What does Parousia mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Parousia
See Second Coming of Christ
Webster's Dictionary - Parousia
(1):
(n.) The last day.
(2):
(n.) The nativity of our Lord.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Parousia
(par-ooo-see’-a) A Greek term that means “arrival” or “coming.” The term is often referred to as the time of Christ’s return; hence, the Parousia, 2 Thessalonians 2:1.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Parousia
(puh ruhyoo' ssih uh) Transliteration of Greek word which means “presence” or “coming.” In New Testament theology it encompasses the events surrounding the second coming of Christ. See Day of the Lord ; Eschatology ; Future Hope ; Kingdom of God .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Parousia
PAROUSIA. The ‘appearance,’ Advent , or Second Coming of Christ at the end of ‘this age’ in order to establish His Kingdom.
1. Origin of the expectation . The Messianic interpretation given to Jesus by the Apostles was essentially eschatological. No one of them understood Him to be engaged in the work of establishing the Kingdom of God during the period culminating in His death. He was the Christ in the sense that ( a ) He was anointed (empowered) by God to deliver men; ( b ) He was gathering and preparing men for His Kingdom; ( c ) He died and rose to manifest the Justice and love of God, and thus save those who accepted Him as Christ; ( d ) He would return to conquer Satan, judge both the living and the dead, and establish His Kingdom either in heaven or on a renewed earth. How far we are to believe that this view was held or countenanced by Jesus Himself will he determined by the view taken as to the authorship of Mark 13:1-37 and other apocalyptic sections of the Synoptic Gospels. At this point Christain scholars are divided into three groups: first, those who believe that Jesus was thoroughly in sympathy with the eschatological views of His contemporaries; second, those who hold that He rejected those views, and that the eschatological sayings attributed to Him are the result of reading back into His word the admitted eschatological expectation of the Apostles and the early Church as a whole. There seems little likelihood at present of agreement between these two groups, for the reason that the second group uses as critical criteria dogmatic or highly subjective presuppositions concerning Jesus. The nearest approach to a compromise view is to be found in the position of the third group, who hold that Jesus to some extent utilized the eschatology of His day, but that His references have been developed and made specific by the Evangelists. However these larger questions may be answered, an impartial criticism and exegesis can hardly deny that Jesus referred to His future in terms which, if interpreted literally, would mean His return in judgment (cf. particularly Mark 14:61-68 , Matthew 23:37-39 ). As to the exact time at which He expected His return we have no information, except such sayings as Mark 8:34-38 [1] and Luke 17:22 .
2. Expectation in the early Church. The elements in the expectation of the Parousia found in the Gospels and in the Epistles can be formulated without serious difficulty. It was expected within the lifetime of the writers (except 2 Peter 3:3-9 ): 1 Thessalonians 4:15 , 1 Corinthians 15:51 f.; or immediately: James 5:8 , Philippians 4:5 , Romans 13:11 , 1Co 7:29 , 1 Peter 4:7 . The exact day is, however, not known ( 1 Thessalonians 5:2 ), but will be preceded by sorrows and the appearance of Antichrist ( 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ) and the conversion of the Jews ( Romans 11:25-26 ). The order of events awaited is the descent of Jesus with His angels from the upper heavens to the lower; the sounding of the trumpet and the voice of the archangel which will summon the dead from Sheol; the giving to the saints of the body of the resurrection; the catching up of the living saints, who have been changed in the twinkling of an eye, to meet Jesus and the risen saints in the air; the general judgment of both living and dead; the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom, which, after a period of struggle, is to be victorious over the kingdom of Satan; and finally the fixing of the eternal supremacy of God. Among certain Christians this view was further elaborated, so that the appearance of Christ in the sky was followed by the resurrection of the martyrs, a thousand years of peace, during which Satan was to be bound, then the conquest of Satan, the general resurrection, and the establishment of the final conditions of eternity. This latter view, however, although popular in the 2nd cent., does not appear in the NT except in Revelation 20:2-7 (see Millennium). It easily passed over into the sensuous chiliastic views which were finally rejected from the main current of Christian thought largely through the influence of Augustine, but which have continued to exist among different sects or groups of Christians.
3. Various identifications of the Parousia. ( a ) With Christ’s resurrection . Such a view, however, disregards many of the elements of the NT expectation, and has never been widely accepted. ( b ) The coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost a view commonly held by those who reject the literalistic interpretation of the apocalyptic elements of the NT, and identify the influence of the risen Jesus in the world with the Holy Spirit. This view makes such passages as John 14:23 ; John 16:7 ff. the exegetical point of approach to the entire question. ( c ) The destruction of Jerusalem . This is generally combined with ( b ) and said to be forecast in Mark 13:1-37 and Mark 14:61-63 . ( d ) The theory of the successive comings of the Christ in judgment . Thus various historical crises, such as the destruction of Jerusalem and the fall of the Roman Empire, are regarded as due to the immediate influence of the Christ and as a part of the new dispensation of the Spirit. ( e ) The death of the believer a view exegetically untenable. ( f ) The historical-critical view sees in the expectations of the NT Christianity survivals of Jewish eschatology. Such a view does not deny an element of truth in the expectation, but regards the belief as due to the attachment to Jesus of Jewish expectations (cf. Eth. Enoch 48) now seen to be impossible of realization.
The view probably most generally held at the present time involves elements from several of these specific explanations, and is to the effect that, while the Apostles doubtless expected the eschatological cataclysm to occur in their day, they saw the future in prophetic rather than historical perspective. As a consequence the Second Coming with its attendant events is still to be expected. At different times men have endeavoured by the interpretation of the Book of Daniel to determine the precise date at which it will occur; but among those who still await a literal appearance of Christ in the air it is usual to regard the Parousia as likely to occur immediately, or at any time during an indefinite future period.
Shailer Mathews.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Parousia
1. General considerations.-In earlier literature on this subject the relation between the conceptions of the Parousia in Jewish apocalyptic and those in the NT is treated as an open question. Further study and research have made this attitude impossible. It is certain that the whole of the eschatological and apocalyptic background of primitive Christianity is due to its Jewish source. The question for modern scholarship has assumed a different form. It is necessary to attempt a systematic reconstruction, if this be possible, of the eschatological scheme underlying primitive Christianity in general, and each of the apostolic writers in particular. It is also necessary to discover, if possible, the direction in which those elements peculiar to Christianity have modified the original lines of the Jewish apocalyptic. Thirdly, it is necessary to form some estimate of the place of the eschatology, and especially of its central conception, the Parousia of Christ, in the essential nature of Christianity. In his Paul and his Interpreters (p. 240 f.) Schweitzer has the following pertinent remarks:
‘Not until Pauline eschatology gives an answer to all the “idle” questions of this kind which can be asked will it be really understood and explained. And it must be somehow possible, by the discovery of its inner logic, to reconstruct it from the scattered statements in the documents. We have no right to assume that for Paul there existed in his expectation manifest obscurities, much less that he had overlooked contradictions in it.’
The attitude here indicated towards Pauline eschatology is necessary towards the whole of primitive apostolic eschatology. At the same time, it must be recognized that the various apocalypses of the 1st cent. before and after the birth of Christ do not by any means present a coherent scheme of eschatology, and it is possible that the same vagueness and inconsistency in detail will be found to characterize the early Christian apocalyptic, including the Pauline.
For supplementary discussion of various points connected with the subject of the Parousia the reader is referred to the articles in this Dictionary on Immortality, Resurrection, Heaven, etc. For fuller discussion of the stage of eschatological belief represented by the Synoptic Gospels see the relevant articles in the DCG_.
2. The Parousia in the literature of the Apostolic Age
i. The Acts.-In Acts we come closest perhaps to the practical working of the eschatological beliefs in the early Church, and find the most direct expression of them in the early apostolic preaching. Whatever may be the opinion as to the literary tradition at work in the speeches of Acts, and the accuracy with which the words of the various speakers have been reported, there can be no doubt that they are a faithful representation of the kind of preaching that marked the early stages of the growth of the Church. These speeches are almost wholly eschatological.
In the first two addresses attributed to St. Peter, the Parousia is regarded as imminent, and baptism is the only way of escape for those who desire to flee from the coming woes and participate in the ‘times of refreshing.’ The rapid growth of the Church is represented as the filling up of the number of those destined to be saved (Acts 2:47). Salvation is not merely from sin and its consequences, though that is never out of sight, but from coming wrath and for the enjoyment of future blessings. In Acts salvation has always an eschatological colouring.
In the Pauline speeches it appears in the same way. In the speech at Athens the final appeal is emphasized by the announcement of an appointed day in which God will judge the world by Christ, and the resurrection of Christ is assigned as the pledge of the truth of this announcement. In the Miletus address the apostasy before the end is referred to. In the address before Agrippa the hope of the Resurrection is represented as the hope of the Jewish nation. Moreover, the practical effect of this immediate expectation of the Parousia upon the life of the Church is clearly seen in its abandonment of property and in its communistic organization. It was the particular form of their Messianic expectation that marked out the Christians among their own countrymen as a sect (αἵρεσις, Acts 24:14). But it is not easy to find any trace of the special line of development which we shall follow out in St. Paul’s correspondence. In St. Luke’s representation of St. Paul’s eschatology we see only the orthodox Pharisee, believing in the resurrection of just and unjust. The nature of the Book of Acts, and its object, make it unfair to expect more than a reflexion of the external current of feeling and action in the early years of the Church. This the book gives us with fidelity, and we cannot expect an insight into the deeper streams of thought that manifest themselves in St. Paul’s correspondence, and in the later developments of the Johannine literature.
ii. St. Paul.-The general tendency of modern scholarship is to find a development in the eschatology of St. Paul from the ‘cruder’ eschatology of the earlier Epistles, e.g. 1 and 2 Thessalonians, through the central group of Epistles, Romans and Corinthians, to the Epistles of the Captivity such as Philippians,_ and possibly Ephesians, which, if not by St. Paul, is generally recognized as Pauline.
R. H. Charles finds a stage of development between 1 and 2 Corinthians, but for convenience we may take the three main groups and examine their view of the Parousia separately.
(a) 1 and 2 Thessalonians.-In both these Epistles the Parousia occupies a foremost place. It is not necessary to discuss here the Pauline authorship of 2 Thess. For the best and most recent statement of the whole position the reader is referred to Kirsopp Lake’s The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul. It is also a tenable position that 2 Thess. is the earlier of the two. But the two are in any case so close together in time that they may be taken together as they stand to represent St. Paul’s views on the Parousia about a.d. 51 (see art._ Thessalonians, Epistles to the).
The passages in 1 and 2 Thess. are important as much for what they imply as for what they explicitly state. They show how largely the eschatological element bulked in the primitive apostolic preaching. The most important passage in 1 Thess. is 1 Thessalonians 4:13 to 1 Thessalonians 5:11. The following are the principal points arising from it.
