What does Palestine mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Palestine
Palestine (păl'es-tîne), land of sojourners. Joel 3:4; comp. Exodus 15:14; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 14:31. A small country east of the Mediterranean Sea, sacred alike to Jew, Mohammedan, and Christian. In length it is about 140 miles, in average breadth not more than 40 between the Mediterranean westward, and the deep Jordan valley to the east, while to the north it is closed in by Lebanon and Anti-libanus, and bordered on the south by the desert. It lay on the direct route between the great ancient empires of Asia and northern Africa, and exposed to peril from both. The physical structure of Palestine is peculiar. It is mountainous, but among these mountains are plains and valleys and torrent-beds. The mountain mass which occupies the central part is bordered on each side east and west by a lowland belt. On the west the plains of Philistia and Sharon lie between the Mediterranean and the hills, interrupted by a ridge which, shooting out from the main highlands, terminates in the bold promontory of Carmel. To the north of this ridge the low plain widens and extends in one part its undulating surface quite across the country to the Jordan. And still farther to the north is Phœnicia with headlands down to the sea. The eastern depression is most remarkable. It is a deep cleft in which lie a chain of lakes connected by the Jordan. And the bottom of this cleft is, in its lower part, far below (1300 feet) the level of the Mediterranean Sea. Owing to this extraordinary depression, the slopes on the eastern side of the central elevated land are much more abrupt and rugged than on the west. The southern hill country is dry and bare. There is little wood; it is near upon the desert, and possesses few springs of water. The hill tops are rounded and monotonous—the eastern part of the tract being but an arid wilderness. And a noteworthy feature in these hills is the abundance of caverns, partly natural, partly, perhaps, artificial. Northward the country improves. There are more fertile plains winding among the lulls, more vegetation and more wood, till in the north the swelling hills are clothed with beautiful trees, and the scenery is pleasing, oftentimes romantic. In central and north Palestine, too, there are gushing fountains of water, imparting fertility to the valleys through which they pour their streams. The Philistine plain is one vast grainfield, yielding the most abundant increase. And dry and barren as are many of the hills at present, there is evidence enough that in earlier happier days they were terraced, wooded, and productive: "a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive and honey... a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass." Deuteronomy 8:7-9. Palestine was early inhabited by seven tribes—as, Hittites, Gergashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, Deuteronomy 7:1; and other tribes are also noted as occupying adjacent regions. Genesis 10:15-19; Genesis 15:18-21; Numbers 13:28-29. It became afterwards the land of Israel; but, when judgment fell upon the Hebrews for their sins, they were removed, and there was at different times a large influx of foreign population, eastern nations, 2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:9-10, Greeks, etc.; so that even in our Lord's time the inhabitants of Palestine were of a mixed character; and in later ages additional foreign elements were introduced. See Judæa, Galilee.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Palestine
Mandate of the British Empire, Asia, comprising the districts of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Gaza, Beersheba, Samaria, Phenicia, and Galilee, administered by a High Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief, assisted by an Executive Council. The history of Christianity in Palestine during the ftrst three centuries is practically that of Jerusalem; the new religion spread rapidly and as early as 1229 Franciscan and Dominican missions were established here. In 1328 the Franciscans received custody of the Holy Places and their influence is evident from the schools, hospitals, and dispensaries which they established. Missions have also been founded by the Salesians.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Palestine
Originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29,31 ; Joel 3:4 ), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Psalm 60:8 ; 83:7 ; 87:4 ; 108:9 ) occurs in the Old Testament. Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general (Genesis 40:15 ). It is also called "the holy land" (Zechariah 2:12 ), the "land of Jehovah" (Hosea 9:3 ; Psalm 85:1 ), the "land of promise" (Hebrews 11:9 ), because promised to Abraham (Genesis 12:7 ; 24:7 ), the "land of Canaan" (Genesis 12:5 ), the "land of Israel" (1 Samuel 13:19 ), and the "land of Judah" (2 Kings 17:24-29 ).
The territory promised as an inheritance to the seed of Abraham (Genesis 15:18-21 ; Numbers 34:1-12 ) was bounded on the east by the river Euphrates, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the north by the "entrance of Hamath," and on the south by the "river of Egypt." This extent of territory, about 60,000 square miles, was at length conquered by David, and was ruled over also by his son Solomon (2 Samuel 8 ; 1 Chronicles 18 ; 1 Kings 4:1,21 ). This vast empire was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it, terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus extending in all to about 144 miles in length. Its average breadth was about 60 miles from the Mediterranean on the west to beyond the Jordan. It has fittingly been designated "the least of all lands." Western Palestine, on the south of Gaza, is only about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, narrowing gradually toward the north, where it is only 20 miles from the sea-coast to the Jordan.
Palestine, "set in the midst" (Ezekiel 5:5 ) of all other lands, is the most remarkable country on the face of the earth. No single country of such an extent has so great a variety of climate, and hence also of plant and animal life. Moses describes it as "a good land, a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills; a land of wheat, and barley, and vines, and fig trees, and pomegranates; a land of oil olive, and honey; a land wherein thou shalt not eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack any thing in it; a land whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass" (Deuteronomy 8:7-9 ).
"In the time of Christ the country looked, in all probability, much as now. The whole land consists of rounded limestone hills, fretted into countless stony valleys, offering but rarely level tracts, of which Esdraelon alone, below Nazareth, is large enough to be seen on the map. The original woods had for ages disappeared, though the slopes were dotted, as now, with figs, olives, and other fruit-trees where there was any soil. Permanent streams were even then unknown, the passing rush of winter torrents being all that was seen among the hills. The autumn and spring rains, caught in deep cisterns hewn out like huge underground jars in the soft limestone, with artificial mud-banked ponds still found near all villages, furnished water. Hills now bare, or at best rough with stunted growth, were then terraced, so as to grow vines, olives, and grain. To-day almost desolate, the country then teemed with population. Wine-presses cut in the rocks, endless terraces, and the ruins of old vineyard towers are now found amidst solitudes overgrown for ages with thorns and thistles, or with wild shrubs and poor gnarled scrub" (Geikie's Life of Christ).
From an early period the land was inhabited by the descendants of Canaan, who retained possession of the whole land "from Sidon to Gaza" till the time of the conquest by Joshua, when it was occupied by the twelve tribes. Two tribes and a half had their allotments given them by Moses on the east of the Jordan (Deuteronomy 3:12-20 ; Compare Numbers 1:17-46 ; Joshua 4:12-13 ). The remaining tribes had their portion on the west of Jordan.
From the conquest till the time of Saul, about four hundred years, the people were governed by judges. For a period of one hundred and twenty years the kingdom retained its unity while it was ruled by Saul and David and Solomon. On the death of Solomon, his son Rehoboam ascended the throne; but his conduct was such that ten of the tribes revolted, and formed an independent monarchy, called the kingdom of Israel, or the northern kingdom, the capital of which was first Shechem and afterwards Samaria. This kingdom was destroyed. The Israelites were carried captive by Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, B.C. 722, after an independent existence of two hundred and fifty-three years. The place of the captives carried away was supplied by tribes brought from the east, and thus was formed the Samaritan nation (Isaiah 19:17 ).
Nebuchadnezzar came up against the kingdom of the two tribes, the kingdom of Judah, the capital of which was Jerusalem, one hundred and thirty-four years after the overthrow of the kingdom of Israel. He overthrew the city, plundered the temple, and carried the people into captivity to Babylon (B.C. 587), where they remained seventy years. At the close of the period of the Captivity, they returned to their own land, under the edict of Cyrus (Ezra 1:1-4 ). They rebuilt the city and temple, and restored the old Jewish commonwealth.
For a while after the Restoration the Jews were ruled by Zerubbabel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, and afterwards by the high priests, assisted by the Sanhedrin. After the death of Alexander the Great at Babylon (B.C. 323), his vast empire was divided between his four generals. Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took possession of Palestine in B.C. 320, and carried nearly one hundred thousand of the inhabitants of Jerusalem into Egypt. He made Alexandria the capital of his kingdom, and treated the Jews with consideration, confirming them in the enjoyment of many privileges.
After suffering persecution at the hands of Ptolemy's successors, the Jews threw off the Egyptian yoke, and became subject to Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria. The cruelty and opression of the successors of Antiochus at length led to the revolt under the Maccabees (B.C. 163), when they threw off the Syrian yoke.
In the year B.C. 68, Palestine was reduced by Pompey the Great to a Roman province. He laid the walls of the city in ruins, and massacred some twelve thousand of the inhabitants. He left the temple, however, unijured. About twenty-five years after this the Jews revolted and cast off the Roman yoke. They were however, subdued by Herod the Great (q.v.). The city and the temple were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were put to death. About B.C. 20, Herod proceeded to rebuild the city and restore the ruined temple, which in about nine years and a half was so far completed that the sacred services could be resumed in it (Compare John 2:20 ). He was succeeded by his son Archelaus, who was deprived of his power, however, by Augustus, A.D. 6, when Palestine became a Roman province, ruled by Roman governors or procurators. Pontius Pilate was the fifth of these procurators. He was appointed to his office A.D. 25.
Exclusive of Idumea, the kingdom of Herod the Great comprehended the whole of the country originally divided among the twelve tribes, which he divided into four provinces or districts. This division was recognized so long as Palestine was under the Roman dominion. These four provinces were, (1) Judea, the southern portion of the country; (2) Samaria, the middle province, the northern boundary of which ran along the hills to the south of the plain of Esdraelon; (3) Galilee, the northern province; and (4) Peraea (a Greek name meaning the "opposite country"), the country lying east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea. This province was subdivided into these districts, (1) Peraea proper, lying between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok; (2) Galaaditis (Gilead); (3) Batanaea; (4) Gaulonitis (Jaulan); (5) Ituraea or Auranitis, the ancient Bashan; (6) Trachonitis; (7) Abilene; (8) Decapolis, i.e., the region of the ten cities. The whole territory of Palestine, including the portions alloted to the trans-Jordan tribes, extended to about eleven thousand square miles. Recent exploration has shown the territory on the west of Jordan alone to be six thousand square miles in extent, the size of the principality of Wales.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Palestine
Palestine is the name commonly used for the land that in ancient times was known as Canaan. When the Israelites first occupied Canaan, they met some of their strongest opposition from the Philistines, the people from whom Palestine takes its name (see CANAAN; PHILISTIA). The natural boundaries of the land were the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Jordan River in the east, the Lebanon Range in the north and the Sinai Desert in the south.
Palestine
The Hebrew word, Pelesheth, occurs but four times, and did not allude to the whole of the land of Canaan, as the name Palestine is now applied; but was restricted to part of the coast of the Mediterranean, occupied by the Philistines. In Exodus 15:14,15 , Palestina, Edom, and Moab are mentioned, and then 'all the inhabitants of Canaan.' In Joel 3:4 , Tyre and Sidon are not included in the term. In these passages, and in Isaiah 14:29,31 , it is usual now to translate the word PHILISTIA (as in the R.V.), the Hebrew being the same as in Psalm 60:8 ; Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 108:9 . See CANAAN and SYRIA.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Geography of Palestine
GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE . See Palestine.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Geology of Palestine
GEOLOGY OF PALESTINE
I. Natural divisions. The land of Palestine (using the name in its widest sense to include the trans-Jordanic plateau and the Sinai Peninsula) is divided by its configuration and by natural boundary lines into five strongly contrasted divisions. These are (1) the Coast Plain, (2) the Western Table-land, (3) the Ghôr, (4) the Eastern Table-land, (5) the Sinai Peninsula.
1. The Coast Plain extends from the mouth of the Nile to Carmel (the political boundary line, the valley known as Wady el-’Arîsh , or the River of Egypt, is of no importance geologically). North of Carmel, Esdraelon and the narrow strip that extends as far as Beyrout is the continuation of the same division. It is characterized by sandhills along the coast, and by undulating ground inland.
2. The Western Table-land extends from Lebanon to the northern border of Sinai: the headland of Carmel is an intrusion from this division on to the preceding. It consists of a ridge of limestone with deep valleys running into it on each side, and at Hebron it attains a height of 3040 feet above the sea-level; it broadens out into the desert of the Tib (or of the ‘wanderings’) an almost barren expanse of an average level of 4000 feet.
3. The Ghôr is the line of a fault wherein the strata on the Eastern side have been raised, or on the western side depressed. It runs from the base of Lebanon to the Dead Sea, where it is 1292 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; thence it rises to 640 feet above the same plane at er-Rishi , whence it descends by a gentle slope to the Gulf of ‘Akabah.
4. The Eastern Table-land runs along the W. side of the Arabian desert from Hermon to the Gulf of ‘Akabah. It is chiefly volcanic in the character of its rocks.
5. The Sinai Peninsula is composed of Archæan rocks, which form bare mountains of very striking outline.
Each of these divisions has special characters of its own. The Coast Plain is composed of sand, gravel, or calcareous sandstone, overlaid in many places with rich fertile loam. The Western Table-land has streams rising in copious springs of water stored in the limestone strata; these streams on the Eastern side have a very rapid fall, owing to the great depth of the Ghôr. The hills are generally bare, but the valleys, where the soil has accumulated, are very fertile. The surface of the Ghôr is for its greater part alluvial. The Eastern Table-land is composed of granite and other igneous rocks, overlaid towards the North by sandstones which are themselves covered by calcareous strata. To the South, however, it is entirely covered with basaltic lava sheets, through which the cones of extinct volcanoes rise. The Sinai Peninsula is characterized by its barrenness, vegetation being found only in the valleys.
II. Geological formations. The geological formations of which the above regions are composed are the following. (1) Archæan (granitic gneiss, hornblende, diorite, etc.): the oldest rocks in this region, found only among the mountains of Sinai and Edom. (2) Volcanic (lavas, ash-beds, etc.): found in the Wady Harûn and Jebal esh-Shomar, east of the Dead Sea. (3) Lower Carboniferous (sandstone, blue limestone): found in Wady Nasb, and Lebruj, E. of the Dead Sea: sandstones below, and limestones containing shells and corals of carboniferous limestone species. (4) Cretaceous : lower beds of Nubian sandstone, which is found all along the Tib escarpment and along the Western escarpment from ‘Akabah to beyond the Dead Sea. It was probably a lake-deposit. It is overlaid by a great thickness of cretaceous limestone, amounting to nearly 1000 feet. This is the most important constituent of the rocks of Palestine. Good building stones are taken from it in the quarries of Jerusalem. (5) Lower Eocene : nummulite limestone, found overlying the cretaceous beds in elevated situations, such as Carmel, Nâblus, and Jerusalem. (6) Upper Eocene : a formation of calcareous sandstone on the surface between Beersheba and Jaffa. Its true position is uncertain. Prof. Hull assigns it to the Upper Eocene, but Dr. Blanckenhorn to a post-tertiary or diluvial origin. (7) Miocene Period . No rocks are assignable to this period, but it is important as being that in which the country rose from the bed of the sea and assumed its present form. This was the time when the great fault in the Jordan valley took place. (8) Pliocene to Pluvial Period . During this period a subsidence of about 220 feet took place round the Mediterranean and Red Sea basins, afterwards compensated by a re-elevation. The evidence for this remains in a number of raised beaches, especially in the valley of Sheriah, east of Gaza. A similar phenomenon has been found at Mokattam, above Cairo. (9) Pluvial to Recent Period . In the glacial epoch there were extensive glaciers in Lebanon, which have left traces in a number of moraines. At that time the temperature was colder, and the rainfall higher; hence the valleys, now dry, were channels of running water. Alluvial terraces in the Jordan valley-lake prove that the Dead Sea was formerly hundreds of feet higher than its present level. With the passing of the Pleistocene period the lakes and streams were reduced to their present limits.
R. A. S. Macalister.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Hilarion (1), a Hermit of Palestine
Hilarion (1), a hermit of Palestine (d. 371). Jerome wrote his Life in 390, quoting Epiphanius, Hilarion's disciple. Jerome certainly considered his Lives of the Hermits as historical ( Vit. Malchi, i.); but the marvels of the Life of Hilarion have induced some to believe it to be a mere romance (Israel in Hilgenfeld's Zeitschrift for 1880, p. 128, but see Zöckler's Jerome, 179). No attempt is made in this art. to separate fact from fiction. The Life of Hilarion in any case shews the ideal on which monasticism was nourished in the 4th cent.
Hilarion was born at Thabatha, 5 miles S. of Gaza, c. 300, of heathen parents, who sent him for education to Alexandria. There he shewed great talents and proficiency in rhetoric, which then comprehended nearly the whole of a liberal education. He was of a disposition which made him beloved by all. He became a Christian, and, turning from the frivolous pleasures of the circus and theatre, spent all his leisure in the assemblies of the church. Hearing of the monastic retreat of Anthony, he became his disciple for a time, but found that the multitude who resorted to Anthony made life with him a city life rather than one of retirement. Though but fifteen years old, he determined to become a hermit. He returned to Palestine and found his parents dead, gave away his goods to his brothers and the poor, and went to live in a desert place 7 miles from the Christian city of Majoma near Gaza. The boy hermit was clad in a sackcloth shirt, which he never changed till it was worn out, a cloak of skins which Anthony had given him, and a blanket such as peasants wore. His daily sustenance was 15 carices (a sort of figs). He cultivated a little plot of ground and made baskets of rushes, so as not to be idle. His disordered fancy summoned up a thousand temptations of Satan, but he overcame them all by calling on the name of Christ. He dwelt 12 years in a little cabin made by himself of woven reeds and rushes; after that in a but only 5 feet high, still shewn when Jerome was in Palestine, and more like a sepulchre than a house.
The fame of his sanctity spread rapidly and he was reputed to be a worker of miracles and an exorcist. Men of all ranks (whose names and abodes are circumstantially recorded) suffering from hysteric affections, then attributed to demons, were healed. An officer of Majoma, whose duty it was to rear horses for the Circensian games and who had been always beaten through a spell laid upon his chariot by the votaries of Marnas, the idol of Gaza, won the race when the saint had poured water upon his chariot wheels. Hilarion had many disciples, whom he formed into societies and went on circuits to visit them; and many stories were told of his shrewdness and penetration in rebuking their weaknesses.
But the crowds who flocked about him made him feel no longer a hermit; and in his 63rd year, the year of the death of Anthony (which was miraculously made known to him), he resolved to set out on his wanderings. Men crowded round him to the number of 10,000, beseeching him not to depart. Business ceased throughout Palestine, the minds of men being wholly occupied with hopes and fears about his departure; but he left them, and with a few monks, who seem soon to have left him, he went his way, never to return. He first turned towards Babylon, then to Egypt. He fled to the Oasis, and afterwards sailed for Sicily. There he lay hid for a time; but his disciple Hesychius at last discovered him. He again set forth in search of solitude; but wherever he went his miracles betrayed him. He at length arrived in Cyprus, the home of his friend Epiphanius. There he found a solitary and inaccessible place, still called by his name, where he lived the last three years of his life, often in the company of Hesychius and Epiphanius. His body was buried in the grounds of a lady named Constantia, but Hesychius disinterred it, and carried it to Majoma in Palestine. Constantia died of grief, but the translation caused joy throughout Palestine, where its anniversary was observed as a festival. Vita S. Hilarionis, in Jerome's Works vol. ii. 13–40, ed. Vall.; Soz. iii. 14, vi. 32; Vit. Patrum, lib. v. c. 4, § 15, p. 568, in Migne's Patr. Gk. vol. lxxiii. His name occurs in the Byzantine Calendar, Oct. 21, as "our Father Hilarion the Great."
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Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Palestine
Ρeleshet . Four times in KJV, found always in poetry (Exodus 15:34; Isaiah 14:29; Isaiah 14:31; Joel 3:4); same as Philistia (Psalms 60:8; Psalms 87:4; Psalms 83:7 "the Philistines".) The long strip of seacoast plain held by the Philistines. The Assyrian king Ivalush's inscription distinguishes "Palaztu on the western sea" from Tyre, Samaria, etc. (Rawlinson, Herodotus 1:467.) So in the Egyptian Karnak inscriptions Pulusata is deciphered. The Scriptures never use it as we do, of the whole Holy Land. (See CANAAN for the physical divisions, etc.) "The land of the Hebrew" Joseph calls it, because of Abraham's, Isaac's, and Jacob's settlements at Mamre, Hebron, and Shechem (Genesis 40:15). "the land of the Hittites" (Joshua 1:4); so Chita or Cheta means the whole of lower and middle Syria in the Egyptian records of Rameses II. In his inscriptions, and those of Thothmes III, Τu-netz , "Holy Land," occurs, whether meaning "Phoenicia" or "Palestine". In Matthew 7:24-273 "land of Jehovah," compare Leviticus 25:23; Isaiah 62:4.
"The holy land," Zechariah 2:12; Zechariah 7:14, "land of desire"; Daniel 8:9. "the pleasant land"; Daniel 11:16; Daniel 11:41, "the glorious (or goodly) land"; Ezekiel 20:6; Ezekiel 20:15, "a land that I had espied for them flowing with milk and honey, which is the glory of all lands." God's choice of it as peculiarly His own was its special glory (Psalms 132:13; Psalms 48:2; Jeremiah 3:19 margin "a good land, a land of brooks of water (wadies often now dry, but a few perennial), of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills (the deep blue pools, the sources of streams), a land of wheat, barley, vines, figtrees, pomegranates, oil olive, honey (dibs , the syrup prepared from the grape lees, a common food now) ... wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness, thou shalt not lack anything in it; whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass" (Deuteronomy 8:7-9). "The land of the Amorite" (Amos 2:10).
"The land of Israel" in the larger sense (1 Samuel 13:19); in the narrower sense of the northern kingdom it occurs 2 Chronicles 30:25. After the return from Babylon "Judaea" was applied to the whole country S. and N., and E. beyond Jordan (Matthew 19:1). "The land of promise" (Hebrews 11:9). "Judaea" in the Roman sense was part of the province "Syria," which comprised the seaboard from the bay of Issus to Egypt, and meant the country from Idumea on the S. to the territories of the free cities on the N. and W., Scythopolis, Sebaste, Joppa, Azotus, etc. The land E. of Jordan between it and the desert, except the territory of the free cities Poilu, Gadara, Philadelphia, was "Perea." From Dan (Banias) in the far N. to Beersheba on the S. is 139 English miles, two degrees or 120 geographical miles. The breadth at Gaza from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea is 48 geographical miles; at the Litany, from the coast to Jordan is 20 miles; the average is 34 geographical or 40 English miles. About the size of Wales. The length of country under dominion in Solomon's days was probably 170 miles, the breadth 90, the area 12,000 or 13,000 square miles.
The population, anciently from three to six millions, is now under one million. The Jordan valley with its deep depression separates it from the Moab and Gilead highlands. Lebanon, Antilebanon, and the Litany ravine at their feet form the northern bound. On the S. the dry desert of Paran and "the river of Egypt" bound it. On the western verge of Asia, and severed from the main body of Asia by the desert between Palestine and the regions of Mesopotamia and Arabia, it looks on the other side to the Mediterranean and western world, which it was destined by Providence so powerfully to affect; oriental and reflective, yet free from the stagnant and retrogressive tendencies of Asia, it bore the precious spiritual treasure of which it was the repository to the energetic and progressive W. It consists mainly of undulating highlands, bordered E. and W. by a broad belt of deep sunk lowland.
The three main features, plains, hills, and torrent beds, are specified (Numbers 13:29; Joshua 11:16; Joshua 12:8). Mount Carmel, rising to the height of above 1,700 ft., crosses the maritime plain half way up the coast with a long ridge from the central chain, and juts out into the Mediterranean as a bold headland. The plain of Jezreel or Esdraelon on its northern side, separating the Ephraim mountains from those of Galilee, and stretching across from the Mediterranean to the Jordan valley, was the great battlefield of Palestine. Galilee is the northern portion, Samaria the middle, Judaea the southern. The long purple wall of Gilead and Moab's hills on the eastern side is everywhere to be seen. The bright light and transparent air enable one from the top of Tabor, Gerizim or Bethel at once to see Moab on the E. and the Mediterranean on the W. On a line E. of the axis of the country and running N. and S. lie certain elevations: Hebron 3,029 ft. above the sea; Jerusalem, 2,610; Olivet, 2,724; Neby Samwil on the N., 2,650; Bethel, 2,400; Ebal and Gerizim, 2,700; Little Hermon and Tabor, N. of the Esdraelon plain, 1,900.
The watershed sends off the drainage of the country in streams running W. to the Mediterranean and E. to the Jordan, except at the Esdraelon plain and the far N. where the drainage is to the Litany. Had the Jews been military in character, they would easily have prevented their conquerors from advancing up the precipitous defiles from the E., the only entrances to the central highlands of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim, from the Jordan valley; as Engedi (2 Chronicles 20:1-2; 2 Chronicles 20:16) and Adummim, the route between Jericho and Jerusalem by which Pompey advanced when he took the capital. The slope from the western valleys is more gradual, as the level of the plain is higher, and the distance up the hills longer, than from the eastern Jordan depression; still the passes would be formidable for any army with baggage to pass. From Jaffa up to Jerusalem there are two roads: the one to the right by Ramleh and the wady Aly; the other the historic one by Lydda and the Bethorons, or the wady Suleiman, and Gibeon.
By this Joshua drove the Canaanites to the plains; the Philistines went up to Michmash, and fled back past Ajalon. The rival empires, Egypt and Babylon-Assyria, could march against one another only along the maritime western plain of Palestine and the Lebanon plain leading toward and from the Euphrates. Thus Rameses II marched against the Chitti or Hittites in northern Syria, and Pharaoh Necho fought at Mefiddo in the Esdraelon plain, the battlefield of Palestine; they did not meddle with the central highlands, "The S. country" being near the desert, destitute of trees, and away from the mountain streams, is drier than the N., where springs abound. (See PHARAOH NECHO; MEGIDDO.) The region below Hebron between the hills and the desert is called the Negeb (the later Daroma) from its dryness. Hence Caleb's daughter, having her portion in it, begged from him springs, i.e. land having springs (Judges 1:15). The "upper and lower springs" spring from the hard formation in the N.W. corner of the Negeb (Joshua 15:19); here too Nabal lived, so reluctant to give "his water" (1 Samuel 25:11).
The verdure and blaze of scarlet flowers which cover the highlands of Judah and Benjamin in spring, while streams pour down the ravines, give place to dreary barrenness in the summit. Rounded low hills, with coarse gray stone, clumps of oak bushes, and the remains of ancient terraces running round them, meet one on each side, or else the terraces are reconstructed and bear olives and figs, and vineyards are surrounded by rough walls with watchtowers. Large oak roots are all that attest the former existence of trees along the road between Bethlehem and Hebron. Corn or dourra fills many of the valleys, and the stalks left until the ensuing seedtime give a dry neglected look to the scene. More vegetation appears in the W. and N.W. The wady es Sumt is named from its acacias. Olives, terebinths, pines, and laurels here and ten miles to the N. at Κirjath Jearim ("city of forests") give a wooded aspect to the scenery.
The tract, nine miles wide and 35 long, between the center and the sudden descent to the Dead Sea, is desolate at all seasons, a series of hills without vegetation, water, and almost life, with no ruins save Masada and one or two watchtowers. (On the caves, see CAVES.) No provision is made in the S. for preserving the water of the heavy winter and spring rains, as in Malta and Bermuda. The valley of Urtas, S. of Bethlehem, abounding in springs, and the pools of Solomon, are exceptions to the general dryness of the S. The ruins on every hill, the remains of ancient terraces which kept the soil up from being washed into the valleys, and the forests that once were in many parts of Judea until invasions and bad government cleared them away, and which preserved the moistness in the wadies, confirm the truth of the Bible account of the large population once maintained in Judah and Benjamin. The springs and vegetation as one advances N. toward Mount Ephraim especially strike the eye. (See FOUNTAINS; EN HAKKORE; GIHON; ENGEDI; HAROD; ENGANNIM; ENDOR; JEZREEL.)
Such springs as Ain Jalud or Rasel Mukatta, welling forth as a considerable stream from the limestone, or Tel el Kady forming a deep clear pool issuing from a woody mound, or Banias where a river issues roaring from its cave, or Jenin bubbling from the level ground, are sights striking by their rarity. Mount Ephraim (jebel Nablus) contains some of the most productive land in Palestine. Fine streams, with oleanders and other flowering trees on their banks, run through the valleys which are often well cultivated. N.W. of Nablus is the large, rich, grain abounding, and partly wooded district toward Carmel, which reaches to where the mountains slope down to Sharon plain under Mount Carmel. Extensive woods there are none, and the olives which are found everywhere but little improve the landscape. This absence of woods elsewhere makes their presence on Carmel's sides, and parklike slopes, the more striking. N. of Esdraelon the Galilee hills abound in timber, the land round Tabor is clad in dark oak, forming a contrast to jebel ed Duhy (Little Hermon) and Nazareth's white hills.
Oaks, terebinths, maples, arbutus, sumach, etc., cover the ravines and slopes of the numerous swelling hills, and supply the timber carried to Tyre for export as fuel to the seacoast towns. The hills throughout Palestine are crowned with remains of fenced cities, scarcely a town existed in the valleys. Inaccessibility was their object, for security; also the treacherous nature of the alluvial sand made the lower position unsafe in times of torrent floods from the hills, whereas the rock afforded a firm foundation (1618738793_44). Unlike ordinary conquests, the Israelite conquerors took the hills, but the conquered Canaanites kept the plains where their chariots could maneuver (Judges 1:19-35). Appropriately a highland coloring tinges their literature (Psalms 72:3; Psalms 72:16; Isaiah 2:2; Ezekiel 36:1,; 1 Kings 20:28). The hills were the sites also of the forbidden "high places." The panoramic views from many hills, trodden by patriarchs, prophets, and heroes, as Olivet, Bethel, Gerizim, Carmel, Tabor, etc., are remarkable for their wide extent, comprising so many places of historic interest at once, owing to the clearness of the air.
The seacoast lowland between the hills and sea stretches from Εl Αrish ("river of Egypt") to Carmel. The lower half, Philistia, is wider; the upper, or Sharon, narrower. This region from the sea looks a low undulating strip of white sand. Attached to the plain is the shephelah or "region of lower hills" intermediate between the plain and the mountains of Judah. Low calcareous hills, covered with villages and ruins, and largely planted with olives, rise above broad arable valleys. Olive, sycamore, and palm encircle Gaza and Ashdod in the plain along the shore. The soil is fertile brown loam, almost without a stone. Brick made of the loam and stubble being the material of the houses, these have been washed away by rains, so that the ancient villages have left few traces. The plain is one vast grainfield, produced without manure, save that supplied by the deposits washed down by the streams from the hills, without irrigation, and with only the simplest agriculture. Sharon is ten miles wide from the sea to the mountain base; there are no intermediate hills, as the shephelah in Philistia.
Its undulations are crossed by perennial streams from the central hills, which instead of spreading into marshes, as now, might be utilized for irrigation. The ancient irrigatory system, with passes cut through the solid wall of cliff near the sea for drainage, is choked up. The rich soil varies from red to black, and on the borders of the marshes and streams are rank meadows where herds still feed, as in David's days (1 Chronicles 27:29). The white sand is encroaching on the coast. In the N. between Jaffa and Caesarea sand dunes are reported to exist, three miles wide, 300 ft. high. The Jews, though this region with its towns was assigned to them (Joshua 15:45-47; Joshua 13:3-6; Joshua 16:3 Gezer, Joshua 17:11 Dor), never permanently occupied it. The Philistines kept their five cities independent of, and sometimes supreme over, Israel (1 Samuel 5; 1 Samuel 21:10; 1 Samuel 27:2; 1 Kings 2:39; 2 Kings 8:2-3).
The Canaanites held Dor (Judges 1:27) and Gezer until Pharaoh took it and gave it to his daughter, Solomon's wife (1 Kings 9:16). Lod (Lydda) and Ono were in Benjamin's possession toward the end of the monarchy and after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 11:34; 2 Chronicles 28:18). Gaza and Askelon had regular ports (majumas, Kenrick, Phoen. 27-29). Ashdod was strong enough to withstand the whole Egyptian force for 29 years. Under Rome Caesarea, (now a ruin washed by the sea) and Antipatris in this region were leading cities of the province. Joppa between Philistia and Sharon. is still the seaport for travelers from the W. to Jerusalem, and was Israel's only harbor. They had no word for harbor, so unversed in commerce were they; yet their sacred poets show their appreciation of the phenomena of the sea (Psalms 104:25-26; Psalms 107:23-30). Bedouin marauders and Turkish misrule have closed the old coast route between N. and S., and left the fertile and to be comparatively uncultivated. The Jordan valley is the special feature of Palestine.
Syria is divided, from Antioch in the N. to Akaba on the eastern extremity of the Red Sea, by a deep valley parallel to the Mediterranean and separating the central highlands from the eastern ones. The range of Lebanon and Hermon crosses this valley between its northern portion, the valley of the Orontes. and its main portion the valley of Jordan (the Αrabah of the Hebrew, the Αulon of the Greeks, and the Ghor of the Arabs.) Again, the high ground S. of the Dead Sea crosses between the valley of the Jordan and the wady el Arabah running to the Red Sea. The Jordan valley divides Galilee, Ephraim, and Judah from Bashan, Gilead, and Moab respectively. The bottom of Jordan valley is actually more than 2,600 ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, and must have once been far deeper, being now covered with sediment accumulated by the Jordan. The steepness of the descent front Olivet is great, but not unparalleled; the peculiarity which is unique is that the descent is into the bowels of the earth; one standing at the Dead Sea shore is almost as far below the ocean surface as the miner in the lowest depths of any mine.
The climate of the Jordan valley is tropical and enervating, and the men of Jericho a feeble race. "The region round about Jordan" was used of the vicinity of Jericho (Matthew 3:5). The Jordan is perennial, but most of the so-called "rivers" are mere "winter torrents" (nachal ), dry during fully half the year (Job 6:15-17). The land of promise must have been a delightful exchange for the dreary desert, especially as the Israelites entered it at Passover (Joshua 5:10-11), i.e. springtime, when the country is lovely with verdure and flowers. There is a remarkable variety of climate and natural aspect, due to the differences of level between the different parts, and also to the vicinity of snowy Hermon and Lebanon on the N. and of the parched desert of the S., and lastly to the proximity of the ever fresh and changing sea. The Jordan valley, in its light fertile soil and torrid atmosphere where breezes never penetrate, somewhat resembles the valley of the Nile (Genesis 13:10). The contrast between highland and lowland is marked by the phraseology "going up" to Judah, Jerusalem.
Hebron; "going down" to Jericho, Gaza, Egypt. "The mountain of Judah," "of Ephraim," "of Naphtali," designate the three great groups of highlands. In these the characteristic names occur, Gibeah, Geba, Gibeon (hill), Ramah, Ramathaim ("brow"), Mizpeh, Zonhim (watchtower, watchers). The lower hills and southern part of the seacoast plain is the "shephelah "; the northern part Sharon; the Jordan valley Ηa-Αrabah ; the "ravines", "torrent beds", and "small valleys" ('eemeq , nachal , gay ) of the highlands are never confounded. The variations in temperature, from the heat of midday and the dryness of summer to the rain, snow, and frosts of winter, are often alluded to (Psalms 19:6; Psalms 32:4; Psalms 147:16-18; Isaiah 4:6; Isaiah 25:5; Genesis 18:1; 1 Samuel 11:9; Nehemiah 7:3; Jeremiah 36:30). The Bible by its endless variety of such illusions, familiar to the people of the W. and suggested by Palestine which stands between E. and W., partaking of the characteristics of both, suits itself to the men of every land.
ANTIQUITIES. In contrast to Egypt, Assyria, and Greece, Palestine does not contain an edifice older than the Roman occupation. There are but few remains left illustrating Israelite art. The coins, rude and insignificant, the oldest, being possibly of the Maccabean era, are the solitary exception. The enclosure round Abraham's tomb at Hebron we know not the date of Solomon's work still remains in some places. Wilson's arch is probably Solomonic, and the part of the sanctuary wall on E. side. (See JERUSALEM.) The "beveling," thought to be Jewish, is really common throughout Asia Minor; it is found at Persepolis, Cnidus, and Athens. The prohibition (1) of making graven images or likenesses of living creatures, and (2) of building any other temple than that at Jerusalem, restricted art. Solomon's temple was built under Hiram's guidance. The synagogues of the Maccabean times were built in the Greek style of architecture. Tent life left its permanent impression on Israel (2 Samuel 20:1; 1 Kings 12:16; 2 Chronicles 10:16; 2 Kings 14:12; Jeremiah 30:18; Zechariah 12:7; Psalms 78:55; Psalms 84:1; Isaiah 16:5).
GEOLOGY. Palestine is a much disturbed mountainous tract of limestone, of the secondary or jurassic and cretaceous period. It is an offshoot from Lebanon, much raised above the sea, with partial interruptions from tertiary and basaltic deposits. The crevasse of the Jordan is possibly volcanic in origin, an upheaval tilting the limestone so as to leave a vast split in the strata, but stopping without intruding volcanic rocks into the fissure. The basins of the sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea resemble craters. Others attribute the chasm to the ocean's gradual action in immense periods. The hills range mainly N. and S. The limestone consists of two groups of strata. The upper is a solid stone varying from white to reddish brown, with few fossils, and abounding in caverns; the strata sometimes level for terraces, oftener violently disarranged, and twisted into various forms, as on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho.
This limestone is often topped with flint-abounding chalk, as on the western side of the Dead Sea, where it has many salt and sulfurous springs. Dolomite or magnesian limestone, a send-crystalline rock, white or brown with glistening surface, blends with the mass of limestone, near Jerusalem. The lower limestone group has two series of beds: the upper darkish, cavernous, and ferruginous; the lower dark gray, solid, abounding in the fossil cidaris, an extinct echinus, the spines of which are the "olives" of the convents. This is the substratum of the whole country E. and W. of Jordan. The ravine from Olivet to Jericho affords an opportunity of examining the strata through which it cuts. After the limestone had assumed its present outline, lava burst, from beneath and overflowed the stratified beds, as basalt or trap, long before historic times. These volcanic rocks are found in the cis-Jordanic country, only N. of the Samaria mountains, e.g. S.W. of Esdraelon plain and N. of Tabor. The two centers of eruption were:
(1) The older about Kuru Hattin, the traditional mount of beatitudes, from whence the lava flowed forming the cliffs at the back of Tiberius; the disintegration of the basalt formed the fertile black soil of the plain of Gennesaret.
