What does Patriarch mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
πατριάρχου patriarch 1
πατριάρχης patriarch 1

Definitions Related to Patriarch

G3966


   1 Patriarch, founder of a tribe, progenitor.
      1a of the twelve sons of Jacob, founders of the tribes of Israel.
      1b of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
      

Frequency of Patriarch (original languages)

Frequency of Patriarch (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Patriarch
A name employed in the New Testament with reference to Abraham (Hebrews 7:4 ), the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8,9 ), and to David (2:29). This name is generally applied to the progenitors of families or "heads of the fathers" (Joshua 14:1 ) mentioned in Scripture, and they are spoken of as antediluvian (from Adam to Noah) and post-diluvian (from Noah to Jacob) patriachs. But the expression "the patriarch," by way of eminence, is applied to the twelve sons of Jacob, or to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. "Patriachal longevity presents itself as one of the most striking of the facts concerning mankind which the early history of the Book of Genesis places before us...There is a large amount of consentient tradition to the effect that the life of man was originally far more prolonged than it is at present, extending to at least several hundred years. The Babylonians, Egyptians, and Chinese exaggerated these hundreds into thousands. The Greeks and Romans, with more moderation, limited human life within a thousand or eight hundred years. The Hindus still farther shortened the term. Their books taught that in the first age of the world man was free from diseases, and lived ordinarily four hundred years; in the second age the term of life was reduced from four hundred to three hundred; in the third it became two hundred; in the fourth and last it was brought down to one hundred" (Rawlinson's Historical Illustrations).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Patriarch
1: πατριάρχης (Strong's #3966 — Noun Masculine — patriarches — pat-ree-arkh'-ace ) from patria, "a family," and archo, "to rule," is found in Acts 2:29 ; 7:8,9 ; Hebrews 7:4 . In the Sept., 1 Chronicles 24:31 ; 27:22 ; 2 Chronicles 19:8 ; 23:20 ; 26:12 .
Webster's Dictionary - Patriarch
(1):
(n.) A venerable old man; an elder. Also used figuratively.
(2):
(n.) The father and ruler of a family; one who governs his family or descendants by paternal right; - usually applied to heads of families in ancient history, especially in Biblical and Jewish history to those who lived before the time of Moses.
(3):
(n.) A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Patriarch
'Head of a family,' applied in the N.T. to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as ancestors of the Israelites, and to the twelve sons of Jacob. David also is thus designated. Acts 2:29 ; Acts 7:8,9 ; Hebrews 7:4 . In other passages the same persons are called 'the fathers.'
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria
Heraclas, patriarch of Alexandria, a.d. 233–249; brother of the martyr Plutarch, one of Origen's converts (Eus. H. E. vi. 3). From being a pupil he became an assistant in teaching to Origen, who left the school to him when he retired from Alexandria to Caesarea ( ib. 15, 26). Heraclas retained the school but a short time, for on the death of Demetrius he was elected to the archiepiscopal throne. Heraclas did not adopt any of his teacher's peculiar views, but voted for his deprivation both from his office as teacher and from his orders and for his excommunication at the two synods held by Demetrius, nor when elected bishop did he attempt to rescind these sentences. Eusebius ( ib. 31) narrates a visit paid to Heraclas by Africanus the annalist on hearing of his great learning, and ( ib. vii. 7), on the authority of his successor Dionysius, gives his rule respecting the treatment of heretics. Le Quien, Oriens Christ. ii. 392; Phot. Cod. 118; Acta SS. Boll. Jul. 3. 645–647.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople
Acacius ( 7 ), patriarch of Constantinople, A.D. 471–489. Acacias was originally at the head of an orphanage at Constantinople, which he administered with conspicuous success (Suidas, s.v. ( Ἀκάκιος ). His abilities attracted the notice of the emperor Leo, over whom he obtained great influence by the arts of an accomplished courtier (Suidas, l.c. ). On the death of Gennadius (471) he was chosen bp. of Constantinople, and soon found himself involved in controversies, which lasted throughout his patriarchate, and ended in a schism of thirty-five years' duration between the churches of the East and West. On the one side he laboured to restore unity to Eastern Christendom, which was distracted by the varieties of opinion to which the Eutychian debates had given rise; and on the other to aggrandize the authority of his see by asserting its independence of Rome, and extending its influence over Alexandria and Antioch. In both respects he appears to have acted more in the spirit of a statesman than of a theologian; and in this relation the personal traits of liberality, courtliness, and ostentation, noticed by Suidas (l.c. ), are not without importance.
The first important measures of Acacius carried with them enthusiastic popular support and earned for him the praise of pope Simplicius. In conjunction with a Stylite monk, Daniel, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to the emperor Basiliscus, who, after usurping the empire of the East, had issued an encyclic letter in condemnation of the council of Chalcedon, and taken Timotheus Aelurus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, under his protection, A.D. 476. The resistance was completely successful. In the meantime Zeno, the fugitive emperor, reclaimed the throne which he had lost; and Basiliscus, after abject and vain concessions to the ecclesiastical power, was given up to him (as it is said) by Acacias, after he had taken sanctuary in his church, A.D. 477 (Evagr. H. E. iii. 4 ff.; Theod. Lect. i. 30 ff.; Theophan. Chron. pp. 104 ff.; Procop. B. V. i. 7, p. 195). At this period the relations between Zeno, Acacius, and Simplicius appear to have been amicable, if not cordial. They were agreed on the necessity of taking vigorous measures to affirm the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, and for a time acted in concert (Simplic. Epp. 5, 6). Before long a serious difference arose, when Acacias, in 479, consecrated a bishop of Antioch (Theophan. Chron. p. 110), and thus exceeded the proper limits of his jurisdiction. However, Simplicius admitted the appointment on the plea of necessity, while he protested against the precedent (Simplic. Epp. 14, 15). Three years later (482), on the death of the patriarch of Alexandria, the appointment of his successor gave occasion to a graver dispute. The Monophysites chose Petrus Mongus as patriarch, who had already been conspicuous among them; on the other side the Catholics put forward Johannes Talaia. Both aspirants lay open to grave objections. Mongus was, or at least had been, unorthodox; Talaia was bound by a solemn promise to the Emperor not to seek or (as it appears) accept the patriarchate (Liberat. c. 17; Evagr. H. E. iii. 12). Talaia at once sought and obtained the support of Simplicius, and slighted Acacius. Mongus represented to Acacius that he was able, if confirmed in his post, to heal the divisions by which the Alexandrine church was rent. Acacius and Zeno readily listened to the promises of Mongus, and in spite of the vehement opposition of Simplicius, received the envoys whom he sent to discuss the terms of reunion. Shortly afterwards the Henoticon (An Instrument of Union) was drawn up, in which the creed of Nicaea, as completed at Constantinople, was affirmed to be the one necessary and final definition of faith; and though an anathema was pronounced against Eutyches, no express judgment was pronounced upon the doctrine of the two Natures (Evagr. H. E. iii. 14) Mongus accepted the Henoticon, and was confirmed in his see. Talaia retired to Rome (482–483), and Simplicius wrote again to Acacius, charging him in the strongest language to check the progress of heresy elsewhere and at Alexandria (Simplic. Epp. 18, 19). The letters were without effect, and Simplicius died soon afterwards. His successor, Felix III. (II.), espoused the cause of Talaia with zeal, and despatched two bishops, Vitalis and Misenus, to Constantinople with letters to Zeno and Acacius, demanding that the latter should repair to Rome to answer the charges brought against him by Talaia (Felix, Epp. 1, 2). The mission utterly failed. Vitalis and Misenus were induced to communicate publicly with Acacius and the representatives of Mongus, and returned dishonoured to Italy (484). On their arrival at Rome a synod was held. They were themselves deposed and excommunicated; a new anathema was issued against Mongus, and Acacius was irrevocably excommunicated for his connexion with Mongus, for exceeding the limits of his jurisdiction, and for refusing to answer at Rome the accusations of Talaia (Evagr. H. E. iii. 21; Felix, Ephesians 6 ); but no direct heretical opinion was proved or urged against him. Felix communicated the sentence to Acacias, and at the same time wrote to Zeno, and to the church at Constantinople, charging every one, under pain of excommunication, to separate from the deposed patriarch (Epp. 9, 10, 12). Once again the envoy of the pope was seduced from his allegiance, and on his return to Rome fell under ecclesiastical censure (Felix, Ep. 11). For the rest, the threats of Felix produced no practical effect. The Eastern Christians, with very few exceptions, remained in communion with Acacias; Talaia acknowledged the hopelessness of his cause by accepting the bishopric of Nola; and Zeno and Acacius took active measures to obtain the general acceptance of the Henoticon. Under these circumstances the condemnation of Acacius, which had been made in the name of the Pope, was repeated in the name of the council of Chalcedon, and the schism was complete (485). Acacius took no heed of the sentence up to his death in 489, which was followed by that of Mongus in 490, and of Zeno in 491. Fravitas (Flavitas, Flavianus), his successor, during a very short patriarchate, entered on negotiations with Felix, which led to no result. The policy of Acacius broke down when he was no longer able to animate it. In the course of a few years all for which he had laboured was undone. The Henoticon failed to restore unity to the East, and in 519 the emperor Justin submitted to pope Hormisdas, and the condemnation of Acacius was recognized by the Constantinopolitan church.
Tillemont has given a detailed history of the whole controversy, up to the death of Fravitas, in his Mémoires, vol. xvi., but with a natural bias towards the Roman side. The original documents, exclusive of the histories of Evagrius, Theophanes, and Liberatus, are for the most part collected in the 58th volume of Migne's Patrologia. See also Hefele, Konz. Gesch. Bd. ii.
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1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ecumenical Patriarch
A title first assumed by John the Faster, bishop of Constantinople (died 595) and vehemently opposed by the popes because it signified "imperial" or "universal" father. The Byzantine prelates persisted in using the title, which is now claimed by the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Cyriac, Patriarch of Constantinople
Cyriacus (19), 30th patriarch of Constantinople, a.d. 595. He was previously presbyter and steward, οἰκονόμος , of the great church at Constantinople (Chronicon Paschale , p. 378). Gregory the Great received the legates bearing the synodal letters which announced his consecration, partly from a desire not to disturb the peace of the church, and partly from the personal respect which he entertained for Cyriac; but in his reply he warned him against the sin of causing divisions in the church, clearly alluding to the use of the term oecumenical bishop (Gregorii Ep. lib. vii. 4, Patr. Lat. lxxvii. 853). The personal feelings of Gregory towards Cyriac appear most friendly.
Cyriac did not attend to the entreaties of Gregory that he would abstain from using the title, for Gregory wrote afterwards both to him and to the emperor Maurice, declaring that he could not allow his legates to remain in communion with Cyriac as long as he retained it. In the latter of these letters he compares the assumption of the title to the sin of Antichrist, since both exhibit a spirit of lawless pride. "Quisquis se universalem sacerdotem vocat, vel vocari desiderat, in elatione sua Antichristum praecurrit, quia superbiendo se ceteris praeponit" (Greg. Ep. 28, 30). In a letter to Anastasius of Antioch, who had written to him to remonstrate against disturbing the peace of the church, Gregory defends his conduct on the ground of the injury which Cyriac had done to all other patriarchs by the assumption of the title, and reminds Anastasius that not only heretics but heresiarchs had before this been patriarchs of Constantinople. He also deprecates the use of the term on more general grounds ( Ep. 24). In spite of all this Cyriac was firm in his retention of the title, and appears to have summoned, or to have meditated summoning, a council to authorize its use. For in a.d. 599 Gregory wrote to Eusebius of Thessalonica and some other bishops, stating that he had heard they were about to be summoned to a council at Constantinople, and most urgently entreating them to yield neither to force nor to persuasion, but to be steadfast in their refusal to recognize the offensive title ( ib. lib. ix. 68 in Patr. Lat. ). Cyriac appears to have shared in that unpopularity of the emperor Maurice which caused his deposition and death (Theophan. Chron. p. 242, A.M. 6094; Niceph. Callis. H. E. xviii. 40; Theophylact. Hist. viii. 9). He still, however, had influence enough to exact from Phocas at his coronation a confession of the orthodox faith and a pledge not to disturb the church (Theoph. Chron. p. 243, A.M. 6094). He also nobly resisted the attempt of Phocas to drag the empress Constantia and her daughters from their sanctuary in a church of Constantinople ( ib. p. 246, A.M. 6098). Perhaps some resentment at this opposition to his will may have induced Phocas to accede more readily to the claims of Boniface III. that Rome should be considered to be the head of all the church, in exclusion of the claims of Constantinople to the oecumenical bishopric ( Vita Bonifacii III. apud Labbe, Acta Concil. t. v. 1615). Cyriac died in 606, and was interred in the church of the Holy Apostles ( Chronicon Paschale, p. 381). He appears to have been a man of remarkable piety and earnestness, able to win the esteem of all parties. He built a church dedicated to the Θεοτόκος in a street of Constantinople called Diaconissa (Theoph. Chron. 233, A.M. 6090; Niceph. Callis. H. E. xviii. 42).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria
Dioscorus (1) , patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded Cyril about midsummer 444, receiving consecration, according to one report (Mansi, vii. 603), from two bishops only. He had served as Cyril's archdeacon. Liberatus says that he had never been married. It is difficult to harmonize the accounts of his character. Theodoret, whose testimony in his favour cannot be suspected, declared in a letter to Dioscorus, soon after his consecration, that the fame of his virtues, and particularly of his modesty and humility, was widely spread (Ep. 60); on the other hand, after he had involved himself in the Monophysite heresy, he was accused of having gravely misconducted himself in the first years of his episcopate (Mansi, vi. 1008). According to a deacon, Ischyrion, Dioscorus had laid waste property, inflicted fines and exile, bought up and sold at a high price the wheat sent by the government to Libya, appropriated and grossly misspent money left by a lady named Peristeria for religious and charitable purposes, received women of notorious character into his house, persecuted Ischyrion as a favourite of Cyril's, ruined the little estate which was his only support, sent a "phalanx of ecclesiastics, or rather of ruffians," to put him to death, and, after his escape, again sought to murder him in a hospital; in proof, Ischyrion appealed to six persons, one of whom was bath-keeper to Dioscorus ( ib. 1012). According to a priest named Athanasius, Cyril's nephew, Dioscorus, from the outset of his episcopate ("which he obtained one knows not how," says the petitioner), harassed him and his brother by using influence with the court, so that the brother died of distress, and Athanasius, with his aunts, sister-in-law, and nephews, were bereft of their homes by the patriarch's malignity. He himself was deposed, without any trial, from the priesthood, and became, perforce, a wanderer for years. According to a layman named Sophronius, Dioscorus hindered the execution of an imperial order which Sophronius had obtained for the redress of a grievous wrong. "The country," he said, "belonged to him rather than to the sovereigns" ( τῶν κρατούντων ). Sophronius averred that legal evidence was forthcoming to prove that Dioscorus had usurped, in Egypt, the authority belonging to the emperor. He added that Dioscorus had taken away his clothes and property, and compelled him to flee for his life; and he charged him, further, with adultery and blasphemy (ib. 1029). Such accusations were then so readily made—as the life of St. Athanasius himself shews—that some deduction must be made from charges brought against Dioscorus in the hour of his adversity; and wrongs done by his agents may have been in some cases unfairly called his acts. Still, it is but too likely that there was sufficient truth in them to demonstrate the evil effects on his character of elevation to a post of almost absolute power; for such, in those days, was the great "evangelical throne." We find him, before the end of his first year, in correspondence with pope Leo the Great, who gave directions, as from the see of St. Peter, to the new successor of St. Mark; writing, on June 21, 445, that "it would be shocking ( nefas ) to believe that St. Mark formed his rules for Alexandria otherwise than on the Petrine model " (Ep. 11). In 447 Dioscorus appears among those who expressed suspicion of the theological character of Theodoret, who had been much mixed up with the party of Nestorius. It was rumoured that, preaching at Antioch, he had practically taught Nestorianism; and Dioscorus, hearing this, wrote to Domnus, bp. of Antioch, Theodoret's patriarch; whereupon Theodoret wrote a denial ( Ep. 83) ending with an anathema against all who should deny the holy Virgin to be Theotokos, call Jesus a mere man, or divide the one Son into two. Dioscorus still assumed the truth of the charge (Theod. Ep. 86), allowed Theodoret to be anathematized in church, and even rose from his throne to echo the malediction, and sent some bishops to Constantinople to support him against Theodoret.
Then, in Nov. 448, the aged Eutyches, archimandrite of Constantinople and a vehement enemy of Nestorianizers, was accused by Eusebius, bp. of Dorylaeum, before a council of which Flavian was president, with an opposite error. He clung tenaciously to the phrase, "one incarnate nature of God the Word," which Cyril had used on the authority of St. Athanasius; but neglected the qualifications and explanations by which Cyril had guarded his meaning. Thus, by refusing to admit that Christ, as incarnate, had "two natures," Eutyches appeared to his judges to have revived, in effect, the Apollinarian heresy—to have denied the distinctness and verity of Christ's manhood; and he was deprived of his priestly office, and excommunicated. His patron, the chamberlain Chrysaphius, applied to Dioscorus for aid, promising to support him in all his designs if he would take up the cause of Eutyches against Flavian (Niceph. xiv. 47). Eutyches himself wrote to Dioscorus, asking him "to examine his cause" (Liberat. c. 12), and Dioscorus, zealous against all anti-Cyrilline tendencies in theology, wrote to the emperor, urging him to call a general council to review Flavian's judgment. Theodosius, influenced by his wife and his chamberlain, issued letters (Mar 30, 449), ordering the chief prelates (patriarchs, as we may call them, and exarchs) to repair, with some of their bishops, to Ephesus by Aug. 1, 449 (Mansi, vi. 587).
This council of evil memory—on which Leo afterwards fastened the name of "Latrocinium," or gang of robbers—met on Aug. 8, 449, in St. Mary's church at Ephesus, the scene of the third general council's meeting in 431; 150 bishops being present. Dioscorus presided, and next to him Julian, or Julius, the representative of the "most holy bishop of the Roman church," then Juvenal of Jerusalem, Domnus of Antioch, and—his lowered position indicating what was to come—Flavian of Constantinople (ib. 607). The archbp. of Alexandria shewed himself a partisan throughout. He did indeed propose the acceptance of Leo's letter to the council, a letter written at the same time as, and expressly referring to, the famous "Tome"; but it was only handed in, not read, Juvenal moving that another imperial letter should be read and recorded. The president then intimated that the council's business was not to frame a new doctrinal formulary, but to inquire whether what had lately appeared—meaning, the statements of Flavian and bp. Eusebius on the one hand, those of Eutyches on the other—were accordant with the decisions of the councils of Nicaea and Ephesus—"two councils in name," said he, "but one in faith" ( ib. 628). Eutyches was then introduced, and made his statement, beginning, "I commend myself to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and the true verdict of your justice." After he had finished his address, Flavian desired that Eusebius, who had been his accuser, should be called in and heard. Elpidius, the imperial commissioner, vetoed this proposal on the ground that the judges of Eutyches were now to be judged, and that his accuser had already fulfilled his task, "and, as he thought, successfully": to let him speak now would be a cause of mere disturbance ( ib. 645). This unjudicial view of the case was supported by Dioscorus. Flavian was baffled, and the council resolved to hear the acts of the synod of Constantinople which had condemned Eutyches. The episcopal deputy of Leo, with his companion the deacon Hilarus, urged that "the pope's letter" (probably including the "Tome" in this proposal) should be read first, but this was overruled; Dioscorus moved that the "acts" should be first read, and then the letter of the bp. of Rome. The reading began ( ib. 649). When the passage was reached in which Basil of Seleucia and Seleucus of Amasia had said that the one Christ was in two natures after the incarnation, a storm of wrath broke out. "Let no one call the Lord 'two' after the union! Do not divide the undivided! Seleucus was not bp. of Amasia! This is Nestorianism." "Be quiet for a little," said Dioscorus; "let us hear some more blasphemies. Why are we to blame Nestorius only? There are many Nestoriuses" ( ib. 685). The reading proceeded as far as Eusebius's question to Eutyches, "Do you own two natures after the incarnation?" Then arose another storm: "The holy synod exclaimed, 'Away with Eusebius, burn him, let him be burnt alive! Let him be cut in two—be divided, even as he divided!'" "Can you endure," asked Dioscorus, "to hear of two natures after the incarnation?" "Anathema to him that says it!" was the reply. "I have need of your voices and your hands too," rejoined Dioscorus; "if any one cannot shout, let him stretch out his hand." Another anathema rang out ( ib. 737). Another passage, containing a statement of belief by Eutyches, was heard with applause. "We accept this statement," said Dioscorus. "This is the faith of the Fathers," exclaimed the bishops. "of what faith do you say this?" asked Dioscorus. "of Eutyches's: for Eusebius is impious" ( ἀσεβής , ib. 740). Similar approbation was given to another passage containing the characteristic formula of Eutychianism: "I confess that our Lord was of two natures before the incarnation; but after the incarnation [1] I confess one nature." "We all agree to this," said Dioscorus. "We agree," said the council ( ib. 744). Presently came a sentence in which Basil of Seleucia had denounced the denial of two natures after the incarnation as equivalent to the assertion of a commixture and a fusion. This aroused once more the zealots of the Alexandrian party; one bishop sprang forward, shouting, "This upsets the whole church!" The Egyptians and the monks, led by Barsumas, cried out, "Cut him in two, who says two natures! He is a Nestorian!" Basil's nerves gave way; he lost, as he afterwards said, his perceptions, bodily and mental ( ib. 636). He began to say that he did not remember whether he had uttered the obnoxious words, but that he had meant to say, "If you do not add the word 'incarnate' to 'nature,' as Cyril did, the phrase 'one nature' implies a fusion." Juvenal asked whether his words had been wrongly reported; he answered helplessly, "I do not recollect" ( ib. 748). He seems to have been coerced into a formal retractation of the phrase "two natures"; but he added "hypostases" as explanatory of "natures," and professed to "adore the one nature of the Godhead of the Only-begotten, who was made man and incarnate" ( ib. 828). Eutyches declared that the acts of the Constantinopolitan synod had been tampered with. "It is false," said Flavian. "If Flavian," said Dioscorus, "knows anything which supports his opinion, let him put it in writing . . . No one hinders you, and the council knows it." Flavian then said that the acts had been scrutinized, and no falsification had been found in them; that, for himself, he had always glorified God by holding what he then held. Dioscorus called on the bishops to give their verdict as to the theological statements of Eutyches. They acquitted him of all unsoundness, as faithful to Nicene and Ephesian teaching. Domnus expressed regret for having mistakenly condemned him ( ib. 836). Basil of Seleucia spoke like the rest. Flavian, of course, was silent. Dioscorus spoke last, affirming the judgments of the council, and "adding his own opinion." Eutyches was "restored" to his presbyterial rank and his abbatial dignity ( ib. 861). His monks were then released from the excommunication incurred at Constantinople. The doctrinal decisions of the Ephesian council of 431, in its first and sixth sessions, were then read. Dioscorus proposed that these decisions, with those of Nicaea, should be recognized as an unalterable standard of orthodoxy; that whoever should say or think otherwise, or should unsettle them, should be put under censure. "Let each one of you speak his mind on this. "Several bishops assented. Hilarus, the Roman deacon, testified that the apostolic see reverenced those decisions, and that its letter, if read, would prove this. Dioscorus called in some secretaries, who brought forward a draft sentence of deposition against Flavian and Eusebius, on the ground that the Ephesian council had enacted severe penalties against any who should frame or propose any other creed than the Nicene. Flavian and Eusebius were declared to have constructively committed this offence by "unsettling almost everything, and causing scandal and confusion throughout the churches." Their deposition was decided upon ( ib. 907). Onesiphorus, bp. of Iconium, with some others, went up to Dioscorus, clasped his feet and knees, and passionately entreated him not to go to such extremities. "He has done nothing worthy of deposition . . . . if he deserves condemnation, let him be condemned." "It must be," said Dioscorus in answer; "if my tongue were to be cut out for it, I would still say so. "They persisted, and he, starting from his throne, stood up on the footstool and exclaimed, "Are you getting up a sedition? Where are the counts?" Military officers, soldiers with swords and sticks, even the proconsul with chains, entered at his call. He peremptorily commanded the bishops to sign the sentence, and with a fierce gesture of the hand exclaimed, "He that does not choose to sign must reckon with me ." A scene of terrorism followed. Those prelates who were reluctant to take part in the deposition were threatened with exile, beaten by the soldiers, denounced as heretics by the partisans of Dioscorus, and by the crowd of fanatical monks (ib. vii. 68) who accompanied Barsumas, until they put their names to a blank paper on which the sentence was to be written (ib. vi. 601 seq. 625, 637, 988). They afterwards protested that they had signed under compulsion. Basil of Seleucia declared that he had given way because he was "given over to the judgment of 120 or 130 bishops; had he been dealing with magistrates, he would have suffered martyrdom." "The Egyptians," says Tillemont, "who signed willingly enough, did so after the others had been made to sign" (xv. 571; cf. Mansi, vi. 601).
Flavian's own fate was the special tragedy of the Latrocinium. He had lodged in the hands of the Roman delegates a formal appeal to the pope and the Western bishops (not to the pope alone; see Leo, Ep. 43, Tillemont, xv. 374). It was nearly his last act. He was brutally treated, kicked, and beaten by the agents of Dioscorus, and even, we are told, by Dioscorus himself (see Evagr. i. 1; Niceph. xiv. 47). He was then imprisoned, and soon exiled, but died in the hands of his guards, from the effect of his injuries, three days after his deposition (Liberatus, Brev. 19), Aug. 11, 449 He was regarded as a martyr for the doctrine of "the two natures in the one person" of Christ. Anatolius, who had been the agent ( apocrisiarius ) of Dioscorus at Constantinople, was appointed his successor.
Dioscorus and his council—as we may well call it—proceeded to depose Theodoret and several other bishops; "many," says Leo, "were expelled from their sees, and banished, because they would not accept heresy" (Ep. 93). Theodoret was put under a special ban. "They ordered me," he writes ( Ep. 140), "to be excluded from shelter, from water, from everything."
Confusion now pervaded the Eastern churches. It was impossible to acquiesce in the proceedings of the "Latrocinium." Leo bestirred himself to get a new oecumenical council held in Italy: the imperial family in the West supported this, but Theodosius II. persisted in upholding the late council. In the spring of 450 Dioscorus took a new and exceptionally audacious step. At Nicaea, on his way to the court, he caused ten bishops whom he had brought from Egypt to sign a document excommunicating pope Leo (Mansi, vi. 1009, 1148; vii. 104), doubtless on the ground that Leo was endeavouring to quash the canonical decisions of a legitimate council. His cause, however, was ruined when the orthodox Pulcheria succeeded to the empire, and gave her hand to Marcian, this event leading to a new council at Chalcedon on Oct. 8, 451, which Dioscorus attended. The deputies of Leo come first, then Anatolius, Dioscorus, Maximus, Juvenal. At first Dioscorus sat among those bishops who were on the right of the chancel (ib. vi. 580). The Roman deputies on the opposite side desired, in the name of Leo, that Dioscorus should not sit in the council. The magistrates, who acted as imperial commissioners (and were the effective presidents), asked what was charged against him? Paschasinus, the chief Roman delegate, answered, "When he comes in" ( i.e. after having first gone out) "it will be necessary to state objections against him." The magistrates desired again to hear the charge. Lucentius, another delegate, said, "He has presumed to hold a synod without leave of the apostolic see, which has never been done." (Rome did not recognize the "second general council" of 381; which, in fact, was not then owned as general.) "We cannot," said Paschasinus, "transgress the apostolic pope's orders." "We cannot," added Lucentius, "allow such a wrong as that this man should sit in the council, who is come to be judged." "If you claim to judge," replied the magistrates sharply, "do not be accuser too." They bade Dioscorus sit in the middle by himself, and the Roman deputies sat down and said no more. Eusebius of Dorylaeum asked to be heard against Dioscorus. "I have been injured by him; the faith has been injured; Flavian was killed, after he and I had been unjustly deposed by Dioscorus. Command my petition to the emperors to be read." It was read by Beronicianus, the secretary of the imperial consistory, and stated that "at the recent council at Ephesus, this good ( χρηστός ) Dioscorus, disregarding justice, and supporting Eutyches in heresy—having also gained power by bribes, and assembled a disorderly multitude—did all he could to ruin the Catholic faith, and to establish the heresy of Eutyches, and condemned us: I desire, therefore, that he be called to account, and that the records of his proceedings against us be examined." Dioscorus, preserving his self-possession, answered, "The synod was held by the emperor's order; I too desire that its acts against Flavian may be read"; but added, "I beg that the doctrinal question be first considered." "No," said the magistrates, "the charge against you must first be met; wait until the acts have been read, as you yourself desired." The letter of Theodosius, convoking the late council, was read. The magistrates then ordered that Theodoret should be brought in, because Leo had "restored to him his episcopate," and the emperor had ordered him to attend the council. He entered accordingly. The Egyptians and some other bishops shouted, "Turn out the teacher of Nestorius!" Others rejoined, "We signed a blank paper; we were beaten, and so made to sign. Turn out the enemies of Flavian and of the faith!" "Why," asked Dioscorus, "should Cyril be ejected?" (i.e. virtually, by the admission of Theodoret). His adversaries turned fiercely upon him: "Turn out Dioscorus the homicide!" Ultimately the magistrates ruled that Theodoret should sit down, but in the middle of the assembly, and that his admission should not prejudice any charge against him ( ib. 592). The reading went on; at the letter giving Dioscorus the presidency, he remarked that Juvenal, and Thalassius of Caesarea, were associated with him, that the synod had gone with him, and that Theodosius had confirmed its decrees. Forthwith, a cry arose from the bishops whom he had intimidated at Ephesus. "Not one of us signed voluntarily. We were overawed by soldiers." Dioscorus coolly said that if the bishops had not understood the merits of the case, they ought not to have signed. The reading was resumed. Flavian being named, his friends asked why he had been degraded to the fifth place? The next interruption was in reference to the suppression, at the Latrocinium, of Leo's letter. Aetius, archdeacon of Constantinople, said it had not even been "received." "But," said Dioscorus, "the acts shew that I proposed that it should be read. Let others say why it was not read." "What others?" "Juvenal and Thalassius." Juvenal, on being questioned, said, "The chief notary told us that he had an imperial letter; I answered that it ought to come first; no one afterwards said that he had in his hands a letter from Leo." Thalassius (evidently a weak man, though holding the great see of St. Basil) said that he had not power, of himself, to order the reading of the letter ( ib. 617). At another point the "Orientals," the opponents of Dioscorus, objected that the acts of Ephesus misrepresented their words. Dioscorus replied, "Each bishop had his own secretaries . . . taking down the speeches." Stephen of Ephesus then narrated the violence done to his secretaries: Acacias of Arianathia described the coercion scene. When the reader came to Dioscorus's words, "I examine the decrees of the Fathers" (councils), Eusebius said, "See, he said, 'I examine'; and I do the same." Dioscorus caught him up: "I said 'examine,' not 'innovate.' Our Saviour bade us examine the Scriptures; that is not innovating." "He said, Seek, and ye shall find," retorted Eusebius ( ib. 629). One bishop objected to the record of "Guardian of the faith" as an acclamation in honour of Dioscorus, "No one said that." "They want to deny all that is confessed to be the fact," said Dioscorus; "let them next say they were not there." At the words of Eutyches, "I have observed the definitions of the council," i.e. the Ephesian decree against adding to the Nicene faith, Eusebius broke in, "He lied! There is no such definition, no canon prescribing this." "There are four copies," said Dioscorus calmly, "which contain it. What bishops have defined, is it not a definition? It is not a canon: a canon is a different thing." The bp. of Cyzicus referred to the additions made in the council of 381 to the original Nicene creed ( e.g. "of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary"). The Egyptians disclaimed all such additions. (Cyril, in fact, had never acknowledged that revised version of the Nicene formulary.) There was some further criticism of the profession of faith made by Eutyches; whereupon Dioscorus said, "If Eutyches has any heterodox opinion, he deserves not only to be punished, but to be burnt! My only object is to preserve the Catholic faith, not that of any man. I look to God, and not to any individual; I care for nothing but my own soul and the right faith" ( ib. 633). Basil of Seleucia described what had taken place as regarded his own statements. "If you taught in such a Catholic tone," said the magistrates, "why did you sign the deposition of Flavian?" Basil pleaded the compulsory authority of a council of bishops. "On your own shewing," said Dioscorus, "you betrayed the faith for fear of men." Others who had given way with Basil cried, "We all sinned; we all ask pardon." "But," said the magistrates, "you said at first that you had been forced to sign a blank paper." The "peccavimus" was reiterated ( ib. 639). When the reader came to the failure of Flavian's attempt to get Eusebius a hearing, Dioscorus threw the responsibility on Elpidius; so did Juvenal. Thalassius only said, "It was not my doing." "Such a defence," said the magistrates, "is no defence when the faith is concerned." "If," said Dioscorus, "you blame me for obeying Elpidius, were no rules broken when Theodoret was brought in?" "He came in as accuser." "Why then does he now sit in the rank of a bishop?" "He and Eusebius sit as accusers," was the answer; "and you sit as accused" ( ib. 649). Afterwards the magistrates recurred to this topic: "Eusebius, at Constantinople, when accusing Eutyches, himself asked that Eutyches should be present. Why was not a like course taken at Ephesus?" No one answered ( ib. 656). Cyril's letter to John of Antioch, "Laetentur coeli," was read as part of the acts of Ephesus. Theodoret, by way of clearing himself, anathematized the assertion of "two Sons." All the bishops—so the acts of Chalcedon say expressly—cried out, "We believe as did Cyril; we did so believe, and we do . Anathema to whoever does not so believe." The opponents of Dioscorus then claimed Flavian as in fact of one mind with Cyril, as clear of Nestorianism. The "Easterns" added, "Leo believes so, Anatolius believes so." There was universal protestation of agreement with Cyril, including even the magistrates, who answered, as it were, for Marcian and Pulcheria. Then came a fierce outcry against Dioscorus. "out with the murderer of Flavian—the parricide!" The magistrates asked, "Why did you receive to communion Eutyches, who holds the opposite to this belief? Why condemn Flavian and Eusebius who agree with it?" "The records," answered Dioscorus, "will shew the truth." Presently, in regard to some words of Eustathius of Berytus, adopting Cyril's phrase, "one incarnate nature," as Athanasian, the Easterns cried, "Eutyches thinks thus, so does Dioscorus." Dioscorus shewed that he was careful to disclaim, even with anathema, all notions of a "confusion, or commixture," of Godhead and manhood in Christ. The magistrates asked whether the canonical letters of Cyril, recently read (i.e. his second letter to Nestorius, Mansi, vi. 660, and his letter to John, ib. 665, not including the third letter to Nestorius, to which the 12 anathemas were annexed) bore out the language as cited from Eustathius. Eustathius held up the book from which he had taken Cyril's language. "If I spoke amiss, here is the manuscript: let it be anathematized with me!" He repeated Cyril's letter to Acacius by heart, and then explained: "One nature" did not exclude the flesh of Christ, which was co-essential with us; and "two natures" was a heterodox phrase if ( i.e. only if) it was used for a "division" of His person. "Why then did you depose Flavian?" "I erred" ( ib. v. 677). Flavian's own statement, that Christ was of two natures after the incarnation, in one hypostasis and one person, etc., was then considered; several bishops, in turn, approved of it, including Paschasinus, Anatolius, Maximus, Thalassius, Eustathius. The Easterns called "archbp. Flavian" a martyr. "Let his next words be read," said Dioscorus; "you will find that he is inconsistent with himself." Juvenal, who had been sitting on the right, now went over to the left, and the Easterns welcomed him. Peter of Corinth, a young bishop, did the same, owning that Flavian held with Cyril; the Easterns exclaimed, "Peter thinks as does" (St.) "Peter." Other bishops spoke similarly. Dioscorus, still undaunted, said, "The reason why Flavian was condemned was plainly this, that he asserted two natures after the incarnation. I have passages from the Fathers, Athanasius, Gregory, Cyril, to the effect that after the incarnation there were not two natures, but one incarnate nature of the Word. If I am to be expelled, the Fathers will be expelled with me. I am defending their doctrine; I do not deviate from them at all; I have not got these extracts carelessly, I have verified them" ( ib. vi. 684; see note in Oxf. ed. of Fleury, vol. iii. p. 348). After more reading, he said, "I accept the phrase 'of two natures,' but I do not accept 'two'" ( i.e. he would not say, "Christ has now two natures"). "I am obliged to speak boldly ( ἀναισχυντεῖν ); I am speaking for my own soul." "Was Flavian," asked Paschasinus, "allowed such freedom of speech as this man takes?" "No," said the magistrates significantly; "but then this council is being carried on with justice" ( ib. 692). Some time later the Easterns denied that the whole council at Ephesus had assented to Eutyches's language; it was the language of "that Pharaoh, Dioscorus the homicide." Eustathius, wishing, he said, to promote a good understanding, asked whether "two natures" meant "two divided natures." "No," said Basil, "neither divided nor confused" ( ib. 744) Basil afterwards, with Onesiphorus, described the coercion used as to the signatures ( ib. 827). The reading went on until it was necessary to light the candles ( ib. 901). At last they came to the signatures; then the magistrates proposed that as the deposition had been proved unjust, Dioscorus, Juvenal, Thalassius, Eusebius of Ancyra, Eustathius, and Basil, as leaders in the late synod, should be deposed; but this, it appears ( ib. 976, 1041), was a provisional sentence, to be further considered by the council. It was received with applause, "A just sentence! Christ has deposed Dioscorus! God has vindicated the martyrs!" The magistrates desired that each bishop should give in a carefully framed statement of belief conformable to the Nicene "exposition," to that of the 150 Fathers (of Constantinople, in 381), to the canonical epistles and expositions of the Fathers, Gregory, Basil, Athanasius, Hilary, Ambrose, and Cyril's two canonical epistles published and confirmed in the first Ephesian council, adding that Leo had written a letter to Flavian against Eutyches. So ended the first session ( ib. 935).
