What does Persecution mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
διωγμοῦ persecution. 2
διωγμὸς persecution. 2
διωγμὸν persecution. 1

Definitions Related to Persecution

G1375


   1 Persecution.
   

Frequency of Persecution (original languages)

Frequency of Persecution (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Persecution
The first great persecution for religious opinion of which we have any record was that which broke out against the worshippers of God among the Jews in the days of Ahab, when that king, at the instigation of his wife Jezebel, "a woman in whom, with the reckless and licentious habits of an Oriental queen, were united the fiercest and sternest qualities inherent in the old Semitic race", sought in the most relentless manner to extirpate the worship of Jehovah and substitute in its place the worship of Ashtoreth and Baal. Ahab's example in this respect was followed by Manasseh, who "shed innocent blood very much, till he had filled Jerusalem from one end to another" (2 Kings 21:16 ; Compare 24:4). In all ages, in one form or another, the people of God have had to suffer persecution. In its earliest history the Christian church passed through many bloody persecutions. Of subsequent centuries in our own and in other lands the same sad record may be made. Christians are forbidden to seek the propagation of the gospel by force (Matthew 7:1 ; Luke 9:54-56 ; Romans 14:4 ; James 4:11,12 ). The words of Psalm 7:13 , "He ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors," ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version, "He maketh his arrows fiery [1]."
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Persecute, Persecution
A — 1: διώκω (Strong's #1377 — verb — dioko — dee-o'-ko ) has the meanings (a) "to put to flight, drive away," (b) "to pursue," whence the meaning "to persecute," Matthew 5:10-12,44 ; 10:23 ; 23:34 ; Luke 11:49 (No. 2 in some mss.); 21:12; John 5:16 ; 15:20 (twice); Acts 7:52 ; 9:4,5 , and similar passages; Romans 12:14 ; 1 Corinthians 4:12 ; 15:9 ; 2 Corinthians 4:9 , AV (RV, "pursued"); Galatians 1:13,23 ; 4:29 ; Galatians 5:11 , RV, "am ... persecuted" (AV, "suffer persecution"); so Galatians 6:12 ; Philippians 3:6 ; 2 Timothy 3:12 , "shall suffer persecution;" Revelation 12:13 . See FOLLOW , PURSUE.
A — 2: ἐκδιώκω (Strong's #1559 — Verb — ekdioko — ek-dee-o'-ko ) ek, "out" and No. 1, is used in 1 Thessalonians 2:15 , AV, "persecuted" (RV, "drove out"). See also No. 1. See DRIVE , No. 2.
B — 1: διωγμός (Strong's #1375 — Noun Masculine — diogmos — dee-ogue-mos' ) akin to A, No. 1, occurs in Matthew 13:21 ; Mark 4:17 ; 10:30 ; Acts 8:1 ; 13:50 ; Romans 8:35 ; 2 Corinthians 12:10 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:4 ; 2 Timothy 3:11 , twice (for ver. 12, see A, No. 1). In the Sept., Proverbs 11:19 ; Lamentations 3:19 .
Note: In Acts 11:19 , AV, thlipsis, "tribulation" (RV), is translated "persecution."
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Persecution
Those who love evil rather than good will inevitably want to persecute those who desire to live godly lives (John 3:19-20; 2 Timothy 3:12). Christians should not be surprised when they suffer persecution. If they show themselves to be Christ’s people, they can expect the sort of opposition that Christ suffered. They should consider it a privilege to suffer for Christ’s sake (Matthew 5:10-11; John 15:20; Acts 5:41; 2 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Peter 4:12-13).
Both Jesus and the New Testament writers taught Christians that they should pray for their persecutors. Certainly they should not try to return evil upon those who attack them. God’s people should have confidence in him that, when they are persecuted, they will know how to act and what to say (Matthew 5:44; Matthew 10:17-20; Romans 12:14; 1 Peter 2:21-24; 1 Peter 4:14-16).
Persecution tests the genuineness of a person’s faith, but true believers will endure it, knowing that God will not forsake them (Matthew 13:21; Romans 5:3-5; Romans 8:35; 2 Corinthians 4:9; 2 Thessalonians 1:4). The early Christians proved the reality of God’s presence with them when they suffered persecution, much of which was at the hands of the Jews (Acts 4:29-31; Acts 5:17-21; Acts 7:54-56; Acts 18:9-10; 2 Timothy 4:17).
This persecution came first from the Sadducees (Acts 4:1-3; Acts 5:17; Acts 5:27-28), then from the Pharisees, whose fiery leader was the young Saul of Tarsus (Acts 7:58-60; Acts 8:1-3; Acts 9:4; Galatians 1:13; Philippians 3:6). When Saul the persecutor was converted to Paul the Christian preacher, he himself was persecuted by the Jews, violently and unceasingly (Acts 9:15-16; Acts 14:19-20; Acts 16:22-24; Acts 21:35-36; 2 Corinthians 11:23-25). In his preaching Paul warned of the persecution that believers could expect; yet people continued to turn to God. And as Paul warned, they met opposition from their fellow citizens (Acts 14:22; 1 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 Thessalonians 2:13-16).
During the reign of Nero the persecution of Christians became government policy throughout the Empire. Government officials and common people alike hated the Christians for their refusal to follow the practices of a society that they considered idolatrous and immoral (1 Peter 2;12; 4:12-16). So severe was the persecution that some Christians were tempted to give up their faith in the hope of avoiding trouble (Hebrews 10:32-36).
Although official persecution later died down, it increased again towards the end of the century during the reign of the Emperor Domitian. But no matter how great the persecution, God’s people are repeatedly assured that in the end they will triumph (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 6:9-11; Revelation 12:11; Revelation 19:1-2).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Persecution in the Bible
Harassment and suffering which people and institutions inflict upon others for being different in their faith, world view, culture, or race. Persecution seeks to intimidate, silence, punish, or even to kill people.
Old Testament Israel was the agent of persecution of nations (Judges 2:11-23 ; Leviticus 26:7-8 ). The Bible gives special attention to Israel's fate in Egypt (Exodus 1-3 ) and in the Exile (Psalm 137:1 ). On an individual level, Saul persecuted David (1 Samuel 19:9-12 ), and Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego were persecuted because they refused to worship the image of the king (Daniel 3:1 ). Jezebel persecuted the prophets of the Lord, and the prophet Elijah persecuted and killed the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:1 ). Job felt persecuted by God himself (1 Kings 7:11-21 ). The prophets—Amos (1 Kings 7:10-12 ), Jeremiah (Jeremiah 1:19 ; Jeremiah 15:15 ; Jeremiah 37-38 ), and Urijah (Jeremiah 26:20-23 )—suffered persecution because they fleshed out the will of God in adverse circumstances. The Psalms speak of the righteous sufferer who felt persecuted as a result of faith in God, and who prayed to God for deliverance (7; 35; 37; 79; Psalm 119:84-87 ).
Intertestamental period This era is important because it witnessed the concerted attempt to make the Jewish people renounce their faith in God. In this conflict, persecution took place on both sides (1,2Maccabees). See Intertestamental History.
New Testament Jesus was persecuted and finally killed by the religious and political establishments of His day (Acts 17:5-10 ; Luke 4:29 ; John 5:16 ; Acts 3:13-15 ; Acts 7:52 ; passion stories). He fleshed out the liberating passion of God (Luke 4:16-29 ) and came into conflict with the religious institutions of the cult by healing on the sabbath (Mark 3:1-6 ), criticizing the Temple activities (Mark 11:15-18 ), and the law (Matthew 5:21-48 ).
Jesus pronounced God's salvation upon those who are persecuted for righteousness sake (Matthew 5:10-12 ). In an evil world, disciples are to expect persecution (Matthew 10:16-23 ; Mark 4:17 ; Mark 13:9 ; John 15:20 ; John 16:2 ), just as was the case with the prophets in the Old Testament (Matthew 5:12 ; Matthew 23:31 ; Luke 11:47-51 ; Acts 7:52 ; Hebrews 11:32-38 ). Paul (1 Corinthians 4:11-13 ; 2 Corinthians 4:8-12 ; 2 Corinthians 6:4-10 ; 2 Corinthians 11:24-27 ; Acts 23:12-35 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:2 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:4 ; Mark 3:6 ; Acts 18:12-17 ; Acts 21:30-36 ; Galatians 5:11 ), as well as Stephen (Acts 6:8-7:60 ), James (Acts 12:2 ), and Peter (Acts 12:3-5 ), together with many anonymous martyrs experienced the truth of the Johannine saying: “If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you” (John 15:20 ; see Acts 4:3 ; Acts 5:17-42 ; Acts 8:1 ; Acts 12:1 ; Revelation 2:26 ,Revelation 2:26,2:9-10 ,Revelation 2:9-10,2:13 ,Revelation 2:13,2:19 ; Revelation 3:8-10 ; Revelation 6:9 ; Revelation 16:6 ; Revelation 17:6 ; Revelation 18:24 ; Revelation 20:4 ).
Whole epistles and books like 1Peter, Hebrews, and Revelation were written to encourage Christians in a situation of persecution (1 Peter 3:13-18 ; 1 Peter 4:12-19 ; 1 Peter 5:6-14 ; Hebrews 10:32-39 ; Hebrews 12:3 ; Revelation 2-3 ). Something like a theology of persecution emerged, which emphasized patience, endurance, and steadfastness (Romans 12:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 ; James 5:7-11 ); prayer (Matthew 5:44 ; Romans 12:14 ; 1 Corinthians 4:12 ); thanksgiving (2 Thessalonians 1:4 ); testing (Mark 4:17 ) and the strengthening of faith (1 Thessalonians 3:2-3 ); experiencing the grace of God (Romans 8:35 ; 2 Corinthians 4:9 , 2 Corinthians 12:10 ), and being blessed through suffering (Matthew 5:10-12 ; 1 Peter 3:14 ; 1 Peter 4:12-14 ). For Paul, persecuting Christians could be a living and visible testimony to the crucified and risen Christ (2 Corinthians 4:7-12 ).
There seems to be an element in religious fanaticism (Paul before his conversion: 1 Corinthians 15:9 ; Galatians 1:13 ,Galatians 1:13,1:23 ; Philippians 3:6 ; Acts 8:3 ; Acts 9:1-2 ; Acts 22:4 ) which breeds intolerance and can lead to persecution. Christians should repent of this element in their own history and must be radically committed to the abolition of all persecution. See Apostles ; Maccabees; Martyr ; Prophets; Prophecy; Suffering ; War.
Thorwald Lorenzen
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Persecution
Is any pain or affliction which a person designedly inflicts upon another; and, in a more restrained sense, the sufferings of Christians on account of their religion. Persecution is threefold.
1. Mental, when the spirit of a man rises up and opposes another.
2. Verbal, when men give hard words and deal in uncharitable censures.
3. Actual or open, by the hand, such as the dragging of innocent persons before the tribunal of Justice, Matthew 10:18 . The unlawfulness of persecution for conscience sake must appear plain to every one that possesses the least degree of thought or of feeling. "To banish, imprison, plunder, starve, hang, and burn men for religion, " says the shrewd Jortin, "is not the Gospel of Christ; it is the Gospel of the Devil. Where persecution begins, Christianity ends. Christ never used any thing that looked like force or violence, except once; and that was to drive bad men out of the temple, and not to drive them in." We know the origin of it to be from the prince of darkness, who began the dreadful practice in the first family on earth, and who, more or less, has been carrying on the same work ever since, and that almost among all parties. "Persecution for conscience sake, " says Dr. Doddridge, "is every way inconsistent, because,
1. It is founded on an absurd supposition, that one man has a right to judge for another in matters of religion.l
2. It is evidently opposite to that fundamental principle of morality; that we should do to others as we could reasonably desire they should do to us.
3. It is by no means calculated to answer the end which its patrons profess to intend by it.
4. It evidently tends to produce a great deal of mischief and confusion in the world.
5. The Christian religion must, humanly speaking, be not only obstructed, but destroyed, should persecuting principles universally prevail.
6. Persecution is so far from being required, or encouraged by the Gospel, that it is most directly contrary to many of its precepts, and indeed to the whole of it." The chief objects who have fell a prey to this diabolical spirit have been Christians; a short account of whose sufferings we shall here give, as persecuted by the Jews, Heathens, and those of the same name. Persecution of Christians by the Jews. Here we need not be copious, as the New Testament will inform the reader more particularly how the first Christians suffered for the cause of truth. Jesus Christ himself was exposed to it in the greatest degree. The four evangelists record the dreadful scenes, which need not here be enlarged on.
After his death, the apostles suffered every evil which the malice of the Jews could invent, and their mad zeal execute. They who read the Acts of the Apostles, will find that, like their Master, they were despised and rejected of men, and treated with the utmost indignity and contempt. II. Persecution of Christians by the Heathen. Historians usually reckon ten general persecutions, the first of which was under the emperor Nero, thirty-one years after our Lord's ascension, when that emperor, having set fire to the city of Rome, threw the odium of that execrable action on the Christians. First. Those were apprehended who openly avowed themselves to be of that sect; then by them were discovered an immense multitude, all of whom were convicted. Their death and tortures were aggravated by cruel derision and sport; for they were either covered with the skins of wild beasts and torn in pieces by devouring dogs, or fastened to crosses, and wrapped up in combustible garments, that, when the day-light failed, they might, like torches, serve to dispel the darkness of the night. For this tragical spectacle Nero lent his own gardens; and exhibited at the same time the public diversions of the circus; sometimes driving a chariot in person, and sometimes standing as a spectator, while the shrieks of women burning to ashes supplied music for his ears.
2. The second general persecution was under Domitian, in the year 95, when 40, 000 were supposed to have suffered martyrdom.
3. The third began in the third year of Trajan, in the year 100, and was carried on with great violence for several years.
4. The fourth was under Antoninus, when the Christians were banished from their houses, forbidden to show their heads, reproached, beaten, hurried from place to place, plundered, imprisoned, and stoned.
5. The fifth began in the year 127, under Severus, when great cruelties were committed. In this reign happened the martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas, and their companions. Perpetua had an infant at the breast, and Felicitas was just delivered at the time of their being put to death. These two beautiful and amiable young women, mothers of infant children, after suffering much in prison, were exposed before an insulting multitude to a wild cow, who mangled their bodies in a most horrid manner: after which they were carried to a conspicuous place, and put to death by the sword.
6. The sixth began with the reign of Maximinus, in 235.
7. The seventh, which was the most dreadful ever known, began in 250, under the emperor Decius, when the christians were in all places driven from their habitations, stripped of their estates, tormented with racks, &c.
8. The eighth began in 257, under Valerian. Both men and women suffered death, some by scourging, some by the sword, and some by fire.
9. The ninth was under Aurelian, in 274; but this was inconsiderable, compared with the others before-mentioned.
10. The tenth began in the nineteenth year of Dioclesian, 303. In this dreadful persecution, which lasted ten years, houses filled with Christians were set on fire, and whole droves were tied together with ropes, and thrown into the sea. It is related that 17, 000 were slain in one month's time; and that during the continuance of this persecution, in the province of Egypt alone, no less than 144, 000 Christians died by the violence of their persecutors; besides 700, 000 that died through the fatigues of banishment, or the public works to which they were condemned. III. Persecution of Christians by those of the same name. Numerous were the persecutions of different sects from Constantine's time to the reformation; but when the famous Martin Luther arose, and opposed the errors and ambition of the church of Rome, and the sentiments of this good man began to spread, the pope and his clergy joined all their forces to hinder their progress. A general council of the clergy was called: this was the famous council of Trent, which was held for near eighteen successive years, for the purpose of establishing popery in greater splendour, and preventing the reformation.
The friends to the reformation were anathematized and excommunicated, and the life of Luther was often in danger, though at last he died on the bed of peace. From time to time innumerable schemes were suggested to overthrow the reformed church, and wars were set on foot for the same purpose. The invincible armada, as it was vainly called, had the same end in view. The inquisition, which was established in the twelfth century against the Waldenses (
See INQUISITION) was not more effectually set to work. Terrible persecutions were carried on in various parts of Germany, and even in Bohemia, which continued about thirty years, and the blood of the saints was said to flow like rivers of water. The countries of Poland, Lithuania, and Hungary, were in a similar manner deluged with Protestant blood. In HOLLAND, and in the other Low Countries, for many years the most amazing cruelties were exercised under the merciless and unrelenting hands of the Spaniards, to whom the inhabitants of that part of the world were then in subjection. Father Paul observes, that these Belgic martyrs were 50, 000; but Grotius and others observe, that there were 100, 000 who suffered by the hand of the executioner.
Herein, however, Satan and his agents failed of their purpose; for in the issue great part of the Netherlands shook off the Spanish yoke, and erected themselves into a separate and independent state, which has ever since been considered as one of the principal Protestant countries of the universe. FRANCE. No country, perhaps, has ever produced more martyrs than this. After many cruelties had been exercised against the Protestants, there was a most violent persecution of them in the year 1572, in the reign of Charles IX. Many of the principal Protestants were invited to Paris under a solemn oath of safety, upon occasion of the marriage of the king of Navarre with the French king's sister. The queen dowager of Navarre, a zealous Protestant, however, was poisoned by a pair of gloves before the marriage was solemnized. Coligni, admiral of France, was basely murdered in his own house, and then thrown out of the window to gratify the malice of the duke of Guise: his head was afterwards cut off, and sent to the king and queen-mother; and his body, after a thousand indignities offered to it, hung by the feet on a gibbet. After this the murderers ravaged the whole city of Paris, and butchered in three days, above ten thousand lords, gentlemen, presidents, and people of all ranks.
A horrible scene of things, says Thuanus, when the very streets and passengers resounded with the noise of those that met together for murder and plunder; and groans of those who were dying, and the shrieks of such as were just going to be butchered, were everywhere heard; the bodies of the slain thrown out of the windows; the courts and chambers of the houses filled with them; the dead bodies of others dragged through the streets; their blood running through the channels in such plenty, that torrents seemed to empty themselves in the neighbouring river, in a word, an innumerable multitude of men, women with child, maidens, and children, were all involved in one common destruction; and the gates and entrances of the king's palace all besmeared with their blood. From the city of Paris the massacre spread throughout the whole kingdom. In the city of Meaux they threw above two hundred into gaol; and after they had ravished and killed a great number of women, and plundered the houses of the Protestants, they executed their fury on those they had imprisoned; and calling them one by one, they were killed, as Thuanus expresses, like sheep in a market. In Orleans they murdered above five hundred, men, women, and children, and enriched themselves with the spoil.
The same cruelties were practised at Angers, Troyes, Bouges, La Charite, and especially at Lyons, where they inhumanly destroyed above eight hundred Protestants; children hanging on their parents's necks; parents embracing their children; putting ropes about the necks of some, dragging them through the streets, and throwing them, mangled, torn, and half dead, into the river. According to Thuanus, above 30, 000 Protestants were destroyed in this massacre; or, as others affirm, above 100, 000. But what aggravates these scenes with still greater wantonness and cruelty, was, the manner in which the news was received at Rome. When the letters of the pope's legate were read in the assembly of the cardinals, by which he assured the pope that all was transacted by the express will and command of the king, it was immediately decreed that the pope should march with his cardinals to the church of St. Mark, and in the most solemn manner give thanks to God for so great a blessing conferred on the see of Rome and the Christian world; and that, on the Monday after, solemn mass should be celebrated in the church of Minerva, at which the pope, Gregory, XIII. and cardinals were present; and that a jubilee should be published throughout the whole Christian world, and the cause of it declared to be, to return thanks to God for the extirpation of the enemies of the truth and church in France. In the evening the cannon of St. Angelo were fired to testify the public joy; the whole city illuminated with bonfires; and no one sign of rejoicing omitted that was usually made for the greatest victories obtained in favour of the Roman church!!! But all these persecutions were, however, far exceeded in cruelty by those which took place in the time of Louis XIV.
It cannot be pleasant to any man's feelings, who has the least humanity, to recite these dreadful scenes of horror, cruelty, and devastation; but to show what superstition, bigotry, and fanaticism are capable of producing, and for the purpose of holding up the spirit of persecution to contempt, we shall here give as concise a detail as possible. The troopers, soldiers, and dragoons, went into the Protestants' houses, where they marred and defaced their household stuff; broke their looking- glasses and other utensils; threw about their corn and wine; sold what they could not destroy; and thus, in four or five days, the Protestants were stripped of above a million of money. But this was not the worst: they turned the dining rooms of gentlemen into stables for horses, and treated the owners of the houses where they quartered with the greatest cruelty, lashing them about, not suffering them to eat or drink. When they saw the blood and sweat run down their faces, they sluiced them with water, and, putting over their heads kettle-drums turned upside down, they made a continual din upon them till these unhappy creatures lost their senses. At Negreplisse, a town near Montaubon, they hung up Isaac Favin, a Protestant citizen of that place, by his arm-pits, and tormented him a whole night by pinching and tearing off his flesh with pincers.
They made a great fire round about a boy, twelve years old, who, with hands and eyes lifted up to heaven, cried out, "My God, help me!" and when they found the youth resolved to die rather than renounce his religion, they snatched him from the fire just as he was on the point of being burnt. In several places the soldiers applied red hot irons to the hands and feet of men, and the breasts of women. At Nantes, they hung up several women and maids by their feet, and others by their arm-pits, and thus exposed them to public view stark naked. They bound mothers, that gave suck, to posts, and let their sucking infants lie languishing in their sight for several days and nights, crying and gasping for life. Some they bound before a great fire, and, being half toasted, let them go; a punishment worse than death. Amidst a thousand hideous cries, they hung up men and women by the hair, and some by their feet, on hooks in chimneys, and smoked them with wisps of wet hay till they suffocated. They tied some under the arms with ropes, and plunged them again and again into wells; they bound others, put them to torture, and with a funnel filled them with wine till the fumes of it took away their reason, when they made them say they consented to be Catholics. They stripped them naked, and, after a thousand indignities, stuck them with pins and needles from head to foot. In some places they tied fathers and husbands to their bed-posts, and, before their eyes, ravished their wives and daughters with impunity.
They blew up men and women with bellows till they burst them. If any, to escape these barbarities, endeavoured to save themselves by flight, they pursued them into the fields and woods, where they shot at them, like wild beasts, and prohibited them from departing the kingdom (a cruelty never practised by Nero or Dioclesian, ) upon pain of confiscation of effects, the galleys, the lash, and perpetual imprisonment. With these scenes of desolation and horror the popish clergy feasted their eyes, and made only matter of laughter and sport of them!!! ENGLAND has also been the seat of much persecution. Though Wickliffe, the first reformer, died peaceably in his bed, yet such was the malice and spirit of persecuting Rome, that his bones were ordered to be dug up, and cast upon a dunghill. The remains of this excellent man were accordingly dug out of the grave, where they had lain undisturbed four-and-forty years. His bones were burnt, and the ashes cast into an adjoining brook. In the reign of Henry VIII. Bilney, Bayman, and many other reformers were burnt; but when queen Mary came to the throne, the most severe persecutions took place. Hooper and Rogers were burnt in a slow fire. Saunders was cruelly tormented a long time at the stake before he expired. Taylor was put into a barrel of pitch, and fire set to it. Eight illustrious persons, among whom was Ferrar, bishop of St. David's, were sought out, and burnt by the infamous Bonner in a few days. Sixty-seven persons were this year, A. D. 1555, burnt, amongst whom were the famous Protestants, Bradford, Ridley, Latimer, and Philpot.
In the following year, 1556, eighty-five persons were burnt. Women suffered; and one, in the flames, which burst her womb, being near her time of delivery, a child fell from her into the fire, which being snatched out by some of the observers more humane that the rest, the magistrate ordered the babe to be again thrown into the fire, and burnt. Thus even the unborn child was burnt for heresy! O God, what is human nature when left to itself! Alas! dispositions ferocious as infernal then reign, and usurp the heart of man! The queen erected a commission court, which was followed by the destruction of near eighty more. Upon the whole, the number of those who suffered death for the reformed religion in this reign, were no less that two hundred and seventy-seven persons; of whom were five bishops, twenty-one clergymen, eight gentlemen, eight-four tradesmen, one hundred husbandmen, labourers, and servants, fifty-five women, and four children. Besides these, there were fifty-four more under prosecution, seven of whom were whipped, and sixteen perished in prison. Nor was the reign of Elizabeth free from this persecuting spirit. If any one refused to consent to the least ceremony in worship, he was cast into prison, where many of the most excellent men in the land perished.
Two Protestant Anabaptists were burnt, and many banished. She also, it is said, put two Brownists to death; and though her whole reign was distinguished for its political prosperity, yet it is evident that she did not understand the rights of conscience; for it is said that more sanguinary laws were made in her reign than in any of her predecessors, and her hands were stained with the blood both of Papists and Puritans. James I. succeeded Elizabeth; he published a proclamation, commanding all Protestants to conform strictly, and without any exception, to all the rites and ceremonies of the church of England. Above five hundred clergy were immediately silenced, or degraded, for not complying. Some were excommunicated, and some banished the country. The Dissenters were distressed, censured, and fined, in the Star-chamber. Two persons were burnt for heresy, one at Smithfield, and the other at Litchfield. Worn out with endless vexations, and unceasing persecutions, many retired into Holland, and from thence to America. It is witnessed by a judicious historian, that, in this and some following reigns, 22, 000 persons were banished from England by persecution to America. In Charles the First's time arose the persecuting Laud, who was the occasion of distress to numbers. Dr. Leighton, for writing a book against the hierarchy, was fined ten thousand pounds, perpetual imprisonment, and whipping. He was whipped, and then placed in the pillory; one of his ears cut off, one side of his nose slit; branded on the cheek with a red hot iron, with the letters S. S. whipped a second time, and placed in the pillory.
A fortnight afterwards, his sores being yet uncured, he had the other ear cut off, the other side of his nose slit, and the other cheek branded. He continued in prison till the long parliament set him at liberty. About four years afterwards, William Prynn, a barrister, for a book he wrote against the sports on the Lord's day, was deprived from practising at Lincoln's Inn, degraded from his degree at Oxford, set in the pillory, had his ears cut off, imprisoned for life, and fined five thousand pounds. Nor were the Presbyterians, when their government came to be established in England, free from the charge of persecution. In 1645 an ordinance was published, subjecting all who preached or wrote against the Presbyterian directory for public worship to a fine not exceeding fifty pounds; and imprisonment for a year, for the third offence, in using the episcopal book of common prayer, even in a private family. In the following year the Presbyterians applied to Parliament, pressing them to enforce uniformity in religion, and to extirpate popery, prelacy, heresy, schism, &c. but their petition was rejected; yet in 1648 the parliament, ruled by them, published an ordinance against heresy, and determined that any person who maintained, published, or defended the following errors, should suffer death. These errors were.
1. Denying the being of a God.
2. Denying his omnipresence, omniscience, &c.
3. Denying the Trinity in any way.
4. Denying that Christ had two natures.
5. Denying the resurrection, the atonement, the Scriptures. In Charles the Second's reign the act of uniformity passed, by which two thousand clergymen were deprived of their benefices. Then followed the conventicle act, and the Oxford act, under which, it is said, eight thousand persons were imprisoned and reduced to want, and many to the grave. In this reign also, the Quakers were much persecuted, and numbers of them imprisoned. Thus we see how England had bled under the hand of bigotry and persecution; nor was toleration enjoyed until William III. came to the throne, who showed himself a warm friend to the rights of conscience. The accession of the present royal family was auspicious to religious liberty; and as their majesties have always befriended the toleration, the spirit of persecution has been long curbed. IRELAND has likewise been drenched with the blood of the Protestants, forty or fifty thousand of whom were cruelly murdered in a few days, in different parts of the kingdom, in the reign of Charles I. It began on the 23d of October, 1641. Having secured the principal gentlemen, and seized their effects, they murdered the common people in cold blood, forcing many thousands to fly from their houses and settlements naked into the bogs and woods, where they perished with hunger and cold.
Some they whipped to death, others they stripped naked, and exposed to shame, and then drove them like herds of swine to perish in the mountains: many hundreds were drowned in rivers, some had their throats cut, others were dismembered. With some the execrable villians made themselves sport, trying who could hack the deepest into an Englishman's flesh: wives and young virgins abused in the presence of their nearest relations; nay, they taught their children to strip and kill the children of the English, and dash out their brains against the stones. Thus many thousands were massacred in a few days, without distinction of age, sex, or quality, before they suspected their danger, or had time to provide for their defence. SCOTLAND, SPAIN, &c. Besides the above-mentioned persecutions, there have been several others carried on in different parts of the world. Scotland for many years together has been the scene of cruelty and blood-shed, till it was delivered by the monarch at the revolution. Spain, Italy, and the valley of Piedmont, and other places, have been the seats of much persecution. Popery, we see has had the greatest hand in this mischievous work. It has to answer, also, for the lives of millions of Jews, Mahometans, and barbarians. When the Moors conquered Spain, in the eighth century, they allowed the Christians the free exercise of their religion; but in the fifteenth century, when the Moors were overcome, and Ferdinand subdued the Moriscoes, the descendants of the above Moors, many thousands were forced to be baptised, or burnt, massacred, or banished, and the children sold for slaves; besides innumerable Jews, who shared the same cruelties, chiefly by means of the infernal courts of inquisition.
A worst slaughter, if possible, was made among the natives of Spanish America, where fifteen millions are said to have been sacrificed to the genius of popery in about forty years. It has been computed that fifty millions of Protestants have at different times been the victims of the persecutions of the Papists, and put to death for their religious opinions. Well, therefore, might the inspired penman say, that at mystic Babylon's destruction, 'was found in her the blood of prophets, of saints, and of all that was slain upon the earth, ' Revelation 18:24 . To conclude this article, Who can peruse the account here given without feeling the most painful emotions, and dropping a tear over the madness and depravity of mankind? Does it not show us what human beings are capable of when influenced by superstition, bigotry, and prejudice?
Have not these baneful principles metamorphosed men into infernals; and entirely extinguished all the feelings of humanity, the dictates of conscience, and the voice of reason? Alas! what has sin done to make mankind such curses to one another? Merciful God! by they great power suppress this worst of all evils, and let truth and love, meekness and forbearance universally prevail! Limborch's Introduction to his History of the Inquisition; Memoirs of the Persecutions of the Protestants in France by Lewis De Enarolles; Comber's History of the Parisian Massacre of St. Bartholomew; A. Robinson's History of Persecution; Lockman's History of Popish Persec. Clark's Looking-Glass for Persecutors; Doddridge's Sermon on Persecution; Jortin's ditto, ser. 9. vol. 4: Bower's Lives of the Popes; Fox's Martyrs; Woodrow's History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland; Neal's History of the Puritans, and of New England; History of the Bohemian Persecutions.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Persecution
Just as the Bible graphically describes the introduction and spread of sin in the world, it also depicts the presence and reality of oppression and persecution in the world and presents many examples of people persecuting God, people persecuting people, nations persecuting nations, the wicked persecuting the righteous, and even, in some cases, the righteous persecuting the wicked or other righteous persons.
The Meaning of Persecution . The primary Hebrew word for persecution, radap [1] (oppression, affliction) and thlibo [2] (press on, oppress; in the passive, to be oppressed, persecuted).
The Nature of Persecution . Both the Old Testament and New Testament give examples of physical, social, mental, and spiritual persecution. Physical persecution includes taking another's life (Genesis 4 , Cain murdering Abel) or maiming the body (Exodus 22,23 ). Social persecution (sometimes called discrimination) consists of making individuals or a group outcasts. An example of extreme mental and spiritual persecution is seen when Peter and John were threatened not to preach the gospel (Acts 5:28,40 ).
The Objects of the Persecution . The Bible teaches that those who follow Christ and God's Word and who practice his commandments will be persecuted. Examples in the Old Testament include Abel, who offered a better sacrifice than Cain (Genesis 4:4-10 ; Hebrews 11:4 ); Lot, also a "righteous man who was distressed by the filthy lives of lawless men" (2 Peter 2:7 ) who rejected him and who "kept bringing pressure on [3] and moved forward to break down the door" of his house in Sodom (Matthew 4:1-1217 ); Elijah, who spoke against the prophets of Baal (1 Kings 18:25-40 ) and against the idolatry of Israel (1 Kings 18:16-21 ), and was persecuted by Jezebel for his godly stand (1 Kings 19:1-3 ); David, who conducted himself in a godly manner despite the machinations and pursuit of Saul (1 Samuel 9-27:1 ); Jeremiah, who spoke God's message of condemnation against Judah for her sins and the coming judgment against her to be brought by the Babylonians (Jeremiah 9:11,13-16 ; 21:3-7 ; 25:1-14 ), had his message rejected (Jeremiah 36-37 ), was beaten (Jeremiah 37:15 ), and finally dropped into a muddy cistern (Jeremiah 38:6-13 ). Examples in the New Testament include John the Baptist, who spoke out against the adultery of Herod Antipas and was beheaded (Mark 6:21-29 ); Stephen, the deacon, who, preaching the gospel before the Sanhedrin and proclaiming God's judgment because of the sins of the people, was rejected and stoned (Acts 6:5 ; 7:1-60 ); Paul, who was persecuted, beaten, and imprisoned as he preached from place to place, and was finally killed in Rome (2 Timothy 4:6-8 ); and climactically, Jesus himself who preached God's grace and judgment (Matthew 4:17 ; 11:28-29 ), was persecuted by his hearers (Luke 4:28-30 ), plotted against by his adversaries (Mark 3:6 ), rejected (Luke 13:34 ; John 6:66 ), tried (John 18:12-40 ), and finally crucified (John 19:16-37 ; Philippians 2:9 ). His was a perfect and God-honoring life and message, reflected in part by the Old Testament prophets whom, as Jesus reminds them, they had also persecuted and killed (Matthew 23:29-36 ). All of this persecution of the godly came as the result of the sin and the animosity of sinners who rejected these who lived godly lives and also rejected their message that sinners must repent (Acts 2:38 ) and turn in faith to Jesus Christ for salvation (1 Thessalonians 1:9-10 ).
The Lord, too, in his righteous indignation, raised up adversaries against his backsliding people, against Abimelech for his murder of his seventy brothers, sons of Gideon (Judges 9:22-25 ); against Solomon for his sin (1 Kings 11:14,23 ); against rebellious Israel (2 Kings 17:7-20 ); and against Judah (Jeremiah 20:4 ) and Babylon for their wicked, ungodly Acts (Jeremiah 25:12-14 ). Also the Lord, through natural elements and his own direct power, brings persecution and calamity on the whole world (Genesis 6-7 Matthew 24:21,29 ; Mark 13:19 ).
Reasons for Persecution . The Bible gives examples of good people pursuing and persecuting others (Judges 8:16 , ; Gideon against the men of Succoth, to teach them a lesson Mark 9:38-41 , ; the disciples, in prejudice, opposing a brother witnessing to God's power ). However, in contrast, the Scriptures teach that we are to love our enemies, "because he [4] is kind to the ungrateful and wicked" (Matthew 5:44 ; Luke 6:35 ), and to exercise forbearance and mercy, because "It is mine to avenge; I will repay, ' says the Lord" (Romans 12:19 ; Deuteronomy 32:35 ). The Scriptures are also full of examples of evil persons persecuting the good and righteous persons for various reasons, such as jealousy for a godly sacrifice (Genesis 4:2-10 ); revenge for a godly humanitarian deed done (1 Samuel 21:1-19 ); vengeance for action against heathen worship (1 Kings 19:2 , ; Jezebel against Elijah ); vengeance for warnings against idolatry and ungodly living, as exemplified by opposition to the messages of Jeremiah and John the Baptist (Jeremiah 37 ; 1618384894_1 ); vengeance against preaching the gospel and condemnation of rebellion against God (Acts 7:54-60 ); opposition to the Jerusalem church for its stand for Jesus (Acts 8:1 ; 11:19 ), to the Thessalonian Christians for their stand for Christ (1 Thessalonians 3:3-4 ) to Paul for his faithfulness to the Lord Jesus (2 Corinthians 11:16-33 ; cf. Galatians 6:17 ), etc.
A godly testimony will often result in ridicule, scorn, deprivation, physical harm, and even death. Jesus and his disciples were, are, and will be, subject to ridicule/insult: Jesus, "despised and rejected of men" (Isaiah 53:3 ; Matthew 27:39 ; 1 Peter 2:23 ) and finally crucified (John 19:16-18 ); his disciples, insulted (Matthew 5:11 ), jeered (Hebrews 11:36 ), mistreated (v. 25), deprived (clothed in sheepskins and goatskins), destitute, persecuted, wandering in deserts and mountains, "in caves and holes in the ground" (vv. 37-38), tortured (v. 35), sawed in two (v. 37), jailed (Acts 5:18 ; 16:23 ), flogged (Hebrews 11:36 ), chained (v. 36), "shut the mouths of lions" (v. 33), "put to death by the sword" (v. 37), "quenched the fury of the flames" (v. 34), and stone (v. 37; Acts 7:59 ).
The underlying biblical reasons given for persecution consist of an antipathy of evil toward the good (Romans 8:6-8 ); of wicked men opposing God and rejecting his divine precepts (Romans 3:10-18 ). Jesus indicated that since the world hated him, it will hate his disciples (John 15:18-19 ), and declared that if they persecuted him, they will also persecute his disciples (v. 20). The Bible's climactic teaching about the believer and persecution: "Everyone who wants to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted" (2 Timothy 3:12 ).
Reaction to Persecution . Forbearance: Turn the other cheek (Matthew 5:38-42 ). Mercy: "If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him something to drink. In doing this you will heap burning coals on his head" (Romans 12:20 ). Love: "Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you" (Matthew 5:44 ). Confidence: "It is mine to avenge; I will repay, ' says the Lord" (Romans 12:19 ). Realization: "If they persecuted me, they will persecute you also" (John 15:20 ). Concentration on Jesus: "Let us fix our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith" (Hebrews 12:2 ). A firm stand with Paul and other saints: "I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith. Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day—and not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing" (2 Timothy 4:7-8 ). Challenge: "You should follow in his steps. He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth.' When they hurled their insults at him, he did not retaliate; when he suffered, he made no threats. Instead, he entrusted himself to him who judges justly" (1 Peter 2:21-23 ).
W. Harold Mare
Bibliography . G. W. Bromiley, ISBE, 3:771-74; W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church ; W. S. Reid, ZPEB, 4:704-7; H. Schlier, TDNT, 3:139-48; W. B. Workman, Persecution in the Early Church .
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Persecution: Not to be Feared
Do not fear the frown of the world. When a blind man comes against you in the street you are not angry at him, you say, He is blind, poor man, or he would not have hurt me. So you may say of the poor woridlings when they speak evil of Christians: they are blind.: M'G/Ieyne.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Persecution
The cold water of persecution is often thrown on the church's face to fetch her to herself when she is in a swoon of indolence or pride.
Webster's Dictionary - Persecution
(1):
(n.) A carrying on; prosecution.
(2):
(n.) The state or condition of being persecuted.
(3):
(n.) The act or practice of persecuting; especially, the infliction of loss, pain, or death for adherence to a particular creed or mode of worship.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Persecution
is any pain or affliction which a person designedly inflicts upon another; and, in a more restrained sense, the sufferings of Christians on account of their religion. The establishment of Christianity was opposed by the powers of the world, and occasioned several severe persecutions against Christians, during the reigns of several Roman emperors. Though the absurdities of polytheism were openly derided and exposed by the Apostles and their successors, yet it does not appear that any public laws were enacted against Christianity till the reign of Nero, A.D. 64, by which time it had acquired considerable stability and extent. As far the greater number of the first converts to Christianity were of the Jewish nation, one secondary cause for their being so long preserved from persecution may probably be deduced from their appearing to the Roman governors only as a sect of Jews, who had seceded from the rest of their brethren on account of some opinion, trifling in its importance, and perhaps difficult to be understood. Nor, when their brethren were fully discovered to have cast off the religion of the synagogue, did the Jews find it easy to infuse into the breasts of the Roman magistrates that rancour and malice which they themselves experienced. But the steady, and uniform opposition made by the Christians to Heathen superstition could not long pass unnoticed. Their open attacks upon Paganism made them extremely obnoxious to the populace, by whom they were represented as a society of atheists, who, by attacking the religious constitution of the empire, merited the severest animadversion of the civil magistrate. Horrid tales of their abominations were circulated throughout the empire; and the minds of the Pagans were, from all these circumstances, prepared to regard with pleasure or indifference every cruelty which could be inflicted upon this despised sect. Historians usually reckon ten general persecutions.
First general persecution. —Nero selected the Christians as a grateful sacrifice to the Roman people, and endeavoured to transfer to this hated sect the guilt of which he was strongly suspected; that of having caused and enjoined the fire which had nearly desolated the city. ( See NERO. ) This persecution was not confined to Rome: the emperor issued edicts against the Christians throughout most of the provinces of the empire. He was far, however, from obtaining the object of his hopes and expectations; and the virtues of the Christians, their zeal for the truth, and their constancy in suffering, must have considerably contributed to make their tenets more generally known.
Second general persecution. —From the death of Nero to the reign of Domitian, the Christians remained unmolested and daily increasing; but toward the close of the first century, they were again involved in all the horrors of persecution. In this persecution many eminent Christians suffered; but the death, of Domitian soon delivered them from this calamity.
Third general persecution. —This persecution began in the third year of the Emperor Trajan, A.D. 100. Many things contributed toward it; as the laws of the empire, the emperor's zeal for his religion, and aversion to Christianity, and the prejudices of the Pagans, supported by falsehoods and calumnies against the Christians. Under the plausible pretence of their holding illegal meetings and societies, they were severely persecuted by the governors and other officers; in which persecution great numbers fell by the rage of popular tumult, as well as by laws and processes. This persecution continued several years, with different degrees of severity in many parts of the empire; and was so much the more afflicting, because the Christians generally suffered under the notion of malefactors and traitors, and under an emperor famed for his singular justice and moderation. The most noted martyr in this persecution was Clement, bishop of Rome. After some time the fury of this persecution was abated, but did not cease during the whole reign of Trajan. In the eighth year of his successor Adrian, it broke out with new rage. This is by some called the fourth general persecution; but is more commonly considered as a revival or continuance of the third.