(2) The more recent, near Safed, where three craters have become the lakes el Jish, Taiteba, and Delata.
The earthquake in Uzziah's time (Zechariah 14:5), which injured the temple and brought down a mass of rock from Olivet (Josephus, Ant. 9:10, section 4), shows that volcanic action has continued in historic times. From the 13th to the 17th centuries A.D. earthquakes were unknown in Syria and Judaea, but the Archipelago and southern Italy suffered greatly. Since than their activity has been resumed, destroying Aleppo in 1616 and 1822. Antioch in 1737, and Tiberius and Safed in 1837. See Amos 4:11; compare Matthew 27:51; Psalms 46:1-2. The hot salt and fetid springs at Tiberias, Callirrhoe (wady Ζerka Μain , E. of the Dead Sea), and other places along the Jordan valley, and round the lakes, as Ain Tabighah N.E. of lake Tiberias, the rock salt, niter, and sulphur of the Dead Sea, evidence volcanic agency. The Tiberias hot springs flowed more abundantly and increased in temperature during the earthquake of 1837. W. of the lower Jordan and Dead Sea no volcanic formations appear. The igneous rocks first appear in situ near the water level at wady Hemarah, a little N. of wady Zerka Main N.E. of the Dead Sea.
Here and E. of the upper Jordan the most remarkable igneous rocks are found; the limestone lies underneath. The Lejah, anciently Argob or Trachonitis, has scarcely anything exactly like it on the earth. (See ARGOB.) Traces of two terraces appear in the Jordan valley. The upper is the broader and older; the second, 50 to 150 ft. lower, reaching to the channel of the Jordan, was excavated by the river before it fell to its present level, when it filled the space between the eastern and western faces of the upper terrace. The inner side of both terraces is furrowed by the descending rains into conical hillocks. The lower terrace has much vegetation, oleanders, etc. The tertiary beds, marls, and conglomerates prevail round the margin of the Dead Sea; at its S.E. corner sandstone begins and stretches N. to wady Zerka Main. The alluvial soil of Philistia is formed of washings from the highlands by winter rains. It is loamy sand, red or black, formed of sandstone disintegrated by the waves and cast on the shore, or, as Josephus (Ant. 15:9, section 6) states, brought from Egypt by the S.S.W. wind.
It chokes the streams in places, and forms marshes which might be utilized for promoting fertility. The plain of Gennesaret is richer land, owing to the streams flowing all the year round, and to the decay of volcanic rocks on the surrounding heights. Esdraelon plain is watered by the finest springs of Palestine, and has a volcanic soil. Asphalt or bitumen is only met with in the valley of the Jordan, and in fragments floating on the water or at the shore of the Dead Sea. Bituminous limestone probably exists in thick strata near neby Musa; thence bitumen escapes from its lower beds into the Dead Sea, and there accumulates till, becoming accidentally detached, it rises to the surface. Sulphur is found on the W., S., and S.E. shore of the Dead Sea, a sulfurous crust spreading over the beach. Niter is rare. Rock salt abounds. The Khasm Usdum, a mound at the S. of the Dead Sea, is five miles and a half long by two and a half broad, and several hundred feet high; the lower part rock salt, the upper Sulphate of lime and salt with alumina.
BOTANY. Palestine is the southern and eastern limit of the Asia Minor flora, one of the richest in the earth, and contains many trees and herbs as the pine, oak, elder, bramble, dogrose, hawthorn, which do not grow further S. and E. owing to the dryness and heat of the regions beyond hilly Judaea. Persian forms appear on the eastern frontier, Arabian and Egyptian on the southern. Arabian and Indian tropical plants of about 100 different kinds are the remarkable anomaly in the torrid depression of the Jordan and Dead Sea. The general characteristics, owing to the geographical position and mountains of Asia Minor and Syria, are Mediterranean European, not Asiatic. Palestine was once covered with forests which still remain on the mountains, but in the lower grounds have disappeared or given place to brush wood.
Herbaceous plants deck the hills and lowlands from Christmas to June, afterward the heat withers all. The mountains, unlike our own, have no alpine or arctic plants, mosses, lichens, or ferns. Volney objected to the sacred history on the ground of Judaea's present barrenness, whereas Scripture represents it as flowing with milk and honey; but this is strong testimony for its truth, for the barrenness is the fulfillment of Scripture prophecies. Besides our English fruits, the apple, vine, pear, apricot, plum, mulberry, and fig, there are dates, pomegranates, oranges, limes, banana, almond, prickly pear, and pistachio nut, etc.; out no gooseberry, strawberry, raspberry, currant, cherry, Besides our cereals and vegetables there are cotton, millet, rice, sugar cane, maize, melons, cummin, sweet
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine
Euthymius (4) , abbat in Palestine, born in 377, at Melitene in Armenia, and placed at an early age under the direction of its bishop, Otreius. After his ordination as priest he was placed in charge of all the monasteries in and near the place. Finding this too great an interruption to his meditations, in his 29th year he escaped to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, and found a home with a community of separate monks at Pharan, 6 miles from Jerusalem. With another hermit, Theoctistus, he used to take long walks into the desert of Cutila at sacred seasons. On one of these occasions, in the 9th year of his stay at Pharan, they came to a tremendous torrent with a cavern on one of its banks. Here they determined to live, lost to the world. They were, however, discovered by some shepherds, who sent them gifts. The fathers of Pharan also found them out, and came at times to see them. About 411 Euthymius began to receive disciples. They turned the cavern into a church, and built a monastery on the side of the ravine. Theoctistus had charge of it. In 420 Euthymius erected a laura, like that of Pharan, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, where he would see inquirers on Saturdays and Sundays, and his advice was always given with captivating sweetness and humility. In 428 the church of his laura was consecrated by Juvenal, the first patriarch of Jerusalem, accompanied by the presbyter Hesychius and the celebrated Passarion, governor of a monastery in Jerusalem.
A new turn was given to the life of Euthymius by a cure which he effected for Terebon, son of Aspebetus, prince of the Saracens, who, hearing of his fame, brought the afflicted boy to his gloomy retreat with a large train of followers. The prayers of Euthymius are said to have restored health to the patient, and the whole company believed on the Lord Jesus. Euthymius ordered a little recess for water to be hollowed out in the side of the cave, and baptized them on the spot, the father taking the name of Peter. His brother-in-law Maris joined the community of anchorets, bestowing all his wealth for the enlargement of the buildings. The story spread over Palestine and the neighbouring countries, and Euthymius was besieged with applications for medical assistance and prayer.
Peter, bp. of the Saracens, on his way to the council at Ephesus, a.d. 431, visited Euthymius, who exhorted him to unite with Cyril of Alexandria and Acacius of Melitene, and to do in regard to the creed whatever seemed right to those prelates. When the council of Chalcedon issued its decrees (451), two of his disciples, Stephen and John, who had been present, brought them to their master. The report of his approval spread through the desert, and all the recluses would have shared it but for the influence of the monk Theodosius, whose life and doctrine appear to have been equally unsatisfactory, who even tried hard to persuade Euthymius to reject Chalcedon, but without success.
The empress Eudoxia, an energetic Eutychian, after the death of her husband in 450, went to Jerusalem, and being urged by her brother Valerius to become reconciled to the Catholic church, determined to consult Euthymius. She built a tower about 4 miles S. of his laura, and sent to him Cosmas, guardian of the so-called True Cross at Constantinople, and Anastasius, a bishop. Euthymius came; and after giving his blessing to the empress, advised her that the violent death of her son-in-law, Valentinian, the irruption of the Vandals, the captivity of her daughter Eudoxia and of her grandchildren, might all be attributed to her Eutychian opinions. She should abjure her schism, and embrace the communion of Juvenal, patriarch of Jerusalem. The empress obeyed, and her example was followed by a multitude of monks and laymen. A celebrated anchoret also, Gerasimus, owed his separation from Eutychianism to Euthymius. Euthymius died in 473; his obsequies were celebrated by the patriarch Anastatius and a large number of clergy, among whom are mentioned Chrysippus, guardian of the Cross, and a deacon named Fidus. See Cotelier's ed. of the Vita Euthymii by Cyrillus Scythopolitanus (Cot. Eccl. Graec. Monum. iv. 1, Paris, 1692).
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Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Palestine
taken in a limited sense, denotes the country of the Philistines or Palestines, including that part of the land of promise which extended along the Mediterranean Sea, from Gaza south to Lydda north. The LXX were of opinion that the word Philistiim, which they generally translate Allophyli, signified "strangers," or men of another tribe. Palestine, taken in a more general sense, signifies the whole country of Canaan, the whole land of promise, as well beyond as on this side Jordan, though pretty frequently it is restrained to the country on this side that river; so that in later times the words Judea and Palestine were synonymous. We find, also, the name of Syria Palestine given to the land of promise, and even sometimes this province is comprehended in Coelo-Syria, or the Lower Syria. Herodotus is the most ancient writer we know that speaks of Syria Palestine. He places it between Phenicia and Egypt. See CANAAN .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Palestine
(pal' uhss tine) Geographical designation for land of Bible, particularly land west of Jordan River God allotted to Israel for an inheritance (Joshua 13-19 ). Various terms have been used to designate that small but significant land known in the early Old Testament era as “Canaan” (Genesis 12:5 ) and often referred to as the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 9:28 ). The area was designated “Israel” and “Judah” at the division of the kingdoms in 931 B.C. By New Testament times the land had been divided into provincial designations, “Judea,” “Samaria,” “Galilee,” and others. Generally, the region was considered to be a part of Syria.
Palestine is derived from the name Pelishtim or “Philistines.” See Philistines. The Greeks, familiar primarily with the coastal area, applied the name Palestine to the entire southeastern Mediterranean region. Although the word Palestine (or Palestina) is found four times in the KJV (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29 ,Isaiah 14:29,14:31 ; Joel 3:4 ), these are references to the territory of the Philistines and so properly designate only the strip of coastland occupied by that people.
For the purposes of this article, Palestine extends to the north ten to fifteen miles beyond the ancient site of Dan and New Testament Caesarea Philippi into the gorges and mountains just south of Mount Hermon. To the east, it extends to the Arabian steppe. To the south, Palestine extends en to fifteen miles beyond Beer-sheba. On the west is the Mediterranean Sea. It therefore includes western Palestine—between the Jordan River and the Sea, and eastern Palestine—between the Jordan and the Arabian steppe.
Palestine west of the Jordan covers approximately 6,000 square miles. East of the Jordan an area of about 4,000 square miles was included in the land of Israel.
Geographical Features Palestine is naturally divided into four narrow strips of land running north and south.
1. Coastal plain This very fertile plain begins ten to twelve miles south of Gaza, just north of the Egyptian border, and stretches northward to the Sidon-Tyre area. Usually it is divided into three sections: (1) the Plain of Philistia, roughly from south of Gaza to Joppa (Tel Aviv); (2) the Plain of Sharon, from Joppa north to the promontory of the Carmel chain; and (3) the detached Plain of Acco, which merges with the Plain of Esdraelon, the historic gateway inland and to the regions to the north and east. The Plain of Sharon varies from a width of a few hundred yards just south of Carmel to more than twelve miles wide near Joppa. Covered with fertile alluvial soil and well watered by springs, the area was once covered with extensive forests.
Further south is the Plain of Philistia. Here were located the Philistine strongholds of Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod, Ekron, and Gath. Salt marshes—the Serbonian bog—located at the southern end of the Philistine plain have been known as breeding grounds of disease.
Forming the southwestern end of the Fertile Crescent, the coastal plain has been the highway of commerce and conquest for centuries. This was the route followed by the Hittites and the Egyptians, by Cambyses, Alexander, Pompey, and Napoleon.
The coastal plain lacked an outstanding natural harbor. Joppa had roughly semicircular reefs that formed a breakwater 300 to 400 feet offshore and, consequently, was used as a port. Entrance from the south was impossible, however, and the north entrance was shallow and treacherous. Herod the Great developed Caesarea Maritima into an artificial port of considerable efficiency. See Caesare.
2. Central Hill Country The second strip of land is the mountainous ridge beginning just north of Beer-sheba and extending through all of Judea and Samaria into upper Galilee. Actually, the rugged terrain running the length of the land is a continuation of the more clearly defined Lebanon Mountains to the north. The only major break in the mountain range is the Plain of Esdraelon also called the Valley of Jezreel. Three divisions are evident: Judea, Samaria, Galilee.
(1) Judea Rising from the parched Negeb (Negeb means “parched” or “dry land”), the Judean hills reach their highest point, 3,370 feet, near Hebron. See Negeb . Jerusalem is located in the Judean hills at an elevation of 2,600 feet. The eastern slopes form the barren and rugged “wilderness of Judea,” then fall abruptly to the floor of the Jordan Valley. The wilderness is treeless and waterless. Deep gorges and canyons cut into the soft sedimentary formations.
The western foothills of Judea are called the “Shephelah,” meaning “valley” or “lowland.” The name has been inaccurately applied to the Plain of Philistia, but the towns assigned by the Old Testament to the Shephelah are all situated in the low hills rather than the plain. The Shephelah is a belt of gently rolling hills between 500,1,000 feet in height. Five valleys divide the region, from the Wadi el Hesy in the south to the Valley of Ajalon in northern Judea. These passes have witnessed the conflicts between Saul and the Philistines, the Maccabees and the Syrians, the Jews and the Romans, Richard I and Saladin. Here Samson grew to manhood. Here David encountered Goliath.
The Shephelah had great military importance. It formed a buffer between Judea and the enemies of the Hebrew people—Philistines, Egyptians, Syrians. Formerly heavily wooded with sycamores, the region served to impede an attack from the west.
(2) Samaria The hills of Samaria descend gently from the Judean mountains, averaging just over 1,000 feet in height. Several notable mountains such as Gerizim (2,890 feet), Ebal (3,083), and Gilboa (1,640 feet) dominate the area. This land of mountains is marked by wide and fertile valleys. Here the majority of the people lived during the Old Testament era, and here significant events of Hebrew history took place. The openness of Samaria is a prominent feature of the land, making movement much easier than in Judea and thus inviting armies and chariots from the north.
The valley between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim was a central location, apparently providing the perfect point from which a united nation could have been governed. Roads went in all directions—to Galilee, the Jordan Valley, south to Jerusalem. Here Shechem was located, important to the patriarchs and in the day of the judges. Shechem, however, had no natural defenses and was consequently rejected by the kings of Israel as their capital.
From this region the main range of mountains sends out an arm to the northwest that reaches the coast at Mount Carmel. Carmel reaches a height of only 1,791 feet, but it seems more lofty because it rises directly from the coastline. It receives abundant rainfall, an average of 28 to 32 inches per year, and consequently is rather densely covered with vegetation, including some woodland.
The Carmel range divides the Plain of Sharon from the narrow coastal plain of Phoenicia. It forms the southern side of the Plain of Esdraelon, with the ancient fortress of Megiddo standing as one of its key cities. This natural barrier caused the passes in the Carmel chain to achieve unusual importance, lying as it does on the historic route between Egypt and Mesopotamia.
(3) Galilee North of the Plain of Esdraelon and south of the Leontes River lies the region called Galilee. The name comes from the Hebrew galil, meaning, literally “circle” or “ring.” In Isaiah 9:1 , the prophet refers to it as “Galilee of the Gentiles” (NIV). The tribes of Asher, Naphtali, and Zebulun were assigned to this area. There is evidence of mixed population and racial variety from early times. In the day of Jesus, many Gentiles were in Galilee.
The region is divided into Upper Galilee and Lower Galilee. Lower Galilee is a land of limestone hills and fertile valleys. Most of the region is approximately 500 feet above sea level—but with mountains like Tabor reaching a height of 1,929 feet. Grain, grass, olives, and grapes were abundant. Fish, oil, and wine were common exports. Several major international roads crossed the area, and caravan traffic from Damascus through Capernaum to the south was heavy. Josephus spoke of Galilee as “universally rich and fruitful.”
Some of the most important cities of Galilee were on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. Those on the northwestern shore, such as Capernaum, were more Jewish than those to the south. Tiberias, built in A.D. 25 by Herod Antipas and named after the reigning caesar, became the capital and the most important city during the New Testament era.
The terrain of Upper Galilee is much more rugged than Lower Galilee, an area of deeply fissured and roughly eroded tableland with high peaks and many wadis. The highest peak is Mount Meron, at 3,963 feet the highest point in Palestine. The basic rock is limestone, in the eastern sections often covered with volcanic rock. In the east, Galilee drops off abruptly to the Jordan, while farther south, near the Sea of Galilee, the slopes become much more gradual and gentle
3. Jordan Rift Valley As a result of crustal faulting, the hills of Palestine drop into the deepest split on the surface of the earth. The fault is part of a system that extends north to form the valley between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon chains, also extending south to form the Dead Sea, the dry Arabah Valley, the Gulf of Aqabah, and, eventually, the chain of lakes on the African continent.
The Jordan River has its source in several springs, primarily on the western and southern slopes of Mount Hermon. Several small streams come together near Dan, then flow into shallow, reedy Lake Hula (Huleh). From its sources to Hula the Jordan drops somewhat less than 1,000 feet over a distance of twelve miles, entering Lake Hula at 230 feet above sea level (not 7 feet, as reported by some older publications). In recent years the Jordan bed has been straightened after it leaves Hula, the swamps of the valley have been drained, and the size of the lake has been greatly reduced. Most of the area is now excellent farmland. Over the eleven miles from Hula to the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan drops 926 feet, flowing in part through a narrow canyon. From Galilee to the Dead Sea there is an additional drop of 600 feet.
The Sea of Galilee is a significant part of the upper Rift Valley and is formed by a widening of it. It has several names—the Lake of Gennesaret, the Sea of Tiberias, Lake Chinnereth—but it is best known as the Sea of Galilee. Around it most of the ministry of Jesus took place. Here He could rest, escape crowds, find cool relief from the heat. Shaped much like a harp, it is thirteen miles long and seven miles wide. The hard basalt environment has given the lake an almost constant level and size. In the New Testament day, the lake was the center of a thriving fishing industry. The towns around the lake testify to this fact: Bethsaida means “fishing place,” and Tarichea is from a Greek term meaning “preserved fish.”
As the Jordan flows south out of the Sea of Galilee, it enters a gorge called the Ghor, or “depression.” The meandering Jordan and its periodic overflows have created the Zor, or “jungle,” a thick growth of entangled semitropical plants and trees. Although the distance from the lower end of the Sea of Galilee to the upper end of the Dead Sea is only 65 miles, the winding Jordan twists 200 miles to cover that distance. The Ghor is about twelve miles wide at Jericho.
Seven miles south of Jericho, the Jordan flows into the Dead Sea, one of the world's most unique bodies of water. The surface of the water Isaiah 1,296 feet below sea level, the lowest point on the surface of the earth. Forty-seven miles long and eight miles wide, the Dead Sea has no outlet.
It has been calculated that an average of 6.5 million tons of water enter the sea each day. The result of centuries of evaporation is that now 25 percent of the weight of the water is mineral salts. Magnesium chloride gives the water a bitter taste, and calcium chloride gives it an oily touch. Fish cannot live in Dead Sea water. Indeed, it destroys almost all organic life in it and around it.
Thirty miles down the eastern side, a peninsula, the Lisan, or the “Tongue,” juts into the sea. North of it the sea is deep, reaching a maximum depth of 1,319 feet—2,650 feet below sea level. South of the peninsula the sea is very shallow, with a maximum depth of thirteen feet. It is thought that this area is the location of “the cities of the Plain” (Genesis 13:12 ), Sodom and Gomorrah.
4. Transjordan Plateau East of the Jordan is an area where the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh settled. In New Testament times, Decapolis and Perea were located there. The ministry of Jesus took Him to limited parts of these provinces. Transjordan is divided into sections by several rivers—the Yarmuk, the Jabbok, the Arnon, and the Zered.
(1) Across from Galilee and north of the Yarmuk River is Bashan (Hauron), an area of rich volcanic soil with rainfall in excess of sixteen inches per year. The plateau averages 1,500 feet above sea level. To the east of Bashan lies only desert that begins to slope toward the Euphrates. In the New Testament era, it was a part of the territory of Philip, the Tetrarch, son of Herod the Great. (2) South of the Yarmuk, reaching to the Jabbok River, was Gilead. During the Persian rule the boundaries were rather rigid. Both before and after Persian domination, Gilead reached as far south as Rabbah (Philadelphia, modern Amman). Formerly heavily wooded, with many springs and with gently rounded hills, Gilead is one of the most picturesque regions of Palestine. Olive groves and vineyards are found on the hillsides. Jerash and Amman, the capital of the Heshemite Kingdom of Jordan, are located here.
(3) South of Gilead lies Moab. Originally, its northern border was the Arnon River, but the Moabites pushed north, giving their name to the plains east of the spot where the Jordan enters the Dead Sea (Ammon attempted to establish herself between Gilead and Moab using Rabbath-Ammon as her stronghold. This succeeded only under the infamous Tobiah during the years of the Exile.) Moab's southern border was the Zered River, Wadi al Hasa.
(4) Still farther south is Edom, with the highest mountains of the region. The area is arid and barren. Fifty miles south of the Dead Sea lies the ancient fortress of Petra, “rose-red half as old as time.”
Climate Palestine lies in the semitropical belt between 30 15' and 33 15' north latitude. Temperatures are normally high in the summer and mild in the winter, but these generalizations are modified by both elevation and distance from the coast. Variety is the necessary word in describing Palestinian weather, for in spite of its relatively small size, the geographical configuration of the area produces a diversity of conditions. Because of the Mediterranean influence, the coastal plain has an average annual temperature of 57 at Joppa. Jerusalem, only 35 miles away, has an annual average of 63. Its elevation of 2,500 feet above sea level causes the difference. Jericho is only seventeen miles further east, but it Isaiah 3,400 feet lower (900 feet below sea level), consequently having a tropical climate and very low humidity. Here bitterly cold desert nights offset rather warm desert days. Similarly, much of the area around the Sea of Galilee experiences temperate conditions, while the Dead Sea region is known for its strings of 100 plus summer days.
Palestine is a land of two seasons, a dry season and a rainy season, with intervening transitional periods. The dry season lasts from mid-May to mid-October. From June through August no rain falls except in the extreme north. Moderate, regular winds blow usually from the west or southwest. The breezes reach Jerusalem by noon, Jericho in early afternoon, and the Transjordan plateau by midafternoon. The air carries much moisture, but atmospheric conditions are such that precipitation does not occur. However, the humidity is evident from the extremely heavy dew that forms five nights out of six in July.
With late October, the “early rain” so often mentioned in Scripture begins to fall. November is punctuated with heavy thunderstorms. The months of December through February are marked by heavy showers, but it is not a time of unrelenting rain. Rainy days alternate with fair days and beautiful sunshine. The cold is not severe, with occasional frost in the higher elevations from December to February. In Jerusalem snow may fall twice during the course of the winter months.
All of Palestine experiences extremely disagreeable warm conditions occasionally. The sirocco wind (the “east wind” of Genesis 41:6 and Ezekiel 19:12 ) blowing from the southeast during the transition months (May—June, September—October) brings dust-laden clouds across the land. It dries vegetation and has a withering effect on people and animals. On occasion the temperature may rise 30F and the humidity fall to less than 10 percent.
Along the coastal plain, the daily temperature fluctuation is rather limited because of the Mediterranean breezes. In the mountains and in Rift Valley, daily fluctuation is much greater.
Timothy Trammel
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Palestine
Denotes, in the Old Testament, the country of the Philistines, which was that part of the land of promise extending along the Mediterranean Sea on the varying western border of Simeon, Judah, and Dan, Exodus 15:14 Isaiah 14:29,31 Joel 3:4 . Palestine, taken in later usage in a more general sense, signifies the whole country of Canaan, as well beyond as on this side of the Jordan; though frequently it is restricted to the country on this side that river; so that in later times the words Judea and Palestine were synonymous. We find also the name of Syria-Palestina given to the land of promise, and even sometimes this province is comprehended in Coele-Syria, or the Lower Syria. Herodotus is the most ancient writer known who speaks of SyriaPalestina. He places it between Phoenicia and Egypt. See CANAAN.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Palestine
PALESTINE
1. Situation and name. The land of Palestine is the territory which lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Desert as E. and W. boundaries, and whose N. and S. boundaries may be approximately stated at 31° and 33° 20’ N. Lat. respectively. These boundaries have not always been clearly fixed; but the convention is generally agreed upon that Palestine is separated from Egypt by the Wady el-’Arîsh or ‘River of Egypt,’ and from Syria by the Kasmiyeh or Lîtani River, the classical Leontes. Biblical writers fixed the limits of the territory by the towns Dan and Beersheba, which are constantly coupled when the author desires to express in a picturesque manner that a certain event affected the whole of the Israelite country ( e.g . Judges 20:1 ). The name ‘Palestine’ [1] in Joel 3:4 ; in Exodus 15:14 , Isaiah 14:29 ; Isaiah 14:31 Peter alestina; RV [2] Philistia ], being derived from that of the Philistines , properly belongs only to the strip of coast-land south of Carmel, which was the ancient territory of that people. There is no ancient geographical term covering the whole region now known as Palestine: the different provinces Canaan, Judah, Israel, Moab, Edom, etc. are enumerated separately when necessary. The extension of the word to include the entire Holy Land, both west and east of the Jordan, is subsequent to the introduction of Christianity.
2. Geology and geography . The greater part of the country is of a chalky limestone formation, which overlies a layer of red sandstone that appears on the E. shore of the Dead Sea and elsewhere. Under the red sandstone are the archæan granitic rocks which form a large part of the Sinai Peninsula. Above the chalk is a layer of nummulitic limestone, which appears on some mountains. Volcanic rock, the result of ancient eruptions, appears in the Hauran, Galilee (especially in the neighbourhood of Safed), and elsewhere. For fuller information on the geology of the country, see art. Geology. With respect to the surface, Palestine divides naturally into a series of narrow strips of country running from north to south, and differing materially from one another in character. ( a ) The first of these is the Maritime Plain running along the coast of the Mediterranean from the neighbourhood of Sidon and Tyre southward, and disappearing only at the promontory of Carmel. This plain widens southward from Carmel to a maximum breadth of about 20 miles, while to the north of that promontory it develops into the great plain of Esdraelon, which intersects the mountain region and affords the most easy passage into the heart of the country. This plain is covered with a most fertile alluvial soil. ( b ) The second strip is the mountainous ridge of Judæa and Samaria, on the summit of which are Hebron, Jerusalem, and other important towns and villages; and which, with the single interruption of the piain of Esdraelon, runs continuously from the south border of the country to join the system of the Lebanon. ( c ) The third strip is the deep depression known as the Ghôr , down which runs the Jordan with its lakes. ( d ) The fourth strip is the great plateau of Bashan, Moab, and Edom, with a lofty and precipitous face towards the west, and running eastward till it is lost in the desert.
3. Water supply, climats, natural products. There is no conspicuous river in Palestine except the Jordan and its eastern tributaries, and these, being for the greater part of their course in a deep hollow, are of little or no service for irrigation. In consequence, Palestine is dependent as a whole for its water supply on springs, or on artificial means of storage of its winter rains. Countless examples of both exist, the former especially in Galilee, parts of which are abundantly fertile by nature, and would probably repay beyond all expectation a judicious expenditure of capital. The case of Judæa is a little different, for here there are extensive tracts which are nearly or quite waterless, and are more or less desert in consequence.
The climate of Palestine is, on the whole, that of the sub-tropical zone, though, owing to the extraordinary variation of altitudes, there is probably a greater range of average local temperature than in any other region of its size on the world’s surface. On the one hand, the summits of Hermon and of certain peaks of the Lebanon are covered with snow for the greater part of the year; on the other hand, the tremendous depression, in the bottom of which lies the Dead Sea, is practically tropical, both in climate and in vegetation. The mean local temperature is said to range from about 62° F. in the upland district to almost 100° F. in the region of Jericho.
Rainfall is confined to the winter months of the year. Usually in the end of October or November the rainy season is ushered in with a heavy thunderstorm, which softens the hard-baked surface of the land. This part of the rainy season is the ‘ former rain ’ of the Bible (as in Joel 2:23 ). Ploughing commences immediately after the rains have thus begun. The following months have heavy showers, alternating with days of beautiful sunshine, till March or April, when the ‘ latter rain ’ falls and gives the crops their final fertilization before the commencement of the dry season. During this part of the year, except by the rarest exception, no rain falls: its place is supplied by night dews, which in some years are extraordinarily heavy. Scantiness of the rainfall, however, is invariably succeeded by poverty or even destruction of the crops, and the rain is watched for as anxiously now as it was in the time of Ahab.
Soon after the cessation of the rains, the wild flowers, which in early spring decorate Palestine like a carpet, become rapidly burnt up, and the country assumes an appearance of barrenness that gives no true idea of its actual fertility. The dry summer is rendered further unpleasant by hot east winds, blowing from over the Arabian Desert, which have a depressing and enervating effect. The south wind is also dry, and the west wind damp (cf. 1 Kings 18:45 , Luke 12:54 ). The north wind, which blows from over the Lebanon snows, is always cold, often piercingly so.
As already hinted, the flora displays an extraordinary range and richness, owing to the great varieties of the climate at different points. The plants of the S. and of the Jordan Valley resemble those found in Abyssinia or in Nubia: those of the upper levels of Lebanon are of the kinds peculiar to snow-clad regions. Wheat, barley, millet, maize, peas, beans, lentils, olives, figs, mulberries, vines, and other fruit; cotton, nuts of various species; the ordinary vegetables, and some (such as solanum or ‘egg-plant’) that do not, as a rule, find their way to western markets; sesame, and tobacco which is grown in some districts are the most characteristic crops produced by the country. The prickly pear and the orange, though of comparatively recent introduction, are now among its staple products. The fauna includes (among wild animals) the bat, hyæna, wolf, jackal, wild cat, ibex, gazelle, wild boar, hare, and other smaller animals. The bear is now confined to Hermon, and possibly one or two places in Lebanon; the cheetah is rare, and the lion ( 1 Samuel 17:34 , 1 Kings 13:24 etc.) is extinct. So also is the hippopotamus, bones of which have been found in excavations. Among wild birds we may mention the eagle, vulture, stork, and partridge: there is a great variety of smaller birds. Snakes and lizards abouod, and crocodiles are occasionally to be seen in the Nahr ez-Zerka near Cæsarea. The domesticated animals are the camel, cow, buffalo (only in the Jordan Valley), sheep, horse, donkey, swine (only among Christians), and domestic fowl. The dog can scarcely be called domesticated: it is kept by shepherds for their flocks, but otherwise prowls about the streets of towns and villages seeking a living among the rubbish thrown from the houses.
4. History, races, antiquities . The earliest dawn of history in Palestine has left no trace in the country itself, so far as we can tell from the limited range of excavations hitherto carried out. There was, however, a Babylonian supremacy over the country in the fourth millennium b.c., of which the records left by the kings of Agade speak. These records are as yet only imperfectly known, and their discussion in a short article like the present would be out of place. A very full account of all that is as yet known of these remote waifs of history will be found in L. B. Paton’s excellent History of Syria and Palestine .
About b.c. 3000 we first reach a period where excavation in Palestine has some information to give. It appears that the inhabitants were then still in the neolithic stage of culture, dwelling in caves, natural or artificial. The excavation of Gezer has shown that the site of that city was occupied by an extensive community of this race. They were non-Semitic; but as they practised cremation, the bones were too much destroyed to make it possible to assign them to their proper place among the Mediterranean races. Further discoveries may ultimately lead to this question being settled. It is possible that the Horites of Genesis 14:6 and elsewhere may have been the survivors of this race.
About b.c. 2500 the first Semitic settlers seem to have established themselves in the country. These were the people known to Bible students as Canaanites or Amorites . The success of attempts that have been made to distinguish these names, as indicating two separate stocks must be considered doubtful, and it is perhaps safer to treat the two names as synonymous. About b.c. 2000, as appears by the reference to ‘Amraphel, king of Shinar’ (= Hammurabi), occurred the battle of the four kings and five recorded in Genesis 14:1-24 the first event on Palestinian soil of which a Palestinian record is preserved.
The dominion of Egypt over S. Palestine, or at least the influence of Egyptian civilization, must early have been felt, though no definite records of Egyptian conquest older than Tabutmes iii. (about b.c 1500) have come to light. But scarabs and other objects referable to the Usertesens (about b.c. 2800 2500, according to the opinions of various chronologists) are not infrequently found in excavations, which speak of close intercourse between the Canaanites and the civilization of the Nile valley. Of the Canaanites very extensive remains yet await the spade of the excavator in the mounds that cover the remains of the ancient cities of Palestine. The modern peasantry of the country closely resemble the ancient Canaanites in physical character, to judge from the remains of the latter that excavation has revealed; indeed, in all probability the substratum of the population has remained unchanged in racial affinities throughout the vicissitudes that the country has suffered. By the conquests of Tahutmes iii. ( c . 1500), and Amenhotep iii. ( c . 1450), Palestine became virtually an Egyptian province, its urban communities governed by kings ( i.e . local sheiks) answerable to the Pharaoh, but always quarrelling among themselves. The ‘heretic king’ Amenhotep iv. was too busy with his religious innovations to pay attention to his foreign possessions, and, city by city, his rule in Palestine crumbled away before the Aramæan tribes, named in the Tell el-Amarna tablets the Khabiri . This name is identical with that of the Biblical Hebrews ; but it has not yet been possible to put the Khabiri and the Hebrews into their proper mutual relations. The Hebrews represent themselves as escaped slaves from Egypt who (about the 13th cent. b.c.) were led as a solid whole under a single leader (Joshua) to the complete conquest of Canaan this is the account of the Book of Joshua. According to the older tradition preserved in Judges 1:1-36 , they entered the country without an individual leader, as a number of more or less independent tribes or clans, and effected only a partial conquest, being baffled by the superior strength of certain specified cities. This account is more in accordance with the events as related by the Tell el-Amarna tablets, but further discoveries must be made before the very obscure history of the Israelite immigration can be clearly made out.
The Israelite occupation was only partial. The important Maritime Plain was in the hands of a totally distinct people, the Philistines . The favourite, and most probable, modern theory regarding the Philistines is that they were of Cretan origin; but everything respecting that mysterious race is veiled in obscurity. As above mentioned, it is not likely that the change of ownership affected the peasants the Gibeonites were probably not the only ‘hewers of wood and drawers of water’ ( Joshua 9:21 ) that survived of the older stock. And lastly, we cannot doubt that an extensive Canaanite occupation remained in the towns expressly mentioned in Judges 1:1-36 , as those from which the various tribes ‘drave not out’ their original inhabitants. So far as we can infer from excavation an inference thoroughly confirmed by a consideration of the barbarous history of the Judges the effect of the Israelite entrance into Canaan was a retrogression in civilization, from which the country took centuries to recover.
The history of the development of these incoherent units into a kingdom is one of ever-fresh interest. It is recorded for us in the Books of Judges and 1Samuel, and the course of events being known to every reader, it is unnecessary to recapitulate them here. It is not unimportant to notice that the split of the short-lived single kingdom into two, after the death of Solomon, was a rupture that had been foreshadowed from time to time as in the brief reign of Abimelech over the northern province (Judges 9:1-57 ), and the attempt of the northerners to set up Ish-bosheth as king against David ( 2 Samuel 2:3 ), frustrated by Ish-bosheth’s ill-timed insult to Abner ( 2 Samuel 3:7 ): Abner’s answer (v. 10) recognizes the dichotomy of Judah and Israel as already existing. This division must have had its roots in the original peopling of the country by the Hebrews, when the children of Judah went southward, and the children of Joseph northward ( Judges 1:3-28 ).
Space will not permit us to trace at length the fortunes of the rival kingdoms, to their highest glory under the contemporary kings Uzziah and Jeroboarn ii., and their rapid decline and final extinction by the great Mesopotamian empires. We may, however, pause to notice that, as in the case of the Canaanites, many remains of the Israelite dominion await the excavator in such towns as lay within Israelite territory; and the Siloam Tunnel epigraph, and one or two of minor importance, promise the welcome addition of a few inscriptions. On the other hand, the remains of the population are scantier for it need hardly be said that the modern Jewish inhabitants of Palestine are all more or less recent importations.
The Northern Kingdom fell before Assyria, and was never heard of again. Tangible remains of the Assyrian domination were found at Gezer, in the shape of a couple of contract-tablets written there in the Assyrian language and formulæ about b.c. 650; and the modern sect of Samaritans is a living testimony to the story of the re-settling of the Northern Kingdom under Assyrian auspices (2 Kings 17:24-41 ).
The Southern Kingdom had a different fate. It was extinguished by Babylon about 135 years later, in b.c. 586. In 538 the captives were permitted to return to their land by Cyrus, after his conquest of Babylon. They re-built Jerusalem and the Temple: the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah are the record of this work of restoration.
In b.c. 333 Syria fell to Alexander the Great after the battle of Issus. After his death followed a distracting and complicated period of conflict between his successors, which, so far as Palestine was concerned, had the effect of opening the country for the first time to the influence of Greek culture, art, and religion. From this time onward we find evidence of the foundation of such buildings as theatres, previously quite unknown, and other novelties of Western origin. Although many of the Jews adopted the Greek tongue, there was a staunch puritan party who rigidly set their faces against all such Gentile contaminations. In this they found themselves opposed to the Seleucid princes of Syria, among whom Antiochus Epiphanes especially set himself deliberately to destroy the religion of Judaism. This led to the great revolt headed by Mattathias the priest and his sons, which secured for the Jews a brief period of independence that lasted during the second half of the 2nd cent. b.c., under John Hyrcanus (grandson of Mattathias) and his successors. The kingdom was weakened by family disputes; in the end Rome stepped in, Pompey captured Jerusalem in b.c. 63, and henceforth Palestine lay under Roman suzerainty. Several important tombs near Jerusalem, and elsewhere, and a large number of remains of cities and fortresses, survive from the age of the family of Mattathias. The conquest of Joppa, under the auspices of Simon Maccabæus, son of Mattathias ( 1Ma 13:11 ), was the first capture of a seaport in S. Palestine throughout the whole of Israelite history.