It implies that St. Paul had taught his converts the near approach of the Parousia of Christ and the consequent blessing, apparently on earth, of the living believers. But it also implies that he had not told them what place the believers who died in the interval of expectation would have. The implication is that the Thessalonians supposed the dead would lose their part in the Messianic Kingdom, and were sorrowing accordingly.
It also seems that St. Paul does not supply his solution to the question ready-made from Jewish apocalyptic material, but bases it on two grounds: (1) his own deduction from the death and resurrection of Jesus 1 Thessalonians 4:14), and (2) a word of the Lord (1 Thessalonians 4:15). Of course, this may be disputed, but to the present writer the passage is important evidence for the working of St. Paul’s mind on the questions of the eschatological scheme, and for the method which he applied to their solution.
Hence St. Paul infers from the death and resurrection of Jesus, probably by way of his own fundamental view of the vital union between Christ and the believer, that as death is not a bar to Christ’s entering on His Messianic Kingdom, neither will it prevent believers who die from sharing that Kingdom. The Resurrection is the key to both difficulties. God raised Christ and will raise believers in Christ for the Kingdom. That is the fundamental position and the principle upon which it is based. Then the details are apparently supplied from the primitive oral tradition of our Lord’s teaching as known to St. Paul, although not preserved in the Synoptists (ἐν λόγῳ κυρίου). (For the interpretation of ἐν λόγῳ κυρίου as referring to the oral tradition rather than to a special revelation cf. 1 Corinthians 7:10; 1 Corinthians 9:14; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3.) Accordingly, the order of events as presented in this passage is: (1) the resurrection of Christ takes place; (2) during the present generation (‘we which are alive and remain’) Christ will descend into the air with a word of command, the archangel’s voice, and the trumpet of God; (3) thereupon the dead in Christ rise first; (4) after a very brief interval of time, the living will be ‘caught up,’ with the raised dead, to meet the Lord in the air; (5) both living and dead will then be ‘for ever with the Lord.’ The Apostle does not say where, on earth or in heaven, nor does he speak here of any change in the living who are caught up. (6) He goes on to distinguish this event from the ‘day of the Lord’ (1 Thessalonians 5:2). He implies that they know accurately the details about the ‘times and seasons,’ including the coming of the day of the Lord, whereas he had previously implied that they were not acquainted with the event described in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, ‘I would not have you ignorant.’ The ‘day of the Lord’ comes as a thief in the night; it brings judgment upon the sinners, those who are ‘of the night.’ Believers will not be overtaken by it. God has not appointed them to wrath but to obtain salvation ‘through our Lord Jesus Christ, who died for us, that whether we wake or sleep we should live together with him.’
This passage seems to distinguish the Parousia proper, the coming of Christ for the saints, from the ‘day of the Lord’ with its judgments. It is not easy to reconcile 2 Thess. with 1 Thess. except on the hypothesis that 2 Thess. is prior to 1 Thess., and that, in endeavoring to meet difficulties raised in reply to 2 Thess., the Apostle had worked out the form of Parousia doctrine which appears in 1 Thess. Otherwise, if the usual order be retained, the opening verses of 2 Thess. suggest that St. Paul had not realized the incompatibility of the new outline given in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18 with the older traditional view represented by 2 Thessalonians 1.
In this passage St. Paul represents the believers who are suffering persecution as about to be delivered from it by the revelation of Christ with flaming fire from heaven. Christ’s appearance brings cessation of persecution (ἄνεσιν) for the persecuted saints, and tribulation for the persecutors-the traditional view of current Jewish apocalyptic (cf. Ass. Mos. x. 10, 2 Bar. li. 1-6, lxxxii. 1-2). There is no mention of any resurrection of the dead or catching up of dead and living into the air, and it is rather a straining of the text to read all this into the one word ἄνεσιν. The only natural alternatives are either that St. Paul has drawn his account of the Parousia here from the older traditional view, unconscious of the inconsistency with his new view in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, or that the apocalyptic parts of 2 Thess. are not Pauline but interpolated, a view which has not been without support.
The 2nd chapter of 2 Thess. gives further important details as to the order of events, and also implies that all the details were already known to the readers and should have preserved them from the panic into which they had been thrown, apparently by a forged letter or false prediction (2 Thessalonians 2:2). The cause of the panic was that they had been persuaded to interpret their persecutions as a sign that the ‘day of the Lord’ was already present (ἐνέστηκεν, 2 Thessalonians 2:2). St. Paul points out that before the ‘day of the Lord’ and before the Parousia two events had to occur, as they knew already. ‘The apostasy,’ not ‘a falling away,’ but the well-known apostasy of current apocalyptic which we find in Daniel and in the apocalyptic portions of the Synoptics, had to take place. It was already working secretly, but had not yet reached its climax. Then, the ‘man of lawlessness,’ the Antichrist of the apocalyptic, was to be revealed, who would bring to a climax the rebellion against God and Christ, and bring about the Divine intervention of the Parousia which would destroy him and his followers.
The curious cryptic passage (2 Thessalonians 2:6-7) concerning the presence of a restraining force has given much trouble to commentators, but does not touch our question of the Parousia. It is evidently perfectly intelligible to the readers (καὶ νῦν τὸ κατέχον οἴδατε), and seems to belong to the period when it was necessary to use cryptic references to Rome and Imperial things (cf. Exp_, 7th ser., x. [1] 374 f.). For a fuller discussion see Bousset, Der Antichrist, p. 77 ff.
A comparison of the two Epistles shows the following order of events:
1 Thess.
2 Thess.
(a) Resurrection of Christ.
(a) No mention of Resurrection as basis of teaching.
(b) Interval of waiting, some believers fall asleep.
(b) Saints persecuted.
(c) Descent of Christ into the air, with shout, trump, etc.
(c) Apostasy sets in.
(d) Resurrection of dead.
(d) The cryptic restraining influence is removed.
(e) Rapture of living who remain and dead who have been raised.
(e) The Antichrist is revealed and manifests his power by miracles.
(f) All are for ever with the Lord.
(f) The Parousia takes place accompanied by angels and flaming fire.
(g) Coming of the ‘day of the Lord’ and judgment for sinners.
(g) It causes deliverance to the saints, destruction to Antichrist, and judgment to the followers of Antichrist.
The point of view is so different that it certainly makes it extremely difficult to maintain, at the same time, the Pauline authorship of both passages and the theory of a rigidly consistent Pauline scheme of eschatology.
(b) The second group of Epistles, Romans and Corinthians, offers a number of important passages, but very few with such details of the order of the apocalyptic scheme as Thessalonians.
(1) In Rom. the whole outlook upon the Christian position is coloured by the thought of the future, the Parousia and its attendant results. But the Parousia itself is hardly mentioned directly. The picture of the future presented in Rom. is as follows: the general statement of a coming time of wrath and judgment when God will judge the secrets of men through Jesus Christ, according to St. Paul’s gospel (Romans 2:5-6; Romans 2:16); those who are justified look forward to the glory of God; they will be saved from wrath through Christ (Romans 5:1; Romans 5:10; cf. 1 Thessalonians 1:10), they will reign in life (Romans 5:17); the justified have been predestined for this purpose and will finally be conformed to the image of Christ (Romans 8:29-30); their bodies will be quickened through the power of the Spirit of Christ already dwelling in them (Romans 8:11); when they are manifested the whole creation also will be delivered from the bondage of corruption (Romans 8:19-21); when the fullness of the Gentiles is come in (i.e. the full number of those predestined from the Gentiles for salvation), the elect of Israel, all Israel, will be saved (Romans 11:25-26); ‘salvation is nearer than when we believed’ (Romans 13:11); all must stand before the tribunal of God (Romans 14:10); Satan will shortly be bruised under the saints’ feet (Romans 16:20).
It is evidently difficult to draw clear conclusions from these passages. They suggest rather a fluid than a rigid eschatology. They present the appearance of the gradual, half-conscious modification of the older lines of eschatology by the working of the new principle of the consequences of the Resurrection, an element which is of course wholly foreign to the Jewish schemes of apocalyptic, and peculiar to the Christian scheme. The universalism of Romans 3:23; Romans 3:26, Romans 11:32 is in apparent contrast with the older eschatological conception of a fixed number to be saved as reflected in Romans 8:29, Romans 11:5 (cf. Luke 14:23, Acts 2:47). The chief point as to the Parousia is the concentration of interest upon the working of the principle of ‘life,’ which embraces both moral character and physical change, the two forming one correlated process of transformation, consummated at the Parousia.
(2) In Cor. we have a number of important and explicit passages requiring careful examination. The most important passage in 1 Corinthians is the 15th chapter. But there are a few shorter passages that must be noted in passing-1 Corinthians 1:7-8 : the Corinthians are awaiting the revelation of the Lord Jesus Christ, who will establish them blameless in His day, ‘the day of our Lord Jesus Christ’; 1 Corinthians 3:13-15 : ‘the day’ will try every man’s work with fire. There will be rewards for those whose work abides, and those whose work is consumed will themselves be saved, but as through fire; 1 Corinthians 4:5 : when the Lord comes, in contrast with man’s day (ἀνθρωπίνης ἡμέρας) the secrets will be revealed, and praise will be from God; 1 Corinthians 5:5 : the incestuous man is delivered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit may be saved in ‘the day of the Lord Jesus; 1 Corinthians 6:2; 1 Corinthians 6:8 : a time is coming when the saints will judge the world, and even the angels; 1 Corinthians 7:29 : ‘the time is short’ (ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστί), probably meaning that the interval of waiting for the Parousia has been shortened; cf. Matthew 24:22, but the phrase is obscure; 1 Corinthians 11:25-26 : the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper is directly connected with the Parousia, as it is in the Synoptic account of the Institution.
These passages all point to the same background of expectation, but offer very little basis for the reconstruction of a definite Pauline scheme of eschatology. In ch. 15, however, we have more detail, and once more the whole conception is dominated by the Resurrection. The first passage is 1 Corinthians 15:20-28. The order is-first, the resurrection of Christ, who is the ἀπαρχή, the firstfruits of the working of the new principle of life, in contrast with the results of the principle of death introduced by Adam (cf. Romans 5:12-14). Then those who are Christ’s rise at His Parousia if they are dead, or are changed if they remain alive (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:51). This leads up to the consummation (τὸ τέλος) when Christ hands over the Kingdom to God the Father. The duration of the three stages is left undefined. The interval between the resurrection of Christ and that of believers is indirectly limited to one generation (‘we shall not all sleep’), but the duration of the interval between this event, evidently the Parousia of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, and the complete subjugation of every enemy, including death itself, is left quite undetermined. This interval may be filled in by the events implied in previous passages, the coming of the day of the Lord, testing of every man’s work, assigning of rewards, judgment of the world and of angels, destruction of Antichrist. But so far the distinction between the Parousia proper and the day of the Lord, suggested in 1 Thess., seems to be maintained. The description of the Parousia is more fully developed in 1 Corinthians 15:50-56, with a fairly clear indication of the logical connection between the account of the event and St. Paul’s view of Christ’s post-Resurrection state. Christ’s present state is spirit, incorruptible, not flesh and blood. Flesh and blood cannot inherit the Kingdom of God. Hence the point left undefined in 1 Thess. must be worked out here-the question of the form of existence of the living and the dead at the Parousia. The authority for the transference of οὐ in 1 Corinthians 15:51 to the second clause is strong, but not so strong as that for the generally received text; and it is more than probable that the change was due to the difficulty that arose out of the non-fulfilment of the expectation. But the sense of the passage, and the supporting parallel in 1 Thessalonians 4, require the reading ‘we shall not all sleep.’ The solution of the problem is that all are changed, both dead and living. ‘The dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we (the living) shall be changed.’ The change is instantaneous (ἐν ἀτόμῳ) and takes place at the last trump. But no mention is made here of a rapture into the air, as in 1 Thessalonians 4. Hence it would seem that St. Paul’s interest was turning to the manner of the Parousia, to the application of the principle displayed in Christ’s resurrection, as he had apprehended it. It is a spiritualization, arising not from the difficulty of squaring eschatological predictions with their non-fulfilment, but from the inner logic of a view of the Resurrection which compelled St. Paul to cast his eschatological conceptions into that mould.