Fourth general persecution. —This took place under Antoninus the philosopher; and at different places, with several intermissions, and different degrees of severity, it continued the greater part of his reign. Antoninus himself has been much excused as to this persecution. As the character of the virtuous Trajan, however, is sullied by the martyrdom of Ignatius, so the reign of the philosophic Marcus is for ever disgraced by the sacrifice of the venerable Polycarp, bishop of Smyrna, the friend and companion of St. John. A few days previous to his death, he is said to have dreamed that his pillow was on fire. When urged by the proconsul to renounce Christ, he replied, "Fourscore and six years have I served him, and he has never done me an injury: can I blaspheme my King and my Saviour?" Several miracles are reported to have happened at his death. The flames, as if unwilling to injure his sacred person, are said to have arched over his head; and it is added, that at length, being despatched with a sword, a dove flew out of the wound; and that from the pile proceeded a most fragrant smell. It is obvious that the arching of the flames might be an accidental effect, which the enthusiastic veneration of his disciples might convert into a miracle; and as to the story of the dove, &c, Eusebius himself apparently did not credit it; since he has omitted it in his narrative of the transaction. Among many other victims of persecution in this philosophic reign, we must also record that of the excellent and learned Justin. But it was at Lyons and Vienne in Gaul, that the most shocking scenes were acted. Among many nameless sufferers, history has preserved from oblivion Pothinus, the respectable bishop of Lyons, who was then more than ninety years of age; Sanctus, a deacon of Vienne; Attalus, a native of Pergamus; Maturus, and Alexander; some of whom were devoured by wild beasts, and some of them tortured in an iron chair made red hot. Some females, also, and particularly Biblias and Blandina, reflected honour both upon their sex and religion by their constancy and courage.
Fifth general persecution. —A considerable part of the reign of Severus proved so far favourable to the Christians, that no additions were made to the severe edicts already in force against them. For this lenity they were probably indebted to Proculus, a Christian, who, in a very extraordinary manner, cured the emperor of a dangerous distemper by the application of oil. But this degree of peace, precarious as it was, and frequently interrupted by the partial execution of severe laws, was terminated by an edict, A.D. 197, which prohibited every subject of the empire, under severe penalties, from embracing the Jewish or Christian faith. This law appears, upon a first view, designed merely to impede the farther progress of Christianity; but it incited the magistracy to enforce the laws of former emperors, which were still existing, against the Christians; and during seven years they were exposed to a rigorous persecution in Palestine, Egypt, the rest of Africa, Italy, Gaul, and other parts. In this persecution Leonidas, the father of Origen, and Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, suffered martyrdom. On this occasion Tertullian composed his "Apology." The violence of Pagan intolerance was most severely felt in Egypt, and particularly at Alexandria.
Sixth general persecution. —This persecution began with the reign of the Emperor Maximinus, A.D. 235, and seems to have arisen from that prince's hatred to his predecessor, Alexander, in whose family many Christians had found shelter and patronage. Though this persecution was very severe in some places, yet we have the names of only a few martyrs. Origen at this time was very industrious in supporting the Christians under these fiery trials.
Seventh general persecution. —This was the most dreadful persecution that ever had been known in the church. During the short reign of Decius, the Christians were exposed to greater calamities than any they had hitherto suffered. It has been said, and with some probability, that the Christians were involved in this persecution by their attachment to the family of the Emperor Philip. Considerable numbers were publicly destroyed; several purchased safety by bribes, or secured it by flight; and many deserted from the faith, and willingly consented to burn incense on the altars of the gods. The city of Alexandria, the great theatre of persecution, had even anticipated the edicts of the emperor, and had put to death a number of innocent persons, among whom were some women. The imperial edict for persecuting the Christians was published A.D. 249; and shortly after, Fabianus, bishop of Rome, with a number of his followers, was put to death. The venerable bishops of Jerusalem and Antioch died in prison, the most cruel tortures were employed, and the numbers that perished are by all parties confessed to have been very considerable.
Eighth general persecution. —The Emperor Valerian, in the fourth year of his reign, A.D. 257, listening to the suggestions of Macrinus, a magician of Egypt, was prevailed upon to persecute the Christians, on pretence that by their wicked and execrable charms they hindered the prosperity of the emperor. Macrinus advised him to perform many impious rites, sacrifices, and incantations; to cut the throats of infants, &c; and edicts were published in all places against the Christians, who were exposed without protection to the common rage. We have the names of several martyrs, among whom were the famous St. Laurence, archdeacon of Rome, and the great St. Cyprian, bishop of Carthage.
Ninth general persecution. —This persecution took place under the Emperor Aurelian, A.D. 274; but it was so small and inconsiderable, that it gave little interruption to the peace of the church.
Tenth general persecution. —The tenth and last general persecution of the Christians began in the nineteenth year of the Emperor Diocletian, A.D. 303. The most violent promoters of it were Hierocles the philosopher, who wrote against the Christian religion, and Galerius, whom Diocletian had declared Caesar. This latter was excited not only by his own cruelty and superstition, but likewise by his mother, who was a zealous Pagan. Diocletian, contrary to his inclination was prevailed upon to authorize the persecution by his edicts. Accordingly, it began in the city of Nicomedia, whence it spread into other cities and provinces, and became at last universal. Great numbers of Christians suffered the severest tortures in this persecution, though the accounts given of it by succeeding historians are probably exaggerated. There is, however, sufficient of well authenticated facts to assure us amply of the cruel and intolerant disposition of the professors of Pagan philosophy. The human imagination was, indeed, almost exhausted in inventing a variety of tortures. Some were impaled alive; some had their limbs broken, and in that condition were left to expire. Some were roasted by slow fires; and some suspended by their feet with their heads downward, and, a fire being placed under them, were suffocated by the smoke. Some had melted lead poured down their throats, and the flesh of some was torn off with shells, and others had splinters of reeds thrust under the nails of their fingers and toes. The few who were not capitally punished had their limbs and their features mutilated. It would be endless to enumerate the victims, of superstition. The bishops of Nicomedia, of Tyre, of Sidon, of Emesa, several matrons and virgins of the purest character, and a nameless number of plebeians, arrived at immortality through the flames of martyrdom. At last it pleased God that the Emperor Constantine, who himself afterward became a Christian, openly declared for the Christians, and published the first law in favour of them. The death of Maximin, emperor of the east, soon after put a period to all their troubles; and this was the great epoch when Christianity triumphantly got possession of the thrones of princes.
The guilt of persecution has, however, been attached to professing Christians. Had men been guided solely by the spirit and the precepts of the Gospel, the conduct of its blessed Author, and the writings and example of his immediate disciples, we might have boldly affirmed that among Christians there could be no tendency to encroach upon freedom of discussion, and no approach to persecution. The Gospel, in every page of it, inculcates tenderness and mercy; it exhibits the most unwearied indulgence to the frailties and errors of men; and it represents charity as the badge of those who in sincerity profess it. In St. Paul's inimitable description of this grace he has drawn a picture of mutual forbearance and kindness and toleration, upon which it is scarcely possible to dwell, without being raised superior to every contracted sentiment, and glowing with the most diffusive benevolence. In the churches which he planted he had often to counteract the efforts of teachers who had laboured to subvert the foundation which he had laid, to misrepresent his motives, and to inculcate doctrines which, through the inspiration that was imparted to him, he discerned to proceed from the most perverted views, and to be inconsistent with the great designs of the Gospel. These teachers he strenuously and conscientiously opposed; he endeavoured to show the great importance of those to whom he wrote being on their guard against them; and he evinced the most ardent zeal in resisting their insidious purposes: but he never, in the most distant manner, insinuated that they should be persecuted, adhering always to the maxim which he had laid down, that the weapons of a Christian's warfare are not carnal but spiritual. He does, indeed, sometimes speak of heretics; and he even exhorts that, after expostulation with him, a heretic should be rejected, and not acknowledged to be a member of the church to which he had once belonged. But that precept of the Apostle has no reference to the persecution which it has sometimes been conceived to sanction, and which has been generally directed against men quite sincere in their belief, however erroneous that belief may be esteemed.
Upon a subject thus enforced by precept and example, it is not to be supposed that the first converts, deriving their notions of Christianity immediately from our Lord or his Apostles, could have any opinion different in theory, at least, from that which has been now established. Accordingly, we find that the primitive fathers, although, in many respects, they erred, unequivocally express themselves in favour of the most ample liberty as to religious sentiment, and highly disapprove of every attempt to control it. Passages from many of these writers might be quoted to establish that this was almost the universal sentiment till the age of Constantine. Lactantius in particular has, with great force and beauty, delivered his opinion against persecution: "There is no need of compulsion and violence, because religion cannot be forced; and men must be made willing, not by stripes, but by arguments. Slaughter and piety are quite opposite to each other; nor can truth consist with violence, or justice with cruelty. They are convinced that nothing is more excellent than religion, and therefore think that it ought to be defended with force; but they are mistaken, both in the nature of religion, and in proper methods to support it; for religion is to be defended, not by murder, but by persuasion; not by cruelty, but by patience; not by wickedness, but by faith. If you attempt to defend religion by blood, and torments, and evil, this is not to defend, but to violate and pollute it; for there is nothing that should be more free than the choice of religion, in which, if consent be wanting, it becomes entirely void and ineffectual."
The general conduct of Christians during the first three centuries was in conformity with the admirable maxims now quoted. Eusebius has recorded that Polycarp, after in vain endeavouring to persuade Anicetus, who was bishop of Rome, to embrace his opinion as to some point with respect to which they differed, gave him, notwithstanding, the kiss of peace, while Anicetus communicated with the martyr; and Irenaeus mentions that although Polycarp was much offended with the Gnostic heretics, who abounded in his days, he converted numbers of them, not by the application of constraint or violence, but by the facts and arguments which he calmly submitted for their consideration. It must be admitted, however, that even during the second century some traces of persecution are to be found. Victor, one of the early pontiffs, because the Asiatic bishops differed from him about the rule for the observation of Easter, excommunicated them as guilty of heresy; and he acted in the same manner toward a person who held what he considered as erroneous notions respecting the trinity. This stretch of authority was, indeed, reprobated by the generality of Christians, and remonstrances against it were accordingly presented. There was, however, in this proceeding of Victor, too clear a proof that the church was beginning to deviate from the perfect charity by which it had been adorned, and too sure an indication that the example of one who held so high an office, when it was in harmony with the corruption or with the worst passions of our nature, would be extensively followed. But still there was, in the excommunication rashly pronounced by the pope, merely an exertion of ecclesiastical power, not interfering with the personal security, with the property, or with the lives of those against whom it was directed; and we may, notwithstanding this slight exception, consider the first three centuries as marked by the candour and the benevolence implied in the charity which judgeth not, and thinketh no evil.
It was after Christianity had been established as the religion of the empire, and after wealth and honour had been conferred on its ministers, that the monstrous evil of persecution acquired gigantic strength, and threw its blasting influence over the religion of the Gospel. The causes of this are apparent. Men exalted in the scale of society were eager to extend the power which had been intrusted to them; and they sought to do so by exacting from the people acquiescence in the peculiar interpretations of tenets and doctrines which they chose to publish as articles of faith. The moment that this was attempted, the foundation was laid for the most inflexible intolerance; because reluctance to submit was no longer regarded solely as a matter of conscience, but as interfering with the interest and the dominion of the ruling party. It was therefore proceeded against with all the eagerness which men so unequivocally display when the temporal blessings that gratify their ambition or add to their comfort are attempted to be wrested from them. To other dictates than those of the word of God the members of the church now listened; and opinions were viewed, not in reference to that word, but to the effect which they might produce upon the worldly advancement or prosperity of those by whom they were avowed. From the era, then, of the conversion of Constantine we may date, if not altogether the introduction, at least the decisive influence of persecution.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Persecution
PERSECUTION. Jesus Christ frequently warned His disciples that persecution would be the lot of all who followed Him ( John 15:18 ; John 15:20 ). So far from being dismayed at this, it should be a cause of rejoicing ( Matthew 5:11-12 ). The early Church had not long to wait for the fulfilment of these words. The martyrdom of Stephen was the signal for a fierce outburst of persecution against the Christians of Jerusalem, by which they were scattered in all directions. Saul of Tarsus was the moving spirit in this matter, until, on his road to Damascus to proceed against the Christians there, ‘Christ’s foe became His soldier.’ The conversion of Saul seems to have stayed the persecution. The attempt of Caligula to set up his statue in the Temple at Jerusalem also diverted the attention of the Jews from all else. Hence ‘the churches had rest’ ( Acts 9:31 ).
The next persecution was begun by Herod, who put to death the Apostle St. James, and would have done the same to St. Peter had he not been delivered. Herod’s motive was probably to gain a cheap popularity, but the persecution was ended by his own sudden and terrible death.
After this the history of persecution becomes more the history of the sufferings of certain individuals, such as St. Paul, though passages in the Epistles show us that the spirit of persecution was alive even if the details of what took place are hidden from us (1 Thessalonians 2:14 , Hebrews 10:32-33 , 1 Peter 2:19-25 ). Finally, in the Revelation of St. John, the seer makes frequent reference to the persecution and martyrdom of the saints as the lot of the Church in all ages.
Morley Stevenson.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Persecution
1. Introduction.-‘For so persecuted they the prophets which were before you’ (Matthew 5:12). ‘If they persecuted me, they will also persecute you’ (John 15:20). Jesus Christ traced the red trail of the martyr’s blood throughout the history of Israel, which He sums up in the words-‘from the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zachariah’ (Genesis 4:8, 2 Chronicles 24:20-21, Luke 11:51). He Himself was in the succession of martyrs, for the trail is deeply marked in connexion with His life. But the trail does not cease at the tragedy of the Cross. It is obvious that our Lord often warned His disciples in regard to the attitude of Jerusalem and Rome to those who would remain faithful to Him and His teaching. He could see the blood-stained track in connexion with the history of the Church. We must consider our subject in the light of this three-fold reference, so that we may see to what degree, and in what sense, the term ‘persecution’ is applicable to the attitude of the nation through its rulers (1) to her religious teachers, (2) to Christ, and (3) to His followers. When we deal with Jesus Christ and His followers we shall find Jerusalem allying herself with Rome in her effort to crush the New Teacher and His teaching, and finally Rome taking matters into her own hands, and devoting her whole energy to the extermination of what one of her historians described as a pestilent superstition._
If we define ‘persecution’ provisionally as the infliction of suffering, whether it be temporary discomfort or death, upon individuals for holding or advocating religious views, and adopting or propagating religious practices, which are obnoxious to the community, or to those in authority, we shall have a definition sufficiently broad and comprehensive to cover the cases in connexion with which the term has been used. It may not be necessary for the persecuted persons to be active in the propagation of their tenets, although the strong conviction, which has generally inspired men to endure persecution rather than abandon their views, produces the missionary spirit. Those who inflict punishment on religious offenders may not admit the charge of persecution, as, according to them, the whole life of the individual is subject to the control of the State, and any and every activity comes under the law of the land. In the strict sense of the term, the infliction of suffering on account of religious opinions is persecution, if the adoption of such views on the part of individuals is not incompatible with loyalty to the throne or the secular power, and with the due discharge of their duties as citizens of the realm. From the point of view of the State, such punishment deserves to be described as persecution if the secular authorities admit the contention that there is a sphere within which the secular authority has no jurisdiction, and if nevertheless it punish those who use their freedom within this sphere. But the advocates of punishment in the case of religious recusancy deny the existence of such a sphere in the life of the individual, and therefore they do not plead guilty to the charge of persecution. In short, the whole problem is concerned with the assertion on the part of the individual, and the denial on the part of the State, that there is a sphere within which the subject is free, and must be permitted to follow the promptings of his conscience. When we consider, in its historical aspects, the relationship between the individual and the State, and when we trace the struggle on the part of the former to secure that measure of freedom which individuality presupposes, it becomes clear that there is a region which the individual claims as his own peculiar territory. For the annexation of this territory, and afterwards for the defence of it, Hebrew prophet and Christian martyr have laid down their lives, and the struggle has been continued throughout the centuries in many lands. It is being increasingly recognized that the individual has demonstrated the justice of his claim to the sole possession of this territory. Within this limited sphere he is free. To change the figure, whilst the individual admits the right of the State to enter the Outer Court and even the Holy Place, there is a Holy of Holies which is reserved for himself. There he deals not with the State, or with his fellow-citizens, but with God. As we follow the struggle for religious freedom, whether the struggle be with the secular authority or with a Church which has taken the place of the State, and exercises its functions, it is plain that the conflict is waged around this territory-the freedom of the religious man. Whether they are Hebrew prophets or Christian martyrs-Albigenses, Pilgrim Fathers, or Huguenots-the struggle is at bottom of the same nature, and for the same ideal. It will not be denied that various motives have been operative, both in the case of those who persecute, and of those who submit to persecution; for it is seldom that human motives are unmixed. Nevertheless the passion for religious freedom has been a genuine and powerful factor in all the truculent conflicts between the State or the Church on the one hand, and individuals or communities on the other who have refused to conform. It may be said that no other motive would have been potent enough to create that ‘sheer obstinacy’ of which Marcus Aurelius had occasion to complain in the case of the Christians of his time. But kings have been loath to acknowledge the right of subjects to decide for themselves how they are to worship, or what they are to believe. States have persecuted because they have refused to recognize the existence of a sphere in which men are free, and men have endured persecution because they have grasped, more or less clearly, the truth that freedom belongs to the very essence of the religious attitude, and determines its moral worth. They have endured great affliction, and taken joyfully the spoiling of their possessions, seeing they had themselves for a better possession. This better spiritual possession was conditioned by their retaining their religious freedom (Hebrews 10:32; Hebrews 10:34).
2. Persecution in the OT.-In Matthew 5:12 Jesus Christ warns His disciples of the troublous times which await them at the hands of the representatives of Judaism, and reminds them that their experience will be a repetition of the bitter experience of the nation’s religious teachers whom God had raised up from time to time, and whose writings indicate their growing insight into the nature of God and religion. To Jerusalem our Lord gave the hard but not unjust name of ‘prophet-killer’ (Matthew 23:35, Luke 13:34). Stephen re-echced his Master’s interpretation of the nation’s attitude when he asked ‘which of the prophets did not your fathers persecute?’ (Acts 7:52). Jesus charged His contemporaries with raising sepulchres to the prophets whom their ancestors had put to death (Luke 11:47). He did not mean that they erected expiatory monuments to the nation’s martyrs. The sepulchres they built indicated their approval of the misdeeds of their forefathers. In the parable of the Vineyard He gave a similar account of the nation’s attitude to her God-sent teachers (Mark 12:3 ff.).
But it is obvious that the prophets were not simply men who suffered for their religious opinions. They were aggressive religious and social reformers. In their teaching they came into collision with the existing order of things in social life and religious custom. In the period which succeeded the settlement of the Israelites in Canaan the people adopted the gods and the religious observances of the original inhabitants of the land. The prophets of this early age advocated the sole worship of Jahweh. Moses impressed upon Israel the two-fold truth-Jahweh is Israel’s God, and Israel is Jahweh’s people. The burden of early prophecy was ‘Israel for Jahweh’ and ‘Jahweh for Israel.’ They were patriots rather than religious teachers. Patriotism and religion were identical. They opposed the popular tendency to worship the gods, and imitate the religion, of Canaan, as it indicated disloyalty to Jahweh. They were not fully aware of any profound difference between Jahweh and other gods, except that Jahweh was the God of Israel, and, as such, interested in the welfare of Israel and entitled to their undivided homage.
When we come to Elijah, we find ourselves on the confines of a new age. Henceforth the prophets denounced the existing order of things-religious and social. They ethicized theology and religion, and in their capacity as religious teachers they became inevitably social reformers, for the whole basis and structure of society were religious. The message they delivered became increasingly unpalatable, especially to those who were responsible for the existing State. The true prophets parted company with the false prophets because they would not ‘fall in’ and preach what was popular. In the time of Elijah the antagonism between the prophet and the throne-or between religious conviction and the secular authority-issues in open conflict. Elijah is more than a passive resister; he carries the conflict into the enemy’s territory, and fights the throne with its own weapons. We have seen that Elijah, like his predecessors, advocated the sole worship of Jahweh. Ahab had married the daughter of the king of Tyre, and proceeded to strengthen the alliance between Israel and Tyre by introducing the worship of Melkarth, the presiding deity of Tyre. The example of the throne was a potent influence in the life of Israel. It was easy to persuade the people that the alliance with Tyre was not complete unless the Tyrian Baal shared with Jahweh the homage of Israel. The people were halting between two opinions. They were not conscious of any inconsistency or duplicity. If gods could help, the more gods they worshipped the better. There was safety in numbers. Elijah stemmed the tide and a strong party refused to follow the example of the throne. The conflict between Elijah and Ahab was not simply whether one god or another should be worshipped-Jahweh of Israel or Melkarth of Tyre. It was a clashing of two incompatible theologies. It is probable that Ahab would have recommended the worship of both deities. The tendency of the age was in the direction of religious syncretism. But from Elijah’s standpoint it was a matter of impossibility to practise this religious dualism. We can trace in Elijah’s attitude the germ of that exclusiveness which is inevitable when the terms ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ or ‘true’ and ‘false’ are introduced into religion. The line of cleavage is sharply drawn in the story of the prophet’s life. Right is exclusive; truth is intolerant. It was absolutely necessary that the stand should be made and the protest raised. To Elijah ‘Baal and Yahweh represented, so to speak, a contrast of principles, of profound and ultimate practical convictions; both could not be right, nor could they exist side by side. For him there existed no plurality of Divine Powers, operating with equal authority in different spheres, but everywhere One Holy and Mighty Being, who revealed Himself, not in the life of nature, but in those laws by which alone human society is held together, in the ethical demands of the spirit’ (J. Wellhausen, Isr. und jüd. Gesch.3, Berlin, 1897, p. 74, quoted in Century Bible, ‘1 and 2 Kings,’ Edinburgh, n.d., p. 222). We must not be surprised or disappointed that Elijah believed in the use of force. Centuries must pass before the idea is fully understood that religion is voluntary, and that ccercion is alien to its very nature. Elijah delighted in violent measures. He was at home in an environment of earthquake, storm, and fire. He met the king on his own ground, and prosecuted the struggle with his own weapons. Moral suasion would have made no appeal to the mind of the age, and it was only poetic justice that the prophet was able to turn the tables on his adversaries. It is not always easy to decide whether Elijah or Ahab is the persecutor, for both believed in violence as the only means to the end which they had in view. But we find in the story of the life and work of Elijah a religious conviction that is daring enough to stand up to the secular authority and defy its directions. Ahab’s policy may seem to suggest breadth of mind, whilst Elijah’s attitude betokens theological narrowness; but in this case the narrow way was the way of life, whilst the broad way was also the way of death.
But Elijah came into still closer grips with Ahab. He denounced the throne on moral grounds. He spoke in the name of Jahweh, and therefore in the name of righteousness. The prophet’s predecessors identified the cult of Jahweh with patriotism. Elijah identified the worship of Jahweh with social morality. This was the new note which prophecy struck, and it occurs as a refrain in the teaching of all his successors. Elijah had the courage to denounce Ahab for his treatment of Naboth, and the prophet did so, not as a statesman or economist, but as a theologian. The religion of Jahweh issues in social righteousness. Ahab might worship Baal and steal his subject’s private property. As a worshipper of Jahweh he could only ‘do justly.’ Jahweh’s will was everlasting right. The problem raised by the king’s seizure of Naboth’s estate was not social or economical, but religious, for it fell within the scope of the religion of Jahweh. Ahab’s conduct was not larceny, but sacrilege. It was not the violation of a social law as such that roused the anger of the prophet, but his defiance of the will of God. For Jahweh requires of His worshippers that they do justly (Micah 6:8). When the prophet condemned the king’s effort to legitimize the worship of the Tyrian Baal, or his unsocial conduct, he spoke in the name of God, and in the interest of religion. He was prepared to employ force himself, as he was ready to endure persecution rather than cease from condemning what he believed to be wrong or false, i.e. contrary to the Divine will, or from advocating what he believed to be right and true. We shall search in vain for a parallel fact in the whole Semitic world. In other lands the prophets were obliging courtiers and fell in with the royal wishes. We should traverse the Semitic world in vain for an attitude like that of Micaiah-ben-Imlah-‘what the Lord saith unto me, that will I speak’ (1 Kings 22:14)-when the king had given peremptory orders that he should fall in with his fellow-prophets. The latter received their reward in royal bounties, but Micaiah’s message secured for him the bread-and-water diet of the jail (1 Kings 22:27).
Elijah was the Wycliffe of Hebrew prophetism; the principles which emerge in connexion with the story of his life were clearly grasped by Amos and his successors, and fearlessly applied to the criticism of the religious and social situation of Israel and Judah. The prophets loved their nation and their country. There never were truer patriots than Hosea and Jeremiah. But they were not patriots of the common type. They would not preach smooth things. That was the privilege of the court-prophets whose message was inspired from the throne. The false prophet was concerned with the question ‘What does the king want?’ The true prophet was concerned with the question ‘What does Jahweh your God require?’ The latter was sure of his ground and of the Divine approval as the former was of his reward and of the royal favour. The prophets thus came into collision with current theology, for they declared that Jahweh was not simply the God of Israel, but the God of righteousness, and they came up against popular religion, for they identified religion with the practice of social justice. Their patriotism was sincere and unmistakable, but they placed social righteousness above the mere continuity or safety of the realm or the mere practice of ceremonial religion. Their theology played havoc with the current belief that Jahweh was simply the God of Israel, as well as with the prevalent view that religion was ritual. If Jahweh was a moral governor, and if, further, the national life was totally at variance with the requirements of ethical religion, the expected ‘day of Jahweh’ would be darkness and not light-disaster, not deliverance (Amos 5:18). The power that worked for righteousness in national and international affairs would wreck any society which ignored or violated the fundamental principle of moral government, for the will of Jahweh must prevail. Their theology made the prophets preachers of judgment and destruction. The doom which they announced might be staved off by national repentance and reform, but Jeremiah, who had witnessed a religious reformation carried out by the throne, was forced to the conclusion that repentance of the true kind was beyond the reach of Judah. The nation’s illness was incurable (Jeremiah 30:12-15). It was inevitable that the prophet should come into collision with the State. The prophet would not be cajoled, threatened, or silenced; his consciousness of the urgency of his message was such that silence, or even any modification of the truth as he perceived it, would be moral treachery. The prophet is necessarily insistent, uncompromising, intolerant, exclusive. To him the line of demarcation between the true and false-the right and wrong-is clear, and it must be recognized and enforced. The retort of the nation’s official leaders to this fearless exposition of the demands of true religion was persecution.
3. Persecution of the Jews by the Seleucid kings.-It is universally admitted that the Exile introduced a new epoch in the history of the Jew. But it is easy to exaggerate the nature of the cleavage. There are no absolute beginnings in the history of nations. The student has no difficulty in discovering ample evidence of continuity in social organization and religious praxis. Nevertheless the post-Exilic period was a new age in the history of the nation. The religious leaders of the new age believed that the Exile was the judgment announced by their pre-Exilic predecessors. The nation had completed her period of servitude and made ample compensation for all her sins. Her iniquity was pardoned (Isaiah 40:2). According to the teaching of the prophets the Israel of God would be a nation which organized its whole life-social and religious-in accordance with the Divine will. Such a people would constitute a kingdom of God. It was the belief of the post-Exilic community that its national life was organized on the lines laid down in the Book of the Law. Judah had become once more the people of Jahweh; in possession of a Bible which embodied the will of God, and controlled her whole life, she stood over against the Gentile world, with its idols and superstitions. God was known and worshipped only in Judah. Pure religion was the sole possession of the Jew.
The rest of the world was without God and without religion, for the gods of the nations were idols, and their religions were superstitions. The post-Exilic Jew was conscious of his superiority among the nations of the Semitic world, and his tendency was to stand aloof in contemptuous isolation. In post-Exilic literature we can trace the universalism of Deutero-Isaiah and the particularism of Ezekiel and Ezra. The Jew owed no less to the universalism of the former than to the particularism of the latter his sense of superiority to the rest of the world. In both Judah occupied a central and unique position. According to Deutero-Isaiah it was the mission of Israel to convert the nations of the world and make the religion of Judah the religion of the nations. According to Ezekiel the Jew would come to his inheritance through the annihilation of the heathen. The one believed in the incorporation, and the other in the destruction, of the nations. The Jew found a solid foundation for his religious exclusivism in Deutero-Isaiah as well as in Ezekiel. To the former Jahweh alone was God, and Israel was His servant and His missionary to the ends of the earth. No God but Jahweh-no religion but the religion of Judah: a people that held that view dwelt alone in the ancient world with its easy-going polytheism and its indolent syncretism.
The result was that every conqueror found in Judah an attitude which he discovered nowhere else throughout the Semitic world, and he could no more understand the significance of it than the Roman Emperor at a later date could understand the attitude of the Christian believer. Other nations were prepared to fall in with the wishes of the conqueror. They were willing conformists, but Judah was an implacable nonconformist. ‘You are the only people,’ said Agrippa, in his effort to dissuade the Jews from rebelling against Rome, ‘who think it a disgrace to be servants of those to whom all the world hath submitted.’ Judah would not submit, and the reasons for her recusancy were not so much political as religious. Judah’s nationalism was rooted in her religion. The cause of Judah was the cause of Jahweh. The Kingdom of God was identified with the kingdom of Judah. It is interesting to note that the nation’s religious teachers in the past arraigned Israel on the ground of her eagerness to imitate neighbouring nations by adopting their gods and religious customs. It was during the exile in Babylon that the Jew thoroughly mastered the prophetic doctrine of the uniqueness of Jahweh and of His religion. Conscious of the nature of the possession which he had in his religion, he cultivated national self-confidence and self-reliance, which ultimately degenerated into national pride and exclusiveness. In exile the Jew learnt how to resist the pressure of a hostile environment, and the lesson stood him in good stead throughout the post-Exilic period, for the position of Judah in the Semitic world was precisely the position of the exiles in Babylon. The Book of Daniel, which purports to describe the situation of the Jew in exile, could not be otherwise than a powerful appeal to Judah in the 2nd cent. b.c. to imitate the heroes of the Exile and remain loyal to her ancestral faith and religion. But a nation like this was a disturbing element and a standing menace to the unity of the Empire to which it belonged. Most nations are conquered when their army is defeated, their territory annexed, and their independence taken from them. Nation after nation in the Semitic world succumbed to the domination of the Macedonian conqueror. But neither Assyria nor Babylon, nor Persia, nor Macedon nor Rome conquered Judah, for a nation is conquered only when her soul is subjugated. Judah retained her unconquerable soul. Antiochus Epiphanes, the most powerful representative of the Seleucid dynasty, made an effort to complete the subjugation of Judah by conquering her soul, but in his campaign he came across a stronghold in the nation’s conscience-or her religious self-consciousness-which defied all his assaults. The invader possessed no arms to carry the campaign to a successful issue. Antiochus was an extremely able ruler. It was his programme to unify his Empire by universalizing Hellenism. Greek civilization was to be the tie that would bind together the different parts of his heterogeneous Empire. It was a magnificent scheme, well conceived and vigorously carried out, and the Emperor met with little or no opposition until he reached Judah. He did not persecute on religious grounds. The Emperor had no deep-rooted objection to the religion of Judah-except its exclusiveness. He approached the problem as a ruler, and his policy was the unification of his Empire by exterminating national religions. But Judah’s resistance was religious and not political. Mattathias of Modin raised the standard of revolt, and the rising, in its initial stages, was inspired by loyalty to the ancestral religion. It ultimately resolved itself into an attempt to secure the political independence of Judah, for the simple reason that full religious liberty is a precarious possession without political independence. But it was the desecration of the Temple, and the attempt to force loyal Jews to sacrifice to heathen deities that roused the are of the nation, and moved the Maccabaean family to defend the national religion. It is extremely probable that many Psalms date from this period, and the fierce nature of the struggle carried on by the Maccabees in defence of their ‘nation, religion, and laws’ is reflected in those passionate hymns which still throb with the intense feeling which the conflict roused in the breasts of the Ḥasidim, or ‘loyalists,’ who supported Judas Maccabaeus in his campaign.
In regard to persecution on the part of the Church of Rome, Lecky writes: ‘If men believe with an intense and realising faith that their own view of a disputed question is true beyond all possibility of mistake … these men will, sooner or later, persecute to the full extent of their power.’_ This ‘intense faith,’ which accounts for the will to persecute on the part of the Church, also explains the willingness on the part of religious persons to be persecuted rather than abandon their faith. Antiochus Epiphanes was not actuated by any such intense faith in Greek culture. He was concerned solely with his dream of a homogeneous Empire, but Judaism was inspired by this ‘intense faith,’ with the result that the Jew, as afterwards the Christian believer, constituted a problem to the rulers of the ancient world. Seleucid rulers found in Judaism, as Roman procurators and proconsuls found in Christianity, an obstinacy which baffled all their efforts to secure universal uniformity. It was not an inheritance in the case of the Christian Church from the Jewish synagogue, but the outcome of the ‘intense faith’ which inspired Jew and Christian to endure torture, not accepting deliverance (Hebrews 11:35).
4. Persecution of Jesus by the Jews.-Irenaeus called Jesus Christ the ‘Master of Martyrdom.’ The martyrs followed in His footsteps. In each martyr Origen saw the Lord Himself condemned. The true imitatio Christi was martyrdom. John calls Jesus Christ ‘the faithful witness’ (Revelation 1:5), and Paul adds that He ‘witnessed the good confession’ (1 Timothy 6:13). Our Lord warned His disciples that the persecution which He endured would also be their lot (John 15:18). It becomes, therefore, necessary to examine the opposition which culminated in the tragedy of the Cross, and the reasons which actuated Jerusalem and Rome in their combined resolve to compass His death. According to the Gospels, Jesus Christ was conscious of a growing premonition as to the issue of the conflict between Himself on the one hand and the Pharisees and Sadducees on the other, the representatives of the democracy and the aristocracy of Judaea . The Pharisees were the nationalist party, and carried on the traditions of the Ḥasidim, or ‘loyalists,’ who supported Judas Maccabaeus in his struggle for religious liberty in the 2nd cent., whilst the Sadducees were the priestly caste, and were willing to put up with Roman domination as long as they were left in undisturbed possession of priestly prerogatives, and especially of the revenues of the Temple. Jesus Christ could not miss their growing hostility to Him and His teaching, and the ominous closing of the ranks on the part of these prominent parties which otherwise had very little in common. The Pharisees were profoundly religious. Their religion consisted in rigid observance of the ‘Law,’ and of the ‘traditions of the fathers.’ To the religious zeal of the Puritan they added intense patriotism. But their religion was soulless formalism. They were not lacking in religious self-confidence. The Pharisaic Paul contended that in the light of the Pharisaic ideal he was blameless (Philippians 3). They made a fetish of the Law. It had come from God, and contained a complete and final system of religious praxis. They were rigorously and exclusively Jewish in their outlook. There was nothing good outside Judaism. They were immovably opposed to anything and everything foreign. Among them the Messianic hope flourished. From their midst emanated the apocalyptic literature of the nation, with its dream of a glorious triumph for Judah. The dream of a world-wide kingdom troubled the long sleep of Jewish oppression, and occasionally the sleep was disturbed by a violent effort to realize the national ambition and shake off the yoke which weighed like an incubus upon the nation’s soul. But the Pharisees did not fall in with the policy of the ‘zealots’ or ‘Cananaeans’ or the followers of Judas of Gal
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Persecution (2)
PERSECUTION.—(1) Christ foresaw that persecution would be His inevitable lot and that of His true followers. Repeatedly He foretold the main incidents of His Passion (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 17:22-23; Matthew 20:18-19; Matthew 26:2, Matthew 8:31; Matthew 9:31; Matthew 10:32-34). (2) Christ also forewarned His disciples that they too must suffer persecution (Matthew 24:9, Mark 4:17; Mark 10:30, Luke 11:49; Luke 21:12; Luke 21:16, John 16:2-4; John 16:33). (3) Persecution was the test of true discipleship. It was mentioned in the parable of the Sower as the cause of defection among superficial believers (Mark 4:17, Matthew 13:21). (4) It was the sure means of gaining a blessing, and as such is particularly referred to in the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:10-12).
The methods of persecution adopted against Christ and His immediate followers were such as contempt and disparagement (John 8:48); ascription of Christ’s miracles to the power of the Evil One (Matthew 12:24); expulsion of those believing on Him from the synagogue (John 9:22; John 9:34); attempts to entrap Him in His words (Matthew 22:15, John 8:6); questioning His authority (Mark 11:28, Matthew 21:23); (after the failure of the former) illegal arrest and the heaping of every kind of insult upon the Prisoner, who was entitled to protection from the authorities until the authorized penalty was laid upon Him (Matthew 26:67 ff. and parallels). See also art. Name, p. 217b.
It was the fear of persecution that drove the disciples to forsake their Master at the hour of His arrest (Matthew 26:56 and parallels).
C. H. Prichard.

Sentence search

Persecution - Persecution. Jesus Christ frequently warned His disciples that Persecution would be the lot of all who followed Him ( John 15:18 ; John 15:20 ). The martyrdom of Stephen was the signal for a fierce outburst of Persecution against the Christians of Jerusalem, by which they were scattered in all directions. ’ The conversion of Saul seems to have stayed the Persecution. ...
The next Persecution was begun by Herod, who put to death the Apostle St. Herod’s motive was probably to gain a cheap popularity, but the Persecution was ended by his own sudden and terrible death. ...
After this the history of Persecution becomes more the history of the sufferings of certain individuals, such as St. Paul, though passages in the Epistles show us that the spirit of Persecution was alive even if the details of what took place are hidden from us (1 Thessalonians 2:14 , Hebrews 10:32-33 , 1 Peter 2:19-25 ). John, the seer makes frequent reference to the Persecution and martyrdom of the saints as the lot of the Church in all ages
Affliction - See Persecution ; Suffering ...
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Tribulation - See Persecution ; Suffering ...
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Tribulation - In Scripture, it often denotes the troubles and distresses which proceed from Persecution. ...
When tribulation or Persecution ariseth because of the word, he is offended
Confessorship - ) The act or state of suffering Persecution for religious faith
Massacre - ...
See Persecution
Arcadius, Saint - They accompanied the Vandal King Genseric to Africa, but when Persecution broke out were banished from court. Imprisoned for using the Nicene Creed they died under torture and are considered the proto-martyrs of the Vandal Persecution
Eutychianus, Saint - They accompanied the Vandal King Genseric to Africa, but when Persecution broke out were banished from court. Imprisoned for using the Nicene Creed they died under torture and are considered the proto-martyrs of the Vandal Persecution
Persecution (2) - PERSECUTION. —(1) Christ foresaw that Persecution would be His inevitable lot and that of His true followers. (2) Christ also forewarned His disciples that they too must suffer Persecution (Matthew 24:9, Mark 4:17; Mark 10:30, Luke 11:49; Luke 21:12; Luke 21:16, John 16:2-4; John 16:33). (3) Persecution was the test of true discipleship. ...
The methods of Persecution adopted against Christ and His immediate followers were such as contempt and disparagement (John 8:48); ascription of Christ’s miracles to the power of the Evil One (Matthew 12:24); expulsion of those believing on Him from the synagogue (John 9:22; John 9:34); attempts to entrap Him in His words (Matthew 22:15, John 8:6); questioning His authority (Mark 11:28, Matthew 21:23); (after the failure of the former) illegal arrest and the heaping of every kind of insult upon the Prisoner, who was entitled to protection from the authorities until the authorized penalty was laid upon Him (Matthew 26:67 ff. ...
It was the fear of Persecution that drove the disciples to forsake their Master at the hour of His arrest (Matthew 26:56 and parallels)
Dionysius, Pope, Saint - During the Decian Persecution the Holy See was vacant for nearly a year. When the Persecution ceased through the edict of Gallienus, Dionysius was elected pope and the Church was given a legal existence
Lactantius, Lucius Caecilius Firmianus - Christian apologist of the fourth century; wrote a defense of Christianity, and an important historical account of the last Persecution
Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius - Christian apologist of the fourth century; wrote a defense of Christianity, and an important historical account of the last Persecution
Persecution - Christians should not be surprised when they suffer Persecution. ...
Persecution tests the genuineness of a person’s faith, but true believers will endure it, knowing that God will not forsake them (Matthew 13:21; Romans 5:3-5; Romans 8:35; 2 Corinthians 4:9; 2 Thessalonians 1:4). The early Christians proved the reality of God’s presence with them when they suffered Persecution, much of which was at the hands of the Jews (Acts 4:29-31; Acts 5:17-21; Acts 7:54-56; Acts 18:9-10; 2 Timothy 4:17). ...
This Persecution came first from the Sadducees (Acts 4:1-3; Acts 5:17; Acts 5:27-28), then from the Pharisees, whose fiery leader was the young Saul of Tarsus (Acts 7:58-60; Acts 8:1-3; Acts 9:4; Galatians 1:13; Philippians 3:6). In his preaching Paul warned of the Persecution that believers could expect; yet people continued to turn to God. ...
During the reign of Nero the Persecution of Christians became government policy throughout the Empire. So severe was the Persecution that some Christians were tempted to give up their faith in the hope of avoiding trouble (Hebrews 10:32-36). ...
Although official Persecution later died down, it increased again towards the end of the century during the reign of the Emperor Domitian. But no matter how great the Persecution, God’s people are repeatedly assured that in the end they will triumph (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 6:9-11; Revelation 12:11; Revelation 19:1-2)
Antelucan - ) Held or being before light; - a word applied to assemblies of Christians, in ancient times of Persecution, held before light in the morning
Dragonnade - ) The severe Persecution of French Protestants under Louis XIV
Dionysius of Alexandria, Saint - In 250 there was a severe Persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the Persecution ceased, 251. During the Persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the Persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Dionysius the Great - In 250 there was a severe Persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the Persecution ceased, 251. During the Persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the Persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Great, Dionysius the - In 250 there was a severe Persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the Persecution ceased, 251. During the Persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the Persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Alexandria, Dionysius of - In 250 there was a severe Persecution under Decius in Alexandria, which Dionysius attempted to flee, but was taken into custody. He was rescued by Christians and remained in hiding in the Libyan desert until the Persecution ceased, 251. During the Persecution of Valerian, he was banished, 257, to the desert of Mareotis, returning to Alexandria when toleration was decreed, 260, by Gallienus. Dionysius dealt leniently with the Christians who had lapsed during the Persecutions and refused forgiveness to none at the hour of death
Caerleon, Aaron of - Martyr in Wales during the Diocletian Persecution in 303
Aaron of Caerleon, Saint - Martyr in Wales during the Diocletian Persecution in 303
Persecution - The cold water of Persecution is often thrown on the church's face to fetch her to herself when she is in a swoon of indolence or pride
Bartholomew's Day - ...