The Hasmonæan dynasty gave place to the Idumæan dynasty of the Herods in the middle of the 1st cent. b.c., Herod the Great becoming sole governor of Judæa (under Roman suzerainty) in b.c. 40. It was into this political situation that Christ was born b.c. 4. Remains of the building activities of Herod are still to be seen in the sub-structures of the Temple, the Herodian towers of Jerusalem, and (possibly) a magnificent tomb near Jerusalem traditionally called the Tomb of Mariamme. Herod died shortly after Christ’s birth, and his dominions were subdivided into provinces, each under a separate ruler: but the native rulers rapidly declined in power, and the Roman governors as rapidly advanced. The Jews became more and more embittered against the Roman yoke, and at last a violent rebellion broke out, which was quelled by Titus in a.d. 70, when Jerusalem was destroyed and a large part of the Jews slain or dispersed. A remnant remained, which about 60 years later again essayed to revolt under their leader Bar Cochba: the suppression of this rebellion was the final deathblow to Jewish nationality. After the destruction of Jerusalem many settled in Tiberias, and formed the nucleus of the important Galilæan Rabbinic schools, remains of which are still to be seen in the shape of the synagogues of Galilee. These interesting buildings appear to date from the second century a.d.
After the partition of the Roman Empire, Palestine formed part of the Empire of the East, and with it was Christianized. Many ancient settlements, with tombs and small churches some of them with beautiful mosaic pavements survive in various parts of the country: these are relics of the Byzantine Christians of the 5th and 6th centuries. The native Christians of Syria, whose families were never absorbed into Islam, are their representatives. These, though Aramæan by race, now habitually speak Arabic, except in Ma‘lula and one or two other places in N. Lebanon, where a Syriac dialect survives.
This early Christianity received a severe blow in 611, when the country was ravaged by Chosroës ii., king of Persia. Monastic settlements were massacred and plundered, and the whole country reduced to such a state of weakness that without much resistance it fell to Omar, the second Caliph of Islam. He became master of Syria and Palestine in the second quarter of the seventh century. Palestine thus became a Moslem country, and its population received the Arab element which is still dominant within it. It may be mentioned in passing that coins of Chosroës are occasionally found in Palestine; and that of the early Arab domination many noteworthy buildings survive, chief of which is the glorious dome that occupies the site of the Hebrew Temple at Jerusalem.
The Moslem rule was at first by no means tyrannical; but, as the spirit of intolerance developed, the Christian inhabitants were compelled to undergo many sufferings and indignities. This, and the desire to wrest the holy places of Christendom from the hands of the infidel, were the ostensible reasons for the in vasions of the brigands who called themselves Crusaders, and who established in Jerusalem a kingdom on a feudal basis that lasted throughout the 12th century. An institution so exotic, supported by men morally and physically unfit for life in a sub-tropical climate, could not outlast the first enthusiasm which called it into being. Worn out by immorality, by leprosy and other diseases, and by mutual dissensions, the unworthy champions of the Cross disappeared before the heroic Saladin, leaving as their legacy to the country a score or so of place names; a quantity of worthless ecclesiastical traditions; a number of castles and churches, few of which possess any special architectural interest, and many of which, by a strange irony, have been converted into mosques; and, among the Arab natives, an unquenchable hatred of Christianity.
We must pass over the barbarous Mongolian invasions, the last of which was under Timur or Tamerlane at the end of the 14th century. But we must not omit to mention the Turkish conquest in 1516, when Syria obtained the place which it still holds in the Ottoman Empire.
R. A. S. Macalister.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Palestine
See Canaan 2
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Joannes Scythopolita, Scholasticus in Palestine
Joannes (565) Scythopolita, a scholasticus of Scythopolis in Palestine. Photius had read a work of his in 12 books, Against Separatists from the Church or Against Eutyches and Dioscorus , written at the request of a patriarch Julianus, probably Julian patriarch of Antioch, A.D. 471–476 (Phot. Cod. 95, in Patr. Gk. ciii. 339 B). John of Scythopolis was also the author of παραθέσεις or commentaries on the Pseudo-Dionysius, which had a wide circulation for some centuries. Among the Syriac MSS. in the Brit. Mus. there is a Syriac trans. of Dionysius, with an introduction and notes by Phocas bar-Sergius of Edessa, a writer of the 8th cent. The notes are largely a translation of the παραθέσεις (Wright, Cat. Syr. MSS. pt. ii. p. 493). Cf. Loofs, Leontius von Byzanz. (1887).
[1]
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Palestine
PALESTINE.—The tendency, represented by historians like Buckle and his school, to write history in terms of environment, is one of those remarkable exaggerations of a valuable truth in which the 19th cent. was prolific. Every age which produces elemental theories and sweeping changes in the most widely accepted and venerable views, is liable to this kind of exaggeration. New ideas first stagger and then captivate men’s minds, and the new names which these theories introduce assume magic powers for a time. The next generation smiles at the omnipotence of the catchwords of the first years of evolutionary doctrine, and remembers that other words—‘sympathy’ and ‘perpetual motion’ among the rest—had a similar vogue in their day. Most of all has the power of environment received undue emphasis and been credited with an influence far in excess of the facts, in the case of Jesus Christ. There is nothing which has doomed the work of His purely naturalistic biographers to premature obsoleteness so much as this. Nowhere was Carlyle’s protest in favour of the effect of great personalities so applicable as here. If anything in history is certain, it is that here we have a case in which a unique personality is seen mastering circumstances, rather than one in which circumstances are seen creating a conspicuous personality.
Yet the influence of Palestine on Jesus is equally unquestionable.
‘We must not isolate the story,’ says Dr. Dale, ‘from the preceding history of the Jewish race … Many people seem to suppose that they may approach the subject as if the Lord Jesus Christ had appeared in Spain or in China, instead of in Judaea and Galilee’ (Living Christ and the Four Gospels, 89). ‘If, negatively,’ says Hausrath, ‘it be self-evident that Jesus’ mission would have assumed another character had He grown up under the oaks of Germany instead of under the palms of Nazareth, that the subject of Arminius or Maroboduus would have been different from that of Antipas, that the opponent of the Druids would have differed from the opponent of the Rabbis, so, positively, it is indisputable that for Jesus Himself the facts of His consciousness were given Him under those forms of viewing things in which Jewish thought in general was cast. Only by a freak of the imagination can it he supposed that an historical personality becomes conscious of the facts of its own inner life by conceptions other than those in which the thought of the age in general finds expression’ (Hist. of NT Times, ii. 225).
Thus we may take it that there is no sentence in the Gospels which can be fairly understood if it be regarded merely as the remark or question of a member of the human race who might have belonged to any nationality. Every word derives something of its significance from the place and time at which it was spoken. Jesus is the Son of Man, but He is also a Syrian teacher. It is Syrian landscape, Syrian history, and Syrian human nature with which the Incarnation works; and we of the West are confronted at every turn by the need to Orientalize our conceptions as we study these records.
In this article we shall consider the influence on Jesus (1) of Syria as a whole; (2) of the Gentile elements in the land; (3) of the open field and of Nature as seen in Syria; (4) of the town and village life with which He was familiar; (5) of the city of Jerusalem.
1. Syria as a whole.—Syria is an Eastern land, and the relations and differences between East and West are the first aspects of this subject which demand attention. No phenomenon of the kind is so remarkable as the combination of Eastern and Western characteristics in the thought and work of Jesus. Such books as Townsend’s Asia and Europe and Fielding Hall’s The Soul of a People (to mention two out of many popular accounts of East and West), though their generalizations are not always convincing, are full of suggestive illustrations of this. ‘Though Asiatic in origin,’ says the former writer, ‘Christianity is the least Oriental of the creeds.’ To find lives most typically Christian, we have to look chiefly to Western nations, France and Germany, Britain and America. Indeed, the astonishing fact is evident that in certain respects we have in Jesus an Oriental too Western for Asiatics, so that to a certain extent they have to Occidentalize their conceptions in order to become Christian. This strange fact has commonly been brought as a charge against the methods of Christian missionaries in the East. But there can be no doubt that in some measure it is due to the mind of Jesus Himself. His doctrine of personal immortality, e.g., and still more the triumphant and glad spirit in which He proclaimed it, have a far more congenial appeal to the West than to the East. ‘Eternal consciousness!’ exclaims Townsend: ‘that to the majority of Asiatics is not a promise but a threat.’ Similarly, the prominence given in Christianity to the command to love our neighbour as ourself, in the West will always find at least a theoretical assent, for it will be backed by the sentiment or at least the conscience of sympathy between man and man as such. The East, whose religion is fundamentally a matter of saving one’s own soul, or at widest a matter of tribal loyalties, will find that a hard saying, and indeed has always so found it. Again, everyone must have noticed that in the battles of Jesus against the unintelligent and conventional doctrines of the Pharisees, His constant appeal was to commonsense and the facts of the case obvious to every unprejudiced observer. But that in itself was an instance of the Western type of intellect pitted against the Oriental.
Yet, at the depths, Christianity rests upon distinctively Oriental foundations. The very publicity of Eastern life has had its effect upon the Gospels. The whole ministry of Jesus was performed among crowds, in public places of assembly and on thronged highways. His thoughts were flung at once into the arena of public discussion, and even His protests and His disregard of ritual in such matters as hand-washing, fasts, etc., were made under the scrutiny of innumerable eyes. The whole Gospel shows traces of this lack of privacy, and the emphasis of its teachings is often fixed by the angle at which its detail was seen by the onlookers. Again, the great Christian doctrine of renunciation is essentially an Oriental doctrine, typical of Hebraism as contrasted with Hellenism; so much so, that it is to the surprise with which that doctrine broke upon the West that its conquest was in part due. The Oriental has been kept from perceiving how Divine self-sacrifice is, by his familiarity with it as a commonplace of human life. ‘The qualities which seemed to the warriors of Clovis so magnificently Divine, the self-sacrifice, the self-denial, the resignation, the sweet humility, are precisely the qualities the germs of which exist in the Hindu’ (Asia and Europe, 69). Consequently, ‘the character of Christ is not … as acceptable to Indians as to Northern races,’ the former seeking in the Divine a contrast rather than a complement to their human thoughts. Again, that free play of imagination touching even the most everyday subjects, that direct statement of truth, unguarded by qualifications and unbuttressed by proofs, are Eastern rather than Western characteristics. These are but random instances, a few out of very many, and varying in importance from the most casual to the most fundamental, yet they are enough to prove that the thought of Jesus was cast in an essentially Oriental mould.
The geographical features of Palestine are strongly marked; and they include, in a very small field, mountains, rivers, plains, lakes and sea-coast. The story of Jesus brings Him in contact with each of these; but the only ones which can be said to have left very distinct traces are the mountains. The Bible is full of mountain scenery, and it owes much to that. The religious thought of the great plains of the world is one thing, that of sea-girt islands is another, and that of mountain-land is a third. The long ranges of Lebanon throw off their southern spurs in Galilee, and the range ends suddenly in the line of steep mountain-side which runs along the northern edge of the Plain of Esdraelon. Not far from this edge, nestling in hollows or crowning heights, lay the towns and villages among which Jesus spent His early years. Hermon is the one great mountain which Anti-Lebanon rises to, standing off to the south, and detached from the continuous range by the deep-cut gorge of the Abana, but sending on the ridge again unbroken, though rugged in outline, past the Sea of Merom on the eastern side, to the shores of the Sea of Galilee. Samaria lies to the south of Esdraelon, a region of finely sweeping valleys and hills of soft and rounded outline. But these hills grow less distinct as the road strikes southward through Judaea. The general level rises to a bare and lofty table-land, from which, near Bethel, rounded heights rise like huge breasts of grey stone from the upheaved bosom of the land. South of that, sheer gorges (geological faults, or the work of flooded winter-torrents) slash across the land from east to west, and open grim and sombre through precipices upon the sunken valley of the Jordan, where Jericho lies steaming in the heat, 6 miles west of the Jordan’s channel-groove, chiselled deep below the level of the valley. Soon Jerusalem is seen, like a round nest among low mountains—a city thrust up from the summit of the land, and moated by deep valleys on two sides. South of that, through the pasture-lands about Bethlehem and the wilderness of Judaea to the east of them, the land slopes down the rolling ‘South Country’ to the Arabian desert.
The traveller to-day is often disappointed in the emotions he had expected at sacred sites. The belief in miracle is nowhere so difficult as on the spot, where every detail of the scene seems so uncompromisingly earthly. If, however, he will follow the example of the Psalmist, and ‘lift up his eyes unto the hills,’ he will find the realization of Christ an easier matter. The great sky-lines are for the most part unchanged, and the same edges and vistas are to be seen which filled the eyes of Jesus. This is not merely the result of the fact that local tradition and foolish ways of honouring sacred places have disfigured and stultified so many spots of Palestine. It recalls the fact that Jesus came from the highlands of Galilee, and that He chose to associate many of the most outstanding events of His life with mountains. From the hill above Nazareth He looked abroad on an endless field of mountain tops. Hermon dominated the landscape on the north-east, and Tabor thrust its irrelevant cone, conspicuous and unique, over the undulating sky-line of the mountains between Nazareth and the Lake—a gigantic intruder which had reared its huge head to look down into Nazareth from over the wall of mountains. It was there, with countless mountain summits of familiar name about Him, that the Youth first encountered those tremendous thoughts which finally led Him to the Jordan. Driven thence by the Spirit into the wilderness, He fought His long fight with rival schemes of greatness, in the tract which Judaea thrusts high into the air from the depth of the Jordan Valley, and holds balanced upon the edge of cliffs. Jericho looks up at that mountain of Quarantania, and sees its angular and tilted platform of a summit as a black space cut out of the brilliance of a living, starry sky. From the edge He looked down on Jericho (Matthew 4:1 etc.), and knew the power of worldliness as He saw the palacelife of Herod there, and the glimmer of festive lamps among the palm-groves that had been Cleopatra’s. Mountains were the congenial places for His great utterances in which the Old Law changed to the New, and the freshness as well as the exaltation of these words remind us from beginning to end of them that they are a Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:1). Similarly, by a sure instinct, it was to the heights that He went to find by night the fullest sense of converse with His Father (Matthew 14:23 etc.). Probably it was on some of the slopes of Hermon that such a season of communion brightened to the wonder of Transfiguration (Matthew 17:1 etc.). Hermon’s summit is always white, and many a ‘bright cloud overshadows’ it, until it shines upon the plain for miles around, in a white glory of frosted silver. It is not without significance that Matthew gives as the trysting-place between Jesus and His disciples ‘a mountain of Galilee’ (Matthew 28:16). There is a perceptible air of relief in the words, as if after all those stifling days in Judaea—days of judgment-halls and shut doors in upper rooms, of clouded cross and sealed sepulchre—an irresistible longing had seized Him for the sunlight and the wind-swept heights of His happier early days. Nothing fostered the patriotism of Israel so much as her mountains. From time immemorial they had been her defences in war, and the platforms of her worship. In the story of Jesus they are seen in both these uses, and the feel of the heights is upon much that He has said.
Palestine is a little and compressed country, where not only geographical features, but the facts and associations of national history are gathered, so close as to force themselves upon the attention at every step. While travelling there, it is a constant source of wonder that so much could have happened in so small a place. These continual reminders of the past history of the nation, which thrust themselves upon Israelites everywhere, and kept patriotism vehemently alive, had their effect also upon Jesus. The heroes of the past were much in His thought, and His journeys from place to place reminded Him of them continually, Elijah and Elisha, Solomon, David, and Isaiah, were figures not merely remembered from reading in the sacred books. They were the unseen inhabitants of the places where once they dwelt in the flesh, peopling for Him tracts over which He led His disciples. His patriotism is evident continually (Luke 19:9; Luke 13:16). It was a great thing in His eyes to be a son or a daughter of Abraham. Jerusalem, for Him as for the Psalmist, is the ‘city of the great King’ (Matthew 5:35). The waysides are hallowed by the footsteps of the dead. The tombs of the prophets are conspicuous monuments to His imagination (Matthew 23:29). He lived among the dead, and they lived unto God and unto Him in the land where their bones had long crumbled to decay. He receives and is taunted with the title ‘King of Israel’ (John 1:49, Matthew 27:42 etc.). The accusation on the Cross is ‘Jesus, the King of the Jews’ (Matthew 27:37 etc.).
Two aspects of the land, taken as a whole, must be remembered, especially if we would understand what it meant to Jesus—Palestine as an oasis, and Palestine as a focus.
Palestine as an oasis.—It is shut off from the rest of the world by a complete ring of natural barriers. Mountains on the north; a vast desert on the east, with the deep and long trench of the Jordan Valley set as a second and inner barrier like a moat; desert again on the south; and the west wholly bounded by the alien sea which so few understood—these are the boundaries of Israel. And there was also a double ring of national barricades. At a distance had stood the great empires of the East, the Parthians having taken in His time the place of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. To the south-west lay Egypt. An inner ring of wild Arabian tribes wandered over the eastern desert, and now and then raided the land. Formerly an unbroken belt of neighbouring heathen enemies encircled Israel, and even cut her off from the sea by the Philistine wedge driven along her western coast, stretching from the Pillar of Egypt to the Phœnician seaports. All this was modified, and much of it broken up, in the time of Jesus; but the religious meaning of it all was thus being only the better understood.
The whole meaning of the land in OT times had been the isolation of Israel for religious ends. For her, ‘to act like men’ (i.e. to imitate the nations round about her) was denounced by her prophets as a betrayal (Hosea 6:7). As a matter of fact, every experiment which she made in such imitation of ‘men’ was a failure. Under Solomon she had adopted the ‘Policy of Orientalism’ of the great world-empires. Under Jeroboam she had sought to conform to the secular ideas of ritual then fashionable, and had even attempted something in the way of a democratic system of government. Under many kings she had sought greatness in aggressive wars. Under Omri she had, by her alliance with Phœnicia, tried for the position of a great commercial power. In every one of these attempts she had found herself defeated, and driven back on the one thing she could do as no other nation could. That one thing was religion, and the meaning of Israel’s isolation was that worship of Jehovah which grew up with her institutions, and of whose revelations she was the destined recipient and repository.
For Jesus also Palestine was an oasis. It is indeed true that the Palestine of His time was no longer the ‘garden enclosed’ which the prophets had striven to keep it. All its hedges were by this time broken down and driven through by the resistless march of Rome. In the heart of the invaded country Jerusalem remained bitterly exclusive and hostile to all the world, so far as the Pharisees could keep it so. Galilee was much more open to the wider thought of the time than Judaea, and Jesus was in sympathy rather with the Galilaean than with the Judaean spirit. Yet, so far as His own work went, He retained and utilized the oasis view of His land. His three temptations were an epitome of the nation’s temptations—‘to act like men’ for bread, or for fame, or for power. In resisting them He was thrusting from His Kingdom the ideals of commercial prosperity, military conquest, and political empire, just as the prophets of Israel had fought against these as national ideals. He remained, and set His speech and His works, among those relationships where God had placed Him. He confined His own ministry and the earlier ministry of His disciples to the land of Israel (Matthew 10:5); and that land was still sufficiently isolated from the thought and life of the world to provide a true cradle and fostering-place for those thoughts which formed the nucleus of the Kingdom of heaven. Thus, in the earliest years, they were sufficiently aloof to gain intensity.
Palestine as a focus.—If Palestine was no longer an oasis in the full sense in which it had been so in OT times, it was more a focus than it had ever been before. In the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, a little hollow place with a flattened ball in it is still exhibited to the incredulous visitor as the centre of the world. The cosmography of the Middle Ages took this as serious science, Jerusalem being the antipodes of the island of Purgatory at the other pole. No doubt some such conception was in the minds of many who looked in early Christian times for new heaven and a new earth and a new Jerusalem. Such thoughts were true in a wider sense than the thinkers knew. At the time of Jesus, Palestine was the meeting-point of East and West.
For many centuries Israel had been a buffer State between the conflicting powers of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Now instead of Egypt there was Rome, at the height of its military power, and armed also with the spiritual weapons of Greece, whose national power it had destroyed and by the deed had set free its spirit. The eastern empires of Nineveh and Babylon were gone, and instead of them were those changing hosts of Persian and Parthian warriors who were soon to dispute the world with Rome. And behind them, more clearly visible since the campaigns of Alexander the Great, though still dim in the mists of vast distances, lay India and the Far East.
The Roman conquest of Syria had brought into immediate and hostile contact two nationalities whose whole history and thought placed them irreconcilably apart. Rome’s ideal of secular empire confronted the Jewish hope of the universal reign of Messiah. Down to the minutest detail of life the two ideals were opposed. To Rome tribute was the obvious consequence of conquest; the theatre was at once a politic and a generous enrichment of the life of the conquered State. To Israel tribute was a sacrilege, and the theatre which rose in Jerusalem a blasphemy. So hateful was the Roman to the Jew, that Jews were a worthless commodity in the Roman slave-market. So unintelligible was the Jew to the Roman, that Tacitus speaks of the nation as ‘given over to superstition, disinclined to religion’ (Hausrath, i. 173–86). These facts are but illustrations of the wider principle, that when a nation with intense national sentiments encounters a nation with strong imperial sentiment, trouble of the most violent kind always ensues. For confirmation of this, one has only to remember the history of Switzerland, of Ireland, or of the Transvaal. In Israel the struggle was only the more acute and inevitable, because the Romanizing policy of the Herods had lent to it the additional aspect of a civil war. Nothing could be imagined more explosive than this state of affairs—a fact which was very clear to the enemies of Jesus (John 11:48).
That Jesus also saw this clearly there can be no question; and this, among other things, must have been in His mind when He spoke of Himself as sending a sword (Matthew 10:34), and scattering fire on the earth (Luke 12:49). Towards the Roman power He, in contrast with such revolutionaries as Judas of Galilee, maintained a strictly neutral attitude. It is probable that no words ever uttered showed such consummate diplomatic skill as those in which He answered the question about the tribute money (Matthew 22:17 etc.). His prophecies (Matthew 24:2 etc.) show how patent to Him was the coming explosion of the forces then at play. His policy was to set the word of the Kingdom so fully at the explosive centre, that when the crash came it would send Christianity across the whole world.
For that diffusion everything was ready. Great roads had long been open by land and sea for trade and commerce. Even then the Romans were laying down those indestructible causeways by which they united land with land. The Sadducees, who in some respects read skilfully the signs of their times, did all they could to encourage trade in Syria, and to break down the Pharisaic restrictions which hampered it; and in this Jesus was their powerful ally. From the heights of Nazareth He had seen the march of the legions on the Roman road across Esdraelon from Acre to the Jordan, and watched the long lines of laden camels moving slowly from the coast to Damascus and back, along the road that lies like a flung ribbon along the hillsides to the north. When in after years St. Paul utilized the Roman roads for the spread of the gospel, he was but carrying out the work which Jesus initiated when He placed that gospel within the charged mine of Palestine.
In the light of one further consideration we see the extraordinary Providence which watched over the situation then. It is a commonplace of history, that civilization and all higher developments of human life spring forward at a bound at the meeting-point of national currents. ‘The great civilizations have always arisen in the meeting-places of ideas’ (Martin Conway, The Dawn of Art, 76). The Norman Conquest offers one of the most conspicuous illustrations, but it is only one of many. The supremely influential meeting of national forces has always been that between the East and the West. ‘The contact between East and West has always been the prolific source of the advancement of humanity’ (op. cit. 59, 60). It was from this contact, induced by the Pilgrimages and the Crusades, that the Renaissance arose. But Christianity itself had arisen at that earlier point of contact, when the Eastern factor was the Hebrew religion, and the Western was Greece and Rome. At the focus of the world Jesus set the light of the world.
2. The relations of Jesus with Gentiles.—Not only was Palestine in close proximity with Gentile neighbours in the time of Jesus; the land itself was overrun with Gentiles, and no account of the meaning of Palestine for Jesus can ignore that fact.
His home in Galilee must have given from the first a very different outlook on the Gentile world from any that would have been possible in Jndaea. Far from the centre of Jewish exclusiveness, crossed by great high roads from the sea to the east, and actually inhabited by multitudes of Gentiles from various lands, Galilee was the most open-minded and tolerant part of the land. Commercial and other interests made the Galilaeans acquainted with foreigners, and established much friendly human intercourse. Thus at the outset it must be borne in mind that Jesus was from His childhood accustomed to a more or less cosmopolitan world, and to the ideas current in such a society. The temptation of ‘the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them’ (Matthew 4:8), indicates no new discovery of worldly grandeur, but a knowledge which had been gathering during the experience of thirty years.
One fact of great significance in the life of Palestine was that it had to be lived in constant view of the desert tribes to the east of it. Kinglake has described the Jordan as the boundary-line between roofs and tents; and besides the tents of nomad tribes there were also those cities of Edom and the Hauran, where, in a rude kind of civilization, Arab kings ruled their kingdoms. The terror of the desert Bedawîn and the barbaric splendours of these kingdoms both contributed a romantic element, which was enforced by the eternal mystery of the desert, in which all things are seen in a strong light which magnifies their significance and fascinates the imagination. Most of Jesus’ parables of kings and their wars (Matthew 18:23 etc.), and certainly His picture of a strong man armed guarding his house against a stronger (Luke 14:31; Luke 11:21-22 etc.), tell of just such a condition of unsettled government and expectation of surprise as existed on the borderline between Arabian and Israelite territory.
In this border region stood the cities of the Decapolis, in which a wealthy and strongly defended Greek life held its own, by force of Roman garrisons, against the desert and the south. The marvellous ruins of J, the two theatres and ornate tombs of Gadara, and the débris of carved stones above the dam which retained water for the naumachiai at Abila, tell an almost incredible tale of luxurious and ostentatious grandeur. The blend of civilization and savagery which such places produce is a phenomenon of the most startling kind. The fact that Jesus visited the Decapolis (Mark 7:31; cf. Matthew 4:25 and Mark 5:20), bearing His high and pure spirituality into that region of the Syrian world, suggests some of the strongest and most dramatic situations which it would be possible to conceive. In this light we see the extraordinary realism of the story of the Gadarenes and their swine and their devils (Matthew 8:28 etc.). It was inevitable that they should have besought Him to depart out of their coasts. And the reaction on His own thought was equally inevitable. He saw the ideals for which He lived and was to die, not as spiritual visions remote from the actual world, or as an advance on its honest endeavours after holiness, but against the background of a life whose gilded swinishness threw it up in all the high relief of the holiness of heaven against earth at its most sordid. And yet it was to this region that He often retired for refuge from the Galilaeans of the western shore, and through this region that He chose to travel on His last journey to the Cross. The relief He sought in it was not wholly that of solitude. Even these degenerate races called for His sympathy; and being unprejudiced by religion, they at least let Him be alone.
The sea-coast comes little into the story of the Gospels, Afterwards, in the lives of Peter and Paul, Joppa and Caesarea were to assume an important place. But, so far as we know, Jesus visited it only once, when He retreated to the coasts of Tyre and Sidon from the Pharisees who had followed Him from Jerusalem. The few references which He made to the sea appear to be all subsequent to that visit. They are in every case characteristic of the inland Israelite’s thought of the sea as a place of horror rather than of beauty (Matthew 18:6; cf. art. Poet below, p. 375b). It was natural that the part of the sea-coast to which He went for concealment should have been that of Tyre and Sidon. We are not, indeed, told that He visited those towns, and the word ‘coasts’ may even refer to the landward district near them. Yet, obviously, no place could offer Him better hiding than a manufacturing: seaport town, where He would be easily lost in the crowds of workmen which came and went about the dye-works and the glass-works and the shipbuilding yards, or in the many-coloured throngs of native and foreign sailors on the quays, It is characteristic of Jesus that the record of that visit ignores the whole splendour of the wealthy life of Phœnicia; its temples with their sun-pillars, its markets, and its ships might have been non-existent for all the notice given to them. The one fact that has been found worthy of commemoration is that story where, in inimitable sprightliness and vivacity, we see for a moment the foreign mother, and hear her tale of human sorrow assuaged.
Samaria (wh. see) divided Galilee from Judaea by the alien race that is supposed to have originated in a cross between Mesopotamians and Israelites after the first captivity. During the centuries that had intervened there had been time for this nation to settle into a fixed and distinct type of its own, but the race still bore all the marks of its bastard origin. Luxurious and soft morally, with the fertility of the land encouraging the effeminacy, they seem to have relaxed their standards of purity in all directions, and the life of the woman of Sychar (John 4:18) was probably typical of current views of sexual relations. The palace life of Herod at the central city of Samaria, and his intercourse with Rome at Caesarea, upon which he had spent fabulous sums, must have intensified the Bohemian and foreign elements in the national character. The tragedies of the palace, the wild story of the murder of Mariamne and what happened after it, and the subsequent strangling of her two sons in that same palace, were matters within the memory of

Sentence search

Geography of Palestine - GEOGRAPHY OF Palestine . See Palestine
Cappadocian Tablets - , recently discovered at Kara-Euyuk near Caesarea, recording a settled Semitic community, and early connection of Hebrews with Semites of Palestine. They corroborate Babylonian records of a Semitic conquest from Palestine, 2225 B. , and show inhabitants of Palestine at Abraham's migration, 2100 B
Tablets, Cappadocian - , recently discovered at Kara-Euyuk near Caesarea, recording a settled Semitic community, and early connection of Hebrews with Semites of Palestine. They corroborate Babylonian records of a Semitic conquest from Palestine, 2225 B. , and show inhabitants of Palestine at Abraham's migration, 2100 B
North Country - A general name for the countries that lay north of Palestine. Most of the invading armies entered Palestine from the north (Isaiah 41:25 ; Jeremiah 1:14,15 ; 50:3,9,41 ; 51:48 ; Ezekiel 26:7 )
Plain - See Palestine
Kadmonites - Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Genesis 15:19 ). Probably they were identical with the "children of the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates
Maaleh-Acrabbim - , "scorpion-hill", a pass on the south-eastern border of Palestine (Numbers 34:4 ; Joshua 15:3 ). It is identified with the pass of Sufah, entering Palestine from the great Wady el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea
Weasel - Some think that this Hebrew word rather denotes the mole (Spalax typhlus) common in Palestine. The weasel tribe are common also in Palestine
Sea of Galilee - See Galilee, Sea of ; Palestine
Jerusalem, Patriarchate of - Comprises Palestine and Cyprus; established, 451
Canaan - ; Ham, Palestine
Palestinean - ) Of or pertaining to Palestine
Snow - (See Palestine
Philistia - and Palestine
Snow - Being basically in a hot climate, Palestine has snow only rarely. Yet Mount Hermon has a snow cap that can be seen throughout much of Palestine
Anaks - ) A race of giants living in Palestine
Shepham - Eastern boundary of Palestine
White - a favourite and emblematical colour in Palestine
Pannag - (sweet ), an article of commerce exported from Palestine to Tyre, ( Ezekiel 27:17 ) the nature of which is a pure matter of conjecture, as the term occurs nowhere else. A comparison of the passage in Ezekiel with (Genesis 43:11 ) leads to the supposition that pannag represents some of the spices grown in Palestine
Sorek - ” A valley on the western side of Palestine. See Palestine
Ger'Zites - (dwellers in the desert ), The, a tribe who with the Geshurites and the Amalekites occupied the land between the south of Palestine and Egypt in the time of Saul. ( 1 Samuel 27:8 ) In the name of Mount Gerizim we have the only remaining trace of the presence of this old tribe of Bedouins in central Palestine
Palestine - taken in a limited sense, denotes the country of the Philistines or Palestines, including that part of the land of promise which extended along the Mediterranean Sea, from Gaza south to Lydda north. Palestine, taken in a more general sense, signifies the whole country of Canaan, the whole land of promise, as well beyond as on this side Jordan, though pretty frequently it is restrained to the country on this side that river; so that in later times the words Judea and Palestine were synonymous. We find, also, the name of Syria Palestine given to the land of promise, and even sometimes this province is comprehended in Coelo-Syria, or the Lower Syria. Herodotus is the most ancient writer we know that speaks of Syria Palestine
Beth-Anoth - Now Hanin (Conder, Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, April, 1876)
Ziphron - Place on the northern boundary of Palestine
Demophon - A Syrian commandant in Palestine under Antiochus Eupator
Negeb - Much of southern Palestine between the Dead Sea and the Sinai desert was dry semi-barren country to which the Hebrews gave the name negeb (meaning ‘dry’). (For details see Palestine, sub-heading ‘Negeb’
Zin - Much of southern Palestine was a dry region known as the Negeb. (For map and other details see Palestine, sub-heading ‘Negeb’
Heron - The name anaphah cannot be identified, but several species of heron are found throughout Palestine, which are doubtless included because of the words 'after her kind. ' The Ardea cinerea is a heron common in Palestine
Pannag - An unknown article of commerce, exported from Palestine to Tyre
Shephelah - ‘Shephelah’ is a Hebrew word used to describe the low hill country between the coastal plain and the central mountains of Palestine. For details see Palestine, sub-heading ‘Shephelah’
Hawk - Some eighteen species of hawk are known to exist in Palestine. The migratory habits of many species of Palestine hawks are referred to in Job 39:26
Berites - People in the north of Palestine, possibly the descendants of Beri
Sibraim - A northern landmark of Palestine, lying between Damascus and Hamath
Hazaraddar - A southern boundary of Palestine
Gennaeus - The father of Apollonius, a Syrian commander of a district in Palestine ( 2Ma 12:2 )
Kadmonites - of Palestine
Ziphron - Sweet odour, a city on the northern border of Palestine (Numbers 34:9 ), south-east of Hamath
Geder - City in the south of Palestine, the king of which was slain by Joshua
Cave - The soft limestone hills of Palestine abound in caves, natural and artificial; and these must have attracted attention from a very early period. Palestine. Caves were also used, at all periods in the history of Palestine, for sepulture, as in the case of Machpelah ( Genesis 23:1-20 ). Probably the most remarkable series of caves yet discovered in Palestine are the great labyrinths tunnelled in the bills round Beit Jibrin ; one of these, in Tell Sandahannah , contains sixty chambers, united by doors and passages, and groups containing fourteen or fifteen chambers are quite common in the same hill. Other groups of caves, only less extensive, occur in various parts of Palestine on both sides of the Jordan
Highway - Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:16 ; 35:8 ; 40:3 ; 62:10 ) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march. During their possession of Palestine the Romans constructed several important highways, as they did in all countries which they ruled
Amorrhites - They first appear in the Bible as inhabitants of South Palestine (Genesis 14), where a war with the Israelites (Joshua 10) secured to the latter the tenure of Palestine
Bear - (1 Samuel 17:34 ; 2 Samuel 17:8 ) The Syrian bear, Ursus syriacus, which is without doubt the animal mentioned in the Bible, is still found on the higher mountains of Palestine. It is probable also that at this period in former days they extended their visits to other parts of Palestine
Hazerim - The villages or "enclosures" of the wandering Avvim, the ancient occupants of southwestern Palestine (Deuteronomy 2:28)
Konae - An unknown town of Palestine (AV Dabb - ) A large, spine-tailed lizard (Uromastix spinipes), found in Egypt, Arabia, and Palestine; - called also dhobb, and dhabb
ho'Ram - (mountainous ), king of Gezer at the time of the conquest of the southwestern part of Palestine
Akhenaton - During his reign he received the reports and requests from city-state rulers in Palestine that archaeologists call the Amarna letters. These show the lack of unity and harmony in Palestine which Joshua found when he entered to conquer Palestine
Mearah - Mentioned amongst the districts of Palestine that had yet to be possessed ( Joshua 13:4 )
Ivy - This plant ( Hedera helix ) grows wild in Palestine and Syria
Sea of Galilee - The Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake in northern Palestine. (For details see Palestine, sub-heading ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’
Mite, - a coin current in Palestine in the time of our Lord. (Mark 12:41-44 ; Luke 21:1-4 ) It seems in Palestine to have been the smallest piece of money (worth about one-fifth of a cent), being the half of the farthing, which was a coin of very low value
Azmon - border of Palestine, near the torrent of Egypt, wady el Arish (Numbers 34:4-5; Joshua 15:4)
Gerar - a royal city of the Philistines, situate not far from the angle where the south and west sides of Palestine meet
Samaritan - ) Of or pertaining to Samaria, in Palestine
Zererath - Identified (Palestine Exploration) with Ain Zahrah
Tatnai - The king of Persia's satrap in Palestine, who sought to stop the Jews from rebuilding the temple
Jerusalem - ) The chief city of Palestine, intimately associated with the glory of the Jewish nation, and the life and death of Jesus Christ
Danjaan - Place in the north of Palestine
Flint, - It was very abundant in and about Palestine
Azmon - Place on the south west frontier of Palestine, apparently near the Wady el-Arish, the torrent of Egypt
Beulah - The land of Palestine shall be called Beulah, which signifies 'married,' when the set time comes for Jehovah to bless Israel
Elparan - In the margin 'the plain of Paran,' or some boundary mark in the wilderness of Paran in the south of Palestine
Tahtimhodshi - Place visited by Joab during his taking the census of Israel, apparently in the north-east of Palestine
Hareth, Forest of - " There could have been no forests in that part of Palestine. (Conder, Palestine Exploration) (See KEILAH
Crimson - ]'>[3] dûdeh , the common word for ‘worm,’ is to-day also used in Palestine for the imported cochineal insect. The Palestine insect is the female Coccus ilicis of the same
Ash'Dod, - (a stronghold ), ( Acts 8:40 ) one of the five confederate cities of the Philistines situated about 30 miles from the southern frontier of Palestine, three from the Mediterranean Sea, and nearly midway between Gaza and Joppa. Its chief importance arose from its position on the high road from Palestine to Egypt
Lizard - ( Leviticus 11:30 ) Lizards of various kinds abound in Egypt, Palestine and Arabia. The lizard denoted by the Hebrew word is probably the fan-foot lizard (Ptyodactylus gecko ) which is common in Egypt and in parts of Arabia, and perhaps is found also in Palestine
Terebinth - ), the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists; a tree very common in the south and east of Palestine
Mile - Roman milestones are still seen here and there in Palestine
Che'Sil - (idolatrous ), a town in the extreme south of Palestine, ( Joshua 15:30 ) 15 Miles southwest of Beersheba
Peacocks - Appear not to have been known in Palestine, until imported in the navy of Solomon, 1 Kings 10:22 2 Chronicles 9:21
Mount Hermon - (Hebrew: sacred) ...