In the Second Epistle Charles sees an advance on the First. The interval is very short, but it is possible that between the two letters the Apostle had grasped more clearly the consequences of his own reasoning in ch. 15 of the First Epistle. The probable order and date of the three Epistles is: 1 Cor., spring of a.d. 56; 2 Cor., autumn of the same year; and Rom., early in a.d. 57. Of course the point cannot be debated here. The reader must refer to the abundant literature on the subject, especially Lake, The Earlier Epistles of St. Paul; Sanday-Headlam, Commentary on Romans; and Robertson-Plummer on 1 Corinthians. But the main point is that the three Epistles are all very close together in time, making the view of development somewhat difficult, though it is not impossible. In Charles’s view the Apostle in 2 Cor. arrives at the conclusion that the resurrection of the believer, his assumption of the glorified spiritual state, takes place immediately after death, and not at the Parousia. There are difficulties in this view which will be noticed as we examine the passages in 2 Corinthians. The crucial passage is in the 5th chapter, which forms the conclusion and climax of a long argument starting in ch. 3 and developing the conception of life, ‘the ministration of the Spirit.’ In 2 Corinthians 4:13-14 the Apostle argues that God who raised Christ must on the same principle raise believers and ‘present’ them together on some unspecified occasion, apparently the Parousia. Meanwhile the spiritual process is at work, the inner man is being created anew day by day ( 2 Corinthians 4:16). Hence ‘the taking down’ (κατάλυσις, 2 Corinthians 5:1) of the earthly tent-dwelling, the outer man of 2 Corinthians 4:16, need not occasion alarm or grief, because the believer is aware that he possesses an eternal abode with God in the heavens, i.e. the glorified mode of existence already described in 1 Corinthians 15, and implied in 2 Corinthians 4:16-18. Charles interprets this verse, 2 Corinthians 5:1, to mean that upon death the believer immediately possesses this glorious dwelling. But the contrast between ‘unclothed,’ ἐκδύσασθαι and ‘clothed upon,’ ἐπενδύσασθαι, is a serious difficulty. The passage as it stands seems to imply a contrast between two states in the future, one of which is desired, and the other distasteful. The Apostle is not longing for death, since death involves the ‘unclothed’ state, being ‘found’ naked at the Parousia, but he longs rather to be clothed upon, to be changed while still living, that what is mortal in him may be, not put off, but swallowed up by the life which is already at work. This view, of course, preserves the importance of the Parousia as an object of hope. If the attainment of the exceeding and eternal weight of glory follows immediately upon death, then death rather than
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Parousia (2)
PAROUSIA.—In connexion with the intimations of His approaching death, Jesus frequently spoke of His coming again to earth in a way that would give proof of His indestructible life and power. It is evident, however, that in those predictions of the future it was not always in exactly the same sense that He meant His coming to be understood. His sayings on the subject from time to time obviously pointed to several comings, each of which was to have its peculiar character and aim (see Coming Again). But there was one coming which He foretold in language of exceptional emphasis and impressiveness,—His appearance in celestial majesty at the end of the world, to perfect the work interrupted by His death, but still to be renewed and carried on through the ages by His spiritual energy. This was to be the supreme manifestation of His glory; and to it the term Parousia (παρουσία) is distinctively applied (Matthew 24:3; Matthew 25:1-12; Matthew 24:37). It will signalize the final triumph of His cause, and the complete establishment and consummation of the Kingdom of God. It is the great crisis which has been designated in common usage the Second Coming.
It was at Caesarea Philippi, after His first announcement of the tragic end awaiting Him at the hands of men, that Jesus made also the first announcement of His future glorious return (Matthew 16:27, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:26). He repeated it subsequently under varied circumstances and to varied groups of listeners, and towards the close of His ministry the Parousia, or Second Coming, assumed a marked prominence in His teaching.
In His utterances regarding it, as recorded in the Gospels, there are three points which call specially for consideration,—its time, its manner, and its decisive significance.
1. Time.—As to the time of the Parousia, we find two classes of statements that are somewhat perplexing to reconcile. In one set of passages Jesus looks forward to its early, and even speedy, approach. The existing generation was to witness it (Matthew 24:34). On one occasion He told those standing by that some of them should not taste of death till they saw the Son of Man coming in His Kingdom (Matthew 16:28; cf. Mark 9:1, Luke 9:27), and the same idea of nearness is expressed in Matthew 10:23 and Mark 14:62. Yet we are confronted by another set of passages that suggest a lengthened period of waiting, and the probability of the Parousia being deferred. Such are the parables of the Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-12) and the Tyrannical Upper Servant (Luke 12:42-46 and Mark 13:35). Jesus did not Himself profess to define the time; indeed, in one memorable saying He disclaimed with the utmost distinctness all positive knowledge of the day and hour of the supreme consummation (Matthew 24:36 || Mark 13:32). In the great Eschatological Discourse recorded in Matthew 24 and Mark 13 (cf. Luke 21), the subject is complicated by the manifest reference in certain sections to the disastrous collapse which threatened the Jewish State.
Some, taking the discourse as a homogeneous unity, have been led to maintain that the predictions of Jesus respecting His coming were all fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem (Stuart Russell, Parousia). Many critics, however, find themselves unable to regard the discourse, in the form reported, as one continuous and connected deliverance of Jesus. Wendt and Charles, following Colani, contend that some parts of it are interpolations from an apocalyptic document of Judaeo-Christian authorship, belonging to the year a.d. 67–68. It seems more reasonable to adopt the view, advocated by Professor Bruce and others, that in this discourse the Evangelists have gathered together in one place words spoken on different occasions, and have connected future events more closely than the utterances of Jesus justified. It is at least clear that certain passages in the discourse point to the judgment on Israel as a nation and the impending fall of Jerusalem and its Temple-worship, whilst it is equally clear that other passages refer to a crisis, certainly to be looked for, but still lying in the distance (Matthew 24:43-50, Mark 13:34-37).
With the purport of these latter passages, indicating a possible delay in the coming, there are several other sayings of Jesus that distinctly agree, as, e.g., the two parables already mentioned (Mark 13:7-10 and Luke 12:42-46), and also the parable of the Unjust Judge (Luke 18:1-7). We find, besides, that in a particular group of parables—the Mustard Seed, the Leaven (Matthew 13:31-33), and the Growing Grain of Corn (Mark 4:26-29)—the Kingdom He came to establish is represented as subject to the law of growth. Evidently Jesus was not unmindful of the preparatory process it might be necessary for the world to pass through ere He could usher in the Kingdomi in ts full glory. His words can be interpreted as indicating a recognition of the natural course of human development as an essential factor in determining the time when the world would be ripe for the final manifestation of His power. Moreover, He spoke also of the evangelization of the Gentile races as a work to be undertaken ere the end should come (Matthew 24:14; Matthew 26:13, Mark 13:10). The gospel was first to be published among all nations, that they also might have an opportunity of accepting the offer of grace; ‘the times of the Gentiles must be fulfilled’ (Luke 21:24). Here again there is foreshadowed a lengthened process, requiring, not a generation only, but an era, for its accomplishment. Manifestly Jesus took into account the gradual evolution of human affairs in contemplating the triumph of His Kingdom, while at the same time His faith in that triumph was so real and assured, and His vision of it so intensely clear, that it seemed to Him imminent, on the eve of fulfilment; and when He spoke under this feeling His disciples gathered the impression that it was close at hand, and they naturally understood the supreme event to be synchronous with the fall of Jerusalem, though in tins, as it proved, they were mistaken.
2. Manner.—As to the manner of the Parousia, a considerable number of passages represent it as altogether startling and unexpected. It is to break in upon the world as a sudden surprise, while men are busied with their earthly affairs, like the Flood in the time of Noah, or the destruction of Sodom in the time of Lot (Luke 17:26-30; Luke 17:34), its approach shall be as that of a thief, stealing into the house without warning (Luke 12:39 f.), or as the arrival of an absent master at an hour when his servants are not looking for him (Luke 12:42-46), or as the return of the bride-groom in the night-time, leading his bride and the marriage party to the wedding-feast (Matthew 25:1-13). On the other hand, there are passages in the Eschatological Discourse in Matthew 24 and Mark 13 which seem to represent the final coming as preceded by certain manifest signs which shall give evidence of its nearness—the appearance of false Christs (Matthew 24:5, Mark 13:6; Mark 13:22), wars, earthquakes, and famines (Matthew 24:7, Matthew 24:27), persecutions and tribulations (Matthew 24:9, Mark 13:11-13), the darkened sun and falling stars (Matthew 24:29, Mark 13:24-25). If, however, the view of the composite character of that discourse, as we now have it, is accepted, the passages describing such arresting phenomena may be interpreted as vivid pictorial forecasts of the calamitous state of things by which the threatened Jewish crisis would be ushered in. But whether that view is accepted or not, special weight must be attached to the warning given by Jesus that even the most striking and palpable signs might be misread. The heralds of the great climax, He declares, must not be taken as the climax itself; ‘All these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet’ (Matthew 24:6). After all, apparently, whatever may be the catastrophic social or other upheavals by which it is preluded, the signal event is to come suddenly and unexpectedly, at such an hour as men think not (Matthew 24:44, Luke 12:40; Luke 12:46). Yet, when it does come, there shall be no dubiety; the splendour shall be dazzlingly patent, like the lightning-flash illumining all the heavens (Matthew 24:27).
3. Significance.—The decisive significance of the Parousia was expressed by Jesus in words of profound solemnity. What it will involve, according to His teaching, may be briefly summed up as follows:
(1) The Divine dignity of His Person shall then be disclosed. He will appear in heavenly majesty, attended by His holy angels, and His glory and power shall be fully revealed (Matthew 24:30; Matthew 25:31; Matthew 26:64, Mark 8:38).