The second session was held Oct. 10 (ib. 937); Dioscorus was absent. After some discussion as to making an exposition of faith, which led to the reading of the creed in its two forms—both of which were accepted—and of Cyril's "two canonical epistles," and of Leo's letter to Flavian (the Tome), which was greeted with "Peter has spoken by Leo; Cyril taught thus; Leo and Cyril have taught alike," but to parts of which some objection was taken by one bishop, and time given for consideration, the usual exclamations were made, among which we find that of the Illyrians, "Restore Dioscorus to the synod, to the churches! We have all offended, let all be forgiven!" while the enemies of Dioscorus called for his banishment, and the clerics of Constantinople said that he who communicated with him was a Jew ( ib. 976). In the third session, Sat. Oct. 13, the magistrates not being present, a memorial to the council from Eusebius of Dorylaeum, setting forth charges against Dioscorus, was read ( ib. 985). It then appeared that Dioscorus had been summoned, like other bishops, to the session, and intimated his willingness to come; but his guards prevented him. Two priests, sent to search for him, could not find him in the precincts of the church. Three bishops, sent with a notary, found him, and said, "The holy council begs your Holiness to attend its meeting." "I am under guard," said he; "I am hindered by the officers" ( magistriani, the subordinates of the "master of the offices," or "supreme magistrate of the palace," see Gibbon, ii. 326); and, after two other summonses, positively and finally refused to come. He had nothing more to say than he had said to former envoys. They begged him to reconsider it. "If your Holiness knows that you are falsely accused, the council is not far off; do take the trouble to come and refute the falsehood." "What I have said, I have said; it is enough." They desisted, and reported their failure. "Do you order that we proceed to ecclesiastical penalties against him?" asked Paschasinus, addressing the council. "Yes, we agree." One bishop said bitterly, "When he murdered holy Flavian, he did not adduce canons, nor proceed by church forms." The Roman delegates proposed a sentence, to this effect: "Dioscorus has received Eutyches, though duly condemned by Flavian, into communion. The apostolic see excuses those who were coerced by Dioscorus at Ephesus, but who are obedient to archbp. Leo" (as president) "and the council; but this man glories in his crime. He prevented Leo's letter to Flavian" (the acts of Ephesus say the letter to the council, v. supra ) "from being read. He has presumed to excommunicate Leo. He has thrice refused to come and answer to charges. Therefore Leo, by us and the council, together with St. Peter, the rock of the church, deprives him of episcopal and sacerdotal dignity" (ib. 1045). A lett
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Ephraim (6), Bishop of Antioch And Patriarch
Ephraim (6) ( Ephrem, Ephraemius, or, as Theophanes gives the name, Euphraimius ), bp. of Antioch and patriarch, a.d. 527-545. The title, ὁ Ἀμίδιος , given him by Theophanes, indicates that he was a native of Amida in Armenia. He devoted the early part of his life to civil employments, and became Count of the East in the reign of Justin I. The city of Antioch having been nearly destroyed in a.d. 525 and 526 by earthquake and conflagration, Ephraim was sent by Justin as commissioner to relieve the sufferers and restore the city. The high qualities manifested in the fulfilment of these duties gained the affection and respect of the people of Antioch, who unanimously chose him bishop on the death of Euphrasius (Evagr. H. E. iv. 5, 6). His consecration is placed in a.d. 357. As bishop he exhibited an unwavering firmness against the heretical tendencies of his day. Theophanes says that he shewed "a divine zeal against schismatics" ( Chronogr . p. 118). Moschus tells a story of his encounter near Hierapolis with one of the pillar ascetics, a follower of Severus and the Acephali (Prat. Spiritual. c. 36). Ephraim examined synodically the tenets of Syncleticus, metropolitan of Tarsus, who was suspected of Eutychian leanings but was acquitted (Phot. Cod. 228). In 537, at the bidding of Justinian, he repaired with Hypatius of Ephesus and Peter of Jerusalem to Gaza to hold a council in the matter of Paul the patriarch of Alexandria, who had been banished to that city and there deposed. In obedience to the emperor Justinian, Ephraim held a synod at Antioch, which repudiated the doctrines of Origen as heretical (Liberat. c. 23, apud Labbe, Concil. v. 777 seq.; Baronius, Annal. 537, 538) He was the author of a large number of theological treatises directed against Nestorius, Eutyches, Severus, and the Acephali, and in defence of the decrees of Chalcedon. In 546, yielding to severe pressure, he subscribed the edict Justinian had put forth condemning "the three chapters" (Facund. Pro Defens. Trium Capit. iv. 4). He did not survive the disgrace of this concession, and died in 547.
His copious theological works have almost entirely perished, and we have little knowledge of them save through Photius (Biblioth. Cod. 228, 229), who speaks of having read three of the volumes, but gives particulars of two only. Some few fragments of his defence of the council of Chalcedon, and of the third book against Severus, and other works, are given by Mai ( Bibl. Nov. iv. 63, vii. 204) and are printed by Migne ( Patr. Gk. lxxxvi. par. 2, pp. 2099 seq.). Theophanes, Chronogr. ad ann. 519, p. 118 d; Moschus, Prat. Spiritual. cc. 36, 37; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 507; Fabric. Bibl. Graec. lib. v. c. 38; Le Quien, Oriens Christ. ii. 733).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople
Epiphanius (17) , 16th bp., 5th patriarch of Constantinople, a.d. 520-535, succeeding John II.
The eastern empire was now rising to great splendour through the victories of its generals, Belisarius and Narses. Idolatry was universally suppressed, heathen books were burnt, pagan images destroyed, the professors of the old religion imprisoned and flogged. At Constantinople the zeal of Justinian for a church policy was shewn during the patriarchate of Epiphanius by laws (e.g. in 528 and 529) regulating episcopal elections and duties. These enactments, and the passivity of Epiphanius and his clergy, are remarkable proofs of the entire absence as yet of any claims such as the clergy later asserted for exclusively clerical legislation for the spirituality.
The first conspicuous office of Epiphanius was the charge of the catechumens at Constantinople. In 519, the year before his election, he was sent with bp. John and count Licinius to Macedonia to receive the documents "libellos," or subscriptions of those who wished reunion with the Catholic church, at the request of the apocrisiarius of Dorotheus bp. of Thessalonica. On Feb. 25, 520, he was elected bishop by the emperor Justin, with the consent of bishops, monks, and people. He is described in the letter of the synod of Constantinople to pope Hormisdas as "holding the right faith, and maintaining a fatherly care for orphans" (Patr. Lat. lxiii. 483). He accepted the conditions of peace between East and West concluded by his predecessor, the patriarch John, with pope Hormisdas; ratifying them at a council at Constantinople, where he accepted also the decrees of Chalcedon. Dioscorus, agent of Hormisdas at Constantinople, writes of his fair promises, but adds, "What he can fulfil we don't know. He has not yet asked us to communion" ( ib. 482). Four letters remain of Epiphanius to Hormisdas, telling him of his election, sending him his creed, and declaring that he condemned all those whose name the pope had forbidden to be recited in the diptychs. Epiphanius adopts the symbol of Nicaea, the decrees of Ephesus, Constantinople, and Chalcedon, and the letters of pope Leo in defence of the faith. His second letter was accompanied by a chalice of gold surrounded with precious stones, a patina of gold, a chalice of silver, and two veils of silk, which he presented to the Roman church. In order to make the peace general, he advises the pope not to be too rigorous in exacting the extrusion of the names of former bishops from diptychs. His excuse for the bishops of Pontes, Asia, and the East is composed in very beautiful language. The answers of Hormisdas are given in the Acts of the Council of Constantinople held under Mennas. He trusts to the prudence and experience of Epiphanius, and recommends lenity towards the returning, severity to the obdurate. Epiphanius is to complete the reunion himself. (Labbe, Concil. iv. 1534, 1537, 1545, 1546, 1555, ed. 1671; Patr. Lat. lxiii. 497, 507, 523) The severe measures by which Justin was establishing the supremacy of the Catholics in the East were arousing Theodoric, the Arian master of Italy, to retaliation in the West. Pope John I., the successor of Hormisdas, became thoroughly alarmed; and in 525, at the demand of Theodoric, proceeded to Constantinople to obtain the revocation of the edict against the Arians and get their churches restored to them (Marcellin. Chron. ann. 525; Labbe, Concil. iv. 1600). Great honour was paid to pope John in the eastern capital. The people went out twelve miles to receive him, bearing ceremonial tapers and crosses. The emperor Justin prostrated himself before him, and wished to be crowned by his hand. The patriarch Epiphanius invited him to perform Mass; but the pope, mindful of the traditional policy of encroachment, refused to do so until they had offered him the first seat. With high solemnity he said the office in Latin on Easter Day, communicating with all the bishops of the East except Timothy of Alexandria, the declared enemy of Chalcedon (Baron. 525, 8, 10; Pagi, ix. 349, 351; AA. SS. May 27; Schröckh, xvi. 102, xviii. 214-215; Gibbon, iii. 473; Milman, Lat. Christ. i. 302). In 531 the dispute between Rome and Constantinople was revived by the appeal of Stephen, metropolitan of Larissa, to pope Boniface, against the sentence of Epiphanius. Stephen was eventually deposed, notwithstanding his appeal. On June 5, 535 Epiphanius died, after an episcopate of 14 years and 3 months (Theoph. a.d. 529 in Patr. Gk. cviii. 477). All that is known of him is to his advantage.
Besides his letters to Hormisdas, we have the sentence of his council against Severus and Peter (Patr. Gk. lxxxvi. 783-786). Forty-five canons are attributed to him (Assemani, Bibl. Orient. 619).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople
Euphemius (4) , 3rd patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Fravitta and followed by Macedonius II. He ruled six years and three months, a.d. 489-496, and died in 515. Theophanes calls him Euthymius. He was a presbyter of Constantinople, administrator of a hospital for the poor at Neapolis, untinged with any suspicion of Eutychian leanings, and is described as learned and very virtuous. Finding that Peter Mongus, the patriarch of Alexandria, anathematized the council of Chalcedon, he was so indignant that before he took his seat on the patriarchal throne he solemnly separated from all communion with him, and with his own hands effaced his name from the diptychs, placing in its stead that of Felix III. of Rome. For a year the strife between Mongus and Euphemius was bitter. Each summoned councils against the other; Euphemius even thought of persuading a council to depose Mongus; but at the end of Oct. 490 Mongus died.
To pope Felix the patriarch sent letters, as was usual, to announce his election, but received the reply that he might be admitted as a private member of the church Catholic, but could not be received in communion as a bishop, because he had not removed from the diptychs the names of his predecessors, Acacius and Fravitta.
At the death (probably in 489) of Daniel the Stylite on the pillar where he had lived for 33 years, Euphemius came with others to the foot of the pillar to attend his last moments. Anastasius, the future emperor, then an aged officer of the emperor Zeno, held Eutychian views, and, according to Suidas, formed a sect which met in some church of Constantinople. The patriarch appeared before the conventicle with menacing gestures and drove them from the spot. "If you must frequent the church," he exclaimed, "agree with her! or else no more enter into her gates to pervert men more simple than yourself." Henceforth, says the annalist, Anastasius kept quiet, for the sake of the glory that he coveted. As the emperor Zeno died in 491, this must have occurred within two years after the consecration of Euphemius, and it witnesses alike to his intrepidity and his influence. After the death of Zeno, the empress Ariadne procured the election of Anastasius, on the understanding that he was to marry her. The patriarch openly called him a heretic, unworthy of reigning over Christians, and refused to crown him, despite the entreaties of the empress and the senate, until Anastasius would give a written profession of his creed, promise under his hand to keep the Catholic faith intact, make no innovation in the church, and follow as his rule of belief the decrees of Chalcedon. Anastasius gave the writing under most solemn oaths, and Euphemius put it in charge of the saintly Macedonius, chancellor and treasurer of the church of Constantinople, to be stored in the archives of the cathedral (Evagr. iii. 3z).
At the end of 491, or on Feb. 25, 492, pope Felix died. His successor Gelasius immediately announced his elevation to the emperor Anastasius, but took no notice of Euphemius, who had written at once to express his congratulations, and his desire for peace and for the reunion of the churches. Not obtaining an answer, he wrote a second time. Neither letter remains, but the reply of Gelasius shews that Euphemius, in congratulating the Roman church on its pontiff, added that he himself was not sufficiently his own master to do what he wished; that the people of Constantinople would never agree to disgrace the memory of their late patriarch Acacius; that if that were necessary, the pope had better write to the people about it himself, and send someone to try and persuade them; that Acacius had never said anything against the faith, and that if he was in communion with Mongus, it was when Mongus had given a satisfactory account of his creed. Euphemius subjoined his own confession, rejecting Eutyches and accepting Chalcedon. It seems also that Euphemius spoke of those who had been baptized and ordained by Acacius since the sentence pronounced against him at Rome, and pointed out how embarrassing it would be if the memory of Acacius must be condemned (Ceillier, x. 486). Replying to these temperate counsels, Gelasius allows that in other circumstances he would have written to announce his election, but sourly observes that the custom existed only among those bishops who were united in communion, and was not to be extended to those who, like Euphemius, preferred a strange alliance to that of St. Peter. He allows the necessity of gentleness and tenderness, but remarks that there is no need to throw yourself into the ditch when you are helping others out. As a mark of condescension he willingly grants the canonical remedy to all who had been baptized and ordained by Acacius. Can Euphemius possibly wish him to allow the names of condemned heretics and their successors to be recited in the sacred diptychs? Euphemius professed to reject Eutyches; let him reject also those who have communicated with the successors of Eutyches. Was it not even worse for Acacius to know the truth and yet communicate with its enemies? The condemnation of Acacius was ipso facto according to the decrees of ancient councils. If Peter Mongus did purge himself, why did not Euphemius send proofs of it? He is much vexed with Euphemius for saying that he is constrained to do things which he does not wish; no bishop should talk so about that truth for which he ought to lay down his life. He refuses to send a mission to Constantinople, for it is the pastor's duty to convince his own flock. At the tribunal of Jesus Christ it will be seen which of the two is bitter and hard. The high spirit of the orthodox patriarch was fired by this dictatorial interference. He even thought of summoning the pope himself to account; and as Gelasius was certainly even more suspicious of the emperor Anastasius, who was, despite the recantation which Euphemius had enforced, a real Eutychian at heart, it is very likely that, as Baronius asserts, the patriarch did not attempt to conceal the pope's antipathy to the emperor.
Nothing cooled the zeal of Euphemius for the council of Chalcedon. Anastasius harboured designs against its supporters; the patriarch gathered together the bishops who were at Constantinople, and invited them to confirm its decrees. According to Theophanes and Victor of Tunis, this occurred in 492 (Vict. Tun. Chron. p. 5); but in Mansi (vii. 1180) the event is placed at the beginning of the patriarchate of Euphemius, and the decrees are said to have been sent by the bishops to pope Felix III. Various jars shewed the continued rupture with Rome. Theodoric had become master of Italy, and in 493 sent Faustus and Irenaeus to the emperor Anastasius to ask to peace. During their sojourn at Constantinople the envoys received complaints from the Greeks against the Roman church, which they reported to the pope. Euphemius urged that the condemnation of Acacius by one prelate only was invalid; to excommunicate a metropolitan of Constantinople a general council was necessary ( ib. viii. 16). Now occurred that imprudence which unhappily cost Euphemius his throne. Anastasius, tired of war against the Isaurians, was seeking an honourable way of stopping it. He asked Euphemius in confidence to beg the bishops at Constantinople (there were always bishops coming and going to and from the metropolis) to pray for peace and thus furnish him with an opportunity of entering on negotiations. Euphemius betrayed the secret to John the patrician, father-in-law of Athenodorus, one of the chiefs of the Isaurians. John hurried to the emperor to inform him of the patriarch's indiscretion. Anastasius was deeply offended, and thenceforth never ceased to persecute his old opponent. He accused him of helping the Isaurians against him, and of corresponding with them (Theoph. Chronog. a.d. 488). An assassin, either by Anastasius's own order or to gain his favour, drew his sword on Euphemius at the door of the sacristy, but was struck down by an attendant.
Anastasius sought other means to get rid of Euphemius. Theodorus speaks of the violence with which he demanded back the profession of faith on which his coronation had depended (Theod. Lect. ii. 8, 572 seq. in Patr. Gk. lxxxvi.). He assembled the bishops who were in the capital and preferred charges against their metropolitan, whom they obsequiously declared excommunicated and deposed. The people loyally refused to surrender him, but had soon to yield to the emperor.
Meanwhile Euphemius, fearing for his life, retired to the baptistery, and refused to go out until Macedonius had promised on the word of the emperor that no violence should be done him when they conducted him to exile. With a proper feeling of respect for the fallen greatness and unconquerable dignity of his predecessor, Macedonius, on coming to find him in the baptistery, made the attendant deacon take off the newly-given pallium and clothed himself in the dress of a simple presbyter, "not daring to wear" his insignia before their canonical owner. After some conversation, Macedonius (himself to follow Euphemius to the very same place of exile under the same emperor) handed to him the proceeds of a loan he had raised for his expenses. Euphemius was taken to Eucaïtes in 495, the fifth year of Anastasius. His death occurred 20 years later at Ancyra, whither, it is thought, the Hunnish invasion had made him retire. Elias, metropolitan of Jerusalem, himself afterwards expelled from his see by Anastasius, stood stoutly by Euphemius at the time of his exile, declaring against the legality of his sentence (Cyrillus, Vita S. Sabae , c. 69, apud Sur. t. vi.). In the East Euphemius was always honoured as the defender of the Catholic faith and of Chalcedon, and as a man of the highest holiness and orthodoxy. Great efforts were made at the fifth general council to get his name put solemnly back in the diptychs (Mansi, viii. 1061 E). The authorities for his Life are, Marcel. Chron. a.d. 491-495 in Patr. Lat. li. p. 933; Theod. Lect. Eccl. Hist. ii. 6-15 in Patr. Gk. lxxxvi. pt. i. 185-189; Theoph. Chronog. a.d. 481-489 in Patr. Gk. cviii. 324-337; St. Niceph. Constant. Chronog. Brev. 45 in Patr. Gk. c. p. 1046; Baronius, a.d. 489-495; Gelas. Pap. Ep. et Decret. i. in Patr. Lat. lix. 13.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Eustochius (6), Patriarch of Jerusalem
Eustochius (6) , patriarch of Jerusalem, in succession to Peter, and, according to Papebroch, from a.d. 544 to 556. On the death of Peter, Eustochius, oeconomus of the church of Alexandria but residing at Constantinople, was favoured by the emperor Justinian in preference to Macarius, an Origenist, who had been first elected. At the synod of Constantinople, 553 Eustochius was represented by three legates, Stephanus bp. of Raphia, Georgius bp. of Tiberias, Damasus bp. of Sozusa or Sozytana (Mansi, ix. 173 c.); and when the acts m condemnation of Origenism were sent by the emperor to Jerusalem, all the bishops of Palestine except Alexander of Abila confirmed them. But in the monasteries of that province, and especially in that named the New Laura, the partisans of the proscribed opinions grew daily more powerful, notwithstanding the resolute efforts of the patriarch against them. In 555, after eight months of persistent admonition, Eustochius went in person, with the dux Anastasius, to the New Laura, and forcibly expelled the whole body, replacing them by 60 monks from the principal laura and 60 from other orthodox monasteries of the desert, under the prior Joannes. Origenism was thus rooted out of Palestine. According to Victor Tununensis, Eustochius was removed from the patriarchate, and Macarius restored. Cyrillus Scythopol. in Coteler. Monum. Eccles. Graec. iii. 373; Evagr. H. E. iv. 37, 38; Victor Tunun. in Patr. Lat. lxviii. 962 A; Theoph. Chronog. A.M. 6060; Papebroch, Patriarch. Hierosol. in Boll. Acta SS. Intro. to vol. iii. of May, p. xxvii.; Le Quien, Or. Chr. iii. 210. Pagi (ann. 561 iii.) discusses the chronology. See also Clinton, F. R. 537, 557.
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King James Dictionary - Patriarch
PA'TRIARCH, n. L. patriarcha Gr. a family, father, and a chief.
1. The father and ruler of a family one who governs by paternal right. It is usually applied to the progenitors of the Israelites, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the sons of Jacob, or to the heads of families before the flood as the antediluvian patriarchs. 2. A learned and distinguished character among the Jews. 3. In the christian church, a dignitary superior to the order of archbishops as the patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Ephesus.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Patriarch
PATRIARCH. This term is usually applied to (1) the antediluvian fathers of the human race; (2) the three great progenitors of Israel Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (see sep. artt.); (3) in the NT it is extended to the sons of Jacob ( Acts 7:8-9 ), and to David ( Acts 2:29 ).
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Patriarch
(father of a tribe ), the name given to the head of a family or tribe in Old Testament times. In common usage the title of patriarch is assigned especially to those whose lives are recorded in Scripture previous to the time of Moses, as Adam, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. ("In the early history of the Hebrews we find the ancestor or father of a family retaining authority over his children and his children's children so long as he lived, whatever new connections they might form when the father died the branch families did not break off and form new communities, but usually united under another common head. The eldest son was generally invested with this dignity. His authority was paternal. He was honored as central point of connection and as the representative of the whole kindred. Thus each great family had its patriarch or head, and each tribe its prince, selected from the several heads of the families which it embraced." -- McClintock and Strong. ) ("After the destruction of Jerusalem, patriarch was the title of the chief religious rulers of the Jews in Asia and in early Christian times it became the designation of the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem." -- American Cyclopedia .)
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Patriarch
(πατριάρχης, from πατριά, ‘clan,’ and ἀρχή, ‘rule’)
A patriarch is the father or head of a πατριά or clan. As applied to Bible characters, the term usually denotes either the forefathers of the human race or the progenitors of Israel-Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and his twelve sons. In the LXX_ of 1 Chronicles 24:31; 1 Chronicles 27:22, 2 Chronicles 19:8; 2 Chronicles 26:12 πατριάρχαι renders various Hebrew terms, which appear in our EV_ as ‘principal fathers,’ ‘heads of fathers’ houses,’ and ‘captains.’ In 4 Maccabees 7:19 reference is made to ‘our patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob’ (cf. 4 Maccabees 16:25). In the NT the term is applied to Abraham (Hebrews 7:4), to the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8 f.), and also to David, in a text (Acts 2:29) where it has greater dignity than the ordinary ‘king’ would have had. It was of David that St. Peter, speaking μετὰ παῤῥησίας, ‘had to say something not altogether favourable, in order that thereby the glory of Christ might be the more enhanced. There is therefore in this passage a προθεραπεία, or previous mitigation of what he is about to say’ (Bengel, in loco).
James Strahan.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Macedonius ii, Patriarch of Constantinople
Macedonius (3) II., patriarch of Constantinople a.d. 495. For an account of his election see EUPHEMIUS (4). Within a year or two (the date is uncertain) he assembled a council, in which he confirmed in writing that of Chalcedon, and openly professed, as he always did, his adhesion to the orthodox faith. In 507 Elias, patriarch of Jerusalem, who had been unwilling to sanction the deposition of Euphemius, united himself in communion with Macedonius. The heterodox emperor Anastasius employed all means to oblige Macedonius to declare against the council of Chalcedon, but flattery and threats were alike unavailing. An assassin named Eucolus was even hired to take away his life. The patriarch avoided the blow, and ordered a fixed amount of provisions to be given monthly to the criminal. The people of Constantinople were equally zealous for the council of Chalcedon, even, more than once, to the point of sedition. To prevent unfavourable consequences, Anastasius ordered the prefect of the city to follow in the processions and attend at the assemblies of the church. In 510 the emperor made a new effort. Macedonius would do nothing without an oecumenical council at which the bp. of great Rome should preside. Anastasius, annoyed at this answer, and irritated because Macedonius would never release him from the engagement he had made at his coronation to maintain the faith of the church and the authority of the council of Chalcedon, sought means to drive him from his chair. He sent Eutychian monks and clergy, and sometimes the magistrates of the city, to load him with public outrage and insult. This caused such a tumult amongst the citizens that the emperor was obliged to shut himself up in his palace and to have vessels moored near in case flight should be necessary. He sent to beg Macedonius to come and speak with him. Macedonius went and reproached him with the sufferings his persecutions caused the church. Anastasius pretended to be willing to alter this, but at the same time made a third attempt to tamper with the orthodoxy of the patriarch. One of his instruments was Xenaïas, an Eutychian bishop. He demanded of Macedonius a declaration of his faith in writing; Macedonius addressed a memorandum to the emperor insisting that he knew no other faith than that of the Fathers of Nicaea and Constantinople, and that he anathematized Nestorius and Eutyches and those who admitted two Sons or two Christs, or who divided the two natures. Xenaïas, seeing the failure of his first attempt, procured two infamous wretches, who accused Macedonius of an abominable crime, avowing themselves his accomplices. They then charged him with Nestorianism, and with having falsified a passage in an epistle of St. Paul, in support of that sect. At last the emperor commanded him to send by the hands of the master of the offices the authentic copy of the Acts of the council of Chalcedon signed with the autographs of the bishops. Macedonius refused, sealed it up, and hid it under the altar of the great church. Thereupon Anastasius had him carried off by night and taken to Chalcedon, to be conducted thence to Eucaïta in Pontus, the place of the exile of his predecessor. In 515 pope Hormisdas worked for the restitution of Macedonius, whom he considered unjustly deposed; it had been a stipulation in the treaty of peace between Vitalian and Anastasius that the patriarch and all the deposed bishops should be restored to their sees. But Anastasius never kept his promises, and Macedonius died in exile. His death occurred c. 517, at Gangra, where he had retired for fear of the Huns, who ravaged all Cappadocia, Galatia, and Pontus. Theod. Lect. ii. 573–578, in Patr. Gk. lxxxvi.; Evagr. III. xxxi. xxxii. in ib. 2661; Mansi, viii. 186, 198; Vict. Tun. Chron. in Patr Lat. lxviii. 948; Liberat. vii. in ib. 982; Theoph. Chron. 120–123, 128, 130, 132.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Maximus, Patriarch of Antioch
Maximus (15) , patriarch of Antioch. After the deposition of Domnus II., patriarch of Antioch, by the "Latrocinium" of Ephesus, a.d. 449, Dioscorus persuaded the weak Theodosius to fill the vacancy with one of the clergy of Constantinople. Maximus was selected and ordained, in violation of all canonical orders, by Anatolius bp. of Constantinople, without the official sanction of the clergy or people of Antioch. Maximus, though owing his elevation to an heretical synod, gained a reputation for orthodoxy in the conduct of his diocese and province. He dispatched "epistolae tractoriae" through the churches subject to him as metropolitan, requiring the signatures of the bishops to Leo's famous "tome" and to another document condemning both Nestorius and Eutyches (Leo Magn. Ep. ad Paschas. 88 [1], June 451). Having thus discreetly assured his position, he was summoned to the council of Chalcedon in Oct. 451, and took his seat without question, and when the illegal acts of the "Latrocinium" were quashed, including the deposition of the other prelates, a special exception was made of the substitution of Maximus for Domnus on the express ground that Leo had opened communion with him and recognized his episcopate (Labbe, iv. 682). His most important controversy at Chalcedon was with Juvenal of Jerusalem regarding the limits of their respective patriarchates. It was long and bitter; at last a compromise was accepted by the council, that Antioch should retain the two Phoenicias and Arabia and that the three Palestines should form the patriarchate of Jerusalem ( ib. 614–618). Maximus was among those by whom the Confession of Faith was drawn up ( ib. 539–562), and stands second, between Anatolius of Constantinople and Juvenal of Jerusalem, in the signatories to the decree according metropolitical rank to Constantinople ( ib. 798).
The next notice of Maximus is in a correspondence with Leo the Great, to whom he had appealed in defence of the prerogatives of his see. Leo promised to help him against either Jerusalem or Constantinople, exhorting him to assert his privileges as bp. of the third see in Christendom (i.e. only inferior to Alexandria and Rome). Maximus's zeal for the orthodox faith receives warm commendation from Leo, who exhorts him as "consors apostolicae sedis" to maintain the doctrine founded by St. Peter "speciali magisterio" in the cities of Antioch and Rome, against the erroneous teaching both of Nestorius and Eutyches, and to watch over the churches of the East generally and send him frequent tidings. The letter, dated June 11, 453, closes with a desire that Maximus will restrain unordained persons, whether monks or simple laics, from public preaching and teaching (Leo Magn. Ep. 109 [2]). Two years later, a.d. 455, the episcopate of Maximus came to a disastrous close by his deposition. The nature of his offence is nowhere specified. We do not know how much longer he lived or what became of him. Tillem. Mém. eccl. t. xv. passim ; Le Quien, Oriens Christianus , t. ii. p. 725.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Paulus ii, Patriarch of Antioch
Paulus (10) II. , patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 519–521 (Clinton, F. R. ). On the expulsion of the Monophysite Severus by Justin, Paulus, a presbyter of Constantinople, warden of the hospice of Eubulus, was nominated by the emperor to the vacant see, and was canonically ordained at Antioch. He strictly attended to Justin's commands to enforce the decrees of Chalcedon, and by inserting in the diptychs the names of the orthodox bishops of that synod caused a schism in his church, many of the Antiochenes regarding the council with suspicion, as tending to Nestorianism. Clergy, laity, and resident foreigners joined in accusing him before the papal legates, who were at that time in Constantinople, of conduct unbecoming a bishop. They departed without coming to any conclusion, and the charge was repeated before Justin. Paulus, unable to clear himself, obtained leave of the emperor to retire from his bishopric, a.d. 521. He was succeeded by Euphrasius. Evagr. H. E. iv. 4; Theophan. p. 141; Joann. Malal. lib. xvii. p. 411; Eutych. ii. 152; Ep. Justini , Labbe, iv. 1555; Le Quien, Or. Christ. ii. 732.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch
Paulus (9) of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 260–270. A celebrated Monarchian heresiarch, "the Socinus of the 3rd century" (so Bp. Wordsworth), deposed and excommunicated for heretical teaching as to the divinity of our Blessed Lord, a.d. 269. His designation indicates that he was a native of Samosata, the royal city of Syria, where he may have become known to Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, through whom Cave and others ascribe his advancement to the highest post in the Syrian church. Dr Newman points out that the beginning of Paul's episcopate synchronizes with the commencement of the successes of Zenobia's husband Odenathus against Sapor ( Asians of the Fourth Cent. p. 4, n. 6). Athanasius distinctly calls her Paul's patroness (Athan. Hist. Ar. c. 71).
Our only knowledge of his career and character is from the encyclical letter of the bishops and clergy who condemned him. The picture of him is most unfavourable there. He is described as haughty, ostentatious, vain-glorious, worldly-minded, a lover of pomp and parade, avaricious, rapacious, self-indulgent and luxurious; as one whose manner of life laid him open to grave suspicions of immorality; and as a person originally of humble birth, who had adopted the ecclesiastical career as a lucrative speculation, and, by the abuse of its opportunities and the secular office obtained by favour of Zenobia, had amassed a large fortune. In public he affected the pomp and parade of a secular magistrate rather than the grave and modest bearing of a Christian bishop. He stalked through the forum surrounded by attendants, who made a way for him through a crowd of petitioners whose memorials he made a display of dispatching with the utmost celerity, dictating the replies without halting a moment. In his ecclesiastical assemblies he adopted an almost imperial dignity, sitting on a throne raised on a lofty tribunal (βῆμα ), with a cabinet (σήκρητον ) for private conferences screened from the public gaze. He is said to have suppressed the psalms which were sung to Christ as God, which had ever proved a great bulwark to the orthodox faith, as modern novelties not half a century old (cf. Caius ap. Routh, Rel. Sacr. ii. 129), and to have introduced others in praise of himself, which were sung in full church on Easter Day by a choir of women, causing the hearts of the faithful to shudder at the impious language which extolled Paul as an angel from heaven. By his flatteries and gifts, and by his unscrupulous use of his power, he induced neighbouring bishops and presbyters to adopt his form of teaching and other novelties. His private life is described in equally dark colours. He indulged freely in the pleasures of the table, and enjoyed the society of two beautiful young women, as spiritual sisters, "subintroductae," and encouraged other clergymen to follow his example, to the scandal of all and the moral ruin of many. Yet, disgraceful as his life was, he had put so many under obligations and intimidated others by threats and violence, so that it was very difficult to persuade any to witness against him (Eus. H. E. vii. 30).