See Persecution
Apelles - (uh pehl' lehss) A Christian in Rome whom Paul saluted as “approved in Christ” (Romans 16:10 ), which may mean he had been tested by Persecution and proved faithful
Alford, Michael - He labored in England during the Persecution and was the author of an important ecclesiastical and civilhistory of Britain
Taborite - ) One of certain Bohemian reformers who suffered Persecution in the fifteenth century; - so called from Tabor, a hill or fortress where they encamped during a part of their struggles
Philippus, Bishop of Heraclea - of Heraclea in Thrace and martyr in the Diocletian Persecution c. His Acts present one of the most vivid and minute pictures we possess of that Persecution, and are often quoted by Le Blanc in his Actes des Martyrs —e. The various steps in the Persecution can be clearly traced, the arrest of the clergy, the seizure and destruction of the sacred writings and vessels, and finally the torture and death of the martyrs
Irish Colleges on the Continent - Founded to train secular clergy, during the religious Persecution of Elizabeth and James I
Beguard - They arose in the thirteenth century, were afterward subjected to much Persecution, and were suppressed by Innocent X
Abundius, Abundantius, Marcianus, And John, Saints - 304) in the Diocletian Persecution
Waldenses - ) A sect of dissenters from the ecclesiastical system of the Roman Catholic Church, who in the 13th century were driven by Persecution to the valleys of Piedmont, where the sect survives
Marcellinus, Pope Saint - The Diocletian Persecution broke out in 303, during his pontificate
Lucius i, Pope Saint - Soon after his consecration he was exiled during the Persecution of the Emperor Gallus
Abdas, Saint - During the reign of Yezdegerd, he destroyed a Zoroastrian fire-temple; in retaliation a general destruction of all churches was ordered, followed by Persecution, and Abdas was clubbed to death
Gorgonius, Saint - When the Persecution began, Gorgonius remained firm in his faith, was tortured with his companions Dorotheus, Peter, and others, and strangled
Gallienus, Publius Licinius Egnatius - On succeeding his father, Valerian, Gallienus put an end to the Persecution of the Christians, begun in 257
Silvanus, Bishop of Emesa - In extreme old age, after 40 years' episcopate, he was thrown to the wild beasts in Diocletian's Persecution
May Laws - ...
(2):...
In Russia, severe oppressive laws against Jews, which have given occasion for great Persecution; - so called because they received the assent of the czar in May, 1882, and because likened to the Prussian May laws (see Kulturkampf)
Persecution - The establishment of Christianity was opposed by the powers of the world, and occasioned several severe Persecutions against Christians, during the reigns of several Roman emperors. As far the greater number of the first converts to Christianity were of the Jewish nation, one secondary cause for their being so long preserved from Persecution may probably be deduced from their appearing to the Roman governors only as a sect of Jews, who had seceded from the rest of their brethren on account of some opinion, trifling in its importance, and perhaps difficult to be understood. Historians usually reckon ten general Persecutions. ...
First general Persecution. ) This Persecution was not confined to Rome: the emperor issued edicts against the Christians throughout most of the provinces of the empire. ...
Second general Persecution. —From the death of Nero to the reign of Domitian, the Christians remained unmolested and daily increasing; but toward the close of the first century, they were again involved in all the horrors of Persecution. In this Persecution many eminent Christians suffered; but the death, of Domitian soon delivered them from this calamity. ...
Third general Persecution. —This Persecution began in the third year of the Emperor Trajan, A. Under the plausible pretence of their holding illegal meetings and societies, they were severely persecuted by the governors and other officers; in which Persecution great numbers fell by the rage of popular tumult, as well as by laws and processes. This Persecution continued several years, with different degrees of severity in many parts of the empire; and was so much the more afflicting, because the Christians generally suffered under the notion of malefactors and traitors, and under an emperor famed for his singular justice and moderation. The most noted martyr in this Persecution was Clement, bishop of Rome. After some time the fury of this Persecution was abated, but did not cease during the whole reign of Trajan. This is by some called the fourth general Persecution; but is more commonly considered as a revival or continuance of the third. ...
Fourth general Persecution. Antoninus himself has been much excused as to this Persecution. Among many other victims of Persecution in this philosophic reign, we must also record that of the excellent and learned Justin. ...
Fifth general Persecution. This law appears, upon a first view, designed merely to impede the farther progress of Christianity; but it incited the magistracy to enforce the laws of former emperors, which were still existing, against the Christians; and during seven years they were exposed to a rigorous Persecution in Palestine, Egypt, the rest of Africa, Italy, Gaul, and other parts. In this Persecution Leonidas, the father of Origen, and Irenaeus, bishop of Lyons, suffered martyrdom. ...
Sixth general Persecution. —This Persecution began with the reign of the Emperor Maximinus, A. Though this Persecution was very severe in some places, yet we have the names of only a few martyrs. ...
Seventh general Persecution. —This was the most dreadful Persecution that ever had been known in the church. It has been said, and with some probability, that the Christians were involved in this Persecution by their attachment to the family of the Emperor Philip. The city of Alexandria, the great theatre of Persecution, had even anticipated the edicts of the emperor, and had put to death a number of innocent persons, among whom were some women. ...
Eighth general Persecution. ...
Ninth general Persecution. —This Persecution took place under the Emperor Aurelian, A. ...
Tenth general Persecution. —The tenth and last general Persecution of the Christians began in the nineteenth year of the Emperor Diocletian, A. Diocletian, contrary to his inclination was prevailed upon to authorize the Persecution by his edicts. Great numbers of Christians suffered the severest tortures in this Persecution, though the accounts given of it by succeeding historians are probably exaggerated. ...
The guilt of Persecution has, however, been attached to professing Christians. Had men been guided solely by the spirit and the precepts of the Gospel, the conduct of its blessed Author, and the writings and example of his immediate disciples, we might have boldly affirmed that among Christians there could be no tendency to encroach upon freedom of discussion, and no approach to Persecution. But that precept of the Apostle has no reference to the Persecution which it has sometimes been conceived to sanction, and which has been generally directed against men quite sincere in their belief, however erroneous that belief may be esteemed. Lactantius in particular has, with great force and beauty, delivered his opinion against Persecution: "There is no need of compulsion and violence, because religion cannot be forced; and men must be made willing, not by stripes, but by arguments. It must be admitted, however, that even during the second century some traces of Persecution are to be found. ...
It was after Christianity had been established as the religion of the empire, and after wealth and honour had been conferred on its ministers, that the monstrous evil of Persecution acquired gigantic strength, and threw its blasting influence over the religion of the Gospel. From the era, then, of the conversion of Constantine we may date, if not altogether the introduction, at least the decisive influence of Persecution
Donatus, Saint - He was educated at Rome, fled to Arezzo during the Persecution of Diocletian, and was elected bishop in 346
Martyrs of Uganda - Christian court pages of Mwanga, King of Uganda, Africa, who, influenced by Arabs, began a Persecution against the Christians
Uganda, Martyrs of - Christian court pages of Mwanga, King of Uganda, Africa, who, influenced by Arabs, began a Persecution against the Christians
Nero - Nero was the emperor before whom Paul was brought on his first imprisonment at Rome, and the apostle is supposed to have suffered martyrdom during this Persecution
Affliction - The cause of continued pain of body or mind, as sickness, losses, calamity, adversity, Persecution
Beatitudes - The blessings pronounced in the opening words of the Sermon on the Mount: eight in Saint Matthew, on ...
the poor in spirit,
the meek,
mourners,
justice-seekers,
the merciful,
peacemakers,
clean of heart,
persecuted;
and four in Saint Luke, ...
the poor in spirit,
justice-seekers,
mourners,
victims of Persecution
Refugee - ) Especially, one who, in times of Persecution or political commotion, flees to a foreign power or country for safety; as, the French refugees who left France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes
Abdon - Persian noblemen, died Rome, Italy, c250 They were tortured and beheaded in the Persecution under Decius
Sennen, Saint - Persian noblemen, died Rome, Italy, c250 They were tortured and beheaded in the Persecution under Decius
Persecute, Persecution - persecuted" (AV, "suffer Persecution"); so Galatians 6:12 ; Philippians 3:6 ; 2 Timothy 3:12 , "shall suffer Persecution;" Revelation 12:13 . ...
Note: In Acts 11:19 , AV, thlipsis, "tribulation" (RV), is translated "persecution
Conventicle - , such an assembly held privately, as in times of Persecution, by Nonconformists or Dissenters in England, or by Covenanters in Scotland; - often used opprobriously, as if those assembled were heretics or schismatics
Refugees - A term first applied to the French Protestants, who, by the revocation of the edict of Nantes, were constrained to fly from Persecution, and take refuge in foreign countries
Alexander the Charcoal Burner, Saint - He was burned to death in the Persecution of Decius
Persecution in the Bible - Persecution seeks to intimidate, silence, punish, or even to kill people. ...
Old Testament Israel was the agent of Persecution of nations (Judges 2:11-23 ; Leviticus 26:7-8 ). The prophets—Amos (1 Kings 7:10-12 ), Jeremiah (1 Peter 5:6-14 ; Jeremiah 1:19 ; Jeremiah 37-38 ), and Urijah (Jeremiah 26:20-23 )—suffered Persecution because they fleshed out the will of God in adverse circumstances. In this conflict, Persecution took place on both sides (1,2Maccabees). In an evil world, disciples are to expect Persecution (Matthew 10:16-23 ; Mark 4:17 ; 1 Peter 3:13-1823 ; John 15:20 ; John 16:2 ), just as was the case with the prophets in the Old Testament (Matthew 5:12 ; Matthew 23:31 ; Luke 11:47-51 ; Acts 7:52 ; Hebrews 11:32-38 ). ...
Whole epistles and books like 1Peter, Hebrews, and Revelation were written to encourage Christians in a situation of Persecution (1618384894_5 ; 1 Peter 4:12-19 ; Jeremiah 15:15 ; Hebrews 10:32-39 ; Hebrews 12:3 ; Revelation 2-3 ). Something like a theology of Persecution emerged, which emphasized patience, endurance, and steadfastness (Romans 12:12 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:14-16 ; James 5:7-11 ); prayer (Matthew 5:44 ; Romans 12:14 ; 1 Corinthians 4:12 ); thanksgiving (2 Thessalonians 1:4 ); testing (Mark 4:17 ) and the strengthening of faith (1 Thessalonians 3:2-3 ); experiencing the grace of God (Romans 8:35 ; 2 Corinthians 4:9 , 2 Corinthians 12:10 ), and being blessed through suffering (Matthew 5:10-12 ; 1 Peter 3:14 ; 1 Peter 4:12-14 ). ...
There seems to be an element in religious fanaticism (Paul before his conversion: 1 Corinthians 15:9 ; Galatians 1:13 ,Galatians 1:13,1:23 ; Philippians 3:6 ; Acts 8:3 ; Acts 9:1-2 ; Acts 22:4 ) which breeds intolerance and can lead to Persecution. Christians should repent of this element in their own history and must be radically committed to the abolition of all Persecution
Persecution - Just as the Bible graphically describes the introduction and spread of sin in the world, it also depicts the presence and reality of oppression and Persecution in the world and presents many examples of people persecuting God, people persecuting people, nations persecuting nations, the wicked persecuting the righteous, and even, in some cases, the righteous persecuting the wicked or other righteous persons. ...
The Meaning of Persecution . The primary Hebrew word for Persecution, radap
The Nature of Persecution . Both the Old Testament and New Testament give examples of physical, social, mental, and spiritual Persecution. Physical Persecution includes taking another's life (Genesis 4 , Cain murdering Abel) or maiming the body (Exodus 22,23 ). Social Persecution (sometimes called discrimination) consists of making individuals or a group outcasts. An example of extreme mental and spiritual Persecution is seen when Peter and John were threatened not to preach the gospel (Acts 5:28,40 ). ...
The Objects of the Persecution . All of this Persecution of the godly came as the result of the sin and the animosity of sinners who rejected these who lived godly lives and also rejected their message that sinners must repent (Acts 2:38 ) and turn in faith to Jesus Christ for salvation (1 Thessalonians 1:9-10 ). Also the Lord, through natural elements and his own direct power, brings Persecution and calamity on the whole world (Genesis 6-7 Matthew 24:21,29 ; Mark 13:19 ). ...
Reasons for Persecution . ...
The underlying biblical reasons given for Persecution consist of an antipathy of evil toward the good (Matthew 27:39 ); of wicked men opposing God and rejecting his divine precepts (Romans 3:10-18 ). The Bible's climactic teaching about the believer and Persecution: "Everyone who wants to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted" (2 Timothy 3:12 ). ...
Reaction to Persecution . Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church ; W. Workman, Persecution in the Early Church
Confessor - ) One who confesses; one who acknowledges a fault, or the truth of a charge, at the risk of suffering; specifically, one who confesses himself a follower of Christ and endures Persecution for his faith
Fish - Among the early Christiansit was used as a secret sign by which they knew one another in thedays of Persecution
Macrina, the Elder - In the Persecution of Galerius and Maximin, Macrina and her husband, to save their lives, left home with a slender equipment and escaped to a hill forest of Pontus, where they are said to have lived in safe retirement for seven years. On the cessation of the Persecution, a. On the renewal of the Persecution they appear to have again suffered
Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius - The intensity of his Persecution of Christians seems to have varied, but he conducted a vigorous Persecution in the western provinces of which he was governor, and certainly had people martyred for their faith
Pamphili, Eusebius - He made the acquaintance of Pamphilus, the founder of the magnificent library which remained for several centuries the glory of the Church of Caesarea, assisted in editing the Septuagint, and when Pamphilus was beheaded in the Persecution of Diocletian assumed the name Eusebius Pamphili. His works include lives of Pamphilus and Constantine, the monumental Chronicle, and the Church History, a storehouse of information collected by an indefatigable student, apologetic treatises, as the "Praeparatio Evangelica," composed during the stress of Persecution, commentaries and treatises on biblical geography, and numerous dogmatic writings, orations, and sermons
Kildare And Leighlin, Ireland, Diocese of - The school of Kildare for men and women was founded by Saint Brigid in the 5th century; became a home of sanctity and learning; suppressed during Elizabethan Persecution; the Round Tower is all that remains. The ruins of 240 churches and 63 religious houses attest the Persecution of that period
Caesarea, Eusebius of - He made the acquaintance of Pamphilus, the founder of the magnificent library which remained for several centuries the glory of the Church of Caesarea, assisted in editing the Septuagint, and when Pamphilus was beheaded in the Persecution of Diocletian assumed the name Eusebius Pamphili. His works include lives of Pamphilus and Constantine, the monumental Chronicle, and the Church History, a storehouse of information collected by an indefatigable student, apologetic treatises, as the "Praeparatio Evangelica," composed during the stress of Persecution, commentaries and treatises on biblical geography, and numerous dogmatic writings, orations, and sermons
Eusebius Pamphili - He made the acquaintance of Pamphilus, the founder of the magnificent library which remained for several centuries the glory of the Church of Caesarea, assisted in editing the Septuagint, and when Pamphilus was beheaded in the Persecution of Diocletian assumed the name Eusebius Pamphili. His works include lives of Pamphilus and Constantine, the monumental Chronicle, and the Church History, a storehouse of information collected by an indefatigable student, apologetic treatises, as the "Praeparatio Evangelica," composed during the stress of Persecution, commentaries and treatises on biblical geography, and numerous dogmatic writings, orations, and sermons
Alexandria, Peter of, Saint - He suffered in the Decian Persecution and was at one time head of the famous catechetical school at Alexandria. When during the Diocletian Persecution Peter left Alexandria for concealment, the Meletian schism broke out among his own clergy, and he had this to contend with at a time when it was all he could do to comfort and guide the captive Christians
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus - The only blot on his fame is the Persecution of the Christians
Dragooning - If the reader's feelings will suffer him to peruse the account of these barbarites, he will find it under the article Persecution in this work
Victor Tununensis - He was a zealous supporter of the "Three Chapters," enduring much Persecution after 556 and till his death c. " It also gives details about the Vandal Persecution, the memory of which must have been still fresh in his youth, and various stories telling against Arianism
John de Britto, Blessed - A repudiated wife of a converted Maravese prince began a general Persecution, and John was martyred
Nazarius, Saint - Nothing is known of them except that their bodies were discovered at Milan by Saint Ambrose, c396 Their apocryphal legend relates that Nazarius was born at Rome, fled to Upper Italy during the Persecution of Nero, and traveled through Gaul with Celsus, a young convert of Cimiez
Cassian, Saint - He was a schoolmaster at Imola when a Persecution broke out, probably that of Decius or Valerian
Celsus, Saint - Nothing is known of them except that their bodies were discovered at Milan by Saint Ambrose, c396 Their apocryphal legend relates that Nazarius was born at Rome, fled to Upper Italy during the Persecution of Nero, and traveled through Gaul with Celsus, a young convert of Cimiez
Shimon ben shetach - (1century BCE) During John Hyrcanus' Persecution of the Pharisees, he was hidden by his sister Salome Alexandra
Simeon ben shetach, rabbi - (1century BCE) During John Hyrcanus' Persecution of the Pharisees, he was hidden by his sister Salome Alexandra
Domitian - For this reason he inaugurated a severe Persecution of the Christians, to which references are made in the Apocalypse, which was written during his time
Domitianus, Titus Flavius - For this reason he inaugurated a severe Persecution of the Christians, to which references are made in the Apocalypse, which was written during his time
Anastasia, Saint - (Greek: resurrection) ...
Martyr (304), died Sirmium (modern Yugoslavia), in the Diocletian Persecution
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus - He is responsible for the violent Persecution of Christianity begun by his father-in-law, 303, which terminated, 311, when he was menaced by Constantine and Maxentius
Andronicus - Romans 9:3 ; Romans 16:11 ; Romans 16:21 ), who had been imprisoned for Christ; distinguished as an Apostle (in the largest sense of the name), and a believer from early days, having perhaps come to Rome after the Persecution of Acts 11:19 )
Godly - ...
All that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer ...
Persecution
Valerius Maximianus Galerius - He is responsible for the violent Persecution of Christianity begun by his father-in-law, 303, which terminated, 311, when he was menaced by Constantine and Maxentius
Rest - In Acts 9:31 , refers to the respite from Persecution enjoyed by the Christians in Palestine, after the conversion of Saul of Tarsus, during the last two years of Caligula's short reign, A
Titus Flavius Domitianus - For this reason he inaugurated a severe Persecution of the Christians, to which references are made in the Apocalypse, which was written during his time
Potimiaena, a Martyr at Alexandria - Potimiaena (June 28), one of the most celebrated martyrs at Alexandria in the Persecution of Severus, being a virgin distinguished alike for her beauty, chastity, and courage
Carthage, Cyprian of, Saint - Converted to Christianity late in life, he was ordained priest, 247, and consecrated Bishop of Carthage, c249 During the Persecution of Decius, begun 250, Cyprian lived in hiding, directing his flock from his place of refuge, and for this reason he was condemned by his enemies. Exiled to Curubis, 257, in the Persecution of Valerian, he was brought back to Carthage and beheaded
Endurance - God has made it plain that his people will at times meet suffering, hardship, Persecution and other trials. Through their endurance, however, they will prove God’s faithfulness and develop true Christian character (Romans 5:3-4; 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:3-4; 2 Timothy 2:3-6; 2 Timothy 2:10-13; Hebrews 11:27; James 1:12; see Persecution; SUFFERING; TESTING)
Julitta, Saint - According to their Acts, Julitta fled with her three months old son, Quiricus (Cirycus), from Lycaonia at the outbreak of the Maximinian Persecution
Quiricus, Saint - According to their Acts, Julitta fled with her three months old son, Quiricus (Cirycus), from Lycaonia at the outbreak of the Maximinian Persecution
Paranoia - ) A chronic form of insanity characterized by very gradual impairment of the intellect, systematized delusion, and usually by delusious of Persecution or mandatory delusions producing homicidal tendency
Prudence (False): Its Mischief - ' Equally destructive to all usefulness is that excessive prudence upon which some professor pride themselves; not only do they escape all Persecution, but they are never able to strike a blow, much less fight a battle for the Lord Jesus
Apiarius of Sicca - This case has been made much of by opponents of papal supremacy; it was merely an expression of the desire of African bishops to retain privileges they had been allowed to assume during periods of Persecution
Eusebius, Pope Saint - His reign of four months in 309 embraced the dissension over the treatment of those who had apostatized during the Persecution of Diocletian
Sicca, Apiarius of - This case has been made much of by opponents of papal supremacy; it was merely an expression of the desire of African bishops to retain privileges they had been allowed to assume during periods of Persecution
Eulogius, Bishop of Edessa - When a presbyter there he suffered in the Persecution by Valens. On the cessation of the Persecution Eulogius and Protogenes returned to Edessa, where, Barses being dead, Eulogius was consecrated bishop by Eusebius of Samosata (Theod
Jesus Psalter, the - A devotional book, dear to the forefathers of the English Catholics in the days of Persecution, written by Richard Whitford, the Brigittine monk who called himself the "Wretch of Sion
Machabees - The most notable martyrs of the Persecution propagated by Antiochus in his effort to hellenize Jerusalem, were Eleazar, an old man, chief of the scribes, seven brothers, and their mother Samona
Ira (2) - of Jattir, a town in the mountainous region of Judah, which David haunted in the time of Saul's Persecution, and to which he sent presents for his friends from the Amalekite spoil (1 Samuel 30:27)
Lucius of Cyrene - He probably was one of the "men of Cyrene" who heard the tongues and then Peter's Pentecostal sermon (Acts 2:10), and of the "men of Cyrene" who when "scattered abroad upon the Persecution that arose about Stephen" went to Antioch, "preaching the Lord Jesus" (Acts 11:19-20)
Pricked - ...
Acts 9:5 (a) It must be that Saul's Persecution of the Christians was hurting his own heart and conscience while he was doing it
Apollinaris, Saint - He suffered almost constant Persecution, but persisted in preaching
Erasmus, Saint - Tradition holds that he was transported by an angel from Mount Lebanon whence he had fled from the Persecution, to Lake Lucrino in Italy, but was seized there and taken to Campania, where he was tortured and put to death
Simeon, Saint - During the Persecution of Trajan he was seized, subjected to excruciating torture, and crucified
Omer, Saint - , in 1592 or 1593, for the education of English youth during the Elizabethan Persecution
Felix of Nola, Saint - Ordained by Bishop Maximus of Nola, he was imprisoned during the Persecution of Decius, but was set free by an angel
Decius, Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus - This led to his attempting to crush Christianity by a more violent Persecution than the Church had yet experienced
Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius - This led to his attempting to crush Christianity by a more violent Persecution than the Church had yet experienced
Nola, Felix of, Saint - Ordained by Bishop Maximus of Nola, he was imprisoned during the Persecution of Decius, but was set free by an angel
Arsaces - 5) from Rome forbidding the Persecution of the Jews
Saint Omer - , in 1592 or 1593, for the education of English youth during the Elizabethan Persecution
Havoc - 1: πορθέω (Strong's #4199 — Verb — portheo — por-theh'-o ) "to destroy, ravage, lay waste," is used of the Persecution inflicted by Saul of Tarsus on the church in Jerusalem, Acts 9:21 , and Galatians 1:23 , RV, "made havoc," for AV, "destroyed;" Galatians 1:13 , ditto, for AV, "wasted
Papylus, a Martyr - The Acts of Papylus contained in Metaphrastes assign his martyrdom to the Decian Persecution. Aubé seems to agree in placing the martyrdom of Papylus in the Decian Persecution
Domine Quo Vadis - At the urgent request of the Christians, Peter was fleeing the Persecution of Nero, when, seeing Christ, he fell at His feet crying "Lord, whither goest Thou?" Christ's reply that He was going to Rome to be crucified anew was interpreted by Peter as a sign to return to Rome, and he therefore retraced his steps to the city
Miltiades, Pope Saint - During his reign, an edict ended the Persecution of the Christians; he witnessed the final triumph of the Cross, 312, when the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius
Melchiades, Pope Saint - During his reign, an edict ended the Persecution of the Christians; he witnessed the final triumph of the Cross, 312, when the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius
Occille of Barcelona, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Olacie of Barcelona, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Olaille of Barcelona, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Olaire of Barcelona, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Barcelona, Eulalia of, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Eulalie of Barcelona, Saint - This Spanish martyr, of the Persecution of Diocletian is often identified with Eulalia of Merida, although there is sufficient evidence of separate identities
Moravian - After being nearly extirpated by Persecution, the society, under the name of The Renewed Church of the United Brethren, was reestablished in 1722-35 on the estates of Count Zinzendorf in Saxony
Severus, Septimius - The fifth Persecution of the Chtistians broke out during his reign
Septimius Severus - The fifth Persecution of the Chtistians broke out during his reign
Iconium - Paul endured sufferings and Persecution at Iconium (2 Timothy 3:11 )
Fagaras e Alba Iulia, Romania, Archdiocese of - The Romanian Catholic Church suffered brutal Persecution during the Communist era as the government sought to eliminate all evidence of an Eastern Church in communion with Rome
Captivity, Assyrian - The Book of Tobias gives a glimpse of the lot of these exiles, who on the whole enjoyed a considerable amount of liberty, but were at times subjected to Persecution (Tobias 1)
Derbe - He did not here suffer Persecution (2 Timothy 3:11 )
Theophilus - If the latter is true, the name may be a pseudonym to protect the individual from Persecution
Gunpowder Plot - The effect of the plot was the passage of new drastic measures of Persecution against the Catholics
Assyrian Captivity - The Book of Tobias gives a glimpse of the lot of these exiles, who on the whole enjoyed a considerable amount of liberty, but were at times subjected to Persecution (Tobias 1)
Gittith - It probably denotes either a musical instrument or a kind of music derived from Gath, where David sojourned for a time during the Persecution of Saul, 1 Samuel 27:1-7
Persecution - The first great Persecution for religious opinion of which we have any record was that which broke out against the worshippers of God among the Jews in the days of Ahab, when that king, at the instigation of his wife Jezebel, "a woman in whom, with the reckless and licentious habits of an Oriental queen, were united the fiercest and sternest qualities inherent in the old Semitic race", sought in the most relentless manner to extirpate the worship of Jehovah and substitute in its place the worship of Ashtoreth and Baal. In all ages, in one form or another, the people of God have had to suffer Persecution. In its earliest history the Christian church passed through many bloody Persecutions
Japan - Persecution continued intermittently, becoming very severe at times. In that year the independent Vicariate Apostolic of Korea was created, and the Faith continued to spread in spite of proscription and Persecution in which many suffered martyrdom. In 1859, a treaty between Japan and France permitted missionaries to have churches at open ports for foreigners, and gradually their old work was resumed there, although Persecution continued and thousands who would not apostatize were exiled
Rome - 64, eight or ten years after a church was established there and addressed by Paul, Romans 1:8; Romans 16:19, the emperor Nero commenced a furious Persecution against its members, which the emperor Domitian renewed a. Within the gardens of Nero in the Neronian Persecution, a. In the colosseum, a vast theatre, games of various sorts and gladiatorial shows were held, and within its arena many Christians, during the ages of Persecution, fought with wild beasts, and many were slain tor their faith
Hierocles (1), Neoplatonic Philosopher - Here he probably came in contact with Galerius and impressed the Caesar with a respect for his abilities on his famous Persian expedition, when the first seeds of the Persecution were sown, 297–302. The expression reiterated by Lactantius, that he was the "author and adviser of the Persecution," lends support to this view. He was translated as prefect in 304 or 305 to Bithynia after the Persecution broke out, and in 305 or 306 was promoted to the government of Alexandria, as is proved by the fact that Eusebius records the martyrdom of Aedesius at Alexandria as occurring by his orders a short time after that of Apphianus, which he dates Apr. Duchesne, in an acute treatise on the then lately discovered works of Macarius Magnes (Paris, Klinksieck, 1877), suggests that the work of Hierocles embodied the objections drawn by Porphyry from Holy Scripture, and that the work of Macarius was a reply to them, and suggests that Hierocles wrote his book while ruling at Palmyra before the Persecution
Caius, Pope - These events would seem to make a Persecution, such as is assigned to this period by various martyr Acts, not in itself improbable, and though the Acts in question are untrustworthy (see Tillemont, iv. The Persecution is not represented as general, but as aimed at a few obnoxious devotees, and Caius does not appear as leading, accompanying, or inciting them, but only as exercising a fatherly supervision. Probably the Persecution continued for some time under Diocletian. Caius is said in the early Pontifical to have avoided Persecution by hiding in the crypts
Valerianus, Emperor - ...
To these calamities was added the most terrible Persecution the church had yet experienced. 257) shews when the Persecution began. This was the beginning of a violent Persecution at Rome (Cypr. The best proof of the violence of the Persecution is the long vacancies (about 11 months) of the sees of Rome and Carthage. Dionysius regards his Persecution as lasting the 42 months mentioned in the Apocalypse. Gallienus, immediately after his father's captivity, stopped the Persecution, but it probably lasted in the East till the fall of Macrianus, who had assumed the purple in 262
Marcellinus, Saint - During the Persecution of Diocletian he and his exorcist, Peter, were seized and put to death in the Silva Nigra, not far from Rome
Nero - He poisoned Brittanicus, assassinated his mother, divorced and executed his wife, Octavia, in order to marry Poppaea, burned Rome, caused a fierce Persecution of Christians and the martyrdom of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and put to death Seneca, Petronius, and Pretus
Derbe - Persecution in Lystra led to a successful preaching mission in Derbe (Acts 14:20-21 )
Temptations: From Friends to be Watchfully Resisted - So when the dearest friends we have, out of mistaken tenderness would persuade us to avoid Persecution by relinquishing principle, and doing as others do, we should thank them for their love, but with unbending decision refuse to be numbered with the world
Evil Speaking - Christians must expect this form of Persecution ( Matthew 5:11 ), but must be careful to give no handle to it ( Romans 14:16 , Titus 2:8 , 1 Peter 2:12 ; 1 Peter 3:16 )
Libertines (1) - According to some, were such Jews as were free citizens of Rome: they had a separate synagogue at Jerusalem, and sundry of them concurred in the Persecution of Stephen, Acts 6:9
Dionysia, Martyr in Africa - According to the narrative of Victor Vitensis, her contemporary, she was a lady of rare beauty in Africa, who preferred tortures, shameful indignities, and death to renouncing her faith; a victim of the Persecution of the orthodox or Catholic Christians by Hunneric, king of the Vandals. ...
See Victor Vitensis, de Persecutione Africanâ , V
Bohemian Brethren - Some time after this, they were driven by Persecution from their native country, and entered into communion with the Swiss church, as reformed by Zuinglius; and from thence sprang the church of the United Brethren
Fiery - ...
Ephesians 6:16 (a) Here is a picture of the fierce attacks which Satan will make on GOD's people by the malicious tongues of his followers, and by Persecution. ...
1 Peter 4:12 (a) By this is indicated the time of suffering and Persecution that awaits GOD's people from Satan and his followers
Damian, Saint - Arrested in the Persecution of Diocletian, they were subjected to torture, but remained unharmed, and were finally beheaded
Justina, Saint - They suffered in the Persecution of Diocletian with Theoctistus, a Christian who had been associated with Cyprian
Arise - ) To spring up; to come into action, being, or notice; to become operative, sensible, or visible; to begin to act a part; to present itself; as, the waves of the sea arose; a Persecution arose; the wrath of the king shall arise
Reverence - Christian Persecution takes on new meaning as suffering becomes an opportunity for revering Christ (1 Peter 3:14-15 )
Antioch, Syria - Its first community was founded by Christianized Jews, driven from Jerusalem by Persecution
Eusebius, Saint Bishop - He was a close friend of Saint Basil of Caesarea and exhibited untiring zeal during the Arian Persecution under Valens who banished him to Thrace
Baker, David Augustine - In 1633 he removed to Douai, whence he proceeded to London, where he was subjected to Persecution, and died of the plague
Eunuch - Our Savior speaks of some who "have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake;" that is, who have voluntarily abstained from marriage, in order more effectually to labor for the kingdom of God, Matthew 19:12 ; and the apostle Paul commends the same abstinence in certain exceptional cases in time of Persecution, 1 Corinthians 7:26,27
Silvanus, Bishop of Gaza - of Gaza, a martyr in the Persecution of Maximin, c
Hebrews - Hebrews 10:32-34 describes a time of Persecution endured by the original recipients. The Persecution seems to have only included the loss of property. The author then warned of greater tests ahead, probably referring to the Persecutions underway during the reign of Nero in A. ...
Others see Hebrews 10:32-34 as a reference to the Persecution of Nero and place the writing during a Persecution assumed to have taken place during the reign of Domitian (A. This seems less likely, as the severity of Nero's Persecutions does not seem to be reflected in Hebrews. This confirms the experience of a milder form of Persecution in the past (such as the one of Claudius in 49) but suggests the intensity of the Persecution to come (such as the one of Nero in 64). ...
The Historical Situation Early Christians were often the objects of Persecution. Such Persecution often resulted in the spread of the gospel (Acts 8:4-25 ; Acts 11:19-26 ). ...
Revelation, 1Peter, and possibly the Gospel of Mark were written in times of such Persecution. See Persecution. ...
The recipients of Hebrews faced the possibility of Persecution when the book was written. As was often true when Christians faced Persecution, the temptation was to deny being Christians so as to avoid Persecution. Some biblical scholars think the recipients of Hebrews had been converted to Christianity from Judaism and were tempted to return to their Jewish faith and the relative safety from Persecution that being Jewish brought. ...
Others feel the recipients were Gentile Christians who were also tempted to deny their Christian faith to avoid Persecution
Ancyra, Seven Martyrs of - Ancyra, Seven Martyrs of , female victims of Diocletian's Persecution, 304. When the Persecution was determined upon, Theotecnus, a magician, a philosopher and pervert from Christianity, was dispatched as governor to Galatia to root out Christianity
Felix (26) i, Bishop of Aptunga - 2, 313, to establish their case against Caecilian, turned their attack on Felix, whom they sought to convict of the infamous crime of "tradition" in the Persecution of Maximus, a. 61) at Carthage, in the presence of many who had held municipal offices at the time of the Persecution
Leo Xii, Pope - The Persecution of the Netherland Catholics was overcome, and the emancipation of the Catholics of the British Isles was secured three months after his death
Death, Second - The second death has no power over those who remain faithful in Persecution (John 2:11 ), who are martyred (John 20:6 ), or for those whose names are written in the book of life (John 20:15 )
John i, Pope Saint - He was obliged by Theodoric, King of the Ostrogoths and of Italy, to head an embassy sent by Theodoric to Constantinople, 525, to secure a mitigation in the Persecution of the Arians
Lourdel, Simeon - Years of Persecution, civilwar, and foreign invasion followed, but the Catholic missions were finally restored
Cross - The cross of Christ makes nothing of man and sets aside all his pretensions: therefore to preach 'the cross ' arouses man's hatred and Persecution
Preaching - When there was Persecution in the church at Jerusalem, they were all scattered, except the apostles, and they went everywhere 'preaching the word
Traitor, - ...
In the early church there were someso called (under the Latin name Traditores ), because under Persecution they gave up the copies of the scriptures or church property, to save their lives; and there was long contention as to whether such could ever be restored to communion
Abyssinia - Catholic missionaries were not relieved of Persecution until the reign of Menelek II in the 19th century
Dionysius (7), Bishop of Rome - 259, on the death of Xystus, in the Persecution of Valerian
Simeon Lourdel - Years of Persecution, civilwar, and foreign invasion followed, but the Catholic missions were finally restored
Deacon - Deacons are first mentioned as officers in the Christian church in Acts 6:1-15 , where it appears that their duty was to collect the alms of the church, and distribute them to such as had a claim upon them, visiting the poor and sick, widows, orphans, and sufferers under Persecution, and administering all necessary and proper relief
Stratonice, Martyr at Cyzicum - Stratonice, martyr at Cyzicum in Mysia with Seleucus her husband at the quinquennalia of Galerius during Diocletian's Persecution
Antoninus, Pius, Emperor - Hadrian had checked the tendency to Persecution by imposing severe penalties on false accusers (Just. It speaks in admiring terms of the innocence of the Christians, declares the charges against them to be unproved, bids men admire the steadfastness and faith with which they met the earthquakes and other calamities that drove others to despair, ascribes the Persecution to the jealousy which men felt against those who were truer worshippers of God than themselves. Confining ourselves to its bearing on the character of the emperor, we note (1) that there had been at least the threat of Persecution even unto death (c
Peter, First, Theology of - The message of this letter is the genuine grace of God (5:12) to be realized in their disciplined response to Persecution. ...
Some scholars have questioned apostolic authorship on the basis of the quality of Greek, the absence of personal references to the life of Jesus, and the absence of Persecution by the state during the lifetime of Peter. And finally, the internal description of Persecution is that it was spontaneous, local, and sporadic (3:13-15), not official Persecution by the state (2:13-17). ...
Persecution is to be accepted as a blessed partnership in the messianic sufferings. That is why she must resist the devil, who, as the ultimate source of all Persecution, seeks to destroy the church. ...
Christology is central to the church's understanding of salvation and Persecution. He is also the model for understanding and enduring abuse and Persecution (1:11; 4:1,13-15). Ericson...
See also Capstone ; Cornerstone ; Persecution ; Peter, Second, Theology of ; Spirits in Prison ...
Bibliography
Novatians - Novatian first separated from the communion of pope Cornelius, on pretence of his being too easy in admitting to repentance those who had fallen off in times of Persecution. He indulged his inclination to severity so far, as to deny that such as had fallen into gross sins, especially those who had apostatized from the faith under the Persecution set on foot by Decius, were to be again received into the bosom of the church; grounding his opinion on that of St
Affliction (2) - It denotes the Persecution to which His followers will be subjected, and by which their loyalty will be tested (Mark 4:17 = Matthew 13:21; Matthew 24:9, John 16:33). Persecution, Suffering, Tribulation
Maximus, Bishop of Alexandria - During the Decian Persecution, after Dionysius had been carried away by some Christians of Mareotis into Libya, Maximus with three other presbyters "kept themselves concealed in Alexandria, secretly carrying on the oversight of the brethren" (Dionys. Seven years later, when Valerian's Persecution began, we find Maximus attending his bishop (who calls him his "fellow-presbyter") to the tribunal of the prefect Aemilianus, as involved with him, and three deacons and a Roman lay Christian, in the charge of contumacious rejection of the gods who had "preserved the emperor's sovereignty," and whose worship was in accordance with "natural" law
Francis Gagelin, Blessed - After a decree of Persecution he gave himself up at Bongson
Pancratius, Saint - According to tradition he was born in Phrygia, brought to Rome, and, professing his Faith, was beheaded on the Via Aurelia, when only fourteen, but in what Persecution is doubtful
Cadets of the Cross - In defense of their civiland religious liberties they started an insurrection in the Cevennes, and much suffering and Persecution followed
Camisards - In defense of their civiland religious liberties they started an insurrection in the Cevennes, and much suffering and Persecution followed
Camisards, White - In defense of their civiland religious liberties they started an insurrection in the Cevennes, and much suffering and Persecution followed
Timothy, Second Epistle to - He was anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" (2 Timothy 4:6 ), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and steadfastness, and to patience under Persecution (1:6-15), and to a faithful discharge of all the duties of his office (4:1-5), with all the solemnity of one who was about to appear before the Judge of quick and dead
Sacrilege - Those were considered as sacrilegious persons who delivered up their Bibles and the sacred utensils of the church to the Pagans, in the time of the Dioclesian Persecution
Eonians - He left behind him a number of followers, whom Persecution and death, so weakly and cruelly employed, could not persuade to abandon his cause, or to renounce an absurdity, which, says Mosheim, one would think, could never have gained credit but in such a place as Bedlam
Derbe - In enumerating places (2 Timothy 3:11) he mentions Lystra but not Derbe, though in the independent history they are mentioned together: a delicate instance of accuracy, for he is here enumerating only those places where he suffered Persecution
Gagelin, Francis Isidore, Saint - After a decree of Persecution he gave himself up at Bongson
Novatians - They separated from the church of Rome, because the members of it admitted into their communion many who had, during a season of Persecution, rejected the Christian faith
White Camisards - In defense of their civiland religious liberties they started an insurrection in the Cevennes, and much suffering and Persecution followed
Flood - ...