(2) His authority as Judge shall be put in force. Entrusted by the Father with supreme judicial functions (John 5:22-23), He will gather all nations before Him to receive a reward according to their works (Matthew 16:27; Matthew 25:32); the secrets of all hearts shall be unveiled (Luke 12:2); there shall be a sifting and separation of the good from the bad, the spurious from the true (Matthew 7:22-23; Matthew 13:41; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 25:32); and the sentence of approval or of condemnation passed shall depend on the attitude and spirit towards Himself by which the life has been swayed (Matthew 25:34-46).
(3) The future destinies of men shall be determined. The day shall at last have arrived—‘that day’ (Matthew 7:22, Luke 10:12) so momentous to every soul—when there can be no more self-deception, and the results of the law of recompense shall have to be faced, the righteous and pure-hearted being raised to eternal life and blessedness in the presence of the Father, and the unworthy and insincere cast into the outer darkness (Matthew 13:41-43; Matthew 22:13; Matthew 25:34-46, Mark 8:38).
Thus (4) the Kingdom shall be exalted to its triumph and perfection. It shall be cleansed of all things that offend, and them that do iniquity (Matthew 13:41); the supremacy of righteousness shall be vindicated by the elevation of the godly to salvation, the ingathering of all elect souls (Matthew 24:13), and the exclusion of the wicked from the eternal inheritance.
Then (5) the existing world-order shall come to an end. In the teaching of Jesus Himself there is no trace of the thought that the Parousia would inaugurate an outward visible sovereignty on earth, when He should assume the reins of government, and rule as King in the realm of temporal affairs. That thought arose among His followers only at a subsequent period. The idea implied in His utterances is rather that His final glorious advent shall mark the definite close of the long drama of human life on the earth, by the removal of all His true disciples to the heavenly state, and the consignment of the unfaithful to the doom prepared for them. That shall be the Last Day, when the human race shall have had its full trial under the dispensations of the Divine truth and grace,—the winding-up of the world’s history.
Literature.—Charles, Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian (1899); Wendt, Teaching of Jesus, ii. 274–351; Weiss, Bib. Theol. of NT, ii. 145–158, and Life of Christ, iii. 80–97; Beyschlag, NT Theol. i. 190–204; Bruce, Kingdom of God (1889), 272–294; Stuart Russell, Parousia (1887); Warren, Parousia (1885); Muirhead, Eschatology of Jesus (1904); Adams Brown, art. ‘Parousia’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ; Dorner, Syst. of Chr. Doct. iv. 373–428; Salmond, Chr. Doct. of Immortality, 300 ff., 425 ff.; J. A. Beet, Last Things (1905), 19; G. Jackson, Teaching of Jesus (1905), 207; G. B. Stevens, Theology of NT (1899), 150; Sanday-Headlam, Romans, 379 ff.
G. M‘Hardy.

Sentence search

Second Advent - See Parousia
Coming - See Parousia
Appearing - See Parousia
Advent - See Parousia
Millennium - See Eschatology, Parousia
Advent - See Parousia
Chiliasm - See Parousia, Eschatology
Second Coming - See Parousia
Coming of Christ - See Parousia
Return of Christ - See Eschatology ; Future Hope ; Millennium ; Parousia ; Second Coming
Parousia - ” The term is often referred to as the time of Christ’s return; hence, the Parousia, 2 Thessalonians 2:1
Second Coming - The term does not occur in the Gospels, but it has long been adopted in general usage to signify the supreme crisis of the Parousia, the most momentous and decisive of the various future comings which Jesus foreshadowed when He spoke of His death at the hands of men, and the manifestations of His triumphant life and power that would follow it. The subject is dealt with under Coming again, and more fully, with a note on the Literature, under Parousia
Coming - ...
3: παρουσία (Strong's #3952 — Noun Feminine — Parousia — par-oo-see'-ah ) lit. " For instance, in a papyrus letter a lady speaks of the necessity of her Parousia in a place in order to attend to matters relating to her property there. Paul speaks of his Parousia in Philippi, Philippians 2:12 (in contrast to his apousia, "his absence;" see ABSENCE). Parousia is used to describe the presence of Christ with His disciples on the Mount of Transfiguration, 2 Peter 1:16 . ...
The word is also used of the Lawless One, the Man of Sin, his access to power and his doings in the world during his Parousia, 2 Thessalonians 2:9 . For a fuller treatment of Parousia, see Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp
Faithful Steward - In Matthew it is an answer to the assumption: "Why worry, the Parousia is far off. It may be used apologetically since it presupposes the continuation of the apostolate till the Parousia
Steward, Faithful - In Matthew it is an answer to the assumption: "Why worry, the Parousia is far off. It may be used apologetically since it presupposes the continuation of the apostolate till the Parousia
Parousia - -In earlier literature on this subject the relation between the conceptions of the Parousia in Jewish apocalyptic and those in the NT is treated as an open question. Thirdly, it is necessary to form some estimate of the place of the eschatology, and especially of its central conception, the Parousia of Christ, in the essential nature of Christianity. ...
For supplementary discussion of various points connected with the subject of the Parousia the reader is referred to the articles in this Dictionary on Immortality, Resurrection, Heaven, etc. The Parousia in the literature of the Apostolic Age...
i. Peter, the Parousia is regarded as imminent, and baptism is the only way of escape for those who desire to flee from the coming woes and participate in the ‘times of refreshing. Moreover, the practical effect of this immediate expectation of the Parousia upon the life of the Church is clearly seen in its abandonment of property and in its communistic organization. Charles finds a stage of development between 1 and 2 Corinthians, but for convenience we may take the three main groups and examine their view of the Parousia separately. -In both these Epistles the Parousia occupies a foremost place. Paul’s views on the Parousia about a. Paul had taught his converts the near approach of the Parousia of Christ and the consequent blessing, apparently on earth, of the living believers. ’...
This passage seems to distinguish the Parousia proper, the coming of Christ for the saints, from the ‘day of the Lord’ with its judgments. , the Apostle had worked out the form of Parousia doctrine which appears in 1 Thess. Paul has drawn his account of the Parousia here from the older traditional view, unconscious of the inconsistency with his new view in 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, or that the apocalyptic parts of 2 Thess. Paul points out that before the ‘day of the Lord’ and before the Parousia two events had to occur, as they knew already. Then, the ‘man of lawlessness,’ the Antichrist of the apocalyptic, was to be revealed, who would bring to a climax the rebellion against God and Christ, and bring about the Divine intervention of the Parousia which would destroy him and his followers. ...
The curious cryptic passage (2 Thessalonians 2:6-7) concerning the presence of a restraining force has given much trouble to commentators, but does not touch our question of the Parousia. ...
(f) The Parousia takes place accompanied by angels and flaming fire. the whole outlook upon the Christian position is coloured by the thought of the future, the Parousia and its attendant results. But the Parousia itself is hardly mentioned directly. The chief point as to the Parousia is the concentration of interest upon the working of the principle of ‘life,’ which embraces both moral character and physical change, the two forming one correlated process of transformation, consummated at the Parousia. There will be rewards for those whose work abides, and those whose work is consumed will themselves be saved, but as through fire; 1 Corinthians 4:5 : when the Lord comes, in contrast with man’s day (ἀνθρωπίνης ἡμέρας) the secrets will be revealed, and praise will be from God; 1 Corinthians 5:5 : the incestuous man is delivered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that his spirit may be saved in ‘the day of the Lord Jesus; 1 Corinthians 6:2; 1 Corinthians 6:8 : a time is coming when the saints will judge the world, and even the angels; 1 Corinthians 7:29 : ‘the time is short’ (ὁ καιρὸς συνεσταλμένος ἐστί), probably meaning that the interval of waiting for the Parousia has been shortened; cf. Matthew 24:22, but the phrase is obscure; 1 Corinthians 11:25-26 : the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper is directly connected with the Parousia, as it is in the Synoptic account of the Institution. Then those who are Christ’s rise at His Parousia if they are dead, or are changed if they remain alive (cf. The interval between the resurrection of Christ and that of believers is indirectly limited to one generation (‘we shall not all sleep’), but the duration of the interval between this event, evidently the Parousia of 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18, and the complete subjugation of every enemy, including death itself, is left quite undetermined. But so far the distinction between the Parousia proper and the day of the Lord, suggested in 1 Thess. The description of the Parousia is more fully developed in 1 Corinthians 15:50-56, with a fairly clear indication of the logical connection between the account of the event and St. must be worked out here-the question of the form of existence of the living and the dead at the Parousia. Paul’s interest was turning to the manner of the Parousia, to the application of the principle displayed in Christ’s resurrection, as he had apprehended it. arrives at the conclusion that the resurrection of the believer, his assumption of the glorified spiritual state, takes place immediately after death, and not at the Parousia. ’ In 2 Corinthians 4:13-14 the Apostle argues that God who raised Christ must on the same principle raise believers and ‘present’ them together on some unspecified occasion, apparently the Parousia. The Apostle is not longing for death, since death involves the ‘unclothed’ state, being ‘found’ naked at the Parousia, but he longs rather to be clothed upon, to be changed while still living, that what is mortal in him may be, not put off, but swallowed up by the life which is already at work. This view, of course, preserves the importance of the Parousia as an object of hope
Absence, Absent - , "a being away from," is used in Philippians 2:12 , of the Apostle's absence from Philippi in contrast to his Parousia, his presence with the saints there (parousia does not signify merely "a coming," it includes or suggests "the presence" which follows the arrival)
Lot (2) - —The suddenness of the Divine Parousia and the unpreparedness and want of expectation on the part of the world, find illustration from ‘the days of Lot’ (Luke 17:28), when the people of Sodom continued their social and commercial activity until ‘the day that Lot went out’ (Luke 17:29). The folly of unreadiness, of the longing for things left behind, of the desire to retain a transient little in the face of impending judgment and at the cost of a greater and eternal loss, is the lesson He would teach in connexion with His Parousia, from the remembrance of Lot’s wife
Waiting - It finds varied expression in the apocalyptic atmosphere of early Christianity with its expectation of an immediate Parousia (q. Of its more general form, as distinguished from this Parousia-expectation, we can find no better illustration than " translation="">Romans 8:19, where St. It is used again in Galatians 5:5 in reference to an issue of Christian experience, namely ‘the hope of righteousness’ (ἐλπίδα δικαιοσύνης); but, as a rule, the verb is applied to the Parousia, as in 1 Corinthians 1:7 and Philippians 3:20, while in 1 Peter 3:20 it is found in an absolute sense, of the longsuffering of God in the days of the Flood, though the context suggests that what is waited for is the repentance and moral resurrection of mankind
Parousia (2) - PAROUSIA. This was to be the supreme manifestation of His glory; and to it the term Parousia (παρουσία) is distinctively applied (Matthew 24:3; Matthew 24:27; Mark 13:34-376). He repeated it subsequently under varied circumstances and to varied groups of listeners, and towards the close of His ministry the Parousia, or Second Coming, assumed a marked prominence in His teaching. —As to the time of the Parousia, we find two classes of statements that are somewhat perplexing to reconcile. Yet we are confronted by another set of passages that suggest a lengthened period of waiting, and the probability of the Parousia being deferred. ...