However great the scandals attaching to Paul's administration of his episcopal office, it was his unsoundness in the faith which, chiefly by the untiring exertions of the venerable Dionysius of Alexandria, led to the assembling of the synods at Antioch, through which his name and character have chiefly become known to us. The first was held in 265, Firmilian of the Cappadocian Caesarea being the president. The second (the date is not precisely known) was also presided over by Firmilian, who, on his way to the third synod, in 269, was suddenly taken ill and died at Tarsus, the bishop of that city, Helenus, taking his place as president. In the first two synods Paul, by dialectical subtleness and crafty concealment of his real opinions (ib. vii. 29), escaped condemnation. The members of the second synod heard from all quarters that his teaching was unaltered and that this could be easily proved if the opportunity were granted. A third synod, therefore, was convened at Antioch, towards the close of 269. The leading part was taken by Malchion, a presbyter of Antioch, at one time president of the school of rhetoric there. Athanasius says that 70 bishops were present (Athan. de Synod. vol. i. p. ii. p. 605, ed. Patav.), Hilary says 80 (Hilar. de Synod. p. 1200). Malchion, as a skilled dialectician, was chosen by them to conduct the discussion. Paul's heresy being plainly proved, he was unanimously condemned, and the synod pronounced his deposition and excommunication, which they notified to Dionysius bp, of Rome, Maximus of Alexandria, and the other bishops of the church, in an encyclical letter, probably the work of Malchion, large portions of which are preserved by Eusebius ( H. E. vii. 30). In it the assembled fathers announced that they had of their own authority appointed Domnus, the son of Paul's predecessor Demetrianus, to the vacant chair. The sentence of deposition was easier to pronounce than to carry out. Popular tumults were excited by Paul's partisans. Zenobia supported her favourite in his episcopal position, while the irregularity of Domnus's appointment alienated many of the orthodox. For two years Paul retained possession of the cathedral and of the bishop's residence attached to it, asserting his rights as the ruler of the church of Antioch. On the defeat of Zenobia by Aurelian towards the end of 372, the Catholic prelates represented to him what they termed Paul's "audacity." Aurelian relegated the decision to the bp. of Rome and the Italian prelates, decreeing that the residence should belong to the one they recognized by letters of communion ( ib. ). The Italian bishops promptly recognized Domnus, Paul was driven with the utmost ignominy from the temporalities of the church, and Domnus, despite his irregular appointment, generally accepted as patriarch (ib. ; Cyril Alex. Hom. de Virg. Deip. ; Routh, iii. 358).
The teaching of Paul of Samosata was a development of that of Artemon, with whose heresy it is uniformly identified by early writers. Like the Eastern heresiarch, Paul held the pure humanity of Christ, "He was not before Mary, but received from her the origin of His being" (Athan. de Synod. p. 919, c. iii. s. 10). His pre-existence was simply in the divine foreknowledge. He allowed no difference in kind between the indwelling of the Logos in Christ and in any human being, only one of degree, the Logos having dwelt and operated in Him after a higher manner than in any other man. This indwelling was not that of a person, but of a quality. There is no evidence that he denied the supernatural conception of Christ. Athanasius distinctly asserts that he taught Θεὸν ἐκ παρθένου, Θεὸν ἐκ Ναζαρὲτ ὀφθέντα (Athan. de Salut. adv. Apoll. t. i. p. 635); but he laid no particular stress upon it. His inferior Being was ἐκ παρθένου ; his superior Being was penetrated by the Logos, Whose instrumentality by it was continually advancing itself towards God, until the "Jesus Christ from below" (κάτωθεν ) became worthy of union with God (ἐκ προκοτῆς τεθεοποιῆσθαι ). Therefore, although he called Christ God, it was not as God by His nature, but by progressive development. The Deity of Christ grew by gradual progress out of the humanity. He was convicted, according to Eusebius, of asserting that Christ was mere man deemed specially worthy of divine grace (Eus. H. E. vii. 27). He taught also that as the Logos is not a Person, so also the Holy Spirit is impersonal, a divine virtue belonging to the Father and distinct from Him only in conception.
It deserves special notice that Paul's misuse, "σωματικῶς et crasso sensu," of the term ὁμοούσιος , "consubstantial," which afterwards at Nicaea became the test word of orthodoxy, is stated to have led to its rejection by the Antiochene council (Athan. de Synodis , t. i. in pp. 917, 922). This is allowed by Athanasius, though with some hesitation, and only on the testimony of his semi-Arian opponents, as he said he had not seen the original documents (ib. pp. 918–920) by Hilary ( de Synod. § 81, p. 509; § 86, p. 513) on the ground that it appeared that "per hanc unius essentiae nuncupationem solitarium atque unicum sibi esse Patrem et Filium praedicabat" (in which words he seems mistakenly to identify the teaching of Paul with that of Sabellius), and still more emphatically by Basil ( Ep. 52 [1]).
Dr. Newman regards Paul of Samos "the founder of a school rather than of a sect" (Arians , p. 6). A body, called after him Paulianists, or Pauliani, or Samosatensians, existed in sufficient numbers at the time of the council of Nicaea for the enactment of a canon requiring their rebaptism and the reordination of their clergy on their return to the Catholic church, on the ground that orthodox formulas were used with a heterodox meaning (Canon. Nic. xix. Hefele, i. 43). The learned presbyter Lucian, who may be considered almost the parent of Arianism, was a friend and disciple of Paul, and, as being infected with his errors, was refused communion by each of the three bishops who succeeded the heresiarch. The many references to them in the writings of Athanasius show that for a considerable period after the Nicene council it was felt necessary for Catholics to controvert the Samosatene's errors, and for semi-Arians to disown complicity in them (Athan. u.s. ). The Paulinians are mentioned by St. Augustine as still existing (Aug. de Haer. 44), though pope Innocent spoke of the heresy as a thing of the past in 414 (Labbe, ii. 1275), and when Theodoret wrote, c. 450, there did not exist the smallest remnant of the sect ( Haer. ii. 11). Cf. Epiphan. Haer. 65; Tillem. Mém. eccl. t. iv. pp. 289–303.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem
Petrus (28), patriarch of Jerusalem, a.d. 524–544 (Clinton, F. R. ; Niceph. Chron. p 410), born at Eleutheropolis, succeeded John II. (omitted by Evagr. H. E. iv. 37) in 524. He manifested the same reverence as his predecessors for the celebrated ascetic St. Sabas, and frequently visited him in the desert. During his episcopate occurred the sanguinary insurrection against the Christians of the Samaritans, goaded to madness by the persecution of Justinian, offering only the alternative of baptism or rebellion (Gibbon, c. 48). Many Christians were reduced to beggary. Peter therefore begged St. Sabas to go to Constantinople and lay before Justinian a petition for the remission of the taxes. His mission was successful and he was received with much joy on his return by Peter and his flock (Cyrill. Scythop. Vit. S. Sab. No. 70–76). On the deposition of Anthimus, the Monophysite patriarch of Constantinople, by the single authority of pope Agapetus, then present on state business at the imperial city, and the appointment of Mennas as his successor, Agapetus issued a synodical letter dated Mar 13, 536, announcing these facts, and calling on the Eastern church to rejoice that for the first time a patriarch of New Rome had been consecrated by the bp. of Old Rome, and, together with the errors of Anthimus, stating and denouncing those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the monk Zoaras. On receiving this document Peter summoned a synod at Jerusalem and subscribed the condemnation, Sept. 19, 536. Agapetus having died on Apr. 21 (Labbe, v. 47, 275, 283). The rapid spread of Origenistic opinions in some monasteries of Palestine under the influence of Nonnus was vehemently opposed by other monastic bodies and caused serious troubles which Peter was unable to allay. The Origenists were supported by a powerful court party, headed by the abbats Domitian and Theodore Ascidas (Evagr. H. E. iv. 38). The dignity and authority of Peter, a decided enemy of Origenistic doctrines, being seriously weakened, he made concessions which compromised his position. His predecessor in the patriarchal chair, Ephraim, had issued a synodical letter condemning Origen, and the Origenistic party clamoured to have his name removed from the diptychs. Peter was convinced that Justinian had been hoodwinked by the powerful abbats and was ignorant of the real character of these doctrines. He therefore instructed two of his own abbats, Gelasius and Sophronius, to bring before him a formal complaint, setting forth the heresies of Origen in detail. This document he forwarded to Justinian, with a letter describing the disturbances created by the Origenistic monks and beseeching him to take measures to quell them. The emperor, flattered by this appeal at once to his ability as a theologian and his authority as a ruler, the petition being supported by a Roman deputation, headed by Pelagius, then at Constantinople on ecclesiastical business, granted the request and issued a decree condemning the heresies of Origen, and ordering that no one should hereafter be created bishop or abbat without first condemning him and other specified heretics. The emperor's edict was confirmed by a synod convened by Mennas, and was sent for signature to Peter and the other patriarchs, a.d. 541 ( Vit. S. Sab. No. 84; Liberat. Breviar. c. 23; Labbe, v. 635; Vit. S. Euthym. p. 365). The object, however, was thwarted by the Origenist leaders subscribing the edict, thus sacrificing truth to self-interest. Theodore maintained his position at court and threatened Peter with deposition if he continued to refuse to receive back the expelled Origenistic monks ( Vit. S. Sab. No. 85). To divert the emperor's attention an attack was craftily organized by Theodore Ascidas and others against writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret, and Ibas of Edessa, supposed to savour of Nestorianism. They had little difficulty, backed by the powerful influence of the empress Theodora, an avowed favourer of Monophysitism, in persuading the emperor to issue an edict condemning these writings, which, from the three points on which it specially dwells, obtained the name of "Edictum de Tribus Capitulis," or "The Three Chapters," by which the whole controversy became subsequently known. This edict being published on the sole authority of the emperor, without synodical authority, great stress was laid on its acceptance by the bishops, especially by the four Eastern patriarchs. No one of them, however, was disposed to sign a document which seemed to disparage the conclusions of Chalcedon. Mennas yielded first; Peter's signature was obtained after a longer struggle. On the first publication of the edict he solemnly declared, before a vast crowd of turbulent monks clamouring against its impiety, that whoever signed it would violate the decrees of Chalcedon. But Justinian's threats of deposition outweighed Peter's conscientious convictions, and, with the other equally reluctant patriarchs, he signed the document (Facundus, lib. iv. c. 4). He did not long survive this disgrace, and died, a.d. 544, after a 20 years' episcopate. Vict. Tunun. ap. Clinton, F. R. ii. 557; Fleury, Hist. eccl. livre 33; Neander, Ch. Hist. vol. iv. pp. 264 ff.; Le Quien, Or. Christ. vol. ii. 189 seq.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch
Porphyrius (4) , patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 404–413, succeeded Flavian (Socr. H. E. vii. 9), and is described in the dialogue which goes under the name of Palladius as a man of infamous character, who had disgraced the clerical profession by intimacy with the scum of the circus (Pallad. Dial. p. 143). Although his character was notorious, by his cleverness and adroit flattery he obtained considerable influence with the magistrates, and gained the confidence of some leading bishops of the province. Flavian's death having occurred almost contemporaneously with Chrysostom's exile, it became vitally important to the anti-Flavian cabal to have the vacant throne of Antioch filled with a man who would carry out their designs for the complete crushing of Flavian's adherents. Porphyry was chosen. To clear the field Constantius, the trusted friend of Chrysostom, whom the people of Antioch marked out as Flavian's successor, was accused at Constantinople as a disturber of the public peace. By his powerful influence with the party then dominant about the court, Porphyry obtained an imperial rescript banishing Constantius to the Oasis. Constantius anticipated this by fleeing to Cyprus ( ib. 145). Porphyry then managed to get into his hands Cyriacus, Diophantus, and other presbyters of the orthodox party who were likely to be troublesome, and seized the opportunity of the Olympian festival at Antioch, when the population had poured forth to the spectacles of Daphne, to lock himself and his three consecrators, Acacius, Antiochus, and Severianus, whom he had kept hiding at his own house, with a few of the clergy, into the chief church, and to receive consecration at their hands. The indignant Antiochenes next morning attacked the house of Porphyry, seeking to burn it over his head. The influence of Porphyry secured the appointment of a savage officer as captain of the city guards, who by threats and violence drove the people to the church ( ib. 147). Forewarned of his real character, pope Innocent received Porphyry's request for communion with silence ( ib. 141). Porphyry was completely deserted by the chief clergy and all the ladies of rank of Antioch, who refused to approach his church and held their meetings clandestinely ( ib. 149). In revenge Porphyry obtained a decree, issued by Arcadius Nov. 18, 404, sentencing all who refused communion with Arsacius, Theophilus, and Porphyry to be expelled from the churches, and instructing the governor of the province to forbid their holding meetings elsewhere (Soz. H. E. viii. 24; Cod. Theod. 16, t. iv. p. 103). His efforts to obtain the recognition of the Antiochenes proving fruitless, while Chrysostom's spiritual power in exile became the greater for all his efforts to crush it, Porphyry's exasperation drove him to take vengeance on Chrysostom. Through his machinations and those of Severianus, orders were issued for the removal of Chrysostom from Cucusus to Pityus, during the execution of which the aged saint's troubles ended by death (Pallad. Dial. p. 97). Porphyry's own death is placed by Clinton ( Fast. Rom. ii. 552) in 413 (cf. Theod. H. E. iii. 5). He was succeeded by Alexander, by whom the long distracted church was united. It is a misfortune that the chief and almost only source for the character of Porphyry is the violent pamphlet of Palladius, whose warm partisanship for Chrysostom unduly blackens all his opponents, and refuses them a single redeeming virtue. That Porphyry was not altogether the monster this author represents may be concluded from the statement of the calm and amiable Theodoret, that he "left behind him" at Antioch "many memorials of his kindness and of his remarkable prudence " (Theod. H. E. v. 35), as well as by a still stronger testimony in his favour in Theodoret's letter to Dioscorus, when he calls him one "of blessed and holy memory, who was adorned both with a brilliant life and an acquaintance with divine doctrines" (Theod. Ep. 83). Fragments of a letter addressed to Porphyry by Theophilus of Alexandria, recommending him to summon a synod, when some were seeking to revive the heresy of Paul of Samosata, are found in Labbe ( Concil. p. 472).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Proclus, Saint Patriarch of Constantinople
Proclus (2) , St., patriarch of Constantinople. The friend and disciple of Chrysostom, he became secretary to Atticus the patriarch, who ordained him deacon and priest. Sisinnius, the successor of Atticus, consecrated him bp. of Cyzicus, but the people there refused to receive him, and he remained at Constantinople. On the death of Sisinnius, the famous NESTORIUS succeeded, and early in 429, on a festival of the Virgin, Proclus preached the celebrated sermon on the Incarnation inserted in the beginning of the Acts of the council of Ephesus. When Maximianus died on Thur. before Easter, 434, Proclus was, by the permission of Theodosius, immediately enthroned by the bishops at Constantinople. His first care was the funeral of his predecessor, and he then sent both to Cyril and John of Antioch the usual synodical letters announcing his appointment, both of whom approved of it. In 436 the bishops of Armenia consulted him upon certain doctrines prevalent in their country and attributed to Theodore of Mopsuestia, asking for their condemnation. Proclus replied (437) in the celebrated letter known as the Tome of Proclus, which he sent to the Eastern bishops asking them to sign it and to join in condemning the doctrines arraigned by the Armenians. They approved of the letters, but from admiration of Theodore hesitated to condemn the doctrines attributed to him. Proclus replied that while he desired the extracts subjoined to his Tome to be condemned, he had not attributed them to Theodore or any individual, not desiring the condemnation of any person. A rescript from Theodosius procured by Proclus, declaring his wish that all should live in peace and that no imputation should be made against any one who died in communion with the church, appeased the storm. The whole affair shewed conspicuously the moderation and tact of Proclus. In 438 he transported to Constantinople from Comana, and interred with great honour in the church of the Apostles, the remains of his old master St. Chrysostom, and thereby reconciled to the church his adherents who had separated in consequence of his condemnation. In 439, at the request of a deputation from Caesarea in Cappadocia, he selected as their new bishop Thalassius, who was about to be appointed pretorian prefect of the East. In the time of Proclus the Trisagion came into use. The occasion is said to have been a time when violent earthquakes lasted for four months at Constantinople, so that the people were obliged to leave the city and encamp in the fields. Proclus died most probably in July 446. He appears to have been wise, moderate, and conciliatory, desirous, while strictly adhering to orthodoxy himself, to win over those who differed from him by persuasion rather than force.
His works (Migne Patr. Gk. lxv. 651) consist of 20 sermons (some of doubtful authenticity) 5 more pub. by Card. Mai (Spic. Rom. iv. xliii. lxxviii.) of which 3 are preserved only in a Syriac version the Greek being lost; 7 letters along with several addressed to him by other persons; and a few fragments of other letters and sermons. Socr. H. E. vii. xxvi. and passim; Theophan. sub an. 430; Tillem. Mém. eccl. xiv. 704; AA. SS. Act_10:6-39
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria
Proterius, St., patriarch of Alexandria, was presbyter and church-steward under Dioscorus, and left in charge of the church when Dioscorus went to the council of Chalcedon. After Dioscorus was deposed by that council, the emperor Marcian ordered a new election to the see. The suffragan bishops, except 13 detained at Constantinople by a resolution of the council (Chalced. c. 30), were assembled in synod; and the chief laymen of Alexandria came as usual to express their mind and assent to the prelate's choice (cf. Liberat. Breviar. c. 14, and Evagr. ii. 5). There was great difficulty in reaching a conclusion; for the majority of the Alexandrian church people were profoundly aggrieved by the action of the council. In their eyes Dioscorus was still their rightful "pope," the representative of Cyril and of Athanasius. Ultimately, however, opposition to the imperial mandate was felt impracticable. It was resolved to elect, and then all favoured Proterius, who was consecrated and enthroned (a.d. 452); but the passions of the Dioscorian and anti-Dioscorian parties broke .out at once into tumultuous dissension, which Evagrius likens to the surging of the sea. Proterius sending Leo the usual announcement of his elevation, Leo asked some definite assurance of his orthodoxy (Leo, Ep. 113, in Mar 453), and received a letter which he regarded as "fully satisfactory," shewing Proterius to be a "sincere assertor of the Catholic dogma," inasmuch as he had cordially accepted the Tome ( Epp. 127, 130). Thereupon (Mar 454) he wrote again to Proterius, advising him to clear himself from all suspicion of Nestorianizing, by reading to his people certain passages from approved Fathers, and then shewing that the Tome did but hand on their tradition and guard the truth from perversions on either side. Leo took care, in thus addressing the "successor of St. Mark," to dwell on that evangelist's relation to St. Peter as of a disciple to a teacher; and he bespeaks the support of the Alexandrian see in this resistance to the unprincipled ambition of Constantinople, which in the 28th canon, so called, of Chalcedon had injured the "dignity" of the other great bishoprics ( Ep. 129). Another question prolonged the correspondence. The Nicene Fathers were believed to have commissioned the Alexandrian bishops to ascertain and signify the right time for each coming Easter. Leo had consulted Cyril as to the Easter of 444; and he now, in 454 applied to Proterius, through the emperor, for his opinion as to the Easter of 455, which the Alexandrian Paschal table appeared to him to place too late ( Epp. 121, 127). Proterius replied to Leo at some length ( Ep. 133, Apr. 454) that Egypt and the East would keep Apr. 24 as Easter Day, and expressed his belief that all Christians everywhere would "observe one faith, one baptism, and one most sacred paschal solemnity."
Proterius had troubles with his own clergy. Not long after the council a priest named Timotheus and a deacon named Peter (nicknamed Mongus) refused to communicate with him, because in his diptychs he ignored Dioscorus and commemorated the council of Chalcedon. He summoned them to return to duty; they refused, and he pronounced in synod their deposition (Liberat. c. 15; Brevic. Hist. Eutych. or Gesta in causa Acacii, in Mansi, vii. 1062). Four or five bishops and a few monks appear to have actively supported them, and to have been included in their condemnation and in the imperial sentence of exile which followed ( Ep. Aegypt. Episc. ad Leonem Aug. in Mansi, vii. 525). The monks in Egypt, as elsewhere, were generally attached to the Monophysite position, which they erroneously identified with the Cyrilline. They took for granted that the late council had been practically striking at Cyril through Dioscorus; and that Christ's single personality was at stake. Thus, besides those monks who had overtly taken part with Timotheus and Peter, others apparently had suspended communion with the archbishop; and Marcian had addressed them in gentle and persuasive terms, assuring them that the doctrine of "one Christ," symbolized by the term Theotokos, had been held sacrosanct at Chalcedon, and exhorting them therefore to join with the Catholic church of the orthodox, which was one (Mansi; vii. 481). But the schism, once begun, was not thus to be abated; the zealous seceders raised a cry, which has practically never died out, that the Egyptian adherents of the council of Chalcedon were a mere state-made church, upheld by the court against the convictions of the faithful. To this day the poor remnant of orthodoxy in Egypt bears a name which is a stigma, Melchites or "adherents of the king." (Cf. Renaudot, Hist. Patr. Alex. p. 119; Neale, Hist. Patr. Alex. ii. 7. They both add that the orthodox accepted the term.) Even after Dioscorus died in exile Proterius was ignored and disclaimed, and knew that he was the object of a hatred that was biding its time, and "during the greater part of his pontificate," as Liberatus tells us, depended for safety on a military guard. At last, in Jan. 457, Marcian died, and the Monophysites thought they saw their opportunity. Some malcontent Egyptian bishops renewed their outcry against the council (Eulogius, in Phot. Bibl. 130, p. 283, ed. Bekk.); and Timotheus, returning to Alexandria, began those intrigues which won him his title of "the Cat." [1] The "dux" Dionysius being absent in Upper Egypt, Timotheus found it the easier to gather a disorderly following and obtain irregular consecration. Dionysius, returning, expelled Timotheus; and the latter's partisans in revenge rushed to the house of Proterius, and after besetting him for some time in the adjacent church of Quirinus, ran him through with a sword in its baptistery, and he died under many wounds with six of his clerics. His corpse was dragged by a cord across the central place called Tetrapylon, and then through nearly the whole city, with hideous cries, "Look at Proterius!" Beaten as if it could still suffer, torn limb from limb, and finally burnt, its ashes were "scattered to the winds." The day was Easter Day, Mar 31, 457. See also Evagr. ii. 8; Le Quien, ii. 412; Neale, Hist. Alex. ii. 12.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Severus, Patriarch of Antioch
Severus (27), Monophysite patriarch of Antioch a.d. 512–519, a native of Sozopolis in Pisidia, by birth and education a heathen, baptized in the martyry of Leontius at Tripolis (Evagr. H. E. iii. 33; Labbe, v. 40, 120).
He almost at once openly united himself with the Acephali, repudiating his own baptism and his baptizer, and even the Catholic church itself as infected with Nestorianism (Labbe, u.s. ). On embracing Monophysite doctrines he entered a monastery apparently belonging to that sect between Gaza and its port Majuma. Here he met Peter the Iberian, a zealous Eutychian, who had been ordained bp. of Gaza by Theodosius, the Monophysite monk, during his usurpation of the see of Jerusalem (Evagr. l.c. ). About this time Severus apparently joined a Eutychian brotherhood near Eleutheropolis under the archimandrite Mamas, who further confirmed him in his extreme Monophysitism (Liberat. Brev. c. xix.; Labbe, v. 762; Evagr. l.c. ). Severus rejected the Henoticon of Zeno, applying to it contumelious epithets, such as κενωτικόν , "the annulling edict," and διαιρετικόν , "the disuniting edict " (Labbe, v. 121), and anathematized Peter Mongus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, for accepting it. We next hear of him in an Egyptian monastery, of which one Nephalius was abbat, who, having been formerly a Monophysite, had embraced the faith of Chalcedon. Nephalius with his monks expelled Severus and his partizans (Evagr. l.c. , Cf. iii. 22). Severus is charged with having stirred up a fierce religious war among the excitable population of Alexandria, resulting in bloodshed and conflagrations (Labbe, v. 121). To escape the punishment of his turbulence he fled to Constantinople, supported by a band of 200 Monophysite monks (ib. iv. 1419). Anastasius, who had succeeded the emperor Zeno, the author of the Henoticon, in 491, was a declared favourer of the Eutychians, and by him Severus was received with honour. His advent was an unhappy one for the peace of Constantinople, where a sanguinary tumult was stirred up by rival bands of monks, orthodox and Monophysite, chanting in their respective churches the opposing forms of the "Trisagion." This tumult resulted, a.d. 511, in the humiliation of Anastasius the temporary triumph of the patriarch Macedonius, and the depression of the Monophysite cause (Theophan, p. 132). Severus was eagerly dispatched by Anastasius to occupy the vacant throne of Antioch a.d. 511. He was ordained, or, in the words of his adversaries, "received the shadow of ordination" (Labbe, v. 40), and enthroned on the same day in his patriarchal city ( ib. iv. 1414; Theod. Lect. ii. 31, pp. 563, 567; Theophan. p. 134), and that very day solemnly pronounced in his church an anathema on Chalcedon, and accepted the Henoticon he had previously repudiated. He caused the name of Peter Mongus to be inscribed in the diptychs; declared himself in communion with the Eutychian prelates, Timotheus of Constantinople and John Niciota of Alexandria; and received into communion Peter of Iberia and other leading members of the Acephali (Evagr. H. E. iii. 33; Labbe, iv. 1414, v. 121, 762; Theod. Lect. l.c. ). Eutychianism seemed now triumphant throughout the Christian world. Proud of his patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, Severus despatched letters to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation and demanding communion. In these he anathematized Chalcedon and all who maintained the two natures. They met with a very varied reception. Many rejected them altogether, nevertheless Monophysitism was everywhere in the ascendant in the East, and Severus was deservedly regarded as its chief champion (Severus of Ashmunain apud Neale, Patr. Alex. ii. 27). Synodal letters were interchanged between John Niciota and Severus; the earliest examples of that intercommunication between the Jacobite sees of Alexandria and Antioch, which has been kept up to the present day (Neale, l.c. ). The triumph of Severus was, however, short. His sanguinary tyranny over the patriarchate of Antioch did not survive his imperial patron. Anastasius was succeeded in 518 by Justin, who at once declared for the orthodox faith. The Monophysite prelates were everywhere replaced by orthodox successors. Severus was one of the first to fall. Irenaeus, the count of the East, was commissioned to arrest him. Severus, however, escaped, and in Sept. 518 sailed by night for Alexandria (Liberat. Brev. l.c. ; Theophan. 141 ; Evagr. H. E. iv. 4). Paul was ordained in his room. Severus and his doctrines were anathematized in various councils. At Alexandria his reception by his fellow-religionists was enthusiastic. He was gladly welcomed by the patriarch Timotheus, and generally hailed as the champion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of Nestorianism. His learning and argumentative power established his authority as "os omnium doctorum," and the day of his entrance into Egypt was long celebrated as a Jacobite festival (Neale, u.s. p. 30). Alexandria speedily became the resort of Monophysites of every shade of opinion, who formed too powerful a body for the emperor to molest. But fierce controversies sprang up among themselves on various subtle questions connected with Christ's nature and His human body. A vehement dispute arose between Severus and his fellow-exile Julian of Halicarnassus as to the corruptibility of our Lord's human body before His resurrection. Julian and his followers were styled "Aphthartodocetae" and "Phantasiastae," Severus and his adherents "Phthartolatrae" or "Corrupticolae," and "Ktistolatrae." The controversy was a warm and protracted one and no settlement was arrived at. The Jacobites, however, claim the victory for Severus (Renaudot, p. 129). After some years in Egypt spent in continual literary and polemical activity, Severus was unexpectedly summoned to Constantinople by Justin's successor Justinian, whose consort Theodora warmly favoured the Eutychian party. The emperor was utterly weary of the turmoil caused by the prolonged theological discussions. Severus, he was told, was the master of the Monophysite party. Unity could only be regained by his influence. At this period, a.d. 535. Anthimus had been recently appointed to the see of Constantinople by Theodora's influence. He was a concealed Eutychian, who on his accession threw off the orthodox mask and joined heartily with Severus and his associates, Peter of Apamea and Zoaras, in their endeavours to get Monophysitism recognized as the orthodox faith. This introduction of turbulent Monophysites threw the city into great disorder, and large numbers embraced their pernicious heresy (Labbe, v. 124). For the further progress of this audacious attempt to establish Monophysitism in the imperial city see JUSTINIANUS; AGAPETUS. Eventually, at the instance of pope Agapetus, who happened to visit Constantinople on political business at this time, the Monophysites Anthimus and Timotheus were deposed, and Severus again subjected to an anathema. The orthodox Mennas, succeeding Anthimus (Liberat. Breviar. c. xxi.; Labbe, v. 774), summoned a synod in May and June 536 to deal with the Monophysite question. Severus and his two companions were cast out "as wolves" from the true fold, and anathematized (Labbe, v. 253–255). The sentence was ratified by Justinian ( ib. 265). The writings of Severus were proscribed; any one possessing them who failed to commit them to the flames was to lose his right hand (Evagr. H. E. iv. 11; Novell. Justinian. No. 42; Matt. Blastar. p. 59). Severus returned to Egypt, which he seems never again to have left. The date of his death is fixed variously in 538, 539, and 542. According to John of Ephesus, he died in the Egyptian desert (ed. Payne Smith, i. 78).
He was a very copious writer, but we possess little more than fragments. An account of them, so far as they can be identified, is given by Cave (Hist. Lit. vol. i. pp. 499 ff.) and Fabricius ( Bibl. Graec. lib. v. c. 36, vol. x. pp. 614 ff., ed. Harless). A very large number exist only in Syriac, for which consult the catalogue of the Syriac MSS. in the Brit. Mus. by Prof. Wright.
Severus was successful in his great aim of uniting the Monophysites into one compact body with a definitely formulated creed. For notwithstanding the numerous subdivisions of the Monophysites, he was, in Dorner's words, "strictly speaking, the scientific leader of the most compact portion of the party," and regarded as such by the Monophysites and their opponents. He was the chief object of attack in the long and fierce contest with the orthodox, by whom he is always designated as the author and ringleader of the heresy. His opinions, however, were far from consistent, and his opponents apparently had much difficulty in arriving at a clear and definite view of them, and constantly asserted that he contradicted himself. This was partly forced upon him by the conciliatory position he aimed at. Hoping to embrace as many as possible of varying theological colour, he followed the traditional formulas of the church as closely as he could, while affixing his own sense upon them (Dorner, Pers. of Christ, div. ii. vol. i. p. 136, Clark's trans.). In 1904 the Sixth Book of the Select Letters of Severus, in the Syriac version of Athanasius of Nisibis, were ed. by G. E. W. Brooks (Lond.). For a full statement of his opinions see the great work of Dorner, and art. "Monophysiten" in Herzog's Encyc.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Severus, Patriarch of Aquileia
Severus (31), patriarch of Aquileia, succeeding Elias c. 586. Like his predecessors, he was a strenuous champion of the Three Chapters. Soon after his consecration the exarch Smaragdus seized him in his basilica at Grado, where the bishops of Aquileia had taken refuge, and carried him off to Ravenna with three other bishops—Severus of Trieste, John of Parenzo, and Videmius of Ceneda. There he was imprisoned a whole year and subjected to personal ill-treatment till he consented with those three suffragans, and two others, to communicate with John, archbp. of Ravenna. He was then allowed to return to Grado, but the people refused to communicate with him till he had acknowledged his fault in communicating with those who condemned the Three Chapters and had been received by a synod of ten bishops at Marano, c. 589 (Paulus Diac. Hist. Lang. iii. 26).
