What does Pergamos mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Pergamos
Pergamos (per'ga-mŏs, Revelation 1:11, A. V., but in R. V. Pergamum), height, elevation. A city of Mysia, about three miles to the north of the river Caicus, and 20 miles from its present mouth. The city was noted for its vast library, containing 200,000 volumes. Here were splendid temples of Zeus or Jupiter, Athene, Apollo, and Æsculapius. One of "the 3even churches of Asia" was in Pergamos. Revelation 1:11; Revelation 2:12-17. It is called "Satan's seat" by John, which some suppose to refer to the worship of Æsculapius, from the serpent being his characteristic emblem. The modern name of the city is Bergama.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Pergamos
The chief city of Mysia, in Asia Minor. One of the "seven churches" was planted here (Revelation 1:11 ; 2:17 ). It was noted for its wickedness, insomuch that our Lord says "Satan's seat" was there. The church of Pergamos was rebuked for swerving from the truth and embracing the doctrines of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes. Antipas, Christ's "faithful martyr," here sealed his testimony with his blood. This city stood on the banks of the river Caicus, about 20 miles from the sea. It is now called Bergama, and has a population of some twenty thousand, of whom about two thousand profess to be Christians. Parchment (q.v.) was first made here, and was called by the Greeks pergamene, from the name of the city.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Pergamos
Height; elevation
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - the Angel of the Church in Pergamos
IN his beautifully-written but somewhat superficial commentary, Archbishop Trench says that there is a strong attraction in these seven Epistles for those scholars who occupy themselves with pure exegesis. And that strong attraction arises, so the Archbishop says, from the fact that there are so many unsolved problems of interpretation in these seven Epistles. Now, I am no pure exegete and those unsolved problems of pure exegesis have little or no attraction for me. My irresistible attraction to these seven Epistles lies in this that they are so many looking-glasses, as James the Lord's brother would say, in which all ministers of churches everywhere to the end of time may see themselves, and may judge themselves, as their Master sees them and judges them. Another thing that greatly attracts our commentators to Pergamos is the intensely interesting and extraordinarily productive field of pagan antiquities that Pergamos has proved itself to be. Pergamos was the most illustrious city in all Asia. It was a perfect city of temples. Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Dionysus, Aphrodite, Æsculapius, were all among the gods of Pergamos, and all had magnificent shrines erected and administered to their honour. Here also Galen the famous physician was born. Pergamos possessed a library also that rivalled in size and in value the world-renowned library of Alexandria itself. Two hundred thousand volumes stood entered on the catalogue of the public library of Pergamos. Our well-known word 'parchment' is derived to us from the stationers' shops of Pergamos, and so on. Whether the minister of Pergamos found all that heathen environment as full of delight and edification to himself, and to his proselyte people, in his day as it is to us in our day, is another matter. But of the deep interest and the great delight that all these things have to us there can be no doubt. For the most of our expositors spend both their time and our time in little else but in telling and hearing about the antiquities of Pergamos. But with all those intellectual and artistic attractions filling every part of his parish, after the minister of Pergamos had this Epistle sent to him, all the rest of his days in Pergamos he would have neither time nor thought nor taste for anything else but for this, that Satan had his seat in Pergamos.