Some, taking the discourse as a homogeneous unity, have been led to maintain that the predictions of Jesus respecting His coming were all fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem (Stuart Russell, Parousia). —As to the manner of the Parousia, a considerable number of passages represent it as altogether startling and unexpected. —The decisive significance of the Parousia was expressed by Jesus in words of profound solemnity. In the teaching of Jesus Himself there is no trace of the thought that the Parousia would inaugurate an outward visible sovereignty on earth, when He should assume the reins of government, and rule as King in the realm of temporal affairs. 190–204; Bruce, Kingdom of God (1889), 272–294; Stuart Russell, Parousia (1887); Warren, Parousia (1885); Muirhead, Eschatology of Jesus (1904); Adams Brown, art. ‘Parousia’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ; Dorner, Syst
Restoration - The hope is connected with OT prophecy ( Acts 3:21 , 2 Peter 3:13 ), and the transformation itself is invariably associated with the Parousia (cf. The Parousia, when the new state of things is represented as introduced, is always connected in the NT with an awful judgment
Olivet Discourse, the - Many would say that the reference is to a period of ultimate suffering that is to take place just before the Parousia (Christ's return or second coming; see Matthew 7:14 ). “He that shall endure unto the end” (Matthew 24:13 ) could refer to the period immediately prior to the Parousia. The sign of His Parousia is obscure in its meaning
Working - , "energy") is used (1) of the "power" of God, (a) in the resurrection of Christ, Ephesians 1:19 ; Colossians 2:12 , RV, "working" (AV, "operation"); (b) in the call and enduement of Paul, Ephesians 3:7 ; Colossians 1:29 ; (c) in His retributive dealings in sending "a working of error" (AV, "strong delusion") upon those under the rule of the Man of Sin who receive not the love of the truth, but have pleasure in unrighteousness, 2 Thessalonians 2:11 ; (2) of the "power" of Christ (a) generally, Philippians 3:21 ; (b) in the church, individually, Ephesians 4:16 ; (3) of the power of Satan in energizing the Man of Sin in his "parousia," 2 Thessalonians 2:9 , "coming
Presence - ...
A — 2: παρουσία (Strong's #3952 — Noun Feminine — Parousia — par-oo-see'-ah ) see COMING (Noun), No
Season - ...
Broadly speaking, chronos expresses the duration of a period, kairos stresses it as marked by certain features; thus in Acts 1:7 , "the Father has set within His own authority" both the times (chronos), the lengths of the periods, and the "seasons" (kairos), epochs characterized by certain events; in 1 Thessalonians 5:1 , "times" refers to the length of the interval before the Parousia takes place (the presence of Christ with the saints when He comes to receive them to Himself at the Rapture), and to the length of time the Parousia will occupy; "seasons" refers to the special features of the period before, during, and after the Parousia
Day of Christ - see), and is also more general than the term Parousia; but all three of these terms refer to the same point in time, and represent different phases of the same event. See, further, Day of Judgment, Parousia
Revelation - Isaiah 25:7 ; (b) 'the mystery,' the purpose of God in this age, Romans 16:25 ; Ephesians 3:3 ; (c) the communication of the knowledge of God to the soul, Ephesians 1:17 ; (d) an expression of the mind of God for the instruction of the church, 1 Corinthians 14:6,26 , for the instruction of the Apostle Paul, 2 Corinthians 12:1,7 ; Galatians 1:12 , and for his guidance, Galatians 2:2 ; (e) the Lord Jesus Christ, to the saints at His Parousia, 1 Corinthians 1:7 , RV (AV, 'coming'); 1 Peter 1:7 , RV (AV, 'appearing'),13; 4:13; (f) the Lord Jesus Christ when He comes to dispense the judgments of God, 2 Thessalonians 1:7 ; cp
Salvation - , Philippians 2:12 , where the special, though not the entire, reference is to the maintenance of peace and harmony; 1 Peter 1:9 ; this present experience on the part of believers is virtually equivalent to sanctification; for this purpose, God is able to make them wise, 2 Timothy 3:15 ; they are not to neglect it, Hebrews 2:3 ; (d) of the future deliverance of believers at the Parousia of Christ for His saints, a salvation which is the object of their confident hope, e. , Romans 13:11 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:8 , and 1 Thessalonians 5:9 , where "salvation" is assured to them, as being deliverance from the wrath of God destined to be executed upon the ungodly at the end of this age (see 1 Thessalonians 1:10 ); 2 Thessalonians 2:13 ; Hebrews 1:14 ; 9:28 ; 1 Peter 1:5 ; 2 Peter 3:15 ; (e) of the deliverance of the nation of Israel at the second advent of Christ at the time of "the epiphany (or shining forth) of His Parousia" (2 Thessalonians 2:8 ); Luke 1:71 ; Revelation 12:10 ; (f) inclusively, to sum up all the blessings bestowed by God on men in Christ through the Holy Spirit, e
Parousia - Parousia. The elements in the expectation of the Parousia found in the Gospels and in the Epistles can be formulated without serious difficulty. Various identifications of the Parousia. At different times men have endeavoured by the interpretation of the Book of Daniel to determine the precise date at which it will occur; but among those who still await a literal appearance of Christ in the air it is usual to regard the Parousia as likely to occur immediately, or at any time during an indefinite future period
Transfiguration - , where it is mentioned as showing the credibility of those who preached Christ’s Parousia, seeing that they had been eyewitnesses (ἐπόπται) of His majesty (μεγαλειότης) and had heard the voice; cf. 231, 266), that those opponents who denied the Parousia perhaps denied the Resurrection as well, and that therefore it would have been useless for the writer to meet them by blankly affirming the fact of the Ascension; whereas they would acknowledge the truth of the events of our Lord’s ministry
Readiness - Closely akin to it in meaning is the more frequently used γρηγορείτε, ‘Watch ye,’ the word with which Christ demands constant watchfulness for the day of His Parousia (Matthew 24:42; Matthew 25:13, Mark 13:34 f. The perils attending a delayed Parousia, which must be guarded against with ceaseless vigilance, arise from a weakened sense of obligation issuing in slackness and lethargy, the sin of ‘the untrimmed lamp and the ungirt loin’ (Mark 13:36, Luke 12:35 f. The frequent admonition to watch sounds a note of alarm, pointing to the danger of being taken unawares and found in a state of unpreparedness, due to the abrupt and startling manner in which the Parousia breaks in upon and breaks up the established order of things (Matthew 24:50; Matthew 25:6, Mark 13:36, Luke 12:36; Luke 21:34). ...
As the Parousia immediately heralds the Last Judgment (Matthew 25:19; Matthew 25:31), the manner in which the disciples have acquitted themselves during the period of Christ’s absence is then passed under review, and appropriate destiny assigned them. Parousia and Second Coming
Remain - ...
4: περιλείπομαι (Strong's #4035 — Verb — perileipo — per-ee-li'-po ) "to leave over," used in the Middle Voice, is translated "remain" in 1 Thessalonians 4:15,17 , AV (RV, "are left"), where it stands for the living believers at the coming (the beginning of the Parousia) of Christ
Man of Sin - According to the Pauline view, the Parousia would be preceded by an apostasy of believers and the appearance of the ‘man of lawlessness,’ ‘who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God’ ( 2 Thessalonians 2:3 f
Adversary - ]'>[1] ), whose Parousia is according to the working of Satan (1 Timothy 5:9); and it is interesting to note that the letter of the Churches of Vienne and Lyons ( Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc
Marvel, Marvellous - " ...
B — 1: θαυμάζω (Strong's #2296 — Verb — thaumazo — thou-mad'-zo ) signifies "to wonder at, marvel" (akin to A); the following are RV differences from the AV: Luke 2:33 , "were marveling" for "marveled;" Luke 8:25 ; 11:14 , "marveled" for "wondered;" Luke 9:43 , "were marveling" for "wondered;" 2 Thessalonians 1:10 , "marveled at" for "admired" (of the person of Christ at the time of the shining forth of His Parousia, at the Second Advent)
Redeem, Redemption - 1; (b) the deliverance of the people of God at the coming of Christ with His glorified saints, "in a cloud with power and great glory," Luke 21:28 , a "redemption" to be accomplished at the "outshining of His Parousia," 2 Thessalonians 2:8 , i. , at His second advent; (c) forgiveness and justification, "redemption" as the result of expiation, deliverance from the guilt of sins, Romans 3:24 , "through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus;" Ephesians 1:7 , defined as "the forgiveness of our trespasses," RV; so Colossians 1:14 , "the forgiveness of our sins," indicating both the liberation from the guilt and doom of sin and the introduction into a life of liberty, "newness of life" (Romans 6:4 ); Hebrews 9:15 , "for the redemption of the transgressions that were under the first covenant," RV, here "redemption of" is equivalent to "redemption from," the genitive case being used of the object from which the "redemption" is effected, not from the consequence of the transgressions, but from the trangressions themselves; (d) the deliverance of the believer from the presence and power of sin, and of his body from bondage to corruption, at the coming (the Parousia in its inception) of the Lord Jesus, Romans 8:23 ; 1 Corinthians 1:30 ; Ephesians 1:14 ; 4:30
Abomination of Desolation - It would seem to follow, therefore, that the reference is to some event, portending the fall of Jerusalem, which might also be interpreted by the Christians as a premonition of the Parousia ( 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 )
Judgment Seat - The judgment-seat of Christ will be a tribunal held "in His Parousia," i
Resurrection - 1: ἀνάστασις (Strong's #386 — Noun Feminine — anastasis — an-as'-tas-is ) denotes (I) "a raising up," or "rising" (ana, "up," and histemi, "to cause to stand"), Luke 2:34 , "the rising up;" the AV "again" obscures the meaning; the Child would be like a stone against which many in Israel would stumble while many others would find in its strength and firmness a means of their salvation and spiritual life; (II) of "resurrection" from the dead, (a) of Christ, Acts 1:22 ; 2:31 ; 4:33 ; Romans 1:4 ; 6:5 ; Philippians 3:10 ; 1 Peter 1:3 ; 3:21 ; by metonymy, of Christ as the Author of "resurrection," John 11:25 ; (b) of those who are Christ's at His Parousia (see COMING), Luke 14:14 , "the resurrection of the just;" Luke 20:33,35,36 ; John 5:29 (1st part), "the resurrection of life;" John 11:24 ; Acts 23:6 ; 24:15 (1st part); 1 Corinthians 15:21,42 ; 2 Timothy 2:18 ; Hebrews 11:35 (2nd part), see RAISE , Note (3); Revelation 20:5 , "the first resurrection;" hence the insertion of "is" stands for the completion of this "resurrection," of which Christ was "the firstfruits;" Revelation 20:6 ; (c) of "the rest of the dead," after the Millennium (cp
Crown - , or of nuptial joy, or festal gladness, especially at the Parousia of kings
Rest - The time is not that at which the saints will be relieved of persecution, as in 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17 , when the Parousia of Christ begins, but that at which the persecutors will be punished, namely, at the epiphany (or out-shining) of His Parousia (2 Thessalonians 2:8 )
Day And Night - In a specific sense ‘the day’ (Romans 13:12, 1 Corinthians 3:13, 1 Thessalonians 5:5, Hebrews 10:25, 2 Peter 1:19) and ‘that day’ (1 Thessalonians 5:4, 2 Thessalonians 1:10, 2 Timothy 1:12; 2 Timothy 1:18; 2 Timothy 4:8) are used metaphorically for the Parousia with all its glorious accompaniments, in contrast with which the present world of sin and sorrow appears as ‘the night. In keeping with this metaphorical description of the glory of the Parousia as a shining day is the conception of the heavenly city, illumined by the presence of the Lamb (Revelation 21:23), as a city of unfading light: ‘for there shall be no night there’ (Revelation 21:25; cf
Heaven - The reader is referred to the articles Eschatology, Hades, Immortality, Paradise, Parousia, and Resurrection, in this and other Dictionaries for discussion of various matters which are relevant to the treatment of the conception of heaven. In 1 Corinthians 15:47, reading ‘the second man is from heaven,’ it is quite possible to interpret the passage as referring to the Parousia rather than to the doctrine of a pre-existent Heavenly Man. The Parousia is always ‘from heaven,’ alike in the earliest (1 Thessalonians 1:10) and in the latest (Philippians 3:20) of St. This order of things constitutes the heavenly kingdom, the ‘unshakable kingdom’ which will be manifest at the Parousia, when everything that can be shaken will be removed. The writer evidently regards the Parousia as the moment when the material heaven and earth will disappear, the wicked and apostates will receive the just judgment of God, and nothing will remain but the heavenly order of things already revealed to faith by the Resurrection and Attainment of Christ. -These add practically nothing to our inquiry, although they are of importance for the study of the Parousia (q. , the Parousia is naturally interpreted as Christ’s, but ‘born of him’ in 1 John 2:29 must refer to God; cf. The resurrection of the flesh is taught and apparently is referred to the Parousia, but the nature of the intermediate condition is not clearly stated. the centre of interest was not heaven but the Parousia of Christ. ...