Revelation 12:15 (a) This word describes the terrible Persecution of Israel by satanic forces which made them slaves for many years, and finally scattered them throughout the world. During the tribulation Israel will again suffer Persecution
Siam - Both were murdered in 1569, but others soon took their places, and in spite of intermittent Persecution, in which there were additional martyrs, the work was continued by the same orders and by others, including Jesuits and Augustinians. Siam became a refuge for hundreds of Christians who fled from Persecution in Annam andJapan
Thailand - Both were murdered in 1569, but others soon took their places, and in spite of intermittent Persecution, in which there were additional martyrs, the work was continued by the same orders and by others, including Jesuits and Augustinians. Siam became a refuge for hundreds of Christians who fled from Persecution in Annam andJapan
Nicola'Itans - In a time of Persecution, when the eating or not eating of things sacrificed to idols was more than ever a crucial test of faithfulness, they persuaded men more than ever that was a thing indifferent. (Revelation 2:6 ) To tolerate them is well nigh to forfeit the glory of having been faithful under Persecution
Pionius, Martyr at Smyrna - Pionius, martyr at Smyrna, in the Decian Persecution, Mar 12, 250. Eusebius, however, represents Pionius as suffering at the same time as Polycarp, while the extant Acts place him a century later, a date attested by the Paschal Chronicle , which makes Pionius suffer in the Decian Persecution, and confirmed by internal evidence
Isaac - He withdrew from Bersabee owing to the Persecution of the Philistines
Damascene, John, Saint - He vigorously opposed the Iconoclast Persecution propagated by Leo the Isaurian, and retired to the monastery of Saint Sabas, near Jerusalem, where he was ordained priest by John V, Patriarch of Jerusalem
John Damascene, Saint - He vigorously opposed the Iconoclast Persecution propagated by Leo the Isaurian, and retired to the monastery of Saint Sabas, near Jerusalem, where he was ordained priest by John V, Patriarch of Jerusalem
Benedict of Nursia, Saint - Driven by Persecution from Subiaco, 529, he settled at Monte Cassino, erected a large monastery and established his famous rule, combining manual labor and ascetic practises; he later founded a second house at Terracina
Maccabees, Books of the - Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their Persecution
Jakob Behmen - The Elector of Saxony protected him against Persecution as a heretic, 1624
Jakob Boehme - The Elector of Saxony protected him against Persecution as a heretic, 1624
Nursia, Benedict of, Saint - Driven by Persecution from Subiaco, 529, he settled at Monte Cassino, erected a large monastery and established his famous rule, combining manual labor and ascetic practises; he later founded a second house at Terracina
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint - Saint Peter appointed Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, and he vigilantly protected his flock during the Persecution of Domitian
Martyr - Martyrs are those who stand firm in the midst of Persecution and willingly suffers death rather than deny their faith (Acts 7:54-60; Acts 12:1-2; Acts 22:20; Revelation 2:13)
Behmen, Jakob - The Elector of Saxony protected him against Persecution as a heretic, 1624
Behminists - The Elector of Saxony protected him against Persecution as a heretic, 1624
Ephraem, Saint - In 363, when Nisibis was retroceded to Persia, Ephraem fled with the Christian population to escape Persecution, and settled at Edessa, where he was probably one of the chief founders of the "School of the Persians
Antioch, Ignatius of, Saint - Saint Peter appointed Ignatius Bishop of Antioch, and he vigilantly protected his flock during the Persecution of Domitian
Alexandria, Clement of - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the Persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Aeneas - The person so called was a dweller in Lydda or Lod, a town on the plain of Sharon about ten miles south of Joppa, to which many of the Christians had fied after the Persecution which dispersed the apostles and the church of Jerusalem
Titus Flavius Clemens - Christian writer, born probably at Athens; died c215 He succeeded Pantrenus as head of the catechetical school of Alexandria, Egypt, c190 During the Persecution of 202 the school suffered and Clement withdrew to Caesarea in Cappadocia, where he governed the local Church during the imprisonment of his pupil, Bishop Alexander
Crown - This latter kind of crown is referred to frequently in reference to the final victory of Christians who faithfully persevere amid trials, sufferings and Persecution (2 Timothy 4:8; James 1:12; 1 Peter 5:4; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 3:11; see also REWARD)
Cornelius, Bishop of Rome - 250, in the Decian Persecution, the see remained vacant for a year and a half. The Persecution of the Christians thus came to an end; but then arose the difficult question of how to treat the libellatici, Christians who had bought their life by the acceptance of false certificates of having sacrificed to heathen gods. Persecution was revived in Rome by Gallus, and Cornelius, followed by almost the whole church (among whom were many restored libellatics), took refuge at Centumcellae in Etruria
Nero - Nero is reckoned the first persecutor of the Christian church: his Persecution was A. Nero, the most cruel and savage of all men, and also the most wicked and depraved, began his Persecution against the Christian church, A. Paul are thought to have suffered martyrdom, consequent on this Persecution, A
Valens, Emperor - ) afford a very lively picture of the Persecution of Valens. In 374 Valens raised a Persecution against the neo-Platonic philosophers, and put to death several of their leaders, among them Maximus (25) of Ephesus, the tutor and friend of the emperor Julian, Hilarius, Simonides, and Andronicus. Numerous acts of Persecution at Edessa, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople are attributed to Valens, in all of which Modestus, the pretorian prefect, was his most active agent, save in Egypt, where Lucius, the Arian successor of Athanasius, endeavoured in vain to terrify the monks into conformity
Nero - It was under Nero, too, that a fierce Persecution of the Christians began, about 61 a
Tread, Trode, Trodden - 1: πατέω (Strong's #3961 — Verb — pateo — pat-eh'-o ) is used (a) intransitively and figuratively, of "treading" upon serpents, Luke 10:19 ; (b) transitively, of "treading" on, down or under, of the desecration of Jerusalem by its foes, Luke 21:24 ; Revelation 11:2 ; of the avenging, by the Lord in Person hereafter, of this descration and of the Persecution of the Jews, in Divine retribution, metaphorically spoken of as the "treading" of the winepress of God's wrath, Revelation 14:20 ; 19:15 (cp
Bigotry - Simple bigotry is the spirit of Persecution without the power; perscution is bigotry armed with power, and carrying its will into act. How contradictory is it to sound reason, and how inimical to the peaceful religion we profess to maintain as Christians!...
See Persecution, and books under that article
Albanus - 6) deny that there was any Persecution during the time of Constantius in "the Gauls," which term included Britain. Gildas mentions him in 560 (his statement, however, about the Persecution is of no value, being simply a transference of Eusebius's words to Britain, to which Eusebius himself says they did not apply), and Venantius Fortunatus (Poem
Marinus, a Military Martyr - It is a moot question whether this martyrdom resulted from Persecution or from military law. ) the moral author of the Valerian Persecution
Paulus of Asia - As his Persecution by John Scholasticus, patriarch of Constantinople, marks a period in the history of the Monophysite body, it is important to fix its date, which in all probability was 571. The Persecution fell chiefly on the numerous Monophysite monasteries, of both sexes, which had sprung up in and around Constantinople while the empress Theodora lived
Secundus, Bishop of Tigisis - The Persecution under Diocletian appears to have reached its height in Feb. Although Persecution had virtually ceased, the churches were not yet restored, and the assembly met in the house of Urbanus, where they ordained Silvanus
Sirmium, Stonemasons of - These Acts are very valuable illustrations of the great Persecution, but are full of difficulties. The whole story is in Mason's Diocletian Persecution, p
Verecundus - His manner of referring to the Vandal Persecution in Africa and the unsettled state of affairs seems to fix its date before 534, when the Persecution ended
Victor Vitensis - Persecutionis Provinciae Africanae is very interesting as he appears to have been with safety an eyewitness of the Vandal Persecution for more than 30 years. narrates the Persecution of Genseric from the conquest of Africa by the Vandals in 429 till Genseric's death in 477. deal with the Persecution of Hunneric a. 253–275) maintains with much learning and acuteness that Victor was born in Vita that his see is unknown that he was consecrated bishop after the Persecution and wrote his History before 487 and that this History is a piece of tendency-writing and untrustworthy
Theodotus, Martyr at Ancyra - Theodotus (9) , May 18, martyr at Ancyra in Galatia in Diocletian's Persecution. The Persecution waxing hot, he was compelled to fly from Ancyra to a place, distant some 40 miles, where a cave, through which the Halys flowed, was a refuge for some fugitive Christians. The narrative shews us how quietly Christians in country districts pursued their occupations and enjoyed daily worship, while those in the cities were suffering tortures and death, and is most valuable as illustrating the general condition of the Christians in Asia Minor during the earlier years of Diocletian's Persecution. He then returned to Ancyra, which he found greatly disturbed by a violent Persecution. 354, and translated into English as an appendix to Mason's Persecution of Diocletian
Donatists - The sect came into existence in Africa during the disorders following the Persecution under Diocletian (303-305)
Druidism - The Druids lost their power after the Roman conquest of Gaul and Britain and gradually disappeared, not however through any organized Persecution
Nonnatus, Raymond, Saint - There he endured the greatest hardship and Persecution because of his persistence in converting the Mohammedans
Libertines - They originated the Persecution against Stephen, which resulted in his martyrdom
Foxe's Book of Martyrs - History of the Persecution of the Reformers in England, by John Foxe (1516-1587), an extreme Reformer. It contains three volumes: the first deals with early Christian Persecutions and contains a sketch of medieval church history and an account of the Wyclifite movement in England and on the Continent; the second treats of the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI; and the third gives that of Mary I
Peter, First Epistle of - He counsels (1) to steadfastness and perseverance under Persecution ((1-2:10);); (2) to the practical duties of a holy life ((2:11-3:13);); (3) he adduces the example of Christ and other motives to patience and holiness ((3:14-4:19);); and (4) concludes with counsels to pastors and people (ch
Lawrence, Saint - Martyr (died 258), a deacon, victim of the Valerian Persecution, and one of the most honored of Roman martyrs
Januarius And Companions, Saint - Martyrs, died near Pozzuoli, Italy, c305 Januarius, a native of Benevento, was bishop of that city during the Persecution of Diocletian
Buffeting - The word also came to imply a meaning of general ill-usage or Persecution, and, as such, occurs in 1 Corinthians 4:11, 2 Corinthians 12:7 (‘a thorn in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to buffet me’), 1 Peter 2:20; cf
Christmas - That it was kept before the time of Constantine we have a melancholy proof; for whilst the Persecution raged under Dioclesian, who then kept his court at Nicomedia, that tyrant among other acts of cruelty, finding the multitudes of Christians assembled together to celebrate Christ's nativity, commanded the church doors where they were met to be shut, and fire to be put to it, which soon reduced them and the church to ashes
Rend - We received back bullets, Persecution of American citizens, expulsion of American missionaries, and a closed frontier to our travelers
Gabriel Taurin Dufresse, Blessed - During the Persecution in China, 1784, Father Dufresse presented himself to the mandarin
Augustine Schoeffler, Saint - Arriving at Tonkin in the midst of a terrible Persecution, he occupied himself with the study of the language and fulfilling the duties of the ministry throughout the province of Sudoa
Acts And Monuments - History of the Persecution of the Reformers in England, by John Foxe (1516-1587), an extreme Reformer. It contains three volumes: the first deals with early Christian Persecutions and contains a sketch of medieval church history and an account of the Wyclifite movement in England and on the Continent; the second treats of the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI; and the third gives that of Mary I
English College - With Douai and the other continental seminaries, the college helped to keep the faith alive in England during the days of Persecution and supplied priests for the English mission
lu'Cius - Peter preached on the day of Pentecost, (Acts 2:10 ) and there can hardly be a doubt that he was one of "the men of Cyrene" who, being "scattered abroad upon the Persecution that arose about Stephen," went to Antioch preaching the Lord Jesus
Iconium - But he was obliged to flee for his life for a Persecution excited by unbelieving Jews, Acts 13:51 14:1-6
Schoeffler, Augustine, Blessed - Arriving at Tonkin in the midst of a terrible Persecution, he occupied himself with the study of the language and fulfilling the duties of the ministry throughout the province of Sudoa
Nestorius, Bishop of Side - 997), a martyr in the Decian Persecution, a
Nicarete, a Lady of Nicomedia - She retired from Constantinople to avoid the Persecution in 404 (Soz
Serapion, Penitent of Alexandria - Serapion (3), a penitent of Alexandria, who fell during the Decian Persecution
Silvanus, Bishop of Cirta - of that see during the Persecution under Diocletian, and, as well as he, guilty of "tradition
Jonath Elem Rechokim, Upon - Saul's "wresting his words" into treason is alluded to, Psalms 56:5; his vain attempt by iniquitous Persecution to escape his foretold doom, Psalms 56:7
James the Apostle - ) Jesus had warned James and John that, as his followers, they could expect the sort of Persecution he suffered
Nero - A systematic Persecution of the Christians followed. Because of his life-style and the Persecution, many Christians viewed him as the antichrist
Dionysius, Saint, Apostle of France - Sulpicius says, "Under Aurelius, son of Antoninus, raged the fifth Persecution. 28), speaking of the Decian Persecution, quotes the Hist
Vespasianus, Titus Flavius - Lactantius ( Mortes 2, 3) knows of no Persecution between Nero and Domitian. Hilary of Poictiers, writing after 360, is the first to make any charge of Persecution against Vespasian
Petilianus, a Donatist Bishop - He quotes Ecclus 34:30 ...
Sirach 34:25
applying to his own sect the words "wise men" (Mat_23:34) and interpreting the word "dead" to mean an ungodly person; he charges the Catholics with Persecution and "tradition," and makes an insinuation about Manicheism. (2) The iniquity of Persecution. (2) As to Persecution. Augustine denies the charge, and retorts it upon his adversary, whose partisans, the Circumcellions and others, were guilty of Persecution
Marcellinus, Bishop of Rome - The main question about him is his conduct with regard to the Persecution under Diocletian. The Felician Catalogue (530) says: "In which time was a great Persecution: within 30 days 16,000 persons of both sexes were crowned with martyrdom through divers provinces; in the course of it Marcellinus himself was led to sacrifice, that he might offer incense, which thing he also did; and having after a few days been brought to penitence, he was by the same Diocletian, for the faith of Christ, together with Claudius Quirinus and Antoninus, beheaded and crowned with martyrdom. 2) speaks apparently with praise of the conduct of Marcellinus in the Persecution: τὸν ἐν τῷ διωγμῷ διαπρέψαντα . that the Christian cemeteries had been seized during the Persecution, so that it had become necessary to construct a new one. The cemetery itself was, according to De Rossi, one of the oldest in Rome, with extensive workings in it at a deep level, which he supposes to have been made during the Persecution, when the old burial-place of the faithful on the Appian Way was no longer available
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - Then came the Diocletian Persecution and in the early part of 306 Peter found it necessary to draw up conditions of reconciliation to the church and of readmission to her privileges for those who through weakness had compromised their fidelity. The date is determined by the first words of this set of 14 "canons" or regulations "Since we are approaching the fourth Easter from the beginning of the Persecution," i. (This is overlooked in Mason's Persecution of Diocletian p. and perhaps did not know that Christ Himself repeatedly withdrew from intended Persecution and even at last waited to be seized and given up; and that He bade His disciples flee from city to city (Mat_10:23) that they might not enhance their enemies' guilt. ) ...
Very soon after these "canons" were drawn up the Persecution was intensified by the pagan fanaticism of Maximin Daza. 311 "the Christians found themselves again in great peril" (Burton); and one of the first acts of Maximin's renewed Persecution was to smite the shepherd of the flock at Alexandria. 32), "in the ninth year of the Persecution" (311), by virtue of a "sudden" imperial order, "without any reason assigned" (ix
Persecution - Persecution is threefold. The unlawfulness of Persecution for conscience sake must appear plain to every one that possesses the least degree of thought or of feeling. Where Persecution begins, Christianity ends. "Persecution for conscience sake, " says Dr. Persecution is so far from being required, or encouraged by the Gospel, that it is most directly contrary to many of its precepts, and indeed to the whole of it. Persecution of Christians by the Jews. Persecution of Christians by the Heathen. Historians usually reckon ten general Persecutions, the first of which was under the emperor Nero, thirty-one years after our Lord's ascension, when that emperor, having set fire to the city of Rome, threw the odium of that execrable action on the Christians. The second general Persecution was under Domitian, in the year 95, when 40, 000 were supposed to have suffered martyrdom. In this dreadful Persecution, which lasted ten years, houses filled with Christians were set on fire, and whole droves were tied together with ropes, and thrown into the sea. It is related that 17, 000 were slain in one month's time; and that during the continuance of this Persecution, in the province of Egypt alone, no less than 144, 000 Christians died by the violence of their persecutors; besides 700, 000 that died through the fatigues of banishment, or the public works to which they were condemned. Persecution of Christians by those of the same name. Numerous were the Persecutions of different sects from Constantine's time to the reformation; but when the famous Martin Luther arose, and opposed the errors and ambition of the church of Rome, and the sentiments of this good man began to spread, the pope and his clergy joined all their forces to hinder their progress. Terrible Persecutions were carried on in various parts of Germany, and even in Bohemia, which continued about thirty years, and the blood of the saints was said to flow like rivers of water. After many cruelties had been exercised against the Protestants, there was a most violent Persecution of them in the year 1572, in the reign of Charles IX. Angelo were fired to testify the public joy; the whole city illuminated with bonfires; and no one sign of rejoicing omitted that was usually made for the greatest victories obtained in favour of the Roman church!!! But all these Persecutions were, however, far exceeded in cruelty by those which took place in the time of Louis XIV. ...
It cannot be pleasant to any man's feelings, who has the least humanity, to recite these dreadful scenes of horror, cruelty, and devastation; but to show what superstition, bigotry, and fanaticism are capable of producing, and for the purpose of holding up the spirit of Persecution to contempt, we shall here give as concise a detail as possible. With these scenes of desolation and horror the popish clergy feasted their eyes, and made only matter of laughter and sport of them!!! ENGLAND has also been the seat of much Persecution. Bilney, Bayman, and many other reformers were burnt; but when queen Mary came to the throne, the most severe Persecutions took place. Worn out with endless vexations, and unceasing Persecutions, many retired into Holland, and from thence to America. It is witnessed by a judicious historian, that, in this and some following reigns, 22, 000 persons were banished from England by Persecution to America. Nor were the Presbyterians, when their government came to be established in England, free from the charge of Persecution. Thus we see how England had bled under the hand of bigotry and Persecution; nor was toleration enjoyed until William III. The accession of the present royal family was auspicious to religious liberty; and as their majesties have always befriended the toleration, the spirit of Persecution has been long curbed. Besides the above-mentioned Persecutions, there have been several others carried on in different parts of the world. Spain, Italy, and the valley of Piedmont, and other places, have been the seats of much Persecution. It has been computed that fifty millions of Protestants have at different times been the victims of the Persecutions of the Papists, and put to death for their religious opinions. To conclude this article, Who can peruse the account here given without feeling the most painful emotions, and dropping a tear over the madness and depravity of mankind? Does it not show us what human beings are capable of when influenced by superstition, bigotry, and prejudice? ...
Have not these baneful principles metamorphosed men into infernals; and entirely extinguished all the feelings of humanity, the dictates of conscience, and the voice of reason? Alas! what has sin done to make mankind such curses to one another? Merciful God! by they great power suppress this worst of all evils, and let truth and love, meekness and forbearance universally prevail! Limborch's Introduction to his History of the Inquisition; Memoirs of the Persecutions of the Protestants in France by Lewis De Enarolles; Comber's History of the Parisian Massacre of St. Robinson's History of Persecution; Lockman's History of Popish Persec. Clark's Looking-Glass for Persecutors; Doddridge's Sermon on Persecution; Jortin's ditto, ser. 4: Bower's Lives of the Popes; Fox's Martyrs; Woodrow's History of the Sufferings of the Church of Scotland; Neal's History of the Puritans, and of New England; History of the Bohemian Persecutions
Iraq - Christianity was probably introduced among the Mesopotamian Arabs toward the middle of the 2century, and flourished in spite of Persecution by the Sassanian kings of Persia who subjugated the region
Kingdom of God - Not only a place or goal to be attained, but an influence under which our minds come when we are one with Christ and acting under His ideals; the sway of Grace, in our hearts; the rule of God in the world, Thy kingdom come; the place where God reigns; the goal at which we have to aim; the Church, which exercises this influence, administers the sacraments as a means of this grace, upholds even in Persecution the laws of God, tabernacles the Body and Blood of His Divine
Kingdom of Heaven - Not only a place or goal to be attained, but an influence under which our minds come when we are one with Christ and acting under His ideals; the sway of Grace, in our hearts; the rule of God in the world, Thy kingdom come; the place where God reigns; the goal at which we have to aim; the Church, which exercises this influence, administers the sacraments as a means of this grace, upholds even in Persecution the laws of God, tabernacles the Body and Blood of His Divine
Nantes, Edict of - In the early part of the reign of Louis XIV, Persecution of both Catholics and Hugnenots began, but the latter were treated more severely
Non-Jurors - They paid for their loyalty to the unity of the Church and to the Holy See by having to endure bitter Persecution
God, Kingdom of - Not only a place or goal to be attained, but an influence under which our minds come when we are one with Christ and acting under His ideals; the sway of Grace, in our hearts; the rule of God in the world, Thy kingdom come; the place where God reigns; the goal at which we have to aim; the Church, which exercises this influence, administers the sacraments as a means of this grace, upholds even in Persecution the laws of God, tabernacles the Body and Blood of His Divine
Wolf - ...
Matthew 10:16 (a) The Lord knew that His disciples would be subject to Persecution wherever they went
Prophets, Sons of the - The hundred prophets whom Obadiah hid from the Persecution of Jezebel may have been of the same
Anthony, Saint - During this time he made two visits to Alexandria: in 311 to strengthen the Christian martyrs in Persecution, and in 350 to preach against the Arians
Antwerp - It also sheltered the English religious orders who fled Persecution in England
Anvers - It also sheltered the English religious orders who fled Persecution in England
Edict of Nantes - In the early part of the reign of Louis XIV, Persecution of both Catholics and Hugnenots began, but the latter were treated more severely
Baruch - He afterwards shared the Persecution of the prophet, was imprisoned with him, and forced to go to Egypt with the rebellious Jews, Jeremiah 43:1-13
Heaven, Kingdom of - Not only a place or goal to be attained, but an influence under which our minds come when we are one with Christ and acting under His ideals; the sway of Grace, in our hearts; the rule of God in the world, Thy kingdom come; the place where God reigns; the goal at which we have to aim; the Church, which exercises this influence, administers the sacraments as a means of this grace, upholds even in Persecution the laws of God, tabernacles the Body and Blood of His Divine
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - He became a confessor in the Persecution of Severus, A. Alexander was again thrown into prison at Caesarea in the Decian Persecution, where he died A
Elpidius (8), Bishop of Laodicea - After Chrysostom's deposition and exile, Elpidius exerted himself strenuously in his behalf, dispatching letters to bishops and faithful laity in all parts of the world, exhorting them to remain true to Chrysostom, and encouraging them to bear up against Persecution. ...
Elpidius suffered for his fidelity to his friend in the Persecution against the Joannite party under Atticus and Porphyry
Endurance - Born in a context of hostility, Persecution, and the death of their Lord and his disciples, the endurance of Christians in the face of Persecution and temptation underlies most the New Testament. They failed their Lord in times of Persecution and temptation, just as Peter did during the dark days of the crucifixion (John 18:10-11,15-18,25-27 )
Hunneric, King of the Vandals. - ...
These cruelties were only the prelude of a more extensive and systematic Persecution. Even before the conference, however, the Persecution began. Persecution, however, began before the three months' grace had expired. ...
Meanwhile throughout Africa a most cruel Persecution raged, neither age nor sex being a protection; some were cruelly beaten, others hung, and some burnt alive. Victorian, a former proconsul of Carthage, was the most illustrious victim of the Persecution. ...
The most celebrated event of the Persecution occurred at Typasa, a seaport town of Mauritania. " The Persecution continued to rage till Hunneric died, on the following Dec. —Victor Vitensis, de Persecutione Vandalica , ii. ) gives a good narrative of the Persecution, and Ceillier ( Auteurs sacrés , x
Esther - It considers the question of destruction or survival of the Jews under Persecution. Thus the major theme of the book, Persecution returning on the head of those who initiate it, leads through all the details of the story to the final victory which Purim celebrates. Probably the persons who can understand and appreciate the attitudes of Esther are those who have lived through Persecution and occupation by others. ” During the days of oppressive Persecution the very survival of the people depended upon the Jews doing something. Loyalty to God and godly traditions over loyalty to foreign rulers may cause personal and even national Persecution (Esther 3:3-15 )
Innocent xi, Pope - " With an idea of appeasing the pope Louis later inaugurated a Persecution of Protestants by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, but Innocent expressed his displeasure at these drastic methods
Fishing Net, Parable of the - The disciples, therefore, must not expect a sudden, miraculous transformation of the world, which would make it resemble heaven, and must not be scandalized when Persecution comes, as it is bound to, from the coexistence of the Kingdom and of evil
Rome - 71) for some three hundred years as places of refuge in the time of Persecution, and also of worship and burial
Novatian - " That Novatian died a martyr's death during the Persecution of Valerian is doubtful
Hireling - ...
Calvin, who defines hirelings as ‘those who retain the pure doctrine, and who proclaim the truth, as Paul says, to serve a purpose rather than from pure zeal,’ discusses a question wont to Be debated in times of Persecution, viz
Gregory Xiii, Pope - He opposed Elizabeth's Persecution of Catholics in England and attempted to effect her deposition by aiding two unsuccessful expeditions to Ireland, 1578
Evangelist, - Though there was and is an especial gift to some to proclaim the gospel, we read of others who helped to spread the good news, as when there was Persecution at Jerusalem, all were scattered abroad except the apostles, and they went everywhere 'announcing' the glad tidings of, or evangelising, the word, Acts 8:4 ; and Paul speaks of some women who 'laboured with him in the gospel,' Philippians 4:3 ; this they could have done in various ways without preaching publicly
Apollonius - 168 167 he was sent to Hellenize Jerusalem, and he initiated the great Persecution with a cruel massacre on the Sabbath ( 2Ma 5:24-26 )
Rebuke - To suffer rebuke, to endure the reproach and Persecution of men
Ugo Buoncompagni - He opposed Elizabeth's Persecution of Catholics in England and attempted to effect her deposition by aiding two unsuccessful expeditions to Ireland, 1578
Tarachus, Also Called Victor - Tarachus, also called Victor , martyr, an Isaurian from Claudiopolis, and a soldier, who left the army on the outbreak of Diocletian's Persecution
Stephen - His success resulted in the first Persecution of the Church, and false witnesses were brought who accused him of blasphemy, and of speaking against the Temple and the Law. His death led to a Persecution, and to a dispersal of the disciples from Jerusalem
Commodianus - Internal evidence in the poem shews that the author lived in days of Persecution. 12 a "subdola pax" is mentioned, which Cave refers to the temporary quiet enjoyed by the Christians under Gallienus, after the Decian and before the Aurelian Persecution
Domitianus, the Emperor - The traces of Persecution, such as they are, seem rather to belong to his general policy of suspicion and cruelty. The emperor, Hegesippus tells us, thought them beneath his notice, released them, and allowed them to go back to Judea, and put a stop to the Persecution against the church which he had begun . This Persecution was probably the inquiry itself. 5) of Domitian's conduct towards the church, describes him as only attempting a Persecution, and then, thinking better of it, recalling those whom he had condemned to exile
Day of the Lord - ...
The final great ‘day of the Lord’...
Christ’s people have always suffered Persecution, but before the final great day of the Lord that Persecution will become more severe (Matthew 24:5-14; John 16:33; 2 Thessalonians 1:5-12; see Persecution). The Persecution will be so bitter that, for the sake of his people, God will shorten the day of his wrath
Decius, Emperor - ) and partly from the history of the Persecution as traced by Cyprian in his epistles and the treatise de Lapsis and by Dionysius of Alexandria (Eus. ...
The Persecution of Decius (commonly reckoned as the seventh) may fairly be measured as to its extent, if not its actual severity, by the list of martyrs under it still found in the calendar of the Western church. of Jerusalem, Acacius of the Phrygian Antioch, Epimachus and Nemesius of Alexandria, Peter and his companions of Lampsacus, Irenaeus of Neo-Caesarea, Martial of Limoges, Abdon and Sennen (Persians then at Rome), Cassian of Imola, Lucian a Thracian, Trypho and Respicius of Bithynia, the Ten Martyrs of Crete, have all found a place in the martyrologies of this period, and, after allowing uncertainty to some of the names, the list is enough to shew that there was hardly a province of the empire where the Persecution was not felt. ...
Happily, the Persecution was as short as it was severe. In some respects the after-effects of the Decian Persecution were more important than its direct results. The tendency to ascetic rigorism of discipline would doubtless have shown itself sooner or later in any case, but historically the Novatianist schisms had their beginning in the Decian Persecution
Nero, Claudius Caesar - For our purpose the interest of Nero's life centres in his Persecution of the Christians. ...
The only author living near the time of the Persecution who gives an account of it is Tacitus. A Jewish Persecution in Rome might excite a dangerous revolt in Judea. ...
The Persecution was probably confined to Rome. Paul shew how easily an outbreak of popular fury might be excited by Jews or heathens, who, either on religious or private grounds, were hostile to the new doctrine, and how easily in such an outbreak a conspicuous Christian might be murdered without any state edict against Christianity, or without the public authorities interfering at all, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, when Nero set the example of Persecution, many provincial magistrates would take a harsher view than previously of the case of any Christian brought before them. The significance of the Neronian Persecution lies in the fact that it was the first. Whatever the date of the Apocalypse, it can hardly be doubted that the Neronian Persecution with
Berea - A city of Macedon, whither Paul withdrew, with Silas and Timothy, at his first visit to Europe, from Jewish Persecution at Thessalonica, whence also, when the persecutors followed him from Thessalonica, he retired seawards to proceed to Athens (Acts 17:10-15)
Nicholas of Bari, Saint - During the Persecution of Diocletian he was imprisoned, but released after the accession of Constantine, and attended the Council of Nicaea
Nicholas of Myra, Saint - During the Persecution of Diocletian he was imprisoned, but released after the accession of Constantine, and attended the Council of Nicaea
Myra, Nicholas of, Saint - During the Persecution of Diocletian he was imprisoned, but released after the accession of Constantine, and attended the Council of Nicaea
Root - ...
Seed that fails to take root pictures those whose commitment to Christ is not firm enough to withstand trouble or Persecution (Matthew 13:6 ,Matthew 13:6,13:21 )
Strange - A — 1: ξένος (Strong's #3581 — Adjective — xenos — xen'-os ) denotes (a) "foreign, alien," Acts 17:18 , of gods; Hebrews 13:9 , of doctrines; (b) "unusual," 1 Peter 4:12,2 nd part, of the fiery trial of Persecution (for 1st part, see B)
Jezebel - The daughter of Ethbaal, king of Tyre, and wife of Ahab, king of Israel, infamous for her idolatry, wickedness and cruel Persecution of the prophets of Jehovah
Felicissimus, Deacon of Carthage - 52) definitely states that Felicissimus had been, when the Persecution arose, on the point of being tried before the presbytery on charges of homicidal cruelty to his father and wife
Hedibia, a Lady in Gaul - The wife and daughter of Delphidius became entangled in the Zoroastrian teaching of Priscillian, and suffered death in the Persecution of his followers (Sulp
Bari, Nicholas of, Saint - During the Persecution of Diocletian he was imprisoned, but released after the accession of Constantine, and attended the Council of Nicaea
Sanctuary - (1) Consecrated place giving protection to those fleeing from justice or Persecution
Dispersion - Some had fled as refugees in times of Persecution; others had moved to different places in search of trade
Maximianus i., m. Aurelius Valerius - ) The Diocletian Persecution began in A
Paulinus, Bishop of Tyre - of Tyre with great splendour, and after the cessation of the Persecution rebuilt with great magnificence the cathedral elaborately described by the historian in the inaugural oration delivered by him at its dedication ( ib
Paulus, Saint Called Thebaeus - He lived in the desert of the Thebaid, whither he fled in youth from the terrors of the Decian Persecution, and where he died, at an extraordinary age, hale and hearty to the last (Hieron
Salvius, Bishop of Membrasa - Whether this attack caused the death of Salvius we know not, nor do we hear of him again, but his case is often quoted by Augustine when retorting on the Donatists their charge against the Catholics of Persecution
Scapula, Proconsul of Africa - Scapula, a proconsul of Africa, with whom Tertullian remonstrated for his Persecution of the Christians; not because the Christians feared martyrdom, but solely because their love for their enemies made them desire to save them from the guilt of shedding innocent blood
Vitus - , a youthful martyr in Diocletian's Persecution; the son of a pagan gentleman in Sicily, but secretly trained in Christianity by his nurse Crescentia and her husband Modestus
Watchfulness: When Special Need of - The hatred of the ungodly when poured upon Christians in the form of Persecution, is seldom harmful to their spiritual nature, but the friendship of the world is always to be suspected
Chrysogonus, Martyr Under Diocletian - Chrysogonus (1), martyr in the Persecution of Diocletian, whose name was inserted in the Canon of the Mass from a very early period, which shews his importance, though little is now known of him. He was of "great Rome," "a man that feared God," "teacher of the Christians"; "and when Persecution was set on foot he was arrested and cast into prison
Simon Peter - He died a martyr's death at Rome during the Persecution of Nero by being crucified head downwards, according to legend. He was buried at the foot of the Vatican Hill near the Via Cornelia; at the beginning of the Valerian Persecution (c
Miltiades, Bishop of Rome - ...
The pontificate of Miltiades was marked by the accession, and so-called conversion, of Constantine the Great, and the definite termination of Diocletian's Persecution. To Miltiades the possessions of the Christians at Rome, including the cemeteries, were at length restored by Maxentius: "Melchiades was recorded to have sent deacons with letters from the emperor Maxentius and from the prefect of the Praetorium to the prefect of the city, that they might recover possession of what had been taken away in the time of Persecution, and which the aforesaid emperor had ordered to be restored" (Augustine, Brevic. Augustine, accused by African Donatists of having, as one of the presbyters of pope MARCELLINUS, with him given up the sacred books and offered incense under the Persecution of Diocletian. ...
Miltiades was buried, as his predecessors since Pontianus till the commencement of Persecution had been, in the cemetery of St
Galerius, Emperor - ...
Political troubles which followed did not divert Galerius from Persecution. The autumn of 308 saw a new edict issued, which began a perfect reign of terror for two full years, the most prolific in bloodshed of any in the history of Roman Persecutions; and the vast majority of persons who in the East (for the Persecution in the West had ceased with the accession of Constantine and usurpation of Maxentius) are celebrated as "martyrs under Diocletian" really suffered between 308 and 311. This part of the Persecution bears marks, however, of the influence of Maximin Daza rather than of Galerius. From his dying-bed was issued his famous Edict of Toleration, bearing the signatures also of Constantine and of Licinius, which virtually put an end to the "Persecution of Diocletian. The origin of the Persecution is ascribed to the fact that the Christians had wilfully departed from the "institutions of the ancients which had peradventure been first set on foot by their own forefathers," and had formed schismatical assemblies on their own private judgment
Severus, l. Septimius - ...
In Africa the Persecution began with a violation of the cemeteries, and a bad harvest following, the rage of the people against the Christians increased (ad Scap. In 205 or 206, under the milder government of Julius Asper, the Persecution seems to have abated, after raging for 3 years ( de Pallio, 3). These subterfuges were regarded with scorn and abhorrence by the more enthusiastic, but no trace is to be found of the Libellatici so notorious in later Persecutions. The abatement seems to have continued till near the close of the reign, but in 210 and 211 the Persecution broke out again in its sharpest form under the proconsul Scapula and extended to Mauritania. ...
Of Persecution in other parts of the empire we have only a few isolated notices. Cruel as it was, and severer than any previous one, the Persecution under Severus had not the systematic character of those of Decius and Diocletian
Peter Epistles of - ...
(d) Encouragement to bear Persecution with fortitude, in view of the Christians’ certainty of ultimate salvation (1 Peter 3:13 to 1 Peter 5:11). ...
(4) Christians ought not to be shocked by the outbreak of severe Persecution. -The main purpose of the Epistle is to comfort and encourage certain communities embarrassed by heathen opposition-an opposition which had broken out into a conflagration of Persecution. The letter is so uniform in its emphasis upon suffering, and it makes so much of the hope that Christ will soon appear to remedy the present evil, that the writer evidently thought Christians generally throughout this territory were actually enduring, or were soon to experience, very severe Persecution. Notwithstanding numerous discussions of the subject, there is still much uncertainty regarding the exact extent and character of the Persecutions which are commonly supposed to have occurred under these three Emperors. _ Our first explicit information outside the NT about the Persecution of Christians in Asia Minor is found in the extant correspondence which Pliny the Younger and Trajan carried on about the year 112 (Ep. This, so far as our extant information is concerned, is the first time in history when the mere confession of the name ‘Christian’ itself constituted a punishable offence in the eyes of the law, but henceforth Persecution for the ‘Name’ was the ordinary form of procedure. The situation under Trajan is thought to exhibit a too advanced type of Persecution. The Persecution seems to have broken out only recently (1 Peter 4:12), and resentment toward the authorities has not yet had time to develop (1 Peter 2:13-17); while in Revelation the persecutors are hated bitterly and Christians have been enduring afflictions for some time (Revelation 2:13, Revelation 6:10, Revelation 18:24). ...
This line of argument assumes that conditions north of the Taurus were practically identical with those of eastern Asia Minor, and that Revelation is a reliable witness to the Domitianic Persecution. Certainly the popular belief that Domitian instituted a vigorous Persecution in the East is not substantiated by the earliest authorities. ...
Those who adopt a Neronian date-a view which has been widely accepted_-have even greater difficulties in obtaining substantial evidence for a Persecution of the desired type in northern Asia Minor in the sixties. There is, however, very explicit evidence for a severe Persecution in Rome during Nero’s reign. 5-7), about the year 95, speaks less explicitly, but in the light of the statements of Tacitus and Suetonius it seems altogether probable that Clement has in mind the Neronian Persecution. Whether Tacitus is right in connecting the fire with Nero’s action against the Christians is sometimes disputed,_ but the evidence for a Neronian Persecution some time after the conflagration of the year 64 is overwhelming. The ground of the Persecution was crimes of one sort or another commonly charged against these people who were ‘hated for their enormities’ (so Tacitus). ...
This situation might be said to correspond fairly well with that of 1 Peter, but we have no certain knowledge that the Neronian Persecution reached to the East, and particularly to the peoples addressed in 1 Peter 1:1. Advocates of the Neronian date quite plausibly remark that members of the new cult, because of their hostility to contemporary customs, would everywhere become objects of hatred, a hatred which might break out in fiery Persecution at any time when the magistrates could be induced to act. ...
From the standpoint of the Persecutions, the advantage would seem to be with a date shortly before the rescript of Trajan and during the early days of Pliny’s governorship
Mohammed - A Persecution instigated by his preaching and attack on heathenism compelled him to fly from Mecca to Medina in 622
Felicitas, Martyr at Rome - It is almost certain that there was no authorized Persecution under Antonius Pius, but public calamities stirred up the mob to seek for the favour of the gods by shedding Christian blood ( Julii Capitolini, Vita Antonini Pii , c
Sun - The sun’s scorching heat, so destructive to vegetation, is an emblem of tribulation or Persecution (Matthew 13:6; Matthew 13:21, Mark 4:6; Mark 4:17)
Householder - It occurs also in the parable of the Great Supper, Luke 14:21 (corresponding to the king of Matthew 22:2; Matthew 22:7), also as denoting the head of the house whose Persecution involves that of his subordinates, Matthew 10:25 (see Household); and once more in the parable of the Unfaithful, against whom the door was shut, Luke 13:25 (cf
Belief - In the heat of Persecution, to which christian belief was subject, upon its first promulgation
Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea - In the Persecution under Valerian, a
Thessalonica - At length the Persecution became so violent as to drive the apostles away
Death - ...
The term death is also sometimes used for any great calamity, or imminent danger threatening life, as Persecution, 2 Corinthians 1:10
Justinus i - Because of the Persecution of his Arian co-religionists, Theodoric sent pope John I
Pierius, a Presbyter of Alexandria - Some have therefore thought that he suffered martyrdom in Diocletian's Persecution
Victorinus - He is believed to have suffered martyrdom in Diocletian's Persecution
Marcellus, Bishop of Rome - ...
It would appear from these lines, together with those on Eusebius [1], that when Persecution ceased at Rome conflicts arose in the Christian community as to the terms of readmission of the lapsi to communion; that Marcellus after his election had required a period of penance before absolution; that this stern discipline evoked violent opposition, the subjects of it being doubtless numerous anal influential; that the church had been split into parties in consequence, and riots, anarchy, and even bloodshed, had ensued; that "the tyrant" Maxentius had interposed in the interests of peace and banished the pope as the author of the discord. the leader and instigator of the opposition, who had "denied Christ in time of peace" by condoning apostasy and subverting discipline after Persecution had ceased
Peter, Letters of - ...
Purpose in writing 1 Peter...
It was the era of the Roman Emperor Nero (who ruled from AD 54 to 68) and Persecution against Christians was increasing everywhere. Paul had recently been executed (2 Timothy 4:6), and Peter felt that a more violent Persecution was about to break out. ...
Peter therefore wrote to warn Christians not to be surprised or ashamed when they met Persecution (1 Peter 4:12; 1 Peter 4:16)
Afflict, Affliction - It is coupled with stenochoria, "anguish," in Romans 2:9 ; 8:35 ; with ananke, "distress," 1 Thessalonians 3:7 ; with diogmos, "persecution," Matthew 13:21 ; Mark 4:17 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:4 . Philippians 1:16 ); James 1:27 ; of the distress of woman in child-birth, John 16:21 ; of Persecution, Acts 11:19 ; 14:22 ; 20:23 ; 1 Thessalonians 3:3,7 ; Hebrews 10:33 ; Revelation 2:10 ; 7:14 ; of the "afflictions" of Christ, from which (His vicarious sufferings apart) his followers must not shrink, whether sufferings of body or mind, Colossians 1:24 ; of sufferings in general, 1 Corinthians 7:28 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:6 , etc. See ANGUISH , BURDENED , DISTRESS , Persecution , TRIBULATION , TROUBLE
Martyr - It is customary to distinguish one or two epochs in that period as moments of great Persecution. But this must not obscure the truth that Persecution seldom ceased altogether. 97) concerning an unknown Persecution in Bithynia twenty years before shows that there must have been much official activity against Christians of which no record survives. In the Jewish Persecution Saul is said to have entered into every house (Acts 8:3), and to have searched every synagogue for Christians. ...
Still heavier was the toll of martyrs exacted by the Roman Persecutions of the 1st century. -Among those who were done to death in the Jewish Persecutions mentioned in the Acts the names of two only are preserved-Stephen, and James the son of Zebedee. ...
In Rome the first shadow of the Neronian Persecution fell upon Pomponia Graecina. Peter’s death may be dated in the early days of the Neronian Persecution (a. But the phrase ‘in the days of Antipas’ suggests a date some years before the words were written, and Antipas was probably killed in some unknown Persecution under the earlier Flavians. Workman, Persecution in the Early Church3, London, 1911 (with full bibliography); A
Catholic, Roman - " With the dying down of the more violent phase of the Persecution of the Church, a term was invented to designate the Church, without recognizing its claims to be the One True Church, perhaps without intending an odious sense, but still often used to imply that it is foreign and not in accord with the national spirit, or tradition
Fight - ...
Acts 5:39 (a) This figure is used to describe the Persecution of GOD's people by their enemies, and the refusal of these enemies to bow to GOD's Word through the teaching of CHRIST and His disciples
Hunt - ...
To hunt down, to depress to bear down by Persecution or violence
Thresh - ...
Amos 1:3 (a) This is a description of the Persecution and whipping given to Gilead by the armies of Damascus
Apelles - The phrase may indicate that he had been specially tested and tried by affliction or Persecution, or that he was a Christian who had gained the approbation of the Church, sufficiently perhaps to be called to the ministry (cf
Lamentations of Jeremiah - The first two chapters principally describe the calamities of a the sieges of Jerusalem; the third deplores the Persecution which Jeremiah himself had suffered; and fourth adverts to the ruin and desolation of the city and temple, and the misfortune of Zedekiah; and the fifth is a kind of form of prayer for the Jews in their captivity
Roman Catholic - " With the dying down of the more violent phase of the Persecution of the Church, a term was invented to designate the Church, without recognizing its claims to be the One True Church, perhaps without intending an odious sense, but still often used to imply that it is foreign and not in accord with the national spirit, or tradition
Fish, Fisher - ...