It was to bring home the discovery of this fearful fact to the minister of Pergamos that was the sole object of this startling Epistle to him; just as his receiving of this Epistle was the supreme epoch and the decisive crisis of his whole ministerial life. And no wonder. For to be told, and that on such absolute authority, that while Satan had his colonies and his dependencies and his outposts in Ephesus, and in Smyrna, and in Thyatira, yet that his very citadel and stronghold was in Pergamos,-that must have been an awful revelation to the responsible pastor of Pergamos. Pergamos is Satan's very capital, said this Epistle to the overwhelmed minister of Pergamos. It is the very metropolis of his infernal empire. All his power for evil, both against God and man, is concentrated and entrenched in Pergamos. "London is a dangerous and an ensnaring place," writes John Newton in his Cardiphonia. "I account myself happy that my lot is cast at a distance from it. London appears to me like a sea, wherein most are tossed by storms, and many suffer shipwreck. Political disputes, winds of doctrine, scandals of false professors, parties for and against particular ministers, fashionable amusements, and so on. I often think of the difference between London grace and country grace. By London grace, when genuine, I understand grace in a very advanced degree. The favoured few who are kept alive to God, simplehearted and spiritually-minded, in the midst of such deep snares and temptations, appear to me to be the first-rate Christians of the land. Not that we are without our trials here. The evil of our own hearts and the devices of Satan cut us out work enough. My own soul is kept alive, as it were, by miracle. The enemy thrusts sore at me that I may fall. In London I am in a crowd of temptations, but in the country there is a crowd of temptations in me. To what purpose do I boast of retirement, when I am myself possessed of Satan's legions in every place? My mind, even at Olney, is a perfect puppet-show, a Vanity Fair, an absolute Newgate itself."
John Newton is one of the three best commentators I have met with on this Epistle. John Newton, and James Durham, and Miss Rossetti. And what so greatly interests those three commentators in Pergamos is this, that they see from this Epistle to the minister of Pergamos that Satan really had his seat in that minister's own heart, just as that same seat is in their own heart. No other antiquity in Pergamos has any interest to James Durham at any rate, but that antique minister's heart in Pergamos. For Satan, if he is anything, is a spirit. And if he has a seat anywhere in this world it is in the spirits of men. Satan dwells not in temples made with hands, either in Pergamos, or in Olney, or in Edinburgh, but only in the spirits of men; and, most of all, in the spirits of ministers, as this Epistle teaches us, and as all the best commentators tell us it teaches us. And the reason of that so perilous pre-eminence of ministers is plain. Ministers, if they are real ministers, hold a kind of vicarious and representative position both before heaven and hell, and the swordsmen and archers of both heaven and hell specially strike at and sorely wound and grieve all such ministers. Satan is like the King of Syria at the battle of Ramoth-Gilead. For before that battle the King of Syria commanded his thirty-and-two captains that had rule over his chariots, saying, "Fight neither with small nor great save only with the King of Israel." And Satan is right. For let a minister but succeed in his own battle against Satan, let a minister but "overcome," as our Lord's word is in every one of these ministerial Epistles, and his whole congregation will soon begin to share in the spoils of their minister's victory.
Thus Satan trembles when he seesA minister upon his knees.O poor and much-to-be-pitied ministers! With Satan concentrating all his fiery darts upon you, with the deep-sunken pillars of his seat not yet dug out of your hearts, with all his thirty-two captains fighting day and night for the remnants of their master's power within you, and all the time, a far greater than Satan running you through and through with that terrible sword of His till there is not a sound spot in you-O most forlorn and afflicted of all men! O most bruised in your mind, and most broken in your heart, of all men! Pity your ministers, my brethren, and put up with much that you cannot as yet understand or sympathise with in them. And never for a day forget to pray for them in secret, and by name, and by the name of their inward battle-field. Do that, for your ministers have a far harder-beset life than you have any idea of; with both heaven and hell setting on them continually and to the last drop of their blood. May my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth before I say a single word to turn any young man away from the ministry, who is called of God to that awful work. At the same time, let all intending ministers count well the cost lest, haply, after they have laid the foundation and are not able to finish, both men and devils shall point at them and say, this minister began to build for himself and for his congregation, for eternity, but come and see the ruin he has left! Count well, I say again, whether or no you are able to finish.
