Simon (sî'mon), a hearing, contracted from Simeon, a sorcerer, who professed to be a convert to the Christian faith, and was baptized by Philip at Samaria, but was severely rebuked by Peter as a hypocrite, because he desired to buy the gift of the Spirit. Simon Peter. See Peter. The tanner at Joppa with whom Peter lodged
Elidad - Son of Chislon, and Benjamin’s representative for dividing the land, Numbers 34:21 Peter (perh
Avellana - Sixth-century collection of canons, many of them unique, so called because its oldest known manuscript was bought for the Abbey of Santa Croce Avellana by Peter Damian
Unspeakable - 1 Peter 1
Coupled - * Note: The word "coupled" is inserted in italics in 1 Peter 3:2 , the more adequately to express the original, which is, lit
Mark - It was in his mother's house that Peter found "many gathered together praying" when he was released from prison; and it is probable that it was here that he was converted by Peter, who calls him his "son" (1 Peter 5:13 ). At a later period he was with Peter in Babylon (1 Peter 5:13 ), then, and for some centuries afterwards, one of the chief seats of Jewish learning; and he was with Timothy in Ephesus when Paul wrote him during his second imprisonment (2 Timothy 4:11 )
Fear - In some cases this may be a cowardly fear (Proverbs 29:25; Galatians 2:12), but in others a very healthy fear, amounting to respect or reverence (Genesis 20:11; Leviticus 26:2; Romans 3:18; 1 Peter 2:18). In this latter sense people are to fear those who have authority over them (Leviticus 19:3; Proverbs 24:21; Romans 13:3; Romans 13:7; Ephesians 6:5), and particularly to fear God (Psalms 34:11; Isaiah 8:13-15; Acts 9:31; 1 Peter 2:17). Their fear of God is mixed with love for him (Deuteronomy 6:2; Deuteronomy 6:5; 1 Peter 1:8; 1 Peter 3:15). Therefore, believers must have a healthy fear of him as well as a warm love for him (2 Corinthians 7:1; 1 Peter 1:16-17). It also gives confidence not to fear the dangers and uncertainties of life (Psalms 46:2; Psalms 112:1; Psalms 112:7; Luke 12:4-5; 1 Peter 3:14-15)
Lasciviousness - -The Greek word occurs 10 times in the NT (Mark 7:22, Romans 13:13, 2 Corinthians 12:21, Galatians 5:19, Ephesians 4:19, 1 Peter 4:3; 1 Peter 2:2; 1 Peter 2:7; 1 Peter 2:18, Judges 1:4). It should be read instead of ἀπώλεια in 2 Peter 2:2. ]'>[1] so translates it in 2 Peter 2:2) in the Authorized Version , while the Revised Version translates it so in all cases except Romans 13:13, where the ‘wantonness’ of the Authorized Version is retained (cf. 2 Peter 2:18). In 2 Peter 2:7 ἐν ἀσελγείᾳ is translated ‘filthy conversation. ’ It has plainly this meaning in Romans 13:13, 2 Corinthians 12:21, Galatians 5:19, Ephesians 4:19, 2 Peter 2:7; 2 Peter 2:18. Peter and St. ...
In Song of Solomon 14:26,03 and 1 Peter 4:3 it is possible to defend the classical sense of ‘excesses. ’ In 1 Peter 4:3 the word is definitely used as a general term of the ‘will of the Gentiles,’ and is evidently the licentiousness which accompanied heathen feasts and lawless idolatries, while in Jude and 2 Peter it is the typical sin of the cities of the plain, which the libertines, under the guise of a spurious freedom, followed, and into which they inveigled others. Mayor (on 2 Peter 2:2)
Bishop - 1 Peter 2:25 (a) This title is given to the Lord JESUS in regard to His right to rule over the religious life and affairs of the church
Contrariwise - 1 Peter 3
Sarah - 1 Peter 3:6 (a) This is a type of the Church, the Bride of CHRIST, who should be and usually is in obedience to her Lord, the Bridegroom
Cephas - See Peter
Vigilant - ...
1 Peter 5
jo'na - (a dove ) (Greek form of Jonah), the father of the apostle Peter, ( John 1:42 ) who is hence addressed as Simon Barjona (i
Disbelieve - , in the AV (except in 1 Peter 2:7 , "be disobedient"); "disbelieve" (or "disbelieved") in the RV, in Mark 16:11,16 ; Luke 24:11,41 ; Acts 28:24 ; "disbelieve" is the best rendering, implying that the unbeliever has had a full opportunity of believing and has rejected it; some mss. have apeitheo, "to be disobedient," in 1 Peter 2:7 ; Romans 3:3 , RV, "were without faith;" 2 Timothy 2:13 , RV, "are faithless
Reserve - 1: τηρέω (Strong's #5083 — Verb — tereo — tay-reh'-o ) "to guard, keep, preserve, give heed to," is translated "to reserve," (a) with a happy issue, 1 Peter 1:4 ; (b) with a retributive issue, 2 Peter 2:4 ; 2:9 , AV (RV, "keep"); 2:17; 3:7; Jude 1:6 , AV (RV, "hath kept"); 1:13; (c) with the possibility either of deliverance or execution, Acts 25:21 , AV (RV, "kept")
Peter-Pence - Peter. when it was enacted, that henceforth no persons shall pay any pensions, Peter-pence, or other impositions, to the use of the bishop and see of Rome
Evil Speaking - Christians must expect this form of persecution ( Matthew 5:11 ), but must be careful to give no handle to it ( Romans 14:16 , Titus 2:8 , 1 Peter 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:16 )
Meletians - The name of a considerable party who adhered to the cause of Meletius, bishop of Lycopolis, in Upper Egypt, after he was deposed, about the year 306, by Peter, bishop of Alexandria, under the charge of his having sacrificed to the gods, and having been guilty of other heinous crimes; though Epiphanius makes his only failing to have been an excessive severity against the lapsed. This dispute, which was at first a personal difference between Meletius and Peter, became a religious controversy; and the Meletian party subsisted in the fifth century, but was condemned by the first council of Nice
Hire, Hired - A — 1: μισθός (Strong's #3408 — Noun Masculine — misthos — mis-thos' ) denotes (a) "wages, hire," Matthew 20:8 ; Luke 10:7 ; James 5:4 ; in 1 Timothy 5:18 ; 2 Peter 2:13 ; Jude 1:11 , RV, "hire" (AV,"reward"); in 2 Peter 2:15 , RV, "hire" (AV, "wages")
Rhoda - She came to hearken when Peter knocked at the door of the gate (Acts 12:12-15 )
Storm - 1: λαῖλαψ (Strong's #2978 — Noun Feminine — lailaps — lah'ee-laps ) "a hurricane, whirlwind," is rendered "storm" in Mark 4:37 ; Luke 8:23 ; 2 Peter 2:17 , RV (AV, "tempest")
Revile, Reviling, Reviler - A — 1: λοιδορέω (Strong's #3058 — Verb — loidoreo — loy-dor-eh'-o ) denotes "to abuse, revile," John 9:28 ; Acts 23:4 ; 1 Corinthians 4:12 ; 1 Peter 2:23 (1st clause). 1), is found in 1 Peter 2:23 (2nd clause). ...
Note: For epereazo, 1 Peter 3:16 , RV, "revile," see ACCUSE , B, No. 1, and B, "abuse, railing," is used in 1 Timothy 5:14 , RV, "for (charin, 'for the sake of') reviling" (AV, "to speak reproachfully," a paraphrase); 1 Peter 3:9 (twice), RV, "reviling" (AV, "railing")
Longsuffering - A — 1: μακροθυμία (Strong's #3115 — Noun Feminine — makrothumia — mak-roth-oo-mee'-ah ) "forbearance, patience, longsuffering" (makros, "long," thumos, "temper"), is usually rendered "longsuffering," Romans 2:4 ; 9:22 ; 2 Corinthians 6:6 ; Galatians 5:22 ; Ephesians 4:2 ; Colossians 1:11 ; 3:12 ; 1 Timothy 1:16 ; 2 Timothy 3:10 ; 4:2 ; 1 Peter 3:20 ; 2 Peter 3:15 ; "patience" in Hebrews 6:12 ; James 5:10 . , "to be long-tempered," is rendered by the verb "to be longsuffering" in Luke 18:7 , RV (AV, "bear long"); in 1 Thessalonians 5:14 , RV (AV, "be patient"); so in James 5:7,8 ; in 2 Peter 3:9 , AV and RV, "is longsuffering. ); Romans 2:4 ; 1 Peter 3:20
Quaternion - Four quaternions took by turns the guard over Peter for the four night watches (Acts 12:4)
Oracle - 1 Peter 4:11 (a) Here we see a description of the character, authenticity and forcefulness of the man of GOD who delivers GOD's message in the power of the Holy Spirit
Quaternion - ' Four such parties were told off to guard Peter when in prison, that they might relieve each other every three hours in the night
Wrongfully - 1: ἀδίκως (Strong's #95 — Adverb — adikos — ad-ee'-koce ) akin to the above, occurs in 1 Peter 2:19
Peter (2) - PETER. —The use of the names Simon and Simon Peter in the Gospels is instructive. , when he first mentions the Apostle, calls him ‘Simon who is called Peter’ (Matthew 4:18); he uses the same language in his list of the Apostles (Matthew 10:2). Again, with most obvious appropriateness he calls him ‘Simon Peter’ at the time of his celebrated confession (Matthew 16:16), while on the two occasions on which our Lord addresses the disciple directly, he is ‘Simon bar-Jona’ (Matthew 16:17) and ‘Simon’ (Matthew 17:25). the name ‘Simon’ is employed up to the selection of the Twelve, and thereafter ‘Peter’ is used; but when our Lord accosts him in Gethsemane, He names him ‘Simon’ (Mark 14:7). also he is designated ‘Simon’ with a single exception (Luke 5:8) till the choice of the Apostles, after which he becomes ‘Peter’; but when our Lord speaks to him he is ‘Simon, Simon,’ which is softened to ‘Peter’ (Luke 22:31; Luke 22:34). Before Peter appears on the scene at all, his brother Andrew is described as ‘the brother of Simon Peter’ (John 1:41). ...
The life of Peter has a triple interest. Peter is the Luther among the Apostles, (b) Again, he is the most representative of the Apostles. It is in Peter that we see the kind of men whom our Lord deliberately chose to be His closest friends and the agents for the fulfilment of His purposes. The methods, too, by which the disciples became qualified for their great functions are most fully revealed in the treatment of Peter by Jesus—the patient wisdom, the boundless charity, the humour, the severity, the perfect frankness, the unreserved intimacy. (c) Again, the career of Peter after the Ascension is the most striking evidence at once of his natural capacity and of the transformation effected in him by his friendship with Jesus. ...
The career of Peter falls into two great sections, divided by the Ascension: his life as a disciple and Apostle under our Lord, and his life as the first leader of the Christian Church. —Simon Peter was the son of a man called Jonas (Matthew 16:17) or John (John 1:42), or possibly Jonas John, a fisherman on the Sea of Galilee. ...
Attracted by the Baptist, Peter and his brother Andrew became his disciples. He communicated to his brother the great discovery he had made, and brought him to Jesus, who, reading his very soul, and perceiving what he was and what he was capable of becoming, announced that he should bear the name Peter or ‘Rock’ (John 1:42). The acquaintanceship thus formed passed after an interval of a few months, during part of which Peter was with Jesus, into discipleship and permanent fellowship. When our Lord began His ministry in Galilee, the two brothers Peter and Andrew were summoned by Him to become, in His own striking language, ‘fishers of men’: and this call was immediately followed by that of two other brothers, their partners in business, James and John (Mark 1:16; Mark 1:20). The final stage of Peter’s relationship to Jesus was that of Apostle. Peter was the first to be chosen (Mark 3:13). The perception of our Lord’s character, and familiarity with His views of God, of man, of righteousness and of salvation, as well as with His hatred of unreality and formalism, and with the depth and range of His sympathies for the common people and even for social outcasts—set up an intellectual ferment in the mind of Peter which ultimately engendered a fixed and definite view of our Lord’s Person. At Capernaum, Peter, undismayed and unmoved by the rapid fall in our Lord’s popularity due to His refusal to become a political instead of a religious leader, affirmed Him to be the only possessor of the words of eternal life, the Holy One of God (John 6:66 ff. Then, not long after, when the common people had ceased to regard our Lord as the Messiah, and assigned Him only the subordinate place of a forerunner, Peter, without a moment’s hesitation, clothed in fit words the conviction which had now attained maturity and consistency in his mind—the ripe fruit of his intercourse with our Lord; he affirmed that He was the Messiah (Matthew 16:13 ff. This confession was rewarded with the famous promise, the sense of which is still in dispute—‘Thon art Peter, and on this rock I will build my church. A number of Protestant scholars agree with the Roman Catholic Church in understanding the rock of Peter himself; but this explanation fails to answer two questions. Why, if Peter is the rock, did not Jesus simply say ‘on thee’? Whence, too, the distinction in the present text between the two words for ‘rock’ (πέτρος and πέτρα), a distinction which must surely have been found in some form in the original Aramaic? But be the rock Peter himself or his confession, it is clear that our Lord was deeply gratified with the declaration, and that He recognized in it a spiritual insight and capacity which qualified the speaker for high office and service in the Kingdom of God. But, though Peter had grasped the truth that Jesus was the Messiah, he was still in bondage to the traditional conception of the Messiah as a conqueror. For hardly had our Lord, relying on his confession, proceeded for the first time to announce plainly His impending death, when Peter, shocked at His apparent despondency, remonstrated with Him, and thus drew from His lips the rebuke, ‘Get thee behind me, Satan’ (Matthew 16:23). ...
The prediction of His death was made by Jesus at least thrice, in language which admits of but one meaning; but neither Peter nor any of the Apostles appears to have believed that the words were intended to be taken literally. But that event drew near, and Peter, as was to be expected, figures largely in the closing scenes. ...
Not two days after the Crucifixion, Mary of Magdala informed Peter and John that the grave of Jesus was open and no body there. Peter, unaffected by this ‘motive, went into the grave as soon as he arrived, and then both disciples saw the grave-cloths lying in orderly array, with the napkin which had bound the head rolled up in a place by itself: facts which excluded the view that the corpse had been removed by enemies. It formed perhaps the most important event of Peter’s life, and certainly produced on him the most extraordinary effects. Here again Peter and John are the two chief actors, and each exhibits his distinctive characteristics. John is the first to identify the solitary figure on the shore of the Sea of Galilee with the Lord; while Peter is the first to try to reach Him, casting himself into the lake in his eagerness to welcome Him. There followed the triple question to Peter touching his love for Jesus, with answers from the Apostle which show that he had now been purged of presumption, boasting, and rash self-confidence. —If Peter was the foremost of the disciples before the Ascension, he was still more so, if possible, after that event. 8); he may have preached in the provinces to which his first letter is addressed (1 Peter 1:1); it is possible that he spent some time in Babylon (1 Peter 5:13). M, Taylor, Peter the Apostle (1891); W. Thomas, The Apostle Peter (1904); H. Peter (1887); S
See, Roman - Also the office of the supreme head of the Church; in the latter sense more commonly called the Holy See, the Apostolic See, See of Peter, Papacy. The Roman See was founded by Saint Peter c. 42and governed by him till his death, c67 This fact constitutes the historical foundation of the claim of the Bishops of Rome to the Primacy of Peter. In attempting to destroy this claim the Lutherans and Calvinists, and more recently some Rationalists have tried to prove that Saint Peter never was at Rome. In a word, for the first three centuries, the churches of the world looked to the Roman See for authoritative decisions in all matters of faith, discipline, government, and ritual for they saw in its bishops the successors of Saint Peter, the Vicar of Christ on earth. The death of Saint Peter in the Roman See has for all time irrevocably fixed it as the chief see of the Christian Church. Circumstances, in times past, have made it necessary for its bishops to reside elsewhere (at Avignon during the great Western Schism), but tbey still remained bishops of Rome and consequently the successors of Saint Peter. From Saint Peter, the first bishop, to the present Pope Benedict XVI, 265 bishops have ruled the See of Rome
Roman See - Also the office of the supreme head of the Church; in the latter sense more commonly called the Holy See, the Apostolic See, See of Peter, Papacy. The Roman See was founded by Saint Peter c. 42and governed by him till his death, c67 This fact constitutes the historical foundation of the claim of the Bishops of Rome to the Primacy of Peter. In attempting to destroy this claim the Lutherans and Calvinists, and more recently some Rationalists have tried to prove that Saint Peter never was at Rome. In a word, for the first three centuries, the churches of the world looked to the Roman See for authoritative decisions in all matters of faith, discipline, government, and ritual for they saw in its bishops the successors of Saint Peter, the Vicar of Christ on earth. The death of Saint Peter in the Roman See has for all time irrevocably fixed it as the chief see of the Christian Church. Circumstances, in times past, have made it necessary for its bishops to reside elsewhere (at Avignon during the great Western Schism), but tbey still remained bishops of Rome and consequently the successors of Saint Peter. From Saint Peter, the first bishop, to the present Pope Benedict XVI, 265 bishops have ruled the See of Rome
Excess - , "a pouring out, overflowing" (akin to anacheo, "to pour out"), is used metaphorically in 1 Peter 4:4 , "excess," said of the riotous conduct described in ver. ...
Notes: (1) Asotia denotes "prodigality, profligacy, riot" (from a, negative, and sozo, "to save"); it is translated "riot" in Ephesians 5:18 , RV, for AV, "excess;" in Titus 1:6 ; 1 Peter 4:4 , "riot" in AV and RV. " ...
(2) In 1 Peter 4:3 , oinophlugia, "drunkenness, debauchery" (oinos, "wine," phluo, "to bubble up, overflow"), is rendered "excess of wine," AV (RV, "winebibbings")
Holy Days of Obligation - There are ten such feasts for the universal Church, though certain countries are exempt from the observance of some of these: ...
All Saints
Ascension
Assumption
Christmas
Corpus Christi
Epiphany
Immaculate Conception
New Year's Day
Saint Joseph
Saints Peter and Paul
Suppressed feasts are not to be restored without permission of the Holy See. Thus in the United States, Epiphany, Corpus Christi, Saint Joseph, and Saints Peter and Paul, in England the feasts of Saint Joseph and the Immaculate Conception, in Ireland the feast of Saint Joseph, and in Australia the feasts of the Epiphany, Corpus Christi, Saint Joseph, Saints Peter and Paul, and the Immaculate Conception are not observed
Trial - ...
4: πύρωσις (Strong's #4451 — Noun Feminine — purosis — poo'-ro-sis ) akin to puroo, "to set on fire," signifies (a) "a burning;" (b) "a refining," metaphorically in 1 Peter 4:12 , "fiery trial," or rather "trial by fire," referring to the refining of gold (1 Peter 1:7 ). ...
Note: For dokimion, rendered "trial" in 1 Peter 1:7 , AV, see PROOF , No
Ungodliness, Ungodly - ...
A — 1: ἀσεβής (Strong's #765 — Adjective — asebes — as-eb-ace' ) "impious, ungodly" (akin to A), "without reverence for God," not merely irreligious, but acting in contravention of God's demands, Romans 4:5 ; 5:6 ; 1 Timothy 1:9 ; 1 Peter 4:18 ; 2 Peter 2:5 (ver. ...
B — 1: ἀσεβέω (Strong's #764 — Verb — asebeo — as-eb-eh'-o ) akin to A and B, signifies (a) "to be or live ungodly," 2 Peter 2:6 ; (b) "to commit ungodly deeds," Jude 1:15
Dignities - KJV translation of Greek doxas (literally, “glorious ones”) in 2 Peter 2:10 . The people 2Peter condemned willingly blasphemed the dignities, who are evil good angels or evil angels
Cappadocia - Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1 Peter 1:1 )
Visitation - 2, denotes "a visitation," whether in mercy, Luke 19:44 , or in judgment, 1 Peter 2:12
Malchus - ) The assault by Peter on the high priest's servant (slave), when in the act of arresting Jesus, is given by all the evangelists, but the name of the servant by John only (John 18:10; John 18:15-16). Naturally so, for John was "known to the high-priest" and his household, so that he procured admission from her that kept the door, for his close colleague Peter, and was able to state, what the other evangelists omit, that another servant who charged Peter with being Jesus' disciple "was his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off. " Another incidental propriety confirming genuineness is, Jesus says to Pilate, "if My kingdom were of this world then would My servants fight"; yet none charged Him, not even Malchus's kinsman who was near, with the violence which Peter had used to Malchus. Why?...
Because Jesus by a touch had healed him (Luke 22:51), and it would have wonderfully tended to elevate Jesus as one more than human in love and in power, in Pilate's estimation, had they charged Him with Peter's act. 'There were but two swords in the disciples' hands (Luke 22:38); while the holder of one was waiting for Christ's reply to their question, "Lord, shall we smite with the sword?" the holder of the other, Peter, in the same spirit as in Matthew 16:22, smote with the weapon of the flesh. What a narrow escape Peter providentially had of a malefactor's and a murderer's end! The sheath is the place for the Christian's sword, except as the judicial minister of God's wrath upon evil doers (Romans 13:4)
Jude, the Epistle of - Its being addressed generally, and to no particular church, also retarded its recognition as canonical; also its identity in the main with 2 Peter 2. The kindred epistle, 2 Peter, is similarly addressed. ...
As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses. ) says that Jude preached in Mesopotamia; and his epistle of 25 verses contains no less than eleven passages from 2 Peter. Probably Judges 1:4 witnesses to the fulfillment of Peter's prophecy, "there are certain men crept in unawares, who were before of old ordained (Greek 'forewritten,' i. announced beforehand, namely, by Peter's written prophecy) to this condemnation, ungodly men, denying the only Lord God and our Lord Jesus Christ. "...