The early Christians, in times of Persecution, used to engrave the form of a fish on their medals, seals, and tombs, as a tacit confession of their faith; as the five letters of the Greek word for fish are the initial letters of five words, signifying "Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Savior
Apostacy - Two of the most common are false teaching and Persecution (Matthew 24:9-11; 1 Timothy 4:1-3; 2 Peter 2:1-3; Judges 1:3-4; Judges 1:17-23)
Plague - However violent the opposition, or bitter the Persecution, or extreme the danger to which God’s people are exposed, they have nothing to fear
Dionysius of Alexandria - In the Persecutions of Decius he addressed a letter to him On Persecution ( ib. 41) the Persecution under Decius (a. In the Persecution of Valerian, a. Personal experiences during Persecution (Eus. —To Germanus: incidents in Persecution
Isdigerdes i, King of Persia - Abdas was among the first of the martyrs, and a Persecution commenced in or towards the end of Isdigerd's reign, which his son and successor Vararanes or Bararanes carried on with most revolting cruelty and which was only ended by the presence of the Roman legions. From the odium of this Persecution the memory of Isdigerd is specially shielded by Socrates ( H
Babylon - ( Revelation 14:8 ; Revelation 16:19 ; Revelation 17:5 ; Revelation 18:2 ; Revelation 18:10 ; Revelation 18:21 ) its destruction is foretold, because of its sins, and particularly because of its Persecution. This probability is strengthened by the reference to the Persecution to which Christians were being subjected. Assyrian Babylon in the second half of the 1st elm was in decay, and 1Peter would be particularly appropriate if sent out from the seat of a Persecution, such as that of Nero, or possibly of Domitian
Revelation, the Book of - To be sure, a faithful Christian in Pergamum had suffered death ( Revelation 2:13 ), and the church in Smyrna was warned of a time of impending Persecution (Revelation 2:10 ); but the Persecutions described in the Revelation were still largely anticipated at the time of John's writing. ...
Date Scholars have traditionally suggested two dates for the writing of the Revelation based upon the repeated references to Persecution (Revelation 1:9 ; Revelation 2:2-3 ,Revelation 2:2-3,2:10 ,Revelation 2:10,2:13 ; Revelation 3:9-10 ; Revelation 6:10-11 ; Revelation 7:14-17 ; Revelation 11:7 ; Revelation 12:13-13:17 ; Revelation 14:12-20 ; Revelation 19:2 ; Revelation 21:4 ). 81-96) as the time of John's writing, but there is no historical consensus supporting a Persecution of Christians under Domitian while hard evidence does exist for a Persecution under Nero (A. Whichever date is chosen, however, the setting must be closely related to a time of Persecution for the author and an anticipated expansion of Persecution for the original audience. The Dragon's Persecution of the Righteous (Revelation 12:1-13:18 )...
VIII. The church at Philadelphia (Revelation 3:7-13 ) is promised, in the face of Persecution by the local synagogue, that faith in Jesus will assure access into the eternal kingdom; and the church at Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22 ) is told to turn from her self-deception and repent of her lukewarmness. In Daniel 7:1 , the people of God were oppressed by four terrible beasts, symbolic of evil empires and kings; similarly, the Revelation is written to people who either are, or soon will be, experiencing Persecution from powers of evil. Refusing the mark of the beast (Revelation 13:16-17 ; Revelation 14:11 ), they hold to the testimony of Jesus (Revelation 14:12 ) in spite of Persecution (Revelation 12:17 ; Revelation 13:7 ) and therefore have the promise of final deliverance in heaven from this evil age of great tribulation (Revelation 7:14 ). He still has too much to say about the nature of judgment, the mission of the church, and the Persecutions of the beast to bring his prophecy to an end. Persecutions will last for “forty-two months,” but His people cannot be destroyed, for the “two witnesses” (Revelation 11:3-13 ) must bear witness to the mercy and judgment of God. It is that “42 months,” the period of Persecution (and protection/witness), that John now unfolds. ...
The Dragon's Persecution of the Righteous (12:1–13:18) Revelation 12:1 is crucial for understanding John's view of the sequence of history. The critical question, however, is when the three-and-a-half year period of Persecution and witness begins. ...
A Summary of Triumph, Warning, and Judgment (14:1-20) After the depressing news of the ongoing Persecutions of the unholy trinity, John's readers need another word of encouragement and warning
Tribulation - ...
Such a reference to “the great tribulation” as Revelation 7:14 (NIV) is seen by some (amillennialism) to refer historically to Persecution faced by Christians of the latter part of the first century, but also symbolic of tribulation that occurs periodically throughout history
Self-Seeking - It is sinful, and the source of innumerable sins; as perjury, hypocrisy, falsehood, idolatry, Persecution, and murder itself
Confession of Faith - Objections have been formed against all creeds or confessions of faith, as it is said they infringe Christian liberty, supersede the Scriptures, exclude such as ought not to be excluded, and admit such as ought not to be admitted; are often too particular and long; are liable to be abused; tempt men to hypocrisy; preclude improvement; and have been employed as means of Persecution. ; that their becoming the occasion of hypocrisy is no fault of the articles, but of those who subscribe them; that Persecution has been raised more by the turbulent tempers of men than from the nature of confessions
Pacification - Edicts of, were decrees, granted by the kings of France to the Protestants, for appeasing the troubles occasioned by their Persecution. ...
See HUGUENOTS, and Persecution
Tribulation (2) - ‘Tribulation’ and Persecution (διωγμός) ‘because of the word’ are mentioned in the parable of the Sower as the conditions which cause those ‘to stumble straightway’ that ‘hear the word, and straightway with joy receive it, and have no root in themselves’ (Matthew 13:21, Mark 4:17). A mind only emotionally interested in the ‘word,’ that is to say, as distinct from one intellectually and morally interested (Matthew 13:23, Mark 4:20), is incapable of withstanding the emotional shock occasioned by tribulation and Persecution
Eusebius, Bishop of Rome - It would seem that, on the cessation of Diocletian's Persecution, the church there was rent into two parties on the subject of the terms of readmission of the lapsed to communion: that one Heraclius headed a party who were for readmission without the penitential discipline insisted on by Eusebius; that the consequent tumults and bloodshed caused "the tyrant" Maxentius to interpose and banish the leaders of both factions; and that Eusebius, dying during his exile in Sicily, thus obtained the name of martyr. Novatian, after the Decian Persecution, some 50 years before; though on the earlier occasion the question was whether the lapsi were to be readmitted to communion at all or not, the schismatics being on the side of severity; on the later occasion the question was only about the conditions of their readmission, the dissentients being on the side of laxity
Nonconformists - The same Persecutions were carried on in Scotland; and there, as well as in England, numbers, to avoid the Persecution, left their country. Their very Persecution was in their favour
Persecution - We must consider our subject in the light of this three-fold reference, so that we may see to what degree, and in what sense, the term ‘persecution’ is applicable to the attitude of the nation through its rulers (1) to her religious teachers, (2) to Christ, and (3) to His followers. _...
If we define ‘persecution’ provisionally as the infliction of suffering, whether it be temporary discomfort or death, upon individuals for holding or advocating religious views, and adopting or propagating religious practices, which are obnoxious to the community, or to those in authority, we shall have a definition sufficiently broad and comprehensive to cover the cases in connexion with which the term has been used. It may not be necessary for the persecuted persons to be active in the propagation of their tenets, although the strong conviction, which has generally inspired men to endure Persecution rather than abandon their views, produces the missionary spirit. Those who inflict punishment on religious offenders may not admit the charge of Persecution, as, according to them, the whole life of the individual is subject to the control of the State, and any and every activity comes under the law of the land. In the strict sense of the term, the infliction of suffering on account of religious opinions is Persecution, if the adoption of such views on the part of individuals is not incompatible with loyalty to the throne or the secular power, and with the due discharge of their duties as citizens of the realm. From the point of view of the State, such punishment deserves to be described as Persecution if the secular authorities admit the contention that there is a sphere within which the secular authority has no jurisdiction, and if nevertheless it punish those who use their freedom within this sphere. But the advocates of punishment in the case of religious recusancy deny the existence of such a sphere in the life of the individual, and therefore they do not plead guilty to the charge of Persecution. It will not be denied that various motives have been operative, both in the case of those who persecute, and of those who submit to Persecution; for it is seldom that human motives are unmixed. States have persecuted because they have refused to recognize the existence of a sphere in which men are free, and men have endured Persecution because they have grasped, more or less clearly, the truth that freedom belongs to the very essence of the religious attitude, and determines its moral worth. Persecution in the OT. He was prepared to employ force himself, as he was ready to endure Persecution rather than cease from condemning what he believed to be wrong or false, i. The retort of the nation’s official leaders to this fearless exposition of the demands of true religion was Persecution. Persecution of the Jews by the Seleucid kings. ...
In regard to Persecution on the part of the Church of Rome, Lecky writes: ‘If men believe with an intense and realising faith that their own view of a disputed question is true beyond all possibility of mistake … these men will, sooner or later, persecute to the full extent of their power. Persecution of Jesus by the Jews. Our Lord warned His disciples that the Persecution which He endured would also be their lot (John 15:18)
Messalians - The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civilcustoms of a place only in order to escape Persecution
Filthy, the - The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civilcustoms of a place only in order to escape Persecution
Scatter - ...
3: διασπείρω (Strong's #1289 — Verb — diaspeiro — dee-as-pi'-ro ) "to scatter abroad" (dia, "throughout," speiro, "to sow seed"), is used in Acts 8:1,4 ; 11:19 , all of the church in Jerusalem "scattered" through Persecution; the word in general is suggestive of the effects of the "scattering" in the sowing of the spiritual seed of the Word of life
Montanists - They held it unlawful to fly in time of Persecution
Adelphians - The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civilcustoms of a place only in order to escape Persecution
Fall - They pretend to adhere to the doctrines of CHRIST, but under pressure and Persecution they turn their backs on CHRIST and repudiate that which they pretended at one time to believe
Euchites - The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civilcustoms of a place only in order to escape Persecution
Adelphians - The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civilcustoms of a place only in order to escape Persecution
Dorothea, Virgin Martyr - Baronius, Bollandus, and Tillemont all place the death of Dorothea in the Persecution of Diocletian
Saul - 2909; his prophesying along with the young prophets; his appointment by the lot; his modesty in hiding himself; his first victory over the Ammonites; his rash sacrifice in the absence of Samuel; his equally rash curse; his victories over the Philistines and Amalekites; his sparing of King Agag with the judgment denounced against him for it; his jealousy and Persecution of David; his barbarous massacre of the priests and people of Nob; his repeated confessions of his injustice to David, &c, are recorded in 1 Samuel 9-31
Citizen, Citizenship - ...
Paul made use of these rights as he faced opposition and Persecution (Acts 16:37 ; Acts 25:11 )
Messalians - The fervor of their prayers was supposed to bring them into immediate contact with God; so they neglected everything but prayer and conformed to the religious and civilcustoms of a place only in order to escape Persecution
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch - They are—(1) a letter to Caricus and Pontius against the Cataphrygian or Montanist heresy, containing a copy of a letter of Apollinaris of Hierapolis, and substantiated as to the facts by the signatures of several other bishops, including some of Thrace; (2) a treatise addressed to Domninus, who during the Persecution of Severus had fallen away to the Jewish "will-worship"; and (3), the most important, directed against the Docetic gospel falsely attributed to St
Nestorian Church - There was no Persecution by the government, though converts from one special religion, Zoroastrianism, had sometimes to face it, from the powerful hierarchy of that faith, the Magians. Apostasy from Christianity to the established faith meant worldly prosperity, but there was no Persecution, though there was often oppression, by the government, until the adoption of Christianity by the Roman emperor (the standing enemy of the shah-in-shah) made every Christian politically suspect. Thus Persia continued to be a refuge for many Christians from Roman territory during the "general" Persecutions of the 3rd cent. ...
Persecution of Sapor II. —Shimun succeeded Papa, and in his days the church had to face the terrible "forty years' Persecution" of Sapor II. The acceptance of Christianity by the Roman empire meant terrible suffering for the church outside it, in that any outbreak of the secular rivalry of the two empires meant thereafter Persecution for the church in one of them. ...
Thus, when Sapor made war on Constantius in 338, Persecution commenced almost as a matter of course. ...
This greatest of Persecutions was not, of course, uniformly severe at all times in all provinces, and both it and others after it were rather the releasing of the "race-hatred" of Zoroastrianism against Christianity than the ordered process of law against a religio illicita . —The church was then formally put into the position that it had, previously to the Persecution, occupied practically: it was made a melet in the Persian state, under its catholicos, Isaac; it was allowed to hold a council, under his presidency and that of the Roman ambassador, Marutha; and it now for the first time accepted the Nicene Creed. Persecution soon recommenced, Magian jealousy being stirred by Christian progress, and raged for four years (420–424, mainly under Bahrain V. As usual, a Perso-Roman war coincided with the Persecution, and the end of the one marked the end of the other also. This man had suffered much, both in the Persecution and from the accusations of Christian enemies, and was most anxious to resign his office. that of the Roman empire), as too much connexion spelt Persecution. —Another Persecution fell on this much-tried church in 448, but otherwise we know little of its history till 480, when the Christological controversy reached it for the first time. ...
Meantime, Monophysite supremacy in the Roman empire had ended with the accession of the emperor Justin in 518, and friendly relations between the church there and that in Persia had been resumed: the advantage had to be paid for by the latter, in that it implied a renewal of Persecution
Tribulation - We have ‘tribulation’ in Acts 11:19 and 1 Corinthians 7:28 (Revised Version ; Authorized Version ‘persecution,’ ‘trouble’). But it is the Christians who are specially subject to tribulation, and their tribulation consists largely of Persecution and of the opposition which their religion meets in an unfriendly world. ‘The tribulation which arose about Stephen’ (Acts 11:19 Revised Version ) was of course ‘persecution’ (Authorized Version ). Paul speaks of all the ‘persecutions and tribulations’ which the Thessalonians endure (2 Thessalonians 1:4). He gloried in tribulations (Romans 5:3), feeling that neither tribulation nor anguish nor Persecution could separate him from the love of Christ (Romans 8:35)
Daniel, Book of - They make profuse use of symbols, numbers, figures of speech, and signs to interpret history and events during dreadful Persecution and personal danger. Its opening stories serve as the tie to times of Persecution and call for moral living. Daniel's Visions Point the Way Through Persecution to Hope (Daniel 7:1-12:13 ). ...
A second stance emphasizes Daniel's relationship to other apocalyptic literature in which writers often use the names of ancient heroes to describe history long past to bring a message to a present generation facing extreme Persecution. He then pointed to an immediate future when God would judge Antiochus and his followers who enforced the present Persecution of God's people. ...
Whichever stance one takes in interpreting the details of Daniel, the inspired book continues to give hope, strength, and courage to God's people, especially in times of Persecution, and to call for ultimate faithfulness no matter the temptations faced
Libellatici - A new class of lapsi, called traditores, consisting mostly of clerics who yielded up the sacred books to the authorities, appeared during the Persecution of Diocletian and caused many disputes, resulting ultimately in the Donatist schism
Lapsi - A new class of lapsi, called traditores, consisting mostly of clerics who yielded up the sacred books to the authorities, appeared during the Persecution of Diocletian and caused many disputes, resulting ultimately in the Donatist schism
Maelmhaedhoc o'Morgair - , ...
"In the final Persecution of the Holy Roman Church, there will reign Peter the Roman, who will feed his flock amid many tribulations, after which the seven-hilled city will be destroyed, and the dreadful Judge will judge the people
Malachy, Saint - , ...
"In the final Persecution of the Holy Roman Church, there will reign Peter the Roman, who will feed his flock amid many tribulations, after which the seven-hilled city will be destroyed, and the dreadful Judge will judge the people
Netherlands - In the 16th century, because of the prevalence of Calvinism, the Catholic dioceses of the country were reorganized and increased in number, but they were suppressed by Persecution, and frequently even vicars Apostolic were kept from their vicariates by the States-General
Montanists - The "Spirit" ordered three Lents to be observed, and re-marriage and flight from Persecution were forbidden
Fortitude - Christian fortitude is necessary to vigilance, patience, self-denial, and perseverance; and is requisite under affliction, temptation, Persecution, desertion, and death
Zealot - ...
The Zealots maintained their opposition to Rome in spite of Persecution and even the execution of some of their members
Greece - The first restoration of the Latin Rite was attempted by the Crusaders, who in 1204 occupied Greece and the islands of the Archipelago; they were succeeded by the kings of Aragon (1311-1394) and the dukes of Florence (1394-1458), who tried unsuccessfully to reclaim the schismatics by Persecution
Ammonius - He was banished to Diocaesarea in the Persecution under Valens ( ib
Chains - Peter was confined in the stormy days of the Persecution (Acts 12:6); and St
James, Epistle of - The great lesson which he teaches them as Christians is patience, patience in trial (1:2), patience in good works (1:22-25), patience under provocation (3:17), patience under oppression (5:7), patience under Persecution (5:10); and the ground of their patience is that the coming of the Lord draweth nigh, which is to right all wrong (5:8)
Thurificati - A new class of lapsi, called traditores, consisting mostly of clerics who yielded up the sacred books to the authorities, appeared during the Persecution of Diocletian and caused many disputes, resulting ultimately in the Donatist schism
Sacrificati - A new class of lapsi, called traditores, consisting mostly of clerics who yielded up the sacred books to the authorities, appeared during the Persecution of Diocletian and caused many disputes, resulting ultimately in the Donatist schism
Philippi - 62, gratefully and warmly acknowledges the receipt of their gift by the hand of Epaphroditus, and their continued affection towards him; also their irreproachable Christian walk, and their firmness under Persecution, Philippians 1:7 4:23 2:12 4:10-15
Patience - ...
Christians need patient endurance in the face of Persecution
Excommunication - The censure of the church, on the other hand, is not to be accompanied, as among papists, with enmity, curses, and Persecution
Lucius (1) i - ...
The Decian Persecution having been renewed by Gallus, and Cornelius having died in banishment at Centumcellae, Lucius, elected in his place at Rome, was himself almost immediately banished
Moses - They wrote early in the Persecution, urging the claims of discipline on the Carthaginian confessors (Ep
Nicolaus, Bishop of Myra - of Myra in Lycia at the time of Diocletian's Persecution, and one of the most popular saints both in the East and West
Theodorus of Amasea - Theodorus (83) of Amasea, a young soldier who suffered in the Persecution under Maximian and Galerius c
Vettius Epagathus - In the early Persecutions, the Christians felt it to be a gross injustice that a man should be put to death merely because he acknowledged himself to be a Christian, and without any investigation whether there was anything contrary to morality or piety in the Christian doctrines or practices. This befell Vettius Epagathus, a distinguished Christian citizen of Lyons in the Persecution of a
Pagan -
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its Persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. The reasons of this shortage are easily understood: the vocation must be very select; the training is long and arduous, and includes the mastery of difficult languages that cannot be learned from books; when all this has been surmounted, there are the risks of travel in barbarous lands, disease, and Persecution; only the very choicest spirits can successfully encounter these
Paganism -
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its Persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. The reasons of this shortage are easily understood: the vocation must be very select; the training is long and arduous, and includes the mastery of difficult languages that cannot be learned from books; when all this has been surmounted, there are the risks of travel in barbarous lands, disease, and Persecution; only the very choicest spirits can successfully encounter these
Huguenots - The Persecution which they have undergone has scarce its parallel in the history of religion. ...
See Persecution
Perseverance - ...
The background setting for the idea of perseverance blossomed out of the context of Persecution and temptation. ...
In the early church Christians wrestled with the problem of the renouncers during and after periods of Persecution
Fire - Fire is likewise taken for Persecution, dissension, and division: "I am come to send fire on earth,"...
Luke 12:49 ; as if it was said, upon my coming and publishing the Gospel, there will follow, through the devil's malice and corruption of men, much Persecution to the professors thereof, and manifold divisions in the world, whereby men will be tried, whether they will be faithful or not
Friends - ...
From their first appearance, they suffered much Persecution. In New- England they were treated with peculiar severity, imprisoned, scourged, (women as well as men,) and at Boston four of them were even hanged, among whom was one woman; and this was the more extraordinary and inexcusable, as the settlers themselves had but lately fled from Persecution in the parent country! During these sufferings, they applied to King Charles II, for relief; who, in 1661, granted a mandamus, to put a stop to them
Acts of the Apostles - The principal facts recorded in it are, the choice of Matthias to be an Apostle in the room of the traitor Judas; the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of pentecost; the preaching, miracles, and sufferings of the Apostles at Jerusalem; the death of Stephen, the first martyr; the Persecution and dispersion of the Christians; the preaching of the Gospel in different parts of Palestine, especially in Samaria; the conversion of St. Paul; the call of Cornelius, the first Gentile convert; the Persecution of the Christians by Herod Agrippa; the preaching of Paul and Barnabas to the Gentiles, by the express command of the Holy Ghost; the decree made at Jerusalem, declaring that circumcision, and a conformity to other Jewish rites and ceremonies, were not necessary in Gentile converts; and the latter part of the book is confined to the history of St
John the Apostle - They received no such guarantee from Jesus; only a rebuke for their selfish ambition and a promise of Persecution ahead (Matthew 20:20-28). Their boldness amid Persecution was an example to all (Acts 1:13; Acts 3:1-4; Acts 3:11; Acts 4:13-20; Acts 5:40)
Episcopacy - The number of Christians in most of the primitive churches was at first small: they could easily, when not prevented by Persecution, assemble together; and they thus formed one church or congregation; for, in Scripture, the term church is never used in the more modern acceptation of the word, but is employed to denote either the whole church of Christ, or a number of disciples meeting for the celebration of divine worship. The ministers who were sent to the recently erected churches had probably different powers, according to the numbers to whom they were to officiate, the situation of the churches in respect of the original church, and the tranquillity or Persecution which was their lot. We know that the Apostolic churches were enjoined to communicate to other bodies the epistles which they had received; and while Persecution continued, it was natural for all who were exposed to it to consider by what means its fury could be avoided
Revelation, Book of - Persecution at first came mainly from the Jews, but as the century progressed, civil authorities also turned against the Christians. The two main periods of Persecution from the Roman Emperors came in the sixties under Nero and in the nineties under Domitian. It is a book given to strengthen and guide Christians in a time of Persecution. ...
Anti-Christian Persecutions and divine judgments have been repeated throughout the church’s history, from John’s time to the present. They may suffer Persecution, and perhaps martyrdom, but because of Christ’s victory they are triumphant (8:6-11:19)
France - The Church in Gaul is first mentioned in history in connection with the Persecution at Lyons under Marcus Aurelius (177) which included martyrs from every station in life. With Louis XIV Gallicanism came to the throne, resulting on the one hand in Persecution of Protestants and Jansenists, and on the other in subjection of papal pronouncements to the king's approval. Persecution increased under the Republic which attempted to dechristianize France, but Catholicity, never entirely suppressed, was restored by the Concordat of Napoleon, 1799
Euric, King of Toulouse - ...
Euric's Personal Character, and his Persecutions of the Catholics. " Euric was much interested in religious matters and a passionate Arian, not merely apparently from political motives, though his Persecution of the Catholic bishops was dictated by sufficient political reasons. echoed and exaggerated the account of Sidonius, and all succeeding Catholic writers have accused Euric of the same intolerant Persecution of the church. The Persecution must be looked upon, to a great extent, as political. The ecclesiastical organization made the bishops specially formidable (see Dahn's remarks on the Vandal king Huneric's Persecutions, op. But the Persecution has a special interest as one of the earliest instances of that oppression in the name of religion, of which the later history of the Goths in conquered Spain is everywhere full (Dahn, v. For the ultra-Catholic view of the Persecution, see Gams's Kirchengesch
Faithfulness of God - Encouraging them under Persecution, 1 Peter 4:12-13
Phoenicia - Persecution beginning with Stephen's death, led the church to spread into Phoenicia (Acts 11:19 ; compare Acts 15:3 ; Acts 21:2-3 )
Meditation - Jesus instructed Christians to meditate beforehand on their attitude toward Persecution (Luke 21:14 )
Arise - A Persecution arose about Stephen
Death - ...
2 Corinthians 4:12 (a) Paul uses the word here in order to describe the crushing and destructive effects of Persecution and prosecution of his own life
Aurelian, Roman Emporor - The emperor was surrounded by counsellors who urged on him a policy of Persecution, but his death hindered the execution of his plans
Felix (174), Bishop of Tubzoca - His story illustrates the first edict of Persecution issued by Diocletian in Feb
Alexandria - Although the Christians suffered Persecution there, they produced a school with such notables as Clement and Origen in leadership
Jehoiakim - Active Persecution of the prophetic party followed, in which one man at least was put to death
Destroy - ” This biblical word occurs also in modern Hebrew, with the root having the connotation of “religious Persecution” or “forced conversion
Gad - The first time we find him with this prince is when he fled into the land of Moab, 1 Samuel 22:5 , to secure his father and mother in the first year of Saul's Persecution
Indulgence - ) In the NT it always carries the thought of relief from tribulation or Persecution; so 2 Thessalonians 1:7 , "rest;" in 2 Corinthians 2:13 ; 7:5 it is rendered "relief," RV (AV, "rest"); in 2 Corinthians 8:13 , "eased
he'Brews, Epistle to the - --With respect to the scope of the epistle, it should be recollected that while the numerous Christian churches scattered throughout Judea, ( Acts 9:31 ; Galatians 1:22 ) were continually exposed to Persecution from the Jews, (1 Thessalonians 2:14 ) there was in Jerusalem one additional weapon in the hands of the predominant oppressors of the Christians
Saul - In his first war with the Ammonites, God was with him; but then follow his presumptuous sacrifice, in the absence of Samuel; his equally rash vow; his victories over the Philistines and the Amalekites; his sparing Agag and the spoil; his spirit of distracted and foreboding melancholy; his jealousy and Persecution of David; his barbarous massacre of the priests and people at Nob, and of the Gibeonites; his consulting the witch on Endor; the battle with the Philistines in which his army was defeated and his sons were slain; and lastly, his despairing self-slaughter, his insignia of royalty being conveyed to David by an Amalekite, 1 Samuel 31:1-13 2 Samuel 1:1-27 1 Chronicles 10:13,14
Canon of Scripture, the, - After the Maccabean Persecution the history of the formation of the Canon is merged in the history of its contents
Soter, Bishop of Rome - In his time the Aurelian Persecution afflicted the church, though there is no evidence of Roman Christians having suffered under it
Theodotus, Bishop of Laodicea - Eusebius gives him a high character for skill as a physician of both body and soul, remarkable for kindness, sympathy, sincerity, and zeal to help all who needed aid, reinstating the church in its prosperity which had suffered much by the cowardice of its last bishop, Stephen, who seems to have renounced the faith in the Persecution of Diocletian (Eus
Paulicians - But the cruel rage of Persecution, which had for some years been suspended, broke forth with redoubled violence under the reigns of Michael Curopalates, and Leo the Armenian, who inflicted capital punishment on such of the Paulicians as refused to return into the bosom of the church. ...
During these commotions, some Paulicians, towards the conclusion of this century, spread abroad their doctrines among the Bulgarians: many of them, either of a principle of zeal for the propagation of their opinions, or from a natural desire of flying from the Persecution which they suffered under the Grecian yoke, retired about the close of the eleventh century from Bulgaria and Thrace, and formed settlements in other countries
Witness, Martyr - ...
This high commitment to witness/testify exemplified by Christ resulted in His Persecution and death. Likewise, with His followers there would be Persecution for their witness (John 15:20 )
Heresy - ...
Christianity being thus deformed by the daemon of Persecution upon the continent, our own island could not escape its scourge. when the eyes of the Christian world began to open, and the seeds of the Protestant religion (under the opprobrious name of Lollardy) took root in this kingdom, the clergy, taking advantage from the king's dubious title to demand an increase of their own power, obtained an act of parliament, which sharpened the edge of Persecution to its utmost keenness. ...
And yet the spirit of Persecution was not abated, but only diverted into a lay channel; for in six years afterwards, by stat. 100: 9; when, in one and the same reign, our lands were delivered from the slavery of military tenures; our bodies from arbitrary imprisonment by the habeas corpus act: and our minds from the tyranny of superstitious bigotry, by demolishing this last badge of Persecution in the English law
Moravians - In 1468 a great Persecution arose against them, and many were put to death. ...
In the mean time, disputes respecting points of doctrine, the enmity of the papists, and other causes, raised continual disturbances and great Persecutions at various periods, till the Reformation by Luther, when they opened a correspondence with that eminent reformer and his associates, and entered into several negotiations, both with him and Calvin, concerning the extension of the Protestant cause. But a civil war, which broke out in Bohemia in 1612, and a violent Persecution which followed it in 1621, again occasioned the dispersion of their ministers, and brought great distress upon the Brethren in general. Some fled into England, others to Saxony and Brandenburg; while many, overcome by the severity of the Persecution, conformed to the rites of the church of Rome. ...
About the year 1640, by incessant Persecution, and the most oppressive measures, this ancient church was brought to so low an ebb, that it appeared nearly extinct. The Persecutions which took place at the beginning of the eighteenth century, were the occasion that many of the scattered descendants of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren at length resolved to quit their native land, and seek liberty of conscience in foreign countries
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - knows anything of such a Persecution, but on the contrary agree in representing his reign as a period of peace. ) testifies that before the Persecution of Maximin the church had enjoyed a long peace, and Sulpicius Severus (ii. 447) includes the reign of Alexander in the long peace lasting from Septimius Severus to Decius, broken only by the Persecution of Maximin. Bischöfe, 177) acutely conjectures that this notice refers, not to the martyrdom, but to the confession of Callistus before Fuscianus mentioned by Hippolytus, as up to the Decian Persecution the word "martyr" was still used in the wider sense. We may therefore conclude that all these accounts of Persecutions and martyrdoms, so inconsistent with the known character of the emperor and passed over in silence by all authors for more than two cents
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - ...
John suffered grievously in the Persecution instigated first by John Scholasticus, whom he calls John of Sirmin, and afterwards by Eutychius. The misery of the four bishops was aggravated by the reproaches of the leading Monophysite laymen, who supposed that their obstinacy alone hindered a compromise which would stop the Persecution. Before the outbreak of this Persecution, John of Ephesus and Paul of Aphrodisias had argued publicly with Conon and Eugenius, the founders of the Cononites, nicknamed Tritheites, in the presence of the patriarch and his synod, by command of Justin (v. Persecution was renewed, and John of Ephesus again met with disgraceful injustice. It was called forth by the Persecution above mentioned, which broke out in the 6th or 7th year of Justin, and the writer often apologizes for want of chronological order, occasional repetitions, and even inconsistencies of statement (see esp. 50), as defects due to the stress of untoward circumstances: "This should be known to critics: many of these stories were penned in time of Persecution . The spirit of Persecution is not the peculiar mark of any age, church, or sect
Moses - ), at a time of grievous Persecution, when Pharao had ordered the killing of all male Hebrew children (Exodus 1) Exposed on the waters of the Nile, he was rescued by Pharao's daughter and educated at court
Monks, White - Certain modern congregations together with those that escaped the Persecution now form the Common Observance
Order of Citeaux - Certain modern congregations together with those that escaped the Persecution now form the Common Observance
Missions Etrangeres de Paris - It progressed with difficulty, however, through the 17th and 18th centuries and was temporarily arrested by the French Revolution; but since 1843 it has flourished with steadily increasing membership, partly through contributing charities and in great measure through the inspiring martyrology the society boasts, the Persecution of its missionaries even rousing European intervention in Eastern countries
Quakers - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Quakers, Fighting - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Quakers, Free - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Friends - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Friends, Hicksite Society of - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Friends of Truth - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Children of Light - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Friends, Orthodox Society of - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Friends, Wilburite Orthodox Conservative - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Children of Truth - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Fighting Quakers - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Free Quakers - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Orthodox Society of Friends - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Light, Children of - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Felicitas, Martyr at Carthage - 202 or 203, during the reign of Severus, whose latter years were marked by a very rigorous Persecution (Ael
Meekness - It enables people not merely to be patient when suffering unjust criticism or Persecution, but to be positively forgiving (Colossians 3:12-13; Titus 3:2; see PATIENCE)
Hicksite Society of Friends - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Apocalypse - It was written either during the Persecution of Nero (54-68) or of Domitian (90-94), during Saint John's exile at Patmos, to encourage the persecuted Christians by foretelling the fall of Rome as an anti-Christian power and the trials but complete victory of the Church
Philip - ' When the church was scattered from Jerusalem by Persecution, Philip went to Samaria and preached Christ and wrought miracles, and men and women believed and were baptised
Euzoius, Arian Bishop of Antioch - This commission was carried out with shameless brutality and Persecution of the orthodox (Socr
Stephen - Paul, who then appears to have commenced his career of Persecution
Mount Paran - ) Here David found a refuge, in after-ages from the Persecution of Saul
White Monks - Certain modern congregations together with those that escaped the Persecution now form the Common Observance
Society of Foreign Missions of Paris - It progressed with difficulty, however, through the 17th and 18th centuries and was temporarily arrested by the French Revolution; but since 1843 it has flourished with steadily increasing membership, partly through contributing charities and in great measure through the inspiring martyrology the society boasts, the Persecution of its missionaries even rousing European intervention in Eastern countries
Society of Friends (Orthodox) - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Truth, Children of - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Truth, Friends of - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Religious Society of Friends of Philadelphia - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Wilburite Orthodox Conservative Friends - The Quakers suffered Persecution in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Connecticut, but were cordially received, in Rhode Island
Obadi'ah - (1 Kings 18:3 ) He was a devout worshipper of Jehovah, and at the peril of his life concealed over a hundred prophets during the Persecution by Jezebel; (1 Kings 18:3-16 ) (B
Phil'ip the Evangelist - The Persecution of which Saul was the leader must have stopped the "daily ministrations" of the Church
Phocas, of Sinope - Combefis places his martyrdom in the last years of Trajan, but Tillemont considers a later Persecution, either that of Decius or that of Diocletian, more probable
Encouragement - ...
A common form of encouragement is to give comfort and help, whether to those who are sorrowful (2 Samuel 10:2; Isaiah 61:2; Matthew 5:4; Romans 12:15; see SORROW), those who fear (Exodus 14:13; Psalms 23:4; Matthew 14:27; Revelation 2:10; see FEAR), those who are persecuted (Psalms 86:17; Isaiah 49:13; John 16:33; 1 Peter 4:12-14; see Persecution), or those who are experiencing any other form of weakness, despair or suffering (Isaiah 40:1-2; Zephaniah 3:16; Matthew 9:2; Matthew 9:22; Acts 23:11; see SUFFERING)
Tiberius ii., Emperor of Constantinople - 207 John relates Tiberius's only act of Persecution
Martyr - " ...
The primitive Christians believed that the martyrs enjoyed every singular privileges; that upon their death they were immediately admitted to the beatific vision, while other souls waited for the completion of their happiness till the day of judgment; and that God would grant to their prayers the hastening of his kingdom, and shortening the times of Persecution. Of the sayings, sufferings, and deaths of the martyrs, though preserved with great care for the above purpose, and to serve as models to future ages, we have but very little left, the greatest part of them having been destroyed during that dreadful Persecution which Dioclesian carried on for ten years with fresh fury against the Christians; for a most diligent search was then made after all their books and papers; and all of them that were found were committed to the flames
Norway - Churches were destroyed and their lands confiscated by kings and nobles, many monasteries were suppressed, and, in the Persecution of Catholics Mogens Lawridtzen, Bishop of Hamar, died in prison, and Bishop Jon Arason was executed
London, England, City of - A new Persecution broke out later, culminating in the martyrdom of fourteen more priests and laymen after the Titus Oates Plot, 1678. The chief events concerning London Catholics after the erection of the Vicariate Apostolic, 1688, were: ...
the petty Persecutions conducted by common informers, 1767-1778
the first Catholic Relief Acts 1778, and the consequent Gordon Riots, 1780
the second Catholic Relief Acts 1791
the Catholic Emancipation Acts 1829
the Oxford Movement, 1833-1845
the reestablishment of the hierarchy, 1850
the erection of Westminster Cathedral, 1895-1903
the Eucharistic Congress, 1908
the steady growth of Catholic strength in all phases of activity in the city
African Church - The historical period begins with groups of martyrs, 180; in spite of Persecutions Christianity rapidly spread from Carthage through the provinces. In the beginning of the 3century the edict of Emperor Decius started a fierce Persecution. This conquest subjected the Church to new Persecutions, as the Vandals were Arians
Caiaphas - He is probably the high priest referred to in Acts 5:17-21; Acts 5:27; Acts 7:1; Acts 9:1 who imprisoned Peter and John, presided at the trial of Stephen, caused the Persecution recorded in Acts 8, and gave Saul of Tarsus letters to Damascus to apprehend the Christians there
Anastasius, a Presbyter of Antioch - Nestorius having commenced a Persecution against the Quartodecimans of Asia in 428, two presbyters, Antonius and Jacobus, were dispatched to carry his designs into effect
Fructuosus (1), m., Bishop of Tarragona - The Acta of his martyrdom and of his two deacons and fellow-sufferers, Eulogius and Augurius, are the most ancient Spanish Acta, and marked by a realistic simplicity which contrasts very favourably with many of the Acta of Diocletian's Persecution
Meekness - It fits us for any duty, instruction, relation, condition, or Persecution, Philippians 4:11-12
Sponsors - It issupposed that Persecution and the presence of heresy led to itsinstitution. During the time of those early Persecutions it standsto reason that the heads of the Church must have been aware of theprobability of some at least of those who had been baptized ofreceding from their vows and thus sinning away their Baptismalgrace. Then there were the probabilities duringpersecution that the parents might not outlive the violence ofthe times and be enabled to watch over the moral and religiouseducation of their baptized children
Maximianus, a Donatist - Unremitting Persecution induced many Maximianists to return at length to the Donatist community, but of Maximian himself we hear little or nothing subsequently; other names are most prominent in the party's history
New Testament - Saul "a young man" Acts 7:58-60 ...
Great Persecution, disciples scattered except the apostles Acts 8:1-4 ...
36 Conversion of Saul (three years before...
his flight from Damascus. ...
41 Claudius emperor of Rome; reigns 13 years...
Judaea and Samaria united, under Herod Agrippa as king...
Herod (brother of Agrippa) king of Chalcis...
Gospel preached to the Gentiles at Antioch Acts 11:20 ...
Barnabas goes to Antioch; fetches Paul Acts 11:26 ...
42-3 They remain a year at Antioch...
Herod Agrippa's Persecution
Masona, Bishop of Merida - Eulalia, his Persecution at the hands of Leovigild, who sent two Arian bishops, Sunna and Nepopis, at different times, to undermine Masona's influence and oust him from his church, his intercourse with Leovigild at Toledo, where his resistance to the king's demand led to his exile, and his final restoration to his see after Leovigild's various supernatural warnings. Isidore expressly mentions the exile of bishops among Leovigild's measures of Persecution ( Hist
Philip - He was one of those who were "scattered abroad" by the Persecution that arose on the death of Stephen
Patience - God’s people must be prepared to endure insults, hardship, injustice, Persecution, suffering and trials of every kind (1 Corinthians 4:12; 1 Corinthians 6:7; 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:3-4; Hebrews 11:25-27; James 1:12; James 5:10-11)
Gallienus p. Licinius, Emperor - The words in which Eusebius describes the edict (the text of which is lost) imply no more than that actual Persecution was stopped ( H
Senuti, an Anchorite - Senuti followed Nestorius with bitter Persecution to the last, even offering him personal violence when he lay dying in Egypt
Emperor Worship - During the reigns of Nero, Domitian, and other Roman emperors, Persecution of Christians was severe because of gross misconceptions regarding the practice of the Christian faith
Thessaloni'ca - [1] Circumstances which led Paul to Thessalonica
Antioch - The Jews therefore raised a Persecution by the wealthy women of the place, and drove him from Antioch to Iconium, and followed him even to Lystra (Acts 13:14; Acts 13:50-51; Acts 14:19; Acts 14:21)
Ahab - A Persecution of the prophets of the Lord followed—many of them being destroyed by Jezebel
Rousseau, Jean Jacques - Obliged to hide after the publication of Emile, he sought refuge in Switzerland, in England, and in Paris, everywhere obsessed by the delusion of Persecution
Maximinus i., Roman Emperor - Julius Verus Maximinus is conspicuous as the first barbarian who wore the imperial purple, and as one of the emperors whose names are connected with the ten Persecutions recorded by ecclesiastical historians. The Persecution was limited in its range, and probably was effectual chiefly in removing the restraints which the leanings of Alexander had imposed on the antagonism of the populations and governors of the provinces
Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem - Chronicon ), Alexander, a Cappadocian bishop, a confessor in the Persecution of Severus, visiting the holy city in fulfilment of a vow, was selected by the aged Narcissus as his coadjutor and eventual successor
Paulus, the Black - The great Persecution of the Monophysites by the patriarch John Scholasticus broke out at Constantinople, if the year is right, on Mar 20, 571, and Paul was one of four bishops (another being PAULUS (18)) barbarously treated by him
Antioch in Syria - ...
Christianity came to Antioch through the efforts of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians who had been driven from Jerusalem by violent Jewish Persecution
Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria - version in Mason's Persecution of Diocletian , p
Mexico - These and similar laws were put strictly in force, 1927, and Catholic priests and laymen, women especiaIly, were subjected to barbarous Persecution. Morrow, this Persecution came to an end
Exhortation - ’ Frequently, indeed, especially in times of Persecution or unrest, it consisted in a mutual exchange of encouragement or warning among believers (1 Thessalonians 4:18; 1 Thessalonians 5:11, Hebrews 3:13; Hebrews 10:25). In times of threatened apostasy it was admonitory; amid Persecution and danger it promoted comfort
Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis - Meletius took advantage of Peter's flight from Persecution (Soz. Athanasius and Socrates affirm indeed that the degradation of Meletius was specially due to his having "denied the faith during Persecution and sacrificed"; but in this they probably express only the popular belief which could not otherwise explain why orthodox bishops were imprisoned and martyred, while Meletius passed through the length and breadth of the land unhindered
Manes, Called Also Mani - Varanes instituted a general Persecution of the Manicheans after his death. The Persecution was so severe that adherents of the sect fled into all the neighbouring lands—India, China, Turkestan, etc. The pretext of the Persecution was that the spread of the sect was hostile to the human race through their opposition to marriage (Assem
Boar - Eating it was the token of apostasy under Antiochus Epiphanes' Persecution, and is mentioned among Judah's provocations of Jehovah (Isaiah 65:4; Isaiah 66:17)
Chiliasm - the chiliastic views again appear a fact doubtless due, as in the time of the early Church and of the Reformation, to Persecution
Rending of Garments - There were four occasions on which rending of garments was enjoined by the Jewish Law: (1) death; (2) the apostasy of a member of the family; (3) the destruction, during Persecution, of a copy of the Law; (4) blasphemy
Spirits in Prison - ...