Group of mountains in Palestine forming the southern extremity of Anti-Lebanon, marking on the east of the Jordan the northern boundary of Israel
Dannah - Identified by Conder (Palestine Explorations) with Domeh, two miles N
Hermon, Mount - (Hebrew: sacred) ...
Group of mountains in Palestine forming the southern extremity of Anti-Lebanon, marking on the east of the Jordan the northern boundary of Israel
Bramble - and Vulgate render by rhamnus, a thorny shrub common in Palestine, resembling the hawthorn. The word may be regarded as denoting the common thistle, of which there are many species which encumber the corn-fields of Palestine
Bush - The ‘burning bush’ has traditionally been supposed to be a kind of bramble ( Rubus ), of which Palestine has several varieties, but one of the thorny shrubs of Sinai of the acacia family would seem more probable. Sacred bushes and trees are common in Palestine and Arabia
Mustard - A species of this annual shrub is found in Palestine, growing to the height of seven to nine feet, and with a stem one inch thick. It is found in Palestine, and bears berries containing small, mustard- like seeds
Rue - The rue of Palestine is Ruta chalepensis , a variety of the officinal plant, which is cultivated as a medicine
Philistia - =Palestine (q
Beri'Ites, the, - A tribe of people who are named with Abel and Beth-maachah, and who were therefore doubtless situated in the north of Palestine
Harrow - " In modern Palestine no such instrument as our harrow exists, and it is unlikely it did in ancient times
Arimathea - A city of Palestine, whence came Joseph the counsellor, mentioned in Luke 23:51
Beans - (2 Samuel 17:28 ; Ezekiel 4:9 ) Beans are cultivated in Palestine, which produces many of the leguminous order of plants, such, as lentils, kidney-beans, vetches, etc
Diaspora - The scattering of the Jews from the land of Palestine into other parts of the world and the Jews thus scattered. Later, other wars fought by the Greeks and Romans in Palestine helped scatter more of the Jewish people. ...
The diaspora was further encouraged by severe economic conditions which gripped Palestine. ...
Adding to this impulse to leave Palestine was the good reception the Jews generally received in other lands. ...
The result of the diaspora was that by New Testament times as many Jews lived outside of Palestine as lived within the land
Syria, Syrian - In scripture this name mostly signifies the district lying north and north-east of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were Syrians. If from Dan to Beersheba be taken as the boundaries of Palestine, it leaves for Syria a district quite as large on its north, besides extending also to the Euphrates on the east. For many years his successors contended with the Ptolemies for the possession of Palestine. 63Syria was conquered by Pompey, and Palestine became subject to Rome. After the decline of Rome, Syria and Palestine had many different masters, and eventually fell into the hands of the Turks before obtaining independence. Palestine was divided into sub-provinces after the death of Herod. ...
The physical features of Western Syria and Palestine are very similar — their natural contour indeed being the same
Weasel - " Moles are common in Palestine
Pound - The Attic talent then was usual in Palestine
Emmaus - (Hebrew: a people rejected) ...
Town in Palestine "sixty furlongs from Jerusalem" (Luke 24), exact location uncertain, where Our Lord manifested Himself to Cleophas and another disciple after His Resurrection
Lizard, - Lizards of different species abound in Palestine
Weasel - Several varieties of weasels are found in and around Palestine; but in the verse above probably the common mole is intended
Ara'Bians - the nomadic tribes inhabiting the country to the east and south of Palestine, who in the early times of Hebrew history were known as Ishmaelites and descendants of Keturah
Meroz - A place in the northern part of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were accursed for not having taken the field with Barak against Sisera
Winter - The season between fall and spring, usually short and mild in Palestine
Judaea the Hill Country of - The central ridge of mountains stretching from north to south, and forming as it were the backbone of the land of Palestine
Flea - Translated "(thou pursuest) after one flea," David implying his extreme insignificance, fleas in Palestine abounding in a degree not known with us
Weasel - " Moles are common in Palestine
Dan Name - Because it was so restricted the tribe moved to Lais, a city in Palestine on the slope of Mount Hermon, which they destroyed and rebuilt and called Dan (Judges 18). The expression "Dan to Bersabee" was used to designate the whole extent of Palestine
Judea - But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine (Matthew 2:1,5 ; 3:1 ; 4:25 ), although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Acts 28:21 )
Hivites - One of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to Gibeon in the south. They principally inhabited the northern confines of Western Palestine (Joshua 11:3 ; Judges 3:3 )
Dearth - There were frequent dearths in Palestine. In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts 11:28 ) in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Claudius (A
Ford - The Romans were the first to build bridges in Palestine. Fords are mentioned in connection with three rivers in Palestine: the Arnon (literally “rushing torrent” Isaiah 16:2 ), the Jabbok (Genesis 32:22 ), the Jordan
Mouse - All these small rodents are exceedingly plentiful in Palestine. Metal mice as amulets have been found in the Palestine plain (cf
Willows - This tree grows abundantly on the banks of the Euphrates, in other parts of Asia as in Palestine. The Hebrew word translated willows is generic, and includes several species of the large family of Salices , which is well represented in Palestine and the Bible lands, such as the Salix alba, S
Stairs - Houses in Palestine usually had stairs on the outside going up to the roof. Also wells and cisterns in many cities in Palestine would have stairs leading down to the water
Bered -
A town in the south of Palestine (Genesis 16:14 ), in the desert of Shur, near Lahai-roi
Hazar-Addar - Village of Addar, a place in the southern boundary of Palestine (Numbers 34:4 ), in the desert to the west of Kadesh-barnea
Spider - An animal in Palestine known in the Bible for spinning a web (Job 8:14 ; Isaiah 59:5 )
Decapolis - a country in Palestine, so called, because it contained ten principal cities; some situated on the west, and some on the east side of Jordan, Matthew 4:25 ; Mark 5:20
Naph'Tali, Mount, - the mountainous district which formed the main part of the inheritance of Naphtali, (Joshua 20:7 ) answering to "Mount Ephraim" in the centre and "Mount Judah" in the south of Palestine
Hill, Hill-Country - Gib’ah denotes properly ‘the large rounded hills, mostly bare or nearly so, so conspicuous in parts of Palestine, especially in Judah. It is especially the description of the central mountainous tract of Palestine reaching from the plain of Jezreel on the N. The best-known har or hill-country in Palestine is the ‘hill-country of Ephraim,’ but besides this we hear of the ‘hill-country of Judah’ ( e. Among the eminences of Palestine as distinct from hill-districts are Zion, the hill of Samaria, the triple-peaked Hermon, Tabor, and Carmel
Madon - Strife, a Canaanitish city in the north of Palestine (Joshua 11:1 ; 12:19 ), whose king was slain by Joshua; perhaps the ruin Madin, near Hattin, some 5 miles west of Tiberias
Tattenai - (tat' teh nehi) Contemporary of Zerubbabel, governor of the Persian province “across the (Euphrates) River,” which included Palestine (Ezra 5:3 ,Ezra 5:3,5:6 ; Ezra 6:6 ,Ezra 6:6,6:13 )
Casluhim - Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Palestine
ha'Mor - (an ass ), a Hivite who at the time of the entrance of Jacob on Palestine was prince of the land and city of Shechem
Wheat - It bore the Hebrew name Hittah , And was extensively cultivated in Palestine. It was exported from Palestine in great quantities (1 Kings 5:11 ; Ezekiel 27:17 ; Acts 12:20 ). Parched grains of wheat were used for food in Palestine (Ruth 2:14 ; 1 Samuel 17:17 ; 2 Samuel 17:28 )
Hilarion, Saint - Abbot, born Tabatha, near Gaza, Palestine, c. Returning to Palestine, 307, and finding both his parents dead, he distributed his wealth among the poor, and retired to a little hut in the desert of Majuma near Gaza, where he lived as a hermit. Hilarion is honored as the founder of the anchoritic life in Palestine
Sur - A town on the seacoast of Palestine ( Jdt 2:28 )
Onions - ]'>[1] basal ) is and always has been a prime favourite in Palestine and Egypt
Arbatta - A district in Palestine
Nain - A city of Palestine, rendered memorable from the Lord Jesus raising the widow's son from death at the gate of this city
Pannag - In Ezekiel 27:17 , is the Hebrew word for some unknown product of Palestine, which the Jews sold to the Tyrians
be'Red -
A place in the south of Palestine, near the well Lahairoi
Haven - The most famous on the coast of Palestine was that of Tyre (Ezekiel 27:3 )
Bishlam - ” Apparently representative of Persian government in Palestine who complained about building activities of the returned Jews to Artaxerxes, king of Persia (464-423 B
Scallion - ) A kind of small onion (Allium Ascalonicum), native of Palestine; the eschalot, or shallot
Anise - The plant mentioned in Matthew 23:23 was no doubt the dill, which grows in Palestine, and was tithed by scrupulous Jews
Winds - The east wind crosses the sandy wastes of Arabia Deserts before reaching Palestine and was hence termed "the wind of the wilderness. (Job 27:21 ; 38:24 ; Psalm 48:7 ; Isaiah 27:8 ; Ezekiel 27:26 ) In Palestine the east wind prevails from February to June. The south wind, which traverses the Arabian peninsula before reaching Palestine, must necessarily be extremely hot. (Job 37:17 ; Luke 12:55 ) The west and southwest winds reach Palestine loaded with moisture gathered from the Mediterranean, and are hence expressly termed by the Arabs "the fathers of the rain. " Westerly winds prevail in Palestine from November to February
Apple - On the other hand, it is a substantial difficulty that the apple does not grow well in Palestine proper, as distinguished from the Lebanon. In consequence of this, several fruits which to-day are found in Palestine have been suggested. The apricot , suggested by Tristiam, which flourishes in parts of Palestine in greater profusion than any other fruit, would seem to answer to the references well. Unfortunately there is considerable doubt whether this tree, a native of China, was known in Palestine much before the Christian era. This is certainly a native of the land, and is common all over Palestine
Bersabee - (Hebrew: well of seven, or well of swearing) Ancient town at the southern extremity of Palestine, 28 miles southwest Hebron. The expression "Dan to Bersabee" was used to denote the entire length of Palestine (Judges 1:20)
Hawk - The kestrel remains all the year in Palestine, but some ten or twelve other species are all migrants from the south. Of those summer visitors to Palestine special mention may be made of the Falco sacer and the Falco lanarius
Flowers - Very few species of flowers are mentioned in the Bible although they abounded in Palestine. It has been calculated that in Western Syria and Palestine from two thousand to two thousand five hundred plants are found, of which about five hundred probably are British wild-flowers
Bashan - (bay' sshan) The northernmost region of Palestine east of the Jordan River. See Geography of Palestine
Beersheba - (Hebrew: well of seven, or well of swearing) Ancient town at the southern extremity of Palestine, 28 miles southwest Hebron. The expression "Dan to Bersabee" was used to denote the entire length of Palestine (Judges 1:20)
Silvanus, Bishop of Gaza - Not long before his martyrdom, which was one of the last in Palestine, he obtained the episcopate. Eusebius speaks with high admiration of his Christian endurance, saying that he was "reserved to the last to set the seal, as it were, to the conflict in Palestine" (Eus
Theoctistus, Bishop of Caesarea - of Caesarea in Palestine, who on Origen's visit to Palestine received him at Caesarea and, like Alexander of Jerusalem, permitted him, though still a layman, to preach before him (Phot
uz, the Land of - Where Job lived (1:1; Jeremiah 25:20 ; Lamentations 4:21 ), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom
Marishes - Marshy places, which shall not be healed when healing waters issue out of the future temple in Palestine
Ash - oren ), only in ( Isaiah 44:14 ) As the true ash is not a native of Palestine, some understand this to be a species of pine tree
Hermon - —A mountain on the north-eastern border of Palestine, the culminating point of the range of Anti-Lebanon, rising to an elevation of 9200 ft. Its dome-like summit, usually covered with snow till late in summer, can be seen from almost every part of Palestine. —For description of Hermon, see Robinson, BRP Hittites - The descendants of Heth, a son of Canaan, and hence descendants of Ham: a numerous race who inhabited Palestine. This was near or at Hebron in the south of Palestine, whereas other passages speak of them in the north, between the Lebanon and the Euphrates, which was probably where they originally settled, Joshua 1:4 ; and there are intimations that they continued a powerful and warlike race after Palestine was possessed by Israel. ...
In various parts of Palestine and Syria monuments have been found of the Hittites, and in Egypt there are records of a long defensive treaty that was made between the Egyptians and the Hittites, showing that the latter were an important race
Berites - Palestine, visited by Joab in pursuing Sheba, son of Bichri (2 Samuel 20:14), "all the Berites
Zedad - Side; sloping place, a town in the north of Palestine, near Hamath (Numbers 34:8 ; Ezekiel 47:15 )
Adamah - A fortified city of Naphtali ( Joshua 19:36 ); identified by Conder with ’Admah on the plateau north of Bethshean; placed by the Palestine explorers at ed-Damieh , 5 miles S
Beans, - It grows plentifully in Palestine, and is eaten with rice or mixed with wheat and barley in making bread for the poor
Zionism - ) Among the Jews, a theory, plan, or movement for colonizing their own race in Palestine, the land of Zion, or, if that is impracticable, elsewhere, either for religious or nationalizing purposes; - called also Zion movement
Bene-ke'Dem - (the children of the East ), an appellation given to a people or to peoples dwelling to the east of Palestine
Daman - The species found in Palestine and Syria is Hyrax Syriacus; that of Northern Africa is H
Boar - They are still found in Palestine, and dwell among the long reeds in the Jordan valley and marshy places
Jano'ah - (rest ), a place apparently in the north of Galilee, or the "land of Naphtali," --one of those taken by Tiglath-pileser in his first incursion into Palestine
Ptolemies - He and his successors ruled an empire that included at times Cyrenaica, Palestine, Phoenicia, Cyprus and some parts of western Asia Minor and the Aegean. The Ptolemies founded or refurbished several cities in Palestine and Transjordan giving them Greek names and often endowing them with Greek features. ...
Ptolemaic rule directly impacted Jews both inside and outside of Palestine. During the campaigns to secure Palestine for Egypt, Ptolemy I transported large numbers of Jews from Palestine to Alexandria for settlement. ...
During the reign of Ptolemy II, the first of five wars with the Seleucids over possession of Palestine broke out. , Antiochus III defeated the Egyptian army at Banyas (later Caesarea Philippi) and seized control of Palestine
Decapolis - (Greek: ten cities) ...
A district in Palestine east and south of the Sea of Galilee which took its name from the confederation of ten cities of which it was composed; those of interest are Damascus, Gadara, and Pella
Weasel - It may be a member of the mole family (palax Sehrenberg ;) found in many countries, including Palestine
Hazerim - of Palestine, or to the temporary dwellings of the Avim before they were expelled by the Caphtorim
Fox - shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of this animal indigenous to Palestine. The Vulpes Niloticus, or Egyptian dog-fox, and the Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are also found in Palestine. Jackals hunt in large numbers, and are still very numerous in Southern Palestine
Rain - In Scripture the "early" and the "latter" rain of Palestine is spoken of, Deuteronomy 11:14 Hosea 6:3 . The former falls in the latter part of October, the seed-time of Palestine; and the weather then continues variable, with more or less rain the whole winter, until after the latter or spring rain in April. It would seem therefore, that if the rains of Palestine could be preserved in pools and reservoirs, and employed in irrigating the ground during the summer, the old fertility might be restored; it would be clothed again with verdure, and become like "the garden of the Lord
Chanaanites - Descendants of Chanaan, son of Cham, who inhabited all of western Palestine between the Jordan and the Mediterranean coast. They came into Palestine from the north about 3000 B
Earthquake - Mentioned among the extraordinary phenomena of Palestine (Psalm 18:7 ; Compare Habakkuk 3:6 ; Nahum 1:5 ; Isaiah 5:25 ). The first earthquake in Palestine of which we have any record happened in the reign of Ahab (1 Kings 19:11,12 )
Walls -
The practice common in Palestine of carrying foundations down to the solid rock, as in the case of the temple, with structures intended to be permanent. ...
Another use of walls in Palestine is to support mountain roads Or terraces formed on the sides of hills for purposes of cultivation
Lentils - ]'>[1] , ‘adas a kind of small reddish bean, the product of Ervum lens , a small leguminous plant 6 or 8 inches high, much cultivated in Palestine, and ripening in June or July. In Palestine a kind of ‘pottage’ known as mujedderah , universally popular, is made from it
Cistern - The scarcity of springs in Palestine made it necessary to collect rain-water in reservoirs and cisterns (Numbers 21:22 ). There are numerous remains of ancient cisterns in all parts of Palestine
Turtle, Turtle Dove - They are of the family of pigeons, and are plentiful in Palestine, of which there are several species. The Turtur risorius is a dove found in Palestine
Anise - The plant mentioned in Matthew 23:23 was no doubt the dill, which grows in Palestine, and was tithed by the Jews
Swan - Swans have been found in Palestine, but are very rare
Hen - Common in later times among the Jews in Palestine (Matthew 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 )
Acre - Seaport, Palestine, lying north of Mount Carmel, and west of the mountains of Galilee
Chestnut Tree - This tree thrives best in low and rather moist situations in the north of Palestine, and resembles our sycamore or buttonwood ( Platanus occidentalis )
Raisins - Dried grapes, some of which are very fine in Palestine
Mite - A coin of Palestine in the time of our Lord
Moabites - An ancient people of Palestine, inhabiting a district east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, in constant conflict with the Israelites
Mearah - A cave, a place in the northern boundary of Palestine (Joshua 13:4 )
Sukkiims - of Palestine, subdued by Shishak
Sharon - There were several places called by this name in Palestine
Cotton - Cotton is now both grown and manufactured in various parts of Syria and Palestine; but there is no proof that, till they came in contact with Persia, the Hebrews generally knew of it as a distinct fabric from linen
Elamites - Inhabitants of Elam, some of whom were located in Palestine
Piece of Gold - Coined money was unknown in Palestine till the Persian period
Grecians - Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus did not speak Hebrew (Acts 6:1 ; 9:29 ), nor join in the Hebrew services of the Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues of their own in Jerusalem
Hethlon - Wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine
Geshem - Or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Nehemiah 2:19 ; 6:1,2 )
Stacte - It is a small tree plentiful in rocky places in most of Palestine
Bucket - The main purpose was for drawing water from a well and is still used in Palestine today
Chameleon - There are chameleons in Palestine, but they are unfit for food, whereas the lizards are eaten
Gerar - A city and district in the south of Palestine, and near Gaza, Genesis 10:19; visited by Abraham, Genesis 20:1; by Isaac, Genesis 26:1; Asa pursued the defeated Ethiopians to it
Nain - a city of Palestine, in which Jesus Christ restored the widow's son to life, as they were carrying him out to be buried
Lachish - a city of Palestine, Joshua 10:23 ; Joshua 15:39
Abilene - Abilene (ăb'i-lç'ne), from Abila, a small district of Palestine on the eastern slopes of Anti-Libanus, of which Abila on the river Barada was the capital
Mole - It is common is some parts of Palestine, and is mentioned as unclean in Leviticus 11:30 ; or, according to Bochart, in Leviticus 11:29 , in the word translated "weasel
a'Bel-Beth-ma'Achah - (meadow of the house of oppression ), a town of some importance, ( 2 Samuel 20:15 ) in the extreme north of Palestine, which fell an early prey to the invading kings of Syria, (1 Kings 15:20 ) and Assyria
Chamois - (pronounced often shame), the translation of the Hebrew zemer in (14:5) But the translation is incorrect; for there is no evidence that the chamois have ever been seen in Palestine or the Lebanon
Riblah - Fruitful, an ancient town on the northern frontier of Palestine, 35 miles north-east of Baalbec, and 10 or 12 south of Lake Homs, on the eastern bank of the Orontes, in a wide and fertile plain. It was on the great caravan road from Palestine to Carchemish, on the Euphrates
Bat - The bat is a familiar object in Palestine, where no fewer than seventeen varieties have been identified. All varieties in Palestine are insectivorous except one, the Xantharpyia œgyptiaca , which eats fruit
Beans - A very common and popular vegetable in Palestine, used from ancient times; they are the seeds of the Vicia faba . As the native of Palestine takes little meat, such leguminous plants are a necessary ingredient of his diet ( 2 Samuel 17:28 )
Accho - Ptolemais in the New Testament, Jean d'Acre (named from the knights of John of Jerusalem); called "the key of Palestine. of the only inlet on the Palestine coast, with Carmel on the S
Oak - There are a number of varieties of oak in Palestine. aegilops , are well worthy of the name of mighty trees; though it is equally true that over a greater part of the country the oaks of Palestine are at present merely bushes
Eagle - There are eight varieties of eagles and four of vultures known in Palestine. The references to nesher are specially appropriate as applied to the griffon vulture ( Gyps fulvus ), a magnificent bird, ‘the most striking ornithological feature of Palestine’ (Tristram), found especially around the precipitous gorges leading to various parts of the Jordan Valley. ]'>[5] rakhâm , the Egyptian vulture, a ubiquitous scavenger which visits Palestine from the south every summer
Bee - (1:44; Judges 14:8 ; Psalm 118:12 ; Isaiah 7:18 ) Bees abounded in Palestine, honey being a common article of food (Psalm 81:16 ) and was often found in the clefts of rocks and in hollow trees. (1 Samuel 14:25,27 ) English naturalists know little of the species of bees that are found in Palestine, but are inclined tn believe that the honey-bee of Palestine is distinct from the honey-bee (Apis mellifica ) of this country
Coal - As a mineral, coal does not exist in Palestine except in the Wâdy Hummanâ in the Lebanon, and was mined there only during the rule of Muhammad Ali about 1834 (Thomson, The Land and the Book, 1886, iii. The destruction of the forests of Palestine and Syria may be assigned as the main reason for the absence of timbered gables, and the universal prevalence, instead, of brickwork cupola roofs, and also for the wretched substitutes for fuel now employed by the natives, such as sun-dried cakes of chaff and dung, etc. ...
The geological survey of Palestine reveals its uniformly cretaceous formation, extending from the Lebanon ranges to the plateau of Hebron. Juda, Tribe of - The territory assigned to the tribe by Josue lay in the southern portion of Palestine (Joshua 15)
Collection - The Christians in Palestine, from various causes, suffered from poverty
Christ's-Thorn - ) One of several prickly or thorny shrubs found in Palestine, especially the Paliurus aculeatus, Zizyphus Spina-Christi, and Z
Postexilic - During this period the Jews returned to Jerusalem and Palestine to rebuild what the Assyrians and Babylonians had destroyed
Zacheans - The disciples of Zacheus, a native of Palestine, who, about the year 350, retired to a mountain near the city of Jerusalem, and there performed his devotions in secret; pretending that prayer was only agreeable to God when it was performed secretly, and in silence
Mint - sylvestris ), which grows wild all over Palestine
Adar - a Hebrew month, answering to the latter part of February, and the beginning of March, the 12th of the sacred and 6th of the year so named to become glorious, from the exuberance of vegetation, in that month, in Egypt and Palestine
Salmon - When the Almighty scattered kings in some place (probably Palestine) it is compared to "snow in Salmon
Glede - It is not certain what particular bird is meant, but most probably one of the buzzards, of which three species inhabit Palestine
Ape - The ape is not indigenous to Palestine; they were brought in the days of Solomon, with gold, silver, ivory and peacocks by the ships of Tarshish
Popular - It is a beautiful and shady tree, common in Palestine and its vicinity
Tribe of Juda - The territory assigned to the tribe by Josue lay in the southern portion of Palestine (Joshua 15)
Barley - Sown in Palestine in autumn, and reaped in the spring, that is, at the Passover
Heth - Son of Canaan, great grandson of Noah, and original ancestor of the Hittites, some of the original inhabitants of Palestine (Genesis 10:15 )
Sycamine Tree - Both black and white mulberry trees are common in Syria and Palestine
Date - This was a common tree in Palestine (Joel 1:12 ; Nehemiah 8:15 )
Turpentine Tree - It is the Pistacia terebinthus , terebinth tree, common in Palestine and the East
Corn - Rye and oats are not cultivated in Palestine
Rue - Four species of wild rue are found in Palestine
Tortoise, - ' The tortoise, however, is common in Palestine
Harosheth - A place in the north of Palestine, the home of Sisera, Judges 4:2; Judges 4:13; Judges 4:16, and the place of assembling of Jabin's army
Cart - a machine used in Palestine to force the corn out of the ear, and bruise the straw, Isaiah 28:27-28
Trachonitis - It belonged rather to Arabia than Palestine; was a rocky province, and served as a shelter for thieves and depredators
Jebus - the son of Canaan, Genesis 10:16 , and father of the people of Palestine called Jebusites
Beth-ma'Achah - (house of oppression ), a place named only in ( 2 Samuel 20:14,15 ) In the absence of more information we can only conclude that it is identical with Maachah or Aram-maachah, one of the petty Syrian kingdoms in the north of Palestine
Forest - Although Palestine has never been in historical times a woodland country, yet there can be no doubt that there was much more wood formerly than there is a t present, and that the destruction of the forests was one of the chief causes of the present desolation
Hedge - The stone walls which surround the sheepfolds of modern Palestine are frequently crowned with sharp thorns
Makkedah - The Palestine Exploration surveyors have, however, identified it with el-Mughar, or "the caves," 3 miles from Jabneh and 2 1/2 southwest of Ekron, because, they say, "at this site only of all possible sites for Makkedah in the Palestine plain do caves still exist
Rose - , "autumn crocus"), is supposed by some to mean the oleander, by others the sweet-scented narcissus (a native of Palestine), the tulip, or the daisy; but nothing definite can be affirmed regarding it. The "rose of Sharon" is probably the cistus or rock-rose, several species of which abound in Palestine
Geshem - He was in name a vassal of Persia but apparently wielded great personal power with tribes in the Syrian desert, southern Palestine, the delta of Egypt, and northern Arabia. He may have hoped to gain further control in Palestine and certainly did not want a local power to threaten him there
Shalmane'Ser - He led the forces of Assyria into Palestine, where Hoshea, the last king of Israel, had revolted against his authority. 723Shalmaneser invaded Palestine for the second time, and, as Hoshea refused to submit, laid siege to Samaria
Negeb - (neh' gehb) Place name meaning, “dry” referring to an arid region in southern Palestine and coming to mean “south. See Directions; Nabateans ; Palestine
Hivites - One of the races found early in Palestine: they were descendants of Ham through Canaan. Jacob, on his return to Palestine, found Shechem occupied by the Hivites
Hermon - The highest mountain in Palestine, Deuteronomy 3:8; Joshua 12:1; Joshua 11:17; 1 Chronicles 5:23. It towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Syria
Perizzites - The Perizzites lived apparently in villages in the open country in the south part of Palestine, and were expelled during the conquest
Elm - , a tree common in Palestine, long-lived, and therefore often employed for landmarks and in designating places (Genesis 35:4 ; Judges 6:11,19
Beatitudes, Mount of - Name given to the place where Our Lord, surrounded by people from all parts of Palestine, delivered the Sermon on the Mount and taught His Apostles the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 5-7; 8)
Mount of Beatitudes - Name given to the place where Our Lord, surrounded by people from all parts of Palestine, delivered the Sermon on the Mount and taught His Apostles the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 5-7; 8)
Baal-Hamon - Others identify it with Belamon, in Central Palestine, near Dothaim
Merom - A lake in northern Palestine, where Joshua won a victory
Avvim - Palestine near Gaza, who were absorbed by the immigrants from Caphtor (wh
Garlic, - The garlic of Egypt is the Allium sativum of the botanists, but there are different species in Palestine, where it is cultivated and prized
Hagarenes - A people dwelling to the east of Palestine, with whom the tribes of Reuben made war in the time of Saul
Ambush, Ambushment - Palestine with its many ravines and caves was well suited for such tactics
Laish - City in the far north of Palestine, conquered by the tribe of Dan
Cuckoo - The cuckoo is known in Palestine; but more likely some of the lesser kinds of sea-fowl are meant
Wanderings of the Israelites - The "great and terrible wilderness" between mount Sinai and Palestine is still known by the Arabs as Et-Tyh, or the Wanderings
la'Sha - It lay somewhere in the southeast of Palestine
Heth'Lon - (hiding-place ), the name of a place on the northern border of Palestine
Galileans - the inhabitants of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine
Amorites - An ancient people whose presence can be traced in Palestine and Syria and also in Babylonia. It has long been known that this ideogram stood for Palestine and Syria. Paton, Syria and Palestine , 25 29). At some time they seem to have overrun Palestine also, for in the E [2] document they are regarded as the pre-Israelitish inhabitants of the mountain-land of Palestine, whom the Hebrews conquered (cf. ]'>[2] document in the northern, some have inferred that the Amorites were especially strong in Northern Palestine; but even the J Baca, Valley of - , "or balsam trees"), probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of weeping
Allon-Bachuth - Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks
Philistia - (fih lihss' tih uh) The coastal plain of southwestern Palestine which was under the control of the Philistines (Exodus 15:14 ; Psalm 60:8 ; Psalm 87:4 ; Psalm 108:9 ; Isaiah 14:29-31 )
Cockle - Hooper has suggested ‘stinking arums,’ which are common Palestine plants, but the more general rendering is safer
Tin - It is not known to have been found in Palestine, but would have been early known there and was imported from Tarshish
Cuth, Cuthah - One of the places whence the king of Assyria brought colonists into Palestine
Beth-Boron - The name of two places, the "Upper" and "Nether" Beth-horon, Joshua 16:3; Joshua 16:5, about three miles apart, on the opposite sides of a ravine or steep pass—the Thermopylæ of Palestine—on the road from Jerusalem to the sea-coast
Fir Tree - Probably the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), which is almost as large as the cedar, is now found on Lebanon, and was formerly doubtless abundant through Palestine
Melons - Watermelons grow luxuriantly in Palestine, even in dry and sandy soil
Rose - ]'>[5] suggests ‘autumn crocus’ ( Colchicum autumnale ); on the other hand, many good authorities suggest the much more striking and sweeter-scented plant the narcissus, which is a great favourite to-day in Palestine. Whether this is, as Tristram maintains, the Rhododendron or the true rose is uncertain; both occur in parts of Palestine
Tosephta - It was compiled in Palestine at about the same time as the Jerusalem Talmud. Its existence shows the development in the legal system of the rabbis of Palestine as they sought to adapt the law orally to new and changing social and religious conditions
Palestine - Palestine, taken in later usage in a more general sense, signifies the whole country of Canaan, as well beyond as on this side of the Jordan; though frequently it is restricted to the country on this side that river; so that in later times the words Judea and Palestine were synonymous
am'Alekites, - a nomadic tribe of uncertain origin, which occupied the peninsula of Sinai and the wilderness intervening between the southern hill-ranges of Palestine and the border of Egypt. (Exodus 17:8-16 ) In union with the Canaanites they again attacked the Israelites on the borders of Palestine, and defeated them near Hormah
Madmannah - ) Now probably Minyay, on the route from Egypt to western Palestine, 15 miles S
Drought - From the middle of May to about the middle of August the land of Palestine is dry
Beth-Azmaveth - ” Home town of 42 people who returned to Palestine with Zerubbabel from Exile in Babylon about 537 B
Reservoir - Reservoirs were a necessity in most of Palestine where seasonal rains were the major water source
Sisera - A man in a list of Nethinim descendants who returned to Palestine with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:53 ; Nehemiah 7:55 )
Ape - No kind of monkey is indigenous in Palestine
Garlic - The familiar Allium sativum , still a very great favourite in Palestine, especially with the Jews
Nebo, Mount - It is about 2,643 feet high, and commands an extensive view of western Palestine
Abel-Beth-Maachah - (â'bĕl-bĕth-mâ'a-kah), meadow of the house of oppression, 2 Kings 15:29, a town in the north of Palestine near Cæsarea-Philippi
Sisera - A man in a list of Nethinim descendants who returned to Palestine with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:53 ; Nehemiah 7:55 )
Cummin, - one of the cultivated plants of Palestine
Janoah - ...
...
A town of Northern Palestine, within the boundaries of Naphtali
Chinnereth - For fuller details see Palestine, sub-heading ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’
Riblah - high, overtopping every mountain in Palestine. Riblah or Riblathah in the land of Hamath, on the high road between Palestine and Babylon, where the Babylonian kings remained in directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia; where Jehoahaz was put in chains by Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:33), and Zedekiah, after seeing his sons slain, had his own eyes put out (Jeremiah 39:5-7; literally, Jeremiah 39:9-10), and other leading captives were slain, probably by the Assyrian death of impaling (Jeremiah 39:24; Jeremiah 39:27), as depicted on the monuments. of Lebanon and the coast to Palestine and Egypt, or through the Bekaa and Jordan valley to the center of Palestine
Oak - There are a number of varieties of oak in Palestine
Kite - It is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine
Tetrarch - Herod and Phasael, the sons of Antipater, were the first tetrarchs in Palestine
Onion - This was the Betsel Of the Hebrews, the Allium cepe of botanists, of which it is said that there are some thirty or forty species now growing in Palestine
Tares - It grows plentifully in Syria and Palestine
Flea - The common flea, Pulex irritans , is a universal pest in Palestine
Lake - In Palestine, we are told, they make lakes for their wines
Mandrakes, - Some strong-smelling plant found in the fields of Palestine
Talmai - King of Geshur, on the borders of Palestine and Syria
Sozomen, Salaminius Hermias - Born in Bethelia, Palestine; died c447 His history (323-439), a continuation of the work of Eusebius, suffers in comparison with that of Socrates, appearing at the same time
Salaminius Hermias Sozomen - Born in Bethelia, Palestine; died c447 His history (323-439), a continuation of the work of Eusebius, suffers in comparison with that of Socrates, appearing at the same time
Hor'Mah - (a place laid waste ), or ZEPHATH , (Judges 1:17 ) was the chief town of a king of a Canaanitish tribe on the south of Palestine, which was reduced by Joshua, and became a city of the territory of Judah, (Joshua 15:30 ; 1 Samuel 30:30 ) but apparently belonged to Simeon
mi'Zar - (small ) , The hill, a mountain apparently in the northern part of transjordanic Palestine, from which the author of Psalm 42 utters his pathetic appeal
Mowing - As the great heat of the climate in Palestine and other similarly situated countries soon dries up the herbage itself, hay-making in our sense of the term is not in use
Plough - Ploughs in Palestine have usually but one handle with a pole joined to it near the ground and drawn by oxen, cows or camels
Fertile Crescent - The Fertile Crescent is composed of Mesopotamia in the east and the Levant, or Palestine and Syria in the west. See Mesopotamia, Palestine
Fertile Crescent - The Fertile Crescent is composed of Mesopotamia in the east and the Levant, or Palestine and Syria in the west. See Mesopotamia, Palestine
Leah - When Jacob returned to Palestine from Padan-aram, Leah and her children were placed in front of Rachel and Joseph, evidently to absorb any violence from Esau, Jacob's brother. Leah died in Palestine and was buried in the cave at Machpelah, where lay the remains of Abraham, Isaac, and their wives
Pomegranates, Rimmon - It is named among the vines and fig trees as of the products of Palestine. It is the Punica granatum, which both wild and cultivated still grows in Palestine, and is highly valued
Samaria - (Hebrew: Somron, from Semer, name of the owner of the hill on which the city was built) ...
City in Ephraim, Palestine, capital of the kingdom of Israel since c. The use of the name gradually extended to the entire kingdom or, after the Captivity, to the central region of Palestine between Judea and Galilee
Carmel - Mount Carmel was the only major headland on the Palestine coast (Jeremiah 46:18). (For maps and other details of the region see Palestine
Cana - ...
In later times, Robinson (BRP Sheshai - They may have entered Palestine with the Sea Peoples to whom the Philistines are related
Anak, Plural Anakim - Famous giants in Palestine, descended from Arba, founder of the city Hebron
Osprey - But the Hebrew word may be taken to denote the short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus of Southern Europe), one of the most abundant of the eagle tribe found in Palestine
Hazar-Enan - Village of fountains, a place on the north-east frontier of Palestine (Numbers 34:9,10 )
Rue - There are several species growing wild in Palestine
Sharon - The thinly populated Plain of Sharon was part of Palestine’s coastal plain south of Mt Carmel. Parts of it were marshland, though other parts contained good pastures and forests (1 Chronicles 5:16; 1 Chronicles 27:29; Isaiah 35:2; see Palestine)
Malobathron - It is argued by Post, against this rendering, that the malobathron plant ( Laurus malabathrum ) did not grow wild on any of the mountains of Palestine
Plane Tree - This tree is frequently found in Palestine, both on the coast and in the north
Cheese - " In ancient Palestine probably by "cheese" is meant milk compressed in cakes, salted, soft when new, but soon becoming hard and dry
Zered - See Palestine ; Rivers
Caravan - Palestine lay along the main travel route between Egypt, Arabia, and Mesopotamia and had many caravans passing through it
Geshem - It was for the interest of the wandering marauders of the frontier of Palestine to prevent its restoration as a kingdom
Amalecites - One of the fiercest of Bedouin tribes, probably of Arabian origin, living within the borders of Palestine
Hill Country - Any part of the range of hills that runs through Palestine from north to south, in distinction from the plains towards the Mediterranean or the Jordan; and in distinction from the Shephelah which is a region in Judah that runs between the hill country and the plain on the west, called the 'lowlands
Chamois - The Hebrew word is zemer, Deuteronomy 14:5 , which is held to signify 'leaper,' and would thus suit the chamois; but this animal is unknown in Palestine and is supposed never to have existed there
Hind - The word ayyalah is supposed to allude to any kind of deer found in Palestine: no particular species can be identified
Zealot - The term came to designate a particular segment of the Jewish population who continually tried to overthrow foreign oppression, especially the Roman rule in Palestine
Anachorets - Such were Paul, Anthony, and Hilarion, the first founders of monastic life in Egypt and Palestine
Hare - Of the hare, which resembles the rabbit, five species or varieties are found in Palestine
Empire, British - See articles on: ...