Compare 2 Peter 2:1, "there shall be false teachers among you who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the Lord that bought them, and bring upon themselves swift destruction. " Also Judges 1:17-18 quote 2 Peter 3:3," remember the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus; how they told you that there should be mockers in the last time who should walk after their own ungodly lusts. " As Peter confirms Paul's inspiration (2 Peter 3:15-16), so Jude confirms Peter's. The distinction between Jude and Peter is that Jude portrays adversaries of Christianity and heretics in general, Peter heretical teachers in particular. Judges 1:17-18 imply some time had elapsed since the date of the second epistle of Peter, written probably A
Rhoda - Peter came there on his release from prison by the angel ( Acts 12:13 )
Sincere - word ‘sincere,’ as it occurs in 1 Peter 2:2 ‘the sincere milk of the word,’ is used in its old sense of ‘unmixed,’ ‘pure’ (RV Talitha Cumi - " Peter, who was present when the miracle was wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord, and told them to Mark
Cephas - An Aramaic name, signifying 'a stone,' equivalent to 'Peter,' given to Simon
pu'Dens - Peter and friend of St
Contrariwise - 1: τοὐναντίον (Strong's #5121 — Adverb — t'ounantion — too-nan-tee'-on ) for to enantion, "the contrary, on the contrary or contrariwise," is used in 2 Corinthians 2:7 ; Galatians 2:7 ; 1 Peter 3:9
Vocation - or CALLING, is a gracious act of God in Christ, by which, through his word and Spirit, he calls forth sinful men, who are liable to condemnation and placed under the dominion of sin, from the condition of the animal life, and from the pollutions and corruptions of this world, 2 Timothy 1:9 ; Matthew 11:28 ; 1 Peter 2:9-10 ; Galatians 1:4 ; 2 Peter 2:20 ; Romans 10:13-15 ; 1 Peter 3:19 ; Genesis 6:3 , unto "the fellowship of Jesus Christ," and of his kingdom and its benefits; that, being united unto him as their head, they may derive from him life, sensation, motion, and a plenitude of every spiritual blessing, to the glory of God and their own salvation, 1 Corinthians 1:9 ; Galatians 2:20 ; Ephesians 1:3 ; Ephesians 1:6 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14 . The end intended is, that they who have been called answer by faith to God and to Christ who give the call, and that they thus become the covenanted people of God through Christ the Mediator of the new covenant; and, after having become believers and parties to the covenant, that they love, fear, honour, and worship God and Christ, render in all things obedience to the divine precepts "in righteousness and true holiness," and that by this means they "make their calling and election sure," Proverbs 1:24 ; Hebrews 3:7 ; Revelation 3:20 ; Ephesians 2:11-16 ; Deuteronomy 6:4-5 ; Titus 3:8 ; Jeremiah 32:38-39 ; Luke 1:74-75 ; 2 Peter 1:1 ; 2 Peter 1:10
Guile - 1 Peter 2:22 describes Christ as one without guile in His mouth. Paul encouraged Christians to be “guileless as to what is evil” ( Romans 16:19 NRSV; compare 1 Peter 2:1 ), that is, innocent or naive when it comes to evil
Linus - Irenaeus implies that Linus was made bishop by Paul and Peter before Peter's death; but the Scripture evidence is against Peter's having been at Rome at all, and certainly before Paul's death. 32) asserts that Clement (third bishop) also was consecrated by Peter
an'Drew - (manly ), one of the apostles of our Lord, ( John 1:40 ; Matthew 4:18 ) brother of Simon Peter. (John 1:41 ) His place among the apostles seems to have been fourth, next after the three Peter, James and John, and in company with Philip
Malice, Maliciousness, Malicious - 1: κακία (Strong's #2549 — Noun Feminine — kakia — kak-ee'-ah ) "badness in quality" (the opposite of arete, "excellence"), "the vicious character generally" (Lightfoot), is translated "malice" in 1 Corinthians 5:8 ; 14:20 ; Ephesians 4:31 ; Colossians 3:8 ; Titus 3:3 ; 1 Peter 2:1 , AV (RV, "wickedness;" marg. , "malice"); "maliciousness" in Romans 1:29 ; in 1 Peter 2:16 , AV (RV, "wickedness;" marg
Beor - In 2 Peter 2:15 he is called Bosor
Dorcas - A female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom Peter restored to life (Acts 9:36-41 )
Godliness - The whole of practical piety (1 Timothy 4:8 ; 2 Peter 1:6 )
Willingly - (4) For 2 Peter 3:5 see WILL , C, No
Petrus, Bishop of Sebaste - When Macrina and her mother retired to their religious retreat on the banks of the Iris, Peter accompanied them, where, according to his brother, he proved all in all to them, working with them towards the angelical life. For some years his brother Basil was his near neighbour on the other side of the Iris, where he had established a monastery for male ascetics, in the presidency of which Peter succeeded him when in 365 he was finally recalled to Caesarea by bp. That Peter was bp. The genius of Peter seems to have been rather practical than literary. Rufinus, instituting a comparison between the three brothers, says that the two younger combined equalled Basil; Gregory in word and doctrine, and Peter in the works of faith (Rufin. Theodoret remarks that, though Peter had not received such a training in classical literature as his brothers, τῆς θύραθεν παιδείας οὐ μετειληχὼς σὺν ἐκείνοις , he was equally conspicuous in the splendour of his life (H. The latter treatise was sent to Peter as an Easter gift. But Peter wrote a letter to him, his only extant literary production ( ib. The language and style of this letter shew Peter as not intellectually inferior to the more celebrated members of his family (Tillem
Pastor - It is used of Christ as ‘the great shepherd of the sheep’ (Hebrews 13:20 from LXX_ of Isaiah 63:11), as ‘the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls’ (1 Peter 2:25), and as ‘the chief Shepherd’ (1 Peter 5:4)-expressions suggested by Himself (John 10:11; John 10:14). Peter (John 21:16), in St. Peter’s charge to his ‘fellow-elders’ (1 Peter 5:2), and in St
Petrus, Bishop of Edessa - Peter signalized his entrance on the episcopate by several ritual reforms. 505, Peter made a second application to the emperor, who received him with frowns and rebuked him for leaving his distressed flock at such a time, but, feeling the justice of the request, remitted the taxes for the whole province, sending the order without informing Peter (ib. Peter died on Easter Eve, a
Malchus - Saint Peter struck off his ear when he and his comrades were about to seize Jesus, who immediately healed the wound
Quick, Quicken - ’ The phrase ‘the quick and the dead’ occurs in Acts 10:42 , 2Ti 4:1 , 1 Peter 4:5
Braided, Braiding - Christian women were instructed that good works and spiritual grace were more important than outward appearances (1 Timothy 2:9 ; 1 Peter 3:3 )
Lively - * Note: This is the AV translation of the present participle of the verb; zao, "to live," in three passages, in each of which the RV has "living," Acts 7:38 ; 1 Peter 1:3 ; 2:5
Mire - 1: βόρβορος (Strong's #1004 — Noun Masculine — borboros — bor'-bor-os ) "mud, filth," occurs in 2 Peter 2:22
Suffering - ), ‘suffer loss’ (1 Corinthians 3:15, Philippians 3:8, Authorized Version and Revised Version ; 2 Corinthians 7:9, Revised Version ; Authorized Version ‘receive damage’); κακουχέομαι (Hebrews 13:3; Authorized Version ‘suffer adversity,’ Revised Version ‘be evil entreated’); μακροθυμέω (1 Corinthians 13:4, Authorized Version and Revised Version , ‘suffer long’; 2 Peter 3:9, Authorized Version and Revised Version , 1 Thessalonians 5:14, Revised Version , ‘be longsuffering,’ elsewhere ‘be patient,’ 1 Thessalonians 5:14, Authorized Version , James 5:7 f. ), ‘suffer reproach’ (1 Timothy 4:10, Authorized Version ; Revised Version ‘strive’); στέγω (1 Corinthians 9:12; Authorized Version ‘suffer,’ Revised Version ‘bear’; also translation ‘bear’ 1 Corinthians 13:7, Authorized Version and Revised Version , and ‘forbear,’ 1 Thessalonians 3:1; 1 Thessalonians 3:5, Authorized Version and Revised Version ); συγκακουχέομαι (Hebrews 11:25; Authorized Version ‘suffer affliction with,’ Revised Version ‘be evil entreated with’); ὑπέχω (Judges 1:7, ‘suffer,’ Authorized Version and Revised Version ); ὑπομένω (2 Timothy 2:12; Authorized Version ‘suffer,’ Revised Version ‘endure’; usually rendered ‘endure’ in Authorized Version and Revised Version , but also ‘be patient,’ Romans 12:12, Authorized Version and Revised Version , ‘take patiently,’ 1 Peter 2:20 bis, Authorized Version and Revised Version ). , 1 Peter 1:11). He suffered throughout His earthly life, ‘in the flesh’ (1 Peter 4:1). He suffered for sins once (1 Peter 3:18), suffered without the gate (Hebrews 13:12; cf. ‘When he suffered, he threatened not’ (1 Peter 2:23). Peter was one of the chief witnesses (1 Peter 5:1), and he points out Christ as the great example (1 Peter 2:21). ‘Insomuch as ye are partakers of Christ’s sufferings, rejoice’ (1 Peter 4:13). They suffered wrongfully when well-doing (1 Peter 2:19-20), for righteousness’ sake (1 Peter 3:14; cf. 1 Peter 3:17), as Christians (1 Peter 4:16). Peter told them that those who are called to God’s eternal Kingdom in Christ may nevertheless suffer (1 Thessalonians 5:10), just as St. The early Christians seem to have concerned themselves little about what we call the problem of suffering, except perhaps in so far as their sufferings were ascribed to the activity of the devil (1 Peter 5:9). Their chief anxiety seems to have been that they should suffer according to the will of God (1 Peter 4:19), i. for well-doing (1 Peter 3:17, 1 Peter 4:19). Glories followed His sufferings (1 Peter 1:11). Those who suffer for righteousness’ sake are blessed (1 Peter 3:14). Those who are called to God’s eternal glory in Christ and suffer a little while shall be perfected, established, and strengthened by God (1 Peter 5:10). One who suffers as a Christian has reason to glorify God (1 Peter 4:16). To do well and to suffer for it is acceptable with Him (1 Peter 2:20). ‘Wherefore let them also that suffer according to the will of God commit their souls in well-doing unto a faithful Creator’ (1 Peter 4:19). Peter
Transfiguration - Outside the Gospels the Transfiguration is only once directly referred to in the NT, in 2 Peter 1:16 ff. Whatever view we take of the authorship of 2 Peter, the passage shows the importance of that event in the eyes of the early Christians. Peter or some later teacher wrote the Epistle. Peter and St. Peter. Peter (whether or not he gave a free hand to the scribe), the reference is natural enough; if he was a later writer wishing to pose as the Apostle, he might equally well introduce a Petrine reminiscence. Peter, depended on oral tradition, and this would argue a comparatively early date. It has been noticed that in the context (2 Peter 1:14) we read of St. Peter’s putting off his tabernacle (σκήνωμα) and of his departure (ἔξοδος), which may have been suggested by the σκηναί of Mark 9:5 and ║ Mt
Worship - Such worship was refused by Peter (Acts 10:25,26 ) and by an angel (Revelation 22:8,9 )
Mary - Mother of John Mark, mentioned in the New Testament only once (Acts 12), where we read that many were gathered together and praying in her house when Peter knocked at the door, after his escape from prison
Herod Agrippa i - He imprisoned Saint Peter and beheaded Saint James, and died in 44, eaten up by worms
Spirits in Prison - A much discussed phrase in 1 Peter 3:19 . Christ went and preached to the spirits in prison “who in former times did not obey, when God waited patiently in the days of Noah” (1 Peter 3:20 , NRSV). This event, unmentioned elsewhere in the Bible, is closely associated with the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead (1Peter 3:18,1 Genesis 6:1-89 ). The immediate focus of the statement in 1Peter is not the flood as such. Peter probably viewed these evil spirits as the offspring of the strange union mentioned in Genesis 6:1-4 between the “sons of God” (that is, angelic or superhuman beings of some kind) and the “daughters of men. ”) It is also likely that Peter identified them with the “unclean spirits” over which Jesus had triumphed again and again during His earthly ministry. ...
That the outcome of this proclamation was the subjection of the disobedient spirits is seen from 1 Peter 3:22 , where Christ is glimpsed “at the right hand of God, with angels, authorities, and powers made subject to him” (NRSV). The word translated “haunt” in the RSV is the same word translated “prison” in 1 Peter 3:19 . Peter's point is not that the disobedient spirits were “imprisoned” in the sense of being inactive when Christ came to them, but that He came to them in their “haunts” or “havens” to notify them that their power over humanity was finally broken and that now they must surrender to His universal dominion
Jonas - ...
...
The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15-17 ) and Andrew; but the reading should be (also in 1:42), as in the Revised Version, "John," instead of Jonas
Carousings - , "a drinking," signifies not simply a banquet but "a drinking bout, a carousal," 1 Peter 4:3 (RV, "carousings," AV, "banquetings")
Peter - -Peter is known by four different names in the NT. By far the most common designation is simply ‘Peter’ (20 times in Matthew , 18 times in Mark , 15 times in Luke , 16 times in Jn. ]'>[1], and once in 1 Peter [2]). Paul (1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:22; 1 Corinthians 9:5; 1 Corinthians 15:5, Galatians 1:18; Galatians 2:9; Galatians 2:11; Galatians 2:14); and John once speaks of ‘Cephas (which is by interpretation, Peter)’ (John 1:42). ‘Simon’ and ‘Peter’ sometimes stand in conjunction with one another (3 times in Mt. (2 Peter 1:1), where ‘Symeon’ rather than ‘Simon’ is, however, the better attested reading). Of the various names, ‘Symeon’ (‘Simeon’) and ‘Cephas’ are Semitic in origin, while ‘Simon’ and ‘Peter’ are Greek. (Shimeôn = Simeon); but, since it is applied to Peter at most only twice in the NT (Acts 15:14; 2 Peter 1:1), it can hardly have been his real name. In these two instances the usage, if not accidental, may have been designed to add solemnity and force to the narrative, and was made all the easier because the Greek ‘Simon’ (Σίμων), the name by which Peter probably had been known from childhood, was so like the Hebrew in sound. In the Apostolic Age, however, he was known chiefly by his surname, ‘Peter. Paul’s frequent ‘Cephas’ (Κηφᾶς), a Graecized transliteration of the Aramaic ëÌÅéôÈà (Kepha’), which when translated into Greek becomes ‘Peter’ (Πέτρος, ‘stone’). According to Mark 3:16, Luke 6:14, early in his Galilaean ministry Jesus set apart the Twelve to be His helpers and gave Simon the surname Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πἐτρον) In referring to the same incident, Matthew (John 13:6-9) speaks of ‘the so-called Peter’ (ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος), but seemingly intends to make the Apostle’s famous confession at Caesarea Philippi the occasion for the Messiah to bestow upon him the name ‘Peter’ and to designate him formal head of the Church (Matthew 16:17-19). In the Gospel of John, when Simon was first brought to Jesus, the latter exclaimed, ‘Thou art to be called Cephas’ (σὺ κληθήσῃ Κηφᾶς [3]), probably meaning from this time forth, since John does not recur to this subject and henceforth always (except in 21) uses ‘Peter’ either alone (16 times) or in conjunction with ‘Simon’ (18 times). Paul had attained apostleship through a similar vision, so Peter had been ‘energized’ for his work as an apostle (Galatians 2:8). There is here no statement that Simon received his surname on this occasion-indeed, he is already known as ‘Peter’ (or ‘Cephas’) in this connexion-but it is possible that his initial vision, which made him the corner-stone of the new community, established, if not for the first time, at least more completely, the custom of referring to him as ‘Peter. ’ The infrequency of the word as a proper name at that time, and the fact that ‘Simon’ would readily have served all ordinary needs either in Jewish or in Christian circles, make it still more evident that the designation ‘Cephas’ (Peter) was called forth by special circumstances, uncertain though some of the details may be at present. The usage undoubtedly originated early, probably in the lifetime of Jesus; and the significance of the appellation was at the outset, or soon became, intimately associated with Peter’s prominent position within the company of early disciples. Peter in the NT writings. Paul, contains explicit and important information about Peter. Peter is seen to have been the first to obtain a vision of the Risen Lord (1 Corinthians 15:5); and thus from the outset he occupied a position of primacy in the community and was also first among the apostles, while St. Paul vigorously resented the insinuation of his enemies, to the effect that Peter’s chronological priority carried with it a superior authority, particularly for Gentile Christians; but, on the other hand, St. Paul did not think his apostleship or mission at all different in kind or superior in authority as compared with that of Peter. The seducers in Galatia were not really preaching Peter’s gospel-they were perverting it (Galatians 1:7); it was as truly founded upon faith in Jesus the Messiah as was St. Peter had been commissioned to preach the gospel to the Jews, and this work must have seemed to St. Paul being especially commissioned to carry on this temporary enterprise of evangelizing the Gentiles, but the original and fundamental task was still Peter’s. It fell to Peter’s lot to engage in the work of preserving, or restoring, the original branches, a work with which St. Hence it is not strange that he should cite the Jewish churches as models (1 Thessalonians 2:14), that he should refer with manifest satisfaction to their approval of his initial missionary activities (Galatians 1:24), that he should reckon his own evangelizing activity as formally beginning at Jerusalem (Romans 15:19), that he should take occasion to pay Peter a two weeks’ visit in Jerusalem (Galatians 1:18), or that he should in all sincerity seek the approval of the Jerusalem Church upon his Gentile work (Galatians 2:1 ff. Paul’s testimony to the significance of Peter’s position in the early history of Christianity. Paul’s controversy with the legalists really meant any conscious effort on his part to oppose or to supplant Peter, whose unique position in the early community and whose leadership in the work of evangelizing the Jews are clearly attested and highly esteemed by St. Paul did not have occasion to mention Peter as often as we could wish; consequently, the latter’s career cannot be restored with any degree of fullness from the Pauline letters. An incidental reference to Peter as a travelling missionary accompanied by his wife and deriving support from those to whom he ministered (1 Corinthians 9:5), and mention of a Cephas party in Corinth (1 Corinthians 1:12; 1 Corinthians 3:22), complete the list of Pauline data. These scanty particulars do not permit of any very extended interpretation, yet they do make it clear that Peter was prominent in the counsels of the mother Church, that he continued to prosecute his work as an evangelist, and that his fame had reached even to Asia Minor and Greece early in the fifties. In the first part of Acts, Peter is the leader of the apostolic company, and in the Gospels he occupies a position of prominence, commensurate with the dominant part he subsequently played in the life of the early Christian community. Remembering the ample attestation of Peter’s prominence given by his contemporary St. Paul, it is not at all surprising that the evangelists, in selecting gospel tradition and giving it written form, should mention Peter frequently and assign him a position second only to that of Jesus. ); he is found asleep when left on duty in Gethsemane (Mark 14:37); and during the course of Jesus’ trial Peter persistently denies his Master (Mark 14:29; Mark 14:54-72). ...
With the exception of a few alterations and supplements, Matthew and Luke take over most of the Marcan statements regarding Peter. Matthew omits the paragraph in which ‘Simon and those with him’ seek Jesus to tell Him that the people of Capernaum desire His return to the city (Mark 1:36), nothing is said of Peter’s accompanying Jesus when the latter raised the daughter of Jairus (Mark 5:37), and Peter’s name is expunged from the instructions given to the women by the angel at the tomb of Jesus (Mark 16:7). The additional data of Matthew are more important, especially the paragraph supplementing Mark’s account of Peter’s confession (Matthew 16:17-19). In comparison with this incident, the other chief Petrine additions of Matthew-Peter’s walking on the water (Matthew 14:28 f. Into Mark’s narrative of Peter’s confession, otherwise copied rather closely, Matthew interjects three verses, ascribing Peter’s exceptional perceptive powers to revelation, designating him the corner-stone of the Church, and committing to his keeping the keys of the Kingdom. However this may be, it is perfectly clear from Matthew’s language that Peter had lost none of the prestige which was his in St. ...
Luke furnishes scarcely any additional data to shed light upon the apostolic estimate of Peter. Mark 1:16-20); and in the account of Peter’s denial Luke seems to be following a slightly different source, yet the variations are formal rather than essential so far as the portrayal of Peter is concerned (2 Maccabees 3:4; cf. In copying Mark’s account of the Caesarea-Philippi incident, Luke omits the closing verses which tell of Jesus’ upbraiding Peter for his presumption in attempting to regulate the Messiah’s conduct (Mark 8:32 ff. Similarly, in Luke’s version of the Gethsemane incident Peter is not singled out for rebuke as in Mark (Luke 22:46; cf. Nor does Luke report the special message of the angel to Peter, telling him that he will see the Risen Lord in Galilee (Luke 24:7; cf. Mark 16:7), because Luke records only Judaea n appearances; but he does note that the first appearance was made to Peter (Luke 24:34). ...
It is in the early chapters of Acts that Peter’s portrait is drawn most distinctly. Then we are told of missionary enterprises conducted by Peter himself ‘throughout all parts’ (Acts 9:32), and particularly of his wonderful miracles performed at Joppa (Acts 9:33-41). Accordingly, Peter baptized Cornelius and his friends, thus establishing the first company of Gentile Christians (10). On returning to Jerusalem, Peter is criticized for having eaten with the uncircumcised, but he presents so adequate a defence of his conduct that the Jerusalem Church ultimately glorifies God for the establishment of Gentile missions through his work (1618105172_69). At this point Peter disappears completely from the history of the Apostolic Age as recorded in Acts. ...
In the Fourth Gospel, likewise, Peter is a conspicuous figure, though he does not always occupy so unquestionably pre-eminent a position as in the Synoptists and early chapters of Acts. But Andrew is each time identified as the ‘brother of Simon Peter,’ thus implying that the latter was really the better known. He is also foremost in John’s account of the disciples’ confession of belief in Jesus (John 6:68); and, as in the Synoptists, it is Peter who objects on a certain occasion to Jesus’ procedure-this time the act of foot-washing (Matthew 10:2). Peter’s denial is also recorded by John (John 13:36 f. But Peter’s prominence is rivalled by that of the unnamed disciple ‘whom Jesus loved. ); he had the position of honour at the Last Supper (John 13:24); he was acquainted with the high priest, and so procured Peter’s admission to the court (John 18:15); and he seems to have anticipated Peter in believing that Jesus had risen from the dead (John 20:2-8). In the so-called appendix to John (21) Simon Peter is the chief actor, but the beloved disciple standing in the background is certainly a formidable rival for the honour of first place. ...
Except in the salutations of the two Epistles commonly ascribed to Peter, there is no further mention of his name in the NT. Paul’s statements are exceedingly fragmentary; the Gospels do not, of course, pretend to give information about apostolic history, yet indirectly they furnish some indications of how Peter was regarded at the time the documents were being produced; and Acts, while tolerably full in its description of Peter’s earlier activities, consigns him to absolute oblivion after the Jerusalem Council. Peter’s earlier activities. -A résumé of such facts as are apparently beyond dispute yields a very definite picture of Peter’s earlier activities, notwithstanding some uncertainty in details. How Jesus, who had left His carpenter’s bench, and Peter and others, who had similarly forsaken their ordinary daily pursuits to engage in this new enterprise, now supported themselves and their families is not clear from our present sources of information; but this uncertainty can hardly reflect any serious doubt upon the fact of their procedure. Peter was one of the most prominent members in the company of disciples, and so strongly did Jesus and His work appeal to him that he saw in the new movement foreshadowings of the long-looked-for Messianic Kingdom, and ultimately he identified Jesus with the Messiah. But Peter’s conception of the Messiah’s programme underwent some radical readjustments in the course of time. In this schema there was no place for Jesus’ death, hence that event proved a stunning blow to Peter’s faith. ...
This new way of thinking gave Peter a new conception of his mission. Whatever doubts may be entertained regarding the verbal accuracy of the speeches of Peter recorded in Acts, the accuracy of the main content is hardly to be disputed, so far at least as the interpretation of Jesus’ Messiahship is concerned
King's Sons Free From Tribute, Parable of the - The time is after the Transfiguration; the place Capharnaum, probably the house of Peter; the occasion: the attempt to collect from Christ the annual temple tax, ordained by "the Law" (Exodus 30). Peter had hastily assured the collector that his master would pay it. Christ coming into the house confronted Peter (ere he could inform him of the incident) with the question: whether the king's sons must pay tribute and custom
Tab'Itha - Peter was at the neighboring town of Lydda, Tabitha, died; upon which the disciples at Joppa sent an urgent message to the apostle begging him to come to them without delay. Upon his arrival Peter found the deceased already prepared for burial, and laid out in an upper chamber, where she was surrounded by the recipients and the tokens of her charity after the example of our Saviour in the house of Jairus, ( Matthew 9:25 ; Mark 5:40 ) "Peter put them all forth," prayed for the divine assistance, and then commanded Tabitha to arise
Spot - A — 1: σπίλος (Strong's #4696 — Noun Masculine — spilos — spee'-los ) "a spot or stain," is used metaphorically (a) of moral blemish, Ephesians 5:27 ; (b) of lascivious and riotous persons, 2 Peter 2:13 . ...