Peter used this confession and triumphant journey of Christ to encourage his readers, who were suffering ridicule and Persecution as a result of their conversion (1:6; 4:4)
Pride - It may be considered as the parent of discontent, ingratitude, covetousness, poverty, presumption, passion, extravagance, bigotry, war, and Persecution
Ascension - The ascension (1) allowed Jesus to prepare a heavenly place for His followers (John 14:2 ), (2) return to the Father (John 16:5 ), (3) send the Holy Spirit to the disciples (John 16:7 ) to bring conviction of sin, open the way to righteousness through faith, and condemn the devil, (4) comfort those suffering for Him through visions of the Ascended One (Acts 7:54-60 ), (5) call persons to fulfill His missionary task (Acts 9:1-18 ), (6) open doors of ministry for His people (2 Corinthians 2:12-14 ), (7) demonstrate God's power and His rule over all who would exercise power and authority on earth or in heaven (Ephesians 1:20-23 ), (8) give gifts for ministry to His people (Ephesians 4:7-12 ), (9) give hope to troubled followers showing they would join Him in glory (Colossians 3:1-4 ), (10) rescue His servants from Persecution so they can preach His gospel (2 Timothy 4:16-18 ), (11) demonstrate that glory, not death, is God's final word for the Son and for disciples (Hebrews 2:9 ), (12) exercise a heavenly priesthood (Hebrews 4:14 ), (13) make revelation of future trials and final victory possible (Revelation 1:1 ), (14) discipline His church so He may have fellowship with it and provide final full fellowship in ruling with Christ (Revelation 3:19-22 )
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, a disciple and companion of Fulgentius of Ruspe (3 ); sharing his exile to Sardinia during the Persecution by the Arian kings of the Vandals
Galla Placidia, Daughter of Theodosius i - ) Her influence over Constantius was soon shewn in his active Persecution of the Pelagians (Prosp
Gallus (11), Abbat, the Apostle of Switzerland - ]'>[1] When Columbanus in 612 left Switzerland to escape the Persecution of the Burgundian court, Gallus was detained at Bregenz by a fever, but as soon as he could, returned to his friend the priest Willimar, at Arbona on the S
Affliction - ...
In the New Testament the source of affliction is (1) the natural conditions of humanity (James 1:27 ); (2) Persecution because of faithfulness to Christ (2 Corinthians 6:4 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:6 ); (3) discipline for the purpose of maturing the Christian faith; and (4) the result of personal sin (Galatians 6:7 )
Andronicus - Possibly they may not have suffered imprisonment with the Apostle at the same time and place; but, as enduring Persecution for Christ’s sake, they were in that sense ‘fellow-prisoners
Constantius i, Flavius Valerius, Emperor - Although a pagan, he disapproved of the Persecution of Diocletian, and contented himself by closing a few churches and overthrowing some dilapidated buildings, respecting (as the author of the de Morte Persecutorum says) the true temple of God
Leaven - 8-10) and his encouragement that the Holy Spirit will assist them in times of Persecution (vv. Thus, Jesus' warning about the leaven of the Pharisees in Luke seems to stress preparation for times of Persecution
Thessalonians Epistles to the - -In Athens Paul was joined by Silas and Timothy, who caused him grave anxiety by their tidings of fresh Persecutions suffered by the Thessalonian Church (1 Thessalonians 3:1-5). The constancy of the Thessalonians under Persecution not only had proved them worthy of their ‘election,’ but had also caused their example to be held up for imitation to all believers throughout Macedonia and Achaia (1 Thessalonians 1:2-10; 1618384894_18) yet they were beset by dangers. If the Thessalonian Christians were once brought to distrust their teachers, it seemed probable that Persecution would soon drive them back to heathenism. Persecution still continued and was still bravely endured (2 Thessalonians 1:4); but a new source of anxiety had arisen from a spreading belief in the imminence of the Parousia. ...
(2) Surely they can have no doubts about the apostles’ motives, when they recall their freedom from all self-seeking, their solicitude for individuals, the Persecution they had suffered, the labour and privation necessitated by their voluntary independence. The message of power they received has inspired them bravely to endure Persecution at the hands of their countrymen, even as the Jewish Christians had already done in Judaea (1 Thessalonians 2:13-16). In spite of Persecution, the Thessalonians have remained steadfast. -(1) The salutation (2 Thessalonians 1:1-2) leads up to a thanksgiving for the readers’ spiritual progress, especially for their endurance under Persecution
Emperor-Worship - What needs to be noted is that Persecution was not a spasmodic thing due to the whim and caprice of specially ‘bad’ Emperors, as has sometimes been represented. Persecution of Christianity was the deliberate and settled policy, not of this or that tyrant, but of the Roman State. From the time that Christianity attained any great dimensions to the day of Constantine’s Edict of Toleration, there existed between it and the Roman power a relation of antagonism; and a condition of Persecution resulted for the Church. The Persecution might be wide-spread or local, few or many Christians might be involved: that depended entirely on the diligence and zeal of Roman officials. The story of Persecution, of course, is a varied one; we cannot trace its development here. of mortal insult or treason to the Emperor, who represented in his person the majesty, wisdom, and beneficent power of Rome’ (Workman, Persecution in the Early Church, p. Workman, Persecution in the Early Church, do
Trajanus, m. Ulpius - ...
Besides the interesting information thus afforded on the belief and practice of the early Christians (hints are apparently given of the existence of some formula of prayer, of the Eucharist and Agape), what light does it throw on the legal position of the Christians? That trials of Christians had to Pliny's knowledge already taken place appears by it, and the allusion cannot be to the Neronian Persecution when he was scarcely three years old, and hardly can be to that which was commenced and almost immediately discontinued by Domitian, assuming that the objects of it were Christians and not Jews. >From Tertullian this view of the rescript passed to Eusebius and from him to other Christian writers, till at last it came to be taken as an edict of toleration terminating a general Persecution (Sulp. ...
Overbeck (Studien zur Geschichte der Alten Kirche ) maintained that the rescript was the law that regulated the position of the Christians till the beginning of the Persecution of Severus in 202, and that from Tertullian downwards a thoroughly mistaken view of it had been taken. Aurelius, on the occasion of the Persecution of Lyons, issues a rescript following the same rule, that those who abjured Christianity should be released, those who refused should be executed (Eus
Origen - During the Maximinian Persecution he visited Cappadocia, and on his return completed his scriptural commentaries
Mizpah - ...
...
A town of Moab to which David removed his parents for safety during his Persecution by Saul (1 Samuel 22:3 )
Olves, Mount of - Here he often sat with his disciples, telling them of wondrous events yet to come, of the destruction of the Holy City; of the sufferings, the Persecution, and the final triumph of his followers (Matthew 24 )
Cyprus - ...
Moreover those scattered abroad in the Persecution whereby Stephen suffered "traveled as far as Cyprus, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only
Remnant - ’ The comparison here is with the ‘seven thousand men’ who during the religious Persecution of Ahab’s reign had not ‘bowed the knee to Baal’ (1 Kings 19:18)
Balaam - In Revelation 2:14 , the church at Pergamos was complimented for faithfulness under Persecution, but also warned that some followed after Balaam in offering meat to idols and in immorality
Caves - At this time, they became places of refuge for Jews fleeing Roman Persecution
Judaizers - Amidst the rising pressures of Jewish nationalism in Palestine during the mid-first century, and increased Zealot animosity against any Jew who had Gentile sympathies, it would appear that these Jewish Christians embarked on a judaizing mission among Paul's converts in order to prevent Zealot Persecution of the Palestinian church
Magistrate (2) - ...
In the first of the instances to be noticed here our Lord prepares His disciples for the Persecutions that await them. One form of Persecution will be arrest and accusation before magistrates. Persecutions did ensue, and nothing is more remarkable than the dignity and wisdom of the words spoken by disciples thus accused before magistrates, the Holy Ghost being a mouth and wisdom unto them (Luke 21:15; cf
Eagle - ...
Revelation 12:14 (a) This seems to be a prophecy concerning the special provision GOD will make to preserve a remnant of Israel from the terrible scourge and Persecution that will arise against that people in the great day of GOD's wrath
Babylas, Bishop of Antioch - 253, § 126) with one Numerius, who was an active officer in the Decian Persecution (Tillemont, M
Cross - Hence they gloried in the cross of Christ, Galatians 6:14, and willingly, for love of him, took up the cross (a figurative expression) and followed him, suffering for his sake Persecution even to the death
Judah, the Kingdom of - They continued their Persecution in the times of the apostles, and they will be dealt with separately from the ten tribes: cf
Maximinus, Saint, Bishop of Treves - Against the Arian heresy, then in the ascendant, he boldly contended and suffered much Persecution
Scillitan Martyrs - In 177 Persecution had raged at Lyons
Manasseh - But their fidelity only aroused bitter hatred, and a period of cruel Persecution against all the friends of the old religion began. Psalm 497377140,73,77,140 , and 141 seem to express the feelings of the pious amid the fiery trials of this great Persecution
Waldenses - ...
They accordingly formed religious assemblies, first in France, and afterwards in Lombardy; from whence they propagated their sect throughout the other provinces of Europe with incredible fortitude, that neither fire nor sword, nor the most cruel inventions of merciless Persecution, could damp their zeal, or entirely ruin their cause. This Persecution was carried on with peculiar marks of rage and enormity in the years 1655, 1656, and 1696, and seemed to portend nothing less than the total extinction of that unhappy nation
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - ...
The common view that he suffered for the Christian faith in Diocletian's Persecution between 303 and 305 is more than doubtful. "I was a confessor at the first, when a Persecution arose in the time of your grandfather Maximian. " These words can hardly refer to the general Persecution enjoined by Diocletian. The allusion seems to be to the Persecution of which the chief promoter was Maximian, the Augustus and colleague, not the son-in-law, of Diocletian. If so, it was under the jurisdiction of Constantius, and, as both Lactantius and Eusebius affirm, that Constantius took no part in the Persecution of the Christians, it could not have been in his period that Hosius became a confessor. Probably it was in some special and local Persecution carried out under the orders of Maximianus Herculius while he was sole ruler of the West, before Constantius was appointed Caesar in 292, and much before the general Persecution authorized by the edicts of Diocletian in 303. Hosius would have been then between 30 and 36 years old, and it is far more likely that he suffered Persecution and witnessed a good confession then than later under the mild rule of Constantius. ...
As the bishops and officers of the church generally suffered first in the outbreaks of Persecution, it is more than probable that Hosius was already bp. Such a denial of pardon to those who lapsed under Persecution was the chief error of Novatian (Socr
Gospel - ...
The first of these crises was Persecution. The Emperor Nero initiated the first official Persecution so he could use Christians as scapegoats for his own insane actions. On the basis of this supposed admission of guilt, Nero began a systematic Persecution of Christians which included arrest, imprisonment, torture, and execution. The Persecution begun by Nero continued in varying degrees of intensity during the reign of other emperors throughout the New Testament period. From a historical perspective, Persecution may have strengthened the spirit of the early church, but that first generation of Christians felt their very existence was threatened. Some died in the Persecutions and others simply aged enough to pass away from natural causes. ...
The best evidence indicates Mark wrote the Gospel for Christians in Rome faced with the first great Persecution and the loss of leaders such as Peter
Acts - Perhaps Luke was writing a defense of Christianity for this official during a time of Persecution to show him there was nothing subversive or sinister about the followers of Jesus. This part of the book tells of the early successes ( Acts 2:41 ) and the early Persecutions (Acts 4:1-22 ). The dispersion of Christians from Jerusalem during the Persecution there resulted in a strong church at Antioch (Acts 11:19-30 ). False accusers and Persecution cannot halt the church's mission (Acts 7:1-60 ). God overcomes political Persecution (Acts 12:1-25 ). Persecution helps spread missionary work (Acts 14:1-7 )
Diocletian, Emperor - As it is, his name is identified with the most terrible of its Persecutions. 259, had placed Christianity in the number of religiones licitae, and there had been no formal Persecution since. Cosmas and Damian and others in Cilicia, if more than legendary, must be referred to special causes, and not to a general policy of Persecution. The Persecution raged throughout the province. Here we merely note the extent, continuance, and ferocity which distinguished this Persecution from all others
Reproach (2) - (Luke 6:22) reproach forms a part of the last Beatitude—the Beatitude of Persecution. Jesus frequently forewarned His disciples that Persecution would come upon them through following Him (Matthew 5:10 ff. And in this Beatitude He specially forewarns them of the Persecution of false and bitter tongues—more trying to some natures than the stones of the mob or the tyrant’s scourge and sword
Maximus Magnus, Christian Emperor in the West - Western writers, Sulpicius Severus and Orosius, though treating Maximus as a usurper, give him, on the whole, a good character, Sulpicius making exception on the score of his Persecution of the Priscillianists and his love of money (Sulp. of Emerita, found in Maximus a ready instrument of Persecution. , which we still possess, bidding him desist from the Persecution of the church (Soz
Desert - It is a symbol of temptation, solitude, and Persecution ( Isaiah 27:10 , Midbar_; 33:9, _arabah )
Evangelist - So others scattered by Persecution (Acts 8:4) "went everywhere evangelistically preaching (euangelizomenoi ) the word
Perseverance - The source of their troubles may be the trials of life, Persecution, desire for personal prosperity, worry, laziness or false teaching (Mark 4:17-18; Mark 13:13; 1 Timothy 4:1; 1 Timothy 6:10; Hebrews 2:1; Hebrews 10:32-39)
Hate, Hatred - Hatred and Persecution will also occur near the end of time (Matthew 24:9 )
Olivet Discourse, the - ...
A Time of Persecution (Matthew 24:9-14 ) These verses suggest a time of severe distress
Anthropomorphitae - Audius or Audaeus of Syria a bold censor of the luxury and vices of the clergy and an irregularly consecrated bishop founded a strictly ascetic sect which were called Audians or Anthropomorphites and maintained themselves in spite of repeated Persecution till the close of the 5th cent
Arsacius - Those who had taken a leading part in them were apprehended and tortured, and a fierce Persecution commenced of the adherents of Chrysostom
Jeremiah - We have the relation of the Persecution frequently raised against him, in several parts of his writings
Chromatius, Bishop of Aquileia - ...
In the Persecution of Chrysostom, Chromatius warmly embraced his cause
Last - 70, and to the closing part of the age in consummating acts of gentile Persecution including "the time of Jacob's trouble" (cp
Confession - ...
Jesus made such a confession in relation to himself and suffered Persecution as a result (Mark 14:60-62; John 18:33-37; 1 Timothy 6:13)
Purse - The passage, says Wendt, is to be explained from foresight of an impending period of Persecution for the disciples: Jesus sets the necessity of buying a sword in contrast to the freedom from all want hitherto enjoyed by His disciples in their work as His messengers, and bases His exhortation on a reference to the doom about to fall on Himself; a period would begin when the disciples would no longer be unharmed, but would be in the midst of conflicts and Persecutions (see Wendt, Teaching of Jesus, ii
Church, Gallican - Since the repeal of the edict of Nantz, the protestants have suffered much from Persecution. A perusal of the horrid massacres of the priests who refused to take the oaths, and the various forms of Persecution employed by those who were attached to the Catholic religion, must deeply wound the feelings of humanity
Nonconformists - The same Persecutions were carried on in Scotland; and there, as well as in England, many, to avoid Persecution, fled from their country. Their very Persecution was in their favour
Discipline (2) - (2) The discipline of Persecution also does not of necessity come to all Christians. Along the pathway of poverty (Matthew 8:20) and Persecution (John 7:19; John 8:37) to which He called His disciples, He Himself walked; yet alike in His own life and in His thought for them (Matthew 9:14, cf
Hebrews, Letter to the - ...
Historical setting...
With the increasing Persecution of Christians during the reign of Nero (AD 54-68), tensions and fears arose in the church. ...
Because of the suffering that came through the Persecution, some of the discouraged Jewish Christians were doubting Christianity’s claim to be God’s new and triumphant way to the eternal kingdom
Justice - ...
Bearing with injustice...
Christians may suffer injustice in the form of discrimination and even Persecution, both from governments and from citizens. Like Jesus they must accept any such opposition bravely and not try to retaliate (Romans 12:19-21; 1 Peter 2:15; 1 Peter 2:21-23; 1 Peter 3:13; 1 Peter 4:16; see Persecution)
Ulfilas - He returned to Dacia, laboured there for 7 years, and then migrated into Moesia, driven from his original home by a Persecution, probably between 347 and 350. 37) intimates that Ulfilas and his converts suffered much at the hands of Athanaric, a lively picture of whose Persecution, a
John - He suffered under Persecution, and was banished to Patmos (1:9); whence he again returned to Ephesus, where he died, probably about A
Maryland - The next year the Puritans, who had been freely permitted to establish a settlement at Providence (now Annapolis) when they fled from the intolerant laws of Virginia, seized the government of Maryland and repealed the Act, with subsequent appalling Persecution of Catholics
Temple - And amidst much Persecution and many interruptions, the people accomplished the purpose, and the second temple was completed at a period of somewhat more than five hundred years before the coming of Christ
Smyrna - " The Lord's allusions to Persecutions accord with this identification. The attributes of Him "which was dead and is alive" would comfort Smyrna under Persecution
Fabianus, Bishop of Rome - Fabianus was among the earliest victims of the Decian Persecution
Business - It is evident that Persecution was often instigated by pagans whose business had been thus affected by the new faith
Martyrology - ...
See Persecution
Antioch - The Persecution that arose over Stephen resulted in Jewish believers scattering to Cyprus, Cyrene, and Antioch ( Acts 11:19 )
Empire, Byzantine - His successor Constantine V continued his policy of iconoclasm and Persecution of monks, and though image-worship was restored by Irene (797-802), the Iconoclasts finally prevailed
Abyssinian Church - In 1588 a second mission was attempted, and so far succeeded as to introduce a system of Persecution, which cost many lives, and caused many troubles to the empire
Burden, Burdened, Burdensome - 1, is used of the effect of drowsiness, "were heavy," Matthew 26:43 ; Mark 14:40 ; Luke 9:32 ; of the effects of gluttony, Luke 21:34 ("overcharged"); of the believer's present physical state in the body, 2 Corinthians 5:4 ; of Persecution, 2 Corinthians 1:8 ; of a charge upon material resources, 1 Timothy 5:16 (RV)
Jeremiah - During the three years of the reign of Jehoahaz we find no reference to Jeremiah, but in the beginning of the reign of Jehoiakim the enmity of the people against him broke out in bitter Persecution, and he was placed apparently under restraint (Jeremiah 36:5 )
Joannes i, Bishop of Rome - The emperor Justin, having during the pontificate of Hormisdas restored the churches in the East to orthodoxy and communion with Rome, continued to shew his orthodox zeal by the Persecution of heretics
Philippus, the Arabian - (6) A year before Decius issued his edict against the Christians, and therefore while Philip was still reigning, a violent Persecution had broken out at Alexandria (Eus
Sarbelius, a Edessan Martyr - But a letter, ordering Persecution to cease, arrived from Trajan, who had been convinced of the excellence of Christian morality and of the general agreement of their laws of conduct with the imperial laws
Symmachus, Author o.t. in Greek - 420), adds that this Juliana was a virgin who lived in Caesarea of Cappadocia, and gave refuge to Origen for two years during a Persecution, adducing as his authority an entry which he found in Origen's own hand "This book I found in the house of Juliana the virgin in Caesarea, when I was hiding there; who said that she had received it from Symmachus himself, the interpreter of the Jews" ( Hist. 2) is probably right in assigning the sojourn of Origen in this lady's house to the time of Maximin's Persecutions (a
Theodotus of Byzantium - Hippolytus stated that Theodotus was a native of Byzantium, who denied Christ in time of Persecution—a fact which accounted for his heresy, since he could thus maintain that he had only denied man, not God
Domitian - 94, according to the Chronicle of Eusebius, as translated by Jerome, that the Domitianic Persecution of the Christians began, and that the Apostle John, being banished to the island ‘Pathmus,’ saw the Apocalypse (cf. There must have been a fierce Persecution of Christians in Domitian’s time, and the Apocalypse would seem to be the mirror of it. It has been usual to connect with this Persecution the charge of ‘atheism’ (by which, of course, the Romans meant the worship of no god in visible form: they had long charged the Jews with the same [4]4) brought against two relations of the Emperor
Mark, Gospel of - ...
During the decade of the sixties, the Roman Persecution of Christians increased, particularly after Nero blamed Christians for the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Mark’s Gospel reminded the Roman Christians (by quoting from Peter’s experience of the life and teaching of Jesus) that they would need strength and patience to endure misunderstandings, Persecution, false accusations and even betrayal (Mark 3:21; Mark 3:30; Mark 4:17; Mark 8:34-38; Mark 10:30; Mark 13:9; Mark 13:13; Mark 14:41; Mark 14:72; Mark 15:19; Mark 15:32)
Apostolic Fathers - At Troas he learned that Persecution had ceased at Antioch and wrote to the churches of Philadelphia and Smyrna as well as to Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, entreating them to send messengers to Antioch to congratulate the faithful on the restoration of peace. Written to strengthen faith in time of Persecution, the account is somewhat embellished by miraculous happenings, for example, so much blood spurting from a wound in Polycarp's side that it extinguished the fire consuming him
Antioch - Julian undertook to restore the ancient honours and usages of the place; but it was first necessary to take away the pollution occasioned by the dead bodies of the Christians, which were disinterred and removed! Among these was that of Babylas, a bishop of Antioch, who died in prison in the Persecution of Decius, and after resting near a century in his grave within the walls of Antioch, had been removed by order of Callus into the midst of the grove of Daphne, where a church was built over him; the remains of the Christian saint effectually supplanting the former divinity of the place, whose temple and statue, however, though neglected, remained uninjured. To these Greeks, in particular, certain Cypriot and Cyrenian converts, who had fled from the Persecution which followed the death of Stephen, addressed themselves; "and a great number believed, and turned unto the Lord
Waldenses - ...
For bearing this noble testimony against the church of Rome, these pious people were for many centuries the subjects of a most cruel Persecution; and in the thirteenth century, the pope instituted a crusade against them, and they were pursued with a fury perfectly diabolical. Their principles, however, continued unsubdued, and at the Reformation their descendants were reckoned among the Protestants, with whom they were in doctrine so congenial; but in the seventeenth century the flames of Persecution were again rekindled against them by the cruelty of Louis XIV
Peter, First Epistle of - ...
( a ) Suffering cannot really harm one who has Christ in his heart; nay, gentle steadfastness under Persecution may, like our Master’s, win over others to God, 1 Peter 3:13-17 1 Peter 3:13-17 . The Churches were suffering severely, though there does not seem to have been an official Persecution, or a systematic attempt at extermination, for it is assumed that most will remain until the Parousia ( 1 Peter 4:7 ). ]'>[1] would be remarkable in a Galilæan fisherman; (5) the Persecution referred to in ch. The difficulty of (5) is removed if, as we have seen to be probable, no official Imperial Persecution is involved. This might have happened whenever the Christians began to realize the awakening hatred of the wicked city, mistress of an empire ruled by a deified Nero, even before the Persecution of 64 a. Paul, and died perhaps in the Neronian Persecution of 64, or possibly later
Christian - Peter writes to ‘the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia’ ( 1 Peter 1:1 ); and, without suggesting that ‘Christian’ was a name which the Church had yet adopted as its own, he assumes that it was perfectly familiar to the ‘elect’ themselves over a vast region of the Dispersion; and further implies that by this time, the time probably of Nero’s Persecution (a. 64), to be called a Christian was equivalent to being liable to suffer Persecution for the sake of Christ ( 1 Peter 4:16 ). ...
Outside of the NT we find Tacitus and Suetonius testifying that the designation Christian (or ‘Chrestian’) was popularly used in Rome at the time of the Neronian Persecution; while from Pliny, early in the 2nd cent
Self- Denial - ...
(a) The idea was primarily used in the martyr sense of willingness to suffer death or Persecution for Jesus’ sake. Death and Persecution in themselves have no spiritual value (1 Corinthians 13:3, 1 Peter 4:15), but to deny the ‘name’ or the ‘faith’ (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 3:8) in order to escape them is to renounce Christ. 425); but both passages can be as well explained as referring to the danger of violent death and Persecution for Christ’s sake
Hellenists - For, though Hebrew and Jew are convertible terms, when opposed to Gentiles, as denoting the seed of Abraham, and professors of the Mosaic religion, see Jeremiah 34:9 ; yet, as opposed to the ‘Ελληνισται , they are not convertible terms, there being Hebrew Jews and Hellenistic Jews; for it is said, that when "they, who were scattered by the Persecution that arose about Stephen, travelled into several countries, preaching the word to none but Jews only," yet they spoke, προς τους ‘Ελληνιστας , to the Hellenists or Grecians, Acts 11:19-20 . On which account Grotius, understanding by the ‘Ελληνισται , or "Grecians, to whom some of those who were dispersed on the Persecution which arose about Stephen: preached the Lord Jesus," Acts 11:19-20 , Greeks by nation, concludes there is a mistake in the text, and alters it according to the Syriac and Vulgate versions: "Certe legendum, [1] saith he, " προς τους Ελληνας . And this is decisive against it—that from the words immediately preceding, it is evident that these Grecians were by nation Jews, and not Greeks; it being expressly said, that those who were scattered on the Persecution "preached the Gospel to the Jews only
Paul - Persecution arose against Stephen and the followers of Christ generally, in which Saul of Tarsus took a prominent part. He was at this time probably a member of the great Sanhedrin, and became the active leader in the furious Persecution by which the rulers then sought to exterminate Christianity. ...
But the object of this Persecution also failed. Here he tarried for three weeks, but was again forced to flee (Acts 9:28,29 ) from Persecution. A fierce Persecution now broke out against the Christians
Cyprus - As a result of the Persecution associated with the martyrdom of Stephen in Jerusalem, Jewish Christians journeyed to Cyprus and preached the gospel to the Jewish community on the island (Acts 11:19-20 )
Jugoslavia - The only general Persecution known to have been enforced with great severity in this part of the Roman Empire was that under Diocletian in 303
James - 44), by order of King Herod Agrippa I of Judea, was part of a larger Persecution in which Peter was arrested (Acts 12:1-3 )
Thessalo'Nians, First Epistle to the, - (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 ) ...
The Thessalonians needed consolation and encouragement under Persecution
Picards - From this account it appears that they were no other than the Vaudois that fled from Persecution in their own country, and sought refuge in Bohemia
Aphraat (Aphrahat, Farhad - Sapor's Persecution was then raging in the country, but is known to have been, for local reasons, less severe in this district than elsewhere
Gregorius Baeticus, Saint, Bishop of Eliberi - 357–384; first mentioned as resisting the famous Hosius of Cordova, when under the Persecution of Constantius Hosius gave way so far as to admit Arian bishops to communion with him
Care, Careful - Providence does not guarantee freedom from human pain, sorrow and Persecution (2 Corinthians 4:6 f
Book With the Seven Seals - The second to the sixth signify clearly war, famine, pestilence, Persecution, convulsions of nature
High - When there appeareth on either side a high hand, violent Persecution
Thirteen - ...
job13 - The lament of Job over the Persecution of his friends is described with sadness
Anger - ...
We may remember that others have their passions, their prejudices, their favorite aims, their fears, their caution, their interests , their sudden impulses, their varieties of apprehension, as well as we: we may recollect what hath sometimes passed in our own minds when we have got on the wrong side of a quarrel, and imagine the same to be passing in our adversary's mind now: when we became sensible of our misbehavior, what palliations we perceived in it, and expected others to perceive; how we were affected by the kindness, and felt the superiority of a generous reception, and ready forgiveness; how Persecution revived our spirits with our enmity, and seemed to justify the conduct in ourselves, which we before blamed
Joy, Joyfulness, Joyfully, Joyous - Persecution for Christ's sake enhances "joy," e
Greece - At length, however, opinions fluctuated considerably on points of doctrine; schisms and heresies divided the church; and rancor, violence, and even Persecution followed in their train
Philip - During the Persecution which followed the martyrdom of Stephen, he preached in Samaria ( Acts 8:4-8 )
Revela'Tion of st. John, - Eusebius also records that, in the Persecution under Domitian, John the apostle and evangelist was banished to the Island Patmos for his testimony of the divine word
Disciple - Even if the Christian’s discipleship does not lead to death, it will involve a certain amount of hardship, suffering and Persecution (Matthew 10:24-25; Matthew 24:9; John 15:20)
Melania, a Roman Lady - During their stay in Egypt the Persecution of the orthodox by Valens arose
Pamphilus, Presbyter of Caesarea - The library thus formed was subsequently repaired, after its injuries during the Persecution of Diocletian, by Acacius and Euzoïus, the successors of Eusebius in the see of Caesarea (Hieron
Judgments of God - This was sure to have ended in a Persecution of the Christians. Gallus succeeded, and continued the Persecution. Aurelian, the emperor, just intending to begin a Persecution against the followers of Christ, was killed in the year two hundred and seventy-four. The Persecution was far more fierce and brutal than it had ever been
Jews - Add to this the enormous wealth which they everywhere accumulated by their business acumen and tireless industry, and it is easy to understand why they were marked out for hatred and Persecution everywhere. Universal Persecution of the Jews broke out in Europe at the beginning of the First Crusade, 1096
Laws, Penal - A new era of Persecution began with the Revolution of 1688. Religious freedom for all, which had been the'law from the foundation of Catholic Maryland, was abolished in 1692, when the Episcopal Establishment began a Persecution of Catholics
Denial - In the first of these categories are included those who, like some members of the Sanhedrin (John 12:42), believed on Christ, but did not confess Him; in the second, those who did not believe on Him, and as a natural result did not confess Him; and, in the third, those who have confessed Him, but, through fear of men, deny Him in times of Persecution. The discourse in which the great warning against denial is found (Matthew 10:17-33), and which was addressed to the Twelve in view of their Apostolic mission after the Resurrection, evidences its lateness by the serious situation depicted, in which exposure to the severest forms of Persecution is contemplated, including punishment in the synagogues, arraignment before Gentile tribunals, and death itself
Comfort - ...
(a) One of the most obvious needs of the Church in NT times was that of comfort under circumstances of Persecution for Christ’s sake (1 Thessalonians 3:3 etc. The grounds of such comfort might be found in the thought that Jesus, the Captain and Perfecter of their faith, had similarly suffered (Hebrews 12:3, 1 Thessalonians 2:15), and that they who shared His sufferings would share His glory (2 Corinthians 4:10, Philippians 3:10); in the recognition that in their case it was nobility of spirit which provoked the world’s Persecution (1 Peter 4:12 f
Leovigild, Arian King of the Visigoths - ...
Persecution of the Catholics . (On the general subject of the Persecution, cf
Woman - Paul’s conception of woman and of man’s relation to her is difficult ( 1 Corinthians 7:1-40 ), but may be explained partly by his expectation of the Parousia ( 1 Corinthians 7:29-31 ), and partly by the exigencies of an era of Persecution ( 1 Corinthians 7:26 )
Church: Her Glory in Tribulation - re greater than all the waters of Israel, and the proud ones of the earth despise that brook which flows 'hard by the oracle of God,' because her waters go softly and in solitary places; but when the church advances over the steeps of opposition, and is dashed adown the crags of Persecution, then, in her hour of sorrow, her glory is revealed
Religion - … Here Ἰουδαϊσμός denotes Jewish partisanship, and accurately describes the bitter party spirit which prompted Saul to take the lead in the martyrdom of Stephen and the Persecution of the Church, … He advanced beyond his fellows in sectarian prejudice and persecuting zeal’ (F
Atticus, Archbaptist of Constantinople - A large number of the bishops of the East persevered in the refusal, and suffered a cruel Persecution; while even the inferior clergy and laity were compelled to keep themselves in concealment, or to fly the country
Leaf - ...
Ezekiel 17:9 (b) In this graphic way the Lord is telling us that in the time of Persecution Israel would lose her identity with GOD and would no longer profess to be the people of GOD
Philip the Evangelist - " Philip was among those scattered by the great Persecution against the church at Jerusalem (Acts 8)
Evil-Speaking - In a time of Persecution St
Adversary (2) - Similarly Jesus assured His disciples that none of their adversaries in the approaching time of Persecution should be able to gainsay or resist the words of wisdom which the Holy Spirit would put into their months
Jeremi'ah - ( Jeremiah 14:13 ; 23:7 ) As the danger from the Chaldeans became more threatening, the Persecution against Jeremiah grew hotter
Jeremi'ah - ( Jeremiah 14:13 ; 23:7 ) As the danger from the Chaldeans became more threatening, the Persecution against Jeremiah grew hotter
Cross - Believers must therefore be prepared for the sort of humiliation Christ suffered (Philippians 2:8; Hebrews 12:2; Hebrews 13:12-13; see Persecution)
Lucius (11) - Gregory of Nazianzus calls him a second Arius, and lays to his charge the sacrileges and barbarities of the new Arian Persecution (Orat
Daniel, Theology of - Even in Persecution and death, the sovereign Lord of the kingdom will provide resurrection (12:1-3). No matter how severe the Persecution, the enemies of God cannot bring an end to his community of believers. During the postponement, God's faithful people will endure severe testing and Persecution at the hands of proud, irreligious leaders of the world
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - The pressure of the war with Persia no doubt inclined him to avoid anything like a civil war, and be put a stop to some of the Arian Persecutions. He sent a conciliatory mission to Africa, but his bounty was rudely refused by that Donatus who was now at the head of the sect—himself a secret Arian as well as a violent schismatic—with the famous phrase, "Quid est imperatori cum ecclesiâ?" The turbulence of the Circumcellions provoked the so-called "Macarian Persecution"; some of the schismatics were put to death, others committed suicide, others were exiled, and so for a time union seemed to be produced. Early in 356, Syrianus, the duke of Egypt, began the open Persecution of the Catholics at Alexandria, and Constantius, when appealed to, confirmed his actions and sent Heraclius to hand over all the churches to the Arians, which was done with great violence and cruelty ( Hist. ...
Meanwhile Constantius had been carrying on a Persecution of even greater rigour against the adherents of Magnentius, which is described by Ammianus (xiv
Resurrection - The resurrection of the just to reward and the unjust to punishment resolved the otherwise meaningless existence for those who followed Yahweh during times of Persecution. As in the Old Testament, theodicy, especially in times of Persecution, was perceived as futile if there was no future vindication. Paul articulates the Persecution he received at Ephesus in verse 32, which only has meaning if the dead are raised. The Persecution and even death of many of the early Christians led to Paul's conclusion that theodicy is resolved by bodily resurrection
Number - )...
At the close of spurious Christianity's long rule open antichristianity and Persecution will prevail for the three years and a half before the millennium. Three and a half represents "the church's time of toil, pilgrimage, Persecution"
Nicolaitans - This had now become the test to which Christians must submit, if they wished to escape Persecution: and the Nicolaitans sought to gain converts by telling them that they might still believe in Jesus, though "they ate of things sacrificed unto idols. John writing his Gospel, it follows, that the Nicolaitans were in existence at least some years before the time of their being mentioned in the Revelation; and the Persecution under Domitian, which was the cause of St
Schism - All Persecution for diversity of opinions, however ridiculous and absurd they may be, is contrary to every principle of sound policy and civil freedom
Daniel - His fidelity to God exposed him to Persecution, and he was cast into a den of lions, but was miraculously delivered; after which Darius issued a decree enjoining reverence for "the God of Daniel" (6:26)
Pharisees - They turned violently against the Christians, and in fact it was a Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, who led the Persecution (Acts 6:13-14; Acts 7:57-58; Acts 8:3; Acts 23:6)
Gift - When Christ has ascended, it is the Father who will send ‘another Comforter’ (John 14:16); and when trials and Persecution shall arise, it is the Father by whom, Christ says, ‘it shall be given you in that hour what ye shall say’ (Matthew 10:19)
Caiaphas (2) - ...
Caiaphas appears again in Acts 4:6 in company with Annas and others, as initiating the Persecution of the Apostles, and in the later proceedings is probably the ‘high priest’ referred to in Acts 5:17; Acts 5:21; Acts 5:27; Acts 7:1; Acts 9:1
Courage - It is of this sustained heroism that Jesus says, ‘In your patience (ὑπομονή, ‘patient endurance’) ye shall win your souls’ (Luke 21:19), ‘He that endureth to the end shall be saved’ (Matthew 10:22; Matthew 24:13); and those who, in spite of pain and Persecution, confess Him before men, He declares He will confess before His Father and the holy angels (Luke 12:8, cf
Alpha And Omega - 8), emphasized this view of the matter; and, before the last Persecution of Diocletian was over, many inscriptions had been put up on tombstones, walls of catacombs, etc
Lucian - He scoffs at the notion of a crucified man having taught them to regard all mankind as their brethren, the moment they should have abjured the gods of Greece; as if it were not just the most remarkable part of all this, that an obscure person in Jerusalem, who was deserted by every one, and executed as a criminal, should be able, a good century after his death, to cause such effects as Lucian, in his own time, saw extending in all directions, and in spite of every kind of Persecution
Thessalonians - Paul, after saluting the Thessalonian Christians in the name of himself, Silas, and Timothy, assures them that he constantly returned thanks to God on their account, and mentioned them in his prayers; he acknowledges the readiness and sincerity with which they embraced the Gospel, and the great reputation which they had acquired by turning from idols to serve the living God, 1 Thessalonians i; he reminds them of the bold and disinterested manner in which he had preached among them; comforts them under the Persecutions which they, like other Christians, had experienced from their unbelieving countrymen, and informs them of two ineffectual attempts which he had made to visit them again, 1 Thessalonians 2; and that, being thus disappointed, he had sent Timothy to confirm their faith, and inquire into their conduct; he tells them that Timothy's account of them had given him the greatest consolation and joy in the midst of his affliction and distress, and that he continually prayed to God for an opportunity of seeing them again, and for their perfect establishment in the Gospel, 1 Thessalonians 3; he exhorts to purity, justice, love, and quietness, and dissuades them against excessive grief for their deceased friends, 1 Thessalonians 4; hence he takes occasion to recommend preparation for the last judgment, the time of which is always uncertain; and adds a variety of practical precepts. Paul begins with the same salutation as in the former epistle, and then expresses his devout acknowledgments to God for the increasing faith and mutual love of the Thessalonians in the midst of Persecution; he represents to them the rewards which will be bestowed upon the faithful, and the punishment which will be inflicted upon the disobedient, at the coming of Christ, 2 Thessalonians 1; he earnestly entreats them not to suppose, as upon authority from him, or upon any other ground, that the last day is at hand; he assures them, that before that awful period a great apostasy will take place, and reminds them of some information which he had given them upon that subject when he was at Thessalonica; he exhorts them to steadfastness in their faith, and prays to God to comfort their hearts, and establish them in every good word and work, 2 Thessalonians 2; he desires their prayers for the success of his ministry, and expresses his confidence in their sincerity; he cautions them against associating with idle and disorderly persons, and recommends diligence and quietness
Romans, Epistle to the - On the day of Pentecost ( Acts 2:10 ) carried back the earliest tidings of the new doctrine; or the gospel may have first reached the imperial city through those who were scattered abroad to escape the Persecution which followed on the death of Stephen
Lucianus, Priest of Antioch, Martyr - Lucian became afterwards more conservative, and during Diocletian's Persecution he encouraged the martyrs to suffer courageously, but escaped himself till Theotecnus was appointed governor of Antioch, when he was betrayed by the Sabellian party, seized and forwarded to Nicomedia to the emperor Maximinus, where, after delivering a speech in defence of the faith, he was starved for many days, tempted with meats offered to idols, and finally put to death in prison, Jan
Porphyrius, Bishop of Gaza - This was succeeded by other conversions, arousing great exasperation among the heathen population, which vented itself in a severe Persecution
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - When the tidings first came, they themselves were suffering under the stress of external Persecution (i. The Epistle contains distinct allusions to two serious Persecutions already suffered by the Church at Rome. When the Epistle was written this Persecution was a matter of past history, but its victims are still spoken of as ‘those champions who lived very near to our own time’ and ‘the noble examples which belong to our generation’ (τοὺς ἔγγιστα γενομένους ἀθλητάς … τῆς γενεᾶς ἡμῶν τὰ γενναῖα ὑποδείγματα, v. The second Persecution was still in progress when the news of the Corinthian schism was brought to Rome. The writer’s words suggest that the method of attack adopted in the later Persecution was different from that of the earlier one. the Roman Church suffered two, and only two, serious Persecutions. Nero’s Persecution was a savage onslaught on all Christians indiscriminately; that of Domitian took the form of sharp intermittent attacks aimed at individuals. In fact, the difference between the two was precisely the difference between the two Persecutions mentioned in the Epistle of Clement. It seems, therefore, a safe conclusion that the references of the Epistle are to the Persecutions of Nero and Domitian, and that the Epistle was written either just before or just after the termination of the latter of the two, i. Read your Bible, and you will learn that when righteous men have suffered Persecution-e
Honorius, Flavius Augustus, Emperor - ...
It is difficult to say how strictly the Honorian edicts against heresy were carried out, but no such Persecution as that of St. Tillemont considers that all these edicts refer to the tumults which took place in 404 on the Persecution of St. He was able to say that he believed there were very few pagans remaining, and so far his Persecution may seem to have been successful, as with the Donatists and others. It must be remembered, in excuse of his coercive action, that Persecution was no invention of his or Theodosius's, but an inheritance of the empire. Pagan emperors had claimed to rule as personal and present divinity, and this claim had always specially embittered their Persecution of the Christian faith
Novatianus And Novatianism - " This testimony sufficiently disposes of the accusation of Cornelius that Novatian denied the faith in time of Persecution declaring himself "an admirer of a different philosophy. ) His work on Jewish meats was written at some place of retreat from Persecution. Each arose simultaneously with great Persecutions. " This Persecution well-nigh brought about a union between the Catholics and the Novatianists, as the former frequented the churches of the latter party during the Arian supremacy. 366, they suffered another Persecution and Agelius was again exiled. They lived on amicable terms with the orthodox patriarch Atticus, who, remembering their fidelity under the Arian Persecution, protected them from their enemies
Revelation, Theology of - Revelation was written from exile by John (1:1) as a circular letter to the churches of Asia Minor (1:4) during the reign of Domitian, when growing Persecution had already led to at least one martyrdom, at Pergamum (2:12-13), portending a worse crisis. The beast came (probably in Nero, who was the first Roman emperor to persecute Christians), went to the abyss (a lull in Persecution for several decades) and will soon come out again (probably in Domitian as Nero redivivus: 11:7; 17:8,11). Persecution of the church must break out, die off, and raise its head again—perhaps many timesbefore the very end. ...