Gregory the Great, at the end of 590 or beginning of 591, wrote to him expressing his regret at his relapse into schism, and summoning him by the emperor's orders to Rome, with his followers, that a synod might decide the matter (Epp. i. and. ix. 317 in Migne, Patr. Lat. lxxvii. 461). Three separate appeals were presented to the emperor Maurice, the third (and only one extant) being by the bishops of the continental part which was in the hands of the Lombards. In it the bishops urge the injustice of the pope, from whose communion they had separated, being judge in his own cause. They profess willingness, when peace is restored, to attend and accept the decisions of a free council at Constantinople, and point out that the clergy and people of the suffragans of Aquileia are so zealous for the Three Chapters that, if the patriarch is compelled to submit by force, when future vacancies occur among his suffragans the new bishops would be compelled to seek consecration from the bishops of Gaul, and the province of Aquileia would thus be broken up (Mansi, x. 463). Maurice accordingly directed the pope to leave Severus and his suffragans alone for the present. Gregory submitting, Severus maintained his position through Gregory's life, and died in 606 or 607 (Paulus Diac. iv. 33), after an episcopate of 21 years and a month. He bequeathed all his property to his cathedral at Grado ( Chr. Patr. Grad. in Script. Rer. Lang. 394).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Stephanus i., Patriarch of Antioch
Stephanus (16) I., patriarch of Antioch a.d. 478–480 (Clinton, F. R. ii. 536, 553). Stephen having sent a synodic letter to Acacius bp. of Constantinople acquainting him with the circumstances of his consecration, Acacius convened a synod, a.d. 478, by which the whole transaction was confirmed. The partisans of Peter the Fuller accused Stephen to Zeno of Nestorian heresy, and demanded to have his soundness in the faith investigated by a synod. Zeno yielded, and a synod was called for the Syrian Laodicea (Labbe, iv. 1152 ). The charge was declared groundless (Theophan. 108). Stephen's enemies, rendered furious by defeat, made an onslaught on the church of St. Barlaam in which he was celebrating the Eucharist, dragged him from the altar, tortured him to death, and threw his body into the Orontes (Evagr. H. E. iii. 10; Niceph. H. E. xv. 88). The emperor, indignant at the murder of his nominee, despatched a military force to punish the Eutychian party, at whose instigation the crime had been committed ( Simplicii Ep 14 ad Zenonem, Labbe, iv: 1033; Lib. Synod. ib. 1152). According to some authorities it was Stephen's successor, another Stephen, who was thus murdered. Valesius, Seb. Binius, Tillemont ( Mém. xvi. 315) and Le Quien ( Or. Christ. ii. 726) take the view given above.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch
Theodotus (18), patriarch of Antioch, a.d. 420–429 (Clinton, F. R. ii. 552). He succeeded Alexander, under whom the long-standing schism at Antioch had been healed, and followed his lead in replacing the honoured name of Chrysostom on the diptychs of the church. He is described by Theodoret, at one time one of his presbyters, as "the pearl of temperance," "adorned with a splendid life and a knowledge of the divine dogmas" (Theod. H. E. v. 38; Ep. 83 ad Dioscor. ). Joannes Moschus relates anecdotes illustrative of his meekness when treated rudely by his clergy, and his kindness on a journey in insisting on one of his presbyters exchanging his horse for the patriarch's litter (Mosch. Prat. Spir. c. 33). By his gentleness he brought back the Apollinarians to the church without rigidly insisting on their formal renouncement of their errors (Theod. H. E. v. 38). On the real character of Pelagius's teaching becoming known in the East and the consequent withdrawal of the testimony previously given by the synods of Jerusalem and Caesarea to his orthodoxy, Theodotus presided at the final synod held at Antioch (mentioned only by Mercator and Photius, in whose text Theophilus of Alexandria has by an evident error taken the place of Theodotus of Antioch) at which Pelagius was condemned and expelled from Jerusalem and the other holy sites, and he joined with Praylius of Jerusalem in the synodical letters to Rome, stating what had been done. The most probable date of this synod is that given by Hefele, a.d. 424 (Marius Mercator, ed. Garnier, Paris, 1673, Commonitor. c. 3, p. 14; Dissert. de Synodis , p. 207; Phot. Cod. 54). When in 424 Alexander, founder of the order of the Acoemetae, visited Antioch, Theodotus refused to receive him as being suspected of heretical views. His feeling was not shared by the Antiochenes, who, ever eager after novelty, deserted their own churches and crowded to listen to Alexander's fervid eloquence (Fleury, H. E. livre xxv. c. 27). Theodotus took part in the ordination of Sisinnius as patriarch of Constantinople, Feb. 426, and united in the synodical letter addressed by the bishops then assembled to the bishops of Pamphylia against the Massalian heresy (Socr. H. E. vii. 26; Phot. Cod. 52). He died in 429 (cf. Theodoret's Ep. to Diosc. and his H. E. v. 40). Tillem. t. xii. note 2, Theod. Mops. ; Theophan. Chron. p. 72; Le Quien, Or. Christ. ii. 720; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 405.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Timotheus, Patriarch of Constantinople
Timotheus (24), patriarch of Constantinople, appointed in 511 by the emperor Anastasius the day after the deposition of MACEDONIUS (3). He had been priest and keeper of the ornaments of the cathedral, and was a man of bad character. He apparently adopted the Monophysite doctrines from ambition, not conviction. Two liturgical innovations are attributed to him, the prayers on Good Friday at the church of the Virgin, and the recital of the Nicene Creed at every service, though the last is also ascribed to Peter the Fuller. He sent circular letters to all the bishops, which he requested them to subscribe, and also to assent to the deposition of Macedonius. Some assented, others refused, while others again subscribed the letters but refused to assent to the deposition of Macedonius. The extreme Monophysites, headed by John Niciota, patriarch of Alexandria, whose name he had inserted in the diptychs, at first stood aloof from him, because, though he accepted the Henoticon, he did not reject the council of Chalcedon, and for the same reason Flavian II. of Antioch and Elias of Jerusalem at first communicated with him. With SEVERUS of Antioch he afterwards assembled a synod which condemned that council, on which Severus communicated with him. Timothy sent the decrees of his synod to Jerusalem, where ELIAS refused to receive them. Timothy then incited Anastasius to depose him (Liberat. 18, 19; Mansi, viii. 375). He also induced the emperor to persecute the clergy, monks, and laity who adhered to Macedonius, many of whom were banished to the Oasis in the Thebaid. His emissaries to Alexandria anathematized from the pulpit the council of Chalcedon. Within a year of his accession Timotheus directed that the Ter Sanctus should be recited with the Monophysite addition of "Who wast crucified for us." On Nov. 4 and 5 this caused disturbances in two churches, in which many were slain, and the next day a terrible riot broke out which nearly caused the deposition of Anastasius. Timothy died Apr. 5, 517. Vict. Tun. Chron. ; Marcell. Chron. ; Theod. Lect. ii. 28, 29, 30, 32, 33; Evagr. iii. 33; Theophanes; Tillem. Mém. eccl. xvi. 691, 698, 728.
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Sentence search

Patriarchy - ) The jurisdiction of a Patriarch; Patriarchship. ) Government by a Patriarch; Patriarchism
Patriarchate - ) The residence of an ecclesiastic Patriarch. ) A Patriarchal form of government or society. See Patriarchal, a. ) The office, dignity, or jurisdiction of a Patriarch
Sem - SHEM the Patriarch
Patriarchdom - ) The office or jurisdiction of a Patriarch; Patriarchate
Abuna - ) The Patriarch, or head of the Abyssinian Church
Israelites - Descendants of the Patriarch Jacob, or Israel
Abrahamic - ) Pertaining to Abraham, the Patriarch; as, the Abrachamic covenant
Beccus, John - 1220-1298) Patriarch of Constantinople, born Constantinople. After the death of Emperor Michael Palaeologus, 1282, the enemies of reunion forced his resignation as Patriarch and exiled him to Prusa, Bithynia
Patriarchal - ) Characteristic of a Patriarch; venerable. ) Of or pertaining to a Patriarch or to Patriarchs; possessed by, or subject to, Patriarchs; as, Patriarchal authority or jurisdiction; a Patriarchal see; a Patriarchal church
Patriarchism - ) Government by a Patriarch, or the head of a family
Patriciate - ) The patrician class; the aristocracy; also, the office of Patriarch
Hirah - An Adullamite, a friend of the Patriarch Judah
Seth - —The Patriarch, mentioned as a link in our Lord’s genealogy (Luke 3:38)
Shem - —The Patriarch, mentioned as a link in our Lord’s genealogy (Luke 3:36)
Apocrisiarius - A cleric who served as diplomatic representative of a Patriarch during late antiquity and the early mediaeval period
Apocrisiary - A cleric who served as diplomatic representative of a Patriarch during late antiquity and the early mediaeval period
he'Ber -
Grandson of the Patriarch Asher, (Genesis 46:17 ; Numbers 26:45 ; 1 Chronicles 7:31 ) from whom came the Heberites. (Numbers 26:45 ) ...
The Patriarch Eber
Ical - ) Relating to the Patriarch Abraham
Melchites - The Melchites, excepting some few points of little or no importance, which relate only to ceremonies, and ecclesiastical discipline, are, in every respect, professed Greeks; but they are governed by a particular Patriarch, who assumes the title of Patriarch of Antioch
Enoch - —There is no mention of the Patriarch Enoch in the Gospels except as a link in our Lord’s genealogy, Luke 3:37
Damianist - ) A follower of Damian, Patriarch of Alexandria in the 6th century, who held heretical opinions on the doctrine of the Holy Trinity
Enoch - —There is no mention of the Patriarch Enoch in the Gospels except as a link in our Lord’s genealogy, Luke 3:37
Abba - ) Father; religious superior; - in the Syriac, Coptic, and Ethiopic churches, a title given to the bishops, and by the bishops to the Patriarch
Eastern Church - The highest five authorities are the Patriarch of Constantinople, or ecumenical Patriarch (whose position is not one of supremacy, but of precedence), the Patriarch of Alexandria, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, the Patriarch of Antioch, and the Holy Synod of Russia
Patriarchs - Patriarchs among Christians, are ecclesiastical dignitaries, or bishops, so called from their paternal authority in the church. The power of Patriarchs was not the same in all, but differed according to the different customs of countries, or the pleasures of kings and councils. Thus the Patriarch of Constantinople grew to be a Patriarch over the Patriarchs of Ephesus and Caesarea, and was called the (Ecumenical and Universal Patriarch; and the Patriarch of Alexandria had some prerogatives which no other Patriarch but himself enjoyed; such as the right of consecrating and approving of every single bishop under his jurisdiction. The Patriarchate has ever been esteemed the supreme dignity in the church: the bishop had only under him the territory of the city of which he was bishop; the metropolital superintended a province, and had for suffragans the bishops of his province; the primate was the chief of what was then called a diocess, and had several metropolitans under him; and the Patriarch had under him several diocesses, composing one exarchate, and the primates themselves were under him. Usher, Pagi, De Marca, and Morinus, attribute the establishment of the grand Patriarchates to the apostles themselves, who, in their opinion, according to the description of the world then given by geographers, pitched on three principal cities in the three parts of the known world, viz. Rome in Europe, Antioch in Asia, and Alexandria in Africa: and thus formed a trinity of Patriarchs. ...
Others maintain, that the name Patriarch was unknown at the time of the council of Nice; and that for a long time afterwards Patriarchs and primates were confounded together, as being all equally chiefs of diocesses, and equally superior to metropolitans, who were only chiefs of provinces. Hence Socrates gives the title Patriarch to all the chiefs of diocesses, and reckons ten of them. In deed, it does not appear that the dignity of Patriarch was appropriated to the five grand sees of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, till after the council of Chalcedon, in 451; for when the council of Nice regulated the limits and prerogatives of the three Patriarchs of Rome, Antioch, and Alexandria, it did not give them the title of Patriarchs, though it allowed them the pre-eminence and privileges thereof: thus when the council of Constantinople adjudged the second place to the bishop of Constantinople, who, till then, was only a suffragan of Heraclea, it said nothing of the Patriarchate. Nor is the term Patriarch found in the decree of the council of Chalcedon, whereby the fifth place is assigned to the bishop of Jerusalem; nor did these five Patriarchs govern all the churches. There were besides many independent chiefs of diocesses, who, far from owning the jurisdiction of the grand Patriarchs, called themselves Patriarchs, such as that of Aquileia; nor was Carthage ever subject to the Patriarch of Alexandra. ) imagines that the bishops who enjoyed a certain degree of pre-eminence over the rest of their order, were distinguished by the Jewish title of Patriarchs in the fourth century. ...
The authority of the Patriarchs gradually increased till about the close of the fifth century: all affairs of moment within the compass of their Patriarchates came before them, either at first hand, or by appeals from the metropolitans. It deserves to be remarked, however, that the authority of the Patriarchs was not acknowledged through all the provinces without exception. The Latin church had no Patriarchs till the sixth century; and the churches of Gaul, Britain, &c. were never subject to the authority of the Patriarch of Rome, whose authority only extended to the suburbicary provinces. There was no primacy, no exarchate, nor Patriarchate, owned here; but the bishops, with the metropolitans governed the church in common. Indeed, after the name Patriarch became frequent in the West, it was attributed to the bishop of Bourges and Lyons; but it was only in the first signification, viz. Du Cange says, that there have been some abbots who have borne the title of Patriarchs
Autocephali - (Greek: autokephaloi, independent) ...
Certain bishops in early Christian times, not subject to any Patriarch or metropolitan, but dependent directly on a triennial provincial synod or on the Holy See
Jacob - ) A Hebrew Patriarch (son of Isaac, and ancestor of the Jews), who in a vision saw a ladder reaching up to heaven (Gen
Justinian, Lawrence, Saint - Confessor, first Patriarch of Venice, born Venice, Italy, 1381; died there, 1456. He was made Patriarch of Venice, 1451; was renowned for his charities and reforms
Lawrence Justinian, Saint - Confessor, first Patriarch of Venice, born Venice, Italy, 1381; died there, 1456. He was made Patriarch of Venice, 1451; was renowned for his charities and reforms
Potiphar - An officer in the court of Pharaoh—master to the Patriarch Joseph (Genesis 37:36) His name is derived, as it should seem to be, from Parah, which means to scatter
Bow - Hence, the dying Patriarch, when blessing Joseph, speaks of "his bow abiding in strength, because his arms were made strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob. From thence (said the Patriarch), is the shepherd the stone of Israel. " (Revelation 6:2) And there can be no doubt, but that the bow mentioned by the dying Patriarch referred to Christ
Melchites - These people and their Patriarchs, having gradually become dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople, joined him in the Greek Schism (9th to 11th century). After several attempts at reconciliation they were united to Rome in the 18th century under the Patriarch Cyril VI who, with his successors, represents the original line of Antioch
Melkites - These people and their Patriarchs, having gradually become dependent on the Patriarch of Constantinople, joined him in the Greek Schism (9th to 11th century). After several attempts at reconciliation they were united to Rome in the 18th century under the Patriarch Cyril VI who, with his successors, represents the original line of Antioch
Mathusala - A Hebrew Patriarch mentioned in the book of Genesis, chapter 5, son of Henoch and great-grandson of Adam
Jared -
The fourth antediluvian Patriarch in descent from Seth (Genesis 5:15-20 ; Luke 3:37 ), the father of Enoch; called Jered in 1 Chronicles 1:2
Methusael - Canaanite Patriarch (Genesis 4:18 )
Sheth - ...
...
The antediluvian Patriarch (1 Chronicles 1:1 )
Paulus, the Black - Paulus (11), surnamed The Black , Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch from about the middle of 6th cent. Before he became bishop he maintained at Constantinople a successful public dispute in the Patriarchal palace with the Tritheites Conon and Eugenius ( ib. Either Mennas or Eutychius must then have been Patriarch. Paul was probably then syncellus to Theodosius, the Jacobite Patriarch of Alexandria, who was in nominal exile at Constantinople, but exercising full authority over the Jacobite congregations there and in Egypt. Paul's connexion with Theodosius, and his success as a disputant, marked him out for the titular see of Antioch and the Patriarchate of the whole Monophysite body, then beginning to be called Jacobites, and he was consecrated by Jacob Baradaeus himself who originated the name. The great persecution of the Monophysites by the Patriarch John Scholasticus broke out at Constantinople, if the year is right, on Mar 20, 571, and Paul was one of four bishops (another being PAULUS (18)) barbarously treated by him. He was induced to leave the monastery of the Acoemetae in Constantinople for the Patriarch's palace, whither the three others were also brought, under pretence of conferring on the unity of the church. They twice communicated with him, loudly anathematizing the obnoxious synod; but the Patriarch put off his part of the compact with the excuse that he must first obtain the consent of the bp. In 578 a new Patriarch of Antioch, Peter of Callinicus, was appointed, and Paul withdrew into concealment at Constantinople, where he died in 582, as detailed by John of Ephesus
Israel - Means "prince of G-d"; Israel is (a) another name for the Patriarch Jacob (b) the Jewish people (c) an Israelite - a Jew who is neither a Kohen nor a Levite (d) a common given name (e) the Land of Israel
Exarch - ) A viceroy; in Ravenna, the title of the viceroys of the Byzantine emperors; in the Eastern Church, the superior over several monasteries; in the modern Greek Church, a deputy of the Patriarch , who visits the clergy, investigates ecclesiastical cases, etc
Henoch - The name of (1) a son of Cain; (2) a nephew of Abraham; (3) a son of Ruben; (4) a Patriarch, son of Jared and father of Mathusala, who according to Saint Paul "was translated that he should not see death
Ignatius of Constantinople, Saint - Confessor, Patriarch of Constantinople, born Constantinople, c. In 847 he was made Patriarch of Constantinople
Patriarch - In common usage the title of Patriarch is assigned especially to those whose lives are recorded in Scripture previous to the time of Moses, as Adam, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Thus each great family had its Patriarch or head, and each tribe its prince, selected from the several heads of the families which it embraced. ) ("After the destruction of Jerusalem, Patriarch was the title of the chief religious rulers of the Jews in Asia and in early Christian times it became the designation of the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem
Sheth -
The Patriarch Seth
Ecumenical Patriarch - The Byzantine prelates persisted in using the title, which is now claimed by the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople
Joannes Scythopolita, Scholasticus in Palestine - Photius had read a work of his in 12 books, Against Separatists from the Church or Against Eutyches and Dioscorus , written at the request of a Patriarch Julianus, probably Julian Patriarch of Antioch, A
Notitire Episcopatuum - The hierarchical order included the Patriarch, greater metropolitans, archbishops, exempt bishops, and suffragan bishops
ju'Das, -
The Patriarch Judah
ju'Das, -
The Patriarch Judah
Alexander, Saint (2) - (died 326) Confessor, Doctor of the Church, Patriarch of Alexandria
Patriarch - Patriarch
Exarch - but above all, to take an account of the several revenues which the Patriarch receives from several churches, and particularly as to what regards collecting the same. The exarch, after having enriched himself in his post, frequently rises to the Patriarchate himself. Exarch is also used in the Eastern church antiquity, for a general or superior over several monasteries, the same that we call archimandrite; being excepted by the Patriarch of Constantinople from the jurisdiction of the bishop
Miris Modis Repente Liber, Ferrea - " The hymn is attributed to Saint Paulinus, Patriarch of Aquileia (726-802)
in Wondrous Mode Set Free, lo, at the Lord's Comma - " The hymn is attributed to Saint Paulinus, Patriarch of Aquileia (726-802)
Monothelites - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian monk, later Patriarch of Jerusalem
Monothelitism - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian monk, later Patriarch of Jerusalem
Monothelites - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian monk, later Patriarch of Jerusalem
Monothelitism - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian monk, later Patriarch of Jerusalem
Eudoxians - A sect in the fourth century; so called from their leader Eudoxius, Patriarch of Antioch and Constantinople, a great defender of the Arian doctrine
Ephesus, Third Council of - Presided over by Saint Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, it condemned Nestorius, the Bishop of Constantinople, who taught that Mary did not bring forth the Word of God, but the Man who became the temple of the Godhead, "the animated purple of the King
Patriarchs - The name Patriarch is derived from the Greek Patriarcha, "head of a family
Sabas, Saint - ) He was ordained priest by Sallustius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in 491. 511, by the Patriarch ELIAS, to counteract the influence of Severus and the Monophysites with the emperor Anastasius; and again by Peter, Patriarch of Jerusalem, in 531, to ask from the emperor remission of the taxes due by Palestine and help to rebuild the churches ruined by invasion
Tiberius ii., Emperor of Constantinople - The Patriarchs of Constantinople were ardent opponents of the Monophysites. The Patriarch, John Scholasticus, soon after the emperor's accession to the position of Caesar (a. The emperor, having extorted from the Patriarch an acknowledgment of their Christian character, declared he would not become a Diocletian in persecuting such followers of Christ. Tiberius consulted the Patriarch, whereupon interested parties roused the mob to hoot the emperor and accuse him of Arianism. Gregory, afterwards pope Gregory the Great, then a deacon and Roman apocrisiarius at the imperial court, at once detected heresy in the Patriarch's teaching. The emperor, being appealed to, decided in favour of Gregory, while the Patriarch was induced to burn the obnoxious book
Canterbury, Baldwin of - While there he acted as vice-regent of the Patriarch
Baldwin of Canterbury - While there he acted as vice-regent of the Patriarch
ju'da - [1] (Luke 3:26 ) He seems to be certainly the same person as ABIUD in (Matthew 1:13 ) ...
One of the Lord's brethren, enumerated in (Mark 6:3 ) ...
The Patriarch Judah
Lia Fail - Legend claims it to be the stone on which the Patriarch Jacob pillowed his head
Latin Church - The name applied to that vast portion of the Catholic body which comprises the Patriarchate of the West, which obeys the pope, the supreme head of Christendom, as its Patriarch, and which adheres to the Latin Rite. Because it is the largest Patriarchate many erroneously apply the adjective Latin (or Roman) to all Catholics, regardless of whether they follow Latin Rite, or the various Eastern rites
Noah - (Hebrew: rest) ...
Son of Lamech, and ninth Patriarch of the Sethite line, who, with his family, was saved in the Ark, from the Deluge, dying 350 years later at the age of 950
Noe - (Hebrew: rest) ...
Son of Lamech, and ninth Patriarch of the Sethite line, who, with his family, was saved in the Ark, from the Deluge, dying 350 years later at the age of 950
Agapetus i, Saint Pope - He confirmed decrees against the Arians, went to Constantinople in state to persuade Emperor Justinian to abandon his Italian projects, and while there deposed the heretical Patriarch, Anthimus
Agar - After the birth of Isaac, Sara caused the expulsion of Agar and her son from the dwellings of the Patriarch
Acacians - Also the name of another sect, named after Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in the fifth century, who favoured the opinions of Eutychus
Aaron - First High Priest and Patriarch of the Priestly Family
Eustochius (6), Patriarch of Jerusalem - Eustochius (6) , Patriarch of Jerusalem, in succession to Peter, and, according to Papebroch, from a. But in the monasteries of that province, and especially in that named the New Laura, the partisans of the proscribed opinions grew daily more powerful, notwithstanding the resolute efforts of the Patriarch against them. According to Victor Tununensis, Eustochius was removed from the Patriarchate, and Macarius restored. 6060; Papebroch, Patriarch
Cophti - The Cophts have a Patriarch, who resides at Cairo; but he takes his title from Alexandria. The second person among the clergy after the Patriarch is the titular Patriarch of Jerusalem, who also resides at Cairo. To him belongs the government of the Cophtic church during the vacancy of the Patriarchal see. To be elected Patriarch, it is necessary the person have lived all his life in continence
Quodcumque in Orbe Nexibus Revinxeris - It is attributed to Saint Paulinus, Patriarch of Aquileia
John Xviii, Pope - He was recognized only as Bishop of Rome in Constantinople, where the Patriarch claimed the primacy
Ecthesis - However, the same prince revoked it, on being informed that pope Severinus had condemned it, as favouring the Monothelites; declaring, at the same time, that Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople, was the author of it
Anastasius ii, Pope - He caused the name of Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, to be removed from the tablets of the Church, although recognizing the validity of his sacramental acts
Mam're - (strength, fatness ) an ancient Amorite, who with his brothers, Eshcol and Aner, was in alliance with Abram, ( Genesis 14:13,51 ) and under the shade of whose oak grove the Patriarch dwelt in the interval between his residence at Bethel and at Beersheba
Eastern Church - But instrictness, the term "Eastern" or "Oriental Church" is applied onlyto the Graeco-Russian Church in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople
Patriarch - ) A dignitary superior to the order of archbishops; as, the Patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Antioch
Cainan -
The fourth antediluvian Patriarch, the eldest son of Enos
Noah - The Holy Ghost hath given the character of this Patriarch when calling him a preacher of righteousness
Ruben - A Patriarch in the Bible, the eldest son of Jacob (Genesis 46:49)
Alexandrian Manuscript - from Cyrillus Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, by Sir Thomas Rowe, ambassador from England to the grand Seignior, about the year 1628. But this high antiquity, and the authority of the tradition to which the Patriarch refers, have been disputed; nor are the most accurate biblical writers agreed about its age
Monophysites - The Monophysites, however, properly so called, are the followers of Severus, a learned monk of Palestine, who was created Patriarch of Antioch, in 513, and Petrus Fullenis. ...
The Monophysites are divided into two sects or parties, the one African and the other Asiatic; at the head of the latter is the Patriarch of Antioch, who resides for the most part in the monastery of St. Athanias, near the city of Merdin: the former are under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Alexandria, who generally resides at Grand Cairo, and are subdivided into Cophts and Abyssinians. From the fifteenth century downwards, all the Patriarchs of the Monophysites have taken the name of Ignatius, in order to show that they are the lineal successors of Ignatius, who was bishop of Antioch in the first century, and consequently the lawful Patriarch of Antioch
Juda -
The Patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33 ; Hebrews 7:14 )
Gad - (Hebrew: fortune, luck) ...
Patriarch, seventh son of Jacob (Genesis 35)
Ephesus, Robber Council of - Held at Ephesus in 449, it was not really a council but a synod called to vindicate the heresiarch Eutyches from the condemnation of Saint Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople
Robber Council of Ephesus - Held at Ephesus in 449, it was not really a council but a synod called to vindicate the heresiarch Eutyches from the condemnation of Saint Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople
Abyssinian Church - The Abyssinians, by the most authentic accounts, were converted to the Christian faith about the year 330; when Frumentius, being providentially raised to a high office, under the patronage of the queen of Ethiopia, and ordained bishop of that country by Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, established Christianity, built churches, and ordained a regular clergy to officiate in them. ...
The Abyssinian Christians have always received their abuna, or Patriarch, from Alexandria, whence they sprang, and consequently their creed is Monophysite, or Eutychian; maintaining one nature only in the person of Christ, namely, the divine, in which they considered all the properties of the humanity to be absorbed; in opposition to the Nestorians. This led to a correspondence between the Abyssinians and the church of Rome; and Bermudes, a Portuguese, was consecrated by the pope Patriarch of Ethiopia, and the Abyssinians were required to receive the Roman Catholic faith, in return for some military assistance afforded to the emperor. ...
Instead of this, however, the emperor sent for a new Patriarch from Alexandria, imprisoned Bermudes, and declared the pope a heretic. They were compelled to retreat to Grand Cairo, from whence, by leave of the Patriarch, they visited the Copts, at Behrusser, and formed a small society; but in 1783, they were driven thence, and compelled to return to Europe
Metropolitan - His rank is intermediate between that of an archbishop and a Patriarch
hu'Ram -
A Benjamite; son of Bela, the first-born of the Patriarch
Paulus of Asia - As his persecution by John Scholasticus, Patriarch of Constantinople, marks a period in the history of the Monophysite body, it is important to fix its date, which in all probability was 571. The historian describes him as an honest and simple-minded old man, dwelling quietly in his monastery in Caria, when the Patriarch had him brought to Constantinople and imprisoned in his own palace, until, overcome by harsh treatment, he was compelled to receive the communion at his hands, besides signing an act of submission, which he was not allowed to read (given by the historian), to the effect that he accepted the decrees of Chalcedon and the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople
Mishna - About 220, it was compiled in its present shape by R Jehuda, the Patriarch, who used the idiom of the New Hebrew, interspersed with Greek and Latin words
Rachel - A well-known and interesting name in the Bible, the beloved wife of the Patriarch Jacob, and daughter of Laban. And from being engaged in keeping flocks, in these early days of Patriarchal simplicity, it is probable the name was taken on that account
Most Holy Directing Synod - In 1721Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate at Moscow and established a Most Holy Directing Synod, absolutely dependent on the state, whose members were ecclesiastical and lay persons all appointed by the czar, having jurisdiction over all ecclesiastical matters. This council, which was adopted by the Greek Church in 1833, is considered a more democratic system of government, though scarcely in harmony with the strict monarchy of the Church Fathers, than the autocratic rule of the Patriarch
John the Almsgiver, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his Patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor
Joannes Eleemosynasius, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his Patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor
Joannes Misebicors, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his Patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor
Misebicors, Joannes, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his Patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor
Holy Synod - In 1721Peter the Great abolished the Patriarchate at Moscow and established a Most Holy Directing Synod, absolutely dependent on the state, whose members were ecclesiastical and lay persons all appointed by the czar, having jurisdiction over all ecclesiastical matters. This council, which was adopted by the Greek Church in 1833, is considered a more democratic system of government, though scarcely in harmony with the strict monarchy of the Church Fathers, than the autocratic rule of the Patriarch
Almsgiver, John the Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his Patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor
Ephraim - Younger son of the Patriarch Joseph (Genesis 41), born in Egypt, during the seven years of plenty
Abraham in Liturgy - The Patriarch Abraham is specifically mentioned in the Roman Martyrology (October 9,); in the Litany for the Dying; in the Breviary, at Quinquagesima, Shrove Tuesday, Passion Sunday, and in the Magnificat, Benedictus and Psaltery; in the Missal, in the third Prophecy on Holy Saturday, Epistle of the thirteenth Sunday after Pentecost, Offertory of the Mass for the Dead, blessing in a Nuptial Mass, and in the Canon of the Mass; in the Pontifical, in the preface of the consecration of an altar, blessing of a cemetery, and blessing and coronation of a king
Jedi'a-el -
A chief Patriarch of the tribe of Benjamin
Ethan - He appears to have been a son of Zerah or Ezra, and grandson of the Patriarch Judah
Patriarch - Patriarcha Gr. It is usually applied to the progenitors of the Israelites, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and the sons of Jacob, or to the heads of families before the flood as the antediluvian Patriarchs. In the christian church, a dignitary superior to the order of archbishops as the Patriarch of Constantinople, of Alexandria, or of Ephesus
Eleemosynasius, Joannes, Saint - Saint John the Almsgiver; Saint Joannes Eleemosynasius; Saint Joannes Misebicors Patriarch of Alexandria (606-616), born Amathus, Cyprus, c. During his Patriarchate at Alexandria, he became widely known throughout the east for his liberality to the poor
ma'Chir -
The eldest son, (Joshua 17:1 ) of the Patriarch Manasseh by an Aramite or Syrian concubine
Copts - " The Copts have a Patriarch, whose jurisdiction extends over both Egypts, Nubia, and Abyssinia; who resides at Cairo, but who takes his title from Alexandria. Next to the Patriarch is the bishop, or titular Patriarch, of Jerusalem, who also resides at Cairo, because there are only few Copts at Jerusalem. To him belongs the government of the Coptic church, during the vacancy of the Patriarchal see
Zoaras - The embassage of Agapetus, Patriarch of Rome, with whom Zoaras held a very stormy encounter which resulted in the deposition of the Patriarch Anthimus as a concealed Monophysite and the appointment of Mennas, a. Here Theodorus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, was living and propagating his doctrines
Macedonius ii, Patriarch of Constantinople - , Patriarch of Constantinople a. In 507 Elias, Patriarch of Jerusalem, who had been unwilling to sanction the deposition of Euphemius, united himself in communion with Macedonius. The Patriarch avoided the blow, and ordered a fixed amount of provisions to be given monthly to the criminal. Anastasius pretended to be willing to alter this, but at the same time made a third attempt to tamper with the orthodoxy of the Patriarch. In 515 pope Hormisdas worked for the restitution of Macedonius, whom he considered unjustly deposed; it had been a stipulation in the treaty of peace between Vitalian and Anastasius that the Patriarch and all the deposed bishops should be restored to their sees
Nestorians - ...
In the earliest ages of Nestorianism, the various branches of that numerous and powerful sect were under the spiritual jurisdiction of the Catholic Patriarch of Babylon,—a vague appellation which has been successively applied to the sees of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, and Bagdad,—but who now resides at Mousul. In the sixteenth century the Nestorians were divided into two sects; for in 1551 a warm dispute arose among them about the creation of a new Patriarch, Simeon Barmamas, or Barmana, being proposed by one party, and Sulaka, otherwise named Siud, earnestly desired by the other; when the latter, to support his pretensions the more effectually, repaired to Rome, and was consecrated Patriarch in 1553, by Pope Julius III, whose jurisdiction he had acknowledged, and to whose commands he had promised unlimited submission and obedience. Upon this new Chaldean Patriarch's return to his own country, Julius sent with him several persons skilled in the Syriac language, to assist him in establishing and extending the papal empire among the Nestorians; and from that time, that unhappy people have been divided into two factions, and have often been involved in the greatest dangers and difficulties, by the jarring sentiments and perpetual quarrels of their Patriarchs. In 1555, Simeon Denha, archbishop of Gelu, adopted the party of the fugitive Patriarch, who had embraced the communion of the Latin church; and, being afterward chosen Patriarch himself, he fixed his residence in the city of Van, or Ormia, in the mountainous parts of Persia, where his successors still continue, and are all distinguished by the name of Simeon; but they seem of late to have withdrawn themselves from their communion with the church of Rome. The great Nestorian pontiffs who form the opposite party, and who have, since 1559, been distinguished by the general denomination of Elias, and reside constantly at Mousul, look with a hostile eye on this little Patriarch; but since 1617 the bishops of Ormus have been in so low and declining a state, both in opulence and credit, that they are no longer in a condition to excite the envy of their brethren at Mousul, whose spiritual dominion is very extensive, taking in great part of Asia, and comprehending within its circuit the Arabian Nestorians, as also the Christians of St
Mallows - The lowest, complains the Patriarch, deride me; as the rude Bedouins of the desert, "who cut up saltwort among the bushes (or 'hedges'), and the broom roots (retem ) for their meat
Eshcol - The brother of Mamre and Aner, the Amorite confederates of Abraham, who assisted the Patriarch in his pursuit and defeat of Chedorlaomer’s forces ( Genesis 14:13 ; Genesis 14:24 )
Juda - Patriarch, reputed forefather of the Tribe of Juda
Marcian - In 450 he married Empress Pulcheria and was crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople, the first instance of the Christian ceremony of coronation
Coptic Church - The "pope and Patriarch" has jurisdiction over the Abyssinian Church
Nicholas i, Pope, Saint - He upheld the right of appealing to Rome, against the decisions of Archbishop Hincmar of Rheims; defended the integrity of the marriage bond against Lothair II; and supported Ignatius, Patriarch of Constantinople against, the intruder, Photius
Degradation - We have an instance of it in the eighth century at Constantinople, in the person of the Patriarch Constantine, who was made to go out of the church backwards, stripped of his pallium, and anathematized
Acephali - Such bishops as were exempt from the discipline and jurisdiction of their ordinary bishop or Patriarch
Eugene i, Pope Saint - As pope he demanded a profession of faith from Emperor Constans II, a defender of Monothelitism; the emperor however answered with a request that the pope should enter into communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople
Simplicius, Pope Saint - He defended the independence of the Church against the encroachments of the Emperor Zeno, who sought to have his Henotikon recognized by Rome in 482; upheld the authority of the pope in matters of faith, in opposition to the future schismatic Patriarch, Acacius; condemned Peter Mongus, Fullo, Paul of Ephesus, and John of Apamea; and built four churches in Rome
Society of Foreign Missions of Milan - Founded in 1850 under the patronage of Pope Pius IX by Angelo Ramazzotti, then an Oblate Father of Rho (Milan), later Bishop of Pavia, and subsequently Patriarch of Venice
e'Hud -
Ehud son of Bilhah, and great-grandson of Benjamin the Patriarch
Joannes Cappadox, Bishop of Constantinople - His short Patriarchate is memorable for the celebrated Acclamations of Constantinople, and the reunion of East and West after a schism of 34 years. As he came near the raised dais where the pulpit stood shouts arose, "Long live the Patriarch! Long live the emperor! Why do we remain excommunicated? Why have we not communicated these many years? You are Catholic, what do you fear; worthy servant of the Trinity? Cast out Severus the Manichee! O Justin, our emperor, you win! This instant proclaim the synod of Chalcedon, because Justin reigns. The procession passed into the inclosure, but the excited congregation went on shouting outside the gates of the choir in similar strains: "You shall not come out unless you anathematize Severus," referring to the heretical Patriarch of Antioch. The Patriarch John, having meanwhile gained time for thought and consultation, came out and mounted the pulpit, saying, "There is no need of disturbance or tumult; nothing has been done against the faith; we recognize for orthodox all the councils which have confirmed the decrees of Nicaea, and principally these three—Constantinople, Ephesus, and the great council of Chalcedon. Still the people continued to shout with all their might, "Severus is now to be anathematized; anathematize him this instant, or there's nothing done!" The Patriarch, seeing that something must be settled, took counsel with the twelve attendant prelates, who agreed to the curse on Severus. Again as the Patriarch made his processional entrance and approached the pulpit clamours arose: "Restore the relics of Macedonius to the church! Restore those exiled for the faith! Let the bones of the Nestorians be dug up! Let the bones of the Eutychians be dug up! Cast out the Manichees! Place the four councils in the diptychs! Place Leo, bp. of Rome, in the diptychs! Bring the diptychs to the pulpit!" This kind of cry continuing, the Patriarch replied, "Yesterday we did what was enough to satisfy my dear people, and we shall do the same to-day. The Patriarch tried in vain to bring them to reason. The Patriarch was at last obliged to have inserted in the diptychs the four councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus, and Chalcedon, and the names of Euphemius and Macedonius, Patriarchs of Constantinople, and Leo, bp. The emperor Justin wrote to the pope a fortnight after the scene of the acclamations, begging him to further the desires of the Patriarch John for the reunion of the churches. Justin received the pope's letters with great respect, and told the ambassadors to come to an explanation with the Patriarch, who at first wished to express his adherence in the form of a letter, but agreed to write a little preface and place after it the words of Hormisdas, which he copied out in his own handwriting. ...