C — 1: ἄσπιλος (Strong's #784 — Adjective — aspilos — as'-pee-los ) "unspotted, unstained" (a, negative, and A), is used of a lamb, 1 Peter 1:19 ; metaphorically, of keeping a commandment without alteration and in the fulfillment of it, 1 Timothy 6:14 ; of the believer in regard to the world, James 1:27 , and free from all defilement in the sight of God, 2 Peter 3:14
Exile - Since Christians are considered to be a citizen of heaven, their present life is like that of foreigners or pilgrims in an alien country (Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 13:14; 1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 2:11; see FOREIGNER)
Divine Nature, Partakers of - (Latin: consortes divinæ naturæ) Phrase found in 2 Peter 1, by which Saint Peter expresses the excellence of the state of grace
Malice - One destructive fruit of sinful human nature is malice – the desire to harm someone or the feeling of pleasure at someone’s misfortune (Psalms 41:5; Ezekiel 25:6; Titus 3:3; 1 Peter 2:1). It is an attitude that should have no place among God’s people (1 Corinthians 5:8; Ephesians 4:31; Colossians 3:8; 1 Peter 2:1)
Epistles of Saint Peter - Saint Peter the Apostle wrote two Epistles, both addressed to converts from paganism in Asia Minor. Saint Peter explains the delay, warns against and describes the punishment inflicted on teachers of false doctrines, and bids his readers await Christ's coming in patience and good works
Christian - Peter accepts it, saying that to suffer as a 'Christian ' is a cause of thanksgiving. 1 Peter 4:16
Gomorrah - ; by Paul, quoting Isaiah, Romans 9:29; by Peter and Jude, 2 Peter 2:6
Vex - ...
2: βασανίζω (Strong's #928 — Verb — basanizo — bas-an-id'-zo ) "to torment," is translated "vexed" in 2 Peter 2:8 . (2) In 2 Peter 2:7 , AV, kataponeo, "to wear down with toil," is translated "vexed
Copy - It signifies (a) a sign suggestive of anything, the delineation or representation of a thing, and so, a figure, "copy;" in Hebrews 9:23 the RV has "copies," for the AV, "patterns;" (b) an example for imitation, John 13:15 ; James 5:10 ; for warning, Hebrews 4:11 ; 2 Peter 2:6 (AV "ensample"). hupogrammos (hupo, "under," grapho, "to write"), "an underwriting, a writing copy, an example," is used in 1 Peter 2:21
Courteous, Courteously - A — 1: φιλόφρων (Strong's #5391 — Adjective — tapeinophron — fil-of'-rone ) "lowly-minded," is used in 1 Peter 3:8 , "be courteous," AV (RV, "humble-minded"). have the corresponding adjective philophron, "courteous," in 1 Peter 3:8 ; the most authentic mss
Gamaliel - He counseled the Sanhedrin to put Saint Peter and the Apostles to death
Apocrypha - ...
The following is a list of the Apocrypha: ...
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Jewish Apocalypses ...
Book of Henoch
Assumption of Moses
Fourth Book of Esdras
Apocalypse of Baruch
Apocalypse of Abraham
Legendary Apocrypha of Jewish Origin ...
Book of Jubilees, or Little Genesis
Third Book of Esdras
Third Book of Machabees
History and Maxims of Ahikar, the Assyrian
Apocryphal Psalms and Prayers ...
Psalms of Solomon
Prayer of Manasses
Jewish Philosophy ...
Fourth Book of Machabees
Apocrypha of Jewish Origin with Christian Accretions ...
Sibylline Oracles
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
Ascension of Isaias
Apocrypha Of Christian Origin ...
Apocryphal Gospels of Catholic Origin ...
Protoevangelium Jacobi, or Infancy Gospel of James, describing the birth, education, and marriage of the Blessed Virgin
Gospel of the Pseudo-Matthew
Arabic Gospel of the Infancy
History of Joseph the Carpenter
Transitu Marire, or Evangelium Joannis, describing the death and assumption of the Blessed Virgin
Judaistic and Heretical Gospels ...
Gospel according to the Hebrews
Gospel according to the Egyptians
Gospel of Peter
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Thomas
Gospel of Marcion
Gospel of Bartholomew
Gospel of Matthias
Gospel of Nicodemus
Gospel of the Twelve Apostles
Gospel of Andrew
Gospel of Barnabas
Gospel of Thaddeus
Gospel of Philip
Gospel of Eve
Gospel of Judas Iscariot
Pilate Literature and Other Apocrypha concerning Christ ...
Report of Pilate to the Emperor
Narrative of Joseph of Arimathea
Pseudo-Correspondence of Jesus and Abgar, King of Edessa
Gnostic Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter
Acts of John
Acts of Andrew
Acts and Martyrdom of Matthew
Acts of Thomas
Acts of Bartholomew
Catholic Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles ...
Acts of Peter and Paul
Acts of Paul
Acts of Paul and Thecla
Acts of Philip
Acts of Matthew
Acts of Simon and Jude
Acts of Barnabas
Acts of James the Greater
Apocryphal Doctrinal Works ...
Testamentum Domini
Nostri Jesu
Preaching of Peter, or Kerygma Petri
Apocryphal Epistles ...
Pseudo-Epistle of Peter
Pseudo-Epistles of Paul
Pseudo-Epistles to the Laodiceans
Pseudo-Correspondence of Paul and Seneca
Christian Apocryphal Apocalypses ...
Apocalypse of Peter
Apocalypse of Paul
Dear - 1: τίμιος (Strong's #5093 — Adjective — timios — tim'-ee-os ) from time, "honor, price," signifies (a), primarily, "accounted as of great price, precious, costly," 1 Corinthians 3:12 ; Revelation 17:4 ; 18:12,16 ; 21:19 , and in the superlative degree, Revelation 18:12 ; 21:11 ; the comparative degree is found in 1 Peter 1:7 (polutimoteros, in the most authentic mss. , "much more precious"); (b) in the metaphorical sense, "held in honor, esteemed, very dear," Acts 5:34 , "had in honor," RV (AV, "had in reputation"); so in Hebrews 13:4 , RV, "let marriage be had in honor;" AV, "is honorable;" Acts 20:24 , "dear," negatively of Paul's estimate of his life; James 5:7 , "precious" (of fruit); 1 Peter 1:19 , "precious" (of the blood of Christ); 2 Peter 1:4 (of God's promises). ...
2: ἔντιμος (Strong's #1784 — Adjective — entimos — en'-tee-mos ) "held in honor" (time, see above), "precious, dear," is found in Luke 7:2 , of the centurion's servant; 14:8, "more honorable;" Philippians 2:29 , "honor" (AV, "reputation"), of devoted servants of Christ; in 1 Peter 2:4,6 , "precious," of stones, metaphorically
Bishop - "bishop," which has precisely the same meaning, is found in Acts 20:28 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:2 ; Titus 1:7 ; 1 Peter 2:25 . Bishop of our souls," 1 Peter 2:25 . , 1 Peter 2:12 (cp. ...
Note: The corresponding verb is episkopeo, which, in reference to the work of an overseer, is found in 1 Peter 5:2 , RV, "exercising the oversight," for AV "taking the oversight
Backsliding - Absence of such divine discipline is an indication that they were never really God’s children (Hebrews 12:6-8; 2 Peter 2:9). True believers demonstrate the genuineness of their faith by continuing in it to the end (John 8:31; Colossians 1:21-23; James 5:19-20; 1 Peter 1:5). The difference between backsliding as a temporary failure and backsliding as apostacy is seen in the actions of the two disciples, Peter and Judas. Peter was restored, but Judas was lost (Luke 22:31-32; Luke 22:47-62; John 17:12; Acts 1:15-16; cf
Gorgonius, Saint - When the persecution began, Gorgonius remained firm in his faith, was tortured with his companions Dorotheus, Peter, and others, and strangled
Adversary - satan), an opponent or foe (1 Kings 5:4 ; 11:14,23,25 ; Luke 13:17 ); one that speaks against another, a complainant (Matthew 5:25 ; Luke 12:58 ); an enemy (Luke 18:3 ), and specially the devil (1 Peter 5:8 )
Disallow - 1: ἀποδοκιμάζω (Strong's #593 — Verb — apodokimazo — ap-od-ok-ee-mad'-zo ) "to reject as the result of disapproval" (apo, "away from," dokimazo, "to approve"), is always translated "to reject," except in the AV of 1 Peter 2:4,7
Lod - ) Here Peter healed Aeneas of palsy
Cloak - ...
1 Peter 2:16 (a) It refers to hypocrisy and pretense
Ensample - 1 Peter 5 ...
ENSAM'PLE, To exemplify to shew by example
Fleshly - 1 Peter 2
Tabitha - " She was raised to life by Peter
Ungodly - 1 Peter 4
Wantonness - 2 Peter 2
Mal'Chus - (king or kingdom ), the name of the servant of the high priest whose right ear Peter cut off at the time of the Saviour's apprehension in the garden
Subject, Subjection - "); Ephesians 5:22 , RV in italics, according to the best texts; Ephesians 5:24 , "is subject;" Titus 2:5,9 , RV, "be in subjection" (AV, "be obedient"); Titus 3:1 , RV, "to be in subjection;" (AV, "to be subject"); Hebrews 12:9 , "be in subjection;" James 4:7 , RV, "be subject" (AV, "submit yourselves"); so 1 Peter 2:13 ; 2:18 , RV, "be in subjection;" so 1 Peter 3:1 , AV and RV; 1 Peter 3:5 , similarly; 1 Peter 3:22 , "being made subject;" 1 Peter 5:5 , RV, "be subject" (AV, "submit yourselves"); in some texts in the 2nd part, as AV
Simon - The first was better known as Peter (Matthew 10:2; see Peter). He was terrified when Peter announced a horrible judgment upon him, and asked Peter to pray on his behalf for God’s mercy (Acts 8:9-24). Peter on one occasion stayed in Simon’s house, and while there he had a vision that prepared him to visit Cornelius and other Gentiles in Caesarea (Acts 9:43; Acts 10:1-23)
Peter, First Epistle of, - It was addressed to the churches of Asia Minor which had for the most part been founded by Paul and his companions, Supposing it to have been written at Babylon, (1 Peter 5:13 ) it ia a probable conjecture that Silvanus, By whom it was transmitted to those churches, had joined Peter after a tour of visitation, and that his account of the condition of the Christians in those districts determined the apostle to write the epistle. Such an attestation was especially needed by the Hebrew Christians, who were to appeal from Paul's authority to that of the elder apostles, and above all to that of Peter. The last, which is perhaps the very principal object, is kept in view throughout the epistle, and is distinctly stated (1 Peter 5:12 ) The harmony of such teaching with that of Paul is sufficiently obvious. Peter belongs to the school, or to speak more correctly, is the leader of the school, which at once vindicates the unity of the law and the gospel, and puts the superiority of the latter on its true basis-that of spiritual development
Fisherman, the - Our Lord said He would make them fishers of men (Luke 5); this term designates especially their chief, Peter, and his successors
Cape of Good Hope, Eastern Vicariate Apostolic of - Ricards, Peter Strobino, Hugh MacSherry (1896); residence at Port Elizabeth
Caius - He held a disputation at Rome with Proclus, a Montanist leader, in the course of which he gives valuable evidence of the death of Saint Peter and Saint Paul at Rome and the public veneration of their remains
Damnable - 2 Peter 2...
2
Eastern Vicariate Apostolic of Cape of Good Hope - Ricards, Peter Strobino, Hugh MacSherry (1896); residence at Port Elizabeth
Briefly - " In 1 Peter 5:12 it signifies by means of few words, "briefly
Fable - These were often not only false and weak, but also pernicious, 1 Timothy 4:7 Titus 1:14 2 Peter 1:16
Paseah - The eponym of a family of Nethinim who returned with Zerubbabel ( Ezra 2:49 = Nehemiah 7:51 ); in 1Es 5:31 Peter hinoe
Withstand - ...
When Peter was come to Antioch, I withstood him to his face
Bithyn'ia - Mentioned only in (Acts 16:7 ) and in 1 Peter 1:1 The chief town of Bithynia was Nicaea, celebrated for the general Council of the Church held there in A
Paul's Visit to Jerusalem to See Peter - And thus it was that Paul went up to Jerusalem to see Peter about all that. Paul had a great desire to see Peter about all that before he began his ministry. ...
At the same time, even with the prospect of seeing Peter, it must have taken no little courage on Paul's part to face Judea and Jerusalem again. Led in by Peter Paul sat at the same Lord's table, and ate the same bread, and drank the same wine, with both old and young communicants, who had not yet put off their garments of mourning because of Paul. ...
"To see Peter," our Authorised Version is made to say. "To visit Peter," the Revised Version is made to say. And, still, to help out all that acknowledged lameness, the revised margin is made to say, "to become acquainted with Peter. " But Paul would not have gone so far, at that time at any rate, to see Peter or any one else. Any one else, but Peter's Master. But to see Him even once, as He was in the flesh, Paul would have gone from Damascus to Jerusalem on his hands and his knees, "I went up to Jerusalem to history Peter," is what Paul really says. "To interview Peter," is not good English either, but it conveys Paul's meaning exactly. "I went up to interrogate and to cross-question Peter all about our Lord," that would be rough English indeed, but it would be far better than so feebly to say, "to see Peter," which positively hides from his readers what was Paul's real errand to Jerusalem, and to Peter. ...
Had Landor been led to turn his fine dramatic genius and his ripe scholarship to Scriptural subjects, he would, to a certainty, have given us the conversations that took place for fifteen days between Peter and Paul. But his Paul and Peter, and his Paul and James the brother of our Lord, and especially his Paul and the mother of our Lord, would have eclipsed clean out of sight his most classical compositions. For, on no possible subject, was Peter so ready always to speak, to all comers, as just about his Master. And never before nor since had Peter such a hungry hearer as just his present visitor and interrogator from Arabia and Damascus. Peter began by telling Paul all about that day when his brother Andrew so burst in upon him about the Messiah. And then Matthew the publican's feast, and so on, till Peter soon saw what it was that Paul had come so far to hear. And both at the cock-crowing, and at Calvary, Peter and Paul wept so sore that Mary herself, and Mary Magdalene, did not weep like it. Now, just trust me and tell me what you would have asked at Peter about his Master. Would you have asked anything? How far would you go tonight to have an interview with Peter? Honestly, have you any curiosity at all about Jesus Christ, either as He is in heaven now, or as He was on earth then? Really and truly, do you ever think about Him, and imagine Him, and what He is saying and doing? Or are you like John Bunyan, who never thought whether there was a Christ or no? If you would tell me two or three of the questions you would have put to Peter, I would tell you in return just who and what you are; just how you stand tonight to Jesus Christ, and how He stands to you: and what He thinks and says about you, and intends toward you. " And have we not ourselves already seen how Paul's progress was made? Paul's progress was made from the knowledge of Jesus of Nazareth risen from the dead, to the knowledge of the Son of God; and then from the knowledge of both back to the knowledge of the Holy Child Jesus, and the Holy Man Jesus, as He was known to His mother, to James His brother, and to Peter His so intimate disciple
Keys - A symbol of the power and office of the Pope, the successor of Peter, to whom Our Lord said: "And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven" (Matthew 16). ...
Saints and beati with keys as their emblem in art include ...
Genevieve who carries the key or keys of Paris
James the Greater
Peter the Apostle who is represented sometimes with one, the key of heaven; with two, either of gold or silver, to absolve and to bind; with two, either of gold or iron, to open the gates of heaven and hell; and again with one, symbolizing dominion over heaven, earth, and hell
Petronilla
Raymond of Penafort
Henoticon - It was procured of the emperor by means of Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, with the assistance of the friends of Peter Mongus and Peter Trullo
Linus - Thus Irenæus: ‘Peter and Paul, when they founded and built up the Church of Rome, committed the office of its episcopate to Linus. ’ And Eusebius: ‘Of the Church of the Romans after the martyrdom of Paul and Peter, the first to be appointed to the office of Bishop was Linus, of whom Paul makes mention at the end of his letter to Timothy
Atonement - Therefore, it was the love of the Father that sent Jesus (1 John 4:10) to die in our place (1 Peter 3:18) for our sins (1 Peter 2:24)
Happen - , "to go or come together" (sun, "with," baino, "to go"), signifies "to happen together," of things or events, Mark 10:32 ; Luke 24:14 ; Acts 3:10 ; 1 Corinthians 10:11 ; 1 Peter 4:12 ; 2 Peter 2:22 ; "befell" in Acts 20:19 ; in Acts 21:35 , "so it was
Evil-Speaking - κατάλαλοι form one of the many types which are the outcome of the reprobate mind (Romans 1:30), and Christian converts, as new-born babes, must put away all καταλαλίαι (1 Peter 2:1-2; cf. In such an atmosphere of calumny they made it their endeavour to live in such a manner that their detractors should not only be put to shame (1 Peter 3:16), but even constrained by their good works to glorify God (1 Peter 2:12; cf. While the Gentiles speak evil of the followers of Christ (1 Peter 4:4), the latter must calumniate no man (Titus 3:2); railing (βλασφημία) is one of the sins of temper and tongue which they are repeatedly enjoined to put away (Ephesians 4:31, Colossians 3:8). At the same time they must strive to prevent their ‘good,’ or ‘the word of God,’ or ‘the way of truth,’ or ‘the name of God and the doctrine,’ from being blasphemed, or evil spoken of (Romans 14:16, Titus 2:5, 2 Peter 2:2, 1 Timothy 6:1), St. The false teachers and libertines of the sub-Apostolic Age spoke evil of the powers of the unseen world (2 Peter 2:10, Judges 1:10); and their empty logomachies gave rise to mutual railings (βλασφημίαι, 1 Timothy 6:4). Peter turns the minds of his readers to the perfect example of Christ, who, being reviled, reviled not again (1 Peter 2:23), and bids them render, as He did, ‘contrariwise blessing’ (1 Peter 3:9)
Malefactor - ‘evil-doer’), John 18:30, 1 Peter 2:12; 1 Peter 2:14; 1 Peter 4:15; (2) κακοῦργος (lit
Mark or Marcus - He afterwards accompanied Peter also to Babylon. As he was the son of that Mary at whose house in Jerusalem the apostles were wont to convene, so it is probable that he was particularly instructed in the doctrines of Christianity by Peter, who on the account calls him son, 1 Peter 5:13
Rock - Other texts apply to Christ the Isaiah image of a rock which causes persons to fall (Romans 9:33 ; 1 Peter 2:8 ). Possible identifications include: Peter, whose name means “rock”, the larger group of disciples, Christ Himself, and Peter's confession of faith. The different Greek terms employed (Petros and petra ) argue against a quick identification of Peter as the foundation. Application of the foundation image to evangelistic work (Romans 15:20 ; 1 Corinthians 3:10 ) suggests that Peter's God-revealed confession of faith in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of the living God (Matthew 16:16 ), is the foundation of the church which lays seige to the gates of Hades. See Keys of the Kingdom ; Peter
Tribute - in another signification, as when the Jews asked Peter if his teacher paid 'tribute. The fish Peter caught had in its mouth a stater of the value of about 2s. , which paid for the Lord and for Peter. The Lord refers to what the kings of the earth did in ordinary tribute, in order to show that Himself and Peter as sons of the King of the temple could have claimed exemption, though they did not
Martinianus, a Martyr at Rome - According to the Acts of LINUS, these were the two soldiers into whose charge Peter had been given. They were converted by him in prison, and for their baptism, Peter, by making the sign of the cross, caused a fountain, still shewn in the Mamertine prison, miraculously to spring from the rock. After their baptism the two soldiers give Peter as much liberty as he desires, and when news comes that the prefect Agrippa is about to put him to death, earnestly urge him to withdraw. Peter at first complies, but returns to custody in consequence of the well-known vision Domine quo vadis
Beauteous Light of God's Eternal Majesty, the - Hymn for respers on June 29, feast of Saints Peter and Paul
Evil Speaking - ...
2: καταλαλιά (Strong's #2636 — Noun Feminine — katalalia — kat-al-al-ee'-ah ) "evil speaking," 1 Peter 2:1 ; see BACKBITING
Ruhamah - 1 Peter 2:10 applies Hosea's image to Christians who have experienced God's mercy in Christ
Malice - Christians are frequently called upon to rid their lives of malice (Ephesians 4:31-32 ; Colossians 3:8 ; 1 Peter 2:1 )
Wallow - ...
2 Peter 2:22 (b) Here we see a type of the wicked who revel in their own filthy sins and iniquities
Malchus - The servants, of the high priest, rendered memorable by the apostle Peter cutting off his ear in his zeal for Christ, and Jesus with his unequalled tenderness healing it; (see John 18:10 with Luke 22:50-51) The name is derived from Melek...
Chosen - 1 Peter 2
Handed Down - 1: πατροπαράδοτος (Strong's #3970 — Adjective — patroparadotos — pat-rop-ar-ad'-ot-os ) an adjective, denoting "handed down from one's fathers," is used in 1 Peter 1:18 , RV, for AV, "received by tradition from your fathers" (from pater, "a father," and paradidomi, "to hand down")
Petrus, Bishop of Apamea - Peter was accused of having taken forcible possession of his see, in violation of all ecclesiastical order, not having received canonical ordination either as monk or presbyter (Labbe, v. 518, the bishops of Syria Secunda laid their complaints against Peter and Severus before the council assembled at the imperial city, July 518, asking the emperor to deliver them from so intolerable a tyranny (ib. Their prayer was granted; Peter was deposed and sentenced to exile as a Manichee—as the Monophysites were popularly designated (Theoph. Nothing seems known of Peter between his banishment and reappearance at Constantinople with Severus, on the temporary revival of the fortunes of the Monophysites, through the influence of the empress Theodora. In 536 Mennas was appointed to the patriarchal chair, and lost no time in summoning a council to pronounce the condemnation of Monophysitism and its chief leaders, Peter and Severus being cut off from communion as men who had "voluntarily chosen the sin unto death," and "shown no signs of repentance and a better mind" ( ib. Peter was forbidden to reside in or near Constantinople, or any other important city, commanded to live in complete retirement, and abstain from association with others lest he should poison them with his heresy (ib
Mark, Gospel of - Later he worked closely with Peter, so closely in fact that Peter called Mark his son (1 Peter 5:13; see MARK). There is good evidence that Peter and Mark visited Rome about AD 60 (just before Paul arrived in Rome as a prisoner; Acts 28:16) and taught the church there for a time. Over the next few years Mark spent some time in Rome, while Peter revisited churches elsewhere. The Roman Christians asked Mark to preserve Peter’s teaching for them, and the result was Mark’s Gospel. ...
Mark, Peter and the Romans...
Many features of Mark’s Gospel reflect the interests and character of Peter. Peter’s home town of Capernaum seems to have been Jesus’ base (Mark 1:21; Mark 1:29; Mark 2:1; Mark 9:33). ...