A single word about "Antipas my faithful martyr" in Pergamos. "It is difficult," complains the commentator mentioned in opening, "to understand the silence of all ecclesiastical history respecting so famous a martyr as Antipas." But faithful martyrs are not surely such a rarity, either in ancient or in modern ecclesiastical history, that we need spend much regret that we are not told more about one out of such a multitude. At any rate, we have a pretty long roll of well-known names in our own evangelical martyrology, and the cloud of such witnesses is by no means closed in Scotland. Whether this Antipas was a martyred minister or no, I cannot tell. Only there are many martyred ministers in our own land and Church whose names are as little known as the bare name of Antipas. Only, the silence and the ignorance and the indifference of earth does not extend to heaven. The silence and the ignorance and the indifference of earth will only make the surprise, both of those ministers and of their persecutors, all the greater when the day of their recognition and reward comes. "Then shall the righteous man stand before the face of such as have afflicted him, and have made no account of his labours. When they see it they shall be troubled with terrible fear, and shall be amazed at the strangeness of his salvation, so far beyond all they had looked for. And they, repenting and groaning for anguish of spirit, shall say within themselves-This was he whom we had sometimes in derision, and made a proverb of reproach. We fools counted his life madness, and his end to be without honour. But now he is numbered among the children of God, and his lot is among the saints!" For then shall be fulfilled that which is written, To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna. And I will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.
This new name which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it is plain. This is no unsolved problem of interpretation. For, a name in Scripture is always just another word for a nature. That is to say, for the very innermost heart and soul of any person or any thing.
I named them as they passed, and understoodTheir nature; with such knowledge God enduedMy sudden apprehension, says Adam to the angel.And a new name is always given in Scripture when a new nature is imparted to any person or to any thing. And so will it be beyond Scripture when that day comes to which every scripture points and promises, and for which every holy heart yearns and pants and breaks. That day when He which hath the sharp sword with two edges shall make all His redeemed to be partakers of His own nature; whose nature and whose name is Love. And just as no man knoweth the misery of that heart in which Satan still has his seat but the miserable owner of that heart, so only God Himself will know with them the new name that He will give to His holy ones on that day. As every sin-possessed heart here knows its own bitterness, so will every such heart alone know its own unshared sweetness in heaven, and no neighbour saint nor serving angel will intermeddle with things that are beyond their depth. And ministers especially. When they have overcome by the blood of the Lamb; when their long campaign of sanctification for themselves and for their people has been fought out and won; a new name will be given to every such minister that he alone will know and understand, and that, as Adam said, by a sudden apprehension. When we are under our so specially severe sanctification here-
Not even the tenderest heart, and next our own,Knows half the reasons why we smile or sigh,and much more will it be so in the uninvaded inwardness and uniqueness of our glorification. No man knows the hardness and the blackness of a sinful heart but the unspeakably miserable owner of it, and no man knows the names he calls himself continually before God, but God who seeth and heareth in secret. And, as a consequence and for a recompense, no man shall see the whiteness of the stone, or hear the newness of the name written in that stone, saving he that receiveth it. For your shame ye shall have double; and for confusion they shall rejoice in their portion; therefore in their land they shall possess the double; everlasting joy shall be unto them. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches, and unto the ministers of the churches.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Pergamos
Royal city of Mysia in Asia Minor: it was not visited by Paul as far as is recorded. The church there is one of the seven in Asia to which the addresses in the Revelation were sent. The saints dwelt where Satan's throne was (the city was renowned for its idolatry). Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 2:12 . The city is still in existence, and is called Bergama, with a population of about 20,000, some 2,000 of whom are nominally christian. See REVELATION.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Pergamos
A city of Mysia, three miles N. of the River Caicus. Eumenes II (197-159 B.C.) built a beautiful city round an impregnable castle on "the pine-coned rock." Attalus II bequeathed his kingdom to Rome 133 B.C. The library was its great boast; founded by Earaches and destroyed by Caliph Omar. The prepared sheepskins were called pergamena charta from whence our "parchment" is derived. The Nicephorium, or thank offering grove for victory over Antiochus, had an assemblage of temples of idols, Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Aesculapius, Dionysus, Aphrodite. Aesculapius the healing god (Tacitus, Ann. 3:63) was the prominent Pergamean idol (Martial); the Pergamenes on coins are called "the principal "temple care-takers" (neokoroi ) of Asia," and their ritual is made by Pausanias a standard. The grove of Aesculapius was recognized by the Roman senate under Tiberius as having right of sanctuary.