Paul Andrew Rainbow...
See also Apocalyptic ; Persecution ; Second Coming of Christ ...
Bibliography
Constantinus i - In 303 he was present when the edict of Persecution against the Christians was promulgated at Nicomedia and the palace soon after struck by lightning. 21), which lay partly through countries where the Persecution was raging. ), who had been exposed to little of the violence of Persecution under the mild rule of Constantius
Christian - Driven from Jerusalem by Persecution, disciples had gone to Cyprus and preached to the Jews there. Speaking of the Neronian Persecution, Tacitus (a
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - The Arian emperor Valens came to reside at Antioch in June 370; and this was the signal for a violent Persecution of the orthodox. The Persecution ceased with the death of Valens in 378
Thessalonians, Epistles to the - Fearing as to their firmness under Persecution, he sent Timothy to confirm and encourage them. ...
There is evidence in this epistle that the minds of the saints had been disturbed, apparently by a feigned letter or message from Paul, saying that the day of the Lord was present: this supposition may have been strengthened by the Persecution they were passing through
Caracalla, the Nickname of m. Aurelius Severus Antoninus Bassianus - Caracalla's early life was such as to teach him heart-hardening dissimulation; Tertullian, while the brothers yet ruled jointly, urges at once the uncertainty of human life, and the probability that Caracalla would favour the Christians; and it is the fact that his victory coincided with a general and prolonged cessation of a long and cruel Persecution. But more than that, it affected very greatly the position of Christians in all future Persecutions. Persecution; Torture
Paul - Testimony before Felix, Festus, and Agrippa (the Gospel of Luke and the Acts commenced at Cæsarea, and concluded at Rome)...
58-60...
Paul's voyage to Rome (autumn); shipwreck at Malta; arrival at...
60,61...
Paul's first captivity at Rome, Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon...
61-63...
Conflagration at Rome (July); Neronian Persecution of the Christians; martyrdom of Paul (?)...
Hypothesis of a second Roman captivity and preceding missionary journeys to the East, and possibly to Spain
Rest - The time is not that at which the saints will be relieved of Persecution, as in 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 , when the Parousia of Christ begins, but that at which the persecutors will be punished, namely, at the epiphany (or out-shining) of His Parousia (2 Thessalonians 2:8 )
Blessedness - The blessedness of the righteous is seen in their Persecution by God's enemies (1618384894_14 )
Joy - Also for believers, trials and Persecution are occasions for joy (James 1:2 )
Day And Night - Job 19:3, Daniel 1:12), has been taken to indicate a Persecution of the Church at Smyrna lasting for 10 years
Gervasius - Some, moreover, have fixed Diocletian's Persecution as the time of their martyrdom, and St
Adoption - This means the believer has all rights of inheritance and will join Jesus, “the only begotten Son” (John 3:16 ) in inheriting the glory of eternal life with God, but it does not mean the believer can escape the suffering and Persecution the world dishes out to God's people (Romans 8:17-18 )
Act of Faith - Let us however, rejoice that the time is coming when the demon of Persecution shall be banished out of this our world, and the true spirit of benevolence and candour pervade the universe; when none shall hurt or destroy, but the earth be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea! ...
See INQUISITION
False Prophets - This is particularly shown in Jeremiah 6:13-15 and Micah 2:11, and is confirmed by instances, not a few, in which the apparently unpatriotic attitude of the true prophet, compared with that assumed by the false, resulted in disfavour and even in Persecution (1 Kings 22:27, 2 Chronicles 16:10, Jeremiah 20:2)
Hagar - And as Ishmael, as well as Isaac, was circumcised, the allegory hereby manifested, (what hath not been so much noticed as it deserves,) that the Persecution of the true seed doth not arise only from the world, but from those who profess the same faith
Damasus, Pope - Here he searched ardently and devotedly for the tombs of the martyrs, which had been blocked up and hidden by the Christians during the last Persecution
Baltimore, Maryland, City of - A Catholic school established in the city in 1757 was forced to close by the violent Persecution of Protestant clergymen
Russia - From 1797 there was constant strife and Persecution until Pope Gregory XVI in 1842 called the attention of the Catholic world to the oppression of the Catholics in Russia
Descent Into Hades - If Persecution should bring them to death also, similar increase of spiritual energy would follow
Luciferus i, Bishop of Calaris - The proceedings were irregular and disorderly, and after some personal altercations the emperor sent Lucifer into exile His banishment lasted from 355 to 361, and was mostly spent at Eleutheropolis in Palestine, subject to the Persecutions of the Arian bp. He evidently courted Persecution, and even martyrdom
Maximinus ii., Emperor - Though he joined for a time, on the advice of the dying Galerius, with Constantine and Licinius in a decree of toleration in 311, he renewed the Persecution with greater vigour within a few months (viii
Perpetua, Vibia - There was as yet no general Persecution of the Christians, such as soon after developed itself
Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem - During his episcopate occurred the sanguinary insurrection against the Christians of the Samaritans, goaded to madness by the Persecution of Justinian, offering only the alternative of baptism or rebellion (Gibbon, c
Christian Life - ...
Palestinian Christianity, in spite of its reverence for Jewish law, did not escape Persecution. 1 Peter, Revelation, and Hebrews belong to the time of the Persecution under Domitian, in which Christians and Jews alike suffered. The Pastorals apparently have reference to the earlier or Neronian Persecution (a. In Hebrews the Christians addressed had already passed through the Neronian Persecution and became a ‘gazing-stock’ (Hebrews 10:33) to the world
Confess, Confession - Here also we see the way in which public confession of Christ could lead to Persecution. It is perhaps because Timothy faces such Persecution that Paul urges him to imitate his Lord's example before the Roman governor Pontius Pilate by making "your good confession in the presence of many witnesses" (1 Timothy 6:12 ; cf
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - These services strengthened the faithful to meet the Persecutions. ...
The Persecution of the Catholic cause by the Arian Valens recalled Diodorus, now a presbyter, to his former championship of the Nicene faith. Such dauntless championship of the faith failed not to provoke Persecution
Lactantius - There doubtless he was converted on witnessing the superhuman constancy displayed by the Christians and by his "best beloved" Donatus in particular on whose sufferings in the tenth and savagest Persecution under Diocletian he dwells with so much tenderness (de Morte Persecut. The eighth which had disappeared also was claimed by Baluze as recovered by him; it was published in 1679 at the commencement of his second book of Miscellanies but with the title Liber ad Donatum Confessorem de Mortibus Persecutorum instead of de Persecutione Liber unus which is that of St. Supposing Lactantius to have been converted about midway in the Persecution under Diocletian at Nicomedia and then betaken himself to writing penuriâ discipulorum as St
Donatus And Donatism - of Carthage during and after Diocletian's Persecution (a. The sword of Persecution was then unsheathed to deprive the Donatists of their churches; and the survivors regarded the victims as martyrs and their graves as platforms for preaching resistance. Such obloquy served to madden the fanatics, even though it brought upon them furious Persecution. "...
It was probably soon after the cessation of the Persecution that Gratus, Caecilian's successor, summoned a synod at Carthage, which established (1) the non-iteration of baptism, when duly administered in the name of the Trinity; (2) the necessary restrictions on reverence for martyrs, and on the assignment of that title. The Maximianists shewed little disposition to acquiesce in this decision, and Persecution began. Twice in 401 a council met at Carthage to deal with the supply of Catholic clergy; Donatist enticement or Persecution having so reduced their number that many churches had no deacons and therefore no future means for supplying the higher offices
Eusebius of Caesarea - "...
Eusebius was in middle life when the last and fiercest Persecution broke out. The city of Caesarea became a chief centre of Persecution. In no country did the Persecution rage more fiercely. This visit to Egypt was apparently after the imprisonment and martyrdom of Pamphilus, in the latest and fiercest days of the Persecution. But he was anxious also to preserve the records of past Persecutions. The epithet "ancient" (ἀρχαῖα ) must be regarded as relative, applying to all prior to the "persecution of his own time" (ὁ καθ᾿ ἡμᾶς διωγμός , according to his favourite expression). But it would probably comprise any martyrdoms which occurred before the long peace that preceded the outbreak of the last Persecution under Diocletian
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - The constancy of the Christians in times of Persecution staggered him. In Africa Persecution, sharp, short, fitful, and frequent, marked the reign of Septimius Severus and the most active period of Tertullian's life. ...
Facts connected with the Persecutions can be followed in those writings of Tertullian which all critics place between a. Under Hilarian (202–203) Persecution broke out again. These treatises are fiercely scornful against the flight once counselled when Persecution raged. For five or six years Persecution was stayed years of literary activity on the part of Tertullian. 202–203): de Corona; de Fuga in Persecutione; de Exhortatione Castitatis . Persecution was for a time suspended
Zeal - The latter when powerless leads to depression, when powerful to Persecution (2 Kings 10:16, 2 Samuel 21:2)
Helladius, Bishop of Tarsus - Helladius with Eutherius of Tyana next drew up a long letter to pope Sixtus, giving their account of the council of Ephesus and begging him as a new Moses to save the true Israel from the Persecution of the Egyptians
Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus - He shewed no less decision in dealing with the Novatianists, with whom a community of Persecution had caused the Catholics to unite
Eleutherus, Bishop of Rome - ...
Eleutherus was contemporary with the Aurelian Persecution; and after the death of Aurelius the Christians had peace, in consequence, it is said, of the favour of Marcia, the concubine of Commodus; the only recorded exception in Rome being the martyrdom of Apollonius in the reign of Commodus (Eus
Conscience - Many atrocious acts of Persecution have been perpetrated, and afterward justified, under the sanction of an erroneous conscience
Babylon - ...
The name of Babylon is used symbolically in Revelation 14:8 16:1-21 17:1-18 18:1-24 , to mark the idolatry, superstition, lewdness luxury, and Persecution of the people of God, which characterized heathen Rome and modern Antichrist
Antiochus - The Persecution lasted three years; then, by the Maccabees, who defeated Antiochus's troops under Lysias, the Jews were "holpen with a little help," i. Persecution was God's appointed way to save His people from seductions which had wellnigh made them compromise their witness for His truth. Thus he is the vivid type of the last Antichrist, whose terrible, though short, Persecutions shall drive Israel to their Savior, and so usher in their coming glory (Zechariah 11; 12; 13; 14; Daniel 12; Ezekiel 37; 38; 39)
Optatus, Bishop of Milevis - He himself says that he wrote about 60 years, or rather more, after the Persecution under Diocletian. Thanking Parmenian for his language about the church which however he claims as applicable to the Catholic church alone he challenges him to point out any act of Persecution on its part
Pharisees - If the Church was henceforth free from serious Jewish Persecution, and the distraction of Judaizing propaganda, the Pharisees were free of their conflict with the Sadducees, who disappeared with Temple and priesthood. Arguing from the known tendency of the Pharisees to be moderate in judgment, and from the definite illustrations of it which we have (Acts 5:34 ff; Acts 23:9), we may hold that as far as the Persecutions in Jerusalem are concerned, the main responsibility at least does not lie on the Pharisees. Saul also on his own confession was specially strong in urging Persecution (Acts 26:9-11; cf. 665) that in the Gospels the word ‘Pharisee’ has been substituted for an original ‘Sadducee’ in the denunciations of Jesus is to be mentioned only as a curiosity, according to the evidence we possess, it has to be said that the Church paid back with interest the Persecutions and calumnies she suffered from the Jews
Kulturkampf - Under the able leadership of Ludwig Windthorst, the Catholic Center Party, strengthened by the accession of Protestants who were above bigotry and Persecution, increased its membership both in the Prussian Diet and in the Imperial Parliament
Suffer - (6) For "suffer Persecution," see PRESECUTION
Suffering - As the ungodly persecuted Jesus, so they will persecute his followers (John 15:18; John 15:20; Acts 14:22; 2 Corinthians 1:5; Philippians 1:29; Philippians 3:10; 1 Peter 2:21; 1 Peter 4:13; see Persecution)
Hieracas, an Egyptian Teacher - Meletius and Peter of Alexandria and lived under Diocletian's Persecution
Antichrist - As to the cruelties of Antichrist, the Persecutions that have been carried on, and the miseries to which mankind have been subject, by the power of the beast, the reader ma consult the articles INQUISITION and Persecution
Caecilianus, Archdeacon And Bishop of Carthage - Africa exhibited an extravagance in this respect which reached its height after Diocletian's Persecution
Rome - The systematic and continued Persecutions began under Nero (c. 64) but the Church continued to grow so that even after the fury of the Decian Persecution, c
Jacobus, Bishop of Nisibis - During this period he went to Persia for intercourse with the Christians of that country and to confirm their faith under the Persecutions of Sapor II. 1) reports that James was a confessor in the Maximinian Persecution
Evangelize, Evangelism - And in the same context where the work of Philip the evangelist is highlighted, believers dispersed by Persecution following Stephen's death "preached the word wherever they went" (8:4). Such evangelism evokes Persecution, yet perseveres in the wake of it. It is also a "traditioning" (1 Corinthians 15:1-3 ) and a controversial activity for which one will suffer Persecution and at the same time offer a defense (Philippians 1:7,16 ; 2 Timothy 1:8,12 ; 2:9 )
Missions - The difficulties and Persecution which the Apostles encountered at the beginning of their work may have been to them a proof that the time had not yet come when they could leave the nearer and narrower fields and go forth to the Gentiles. Lastly, some of those who were scattered abroad upon the Persecution which arose about Stephen went as far as to Antioch, and preached the word to the Greeks (“Ελληνας, the reading adopted by Tischendorf, Nestle, etc. The Persecution created anxieties which naturally absorbed the attention of the leaders. Coming as it did when the Church had been extended throughout Palestine, the Persecution may have arrested the forward movement which, in accordance with the line of progress sketched out in Acts 1:8, had then become due
Discipline - Pain and sorrow, frustrated hopes, long delays, loneliness, changed circumstances, Persecution, the death of loved ones, and other ‘dispensations of Providence,’ are designed to chasten and ennoble the soul. ...
Owing to Persecution, the discipline of the Church became more and more simply moral influence
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - By his indomitable zeal and untiring activity this remarkable man rescued the Monophysite community from the extinction with which Persecution by the imperial power threatened it, and breathed a new life into what seemed little more than an expiring faction, consecrating bishops, ordaining clergy, and uniting its scattered elements in an organization so well planned and so stable that it has subsisted unharmed through all the many political and dynastic storms in that portion of the world, and preserves to the present day the name of its founder as the Jacobite church of the East. This prolonged Persecution broke their spirit, and one by one they all yielded, accepting the communion of John the patriarch of Constantinople and the "Synodites," as the adherents of the Chalcedonian decrees were contemptuously termed by their opponents, "lapsing miserably into the communion of the two natures" ( ib
Smyrna - They have endured Persecution and poverty, but they are rich in real wealth
Synagogue - As Persecution developed, the believers were forced out of the synagogues
Loneliness - Retirement from possible Persecution, or from unwished for notoriety: e
Elkesai, Elkesaites - It taught the lawfulness of denying the faith under Persecution (Eus
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - 702 812) indicates that he suffered in the Persecution of Diocletian
Corinth - The Corinthians, indeed, were in great danger: they lived at ease, free from every kind of Persecution, and were exposed to much temptation
Popularity - This hatred and Persecution are therefore to be to the disciples a cause of rejoicing (Matthew 5:11-12), for these will be the signs that they are in truth the followers of Christ
Dog - By dogs, which were held in great detestation by the Jews, he intends men of odious character and violent temper; by swine, the usual emblem of moral filth, he means the sensual and profligate; and the purport of his admonition is, that as it is a maxim with the priests not to give any part of the sacrifices to dogs, so it should be a maxim with you not to impart the holy instruction with which you are favoured, to those who are likely to blaspheme and to be only excited by it to rage and Persecution
Popularity - This hatred and Persecution are therefore to be to the disciples a cause of rejoicing (Matthew 5:11-12), for these will be the signs that they are in truth the followers of Christ
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch after Peter, who in the Persecution fought with beasts at Rome, that the virginity of Mary escaped the prince of this world" (Ignat. of Antioch; was sent for to Rome in a time of Persecution to be there judged; instructed and admonished with wonderful power all the cities on the way, and Rome itself when he arrived; was condemned and martyred in the Roman theatre crying, Ἐγὼ τῶν θηρίων ἐκείνων ὀναίμην ; and his remains were transferred after death with great solemnity to Antioch. The circumstances of the journey and martyrdom of Ignatius, gathered from the seven epistles and from that of Polycarp, are as follows: He suffers under a merely local Persecution. Of the local causes of this Antiochene Persecution we are ignorant, but it is not in the least difficult to credit. The news of the cessation of Persecution in Antioch stirs him to urge Polycarp to take an interest in that church
Revelation, the - Nothing is said here in the way of disapproval; the church is in a time of Persecution, and is encouraged by Christ in the midst of it. Persecution may be used to make manifest what is real, and to draw the soul nearer to the Lord. Historically this church represents the period of Persecution that set in under Nero. The 'ten days' of Revelation 2:10 may represent ten different Persecutions, or refer to ten years' duration of Persecution under Diocletian
Mark, the Gospel of - According to tradition, Peter was martyred in Rome during the Neronian Persecution, which would place the date of Mark's Gospel about A. The theme of Persecution dominates the Gospel of Mark (see Mark 10:30 ; compare Matthew 19:29 ; Luke 18:29 )
Ephesians, Epistle to - The word "mightily grew and prevailed" despite all the opposition and Persecution he encountered
Bible, Egypt in the - There, in the "land of Gessen," located by some near the mouth of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, by others half-way up that same channel, by others still south of Memphis, in the Fayum district, they increased and multiplied; and from there, after a long period of Persecution which is supposed to have taken place following the overthrow of the Hyksos by native princes, they left at God's bidding, under the leadership of Moses, for the Promised Land
Catholic Emancipation - In 1791 another more extensive act was passed, imposing an oath to support the Protestant Succession, which when taken by Catholics freed them from Persecution for the practise of their religion, but full emancipation urged by Pitt and Fox was opposed by the bigotry of George III
Deliver, Deliverance, Deliverer - ); so also in Luke 11:4 ; Romans 15:31 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:2 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 ; and with ek, "from, out of," in Luke 1:74 ; Romans 7:24 ; 2 Corinthians 1:10 ; Colossians 1:13 , from bondage; in 2 Peter 2:9 , from temptation; in 2 Timothy 3:11 , from Persecution; but ek is used of ills impending, in 2 Corinthians 1:10 ; in 2 Timothy 4:17 , ek indicates that the danger was more imminent than in ver
Foreknowledge - Directed to Christians experiencing Persecution because of their faith in Jesus, 1Peter's reference to the foreknowledge of God was intended to bring assurance that their existence is part of God's will and plan and that they have a sure and certain hope that is not tied to changing circumstances or events
Ignorance - Paul’s own experience, the Persecution of the followers of Jesus Christ (Acts 26:9)
Idolatry - ...
(b) The second aspect of idolatry afforded even more grievous trials, and was eventually the source of serious Persecution: it was the rise of Emperor-worship
Temptation, Test - Deasley...
See also Endurance ; Persecution ...
Bibliography
Greatness - Indeed, to share in their Lord’s greatness will involve not praise but Persecution (John 15:20)
Hatred - Their ‘world’ hated them, and, in many instances, ended by murdering them; but Persecution and bloodshed only constrained them to love the more, in accordance with the precepts of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:44)
Antonius - During the Persecution of Maximinus (A. From their dialectical subtleties he appealed to facts, to a Christian's contempt of death and triumph over temptation; and contrasted the decay of pagan oracles and magic with the growth of Christianity in spite of Persecutions
Aurelius, Marcus, Roman Emperor - The year 166 was long known as the "annus calamitosus," and it was in that year that the Persecution broke out and that Justin suffered
Comfort (2) - He knew that while on the whole His departure was expedient for them, yet it would be a terrible wrench, and expose them to bitter Persecution
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - This Persecution, which had raged under king Hunneric, who died in 484, ceased under his successor Gundamund, when a number of apostates sought readmission to catholic communion
Antiochus - The events of this period of Persecution are related in detail, though with a large element of legend, in 2 Maccabees, and reference is to be found to them also in Daniel 11:21-45
Isaacus, Egyptian Solitary - "...
It appears that, after the Persecution of Theophilus, Isaacus had returned to his desert
Emancipation, Catholic - In 1791 another more extensive act was passed, imposing an oath to support the Protestant Succession, which when taken by Catholics freed them from Persecution for the practise of their religion, but full emancipation urged by Pitt and Fox was opposed by the bigotry of George III
Acts of the Apostles - The Persecution that followed led to the spread of the gospel
Maccabees - The third book of the Maccabees contains the history of the Persecution of Ptolomy Philopater against the Jews in Egypt, and their sufferings under it; and seems to have been written by some Alexandrian Jew in the Greek language, not long after the time of Siracides
Scotland - The Emancipation act of 1829, which granted civiland political liberty to Catholics, was preceded and followed by bigotry and Persecution, but it made for the extension and development of the Church in Scotland
Egypt in the Bible - There, in the "land of Gessen," located by some near the mouth of the Pelusiac branch of the Nile, by others half-way up that same channel, by others still south of Memphis, in the Fayum district, they increased and multiplied; and from there, after a long period of Persecution which is supposed to have taken place following the overthrow of the Hyksos by native princes, they left at God's bidding, under the leadership of Moses, for the Promised Land
Roman Catholic Relief Bill - In 1791 another more extensive act was passed, imposing an oath to support the Protestant Succession, which when taken by Catholics freed them from Persecution for the practise of their religion, but full emancipation urged by Pitt and Fox was opposed by the bigotry of George III
Pha'Raoh, - ( Exodus 1:8 ) --The first Persecutor of the Israelites may be distinguished as the Pharaoh of the oppression, from the second, the Pharoah of the exodus especially as he commenced and probably long carried on the Persecution
Philip the Evangelist - Philip belonged to a band who were scattered from Jerusalem in consequence of the Persecution which followed on the death of Stephen (Acts 8:4)
Silvester, Bishop of Rome - " It is, though variously related, mainly as follows: The emperor, having before his conversion authorized cruel Persecution of the Christians, was smitten with leprosy by divine judgment
Ignatius - If it were a question of a Persecution limited to Antioch, it would not be very clear how peace could have restored its stature to the Church of Antioch, i. We are, then, led to suppose that it is not peace after Persecution but peace after discord that is meant. Origen says that he fought against the boasts in Rome during the Persecution. It is quite evident that the remains of the holy martyr could not have been brought back in this way in the very thick of the Persecution’ (H
Moravians - A Persecution, which was brought upon them on this account, and some religious disputes which took place among themselves, threatened for a while the society with ruin; but the disputes were, in 1570, put an end to by a synod, which decreed that differences about non-essentials should not destroy their union; and the Persecution ceased in 1575, when the United Brethren obtained an edict for the public exercise of their religion. But a civil war, which, in 1612, broke out in Bohemia, and a violent Persecution which followed it in 1621, occasioned the dispersion of their ministers, and brought great distress upon the Brethren in general. ...
Some of them fled to England, others to Saxony and Brandenburg; whilst many, overcome by the severity of the Persecution, conformed to the rites of the church of Rome. Porter, then archbishop of Canterbury, congratulated him upon this event, and promised his assistance to a church of confessors, of whom he wrote in terms of the highest respect, for their having maintained the pure and primitive faith and discipline in the midst of the most tedious and cruel Persecutions
English Versions - This does, indeed, prove that the Persecution of the English Bible and its possessors by the authorities of the Catholic Church was not so universal or continuous as it is sometimes represented to have been, but it does not go far towards disproving the Wyclifite authorship of versions which can be demonstratively connected, as these are, with the names of leading supporters of Wyclif, such as Hereford and Purvey; the more so since the evidence of orthodox ownership of many of the copies in question dates from times long after the cessation of the Lollard Persecution. ’ In the face of this evidence it will be impossible in future to deny that the Wyclifite Bible is identical with that which we now possess, and that it was at times the cause of the Persecution of its owners by the authorities of the Church. That this Persecution was partial and temporary is likely enough
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - When, at the extremity of human life, it seemed as if he could do no more for the church but continue his example of holiness, piety, and orthodoxy, a Persecution broke out in which he, as the venerated head of the Christian community in Asia Minor, was specially marked out for attack. , under the strain of a great Persecution, held the views of their 19th-cent. ...
The story relates that Polycarp's martyrdom was the last act of a great Persecution and took place on the occasion of games held at Smyrna eleven others having suffered before him. Eusebius seems to have had no real knowledge of the date, and to have put it down somewhat at random, for he places Polycarp's martyrdom and the Lyons Persecution under the same year, though the Lyons martyrdoms were as late as 177
Revelation, Book of - The conditions of such interpretation are most naturally fulfilled in the Persecution under Domitian (81 96), although there may be references to that under the dead Nero. ...
Such a method of interpretation, based upon general characteristics of apocalypses, preserves the element of truth in both the futurist and the historical methods of interpretation, the pictures of Persecution symbolizing actual historical conditions, but the forecast of deliverance reverting to the general Messianic expectation of events lying outside of history
Rome And the Roman Empire - His Persecution was more severe than that instituted by Domitian. The Persecution of the church, depicted in the Revelation of John, probably reflects the ones initiated by Trajan and Domitian
Luke, Gospel of - The apostle was later reimprisoned and martyred under the Neronian Persecution which broke out in A. The optimism of the end of the Book of Acts suggests the Neronian Persecution is a future event
Parable - Pardon was offered to them by Peter in Acts 3:19-26 ; but it was rejected, and their Persecution of Paul and those who carried the gospel to the Gentiles showed that they could not forgive the Gentiles the hundred pence. " The virgins signify Christians, and not the faithful Jewish remnant, for these will not sleep (persecution will prevent that), nor be a mixed company, nor have to wait a long time for their Deliverer
Obadiah - Godliness is a hardy plant that can live amidst the frosts of Persecution and the relaxing warmth of a corrupt court, and not merely in the conservatory of a pious family (1 Corinthians 10:13; Isaiah 27:3; 1 Peter 1:5)
Theophilus - It has often been noticed that Luke is anxious to prove that there was no lawful reason for Persecution by the Romans
Satan - The believers in Smyrna felt the sting of Persecution (Revelation 2:9-10 )
Encratites - 11) records the sufferings of Busiris at that time one of them in the Persecution under Julian
Samaritans - But when the Jews suffered Persecution, the Samaritans disowned them, and alleged that they were Phenicians originally, or descended from Joseph, or Manasseh his son
Messiah - 1167, which brought great troubles and Persecutions upon the Jews that were scattered throughout that country. He, like the rest, perished, and brought great Persecution on his countrymen
Psalmody - Whether singing in public worship had been partially discontinued during the times of Persecution to avoid informers, or whether the miserable manner in which it was performed gave persons a distaste to it, so it appears, that in 1691, Mr
pe'Ter - According to the early writers, he suffered at or about the same time with Paul, and in the Neronian Persecution, A
Nectarius, Archbaptist of Constantinople - The presbyter penitentiary was added to the ecclesiastical roll about the time of the Novatianist schism, when that party declined to communicate with those who had lapsed in the Decian Persecution
Olympias, the Younger - We gather from them that Olympias was subject to frequent and severe attacks of sickness, and that the Persecution of the party of Arsacius and Atticus was violent and unsparing
Daniel - Before that climax would arrive, however, the Jews would have intense suffering This would be so particularly during the Greek period, when they would suffer terrible Persecution at the hands of Antiochus Epiphanes (10:1-12:13; for details see GREECE)
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - Polycarp at Smyrna; afterwards came into Gaul, and during the Persecution of 177 carried, as presbyter of Lyons, a letter from the Gallican confessors to the Roman bp. At the time of the Persecution, to which the aged bp. That Irenaeus wrote the epistle of the Gallican confessors to the churches of Asia Minor and Phrygia, which so vividly describes the Persecution (ap. The common assumption that there was then no episcopal see but Lyons in all Gaul is hardly warranted by the fact that in the narrative of the Persecution at Vienne a deacon only and no bishop is mentioned
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - The effect of the Persecution was salutary on this state of things, and was felt to be so. ...
Decian Persecution . 250, Persecution relaxed (possibly owing to the Gothic advance in Thrace), and though it was still unsafe for Cyprian to return, he endeavoured to deal with the distress of sufferers who had lost their all, and to recruit the ranks of the clergy and allay the excitement among the lapsed, by a commission (vicarii) of three bishops, Caldonius, Herculanus, Victor, and two presbyters, Numidicus and Rogatian (Epp. ) rekindling Persecution ( Ep
Marcion, a 2nd Century Heretic - Unlike some Gnostics who taught that it was no sin to escape Persecution by disguising their faith, the Marcionites vied with the orthodox in producing martyrs. 15) that the same letter of the church of Smyrna from which he drew his account of the martyrdom of Polycarp, told also of the martyrdom of a Marcionite presbyter, Metrodorus, who, like Polycarp, suffered at Smyrna by fire, and in the same Persecution. Asclepius, who in the Diocletian Persecution was burned alive at Caesarea on the same pyre as the orthodox Apselamus ( Mart. The strictness of the Marcionite discipline is proved by the unfriendly testimony of Tertullian, who tries by their practice to convict of falsity the Marcionite theory, that a good God could not be the object of fear: "If so, why do you not take your fill of the enjoyments of this life? Why do you not frequent the circus, the arena, and the theatre? Why do you not boil over with every kind of lust? When the censer is handed you, and you are asked to offer a few grains of incense, why not deny your faith? 'God forbid!' you cry—'God forbid!'"...
At the end of the Diocletian Persecution the Marcionites had a short interval of freedom of worship
Paul - Meantime at Antioch the gospel was preached to Gentile "Greeks" (Hellenas in the Alexandrinus manuscript, not "Grecians," Acts 11:20) by men of Cyprus and Cyrene scattered abroad at the Persecution of Stephen; Barnabas went down then from Jerusalem, and glad in seeing this special grace of God, "exhorted them that with purpose of heart they would cleave unto the Lord. But Persecution drove them thence, and they fled to Lystra and Derbe of Lycaonia. If Paul had proselytized Gentiles as the Jews always received proselytes, namely, with circumcision, Persecution would have ceased
Sadducees - Yet it was from the Sadducees that the most bitter Persecution of Judaea n Christianity arose. There can be little doubt as to the reason for this Persecution
Christianity (History Sketch) - ( See Persecution. ...
Not only was Persecution, after the reign of Constantine, at an end, but with the exception of the short reign of Julian, who, having apostatized from Christianity, and become intoxicated with the fascinating speculations of the Platonic philosophy, was eager to raise the temples which his predecessor had laid in ruins, promotion and wealth and honour could be most effectually secured by transferring to the Gospel the zeal which had been in vain exhausted to preserve the sinking fabric of Paganism and idolatry
Ireland - Under her, Persecution was revived and many holy persons were tortured for their religious beliefs
Canon of the Old Testament - Just so the Persecution of Diocletian in New Testament times was especially directed against those possessing the Christian Scriptures
Paul - With the support of the Jewish Council (the Sanhedrin), Paul then led the Persecution against the Christians, imprisoning men and women alike (Acts 8:3; Acts 9:1-2; Acts 26:10-11; Galatians 1:13; 1 Timothy 1:13)
Prayer - They prayed regarding selection of leaders (Acts 1:24 ; Acts 6:6 ; Acts 13:3 ), during Persecution (Acts 4:24-30 ; Acts 12:5 ,Acts 12:5,12:12 ), and in preparing to heal (Acts 9:40 ; Acts 28:8 )
Beatitudes - 11), by adding the specific "you" and "account of me, " places Christ in the center of the Beatitudes and sees the believers' state of blessedness in their Persecution for his sake
Hades - When Jesus promises that the "gates of Hades" will never overcome the church (Matthew 16:18 ), this phrase parallels Old Testament expressions tied to evil's power and Persecution (Psalm 9:13 ; 107:17-20 )
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - Those who have received an unshakeable kingdom from God should be thankful, worship God, and faithfully endure the hardships of Persecution (Hebrews 12:28 and context )
Man of Sin - It was from Judaism, not from the Empire, that the opposition and Persecution he had to encounter as the Apostle of Christianity invariably came (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16; cf
Jew, Jewess - Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian Persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent religion
Sanhedrim - Others will have it, that the council of seventy elders, established by Moses, was temporary, and did not hold after his death; adding, that we find no sign of any such perpetual and infallible tribunal throughout the whole Old Testament; and that the sanhedrim was first set up in the time when the Maccabees, or Asmoneans, took upon themselves the administration of the government under the title of high priests, and afterward of kings, that is, after the Persecution of Antiochus
Patience - ...
The Book of Revelation in particular emphasizes the need of endurance, written as it is in view of the Persecution of the Church by the Roman State (cf. ’ The NT, indeed, speaks of rejoicing in suffering, of glorying in afflictions and Persecutions for Christ’s sake
Chronology of the Biblical Period - Seleucid rule brought a strong move to bring Hellenistic culture to Palestine, ending with the desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem and the Persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) in 167 B
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - ...
Palladius was one of the first to suffer from the Persecution which after 404 fell upon the adherents of Chrysostom
Stephanus i., Bishop of Rome - ...
At the time of his accession the Persecution of the church, begun by Decius and renewed by Gallus, had ceased for a time under Valerian
Patience - ...
The Book of Revelation in particular emphasizes the need of endurance, written as it is in view of the Persecution of the Church by the Roman State (cf. ’ The NT, indeed, speaks of rejoicing in suffering, of glorying in afflictions and Persecutions for Christ’s sake
Zephyrinus - 17), which was probably interpreted so as to include existing converts; for in some parts it was followed by severe Persecution, though there is no evidence that Zephyrinus or the Christians at Rome were then molested
Miracle - They could not, if they foresaw that they should fail, look for any thing but that contempt, disgrace, and Persecution, which were then the inevitable consequences of an unsuccessful endeavour to overthrow the established religion. Nor can it be said that they might look forward to power and affluence, when they should through sufferings have converted their countrymen; for so desirous were they of obtaining nothing but misery, as the end of their mission, that they made their own Persecution a test of the truth of their doctrines. ' The very system of religion, therefore, which they invented and resolved to impose upon mankind, was so contrived, that the worldly prosperity of its first preachers, and even their exemption from Persecution, was incompatible with its success
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - The Western church had been comparatively free from the controversies which had divided the East, nor had the popes taken much personal part in them; but they had almost invariably supported the orthodox cause, received and protected the orthodox under Persecution, and, after watching with quiet dignity the Eastern struggle, had accepted and confirmed the decisions of orthodox councils. Cruel Persecution of the friends of Chrysostom, set afoot by the Eastern emperor Arcadius, brought a number of letters to Rome from oppressed bishops and clergy, and the resort thither of many in person, including Anysius of Thessalonica, Palladius of Helenopolis (the author of the Dialogus de Vit. Persecution was continued in the East; Honorius contemplated a war against his brother, but was deterred by a threatened invasion of the Goths; and Innocent, failing in his attempt to bring about an impartial council, separated himself from the communion of Atticus, Theophilus, and Porphyrius
Ascension of Isaiah - This Persecution is ended by the second coming of the Lord, who drags Beliar into Gehenna, and gives rest to the godly, sets up a kingdom of the saints, who afterwards are transformed, and ascend, apparently, to heaven. The sins specified are witchcraft, magic, divination and auguration, fornication, and the Persecution of the righteous. A great Persecution is regarded as imminent, in which the few faithful remaining will ‘flee from desert to desert, awaiting the coming of the Beloved
Humiliation of Christ - But the child Jesus was not a year old before He became the object of jealousy and Persecution, and had to be taken on a long and painful journey into a foreign land to save His life—a baby fugitive on the face of the earth. It cost Him a struggle to submit and adjust Himself to that which He knew was so fraught with difficulty, Persecution, humiliation, loneliness, suspense, and suffering, ending with the final agonies and the death of abandonment and shame
Soul - he that saves his life by denying me in time of Persecution), shall lose it (by eternal punishment in Gehenna); and he that loseth his soul for my sake (i. he who confesses me in time of Persecution, and suffers a martyr’s death), shall find it (in heaven)’; (see also Matthew 16:25, Luke 17:33, John 12:35)
Soul - he that saves his life by denying me in time of Persecution), shall lose it (by eternal punishment in Gehenna); and he that loseth his soul for my sake (i. he who confesses me in time of Persecution, and suffers a martyr’s death), shall find it (in heaven)’; (see also Matthew 16:25, Luke 17:33, John 12:35)
Palestine - ...
After suffering Persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria
Thessalonica - ...
The Christians of Thessalonica must have endured some Persecution after he tore himself away from them
Manasseh - The reaction was accompanied by active Persecution of the prophetic party, which can hardly surprise us, toleration being an unknown virtue
Satan - He instigates Persecution, and is the real persecutor
Arnobius - ...
The outbreak of the last great Persecution (303–313) found Arnobius a professor of rhetoric at Sicca, in Africa
Paul - This caused great Persecution from the Jews and from Judaising teachers, who could not readily give up the law, nor endure the thought of Gentiles having an equal place with themselves. Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in Persecutions, in distresses for Christ's sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong
Millennium - Kings, nobles, magistrates, and rulers in churches shall act with principle, and be forward to promote the best interests of men: tyranny, oppression, Persecution, bigotry, and cruelty, shall cease
Poetry - Persecution in part fitted him for his work; as was well said, "where would have been David's psalms if he had not been persecuted?"...
SACRED SINGERS
Alexandria - ...
This city was, in 415, distinguished by a fierce Persecution of the Jews by the patriarch Cyril
Arians - The emperor Constantine, who had no great skill in these matters, was grieved to see the Christian church (but just escaped from the red dragon of Persecution) thus torn by intestine animosity and dissensions; he therefore determined to summon a general council of the clergy, which met at Nice, A
John, Gospel of - They had to abide in him (15:1-17) and bear Persecution for his sake (15:18-27)
New Testament - —Diocletian’s Persecution (a
Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - Damasus of Rome, hearing of this new Persecution, sent a deacon with a letter of communion and consolation for Peter; the messenger was arrested, treated as a criminal, savagely beaten, and sent to the mines of Phenne. Peter adds that children were tortured, and intimates that some persons were actually put to death or died of cruel usage, and that, after the old usage in pagan Persecutions, their remains were denied burial
Theodoricus, the Ostrogoth - On the Eastern side the breach was widened by the Persecution of heretics, commenced by Justin in 523
Montanus - ...
So entirely had the Catholics ceased to regard the Montanists as Christian brethren that, as stated by the Anonymous, when Persecution by the common enemy threw confessors from both bodies together, the orthodox persevered till their final martyrdom in refusing to hold intercourse with their Montanist fellow-sufferers; dreading to hold any friendship with the lying spirit who animated them. Their scene is uncertain; the time is the Decian Persecution a. It is hardly likely that Montanism survived the Persecution of Justinian
Hypocrisy - Not being able to live with truth, it can defend itself only by Persecution. Under that guise it will hide itself so dexterously as almost to deceive the elect; and it will use its opportunity, as hypocrisy has always done, to strangle truth by Persecution
Fire - ...
Hebrews 11:34 (a) This type reveals the severe Persecution which was endured by faithful men of GOD in the Old Testament. ...
1 Peter 1:7 (a) Here is represented the Persecution which is to be endured in the life of that one who will live godly in CHRIST JESUS
Paul - ...
This zealous commitment to the study of the Old Testament laws and traditions is the background of Paul's Persecution of his Jewish brothers who believed Jesus was the Messiah. Stephen's sermon apparently stimulated Paul's Persecution of the church (Acts 8:1-3 , Acts 9:1-2 ; Acts 26:9-11 ; Philippians 3:6 ; Galatians 1:13 )
Hypocrisy - Not being able to live with truth, it can defend itself only by Persecution. Under that guise it will hide itself so dexterously as almost to deceive the elect; and it will use its opportunity, as hypocrisy has always done, to strangle truth by Persecution
Peter - ...
At this time Nero was Emperor and his great Persecution was about to break upon the Christians
Macedonia - At the time of the Great Persecution of the Christians (303-311), Thessalonica was one of the four capitals of the Roman Empire and served as residence of the emperor Galerius, one of the most fanatic persecutors of Christianity
Evil - Its existence in manifold forms is assumed by all the apostolic writers; but generally it is with the sufferings of Christian believers, including Persecution, that they are concerned, in order to encourage patience, offer comfort, or assure deliverance
John the Apostle - 18, 20) that during the Persecution of Domitian ‘the apostle and evangelist John’ was banished to Patmos, and that on the accession of Nerva (a. Tertullian mentions a miraculous deliverance from a cauldron of boiling oil to which John had been condemned during a Persecution in Rome, presumably under Domitian
Hope - ‘By this hope’ were they ‘saved,’ being enabled in its strength to bear joyfully the ills of life and the universal contempt and Persecution of the world around them, which stimulated instead of quenching their courage ( Romans 5:2-5 ; Romans 8:18-25 , 2 Corinthians 4:13 ; 2 Corinthians 5:8 , Philippians 1:20 f
Scripture - ), with the subsequent outpouring of the Spirit, the Persecution of the Church, the rejection of the Jews and mission to the Gentiles, the resurrection of the body, and the final salvation (Acts 1:16 ff
James, the General Epistle of - ...