As the century advances, the tendency appears in the literature of the period to regard the Parousia mo
Maranatha - It was rather a watchword of the earliest Christian community, embodying the thought in the form of a prayer that the ‘Parousia,’ or Second Advent of the Lord, might soon be consummated, in accordance with the ardent expectations current in the first generation
Millennium - In accordance with this theory (see Chiliasm, Parousia), the resurrection is to be limited not to martyrs but to all Christians
Paradise - It has been particularly developed in connexion with the speculation as to the intermediate state as the place where the righteous live between their death and the Parousia
Watchfulness - The parable of the ten virgins emphasizes the imminence of the Parousia (Matthew 25:1-13 )
Ignorance - Sometimes they referred to the blessedness of those ‘with Christ’ (Philippians 1:23), sometimes to their quiescence in a state of sleep (1 Corinthians 15:20), and sometimes to the activities carried on (1 Peter 4:6), but the intermediate state was comparatively uninteresting to the Apostolic Age, as their main thought centred in the Resurrection and the Parousia. Paul laboured to dispel their ignorance; while many sorrowed about their brethren who had passed away as if they had lost the opportunity of being present at the Parousia of Christ, not knowing that both those asleep and those alive would then together meet the Lord in the air (1 Thessalonians 4:15)
Heaven - The reader is referred to the articles Eschatology, Hades, Immortality, Paradise, Parousia, and Resurrection, in this and other Dictionaries for discussion of various matters which are relevant to the treatment of the conception of heaven. In 1 Corinthians 15:47, reading ‘the second man is from heaven,’ it is quite possible to interpret the passage as referring to the Parousia rather than to the doctrine of a pre-existent Heavenly Man. The Parousia is always ‘from heaven,’ alike in the earliest (1 Thessalonians 1:10) and in the latest (Philippians 3:20) of St. This order of things constitutes the heavenly kingdom, the ‘unshakable kingdom’ which will be manifest at the Parousia, when everything that can be shaken will be removed. The writer evidently regards the Parousia as the moment when the material heaven and earth will disappear, the wicked and apostates will receive the just judgment of God, and nothing will remain but the heavenly order of things already revealed to faith by the Resurrection and Attainment of Christ. -These add practically nothing to our inquiry, although they are of importance for the study of the Parousia (q
Abolish - , He is going to render them inactive, 1 Corinthians 15:24 ; the last enemy that shall be abolished, or reduced to inactivity, is death, 1 Corinthians 15:26 ; the glory shining in the face of Moses, "was passing away," 2 Corinthians 3:7 , the transitoriness of its character being of a special significance; so in 2 Corinthians 3:11,13 ; the veil upon the heart of Israel is "done away" in Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; those who seek justification by the Law are "severed" from Christ, they are rendered inactive in relation to Him, Galatians 5:4 ; the essential effect of the preaching of the Cross would become inoperative by the preaching of circumcision, Galatians 5:11 ; by the death of Christ the barrier between Jew and Gentile is rendered inoperative as such, Ephesians 2:15 ; the Man of Sin is to be reduced to inactivity by the manifestation of the Lord's Parousia with His people, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ; Christ has rendered death inactive for the believer, 2 Timothy 1:10 , death becoming the means of a more glorious life, with Christ; the Devil is to be reduced to inactivity through the death of Christ, Hebrews 2:14
Blame, Blameless - ...
C — 1: ἀμέμπτως (Strong's #274 — Adverb — amemptos — am-emp'-toce ) in 1 Thessalonians 2:10 , "unblameably;" in 1 Thessalonians 5:23 , "without blame," AV, "blameless," is said of believers at the Judgment-Seat of Christ in His Parousia (His presence after His coming), as the outcome of present witness and steadfastness
Account - Paul applies this doctrine, which is found in the Synoptic Gospels and was an integral part of primitive Christian teaching, to Jew and Gentile, to himself and his converts, to those who have died before the Parousia and those who are alive at it
Observation - 2 Kings 6:17); (2) that the coming of the Kingdom is a different event from the Parousia of Christ, ‘the Son of Man in his day’; (3) that there is no contradiction between the two passages; because while, on the one hand, there will be nothing for the watcher to discern as indicative of the drawing near of the great event, this being sudden as a flash of lightning, when it has come it will be universally apparent; (4) that the reference to the lightning manifestation is an apocalyptic element from a foreign source that has been inserted, with other similar elements, among the genuine teachings of Jesus
Woman - Paul’s conception of woman and of man’s relation to her is difficult ( 1 Corinthians 7:1-40 ), but may be explained partly by his expectation of the Parousia ( 1 Corinthians 7:29-31 ), and partly by the exigencies of an era of persecution ( 1 Corinthians 7:26 )
Peter, Second Epistle of - , the denial of the Parousia. Both teach that Jesus Christ is progressively revealed to the believer, the Parousia being the fulfilment of the Transfiguration or the Resurrection ( 1 Peter 1:13 ; 1 Peter 4:13 ; 1Pe 5:1 , 2 Peter 1:3-4 ; 2 Peter 1:16 ). Both emphasize the fact of the Parousia and of Divine judgment; Noah and the Flood are used as examples in both. Doubts as to the Parousia and similar false teaching were not unknown in the Apostolic age, and some of the most distinctive features of the 2nd cent
Sodom - ) He likened the ‘parousia’ (Mt
Ashamed, Shame - , 2 Corinthians 10:8 ; Philippians 1:20 ; 1 John 2:28 , of the possibility of being "ashamed" before the Lord Jesus at His Judgment seat in His Parousia with His saints; in 1 Peter 4:16 , of being ashamed of suffering as a Christian
Clouds - Mark 13:26 ; Mark 14:62 ; and Revelation 1:7 combined the motif of the Son of Man from Daniel 7:1 with the word of judgment from Zechariah 12:10 and referred them to the Parousia or coming of Christ
Marriage, Marry - " In Revelation 19 , where, under the figure of a "marriage," the union of Christ, as the Lamb of God, with His heavenly bride is so described, the marriage itself takes place in heaven during the Parousia, Revelation 19:7 (the aorist or point tense indicating an accomplished fact; the bride is called "His wife"); the "marriage feast" or supper is to take place on earth, after the Second Advent, Revelation 19:9
Repentance - Divine punishments for sin might well bring sorrow to the evildcer (James 5:1, Revelation 9:20-21; Revelation 16:9; Revelation 16:11 where the most drastic treatment meted out to the sinners in the world before the Parousia fails to produce repentance); but such sufferings as come to the Christian are lifted up into the rapture of communion with Christ (Colossians 1:24, 1 Peter 4:13). On the other hand, with regard to the ethical consequences of repentance, there is no ambiguity whatever: a fact which is the more remarkable since the belief in the near approach of the Parousia might have been expected to lead to an ‘Interimsethik,’ or, as some of the Thessalonian converts believed, to no ethies at all (1 Thessalonians 5:7, 2 Thessalonians 3:11). ’ (See Schweitzer, Geschichte der paulinischen Forschung, 1911, who points out that the same stress on the importance of ethies in the descriptions of the coming world after the Parousia effectually distinguishes Jewish and Christian from pagan eschatology
Presence - From this source come ‘times of refreshing’ (Acts 3:19) for the repentant, but also of ‘destruction’ for the disobedient (2 Thessalonians 1:9, in reference to the Second Advent or Parousia; cf. The Parousia or Second Coming of the Lord shaped itself to the imagination of primitive believers as a quasi-physical appearance of the Lord in glory and great power ‘in the clouds’ and with a retinue of ‘holy angels’ (1 Thessalonians 4:17; cf. There is no mention of any spectacular or objective Parousia
Day - ...
The phrases "the day of Christ," Philippians 1:10 ; 2:16 ; "the day of Jesus Christ," Philippians 1:6 ; "the day of the Lord Jesus Christ," 1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 2 Corinthians 1:14 ; "the day of our Lord Jesus Christ," 1 Corinthians 1:8 , denote the time of the Parousia of Christ with His saints, subsequent to the Rapture, 1 Thessalonians 4:16,17
Dispensation - A two-stage coming of Christ—rapture and Parousia
God And Magog - ’ For a full discussion of the subject, see articles Eschatology, Parousia
False Prophets - Without using the name, our Lord warns also against such men, as falsely predicting or announcing the Parousia (Matthew 24:5-7)
Time - " In 1 Thessalonians 5:1 , "the times and the seasons," "times" (chronos) refers to the duration of the interval previous to the Parousia of Christ and the length of "time" it will occupy (see COMING , No
Thessalonians Epistles to the - Some Christians who had lost friends by death were anxious to know what part these should have in the Parousia. Persecution still continued and was still bravely endured (2 Thessalonians 1:4); but a new source of anxiety had arisen from a spreading belief in the imminence of the Parousia. The teaching of the First Epistle is framed to answer the question ‘What part will dead Christians take in the Parousia?’ That of the Second Epistle is shaped by the desire to quiet hysterical unrest at Thessalonica with an assurance that the Parousia is not imminent
James Epistle of - Matthew 5:17-20, Romans 8:2), ‘heirs of the kingdom which he promised to them that love him’ (James 2:5), ‘the Parousia of the Lord is at hand’ (James 5:8); not to mention James 2:1, if with some very good scholars we take τῆς δόξης as in apposition to τοῦ κυρἱου ἡμῶν Ιησοῦ Χριστοῦ, and understand ‘our Lord Jesus Christ, the glory’ (in conformity with 2 Corinthians 4:6, Hebrews 1:3, John 1:14), (as a reference to the Incarnation. ...