The serpent (Satan's image) was sacred to him, charms and incantations were among medical agencies then, and Aesculapius was called "saviour." How appropriately the address to the Pergamos church says, "I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan's seat (throne) is," etc. Here Antipas, Jesus' "faithful martyr," was slain (Revelation 2:12-16). (See ANTIPAS.) "Thou hast them that hold the doctrine of Beldam who taught Balak to cast a stumbling-block before ... Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols and to commit fornication"; this naturally would happen in such an idol-devoted city. The Nicolaitanes persuaded some to escape obloquy by yielding in the test of faithfulness, the eating of idol meats; even further, on the plea of Christian "liberty," to join in fornication which was a regular concomitant of certain idols' worship.
Jesus will compensate with "the hidden manna" (in contrast to the occult arts of Aesculapius) the Pergamene Christian who rejects the world's dainties for Christ. Like the incorruptible manna preserved in the sanctuary, the spiritual feast Jesus offers, an incorruptible life of body and soul, is everlasting. The "white stone" is the glistering diamond, the Urim ("light") in the high priest's breast-plate; "none" but the high priest "knew the name" on it, probably Jehovah. As Phinehas was rewarded for his zeal against idol compliances and fornication (to which Balaam seduced Israel), with "an everlasting priesthood," so the heavenly priesthood is the reward of those zealous against New Testament Balaamites. Now Bergamo.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Pergamos
Now Bergamo, a city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, and the residence of the Attalian princes. There was here collected by the kings of this race a noble library of two hundred thousand volumes, which, after the country was ceded to the Romans, was transported to Egypt for Cleopatra, and added to the library at Alexandria. Hence the word parchment, from the Latin pergamentum, Greek pergamene; great quantities of this material being here used, and its manufacture perfected. Pogroms was the birthplace of Galen, and contained a famous temple of Esculapius the god of medicine, who was worshipped under the form of a living serpent. A Christian church was established here in the apostolic age, and was addressed by St. John, Revelation 1:11 ; 2:12 . The modern city, called Bergamo, lies twenty miles from the sea on the north side of the river Caicus, and contains twelve thousand inhabitants. A large castle in ruins stands on the highest of three mountains, which environ the town, and many remains of the ancient city still exist.

Sentence search

Antipas - A faithful martyr, in Pergamos, Revelation 2:13
Per'Gamum - In the Revised Version for Pergamos
Parchment - A skin prepared for writing on; so called from Pergamos (q
an'Tipas - (like the father ), martyr at Pergamos, ( Revelation 2:13 ) and according to tradition the bishop of that place
an'Tipas - (like the father ), martyr at Pergamos, ( Revelation 2:13 ) and according to tradition the bishop of that place
Antipas - A martyr faithful unto death at Pergamos (Revelation 2:13). " Satan, the old serpent, instigated the idol's devotees, through the magistrates at Pergamos, to slay Antipas
Antipas - A Christian of Pergamos, who was martyred
Pergamos - Pergamos (per'ga-mŏs, Revelation 1:11, A. One of "the 3even churches of Asia" was in Pergamos
the Angel of the Church in Pergamos - Another thing that greatly attracts our commentators to Pergamos is the intensely interesting and extraordinarily productive field of pagan antiquities that Pergamos has proved itself to be. Pergamos was the most illustrious city in all Asia. Zeus, Athene, Apollo, Dionysus, Aphrodite, Æsculapius, were all among the gods of Pergamos, and all had magnificent shrines erected and administered to their honour. Pergamos possessed a library also that rivalled in size and in value the world-renowned library of Alexandria itself. Two hundred thousand volumes stood entered on the catalogue of the public library of Pergamos. Our well-known word 'parchment' is derived to us from the stationers' shops of Pergamos, and so on. Whether the minister of Pergamos found all that heathen environment as full of delight and edification to himself, and to his proselyte people, in his day as it is to us in our day, is another matter. For the most of our expositors spend both their time and our time in little else but in telling and hearing about the antiquities of Pergamos. But with all those intellectual and artistic attractions filling every part of his parish, after the minister of Pergamos had this Epistle sent to him, all the rest of his days in Pergamos he would have neither time nor thought nor taste for anything else but for this, that Satan had his seat in Pergamos. ...