The account in Mark shows the characteristic haste of Peter in the way it rushes on from one story to the next. Peter’s genuineness is seen in that his mistakes are recorded (Mark 9:5-6; Mark 14:66-72), whereas incidents that might be to his credit are omitted (cf. Just before this, Peter had written from Rome (code-named Babylon; 1 Peter 5:13) to encourage Christians who were being persecuted (1 Peter 1:6; 1 Peter 2:20-23; 1 Peter 3:14-17; 1 Peter 4:12-16). Not long after this he himself was executed (2 Peter 1:14; cf. Mark’s Gospel reminded the Roman Christians (by quoting from Peter’s experience of the life and teaching of Jesus) that they would need strength and patience to endure misunderstandings, persecution, false accusations and even betrayal (Mark 3:21; Mark 3:30; Mark 4:17; Mark 8:34-38; Mark 10:30; Mark 13:9; Mark 13:13; Mark 14:41; Mark 14:72; Mark 15:19; Mark 15:32). ...
The record of this part of Jesus’ ministry concludes with Peter’s acknowledgment of his messiahship (8:27-33), Jesus’ reminder of the cost of discipleship (8:34-9:1), the Father’s declaration at Jesus’ transfiguration (9:2-8), the disciples’ inability to heal a demon-possessed boy (9:9-29), and Jesus’ teaching on the necessity for humble submission in his kingdom (9:30-50)
Melbourne, Australia, Archdiocese of - Suffragen dioceses include ...
Ballarat
Saints Peter and Paul of Melbourne (Ukrainian)
Sale
Sandhurst
See also: ...
Catholic-Hierarchy
Pursue - 1: διώκω (Strong's #1377 — verb — dioko — dee-o'-ko ) "to put to flight, pursue, persecute," is rendered "to pursue" in 2 Corinthians 4:9 , RV (AV, "persecute"), and is used metaphorically of "seeking eagerly" after peace in 1 Peter 3:11 , RV (AV, "ensue")
Honorius, Saint - Relics in Saint Peter and Paul's church, Canterbury
Epistle - The New Testament includes letters written by Paul, James, Peter, John, and Jude
Nation - 1 Peter 2:9 (a) The Church of GOD is thus named
Care - ...
1 Peter 5:7 (b) It is any problem in the life which hinders the soul and weighs down the spirit
Cock - Mentioned only in connection with the denial of Peter, Matthew 26:34,74,75 ; and with the 'cock crowing,' a division of time at which the Lord may come, Mark 13:35 : this corresponds to the third watch of the night, and would be about 3 o'clock, A
Linger - 1: ἀργέω (Strong's #691 — Verb — argeo — arg-eh'-o ) "to be idle, to linger" (akin to argos, "idle:" see katargeo, under ABOLISH), is used negatively regarding the judgment of the persons mentioned in 2 Peter 2:3
Malchus - The servant whose right ear was cut off by Peter and miraculously restored by Christ, in Gethsemane, Matthew 26:51
Corne'Lius - Peter, and thus Cornelius became the firstfruits of the Gentile world to Christ
Cornelius - After an angel appeared to this pious soldier, he sent to Joppa for Simon Peter, who came to him with the message of forgiveness of sins through faith in the crucified and risen Christ. See Peter ; Acts
Humility - It is a state of mind well pleasing to God (1 Peter 3:4 ); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Psalm 69:32,33 ), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22 ). We should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lamentations 3:39 ), and by the thought that it is the way to honour (Proverbs 16:18 ), and that the greatest promises are made to the humble (Psalm 147:6 ; Isaiah 57:15 ; 66:2 ; 1 Peter 5:5 )
Malchus - The name of the high priest’s servant whose ear Peter cut off in the Garden of Gethsemane at the arrest of our Lord. On a comparison of the four accounts, it seems that Malchus pressed forward eagerly to seize Jesus, whereupon Peter struck at him with his sword
Dissolution - It will be an introduction to a greater and nobler system in the government of God, 2 Peter 3:13 . The consideration of it ought to have a great influence on us while in the present state, 2 Peter 3:11-12
Reproach - The Holy Ghost, by Peter, pronounceth peculiar happiness on such as are "reproached for the sake of Christ. " (1 Peter 4:14)...
Acts of the Apostles - It narrates some the important acts of Saints Peter and Paul, and mentions more briefly acts of Saints John, James the Less, James the Greater, and Barnabas. Of the 28 chapters, 12 mainly concern Saint Peter, and the others Saint Paul. The Ascension of Christ into Heaven, the Descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles, Peter's first sermon and conversions, Paul's converions, missions, and journeyings are all told as historical events
Last Time or Days - 2 Timothy 3:1 ; 2 Peter 3:3 ; Jude 18 . The 'last days' of Hebrews 1:2 and 'last times' of 1 Peter 1:20 are changed by Editors of the Greek Testament to the 'end of these days;' these passages refer to the end of the period of the law when the Messiah appeared
Black, Blackness - 1, especially "the gloom of the regions of the lost," is used four times; 2 Peter 2:4 , "darkness" (RV); 2 Peter 2:17 , RV, "blackness," for AV, "mist;" Jude 1:6 , "darkness;" Jude 1:13 , "blackness," suggesting a kind of emanation
Blaspheme, Blasphemy, Blasphemer, Blasphemous - , Matthew 9:3 ; Mark 3:28 ; Romans 2:24 ; 1 Timothy 1:20 ; 6:1 ; Revelation 13:6 ; 16:9,11,21 ; "hath spoken blasphemy," Matthew 26:65 ; "rail at," 2 Peter 2:10 ; Jude 1:8,10 ; "railing," 2 Peter 2:12 ; "slanderously reported," Romans 3:8 ; "be evil spoken of," Romans 14:16 ; 1 Corinthians 10:30 ; 2 Peter 2:2 ; "speak evil of," Titus 3:2 ; 1 Peter 4:4 ; "being defamed," 1 Corinthians 4:13 . ...
C — 1: βλάσφημος (Strong's #989 — Adjective — blasphemos — blas'-fay-mos ) "abusive, speaking evil," is translated "blasphemous," in Acts 6:11,13 ; "a blasphemer," 1 Timothy 1:13 ; "railers," 2 Timothy 3:2 , RV; "railing," 2 Peter 2:11
Peter - Peter. SIMON , surnamed Peter, was ‘the coryphœus of the Apostle choir’ (Chrysostom). ’ He was not yet Peter, but only Simon, impulsive and vacillating; and Jesus gave him the new name ere he had earned it, that it might be an incentive to him, reminding him of his destiny and inciting him to achieve it. ’ It was the beginning of the second year of Jesus’ ministry ere He had chosen all the Twelve; and then He ordained them to their mission, arranging them in pairs for mutual assistance ( Mark 6:7 ), and coupling Simon Peter and Andrew ( Matthew 10:2 ). ...
The distinction of Peter lies less in the qualities of his mind than in those of his heart. Augustine, was the disciple whom Jesus loved, Peter was the disciple who loved Jesus. ‘Would ye also go away?’ He asked; and it was Simon Peter, ‘the mouth of the Apostles’ (Chrysostom), who answered, assuring Him of their loyalty ( John 6:66-69 ). (2) During the season of retirement at Cæsarea Philippi in the last year of His ministry, Jesus, anxious to ascertain whether their faith in His Messiahship had stood the strain of disillusionment, whether they still regarded Him as the Messiah, though He was not the sort of Messiah they had expected, put to the Twelve the question: ‘Who do ye say that I am?’ Again it was Peter who answered promptly and firmly:’ Thou art the Christ,’ filling the Lord’s heart with exultant rapture, and proving that he had indeed earned his new name Peter, the rock on which Jesus would build His Church, the first stone of that living temple. Presently Jesus told them of His approaching Passion, and again it was Peter who gave expression to the horror of the Twelve: ‘Be it far from thee, Lord; this shall never be unto thee. (3) A week later Jesus went up to the Mount with Peter, James, and John, and ‘was transfigured before them,’ communing with Moses and Elijah, who ‘appeared in glory’ ( Matthew 17:1-8 = Mark 9:2-8 = Luke 9:28-36 ). Though awe-stricken, Peter spoke; ‘Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, I will make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah’ ( Matthew 17:4 RV
The blot on Peter’s life-story is his repeated denial of Jesus in the courtyard of the high priest’s palace (John 18:12-17 ; cf. It was dangerous just then to be associated with Jesus, and Peter’s excitable and impetuous nature was prone to panic. ...
At the subsequent appearance by the Lake of Galilee (John 21:1-25 ) Peter played a prominent part. Jesus was not upbraiding Peter. ...
Peter figures conspicuously in the history of the Apostolic Church. Must they become Jews and observe the rites of the Mosaic Law? In this controversy Peter acted wisely and generously. The question was referred to a council of the Church at Jerusalem; and Peter spoke so well on behalf of Christian liberty that it was resolved, on the motion of James, the Lord’s brother, that the work of Paul and Barnabas should be approved, and that nothing should be required of the Gentiles beyond abstinence from things sacrificed to idols, blood, things strangled, and fornication (Acts 15:1-29 ; cf. By and by Peter visited Antioch, and, though adhering to the decision at the outset, he was presently intimidated by certain Judaizers, and, together with Barnabas, separated himself from the Gentiles as unclean, and would not eat with them, incurring an indignant and apparently effective rebuke from Paul ( Galatians 2:11-21 ). ...
There are copious traditions about Peter. John at Ephesus, our Second Gospel is based upon information derived from Peter. Mark had been Peter’s companion, and heard his teaching and took notes of it. He wrote it, Jerome says, at the request of the brethren at Rome when he was there with Peter; and on hearing it Peter approved it and authorized its use by the Church
Rock (2) - Peter answered for the Apostles: ‘Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God. ’ The Saviour was pleased by this answer of faith, which had been revealed to Peter by the Heavenly Father, and commended him by saying (Matthew 16:18), ‘Thou art Peter (πέτρος), and on this rock (πέτρα) I will build my Church. Peter thus showed himself to be one who had profited by Christ’s teaching, being a doer of the word as welt as a hearer. Peter, in showing himself a man of faith, is a specimen of the believing ones who shall constitute the strong foundation on which the Church is to rest. Peter is an example of all who should hereafter believe (cf. Peter, but never St. Peter as an individual. Peter was the rock. Peter as the type of converted, believing men, on whom, as a foundation, an un conquerable Church should be built? Origen well says: ‘If thou hast Peter’s faith, thou art a rock like him. If thou hast Peter’s virtues, thou hast Peter’s keys
Mark, John - Mark readily accompanied him as "minister" (hufretes , "subordinate") to the country of his kindred; but had not the spiritual strength to overcome his Jewish prejudices which he probably imbibed from his spiritual father Peter (Galatians 2:11-14), so as to accompany Paul the apostle of the Gentiles further than Perga of Pamphylia, in his first missionary tour to the pagan. "...
He was Peter's "son" by conversion (probably converted in meeting the apostle in his mother's house at Jerusalem), and was with his spiritual father when 1 Peter 5:13 was written; his connection with Peter, by an undesigned coincidence which marks genuineness, appears in Acts 12:12. After Paul's death Mark joined Peter with whom he had been before associated in the writing of the Gospel. (See Peter. It is not likely Peter would have trenched on Paul's field of labour, the churches of Asia Minor, during Paul's lifetime. At his death Mark joined his old father in the faith, Peter, at Babylon. Silvanus or Silas had been substituted for Mark as Paul's companion because of Mark's temporary unfaithfulness; but Mark, now restored, is associated with Silvanus (2 Timothy 4:12), Paul's companion, in Peter's esteem, as Mark was already reinstated in Paul's esteem. 6) that Mark was Peter's companion at Rome arose from misunderstanding "Babylon" (1 Peter 5:13) to be Rome. Babylon was the center from which the Asiatic dispersion whom Peter (1 Peter 1:1-2) addresses was derived
Sheet - Such a cloth held all the clean and unclean animals in the vision that taught Peter that God loved and offered salvation to people who were not Jews (Acts 10:11 ; Acts 11:5 )
Daystar - It is found only in 2 Peter 1:19 , where it denotes the manifestation of Christ to the soul, imparting spiritual light and comfort
Banquet - ‘the house of wine’), 1 Peter 4:3 ‘banquetings’ (Gr
Ammi - The Gentiles, once not God's people, shall become His people (Romans 9:25-26; 1 Peter 2:10)
Answer - An answer is (1) an apology or defence, as 2 Timothy 4:16 ‘at my first answer no man stood by me’; so perhaps 1 Peter 3:21 ‘the answer of a good conscience’; (2) oracle, Divine response, as Romans 11:4 ‘what saith the answer of God?’...
Mark - Peter, who calls him his son, 1 Peter 5:13 ; but no circumstances of his conversion are recorded. Mark in the New Testament; but it is believed, upon the authority of ancient writers, that soon after his journey with Barnabas he met Peter in Asia, and that he continued with him for some time; perhaps till Peter suffered martyrdom at Rome. Peter, and that he was qualified for the work which he undertook, by having heard, for many years, the public discourses and private conversation of that Apostle. Peter revised and approved this Gospel, and others have not scrupled to call it the Gospel according to St. Peter; by which title they did not mean to question St. Peter's name. The following passage in Eusebius appears to contain so probable an account of the occasion of writing this Gospel, and comes supported by such high authority, that we think it right to transcribe it: "The lustre of piety so enlightened the minds of Peter's hearers at Rome, that they were not contented with the bare hearing and unwritten instruction of his divine preaching, but they earnestly requested St. Peter, to leave with them a written account of the instructions which had been delivered to them by word of mouth; nor did they desist till they had prevailed upon him; and thus they were the cause of the writing of that Gospel, which is called according to St. Peter, at the request of the brethren at Rome, which, when St. Peter knew, he approved, and published it in the church, commanding the reading of it by his own authority. Peter at Rome, and not finding any ancient authority for supposing that St. Peter was in that city till A. Peter would naturally recite in his preaching the same events and discourses which St
Savior - 1: παρεκτός (Strong's #3924 — Adverb — soter — par-ek-tos' ) "a savior, deliverer, preserver," is used (a) of God, Luke 1:47 ; 1 Timothy 1:1 ; 2:3 ; 4:10 (in the sense of "preserver," since He gives "to all life and breath and all things"); Titus 1:3 ; 2:10 ; 3:4 ; Jude 1:25 ; (b) of Christ, Luke 2:11 ; John 4:42 ; Acts 5:31 ; 13:23 (of Israel); Ephesians 5:23 (the sustainer and presever of the church, His "body"); Philippians 3:20 (at His return to receive the Church to Himself); 2 Timothy 1:10 (with reference to His incarnation, "the days of His flesh"); Titus 1:4 (a title shared, in the context, with God the Father); 2:13, RV, "our great God and Savior Jesus Christ," the pronoun "our," at the beginning of the whole clause, includes all the titles; Titus 3:6, 2 Peter 1:1 , "our God and Savior Jesus Christ; RV, where the pronoun "our," coming immediately in connection with "God," involves the inclusion of both titles as refering to Christ, just as in the parallel in 2 Peter 1:11 , "our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ" (AV and RV); these passages are therefore a testimony to His deity; 2 Peter 2:20 ; 3:2,18 ; 1 John 4:14
Transfiguration - " Peter says he was an eyewitness of His majesty. The law and the prophets were represented by Moses and Elias; but when Peter proposed to make three tabernacles, he was silenced by a voice from heaven, saying "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased: hear ye him. " Matthew 17:1-8 ; Mark 9:2 ; Luke 9:28 ; 2 Peter 1:16
Day Star - It is applied to the King of Babylon (Isaiah 14), to the glory of Heaven by reason of its excellency (Apocalypse 2), and finally to Our Lord Himself (2 Peter 1; Apocalypse 22)
Leonine City - It contains the Basilica of Saint Peter and the Vatican
Cornelius - With his household he was baptized by Peter, and thus Cornelius became the first-fruits of the Gentile world to Christ
Star, Day - It is applied to the King of Babylon (Isaiah 14), to the glory of Heaven by reason of its excellency (Apocalypse 2), and finally to Our Lord Himself (2 Peter 1; Apocalypse 22)
Uncleanness - 2 Peter 2
Perseverance of the Saints - This doctrine is clearly taught in these passages, John 10:28,29 ; Romans 11:29 ; Philippians 1:6 ; 1 Peter 1:5 . It, moreover, follows from a consideration of (1) the immutability of the divine decrees (Jeremiah 31:3 ; Matthew 24:22-24 ; Acts 13:48 ; Romans 8:30 ); (2) the provisions of the covenant of grace (Jeremiah 32:40 ; John 10:29 ; 17:2-6 ); (3) the atonement and intercession of Christ (Isaiah 53:6,11 ; Matthew 20:28 ; 1 Peter 2:24 ; John 11:42 ; 17:11,15,20 ; Romans 8:34 ); and (4) the indwelling of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16 ; 2 co 1:21,22 ; 5:5 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; 1 John 3:9 )
Key - The power of the keys was given to Peter and the other apostles only at times (Matthew 16:19; Matthew 18:18) when, and in so far as, Christ made him and them infallible. Peter rightly opened the gospel door to the Gentiles (Acts 10; Acts 11:17-18; Acts 14:27), but he wrongly tried to shut it again (Galatians 2:11-18; compare Luke 11:52)
Adorn, Adorning - Hence, "to adorn, to ornament," as of garnishing tombs, Matthew 23:29 ; buildings, Luke 21:5 ; Revelation 21:19 ; one's person, 1 Timothy 2:9 ; 1 Peter 3:5 ; Revelation 21:2 ; metaphorically, of "adorning a doctrine," Titus 2:10 . " The meaning "adorning" is found in 1 Peter 3:3
Christian - Peter stated that believers who “suffer as a Christian” are to do so for the glory of God (1 Peter 4:16 )
Multiply - 1: πληθύνω (Strong's #4129 — Verb — plethuno — play-thoo'-no ) used (a) transitively, denotes "to cause to increase, to multiply," 2 Corinthians 9:10 ; Hebrews 6:14 (twice); in the Passive Voice, "to be multiplied," Matthew 24:12 , RV, "(iniquity) shall be multiplied" (AV, "shall abound"); Acts 6:7 ; 7:17 ; 9:31 ; 12:24 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ; 2 Peter 1:2 ; Jude 1:2 ; (b) intransitively it denotes "to be multiplying," Acts 6:1 , RV, "was multiplying" (AV, "was multiplied")
Spirits in Prison - This expression appears in 1 Peter 3:19, and some of its implications have been already discussed under Descent into Hades. ) that 1 Peter 3:19 alludes to a preaching by the pre-incarnate Christ to the contemporaries of Noah, imprisoned in the darkness of ignorance, who were afterwards overwhelmed in the Flood for their sins. Augustine’s interpretation has had a wide influence, but it must be dismissed as inconsistent with the whole tenor of 1 Peter 3:17 f. This would agree with the language of Judges 1:6 and 2 Peter 2:4, the latter passage (as in 1 Peter 3:19) going on to speak of Noah and the Flood. Again, the ‘spirits in prison’ of 1 Peter 3:19 must be included among the νεκροί of 1 Peter 4:6 to whom the gospel was preached, and these cannot be angels. Augustine, indeed, was forced by the exigencies of his theory to explain νεκροί of the spiritually dead, but the contrast between ‘the quick and the dead’ in the preceding verse (1 Peter 4:5) proves that the physically dead are in view. 659) that σαρκί in 1 Peter 4:6 proves that the νέκροι must be alive in the flesh is not convincing. Peter had written ἵνα κριθέντες ζῶσι’ (Bigg, International Critical Commentary , in loc. Indeed, the Peshiṭta Syriac of τοῖς ἐν φυλακῇ πνεύμασιν (1 Peter 3:19) is equivalent to ‘animabus illis quae detinebantur in inferis,’ which leaves no doubt as to the sense which the Syriac translators attached to the phrase under consideration. The ‘spirits in prison’ of 1 Peter 3:19 are, therefore, human souls in Hades or the abode of the departed, to whom Christ ‘preached’ after His Passion, a further allusion to the same mysterious ministry being found in 1 Peter 4:6. But in 1 Peter 3:19, where alone in the NT the phrase ‘spirits in prison’ is found, it is immediately followed by the words ‘which aforetime were disobedient, when the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah,’ etc. There is, however, no suggestion in 1 Peter 3:20 that the Noachians are mentioned as representative of all those who died in sin. And Origen (in Psalms 3:6), arguing that Christ effected by the separation of His soul from His body much more for the salvation of mankind than would otherwise have been accomplished, quotes 1 Peter 3:19 in proof. To these (but not to the exclusion of others) Christ preached, that, having been judged in the flesh as men are judged (κατὰ ἀνθρώπους), they might henceforth live in the spirit as God lives (κατὰ θεόν, 1 Peter 4:6)
Call - He has called them to enjoy freedom (Galatians 5:1; Galatians 5:13), to practise holiness (1 Thessalonians 4:7; 1 Peter 1:15), to be changed into Christ’s likeness (Romans 8:29-30), to share in Christ’s kingdom (1 Thessalonians 2:12) and to proclaim Christ’s message (1 Peter 2:9). He has also called them to share Christ’s glory; though if they are to experience this fully, they must also share Christ’s suffering (1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 5:10)
Pontus - It is three times mentioned in the New Testament, Acts 2:9; Acts 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1
Miris Modis Repente Liber, Ferrea - Hymn for Vespers on August 1, feast of Saint Peter in Chains
in Wondrous Mode Set Free, lo, at the Lord's Comma - Hymn for Vespers on August 1, feast of Saint Peter in Chains
Keys, Power of the - This term originates in the words addressed by Christ to Peter: ...
"I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven
Corruption - Used especially in the KJV to denote the transient nature of the material world—that is, the world's bent toward change and decay (see especially Romans 8:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:42-57 ; 1 Peter 1:4 )
Mary - She is only mentioned as having a house at Jerusalem, in which a meeting for prayer was held when Peter was in prison
Caceres, Philippines, Archdiocese of - Its first bishop was Saint Peter Baptist
Blemish - Christ offered himself a sacrifice "without blemish," acceptable to God (1 Peter 1:19 )
Celestine ii, Pope - Studied under Peter Abelard
Lasciviousness - KJV term for an unbridled expression of sexual urges (Mark 7:22 ; 2 Corinthians 12:21 ; Galatians 5:19 ; Ephesians 4:19 ; 1 Peter 4:3 ; Jude 1:4 )
Guido Del Castello - Studied under Peter Abelard
Godly - Godliness is the substance of revealed religion, 1 Timothy 3:16 4:8 2 Peter 1:6
Suffering - ...