Antigua
Bahamas
Barbados
British Guiana
British Honduras
Canada
Ceylon
Dominica
England
Falkland Islands
Gibraltar
Grenada
Hong Kong
India
Ireland
Jamaica
Malta
Montserrat
Nevis
New Zealand
North Borneo
Palestine
Saint Christopher
Saint Lucia
Saint Vincent
Samoa
Scotland
Shanghai
Union of South Africa
Virgin Islands
Wales
Weihaiwei
a'in -
One of the landmarks on the eastern boundary of Palestine
Theophilus - We can only say of him, in general, that most probably he was a man of some note, who lived out of Palestine, and had abjured paganism in order to embrace Christianity
Ituraea - A district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1 )
Cormorant - It is a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," which also frequents the coasts of Palestine as well as the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan valley during several months of the year
Mulberry - "We know with certainty that the black poplar, the aspen, and the Lombardy poplar grew in Palestine. The aspen, whose long leaf-stalks cause the leaves to tremble with every breath of wind, unites with the willow and the oak to overshadow the watercourses of the Lebanon, and with the oleander and the acacia to adorn the ravines of Southern Palestine" (Kitto)
Rose - However, roses now grow in Palestine, both cultivated and wild. The Hebrew implying a bulbous plant may refer to the bulb-like flower of the rose with its petals folded over each other (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, April 1878, p
Beyond the River - From the perspective of those living in Palestine, “beyond the river” meant on the east side of the Euphrates River. This satrapy included Syria and Palestine
Fly - , swarm in Palestine and Egypt. Mosquitoes, which may have been included in the ‘arôb (the ‘swarms of flies’) in Egypt, are now known to be the carriers of the poison of malaria, the greatest scourge of parts of Palestine
Chaldee Language - It was the language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia, and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular language of Palestine. These are specimens of the vernacular language of Palestine at that period
Sparrow, - In Palestine sparrows are plentiful, and five were sold for two farthings, and yet the Lord said not one fell without His Father's knowledge, adding "Ye are of more value than many sparrows. There are several species of sparrow in Palestine, the Passer cisalpinus, etc
Tarshish, Tharshish - Place to which ships were sent from Palestine. Jonah taking a ship at Joppa to sail to Tarshish may also indicate a place to the west of Palestine
Judaising Christians - For when this emperor had at length razed Jerusalem, entirely destroyed its very foundations, and enacted laws of the severest kind against the whole body of the Jewish people, the greatest part of the Christians who lived in Palestine, to prevent their being confounded with the Jews, abandoned entirely the Mosaic rites, and chose a bishop, namely, Mark, a foreigner by nation, and an alien from the commonwealth of Israel. Those who were strongly attached to the Mosaic rites, separated from their brethren, and founded at Pera, a country of Palestine, and in the neighbouring parts, particular assemblies, in which the law of Moses maintained its primitive dignity, authority, and lustre
Wheat - This cereal was extensively grown in Palestine; the harvest was in May and June. ...
There are three or four varieties of Triticum grown in Palestine
Carmel - A long mountain which forms a striking feature of Palestine. It is a noble ridge, the only headland of lower and central Palestine, jutting out with a bold bluff or promontory, nearly 600 feet high, almost into the Mediterranean
Philis'Tia - The word thus translated (in) ( Psalm 60:8 ; 87:4 ; 108:9 ) is in the original identical with that elsewhere rendered Palestine, which always means land of the Philistines. (Philistia was the plain on the southwest coast of Palestine
Philistia - In Psalms 60:8; Psalms 87:4; Psalms 108:9, the only places where the word "Philistia" occurs, is the same Hebrew word elsewhere translated "Palestine. " Palestine originally meant only the district inhabited by Philistines. " Josephus calls these people "Palestines. " Philistia, or the "land of the Philistines," included the coast plain on the southwest of Palestine, from Joppa on the north to the valley of Gerar on the south, a distance of about 40 miles
Hermon - It marks the north boundary of Palestine (Deuteronomy 3:8,4:48 ;; Joshua 11:3,17 ; 13:11 ; 12:1 ), and is seen from a great distance. " It is one of the most conspicuous mountains in Palestine or Syria. "In whatever part of Palestine the Israelite turned his eye northward, Hermon was there, terminating the view
Kedesh - Conder (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1877, p. ...
For Kadesh Naphtali is 30 miles from Tabor, the scene of the battle, and separated by some of the most difficult country in Palestine. Kitchener with Harosheth the head quarters of Sisera (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October, 1877, p
Dove, - Pigeons are very common in Palestine, and if any persons were too poor to buy a pair for an offering the young could easily be caught in the holes of the rocks: thus God graciously ordered it that the poorest could obtain what was needed. ...
There are four species of doves that inhabit Palestine: of these the most abundant is the Rock Pigeon, or Blue Rock Dove, the Columba livia. There are three species of turtle doves known in Palestine, which are both wild and domesticated
Weather - The climate of Palestine was, on the whole, hot and dry. ...
Over the whole year the amount of rain that fell in Palestine varied from about 350 mm (14 inches) on the coastal plain to about 700 mm (28 inches) in the central mountains. (For map of the regions see Palestine. )...
The temperature in Palestine for most of the year was between 23 and 30 degrees Celsius, often reaching 40 degrees in the lower Jordan Valley
Eshcol - It was in the southern part of this land where Van Lennep found clusters of grapes 18 inches in length, and it is said that bunches weighing from 12 to 20 pounds are still found in southern Palestine
Shephelah - See Palestine
Hedge - In ancient Palestine hedges served to protect vineyards from damage by animals or intruders (Psalm 80:12-13 ; Isaiah 5:5 )
Canterbury, Baldwin of - (died 1190) Archbishop, born probably near Exeter, England; died Acre, Palestine
Lapwing - The Hebrew name of this bird, Dukiphath , has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a bird not uncommon in Palestine
Ijon - Palestine
Mizar - A low peak in the northern part of trans-jordanic Palestine
Mouse - Tristram found 23 species of mice in Palestine
Gemara - The word Gemara (Aramaic, “to learn”) refers specifically to the discussions on the Mishna conducted in the rabbinic academies of ancient Palestine and Babylon
Carmel, Mount - The mountain is near the Mediterranean coast of Palestine between the Plain of Acco to the north and the Plain of Sharon to the south
Honoratus, Saint - 368,to visit Palestine and Egypt
en-Eglaim - It has not been identified, but is not improbably ‘Ain Feshkah (Robinson, BRP Spinning - —From very early times in Palestine, spinning of wool and flax by means of hand-spindles was one of the common occupations, especially of women
Philistine - ) A native or an inhabitant of ancient Philistia, a coast region of southern Palestine
Anise - It is indigenous in Palestine, and is extensively used both in cooking and in the form of ‘dill water’ as a domestic remedy for flatulence
Brimstone - Bitumen, pitch, or sulphur, which is still found in its crude state in Palestine
Bezek - Place where Saul numbered the army before he slew the Ammonites, 1 Samuel 11:8 , apparently near the centre of Palestine
Hare - Four species of hare are known in Palestine, of which the commonest is the Lepus syriacus
Joppa - The sea-port in Palestine in the Mediterranean
Lakes - There were three lakes in Palestine, all connected with the Jordan
Genesareth - (Hebrew: kinnor, a harp) ...
Fertile district of Palestine, on the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee (Mark 6), often called the Lake of Genesareth; the scene of the public ministry of Our Lord
Lem'Uel - Others regard him as king or chief of an Arab tribe dwelling on the borders of Palestine, and elder brother of Agur, whose name stands at the head of (Proverbs 30:1 )
Italy - There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans
Sennacherib - He invaded Palestine twice; during his second invasion, the bulk of his army was miraculously destroyed, the rest fleeing with him
Baldwin of Canterbury - (died 1190) Archbishop, born probably near Exeter, England; died Acre, Palestine
h'Eron, - Nearly all of the species known in English ornithology are found in the vicinity of Palestine
Mulberry Trees - Some of the best recent authorities advocate the aspen or balsam, a few species of which grow in Palestine
Rie - ]'>[3] has ‘spelt,’ Whatever kussemeth was, it was neither true rye, which is a cereal unknown in Palestine, nor spelt
Almond-Tree - In Palestine, it blossoms in January, and in March has fruit
Sabachtha'ni, - ( Matthew 27:46 ; Mark 15:34 ) This, with the other words uttered with it, as given in Mark, is Aramaic (Syro-Chaldaic), the common dialect of the people of Palestine in Christ's time and the whole is a translation of the Hebrew (given in Matthew) of the first words of the 22d Psalm
East Wind - In Palestine this wind blows from a burning desert, and hence is destitute of moisture necessary for vegetation
Stream of Egypt - The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between el-'Arish and Gaza
Girgashite - Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of Western Palestine
Elkosh - of Mosul, believed by Jewish pilgrims to be Nahum's birthplace and burial place, is less probable, as his prophecies show only a general acquaintance with Assyria but a particular knowledge of Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3)
Bether - Perhaps Bithron, separated from the main part of Palestine by Jordan (2 Samuel 2:29), a ravine district, through "all" of which Abner passed, on the N
Mustard - In the fertile and warm soil of Palestine, especially when cultivated, this herb must have reached considerable size
Poplar - Other species of the poplar are found in Palestine, such as the white poplar (P
Cuckow - Although cuckoos are common in Palestine, and their voices may be heard all over the land in the spring, yet there is good reason for rejecting this translation
Eshcol, Yalley of - Called both a brook and a valley because the one ran in the other, now called a Wady, which are very numerous in Palestine
Bishlam - Officer of Artaxerxes in Palestine at the time of the return of Zerubbabel
Chesnut Tree - It is identified with the 'Plane-tree' which grows in Palestine
Sitnah - (Palestine Exploration Society, "Our Work"
Zeboim - One of the towns the Benjamites occupied upon returning to Palestine from Exile (Nehemiah 11:34 )
Gier Eagle, - It visits Palestine only in the summer
i'Jon - (a ruin ), a town in the north of Palestine, belonging to the tribe of Naphtali
Diana - She was worshipped in Palestine, Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-18
Cockatrice - Tristram proposes the great yellow viper, the largest of Its kind found in Palestine, and one of the most dangerous
Rest - In Acts 9:31 , refers to the respite from persecution enjoyed by the Christians in Palestine, after the conversion of Saul of Tarsus, during the last two years of Caligula's short reign, A
Pine - Several varieties of pines abound upon Mount Lebanon, the largest of which is the sunobar kubar; also found on several sandy plains of Palestine
ca'Naan -
The fourth son of Ham, (Genesis 10:6 ; 1 Chronicles 1:8 ) the progenitor of the Phoenicians [1], and of the various nations who before the Israelite conquest people the seacoast of Palestine, and generally the while of the country westward of the Jordan
Mis'Rephoth-ma'im - (the flew of waters ), a place in northern Palestine
Irrigation - As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deuteronomy 11:10 )
Leontius, a Scholasticus of Byzantium - Leontius (62), a scholasticus of Byzantium, and afterwards a monk in Palestine, who wrote c
Land of Chanaan - (Semitic: kana, to bow down; hence, lowlands) ...
Term applied in a limited sense by biblical writers to the northern coast of modern Palestine, or Phenicia; or to the lowland of the Philistines on the southern coast. They identify it more generally with the whole of Western Palestine, including the mountainous districts occupied by the Amorrhites, and enclosed within the generally accepted boundaries of 33 degrees 18 minutes north latitude
Canaan, Land of - (Semitic: kana, to bow down; hence, lowlands) ...
Term applied in a limited sense by biblical writers to the northern coast of modern Palestine, or Phenicia; or to the lowland of the Philistines on the southern coast. They identify it more generally with the whole of Western Palestine, including the mountainous districts occupied by the Amorrhites, and enclosed within the generally accepted boundaries of 33 degrees 18 minutes north latitude
Chanaan, Land of - (Semitic: kana, to bow down; hence, lowlands) ...
Term applied in a limited sense by biblical writers to the northern coast of modern Palestine, or Phenicia; or to the lowland of the Philistines on the southern coast. They identify it more generally with the whole of Western Palestine, including the mountainous districts occupied by the Amorrhites, and enclosed within the generally accepted boundaries of 33 degrees 18 minutes north latitude
Mount - Palestine is a hilly country (Deuteronomy 3:25 ; 11:11 ; Ezekiel 34:13 ). The mountains of Western and Middle Palestine do not extend to the sea, but gently slope into plains, and toward the Jordan fall down into the Ghor
Meonenim, the Oak of - " In central Palestine; Gaal saw Abimelech's men coming by the way that led to it (Judges 9:37). That where under Jacob hid the strange gods and talisman earrings of his household was close by Shechem (Genesis 35:4), the same where Abram built his first altar in Palestine (Genesis 12:6); here also Joshua, alluding to the patriarch Jacob's address and the original idolatry of Israel's forefathers, urges the people similarly to "put away the strange gods," etc
South - Negeb, that arid district to the south of Palestine through which lay the caravan route from Central Palestine to Egypt (Genesis 12:9 ; 13:1,3 ; 46:1-6 )
Anakim - They dwelt in the south of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Hebron (Genesis 23:2 ; Joshua 15:13 ). They were probably a remnant of the original inhabitants of Palestine before the Canaanites, a Cushite tribe from Babel, and of the same race as the Phoenicians and the Egyptian shepherd kings
Myrrh - ]'>[2] ‘myrrh’ in Genesis 37:25 ; Genesis 43:11 , is a fragrant resin from the Cislus or ‘rock rose,’ a common Palestine shrub. As a product of Palestine it was a likely substance to send to Egypt
River (2) - ...
The Jordan is the one true river in Palestine. ...
To one reared in Palestine, where only water is required to turn the wilderness into a garden, a river, with its beautifying and fertilizing power, might well seem an apt symbol of life (Revelation 22:1-2)
Partridge - The word qone signifies 'caller' and this suits the common Palestine partridge because of its loud ringing call. The Caccabis saxatilis and Ammoperdix Heyii are known in Palestine
Pisgah - A mountain in the region of Moab, with a commanding view over both the desert ( Numbers 21:20 ) and Western Palestine. The latter name is preserved by Jebel Nebâ , a range whose summit reaches a height of 2643 feet and commands a view of a large part of Western Palestine
Rib-Lah -
Riblah in the land of Hamath, a place on the great road between Palestine and Babylonia, at which the kings of Babylonia were accustomed to remain while directing the operations of their armies in Palestine and Phoenicia
Fox - Though both foxes and jackals abound in Palestine, the shu'alim (foxes) of ( Judges 15:4 ) are evidently jackals and not foxes, for the former animal is gregarious, whereas the latter is solitary in its habits; and Samson could not, for that reason, have easily caught three hundred foxes, but it was easy to catch that number of jackals, which are concealed by hundreds in caves and ruins of Syria. With respect to the jackals and foxes of Palestine, there is no doubt that the common jackal of the country is the Canis aureus , which may be heard every night in the villages
Flax, - That it was grown in Palestine even before the conquest of that country by the Israelites appears from (Joshua 2:6 ) The various processes employed in preparing the flax for manufacture into cloth are indicated:
The drying process. (Isaiah 19:9 ) That flax was one of the most important crops in Palestine appears from (Hosea 2:5,9 )
Pottery - It is abundantly evident, both that the Hebrews used earthenware vessels in the wilderness and that the potter's trade was afterward carried on in Palestine. How early the wheel came into use in Palestine is not known, but it seems likely that it was adopted from Egypt
Weather - Climatic conditions in Palestine, including geographical factors and seasonal changes. The weather patterns of Palestine result from the clash between the extreme heat of the Arabian desert and the cooler Mediterranean winds from the west. ...
The Bible hints at the influence which the weather imposed on life in Palestine. See Fertility Cults; Palestine ; Rain ; Wind
Chamois - ]'>[3] , are both certainly incorrect, as neither of these animals occurs in Palestine
Justin Martyr, Saint - Martyr, Christian apologist, born Flavia Neapolis, Palestine, c
Antipatris - The name of a city of Palestine, situated seven or eight miles from the coast, in a fertile and well watered plain between Caesarea and Jerusalem, on the site of the former city Caphar-Saba
Crane - The Hebrew for crane is 'Agur , the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine
Mine - Moses speaks of the mineral wealth of Palestine (Deuteronomy 8:9 )
Ishbak - The Keturahites extended from the borders of Palestine to the Persian gulf
Ape - No species of ape has ever been found in Palestine or the adjacent regions
Essenes - Members of a Jewish sect that existed in Palestine during the time of Christ
Akrabbim - Scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine
Trachonitis - The region of Trachonitis lay to the north-east of Palestine, between Lake Galilee and Damascus
Tiberias - (For map and other details see Palestine
Mole - " As no true moles have been found in Palestine, this term may comprehend the various rats and weasels that burrow about ruins
Martyr, Justin, Saint - Martyr, Christian apologist, born Flavia Neapolis, Palestine, c
Night-Hawk - ‘Night-hawk’ is merely another name for the familiar night-jar or goat-sucker ( Caprimulgus ), of which three species are known in Palestine
She'ba - (2 Samuel 20:1,2 ) Sheba traversed the whole of Palestine apparently rousing the population, Joab following in full pursuit to the fortress Abel Beth-maachah, where Sheba was beheaded
Nebuchadnezzar - His victory over the Egyptian forces at Carchemish (605) signaled the completion of abylon's conquest of Palestine
Beth-Arbel - Two places called Arbela exist in Palestine, one (now Irbid ) west of the Sea of Galilee (Jos
Cormorant - pygmœus , occur in Palestine both on the sea coasts and on inland waters, e
Bay Tree - ” While the bay tree is native to Palestine, Psalm 37:35 gives no indication of referring to that tree
Chancellor - Title of a royal official of the Persian government living in Samaria and helping administer the Persian province after Persia gained control of Palestine
Nuts - Josephus and others speak of the walnut tree growing in Palestine
Soap - Many plants yielding alkalies exist in Palestine and around: hubeibet (Salsola kali ) with glass-like leaves near the Dead Sea; ajram near Sinai, pounded for use as soap; the gilloo or soap plant of Egypt; and the heaths near Joppa
Gourd, - Others identify it with the Lagenaria vulgaris, which is often seen in Palestine as affording shelter
West - yam, 'the Sea,' referring to the Mediterranean, which lieson the west of Palestine, Genesis 12:8 , etc
Horse-Leech - A well-known kind of worm very common in all the stagnant waters of Palestine
She'ba - (2 Samuel 20:1,2 ) Sheba traversed the whole of Palestine apparently rousing the population, Joab following in full pursuit to the fortress Abel Beth-maachah, where Sheba was beheaded
a'Vim -
A people among the early inhabitants of Palestine, whom we meet with in the southwest corner of the seacoast, whither they may have made their way north-ward from the desert, (2:23) probably the same as the Hivites
Antipatris - A city of Palestine, situated in the midst of a fertile and well-watered plain, between Cæsarea and Lydda, called by Josephus, "the plain of Caphar Saba
Chittim - In these passages the "Isles," "ships," "products," and "people"of Kittim are mentioned or alluded to; hence the name has generally been supposed to mean the island of Cyprus, though Kitto thinks it a general term applied to islands and coasts west of Palestine
Trachonitis - In the time of Christ, was, as its name imports, a rugged province, lying on the northeast border of Palestine, south of Damascus, between the mountains of Arabia Deserta on the east, and Iturea, Auranitis, and Batania on the west and south, Luke 3:1
Hawk - ) which appears to allude to the migratory habits of hawks, it is curious to observe that of the ten or twelve lesser raptors (hawk tribe) of Palestine, nearly all are summer migrants
Hagarenes', ha'Garites - (named after Hagar), a people dwelling to the east of Palestine, with whom the tribes of Reuben made war in the time of Saul
She'ba - (2 Samuel 20:1,2 ) Sheba traversed the whole of Palestine apparently rousing the population, Joab following in full pursuit to the fortress Abel Beth-maachah, where Sheba was beheaded
Owl - (Job 30:29 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ) Some of these species were common in Palestine, and, as is well known, were often found inhabiting ruins
Riblah - Place apparently on the eastern boundary of Palestine
Paulina, Daughter of Paula - She married about the time when her mother and her sister Eustochium went with Jerome to Palestine in 385
Jordan - It was an important feature of Palestine’s geography and was of much significance in the history of Israel. For details see Palestine, sub-headings ‘Upper Jordan and Sea of Galilee’ and ‘Jordan Valley and Dead Sea’
Maacah - A small district or kingdom on the northeastern frontier of Palestine, in Syria, near Ammon and toward Mesopotamia, 2 Samuel 10:6; or Maachah, 1 Chronicles 19:6-7
Joseph of Arimathea, Saint - First century; born Arimathea, Palestine
Meroz - A plain in the north of Palestine, the inhabitants of which were severely condemned because they came not to help Barak against Sisera (Judges 5:23 : comp 21:8-10; 1 Samuel 11:7 )
Daric - A gold coin current in Palestine after the return from Babylon
Carts - There are scarcely any roads in Syria and Palestine, so that horse carriages are almost unknown
Tamarisk - Seven species of this tree are found in Palestine
Middin - Conder (Palestine Exploration, July 1875) identifies it with Khirbet Mird, one of the six cities of the midbar or "desert", on the edge of the Bukeia, E
Brickkiln - Some Bible students believe that sun-dried bricks were used in Palestine; they would translate the word as “brick-mold” (see Nahum 3:14 NRSV, NAS, TEV)
Tidal - Chedorlaomer's ally, "king of nations," in the invasion of Syria and Palestine
Alilean - ) A native or inhabitant of Galilee, the northern province of Palestine under the Romans
Beer - ” The generally arid climate of much of Palestine made wells particularly significant locations
Cummin - The seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum cyminum (syriacum) , widely cultivated in and around Palestine
Leeks - The leek ( Allium porrum ) is much grown in Palestine, where it is a general favourite
Akrabbim - of the Dead Sea and Zin: Judah's and Palestine's boundary on the S. Perhaps now the pass Es-Sufah, the last step from the desert to the level of Palestine
Arimathea, Joseph of, Saint - First century; born Arimathea, Palestine
Caves - Palestine is remarkable for its number of caves, some of which are of great extent
Canaan - (Authorized Version Chanaan, Acts 7:11; Acts 13:19)...
In the NT Palestine is referred to as ‘the Land’ or ‘the Land of Israel’ (Matthew 2:20)
Poplar, - Some judge the Hebrew word libneh to refer to the 'storax tree' (the styrax officinale ) which also grows in Palestine
Laura - the most celebrated lauras mentioned in ecclesiastical history were in Palestine; as the laura of St
Pirathon - of Shechem (Nablus), now Fer'ata; or Fer'aun (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement)
Caesarea - See Matthew 16:13, etc The other Caesarea was in Palestine
Nicopolis - Emmaus in Palestine was also called Nicopolis by the Romans
Baca - A valley in Palestine, probably sterile
Kir - The country whence the Syrians emigrated when they came to settle in the region north of Palestine, and to which Tiglath-pileser sent the captive Syrians after the conquest of Damascus
Sisters of Saint Joseph of the Apparition - The congregation has approximately houses, include schools, hospitals, and dispensaries in France, Italy, Malta, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Crete, Chios, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, Armenia, Africa, Burma, and Australia
Hissing - As a mode of calling an attendant to his master's side, is a custom very prevalent in Palestine
Society of Marie Reparatrice - The order includes houses of retreat, schools, lending libraries, study clubs, workrooms for the poor, orphanages, and dispensaries, in Italy, France, Belgium, Spain, England, Ireland, Canada, Africa, the United States, Cuba, and Palestine
ge'Rar - It occurs chiefly in Genesis, ( Genesis 10:19 ; 20:1 ; 26:17 ) also incidentally in (2 Chronicles 14:13,14 ) It must have trenched on the "south" or "south country" of later Palestine
Hare - The hare is at this day called arnel by the Arabs in Palestine and Syria
Bitter Herbs - " (Exodus 12:8 ) These "bitter herbs" consisted of such plants as chicory, bitter cresses, hawkweeds, sow-thistles and wild lettuces, which grow abundantly in the peninsula of Sinai, in Palestine and in Egypt
Goshen - It has been identified with the modern Wady Tumilat, lying between the eastern part of the Delta and the west border of Palestine. ...
...
A district in Palestine (Joshua 10:41 ; 11:16 )
Jerusalem - (Hebrew: salim, peace) ...
Ancient city in Palestine, the religious and political center of the Israelites, situated 15 miles west of the Jordan on the crest of a chain of mountains which traverses Palestine from north to south
Apple Tree - They think the common apple tree was only recently introduced to Palestine, and that the wild variety hardly matches the description given to the tree and its fruit in the Bible. Having been introduced from China prior to the time of Abraham, the apricot is widespread in Palestine
Wheat - The wheat of Palestine is mostly of the bearded varieties; it is not only eaten as bread, but also boiled, unground, to make the peasant’s dish burghul , which is in turn pounded with meat in a mortar (cf. Palestine, though to a less extent than barley, but it is cultivated in the largest quantities in the Nuqra or plain of the Hauran, one of the finest grain-growing countries in the world
Palm Tree - tamar), the date-palm characteristic of Palestine. " The whole land of Palestine was called by the Greeks and Romans Phoenicia, i
Apple - Probably the apricot or quince is intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the growth of apples proper. It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of Palestine (Joel 1:12 ), and frequently referred to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (2:3,5; 8:5)
Wolf - There can be little doubt that the wolf of Palestine is the common Canis lupus , and that this is the animal so frequently mentioned in the Bible. The Syrian wolf is of lighter color than the wolf of Europe it is the dread of the shepherds of Palestine
Bittern - Although the bird of this name the Botaurus stellaris is found in Palestine, especially in the Huleh marshes, the philological evidence is quite against this translation. It (the Hystrix cristata ) is common all over Palestine
Sharon - But there are three cantons of Palestine known by the name of Sharon. The second, a canton between the city of Caesarea of Palestine and Joppa
Apple - The orange would answer all the requirements of the scriptural passages, and orange trees are found in Palestine; but it is not certain that this tree was known in the earlier times to the inhabitants of Palestine
Perizzites - According to the frequently recurring list of the Deuteronomic editors, one of the pre-Israelitish nations of Palestine (cf. Because in Genesis 15:20 and Joshua 17:15 they are mentioned with the Rephaim, some have inferred that they were one of the pre-Semitic tribes of Palestine
Car'Mel -
A mountain which forms one of the most striking and characteristic features of the country of Palestine. It is a noble ridge, the only headland of lower and central Palestine, and forms its southern boundary, running out with a bold bluff promontory, nearly 600 feet high, almost into the very waves of the Mediterranean, then extending southeast for a little more than twelve miles, when it terminates suddenly in a bluff somewhat corresponding to its western end
Kithlish - ," the droughty land between Palestine and Egypt (2 Samuel 23:20; Isaiah 30:6)
Mahaneh-Dan - The Palestine Explorers point to a ruin called 'Erma, situated about 3 miles from the great corn valley on the east of Samson's home
Children's Crusade - In accordance with this belief thousands of children were gathered, under the leadership of a young shepherd of Vendome and a youth from Cologne, for an expedition to Palestine in 1212
Crocus - Several species of crocus grow in Palestine
Highway - See Transportation and Travel ; Palestine
Order of Calced Carmelites - Its mother-house is in Rome; it is established in Italy, Spain, England, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Holland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Malta, Palestine, the United States, Canada, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Australia, and Java
Calced Carmelite Order - Its mother-house is in Rome; it is established in Italy, Spain, England, Ireland, Germany, Austria, Holland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Malta, Palestine, the United States, Canada, Brazil, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Australia, and Java
Mallows - Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eaten by the poor in Palestine
Antipatris - It is identified with the modern, Ras-el-Ain, where rise the springs of Aujeh, the largest springs in Palestine
Fowler - Birds of all kinds abound in Palestine, and the capture of these for the table and for other uses formed the employment of many persons
Girzite - If Girzite is correct, it refers to an otherwise unknown tribe living in the southern regions of Palestine
Box Tree - The box tree grows in Asia Minor and Persia but does not occur in Palestine
Nettle - These words all refer probably to nettles, which are abundant in deserted places in Palestine
Chestnut Tree - " The chestnut tree proper is not a native of Palestine
Wormwood - Four kinds of wormwood are found in Palestine-- Artemisia nilotica , A
Hawk - ?" Of the dozen lesser raptores, birds, in Palestine nearly all are summer migrants; the Falco saker and Falco lanarius , besides the smaller Falco melanopterus , Ηypotriorchis subbuteo or the hobby, etc
Hashmonah - Heshmon (Joshua 15:27), an "uttermost city of Judah toward the coast of Edom southward," like Kedesh outside the natural frontier of Palestine, in the extreme N
Mitanni - Mitanni maintained considerable influence over Palestine for several centuries, affecting in particular the Jebusite culture of Jerusalem
Boar - Though a forbidden food to the Moslem as well as the Jew ( Leviticus 11:7 , Deuteronomy 14:8 ), the flesh is eaten by the nominally Moslem Bedouin of Palestine
Horseleech - Leeches are abundant in Palestine, and the horseleech may simply refer to a large species that would settle on a horse's foot if placed in the water where they abound
Caesarea Philippi - It is situated in the north of Palestine, near one of the sources of the Jordan
Bee - Bees abound in Palestine, making their nests in the woods and in the clefts of the rocks, which habit well illustrates the description of the land as "flowing with milk and honey:" cf
Pigeon - Pigeons were so numerous in Palestine that the poor were enabled easily to obtain a pair for any needed sacrifice
Frog - This well-known reptile is very numerous in Palestine
Antipatris - Acts 23:31 , a town in Palestine, anciently called Caphar-Saba, according to Josephus; but named Antipatris by Herod the Great, in honour of his father Antipater
Kedar - From him descended the leading tribes of Arabia and of the land east of Palestine
Kir - apparently as the country where they had dwelt before migrating to the region north of Palestine
Fenced Cities, - The fortifications of the cities of Palestine, thus regularly "fenced," consisted of one or more walls (sometimes of thick stones, sometimes of combustible material), crowned with battlemented parapets, having towers at regular intervals, (2 Chronicles 32:5 ; Jeremiah 31:38 ) on which in later times engines of war were placed, and watch was kept by day and night in time of war
Pool - Pools, like the tanks of India, are in many parts of Palestine and Syria the only resource for water during the dry season, and the failure of them involves drought and calamity
San'Hedrin -
The origin of this assembly is traced in the Mishna to the seventy elders whom Moses was directed, ( Numbers 11:16,17 ) to associate with him in the government of the Israelites; but this tribunal was probably temporary, and did not continue to exist after the Israelites had entered Palestine. In the lack of definite historical information as to the establishment of the Sanhedrin, it can only be said in general that the Greek etymology of the name seems to point to a period subsequent to the Macedonian supremacy in Palestine. (Matthew 26:3 ) Forty years before the destruction of Jerusalem, and consequently while the Saviour was teaching in Palestine, the sessions of the Sanhedrin were removed from the hall Gazzith to a somewhat greater distance from the temple building, although still on Mount Moriah. From (Acts 9:2 ) it appears that the Sanhedrin exercised a degree of authority beyond the limits of Palestine. (John 19:31 ) The Talmud also mentions a lesser Sanhedrin of twenty-three members in every city in Palestine in which were not less than 120 householders
Ptolemais - , and strongly fortified on the landward side, it came to be regarded as the key of Palestine, and its chequered history is chiefly a record of sieges, of which it has probably had to endure more in ancient and modern times than any other Syrian town. John), the town was the scene of many conflicts in the time of the Crusaders, who made it their chief port in Palestine. Ritter, The Comparative Geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula, 1866, iv. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, new ed. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria4, 1906; E
Ferret - translate it by a word meaning "shrew-mouse," of which there are three species in Palestine
Bethsaida - (Hebrew: house of fishing) ...
City, east of the Jordan, on Lake Genesareth, Palestine
Cendebaeus - Sidetes, who was given the command of the sea-coast, and sent with an army into Palestine in order to enforce the claims of Antiochus against Simon Maccabæus
Avim, or Avites - Descendants of Canaan, Genesis 10:17 , who occupied a portion of the coast of Palestine from Gaza towards the river of Egypt, but were expelled and almost destroyed by invading Philistines or Caphtorim, before the time of Moses, Deuteronomy 2:23
Arabia - On the north it is bounded by part of Syria, on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates, on the south by the Arabian Sea and the straits of Babelmandel, and on the west by the Red sea, Egypt, and Palestine
Saffron - A similar dye, also called saffron, is more commonly derived from the florets of the Carthamus tinctorius ( Compositœ ) cultivated everywhere in Palestine for this purpose
Moreh - Here at this "plain," or rather (RSV) "oak," of Moreh, Abraham built his first altar in the land of Palestine; and here the Lord appeared unto him
Ant - Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables
Frog - The only species of frog existing in Palestine is the green frog (Rana esculenta), the well-known edible frog of the Continent
Adramyttium - It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine direct for Italy
Gezrite - 1 Samuel 27:8 says they had lived in the southwestern edge of Palestine from time immemorial and that David raided them from his base at Ziklag
Scrip - The Hebrew word thus translated appears in (1 Samuel 17:40 ) as a synonym for the bag in which the shepherds of Palestine carried their food or other necessities
Stork - It stops in Palestine during its migration
Holy Land, Commissariat of the - The territory or district assigned to a commissary of the Friars Minor for the purpose of collecting alms for the maintenance of the Holy Places in Palestine; also, the convent where the aforesaid commissary resides
Jude - It was probably written in Palestine, about a
Mouse, - The Hebrew word refers to some species of rodent, and the word may include the field mouse, the hamster, and the jerboa, all of which are found in Palestine, and are very destructive to the crops
Rose, - Roses grow in Palestine, but it is generally agreed that the above Hebrew word does not refer to the rose, but implies a bulbous plant, and it may be the lily, the crocus, or the narcissus
Crane - These birds return in the spring with great regularity from their migrations, and nocks of thousands pass over Palestine
Iturae'a - (land of Jether ), a small province on the northwestern border of Palestine, lying along the base of Mount Hermon, only mentioned in ( Luke 3:1 ) Jetur the son of Ishmael gave his name like the rest of his brethren, to the little province he colonized
Nazarene - Nazareth was a small town, in a despised part of Palestine
Pitcher - Lamentations 4:2 ‘earthen pitchers’) in which in all ages the women and maidens of Palestine have drawn and carried the water from the village well ( Genesis 24:14 ff
ma'Acah - (2 Samuel 3:3 ) ...
Maacah, or (in (1 Chronicles 19:6,7 ) ) Maachah, a small kingdom in close proximity to Palestine which appears to have lain outside Argob, (3:14) and Bashun
Caesarea Philippi - According to the biblical record, Caesarea Philippi was the most northerly town of Palestine that Jesus visited
Ivory - Archaeologists in Palestine have unearthed numerous articles made of ivory: boxes, gaming boards, figurines, spoons, and combs. 1 Kings 10:22 is cited by scholars as a possible explanation for the source of ivory in Palestine
Vine - One of the most important products of Palestine. It was cultivated in Palestine before the Israelites took possession of it
Goshen - Palestine, probably the environs of No. It was a place of good pasture, on or near the frontier of Palestine, and plentiful in vegetables and fish ( Numbers 11:5 )
Husks - This tree, which is common in Palestine, belongs to the order Leguminosae, and is an evergreen. John’s bread,’ this name having been given to them by the monks of Palestine or by ‘pious pilgrims’ (Thomson, LB Sheep - Sheep were bred in great numbers in Palestine, and formed a large part of the property of the Israelites. In Palestine they follow the shepherd and know his voice, and will not follow a stranger
Partridge - Two kinds of partridge abound in Palestine. It is still customary in Palestine to hunt the red-legged partridge by the aid of such decoys
Theodorus Askidas, Archbaptist of Caesarea - He was a monk of the convent of Nova Laura in Palestine, and made, c. He supported the views of Origen when they were persecuted in Palestine
Wheat - In Palestine its cultivation dates back to a time prior to the Hebrew conquest (Deuteronomy 8:8). But we can readily understand how, just as in Scotland the word ‘corn’ has become practically the equivalent of oats, so in Palestine σῖτος should come to mean wheat. Several varieties of wheat are grown in Palestine. But that applies to Palestine as it is now
Wheat - In Palestine its cultivation dates back to a time prior to the Hebrew conquest (Deuteronomy 8:8). But we can readily understand how, just as in Scotland the word ‘corn’ has become practically the equivalent of oats, so in Palestine σῖτος should come to mean wheat. Several varieties of wheat are grown in Palestine. But that applies to Palestine as it is now
Wormwood - Tradition favours some species of Artemisia (wormwood), of which several kinds are found in Palestine
Leek - The leek was a favourite vegetable in Egypt, and is still largely cultivated there and in Palestine
Glede - The bird intended is probably the buzzard, of which there are three species found in Palestine
Apples of Sodom - The Calotropisprocera , an Indian plant, which thrives in the warm valley of Engedi, but is found scarcely elsewhere in Palestine
Saffron - Many species of the crocus are found in Palestine
Bay Tree - If the psalmist intended by this word to denote any particular tree, it may have been the evergreen bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), which is a native of Palestine
Perizzites - They lived mainly in the hills of central Palestine and are found in Bible narratives concerning Bethel, Shechem and the tribal territory of Ephraim (Genesis 13:2-7; Genesis 34:26-30; Joshua 17:15)
Silver - There is no record of its having been found in Syria or Palestine
Tamarisk - (ta' muh rihssk)A shrublike tree (Tamarix syriaca ) common to the Sinai and southern Palestine with small white or pink flowers
Hoopoe - The hoopoe ( Upupa epops ) is a common spring visitor in Palestine, where its striking plumage, its tall crest and odd movements, make it conspicuous
Blasting - Reference to the hot east winds which blow across Palestine for days at a time (Deuteronomy 28:22 KJV and RSV; other versions read “blight”)
Chozeba - Identified by Conder (Palestine Exploration, Jan
Migdol - A fortified city in the northern limits of Egypt toward Palestine
Lily - In biblical usage, any of a number of distinctive flowers ranging from the lotus of the Nile (1 Kings 7:19 ) to wild field flowers in Palestine (Matthew 6:28 )
Fox - The canis aureus is the common Jackal of Palestine
Tares, - At the approach of the harvest it can be distinguished, and women and children have been seen in Palestine picking out the tall stalks of ziwân , as it is called by the Arabs
Alexander Severus - ...