(f) In the rebuke of the rich merchants for the irreligious temper in which they laid their plans, we should have expected, in these early decades, a reference to the imminence of the Parousia, rather than merely to the uncertainty of the individual life. Individual mortality was an undeniable fact; a reference to the imminence of the Parousia would depend for its impressiveness on the liveliness of the faith of those addressed. A little further on, when encouraging the faithful oppressed to patience, the author does refer to the Parousia
Hope - Even inanimate nature groans for its coming redemption at the Parousia, having been subjected to vanity ‘in hope’ (Romans 8:20)
Live - ...
"Note: In 1 Thessalonians 5:10 , to live means to experience that change, 1 Corinthians 15:51 , which is to be the portion of all in Christ who will be alive upon the earth at the Parousia of the Lord Jesus, cp
Hope, Hope - , of the rapture of believers, to take place at the opening of the Parousia of Christ; (7) Ephesians 1:18 , "the hope of His (God's) calling," i
Hope - Even inanimate nature groans for its coming redemption at the Parousia, having been subjected to vanity ‘in hope’ (Romans 8:20)
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - Paul as to (1) some misunderstanding of his teaching about the Parousia ( Acts 2:1-3 ); (2) increase of persecution ( Acts 1:4-10 ); (3) disorderly conduct in some members of the Church ( Acts 3:11 ); (4) letters forged in the Apostle’s name ( Acts 2:2 , Acts 3:17 ). Though the Parousia is not yet (2 Thessalonians 2:2 ), St
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - The cross and resurrection of Christ spelled their defeat; the Parousia (the second coming of Christ) will seal their doom. However, the age to come is "not yet" culminated; it exists within the context of this present age, which will be consummated only at the Parousia. Only at the Parousia will that which is "perfect" arrive (1 Corinthians 13:10 ). That event awaits the Parousia (see 1 Corinthians 15:50-56 ; 2 Corinthians 5:1-5 )
Immortality - ...
The Pauline view of the subject is also bound up with the Parousia and with the closely allied subject of the resurrection of believers. Apart from this the writer’s attention is fixed on the coming ‘glory,’ ‘the crown of glory,’ to be revealed at the Parousia. -In the Johannine Epistles the Parousia still forms the background of Christian hope, but the precise form of the hope is vague, and shows signs of transformation into a purely spiritual expectation. The contribution of the Epistles belongs rather to the subject of the Parousia (q
Fire - ...
(b) Passages in which fire is an accompaniment of the Parousia. ...
(β) Literal fire is associated in 2 Peter 3:10-12 with the Parousia (‘the day of the Lord’) as the means by which the visible universe is to be destroyed. ...
(b) The figure is used in a somewhat similar manner to describe the judgment by which the work of Christian teachers is to be tested at the Parousia. -(α) In view of the near approach of the Parousia (Hebrews 10:37), those in danger of the wilful sin of apostasy from the Christian faith are reminded of the terrible consequences which await those succumbing to the great temptation-‘a fierceness of fire which shall devour the adversaries’ (Hebrews 10:27 Revised Version )
Fire - ...
(b) Passages in which fire is an accompaniment of the Parousia. ...
(β) Literal fire is associated in 2 Peter 3:10-12 with the Parousia (‘the day of the Lord’) as the means by which the visible universe is to be destroyed. ...
(b) The figure is used in a somewhat similar manner to describe the judgment by which the work of Christian teachers is to be tested at the Parousia. -(α) In view of the near approach of the Parousia (Hebrews 10:37), those in danger of the wilful sin of apostasy from the Christian faith are reminded of the terrible consequences which await those succumbing to the great temptation-‘a fierceness of fire which shall devour the adversaries’ (Hebrews 10:27 Revised Version )
Now - ...
It is certain that love will continue eternally; and hope will not cease at the Parousia of Christ, for hope will ever look forward to the accomplishment of God's eternal purposes, a hope characterized by absolute assurance; and where hope is in exercise faith is its concomitant
Punishment - ...
(b) Punishment is associated with the Parousia
Judgment Damnation - At His Parousia, Christ will smite the nations of the earth assembled against Him in battle, and prepare the way for His millennial reign (Revelation 19:11 to Revelation 20:6). Here not only the Judgment, but the whole drama of the End, including the Parousia, falls away. In Philippians, one of the later Epistles, he still bids his readers expect the Parousia (Philippians 4:5). ...
But notwithstanding this spiritualizing train of thought, the traditional apocalyptic notions-the Parousia, a resurrection of the just and unjust, final judgment by Christ and eternal punishment for the lost-succeeded in maintaining themselves in the Church’s faith
Second Coming of Christ - ...
The Parousia . He makes a good deal of use of the word Parousia [1], "a revelation, " or as an epiphaneia [2], "an appearing"; it is not infrequently referred to as "the day" or "the great day"). Believers are exhorted that they "continue in him, so that when he appears [at the Parousia [ 1 John 2:28 ). Moore, The Parousia in the New Testament ; J
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - Paul, it would not be going too far to argue that the expectation of the Parousia would naturally give rise to a predictive element in prophetic utterances. The author of Revelation speaks of the prophets as his fellow-servants, and of the Church as made up of ‘saints, apostles, and prophets’ (Revelation 18:20), ‘prophets and saints’ Revelation 18:24), and ‘saints and prophets’ (1 Corinthians 16:6); and in such a connexion it is easy to understand how ecstasy might lead to a vivid realization of the circumstances of the Parousia
Tree of Life - It may suggest the present functions of the Church in respect of social ills, or imply that after the Parousia the citizens of the city will have a ministry towards those outside, or, yet again, indicate that the writer had not fully assimilated the ideal proposed by Ezekiel (cf
Day - Luke 17:24, John 8:56; John 14:20; John 16:23; John 16:26, Romans 13:12, 1 Corinthians 1:7-8, 2 Thessalonians 1:7; 1 Peter 1:7; 1Pe_1:13; 1Pe_4:13); ‘the day of his Parousia’ (Matthew 7:22; Matthew 24:36, Mark 13:32; Mark 14:25, Luke 21:34, 2 Thessalonians 1:10, 2 Timothy 1:18, Hebrews 10:25); the days of His death and departure (Luke 5:35 ἐλεύσονται δὲ ἡμέραι, ‘But the days will come,’ i
Appear, Appearing - In the NT it occurs of (a) the advent of the Savior when the Word became flesh, 2 Timothy 1:10 ; (b) the coming of the Lord Jesus into the air to the meeting with His saints, 1 Timothy 6:14 ; 2 Timothy 4:1,8 ; (c) the shining forth of the glory of the Lord Jesus "as the lightning cometh forth from the east, and is seen even unto the west," Matthew 24:27 , immediately consequent on the unveiling, apokalupsis, of His Parousia in the air with His saints, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ; Titus 2:13
Thessalonians, First And Second, Theology of - Their driving question seems to have been the timing of the Lord's Parousia [ 1 Thessalonians 2:19 ; 3:13 ; 4:15 ; 5:23 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:1,8-9 ). ...
But such nonprecise expectation theology was apparently not satisfying to some in the church and so Paul in 2Thessalonians had to remind them not to accept unsubstantiated reports or even a fraudulent letter (today a book?) concerning God's timing for his coming (parousia [2:2)
Passion Week - on the evening of the third day, and after the Parousia discourse? Again, on what day does Mk. ...
It is also possible, however, that there is an interval between Mark 13:1 to Mark 14:1, so that the Anointing would fall on the day after the Parousia speech
Building - 1); for those who survive until the Parousia, the old is transformed into the new (vv
Lake of Fire - Fire is one of the accompanying features of the Parousia; it is the real or metaphorical agent of punishment for the wicked, and only in 2 Peter do we find the definite conception of a final conflagration which will destroy the old heavens and earth
Coming Again - This final and most decisive coming—which will be more fully discussed under Parousia—is described in terms that betoken the appearance of Jesus in august splendour and irresistible authority
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - The remaining twenty-two New Testament occurrences of the word "cloud" appear in the context of theophany, and encompass six theologically crucial, eschatologically related events or visionary scenes in salvation history: (1) the pillar of cloud at the exodus, viewed as a type of Christian baptism in the time of eschatological fulfillment (1 Corinthians 10:1-2 ); (2) Jesus' transfiguration, as a foretaste of the kingdom of God, during which the Father appears and speaks in a cloud (Matthew 17:5 ; Mark 9:7 ; Luke 9:34 ); (3) Jesus' ascension, explained by the angels as a paradigm for his return (Acts 1:9 ); (4) the "mighty angel" descending from heaven wrapped in a cloud, announcing (against the eschatological backdrop of Daniel 12:7 ) that time should be no longer (Revelation 10:1 ); (5) the two resurrected witnesses ascending to heaven in a cloud, described in the context of the eschatological measuring of the temple of God (Revelation 11:12 ); and (6) Jesus' Parousia, against the backdrop of Daniel 7:13 , as the Son of Man coming with/on/in a cloud/the clouds/the clouds of heaven (Matthew 24:30 ; 26:64 ; Mark 13:26 ; 14:62 ; Luke 12:54 ; 21:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; Revelation 1:7 ; 14:14-16 )
Prophet, Christ as - ...
Jesus not only made predictions concerning individuals (John 1:42 ), but also concerning the kingdom of God (Matthew 11:12 ; Luke 17:21 ) and the material world (Matthew 5:5 ; 19:28 ); regarding himself (Matthew 16:21 ; Mark 8:31 ; 9:31 ; 10:33 ); regarding the destruction of Jerusalem (Luke 19:41-44 ; 21:24 ); and regarding his Parousia (Matthew 26:64 ; Mark 14:62 ; Luke 22:69 )
Abomination of Desolation - Russell, The Parousia (1887); articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (by S
Comfort - The First Thessalonian Epistle sought to give comfort to those whose friends had ‘fallen asleep’ by the fact and manner of the Parousia (1 Thessalonians 4:13-18)
Holiness, Holy, Holily - , bringing "holiness" to its predestined end, whereby (c) they may be found "unblameable in holiness" in the Parousia of Christ, 1 Thessalonians 3:13
Resurrection - But it is also clear that, whatever be the source of the idea, it receives a new setting, and is brought into organic connexion with the resurrection of Christ (see article Parousia). ...