If suffering is not a measure of a person’s sin, freedom from suffering is not a measure of a person’s righteousness (Ecclesiastes 8:14; Luke 13:1-5; 1 Peter 2:19). Or they may regard it simply as a fact of life that they cannot explain but must accept; though they must do so with faith and courage, not resentment or bitterness (Psalms 73:21-26; Romans 8:18; 2 Corinthians 4:17-18; 1 Peter 1:6-7; cf. He died for them (Galatians 2:20; 1 Peter 2:24). In suffering for sin, Christ bore God’s punishment on sin and so made it possible for people to be cleansed from sin and brought back to God (Isaiah 53:4-5; Isaiah 53:10; Matthew 8:17; Mark 8:31; Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 13:12; 1 Peter 1:12; 1 Peter 2:21-24; 1 Peter 3:18). As the ungodly persecuted Jesus, so they will persecute his followers (John 15:18; John 15:20; Acts 14:22; 2 Corinthians 1:5; Philippians 1:29; Philippians 3:10; 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 4:13; see PERSECUTION). Such sufferings may test the genuineness of their faith, but may also produce in them greater strength and maturity of character (1 Peter 4:19; 1 Peter 5:10; cf. But Jesus’ sufferings were followed by glory, and those who suffer for his sake can look forward to sharing in that glory (Romans 8:17-18; 1 Peter 5:10)
Peter - When Peter appeared before the Sanhedrin, he looked like an "unlearned man" (Acts 4:13 ). He was in all probability accompanied by his wife on his missionary journeys (1 Corinthians 9:5 ; Compare 1 Peter 5:13 ). " The Aramaic name does not occur again, but the name Peter gradually displaces the old name Simon, though our Lord himself always uses the name Simon when addressing him (Matthew 17:25 ; Mark 14:37 ; Luke 22:31 , comp 21:15-17). This profession at Caesarea was one of supreme importance, and our Lord in response used these memorable words: "Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church. For this Peter rebuked him. But our Lord in return rebuked Peter, speaking to him in sterner words than he ever used to any other of his disciples (Matthew 16:21-23 ; Mark 8:31-33 ). At the close of his brief sojourn at Caesarea our Lord took Peter and James and John with him into "an high mountain apart," and was transfigured before them. Peter on that occasion, under the impression the scene produced on his mind, exclaimed, "Lord, it is good for us to be here: let us make three tabernacles" (Matthew 17:1-9 ). ...
On his return to Capernaum the collectors of the temple tax (a didrachma, half a sacred shekel), which every Israelite of twenty years old and upwards had to pay (Exodus 30:15 ), came to Peter and reminded him that Jesus had not paid it (Matthew 17:24-27 ). Our Lord instructed Peter to go and catch a fish in the lake and take from its mouth the exact amount needed for the tax, viz. " ...
As the end was drawing nigh, our Lord sent Peter and John (Luke 22:7-13 ) into the city to prepare a place where he should keep the feast with his disciples. We next read of our Lord's singular interview with Peter on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where he thrice asked him, "Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou me?" (John 21:1-19 ). ) ...
After this scene at the lake we hear nothing of Peter till he again appears with the others at the ascension ( Acts 1:15-26 ). The events of that day "completed the change in Peter himself which the painful discipline of his fall and all the lengthened process of previous training had been slowly making. And now that he is become Cephas indeed, we hear almost nothing of the name Simon (only in Acts 10:5,32 ; 15:14 ), and he is known to us finally as Peter. " ...
After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3 ) persecution arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison. A second time Peter defended them before the council (Acts 5:29-32 ), who, "when they had called the apostles and beaten them, let them go. " ...
The time had come for Peter to leave Jerusalem. Here Paul and Peter met again. ...
We have no further mention of Peter in the Acts of the Apostles. " ...
After this he appears to have carried the gospel to the east, and to have laboured for a while at Babylon, on the Euphrates (1 Peter 5:13 )
Everyman - An English morality play translated from a 15th-century Dutch version attributed to Peter Dorland; a dramatization of the "Ars moriendi," depicting the importance of a good preparation for death
Mamertine Prison - According to tradition in the Acts of Saint Processus and Saint Martmlanus (6th century), Saint Peter was imprisoned in the lower cliamber or Tullianum where he baptized these saints, his jailers
Newhouse Abbey, Lincoln - The first Premonstratensian abbey in England, founded, 1143, by Peter de Gousel with monks from Liegues Abbey near Calais, France
Tree - ‘Tree’ is used as a poetic name for the Cross in Acts 5:30 ; Acts 10:39 ; Acts 13:29 , 1 Peter 2:24 ; cf
Peculiar - As used in the phrase "peculiar people" in 1 Peter 2:9 , is derived from the Lat
Abbey, Newhouse - The first Premonstratensian abbey in England, founded, 1143, by Peter de Gousel with monks from Liegues Abbey near Calais, France
Unstable, Unsteadfast - 1: ἀστήρικτος (Strong's #793 — Adjective — asteriktos — as-tay'-rik-tos ) a, negative, sterizo, "to fix," is used in 2 Peter 2:14 ; 3:16 , AV, "unstable," RV, "unsteadfast
Interrogation - 1: ἐπερώτημα (Strong's #1906 — Noun Neuter — eperotema — ep-er-o'-tay-mah ) primarily a question or inquiry, denotes "a demand or appeal;" it is found in 1 Peter 3:21 , RV, "interrogation" (AV, "answer")
Righteous, Righteously - ...
In the following the RV substitues "righteous" for the AV "just;" Matthew 1:19 ; 13:49 ; 27:19,24 ; Mark 6:20 ; Luke 2:25 ; 15:7 ; 20:20 ; 23:50 ; John 5:30 ; Acts 3:14 ; 7:52 ; 10:22 ; 22:14 ; Romans 1:17 ; 7:12 ; Galatians 3:11 ; Hebrews 10:38 ; James 5:6 ; 1 Peter 3:18 ; 2 Peter 2:7 ; 1 John 1:9 ; Revelation 15:3 . ...
B — 1: δικαίως (Strong's #1346 — Adverb — dikaios — dik-ah'-yoce ) is translated "righteously" in 1 Corinthians 15:34 , RV, "(awake up) righteously," AV, "(awake to) righteousness;" 1 Thessalonians 2:10 , RV (AV, "justly"); Titus 2:12 ; 1 Peter 2:23
Andrew - He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44 ), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Matthew 4:18 ; 10:2 ). He was one of the confidential disciples (John 6:8 ; 12:22 ), and with Peter, James, and John inquired of our Lord privately regarding his future coming (Mark 13:3 ). It is noteworthy that Andrew thrice brings others to Christ, (1) Peter; (2) the lad with the loaves; and (3) certain Greeks
Humble - , of low degree); 2 Corinthians 7:6 , AV, "cast down," RV, "lowly;" the preceding context shows that this occurrence belongs to (a); James 1:9 , "of low degree;" (b) humble in spirit, Matthew 11:29 ; 2 Corinthians 10:1 , RV, "lowly," AV "base;" James 4:6 ; 1 Peter 5:5 . ...
A — 2: ταπεινός (Strong's #5011 5424 — Adjective — tapeinophron — tap-i-nos' ) "humble-minded" (phren, "the mind"), 1 Peter 3:8 ; see COURTEOUS. ...
B — 1: ταπεινόω (Strong's #5013 — Verb — tapeinoo — tap-i-no'-o ) akin to A, signifies "to make low," (a) literally, "of mountains and hills," Luke 3:5 (Passive Voice); (b) metaphorically, in the Active Voice, Matthew 18:4 ; 23:12 (2nd part); Luke 14:11 (2nd part); 18:14 (2nd part); 2 Corinthians 11:7 ("abasing"); 12:21; Philippians 2:8 ; in the Passive Voice, Matthew 23:12 (1st part), RV, "shall be humbled," AV, "shall be abased;" Luke 14:11 (ditto); 18:14 (ditto); Philippians 4:12 , "to be abased;" in the Passive, with Middle voice sense, James 4:10 , "humble yourselves;" 1 Peter 5:6 (ditto)
Petrus, Surnamed Fullo - He considers that Peter was originally a member of the convent of the Acoimetae, which he places in Bithynia on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus, and being expelled thence for dissolute life and heretical doctrine, passed over to Constantinople, where he became a parasite to persons of distinction, by whom he was introduced to Zeno, the future emperor, the son-in-law of Leo, whose favour he secured, obtaining through him the chief place in the church of St. 463, Peter's unbridled ambition soared to the patriarchal throne, then filled by Martyrius, and having gained the ear of the rabble, be adroitly availed himself of the powerful Apollinarian element among the citizens and the considerable number who favoured Eutychian doctrines, to excite suspicions against Martyrius as a concealed Nestorian, and thus caused his tumultuous expulsion and his own Election to the throne. When established as patriarch, Peter at once declared himself openly against the council of Chalcedon, and added to the Trisagion the words "Who wast crucified for us," which he imposed as a test upon all in his patriarchate, anathematizing those who declined to accept it. But notwithstanding the imperial authority, Peter's personal influence, supported by the favour of Zeno, was so great in Antioch that Martyrius's position was rendered intolerable and, wearied by violence and contumely, he soon left Antioch, abandoning his throne again to the intruder. Leo was naturally indignant at this audacious disregard of his commands, of which he was apprised by Gennadius, and he despatched an imperial decree for the deposition of Peter and his banishment to the Oasis (Labbe, iv. According to Theodorus Lector, Peter fled, and Julian was unanimously elected bishop in his room, a. 471, holding the see until Peter's third restoration by Basiliscus in 475 (Theophan. During the interval Peter dwelt at Constantinople, in retirement in the monastery of the Acoimetae, his residence there being connived at on a pledge that he would not create further disturbances (Labbe, iv. 475–June 477) the fortunes of Peter revived. Peter gladly complied, and was rewarded by a third restoration to the see of Antioch, a. Peter on his restoration enforced the addition to the Trisagion, and behaved with great violence to the orthodox party, crushing all opposition by an appeal to the mob, whom he had secured by his unworthy arts, and who confirmed the patriarch's anathemas by plunder and bloodshed. Peter was one of the first to fall. In 485 for the last time Peter was replaced on his throne by Zeno on his signing the Henoticon (Theophan
Trance - In these instances, the author of Acts, in reference to the experiences of Peter and Paul, seemed to be interested in showing that the trance was only a vehicle for a revelation from God. Luke illustrated that the trances that Peter and Paul experienced “happened” to them and were not self induced
Stumble - 1: προσκόπτω (Strong's #4350 — Verb — proskopto — pros-kop'-to ) "to strike against," is used of "stumbling," (a) physically, John 11:9,10 ; (b) metaphorically, (1) of Israel in regard to Christ, whose Person, teaching, and atoning Death, and the Gospel relating thereto, were contrary to all their ideas as to the means of righteousness before God, Romans 9:32 ; 1 Peter 2:8 ; (2) of a brother in the Lord in acting against the dictates of his conscience, Romans 14:21 . 1; with moral significance in James 2:10 ; 3:2 (twice), RV, "stumble" (AV, "offend"); in 2 Peter 1:10 , RV, "stumble" (AV, "fall")
Simon - Simon Peter. See Peter
Seed - " (Luke 8:5) Peter calls it the "incorruptible seed which liveth and abideth for ever. " (1 Peter 1:23) But it is used in a literal sense also when referring to the increase of men or beasts
Teacher, False Teachers - ...
2: καλοδιδάσκαλος (Strong's #2567 — Adjective — kalodidaskalos — kal-od-id-as'-kal-os ) "a false teacher," occurs in the plural in 2 Peter 2:1 . ...
3: ψευδοδιδάσκαλος (Strong's #5572 — Noun Masculine — pseudodidaskalos — psyoo-dod-id-as'-kal-os ) "a false teacher," occurs in the plural in 2 Peter 2:1
Blemish - only); (b) "a shame, a moral disgrace," metaphorical of the licentious, 2 Peter 2:13 . ...
B — 1: ἄμωμος (Strong's #299 — Adjective — amomos — am'-o-mos ) "without blemish;" is always so rendered in the RV, Ephesians 1:4 ; 5:27 ; Philippians 2:15 ; Colossians 1:22 ; Hebrews 9:14 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ; Jude 1:24 ; Revelation 14:5
Common - ” Thus Peter declares that he has never eaten anything “common or unclean. ” The response to Peter was: “What God hath cleansed, that call not thou common” (1618105172_4 )
Mark, Feast of Saint - Peter and accompanied him in hismissionary travels. Peter
Peter - Certainly the Holy Ghost intended, that the very interesting particulars in the life of Peter should have their due operation in the church through all ages; and it must be both the duty and the privilege of the faithful to follow up the will of God the Spirit in this particular, and to regard, the striking features which mark his character. As a faithful servant of Jesus how very eminent Peter stands forth to observation; for who among the apostles so zealous, so attached to his Lord, as Peter? And that such an one should fall from his integrity, even to the denial of his Lord, what caution doth it teach to the highest servants of Jesus! But when we have paid all due attention to those striking particularities in the life of Peter, the most blessed and most important instruction the life of this apostle exhibits, is in the display of that sovereign grace of Jesus manifested in Peter's recovery. " (Romans 5:21)...
I cannot close my observations on the character of Peter without first expressing my surprize that the apostle did not adopt the name of Cephas from the first moment Jesus called him so. (John 1:42) Paul indeed did call Peter by this name, Galatians 2:9; but it doth not seem to have been in general use among the brethren
John Xiv, Pope - Reigned from 983 to 984) Born in Pavia, Italy as Peter Campanora; died in Rome, Italy
Campanora, Peter - Reigned from 983 to 984) Born in Pavia, Italy as Peter Campanora; died in Rome, Italy
Pollution - ...
Note: For miasma, AV, "pollutions," in 2 Peter 2:20 , see DEFILEMENT , B, No
Dignity, Dignities - 1: δόξα (Strong's #1391 — Noun Feminine — doxa — dox'-ah ) primarily denotes "an opinion, estimation, repute;" in the NT, always "good opinion, praise, honor, glory, an appearance commanding respect, magnificience, excellence, manifestation of glory;" hence, of angelic powers, in respect of their state as commanding recognition, "dignities," 2 Peter 2:10 ; Jude 1:8
Speaking - ...
Note: For "evil speaking(s)," in Ephesians 4:31 , see RAILING; in 1 Peter 2:1 , see BACKBITING
Foreknowledge of God - Acts 2:23 ; Romans 8:29 ; 11:2 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ), one of those high attributes essentially appertaining to him the full import of which we cannot comprehend
Martinian, Saint - According to their Acts, they were wardens in the Mamertine prison in which Saint Peter and Saint Paul were confined. Relics in Saint Peter's, Vatican, Rome
Godhead - The word is translated 'divine' in 2 Peter 1:3,4
Antilegomena - These are the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Epistles of James and Jude, the second Epistle of Peter, the second and third Epistles of John, and the Revelation
Apostolic, College - A name given to the Apostles constituting one moral hierarchical body (not a body of equals) under Saint Peter as their head (Matthew 10; 11; 16; Luke 22)
Brute - 1: ἄλογος (Strong's #249 — Adjective — alogos — al'-og-os ) translated "brute" in the AV of 2 Peter 2:12 ; Jude 1:10 , signifies "without reason," RV, though, as J
Announce - 1: ἀναγγέλλω (Strong's #312 — Verb — anagello — an-ang-el'-lo ) "to declare, announce" (ana, "up," angello, "to report"), is used especially of heavenly messages, and is translated "announced" in the RV of 1 Peter 1:12 , for AV, "reported," and in 1 John 1:5 , RV, "announce," for AV, "declare
Quaternion - Of each quaternion probably two were in the prison, Peter being chained to them, and the other two were sentinels before the gate—the first and second guard
Society of Saint Raphael - In 1883 at the instigation of Peter Paul Cahensly a New York branch was established, and in 1889 a place of shelter called the Leo House was founded to supplement its work
Jude - It resembles the second epistle of Peter
Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem - Peter therefore begged St. His mission was successful and he was received with much joy on his return by Peter and his flock (Cyrill. of Old Rome, and, together with the errors of Anthimus, stating and denouncing those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the monk Zoaras. On receiving this document Peter summoned a synod at Jerusalem and subscribed the condemnation, Sept. The rapid spread of Origenistic opinions in some monasteries of Palestine under the influence of Nonnus was vehemently opposed by other monastic bodies and caused serious troubles which Peter was unable to allay. The dignity and authority of Peter, a decided enemy of Origenistic doctrines, being seriously weakened, he made concessions which compromised his position. Peter was convinced that Justinian had been hoodwinked by the powerful abbats and was ignorant of the real character of these doctrines. The emperor's edict was confirmed by a synod convened by Mennas, and was sent for signature to Peter and the other patriarchs, a. Theodore maintained his position at court and threatened Peter with deposition if he continued to refuse to receive back the expelled Origenistic monks ( Vit. Mennas yielded first; Peter's signature was obtained after a longer struggle. But Justinian's threats of deposition outweighed Peter's conscientious convictions, and, with the other equally reluctant patriarchs, he signed the document (Facundus, lib
Primacy - Peter, by our Lord's appointment, had a primacy of sovereign authority and jurisdiction over the apostles. As for the first of these, a primacy of worth, we may well grant it to Peter, admitting that probably he did exceed the rest of his brethren in personal endowments and capacities; particularly in quickness of apprehension, boldness of spirit, readiness of speech, charity to our Lord, and zeal for his service. Peter had been instituted sovereign of the apostolical senate, his office and state had been in nature and kind very distinct from the common office of the other apostles, as the office of a king from the office of any subject; and probably would have been signified by some distinct name, as that of arch-apostle, arch- pastor, the Vicar of Christ, or the like; but no such name or title was assumed by him, or was by the rest attributed to him. Peter, nor any privilege conferred on him which was not also granted to the other apostles, John 20:23 . When Peter wrote two Catholic epistles, there does not appear in either of them any intimation or any pretence to this arch-apostolical power. Peter's judgment or allegation of it as decisive, no argument is built on his authority. Peter no where appears intermeddling as a judge or governor paramount in such cases; yet where he doth himself deal with heretics and disorderly persons, he proceedeth not as a pope decreeing; but as an apostle, warming, arguing and persuading against them. Peter's jurisdiction over them. Peter, but, according to special direction of God's Spirit. Peter's life, render it unlikely that he had such a jurisdiction over the apostles as some assign him. Peter doth evidence that he did not acknowledge any dependence on him, or any subjection to him, Galatians 2:11 . Peter had been appointed sovereign of the church, it seems that it should have been requisite that he should have outlived all the apostles; for otherwise, the church would have wanted a head, or there must have been an inextricable controversy who that head was. Peter died long before St. Peter
Peter, First Epistle of - Peter has been called "the apostle of hope," because this epistle abounds with words of comfort and encouragement fitted to sustain a "lively hope. It has been noticed that in the beginning of his epistle Peter names the provinces of Asia Minor in the order in which they would naturally occur to one writing from Babylon
Love - John 21:15, "Simon, lovest (agapas , esteemest) thou Me?" Αgapas sounds too cold to Peter, now burning with love; so he replies, "Thou knowest that I LOVE (philo ) Thee. " At the third time Peter gained his point
Signify - ...
2: δηλόω (Strong's #1213 — Verb — deloo — day-lo'-o ) "to make plain" (delos, "evident"), is translated "to signify" in 1 Corinthians 1:11 , RV, "it hath been signified" (AV, "declared"); Hebrews 9:8 ; 12:27 ; 1 Peter 1:11 , AV (RV, "Point unto"); 2 Peter 1:14 , RV, "sifnified" (AV, "hath showed")
Dissipation - People following such a way of life will suffer “the penalty for doing wrong” as they continue “reveling in their dissipation” (2 Peter 2:13 NRSV). Compare Titus 1:6 ; 1 Peter 4:3-4
Simeon - Alternate form in Greek for Simon, original Greek name of Peter. See Peter ; Simon
Stranger - Those called strangers in 1 Peter 1:1 were Jews away from their own land: sojourners of the dispersion. 1 Peter 2:11
Simon - ...
Descendant of Juda (1Paralipomenon 4)
Simon, surnamed Thasi, brother of Judas Machabeus (1Machabees 2)
Simon of the tribe of Benjamin; governor of the Temple (2Machabees 3)
Simon who is called Peter, the Apostle (Matthew 4)
Simon the Cananean, the Apostle (Matthew 10)
one of the relatives of Our Lord, identified erroneously with the preceding (Matthew 13)
Simon the leper, a resident of Bethany (Matthew 26)
a Pharisee at whose house the penitent woman washed the feet of Jesus (Luke 7)
Simon the Cyrenean, who helped Our Lord carry the Cross (Matthew 27)
the father of Judas (John 6)
Simon Magus, a magician in the time of the Apostles (Acts 8)
Simon the tanner, a Christian of Joppe, in whose house Peter had the vision commanding him to receive the Gentiles into the faith (Acts 10)
Simon called Niger, a Christian living at Antioch in the time of the Apostles (Acts 13)
Mark, John - He was the son of Mary in whose home the Jerusalem believers met to pray when Peter was imprisoned by Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12:12 ). ...
Peter referred to Mark as his “son,” and sent greetings from him near the end of his first letter (1 Peter 5:13 )
Simon - See Peter . The tanner; a disciple who dwelt at Joppa, and in whose house Peter lodged, Acts 9:43 10:6,17,32 ...
8. The sin of trafficking in spiritual things, called Simony after him, was more odious to Peter than to many whom claimed to be his especial followers
John the Apostle - '...
John, Peter, and James were the three selected to be with the Lord on the mount of transfiguration, and in the garden of Gethsemane. In the Acts of the Apostles John was with Peter when the lame man was healed, and they were both cast into prison. John was associated with Peter in visiting the Samaritans, who had received the word preached by Philip, and through the laying on of their hands the Holy Spirit was given
Alway, Always - 1: ἀεί (Strong's #104 — Adverb — aei — ah-eye' ) has two meanings: (a) "perpetually, incessantly," Acts 7:51 ; 2 Corinthians 4:11 ; 6:10 ; Titus 1:12 ; Hebrews 3:10 ; (b) "invariably, at any and every time," of successive occurrences, when some thing is to be repeated, according to the circumstances, 1 Peter 3:15 ; 2 Peter 1:12 . ...
2: ἑκάστοτε (Strong's #1539 — Adverb — hekastote — hek-as'-tot-eh ) from hekastos, "each," is used in 2 Peter 1:15 , RV, "at every time" (AV, "always")
Petrus, Abbat of Saint Augustine's Monastery - Peter and Paul, commonly called St. The building was not finished when Augustine died, but Laurentius, his successor, consecrated the new church and Peter became the first abbat. If the Canterbury computation be accepted, and on such a point it may not be baseless, Peter must have perished in the winter of 606 or of 607 at the latest
Doctors of the Church - Since then more than twenty renowned theologians, all of them canonized saints, have received the same seal of approval, either from some pope or from the Sacred Congregation of Rites; the latest are Saint Peter Canisius and Saint John of the Cross, who received this honor from Pius XI. ...
The following are Doctors of the Church: ...
Albertus Magnus
Alphonsus Maria de Liguori
Ambrose of Milan
Anselm of Canterbury
Anthony of Padua
Athanasius
Augustine of Hippo
Basil the Great
Bede the Venerable
Bernard of Clairvaux
Bonaventure
Catherine of Siena
Cyril of Alexandria
Cyril of Jerusalem
Ephrem of Syria
Francis of Sales
Gregory Nanzianzen
Gregory the Great
Hilary of Poitiers
Isidore
Jerome
John Chrystostom
John Damascene
John of the Cross
Lawrence of Brindisi
Leo the Great
Peter Canisius
Peter Chrysologus
Peter Damian
Robert Bellarmine
Teresa of Avila
Therese of Lisieux
Thomas Aquinas
Sure - ...
A — 2: βέβαιος (Strong's #949 — Adjective — bebaios — beb'-ah-yos ) "firm, steadfast," is used of (a) God's promise to Abraham, Romans 4:16 ; (b) the believer's hope, Hebrews 6:19 , "steadfast;" (c) the hope of spiritual leaders regarding the welfare of converts, 2 Corinthians 1:7 , "steadfast;" (d) the glorying of the hope, Hebrews 3:6 , "firm;" (e) the beginning of our confidence, Hebrews 3:14 , RV, "firm" (AV, "steadfast"); (f) the Law given at Sinai, Hebrews 2:2 , "steadfast;" (g) the testament (or covenant) fulfilled after a death, Hebrews 9:17 , "of force;" (h) the calling and election of believers, 2 Peter 1:10 , to be made "sure" by the fulfillment of the injunctions in 2 Peter 1:5-7 ; (i) the word of prophecy, "made more sure," 2 Peter 1:19 , RV, AV, "a more sure (word of prophecy);" what is meant is not a comparison between the prophecies of the OT and NT, but that the former have been confirmed in the person of Christ (2 Peter 1:16-18 )
Simon - Simon Peter. See Peter. Simon the Tanner, at whose house Peter was lodging at Joppa when sent for by Cornelius. Subsequently he offered money to the apostles that he might purchase the power of imparting the gift of the Holy Spirit (from which has arisen the word 'simony'); but he was denounced by Peter
Brother, Brethren, Brotherhood, Brotherly - ]'>[1] ...