Born in Aeco, Palestine ...
Died murdered in 235 at Sicula on the Rhine ...
Apple, Apple Tree - This is generally supposed to refer to the citron but apples grow in Palestine, and the Arabicname for the apple (tuffuh ) differs little from the Hebrew word, tappuach
Lentils, - The Ervum lens is cultivated in Palestine
Severus, Alexander - ...
Born in Aeco, Palestine ...
Died murdered in 235 at Sicula on the Rhine ...
Mite - The name is also applied to a small coin used in Palestine in the time of Christ
Religious of Notre Dame de Sion - The congregation has houses, schools and orphanages in France, Belgium, Italy, Austria, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Palestine, Egypt, Tunis, England, Australia, Canada, Brazil, Costa Rica, and the United States
Tears - Small urns or Lachrymatorises, of thin glass or simple pottery, and containing the tears of mourners at funerals, used to be placed in the sepulchres of the dead at Rome and in Palestine, where they are found in great numbers on opening ancient tombs
ba'ca - (weeping ), The Valley of, A valley in Palestine, through which the exiled Psalmist sees in vision the pilgrims passing in their march towards the sanctuary of Jehovah at Zion
Cormorant, - The common cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo ), which some writers have identified with the shalac , is unknown in the eastern Mediterranean; another species is found south of the Red Sea, but none on the west coast of Palestine
Keturah - The list of Keturah's children substantiates the link between the Hebrews and the tribes which inhabited the areas east and southeast of Palestine
Judea - That part of Palestine adjacent to Jerusalem, its capital, and inhabited by the Jews after their return from captivity
Pipe - It is still used in Palestine, and is, as in ancient times, made of different materials, as reed, copper, bronze, etc
Mortar - It is commonly used in Palestine at the present day to pound wheat, from which the Arabs make a favourite dish called kibby
Flag - It also grows in Palestine
Oil-Tree - It was probably the oleaster (Eleagnus angustifolius), which grows abundantly in almost all parts of Palestine, especially about Hebron and Samaria
Captivity, Assyrian - There is no record of their return to Palestine
Spider - (But "there are many species of spider in Palestine: some which spin webs, like the common garden spider; some which dig subterranean cells and make doors in them, like the well-known trap-door spider of southern Europe; and some which have no web, but chase their prey upon the ground, like the hunting-and the wolf-spider
Sycamine Tree - It is found of two species, the black mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry (Mourea), which are common in Palestine
Mint - The species commonly grown in Palestine is horse-mint (M
Diblath - of Palestine to some town in the extreme N
Rehob - ...
...
The same, probably, as Beth-rehob (2 Samuel 10:6,8 ; Judges 18:28 ), a place in the north of Palestine (Numbers 13:21 )
Emmaus - But Conder (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October, 1876, p
Girgashite - Nothing else is known of them except the existence of various groups in Palestine at the time of the conquest fits information from the Amarna letters and other Near Eastern sources about the independent nature of the various city-states in Canaan before Israel entered
Shihor - See Brook of Egypt ; Palestine
Tadmor - A city in northern Palestine built by Solomon (2 Chronicles 8:4 ), probably to control a caravan route
Heron - The heron belongs to the same group as the stork, and no fewer than six species of the genus Ardea alone are found in Palestine
Hornet - The most plentiful hornet in Palestine is the Vespa orientalis
Village - Others are more solidly built, as are most of the of Palestine, though in some the dwellings are mere mud-huts
Tower - (1 Samuel 5:2 ; Matthew 22:33 ; Mark 12:1 ) Such towers are still in use in Palestine in vineyards, especially near Hebron, and are used as lodges for the keepers of the vineyards
Wheat - The wheat harvest (usually in the end of May) in Palestine is mentioned as early as Reuben (Genesis 30:14), compare Isaac's hundred fold increase (Genesis 26:12)
Chamois - The objection is, the giraffe is not a native of Palestine; but it is of Nubia, and may have been of the Arabian peninsula at the Exodus
Fox - Palestine, while the Tawny fox ( V
Kite - kite, the black kite, and the Egyptian kite are all found in Palestine, but it is impossible to say which birds are denoted by the different words
Melons - Melons flourish in Palestine, especially on the sands S
Moab - Canaan or Palestine was GOD's country, and all other countries were heathen countries
Bat - There are several species found in Palestine: they inhabit the tombs and caves, and are familiar with darkness
Hawk - " The most common of the smaller hawks in Palestine is the Kestrel, Tinnunculus alaudarius
Cherethims, Cherethites - ' It is supposed that they were people from Crete, who had settled on the coast of Palestine
Havilah - District near or connected with that of theAmalekites, on the south of Palestine, reaching towards Shur 'that is over against Egypt
Fir - But Smith's Bible Dictionary Appendix (from Septuagint arkeuthos) and kedros) ) identifies berowsh with the tall fragrant juniper of Lebanon, and denies that the lurch and Scotch fir exist in Syria or Palestine
Hittite - ) A member of an ancient people (or perhaps group of peoples) whose settlements extended from Armenia westward into Asia Minor and southward into Palestine
Assyrian Captivity - There is no record of their return to Palestine
uz - It is supposed to have been in the south-east of Palestine towards Arabia Deserta, which would lie open to attacks from the Sabeans and the Chaldeans
Abarim - A term used to describe the whole east-Jordan land as viewed from Western Palestine
Anak, Anakim - They dwelt insouthern Palestine, Hebron being especially mentioned as their city, which was given to Caleb after the Anakim had been destroyed by Joshua, except that a remnant escaped and retired to the cities of Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod
Archelaus - He succeeded his father as Ethnarch of Idumea, Judaea, Samaria, and the maritime cities of Palestine
Ash'er, - This territory contained some of the richest soil in all Palestine
Zin - The wilderness of Zin was a part of the Arabian desert south of Palestine
Riblah - Through this valley, by way of Hamath and Riblah, was the readiest access to Palestine from the north
Pelican - Pelicans are found in Palestine
Uz - It appears to have been a region in Arabia Deserta, between Palestine, Idumaea, and the Euphrates, and most probably not far from the borders of Idumaea
Fountains - Perennial springs of good water were of inestimable value in Palestine, and numerous places took their name from some fountain in their vicinity
Bear - That bears were common in Palestine appears from several passages in the Old Testament, 1 Samuel 17:34,36,37 ; 2 Samuel 17:8 ; 2 Kings 2:24
Tiphsah - The ford at this place being the last one on the Euphrates towards the south, its possession was important to Solomon in his design to attract the trade of the East to Palestine
Sepharvaim - When Shalmaneser king of Assyria carried away Israel from Samaria to beyond the Euphrates, he sent people in their stead into Palestine, among whom were the Sepharvaim, 2 Kings 17:24,31
Jop'pa, - (beauty ), now Jaffa , a town on the southwest coast of Palestine, in the portion of Dan
Ash'er, - This territory contained some of the richest soil in all Palestine
East - Nearly all the references in scripture to the East or to other quarters are of course reckoned from Palestine; so that 'children of the East,' 'men of the East,' point out Assyria, Babylon, etc
Goat - There appear to be two or three varieties of the common goat, Hircus agagrus , at present bred in Palestine and Syria, but whether they are identical with those which were reared by the ancient Hebrews it is not possible to say
Hermon - Mount Hermon was in the far north of Palestine, at the southern end of the Lebanon Range
Arabah - (For details see Palestine, sub-heading Arabah’
Lachish - It was conquered by Israel in the time of Joshua (Joshua 10:3-5; Joshua 10:32) and later became an important military outpost for the defence of Jerusalem and other highland towns (2 Kings 18:13-17; 2 Chronicles 11:5; 2 Chronicles 11:9; Jeremiah 34:7; Micah 1:13; see Palestine)
Shiloh - One of the main routes from Egypt to northern Palestine was the road that passed along the top of the central hill country through the towns of Beersheba, Hebron, Jerusalem, Bethel, Shiloh and Shechem (Judges 21:19). (For map see Palestine
Kishon - Winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of Acre, at the foot of Carmel. In the triumphal song of Deborah (Judges 5:21 ) it is spoken of as "that ancient river," either (1) because it had flowed on for ages, or (2), according to the Targum, because it was "the torrent in which were shown signs and wonders to Israel of old;" or (3) probably the reference is to the exploits in that region among the ancient Canaanites, for the adjoining plain of Esdraelon was the great battle-field of Palestine
North Country, Land of the North - The source or region from which dangerous foes were to come upon Palestine (so in Jeremiah 6:22 ; Jeremiah 10:22 , Zechariah 6:6 ; Zechariah 6:8 ). Thus, though Babylonia was in the same latitude as Palestine, it was included among the countries of the ‘north
Theater - As a symbol of Greco-Roman culture, the presence of theaters in Palestine was a constant reminder of Greek and Roman control of the Jewish state. Herod I built numerous theaters in the Greek cities during his reign in Palestine (37–4 B
Matthew - ...
The Gospel according to Matthew was probably written in Palestine, and for Jewish Christians. , Syro-Chaldaic, or Western Aramaic, the dialect spoken in Palestine by the Jewish Christians, and then later in Greek, as we now possess it
Caphtor - The region whence the Philistines came to Palestine ( Amos 9:7 , Jeremiah 47:4 ). 1200), who tells of his having repelled a great invasion by enemies who had entered Syria and Palestine from the north
Judaea - Though sometimes (as in Luke 23:5 , and more definitely in Acts 10:37 ; Acts 26:10 ) loosely employed to denote the whole of Western Palestine, the name was properly confined to the southernmost of the three districts into which the Roman province of Western Palestine was divided the other two being Galilee and Samaria
Grass - ...
The true grasses of Palestine are very numerous; Dr. Post gives the figures for Palestine and Syria as 90 genera and 243 species (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ii
Sennacherib - He invaded Syria and Palestine in the fourteenth year of Hezekiah's reign. The king returned to Assyria, and did not venture to invade Palestine again
Almond - The almond ( Amygdalus communis ) is in Palestine the earliest harbinger of spring, bursting into beautiful white blossom late in January in Jerusalem, before its leaves appear. ’ A present of Palestine almonds would be sure to be appreciated in Egypt ( Genesis 43:11 ), as they did not grow in the latter country
Cistern - The innumerable cisterns, wells, and pools that exist in Palestine are evidence of the efforts of ancient people to supplement the natural water supply. The cistern of Palestine was usually a bottle or pear-shaped reservoir into which water could drain from a roof, tunnel, or courtyard
Lion - " At present lions do not exist in Palestine; but they must in ancient times have been numerous. The lion of Palestine was in all probability the Asiatic variety, described by Aristotle and Pliny as distinguished by its short and curly mane, and by being shorter and rounder in shape, like the sculptured lion found at Arban
Apple Tree, Apple - The orange would answer all the demands of the scriptural passages, and orange trees are found in Palestine; but there does not appear sufficient evidence that this tree was known in the earlier times to the inhabitants of Palestine
Honey - All travellers agree in describing Palestine as a land "flowing with milk and honey," ( Exodus 3:8 ) bees being abundant even in the remote parts of the wilderness, where they deposit their honey in the crevices of rocks or in hollow trees. In the second place the term debash applies to a decoction of the juice of the grape, which is still called dibs , and which forms an article of commerce in the East, it was this, and not ordinary bee-honey, which Jacob sent to Joseph, ( Genesis 43:11 ) and which the Tyrians purchased from Palestine
Oak - Three species of oaks are found in Palestine, of which the "prickly evergreen oak" (Quercus coccifera) is the most abundant. "It covers the rocky hills of Palestine with a dense brushwood of trees from 8 to 12 feet high, branching from the base, thickly covered with small evergreen rigid leaves, and bearing acorns copiously. The present oak is the noblest tree in Southern Palestine, being 23 feet in girth, and the diameter of the foliage, which is unsymmetrical, being about 90 feet
Taxing - The words refer to the registration of the inhabitants of Palestine, with a view to levying taxation upon them for Imperial purposes. Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?) that, in Egypt at least, enrolments took place every fourteen years, that traces of the same arrangement have been found in other parts of the Empire, and that it may have extended to Palestine. If an enrolment were actually due in Palestine in the last-named year, its completion may have been somewhat delayed by the disturbed state of Herod’s kingdom, and may have fallen as late as b
Vine, Vineyard - —Vine-culture was one of the oldest industries in Palestine. From the Mishna we gather that 200 years after Christ vine-culture was still a flourishing industry in Palestine. the industry has in some measure revived under the influence of the German and Jewish colonists in Palestine, and the French in the Lebanon
Bee - The bee ( Apis fasciata ) is a very important insect of Palestine. That a swarm of bees should settle in a carcass ( Judges 14:8 ) is certainly an unusual occurrence, as indeed is suggested in the narrative, but the dried-up remains of animals, little but hide and ribs, so plentiful by the roadsides in Palestine, often suggest suitable places for such a settlement. Honey has probably always been plentiful in Palestine, hut it is very doubtful whether ‘a land flowing with milk and honey ’ could have meant the product of bees alone
Abbreviations - ...
BRP Biblical Researches in Palestine. ...
PEF Palestine Exploration Fund. ...
SP Sinai and Palestine. Palestine
Palestine - Palestine (păl'es-tîne), land of sojourners. The physical structure of Palestine is peculiar. In central and north Palestine, too, there are gushing fountains of water, imparting fertility to the valleys through which they pour their streams. Palestine was early inhabited by seven tribes—as, Hittites, Gergashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, Deuteronomy 7:1; and other tribes are also noted as occupying adjacent regions. ; so that even in our Lord's time the inhabitants of Palestine were of a mixed character; and in later ages additional foreign elements were introduced
Caesarea - It was once the chief port of Palestine. 337, Tent Work in Palestine, new ed. ; SWP Hilarion (1), a Hermit of Palestine - Hilarion (1), a hermit of Palestine (d. He returned to Palestine and found his parents dead, gave away his goods to his brothers and the poor, and went to live in a desert place 7 miles from the Christian city of Majoma near Gaza. He dwelt 12 years in a little cabin made by himself of woven reeds and rushes; after that in a but only 5 feet high, still shewn when Jerome was in Palestine, and more like a sepulchre than a house. Business ceased throughout Palestine, the minds of men being wholly occupied with hopes and fears about his departure; but he left them, and with a few monks, who seem soon to have left him, he went his way, never to return. His body was buried in the grounds of a lady named Constantia, but Hesychius disinterred it, and carried it to Majoma in Palestine. Constantia died of grief, but the translation caused joy throughout Palestine, where its anniversary was observed as a festival
Hill - gib'eah, a curved or rounded hill, such as are common to Palestine (Psalm 65:12 ; 72:3 ; 114:4,6 )
Bethlehem - ...
(2) Bethlehem of Judea, less correctly known as Bethlehem of Juda (Judges 17; 19; 1 Kings 17), originally known as Ephrata (Michah 5), city, Palestine, 5 miles south of Jerusalem, closely connected with patriarchal history as the place of death of Rachel, Jacob's wife (Genesis 35), the site of the romance of Ruth and Booz, and the birthplace of David
Bethania - ...
(1) Ancient village of Palestine, 1
Bethany - ...
(1) Ancient village of Palestine, 1
Jordan River - (Hebrew: Yarden, from the root Yarad, to descend) ...
The great river of Palestine, mentioned many times in the Bible
Dead Sea - Lake about 47 miles long, 10 miles wide, on the southeastern border of Palestine, 16 miles east of Jerusalem, into which flow the River Jordan and other streams
Palestine - The history of Christianity in Palestine during the ftrst three centuries is practically that of Jerusalem; the new religion spread rapidly and as early as 1229 Franciscan and Dominican missions were established here
Melania the Younger, Saint - They lived in Africa, with Saint Augustine, and in Palestine (417), where Saint Jerome guided them
Quail - This bird ( Coturnix communis ), the smallest of the partridge family, migrates annually from Africa to Europe, crossing the Sinaitic peninsula and Palestine en route ; it reaches the latter about March
Zamzummim - The word may thus perhaps be translated ‘Whisperers,’ ‘Murmurers,’ and may denote the spirits of the giants supposed to haunt the hills and ruins of Eastern Palestine (cf
Cana - City of Galilee, Palestine, near Nazareth, the scene of Our Lord's first miracle (John 2) and His cure of the ruler's son (John 4) and the birthplace of Nathaniel or Saint Bartholomew (John 21)
Greek - The latter, meaning properly "one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew who dwelt in Palestine
Swallow - Many species of swallow occur in Palestine
Ophel - This wall has been discovered by the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund at the south-eastern angle of the temple area
Horse-Leech - There are various species in the marshes and pools of Palestine
Ephraim, Mount - The central mountainous district of Palestine occupied by the tribe of Ephraim (Joshua 17:15 ; 19:50 ; 20:7 ), extending from Bethel to the plain of Jezreel
Soap - Numerous plants capable of yielding alkalies exist in Palestine and the surrounding countries; we may notice one named hubeibeh (the Salsola kali of botanists) found near the Dead Sea, the ashes of which are called el-kuli , from their strong alkaline properties
Heap - " "There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to mark the former site
Proselyte - There seems to be no connection necessarily with Palestine, for in Acts 2:10 ; 13:43 it is used of those who lived abroad
Wolf - Wolves are still sometimes found in Palestine, and are the dread of shepherds, as of old
Rephaim - The aborigines of Palestine, afterwards conquered and dispossessed by the Canaanite tribes, are classed under this general title
Agrippa i. - Thus he became ruler over the whole of Palestine
Spider - " It may, however, represent the spider, of which there are, it is said, about seven hundred species in Palestine
Husks - This common Palestine tree is distinguished by its beautiful dark glossy foliage
Mulberry Trees - Mulberries they cannot be; for though plentiful to-day in Palestine, and still more so in the Lebanon, these trees were introduced to the land later than OT times
Rue - RUE (πήγανον, Ruta graveolens) is a low-growing shrubby plant of the natural order Rutaceae, and is still cultivated in Palestine
Manahath - Site, probably outside of Palestine, to which some Benjaminites from Geba were exiled (1 Chronicles 8:6 )
Sepulchre - In ancient Palestine, sepulchres usually were carved out of the walls in existing caves
Vespasian - After becoming commander of three legions, he was ordered to quell the Jewish revolt in Palestine in A
Bitter Herbs - The bitter herbs of the modern Jewish Passover in Palestine are specially lettuce and endive
Juniper - ]'>[1] ratam , a species of broom very common in desert places in Palestine and Sinai
Lice - ’ All the insects named are only too common in Palestine and Egypt
Adramyttium - The centurion escorting Paul took an Adramyttian ship, as a vessel going the whole way from Palestine to Italy was hard to find, and as it would bring them so far on their journey toward Rome, and in that coast they would be likely to find another ship to take them the rest of the way
Armageddon - There seems to be an allusion to the great battle field of Palestine in the Esdraelon, and to the Megiddo mentioned in Judges 5:19 ; 1 Kings 4:12 ; 2 Kings 23:29,30
Ivory - It was imported into Palestine by the Assyrians and was brought by the ships of Solomon
Sirah, the Well of - from the high road at the end of a little alley with dry stone walls, under a stone arch (Palestine Exploration Quarerly Statement, July, 1878, p
Zebulun - See Israel ; Palestine ; Tribes
Zin - See Negeb ; Palestine ; Sin , Wilderness of; Wilderness
Camp - After the Hebrews entered Palestine, the camps then spoken of were exclusively warlike (Joshua 11:5,7 ; Judges 5:19,21 ; 7:1 ; 1 Samuel 29:1 ; 30:9 , etc
Canaan, the Language of - Mentioned in Isaiah 19:18 , denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine
Sycamore, - It was known in Egypt, and was plentiful in Palestine
Ichneumon - ichneumon), which ranges to Spain and Palestine, is noted for destroying the eggs and young of the crocodile as well as various snakes and lizards, and hence was considered sacred by the ancient Egyptians
Nazarene - Christians in some parts of Palestine are still called Nazarenes
Canaan - Canaan was the father of the nations who peopled Palestine, west of the Jordan
Belus - a river of Palestine
Anak - ANAKIM, famous giants in Palestine
Council - [1] ...
The lesser courts, (Matthew 10:17 ; Mark 13:9 ) of which there were two at Jerusalem and one in each town of Palestine
Ain - A city of southern Palestine, first given to Judah, Joshua 15:32; afterward assigned to Simeon, Joshua 19:7; and then to the Levites, Joshua 21:16; 1 Chronicles 4:32
Sharon - A district in Palestine lying upon the seacoast
Decapolis - (From the Greek words, deka, ten, and polis, a city,) a country in Palestine, which contained ten principal cities, on both of the Jordan, chiefly east, Matthew 4:25 ; Mark 5:20 ; 7:31
River, Jordan - (Hebrew: Yarden, from the root Yarad, to descend) ...
The great river of Palestine, mentioned many times in the Bible
Younger, Melania the, Saint - They lived in Africa, with Saint Augustine, and in Palestine (417), where Saint Jerome guided them
Partridge - A well-known bird, three varieties of which are found in Palestine
Rose - Several varieties of wild rose are still found in Palestine
Clau'Dius - In the reign of Claudius there were several famines, arising from unfavorable harvests, and one such occurred in Palestine and Syria
Coney - (shaphan ), a gregarious animal of the class Pachydermata, which is found in Palestine, living in the caves and clefts of the rocks, and has been erroneously identified with the rabbit or coney
Mouse - Tristram found twenty-three species of mice in Palestine
Bull, Bullock, - Robinson mentions larger herds of black and almost harmless buffaloes as still existing in Palestine, and these may be the animal indicated
East - ( Job 23:8,9 ) The term as generally used refers to the lands lying immediately eastward of Palestine, viz
Habiru - in Mesopotamia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt. In letters written from Palestine to Amarna in Egypt, they appear as rebels attacking cities belonging to the pharaohs of the fourteenth century, and in one text they are further identified as former slaves who had revolted
Fountain - Palestine was a "land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills" (Deuteronomy 8:7 ; 11:11 ). "Palestine is a country of mountains and hills, and it abounds in fountains of water
Bear, - The species which inhabited Palestine is the Syrian Bear (Syriacus Ursus ). They are now comparatively scarce in Palestine, but may still be seen on the mountains of Lebanon, and occasionally farther south
Shur - Hagar fleeing from Abraham, then in southern Palestine, reached a fountain "in the way to Shur" (Genesis 16:7). frontier of Egypt and Palestine, Shur being derived from the Egyptian Κhar (occurring in a papyrus of the 19th dynasty), Κh and Sh being interchanged
Lion - Lions do not now exist in Palestine; but they must in ancient times have been numerous there. The lion of Palestine was in all probability the Asiatic variety, described by Aristotle and Pliny as distinguished by its short curly mane, and by being shorter and rounder in shape, like the sculptured lion found at Arban
Syria - In the New Testament, Syria may be considered as bounded west and north-west by the Mediterranean and by Mount Taurus, which separates it from Cilicia and Cataonia in Asia Minor, east by the Euphrates, and south by Arabia Deserta and Palestine, or rather Judea, for the name Syria included also the northern part of Palestine
Her'Mon - (a peak, summit ), a mountain on the northeastern border of Palestine, (3:8; Joshua 12:1 ) over against Lebanon, (Joshua 11:17 ) adjoining the plateau of Bashan. (1 Chronicles 5:23 ) It stands at the southern end, and is the culminating point of the anti-Libanus range; it towers high above the ancient border city of Dan and the fountains of the Jordan, and is the most conspicuous and beautiful mountain in Palestine or Assyria
Lily - The plant must have been a conspicuous object on the shores of the Lake of Gennesaret, ( Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 12:27 ) it must have flourished in the deep broad valleys of Palestine, (Song of Solomon 2:1 ) among the thorny shrubs, ib. (It is very probable that the term lily here is general, not referring to any particular species, but to a large class of flowers growing in Palestine, and resembling the lily, as the tulip, iris, gladiolus, etc
River - It is never applied to the fleeting fugitive torrents of Palestine. Many of the wadys of Palestine are deep, abrupt chasms or rents in the solid rock of-the hills, and have a savage, gloomy aspect, far removed from that of an English brook
Libnah - of Palestine, taken by Joshua, though not one of the leagued cities, because he would not leave so strong a city unsubdued in his rear, after destroying Makkedah on his way to Lachish. Condor (Palestine Exploration, July, 1875) identifies it with Belt Jibrin. Warren (Palestine Exploration, July, 1875) identifies Libnah with Ibna, a ruin on a hill at the sea coast, between Jaffa and Ashdod, and identical with Jabneel or Jabnab. " El Benawy is mentioned for it in Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1878, p
Owl - " It is by far the most common of all the owls of Palestine. It is a migrant, returning to Palestine in spring. It may be the hooting or tawny owl (Syrnium aluco), which is common in Egypt and in many parts of Palestine
Caphtor - ...
The time of migration must have been very early, as the Philistines were settled in Palestine in Abraham's time (Genesis 21:32-34). ...
Pusey suggests there were different immigrations of the same tribe into Palestine, which afterward merged in one name: the Casluhim first; a second from the Caphtorim; a third the Cherethim or Cretans, Crete being an intermediate resting place in their migrations from whence some passed into Philistia. , 5:2) says "the inhabitants of Palestine came from Crete"; perhaps many of the Cherethim settlers in Crete from Egypt, when disturbed by Minos and the Hellenes, withdrew from Crete to Philistia, where their kinsmen were settled
Water - In a hot and dry country such as Palestine, water was extremely important. (For further details concerning the problems of water in Palestine see Palestine; WEATHER
Vale - The abrupt rocky hills of Palestine admit of but few sweeps of valley between. of Mukhmas (Michmash), which the survey of the Palestine Exploration Fund favors. (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p
Pottery - The pottery found in Palestine is divisible into Phoenician, Graeco-Phoenician, Roman, Christian, and Arabic; on handles of jars occur inscriptions: "to king Zepha . king Shat" and Melek (Palestine Exploration, Our Work in Palestine)
Possession (2) - (John 4:28) tells us of the Samaritan woman, in the excitement of her new-found joy, ‘leaving her water-pot,’ he uses the words τὴν ὑδρίαν, pointing doubtless to just such a portable earthen water-pot as women in Palestine are everywhere to-day seen carrying on their heads. They were probably just such huge stone pitchers as are shown to tourists to-day at Kefr Kennâ, and as may be found elsewhere in Palestine. Scarcity of drinking water in Palestine made it necessary to keep a supply on hand in large vessels that would serve as coolers, especially in hot weather
Cave - —Caves, both natural and artificial, abound in Palestine; the soft chalky soil of Syria readily lends itself to both. Caves were used in Palestine for a variety of purposes; originally as dwelling-places* [8] That cave stables, both ancient and modern, are to be found in Palestine, admits of no doubt. Gallen, 1849; Badeker, Palestine and Syria3 [13] , p
River of Egypt - The present boundary between Egypt and Palestine is about midway between this wady and Gaza
Plough - The plough of the east was very light and simple, perhaps merely a forked stick, having a wooden share, shod with one of those triangular or heart-shaped points of iron which the inhabitants of the Palestine towns still use
Riblah - The ancient town was upon the great road from Palestine to Babylon, and was a convenient military headquarters for the Babylonian kings and others invading the country
Africanus, Julius - He is thought to have been of Roman descent; he studied at Alexandria and restored the city of Emmaus in Palestine and called it Nikopolis
Julius Africanus - He is thought to have been of Roman descent; he studied at Alexandria and restored the city of Emmaus in Palestine and called it Nikopolis
Manasses - Moses assigned a part of territory east of the Jordan to one half of the tribe (Numbers 32), and Josue gave a section in Palestine proper to the remaining half, the boundaries of which are given in Josue 17
Melchites - Aa group of about 110,000 Byzantine Uniats distributed in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, and America
Chestnut Tree - The chestnut tree is only an exotic in Palestine, but the plane (Arab
Raven - The name ‘ôrçb is doubtless generic, and includes all the eight species of the Corvidæ known in Palestine
Walls - In Palestine the principal cities were protected by surrounding walls, sometimes of great size
Cuckoo - It only passes the winter in Palestine
Hunting - The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine (1 Samuel 17:34 ; 2 Samuel 23:20 ; 1 Kings 13:24 ; Ezekiel 19:3-8 ), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them
Cucumber - Tristram observed quantities of the common cucumber in Palestine
Gier Eagle - " It is common in Egypt, where it is popularly called "Pharaoh's chicken" (the Neophron percnopterus), and is found in Palestine only during summer
Geba - "From Geba to Beersheba" expressed the whole extent of the kingdom of Judah, just as "from Dan to Beersheba" described the whole length of Palestine (2 Kings 23:8 )
Street - "It is remarkable," says Porter, "that all the important cities of Palestine and Syria Samaria, Caesarea, Gerasa, Bozrah, Damascus, Palmyra, had their 'straight streets' running through the centre of the city, and lined with stately rows of columns
Targum - (tar' guhm) Early translations of the Bible into Aramaic, the native language of Palestine and Babylon in the first century A
Melkites - Aa group of about 110,000 Byzantine Uniats distributed in Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, and America
Ossifrage - It occurs in the ravines around the Dead Sea, but is apparently gradually becoming extinct in Palestine
Saffron - It abounds in Palestine name saffron is usually applied only to the stigmas and part of the style, which are plucked out and dried
Wine-Press - (Isaiah 5:2 ) margin; (Matthew 21:33 ) Ancient winepresses, so constructed, are still to he seen in Palestine
Shishak - According to inscriptions on the walls of a temple to the god Amon in Karnak, Shishak captured over 150 towns in Palestine including Megiddo, Taanash, and Gibeon
Wine - Grapes grew throughout ancient Palestine
Crane - Palestine; its length is four feet
Galilee - (Hebrew: district) ...
Most northern of the three provinces of Palestine west of the Jordan at the time of Our Lord, comprising in general the territory assigned by Josue to the tribes of Asher, Nephtali, Zabulon, and Issachar
Caesarea - It became the seat of the governors of Palestine, and the place where their army was quartered
Brook - Such are numerous in Palestine
Islands, Isles - There are no islands near to Palestine
Goshen - Land or district in the southern part of Palestine
Gnat - Various members of the Culicidœ , mosquitoes and true gnats, are found in Palestine; of the former, four species are known which are fever-bearing
Thunder - This is of rare occurrence in Palestine, and is regarded in scripture as being the voice of God in power, both in the O
Merom, Waters of (See Also Jordan, Lake of Huleh) - A lake in the north of Palestine
Tob - a country of Palestine, lying beyond Jordan, in the northern part of the portion of Manasseh
Perizzites - The ancient inhabitants of Palestine, mingled with the Canaanites
Goshen - ...
A district in southern Palestine conquered by Joshua
Almond Tree - In Palestine it blossoms in January, and in March has fruit
Asher - This territory contained some of the richest soil in all Palestine; and to this fact, as well as to its proximity to the Phœnicians, the degeneracy of the tribe may be attributed
Claudius (2) - Several famines occurred in the reign of Claudius, one of which extended to Palestine and Syria
Wolf - It is the common Canis lupus, still found in some parts of Palestine
Perizzites - Genesis 15:20 , ancient inhabitants of Palestine, who had mingled with the Canaanites, or were themselves descendants of Canaan
Sextus Julius Africanus - He is thought to have been of Roman descent; he studied at Alexandria and restored the city of Emmaus in Palestine and called it Nikopolis
Provender - The ordinary food of cattle in Palestine besides pasturage is tibn (broken straw), kursenneh (the vetch, Vicia ervilia ), bran (for fattening especially), and sometimes hay made from the flowering herbs of spring
Carts - Or wagons were used in Palestine formerly, though now almost unknown
Drought - Was an evil to which Palestine was naturally subject, as no rain fell from May to September
Daric - (from dara , a king ), Authorized Version "dram," ( 1 Chronicles 29:7 ; Ezra 2:69 ; 8:27 ; Nehemiah 7:70,71,72 ) a gold coin current in Palestine in the period after the return from Babylon
hi'Vites - (Joshua 9:7 ; 11:19 ) The main body of the Hivites were at this time living in the northern confines of western Palestine-- "under Hermon, in the land of Mizpeh," (Joshua 11:3 ) --"in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal Hermon to the entering in of Hamath
ki'Shon - (winding ) , The river, a torrent or winter stream of central Palestine, the scene of two of the grandest achievements of Israelitish history --the defeat of Sisera, Judges 4 , and the destruction of the prophets of Baal by Elijah
Ben'Jamin, the Land of - The general level of this part of Palestine is not less than 2000 feet above the Mediterranean or than 3000 feet above the valley of the Jordan, the surrounding country including a large number of eminences--almost every one of which has borne some part in the history of the tribe--and many torrent beds and deep ravines
Highways - Though during the sway of the Romans over Palestine they made a few substantial roads for their carts and chariots, yet for the most of the time, as today, the Jews had nothing such as we call roads, but only footpaths through which animals walk in single file
Custom - In Palestine the Herods of Galilee and Perea received the "custom;" in Judea it was paid to the procurator for the Roman government
Aristarchus - He accompanied Paul on his final visit to Palestine (Acts 20:1-6), probably stayed with him during his imprisonment there, and went with him on his journey to Rome (Acts 27:2)
Bethshan (Bethshean) - (For the importance of the Valley of Jezreel see Palestine
Herod Agrippa i. - 44) of the same loathsome malady which slew his grandfather (Acts 12:21-23 ), in the fifty-fourth year of his age, having reigned four years as tetrarch and three as king over the whole of Palestine. After his death his kingdom came under the control of the prefect of Syria, and Palestine was now fully incorporated with the empire
Stork - Two species are found in Palestine, the white, which are dispersed in pairs over the whole country; and the black, which live in marshy places and in great flocks. They migrate to Palestine periodically (about the 22nd of March)
Esdraelon - It affords a passage into the mountainous interior of Palestine, from the sea-coast at the harbours of the Bay of ‘Acca. ...
Esdraelon has been the great battlefield of Palestine
South - —The southern direction was called by the Hebrews Têman (Jeremiah 49:20), that is, the country ‘on the right side’ to one facing eastwards in Palestine. In the same way their kinsmen and successors, the Moslem Arabs, called the southern part of their empire Yemen, the ‘right hand’ country, and designated Syria and Palestine to the North as al-Shâm, the ‘left’ region
Fountain - ...
The fountains form a striking feature in Palestine, which is described as "a land of brooks of water, of fountains and depths that spring out of valleys and hills. ...
In the modern names of localities in Palestine the prefix ain or en signifies a 'well;' and bir or beer signifies a fountain or spring, often artificially enclosed
Oak - As many as six varieties of the oak are found in Palestine. ...
This tree was found in all countries around the Mediterranean, and in Palestine grew to a large size
Beersheba - Originally Beersheba was the name given to a well that Abraham dug in the dry southern region of Palestine known as the Negeb. (For a map of Palestine’s main traffic routes see Palestine
Sabas, Saint - , abbat in Palestine and founder of the laura of St. 511, by the patriarch ELIAS, to counteract the influence of Severus and the Monophysites with the emperor Anastasius; and again by Peter, patriarch of Jerusalem, in 531, to ask from the emperor remission of the taxes due by Palestine and help to rebuild the churches ruined by invasion
Canaanites - ]'>[1] document to the pre-Israelitish inhabitants of Palestine ( e. All the writers unite in calling Palestine the land of Canaan. : that Canaan means ‘lowland,’ and was applied to the seacoast of Palestine, as opposed to the central range and the Lebanons. Paton, Early History of Syria and Palestine , 68)
Tiberias - Nevertheless the town grew with great rapidity, and, before the downfall of Jerusalem had become one of the chief cities of Palestine. At present it is one of the four sacred cities of the Jews in Palestine, the others being Jerusalem, Hebron, and Safed. Palestine - Palestine...
1. The land of Palestine is the territory which lies between the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Desert as E. These boundaries have not always been clearly fixed; but the convention is generally agreed upon that Palestine is separated from Egypt by the Wady el-’Arîsh or ‘River of Egypt,’ and from Syria by the Kasmiyeh or Lîtani River, the classical Leontes. The name ‘Palestine’
The climate of Palestine is, on the whole, that of the sub-tropical zone, though, owing to the extraordinary variation of altitudes, there is probably a greater range of average local temperature than in any other region of its size on the world’s surface. ...