It was to bring home the discovery of this fearful fact to the minister of Pergamos that was the sole object of this startling Epistle to him; just as his receiving of this Epistle was the supreme epoch and the decisive crisis of his whole ministerial life. For to be told, and that on such absolute authority, that while Satan had his colonies and his dependencies and his outposts in Ephesus, and in Smyrna, and in Thyatira, yet that his very citadel and stronghold was in Pergamos,-that must have been an awful revelation to the responsible pastor of Pergamos. Pergamos is Satan's very capital, said this Epistle to the overwhelmed minister of Pergamos. All his power for evil, both against God and man, is concentrated and entrenched in Pergamos. And what so greatly interests those three commentators in Pergamos is this, that they see from this Epistle to the minister of Pergamos that Satan really had his seat in that minister's own heart, just as that same seat is in their own heart. No other antiquity in Pergamos has any interest to James Durham at any rate, but that antique minister's heart in Pergamos. Satan dwells not in temples made with hands, either in Pergamos, or in Olney, or in Edinburgh, but only in the spirits of men; and, most of all, in the spirits of ministers, as this Epistle teaches us, and as all the best commentators tell us it teaches us. ...
A single word about "Antipas my faithful martyr" in Pergamos
Attali'a - (from Attalus ), a coast-town of Pamphylia, mentioned ( Acts 14:25 ) It was built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, and named after the monarch
Per'Gamos - The sumptuousness of the Attalic princes hall raised Pergamos to the rank of the first city in Asia as regards splendor. One of "the seven churches of Asia" was in Pergamos
Thyatira - It was situated nearly midway between Pergamos and Sardis, and is still a tolerable town, considering that it is in the hands of the Turks, and enjoys some trade, chiefly in cottons
Nicolaitanes - The church at Ephesus (Revelation 2:6 ) is commended for hating the "deeds" of the Nicolaitanes, and the church of Pergamos is blamed for having them who hold their "doctrines" (15)
Philadelphia - It was built by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, who died b
Seven Churches - The assemblies were at Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, places comparatively near together in the west of Asia Minor
Thyatira - It was situated on the confines of Lydia and Mysia, near the river Lycus, between Sardis and Pergamos
Pergamos - The church of Pergamos was rebuked for swerving from the truth and embracing the doctrines of Balaam and the Nicolaitanes
Philadelphia - It was founded by Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos
Philadelphia - Philadelphia as so called from Attalus Philadelphus, king of Pergamos, by whom it was founded
Attalia - Philadelphus, king of Pergamos (159-138 b
Thyatira - ) Thyatira lay a little to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis (Strabo 13:4, who calls it "a Macedonian colony"); on the Lycus, a little to the S. ...
The presiding angel ought to have exercised his authority over the prophetess or prophets so-called, who seduced many into the libertinism of the Balaamites and Nicolaitans of Thyatira's more powerful neighbour Pergamos (Revelation 2:6; Revelation 2:14; Revelation 2:16)
Scroll (Roll) - of our era, when parchment (περγαμηνή, from Pergamos, where it originated) began to supersede papyrus
Adramyttium - Though it passed the coast-road which connected Ephesus with Troy and the Hellespont, while an inland highway linked it with Pergamos
Sar'Dis, - Afterward it passed under the dominion of the kings of Pergamos
Thyati'ra, - a city on the Lycus, founded by Seleucus Nicator, lay to the left of the road from Pergamos to Sardis, 27 miles from the latter city, and on the very confines of Mysia and Ionia, so as to be sometimes reckoned within the one and sometimes within the other
False Apostles - They should perhaps be identified with the Nicolaitans active at Ephesus ( Revelation 2:6 ) and Pergamos (Revelation 2:15 ), and with the followers of the “false prophetess” at Thyatira (Revelation 2:20 )
Philadel'Phia, - , king of Pergamos, who died B
Pergamos - " How appropriately the address to the Pergamos church says, "I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan's seat (throne) is," etc
Nicolaitans - John says in his Revelation, to the angel of the church of Ephesus, "But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate," Revelation 2:6 ; and again, to the angel of the church of Pergamos: "So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate," Revelation 2:15 . John saying to the church in Pergamos, "I have a few things against thee, because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam, who taught Balak to cast a stumbling block before the children of Israel, to eat things sacrificed unto idols, and to commit fornication,"...