Notes: (1) Associated words are adelphotes, primarily, "a brotherly relation," and so, the community possessed of this relation, "a brotherhood," 1 Peter 2:17 (see 5:9, marg. ); philadelphos, (phileo, "to love," and adelphos), "fond of one's brethren," 1 Peter 3:8 ; "loving as brethren," RV; philadelphia, "brotherly love," Romans 12:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:9 ; Hebrews 13:1 ; "love of the brethren," 1 Peter 1:22 ; 2 Peter 1:7 , RV; pseudadelphos, "false brethren," 2 Corinthians 11:26 ; Galatians 2:4
Bishop - Peter calls Jesus Christ "the Shepherd and Bishop of our souls," 1 Peter 2:25 ; and St. " In like manner, the Apostle Peter, 1 Peter 5:1 : "The elders" (πρεσβυτερους ) "which are among you I exhort; feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight thereof; επισκοπουντες , that is, discharging the office of bishops
Linus, Pope Saint - It is generally considered that he was the successor of Saint Peter and ruled for 12 years
Quaternion - Peter was committed by Herod to the custody of four quaternions, i
Dissolve - 1: λύω (Strong's #3089 — Verb — luo — loo'-o ) "to loose," is used of the future demolition of the elements or heavenly bodies, 2 Peter 3:10-12 ; in ver
Celestins - A religious order in the thirteenth century; so called from their founder, Peter de Meuron, afterwards raised to the pontificate under the name of Celestine V
Manifold - Ephesians 3; 1 Peter 4
ad Limina Apostolorum - (Latin: to the thresholds of the Apostles) ...
A pilgrimage to the tombs of Saints Peter and Paul, canonieally required of all bishops every three to ten years, according to their distance from Rome
Lust, to - The word ἐπιθυμέω signifies 'to desire earnestly,' and is often translated 'desire,' without the thought of the desire being an evil one, as in Matthew 13:17 ; 1 Timothy 3:1 ; 1 Peter 1:12 , etc
Blemish - Scandalous professors are blemishes to the church of God, 2 Peter 2:13 ; Judges 1:12 , and therefore ought to be put away from it, in the exercise of a godly discipline
Chaste - 1 Peter 3
Ships, Blessing of - It consists of prayers to be offered by the priest, supplicating God to bless the vessel and protect those who sail in it, as He protected the ark of Noe, and also Peter, when the latter was sinking in the sea; the ship is then sprinkled with holy water
Skull - Emblem in art, symbolic of meditation and of detachment from the world, usually associated with hermits and solitaries, especially ...
Saint Bruno
Saint Francis Borgia
Saint Francis of Assisi
Saint Francis of Paola
Saint Gebhard of Constance
Blessed Godfrey of Cappenberg
Saint Jerome
Saint Mary of Egypt
Saint Macarius the Younger
Saint Odilo of Cluny
Blessed Peter of Città di Castello
Undefiled - 1: ἀμίαντος (Strong's #283 — Adjective — amiantos — am-ee'-an-tos ) "undefiled, free from contamination" (a, negative, miaino, "to defile"), is used (a) of Christ, Hebrews 7:26 ; (b) of pure religion, James 1:27 ; (c) of the eternal inheritance of believers, 1 Peter 1:4 ; (d) of the marriage bed as requiring to be free from unlawful sexual intercourse, Hebrews 13:4
Magnificence - In Luke 9:43 , RV (AV, "mighty power"); in 2 Peter 1:16 , "majesty
Melt - 1: τήκομαι (Strong's #5080 — Verb — teko — tay'-ko ) "to melt, melt down," is used in the Passive Voice in 2 Peter 3:12 , "shall melt" (lit
Ready - A — 1: ἕτοιμος (Strong's #2092 — Adjective — hetoimos — het-oy'-mos ) "prepared, ready" (akin to hetoimasia, "preparation"), is used (a) of persons, Matthew 24:44 ; 25:10 ; Luke 12:40 ; 22:33 ; Acts 23:15,21 (for 2 Corinthians 10:6 , see above); Titus 3:1 ; 1 Peter 3:15 ; (b) of things, Matthew 22:4 (2nd part),8; Mark 14:15 , RV , "ready" (AV, "prepared"); Luke 14:17 ; John 7:6 ; 2 Corinthians 9:5 ; 10:16 , RV , "things ready" (AV, "things made ready"); 1 Peter 1:5 . ...
B — 1: μέλλω (Strong's #3195 — Verb — mello — mel'-lo ) "to be about to," is translated "to be ready" in 2 Peter 1:12 , RV, where the future indicates that the Apostle will be prepared, as in the past and the present, to remind his readers of the truths they know (some mss. , "to be in readiness, to be ready," Acts 21:13 ; 2 Corinthians 12:14 ; 1 Peter 4:5 . (4) In 1 Peter 5:2 prothumos, "willingly, with alacrity," is rendered "of a ready mind
Bithynia - Peter, became Christians; for Peter (1 Peter 1:1) addresses them along with those of "Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Asia. " (See Peter. " In Acts 2:9 Pontus alone is mentioned, in 1 Peter 1:1 both are mentioned
Ungodliness - The verb ἀσεβέω occurs only in 2 Peter 2:6, Judges 1:15; ἀσεβής is more frequent: Romans 4:5-6 (opp. δίκαιος) 5:6, 8 (synonymous with ἁμαρτωλός), 1 Timothy 1:9; 1 Peter 4:18, Judges 1:15 (joined with ἀμαρτωλός); also in 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 3:7, Judges 1:4. ...
It is an interesting point in NT criticism that the ἀσεβής group is not confined, like the opposed εὐσεβής group, practically to the Pastoral Epistles and 2 Peter
Simon Peter - (Greek: petra, rock) ...
Peter, originally Simon, son of Jona, was a fisherman of Bethsaida, a town on Lake Genesareth. Because of his faith, fidelity, enthusiasm, and love, although he was somewhat irresolute of character, Jesus showered him with many favors; He gave him the name Peter, cured his mother-in-law, appointed him chief of the Apostolic band, made him head of the Church, chose him as one of the witnesses of the raising of Jairus's daughter from the dead, and of the Transfiguration, and of the Agony in the Garden; and after the Resurrection, lest Peter's denial make him lose prestige, Our Lord renewed his commission as chief pastor of the flock. After the Ascension Peter, by virtue of this commission, repeatedly acted as spokesman and head of the infant Church. Just when he established himself at Rome is disputed, but that be did go to Rome and make it the center of the Church is too evident from tradition, from his first Epistle (1 Peter 5), and from data found in the catacombs and ancient churches of Rome, to bear successful contradiction. 258) his remains were placed with those of Saint Paul in a catacomb on the Appian Way, where the Church of Saint Sebastian now stands; they were restored to their original place of burial by Constantine the Great, who built a basilica over the grave at the foot of the Vatican Hill; this basilica was replaced by the present Saint Peter's, where one half of his body now rests; the other half is in the Church of Saint Paul on the Ostian Way; his head is in the Lateran Church. Representations of Saint Peter are found in Christian art as early as the 2century
Virtue - -Ἀρετή (translation ‘virtue’ in Philippians 4:8, 2 Peter 1:3; 2 Peter 1:5 [1]; pl. ]'>[3] of 1 Peter 2:9) was the common heathen term for ‘moral goodness. In Philippians 4:8 (‘Whatsoever things are true … if there be any virtue, and if there be any praise, think on these things’) and in 2 Peter 1:5 (‘In your faith supply virtue; and in your virtue knowledge’) the reference is to a human attribute, and the sense is the ordinary classical one of moral excellence possibly coloured with its Septuagint meaning of ‘praiseworthiness. the coupling of ἀρετή with δόξα in 2 Peter 1:2. In the other two NT passages (2 Peter 1:3, 1 Peter 2:9) the reference is to an attribute of God or Christ, and the Septuagint senses of ‘glory’ and ‘praise’ are more appropriate. He compares 2 Peter 1:3 with an inscription of Stratonicea in Caria belonging to the earliest years of the Imperial period, and considers that in both ἀρετή bears the meaning of ‘marvel. ’ ‘Marvellous power’ would well suit the context in 2 Peter 1:3 and 1 Peter 2:9. , 1 Peter 4:17, etc
Power of the Keys - In ecclesiastical history the phrase is associated primarily with the so-called ‘Privilege of Peter,’ upon which the dogma of papal supremacy has been built, but also with the delegated authority of an official priesthood to pronounce sentence of the absolution or the retention of sins. Peter at Cæsarea Philippi had made his great confession of Jesus as the Christ, Jesus blessed him and announced that upon this rock He would build His Church. Peter personally can hardly be doubted. Peter was appointed to the position of a steward in charge of his Lord’s treasuries, entrusted with the duty of feeding the household ( Luke 12:42 , cf. Peter opened the doors of the Christian Church to the Jewish world ( Acts 2:41 ); and again at Cæsarea, when he, first of the Apostles, opened that same door to the Gentiles ( Acts 10:34-38 ; Acts 15:7 ). Peter’s exercise of the power of the keys on these occasions. Peter personally, given him in any exclusive sense? As regards the second part of it, clearly not; for on a later occasion in this same Gospel we find Jesus bestowing precisely the same privilege on His disciples generally (Acts 18:18 ; cf. Peter had no supreme position as a legislator in the Church (see Acts 15:13 ; Acts 15:19 , Galatians 2:11 ff. Peter had the privilege of first opening the doors of the Kingdom to both Jews and Gentiles, the same privilege was soon exercised by others ( Acts 8:4 ; Acts 11:19 ff; Acts 13:2 ff. By and by Peter falls into the background, and we find Paul and Barnabas rehearsing to the Church how God through their preaching had ‘opened a door of faith unto the Gentiles’ ( Acts 14:27 ). Peter; It means only that it was extended to others on their fulfilment of those same conditions of faith and testimony on which Peter had first received it
in Memoriam - Pope Saint Anacletus built a memoria over the tomb of the Apostle Peter
Heritage - 1 Peter 5
Tabitha - We find an honourable widow called by it in the Acts of the apostles, whose death gave occasion for the Holy Ghost by the ministry of the apostle Peter, to manifest his almighty power in raising her again
Malchus - Peter cut off his right ear in the garden of Gethsemane (John 18:10 )
Shepherd - 1: ποιμήν (Strong's #4166 — Noun Masculine — poimen — poy-mane' ) is used (a) in its natural significance, Matthew 9:36 ; 25:32 ; Mark 6:34 ; Luke 2:8,15,18,20 ; John 10:2,12 ; (b) metaphorically of Christ, Matthew 26:31 ; Mark 14:27 ; John 10:11,14,16 ; Hebrews 13:20 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ; (c) metaphorically of those who act as pastors in the churches, Ephesians 4:11
Day-Star - , "light-bearing" phos, "light," phero, "to bear"), is used of the morning star, as the light-bringer, 2 Peter 1:19 , where it indicates the arising of the light of Christ as the Personal fulfillment, in the hearts of believers, of the prophetic Scriptures concerning His coming to receive them to Himself
Memoriam, in - Pope Saint Anacletus built a memoria over the tomb of the Apostle Peter
Negligent - 2 Peter 1
Unlearned - Acts 4:13, Peter and John; John 7:15, "how knoweth this man letters, having never learned?" The Jewish literati did not mean without common education, reading and writing, etc
Beor - ]'>[1] , Joshua 24:9 , also Numbers 31:8 , Deuteronomy 23:4 , Joshua 13:22 , Micah 6:5 , 2 Peter 2:15 ( Bosor , AV Self-Willed - Such activity is presumptuous and marks the fleshly person ( 2 Peter 2:10 )
Asleep - 2 Peter 3
Cheek - The admonition (Luke 6:29 ), "Unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other," means simply, "Resist not evil" (Matthew 5:39 ; 1 Peter 2:19-23 )
Star, the Morning - ' The Lord Jesus is the bright and morning star, and He makes Himself known to the saints in that heavenly character, and Peter speaks of its rising in their hearts, though they wait for His appearing, to usher in full blessing on earth, when He will shine forth as the SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS
Constraint - 1 Peter 5
Saron - (Hebrew: sharon, plain) ...
(1) a maritime plain 55 miles long between Jaffa and Mount Carmel in Judea, ranked with Carmel and Lebanon for its luxuriant vegetation (Isaiah 35) ...
(2) the country between Mount Thabor and the Lake of Tiberias; Saint Peter visited here and cured a man sick eight years with the palsy (Acts 9) ...
(3) region east of the Jordan, near Galaad (1Par 5) ...
Symbols of the Sacraments - Separately ...
Baptism: a flowing fountain
Confirmation: a descending dove, emblematic of the Holy Ghost
Holy Eucharist: a chalice and Sacred Host; grapes and wheat
Penance: the Keys of Peter
Extreme Unction: vessel inscribed O I (Oleum Infirmorum: Oil of the Sick)
Holy Orders: a chalice and a stole denoting priesthood and authority
Matrimony: clasped hands
Sacraments, Symbols of the - Separately ...
Baptism: a flowing fountain
Confirmation: a descending dove, emblematic of the Holy Ghost
Holy Eucharist: a chalice and Sacred Host; grapes and wheat
Penance: the Keys of Peter
Extreme Unction: vessel inscribed O I (Oleum Infirmorum: Oil of the Sick)
Holy Orders: a chalice and a stole denoting priesthood and authority
Matrimony: clasped hands
Conversation - In the Bible, usually means the whole tenor of one's life, intercourse with his fellow men, Galatians 1:13 Ephesians 4:22 1 Peter 1:15
Resurrection - 1 Peter 1
Cappado'Cia, Cappado'Cians - (province of good horses ), ( Acts 2:3 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ) the largest province in ancient Asia Minor
Wallow - " ...
B — 1: κυλισμός (Strong's #2946 — Noun Neuter — kulismos — koo'-lis-mah ) "a rolling, wallowing," akin to A (some texts have kulisma), is used in 2 Peter 2:22 , of the proverbial sow that had been washed
Live - 1: ζάω (Strong's #2198 — Verb — zao — dzah'-o ) "to live, be alive," is used in the NT of "(a) God, Matthew 16:16 ; John 6:57 ; Romans 14:11 ; (b) the Son in Incarnation, John 6:57 ; (c) the Son in Resurrection, John 14:19 ; Acts 1:3 ; Romans 6:10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:4 ; Hebrews 7:8 ; (d) spiritual life, John 6:57 ; Romans 1:17 ; 8:13 ; Galatians 2:19,20 ; Hebrews 12:9 ; (e) the present state of departed saints, Luke 20:38 ; 1 Peter 4:6 ; (f) the hope of resurrection, 1 Peter 1:3 ; (g) the resurrection of believers, 1 Thessalonians 5:10 ; John 5:25 ; Revelation 20:4 , and of unbelievers, Revelation 20:5 , cp. 2 Corinthians 12:10 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5 ; (j) bread, figurative of the Lord Jesus, John 6:51 ; (k) a stone, figurative of the Lord Jesus, 1 Peter 2:4 ; (l) water, figurative of the Holy Spirit, John 4:10 ; 7:38 ; (m) a sacrifice, figurative of the believer, Romans 12:1 ; (n) stones, figurative of the believer, 1 Peter 2:5 ; (o) the oracles, logion, Acts 7:38 , and word, logos, Hebrews 4:12 ; 1 Peter 1:23 , of God; (p) the physical life of men, 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ; Matthew 27:63 ; Acts 25:24 ; Romans 14:9 ; Philippians 1:21 (in the infinitive mood used as a noun, with the article, 'living'),22; 1 Peter 4:5 ; (q) the maintenance of physical life, Matthew 4:4 ; 1 Corinthians 9:14 ; (r) the duration of physical life, Hebrews 2:15 ; (s) the enjoyment of physical life, 1 Thessalonians 3:8 ; (t) the recovery of physical life from the power of disease, Mark 5:23 ; John 4:50 ; (u) the recovery of physical life from the power of death, Matthew 9:18 ; Acts 9:41 ; Revelation 20:5 ; (v) the course, conduct, and character of men, (1) good, Acts 26:5 ; 2 Timothy 3:12 ; Titus 2:12 ; (2) evil, Luke 15:13 ; Romans 6:2 ; 8:13 ; 2 Corinthians 5:15 ; Colossians 3:7 ; (3) undefined, Romans 7:9 ; 14:7 ; Galatians 2:14 ; (w) restoration after alienation, Luke 15:32 . , "living") in Acts 10:42 ; 2 Timothy 4:1 ; 1 Peter 4:5 ; in Hebrews 4:12 , AV (RV "living"). ...
4: βιόω (Strong's #980 — Verb — bioo — bee-o'-o ) "to spend life, to pass one's life," is used in 1 Peter 4:2 . ...
5: ἀναστρέφω (Strong's #390 — Verb — anastrepho — an-as-tref'-o ) used metaphorically, in the Middle Voice, "to conduct oneself, behave, live," is translated "to live," in Hebrews 13:18 ("honestly"); in 2 Peter 2:18 ("in error")
Order of Friars Preachers - ...
Dominican saints and beati include ...
Saint Albert the Great
Blessed Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena
Saint Antonius of Florence
Saint Catherine del Ricci
Saint Catherine of Siena
Blessed Christopher of Milan
Saint Dominic de Guzman
Blessed Fra Angelico
Saint Henry Suso
Saint Hyacinth
Saint Jordan of Pisa
Saint Jordan of Saxony
Saint Louis Bertran
Saint Louis Marie de Montfort
Saint Maria Bagnesi
Saint Martin de Porres
Blessed Osanna Andreasi
Blessed Peter de Geremia
Saint Peter Gonzalez
Saint Peter Verona
Pope Saint Pius V
Saint Raymond of Penyafort
Saint Rose of Lima
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Saint Vincent Ferrer
Saint Zedislava Berka
Order of Preachers - ...
Dominican saints and beati include ...
Saint Albert the Great
Blessed Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena
Saint Antonius of Florence
Saint Catherine del Ricci
Saint Catherine of Siena
Blessed Christopher of Milan
Saint Dominic de Guzman
Blessed Fra Angelico
Saint Henry Suso
Saint Hyacinth
Saint Jordan of Pisa
Saint Jordan of Saxony
Saint Louis Bertran
Saint Louis Marie de Montfort
Saint Maria Bagnesi
Saint Martin de Porres
Blessed Osanna Andreasi
Blessed Peter de Geremia
Saint Peter Gonzalez
Saint Peter Verona
Pope Saint Pius V
Saint Raymond of Penyafort
Saint Rose of Lima
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Saint Vincent Ferrer
Saint Zedislava Berka
Dominicans - ...
Dominican saints and beati include ...
Saint Albert the Great
Blessed Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena
Saint Antonius of Florence
Saint Catherine del Ricci
Saint Catherine of Siena
Blessed Christopher of Milan
Saint Dominic de Guzman
Blessed Fra Angelico
Saint Henry Suso
Saint Hyacinth
Saint Jordan of Pisa
Saint Jordan of Saxony
Saint Louis Bertran
Saint Louis Marie de Montfort
Saint Maria Bagnesi
Saint Martin de Porres
Blessed Osanna Andreasi
Blessed Peter de Geremia
Saint Peter Gonzalez
Saint Peter Verona
Pope Saint Pius V
Saint Raymond of Penyafort
Saint Rose of Lima
Saint Thomas Aquinas
Saint Vincent Ferrer
Saint Zedislava Berka
Cappadocia - (cap puh doh' cih uh) A Roman province in Asia Minor mentioned twice in the New Testament: Acts 2:9 ; 1 Peter 1:1 . ...
From Acts 2:9 we know that Jews from Cappadocia were in Jerusalem when Peter preached at Pentecost. Those converted to Christianity that day must have given a good witness when they returned home because in 1 Peter 1:1 believers there are mentioned along with others in Pontus
Peter, Second Epistle of - (2 Peter 1:1-13 ) Referring then to his approaching death, the apostle assigns as grounds of assurance for believers his own personal testimony as eye-witness of the transfiguration and the sure word of prophecy--that is the testimony of the Holy Ghost. (2 Peter 1:14-21 ) The danger of being misled by false prophets is dwelt upon with great earnestness throughout the second chapter, which is almost identical in language and subject with the Epistle of Jude. This epistle of Peter presents questions of difficulty. It was written near the close of Peter's life--perhaps about A
His, His Own - 1 (a frequent use: in 1 Peter 2:24 , "His own self"); the form autou, "his," becomes emphatic when placed between the article and the noun, e. , John 5:47 ; 9:28 ; 1 Corinthians 10:28 ; 2 Corinthians 8:9 ; 2 Timothy 2:26 ; Titus 3:7 ; 2 Peter 1:16 ; (b) heautou, "of himself, his own;" the RV rightly puts "his own," for the AV, "his," in Luke 11:21 ; 14:26 ; Romans 4:19 ; 5:8 , "His own (love);" 1 Corinthians 7:37 ; Galatians 6:8 ; Ephesians 5:28,33 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:11,12 ; 4:4 ; in Revelation 10:7 the change has not been made; it should read "his own servants;" (c) idios, "one's own," "his own," in the RV, in Matthew 22:5 ; John 5:18 ; 2 Peter 2:16 ; in Matthew 25:15 , it is rendered "his several;" in John 19:27 , "his own home," lit
Petrus, a Solitary - Theodoret relates that his mother, when a beautiful young woman of 23, failing to obtain relief from a malady in her eye from any oculist, was induced by one of her female servants to apply to Peter. When, seven years after, she became the mother of Theodoret and was given up by the physicians, Peter, having been summoned, prayed over her with her attendants and she speedily revived. Peter made the young Theodoret a present of half his linen girdle, which was believed to have the miraculous property of relieving pain and curing sickness
Temperance - ]'>[4] , is to be preferred ( Acts 24:25 , Galatians 5:23 , 2 Peter 1:5 ). ]'>[2] it ( nçphein ) ‘to be sober ’ ( 1Th 5:6 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:8 , 2Ti 4:5 , 1 Peter 1:18 ; 1 Peter 4:7 ; 1 Peter 5:8 ). In 2 Peter 1:6 , faith is regarded as the germ of every virtue; it lays hold of the ‘divine power’ which makes possible the life of godliness ( 2 Peter 1:3 ). The evolution of faith in ‘manliness, knowledge, self-control’ is the reward of its ‘diligent’ culture ( 2 Peter 1:8 )
Ever, For Ever, Evermore - ...