Soon after the cessation of the rains, the wild flowers, which in early spring decorate Palestine like a carpet, become rapidly burnt up, and the country assumes an appearance of barrenness that gives no true idea of its actual fertility. The earliest dawn of history in Palestine has left no trace in the country itself, so far as we can tell from the limited range of excavations hitherto carried out. Paton’s excellent History of Syria and Palestine . 3000 we first reach a period where excavation in Palestine has some information to give. Palestine, or at least the influence of Egyptian civilization, must early have been felt, though no definite records of Egyptian conquest older than Tabutmes iii. Of the Canaanites very extensive remains yet await the spade of the excavator in the mounds that cover the remains of the ancient cities of Palestine. 1450), Palestine became virtually an Egyptian province, its urban communities governed by kings ( i. was too busy with his religious innovations to pay attention to his foreign possessions, and, city by city, his rule in Palestine crumbled away before the Aramæan tribes, named in the Tell el-Amarna tablets the Khabiri . On the other hand, the remains of the population are scantier for it need hardly be said that the modern Jewish inhabitants of Palestine are all more or less recent importations. After his death followed a distracting and complicated period of conflict between his successors, which, so far as Palestine was concerned, had the effect of opening the country for the first time to the influence of Greek culture, art, and religion. 63, and henceforth Palestine lay under Roman suzerainty. Palestine throughout the whole of Israelite history. ...
After the partition of the Roman Empire, Palestine formed part of the Empire of the East, and with it was Christianized. He became master of Syria and Palestine in the second quarter of the seventh century. Palestine thus became a Moslem country, and its population received the Arab element which is still dominant within it. It may be mentioned in passing that coins of Chosroës are occasionally found in Palestine; and that of the early Arab domination many noteworthy buildings survive, chief of which is the glorious dome that occupies the site of the Hebrew Temple at Jerusalem
Paran - A desert or wilderness south of Palestine, and near the wilderness of Etham, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt
Winepress - Ancient wine-presses, so constructed, are still to be seen in Palestine
Mole - ’ The true insectivorous mole does not occur in Palestine, but the rodent Spalax typhlus , the mole rat, is very common
Moth - All the references are to the clothes-moth, which is ubiquitous and extremely plentiful in Palestine
Harosheth of the Gentiles - (Judges 4:2 ) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine
Mehunims - They are again mentioned in 1 Chronicles 4:41 (RSV), in the reign of King Hezekiah, as a Hamite people, settled in the eastern end of the valley of Gedor, in the wilderness south of Palestine
Thyine Wood - Like the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the forests of Palestine
Thunder - In answer to Samuel's prayer (1 Samuel 12:17,18 ), God sent thunder, and "all the people greatly feared," for at such a season (the wheat-harvest) thunder and rain were almost unknown in Palestine
Hosea - "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8,9; 12:12; 14:6, etc
Bohan - Probably commemorating some achievement of his in the conquest of Palestine (Joshua 15:6; Joshua 18:17)
Myrtle - We meet with it all through Central Palestine" (Tristram)
Jason - A Jewish high priest during the final years of Seleucid control of Palestine
Gerar - A region; lodging-place, a very ancient town and district in the south border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech (Genesis 10:19 ; 20:1,2 )
Snow - Common in Palestine in winter (Psalm 147:16 )
Aram - The word means high, or highlands, and as the name of a country denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast of Palestine to the Euphrates
Province - Later, the Babylonians and Persians used such districts in Palestine (Esther 4:11 )
Pomegranate - Common in Egypt (Numbers 20:5 ) and Palestine (13:23; Deuteronomy 8:8 )
Isles - So the word is applied to all lands reached from Palestine by sea
Wormwood - Four species in Palestine: Nilotica, Judaica, Fruticosa, and Cinerea
Laish - Originally a Canaanite city in northern Palestine known for its carefree existence (Judges 18:7 )
Nabateans - Although not mentioned in the Bible, they greatly influenced Palestine during intertestamental and New Testament times
Worm - The earthworm is the most representative of the worms of Palestine
Barley - ]'>[1] sha‘ir ) is the most plentiful cereal of Palestine
Camphire - It is a great favourite with the people of Palestine to-day, and a ‘cluster’ of the flowers is often put in the hair; the perfume is much admired
Fountain - The porous chalky limestone of Palestine abounds in good springs of water, which, owing to their importance in a country rainless half the year, were eagerly coveted ( Judges 1:15 )
Cinnamon - The mention of it indicates a very early and extensive commerce carried on between Palestine and the East
Honey - This was so plentiful in Palestine, that the country was often described as a land 'flowing with milk and honey
Swan - The swan has been seen in Palestine, but it is rare, and, as it feeds on vegetation, it is supposed that some other bird is alluded to
Palestina, Palestine - The Hebrew word, Pelesheth, occurs but four times, and did not allude to the whole of the land of Canaan, as the name Palestine is now applied; but was restricted to part of the coast of the Mediterranean, occupied by the Philistines
Sihor - In 1 Chronicles 13:5 it is written SHIHOR, as the south-west boundary of Palestine
Iron - Iron ore is now abundant in northern Palestine
Hadadezer - He was at the head of the combination of the Aramæans of Northern Palestine against David, was repeatedly defeated, and finally made tributary
Hauran - A country east of the Jordan; the northeastern boundary of Palestine, Ezekiel 47:16; Ezekiel 47:18, and the Auranitis of the Greeks, and now known as the Hauran
Abelbethmaachah - A city of importance in the extreme North of Palestine in the lot of Naphtali or Manassth: it is mentioned with Ijon and Dan
Manger - The word is φάτνη, which in classical Greek is used for a 'manger' or 'feeding trough;' but it has been doubted whether the modern manger was introduced into Palestine so early
Caesarea - The chief Roman city of Palestine in New Testament times
Corn - From Solomon's time, 2 Chronicles 2:10; 2 Chronicles 2:15, as agriculture became developed under a settled government, Palestine was a corn-exporting country, and her grain was largely taken by her commercial neighbor Tyre
Decapolis - Afterthe conquest of Palestine by the Romans these cities were rebuilt and partly colonised, having peculiar privileges
Cistern - Numbers of these are still to be seen in Palestine, some of which are a hundred and fifty paces long, and sixty broad
Dew - Dews in Palestine are very plentiful, like a small shower of rain every morning
Pygarg - It is rare in Palestine to-day, but is known to the Bedouin
Tares - It grows among the wheat everywhere in Palestine, and bears a great resemblance to it while growing, so much so that before they head out the two plants can hardly be distinguished
Clouds - In the summer season of Palestine, were an unlooked-for phenomenon, 1 Samuel 12:17,18 , and rising from off the Mediterranean, betokened rain, 1 Kings 18:44 Luke 12:54
Neba'Ioth, Neba'Joth - (They first settled in the country southeast of Palestine, and wandered gradually in search of pasturage till they came to Kedar, of which Isaiah speaks
Hills - " The "country of the hills," in (1:7; Joshua 9:1 ; 10:40 ; 11:16 ) is the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim, which is correctly called "the mountain" in the earliest descriptions of Palestine, (Numbers 13:29 ) and in many subsequent passages
Dew - This in the summer is so copious in Palestine that it supplies to some extent the absence of rain and becomes important to the agriculturist
Poplar - Both poplars and storax or styrax trees are common in Palestine, and either would suit the passages where the Hebrew term occurs
Dove's Dung - bird-milk), a common root in Palestine, and sometimes eaten
Harvest - The beginning of "harvest" varied according to natural conditions, but took place on the average about the middle of April in the eastern lowlands of Palestine, in the latter part of the month in the coast plains and a little later in high districts
Hivites - They lived mainly in the mountain country of northern Palestine and Lebanon (Joshua 11:3; Judges 3:3; 2 Samuel 24:6-7), though some lived in Shechem and others as far south as Gibeon (Genesis 34:2; Joshua 9:3; Joshua 9:7; Joshua 11:19)
Mount, Mountain - Although on the whole a mountainous country, Palestine has few striking or commanding peaks to show; consequently, though we find frequent mention of mountains in the Bible, there are comparatively few names of individual summits. ...
But it is in their aspect as holy places that mountains are of the deepest interest to the student of the Scriptures or of Palestine. In modern Palestine almost every hill a little loftier or more striking than its fellows is crowned by a domed shrine, now regarded as the tomb of a Moslem saint, but no doubt the representative of a sacred precinct that goes back to the earliest Semitic inhabitants of the land
Gezer - A site of 30 acres, it was one of the largest and most important cities in Palestine from 1800 B. The largest stone structure in Palestine, a fifty-foot wide wall from about 1600 B. ...
Gezer thus is a peripheral city in the Bible whose magnificent history had begun to recede a century before Joshua entered Palestine
ox, Oxen, Herd, Cattle - ’...
Oxen are specially valuable in Palestine for ploughing (Deuteronomy 22:19 , 1 Kings 19:19 ) and for threshing, i. They were used for carts ( Numbers 7:3 ); the Circassians, recently settled in Palestine, use them extensively in this way, but not the fellahîn . The cattle of Palestine are small and mostly lean, owing to poor food and much work
Nazareth - ...
Nazareth was situated in the hilly country of the northern part of Palestine known as Galilee. It had no great political importance, though it was close to several trade routes that passed through Palestine. After Jesus’ birth the family went to Egypt to escape the murderous Herod, and it was probably about two years later that they returned to Palestine and settled again in Nazareth (Matthew 2:19-23; Luke 2:39)
Handmaid - [3] [4] 129); and in names current in the Holy Land at the present time, such as Abdallah (for many examples from southern and central Palestine cf. In connexion with a list of personal names collected from various Moslem villages in the south of Palestine (PEFSt Hedge - It is a feature in the landscape of Palestine in the other case (‘highways and hedges,’ Luke 14:23). φραγμός includes all the different kinds of hedges to be found in a country so furrowed with hills and valleys as is Palestine. God made sea and desert a hedge of Palestine
Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - ...
320...
Palestine under Ptolemy Soter. )...
301...
Palestine under Ptolemies. ...
205...
Palestine under Antiochus
Swine - Although the Jews did not breed swine during the greater period of their existence as a nation there can be little doubt that the heathen nations of Palestine used the flesh as food. The wild boar of the wood, (Psalm 80:13 ) is the common Sus scrofa which is frequently met with in the woody parts of Palestine, especially in Mount Tabor
Olive-Tree - It is mentioned among the most notable trees of Palestine, where it was cultivated long before the time of the Hebrews (Deuteronomy 6:11 ; 8:8 ). It is mentioned in the first Old Testament parable, that of Jotham (Judges 9:9 ), and is named among the blessings of the "good land," and is at the present day the one characteristic tree of Palestine
Kedar - The name of a nomadic people, living to the east of Palestine, whom P Judah Territory of - It extended across the whole of Western Palestine, from the Dead Sea on the east to the Mediterranean on the west. This barren tract has evidently been uncultivated and uninhabited from the remotest times, for here alone, of all Palestine, are found no traces of the ruins of former cities
Abilene - ; Robinson, Later BRP Ant - Ants are exceedingly abundant all over Palestine, where, through their vast numbers, they perform a most important rôle, by continually changing the surface soil in the way earthworms do in northern countries. Some common varieties of Palestine ants ( Aphœnogaster barbara, A
Eustochius (6), Patriarch of Jerusalem - ); and when the acts m condemnation of Origenism were sent by the emperor to Jerusalem, all the bishops of Palestine except Alexander of Abila confirmed them. Origenism was thus rooted out of Palestine
Sennacherib - 699, Sennacherib made his second expedition into Palestine. Sennacherib reached his capital in safety, engaged in other wars, though he seems to have carefully avoided Palestine, and was slain by two of his sons, 15 or 20 years after his flight from Jerusalem
Decapolis - —A league of ten Greek cities (ἡ Δεκάπολις) in eastern Palestine, which was probably formed at the time of Pompey’s invasion of Palestine, 64–63 b. From the days of Alexander the Great, who sought to Hellenize the Orient by founding Greek cities throughout the conquered lands, there were Greek cities in Palestine. On our Lord’s first journey through all Galilee, He was attended by crowds from all parts of Palestine, among whom were persons from Decapolis (Matthew 4:25). The modern traveller, wandering over the ruins of temples, theatres, and baths at Gerasa, Philadelphia, and Gadara, is impressed with the glories of the Grecian life in Palestine during the period of our Lord’s earthly ministry and for some centuries afterwards
Thistle - It is supposed to be a variety of the wild plum-tree, but by some it is regarded as the common thistle, of which there are many varieties in Palestine
Deacon, Philip the, Saint - Born Caesarea, Palestine; died there c58 Also known as Philip the Deacon
Lees - In ancient Palestine, wine was allowed to remain on the lees to increase its strength and flavor
Flax - It was extensively cultivated both in Egypt and Palestine
Laish -
A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine (Judges 18:7,14 ); called also Leshem (Joshua 19:47 ) and Dan (Judges 18:7,29 ; Jeremiah 8:16 )
Mandrakes - " It still grows near Jerusalem, and in other parts of Palestine
Lakum - Conder identifies Lakum with Kefr Kama (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1878, p
Judea - Judea, Samaria, and Galilee were generally considered, in Roman times, to be the three main geographical divisions of Palestine
Swallow - Several species of the swallow frequent Palestine: the Hirundo rustica, H
Stranger - This word generally denotes a person from a foreign land residing in Palestine
Clay - Used for making pottery in Palestine (Jeremiah 18:2; Jeremiah 18:6)
Caper-Berry - The caper-berry is the fruit of Capparis spinosa , a common Palestine plant, which, largely on account of its habit of growing out of crevices in walls, has been identified with the Hyssop (wh
Flax - It was early cultivated in Palestine ( Joshua 2:6 ); the failure of the flax was one of God’s judgments ( Hosea 2:9 )
Ain - of Ain (Hebrew the spring), marks the eastern boundary of Palestine (Numbers 34:11)
Oak - Three species of the Quercus are known in Palestine, the pseudo-coccifera, aegilops, and infectoria
Anak, Anakim - Joshua 11:21 gives them a wider habitat , as scattered over the hill-country of Palestine generally, whence they were exterminated by Joshua
Evangelist, Philip the, Saint - Born Caesarea, Palestine; died there c58 Also known as Philip the Deacon
Galilee - A province in Palestine
Arabia - A very large country is embraced by this name, lying south, south-east, and east of Palestine
Sowing - " Buckingham, in his Travels in Palestine, remarks, "We ascended to an elevated plain where husbandmen were sowing, and some thousands of starlings covered the ground, as the wild pigeons do in Egypt, laying a heavy contribution on the grain thrown into the furrows, which are not covered by harrowing, as in Europe
Rain - Palestine differed from Egypt in that its vegetation was dependent on the rain from heaven, instead of having to be watered from the river
Winter - In Palestine, part of autumn and the seasons of seed-time and cold, extending from the beginning of September to the beginning of March, were called "winter
Nergal - One of the gods of the Cuthite heathen who were transplanted into Palestine, 2 Kings 7:20
Badger - It is an inhabitant of cold countries, and is not found in Palestine
Spider - In Proverbs 30:28 , it is said in our version that "the spider taketh hold with her hands, and is in kings' palaces;" but the Hebrew employs here a different word, which signifies, according to the best interpreters, a species of lizard frequent in Palestine
Egypt, River - boundary of Palestine ( Numbers 34:5 , Isaiah 27:12 etc
Rimmon - A town of Palestine, near the frontier of Edom, Joshua 15:21,32 Zechariah 14:10 , in the region assigned to the tribe of Simeon, Joshua 19:7 1 Chronicles 4:32 Nehemiah 11:29
Fountain - The springs of Palestine, though short-lived, are remarkable for their abundance and beauty, especially those which fall into the Jordan and into its lakes, of which there are hundreds throughout its whole course
Corn - (23:25) see also Matthew 12:1 From Solomon's time, ( 2 Chronicles 2:10,15 ) as agriculture became developed under a settled government, Palestine was a corn-exporting country, and her grain was largely taken by her commercial neighbor Tyre
Macarius, a Roman Christian - Rufinus just at this time arriving from Palestine, Macarius saw in this the interpretation of his dream and sought from him light from the Greek fathers
Dead Sea - One of Palestine’s most unusual geological features is the Dead Sea. (See also Palestine, sub-heading ‘Jordan Valley and Dead Sea’
Asher - This was a fertile area whose olive orchards produced the best oil in Palestine (Genesis 49:20; Deuteronomy 33:24)
Ass - People of the first quality in Palestine rode on asses. These animals were anciently found in Palestine, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Mesopatamia, Phrygia, and Lycaonia; but they rarely occur in those regions at the present time, and seem to be almost entirely confined to Tartary, some parts of Persia, and India, and Africa
Money-Changers - ]'>[2] ‘ bankers ’) in the first century of our era in Palestine may be seen from the summary of the varied currencies of the period in the preceding article (§§ 6. , where the complexity of exchange in the Palestine of to-day is graphically set forth), changed the large denominations into the smaller, giving denarii, for example, for tetradrachms, and gave silver for gold, copper for silver
Mortar And Pestle - on Proverbs 27:22 ) is attested by the constant occurrence of these articles in the remains of places recently excavated in Palestine. in Bliss, Mound of Many Cities , 85; Bliss and Macalister, Excavations in Palestine , Plates 72, 73)
Worm - These are very common in Palestine, occurring even on neglected sores and, of course, on dead bodies ( Job 19:26 ; Job 21:26 ; Job 24:20 ). zôch ăl ç‘ârets , ‘worms of the earth’ ( Micah 7:17 ), may possibly refer to true earthworms (which are comparatively rare in Palestine), but more probably to serpents
Hamath - Fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Numbers 13:21 ; 34:8 ), at the foot of Hermon (Joshua 13:5 ) towards Damascus (Zechariah 9:2 ; Jeremiah 49:23 ). The "entrance of Hamath" (Numbers 34:8 ), which was the north boundary of Palestine, led from the west between the north end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains
Money - ) was a gold piece current in Palestine in the time of Cyrus. These gave place to Greek coins when Palestine came under the dominion of the Greeks (B
Esdraelon - , "the meadow of the son of Amer") which stretches across Central Palestine from the Jordan to the Mediterraanean, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee, extending about 14 miles from north to south, and 9 miles from east to west. This plain has been well called the "battle-field of Palestine
Ashdod - of Palestine, three from the Mediterranean, midway between Gaza and Joppa. It was the key of entrance between Palestine and Egypt
Barley - The hordeum distichum, or "two rowed barley" was that usual in Palestine (Judges 7:13; Ezekiel 4:12). ...
The people in Palestine still complain that their oppressors leave them nothing but barley bread to eat (Thomson's Land and Book, p
Wheat, - Syria and Palestine produced wheat of fine quality and in large quantities. There appear to be two or three kinds of wheat at present grown in Palestine, the Triticum vulgare , the T
Zion - Conder (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, Oct. Birch (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p
Asherah - " This noun, which has an Ugaritic cognate, first appears in the Bible in passages anticipating the settlement in Palestine. When the people of Israel entered Palestine, they were to have nothing to do with the idolatrous religions of its inhabitants
Alexander the Great - Related Old Testament Passages—Daniel 7:6 (leopard Alexander the Great); Daniel 11:3-40 (broken horn death of Alexander); 1618738793_23 (mighty king Alexander); Zechariah 9:1-8 (Alexander's conquest of Palestine). While Alexander is never directly named in the Bible, the culture which he brought to Palestine greatly affected the biblical world, especially during the time between the writing of the Old and New Testaments
Flowers - —Palestine has a flora of wonderful wealth and variety. ...
Among the beautiful flowers of Palestine may be mentioned anemones, crocuses, cyclamens, gladioli, hyacinths, irises, poppies, roses, and tulips
Locusts - There are several species of locusts which visit Palestine; they are brought by the wind, and carried away by the same. The OEdipoda migratoria is a species that commonly visits Palestine
Hamath - Hamath, like Jerusalem and Damascus, is one of the few places in Syria and Palestine which have retained a certain degree of importance from the very earliest ages to the present time. " "The entering in of Hamath" is the northern part of the valley which leads up to it from Palestine, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, Numbers 13:21 ; 1 Kings 1:53
Goat - Several kinds of goats were kept in Palestine: one kind having long hair, like the Angora, and another, long and broad ears. This kind is probably referred to in Amos 3:12 , and is still the common goat of Palestine
Chaldeans - A very vivid and graphic description of the Chaldean warriors is given by the prophet Habakkuk, who probably lived about the time when they first made incursions into Palestine or the adjacent regions, Habakkuk 1:6-11 . His son Nebuchadnezzar invaded Palestine, as foretold by Jeremiah and Habakkuk, Ezra 5:12 Jeremiah 39:5
Raven - The Hebrew oreb is applied to the several species of the crow family, a number of which are found in Palestine. (Job 38:41 ; Luke 12:24 ) The raven's carnivorous habits, and especially his readiness to attack the eye, are alluded to in (Proverbs 30:17 ) To the fact of the raven being a common bird in Palestine, and to its habit of flying restlessly about in constant search for food to satisfy its voracious appetite, may perhaps be traced the reason for its being selected by our Lord and the inspired writers as the especial object of God's providing care
Mines, Mining - Of tin there appears to have been no trace in Palestine. The hills of Palestine are rich in iron, and the mines are still worked there, though in a very simple, rude manner
Ox - (Leviticus 17:1-6 ) It seems clear from (Proverbs 15:17 ) and 1 Kings 4:23 That cattle were sometimes stall-fed though as a general rule it is probable that they fed in the plains or on the hills of Palestine. The cattle that grazed at large in the open country would no doubt often become fierce and wild, for it is to be remembered that in primitive times the lion and other wild beasts of prey roamed about Palestine
Birds - Many of the birds mentioned in the Bible were large birds of prey, of which there were many species in Palestine. ...
There were many migratory birds in Palestine, and almost every month some departed and others arrived
Asp - ...
The serpent referred to is without doubt the Naja haje, or small hooded Egyptian cobra, which, though not found in the cultivated parts of Palestine, is well known in the downs and plains S. : SWP Gehenna (2) - —Robinson, BRP East - , the lands lying east of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, etc
Bethlehemites - They came from Palestine to Bohemia, 1217, and now devote themselves to care of the sick and education
John Cassian - With his friend Germanus he visited the holy places in Palestine and they became monks at Bethlehem
Sharon, Plain of - See Palestine
Cassian, John - With his friend Germanus he visited the holy places in Palestine and they became monks at Bethlehem
Farm - In Egypt the lands all belonged to the king, and the husbandmen were obliged to give him a fifth part of the produce; so in Palestine Jehovah was the sole possessor of the soil, and the people held it by direct tenure from him
Biblical Institute of Jerusalem, the - Among its important contributions to biblical science is the discovery of the famous mosaic map of Madaba, a map which has shed considerable light on the history and geography of that part of ancient Palestine which lay between Samaria and the Nile delta
Hornet - In Palestine there are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being larger in size, and they are very abundant
Festus - Paul in bonds at Caesarea, in Palestine, Acts 24:27
Sepharvaim - and his predecessor from their agents in Palestine, proves that in the century before the Exodus an active literary intercourse was carried on between these nations, and that the medium of the correspondence was the Babylonian language and script
Kirjath Sannah - from Hebron; but more probably Dhoheriyeh: see Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1875, p
Roe - The gazelle (Gazella dorcas) is found in great numbers in Palestine
Issachar - The tribe of Issachar occupied territory in the northern part of Palestine, just southwest of the Sea of Galilee (Joshua 19:17-23 )
Adder - " This may have been the yellow viper, the Daboia xanthina, the largest and most dangerous of the vipers of Palestine
Eagle - There are eight species in Palestine
Winds - This wind prevails in Palestine from February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54 ) does from November to February
Mattock - ’ For descriptions and illustrations of the triangular hoe and the mattock, or pick, of modern Palestine, see PEFSt Kadmonite - They probably inhabited the Syro-Arabian desert between Palestine-Syria and the Euphrates—which is to say, areas to the east of Canaan
Barley - A grain for which Palestine was known (Deuteronomy 8:8 )
Kiln - The term “brickkiln” is used in Nahum 3:14 , but this should probably read “brick mold” (NRSV, NAS) or “brick work” (NIV, REB), as the bricks in Palestine were usually sun dried
Cypress - In Palestine to-day cypresses are extensively planted, especially in cemeteries
Whirlwind - True whirlwinds and tornados are rare in Palestine
Fitches - ]'>[1] ‘black cummin,’ the seeds of the aromatic herb Nigella sativa , commonly used to-day in Palestine as a condiment, especially on the top of loaves of bread
Agabus - He came from Judaea to Antioch while Paul and Barnabas were there, and foretold the famine which occurred the next year in Palestine (for a Jew would mean the Jewish world, by "throughout all the world
Sickle (2) - —The crops in Palestine are, to this day, reaped almost entirely with the sickle (Mark 4:29)
Smoking Flax - —The little earthenware lamp is largely replaced to-day, even in the houses of the fellahîn in Palestine, by lamps made by travelling tinsmiths from the tins in which petroleum is imported
Joppa - A town on the southwest coast of Palestine, in the territory of Dan
End - ...
Isaiah 45:22 (a) The ends of the earth are those countries, nations and tribes which are farthest removed in every direction from Palestine
Mount, Mountain - The ordinary word for this is har , which is employed both for the mountain ranges, some of which run through Palestine from north to south, and also for the higher mountains that rise upon those ranges or on the plains
Shittim Wood, Shittah Tree - There are several varieties which grow in Egypt and Palestine, the Acacia seyal being the most common
Antiochene Rite - The Syriac version is used by the Jacobites in Syria and Palestine, and by the Syrian Uniats
Abel-Beth-Maachah - Meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali
Ham - Canaan was the ancestor of the Phœnicians and other tribes inhabiting Palestine
East - By the east, they frequently describe, not only Arabia Deserta, and the lands of Moab and Ammon, which lay to the east of Palestine, but also Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Chaldea, though they are situated rather to the north than to the east of Judea
Kenite - A tribe of Midian, between Palestine and Sinai, and east of the Gulf of Akabah
Badgers' Skins - It is almost certain the word tahash is mistranslated ‘badger,’ as badgers, though found in Southern Palestine, are not common enough, nor are their skins suitable for such use to have been made of them
Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul (Paris - The community manages homes, day nurseries, schools, colleges, hospitals, a leper home, social service centers, and moral reconstruction centers, in China, Persia, Syria, Palestine, Abyssinia, Algeria, Egypt, Congo, Madagascar, Tripoli, Tunis, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, the United States, West Indies, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Australia, throughout South America and every country of Europe except Sweden and Russia
Quails - Hasselquist states that it is plentiful near the shores of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, and in the deserts of Arabia; and Diodorus affirms that it is caught in immense numbers about Rhinocolura, at the southwest corner of Palestine
Sabas, Saint - In 483 he founded the Laura Mar Saba, was ordained in 491, and in 494 was made archimandrite of all the monasteries in Palestine
Sabbas, Saint - In 483 he founded the Laura Mar Saba, was ordained in 491, and in 494 was made archimandrite of all the monasteries in Palestine
be'Hemoth - It is not found in Palestine, but may at one time have been a native of western Asia
Barley - (1 Kings 4:28 ) The barley harvest, (Ruth 1:22 ; 2:23 ; 2 Samuel 21:9;10 ) takes place in Palestine in March and April, and in the hilly district as late as May
Joannes Scythopolita, Scholasticus in Palestine - Joannes (565) Scythopolita, a scholasticus of Scythopolis in Palestine
Palestine - This vast empire was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it, terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus extending in all to about 144 miles in length. " Western Palestine, on the south of Gaza, is only about 40 miles in breadth from the Mediterranean to the Dead Sea, narrowing gradually toward the north, where it is only 20 miles from the sea-coast to the Jordan. ...
Palestine, "set in the midst" (Ezekiel 5:5 ) of all other lands, is the most remarkable country on the face of the earth. Egypt, Arabia, Palestine, and Coele-Syria fell to the lot of Ptolemy Lagus. Ptolemy took possession of Palestine in B. 68, Palestine was reduced by Pompey the Great to a Roman province. 6, when Palestine became a Roman province, ruled by Roman governors or procurators. This division was recognized so long as Palestine was under the Roman dominion. The whole territory of Palestine, including the portions alloted to the trans-Jordan tribes, extended to about eleven thousand square miles
Philistines - The Philistines had formed part of the great naval confederacy which attacked Egypt, but were eventually repulsed by that Pharaoh, who, however, could not dislodge them from their settlements in Palestine. As they did not enter Palestine till the time of the Exodus, the use of the name Philistines in Genesis 26:1 must be proleptic. From Philistia the name of the land of the Philistines came to be extended to the whole of "Palestine
Sheep - (2 Kings 3:4 ) It is very striking to notice the immense numbers of sheep that were reared in Palestine in biblical times. (Job 30:1 ) Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, which they induce to follow by calling to them, comp. " The common sheer, of Syria and Palestine are the broad-tailed
Joseph Renan - The French government sent him on a scientific mission to Palestine where he wrote a life of Christ which was abhorrent to all Christians, regardless of sect
Snow - Every winter snow falls occasionally in the mountainous districts of Palestine, but seldom lies for more than a few hours at most for a day or two
Mule - Perhaps they had by that time ceased to be used in Palestine
Catholic Women's League - In Palestine it has opened a weaving-school for Catholic Arab girls
Asher - The boundaries of the inheritance given to it, which contained some of the richest soil in Palestine, and the names of its towns, are recorded in Joshua 19:24-31 ; Judges 1:31,32
Council - The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the "judgment," perhaps, in Matthew 5:21,22 ) in the cities of Palestine (Matthew 10:17 ; Mark 13:9 )
Ashdod - It was an important city, as it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine, and hence was strongly fortified (2 Chronicles 26:6 ; Isaiah 20:1 )
Merchant - After the Hebrews became settled in Palestine they began to engage in commercial pursuits, which gradually expanded (49:13; Deuteronomy 33:18 ; Judges 5:17 ), till in the time of Solomon they are found in the chief marts of the world (1 Kings 9:26 ; 10:11,26,28 ; 22:48 ; 2 Chronicles 1:16 ; 9:10,21 )
Lemuel - Not, as Hitzig guessed, elder brother to Agur, king of an Arab tribe in Massa, on the borders of Palestine, and both sprung from the Simeonites who drove out the Amalekites from Mount Seir under Hezekiah, as if Lemuel were an older form of Nemuel, or Jemuel, Simeon's oldest son
Aphik - ...
...
A town on the road from Damascus to Palestine, in the level plain east of Jordan, near which Benhadad was defeated by the Israelites (1 Kings 20:26,30 ; 2 Kings 13:17 )
Gibeah - It was reckoned among the ancient sanctuaries of Palestine (10:26; 15:34; 23:19; 26:1; 2 Samuel 21:6-10 ), and hence it is called "Gibeah of God" (1 Samuel 10:5 , RSV marg
Lud - of Palestine, near Mesopotamia and Assyria
Raven - ) There are eight species of ravens in Palestine, and they are everywhere very numerous in that land
Bastards - Palestine, and the prophet foretells Ashdod will be ruled by them
Thunder - is hardly ever heard in Palestine form the middle of April to the middle of September; hence it was selected by Samuel as a striking expression of the divine displeasure toward the Israelites
Tortoise - ) abound in Palestine
Carmel - The mountain is near the Mediterranean coast of Palestine between the Plain of Acco to the north and the Plain of Sharon to the south
Gregory x, Pope - The outstanding event of his reign was the convocation of the Council of Lyons, in which he effected a temporary union with the Greeks, sought to restore peace between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Tuscany and Lombardy, and made plans for a crusade to lighten the oppression of Christians in Palestine
Augustus Caesar - He became associated with Palestine at the defeat of Antony, whom Herod had supported
Mole - These mole-rats have been found in Palestine; they inhabit ruins and stone-heaps, and come out in the night
Perizzites - One of the ancient nations in Palestine
Hauran - When Israel in a future day are in full possession of Palestine, their territory will reach on the N
Sparrow - There are one hundred different species of the passerine order in Palestine
Farthing - " Among the Roman copper coins current then in Palestine there was none smaller than the as or assarich ; among the Greek imperial coins there was the quadrans (quarter of the as) and lepton , "mite," one-eighth of an as and half of a quadrans
Gazelle - ]'>[4] ghazal , also zabi ) is one of the commonest of the larger animals of Palestine; it is one of the most beautiful and graceful of antelopes
Calamus - It was not a native of Palestine, but was imported from Arabia Felix or from India
Perizzite - of Palestine, also on the western sides of Mount Carmel (Joshua 17:15-18)
Goshen - A district in Palestine, perhaps between Gibeon and Gaza
Hivites - The main body of the Hivites were then living on the northern confines of western Palestine—"under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh," Joshua 11:3; "in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath
Dan, City of - This is often named as the north border of Palestine; 'from Dan to Beersheba' implying the whole land
Mole - It is very common in Russia, and Hasselquiest says it is abundant on the plains of Sharon in Palestine
Cistern - During nearly half the year no rain falls in Palestine, and never-failing streams and springs are rare
Samuel - The places to which he is said to have gone on circuit were all in the south of Palestine, 1 Samuel 7:1-17; and when he appointed his sons to office it was in Beer-sheba, the extreme south
Wheat - In Palestine this most important of all grains was sown after barley—late in the fall
Ptolemy v - During his reign Palestine and Cœle-Syria were lost to Egypt, and were incorporated into the kingdom of Syria under Antiochus iii
Turtle-Dove - It is a bird of passage, Jeremiah 8:7 , leaving Palestine for a short trip to the south, and returning early in spring, Song of Song of Solomon 2:12
Teobaldo Visconti - The outstanding event of his reign was the convocation of the Council of Lyons, in which he effected a temporary union with the Greeks, sought to restore peace between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Tuscany and Lombardy, and made plans for a crusade to lighten the oppression of Christians in Palestine
Visconti, Teobaldo - The outstanding event of his reign was the convocation of the Council of Lyons, in which he effected a temporary union with the Greeks, sought to restore peace between the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Tuscany and Lombardy, and made plans for a crusade to lighten the oppression of Christians in Palestine
Renan, Joseph Ernest - The French government sent him on a scientific mission to Palestine where he wrote a life of Christ which was abhorrent to all Christians, regardless of sect
Dew - The dews in Palestine and some other oriental countries are very copious, and serve very greatly to sustain and promote vegetation in seasons when little or no rain falls
Clay - (Isaiah 41:25 ) The great seat of the pottery of the present day in Palestine is Gaza, where are made the vessels in dark-blue clay so frequently met with
Containers And Vessels - Typical of the vessels from northern Palestine are jars of the grain-wash or band-slip techniques. ...
In southern Palestine a different type of pottery emerged during the Bronze Age. ) several new features were introduced to the vessels and containers of Palestine. ...
With the destruction of the Southern Kingdom came a marked decline in the variety and quality of pottery in Palestine. ...
By the time Rome conquered Palestine in 63 B. Obsidian (volcanic glass) was brought into Palestine from Anatolia as early as 5000 B. Practically all found so far in Palestine was imported from Egypt. ...
Glass drinking bowls became popular in Palestine by 200 B. Most of that found in Palestine originated in Phoenicia. Discovered probably in Phoenicia, blown glass became the vessels of choice in Palestine during the Roman period
Field - ...
A knowledge of certain peculiarities of the fields of Palestine is helpful to the full understanding of several of the parables of our Lord and some other passages in the Gospels. There are now, as there were of old, numerous fields in Palestine where ‘the lilies’ and many other flowers grow in gorgeous profusion without human care or culture, and where ‘the grass of the field,’ including fibrous weeds as well as shortlived flowers, when dried by the tropical sun, are still gathered as fuel, and used to heat ovens for baking bread (cf. ...
In Palestine, as in all unsettled countries, it was common, and in parts of the land it is still common, to resort to the field (the cultivated land or the open country) as a fit place in which to hide treasure (cf. Many persons are found digging for hid treasure in Egypt and Palestine to-day, and not a few spend their last farthing in the effort (cf. It is still common in Palestine to see flocks of birds following the peasant as he sows his seed, eagerly picking up every grain that is not covered by the quick-following harrow. ...
In the fields of Palestine, too, there are still found spots that are rich, but are peculiarly infested with briars and thorn-bushes, where one may see the wheat in scattered and spindling stalks struggling for life (cf. It was customary then, as it is now, in Palestine, for the lands of different owners to be separated, not by fences or walls, but usually only by crude individual stones set up at intervals on the surface of the ground as landmarks (cf
Decapolis - ...
Traditionally the Decapolis is assumed to be a league of cities which preserved the stronghold of Greek thought and life in Palestine and resisted the Semitic influences of the Jews. See Palestine
Sargon - States under Ilu-bihdi, who drew Hamath, Arpad, Damascus, and Palestine into revolt. 711 an Assyrian army was sent against Palestine, where Merodach-baladan had been intriguing and had drawn Hezekiah into the conspiracy
Lions - Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety, distinguished from the African variety, which is larger
Mizpah - ...
In relation to the history of the nation Israel, the most important town that had the name Mizpah was in the central hill country of Palestine. ...
Other places in Palestine named Mizpah were near Mount Hermon in the far north (Joshua 11:3), in Gilead east of Jordan (Judges 10:17; Judges 11:11; Judges 11:29; Judges 11:34), and in the low foothills west of the central highlands (Joshua 15:38)
Trachonitis - —A Roman province of Eastern Palestine over which Herod Philip held rule when John the Baptist entered upon his public ministry (Luke 3:1). Cush - Within this period falls the attempt of Tirhakah, king of Cush, to defeat Sennacherib of Assyria in Palestine ( 2 Kings 19:9 ). Cushites were frequent in Palestine, probably descendants of slaves; see 2 Samuel 18:21 ff
Lizard - ’...
Lizards are ubiquitous and exceedingly plentiful in Palestine: over 40 species have been identified. The sandlizards or skinks are common on soft, sandy soil; seven species are found in Palestine
Grass - Its rapid fading in the heat of Palestine is a frequent image of man's frailty (Psalms 103:14-15; Psalms 90:5-6; Isaiah 40:6-7). ...