(2) To teach Christians patience in trial (James 1:2), in good works (1618384895_80), under provocation (James 3:17), under oppression (James 5:7), under Persecution (James 5:10)
Renunciation - The principle of renunciation took the form of a courageous facing of difficulties, a steadfast endurance of ills, a heroic encountering of Persecution, and a submission even unto death
Vengeance (2) - He warned the Twelve, as He sent them out on their mission (Matthew 10), that they would suffer hatred, Persecution, even death, for His sake; and charged them to be, in the midst of wolves, ‘wise as serpents and harmless as doves’ (Matthew 10:16), in the endurance of their sufferings to have no fear, but to rely on God
Mediator, Mediation - The author writes to a church that has endured Persecution (10:32-34) for its faith and, becoming weary in its trial, is tempted to convert to Judaism (13:9-13), a widely known and well-respected religion within the Roman Empire at the time
Jeremiah - In the course of his ministry he met with great difficulties and opposition from his countrymen of all degrees, whose Persecution and ill usage sometimes wrought so far upon his mind, as to draw from him expressions, in the bitterness of his soul, which many have thought hard to reconcile with his religious principles; but which, when duly considered, may be found to demand our pity for his unremitted sufferings, rather than our censure for any want of piety and reverence toward God
Hebrews - The object of this epistle, which ranks among the most important of the New Testament books, was to prove to the Jews, from their own Scriptures, the divinity, humanity, atonement, and intercession of Christ, particularly his preeminence over Moses and the angels of God; to demonstrate the superiority of the gospel to the law, and the real object and design of the Mosaic institution; to fortify the minds of the Hebrew converts against apostasy under Persecution, and to engage them to a deportment becoming their Christian profession
Leander (2) - Thenceforward Arianism was triumphant, and that Persecution of the Catholics by Leovigild, which is described by Isidore ( Hist
Methodius - Diocletian's]'>[1] Persecution; or as some affirm under Decius and Valerian, at Chalcis in Greece
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - 296; not earlier, because he had no personal remembrance of the Persecution under Maximian in 303 ( Hist. 64), and was comparatively a young man when consecrated bishop, soon after the Nicene council; not later, because he received some theological instruction from persons who suffered in the Persecution under Maximian II. The letters of Alexandrians to Athanasius, consolatory as proofs of their affection, gave mournful accounts of torture and robbery, of hatred towards himself shewn in Persecution of his aunt, of countenance shewn to Gregory by the "duke" Balacius; and some of these troubles were in his mind when, early in 341, he wrote "from Rome" his Festal Letter for the year
Clemens Romanus of Rome - Now no one dates the death of Peter later than the Persecution of Nero, a. The language is such as heathen writers might naturally use to describe a Persecution of Christians; but Eusebius (H. It is generally agreed that this must refer to the Persecution under either Nero or Domitian
Athenagoras - 177, since in that year arose the fearful Persecution of the Christians of Vienne and Lyons, upon the accusations brought by their slaves; whereas in c. 38 B, Athenagoras declares that no slaves of Christians had ever charged their masters with the crimes popularly imputed to them; nor is there any allusion whatever to this Persecution, which would hardly have been passed over in silence
Gregorius Thaumaturgus, Bishop of Neocaesarea - These years were probably interrupted by the Persecution under Maximinus Thrax (reigned July 235 to May 238), which was aimed especially at the leaders of the church. ...
The great missionary success of Gregory and the rapid growth of the Church must have preceded the Persecution under Decius, which began in 250 and 251
Jesus Christ - The common people, it seems, understood the words in our sense of them; for in the Dioclesian Persecution, when the Roman soldiers burnt a Phrygian city inhabited by Christians; men, women, and children submitted to their fate, calling upon Christ, THE GOD OVER ALL. In the private scenes of life, and in the public occupation of his ministry; whether the object of admiration or ridicule, of love or of Persecution; whether welcomed with hosannas, or insulted with anathemas, we still see him pursuing with unwearied constancy the same end, and preserving the same integrity of life and manners
Canon - And the same spirit was manifested, and with the same result, in the Dioclesian Persecution of the Christians. Some, indeed, overcome by the terrors of a cruel Persecution, did, in the hour of temptation, consent to surrender the holy book; but they were ever afterward called traitors; and it was with the utmost difficulty that any of them could be received again into the communion of the church, after a long repentance, and the most humbling confessions of their fault
Papyri And Ostraca - From the time of the Persecution of the Christians under the Emperor Decius, we possess, for example, no fewer than five libelli issued to libellatici, i. To the time of the Diocletian Persecution belongs probably the letter of Psenosiris, a Christian presbyter in the Great Oasis, relating to a banished Christian woman named Politike
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - Paul as to (1) some misunderstanding of his teaching about the Parousia ( Acts 2:1-3 ); (2) increase of Persecution ( Acts 1:4-10 ); (3) disorderly conduct in some members of the Church ( Acts 3:11 ); (4) letters forged in the Apostle’s name ( Acts 2:2 , Acts 3:17 )
Peter - " ...
After the miracle at the temple gate (Acts 3 ) Persecution arose against the Christians, and Peter was cast into prison
Suffering - He speaks of his sufferings in such a way as to show that they were chiefly Persecutions (2 Timothy 3:11). Paul had told Timothy that ‘all that would live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer Persecution’ (2 Timothy 3:12)
Isaac - "Mocked" by Ishmael (who was "born after the flesh") at the weaning feast; the mocking, as Paul implies, containing the germ and spirit of Persecution, profanely sneering at the object of the promise
Genseric, King of the Vandals - Probably from alarm at this conspiracy, he began a new and severer Persecution. 1076); and Victor Vitensis, de Persecutione Vandalica , i
Temptation - To the enthusiastic but shallow hearers of His words He affirmed that trials (persecution, etc
Trinity - This elongated presentation serves as an encouragement to churches facing Persecution
Sermon on the Mount - Persecution promised in 5:11-12 is spelled out in 10:17-18 and is actualized in Jesus' own suffering (chaps
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - Some time before the outbreak of the great Persecution he accompanied his mother to Lydda, in Palestine, where she possessed property
Psalms, Book of - Great too will be their Persecution from without, from which God will deliver a remnant and bring them into blessing
Philistim - After the Persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Asmoneans took by degrees several cities from the country of the Philistines, which they subjected
Proselyte - ...
The bitterness engendered by the Persecution which followed the failure of the rising against Hadrian (a
Temptation - To the enthusiastic but shallow hearers of His words He affirmed that trials (persecution, etc
Acts of the Apostles - the view of the Roman officials, and the optimistic tone, would be impossible after the Persecution of Domitian or even (we may add) after that of Nero. 62, or to the Neronian Persecution in a
Parousia - Paul represents the believers who are suffering Persecution as about to be delivered from it by the revelation of Christ with flaming fire from heaven. Christ’s appearance brings cessation of Persecution (ἄνεσιν) for the persecuted saints, and tribulation for the persecutors-the traditional view of current Jewish apocalyptic (cf. The cause of the panic was that they had been persuaded to interpret their Persecutions as a sign that the ‘day of the Lord’ was already present (ἐνέστηκεν, 2 Thessalonians 2:2)
Offence (2) - ; the rocky ground hearers, who have shown a warm appreciation of the word, are taken aback when they find that they have to endure, Persecution because of it, and ‘immediately they are offended. Jesus warns His disciples of coming Persecutions; they as well as He have the cross to bear; and while many will stumble at it,—that is, find it too much for them, a thing which they cannot get over, and must simply decline,—He tells the Twelve beforehand, that being forewarned they may be forearmed against the peril of apostasy. As the act of striking against an obstacle is often painful and irritating, it was this offence of the cross which explained the Persecution of St
King, Christ as - This emphasis upon Jesus Christ the King brought Persecution to the church, for Jesus was viewed as a rival to Caesar and the laws of the Roman Empire
Endurance - ) and needless offence (Matthew 17:27), that Persecution and death were not courted by Him
Socinians - It has been insinuated that Socinus was accessary to this cruel deed of detestable Persecution; and, although attempts have been made to wipe off the imputation, there is too much cause to think that it is not wholly unfounded
Proselyte - But now bloodshed and Persecution produced the twofold result of closing and steeling the heart of Judaism to the outside world, so that proselytes were no longer sought by the Jews, and the tenets and the practices of Judaism became crystallized and less amenable to Hellenistic influences, and so less fitted to win the Gentile spirit
Deuteronomy - ...
Under Manasseh there followed a strong reaction, which resorted even to Persecution
Peter - ...
The Persecution consequent on the martyrdom of Stephen, by scattering the believers, inaugurated a fresh development of Christianity, involving a bitter controversy
Lucianus, a Famous Satirist - Lucian confirms the general opinion as to the continual liability to Persecution of the Christians of those ages
Theodosius i., the Great - ...
Nectarius, Ambrose, and Ascolius of Thessalonica, who baptized Theodosius, also urged Persecution (cf
David - At this point begins the second era of David's life, his Persecution by Saul. ...
His already noted (1 Samuel 16:18) prudence, whereby "he behaved himself wisely in all his ways," was now brought into play; a quality which in dependence upon Jehovah, its Giver (Psalms 5:8), he in Psalms 101:1, by an undesigned coincidence, professes in the same words his determination to exercise, and which as it was the characteristic of Jacob, Israel's forefather, so it has been prominent in his descendants in all ages, modern as well as ancient, especially in times of Persecution; analogous to the instinctive sagacity of hunted animals
Apocalypse - † Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - Theokleia and Thamyris therefore raised Persecution against Paul and Thekla. At his execution milk spurted from his neck instead of blood, and afterwards he appeared to Nero, who was so impressed that he ended the Persecution
Canon of the New Testament - The Diocletian Persecution (A
Daniel, the Book of - The closing one week (or seven years) includes the 3 1/2, years of Jesus' own preaching to the Jews, and 3 1/2 of the apostles' preaching to the Jews only; then the Persecution as to Stephen drove the evangelists from Jerusalem to Samaria
Seventy (2) - The Seventy, like the Twelve, were to be prepared for Persecution and tribulation
Antioch - Stephen, Christian fugitives from Persecution fled as far north as Antioch, began to preach to the Greeks there ( Acts 11:19 ), and a great number believed
Versions of the Scripture, English - The Persecution drove many away, and among other exiles the following took refuge at Geneva: Whittingham, Gilby, Goodman, Sampson, and Coverdale, the last-named having laboured on Cranmer's edition
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - , the warning against false prophets, and the prediction of lawlessness and Persecution and of the appearance of the world-deceiver (ὁ κοσμοπλάνος)
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - —This address, probably Hilary's earliest extant composition, is a petition to the emperor—evidently written before Hilary's exile, at the close of 355 or early in 356—for toleration for the orthodox in Gaul against the Persecution of Arian bishops and laymen. He is here charged, not with Persecution, but with the enticements of bribes, of good dinners, of flatteries and invitations to court
Church - Persecution caused flight from Jerusalem, and then missionary effort was extended to Jews of the Dispersion and to Gentiles. And, as it was the energetic Jew of Tarsus who led the first Persecution of the Christians, so it was the Apostle of the Gentiles who caused the final separation of the Church from the Synagogue
Messiah - In the year 1167, another false Messiah rose in the kingdom of Fez, which brought great trouble and Persecution upon the Jews that were scattered through that country. He, like the rest, perished in the attempt, and brought great Persecution on his countrymen
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - The fact may, notwithstanding the adverse judgment of many historians, have been that Eusebius signed the formulary, expressing the view he took of its meaning, and discriminating between an anathema of certain positions and the Persecution of an individual. The career of Eusebius of Nicomedia during the remaining ten years of his life is so closely intertwined with the romantic sufferings of Athanasius that it is difficult to indicate the part he took in the Persecution of Athanasius without reproducing the story of this great hero of the Catholic faith
Paul - Stephen was followed by a severe Persecution of the church at Jerusalem, and St. In this Persecution St. He was deterred by no difficulty or danger, and endured a great variety of Persecutions with patience and cheerfulness. Though emphatically styled the great Apostle of the Gentiles, he began his ministry, in almost every city, by preaching in the synagogue of the Jews, and though he owed by far the greater part of his Persecutions to the opposition and malice of that proud and obstinate people, whose resentment he particularly incurred by maintaining that the Gentiles were to be admitted to an indiscriminate participation of the benefits of the new dispensation, yet it rarely happened in any place, that some of the Jews did not yield to his arguments, and embrace the Gospel. We see him in the prosecution of his purpose, travelling from country to country, enduring every species of hardship, encountering every extremity of danger, assaulted by the populace, punished by the magistrates, scourged, beaten, stoned, left for dead; expecting, wherever he came, a renewal of the same treatment, and the same dangers; yet, when driven from one city, preaching in the next; spending his whole time in the employment; sacrificing to it his pleasures, his ease, his safety; persisting in this course to old age, unaltered by the experience of perverseness, ingratitude, prejudice, desertion; unsubdued by anxiety, want, labour, Persecutions; unwearied by long confinement; undismayed by the prospect of death
Polycarp - a hagiographer, who writes under the name of Pionius, a martyr at Smyrna at the time of the Decian Persecution, composed a Vita Polycarpi, devoid of any historical value, in which he inserted the complete text of the Martyrium Polycarpi. The ardour of the faithful had to be restrained in times of Persecution, and they had to be warned against presumption
Paul - Paul, the representative of Christianity, is made to appear a personage of consideration to Roman officials, who are nearly always favourable to him, not infrequently defending him not only from the violence of the mob but from officials who are not Roman; and from this he infers that the book was written at a date when Persecution had been going on for a considerable time. The Christians at Thessalonica were exposed to severe Persecution, and the accounts in the Acts of St
Exodus, the - The Persecution that followed on their foretold multiplication, shortly before Moses' birth (no such difficulty attended Aaron's preservation just three years previously, Exodus 7:7), was divinely overruled toward weaning them from Egypt and binding them together as one people
Retribution (2) - ]'>[3] ...
The clearest and most decisive proof of the truth we are considering is Christ’s own death and the sufferings and Persecutions promised to His followers. Only this happiness will be a personal possession of the soul; it may be accompanied by trouble and Persecution in the world (Mark 10:30, John 16:2; John 16:33)
Bible, Texts And Versions - When the Christians, fleeing from the Persecution in which Stephen died, arrived in Antioch, they needed to use Syriac to evangelize the surrounding areas
Thessalonians, First And Second, Theology of - ...
Paul's concern in both epistles then is not in programming the coming of the Lord but in assuring Christians of their ultimate relationship with God and that God is in control of history, not the forces of evil and Persecution
Stoics - The Persecution of the Christians, to which he lent himself, must have appeared to him a political necessity
Ebionism - Paul; Christ’s appearance in Adam and others; permissibility of formal idolatry in times of Persecution; magic, astrology, prophecy
Church Government - Probably they were temporary officials, scattered by the Persecution which was fatal to Stephen, and never re-established
Cross, Cross-Bearing - These men would endure neither Persecution nor self-denial
Independents - The hierarchy established by that princess in the churches of her dominions, the vestments worn by the clergy in the celebration of divine worship, the book of Common Prayer, and, above all, the sign of the cross used in the administration of baptism, were very offensive to many of her subjects, who, during the Persecutions of the former reign, had taken refuge among the Protestants of Germany and Geneva. Jacob, who had fled from the Persecution of bishop Bancroft, going to Holland, and having imparted his design of getting up a separate congregation, like those in Holland, to the most learned Puritans of those times, it was not condemned as unlawful, considering there was no prospect of a national reformation
Apocrypha, New Testament - After the death of the apostles and with an increase in Persecution and false teaching, the written accounts of the teachings of the apostles (the New Testament) became the standard
Paraclete - , the peculiar situation arising out of Persecution unto death is met by a reference, not indeed to the name, but doubtless to the thought, of the Paraclete
Praise - As the typical king David comes to his own despite Saul’s Persecution, so does Christ the true King in the hour of His victory over pain acknowledge His people as brethren, and the citizens of His Kingdom take the song of praise from the lips of their King
Paraclete - , the peculiar situation arising out of Persecution unto death is met by a reference, not indeed to the name, but doubtless to the thought, of the Paraclete
Name (2) - ...
(1) Persecution for the name
Providence - As against a narrow philosophy of providence, according to which good men are openly rewarded in this life and wicked men openly punished, He taught that God governs the world by general laws (Matthew 5:45), that Persecution is often the earthly portion of the righteous (Matthew 5:10 ff
Christ in Jewish Literature - The earlier references illustrate chiefly the effect of Persecution and mutual hatred upon the Jewish mind. The reasons for this seem to be two: (1) that in controversy with Christians the Jews were not disposed to say more than they could help upon a subject where every word was likely to give offence and draw down Persecution upon themselves; and (2) that the Jews were well aware of the difference between the Founder of Christianity and His followers
Christ in the Early Church - It is quite evident that the general conscience of the Church revolted against both Adoptianism and Patripassianism, though the uncertainty of theological terms, the absence of a fixed theological vocabulary, and the difficulty of arriving at common action owing to the stress of frequent Persecutions, rendered it difficult for the Church as a whole to come to close quarters with these different forms of error. Persecution ceased, Christianity tended at once to become the recognized religion of the Empire. Phileas of Thmuis, put to death in Diocletian’s Persecution, said in his last words: ‘Now we begin to be disciples of our Lord Jesus Christ
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - ...
The church had at the time of this writing enjoyed a good deal of quiet, but this had evidently been broken by many harassing Persecutions, in which some had apostatized. Hermas lost his business in the Persecution, having been betrayed, it seems, by his children. Zahn, who places the Persecution under Domitian, ingeniously conjectures (p
Art - 12) that in times of Persecution the churches were pulled down (as by Diocletian in 302), and mentions that the church at Nicomedia, destroyed in 303, was of great size and importance (de Mort. (5) The art of the Catacombs is therefore Christian only in that it generally represents Christian subjects, and that it acquires almost at once a certain marked character of mystic symbolism which is peculiar to the ages of Persecution
Nestorius And Nestorianism - "Before he had tasted of the waters of the city," the historian proceeds, using a proverbial phrase, he had flung himself headlong into acts of violence and Persecution. ]'>[10]...
The revival of the Persecution of the Nestorian churches still existing in the Eastern empire in the reign of Justinian (527–565) must be briefly mentioned
Hebrews, Epistle to - The writer has a local Church in view, founded at a specific period, and suffering Persecution at a definite date (note the tense of the verbs, ‘ye were enlightened,’ ‘ye endured,’ Hebrews 10:32 )
Baptize, Baptism - The threat of Persecution recurs in 4:12-19, and again is to be met by good social behavior
Mark, Theology of - 7-8), Persecution (vv
House - Hence in time of Persecution the fugitive would do well to flee along the roofs rather than fall a prey to the enemy in the streets (Matthew 24:17, Mark 13:15, Luke 17:31)
Essenes - They suffered severely, and endured bravely, in the Persecution, and probably their Order was broken up (Lightfoot, Col
Henoticon, the - Such double-dealing estranged many of his own party, and the discussions of which the unhappy "instrument of union" was the parent were still further aggravated by the cruel Persecution of the orthodox throughout the whole of Egypt by the new patriarch
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - In a letter to Avitus of Vienne (517) the pope, referring to this embassy, complains of the fruitless and perfidious promises of the Greeks, but rejoices at the faithfulness of the churches of Gaul, Thrace, Dardania, and Illyricum, which had stood firm against Persecution in the communion of Rome. ...
Persecutions were now renewed in the East
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - 24), where instead the Didascalia mentions Persecution
Antioch - His success was no doubt in great measure due to the strong Jewish element in the population, even though it was Jewish Persecution that compelled him to leave the city for a time (Acts 13:45; Acts 13:50)
Abel - The effect of this upon Cain was not to humble him before God, but to excite anger against his brother; and, being in the field with him, or, as the old versions have it, having said to him, "Let us go out into the field," "he rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him;" and for that crime, by which the first blood of man was shed by man upon the earth,—a murder aggravated by the relationship and the "righteous" character of the sufferer, and having in it also the nature of religious Persecution,—he was pronounced by the Lord "cursed from the earth
Apostle - During the violent Persecution that raged at Jerusalem, soon after the martyrdom of St
New Testament - ...
In the time of the Diocletian Persecution, A
Jeroboam - In all ages the ungodly have accused witnesses against the national sin as guilty of treason: as Elijah and Jeremiah 1 Kings 18:17; Jeremiah 37:13-14; John 19:12 the Antitype, John 11:48-50 political expediency being the plea for Persecution; Genesis 35:7; Acts 24:5, Paul
Minucius Felix, Marcus - Nor is it to be thought that God deals ill with His worshippers because He does not give them a larger share of prosperity in this life: the Christians do not covet earthly riches; they look on trials as their discipline, Persecutions as their warfare, in which they are not deserted by their God, but combat under His eye. It is an advocate's speech, written for presentation to heathen magistrates to convince them that Christians did not deserve Persecution
Kingdom of God - ...
Those who serve the kingdom of God may bring Persecution and suffering upon themselves (Matthew 10:7; Matthew 10:16-22; Acts 14:22; 2 Thessalonians 1:5)
Unbelief - The unbelief for which the Jews were broken off from their being a church was their denial of Christ's Messiahship, their contempt and refusal of him, and their violent Persecution of his cause and members, Romans 11:20
Woman - Clement of Rome, at the end of the century, refers to the sufferings endured by women under the Neronian Persecution (Ep
Homosexuality - The homosexual community, with its long history of Persecution, naturally sees itself described in the Beatitudes and other offers of hope to the downtrodden
Man (2) - They were called to a vocation in some respects similar to His own: they were to be ‘fishers of men’ (Matthew 4:19); they, too, would know Persecution and trial and death; but these, in their essence, were but temporal things, and could not really injure or destroy (Matthew 10:17-18; Matthew 10:28, John 6:1-150)
Philip: Deacon And Evangelist - ...
"And," writes Luke to Theophilus, "at that time there was a great Persecution against the Church which was at Jerusalem; so that they were all scattered abroad throughout the regions of Judea and Samaria
Jesuits - They have incessantly stirred up against them all the rage of ecclesiastical and civil Persecution
Antichrist - Paul, writing out of his own experience of Jewish Persecution and Roman justice and protection, Judaism was the ‘man of lawlessness,’ and Rome the beneficent restraining power
Scripture - The Genevan New Testament, 1557, and Genevan Bible, 1560, were made by English refugees at Geneva, during the Persecution under the English queen, Mary, who was a Roman Catholic
Peter, Second Epistle of - In 2Peter false teaching instead of Persecution is a source of danger; knowledge takes the place of hope, and piety that of holiness
Philippians, Epistle to - It is doubtful whether the Church of Rome was ever of a thoroughly Pauline type; for, notwithstanding the change effected by the Neronian Persecution, that Church could not have soon become so decidedly Petrine had it originally been strongly imbued with the Pauline Gospel
Priscillianus And Priscillianism, Priscillian - It led to further progress towards Persecution
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - ...
Naturally a better side of Arianism is exhibited in this work than elsewhere in the main not controversial but exegetical and practical written when all court favour had long been lost and when the sect met from the state with nothing but Persecution
Church - It is the Church of God that suffers Persecution in the persons of those who are of ‘the Way’ ( 1 Corinthians 15:9 , Acts 8:3 ; Acts 9:1 ); is profaned by misuse of sacred ordinances at Corinth ( 1 Corinthians 11:22 ); becomes at Ephesus the pillar and ground of the truth ( 1 Timothy 3:16 )
Canaan, History And Religion of - Amidst the building of a Baal temple in the capital city of Samaria and the Persecution of Yahweh's prophets, the prophet Elijah emerged on the scene
Dress (2) - In the Middle Ages, in consequence of the Persecution which the Jews then underwent on account of their religious customs, the habit of wearing the tallîth in public had to be given up; but as the Jews view the wearing of the fringes as a religious duty (Deuteronomy 22:12, Numbers 15:38), they made a special under-garment to carry them
Fellowship (2) - Family ties may be severed, the hatred of the world may be vented upon His disciples, billows of Persecution may sweep over them, but in this society is life indeed (Mark 8:34-38, Luke 14:25-35)
Peter, the Epistles of - The Persecutions to which they were exposed were annoyances and reproach for Christ's sake, because of their nut joining pagan neighbours in riotous living; so they needed warning lest they should fall. It was before the systematic Persecution of Christians in Nero's later years
Prophet - )...
The theory of a long succession of impostors combining to serve the interests of truth, righteousness, and goodness from age to ago by false pretensions, is impossible, especially when they gained nothing by their course but obloquy and Persecution
Transubstantiation - " He had no sooner escaped from the violence which he had dreaded, than he shrunk from the tenet to which he had been forced to give his assent, and he again avowed his original sentiments; but he was afterward turned aside from his integrity by the arts and the infamous Persecution of new councils, although he died adhering to the spirituality of Christ's presence in the eucharist
Manicheans - During their Persecution upon the death of Manes, they fled into Transoxania, whence they maintained a constant communication with Babylon, their original seat, as the head of the sect always remained there till the Mohammedan invasion. 1344) Probably as in the case of the pagan Persecutions the vigour with which they were enforced varied with the dispositions of local magistrates
Preaching - Among those who under stress of Persecution went about ‘preaching the word’ was Philip, who in Samaria ‘proclaimed unto them the Christ’ (ἐκήρυσσεν τὸν Χριστόν, Acts 8:4 f
Faith - Saul, a Jew whose Persecution of the Christians was based on this premise (Acts 22:3-5 ), after meeting the risen Christ becomes a Paul who with opened eyes receives the Holy Spirit and preaches that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (Acts 9 ; Galatians 1:23 )
Versions - This was the assumed name of JOHN Rogers, the first martyr of the Marian Persecution, who became acquainted with Tyndale at Antwerp two years before his death
Revelation of John, the - 1-3) in the Aurelian Persecution, A. No early father held the first theory; few but rationalists hold it, who limit John's vision to his own age, pagan Rome's Persecutions, and its consequently anticipated destruction
Galatians, Epistle to the - Lightfoot and Sanday identify this visit with that of Acts 15:2 (the Jerusalem Council), saying that at the intermediate visit of Acts 11:30 there were no Apostles in Jerusalem, the storm of Persecution having broken over the Church (only the ‘elders’ are mentioned), and the Apostles having retired; as, therefore, St
Kingdom Kingdom of God - Apart from Matthew, which was probably intended originally for circulation amongst Jewish Christians, the only writing of the NT which in so many words assigns the title ‘King’ to Jesus is the Apocalypse, a book written at a time when State Persecution had driven the writer to an attitude of definite hostility to the Roman Empire, and had induced him to throw over the cautious attitude of a previous generation towards the State
Election - God’s elect (Romans 8:33) may have the assaults of temptation and trial to face, and tribulation, anguish, Persecution, famine, nakedness, peril, and sword to endure; but nothing can separate them from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus
Dependence - That Jesus was fully conscious of the necessity of this bitter experience is seen from His own saying, in which He delies the threatened Persecution of Herod, and which contains the same verb as is used in Hebrews, to denote the final cause of His sufferings (τελειοῦμαι, Luke 13:32)
Balaam - Do you remember how James Stuart dragged Robert Bruce about, seeking a place and a point of view from which that great preacher and great patriot might be got to preach and to pray to the king's dictation? If our young ministers would have a life-long lesson and illustration in fearlessness, in fidelity, and in a good conscience to the end of a life of bribes on the one hand, and of Persecution and banishment on the other, let them read themselves deeply into those two narratives so unsurpassable in effectiveness for a minister, the Life of Balaam in the history of Israel, and the Life of Bruce in the history of Scotland and of England
John the Baptist - Epiphanius says that John was banished by command of Claudius; but this deserves the less credit; because there was no Persecution of the Christians in the time of that emperor, and his edicts against the Jews did not extend to the provinces
Organization (2) - ), but anticipate the burden of the cross (Luke 14:27), submit to be ‘hated of all men for my sake (Matthew 10:22), fearlessly enduring Persecution even unto death (v
Evil - They are frequently paired with synonyms with other words denoting Persecution, wickedness, rebellion, violence, and evil
Roman Law in the nt - Nor is this argument weakened by the fact that there was not a continuous Persecution of the Christians on the part of the Roman authorities in the 1st century
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - In Acts Peter aims to convict his audience, while the apocalyptic writer offers multiple images of Jesus to encourage the congregation in a time of intense Persecution
Galatians Epistle to the - ...
Finally, the Apostle meets the charge of pleasing men by exposing the motives of the Judaizers, whose main object was to escape Persecution and to gain applause (Galatians 6:12-13; Galatians 4:17); with this he contrasts his own self-sacrificing love for his converts (Galatians 4:19) and the hardships he has suffered for his fearless proclamation of the truth (Galatians 5:11; Galatians 6:17)
Little Ones - Riddle, in recognition of their weakness in themselves in the midst of the Persecution of the world
Conscience - In such cases Persecution to the death carried no self-reproach with it, but a sense of moral complacency
Assumption of Moses - They obviously refer to the Antiochian Persecution, and are quite out of place after ch
Anger - Anger at personal insult or Persecution was discouraged. One of the seven brothers, during the Persecutions of Antiochus Epiphanes, prays that ‘in me and my brothers, the wrath of the Almighty may be appeased’ (2 Maccabees 7:38)
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - ...
Nestorian doctrines were too deeply rooted in the Eastern mind to be eradicated by Persecution
Mark, Gospel According to - Bigg disputes this inference and thinks that 1Peter was written before the Neronic Persecution in a. There is no need to dispute the authenticity of 1Peter because of supposed references to late Persecutions, for there is no good reason for saying that St
Job, Theology of - He realizes that all things are in God's hand (12:9), including Job's Persecution (30:21) and his disease (19:21)
Law - Paul saw at once that he was called to be a missionary among the heathen, and he seems to have laboured as such for a time without any interference whatever-a circumstance which will hardly seem strange when we remember that certain Hellenists who had been driven out in consequence of the Persecution connected with Stephen had preached the gospel in Antioch even to the Gentiles, and that the numerous converts whom they had won from heathendom were recognized as brethren by the community in Jerusalem (Acts 11:20-24)
Justification (2) - Paul finds it impossible that Persecution should separate the believer from the love of God, the Psalmist sees in it a proof that God has cast off His people (cf
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - He also felt the full influence of that great development of Egyptian monasticism which was encouraged by the seclusion of Athanasius during his third exile and by the Persecution of the "holy solitaries" after his death, and which made so deep an impression on the as yet unconverted Augustine ( Confess
Jesus Christ - ) God saved His Son by commanding the mother and Joseph to flee to Egypt, the land of the type Israel's sojourn, when fleeing from famine, and the land from whence God called His Son Israel (Hosea 11:1; Matthew 2:15); not by miracle, but by ordinary escaping from Persecution, as sharing His people's trials (Matthew 10:23)
Old Testament - ), while the Persecution that followed the first triumphs of the gospel marks the rage of kings and nations against the Lord and His Anointed, as foretold ‘by the Holy Ghost, by the mouth of our father David thy servant’ (Acts 4:25 f
Liberius, Bishop of Rome - 361) and the accession of Julian the Apostate having left the orthodox free from direct Persecution, Athanasius returned once more in triumph to Alexandria (a. His Persecutions extending to the semi-Arians as well as to the orthodox, caused the former to incline to union with the latter and to the position that the difference between them was one rather of words than of doctrine
Rufinus of Aquileia - ad Anastasium , 2, "In carceribus, in exiliis"), but must have returned as soon as the stress of the Persecution abated
Hebrews - The general design of this epistle was to confirm the Jewish Christians in the faith and practice of the Gospel, which they might be in danger of deserting, either through the persuasion or Persecution of the unbelieving Jews, who were very numerous and powerful in Judea
Quakers - They even tell us that he exerted his influence to rescue their friends from the unprovoked and cruel Persecutions they met with in New England; and they speak with becoming gratitude of the different acts passed in their favour during the reigns of William and Mary, and George I. We therefore think Persecution, even in the smallest degree, unwarrantable. "In this place it is proper to add, that, as we believe women may be rightly called to the work of the ministry, we also think that to them belongs a share in the support of our Christian discipline; and that some parts of it, wherein their own sex is concerned, devolve on them with peculiar propriety; accordingly they have monthly, quarterly, and yearly meetings of their own sex, held at the same time and in the same place with those of the men; but separately, and without the power of making rules; and it may be remarked, that, during the Persecutions which in the last century occasioned the imprisonment of so many of the men, the care of the poor often fell on the women, and was by them satisfactorily administered
Judgment Damnation - And in the one case as in the other Persecution has resulted in an exacerbation of feeling and a narrowing of sympathy
House - In the historical period such underground caves (for descriptions and diagrams of some of the more celebrated, see Schumacher, Across the Jordan , 135 146; Bliss and Macalister, Excavations in Palestine , 204 270) were used by the Hebrews as places of refuge in times of national danger ( Judges 6:2 , 1 Samuel 13:6 ) and religious Persecution ( 2Ma 6:11 , Hebrews 11:38 )
Religion (2) - His people have gone forth, indifferent to praise or blame, favour or Persecution, and even suspending their judgment of one another on the ground that to their own Master they stand or fall, before whose judgment-seat all must appear (Romans 14:4; Romans 14:10 f
Wandering Stars - That policy of abstention from the use of force in aid of Jerusalem or in defence of themselves against Persecution may have been trying, but it was thoroughly consonant with the trend of the teaching of Jesus
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - , that they suggested that celibacy was to be strongly encouraged in all, and that the Apostle, though agreeing as an abstract principle, yet, because of imminent Persecution and Jesus’ immediate return ( Matthew 7:26 ; Matthew 7:29 ), replied that in many cases celibacy was undesirable
Jesus Christ - In the end neither rejection, nor Persecution, nor death could shake their conviction that Jesus had conquered death
John, Theology of - Not only does Jesus predict a time of suffering and Persecution (15:18-25) but 1 John 2:18-19 predicts the coming of an antichrist
Lord's Day - One reason for meeting at such times was most probably the need for precaution in times of Persecution and difficulty
Slave, Slavery - In the Persecution at Lyons, a. Many names of slaves appear in the roll of the martyrs, and the memories of such as Blandina, Felicitas, and Vitalis, who suffered in the Persecutions of the first two centuries, received highest honour
Eschatology (2) - Would they miss the glory when it came? At least since the time of the Syrian Persecution (b
Magi - Pfleiderer and Cheyne maintain that the star, the worship of the wise men, and the Persecution of the Holy Child have many prototypes in tales concerning heroes of old, and belong to a pre-Christian international myth of the Redeemer (Pfleiderer, Early Christian Conception of Christ; Cheyne, Bible Problems); on which it may be remarked that although striking parallels can undoubtedly be produced, yet resemblances do not necessarily presuppose an imitation
Hellenism - This was the signal for a general Persecution of the Christians
Hermas Shepherd of - It is primarily a call to repentance, addressed to Christians among whom the memory of Persecution is still fresh (Vis
Arius, Followers of - Arianism had no moral strength with which to resist Persecution
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - After petty acts of Persecution, in which the semi-Arian prelates joined with high satisfaction, as a means of retaliating on Basil, a synod was summoned at Ancyra at the close of 375, to examine some alleged canonical irregularities in Gregory's consecration, and to investigate a frivolous charge brought against him by a certain Philocharis of having made away with church funds left by his predecessor
Barnabas, Epistle of - And it is difficult to think that any Jew, born under the Law, and nurtured in the stirring traditions of its maintenance in the face of cruel Persecution, could come to feel so little enthusiasm for and interest in the national struggles and heroisms that he could sweep them all away as things which never ought to have been
Methodists - No favourable opportunity offering itself for this pious work, and the strict and faithful preaching of the Wesleys having involved them in much Persecution, and many disputes with the colonists, they returned to England, Mr. Wesley, went through great labours, and endured many privations and Persecutions, but with such success that societies and congregations were in a few years raised up in almost every part of England, and in a very considerable number of places in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland
Mahometanism - The Christian religion, in the corrupted form in which it existed in the regions contiguous to the country of the prophet, was not interwoven with the affections of its professors; they were split into factions, contending about the most frivolous distinctions and the most ridiculous tenets; and the sword of Persecution was mutually wielded by them all, to spread misery where there should have been the ties of charity and love
Paul the Apostle - ) did not belong to the first age; that Persecution had already arisen, whereas in St
John, the Gospel by - The Lord warns the disciples of the Persecution they would meet with from the world
Peter - ), the immediate agent in healing the lame beggar at the Temple gate (Acts 3:1-10), and the principal defender of the new faith during the subsequent period of Persecution (e
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - He dwells on the holy character of Athanasius, his resoluteness in defence of the faith, his endurance of Persecution, his contempt of death and danger
Old Testament (i. Christ as Fulfilment of) - During the progress of the establishment of this society, those who belonged to it would be called upon to be merciful, to hunger and thirst after righteousness to be peacemakers, to endure Persecution for righteousness’ sake patiently, to love enemies, to devote themselves to God without pretence and with singleness of mind; and yet to live lives of radiant goodness, to bring forth an abundant fruitage of beneficence for the sake of Jesus and in His name, to observe the duties which grow out of the natural relations of life, to lose their lives for His sake and the gospel’s, to seek first this ideal society arid God’s righteousness, to go to Jesus and take His yoke upon themselves, and look upon a life of lowliest ministry as the life of highest honour
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - Nor is this surprising when it is remembered that the text in that period consisted of consonants only, that in the course of it the character of the writing was changed from the Old Hebrew to the square character still in use (the difference between the two being greater than that between old black letter type and the Roman type now commonly used), that in the earlier part of the period copies of the books cannot have been numerous, and that in times of Persecution copies were hunted for and destroyed ( 1Ma 1:56 f
New Testament - The Diocletian Persecution (A
Bible - ...
Till the Persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, they read only the law; but, the reading of it being then prohibited, they substituted in the room of it fifty-four sections out of the prophets; and when the reading of the law was restored by the Maccabees, the section which was read every Sabbath out of the law served for their first lesson, and the section out of the prophets for their second
Trial-at-Law - Even the apostle Paul had to endure Persecution and stoning apart from the regular forms of trial (Acts 9:23 ff
Science (2) - Among the fine qualities of the Hebrew mind were: (1) a sanity and sobriety of thought which preserved their religion and literature from all those offensive and extravagant traits which mark the popular religions of Syria, Asia Minor, and Arabia; (2) an extraordinary gift for the observation of individual incidents and facts, as appears in the inimitable narratives of the historical books of the OT; the vivid portraiture, satire, and denunciation of the prophets; and the marvellous, if often trivial, minuteness of Rabbinic discussions; (3) unparalleled energy of feeling and sense of individuality; and (4) a strength of will that alone can account for the vitality of a people which has been exposed to a more bitter Persecution and more relentless fate than any other race in history
Messiah - In the very nature of the case the misery of Syrian Persecution forced ‘the Pious’ not only to renewed faith in Jehovah, but also to a new sense of the need of prophecy
John (the Apostle) - If John was in Patmos, it may be that he went thither, as Weiss supposes, to find a religious retreat, or, as others think, to avoid Persecution
Jews - The Christian church, glorious in its martyrs, yet was considerably diminished by the Persecutions to which it was exposed; nor was it easy to repair the breaches in it made by those acts of violence. ...
From age to age they have been exposed to misery and Persecution; yet still they subsist, in spite of the ignominy and the hatred which hath pursued them in all places, whilst the greatest monarchies are fallen, and nothing remains of them besides the name
Moses - And while he was instructed "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," and bred up in the midst of a luxurious court, he acquired at home the knowledge of the promised redemption of Israel; and, "by faith" in the Redeemer Christ, "refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; esteeming the reproach of Christ," or Persecution for Christ's sake, "greater riches than the treasures of Egypt: for he had respect to the recompense of reward," Exodus 2:1-10 ; Acts 7:20-22 ; Hebrews 11:23-26 ; or looked forward to a future state
Monophysitism - The cruel Persecution of Nestorius himself (who, though he undoubtedly went too far in some of his statements, was willing to qualify many of them), the harsh treatment of the learned and holy Theodoret, and the forcible suppression of the teaching of the Syrian school, produced great indignation, and when the emperor Theodosius II
Prophet - If, then, the preaching of Isaiah raised the gibes of the drunkards of Ephraim, and if the unwelcome predictions of Jeremiah led to bitterest Persecution, is it any wonder that the clear light of the revelation of Jesus infuriated ‘the blind Pharisee,’ and ended in His cruel mockings and death?...
III
Text of the New Testament - Besides the natural causes just mentioned for the disappearance of early Biblical MSS, it should be remembered that Christian books (especially the official copies in the possession of Churches) were liable to destruction in times of Persecution
John, Gospel of (Critical) - The opinion of Irenaeus is corroborated by a contemporary letter written by the members of the Churches at Vienne and Lyons to the brethren in Asia Minor during the time of Persecution in 177
Enoch Book of - belong to the earliest Enochic portion of this section; they are pre-Maccabaean, as, unlike lxxxiii-xc, they make no reference to Antiochus’ Persecution
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - His grandparents on both sides had suffered during the Maximinian Persecution, his maternal grandfather losing both property and life
Church (2) - In the course of time the increase in the number of adherents led to an advance in organization, the Apostles delegating some of their functions to a lower order of ministers, and soon afterwards Persecution caused an extension of the Church to other parts of Palestine
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - But in the opposition caused by the bishops defeated in the election, and in the Persecution organized by the prefect Modestius at the command of Valens, Gregory was foremost as a personal friend and as a defender of the faith (Socr
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - This is not the only instance of Gregory, like others of his age, not being averse to Persecution as a means of conversion
Methodists, Protestant - This, which one should have thought would have been attended with praise instead of censure, quickly drew upon them a kind of Persecution; some of the seniors of the university began to interfere, and it was reported "that the college censor was going to blow up the godly club
Clement of Alexandria - On the outbreak of the Persecution under Severus (a
Lutherans - The modern Lutherans, about the close of the seventeenth century, enlarged their liberality toward other sects, and gave up the supposed right of Persecution; confessing that Christians are accountable to God only for their religious faith
Jews - 167,) eminent for his piety and resolution, and the father of five sons, equally zealous for their religion, encouraged the people by his example and exhortations, "to stand up for the law:" and having soon collected an army of six thousand men, he eagerly undertook to free Judea from the oppression and Persecution of the Syrians, and to restore the worship of the God of Israel; but being very old when he engaged in this important and arduous work, he did not live to see its completion
Bible - Till the time of the Persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, they read only the law; but being then prohibited from reading it any more, they substituted in the room of the fifty-four sections of the law, fifty-four sections out of the prophets, the reading of which they ever after continued
Inspiration - And when he spake to them in his prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem, of the Persecution which they were to endure after his death, he repeats the same promise: "For I will give you a mouth and wisdom, which all your adversaries shall not be able to gainsay nor resist," Luke 21:15
Synods - In the third century eighteen synods were held; the principal of which were, that of Alexandria, against Origen; that of Africa, against the schismatic Novatus; that of Antioch, against the heresy of Sabellius, and another in the same city against Paul of Samosata; that of Carthage, against such persons as fell away in time of Persecution; and that of Rome, against Novatian and other schismatics
Justinianus i, Emperor - Brilliant as Justinian's reign may appear to us, the sufferings endured by the people from war, taxation, the Persecution of heretics, the blows struck at the privileges of various classes and professions, as well as from the great plague and from destructive earthquakes, made his rule unpopular, as shewn by the rebellions in Africa and the disaffection of the reconquered Italians
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - Against this reproach and against the suspicion that he had given in to escape Persecution or to secure a higher place Theodoret sought to defend himself (ib
Mahometanism - As Persecution generally advances rather than obstructs the spreading of a religion, Islamism made so great a progress among the Arab tribes, that the Koreish, to suppress it effectually if possible, in the seventh year of Mahomet's mission, made a solemn league or covenant against the Hashemites, and the family of Abd'slmotalleb, engaging themselves to contract no marriages with any of them, and to have no communication with them; and to give it the greater sanction, reduced it into writing, and laid it up in the Caaba