2: ἀεί (Strong's #104 — Adverb — aei — ah-eye' ) "ever," is used (a) of continuous time, signifying "unceasingly, perpetually," Acts 7:51 ; 2 Corinthians 4:11 ; 6:10 ; Titus 1:12 ; Hebrews 3:10 ; (b) of successive occurrences, signifying "on every occasion," 1 Peter 3:15 ; 2 Peter 1:12 . , "unto the age," "for ever" (or, with a negative, "never"), Matthew 21:19 ; Mark 3:29 ; 11:14 ; Luke 1:55 ; John 4:14 ; 6:51,58 ; 8:35 (twice), 51,52; 10:28; 11:26; 12:34; 13:8; 14:16; 1 Corinthians 8:13 ; 2 Corinthians 9:9 ; Hebrews 5:6 ; 6:20 ; 7:17,21,24,28 ; 1 Peter 1:25 ; 1 John 2:17 ; 2 John 1:2 ; (c) eis tous aionas, lit. "unto the ages of the ages," "for ever and ever," or "for evermore," Galatians 1:5 ; Philippians 4:20 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 ; Hebrews 13:21 ; 1 Peter 4:11 ; 5:11 Balaam - On this journey, Balaam's donkey talked with him as he traveled a narrow trail (Numbers 22:21-30 ; 2 Peter 2:16 ). ...
New Testament Peter warned against false teachers and described their destruction. Peter described his generation of false leaders as those with eyes full of adultery, who never stop sinning by seducing the unstable. Peter wrote that they left the straight way and followed the way of Balaam (2 Peter 2:15 )
Silas - Silas was the bearer of the first epistle of Peter (1 Peter 5:12) who designates him "a faithful brother unto you as I suppose. " Silas probably stood in a close relation to the churches of Asia, having taken the oversight after Paul's departure, and afterward went to Peter. Silas was a suitable messenger by whom to confirm Paul's doctrine of "the true grace of God" in the stone churches (2 Peter 3:16). His connection with Peter began after that
Eight, Eighteen, Eighth - ), is used in Luke 2:21 ; 9:28 ; John 20:26 ; Acts 9:33 ; 25:6 ; 1 Peter 3:20 ; in composition with other numerals, okto kai deka, lit. ...
2: ὄγδοος (Strong's #3590 — Adjective — ogdoos — og'-do-os ) "eighth" (connected with the preceding), is used in Luke 1:59 ; Acts 7:8 ; 2 Peter 2:5 ; Revelation 17:11 ; 21:20
Mist - ...
2: ὅμιλος (Strong's #3658 — Noun Masculine — homichle — hom'-il-os ) "a mist" (not so thick as nephos and nephele, "a cloud"), occurs in 2 Peter 2:17 (1st part), RV, "mists;" some mss. ...
3: ζόφος (Strong's #2217 — Noun Masculine — zophos — dzof'-os ) is rendered "mist" in the AV of 2 Peter 2:17 (2nd part), RV, "blackness;" "murkiness" would be a suitable rendering
Try, Tried - 1: δοκιμάζω (Strong's #1381 — Verb — dokimazo — dok-im-ad'-zo ) is rendered "to try" in the AV in 1 Corinthians 3:13 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:4 ; 1 Peter 1:7 ; 1 John 4:1 : see PROVE , No. (4) In 1 Peter 4:12 , AV, the phrase pros peirasmon, lit
Oracle - λόγιον occurs four times in the NT (Acts 7:38, Romans 3:2, Hebrews 5:12, 1 Peter 4:11). That is probably also its meaning in 1 Peter: ‘If any man speaketh, speaking as it were oracles of God,’ i
Cornelius - God saw that Cornelius was seeking a better understanding of him, so sent Peter to tell him of Jesus Christ and lead him to complete salvation (Acts 10:1-8). ...
Peter told Cornelius of what Jesus Christ had done for the world through his life, death and resurrection
Clementine Literature - Among the spurious writings attributed to Clement of Rome, the chief is one which purported to contain a record made by Clement of discourses of the apostle Peter, together with an account of the circumstances under which Clement came to be Peter's travelling companion, and of other details of Clement's family history. There he finds Barnabas again and is introduced by him to Peter, who had arrived at Caesarea on the same day, and who was on the next to hold a discussion with Simon the Samaritan. Peter forthwith frees Clement from his perplexities, by instructing him in the doctrine of the "true prophet. Clement by Peter's orders committed his teaching to writing, and sent the book to James, to whom Peter had been commanded annually to transmit an account of his doings. We are next told that Simon postponed the appointed discussion with Peter, who uses the interval thus gained to give Clement a continuous exposition of the faith, in which God's dealings are declared from the commencement of the world to the then present time. The disciples fly to Jericho, and the enemy hastens to Damascus, whither he supposes Peter to have fled in order there to make havoc of the faithful. At Jericho, James hears from Zacchaeus of the mischief being done by Simon at Caesarea, and sends Peter thither to refute him, ordering him to report to him annually, but more particularly every seven years. 71) Peter is mentioned in the third person, though he is himself the speaker. ...
We are next introduced to two disciples of Peter, Nicetas and Aquila, who had been disciples of Simon. Prepared with this information, Peter enters into a public discussion with Simon which lasts for three days, the main subject in debate being whether the difficulty of reconciling the existence of evil with the goodness and power of the Creator does not force us to believe in the existence of a God different from the Creator of the world. For Peter offers to settle the question by proceeding to Simon's bed-chamber, and interrogating the soul of the murdered boy, whose likeness was there preserved. On finding his secret known to Peter, Simon humbles himself, but retracts his repentance on Peter's acknowledging that he had this knowledge, not by prophetic power, but from associates of Simon. Peter resolves to follow him among the Gentiles and expose his wickedness; and having remained three months at Caesarea for the establishment of the church, he ordains Zacchaeus as its bishop, and sets out for Tripolis, now the centre of Simon's operations. This brings the third book of the Recognitions to a close; and here we are told that Clement sent to James an account in ten books of Peter's discourses, of which the author gives the contents in detail, from which we may conclude that they formed a work really in existence previous to his own composition. On Peter's arrival at Tripolis he finds that Simon, hearing of his coming, had fled by night to Syria. Peter proceeds to instruct the people; and his discourses containing a polemic against heathenism, occupy the next three books of R. terminates with the baptism of Clement and the ordination of a bishop, after which Peter sets out for Antioch, having spent 3 months at Tripolis. We shall presently discuss how an occasion is skilfully presented for Clement's relating his family history to Peter. The story proceeds to tell how Peter and Clement on their way to Antioch go over to the island of Aradus to see the wonders of a celebrated temple there. While Clement and his party are admiring works of Phidias preserved in the temple, Peter converses with a beggar woman outside, and the story she tells of her life is in such agreement with that previously told him by Clement, that Peter is able to unite mother and son. After the baptism Peter and the three brothers, having bathed in the sea, withdraw to a retired place for prayer. Peter has now the triumph of fully reuniting the family and gaining a victory in the discussion, by shewing the complete falsification of the astrological prediction. He has been very successful at Antioch in shewing wonders to the people and stirring up their hatred against Peter. One of Peter's emissaries, in order to drive him to flight, prevails on Cornelius the centurion, who had been sent on public business to Caesarea, to give out that he had been commissioned to seek out and destroy Simon, in accordance with an edict of the emperor for the destruction of sorcerers at Rome and in the provinces. But Peter, not being deceived by the transformation, turns it to the greater discomfiture of Simon. For he sends Faustinianus to Antioch, who, pretending to be Simon, whose form he bore, makes a public confession of imposture, and testifies to the divine mission of Peter. Peter is received then with the greatest honour and baptizes Faustinianus, who has meanwhile recovered his own form. The author, who elsewhere shews Alexandrian proclivities, may have wished to honour that city by connecting Barnabas with it; or was perhaps unwilling that Peter should be preceded by another apostle at Rome. as far as the end of Peter's disputation with Simon at Caesarea; but both Peter's preliminary instructions to Clement and the disputation itself are different. Peter prepares Clement by teaching him his secret doctrine concerning difficulties likely to be raised by Simon, the true solution of which he could not produce before the multitude. is very short, the main conflict between Peter and Simon being reserved for a later stage of the story. , Simon, vanquished in the disputation, flies to Tyre, and Nicetas, Aquila, and Clement are sent forward by Peter to prepare the way for him. On Peter's arrival at Tyre, Simon flies on to Tripolis, and thence also to Syria on Peter's continuing the pursuit. , the main disputation between Peter and Simon takes place after the recognitions, and is held at Laodicea, Clement's father (whose name according to H. The last homily contains explanations given by Peter to his company after the flight of Simon; and concludes with an account similar to that in R. The remark about later date need not imply any doubt of its genuineness, but merely that the letter, which purports to have been written after the death of Peter, is not rightly prefixed to discourses which claim to have been written some years previously. of the Homilies , and gives an account of Peter's ordination of Clement as his successor at Rome, and closes with instructions to Clement to send to James an abstract of Peter's discourses. The work that follows purports to contain an abridgment of discourses already more fully sent to James; and is given the title: "An epitome by Clement of Peter's discourses during his sojournings" (ἐπιδημιῶν κηρυγμάτων ). The Homilies contain another preface in the form of a letter from Peter himself to James. In this no mention is made of Clement, but Peter himself sends his discourses to James, strictly forbidding their indiscriminate publication, and charging him not to communicate them to any Gentile, nor even to any of the circumcised, except after a long probation, and the later ones only after such an one had been tried and found faithful with regard to the earlier. , when substituting for the letter of Clement a letter in the name of Peter himself, found in Clement's letter matter which seemed too valuable to be wasted, and therefore worked it into the account of the first ordination related in the story, that of Zacchaeus. The letter of Peter thus remains as the preface either to the Homilies or to the earlier form of the work before the name of Clement had been introduced. On the question of relative priority it may be urged that it is more likely that a later writer would remove a preface written in the name of Clement, in order to give his work the higher authority of Peter, than that the converse change should be made; and also that the strong charges to secrecy and to the communication of the work in successive instalments would be accounted for, if we suppose that at the time of the publication of the Homilies another version of Peter's discourses had been in circulation, and that the writer was anxious to offer some account why what he produced as the genuine form of the discourses should not have been earlier made known. Clement, anxious to be permitted to join himself permanently as travelling companion to Peter, reminds him of words used at Caesarea: how Peter had there invited those to travel with him who could do so with piety, that is, without deserting wife, parents, or other relations whom they could not properly leave. These words of Peter, to which both R. has a long section describing the grief of the disciples at Peter's departure and the consolations which he addressed to them; all this is compressed into a line or two in H. Either the author of that romance, as is most probable, was also the author of Peter's Caesarean speech, which has little use except as a preparation for what follows; or else, finding that speech in an earlier document, used it as a connecting link to join on his own addition. , Peter sends on Nicetas and Aquila to prepare the way for his coming. " Then follows the request that Peter would accept him as his inseparable companion. ; for these regrets are expressed on the first occasion that any of the three brothers is removed from personal attendance on Peter. tells the story, Peter had already sent on Clement, while still unbaptized, together with Nicetas and Aquila, to Tyre, where they hold a disputation with Apion. 38) mentions a long work ascribed to Clement, and then but recently composed (as he infers from not having seen it quoted by any earlier writer), containing dialogues of Peter and Apion. which seem to imply that the writer believed himself to be making an improvement in substituting for Peter as a disputant against heathenism, persons whose early training had been such as to give them better knowledge of heathen mythology and philosophy. , Nicetas and Aquila, seeing a strange woman return with Peter and Clement, ask for an explanation. Peter then repeats fully the story of the adventures of Clement's mother. Nicetas and Aquila listen in silence until Peter describes the shipwrecked mother searching for her children and crying, "Where are my Faustus and Faustinus?" then, hearing their own names mentioned, they start up in amaze and say, "We suspected at the first that what you were saying might relate to us; but yet as many like things happen in different persons' lives, we kept silence; but when you came to the end and it was entirely manifest that your statements referred to us, then we confessed who we were. avoids what seems the needless repetition of an already-told story, and only states in general terms that Peter recounted Mattidia's history; but the amazed starting-up of the brothers, and their words, are the same as in R. ; while, as the incident of the mention of their former names is omitted, it is in this version not apparent why the conclusion of Peter's speech brought conviction to their minds. An old man accosts Peter, as in R
Disobedience, Disobedient - in Acts 17:5 ; in John 3:36 "obeyeth not," RV (AV, "believeth not"); in Romans 2:8 "obey not;" in Romans 10:21 , "disobedient;" in Romans 11:30,31 , "were disobedient" (AV, "have not believed"); so in Romans 15:31 ; Hebrews 3:18 ; 11:31 ; in 1 Peter 2:8 , "disobedient;" so in 1 Peter 3:20 ; in 1 Peter 3:1 ; 4:17 , "obey not. " In 1 Peter 2:7 the best mss
Rome - The Mamertine prison where legend makes Peter and Paul to have been fellow prisoners for nine months is still under the church of Giuseppe dei Falegnani ; but see 2 Timothy 4:11. (See Peter. The church of Ρietro in Μontorio on the Janiculum is that of Peter's martyrdom. The chapel "Domine quo Vadis? " on the Appian road marks where Peter in the legend met the Lord, as he was fleeing from martyrdom. (See Peter. 25); then Paul's body was buried by the Ostian road, Peter's beneath the dome of the famous basilica called after him (Caius, in Eusebius, H. ...
Real sites are the Colosseum and Nero's gardens in the Vatican near to Peter's; in them Christians wrapped in beasts' skins were torn by dogs, or clothed in inflammable stuffs were burnt as torches during the midnight games! Others were crucified (Tacitus, Annals xv
Flood - God’s means of preserving Noah’s family, along with enough animals to repopulate the animal world, was through an ark that God told Noah to build (Genesis 6:8-22; see Hebrews 11:7; 1 Peter 3:20; see ARK; NOAH). It is a reminder that, at the return of Jesus Christ, sudden judgment will again fall on an ungodly world, though again God will preserve the righteous (1618105172_9; 2 Peter 2:5; 2 Peter 2:9; cf. Genesis 9:13-15; 2 Peter 3:5-7)
Pitiful, Pity - , "of good heartedness" (eu, "well," and splanchnon), is translated "pitiful" in 1 Peter 3:8 , AV, RV, "tenderhearted," as in Ephesians 4:32
Babe - It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith and knowledge (1 Corinthians 3:1 ; Hebrews 5:13 ; 1 Peter 2:2 )
Bithynia - Those to whom 1Peter was addressed included persons in Bithynia (1 Peter 1:1 )
Dorcas - When she became sick and died, friends sent for the apostle Peter
Honduras, British - Founded in 1638 by Peter Wallis, a Scottish adventurer, it was settled by woodcutters from Jamaica, who enlarged their domains at the expense of the Spanish colonists
Allure - In Hosea 2:14 , allure is used in its genuine sense 2 Peter 2:18 , in the sense of entice
Unstable - ...
2 Peter 3:16 (a) The term is used to describe those who are easily swayed by emotion, circumstances and false teachers
Lydda - Peter coming to Lydda, cured a sick man of the palsy named Eneas, Acts 9:33-34
Terror - 1: φόβος (Strong's #5401 — Noun Masculine — phobos — fob'-os ) "fear," is rendered "terror" in Romans 13:3 ; in 2 Corinthians 5:11 ; 1 Peter 3:14 , AV (RV, "fear")
Bishop - The most common acceptation of the word in the New Testament, is that which occurs Acts 20:28 Philippians 1:1 , where it signifies Christ "the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls," 1 Peter 2:25
Corrupt, Verb And Adjective. Corruption, Corruptible, Incorruption, Incorruptible - Titus 1:11 ; 2 Peter 2:3,14,15 ; Jude 1:11,16 ; Ezekiel 13:19 ); accordingly "hucksterizing" would be the most appropriate rendering in this passage, while "handling deceitfully" is the right meaning in 2 Corinthians 4:2 . ); of the effects of the work of false and abominable teachers upon themselves, 2 Peter 2:12 (some texts have kataphtheiro; AV, "shall utterly perish"), and Jude 1:10 (AV, "corrupt themselves. For 2 Peter 2:12 , RV, "shall be destroyed," see No. " It is used (a) physically, (1), of the condition of creation, as under bondage, Romans 8:21 ; (2) of the effect of the withdrawal of life, and so of the condition of the human body in burial, 1 Corinthians 15:42 ; (3) by metonymy, of anything which is liable to "corruption," 1 Corinthians 15:50 ; (4) of the physical effects of merely gratifying the natural desires and ministering to one's own needs or lusts, Galatians 6:8 , to the flesh in contrast to the Spirit, "corruption" being antithetic to "eternal life;" (5) of that which is naturally short-lived and transient, Colossians 2:22 , "perish;" (b) of the death and decay of beasts, 2 Peter 2:12 , RV, "destroyed" (first part of verse; lit. destruction"); (c) ethically, with a moral significance, (1) of the effect of lusts, 2 Peter 1:4 ; (2) of the effect upon themselves of the work of false and immoral teachers, 2 Peter 2:12 , RV, "destroying;" AV, "corruption," and 2 Peter 2:19 . 2, is used (a) of man as being mortal, liable to decay (in contrast to God), Romans 1:23 ; (b) of man's body as death-doomed, 1 Corinthians 15:53,54 ; (c) of a crown of reward at the Greek games, 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; (d) of silver and gold, as specimens or "corruptible" things, 1 Peter 1:18 ; (e) of natural seed, 1 Peter 1:23 . 2), is used of (a) God, Romans 1:23 ; 1 Timothy 1:17 (AV, "immortal"); (b) the raised dead, 1 Corinthians 15:52 ; (c) rewards given to the saints hereafter, metaphorically described as a "crown," 1 Corinthians 9:25 ; (d) the eternal inheritance of the saints, 1 Peter 1:4 ; (e) the Word of God, as incorruptible" seed, 1 Peter 1:23 ; (f) a meek and quiet spirit, metaphorically spoken of as "incorruptible" apparel, 1 Peter 3:4 . lxviii, contrasts this with amarantos, and amarantinos, "unwithering, not fading away," 1 Peter 1:4 ; 5:4
Day And Night - ‘The day of salvation’ (2 Corinthians 6:2) is the time when salvation is possible; ‘the day of visitation’ (1 Peter 2:12), the time when God visits mankind with His grace, though some would make it equivalent to the day of judgment; ‘the evil day’ (Ephesians 6:13), the time of Satan’s assaults. In this use of the word the plural is much more common, and is illustrated by such phrases as ‘for a few days’ (Hebrews 12:10), ‘in the last days’ (2 Timothy 3:1), ‘good days’ (1 Peter 3:10). ‘The days of David’ (Acts 7:45) are the years of his reign; ‘the days of Noah’ (1 Peter 3:20), the time when he was a preacher of righteousness to the disobedient world. In a specific sense ‘the day’ (Romans 13:12, 1 Corinthians 3:13, 1 Thessalonians 5:5, Hebrews 10:25, 2 Peter 1:19) and ‘that day’ (1 Thessalonians 5:4, 2 Thessalonians 1:10, 2 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8) are used metaphorically for the Parousia with all its glorious accompaniments, in contrast with which the present world of sin and sorrow appears as ‘the night. ), ‘the day of our Lord Jesus’ (2 Corinthians 1:14), ‘the day of Jesus Christ’ (Philippians 1:6), ‘the day of Christ’ (Philippians 1:10), ‘the day of God’ (2 Peter 3:12), ‘the great day’ (Judges 1:6), ‘the great day of God Almighty’ (Revelation 16:14). Thus it is ‘the day of judgment’ (2 Peter 2:9; 2 Peter 3:7, 1 John 4:17), ‘of wrath’ (Romans 2:5, Revelation 6:17), ‘of slaughter’ (James 5:5), ‘of revelation of the righteous judgment of God’ (Romans 2:5); but also ‘the day of redemption’ (Ephesians 4:30), a day in which Christ’s people shall not only have boldness (1 John 4:17), but shall rejoice (Philippians 2:16), and whose coming they are to look for and earnestly desire (2 Peter 3:12)
Descent Into Hades - Peter (Acts 2:24-31 ), when he quotes Psalms 16:10 , ‘Thou wilt not leave my soul in Hades,’ as a prophecy of the Resurrection. ...
Thus we find the way prepared for explanation of the difficult passage 1 Peter 3:18-20 : ‘Because Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God; being put to death in the flesh, but quickened in the spirit; in which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison, which aforetime were disobedient, when the long-suffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing’; cf. 1 Peter 4:6 ‘For unto this end was the gospel preached even to the dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit. Some critics suggest that the preaching was to the fallen angels mentioned in 2 Peter 2:4 , Judges 1:6 , either after Christ’s death or before the Incarnation. Luke 24:37-39 ), and 1 Peter 4:6 seems to prove that this is the sense here. And the word ‘preached’ in 1 Peter 3:19 implies preached the gospel. Peter wrote. We may hope for fresh light on the point from further research, and for the present may rest content with the interpretation which enables us to quote these passages in 1 Peter
Pure, Pureness, Purity - , Matthew 5:8 ; 1 Timothy 1:5 ; 3:9 ; 2 Timothy 1:3 ; 2:22 ; Titus 1:15 ; Hebrews 10:22 ; James 1:27 ; 1 Peter 1:22 ; Revelation 15:6 ; 21:18 ; 22:1 (in some mss. ...
Note: In 1 Peter 1:22 the AV, "with a pure heart," follows those mss. ...
A — 3: εἰλικρινής (Strong's #1506 — Adjective — elikrines — i-lik-ree-nace' ) signifies "unalloyed, pure;" (a) it was used of unmixed substances; (b) in the NT it is used of moral and ethical "purity," Philippians 1:10 , "sincere;" so the RV in 2 Peter 3:1 (AV, "pure")
Sojourn, Sojourner, Sojourning - , "should be a sojourner;" in Acts 7:29 , RV, "sojourner" (AV, "stranger"); in Ephesians 2:19 , RV "sojourners" (AV, "foreigners"), the preceding word rendered "strangers" is xenos; in 1 Peter 2:11 , RV, ditto (AV, "strangers"). ...