The sting of the transaction still remained; they had now to efface from the diptychs the names of five Patriarchs and two emperors—Acacius, Fravitta, Euphemius, Macedonius, and Timotheus; Zeno and Anastasius
Greek Church - The Patriarch of Constantinople insisted on putting down the use of all images and pictures, not only in his own church, but at Rome also, which the pope resented with equal violence and asperity. They mutually excommunicated each other; and the pope of Rome excommunicated not only the Patriarch of Constantinople, but the emperor also. At that time, the Patriarch Michael Cerularius, who was desirous to free himself from the papal authority, published an invective against the Latin church, and accused its members of maintaining various errors. The Greek Patriarch refused to see them; upon which they excommunicated him and his adherents, publicly, in the church of St. The Greek Patriarch excommunicated those legates, with all their adherents and followers, in a public council; and procured an order of the emperor for burning the act of excommunication which they had pronounced against the Greeks. The head of the Greek church, the Patriarch of Constantinople, is elected by twelve bishops, who reside nearest that famous capital. The other Patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, all nominated by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who enjoys a most extensive jurisdiction. In this assembly the Patriarch of Constantinople presides, with those of Antioch and Jerusalem, and twelve archbishops
Daniel, the Stylite - The Patriarch Gennadius ordained him presbyter against his will, standing at the foot of his column. Then the Patriarch, by means of a ladder, administered the Eucharist, and received it in turn from the Stylite. Towards the end of his life, solicited eagerly by both sides, he took part in the dispute between the emperor Basiliscus, a Monophysite, and Acacius Patriarch of Constantinople
John Xix, Pope - As pope he refused the request of the Eastern emperor, Basil II, to allow the Byzantine Patriarchs to assume the title "AEcumenical Patriarch"; crowned Conrad the Salian emperor, 1027; allowed the subjects of King Canute of Denmark and England to travel to Italy free of customs duties; and settled a dispute between the archbishops of Milan and Ravenna in favor of the former
Ephraim - The intention of Joseph was that the right hand of the aged Patriarch should be placed on the head of the elder of the two; but Jacob set Ephraim the younger before his brother, "guiding his hands wittingly
Jediael - A Patriarch of Benjamite heads of houses whose sons numbered 17,200 mighty men in David's days (1 Chronicles 7:6; 1 Chronicles 7:11)
Hormisdas, Pope Saint - When Anastasius died the union was effected, 519, the emperor, Patriarch, and all the bishops signing the "Formula
Goa, India, Archdiocese of - The archbishop was formerly Patriarch of the East Indies; Primate of the East, and holds the titles of Bishop of Damão, and Archbishop of Cranganore. Raised to an archdiocese on February 4, 1558, and then to a Patriarchate on September 1, 1886
Mahanaim - " The Patriarch gave it this name because in this place he had a vision of angels coming to meet him, Genesis 32:2
Seth - The invention of letters and writing is by the rabbins ascribed to this Patriarch
Mourning - And still more, in that of the Patriarch Jacob, Seven days the funeral halted at the threshing-floor of Atad
Romanus - As pope he refused the request of the Eastern emperor, Basil II, to allow the Byzantine Patriarchs to assume the title "AEcumenical Patriarch"; crowned Conrad the Salian emperor, 1027; allowed the subjects of King Canute of Denmark and England to travel to Italy free of customs duties; and settled a dispute between the archbishops of Milan and Ravenna in favor of the former
Patriarchs - The title is chiefly confined to the heads of families before the law; for when we speak of the Patriarchs without particularizing by name it is generally understood of those before the flood, and afterwards confined to the persons and families of Abraham, Issac, Jacob, and their tribe. The Hebrews rather call them princes than Patriarchs, and distinguish all of this description by the general appellation Roshe Aboth. As to the name of Patriarch given to the Greek church in modern times, this is altogether fanciful, and not derived from any authority in Scripture
Serapion, Solitary of Scete - Serapion (14), a solitary, of Scete, and leader of the Anthropomorphites against the festal epistle of Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria
Arabia Petraea - The Patriarch Job was familiar with its scenery
Jacob's Well - It is called Jacob's Well because the Patriarch who "drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle" gave it to the tribe of Joseph
Job - Persecuted, an Arabian Patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q
Jacob - The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great Patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ancestor of the twelve tribes of Israel
Walking - He that is God Almighty (the El Shaddai), wills the Patriarch into the perfection he is to walk in
Protonotary - ) The chief secretary of the Patriarch of Constantinople
Alexandria, Cyril of, Saint - A nephew of Theophilus, the Patriarch, Cyril was brought up in an atmosphere of asceticism
Well of the Samaritan Woman - It is called Jacob's Well because the Patriarch who "drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle" gave it to the tribe of Joseph
Scriptural Patriarchs - Thus of the Semites from Adam to Therah inclusively, there were nineteen Patriarchs. With Abraham there begins another list of Patriarchs of the Abrahamites. First there are the three great Patriarchs, to whom all render special praise: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Of Jacob sprang twelve sons, and twelve Patriarchs, founders of the race of Israel. In Acts 2:29, David is called a Patriarch, as a token of signal honor, and because he founded the Davidic dynasty of which is Christ
Judas - The Patriarch JUDAH
Nestorianism - Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople (5th century), while combating the Arians, came to accept the view that in Christ the two natures stand for two personalities which are united in one moral person
Nestorius - Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople (5th century), while combating the Arians, came to accept the view that in Christ the two natures stand for two personalities which are united in one moral person
Henoticon - It was procured of the emperor by means of Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, with the assistance of the friends of Peter Mongus and Peter Trullo
Nestorianism - Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople (5th century), while combating the Arians, came to accept the view that in Christ the two natures stand for two personalities which are united in one moral person
Damascene, John, Saint - He vigorously opposed the Iconoclast persecution propagated by Leo the Isaurian, and retired to the monastery of Saint Sabas, near Jerusalem, where he was ordained priest by John V, Patriarch of Jerusalem
John Damascene, Saint - He vigorously opposed the Iconoclast persecution propagated by Leo the Isaurian, and retired to the monastery of Saint Sabas, near Jerusalem, where he was ordained priest by John V, Patriarch of Jerusalem
Machpelah - The owner, Ephron the Hittite, offered it to Abraham for free, but the Patriarch refused the gift and paid the fair price of 400 shekels of silver
Godfrey of Bouillon - Having received investiture from the Patriarch, he defeated the Saracens in Egypt, but died shortly after
Sarah - Her story is from her marriage identified with that of the Patriarch till the time of her death
Thigh - Jacob's thigh was disabled by the Angel, to show the Patriarch that his prevalence was through his faith and prayer, not through force, Genesis 32:25-31
Ger'Izim - [1] According to the traditions of the Samaritans it was here that Abraham sacrificed Isaac, that Melchizedek met the Patriarch, that Jacob built an altar, and at its base dug a well, the ruins of which are still seen
Leo i, Emperor - 7, 457, and crowned by Anatolius, Patriarch of Constantinople, being the first Christian sovereign to receive his crown from the hands of a priest. Immediately upon the news of Marcian's death, religious troubles broke out in Alexandria, where the Monophysite party murdered the Patriarch Proterius (Proteius), substituting for him Timothy Aelurus. The emperor, distracted by the demands of pope and Patriarch on the one hand, of Aspar and the heretical party on the other, addressed a circular letter to Anatolius and all other metropolitans, commanding them to assemble their provincial councils, and advise him—(1) whether the decrees of the council of Chalcedon should be held binding; (2) as to the ordination of Timothy Aelurus. Gennadius, Patriarch of Constantinople, dying in 471, was succeeded by Acacius, whom Leo admitted a member of the senate, where no ecclesiastic had hitherto sat
Onanism - The name is derived from Onan, the son of the Patriarch Juda, mentioned in the book of Genesis (38:8)
Aquileia - (now Aglar) A city at the head of the Adriatic Sea, Italy, for many centuries seat of a Patriarchate. A city of the empire under Charlemagne, it became in the 11th century a feudal possession of its Patriarch, whose temporal authority was disputed by the nobility. In the 6th century its Patriarchal dignity caused a schism, which lasted fifty years, and resulted in the establishment of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in Grado. In 1751 the pope divided the Patriarchate into the two archdioceses of Udine and Gorz, leaving to Aquileia only the parish church, directly subject to the Apostolic see
Aglar - (now Aglar) A city at the head of the Adriatic Sea, Italy, for many centuries seat of a Patriarchate. A city of the empire under Charlemagne, it became in the 11th century a feudal possession of its Patriarch, whose temporal authority was disputed by the nobility. In the 6th century its Patriarchal dignity caused a schism, which lasted fifty years, and resulted in the establishment of the Patriarchate of Aquileia in Grado. In 1751 the pope divided the Patriarchate into the two archdioceses of Udine and Gorz, leaving to Aquileia only the parish church, directly subject to the Apostolic see
Shuthelah - The Ephraim who mourned for his sons Ezer and Elead was not the Patriarch son of Joseph, but a descendant who bore Ephraim's name
Babylon - The Patriarchate of Babylon was founded, 1681, for the Chaldean Rite. Present Patriarch, appointed, 1900, Emmanuel Thomas, residing at Mosul, Iraq
Enoch - "The seventh from Adam," and the father of Methuselah; eminent as a Patriarch who lived near to God, through faith in a Redeemer to come, Hebrews 11:5,13
Felix Iii, Bishop of Rome - ...
The pontificate of this Felix was chiefly remarkable for the commencement of the schism of 35 years between Rome and the Eastern Patriarchates. to Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople. The council had also enacted canons of discipline, the 9th and the 17th giving to the Patriarchal throne of Constantinople the final determination of causes against metropolitans in the East; and the 28th assigning to the most holy throne of Constantinople, or new Rome, equal privileges with the elder Rome in ecclesiastical matters, as being the second after her, with the right of ordaining metropolitans in the Pontic and Asian and Thracian dioceses, and bishops among the barbarians therein. They supported Peter Mongus as Patriarch; the orthodox supporting first Timotheus Solofacialus, and on his death John Talaia. ]'>[1] Felix, in a synod at Rome, renewed his predecessor's excommunication of Peter Mongus, addressed letters to the emperor Zeno and Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople. The sentence of excommunication was served on Acacius by one of those zealous champions of Felix, the Sleepless Monks ("Acoemetae"), who fastened it to the robe of the Patriarch when about to officiate in church. The Patriarch discovered it, but proceeded with the service, and then, in a calm, clear voice, ordered the name of Felix, bp. The emperor and the great majority of the prelates of the East supported Acacius; and thus the Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, as well as Constantinople, remained out of communion with Rome. the Fuller), had excited the orthodox zeal of Felix, Patriarch of Antioch
Joseph - (Hebrew: may God add) ...
Patriarch, eleventh son of Jacob, first-born of Rachel, immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim
Italo-Greeks - They comprise the, original Greek-speaking inhabitants of southern Italy, which was withdrawn from the jurisdiction of Rome and given to the Patriarch of Constantinople by Emperor Leo the Isaurian in 726
Maximus of Constantinople, Saint - He went to Africa where he held a dispute with Pyrrhus, the banished Patriarch of Constantinople
John Chrysostom, Saint - " In 398 he was elevated to the See of Constantinople, where he incurred popular resentment by his sweeping reforms, and was deposed and exiled, 403, by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria
Judah - ) After the death of his wife Shuah, he returned to his father's house, and there exercised much influence over the Patriarch, taking a principal part in the events which led to the whole family at length going down into Egypt
Job - The Patriarch, from whom one of the poetical books of the Old Testament is named. The opinions of Job and his Mends are thus interesting as showing a phase of Patriarchal religion outside of the family of Abraham, and not controlled by the legislation of Moses. The form of worship is similar to the early Patriarchal type; with little of ceremonial ritual, without a separate priesthood
Ham - ) Of the history of Ham nothing is related except his irreverence to his father and the curse which that Patriarch pronounced
Isdigerdes ii, King of Persia - It was answered in a council of eighteen Armenian bishops, headed by the Patriarch Joseph, at Ardashad in 450. In 455 or 456 the Persians triumphed in a great battle, wherein the Patriarch Joseph and many nobles were taken prisoners and martyred
Timotheus, Patriarch of Constantinople - Timotheus (24), Patriarch of Constantinople, appointed in 511 by the emperor Anastasius the day after the deposition of MACEDONIUS (3). The extreme Monophysites, headed by John Niciota, Patriarch of Alexandria, whose name he had inserted in the diptychs, at first stood aloof from him, because, though he accepted the Henoticon, he did not reject the council of Chalcedon, and for the same reason Flavian II
Joannes i, Bishop of Rome - Invited by the Patriarch Epiphanius to celebrate Easter with him in the great church, he consented only if seated on a throne above that of the Patriarch. None were excluded from his communion except Timotheus, Patriarch of Alexandria (Theophan
Timotheus Salofaciolus - Timotheus (19) , commonly called Salofaciolus , Patriarch of Alexandria, elected after the expulsion of Timotheus Aelurus, at the beginning of Aug. This step was followed up by rigorous edicts, intended to overawe the numerous clerics, monks, and laymen who refused to communicate with the restored Patriarch ( Brev. Peter Mongus was lurking in corners of Alexandria, "plotting against the church"; the Patriarch wrote to Zeno and Simplicius, begging that he might be removed to a distance (Liberat
Nestorians - By him Pherozes, the Persian monarch, was persuaded to expel those Christians who adopted the opinions of the Greeks, and to admit the Nestorians in their place, putting them in possession of the principal seat of ecclesiastical authority in Persia, the see of Selucia, which the Patriarch of the Nestorians had always filled even down to our time. the Nestorians acknowledged but one Patriarch, who resided first at Bagdad, and afterwards at Mousul; but a division arising among them, in 1551 the Patriarchate became divided, at least for a time, and a new Patriarch was consecrated by that pope, whose successors fixed their residence in the city of Ormus, in the mountainous parts of Persia, where they still continue, distinguished by the name of Simeon; and so far down as the seventeenth century, these Patriarchs persevered in their communion with the church of Rome, but seem at present to have withdrawn themselves from it. ...
The great Nestorian pontiffs, who form the opposite party, and look with a hostile eye on this little Patriarch, have, since the year 1559, been distinguished by the general denomination of Elias, and reside constantly in the city of Mousul. About the middle of the seventeenth century, the Romish missionaries gained over to their communion a small number of Nestorians, whom they formed into a congregation or church; the Patriarchs or bishops of which reside in the city of Amida, or Diarbeker, and all assume the denomination of Joseph
Mesrobes - Mesrobes, one of the most celebrated Patriarchs and historians of Armenia, born in 354 at the town of Hasecasus, now Mush (Tozer's Turkish Armenia , p. 286) and educated under Nerses Magnus, the fourth Patriarch of Armenia from St. He became coadjutor to the Patriarch Sahag in 390, when he devoted himself to the extirpation of the remains of idolatry still existing in Armenia. He induced the Patriarch Sahag, alias Isaac, to convoke a national council at the city of Vagharschabad to consider the question, at which the king Vram-Schapouh assisted. , Moses Taronensis, Kioud of Arabeza, afterwards Patriarch, Mamprus lector, Jonathan, Khatchig, Joseph of Baghin, Eznig, Knith bp
Pelagius ii., Bishop of Rome - 588), a council at Constantinople, apparently a large and influential one, and not confined to ecclesiastics, dealt with Gregory Patriarch of Antioch, who being charged with crime, had appealed "ad imperatorem et concilium" (Evagr. This council is memorable as having called forth the first protest from Rome, renewed afterwards more notably by Gregory the Great, against the assumption by the Patriarch of Constantinople of the title "oecumenical. " The title itself was not a new one; as an honorary or complimentary one it had been occasionally given to other Patriarchs; and Justinian had repeatedly designated the Patriarch of Constantinople "the most holy and most blessed archbishop of this royal city, and oecumenical Patriarch" ( Cod. Nor do we know of any previous objection, and at this council it may have been ostentatiously assumed by the then Patriarch, John the Faster, and sanctioned by the council with reference to the case before it, in a way that seemed to recognize jurisdiction of the Patriarchate of Constantinople over that of Antioch
Euphemius, Patriarch of Constantinople - Euphemius (4) , 3rd Patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Fravitta and followed by Macedonius II. Finding that Peter Mongus, the Patriarch of Alexandria, anathematized the council of Chalcedon, he was so indignant that before he took his seat on the Patriarchal throne he solemnly separated from all communion with him, and with his own hands effaced his name from the diptychs, placing in its stead that of Felix III. ...
To pope Felix the Patriarch sent letters, as was usual, to announce his election, but received the reply that he might be admitted as a private member of the church Catholic, but could not be received in communion as a bishop, because he had not removed from the diptychs the names of his predecessors, Acacius and Fravitta. The Patriarch appeared before the conventicle with menacing gestures and drove them from the spot. The Patriarch openly called him a heretic, unworthy of reigning over Christians, and refused to crown him, despite the entreaties of the empress and the senate, until Anastasius would give a written profession of his creed, promise under his hand to keep the Catholic faith intact, make no innovation in the church, and follow as his rule of belief the decrees of Chalcedon. Neither letter remains, but the reply of Gelasius shews that Euphemius, in congratulating the Roman church on its pontiff, added that he himself was not sufficiently his own master to do what he wished; that the people of Constantinople would never agree to disgrace the memory of their late Patriarch Acacius; that if that were necessary, the pope had better write to the people about it himself, and send someone to try and persuade them; that Acacius had never said anything against the faith, and that if he was in communion with Mongus, it was when Mongus had given a satisfactory account of his creed. The high spirit of the orthodox Patriarch was fired by this dictatorial interference. He even thought of summoning the pope himself to account; and as Gelasius was certainly even more suspicious of the emperor Anastasius, who was, despite the recantation which Euphemius had enforced, a real Eutychian at heart, it is very likely that, as Baronius asserts, the Patriarch did not attempt to conceal the pope's antipathy to the emperor. Anastasius harboured designs against its supporters; the Patriarch gathered together the bishops who were at Constantinople, and invited them to confirm its decrees. 1180) the event is placed at the beginning of the Patriarchate of Euphemius, and the decrees are said to have been sent by the bishops to pope Felix III. John hurried to the emperor to inform him of the Patriarch's indiscretion
Johannes Bessarion - After the fall of Constantinople, he labored unceasingly to save the Oriental Christians, and was rewarded for his efforts with the commendatory abbacy of the Greek Basilians at Grottaferrata; subsequently he was named Patriarch of Constantinople
Bessarion, Johannes - After the fall of Constantinople, he labored unceasingly to save the Oriental Christians, and was rewarded for his efforts with the commendatory abbacy of the Greek Basilians at Grottaferrata; subsequently he was named Patriarch of Constantinople
Meonenim, the Oak of - That where under Jacob hid the strange gods and talisman earrings of his household was close by Shechem (Genesis 35:4), the same where Abram built his first altar in Palestine (Genesis 12:6); here also Joshua, alluding to the Patriarch Jacob's address and the original idolatry of Israel's forefathers, urges the people similarly to "put away the strange gods," etc
Ancient - ) An aged man; a Patriarch
Honorius i, Pope - He died with an untarnished reputation but notoriety has come to him from the fact that he was condemned as a heretic by the Sixth General Council, 680, which based its condemnation on a letter of his to Sergius, Patriarch of Constantinople
Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria - Heraclas, Patriarch of Alexandria, a
Paulus ii, Patriarch of Antioch - , Patriarch of Antioch, a
Petrus, Surnamed Mongus - Petrus (6), surnamed Mongus (Stammerer), Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, ordained deacon by Dioscorus, and said to have taken part in the outrages against Flavian at the Latrocinium (Mansi, vi. On the death of the Monophysite Patriarch Timotheus Aelurus in 477, and in the absence of the orthodox Salofaciolus whom he had displaced, the Monophysites determined to place Peter in the see. Accordingly, Peter was driven out of Egypt; John, surnamed Talaia, steward of the great church, was chosen Patriarch, but neglected to announce his accession to Acacius, who, piqued by this omission, prevailed on Zeno to expel John, and to restore Peter on condition that he should support an attempt to promote doctrinal unity without enforcing the authority of the council of Chalcedon. This was addressed to the bishops, clergy, monks, and laymen of the Alexandrian Patriarchate; it recognized the creed of "the 318" at Nicaea as "confirmed by the 150" at Constantinople, the decisions of the council of Ephesus, together with the 12 articles of Cyril; it employed language as to Christ's consubstantiality with man which Cyril had adopted in his "reunion with the Easterns"; it rejected the opposite theories of a "division" and a "confusion" in the person of Christ, and included Eutyches as well as Nestorius in its anathema. This, for the time, be effected at a public festival, when as Patriarch he preached to the people, and caused it to be read (Evagr. In letters to Acacias, the Patriarch of Constantinople, and pope Simplicius, he professed to accept the council of Chalcedon (Liberatus); and by playing the part of a time-server ( κόθορνος , Evagr. He accordingly anathematized the council of Chalcedon and the Tome of pope Leo, substituted the names of Dioscorus and Timotheus Aelurus for those of Proterius and Timotheus Salofaciolus on his diptychs, and gratified his own vindictiveness by taking the body of Salofaciolus from its place among the buried Patriarchs and "casting it outside the city" (Liberat
Severus, Patriarch of Aquileia - Severus (31), Patriarch of Aquileia, succeeding Elias c. They profess willingness, when peace is restored, to attend and accept the decisions of a free council at Constantinople, and point out that the clergy and people of the suffragans of Aquileia are so zealous for the Three Chapters that, if the Patriarch is compelled to submit by force, when future vacancies occur among his suffragans the new bishops would be compelled to seek consecration from the bishops of Gaul, and the province of Aquileia would thus be broken up (Mansi, x
Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople - Acacius ( 7 ), Patriarch of Constantinople, A. of Constantinople, and soon found himself involved in controversies, which lasted throughout his Patriarchate, and ended in a schism of thirty-five years' duration between the churches of the East and West. In conjunction with a Stylite monk, Daniel, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to the emperor Basiliscus, who, after usurping the empire of the East, had issued an encyclic letter in condemnation of the council of Chalcedon, and taken Timotheus Aelurus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, under his protection, A. Three years later (482), on the death of the Patriarch of Alexandria, the appointment of his successor gave occasion to a graver dispute. The Monophysites chose Petrus Mongus as Patriarch, who had already been conspicuous among them; on the other side the Catholics put forward Johannes Talaia. Mongus was, or at least had been, unorthodox; Talaia was bound by a solemn promise to the Emperor not to seek or (as it appears) accept the Patriarchate (Liberat. Felix communicated the sentence to Acacias, and at the same time wrote to Zeno, and to the church at Constantinople, charging every one, under pain of excommunication, to separate from the deposed Patriarch (Epp. Fravitas (Flavitas, Flavianus), his successor, during a very short Patriarchate, entered on negotiations with Felix, which led to no result
Henoticon, the - Henoticon, The, or Instrument of Union , a document owing its existence to Acacius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, and probably the production of his pen, put forth by the emperor Zeno, a. ...
The immediate cause of its issue was the dissension between the rival occupants of the Patriarchal see of Alexandria. of Hermopolis Minor, a relation of Timotheus Salofaciolus, and "apocrisiarius" or legate of the see of Alexandria, who conceived that he too had been slighted by the new Patriarch, determined to compass his overthrow. They represented to Zeno that Talaia was unworthy of the Patriarchate, both as having replaced the name of Dioscorus on the diptychs, and as having perjured himself by accepting the see of Alexandria, after having, as was asserted, taken an oath that he would not seek for it. Zeno readily gave credence to these charges, and when it was further represented that, if he recognized Peter Mongus, the deposed Patriarch, peace would be restored, he wrote to Simplicius, stating his grounds for hesitating to sanction the appointment of John, and urging the restoration of Peter Mongus to put an end to the distractions of the church. Simplicius replied, June 482, that he would delay recognizing John as Patriarch until the grave charges brought by Zeno could be investigated; but he utterly refused to allow the elevation of a convicted heretic such as Peter Mongus to the Patriarchal see. The friends of Mongus undertook that he would adopt it, and on this he was recognized by Zeno and Acacius as the canonical Patriarch and his name inserted in the diptychs. The high Chalcedonian party, chiefly consisting of the monastic orders, condemned the "Henoticon" as tainted with Eutychianism, and, on the other hand, the Eutychians or Monophysites, indignant with Mongus for turning traitor to their cause, separated themselves, and, forming a distinct body without any chief leader and not holding communion with the Patriarch, were designated "the headless sect," "Acephali. Such double-dealing estranged many of his own party, and the discussions of which the unhappy "instrument of union" was the parent were still further aggravated by the cruel persecution of the orthodox throughout the whole of Egypt by the new Patriarch. ]'>[1] Neither emperor nor Patriarch took much heed of the condemnation of the Roman see, and continued to press the "Henoticon" everywhere, ejecting bishops who withheld their signatures and refused to communicate with Peter Mongus (Theoph. Calandion, Patriarch of Antioch, was deposed, and Peter the Fuller reinstated. The new Patriarch not only signed the "Henoticon," but pronounced an anathema on the council of Chalcedon. The new Patriarch, John of Cappadocia, "a man of servile mind though unmeasured ambition," was prepared to adopt any course which would secure his power. The names of the Patriarchs Acacius, Fravitta, Euphemius, and Macedonius, together with those of the emperor Zeno and Anastasius, were erased from the diptychs, and Acacius was branded with a special anathema. Fresh disturbances were created when it was found that Hormisdas demanded the condemnation of all who had communicated with Acacius, and turned a deaf ear to the repeated applications of both emperor and Patriarch for some relaxation of these terms (Evagr
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - Together with Paul of Aphrodisias (subsequently Patriarch of Antioch), Stephen, bp. Elisha, John of Ephesus was imprisoned in the Patriarch's palace. In the heated debates which followed, the four Monophysite bishops stoutly charged John of Sirmin with breach of the canons in annulling the orders of their clergy, and, when the Patriarch demanded of them "a union such as that between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch," declared their willingness provided they might drive out the council of Chalcedon from the church, as Cyril had driven out Nestarius. They declined, and 33 days passed in constant wrangling between them and the Patriarch. Meanwhile they were kept under close guard; the Patriarch's creatures stripped them of everything; friends were denied admittance to their prison; and their personal followers were also confined in the dungeons of the palace. The cunning Patriarch was careful to encourage this belief. At last his victims gave way, the Patriarch promising upon oath that the council of Chalcedon should be sacrificed. For three years, however, he was under surveillance, until the Patriarch died (A. Before the outbreak of this persecution, John of Ephesus and Paul of Aphrodisias had argued publicly with Conon and Eugenius, the founders of the Cononites, nicknamed Tritheites, in the presence of the Patriarch and his synod, by command of Justin (v. Eutychius, who, upon the death of John of Sirmin, was restored to the Patriarchal throne, was hardly more tolerant of Monophysites than its late occupant. ...
It is greatly to our historian's credit that, during the bitter strife which raged long among the Monophysites themselves, in the matter of the double election of Theodore and Peter to succeed Theodosius as their Patriarch of Alexandria, he maintained an honourable neutrality, standing equally aloof from Paulites and Jacobites, although his sympathies were with Theodore, the injured Patriarch (iv. 581) his party made overtures to John of Ephesus, then living at the capital, to induce him to recognize Peter of Callinicus as Patriarch of Antioch in place of Paul (iv. 10, 18); the four bishops taunt the Patriarch with "the heresy of the two natures, and the blasphemies of the synod, and of the tome of Leo" (i. In regard to Eutychius, John protests his adherence to truth: "Although we declare ourselves opposed to the excellent Patriarch Eutychius, yet from the truth we have not swerved in one thing out of a hundred; nor was it from eagerness to revile and ridicule that we committed these things to writing" (iii
Leo the Great, Pope Saint - He combated Pelagianism, Manichaeanism and Priscillianism; upheld the decision of the Patriarch of Constantinople against Eutyches by a dogmatic letter confirming the doctrine of the Incarnation
Leo i, Pope Saint - He combated Pelagianism, Manichaeanism and Priscillianism; upheld the decision of the Patriarch of Constantinople against Eutyches by a dogmatic letter confirming the doctrine of the Incarnation
Leo ix, Pope Saint - Three months after his death the Patriarch Michael Cærularius, whose unorthodox attitude had displeased him, was excommunicated by two cardinals, and the East was finally separated from the Church
Athanasius, Bishop of Perrha - , Patriarch of Antioch, summoned a council to consider the matter
Shepherds - It appears by the history of Joseph that the Patriarch used this policy when bringing his father and his brethren before Pharaoh, in order that they might be separated from the Egyptians, and have the land of Goshen assigned them. ...
I rather think, (though I speak not in the most distant way decidedly upon the subject) that the mind of the Patriarch Joseph had an eye to Christ and aimed, upon this and every other occasion, to keep up the gracious distinction of character of the seed of Abraham, whose first and most decisive feature all along was of "the people that dwell alone, and that were not to be reckoned among the nations
Theodotus, Patriarch of Antioch - Theodotus (18), Patriarch of Antioch, a. Joannes Moschus relates anecdotes illustrative of his meekness when treated rudely by his clergy, and his kindness on a journey in insisting on one of his presbyters exchanging his horse for the Patriarch's litter (Mosch. Theodotus took part in the ordination of Sisinnius as Patriarch of Constantinople, Feb
Petrus, Surnamed Fullo - Petrus (10) (surnamed Fullo , "the Fuller"), intruding Patriarch of Antioch, 471–488, a Monophysite, took his surname from his former trade as a fuller of cloth. 463, Peter's unbridled ambition soared to the Patriarchal throne, then filled by Martyrius, and having gained the ear of the rabble, be adroitly availed himself of the powerful Apollinarian element among the citizens and the considerable number who favoured Eutychian doctrines, to excite suspicions against Martyrius as a concealed Nestorian, and thus caused his tumultuous expulsion and his own Election to the throne. When established as Patriarch, Peter at once declared himself openly against the council of Chalcedon, and added to the Trisagion the words "Who wast crucified for us," which he imposed as a test upon all in his Patriarchate, anathematizing those who declined to accept it. The deposed Martyrius went to Constantinople to complain to the emperor Leo, by whom, through the influence of the Patriarch Gennadius, he was courteously received; a council of bishops reported in his favour, and his restoration was decreed (Theod. Under the influence of his wife Basiliscus declared for the Monophysites, recalled Timothy Aelurus, Patriarch of Alexandria, from exile, and by his persuasion issued an encyclical letter to the bishops calling them to anathematize the decrees of Chalcedon (Evagr. Peter on his restoration enforced the addition to the Trisagion, and behaved with great violence to the orthodox party, crushing all opposition by an appeal to the mob, whom he had secured by his unworthy arts, and who confirmed the Patriarch's anathemas by plunder and bloodshed. Once established on the Patriarchal throne, he was not slow to stretch its privileges to the widest extent, ordaining bishops and metropolitans for all Syria. He retained, however, the Patriarchate at Antioch till his death, in 488, or according to Theophanes, 490 or 491. One of his latest acts was the unsuccessful revival of the claim of the see of Antioch to the obedience of Cyprus as part of the Patriarchate
Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine - In 428 the church of his laura was consecrated by Juvenal, the first Patriarch of Jerusalem, accompanied by the presbyter Hesychius and the celebrated Passarion, governor of a monastery in Jerusalem. She should abjure her schism, and embrace the communion of Juvenal, Patriarch of Jerusalem. Euthymius died in 473; his obsequies were celebrated by the Patriarch Anastatius and a large number of clergy, among whom are mentioned Chrysippus, guardian of the Cross, and a deacon named Fidus
Abraham - ...
Patriarch, son of Thare and father of Ismael
Widow - We find the practice of this custom before the law in the person of Tamar, who married successively Er and Onan, the sons of Judah, and who was likewise to have married Selah, the third son of this Patriarch, after the two former were dead without issue, Genesis 38:6-11
Naphtali - The Patriarch Jacob, when he gave his blessing, said, as it is in the English Bible, "Naphtali is a hind let loose; he giveth goodly words," Genesis 49:21
Patriarch - (πατριάρχης, from πατριά, ‘clan,’ and ἀρχή, ‘rule’)...
A Patriarch is the father or head of a πατριά or clan. ’ In 4 Maccabees 7:19 reference is made to ‘our Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob’ (cf
Julianus, Missionary Priest to the Nubians - He was an old man of great worth, and one of the clergy in attendance on Theodosius, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, then residing at Constantinople
Stephanus i., Patriarch of Antioch - , Patriarch of Antioch a
Shiloh - One of the names of the Messiah, given by the dying Patriarch Jacob under the spirit of prophecy, and to which both Jew and Gentile agree; though in the application of the name to the person of Christ they differ. The dying Patriarch said that the sceptre should not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until the Shiloh come
Dioscorus, the Monk - They were reluctantly induced by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, to leave the desert and to submit to ordination. Weary of city life and uncongenial duties, and shocked by the avarice and other vices of Theophilus, Dioscorus and his brethren returned to their solitudes, though the indignant Patriarch tried to deter them by violent menaces (Socr
Ephraim (6), Bishop of Antioch And Patriarch - of Antioch and Patriarch, a. In 537, at the bidding of Justinian, he repaired with Hypatius of Ephesus and Peter of Jerusalem to Gaza to hold a council in the matter of Paul the Patriarch of Alexandria, who had been banished to that city and there deposed
Armenian Church - Yeates gives the most recent account of them:—...