The passages in 1 Thessalonians only yield the general inference that the resurrection of Christ is related to His Parousia; through His resurrection He is able to enter upon the Kingdom in power; God will bring Him again with the dead saints; it is as raised from the dead that He becomes the deliverer from the coming wrath. the outline of the eschatological scheme is adjusted to this new emphasis; first Christ’s resurrection, then the resurrection of those that are Christ’s at His Parousia-clearly the first resurrection-then the end, when the Kingdom is delivered to the Father
Day of Judgment - A similar, although not a precise, reference is to be found in other passages speaking of the Parousia, notably Mark 13:26; Mark 14:62 and their parallels. But it would be a serious mistake to regard that destruction of Jerusalem as exhausting the content of His expectation of His Parousia. Had the disciples regarded the fall of Jerusalem as in any true sense the Judgment of the Parousia, it is inconceivable that the Fourth Gospel and the other portions of the NT written subsequent to a
Eschatology - Paul held that the believer received the resurrection body at death or at the Parousia of Christ. The appearance ( Parousia ) of the Christ to inaugurate the new era St
Thessalonians, First Epistle to the - It is true, and in no way remarkable, that the expectation of an imminent Parousia ( Acts 4:15-17 ) is not repeated m St
Ephesians, Epistle to - The chief of these are: ( a ) the prominence given to the ‘Catholic’ idea of the Church; ( b ) the doctrine of the pre-existent Christ as the agent of creation; ( c ) the substitution of the idea of the gradual fulfilment of the Divine purpose for the earlier idea of an imminent return ( Parousia ) of Christ
Manifestation - Parousia, Second Coming
Anathema - If it be taken as an assertion, it may mean, ‘Let those who do not love the Lord fear and be quick to amend, for He is at hand in triumph,’ though the expected Parousia is not a recurring feature of the Epistle
Church, the - However, that the eschatological temple is not yet complete is evident in the preceding passages, especially with their emphasis on the need for the church to grow toward maturity in Christ, which will only be fully accomplished at the Parousia. At the Parousia, the official wedding ceremony will take place and, with it, the eternal union of Christ and his wife will be actualized (Revelation 19:7-9 ; 21:1-2 )
Kingdom Kingdom of God - Paul uses such terms as the following: ‘to wait for his Son from heaven’ (1 Thessalonians 1:10), ‘the Parousia’ of the Lord Jesus (1 Thessalonians 2:19; 1 Thessalonians 3:13; 1 Thessalonians 4:15; 1 Thessalonians 5:23), the Lord descending from heaven (1 Thessalonians 4:16), ‘the day of the Lord’ (1 Thessalonians 5:2, 2 Thessalonians 2:2, 1 Corinthians 1:8; 1 Corinthians 5:5, 2 Corinthians 1:14, Philippians 1:6), ‘the apocalypse of the Lord Jesus from heaven’ (2 Thessalonians 1:7), ‘waiting for the apocalypse’ (1 Corinthians 1:7), ‘until the Lord come’ (1 Corinthians 4:5), ‘until he come’ (1 Corinthians 11:26), ‘the day when Cod shall judge … through Jesus Christ’ (Romans 2:16), ‘from whence we await the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ’ (Philippians 3:20), ‘the Lord is near’ (Philippians 4:5), ‘the manifestation of Christ’ (Colossians 3:4), ‘the epiphany of our Lord Jesus Christ’ (1 Timothy 6:14), ‘the epiphany of our Saviour Jesus Christ’ (Titus 2:13). ...
In the Catholic Epistles we have: ‘the Parousia of the Lord is at hand’ (James 5:8), ‘the apocalypse of Jesus Christ’ (1 Peter 1:13), ‘when the chief Shepherd is manifested’ (1 Peter 5:4), ‘the day of the Lord’ (2 Peter 3:10), the manifestation of Christ (1 John 3:2); in Hebrews: ‘he that cometh will come, and will not tarry’ (Hebrews 10:37); and in the Apocalypse, the many references to the Coming of Christ, beginning with Revelation 1:7
Parable - The application is that the nearness of the Parousia can with equal certainty be inferred from the signs that immediately precede its coming. There is here no thought of the resemblance of details, as, for example, between summer and the Parousia; but in both instances it is pointed out that with equal certainty, from the signs of the coming, the nearness of the coming itself can be inferred
Time - It is a time of great salvation as well as of mounting evil growing to unprecedented proportions as the Parousia nears
Temple - If he was in the habit of repeating Christ’s prediction of the destruction of the Temple at the Parousia-and this was probably what gave colour to the charges made against him-he interpreted that threat not as an abrogation of the Mosaic Law, but as a judgment upon the nation for its sin
Hope - ...
The whole future of the Christian life, for man and society, is lodged with ‘Christ Jesus our hope’ (1 Timothy 1:1 , Colossians 1:27 ); NT expectation focussed itself on His Parousia ‘the blessed hope’ ( Titus 2:13 )
King - The most general view of His βασιλεία in the NT represents it as not already realized, but beginning at the Parousia (so O
Circumstantiality in the Parables - Such extraordinary condescension is probably an allegorical feature introduced with reference to the Parousia
Regeneration - palingenesia ), occurs only twice in the NT ( Matthew 19:28 , Titus 3:5 ), and in the first instance denotes, not the renewal of the individual, but the perfected condition of things at the Parousia (cf
Jesus Christ - That is, they did not set down to construct a doctrine called Christology that would move from preexistence to Parousia (final coming)
Light And Darkness - And when, after comparing the world as it exists at present with the night, and the approaching Parousia with the day, he adds, ‘Let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light’ (Romans 13:12; cf
Glory - As already in Jewish eschatology, δόξα is a technical term for the state of final salvation, the Heavenly Messianic Kingdom in which Christ now lives and which is to be brought to men by His Parousia
Discipline - The charge that some were "idle" in Thessalonica is taken by many to denote inactivity in expectation of an imminent Parousia, but it is more likely that Paul's instruction reflects a social situation typical of a large port city, where many laborers were inactive for periods of time and dependent on patrons
Virgin Virginity - ’ Here Christ Himself is at once Paranymph and Bridegroom, and in both cases the days of the Church’s espousals are in the future-at the Parousia
Unpardonable Sin - 177), it is clear from the Gospels that Jesus Himself habitually employed them to indicate the age before and the age after His own Parousia (see Matthew 13:39-40; Matthew 13:49; Matthew 24:3; Matthew 28:20, Mark 10:30, Luke 18:30; Luke 20:35), thereby throwing ‘the age to come’ into that future world which lies beyond His Second Advent and the resurrection of the dead (see Salmond, Chr
James, Epistle of - Again, we find Christ mentioned (probably) in connexion with the Parousia ( 1618532803_1 ) [2]; ‘beloved brethren’ ( James 1:16 ; James 1:19 , James 2:5 ), the new birth ( James 1:18 ), the Kingdom ( James 2:5 ), the name which is blasphemed ( James 2:7 ), and the royal law of liberty ( James 1:25 , James 2:8 ) are all predominantly Christian ideas
Advent (2) - His coming again at an after period is distinguished as the Second, or the Final, Coming (see Coming Again and Parousia)
Devil - It becomes complete and final at the Parousia ( 1 Corinthians 15:26 , Psalms 110:1 )
Talents - The opposition of the Jews to the Messianic claims of Jesus, and the vengeance that is to come upon them at the Parousia, are also suggested
Presence (2) - First it was caught into Jewish preconceptions, and projected into the doctrine of the Parousia
Day of the Lord, God, Christ, the - Whether the day is the Parousia, or the climax of history and all things as in the "day of God" when the dissolution of the heavens occurs (2 Peter 3:12 ), the "day" will be characterized by the unquestioned and unmistakable presence of Almighty God
Elect, Election - It is evident that whatever may have been the case with regard to Jesus’ actual knowledge of the date of His Parousia, those who heard His words understood Him to mean that it would take place soon (cf
Collection - Another cause for a poverty so acute and wide-spread may well have been the general belief in the nearness of the Parousia which threatened the ordinary daily business of Christian men (2 Thessalonians 3:10; cf
Ideal - Christ’s whole eschatological teaching, and especially everything that gathers round the thought of the Parousia, when all that is evil shall be cast out of the Kingdom (Matthew 13:41 f
Christian Life - he warns men against the moral perils of ‘an overstrained Parousia-expectation’; in 2 Thess
Doctrines - Again He spoke of the Kingdom as future, and that in connexion with the final coming, the Parousia, of the Son of Man; so in the parables of the Great Supper (Luke 14:15; Luke 14:24), of the Marriage Feast (Matthew 22:1-14), of the Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-13)
Teaching - The preacher heralded an impending Parousia; he exhorted his hearers to repentance in view of the certain approach of Christ as Judge; he proclaimed the sure and certain hope of resurrection
Union With Christ - Present union with Christ is still "absence from the Lord, " and hence seeks fulfillment in his future advent or "presence" (parousia [1])
Sin (2) - If Messiah was to be manifested at the Parousia, Satan was also destined to be manifested in the Man of Sin (2 Thessalonians 2:3-11)
Peter, First Epistle of - The Churches were suffering severely, though there does not seem to have been an official persecution, or a systematic attempt at extermination, for it is assumed that most will remain until the Parousia ( 1 Peter 4:7 )
Marriage - (a) In the earlier Epistles the Apostle plainly expected that the Parousia was imminent (cf
Immortality (2) - , Matthew 13:49), and the same phrase is twice employed later in the Gospel, once by the disciples with reference to the Parousia, which they assume to be synchronous with the end of the αἰών (Matthew 24:3), and again by Christ Himself, when He asserts His presence with His disciples ἕως τῆς συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος (Matthew 28:20)
Lord's Prayer (ii) - (2) But again it was a hope of the future, a Kingdom not realized as yet, but one day to be revealed in power by the Parousia of the Son of Man Himself (Matthew 13:41 f
John, Theology of - At the end of the Gospel, the resurrected Christ dismisses a query about the Beloved Disciple's remaining until the Parousia (21:22)
Lord's Day - ‘To the sacramental meal of apostolic times, understood as a foretaste and assurance of the “Messianic banquet” in the coming Parousia, there was soon prefixed a religious exercise-modelled perhaps on the common worship of the Synagogue-which implied just those preparatory acts of penance, purification, and desirous stretching out towards the Infinite, which precede in the experience of the growing soul the establishment of communion with the Spiritual World’ (E
Slave, Slavery - Paul was absorbed in the expectation of the Parousia and the break-up of all society in the near future (as A
Gospels - Mark in order to bring that Gospel into fine with the idea of the nearness of the Parousia which was so prominent in his own mind (cf
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - The primitive revivalism was decaying; the hopes of a Parousia were growing faint; while, on the other hand, Docetism and the fantastic schemes of the Gnostic party were visibly tending to discard the Gospel in favour of a barbarized Platonism
Person of Christ - Various writers have noted that the passages where it occurs naturally divide into two groups, as they refer ( a ) to Jesus’ work on earth, and particularly His passion, or ( b ) to the final glory of His Parousia