B — 3: παρεπίδημος (Strong's #3927 — Adjective — parepidemos — par-ep-id'-ay-mos ) "sojourning in a strange place," is used as a noun, denoting "a sojourner, an exile," 1 Peter 1:1 , RV, "sojourners" (AV, "strangers"). , "in the sojourning;" in 1 Peter 1:17 , "sojourning
Descent to Hades - 1 Peter 3:19 says Christ “went and preached unto the spirits in prison. The time may be seen as the days of Noah ( 1 Peter 3:20 ) and thus describe the work of the preexistent Christ or the work of Christ's spirit through Noah. The content of His preaching may have been judgment; it may have been affirmation of His victory over “angels, authorities, and powers” (1 Peter 3:22 ); it may have been release from Sheol or Hades for saints who preceded Him
Patience of God - It is said to be exercised towards his chosen people, 2 Peter 3:9 . 2 Peter 3:9 . 2 Peter 2:5
Longsuffering - ’ In the NT the longsuffering of God is regarded as a proof of His ‘goodness’ ( Romans 2:4 ; here and elsewhere ‘longsuffering,’ || ‘ forbearance ’ [6]) and of his faithfulness ( 2 Peter 3:9 ; 2 Peter 3:15 ); it is manifested in the gracious restraint which characterizes His attitude towards those who deserve His wrath ( Romans 9:22 , 1 Peter 3:20 )
Chains - ’ For critical reasons ‘chains’ disappears from 2 Peter 2:4. Peter (Acts 12:8), the dragon (Revelation 20:1). Peter was confined in the stormy days of the persecution (Acts 12:6); and St
Prison - Peter was bound by two chains, and lay asleep between two soldiers. The angel conducted Peter through the first and second guard to the outer iron gate that led into the city. 1 Peter 3:19
Likewise - 1), is rendered "likewise" in the AV of Matthew 22:26 ; 27:41 , Luke 10:32 ; 16:25 ; John 5:19 ; James 2:25 ; 1 Peter 3:1,7 ; Jude 1:8 ; Revelation 8:12 (in all these the RV has "in like manner"); in the following, AV and RV have "likewise;" Matthew 26:35 ; Luke 5:33 ; 6:31 ; 10:37 ; 17:28,31 ; 22:36 ; John 6:11 ; 21:13 ; Romans 1:27 ; 1 Peter 5:5 . , "even they;" elsewhere the RV has "also," for the AV, "likewise," Matthew 18:35 ; 24:33 ; Luke 3:14 ; 17:10 ; 19:19 ; 21:31 ; Acts 3:24 ; 1 Corinthians 14:9 ; Colossians 4:16 ; 1 Peter 4:1 ; in Matthew 21:24 , the AV has "in like wise" (RV, "likewise")
Place (His Own) - Peter states that Judas, into whose place he was being appointed, ‘fell away’ (παρέβη, Vulg. ’ The phrase seems to remind us of the frequent OT phrase ‘to go (or return) unto his place,’ though no doubt with a special significance of its own here, to which the case of Balaam (ὃς μισθὸν ἀδικίας ἠγάπησεν, 2 Peter 2:16) supplies the nearest but still inexact parallel (Numbers 24:25); cf. Matthew seems to indicate, the act of suicide took place before the Crucifixion, it is a striking thought to dwell upon, that the souls of the Saviour and His betrayer did meet for a brief space and perhaps held commune ἐν φυλακῇ (1 Peter 3:19); and if so, with what merciful consequences to the latter, who shall say?...
C
Living - in 1 Peter 1:15, 2 Peter 3:11, where it denotes the manner of life (Authorized Version ‘conversation,’ Gr. In Acts 10:42, 2 Timothy 4:1, 1 Peter 4:5 both the Authorized Version and the Revised Version translate ζῶντες by ‘quick. -(4) Figuratively, the expression is applied to the oracles given by God to Moses (Acts 7:38, Authorized Version ‘lively’); to the word of God generally (Hebrews 4:12, Authorized Version ‘quick’); to the way into the holy place which Jesus dedicated for us (Hebrews 10:20); to the hope unto which God has begotten us by the Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead (1 Peter 1:3, Authorized Version ‘lively’); to the Stone rejected of men but with God elect, precious (1 Peter 2:4), and the stones built up on that foundation into a spiritual house (1 Peter 2:5, Authorized Version ‘lively’); to the fountains of waters to which the Lamb shall lead His people (Revelation 7:17 TR John the Apostle - The family lived in a town on the shores of Lake Galilee, where James and John worked as fishermen in partnership with another pair of brothers, Peter and Andrew (Matthew 4:18-21; Luke 5:10). Peter, James and John developed into an inner circle of disciples who were particularly close to Jesus (Mark 5:37; Mark 9:2; Mark 14:33). ...
As the ministry of Jesus progressed, Peter became increasingly more prominent. James and John, with their mother, tried to outdo Peter by going to Jesus and asking him to give the top two positions in his kingdom to them. By the time Jesus’ ministry had come to an end, Peter and John were clearly the two leading apostles (Luke 22:8; John 19:26-27; John 20:2-9; John 21:20). ...
In the early church...
After Jesus’ return to his Father, Peter and John provided the main leadership for the Jerusalem Christians
Catholic Epistles - The title of ‘Catholic’ was given by the early Church to the seven Epistles which bear the names of James, Peter, Jude, and John
Madness - It also denotes a reckless state of mind arising from various causes, as over-study (Ecclesiastes 1:17 ; 2:12 ), blind rage (Luke 6:11 ), or a depraved temper (Ecclesiastes 7:25 ; 9:3 ; 2 Peter 2:16 )
Hospitality - ...
B — 1: φιλόξενος (Strong's #5382 — Adjective — philoxenos — fil-ox'-en-os ) "hospitable," occurs in 1 Timothy 3:2 ; Titus 1:8 ; 1 Peter 4:9
Nullius, Abbey - The abbies of Saint Peter, Muenster, Saskatchewan, the Belmont Abbey, North Carolina, New Norcia, Australia, and Lindi, Senegal were abbies nullius, but their jurisdiction has been suppessed and made part of a diocese
Conception, Immaculate - Peter D'Alva has published 48 huge folio volumes on the mysteries of the conception
Beate Pastor Petre, Clemens Accipe - Hymn for Lauds on January 18, feast of Saint Peter's Chair at Rome; on February 22, feast of Saint Peter's Chair at Antioch; and on June 29, feast of Saints Peter and Paul, when the hymns Beate Pastor Petre, clemens accipe and Egregie Doctor Paule, mores instrue are combined into one hymn
Ananias - With his wife he was miraculously punished by Peter with sudden death, for hypocrisy and falsehood (Acts 5)
Abbey Nullius - The abbies of Saint Peter, Muenster, Saskatchewan, the Belmont Abbey, North Carolina, New Norcia, Australia, and Lindi, Senegal were abbies nullius, but their jurisdiction has been suppessed and made part of a diocese
Add - 2 Peter 1:5 (b) This figure describes the growth in grace of the Christian who learns to know the ways of GOD as described in this passage
Cast - ...
1 Peter 5:7 (b) By this we are told to throw all our problems, difficulties and griefs at the feet of the Saviour
Caesarea - This place is rendered memorable in the gospel, from Jesus passing near the coasts of it when Peter gave so blessed a testimony to the GODHEAD of his master
Behalf - 1: μέρος (Strong's #3313 — Noun Neuter — meros — mer'-os ) "a part," is translated "behalf" in the AV of 2 Corinthians 9:3 (RV, "respect") and 1 Peter 4:16 ; here the most authentic texts have onoma, "a name;" hence RV, "in this name
Hypocrisy - 1: ὑπόκρισις (Strong's #5272 — Noun Feminine — hupokrisis — hoop-ok'-ree-sis ) primarily denotes "a reply, an answer" (akin to hupokrinomai, "to answer"); then, "play-acting," as the actors spoke in dialogue; hence, "pretence, hypocrisy;" it is translated "hypocrisy" in Matthew 23:28 ; Mark 12:15 ; Luke 12:1 ; 1 Timothy 4:2 ; the plural in 1 Peter 2:1
Calling - 2 Peter 1
Milk - Is often alluded to in the Bible, as a symbol of pure, simple, and wholesome truth, Hebrews 5:12,13 1 Peter 2:2 ; and in connection with honey, to denote fertility and plenty, Genesis 49:12 Numbers 16:13 Joshua 5:6
John - With Annas and Caiaphas, tried Peter and John for curing the impotent man and preaching in the temple (Acts 4:6)
Mark (John) - At her house the faithful assembled for prayer, and thither Peter went on his release from imprisonment, having perhaps previously lodged there ( Acts 12:12 ff. Peter speaks of a Mark as his ‘son’ ( 1 Peter 5:13 ), and as being with him at ‘Babylon’ when he wrote the First Epistle. Peter’s work with Rome. ]'>[5] The identification is made more likely by the fact that John Mark is connected with both Peter and Paul in Acts; and if 1 Peter 5:13 refers to Rome, there is no reason why this double connexion should not have continued as long as both Apostles lived. Peter survived St. ), which almost unanimously attaches him to Peter, grew up
si'Mon - Subsequently he witnessed the effect produced by the imposition of hands, as practiced by the apostles Peter and John, and, being desirous of acquiring a similar power for himself, he offered a sum of money for it. The motive and the means were equally to be reprobated; and his proposition met with a severe denunciation from Peter, followed by a petition on the part of Simon, the tenor of which bespeaks terror, but not penitence. Simon's history, subsequent to his meeting with Peter, is involved in difficulties. Early Church historians depict him as the pertinacious foe of the apostle Peter, whose movements he followed for the purpose of seeking encounters, in which he was signally defeated. ...
Simon Peter. [3] ...
Simon, a Pharisee, in whose house a penitent woman anointed the head and feet of Jesus. (Luke 7:40 ) ...
Simon the tanner, a Christian convert living at Joppa, at whose house Peter lodged
Lust - They are equally the "lusts" of the flesh, Romans 13:14 ; Galatians 5:16,24 ; Ephesians 2:3 ; 2 Peter 2:18 ; 1 John 2:16 , a phrase which describes the emotions of the soul, the natural tendency towards things evil. ...
Other descriptions besides those already mentioned are: "of the mind," Ephesians 2:3 ; "evil (desire)," Colossians 3:5 ; "the passion of," 1 Thessalonians 4:5 , RV; "foolish and hurtful," 1 Timothy 6:9 ; "youthful," 2 Timothy 2:22 ; "divers," 2 Timothy 3:6 ; Titus 3:3 ; "their own," 2 Timothy 4:3 ; 2 Peter 3:3 ; Jude 1:16 ; "worldly," Titus 2:12 ; "his own," James 1:14 ; "your former," 1 Peter 1:14 , RV; "fleshly," 1 Peter 2:11 ; "of men," 1 Peter 4:2 ; "of defilement," 2 Peter 2:10 ; "of the eyes," 1 John 2:16 ; of the world ("thereof"), 1 John 2:17 ; "their own ungodly," Jude 1:18 . 1, has the same twofold meaning as the noun, namely (a) "to desire," used of the Holy Spirit against the flesh, Galatians 5:17 (see below); of the Lord Jesus, Luke 22:15 , "I have desired;" of the holy angels, 1 Peter 1:12 ; of good men, for good things, Matthew 13:17 ; 1 Timothy 3:1 ; Hebrews 6:11 ; of men, for things without moral quality, Luke 15:16 ; 16:21 ; 17:22 ; Revelation 9:6 ; (b) of "evil desires," in respect of which it is translated "to lust" in Matthew 5:28 ; 1 Corinthians 10:6 ; Galatians 5:17 (1st part; see below); James 4:2 ; to covet, Acts 20:23 ; Romans 7:7 ; 13:9
Judaizers - Saint Peter himself in his great vision at Jaffa recoiled at first from the idea of eating the flesh of animals which were declared unclean by the Mosaic Code. The Judaeo-Christians who came to Antioch of Syria and declared: "except you be circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved," persuaded Saint Peter to separate himself from the Ethnico-Christians (Acts 15; Galatians 2)
Individual - So it is impossible to divide an individual like Peter into two parts, each of which would be Peter
Error - 1), "a wandering, a forsaking of the right path, see James 5:20 , whether in doctrine, 2 Peter 3:17 ; 1 John 4:6 , or in morals, Romans 1:27 ; 2 Peter 2:18 ; Jude 1:11 , though, in Scripture, doctrine and morals are never divided by any sharp line
Priesthood, Priest's Office - A — 1: ἱεράτευμα (Strong's #2406 — Noun Neuter — hierateuma — hee-er-at'-yoo-mah ) denotes "a priesthood" (akin to hierateuo, see below), "a body of priests," consisting of all believers, the whole church (not a special order from among them), called "a holy priesthood," 1 Peter 2:5 ; "a royal priesthood," 1 Peter 2:9 ; the former term is associated with offering spiritual sacrifices, the latter with the royal dignity of showing forth the Lord's excellencies (RV)
Fade - 353), is used in 1 Peter 1:4 of the believer's inheritance, "that fadeth not away. 1); hence, "unfading," 1 Peter 5:4 , of the crown of glory promised to faithful elders
Dissimulation, Dissemble - So in Galatians 2:13 , Peter with other believing Jews, in separating from believing Gentiles at Antioch, pretended that the motive was loyalty to the Law of Moses, whereas really it was fear of the Judaizers. ...
C — 1: ἀνυπόκριτος (Strong's #505 — Adjective — anupokritos — an-oo-pok'-ree-tos ) from a, negative, n, euphonic, and an adjectival form corresponding to A, signifies "unfeigned;" it is said of love, 2 Corinthians 6:6 ; 1 Peter 1:22 ; Romans 12:9 , AV, "without dissimulation," RV, "without hypocrisy;" of faith, 1 Timothy 1:5 ; 2 Timothy 1:5 , "unfeigned;" of the wisdom that is from above, James 3:17 , "without hypocrisy
Bishop - Churchmen in general plead for the divine right; while the Dissenters suppose that the word no where signifies more than a pastor or presbyter; the very same persons being called bishops and elders, or prebyters, Acts 20:1-38 ; 1 Peter 5:1 ; 1 Peter 5:3
Flock - God's people can be described as a flock shepherded by God (Psalm 100:3 ; Jeremiah 23:3 ; Ezekiel 34:31 ) or by Christ, the “great Shepherd of the sheep” (Hebrews 13:20 ; compare John 10:11 ; 1 Peter 5:4 ). Flocks can refer to individual congregations under the care of a pastor (1 Peter 5:2-3 )
Reviling - Peter (1 Peter 2:23) says of Jesus that ‘being reviled, he reviled not again’ (λοιδορούμενος οὐκ ἀντελοιδόρει)
Christian - 1: Χριστιανός (Strong's #5546 — Noun Masculine — christianos — khris-tee-an-os' ) "Christian," a word formed after the Roman style, signifying an adherent of Jesus, was first applied to such by the Gentiles and is found in Acts 11:26 ; 26:28 ; 1 Peter 4:16 . In 1 Peter 4:16 , the Apostle is speaking from the point of view of the persecutor; cp
James the Less, - (1 Corinthians 15:7 ) Ten years after we find James on a level with Peter, and with him deciding on the admission of St. Paul into fellowship with the Church at Jerusalem; and from henceforth we always find him equal, or in his own department superior, to the very chiefest apostles, Peter, John and Paul
Corner, Cornerstone - , "coign"), signifies (a) "an external angle," as of the "corner" of a street, Matthew 6:5 ; or of a building, 21:42; Mark 12:10 ; Luke 20:17 ; Acts 4:11 ; 1 Peter 2:7 , "the corner stone or head-stone of the corner" (see below); or the four extreme limits of the earth, Revelation 7:1 ; 20:8 ; (b) "an internal corner," a secret place, Acts 26:26 . So Christ unites Jew and Gentile, Ephesians 2:20 ; again, as one may carelessly stumble over the "corner stone," when turning the "corner," so Christ proved a stumbling stone to Jews, 1 Peter 2:6
Rock - The Lord said, "Thou art Peter [1], and upon this rock [2] I will build my church. " The church is being built upon what Peter confessed, Christ Himself, the Son of the living God
Linus (1) - Peter on Sept. Peter and of Paul. Peter and Simon Magus, his imprisonments and other sufferings and labours, and then proceeds at once to the closing scenes. The stories of the martyrdom of the two apostles are quite distinct, there being no mention of Paul in the first nor of Peter in the second. This name, as well as some others mentioned by pseudo-Linus, occur also in the orthodox Acts of Peter and Paul published by Tischendorf and by Thilo. Peter, we are told, by his preaching of chastity had caused a number of matrons to leave the marriage bed of their husbands, who were thus infuriated against the apostle. ...
The intention to destroy Peter is revealed by MARCELLUS and other disciples who pressingly entreat him to save himself by withdrawing from Rome. Among those who thus urge him are his jailors Martinianus and Processus who had already received baptism from him and who represent that the plan to destroy Peter is entirely the prefect's own and has no sanction from the emperor who seems to have forgotten all about the apostle. Peter yields to his friends' entreaties and consents to leave Rome but at the gate he meets our Lord coming in Who on being asked whither He is going replies "To Rome in order to be crucified again. Linus tells of the arrest of Peter and lays the scene of the crucifixion at the Naumachia near Nero's obelisk on the mountain. Peter requests to be crucified head downwards desiring out of humility not to suffer in the same way as his Master. " Linus relates how during Peter's crucifixion God at the request of the apostle opened the eyes of his sorrowing disciples and so turned their grief into joy. The story of Peter's crucifixion head downwards was in the Acts known to Origen who refers to it in his Comm. Linus relates that Marcellus took Peter's body from the cross bathed it in milk and wine and embalmed it with precious spices; but the same night as he was watching the grave the apostle appeared to him and bid him let the dead bury their dead and himself preach the kingdom of God
Simon - His conduct called forth from Peter a stern rebuke (8:18-23). ...
...
A Christian at Joppa, a tanner by trade, with whom Peter on one occasion lodged (Acts 9:43 ). ...
...
Simon Peter (Matthew 4:18 ). See Peter
Tribute - In Matthew 17:24-27, "the didrachma receivers said to Peter, Doth not your Master pay the didrachma? He saith, Yes?" Their question implies it was the religious impost; no civil tax would have been asked in such a tone, as if its payment dare be questioned. (See MONEY; JESUS CHRIST; Peter. Hence Peter at once recognized the obligation. But Christ, while to avoid offense (wherein Paul imitated his Master in a different case, 1 Corinthians 9:4-19) He miraculously supplied the stater in the fish, for Himself and Peter, yet claimed freedom from the payment to the temple, seeing He was its Lord for whose service the tribute was collected
Calandio or Calendio, Bishop of Antioch - He refused communion with all who declined to anathematize Peter the Fuller, Timothy the Weasel, and the Encyclic of Basiliscus condemning the decisions of the council of Chalcedon (Evagr. He is reported to have endeavoured to counteract the Monophysite bias given to the Trisagion by Peter the Fuller in the addition of the words ὁ σταυρωθεὶς δἰ᾿ ἡμᾶς , by prefixing the clause Χριστὲ Βασιλεῦ (Theod. But the real cause of his deposition was the theological animosity of Acacius, whom he had offended by writing a letter to Zeno accusing Peter Mongus of adultery, and of having anathematized the decrees of the council of Chalcedon (Evagr. On his deposition, the victorious Peter the Fuller was recalled to occupy the see of Antioch
Coming - For its meaning "entrance" see 1 Thessalonians 1:9 ; 2:1 ; Hebrews 10:19 ; 2 Peter 1:11 . Parousia is used to describe the presence of Christ with His disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration, 2 Peter 1:16 . In some passages the word gives prominence to the beginning of that period, the course of the period being implied, 1 Corinthians 15:23 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ; 5:23 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:1 ; James 5:7,8 ; 2 Peter 3:4 . In addition to Philippians 2:12 (above), it is used in the same way of the Apostle, or his companions, in 1 Corinthians 16:17 ; 2 Corinthians 7:6,7 ; 10:10 ; Philippians 1:26 ; of the Day of God, 2 Peter 3:12
Hell - It is likened to eternal burning (Matthew 13:42; Matthew 18:8-9; Revelation 20:10), eternal darkness (Matthew 8:12; Matthew 22:13; 2 Peter 2:4; 2 Peter 2:17), eternal destruction (Matthew 7:13; Philippians 1:28; 2 Peter 3:7; 2 Peter 3:10) and eternal separation from God and his blessings (2 Thessalonians 1:9)
Our Souls' Great Teacher Paul, Our Guide in Wisdom - Hymn for Vespers and Matins on January 25, feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul; for Matins on June 30, feast of the Commemoration of Saint Paul; and for Lauds on June 29, feast of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, when the hymns, "Beate Pastor Petre, clemens accipe" and "Egregie Doctor Paule, mores instrue," are combined into one hymn
Nicolaitanes - They were seemingly a class of professing Christians, who sought to introduce into the church a false freedom or licentiousness, thus abusing Paul's doctrine of grace (Compare 2 Peter 2:15,16,19 ), and were probably identical with those who held the doctrine of Baalam (q
Trance - " Such were the trances of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10 ; 11:5 ; 22:17 , ecstasies, "a preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the reception of the vision", (Compare 2 Corinthians 12:1-4 )
Sect - It afterwards came to be used in a bad sense, of those holding pernicious error, divergent forms of belief (2 Peter 2:1 ; Galatians 5:20 )
Royal - 1: βασίλειος (Strong's #934 — Adjective — basileios — bas-il'-i-os ) from basileus, "a king," is used in 1 Peter 2:9 of the priesthood consisting of all believers
Difficulty - For its other meanings, "scarce, scarcely," see Acts 14:18 ; Romans 5:7 ; 1 Peter 4:18
Refrain - 1: παύω (Strong's #3973 — Verb — pauo — pow'-o ) "to stop," is used in the Active Voice in the sense of "making to cease, restraining" in 1 Peter 3:10 , of causing the tongue to refrain from evil; elsewhere in the Middle Voice, see CEASE , No
Proud - 1: ὑπερήφανος (Strong's #5244 — Adjective — huperephanos — hoop-er-ay'-fan-os ) signifies "showing oneself above others, preeminent" (huper, "above," phainomai, "to appear, be manifest"); it is always used in Scripture in the bad sense of "arrogant, disdainful, proud," Luke 1:51 ; Romans 1:30 ; 2 Timothy 3:2 ; James 4:6 ; 1 Peter 5:5
Private, Privately - A — 1: ἴδιος (Strong's #2398 — Adjective — idios — id'-ee-os ) one's own, is translated "private" in 2 Peter 1:20 (see under INTERPRETATION)
Feign, Feigned - , "plastic"); then, metaphorically, "made up, fabricated, feigned," 2 Peter 2:3
Martyrs of Cuncolim - They included Fathers Rudolph Acquaviva, Alphonsus Pacheco, Peter Berno, and Anthony Francis, also Francis Aranha, lay brother
Perishable - 1 Peter 1:7 compares the testing of lasting faith with that of perishable gold
Temptation - We are commanded to pray to be delivered from temptation (Matthew 6:13) for the Lord is capable of delivering us from it (2 Peter 2:9)
Allies, Thomas William - He wrote "The See of Peter," "A Life's Decision," and his masterpiece, "The Formation of Christendom
Cloke - 1 Peter 2
Apollinaris, Saint - According to his Acts he was a disciple of Saint Peter, by whom he was raised to the See of Ravenna
Beor - Beor, the father of Balaam, is named in 2 Peter 2:15 (Authorized Version , with some ancient authorities, Bosor, which may be a corruption of Pethor [1], or may be due to the Greek sibilant taking the place of the Heb
Alexander i, Saint, Pope - He was the fifth successor of Saint Peter
Lod - it is called LYDDA, where AEneas the paralytic was healed by Peter
Cappadocia - Peter, who addresses his First Epistle to the dispersed throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Asia
Humbleness of Mind, Humility - 1: ταπεινοφροσύνη (Strong's #5012 — Noun Feminine — tapeinophrosune — tap-i-nof-ros-oo'-nay ) "lowliness of mind" (tapeinos, see A, above, under HUMBLE, and phren, "the mind"), is rendered "humility of mind" in Acts 20:19 , AV (RV, "lowliness of mind"); in Ephesians 4:2 , "lowliness;" in Philippians 2:3 , "lowliness of mind;" in Colossians 2:18,23 , of a false "humility;" in Colossians 3:12 , AV, "humbleness of mind," RV, "humility;" 1 Peter 5:5 , "humility
Egregie Doctor Paule, Mores Instrue - Hymn for Vespers and Matins on January 25, feast of the Conversion of Saint Paul; for Matins on June 30, feast of the Commemoration of Saint Paul; and for Lauds on June 29, feast of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, when the hymns, "Beate Pastor Petre, clemens accipe" and "Egregie Doctor Paule, mores instrue," are combined into one hymn
Mark - Paul’s Epistles is clearly proved by Colossians 4:10, where he is called the cousin of Barnabas, and his identity with the ‘Mark’ of 1 Peter is cl