"Their whole ecclesiastical establishment is under the government of four Patriarchs; the first has his residence in Echmiadzin, or Egmiathin, near Irivan; the second, at Sis, in the lesser Armenia; the third, in Georgia; and the fourth, in Achtamar, or Altamar, on the Lake of Van; but the power of the two last is bounded within their own diocesses, while the others have more extensive authority, and the Patriarch of Egmiathan has, or had, under him eighteen bishops, beside those who are priors of monasteries. In 1667, a certain Patriarch of the lesser Armenia visited Rome, and made a profession of faith which was considered orthodox, and procured him a cordial reception, with the hope of reconciling the Armenian Christians to the Roman church; but before he got out of Italy, it was found he had prevaricated, and still persisted in the errors of his church
Mennas - Mennas, Patriarch of Constantinople, 536–552. ...
In the controversies which gave rise to the Lateran council in 649, a Monothelite writing was brought forward by Sergius Patriarch of Constantinople as a genuine work of Mennas, supposed to be addressed to pope Vigilius
Barsumas, Syrian Archimandrite - The injuries inflicted were so serious that the venerable Patriarch died three days afterwards
Acephali - Peter Mongus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, subscribed this compromise [1]; for this reason many of his party, especially among the monks, separated from him, and were called Acephali
Issachar - (Genesis 49:14-15) "Issachar (said the dying Patriarch) is a strong ass, couching down between two burthens; and he saw that rest was good, and the land that it was pleasant; and bowed his shoulder to bear, and become a servant into tribute
Imposition of Hands - The dying Patriarch blessed the sons of Joseph, putting his hands significantly upon the head of each
Sergius, Saint And Martyr - Chosroes, king of Persia, returned it to Gregory, Patriarch of Antioch, in 593
Fravitta, Bishop of Constantinople - On one was written a prayer that God would send an angel to inscribe on the blank sheet the name of him whom He wished to be the Patriarch. Zeno, ashamed of his failure, entrusted the election of the new Patriarch to the clergy
Reu'Ben - ) The notices of the Patriarch Reuben give, on the whole a favorable view of his disposition. (Genesis 35:22 ) He was of an ardent, impetuous, unbalanced but not ungenerous nature; not crafty and cruel, as were Simeon and Levi, but rather, to use the metaphor of the dying Patriarch, boiling up like a vessel of water over a rapid wood fire, and as quickly subsiding when the fuel was withdrawn
Joannes, the Faster, Bishop of Constantinople - (surnamed The Faster, Jejunator , sometimes also Cappadox , and thus liable to be confused with the Patriarch John II. In 587 or 588 he summoned the bishops of the East in the name of "the Oecumenical Patriarch" to decide the cause of Gregory, archbp
Maximus, Patriarch of Antioch - Maximus (15) , Patriarch of Antioch. , Patriarch of Antioch, by the "Latrocinium" of Ephesus, a. His most important controversy at Chalcedon was with Juvenal of Jerusalem regarding the limits of their respective Patriarchates. It was long and bitter; at last a compromise was accepted by the council, that Antioch should retain the two Phoenicias and Arabia and that the three Palestines should form the Patriarchate of Jerusalem ( ib
Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople - , 5th Patriarch of Constantinople, a. At Constantinople the zeal of Justinian for a church policy was shewn during the Patriarchate of Epiphanius by laws (e. He accepted the conditions of peace between East and West concluded by his predecessor, the Patriarch John, with pope Hormisdas; ratifying them at a council at Constantinople, where he accepted also the decrees of Chalcedon. The Patriarch Epiphanius invited him to perform Mass; but the pope, mindful of the traditional policy of encroachment, refused to do so until they had offered him the first seat
Joannes Philoponus, Distinguished Philosopher - ...
At the request of Sergius (ordained Patriarch of Antioch by the Monophysites c. ...
We hear no more of Philoponus until 568, when, John, Patriarch of Constantinople, having delivered a catechetical discourse on the "Holy and consubstantial Trinity," he published a treatise in reply to it. ), though it found great favour with that section of the Monophysites which persevered in their adherence to Philoponus and with Eutychius the Catholic Patriarch of Constantinople
Patriarch - But the expression "the Patriarch," by way of eminence, is applied to the twelve sons of Jacob, or to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob
Abbot - Others were styled aecumenical or universal abbots, in imitation of the Patriarch of Constantinople, while others were termed cardinal abbots, from their superiority over all other abbots
Egypt - Until the Second Æcumenical Council (381) the Patriarch of Alexandria was recognized as next in rank to the Bishop of Rome, and the Patriarchate reached its most flourishing period under Saint Athanasius (died 373), champion of the Faith against Arianism, and Saint Cyril (412-444), defender of the Divinity of Christ. In the 5th century the Patriarchate fell prey to the Monophysite heresy, and the Catholic succession was twice interrupted for long periods. Organization of the Uniat Coptic Church dates from 1721 when Benedict XIV gave to Amba Athanasius, Coptic Bishop of Jerusalem, jurisdiction over all Catholics of the Coptic Rite in Egypt and elsewhere, and in 1895 Leo XIII restored the Patriarchate of Alexandria
Tribe - But this Patriarch on his death-bed adopted Ephraim and Manasseh, the two sons of Joseph, and would have them also to constitute two tribes in Israel, Genesis 48:5
Proclus, Saint Patriarch of Constantinople - , Patriarch of Constantinople. The friend and disciple of Chrysostom, he became secretary to Atticus the Patriarch, who ordained him deacon and priest
Peniel - The Patriarch called it by this name on this account; for he said, "I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved. And who was it Jacob saw, and with whom did he wrestle? If JEHOVAH, in his threefold character of person, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, how could this be, who is said to be invisible? If "no man hath seen God at any time," if, as JEHOVAH declared to Moses, (Exodus 33:20) "There shall no man see me and live," who could this be whom the Patriarch Jacob saw, conversed and wrestled with; but the Lord Jesus? Him whom though no man hath seen God at any time, yet "the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him. ...
Let the reader first remark that the Patriarch called the place Peniel on this account, that "he had seen God's face, and his life was preserved. " And observe the prophet doth not say an angel, but the angel, thus particularizing and defining one identical person; and we well know that Christ is often called the "angel of the covenant," (Malachi 3:1; Acts 7:30-31) Indeed the Patriarch Jacob himself, in another period of his life, called him by this name
Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem - Petrus (28), Patriarch of Jerusalem, a. On the deposition of Anthimus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Constantinople, by the single authority of pope Agapetus, then present on state business at the imperial city, and the appointment of Mennas as his successor, Agapetus issued a synodical letter dated Mar 13, 536, announcing these facts, and calling on the Eastern church to rejoice that for the first time a Patriarch of New Rome had been consecrated by the bp. His predecessor in the Patriarchal chair, Ephraim, had issued a synodical letter condemning Origen, and the Origenistic party clamoured to have his name removed from the diptychs. The emperor's edict was confirmed by a synod convened by Mennas, and was sent for signature to Peter and the other Patriarchs, a. This edict being published on the sole authority of the emperor, without synodical authority, great stress was laid on its acceptance by the bishops, especially by the four Eastern Patriarchs. But Justinian's threats of deposition outweighed Peter's conscientious convictions, and, with the other equally reluctant Patriarchs, he signed the document (Facundus, lib
Abram - another purpose which the Lord accomplished in the display of the riches of his grace, by this change of name: and which, if I mistake not, (the Lord pardon me if I err) seems to have been the Lord's great design, in this act of mercy and favour shewn both to the Patriarch and his wife; namely, by this alteration, or rather addition given to each; by one of the letters which form the incommunicable name of JEHOVAH. The Patriarch had grounds to hope it. And the way the Lord wrought on the occasion, is as remarkable, in proof of his interposition, as the Patriarch's faith in exercise. So that when the whole subject is properly considered and taken into one complete view, so far was the faith of the Patriarch from being lessened by the exercise, as in the first blush of the history it seemed to appear, that by the means Abraham adopted, he still threw himself with confidence on the Lord, to save his beloved Sarah from ruin, and his life from danger; and without this trust in the Lord, and dependence on the Lord's interposition, Abraham could not but well know, that whether he had called Sarah, sister, or wife, the peril was the same. But it should be observed, that though upon this occasion, the Patriarch did not tell the whole truth, he told no falsehood. If the reader will turn to the twentieth chapter of Genesis, and peruse a similar situation, into which Abraham and Sarah were afterwards brought at Gerar, he will there behold the Patriarch's modest apology for calling his beloved Sarah his sister, rather than his wife. The Patriarch had not recourse to mere human policy, without first throwing himself on divine aid. And let it be remembered, that in those journies the Patriarch was prosecuting, they were by the Lord's command, and not Abraham's pleasure. How beautifully the Patriarch accounts for this, as well as his whole conduct in calling Sarah his sister, and she calling him brother, in the close of his apology to Abimelech! "It came to pass, when God caused me to wander from my father's house, that I said unto her, This is the kindness which thou shalt shew unto me; At every place whither we shall come, say of me, He is my brother
Melchizedek - One Jewish tradition considers him to be a survivor of the Deluge, the Patriarch Shem, and thus entitled by his very age to bless the father of the faithful, and by his position as ruler of Canaan to confer his rights to Abram. Modern scholars, arguing back from the expositions given in the Epistle to the Hebrews, consider him to be a descendant of Ham, a priest among the heathen, constituted by God himself; and given a title above that of the ordinary Patriarchal priesthood, even above that of Abram
Gabbatha - And while with that contempt which marked Pilate's character, we hear him say, "Shall I crucify your king?"the chief priests, unconscious of what they said, answered,"We have no king but Caesar;"thereby fulfilling the dying Patriarch Jacob's prophecy (that "the sceptre should not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come;" Genesis 49:10 and thus proving from their own testimony, that the Shiloh was come
Shem - Some have thought Shem the same as Melchisedec, and that he himself had been at the school of Methuselah before the deluge: that he gave to Abraham the whole tradition, the ceremonies of the sacrifices of religion, according to which this Patriarch afterward offered his sacrifices
Agnoetae - Eulogius Patriarch of Alexandria wrote against the Agnoëtae a treatise on the absolute knowledge of Christ of which Photius has preserved large extracts. Sophronius Patriarch of Jerusalem anathematized Themistius
Greek Church - Comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian Isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Libya, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine, which are all under the jurisdiction of the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Photius, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, having been advanced to that see in the room of Ignatius, whom he procured to be deposed, was solemnly excommunicated by pope Nicholas, in a council held at Rome, and his ordination declared null and void. Towards the middle of the eleventh century, Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, opposed the Latins, with respect to their making use of unleavened bread in the eucharist, their observation of the sabbath, and fasting on Saturday, charging them with living in communion with the Jews. He likewise, by he legates, excommunicated the Patriarch in the church of Santa Sophia, which gave the last shock to the reconciliation attempted a long time after, but to no purpose; for from that time the hatred of the Greeks to the Latins, and of the Latins to the Greeks, became insuperable, insomuch that they have continued ever since separated from each other's communion. The head of the Greek church is the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is chosen by the neighbouring archbishops and metropolitans, and confirmed by the emperor or grand vizier. The other Patriarchs are those of Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. Tournefort tells us, that the Patriarchates are now generally set to sale, and bestowed upon those who are the highest bidders. The Patriarchs, metropolitans, archbishops, and bishops, are always chosen from among the caloyers, or Greek monks. ...
The Russians adhere to the doctrine and ceremonies of the Greek church, though they are now independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople
Hiss - The Patriarch Job, (Job 27:23) saith, that the hypocrite shall be so confounded, that men shall clap their hands at him, and shall hiss him out of his place
Noah - But the Patriarch recovered, and in the spirit of prophecy predicted happiness to his faithful sons, judgment to the ungodly
Oak - It should appear that the Patriarch Abraham resided under an oak, or a grove of oaks, which our translators render the plain of Mamre; and that he planted a grove of this tree, Genesis 13:18
Posthumianus, of Aquitania - Alexandria was then convulsed by the quarrel between the Patriarch Theophilus and the monks about the writings of Origen, and Posthumianus went on by land to Bethlehem, where he spent six months with Jerome, whom he praises highly both for virtue and learning
Serapion, Bishop of Antioch - the canon of Scripture" ( Patriarch
Glycerius, a Deacon in Cappadocia - He at once began to neglect the duties of his office, and gathered about him a number of young women, partly by persuasion, partly by force, of whom he took the direction, styling himself their Patriarch, and adopting a dress in keeping with his pretensions
Patriarchs - The" Patriarchal system" before Moses developed itself out of family relations, before the foundation of nations and regular governments. The "patriarchal dispensation" is the covenant between God and the godly seed, Seth, Noah, Abraham, and their descendants; the freedom of intercourse with God is simple and childlike, as contrasted with the sterner aspect of the Mosaic dispensation. Authority is grounded on paternal right, its natural ground and source, even as God is the common Father of both Patriarch and children. The Patriarchs severally typify Him in whom all their several graces meet, without blemish
Chrysippus, Guardian of the Holy Cross - In 455 Chrysippus was made the superior of the monastery of Laura, and subsequently of the church of the Resurrection, by the Patriarch Juvenal
Jew - Again the term" Israelites" expresses the high theocratic privileges of descent from the Patriarch who "as a prince had power with God" (2 Corinthians 11:22; Romans 9:4)
Theophylactus Simocatta - 11 we have the story of a sorcerer named Paulinus, whom the Patriarch of Constantinople brought before the emperor, pressing for his capital punishment
Gennadius (10), Bishop of Constantinople - According to the rules of the church, the Patriarch had him flogged, which was also ineffectual. The Patriarch sent one of his officers to the church of St
Joannes ii, Mercurius, Bishop of Rome - The emperor Justinian, supported by the Patriarch Epiphanius, having condemned the position of the "Sleepless Monks," they sent a deputation to Rome, urging the pope to support their deduction from the supposed doctrine of his predecessor. The emperor, having embodied his view of the true doctrine in an imperial edict, sent it with an embassy to Rome and a letter requesting the pope to signify in writing to himself and the Patriarch his acceptance of the doctrine of the edict, which he lays down as indubitably true, and assumes to be, as a matter of course, the doctrine of the Roman see (Inter
Eutychius - , Patriarch of Constantinople. ...
As an archimandrite at Constantinople he stood high in favour with the Patriarch Mennas, at whose death in 552 he was nominated by Justinian to the vacant chair. Vigilius refused, and Eutychius shared the first place in the assembly with the Patriarchs Apollinarius of Alexandria and Domninus of Antioch. 1729), when soldiers broke into the Patriarchal residence, entered the church, and carried the Patriarch away, first to a monastery called Choracudis, and the next day to that of St. On the death of Joannes Scholasticus, whom Justinian had put in the Patriarchal chair, the people of Constantinople loudly demanded the return of Eutychius
Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome - The survivors sent a deputation to the pope, acknowledging in ample terms the supremacy of "the most holy and blessed Patriarch of the whole world," "the successor of the Prince of the Apostles," and "the Head of all. During divine service at Constantinople, while John the Cappadocian (who had lately succeeded Timotheus as Patriarch) was officiating, the populace, who had been all along on the orthodox side, seem to have made a riot in the church in the impatience of their orthodox zeal, crying, "Long live the emperor!" "Long live the Patriarch!" They would not brook delay. A synod, attended by some 40 bishops, ratified what the Patriarch had done. In 519 Hormisdas sent a legation to Constantinople, charged with letters to the emperor and Patriarch, and also to the empress Euphemia and other persons of distinction, including three influential ladies. ...
At Constantinople they were met by Vitalian, Justinian, and other senators, and received by the emperor in the presence of the senate and a deputation of four bishops to represent the Patriarch. The Patriarch proved unwilling to sign it as it stood; but at length, after much contention, it was agreed that he might embody the libellus unaltered in a letter, with his own preamble. The Patriarch's preamble was a protest against the claim of Rome to dictate terms of communion to Constantinople and an assertion of the co-ordinate authority of his own see. In 520 the emperor Justinian and Epiphanius (who had succeeded John as Patriarch) wrote urgent letters to him on the subject
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - A considerable number of Monophysite bishops from all parts of the East, including Theodosius of Alexandria, Anthimus the deposed Patriarch of Constantinople, Constantius of Laodicea, John of Egypt, Peter, and others, who had come to Constantinople in the hope of mitigating the displeasure of the emperor and exciting the sympathies of Theodora, were held by Justinian in one of the imperial castles in a kind of honourable imprisonment. 251), including 89 bishops and two Patriarchs. "...
A still longer and more widespreading difference arose between James and Paul, whom he had ordained Patriarch of Antioch (H. This prolonged persecution broke their spirit, and one by one they all yielded, accepting the communion of John the Patriarch of Constantinople and the "Synodites," as the adherents of the Chalcedonian decrees were contemptuously termed by their opponents, "lapsing miserably into the communion of the two natures" ( ib. They clamoured for his deposition, which was carried into effect by Peter, the intruded Patriarch, in violation of all canonical order; the Patriarch of Antioch (Paul's position in the Monophysite communion) owning no allegiance to the Patriarch of Alexandria ( ib
Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel - Established historical records of the Order date back to the 12th century; the Rule it now observes is that given by Saint Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 1206, to the Hermits of Mount Carmel in Palestine
Carmelite Order - Established historical records of the Order date back to the 12th century; the Rule it now observes is that given by Saint Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 1206, to the Hermits of Mount Carmel in Palestine
Carmelites - Established historical records of the Order date back to the 12th century; the Rule it now observes is that given by Saint Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 1206, to the Hermits of Mount Carmel in Palestine
Demetrius - of Alexandria, who had formerly governed the whole province, is probably correct, though the only direct authority for it is that of Eutychius, Patriarch of Alexandria, in the 10th cent
Melchiz'Edek - Jewish tradition pronounces Melchizedek to be a survivor of the deluge, the Patriarch Shem
Jannes - By this last word he meant probably the Patriarch Joseph
he'Bron - This, say some, is the very tree beneath which Abraham pitched his tent, and it still bears the name of the Patriarch
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - Maternus, arguing against the Egyptians that Sarapis was originally the Patriarch Joseph, derives the name Sarapis from Σαρᾶς ἀπό , because Joseph was the descendant of Sarah
Nestorian Church - In later days legend supplied the names of earlier holders of what had then become a Patriarchal throne, and indeed made Akha d’Abuh’ himself one of the series, and told how in a. 170 he was recognized by the four "western Patriarchs" as the fifth of the band. ...
Papa, as by of the capital, soon claimed to be the chief bishop of the church, its catholicos; the claim was favoured by the circumstances of the time, as in his days all the "greater thrones" were obtaining jurisdiction over the lesser sees within their sphere of attraction, and the Patriarchates so formed were soon to be recognized at Nicaea. Thus they insisted that the catholicos should remain, and styled him also "patriarch," and specially forbade any appeal from him to "Western" bishops. ...
In the Roman empire at that period Chalcedon was past, and the Monophysite reaction that followed that council was at its height; the "Henoticon of Zeno" was the official confession, accepted by all the Patriarchs of the empire with the exception of the Roman. He was a favourite with the shah-in-shah, Piroz, who employed him as warden of the marches on the Romo-Persian frontier, and he was practically Patriarch of the church. The real Patriarch, Babowai, had just been put to death for supposedly treasonable correspondence with Rome, and Bar-soma had rather gone out of his way to secure that this prelate (his personal enemy) should not escape the consequences of his own imprudence. ...
Bar-soma's power ended with the death of Piroz (484), and Acacius became Patriarch. As they were already at open feud on a minor matter, the Patriarch readily agreed to this, but the memory of the schism was of evil omen for the future. This culminated in an open schism in the Patriarchate, lasting for 15 years, with open disorder in the whole church, a state of things that only terminated with the accession of Mar Aba to the Patriarchate in 540. ...
Mar Aba, the greatest man in the series of Patriarchs of the East, reformed the abuses in the church, going round from diocese to diocese with a "perambulatory synod," which judged every case on the spot with plenary authority—a precedent so excellent that it is surprising that it has never been followed. He was able to establish rules for the election of the Patriarch which still hold good in theory, and founded schools and colleges (in particular, one at Seleucia), in addition to the one at Nisibis. A series of Patriarchs of the three stock eastern types (court favourite, respectable nonentity, and strict ascetic) ruled the church, and the services were arranged much in their present form. In particular the "Rogation of the Ninevites," still annually observed, was either instituted or remodelled by the Patriarch Ezekiel, during an outbreak of plague. Several Christological confessions were issued by these so-called "Nestorians" which are certainly not unorthodox, and individual Patriarchs were readily received to communion when they happened to visit Constantinople (e. The Patriarchate was then vacant (Chosroes had been so annoyed by the substitution of another Gregory for the Gregory whom he had nominated to that office, that he had refused to allow any election when that man died in 608), and when petition was made for the granting of a Patriarch, the Monophysites, whose interest at court was powerful, petitioned for the nomination of a man of their own. ...
A deputation of Dyophysites came to court to endeavour to secure a Patriarch of their own colour, and a most unedifying wrangle over the theological point followed, Chosroes sitting as umpire. Ultimately the Dyophysites saved themselves from the imposition of a Monophysite Patriarch, at the cost of remaining without a leader till the death of Chosroes, and the Monophysites organized a hierarchy of their own. ...
During the long wars between Chosroes and Heraclius, and the anarchy that followed in Persia, the " Nestorian" church has naturally no recorded history, yet at their conclusion it was once more to have formal relations with the Patriarchate and church of Constantinople. — In the year 628 its Patriarch, Ishu-yahb II. de Jabalaha et de trois Patriarches nestoriens (Bedjan); Synodicon Orientale (ed
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - He instantly proceeded to perform episcopal acts; but after thus playing the anti-patriarch for a few days, he was expelled by the "dux" Dionysius; and it was apparently in revenge that his adherents ( ib. He declared open war against the maintainers of "two natures" as being in effect Nestorianizers, and on this ground boldly broke off communion with Rome, Constantinople, and Antioch, denouncing bishops of the Alexandrian Patriarchate who had accepted the formula of the council, and some of whom had held their sees before the accession of Cyril; he also sent to cities and monasteries a prohibition to communicate with such bishops or to recognize clerics ordained by them. Pope Leo wrote, on June 17, 460, to the emperor Leo and to Gennadius, the new Patriarch of Constantinople, urging that Timotheus, even supposing his conversion sincere, was disqualified by having "invaded so great a see during the lifetime of its bishop" ( Epp. The Patriarch Acacius closed the churches against him, but he held services in private houses (Mansi, l
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - Severus (27), Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch a. 121), and anathematized Peter Mongus, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, for accepting it. 511, in the humiliation of Anastasius the temporary triumph of the Patriarch Macedonius, and the depression of the Monophysite cause (Theophan, p. 40), and enthroned on the same day in his Patriarchal city ( ib. Proud of his Patriarchal dignity and strong in the emperor's protection, Severus despatched letters to his brother-prelates, announcing his elevation and demanding communion. His sanguinary tyranny over the Patriarchate of Antioch did not survive his imperial patron. He was gladly welcomed by the Patriarch Timotheus, and generally hailed as the champion of the orthodox faith against the corruptions of Nestorianism
Isaac - ” Only son of Abraham by Sarah and a Patriarch of the nation of Israel. ...
Though less significant than Abraham and Jacob, Isaac was revered as one of the Israelite Patriarchs (Exodus 3:6 ; 1 Kings 18:36 ; Jeremiah 33:26 ). ...
New Testament In the New Testament Isaac appears in the genealogies of Jesus (Matthew 1:2 ; Luke 3:34 ), as one of the three great Patriarchs (Matthew 8:11 ; Luke 13:28 ; Acts 3:13 ), and an example of faith (Hebrews 11:20 )
Circumcision - God commanded Abraham to use circumcision, as a sign of his covenant; and in obedience to this order, the Patriarch, at ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised, as also his son Ishmael, and all the male of his household, Genesis 17:10-12
Noah - Rest, comfort, the name of celebrated Patriarch who was preserved by Jehovah with his family, by means of the ark, through the deluge, and thus became the second founder of the human race. " He was in the line of the Patriarchs who feared God, and was himself a just man, Ezekiel 14:14,20 , and a "preacher of righteousness," 1 Peter 3:19,20 2 Peter 2:5
Hesychius (25), Presbyter of Jerusalem - " He was ordained presbyter against his will by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, and spent the rest of his life there or at other sacred places. 233, § 42), as accompanying Juvenal, Patriarch of Jerusalem, to the consecration of the church of the "laura" of St
Heraldry, Ecclesiastical - The hats of a Patriarch, an archbishop, and a bishop are green. A Patriarch also has fifteen tassels but the cord and taseels are interwoven with gold; an archbishop has ten tassels and a bishop has six
Ecclesiastical Heraldry - The hats of a Patriarch, an archbishop, and a bishop are green. A Patriarch also has fifteen tassels but the cord and taseels are interwoven with gold; an archbishop has ten tassels and a bishop has six
Nestorius And Nestorianism - One of the most far-reaching controversies in the history of the church is connected with the name of Nestorius, who became Patriarch of Constantinople in A. Socrates, a specially well-informed contemporary, and a layman of judgment and fairness, speaks with some severity of his first steps after he became Patriarch ( H. These two tendencies were certain some day to come into collision, and when reinforced by the personal jealousy felt by successive Patriarchs of Alexandria at the elevation in 381 of Constantinople, as New Rome, to the second place among the Patriarchates, over the head of a church which could boast of St. Already premonitions of the approaching conflict between Alexandria and Constantinople had appeared in the successful intrigues of THEOPHILUS, Patriarch of Alexandria, against the renowned JOHN CHRYSOSTOM, Patriarch of Constantinople. Cyril, the Patriarch, who had succeeded his uncle Theophilus, was by no means disinclined to lower the credit of a rival whose elevation he at once envied and despised. of Cyzicus but had not been accepted by the church there, was residing in Constantinople, and raised a storm by inveighing not a little indecently, in the very presence of the Patriarch, against the doctrines promulgated by him. Placards were affixed to the walls of the churches in Constantinople, and sermons preached against the Patriarch. Another Patriarch, John of Antioch, now appears on the scene. But this is neither probable in itself nor consistent with the subsequent conduct of the Patriarch John. To attain this end, there is evidence extant—though Canon Bright has failed to notice it—(in a letter from Epiphanius, Cyril's archdeacon and syncellus, to the Patriarch Maximian, see below), that he made a lavish use of money and presents of other kinds. He was deposed, and Maximian became Patriarch in his stead, but soon died, and was succeeded by Proclus, the old antagonist of Nestorius. 433) he calls Nestorius δυσσέβης , and a worshipper of a foreign and new God, and classes his followers with Jews, Arians, and Eunomians; but he earnestly begged that the venerable age of Nestorius might be exempt from violence or cruelty, and besought the Patriarch John to use his influence to prevent this; and [8] he retrieved by his later conduct his reputation for courage and impartiality. In 435 it was thought that Nestorius was nearer the Patriarch of Antioch than was convenient, so his exile to Petra in Arabia was decreed, though he was actually taken to Egypt instead
Abraham - Abram and Abraham are the two forms in which the name of the first Patriarch was handed down in Hebrew tradition. In passing we may note the remarkable fact that both traditions alike connect the Patriarch with famous centres of Babylonian moon-worship. In its present form it narrates the renewal to Abraham of the two great promises on which his faith rested the promise of a seed and of the land of Canaan and the confirmation of the latter by an impressive ceremony in which God entered into a covenant with the Patriarch. 17, of the institution of circumcision as the sign of the covenant between God and Abraham, round which are gathered all the promises which in the earlier documents are connected with various experiences in the Patriarch’s life. The few narratives which present the Patriarch in a less admirable light only throw into bolder relief those ideal features of character in virtue of which Abraham stands in the pages of Scripture as one of the noblest types of Hebrew piety
Arabia Felix - Each tribe is divided up into little communities, of which a sheik or Patriarch is the head
Judas -
The Patriarch (Matthew 1:2,3 )
Gad - " [2] (Isaiah 65:11) The dying Patriarch Jacob blessing his sons, made a memorable prophecy concerning Gad: "A troop" (said Jacob) "shall overcome him, but he shall overcome at the last
Beriah - " Keil thinks that" Ephraim" here is not the Patriarch, but his descendant ages after bearing his name
Ur - Round this sacred pool,'the beautiful spring Callirrhoe,' as it was called by the Greek writers, gather the modern traditions of the Patriarch
Opposition - It was the spiritual descendants of the Patriarch, who imitated his faith and listened to the teaching of God, who were the true Israelites, the inheritors of the promise
Paulus Edessenus - From him he obtained a letter supporting the petition he addressed to Euphrasius, then Patriarch, praying to be restored to his see
Gregorius Theopolitanus, Bishop of Antioch - "Who father Gregory may be," the old man replied, "I know not; but this I know, I have entertained a Patriarch in my cave, and I have seen him carry the sacred pallium and the Gospels" (Joann. In spite of his age and infirmities, Gregory conducted a visitation of the remoter portions of his Patriarchate, which were much infected with the doctrines of Severus, and succeeded in bringing back whole tribes, as well as many separate villages and monasteries, into union with the catholic church ( ib. Soon after he appears to have resigned his see into the hands of the deposed Patriarch Anastasius, who resumed his Patriarchal authority in 594, in which year Gregory died ( ib
Gregorius, Saint., the Illuminator - , "the Illuminator" ( Gregor Lusavoritch ), "the sun of Armenia," the apostle, first Patriarch and patron saint of Armenia, c. The venerable Patriarch greatly rejoiced on reading them, and exclaimed, "Now let us praise Him Who was before the worlds, worshipping the most Holy Trinity and the Godhead of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, now and ever, world without end, Amen," which words are said after the Nicene Creed in the Armenian church (Malan
Jacob - ...
When Jacob, at the invitation of Joseph, went down to Egypt, Joseph introduced his father to his royal master; and the Patriarch, in his priestly character, blessed Pharaoh, and supplicated the divine favour for the king. " This answer of the Patriarch was not the language of discontent, but the solemn reflection of a man who had experienced a large share of trouble, and who knew that the whole of human life is indeed but "a vain show," Genesis 47:1-10 . The Patriarch, perceiving that his dissolution was near, sent for Joseph, and bound him by a solemn promise to bury him with his fathers in Canaan. One grand personage was in the mind of the Patriarch, as it had been in the contemplation of his predecessors, even the illustrious Deliverer who should arise in after ages to redeem his people, and bring salvation to the human race. The promised Seed was the constant object of faithful expectation; and all the Patriarchal ordinances, institutions, and predictions, had an allusion, positive or incidental, to the Messiah. Hitherto the promise was confined generally to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, that from them the glorious blessing should arise; but now, under the divine direction, the dying Patriarch fortels in what tribe, and at what period, the great Restorer shall come
Monophysitism - The Nestorian heresy was condemned because it tended to separate Christ into two beings, one God and the other man, and to regard the inhabitation of the latter by the former as differing in degree only from the inhabitation by the Deity, of the Patriarchs and prophets of the Old Dispensation. Even the Patriarch Proclus [1] endeavoured to moderate the violence of Cyril's methods. Dioscorus next wrote to the Patriarch of Antioch accusing Theodoret of Nestorianism; and when Theodoret defended himself with temper and moderation, pointing out that he had condemned those who had denounced the term θεοτόκος and divided the Person of Christ, and appealing to the authority of Alexander, Athanasius, Basil, and Gregory, Dioscorus encouraged his monks to anathematize Theodoret openly in the church (448). Just then a synod was held at Constantinople (448), under the Patriarch Flavian (who had lately succeeded Proclus, and who is sometimes confounded with Flavian of Antioch, who died c. By trickery and tumult the bishops were forced to declare that there was but one nature in Christ, and the Patriarch Flavian was so roughly handled at the council that he died shortly after of the injuries he had received. The new emperor had previously espoused Pulcheria, who had contrived to regain her influence over the deceased emperor before his death, and who had already honoured the remains of the martyred Patriarch Flavian with a public funeral. 7, 12) has remarked on the use which the Patriarchs of Rome and Alexandria alike were making at this period of all opportunities of adding to their secular importance. He further claimed to exercise the presidency through his five delegates, but his claim was not admitted, and Anatolius, the new Patriarch of Constantinople, was associated with the absent Leo in the office of president. The delegates of Leo protested against Dioscorus being allowed to sit with his brother-patriarchs, considering the very serious imputations under which he lay, and they stated that unless their demands were acceded to, they would withdraw from the council. " Dioscorus was deposed, but permission was given to the Egyptian bishops to defer their subscription to the Acts of the synod until their new Patriarch had been consecrated. As many points of importance connected with the relations between the churches of the East and of the West remained unsettled, especially the question of the status of the Patriarch of Constantinople, some of the Eastern prelates feared the prolongation of these disputes which would result from the retirement of Leo's representatives. A rival Patriarch, Timotheus Aelurus, was nominated, and Proterius, who had succeeded Dioscorus, was slain. It has practically ceased to be heterodox, and in 1843 Proposals for union with the Orthodox church would have been carried into effect, but that when the Moslem Government heard of them, the Coptic Patriarch was invited to take coffee with a prominent Government official, and went home to die of poison. Though the Coptic clergy are still ignorant and fanatical, and the aged Patriarch refuses to take any steps towards their better education, the laity have extorted a permission from him for the appointment of a certain number of laity authorized to give instruction to their co-religionists on the truths of the Christian religion
Abraham - This man, whose name may mean "the father is exalted, " was the first of the great Patriarchs of Israel. In the ancient Near East a Patriarch was the leader or ancestor of a family, but Abraham exceeded this status by becoming the progenitor of one specific nation, the Hebrews, as well as of other peoples. This general promise was made specific by means of a covenant between God and Abraham (Genesis 15:8-18 ; 17:1-14 ), which provided the offspring of the Patriarch with a large tract of territory. ...
Dynamic though Abraham's covenant was, sheer physical descent from the revered Patriarch did not of itself guarantee an individual's salvation, as John the Baptist pointed out (Matthew 3:9 ). Only those members whose lives manifested the obedience and trust of the Patriarch would participate in covenant blessings. Pfeiffer, The Patriarchal Age ; A. Wiseman, Essays on the Patriarchal Narratives
Senuti, an Anchorite - After the council of Chalcedon he became a Monophysite and a violent partisan of the Patriarch Dioscorus of Alexandria, dying under Timotheus Aelurus aged 118 years
God of the Fathers - A technical phrase used as a general designation of the God of the Patriarchs. Other references include the name of a particular Patriarch, as “the God of Abraham” (Genesis 31:53 ; Genesis 26:24 ; Genesis 28:13 ; Genesis 32:9 ), “the God of Isaac” (Genesis 28:13 ; Genesis 32:9 ; Genesis 46:1 ), or “the God of Nahor” (Genesis 31:53 ). Each of the Patriarchs apparently had a special name for God: “Fear of Isaac” (Genesis 31:42 ), “Mighty One of Jacob” (Genesis 49:24 ). ...