Revelation 2:14 . John calls "the doctrine of Balaam," or the wicked artifice which he taught the king of Moab: and so he says, that in the church of Pergamos there were some who held the doctrine of the Nicolaitans
Balaam - In Revelation 2:14 , the church at Pergamos was complimented for faithfulness under persecution, but also warned that some followed after Balaam in offering meat to idols and in immorality
Manna - To the church in Pergamos, Jesus encouraged faithfulness by promising that true believers would receive "hidden manna" to eat (Revelation 2:17 )
Manna - In Revelation 2:17 the Lord promises to give to the overcomer in the church in Pergamos to eat of the HIDDEN MANNA, that is, some sweet secret communion with Himself, known in the glory as the One who suffered here
Lycaonia - ), it was given to the Attalids of Pergamos; but as they never effectively occupied it, the northern part of it was claimed by the Galatians, while the eastern was added to Cappadocia
Troas - , after which it was a free city of the kings of Pergamos, the last of whom bequeathed his realm to the Roman Republic in 133 b
Book - At a later period, parchment from skins was invented in Pergamos, and was there used for rolls or volumes
Iconium - ), it was presented by the Romans to the king of Pergamos; but as he never took effective possession of it, the Galatians appropriated it about 165 b
Philadelphia - Philadelphus of Pergamos (159-138 b
Sardis - ), Sardis was gifted by the Romans to the kings of Pergamos
Phrygia - of Pergamos (241-197 b
Smyrna - Her standard of comparison will no longer be Ephesus or Sardis or Pergamos or even Rome, but the City of God, in which the last is first
Thyatira - It lay midway between the once royal cities of Pergamos and Sardis, but its own significance was always purely mercantile
Feasting - The letters to Pergamos and Thyatira meet it with forcible denunciation and threatening (see such articles as Balaam, Jezebel, Nicolaitans), and in 2 Peter and Jude we have an attitude similar to that of St
Physician - Of these there were more than 300 at Athens, Cnidos, Cos (the ruins of which have been uncovered within the last few years), Delphi, Pergamos, Rhodes, and Trcezen. Objects exhumed in Pergamos disclose the accuracy of anatomical knowledge
John, the Epistles of - Mill believes Gains, bishop of Pergamos (Apost
the Angel of the Church in Sardis - When he went to the communion-seasons at Ephesus and Smyrna and Pergamos and Thyatira, for years after the captivated people could tell you his texts and at every mention of his name they would break out about his preaching
Paul - It possessed a splendid harbour, in which was concentrated the traffic of the sea which was then the highway of the nations; and as Liverpool has behind her the great towns of Lancashire, so had Ephesus behind and around her such cities as those mentioned along with her in the epistles to the churches in the book of Revelation, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea
Peter, the Epistles of - In Mysia was Pergamos
John the Baptist - He planted churches at Smyrna, Pergamos, and many other places; and by his activity and success in propagating the Gospel, he is supposed to have incurred the displeasure of Domitian, who banished him to Patmos at the end of his reign
Oracle - AEsculapius was consulted in Cilicia, at Apollonia, in the isle of Cos, at Epidaurus, Pergamos, Rome, and elsewhere
Galatia - of Pergamos (241-197) was the first to check the fierce barbarians
John, Epistles of - A bishop of Pergamos, appointed by the Apostle John and mentioned in the Apostolic Constitutions , was also called Gaius, and some critics are disposed to identify him with St
Revelation, the - Pergamos