The biblical witness consistently uses the formula to emphasize continuity between the God who is revealed to Moses and the God who guided the Patriarchs, even by a different name. Likewise, in the Old Testament, “God of thy fathers” or “God of our fathers” functions to link the author's generation to the God of earlier generations, especially with reference to the promises to the Patriarchs (Deuteronomy 1:11 , Deuteronomy 1:21 ; Deuteronomy 4:1 ; Deuteronomy 6:3 ; Deuteronomy 12:1 ; Deuteronomy 26:7 ; Deuteronomy 27:3 ). The God revealed in Jesus Christ is the same as the God revealed to the Patriarchs (Matthew 22:32 ; Mark 12:26 ; Acts 3:13 ; Acts 5:30 ; Acts 7:32 ; Acts 22:14 ). See Names of God ; Patriarchs; Yahweh
Enoch - ’ The idea here suggested that because of his perfect fellowship with God this Patriarch was ‘translated’ to heaven without tasting death (cf
Sceptre - It is well known that the word Shebeth, which is translated sceptre in the memorable prophecy of the dying Patriarch Jacob when declaring that "the sceptre should not depart, from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until the Shiloh should come," (Genesis 49:10) is also translated, Judges 5:14, pen
Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem - Narcissus was conspicuous in the church of his day (Neale, Patriarch
Joseph - ” Name of several men in the Bible, most importantly a Patriarch of the nation Israel and the foster father of Jesus. Joseph in the Old Testament primarily refers to the Patriarch, one of the sons of Israel
Job - A Patriarch distinguished for his integrity and piety, his wealth, honors, and domestic happiness, whom God permitted, for the trial of his faith, to be deprived of friends, property, and health, and at once plunged into deep affliction. ...
The precise period of his life cannot be ascertained, yet no doubt can exist as to its Patriarchal antiquity. The longevity of Job also places him among the Patriarchs. IT presents a beautiful exhibition of Patriarchal religion. The pious Patriarch, conscious of his own integrity and love to God cast down and bewildered by his sore chastisements, and pained by the suspicions of his friends, warmly vindicates his innocence, and shows that the best of men are sometimes the most afflicted; but forgets that his inward sins merit far heavier punishment, and though he still maintains faith in God, yet he charges Him foolishly
Maximus the Cynic, Bishop of Constantinople - When all was ripe they were followed by a bevy of bishops, with secret instructions from the Patriarch to consecrate Maximus. Having only his own representations to guide them, and there being no question that Gregory's translation was uncanonical, while the election of Nectarius was open to grave censure as that of an unbaptized layman, Maximus also exhibiting letters from Peter the late venerable Patriarch, to confirm his asserted communion with the church of Alexandria, it is not surprising that the Italian bishops pronounced decidedly in favour of Maximus and refused to recognize either Gregory or Nectarius
Abraham - —It is noteworthy that while in the Synoptic Gospels references to the Patriarch Abraham are comparatively frequent, and his personality and relation to Israel form part of the historical background which they presuppose, and of the thoughts and conceptions which are their national inheritance, in the Gospel of St. Here the historian records no halting-places in his genealogy, but carries it back in an uninterrupted chain, of which the Patriarch Abraham forms but one link (Luke 3:34), to its ultimate source in God. Jesus quotes Exodus 3:6 in proof of the fact of the Patriarchs’ resurrection and continued existence (Matthew 22:32 || Mark 12:26, Luke 20:37), inasmuch as the Divine sovereignty here asserted over Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob necessarily implies the conscious life of those who are its subjects. John’s Gospel, the references to Abraham there would seem to imply a more mystical, less matter of fact and as it were prosaic manner of regarding the great Patriarch. ...
It is remarkable and suggestive that in the only notice of the Patriarch Jacob that is contained in the Fourth Gospel, ch. , John 4:12, the same question is addressed by the woman of Samaria to Christ: ‘Art thou greater than our father Jacob,’—the Dispenser of the new water with its marvellous properties than the actual giver of the well? It was natural and inevitable that one of the questions that more particularly forced itself upon the attention of His contemporaries should be the relation of the Teacher, who had arisen in their midst and who claimed so great things, not only to the earlier prophets, but to the Patriarchs and ancestors of the Jewish nation. John’s Gospel, is purely Patriarchal
Abraham - —It is noteworthy that while in the Synoptic Gospels references to the Patriarch Abraham are comparatively frequent, and his personality and relation to Israel form part of the historical background which they presuppose, and of the thoughts and conceptions which are their national inheritance, in the Gospel of St. Here the historian records no halting-places in his genealogy, but carries it back in an uninterrupted chain, of which the Patriarch Abraham forms but one link (Luke 3:34), to its ultimate source in God. Jesus quotes Exodus 3:6 in proof of the fact of the Patriarchs’ resurrection and continued existence (Matthew 22:32 || Mark 12:26, Luke 20:37), inasmuch as the Divine sovereignty here asserted over Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob necessarily implies the conscious life of those who are its subjects. John’s Gospel, the references to Abraham there would seem to imply a more mystical, less matter of fact and as it were prosaic manner of regarding the great Patriarch. ...
It is remarkable and suggestive that in the only notice of the Patriarch Jacob that is contained in the Fourth Gospel, ch. , John 4:12, the same question is addressed by the woman of Samaria to Christ: ‘Art thou greater than our father Jacob,’—the Dispenser of the new water with its marvellous properties than the actual giver of the well? It was natural and inevitable that one of the questions that more particularly forced itself upon the attention of His contemporaries should be the relation of the Teacher, who had arisen in their midst and who claimed so great things, not only to the earlier prophets, but to the Patriarchs and ancestors of the Jewish nation. John’s Gospel, is purely Patriarchal
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - After this Gregory resided three years in Constantinople, where two noteworthy events occurred: his controversy with Eutychius, the Patriarch, about the nature of the resurrection body; and the commencement of his famous work Magna Moralia . ...
Immediately after his accession he sent, according to custom, a confession of his faith to the Patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, in which he declared his reception of the first four general councils, as of the four gospels, and his condemnation of the Three Chapters—i. The strong language in which he exalts the authority of the four councils as "the square stone on which rests the structure of the faith, the rule of every man's actions and life, which foundation whoever does not hold is out of the building," is significant of his views on the authority of the church at large, while his recognition of the four Patriarchs as co-ordinate potentates, to whom he sends an account of his own faith, expresses one aspect of the relation to the Eastern churches which then satisfied the Roman pontiffs. That jurisdiction was threefold—episcopal, metropolitan, and Patriarchal. of Ostia, Portus, Silva Candida, Sabina, Praeneste, Tusculum, and Albanum; while his Patriarchate seems to have originally extended (according to Rufinus, H. But being the only Patriarch in the West, he had in fact claimed and exercised jurisdiction beyond these original limits, including the three other vicariates into which the prefecture of Italy was politically divided: N. As bishops of the old imperial city, with an acknowledged primacy of honour among the Patriarchs, still more as occupants of St. Having heard of two presbyters, John of Chalcedon and Anastasius of Isauria, being beaten with cudgels, after conviction on a charge of heresy, under John the Faster, then Patriarch of Constantinople, Gregory wrote twice to the Patriarch, remonstrating with him for introducing a new and uncanonical punishment, exhorting him to restore the two presbyters or to judge them canonically, and expressing his own readiness to receive them at Rome. Notwithstanding the Patriarch's protest, the presbyters thereupon withdrew to Rome and were received and absolved by Gregory after examination (Ep. Patriarchs had been so styled by the emperors Leo and Justinian, and it had been confirmed to John the Faster and his successors by a general Eastern synod at Constantinople in 588, pope Pelagius protesting against it. Gregory now wrote to Sabinianus, his apocrisiarius at Constantinople, desiring him to use his utmost endeavours with the Patriarch, the emperor, and the empress, to procure the renunciation of the title; and when this failed, he himself wrote to all these in peculiarly strong language. Failing entirely to make an impression at Constantinople, he addressed himself to the Eastern Patriarchs. They, however, were not thus moved to action; they seem to have regarded the title as one of honour only, suitable to the Patriarch of the imperial city; and one of them, Anastasius, wrote in reply that the matter seemed to him of little moment. Gregory instructed his apocrisiarius at Constantinople to demand from the new Patriarch, Cyriacus, as a condition of intercommunion, the renunciation of the proud and impious title which his predecessor had wickedly assumed. For in answering a letter from that Patriarch, he acknowledges with approval the dignity assigned by him to the see of St. Peter, and expresses adroitly a curious view of his correspondent, as well as the Patriarch of Antioch, being a sharer in it. " Gregory was obliged at last to acquiesce in the assumption of the obnoxious title by the Constantinopolitan Patriarch; and it may have been by way of contrast that he usually styled himself in his own letters by the title since borne by the bps. of Rome accrued to the subservient Patriarchs of the Eastern capital. His motive was doubtless largely the hope of obtaining from the new powers the support which Mauricius had not accorded him in his dispute with the Eastern Patriarch
Vigilius, Bishop of Rome - 536 and procured from Justinian the deposition of the Monophysite Patriarch Anthimus, and the appointment of Mennas in his room. Peter, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, who was opposed to the Origenists, sent two abbats to Constantinople, with a letter to the emperor, and extracts from Origen's writings, complaining of the commotions excited by the Origenistic party and praying for their condemnation (Vit. The emperor, readily acceding, issued a long edict, addressed to the Patriarch Mennas, setting forth and confuting the heresies attributed to Origen; commanding the Patriarch to assemble the bishops and abbats then at Constantinople for the purpose of anathematizing him, his doctrine, and his followers, and to suffer no bishop or abbat to be thenceforth appointed except on condition of doing the same. The three other Patriarchs of the East also yielded to threats of deposition, as did the rest of the Eastern bishops, except a few who were deposed and banished. The first of these is a letter to the Patriarch Eutychius, dated Dec
Flavianus (8), Bishop of Constantinople - Chrysaphius his minister immediately plotted against the new Patriarch
Staff - ’ The reference is to the act of the Patriarch when he received the solemn oath of Joseph, that he would bury him with his fathers (‘Israel bowed himself upon the bed’s head,’ Genesis 47:31)
Aphthartodocetae, a Sect of the Monophysites - Their opponents among the Monophysites, the Severians (from Severus, Patriarch of Antioch), maintained that the body of Christ before the Resurrection was corruptible, and were hence called Phthartolatrae ( Φθαρτολάτραι , from φθαρτός and λάτρεία ), or Corrupticolae , i
Bonifacius ii, Pope - of Larissa, metropolitan of Thessaly, complaining of the encroachments of the Patriarch of Constantinople, who had suspended Stephen from his office
Ishmaelites - After the birth of Isaac, Abraham was persuaded by his wife to dismiss Hagar and her son; and the Patriarch probably provided for their subsistence in some distant situation, where they could not encroach on the patrimony of Isaac
Joannes Iii, Bishop of Jerusalem - The whole East followed the example of the capital, and John could, without fear of consequences, summon his synod to make the same profession of faith with his brother-patriarch in the imperial city, and was received into communion by pope Hormisdas, at the request of Justin ( ib
Marcianus, Presbyter at Constantinople - He was appointed oeconomus by the Patriarch Gennadius, therefore after 458; and made it a rule that the clergy of Constantinople should retain for their own churches the offerings made in them and no longer pay them over to the great church (Theod
Petrus, Bishop of Apamea - 510; a Monophysite, a warm partisan of Severus the intruding Patriarch of Antioch, the leader of the Acephali, and charged with sharing in the violent and sanguinary attempts to force the Monophysite creed on the reluctant Syrian church. In 536 Mennas was appointed to the Patriarchal chair, and lost no time in summoning a council to pronounce the condemnation of Monophysitism and its chief leaders, Peter and Severus being cut off from communion as men who had "voluntarily chosen the sin unto death," and "shown no signs of repentance and a better mind" ( ib
Maronites - The Maronites have a Patriarch who resides in the monastery of Cannubin, on Mount Libanus, and assumes the title of Patriarch of Antioch, and the name of Peter, as if he seemed desirous of being considered as the successor of that apostle
Joseph - But perhaps it may not be an unacceptable service to observe on the history of this Patriarch, what a remarkable character he is, and in what numberless instances he appears as a type of Christ: taken altogether, perhaps the greatest in the whole Scriptures. And though like the brethren of Joseph, little do we at first know, that the Lord of the country is our brother, though in the first awakenings of spiritual want the Governor may seem with us, as Joseph did to them, to speak roughly; yet when the whole comes to be opened tour view, and Jesus is indeed discovered to be Lord of all the land, how, like Joseph's brethren, are we immediately made glad, and eat and drink at his table with him, forgetting all past sorrow in present joy, and partaking of that "bread of life, of which whosoever eateth shall live forever!" Such, among many other striking particularities, are the incidents in the history of the Patriarch Joseph, which are highly typical of Christ
Hebron - From this place the Patriarch departed for Egypt by way of Beersheba (37:14; 46:1)
Ship - It was among the prophecies of the dying Patriarch Jacob, (Genesis 49:13) that Zebulun should dwell in "the haven of the sea, and be an haven for ships" And how distant soever this allusion may appear to some concerning the days of Christ, and the eventual dispersion of the gospel to the Gentile islands of the sea, yet from subsequent prophecies to the same amount, when illustrated by each other, I confess that I am inclined to believe that some great maritime power, such as our own, may be fairly referred to in the several prophecies to this amount
Isaacus i, Catholicos of the Church of Greater Armenia, Saint - His long Patriarchate is remarkable for the invention of the Armenian characters by Mesrob, the translation of the Scriptures into the Armenian language, and the commencement of the golden age of Armenian literature; for the revision of the Armenian liturgy, first translated from the Greek by Gregory, which has continued unaltered ever since in the Armeno-Gregorian church; and for the destruction of the independence of Armenia. At the commencement of his Patriarchate Isaac visited the Persian king at Ctesiphon; where, on behalf of his sovereign, he acknowledged Armenia to be tributary to Persia. Meanwhile the Persian kings set up others as Patriarchs in his, stead, but at length the Armenian satraps repented and invited Isaac to resume his throne. On account of the Patriarch's expulsion, the archbp. He died at the age of 110 years, being the last Armenian Patriarch of the family of Gregory the Illuminator; he was followed to the grave in six months by his friend Mesrob
Face - (Psalms 34:16) So again, the Patriarch Jacob, speaking to his son Joseph, said, "I had not thought to see thy face;" that is, thy person; "and lo! God hath shewed me thy seed
House - "Lo! I come, said JEHOVAH, and I will dwell in the midst of thee;" (Zechariah 2:11) and this scriptural sense of the word may serve to shew why it was the Patriarchs, and holy men of old, were so anxious concerning their households and brailles. Thus the faithful Abraham, after that the Lord had revealed himself unto him in vision, and said, "Fear not, Abraham, I am thy shield, and thine exceeding great reward;" the Patriarch felt a boldness to ask of God concerning his household
Dalmatius, Monk And Abbat - Isaac at his death made him Hegumenus, superior of the monastery, under the Patriarch Atticus. Consulted by councils, Patriarchs, and emperors, he remained in his cell 48 years without quitting it
Athanasius - the celebrated Patriarch of Alexandria, resisted Arius and his erroneous doctrines; and his sentiments as to the Trinity are embodied in the creed which bears his name, though not composed by him
Canaanites - " In the time of Abraham they possessed Hebron; and the Patriarch purchased from them the cave of Machpelah as a sepulchre, Genesis 23:1-20 25:9,10
Genealogy - Let it only be remembered that these records have respect to political and territorial divisions as much as to strictly genealogical descent, and it will at once be seen how erroneous a conclusion it may be that all who are called "sons" of such or such a Patriarch or chief father must necessarily be his very children
Joannes, Silentiarius, Bishop of Colonia - The Patriarch was captivated with his conversation and held him in lifelong honour
Valens, Emperor - He was baptized in 368 by the Arian Eudoxius, Patriarch of Constantinople
Alexander, Bishop of Hierapolis Euphratensis - of Hierapolis Euphratensis and metropolitan in the Patriarchate of Antioch; the uncompromising opponent of Cyril of Alexandria, and the resolute advocate of Nestorius in the controversies that followed the council of Ephesus, A. His dignity as metropolitan gave him a leading place in the opposition of which the Patriarch John of Antioch was the head, and his influence was confirmed by personal character. John, as Patriarch, stepped in, A
Bowels - Hence, it is said of the Patriarch Joseph, that at beholding his brother, "his bowels did yearn upon him
Hospitality - "...
"So when angelic forms to Syria sent ...
Sat in the cedar shade, by Abraham's tent, A spacious bowl th' admiring Patriarch fills ...
With dulcet water from the scanty rills; ...
Sweet fruits and kernels gathers from his hoard, With milk and butter piles the plenteous board; While on the heated hearth his consort bakes Fine flour well kneaded in unleavened cakes, ...
The guests ethereal quaff the lucid flood, Smile on their hosts, and taste terrestrial food; ...
And while from seraph lips sweet converse spring, They lave their feet, and close their silver wings
Hind - " This, indeed, renders the simile uniform; but another critic has remarked that "the allusion to a tree seems to be purposely reserved by the venerable Patriarch for his son Joseph, who is compared to the boughs of a tree; and the repetition of the idea in reference to Naphtali is every way unlikely
Joannes Scholasticus, Bishop of Constantinople - , was crowned by the Patriarch, Nov
Isaacus, Egyptian Solitary - ...
The 10th Conference begins by relating how the Patriarch Theophilus of Alexandria scandalized the Scetic anchorites by his Paschal Letter denouncing Anthropomorphism and how the aged abbat Serapion though convinced of his error could not render thanks with the rest but fell a-weeping and crying "They have taken my God from me!" Cassianus and the other witnesses asked Isaacus to account for the old man's heresy. 400 by the Patriarch Theophilus, who had chosen a number of his disciples to be bishops
a'Braham - The captives and plunder were all recovered, and Abram was greeted on his return by the king of Sodom, and by Melchizedek king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who mysteriously appears upon the scene to bless the Patriarch and receive from him a tenth of the spoil. The Patriarch, with true Eastern hospitality, welcomed the strangers, and bade them rest and refresh themselves
Noah - This Patriarch is rightly regarded as the connecting link between the old and the new world
Joseph - The elder of Jacob’s two sons by Rachel, the eleventh Patriarch, the ancestor of the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh
Agapetus, Bishop of Rome - In 535 Anthimus, who was suspected of Monothelitism, had been appointed Patriarch of Constantinople by the influence of Theodora
Tiberias - The Romans recognized the Patriarch of Tiberias and empowered him to appoint his subordinate ministers who should visit all the distant colonies of Jews, and to receive contributions from the Jews of the whole Roman empire. The Patriarchate of Tiberias finally ceased in 414 A
Abraham - ” The first Hebrew Patriarch, he became known as the prime example of faith
Empire, Byzantine - Political and ecclesiastical dissension caused by the introduction of the Monophysite heresy was increased by rivalry between the Patriarchs of Alexandria and Constantinople, until in 1215 the latter was declared second to Rome in honor by Pope Innocent III. Theodora's brother Bardas deposed Ignatius from the Patriarchate of Constantinople and appointed the layman Photius whose defiance of Pope Nicholas I (867) brought about the Great Eastern Schism. Under Constantine IX (1042-1055) Michael Caerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, attempted to create a Patriarchate equal to Rome, and was condemned by Leo IX
Covenant - Hence, the Patriarch David, with his dying breath, amidst all the untoward circumstances which took place in himself and his family, took refuge and consolation in this: "Although (said he,) my house be not so with God, yet hath he made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things, and sure; for this is all my salvation and all my desire, although he make it not to grow
Cyriac, Patriarch of Constantinople - Cyriacus (19), 30th Patriarch of Constantinople, a. In a letter to Anastasius of Antioch, who had written to him to remonstrate against disturbing the peace of the church, Gregory defends his conduct on the ground of the injury which Cyriac had done to all other Patriarchs by the assumption of the title, and reminds Anastasius that not only heretics but heresiarchs had before this been Patriarchs of Constantinople
Dorotheus (10), Bishop of Thessalonica - Pope Hormisdas wrote back, saying that the crime was known to all the world, and required clearer defence; he remitted its examination to the Patriarch of Constantinople
Naphtali - " The Patriarch when dying gave a particular blessing to Naphtali, and said "Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words. I would ask, are not many of the dying Patriarch's benedictions to his children considered more with reference to Christ, than to the twelve Patriarchs? Do we not consider the blessing of Judah, as one whom his brethren shall praise, and as one from whom the sceptre shall not depart, as having respect principally, if not altogether, to the person of Christ? And are not the several blessings prophesied of Joseph, on the dying bed of his father, spoken directly with an eye to Joseph's Lord? And if so, why may we not with equal safety, in the blessing of Naphtali discover Christ also? Is Naphtali an hind let loose? And can we overlook that hind of the morning, even Jesus, whom the hunters pursued, and the dogs of Bashan compassed around? (See Psalms 22:1-31 in the title of it, and throughout the Psalm
Circumcision - In the Old Testament the origin of Israelite practice was founded upon the circumcision of Abraham as a sign of the covenant between God and the Patriarch (Genesis 17:10 ). Isaac, Ishmael, and other descendants of the Patriarchal family were circumcised (Genesis 17:23-27 )
Jacob - When Isaac was about 160 years of age, Jacob and his mother conspired to deceive the aged Patriarch (Genesis 27 ), with the view of procuring the transfer of the birthright to himself. The complete reconciliation between Esau and Jacob was shown by their uniting in the burial of the Patriarch (35:27-29). Then follows the story of the famine, and the successive goings down into Egypt to buy corn (42), which led to the discovery of the long-lost Joseph, and the Patriarch's going down with all his household, numbering about seventy souls (Exodus 1:5 ; Deuteronomy 10:22 ; Acts 7:14 ), to sojourn in the land of Goshen. There are, besides the mention of his name along with those of the other Patriarchs, distinct references to events of his life in Paul's epistles ( Romans 9:11-13 ; Hebrews 12:16 ; 11:21 )
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - In 511 he was active in conjunction with Severus and others in instigating the emperor Anastasius to depose Macedonius, Patriarch of Constantinople (Theod. This naturally encountered great opposition, especially, among others, from Anastasius Patriarch of Antioch (A. ...
The Julianists were still numerous at Alexandria during the Patriarchate of Eulogius (Phot
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - A synod summoned at Antioch by the Patriarch John despatched letters to the bishops of Osrhoene desiring them, if the reports were true, to suspend communion with Rabbûlas (Baluz. 434 had succeeded Maximian as Patriarch of Constantinople), entreating him to indicate which was the orthodox teaching
Gelasius (1) i, Bishop of Rome - Its occasion had been the excommunication, by pope Felix, of Acacius, Patriarch of Constantinople, for supporting and communicating with Peter Mongus, the once Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria, who had, however, satisfied Acacius by subscribing the Henoticon, and afterwards the Nicene creed. The Patriarch of Constantinople was now Euphemius; the emperor Anastasius
Julianus Eclanensis, Bishop of Eclana - 751) and just then in serious collision with Atticus the Patriarch of Constantinople. On the accession of Nestorius to the Patriarchate (A. The Patriarch wrote to Celestine more than once in his behoof and that of his friends (Nestor. ...
Some years after his death Julian was again condemned by Joannes Talaia, formerly Patriarch of Alexandria, but c
Division of the Earth - This decree was probably promulgated about the same time by the venerable Patriarch. The name of the Patriarch himself was preserved among his Grecian descendants, in the proverb, του ‘Ιαπετου πρεσβυτερος , older than Japetus, denoting the remotest antiquity. The name of the Patriarch is recorded in the title frequently given to Egypt, "The land of Ham," Psalms 105:23 , &c. But the country is denominated in the east, to this day, "the land of Misr;" which, therefore, seems to have been the name of the Patriarch himself. " Faber is inclined to believe that they were the ancestors of the great body of the Hindus, who still retain a lively tradition of the Patriarch Shem, Shama, or Sharma; and that the land of Ophir, abounding in gold, so called from one of the sons of Joktan, lay beyond the Indus, eastward
Burial - " Thus the Patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the only part he ever possessed
Bashan - ...
The name "Gilead," connected with the history of the Patriarch Jacob (Genesis 31:47-48), supplanted "Bashan," including Bashan as well as the region originally called "Gilead," After the return from Babylon Bashan was divided into...
(1) Gaulanitis or Jaulan, the most western, on the sea of Galilee, and lake Merom, and rising to a table land 3,000 ft
Domnus ii, Bishop of Antioch - 8, 449, on this matter, Domnus, in virtue of an imperial rescript, found himself deprived of his presidential seat, which was occupied by Dioscorus, while precedence over the Patriarch of Antioch was given to Juvenal of Jerusalem (Labbe, ib
Eustathius (22), Bishop of Berytus - ...
When in 457 the emperor Leo, anxious to give peace to the church of Alexandria, dealt with the intrusion of Timothy Aelurus, Eustathius was consulted, and joined in the condemnation of that intruding Patriarch (ib
Manasseh - the eldest son of Joseph, and grandson of the Patriarch Jacob, Genesis 41:50 , was born, A
Romania - During the Bulgar domination in the 9th century, the ancient Catholic Church of Rumania disappeared and the people placed themselves under the jurisdiction of the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople and were thus drawn into the Greek Schism. In 1885 the independence of the Orthodox Church in Rumania from the Patriarchate of Constantinople was effected
Rumania - During the Bulgar domination in the 9th century, the ancient Catholic Church of Rumania disappeared and the people placed themselves under the jurisdiction of the Greek Patriarch of Constantinople and were thus drawn into the Greek Schism. In 1885 the independence of the Orthodox Church in Rumania from the Patriarchate of Constantinople was effected
Josephus, Catholicos of Armenia - His Patriarchate occurred at a most critical period, when Isdigerd II. 455) and on the 25th of the month Hroditz, the Patriarch Joseph, Sahag, bp
Justinus ii - 14, 565) he was crowned by the Patriarch John (Theophan
Serapion, Bishop of Heraclea - 14), was discovered, dragged from his hiding-place brought before Chrysostom's enemies, deposed from his bishopric, banished to Egypt, and left at the mercy of the Patriarch Theophilus (Pallad
Patriarchs, the - The word Patriarch comes from a combination of the Latin word pater , “father,” and the Greek verb archo , “to rule. ” A Patriarch is thus a ruling ancestor who may have been the founding father of a family, a clan, or a nation. ...
The idea of a binding agreement between God and humankind antedated the Patriarchs, being first expressed in the time of Noah (Genesis 6:18 ; Genesis 9:8-17 ). The growth of the Hebrew nation was promised specifically to Abraham in the Patriarchal covenant (Genesis 15:1 ; Genesis 17:1 ), along with the provision of a land in which Abraham's offspring would dwell. The aged Patriarch died aged 175 years, and was buried in the cave of Machpelah purchased originally for Sarah's interment (Genesis 25:9 ). Under the Patriarchal system, the father had the power of life or death over every living person and thing in his household. ...
The life of Jacob, the last of the three great Patriarchs, was marked by migrations, as had been the case with his ancestors. ...
Archaeological discoveries at certain Near Eastern sites have helped to illumine the background of the Patriarchal narratives. ...
The date of the Patriarchal period has been much discussed. ) as the one in which the Patriarchs lived, but this presents problems for any dating for the Exodus. ) period for the Patriarchs. All such dates do not allow time for the Patriarchal traditions to have developed and make it impossible for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to be fitted realistically into an already-known chronology
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - 112) John Moschus was sent by his superior on monastic business with a companion, Sophronius Sophista (said to have been afterwards Patriarch of Jerusalem), to Egypt and Oasis. Moschus was at Jerusalem at the consecration of the Patriarch Amos (149), probably therefore A
Abraham - He was a genuine oriental Patriarch, a prince in the land; his property was large, his retinue very numerous, and he commanded the respect of the neighboring people: and yet he was truly a stranger and a pilgrim, the only land he possessed being the burial-place he had purchased
Sardis - The bishop of Sardis was metropolitan of Lydia, and sixth in order of precedence of all the bishops subject to the Patriarch of Constantinople
Japheth - the son of Noah, who is commonly named the third in order of Noah's sons, was born in the five hundredth year of that Patriarch, Genesis 5:32 ; but Moses, Genesis 10:21 , says expressly he was the oldest of Noah's sons, according to our translation, and those of the Septuagint and Symmachus
Porphyrius, Patriarch of Antioch - Porphyrius (4) , Patriarch of Antioch, a
Judah - ...
And this forms a beautiful correspondence to what the apostle, in the gospel-church, in after ages, was commissioned, by the same Holy Spirit that moved the Patriarch, (2 Peter 1:1-21; 2Pe 3:18) to tell the people of the Lord Jesus, who sprang out of Judah after the flesh, and was, and is the Jehudah of his people- "who being (saith the apostle) in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God; but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross: wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which is above every name: that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth; and that every tongue should confess, that Jesus Christ is Lord to the glory of God the Father. " Thus confirming the other prediction of the Patriarch, that the lawgiver was not gone from between the feet of Judah until the Shiloh was come, to whom the whole referred
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - of old Rome, but further gave him authority to ordain the metropolitans of the Pontic, Asian, and Thracian dioceses, thus investing him with the powers as well as the rank of a Patriarch, second only to the pope of Rome. He claimed that it was an infringement of the canons of Nice and entrenched on the rights of other Patriarchs. The great Patriarchal sees were, during the first years of his reign, occupied by orthodox prelates, who had the imperial support. At Antioch Julian, an orthodox Patriarch, elected on the expulsion of Peter Fullo by Leo I
Justinianus i, Emperor - Among the Monophysite leaders were Severus, deposed from the Patriarchate of Antioch in the time of Justin, and Anthimus, bp. They seem to have acquired much influence in Theodora's coterie, and, probably owing to her, Anthimus was raised in 535 to the Patriarchate of Constantinople, in spite of the doctrinal suspicions attaching to him. Pope Agapetus, having heard of these suspicions, and disapproving, as Rome was wont to do, of translations from one bishopric to another, refused to communicate with the Patriarch till he should have purged himself from the charge of heresy, and insisted that, when purged, Anthimus should return to Trebizond. Sabas and of the Patriarch Peter of Jerusalem. The four monks were supported by Mennas the Patriarch. Anyhow, the emperor promptly condemned the accused opinions, issuing a long edict addressed to the Patriarch Mennas, in which he classes Origen among the heretics, and singles out for anathema ten particular doctrines contained in his writings. The four Eastern Patriarchs were naturally afraid of reopening any question as to the authority of Chalcedon. 552, had become Patriarch of Constantinople, presided. 414), addressed to the Patriarch Eutychius, in which he owns that he was in the wrong and is now glad to confess it. The Patriarchate of Aquileia, afterwards removed to Grado, and finally divided into the two small Patriarchates of Grado and Aquileia, arose out of this schism, which did not end till the beginning of the 8th cent. JULIAN of Halicarnassus, a leading Monophysite, in opposition to the view of Severus, Patriarch of Antioch, that Christ's body was corruptible up to the resurrection, and only afterwards ceased to be so. Justinian published an edict declaring the doctrine of Julian orthodox and requiring the assent of all Patriarchs and bishops to this new article
New Orleans, Louisiana, City of - , the Patriarch of the colony, too old to leave, was maltreated until Etienne de Bore rescued and sheltered him
Red Sea - The Patriarch of the Coptic church is chosen from the monks of the convent of Anthony
Isaac - As Isaac was the Patriarch that stood between Abraham and Jacob, it may seem remarkable that so little is recorded of him, especially as the promise given to Abraham, of all nations being blessed through his seed, was confirmed to Isaac
Lion - The dying Patriarch blessing the tribe of Judah, and holding forth his prophetic sayings with an eye to Christ, describes our glorious Judah, or Jehudah, under this strong figure—his hand was to be "in the neck of his enemies;" meaning that he would totally destroy them from the head to the feet
Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch - He speedily, however, withdrew from intercourse with the Patriarchs of Alexandria, and joined the opposite party, uniting with Elias of Jerusalem and Macedonius of Constantinople (Liberat. On Flavian's declaring for the council of Chalcedon, Xenaias denounced his Patriarch as a concealed Nestorian. He convened a synod of the prelates of his Patriarchate which drew up a letter to Anastasius confirming the first three councils, passing over that of Chalcedon in silence, and anathematizing Diodorus, Theodore, and the others. His enemies, determined to obtain his Patriarchate for one of their own party, accused him to the emperor of condemning with his lips what he still held in his heart
Justice - In early times the Patriarch of each family was its judge, Genesis 38:24
Joannes Talaia, Bishop of Nola - , surnamed Talaia , Patriarch of Alexandria and afterwards bp. On receiving it at Antioch Illus delivered the synodic to Calandio, then recently elected to the Patriarchate of that see (Liberat
Pelagius i., Bishop of Rome - Under Vigilius he again held the same office, and joined with the Patriarch Mennas in moving Justinian to issue his edict for the condemnation of Origenism
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - 230) reports that he read among the works of Eulogius Patriarch of Alexandria (d. He appears to have really used Dosithean books and reports that Dositheus exhibited particular hostility to the Patriarch Judah and if he claimed to be himself the prophet who was to come he would naturally be anxious to exclude the belief that that prophet must be of the tribe of Judah
Paulus of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch - Paulus (9) of Samosata, Patriarch of Antioch, a. The Italian bishops promptly recognized Domnus, Paul was driven with the utmost ignominy from the temporalities of the church, and Domnus, despite his irregular appointment, generally accepted as Patriarch (ib
Vine - Many are of opinion that wine was not unknown before the deluge; and that this Patriarch only continued to cultivate the vine after that event, as he had done before it: but the fathers think that he knew not the force of wine, having never used it before, nor having ever seen any one use it
Abraham - When Ishmael was thirteen years old, God again revealed yet more explicitly and fully his gracious purpose; and in token of the sure fulfilment of that purpose the Patriarch's name was now changed from Abram to Abraham (Genesis 17:4,5 ), and the rite of circumcision was instituted as a sign of the covenant. The Patriarch interceded earnestly in behalf of the doomed city. ) ...
At this point there is a blank in the Patriarch's history of perhaps twenty-five years. " The promises made to Abraham were again confirmed (and this was the last recorded word of God to the Patriarch); and he descended the mount with his son, and returned to his home at Beer-sheba (Genesis 22:19 ), where he resided for some years, and then moved northward to Hebron
Hunneric, King of the Vandals. - The Arian Patriarch of Carthage, who was supposed to favour Theodoric, was burnt alive, and many of his clergy shared his fate or were thrown to wild beasts; nor did Hunneric spare the friends his father had commended to him on his death-bed if suspected of being inclined to support his brother. When the meeting assembled, the Catholics were indignant to find Cyrila, the Arian Patriarch, in the presidential chair
Generation - Often the aged Patriarch presided over the active leadership of his sons as seen particularly in the cases of Isaac and Jacob
Rachel - ...
The Patriarch on his death bed vividly recalls that tender, deep, and lasting sorrow (Genesis 48:7)
Levi - The personal character of Jacob's son Levi, occasioned the dying Patriarch to speak with displeasure concerning him
Eudoxius, Bishop of Constantinople - Here, by the aid of the Acacians, he secured his appointment as Patriarch on the deposition of Macedonius, and on Jan
Satan - ” God permitted Satan to test Job’s faith, and the adversary inflicted the Patriarch with many evils and sorrows
Damascus - He had a letter from the archbishop of Cyprus to Seraphim, Patriarch of Antioch, the head of the Christian church in the east, who resides at Damascus. He undertook to encourage and promote, to the utmost of his power, the sale and distribution of the Scriptures throughout the Patriarchate; and, as a proof of his earnestness in the cause, he ordered, the next day, a number of letters to be prepared, and sent to his archbishops and bishops, urging them to promote the objects of the Bible Society in their respective stations
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - Her religion was a gross and complex polytheism, comprising the worship of thirteen principal and numerous minor divinities, at the head of all of whom stood the chief god, Asshur, who seems to be the deified Patriarch of the nation
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - The support of the Eastern prelates, of whom the Patriarch of Antioch was chief, being of great importance, Celestine wrote to John, Juvenal of Jerusalem, Rufus of Thessalonica, and Flavian of Philippi, informing them of the decree passed against Nestorius (Baluz. At the same time Cyril, Patriarch of Alexandria, wrote to John calling upon him, on pain of being separated from the communion of the West, to accept Celestine's decision and unite with him in defending the faith against Nestorius (Baluz. ]'>[1]...
The breach between the two Patriarchs was complete. His Patriarchate was a very extensive one. Here, in his own Patriarchate, he immediately held a council, together with Alexander of Hierapolis and the other deputies, at which he confirmed the deposition of Cyril and his brother-commissioners (Baluz, 840, 843, 847) Theodoret and the others engaged never to consent to the deposition of Nestorius. Alexander of Hierapolis broke off communion with his Patriarch John (Baluz. During the next two years John sought to force the bishops of his Patriarchate to accept the terms of peace. Nine provinces subject to the Patriarch of Antioch renounced communion with John, who had at length to request the imperial power to force them into union by ejecting the bishops who refused the agreement he had arranged with Cyril
Samuel - Both the time and place, the manner and effect, no doubt became like Bethel to Jacob, so that he could say with the Patriarch, "Surely the Lord is in this place, and I knew it not
Irenaeus, Bishop of Tyre - Irenaeus had been consecrated by Domnus, the Patriarch of Antioch, who, therefore, was the first object of attack
Think, Devise - A theological emphasis exists in God’s reward of Abraham, when the Patriarch believed God and His word: “And he believed in the Lord; and he counted it to him for righteousness” ( Confusion of Tongues - Now in none of these was the transmission so likely to have taken place, as among that branch of the descendants of Shem, from which the Patriarch Abraham proceeded
Ibas, Bishop of Edessa - and Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople. Samuel and Cyrus had gone to Constantinople, in defiance of the terms on which the excommunication had been taken off, to lay their complaint before the emperor and Patriarch, the favourable feeling of Domnus towards the accused being too evident for them to hope for an impartial trial. The emperor and Flavian, who had succeeded Proclus as Patriarch, listened to their complaints, but declined to hear them officially
Novatianus And Novatianism - Under Constantius they were violently persecuted, together with the rest of the Homoousian party, by the Patriarch Macedonius. at Constantinople, Agelius, appeared in conjunction with the orthodox Patriarch Nectarius as joint defenders of the Homoousian doctrine at the synod of 383, on which account the emperor conferred on their churches equal privileges with those of the establishment (Socr. ]'>[4] The succession of Novatianist Patriarchs of Constantinople during the 4th cent. They lived on amicable terms with the orthodox Patriarch Atticus, who, remembering their fidelity under the Arian persecution, protected them from their enemies. , when Eulogius, Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria, wrote a treatise against them (Phot
Theodosius i., the Great - 46, addressed to Nectarius, Patriarch of Constantinople, he calls for it as necessary, and in his Ep. Socrates asserts, indeed, that this destruction took place at the imperial order, a special decree having been issued at the desire of the Patriarch Theophilus, but of this there is no trace in the code
Impostors - 744
Benedict Levita (Benedict the Deacon), author of a forged collection of documents (848-850)
Leotardus and Wilgardus, in the 11th century
the Anabaptist John of Leyden (John Bokelzoon), who flourished in 1533 and who was possibly insane
the Pseudo-Isidore (Isidore Mercator), author of a whole series of apocrypha, including the False Decretals
Paulua Tigrinus, pretended Patriarch of Constantinople, who deceived Pope Clement VII
the Franciscan friar, James of Jülich, who performed all the functions of a bishop without having received consecration
several individuals contemporary with and imitative of Saint Joan of Arc
Sir John Oldcastle, the Wycliffite, possibly deluded
those connected with the veneration of the ashes of Richard Wyche (burned 1440)
Johann Bohm, the Hussite, possibly a mere tool
Jack Cade, whose rebellion, however, was of no religious significance any more than that of Wat Tyler
Lambert Simnel (1487)
Perkin Warbeck (1497)
Numerous other secular pretenders to royal thrones include ...
Alexis Comnenus
the false Baldwin
the impersonator of Frederick II
after the death of Sebastian of Portugal, a whole series of pretenders to the throne
The "false Demetrius," however, was never proved to be an impostor; the six impersonators of Louis XVII were unquestionably such
Seal, Signet - The first mention of a seal in the OT is in connexion with the Patriarch Judah, who fared forth with his staff in his hand and his seal hung round his neck by a cord ( Genesis 38:18 RV Circumcision - On the second occasion, God again promised lands and offspring to the still childless Patriarch, and gave him the sign of circumcision, which was to be imposed upon Abraham and his descendants as a token of covenant membership (Genesis 17:10 )
Wisdom And Wise Men - ...
The Wise Men Preserved This Wisdom Though at first such wisdom was probably the responsibility of the Patriarch or head of the clan, it appears that every ancient culture developed a distinct class of people, the hakam or sages, who were responsible for the creating and preserving of their wisdom
Gamaliel - The last Ethnarch or Patriarch of the Jews, deposed by the Emperor Theodosian II
Baal - Some have supposed that the descendants of Ham first worshipped the sun under the title of Baal, 2 Kings 23:5 ; 2 Kings 23:11 ; and that they afterward ascribed it to the Patriarch who was the head of their line; making the sun only an emblem of his influence or power
Proterius, Saint, Patriarch of Alexandria - , Patriarch of Alexandria, was presbyter and church-steward under Dioscorus, and left in charge of the church when Dioscorus went to the council of Chalcedon
Sanhedrin - 4, mufla), while as the Patriarch he received the title ‘Ab Bçth Dîn’ (cf. It is not as president, but as the Patriarch, that Gamaliel i. 1), that is, 3 × 23 = 69, besides the Patriarch of the court and the president or Nâsî. In all matters of great importance, or in cases when the lower courts could come to no decision, the Great Sanhedrin, composed of three departments (3 × 23 = 69), together with the president and the Patriarch (Nâsî and Ab Bçth Dîn), and forming the supreme tribunal ‘from which the law went forth to all Israel’ (Sanh
Tribes of Israel, the - ...
Tribal Origins The ancestral background of “the tribes of Israel” went back to the Patriarch Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel. We know very little about Gad the Patriarch beyond the brief details about his birth. Like Gad, little information is shared about the Patriarch Asher
Excommunication - It is a custom with the Patriarch of Jerusalem annually to excommunicate the pope and the church of Rome; on which occasion, together with a great deal of idle ceremony, he drives a nail into the ground with a hammer, as a mark of malediction
Establishments - The ancient Patriarchs formed no extensive or permanent associations but such as arose from the relationships of nature. The offices of prophet, priest, and king, were thus united in the same Patriarch, Genesis 18:19 . They who reason on the contrary side observe, that the Patriarchs sustaining civil as well as religious offices, is no proof at all that religion was incorporated with the civil government, in the sense above referred to; nor is there the least hint of it in the sacred Scriptures
She'Chem - it was at this time that the Patriarch purchased from that chieftain "the parcel of the field" which he subsequently bequeathed, as a special patrimony, to his son Joseph
Pha'Raoh, - ( Genesis 12:15 ) --At the time at which the Patriarch went into Egypt, it is generally held that the country, or at least lower Egypt, was ruled by the Shepherd kings, of whom the first and moat powerful line was the fifteenth dynasty, the undoubted territories of which would be first entered by one coming from the east
Silvester, Bishop of Rome - " The phrase, "qui majores dioceses tenes," with the consequent desire expressed that the pope should promulgate the decrees, has been used in proof of the pope's then acknowledged Patriarchal jurisdiction over the great dioceses (i. For the word διοίκησις denoted the jurisdiction of a Patriarch, larger than that of metropolitans, the word for a diocese in the modern sense being properly παροικία
Arius the Heresiarch - It has been stated that his action was largely the result of jealousy on account of his having been a candidate for the Patriarchal throne of Alexandria, when Alexander was elected to it. ...
The Patriarch of Alexandria has also been the subject of adverse criticism for his action against his subordinate. Alexander, Patriarch of Alexandria, was also a man of mark. The accusations of treason against the emperor and the insinuations that the Patriarch wished to set up an empire of his own against or above the supreme authority of the divine Augustus had certainly some effect on the mind of Constantine. The ecclesiastical history of Philostorgius, which would give us the Arian point of view, is unfortunately only known to us through a hostile epitome by Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople in 9th cent
Sepulchre - -There are but live passages in apostolic history which speak of tombs or sepulchres: (1) Acts 2:29, in which Peter says, ‘Brethren, I may say unto you freely of the Patriarch David, that he both died and was buried, and his tomb (τὸ μνῆμα αὐτοῦ) is with us unto this day. ’ The Apostle’s argument is that, in spite of the fact that David was a Patriarch and the founder of a royal family or clan, and wrote Psalms 16:10 (‘For thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol,’ etc. 2) regards all the Patriarchs as buried in Hebron
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - Arethae ; where also it is told how the Patriarch of Alexandria, at the request of Justin, urged Elesbaan to invade Yemen, offering up a litany and appointing a vigil on his behalf, and sending to him the Eucharist in a silver vessel. At Taphar Elesbaan is said to have built a church, digging the foundations for seven days with his own hands; and from Taphar he wrote of his victory to the Patriarch of Alexandria
Version - Though brought to this country by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople, as a present to Charles I
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - From this a version in Armenian was made by Isaac, the Armenian Patriarch, and Miesrob
Maronites - Though they acknowledge the supremacy of the pope, their clergy continue, as heretofore, to elect a head, with the title of batrak, or Patriarch of Antioch
Jews, Judaism - Judah the Patriarch . Direct references to the Patriarch Judah are limited to the Book of Genesis
Ararat - The soil of the country was very fruitful, and especially of that part where the Patriarch made his first descent
Philoxenus, a Monophysite Leader - Calandio, the Patriarch of Antioch, expelled him from his diocese. During Peter's turbulent rule Philoxenus actively supported his measures for suppressing the Nestorianizing section of the church and establishing Eutychian or Monophysite doctrines in his Patriarchate and generally in the East
Manuscripts - It was probably written in Egypt, and came in 1098 into the possession of the Patriarch of Alexandria, from which place it gets its name. Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople, and former Patriarch of Alexandria, sent it as a gift to Charles I
Arius, Followers of - The proceedings at Philippopolis and the outrageous conduct of Stephen, then Patriarch of Antioch, gave offence even in the East, and the decision of the Western bishops to hold no communion with their Eastern brethren while the existing state of things lasted produced a reaction. He had been elected Patriarch of Antioch by the Homoean party. On the other hand, the dissensions which broke out between Eudoxius, Patriarch of Antioch and afterwards of Constantinople and his Arian (or Anomoean) allies, drove both him and Valens into the arms of the Homoeans, in whose possession most of the churches were
Mishnah - Today the Mishnah usually refers to the collected edition of rabbinic discussions of halakah compiled by Judah ha-Nasi (literally “the Prince,” or Patriarch) head of the rabbinic academy at Javneh (or Jamnia) at about A
Jonah, Theology of - When they believe in God, the same vocabulary is used of them that is employed to describe the faith of the Patriarch Abraham (3:5; cf
Gentiles (2) - ...
The fact that Jesus did not pass His youth in the religiously exclusive atmosphere of Jerusalem, but in the freer and more liberal surroundings of semi-Gentile Galilee, fits in with the prophetic word of Simeon at the Presentation, and the declarations of His forerunner: He was to be ‘a light to lighten the Gentiles’ (Luke 2:32); and, God was able to raise up to Abraham children (Luke 3:8) who could not boast any natural descent from the Patriarch
Abraham - ...
To the Christian the life of this Patriarch is worthy of the deepest attention, in view of the varied manifestations whereby God revealed Himself to him, whether in the formation of his character under those manifestations, or in the Christian's connections with him in the way of faith, or with respect to the unconditional promises made to him as to the possession of the land of Palestine both in the past and in the future
Alexandria - ...
This city was, in 415, distinguished by a fierce persecution of the Jews by the Patriarch Cyril
Adder - By comparing the Danites to this artful reptile, the Patriarch intimated that by stratagem, more than by open bravery, they should avenge themselves of their enemies and extend their conquests
Preaching - From the days of Enoch to the time of Moses, each Patriarch worshipped God with his family: probably several assembled at new moons, and alternately instructed the whole company. Basil, bishop of Caesarea, John Chrysostom, preacher at Antioch, and afterward Patriarch, as he was called, of Constantinople, and Gregory Nazianzen, who all flourished in the fourth century, seem to have led the fashion of preaching in the Greek church; Jerom and Augustine did the same in the Latin church
Genealogy - The genealogies refer often to political and territorial divisions, and not strictly to natural descent, so that "sons" of a Patriarch are not necessarily restricted to those so by birth
Agriculture - The Patriarch Abraham was credited by Jewish legend with the invention of this form of seeding-plough (Bk
Flavianus (4) i, Bishop of Antioch - The division between Flavian and Egypt and the West was finally healed by Chrysostom, who took the opportunity of the presence of Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, at Constantinople for his consecration in 398, to induce him to become reconciled with Flavian, and to join in dispatching an embassy to Rome to supplicate Siricius to recognize Flavian as canonical bishop of Antioch
Eusebius, Bishop of Dorylaeum - In the 4th session Eusebius took part in the case of certain Egyptian bishops who declined to condemn Eutyches, alleging that they were bound to follow their Patriarch (i
Burial - This was a custom of immemorial antiquity; for the Patriarch Jacob had no sooner yielded up his spirit, than his beloved Joseph, claiming for once the right of the first-born, "fell upon his face and kissed him
Eagle - Under the same comparison the Patriarch Job describes the rapid flight of time: "My days are passed away, as the eagle that hasteth to the prey," Job 9:26
Benedictus of Nursia, Abbott of Monte Cassino - Benedict, abbot of Monte Cassino ("Abbas Casinensis"), called "patriarch of the monks of the West," lived during the troubled and tumultuous period after the deposition of Augustulus, when most of the countries of Europe were either overrun by Arians or still heathen
Joseph (2) - The Patriarch, mentioned only in the description of the visit of Jesus to Sychar (John 4:5)
Predestination - Esau, a compulsive man who sought instant gratification of his desires, would not be the kind of person who becomes a Patriarch
Abiding - He feels with the Patriarch that this place in the Scriptures is dreadful—full of a holy awe
Synagogue - Their erection began probably at the close of the second century, the Jews employing Roman workmen, at the dictation of Roman rulers in the time of Antoninus Pins and Alexander Severus, during the spiritual supremacy of the Jewish Patriarch of Tiberias
Bethesda - ’ Sophronius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (a
Brother - And is not this personal love and grace of Jesus intended to excite and call up personal affections towards him? Doth he not seem thereby as if to bid us approach him, in a peculiar manner, under this sweet character? Yea, doth he not say in language similar to his illustrious type, the Patriarch"Joseph, to his brethren, when under a conscious sense of their crimes in having sold him for a slave they feared to approach him; doth not our Almighty Joseph say to us, under all our tremblings, and fears, and misgivings, in having nailed him to the cross by our sins: "Come near to me I pray you, I am Jesus your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt?" (Genesis 45:3-4) Oh! thou glorious, gracious, all-lovely, and all-loving Brother! thou art a brother indeed, born for adversity; a friend that loveth at a11 times; one that sticketh closer than a brother
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - Every means was therefore taken to enforce, by the aid of the emperor and the Patriarch Proclus, his condemnation, together with that of his still more heretical pupil Theodorus
Dead - When the Patriarch Job was informed of the death of his children, and the destruction of his property, he arose and rent his mantle, and shaved his head, and fell down upon the ground and worshipped; and in the prophecies of Jeremiah, we read of eighty men who were going to lament the desolations of Jerusalem, having their beards shaven, and their clothes rent, and having cut themselves, in direct violation of the divine law, with offerings and incense in their hand, to bring them to the house of the Lord, Jeremiah 41:5
Judah - The Patriarch JUDAH; Jacob's fourth son, by Leah. ...
When it was known that she was with child, Judah, by his Patriarchal authority, would have burned her as having disgraced his family; but she proved by the signet and bracelet that Judah himself was the father of her children, and that she had a claim on him as nearest of kin to marry her when he withheld Shelah (Ruth 3-4; Genesis 38:25-26)
Abiding - He feels with the Patriarch that this place in the Scriptures is dreadful—full of a holy awe
Maxentius, Joannes, Presbyter And Archimandrite - of Rome, who argued that it had always been held by Catholics in the very form used by the Scythian monks, quoting Proclus Patriarch of Constantinople and others ( Ephesians 3 in Labbe, iv
Georgius (43), Patron Saint of England - 391, for a repetition, three centuries later in the East, of this condemnation by the Patriarch Nicephorus, in his Constit
Shepherds - The Patriarchal shepherds, rich in flocks and herds, in silver and gold, and attended by a numerous train of servants purchased with their money, or hired from the neighbouring towns and villages, acknowledge no civil superior; they held the rank, and exercised the rights, of sovereign princes; they concluded alliances with the kings in whose territories they tended their flocks; they made peace or war with the surrounding states; and, in fine, they wanted nothing of sovereign authority but the name. In the wealth, the power, and the splendour of Patriarchal shepherds, we discover the rudiments of regal grandeur and authority; and in their numerous and hardy retainers, the germ of potent empires. ...
The Patriarchs did not commit their flocks and herds solely to the care of menial servants and strangers; they tended them in person, or placed them under the superintendence of their sons and their daughters, who were bred to the same laborious employment, and taught to perform, without reluctance, the meanest services. The Patriarch Jacob, though he was the son of a shepherd prince, kept the flocks of Laban, his maternal uncle; and his own sons followed the same business, both in Mesopotamia, and after his return to the land of Canaan. The flocks and herds which belonged to the Jewish Patriarchs were not more numerous
Abram - There were some petty troubles from Abimelech in the Patriarch's life, but with this exception nothing is recorded of the space of perhaps 25 years. This great event was the most wonderful in the Patriarch's life. Keturah was a secondary or inferior wife, not given to the Patriarch by Sarah, as Hagar was
Preaching - From the days of Enoch to the time of Moses, each Patriarch worshipped God with his family; probably several assembled at new moons, and alternately instructed the whole company. Basil, bishop of Caesarea, John Chrysostom, preacher at Antioch, and afterwards Patriarch (as he was called) of Constantinople, and Gregory Nazianzen, who all flourished n the fourth century, seem to have led the fashion of preaching in the Greek church: Jerom and Augustin did the same in the Latin church
Jacob - No one else received the Patriarch's name. Jacob stands as a strong witness that the God who made all the people of the earth also worked in Israel's history, calling the Patriarchs to a destiny He would fulfill even when they least deserved it. The Opponent emphasized His superiority by renaming the Patriarch. Once again he received the Patriarchal promises. ...
Jacob's Religion As the religion of Israel and thus the roots of Christianity claim to derive from the Patriarchs, it is necessary to attempt to understand Jacob's spiritual life. ...
With the other Patriarchs God acted directly, but with Jacob God seemed to be withdrawn at times
Government - ...
Early Hebrew Patterns of Government An understanding of biblical patterns of government must begin with the Patriarchal period. The oldest male was usually the head of the family, the Patriarch. It is usually assumed that the Patriarchal society was nomadic or semi-nomadic. Following the pattern of modern nomadic tribes with a Patriarchal organization, the Hebrew society was probably democratic
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - He laboured to instruct the Armenians, being warmly aided by Isaac the Patriarch
no'ah - After this prophetic blessing we hear no more of the Patriarch but the sum of his years, 950
no'ah - After this prophetic blessing we hear no more of the Patriarch but the sum of his years, 950
Nathanael - as one who has something more than the blood of the Patriarch, viz
Abram - The account of this eminent Patriarch occupies so large a part of the book of Genesis, and stands so intimately connected with both the Jewish and Christian dispensations,—with the one by a political and religious, and with the other by a mystical, relation,—that his history demands particular notice. During the three hundred and fifty years which elapsed between the deluge and the birth of Abraham, this and other idolatrous superstitions had greatly corrupted the human race, perverted the simple forms of the Patriarchal religion, and beclouded the import of its typical rites. To this second migration he was incited also by a Divine command, accompanied by the promises of a numerous issue, that his seed should become a great nation, and, above all, that "in him all the families of the earth should be blessed; " in other words, that the Messiah, known among the Patriarchs as the promised "seed of the woman," should be born in his line. Not that many scattered Patriarchal and family churches did not remain: such was that of Melchizedec; and such probably was that of Nahor, whom Abraham left behind in Mesopotamia. Jews, Magians, Sabians, Indians, and Mohammedans have claimed him as the great Patriarch and founder of their several sects; and his history has been embellished with a variety of fictions
James - —The name does not occur in the OT except in the case of the Patriarch, but had become common in NT times, and is borne by several persons mentioned in the Gospels. The names of the four brothers, James, Joseph, Simon (= Simeon), and Jude (= Judah), are those of Patriarchs
Antioch - The Patriarch of Antioch took precedence of those of Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, and Alexandria
Cosmas (3), Indian Navigator - he speaks of the recent death of Timotheus, Patriarch of Alexandria, a
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - Nicephorus, then or afterwards Patriarch of Constantinople, had never heard of him, and only after long search could he procure a copy of the work containing the extract ( Spicilegium Solesmense , i. 93); the four watches of the night (Mat_14:25) mean the ages of the Patriarchs of the law of the prophets and of Christ; in Elijah's vision the strong wind was the Patriarchal dispensation which swept away the worship of idols; the earthquake was the law of Moses at the giving of which the mountains leaped like rams; the fire was the word of prophecy (Jer_20:9); the still small voice was the message of Gabriel to Mary
Job - Job suffers first the loss of his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his camels, and his servants; and then, with that, the loss of his sons and daughters; after which the Patriarch is smitten in his own body with such a dreadful disease that he is more like a rotten carcass than a living man
Jerusalem (2) - one terminates opposite the city as the Mount of Olives, while a southern branch, given off near the highest point before the modern Jaffa road commences to descend to the city, runs almost due south, and terminates near the commencement of the Wady el-Wurd, at a point on which is situated to-day the summer residence of the Greek Patriarch, known as Katamûn. side leads to a conduit which enters the city near the Jaffa Gate and empties itself into the great rock-cut pool—Birket Hammâm el-Batrak (the pool or bath of the Patriarch), commonly known as the Pool of Hezekiah
Dioscorus (1), Patriarch of Alexandria - Dioscorus (1) , Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded Cyril about midsummer 444, receiving consecration, according to one report (Mansi, vii. According to a priest named Athanasius, Cyril's nephew, Dioscorus, from the outset of his episcopate ("which he obtained one knows not how," says the petitioner), harassed him and his brother by using influence with the court, so that the brother died of distress, and Athanasius, with his aunts, sister-in-law, and nephews, were bereft of their homes by the Patriarch's malignity. of Antioch, Theodoret's Patriarch; whereupon Theodoret wrote a denial ( Ep. Theodosius, influenced by his wife and his chamberlain, issued letters (Mar 30, 449), ordering the chief prelates (patriarchs, as we may call them, and exarchs) to repair, with some of their bishops, to Ephesus by Aug
Eusebius of Caesarea - ), and in the Antirrhetica of the Patriarch Nicephorus ( Spicil. , and Samaritan texts, and conjectures that the Hebrews, to justify by Patriarchal example their love of early marriages, systematically shortened the intervals between the birth of each Patriarch and that of his first son
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - His personal share in it began towards the end of 430, with the receipt by John, the Patriarch of Antioch, of the letters of Celestine and Cyril, relative to the condemnation of the doctrines of Nestorius obtained by the Western bishops in Aug. The high-handed behaviour of the Patriarchs of Rome and Alexandria towards the bp. ...
The succession of Dioscorus to Cyril's Patriarchal throne led to fresh trials for Theodoret. Dioscorus, who seems to have regarded himself as "the lawful inheritor of Cyril's guardianship of anti-Nestorian orthodoxy," wrote to Theodoret's Patriarch, Domnus, who c
Servant of the Lord - is probably not a saying of the prophet Jeremiah’s, and in Ezekiel 37:25 ; Ezekiel 28:25 , sometimes cited as parallel, the phrase is used of an individual of the past, the Patriarch Jacob, not of the nation of the present
Assur - ...
Asshur, the deified Patriarch, was the chief god (Genesis 10:22)
Mediation Mediator - The head of the family was first the priest, then the Patriarch of the tribe
James - "Jacob" in Greek; the name appearing in our Lord's apostles and contemporaries for the first time since the Patriarch
the Disobedient Prophet - Duncan, and to hear more of his old sermons read, 'No,' said the old Patriarch to me; 'No: no more tonight; we always take our candles immediately after family worship
Enoch - Take him for your patron Patriarch
Absalom - But be not deceived; God is not mocked: for whatsoever a Patriarch, or a prophet, or a psalmist soweth, that shall he also reap
Job - a Patriarch celebrated for his patience, and the constancy of his piety and virtue. The length of Job's life places him in the Patriarchal times. Farther: Job acted as high priest in his family, according to the Patriarchal usage, Genesis 8:20 ; for the institution of an established priesthood does not appear to have taken place any where until the time of Abraham. The allusion made by Job to that species of idolatry alone, which by general consent is admitted to have been the most ancient, namely, Zabianism, or the worship of the sun and moon, and also to the exertion of the judicial authority against it, Job 31:26-28 , is an additional and most complete proof of the high antiquity of the poem, as well as a decisive mark of the Patriarchal age
New Testament - It was given-by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I
Jeroboam - of his kingdom, the scene of Jehovah's revelation to the Patriarch Jacob (Genesis 28:11; Genesis 28:19; Genesis 35:7); and Dan, at the sources of the Jordan (now Tell el Kadi) in the far N
Apocalyptic Literature - The two books are independent, and indicate the wide-spread tendency to utilize the story of the Patriarch in apocalyptic discourse. The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is a composite work purporting to preserve the last words of the twelve sons of Jacob. Each of the Patriarchs is represented as dealing with that particular virtue or vice with which the Biblical account associates him, and also as foretelling appropriate blessings or curses
Bride - The Patriarch Jacob, who came to Laban with only his staff, offered to serve him seven years for Rachel: a proposal which Laban accepted
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - He says (52, 218) that the time since our Lord's ascension had been nearly as long as the life of an antediluvian Patriarch
Talmud - Or, to give one other example: in pointing out the evils which come from a father’s favouring one son above the others, it is said: ‘This should not be done, for because of the coat of many colours which the Patriarch Jacob gave his favourite son Joseph ( Genesis 37:1 ff
War, Holy War - Yet in Abraham's day no one felt it was strange for the Patriarch to have an alliance with Eshcol and Aner (Genesis 14:13 )
Leadership - In the earliest days of the Old Testament, leadership of the people of God was by the family head or Patriarch, to whom God spoke his messages
Joseph - The Patriarch
Circumcision - The third stipulation in God's covenant with the Patriarch, was the gift to Abraham and to his seed of "the land of Canaan," in which the temporal promise was manifestly but the type of the higher promise of a heavenly inheritance. This double reference of circumcision, both to the authority of Moses and to that of the Patriarchs, is found in the words of our Lord, John 7:22 : "Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision, not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers;" or, as it is better translated by Campbell, "Moses instituted circumcision among you, (not that it is from Moses, but from the Patriarchs,) and ye circumcise on the Sabbath
Letters - In consequence of this uncertainty respecting the author of alphabetic writing, and the high value and extreme difficulty of the invention itself, many have been inclined to attribute this art to an immediate revelation from the Deity; contending that it was communicated with other invaluable gifts from above, in remote ages, to the descendants of Abraham, and probably to the Patriarch Moses, who was the author of the most ancient compositions in alphabetical writing that we at present possess
Living (2) - The woman of Samaria was familiar with the expression, and her question was quite natural and appropriate, ‘Art thou greater than our father Jacob?’ ‘Here is an ordinary man offering to supply better water, spring water, in the place where the Patriarch Jacob had been obliged to content himself with building a cistern and drinking cistern water’ (Wendt, St
Serpent - It is indisputably clear, that the Patriarch intended some kind of serpent; for the circumstances will not apply to a freebooter watching for his prey
Sabbath - It deserves consideration, too, on this subject, that Noah, in sending forth the dove out of the ark, observed the septenary revolution of days, Genesis 8:10 ; Genesis 8:12 ; and at a subsequent period, in the days of the Patriarch Jacob, a week is spoken of as a well known period of time, Genesis 29:27 ; Judges 14:12 ; Judges 14:15 ; Judges 14:17
Jeru'Salem - 637 the Patriarch Sophronius surrendered to the khalif Omar in person
Egypt - It was turning to the world for help, and it entangled the Patriarch in conduct for which he was rebuked by Pharaoh, the prince of the world
Church - " So that since the days of Abraham, the church has, in every age, been founded upon the covenant made with that Patriarch, and on the work of redemption which was to be performed according to that covenant
Jerusalem - 637 the Patriarch Sophronius surrendered to the khalif Omar, and the Holy City passed into the hands of the Fatimite dynasty
Romans, Theology of - While Abraham functions as a secondary figure as Patriarch of righteousness by faith for Gentile and Jewish believers, Adam and Christ represent archetypal progenitors of the human race where works are the primary focus
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - ...
The two great church questions in which Isidore took a decided part brought him into collision with his own Patriarch, Cyril of Alexandria
Priest (2) - In primitive days, families were represented by the Patriarch or head of a clan; but as the sense of sin grew and deepened, and as the Divine purpose of redemption was gradually unfolded, it became necessary to have men entirely separated for this office
Moses - No Patriarch before wrought a miracle
Noah - The phrase, "these are the generations of Noah" (Genesis 6:9) marks him as the Patriarch of his day
Terah - That is to say, to be the patron Patriarch and first father of all humble-minded, open-minded, free-minded, and hospitable-minded old men all the world over. A great bereavement, a great disappointment, a great temptation, a great transgression, a great humiliation, and a great surrender of his rights-all these great experiences, and more than all these, had to be passed through, and their full fruits had to be reaped up into Abram's heart and life and character, before Abram could be trusted, could be counted on, as the foundation stone of the Old Testament Church; and before the Patriarchs, and prophets, and psalmists, and kings of Israel could be built up upon him
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - The need of centres of unity and seats of authority to keep the church together amid doctrinal conflicts; the power and importance hence accruing to the Patriarchal sees, and especially to Rome as the one great Patriarchate of the West, the see of the old seat of empire and the only Western one that claimed apostolic origin; the view now generally received of the bp. A second letter arrived from Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, with the Acts of the synod of the Oak, shewing that Chrysostom had been condemned by 36 bishops, of whom 29 were Egyptians. Alexander having, later, consulted the pope as to the jurisdiction of his Patriarchal see of Antioch, Innocent replied that in accordance with the canons of Nice (Can. The Oriental diocese here referred to included 15 provinces, over the metropolitans of which the Patriarchal jurisdiction of Antioch is alleged to extend
Julius (5), Bishop of Rome - Paul certainly, the deposed Patriarch of Constantinople (whom Eusebius had succeeded and who is mentioned by Socrates and Sozomen among the successful appellants), was not restored till the death of his rival in 342, and then only for a time and not through the action of Julius; nor did Athanasius regain his see till 346
New Testament - The Codex Alexandrinus (A) given by Cyril Lucar, Patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I, 1628; now in the British Museum; it contains the Old Testament, the Septuagint, and begins the New Testament with Matthew 25:6, and lacks John 6:50 - 8:52; the New Testament part was published in facsimile by Woide in 1786
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - -The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs consists of a series of discourses assigned to the twelve sons of Jacob, varying in theme and style, but all more or less on the same general plan-(i. The Patriarchs shall rise from the dead, and the twelve sons of Jacob shall reign-Levi first, Judah second, etc. He charges them to keep the Law; foretells the resurrection of all the Patriarchs: each shall rule over his tribe. But the earliest and indeed the only instance we possess of the use of the word ‘patriarch’ with special reference to the twelve sons of Jacob is in Stephen’s speech in Acts 7:8-9. ]'>[2]2) Patriarchs or [18] Fathers. 35, that ‘the political conditions of the reign of John Hyrcanus give point to the choice to the Twelve Patriarchs as the speakers in the book
Jews - A name derived from the Patriarch Judah, and given to the descendants of Abraham by his eldest son Isaac
Law - This had been manifested in the appointment of the land of Canaan for the future settlement of the chosen people on the first covenant which God entered into with the Patriarch Abraham; in the prophecy, that for four hundred years they should be afflicted in Egypt, and afterward be thence delivered; in the increase of their nation, under circumstances of extreme oppression, and their supernatural deliverance from that oppression. A preceding code of traditionary moral law is all along supposed in the writings of Moses and the prophets, as well as a consuetudinary ritual and a doctrinal theology, both transmitted from the Patriarchs
Text of the New Testament - From an uncertain, but early, date it belonged to the Patriarchs of Alexandria; it was brought thence by Cyril Lucar in 1621, when he became Patriarch of Constantinople, and was presented by him to Charles i
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - Severus, Patriarch of Antioch (513–551), has a long catalogue of sayings from Ignatius, in which every one of the 7 epistles is laid under contribution
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - 26, 398, by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria
Eutyches And Eutychianism - Eutyches and Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria, had demanded it, and their position had been supported by Chrysaphius
Expiation - " Thus, by their very law, and by constant usage, were the Jews familiarized to the notion of expiatory sacrifice, as well as by the history contained in their sacred books, especially in Genesis, which speaks of the vicarious sacrifices offered by the Patriarchs; and in the book of Job, in which that Patriarch is said to have offered sacrifices for the supposed sins of his sons; and where Eliphaz is commanded, by a divine oracle, to offer a burnt offering for himself and his friends, "lest God should deal with them after their folly
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - A list of 60 books of Scripture appended to a writing of Anastasius, Patriarch of Antioch in the reign of Justinian, is in Westcott's N
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - The exiled Patriarch "can never forget the love of Theodore, so genuine and warm, so sincere and guileless, a love maintained from early years, and manifested but now