It is a coincidence undesigned, and therefore a mark of genuineness, that by three evangelists the "grass" is noticed in the miraculous feeding of the 5,000; John (John 6:10) saying, "there was much grass in the place" (a notable circumstance in Palestine, where grass is neither perennial nor universal; the latter rain and sunshine stimulate its rapid growth, but the scorching summer soon withers it and leaves the hills bare); Mark (Mark 6:39), with his usual graphic vividness, mentioning "the green grass"; Matthew (Matthew 14:19) simply stating Christ's command to "sit down on the grass
Joppa - Palestine; a place of high antiquity, being mentioned in the tribute lists of Thothmes iii. It is also one of the chief centres of the fruit-growing industry in Palestine, and its orange gardens are world-famed
Caesarea - It was the great Gentile city of Palestine, with a spacious artificial harbour. " It is described as the most desolate city of all Palestine
Hittites - Solomon rendered those that yet remained in Palestine tributary, 1 Kings 9:20; and they are mentioned after the captivity. But there are some remarkable notices of Hittites, Judges 1:26; 1 Kings 10:29; 2 Kings 7:6; 2 Chronicles 1:17, which point to a people, a branch of the great family, or the descendants of those expelled from Palestine, who were settled independently beyond Lebanon, and it may be on the southeastern frontier towards Arabia
Shechem - It was 34 miles north of Jerusalem, about seven miles southeast of Samaria, and its site is unrivalled for beauty in Palestine. Thomson describes the situation thus: "Nothing in Palestine surpasses (the vale) in fertility and natural beauty; and this is mainly due to the fine mill-stream which flows through it
Fox - There were several varieties of fox in Palestine, all like the common fox in form and habits. The jackal, at the present day, is much more numerous in Palestine, and is probably referred to in many texts where the word "foxes" occurs
Reed - There can be no doubt that it denotes some aquatic reed-like plant, probably the Phragmitis communis , which, if it does not occur in Palestine and Egypt, is represented by a very closely-allied species, viz. (2) A stronger reed, Arundo donax , the true reed of Egypt and Palestine, which grows 8 or 10 feet high, and is thicker than a man's thumb
Marinus, a Military Martyr - Marinus (4), a military martyr in the reign of Gallienus, at Caesarea in Palestine, under a judge named Achaeus, A. 620, on "Die Toleranzedicte des Kaisers Gallienus," suggests that Marinus could not legally have suffered under Gallienus, who had already issued his edict of toleration, but that it must have taken place by command of Macrianus, who had revolted from Gallienus and taken possession of Egypt, Palestine, and the East, and was, as we learn from Eus
Thorns, Thistles, Etc - ]'>[5] berqân is the Centaurea scoparia , a thorny-headed composite common in Palestine. verutum are common Palestine forms. The reference to the ‘crackling of thorns’ suggests the thorny burnet, which is burned all over Palestine in lime-kilns. ’...
The variety of words used to describe these prickly plants is not surprising, when it is remembered that such plants are ubiquitous throughout Palestine, and for many months of the year are almost the only living uncultivated vegetation
Harlot - In the time of the Maccabees the Gentiles in Palestine ‘dallied with harlots,’ and had to do ‘with women within the circuit of the holy places (2 Maccabees 6:4). ...
The Gospels supply us with little information as to the extent of prostitution in Palestine during the time of Christ. In the parable of the Prodigal Son, the far country in which he devoured his living with harlots (Luke 15:30) might be supposed to be possibly within Palestine. ...
In Christ’s day, Palestine was in many ways demoralized by Greek and Roman influences
Philistines - A celebrated people, who inhabited the southern seacoast of Canaan, which from them took the name of Philistia, Psalm 60:8 108:9 , or Palestine. They seem originally to have migrated form Egypt to Caphtor, by which some understand Crete, and others with the ancients Cappadocia, Genesis 10:14 , and thence to have passed over to Palestine under the name of Caphtorim, where they drove out the Avim, who dwelt from Hazerim to Azzah, that is, Gaza, and swelt in their stead, Deuteronomy 2:23 . ...
The Philistines were a powerful people in Palestine, even in Abraham's time, B. ...
They were partially subdued by Esar-haddon king of Assyria and afterwards by Psammetichus king of Egypt; and there is great probability that they were reduced by Nebuchadnezzar, as well as the other people of Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine, during the siege of Tyre
Potter, Pottery - Only after settlement in Palestine was the art developed to any extent by Israelites. ...
What is known of the potter’s art in Palestine is due mainly to the work of the Palestine Exploration Fund, and especially to that carried out by Flinders Petrie, Bliss, and Macalister, at Tell el-Hesy possibly the ancient Lachish and elsewhere, from 1890 onwards. ]'>[5] ; Petrie’s Tell el Hesy ; Bliss’s Mound of Many Cities; Excavations in Palestine , by Bliss, Macalister, and Wünsch, etc
Harlot - In the time of the Maccabees the Gentiles in Palestine ‘dallied with harlots,’ and had to do ‘with women within the circuit of the holy places (2 Maccabees 6:4). ...
The Gospels supply us with little information as to the extent of prostitution in Palestine during the time of Christ. In the parable of the Prodigal Son, the far country in which he devoured his living with harlots (Luke 15:30) might be supposed to be possibly within Palestine. ...
In Christ’s day, Palestine was in many ways demoralized by Greek and Roman influences
Nettle - Tristram thinks that this word "designates the prickly acanthus (Acanthus spinosus), a very common and troublesome weed in the plains of Palestine
Ophrah - The Palestine Memoirs suggest as its site the village of Ferata, near Shechem
Pamphili, Eusebius - 340) Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine
Hammer - Hammers with metal heads were rare in Palestine, possibly because metal was reserved for tools needing a cutting edge
Hill, Hill Country - Hills separating the Mediterranean coastal plain from the Jordan valley run the length of Palestine
Maronites - Name of one of the Uniat Churches numbering about 300,000, scattered through Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Egypt, and the United States (37 churches)
Tamarisk - There are some eight species of tamarisks in Palestine; they are most common in the Maritime Plain and the Jordan Valley
Caesarea, Eusebius of - 340) Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine
Mouse - ferah) of animals inhabit Palestine
Captivity, Babylonian - Cyrus gave permission for the exiles to return to Palestine to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, and a large number (42,360 Jews and 7,357 servants) availed themselves of it (1 Esdras 2)
Fir - The true fir (abies) is not found in Palestine, but the pine tree, of which there are four species, is common
Eshtemoa - road to the village Semu'a at a distance of 3,000 cubits, the Levitical extent of suburbs and the boundary of the village possessions to this day (Palestine Exploration)
Wormwood, - There are several species in Palestine: the Artemisia absinthium and A
Tamar -
A place mentioned by (Ezekiel 47:19 ; 48:28 ), on the southeastern border of Palestine
Anathoth - The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat
Dew - Moist air drawing from the sea is largely responsible for the dewfall in western Palestine
Horse-Leech - The horse-leech ( Hœmopis sanguisuga ) and the medicinal leech ( Hirudo medicinalis ) are very common in Palestine and are the cause of much trouble, even sickness and death, to man and beast
Massa - The tribe of Massa would therefore seem to have lived not very far east of Palestine
Wind - —‘The four winds’ (Matthew 24:31, Mark 13:27) is an expression standing for ‘north, south, east, and west,’ the winds in Palestine coming mainly from these directions
Beth-Zur - This is one of the highest sites above sea level in Palestine
Forest - ’ From the many references it is clear that Palestine had more extensive forests in ancient times than to-day, indeed, within living memory there has been a vast destruction of trees for fuel
Lily - Flowers of this group are very plentiful in Palestine, the irises being pre-eminent for their handsome appearance
Birds, Clean And Unclean - Of these the Ostrich is supposed to be among the unclean under the name of Owl; the Peacock was not a native bird of Palestine; and the Bittern and Crane were inhabitants of the marshy ground among the reeds, and were probably classed with the unclean under some of the above names
Cisterns - These were extensively used in Palestine for the collection of rain water
Fallow Deer - Brooke, however, has decided that a specimen sent him of the Bedouin yahmur , from Carmel, is the Cervus capreolus or ordinary roebuck (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July, 1876)
Gezer - The city has been partly excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund, and Simon’s dwelling-place discovered, as well as a great Canaanite high place, and innumerable other remains of early Palestinian civilization
Shobal - (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p
Eusebius Pamphili - 340) Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine
Agabus - Paul was going to Jerusalem, and had already landed at Caesarea, in Palestine, the same prophet, Agabus, arrived there, and coming to visit St
Joppa - called also Japho in the Old Testament, which is still preserved in its modern name of Jaffa or Yafah, a sea port of Palestine, situated on an eminence in a sandy soil, about seventy miles north-west of Jerusalem
Accho - It was in the territory assigned to the tribe of Asher, and one of the cities from which they were unable to expel the Canaanites; and it is even now considered the strongest place in Palestine
Aram - The elevated region northeast of Palestine, toward the Euphrates river
Fan - The word translated "fan" in the first place above referred to has been thought to mean something of a similar kind, as a fork, which is still used in Palestine
East - Besides the ordinary meanings of the word east, Joshua 4:19 ; Psalm 103:12 , the Jews often used it to designate a large region lying northeast and southeast of Palestine, including Syria and Arabia near at hand, and Babylonia, Assyria, Armenia, etc
Babylonian Captivity - Cyrus gave permission for the exiles to return to Palestine to rebuild Jerusalem and the Temple, and a large number (42,360 Jews and 7,357 servants) availed themselves of it (1 Esdras 2)
Towers - A slight tower or look-out was often erected for the keeper of a vineyard or flock, 2 Chronicles 26:10 Isaiah 5:2 Micah 4:8 Matthew 21:33 ; and travelers in Palestine see them in use at this day
Cistern, - The dryness of the summer months and the scarcity of springs in Judea made cisterns a necessity, and they are frequent throughout the whole of Syria and Palestine
Earthquake - Earthquakes, more or less violent, are of frequent occurrence in Palestine
Winepress, Wine-Vat - Not infrequently they were dug out in the soil or excavated in a rock, as in the rock vats in Palestine today
River - The other streams in Palestine, though called 'rivers,' as the Arnon, are torrents running in valleys; for the most part they have water only in the winter, and are then often impassable: these are described by the word nachal
Thorns - —Palestine is unusually rich in acanthous plants. As many as 50 genera and 200 species occur in Palestine and Syria, ‘besides a multitude clothed with scabrous, strigose, or stinging hairs, and another multitude with prickly fruits’ (Post in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iv. This may quite possibly be the common bramble (Rubus fruticosus), which is found in many parts of Palestine
Grecians Greeks - ...
The term ‘Grecians’ (Ἑλληνισταί), on the other hand (Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29), is applied to Greek-speaking Jews as opposed to the Jews of Palestine, who spoke Aramaic and are designated Hebrews. They were free from the narrowness and provincialism of the native Jews of Palestine, and the message of the Christian missionaries found much more willing hearers among this class than among the prejudiced and exclusive Palestine Jews
Grecians Greeks - ...
The term ‘Grecians’ (Ἑλληνισταί), on the other hand (Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29), is applied to Greek-speaking Jews as opposed to the Jews of Palestine, who spoke Aramaic and are designated Hebrews. They were free from the narrowness and provincialism of the native Jews of Palestine, and the message of the Christian missionaries found much more willing hearers among this class than among the prejudiced and exclusive Palestine Jews
Bible, Egypt in the - ...
For many centuries decadent Egypt claimed possession of Palestine. Obviously the prince of Tanis considered Palestine as part of his kingdom, and the Hebrew king as a vassal. Five years after Roboam's accession, Sesac, who probably wished to profit by the political division of Israel, in order to assert his suzerainty, invaded Palestine and ransacked Jerusalem (3Kings 14; Inscription of Karnak). Whether "Zara the Ethiopian," whose attempt against Palestine is recorded only in 2Par. Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198). Relations between Palestine and Egypt, particularly after the Roman occupation, were easy and frequent; and thus it is not surprising to see the Holy Family seek refuge in Egypt from the mad fury of Herod (Matthew 2)
Egypt in the Bible - ...
For many centuries decadent Egypt claimed possession of Palestine. Obviously the prince of Tanis considered Palestine as part of his kingdom, and the Hebrew king as a vassal. Five years after Roboam's accession, Sesac, who probably wished to profit by the political division of Israel, in order to assert his suzerainty, invaded Palestine and ransacked Jerusalem (3Kings 14; Inscription of Karnak). Whether "Zara the Ethiopian," whose attempt against Palestine is recorded only in 2Par. Palestine was a dependency of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, first from 320 to 222; it suffered much in the hostilities between Antiochus III the Great and Ptolemy IV Philopator who plundered the Temple; but in consequence of the defeat of the king of Syria, the country, after a few years of Syrian rule, reverted to Egypt until it was definitely conquered by Antiochus (198). Relations between Palestine and Egypt, particularly after the Roman occupation, were easy and frequent; and thus it is not surprising to see the Holy Family seek refuge in Egypt from the mad fury of Herod (Matthew 2)
Lake of Genesareth - A lake in Palestine, about 13 miles long, and 7
Milk And Honey - Milk, especially the milk of goats, formed a large part of the food of Israel; wherefore, although the phrase "flowing with milk and honey" is a hyperbole and metonomy to denote richness of food products, the metonomy has a basis in the actual presence of these two articles of food in ancient Palestine
Judas Thaddeus, Saint - Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia
Jude, Saint - Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia
Itineraria - Among the oldest, now preserved, are the "Itinerarium Burdigalense," by an anonymous writer known as the Pilgrim of Bordeaux who visited the Holy Land in the years 333,334, and the "Peregrinatio Sanctre Silivre" by a Spanish nun, Egeria, written c385 Among the later medieval works, the most important is the "Descriptio Terrre Sanctre" by a Dominican, Burchard, who spent ten years in Palestine, 1274-1284
Shem - In the other tradition ( Genesis 9:20-27 ) ‘Shem’ stands for a people in Palestine the Hebrews, or some portion of them with whom ‘Japheth’ lived in close conjunction, and to whom ‘Canaan’ was subjugated
Sela - "The caravans from all ages, from the interior of Arabia and from the Gulf of Persia, from Hadramaut on the ocean, and even from Sabea or Yemen, appear to have pointed to Petra as a common centre; and from Petra the tide seems again to have branched out in every direction, to Egypt, Palestine, and Syria, through Arsinoe, Gaza, Tyre, Jerusalem, and Damascus, and by other routes, terminating at the Mediterranean
Micah - A shortened form of Micaiah, who is like Jehovah?
A man of Mount Ephraim, whose history so far is introduced in Judges 17 , apparently for the purpose of leading to an account of the settlement of the tribe of Dan in Northern Palestine, and for the purpose also of illustrating the lawlessness of the times in which he lived (Judges 18 ; 19:1-29 ; 21:25 )
Alleluia - "The monks of Palestine were awaked at their midnight watchings, with the singing of alleluias
Frankincense - , "white"), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ), yet also growing in Palestine (Song of Solomon 4:14 )
Wine-Press - Wine-presses are found in almost every part of Palestine
Tadmor - In 1 Kings 9:18 , where the word occurs in the Authorized Version, the Hebrew text and the Revised Version read "Tamar," which is properly a city on the southern border of Palestine and toward the wilderness (Compare Ezekiel 47:19 ; 48:28 )
Nazarene - All over Palestine and Syria this name is still given to Christians
Hyaena - ]'>[4] daba‘ ) is a very common Palestine animal, concerning which the fellahîn have countless tales
Mule - Mules are preferred in Palestine to-day as pack animals (cf
Sha'Ron - [1] The Sharon of (2 Chronicles 5:16 ) to which allusion has already been made, is distinguished front the western plain by not having the article attached to its name, as the other invariably has
Sar'Gon - 721 to 706, he gives an account of his warlike expeditions against Babylonia and Susiana on the south, Media on the east, Armenia and Cappadocia toward the north, Syria, Palestine, Arabia and Egypt toward the west and southwest
Rehoboth (1) - , 243; "Our Work in Palestine," 299)
Robbery - Owing to the corrupt administration of Roman governors, and the facility of collecting and hiding banditti in the natural caves of Palestine, robbers infested Judaea much in our Lord's time and the age following (Luke 10:30; John 18:40; Acts 5:36-37; Acts 21:38; 2 Corinthians 11:26)
Kedar - Apparently the descendants of Kedar occupied the area south of Palestine and east of Egypt (Genesis 25:18 )
Honey, Milk And - Milk, especially the milk of goats, formed a large part of the food of Israel; wherefore, although the phrase "flowing with milk and honey" is a hyperbole and metonomy to denote richness of food products, the metonomy has a basis in the actual presence of these two articles of food in ancient Palestine
Bear - ]'>[1] dûbb ) is still fairly common in Hermon and the Anti-Lebanon, and is occasionally found in the Lebanon and east of the Jordan; it is practically extinct in Palestine
Cucumbers - Two varieties of cucumber are very common in Palestine
Leopard - ]'>[1] nimr ) is still found at times in the wilder parts of Palestine
Gerar - Condor (Palestine Exploration, August, 1875) identifies it rather with Tel-Jema, an enormous mound covered with broken pottery, immediately S
Spies - Twelve were sent by Moses to search out the land of Palestine, the adoption of this means being first desired by the people, and afterwards ordered by God
Job - He lived in the land of Uz and belonged to the Aramean race, which had settled in the lower part of Mesopotamia (probably to the south or south-east of Palestine, in Idumean Arabia), adjacent to the Sabeans and Chaldeans
Artaxerxes - He had already received complaints from the inhabitants of Palestine who wanted to stop the returned exiles from rebuilding and had stopped the Jewish builders (Ezra 4:7-24 )
Galilee, Sea of - A lake in Palestine, about 13 miles long, and 7
Hermon - A noble mountain on the north-east border of Palestine, forming the highest part of the Anti-Lebanon range
Jacob's Well - It is identified with Bir Yakub, at the base of Gerizim, 32 12' N, 35 16' E , and is one of the few spots in Palestine the identification of which has not been disputed
Hermit - Saint Anthony popularized it at Pispir early in the 4th century, and after the persecutions hermits increased in Egypt, Palestine, the Sinaitic peninsula, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Asia Minor, and spread to the West
Gier Eagle - It is found in great abundance also in Palestine and Syria
Harod - It is one of the most plentiful and beautiful fountains in Palestine, and one that must always have been taken into account in military movements in the neighbourhood
Hart, Hind - Palestine to-day, but evidently was so once ( 1 Kings 4:23 ): it is mentioned as a clean animal in Deuteronomy 12:15 ; Deuteronomy 12:22 etc
Vine, Vineyard - The vine was extensively cultivated in Palestine
Thorns, Thistles - afrum are both found in Palestine
Wine-Press, Wine-Fat - ...
Symbolically the wine-press is used as a figure of the execution of God's judgements: the people, as grapes, are placed in the press, and there crushed: "and blood came out of the winepress, even unto the horses' bridles, by the space of 1600 furlongs" (about the extent of Palestine) Revelation 14:19,20 ; Revelation 19:15
Grecians - " But Grecians were foreign Jews as distinct from those in Palestine, who were called "Hebrews
Greeks - " But Grecians were foreign Jews as distinct from those in Palestine, who were called "Hebrews
Hamath - It was 165 miles in a straight line north of Jerusalem; was visited by the spies, Numbers 13:21, and it is frequently noticed as the northern boundary of Palestine
Honey - This, called dibs, is still prepared in many parts of Syria and Palestine, especially in the neighborhood of Hebron, and is in great quantities exported into Egypt
Eagle - , Leviticus 11:13, a bird very abundant in Palestine and adjacent countries
Genesareth, Lake of - A lake in Palestine, about 13 miles long, and 7
is'Sachar - " This territory was, as it still is, among the richest land in Palestine
ze'Bah - and Zalmun'na ( deprived of protection ), the two "kings" of Midian who commanded the great invasion of Palestine, and who finally fell by the hand of Gideon himself
Oil - Different kinds were known in Palestine
Needle - This mars the figure without materially altering the meaning, and receives no justification from the language and traditions of Palestine
Lily - If the lily was fragrant, it was probably the Lilium candidum, or common white lily, which also grows in Palestine; or it may designate some species of anemone
Ramah - The latest map of the Palestine fund places it a short distance east of Bethlehem
Wells - Wells were necessary in a dry and hot country like Palestine
Paran, or el-Paran - Genesis 14:6 , a large tract of desert country lying south of Palestine, and west of the valley El Arabah, which runs from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Akaba
Molech, Moloch, or Milcom - The Israelites also introduced the worship of this idol, both during their wanderings in the desert, and after their settlement in Palestine, 2 Kings 23:10 Ezekiel 20:26,31
Sea of Galilee - A lake in Palestine, about 13 miles long, and 7
Hermon - A lofty mountain on the northeast border of Palestine, called also Sirion Shenir, and Sion, (not Zion,) Deuteronomy 3:8 ; 4:39
Streets - In the towns and cities of Palestine, are supposed to have been comparatively narrow and ill graded, on account of the unevenness of their sites, and the little use of wheel-carriages
Snow - It rarely fell of any great depth in the latitude of Palestine, or remained long on the ground except in elevated spots, 2 Samuel 23:20
Thaddeus, Judas, Saint - Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia
Famine - Scripture records several famines in Palestine, and the neighboring countries, Genesis 12:10 26:1 Ruth 1:1 2 Kings 6:25 Acts 11:27
Mag'Dala - towers, which stood in Palestine, was probably the place of that name which is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud as near Tiberias, and this again is as probably the modern el-Mejdel , a miserable little Muslim village, of twenty huts on the water's edge at the southeast corner of the plain of Gennesareth
ha'Zor - (Joshua 11:1 ; Judges 4:2,17 ; 1 Samuel 12:9 ) It was the principal city of the whole of north Palestine
ke'Dar - (dark-skinned ), the second in order of the sons of Ishmael, ( Genesis 25:13 ; 1 Chronicles 1:29 ) and the name of a great tribe of Arabs settled on the northwest of the peninsula and on the confines of Palestine
Hit'Tits - 'They were then settled at the town which was afterwards, under its new name of Hebron, to become one of the most famous cities of Palestine, and which then bore the name of Kir-jath-arba
Partridge - Our common partridge, Perdix cinerea , does not occur in Palestine
ed'Rei - ...
A town of northern Palestine, allotted to the tribe of Naphtali, and situated near Kedesh
Jabbok - "The scenery along its banks is probably the most picturesque in Palestine; and the ruins of town and village and fortress which stud the surrounding mountain-side render the country as interesting as it is beautiful
Gibeon - Being a Canaanite town of central Palestine, Gibeon should have been destroyed by Joshua’s invading army
Swine - ...
In modern Palestine very much the same feeling survives. Pigs are not common in Palestine; they are kept by German colonists and in a few places by native Christians
Fig - The fig-tree is mentioned (Deuteronomy 8:8 ) as one of the valuable products of Palestine. ...
The fig-tree of Palestine (Ficus carica) produces two and sometimes three crops of figs in a year, (1) the bikkurah, or "early-ripe fig" (Micah 7:1 ; Isaiah 28:4 ; Hosea 9:10 , RSV), which is ripe about the end of June, dropping off as soon as it is ripe (Nahum 3:12 ); (2) the kermus, or "summer fig," then begins to be formed, and is ripe about August; and (3) the pag (plural "green figs," Song of Solomon 2:13 ; Gr
Lachish - Impregnable, a royal Canaanitish city in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Joshua 10:3,5 ; 12:11 ). The letter, though not so important in some ways as the Moabite stone and the Siloam text, is one of the most valuable discoveries ever made in Palestine" (Conder's Tell Amarna Tablets, p
Horse - The Israelites must have been acquainted with horses in Egypt ( Genesis 47:17 ), and it is evident, too, from the Tell el-Amarna correspondence that horses were familiar animals in Palestine at an early period; but it would appear that the children of Israel were slow in adopting them. Horses were fed on barley and tibn (chopped straw) in Solomon’s time as in Palestine to-day ( 1 Kings 4:28 )
Rain - (See Palestine; Climate. As compared with Egypt, Palestine was a land of rain (Deuteronomy 11:10-11), but for six months no rain falls so that "rain in harvest" and "thunder" were marvelous phenomena, and out of time and place (Proverbs 26:1; 1 Samuel 12:16-18)
Wilderness - This term and that of DESERTdo not usually refer in scripture to such places as the vast sand-plains of Africa, though there are some such in Palestine, but the words mostly refer to non-arable plains where the vegetation but thinly covers the limestone with patches of verdure. ...
The rest were not in Palestine proper, but were the deserts through which the Israelites passed or were located in their wanderings: namely, ETHAM, KADESH, PARAN, SIN, SINAI, and ZIN
Petrus, First Bishop of Parembolae - of Parembolae in Palestine, i. of the military stations of the Saracens in Palestine
Midian - of Palestine. As merchants passing through Palestine from Gilead to Egypt, they bought Joseph from his brethren (Genesis 37:28). ...
In their next raids on Palestine in Gideon's days they appear as nomads with countless camels
Bee - ...
Wild honey, such as John Baptist ate (Matthew 3:4), abounded in Palestine, often liquid, whence the land is described as "flowing with milk and honey" (Exodus 3:8). , which Jacob sent Joseph, and which the Tyrians brought from Palestine (Ezekiel 27:17). The commonness of honey in Palestine as an article of diet appears in 2 Samuel 17:29; 2 Kings 14:3; Jeremiah 41:8; Ezekiel 16:13; Ezekiel 16:19
Earthquake - Palestine has two to three major quakes a century and two to six minor shocks a year. The major quake centers in Palestine are Upper Galilee—near the biblical town of Shechem (Nablus)—and near Lydda on the western edge of the Judean mountains. ...
Seven major quakes have been reported in Palestine since the time of Christ
Gilead - , and resemble a massive wall along the horizon; but when ascended they present a" wide table land tossed about in wild confusion of undulating downs, clothed with rich grass and magnificent forests, and broken by three deep defiles, those of the Jarmuk, Jabbok, and Arnon" (Stanley, Sinai and Palestine)...
The high Arabian plateau makes them look low from the E. Pasturage abounds in Gilead more than in western Palestine, from whence Reuben and Gad chose it for their numerous flocks and herds (Numbers 32). Being a border land, it was exposed to the marauding tribes of the desert (Joshua 17:1), and Ramoth Gilead was thought the eastern key of Palestine (1 Kings 22:3-6)
Ashkelon - ...
The location in southern Palestine put Ashkelon under considerable Egyptian influence throughout much of its history. ...
One of the earliest modern attempts at archaeology in Palestine took place in Ashkelon in 1815 when Lady Hester Stanhope did some digging and uncovered a huge statue of Zeus which subsequently she ordered destroyed (some say to avoid charges of stealing antiquities, others say to discover hidden treasure). Serious work was begun by John Garstang and the Palestine Exploration Society
Dove - Though it was a favourite food with some neighbouring peoples, it was not eaten in Palestine. In Palestine the dove was considered sacred by the Phœnicians and the Philistines, and the Samaritans were often accused of worshipping it. ...
Exclusive of the turtle-dove, four species of dove are found in Palestine: Columba palumbus, the ring-dove, or wood-pigeon; Columba aenas, the stock-dove, found in Gilead and Bashan and the Jordan Valley; Columba livia, the rock-dove, abundant along the coast and in the uplands; Columba schimperi, closely allied to the preceding, and found in the interior
Talmud - 220,500 the rabbinic schools in Palestine and Babylonia amplified and applied the teachings of the Mishnah for their Jewish communities. ...
The Babylonian Talmud became the most authoritative of the two written Talmuds due both to the political fortunes of the Jewish communities in Palestine and Babylon in the first four centuries A. ...
The Jerusalem Talmud was not compiled in Jerusalem but in the centers of Tiberias, Caesarea, and Sepphoris in Palestine, since Jerusalem ceased to be a major center of Jewish learning after the destruction of the second Temple in A. It uses Western Aramaic, the dialect of Palestine
Caesarea - A city rebuilt by Herod the Great on the site of Straton’s Tower, on the coast of Palestine, between Joppa and Dora. After the banishment of Herod’s successor Archelaus, Cæsarea became the official residence of the Roman procurators of Palestine (broken only by the brief interval during which it was under the independent rule of Herod Agrippa I. The city was made into a Roman colony, renamed Colonia Prima Flavia Augusta Cæsarensis , released from taxation, and recognized as the capital of Palestine. 200 to 451 the residence of the Metropolitan bishop of Palestine
Felix - ’ Of his public life prior to his appointment to his procuratorship in Palestine, nothing is known; of his private life, only that he had married a granddaughter of Antony and Cleopatra, whom Tacitus (loc. ...
Josephus and Tacitus are at variance as to the time and circumstance of the sending of Felix to Palestine. ’ This fixes the arrival of Felix in Palestine in a. ’ Under his government the state of Palestine grew rapidly worse
Palestine - ...
Palestine is derived from the name Pelishtim or “Philistines. The Greeks, familiar primarily with the coastal area, applied the name Palestine to the entire southeastern Mediterranean region. Although the word Palestine (or Palestina) is found four times in the KJV (Exodus 15:14 ; Isaiah 14:29 ,Isaiah 14:29,14:31 ; Joel 3:4 ), these are references to the territory of the Philistines and so properly designate only the strip of coastland occupied by that people. ...
For the purposes of this article, Palestine extends to the north ten to fifteen miles beyond the ancient site of Dan and New Testament Caesarea Philippi into the gorges and mountains just south of Mount Hermon. To the south, Palestine extends en to fifteen miles beyond Beer-sheba. It therefore includes western Palestine—between the Jordan River and the Sea, and eastern Palestine—between the Jordan and the Arabian steppe. ...
Palestine west of the Jordan covers approximately 6,000 square miles. ...
Geographical Features Palestine is naturally divided into four narrow strips of land running north and south. The highest peak is Mount Meron, at 3,963 feet the highest point in Palestine. Jordan Rift Valley As a result of crustal faulting, the hills of Palestine drop into the deepest split on the surface of the earth. Formerly heavily wooded, with many springs and with gently rounded hills, Gilead is one of the most picturesque regions of Palestine. ”...
Climate Palestine lies in the semitropical belt between 30 15' and 33 15' north latitude. ...
Palestine is a land of two seasons, a dry season and a rainy season, with intervening transitional periods. ...
All of Palestine experiences extremely disagreeable warm conditions occasionally
Palm Palm Tree - There are several hundred species of palm; but the Phœnix dactylifera, or date-palm, is that which, growing in Palestine, is often referred to in Scripture
Pentecost - It was originally a simple thanksgiving for the harvest, which in Palestine fell in the weeks between the passover and the pentecost
Laura - In the first usage the term was applied to a section of Palestine where the hermitages founded by Chariton and Sabas were connected with a church
Rush, Rushes - There are some twenty kinds of rushes in Palestine, but it is impossible to fit the references to any one kind, and, indeed, some kind of ‘reed’ (wh
Wolf - ...
The wolf of Palestine is a variety of Canis tupus , somewhat lighter in colour and larger than that of N
Month - ", Palestine Quarterly, January 1889
Hor - ...
...
One of the marks of the northern boundary of Palestine ( Numbers 34:7,8 )
Corn - ...
From the time of Solomon, corn began to be exported from Palestine ( Ezekiel 27:17 ; Amos 8:5 )
Snow - (Proverbs 25:13 ) The liability to snow must of course vary considerably in a country of such varying altitude as Palestine
Eshcol - of Hebron, described by Robinson as producing the largest grapes in Palestine, where a fount is still called Ain Eskaly (Van de Velde)
Zoan - It was built seven years after Hebron in Palestine (Numbers 13:22 )
Avim - W, of Palestine, the S
Leopard - The prevalence of leopards anciently in Palestine is marked by the many places named from them (namer , Hebrew): Nimrah, Nimrim, Beth Nimrah
Siloam, Tower of - The memory of this migration is still preserved; and I am assured by the people themselves that many of their number are installed in other villages round Jerusalem" (quoted by Henderson, Palestine)
Cappadocia - ...
The approach to Cappadocia from Palestine and Syria was by the pass called "the Cilician gates," leading up through the Taurus range from the low region of Cilicia
Machpelah - The sacred precinct (harem ) is enclosed by a wall, the oldest in Palestine
Rain - There is no prolonged fair weather in Palestine between October and March
Badger - Though the badger is common in Palestine, and might occur in the wilderness, its small hide would have been useless as a tent covering
Mustard - ]'>[1] khardal ), which grows wild in Palestine, and is a familiar sight on the shores of Gennesaret
Ut - (Job 1:1 ) As far as we can gather, "the land of Uz" lay either east or southeast of Palestine, (Job 1:3 ) adjacent to the Sabaeans and the Chaldaeans, (Job 1:15,17 ) consequently north of the southern Arabians and west of the Euphrates; and, lastly, adjacent to the Edomites of Mount Seir, who at one period occupied Uz, probably as conquerors, (Lamentations 4:21 ) and whose troglodyte habits are described in (Job 30:6,7 ) From the above data we infer that the land of Uz corresponds to the Arabia Deserta of classical geography, at all events to so much of it as lies north of the 30th parallel of latitude
Tin - Tin is not found in Palestine
Hinnom, Valley of - ) "The son of Hinnom" was some ancient hero who encamped there (Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, 172)
Tahpanhes - border, near Pelusium, of which it was the outpost; therefore soon reached from Palestine by Johanan (Jeremiah 43:7; Jeremiah 43:9)
Thunder - Rare in the clear air of Palestine in harvest time or summer, which shows how its coming at Samuel's call unto Jehovah was by divine agency (1 Samuel 12:17-18)
Ituraea - of Palestine
Claudius - ...
In Claudius' reign occurred the famine in Palestine and Syria (Acts 11:28-30) under the procurators Cuspins Fadus and Tiberius Alexander
Crocodile - A stuffed specimen is in the PEF Valley - “Valleys” of varying shapes and sizes mark Palestine's landscape. See Palestine
Flowers - Flowers are one of the attractive features of Palestine: they come in the early spring ( Song of Solomon 2:12 ), but fade all too soon, the brilliant display being a matter of but a few short weeks
Old Testament - The Prophets—Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets—continue with the nation in the land of Palestine until the Exile and includes prophetic messages delivered to the nation
Chushan-Rishathaim - We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A
Midian - In the days of the Judges they extended further north and made inroads into central Palestine
Judgment-Hall - The administration of justice in basilicae has been traced to Pompeii and other centres of Roman life, but was apparently not the custom in Palestine, the word translated ‘judgment hall’ in the Authorized Version (John 18:28; John 18:33; John 19:9, Acts 23:35) being really πραιτώριον or palace
Geliloth - ...
Conder connects Geliloth with the "tells" or mounds of Palestine, which he thinks to be the accumulated refuse of sun-dried bricks, which served as a platform on which others were baked, as at the present day in India and Egypt
Lily - (See Tristram, Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p
Scallop - One species (Vola Jacobaeus) occurs on the coast of Palestine, and its shell was formerly worn by pilgrims as a mark that they had been to the Holy Land
Judaea - See Canaan, Palestine, and Judah
South - In the Bible, as we might expect, the points of the compass are spoken of as they refer to the land of Palestine
Pelican - crispus are known in Palestine
Canaan - (See CANAANITES, Palestine
Cart - ) In Syria and Palestine wheel-carriages for any other purpose than the conveyance of agricultural produce are almost unknown
Army (2) - The Roman soldier, the legionary, did not loom very large in Palestine
Harvest - Harvest in Palestine was in March and April, and the term is frequently employed to designate this season of the year
Dove - The Hebrew word yonah includes the various varieties of doves and pigeons found in Palestine, excepting turtle-doves, called tôr
me'Rom - It is a place memorable in the history of the conquest of Palestine
a'Ven -
The "plain of Aven" is mentioned by (Amos 1:5 ) in his denunciation of Syria and the country to the north of Palestine
Ahava - This is probably the country called Ava, whence the kings of Assyria translated the people called Avites into Palestine, and where they settled some of the captive Israelites, 2 Kings 17:24 ; 2 Kings 18:34 ; 2 Kings 19:13 ; 2 Kings 17:31
Raven - There are several species of the raven in Palestine: it belongs to the order Insessores, family Corvidae
Amalek - He was probably the father of the Amalekites, an ancient and powerful people, Genesis 14:7; Numbers 24:20, who inhabited the regions on the south of Palestine, between Idumea and Egypt, and also to the eastward of the Dead Sea and Mount Seir
Aphek - A city of Asher, Joshua 19:30, in the north of Palestine, near Sidon, Joshua 13:4; supposed to be the same as Aphik, Judges 1:31, and the classical Aphaca, noted in later history for its temple of Venus; now Afka, near Lebanon
Scorpion - Scorpions are abundant in Palestine, and are especially common about Mount Sinai
Unicorn - An allied species of great size and strength is known to have existed in Palestine, as the bison (Bison bonasus), and some or these, now called aurochs, are still found in the forests of Lithuania
Sop - ...
Similar customs still prevail in Palestine
Copper - Palestine abounded in it, Deuteronomy 8:9 , and David amassed great quantities to be employed in building the temple, 1 Chronicles 22:3-14
Salt of the Earth - Much of the salt used in Palestine is obtained by evaporation of the Dead Sea waters, not perfectly pure and hence liable to corruption and loss of savor
Balm - It is a product of the Pistacia lentiscus , a plant common in Palestine
Pelican - In Palestine two species are known, of which the white pelican ( Pelicanus onocrotalus ) is plentiful in the more retired parts of the Jordan lakes, especially in the Huleh
Night - ...
The nights are sometimes extremely cold in Syria, when the days are very hot; and travelers in the deserts and among the mountains near Palestine refer to their own sufferings from these opposite extremes, in illustration of Jacob's words in Genesis 31:40 , "In the day the drought consumed me, and the frost by night; and my sleep departed from mine eyes
Mandrakes - It grows in Palestine and Mesopotamia
Cucumbers - Tristram, "are now grown in great quantities in Palestine
Hyaena - " The only other instance in which it occurs is as a proper name, Zeboim, (1 Samuel 13:18 ) "the valley of hyaenas, "Aquila; (Nehemiah 11:34 ) The striped hyaena (Hyaena striata ) is found in Africa, Asia Minor, Arabia and Persia, and is more common in Palestine than any other carnivorous animals except perhaps the jackal
Issachar - It included the plain of Esdraelon (=Jezreel), which was and still is the richest portion of Palestine (Deuteronomy 33:18,19 ; 1 Chronicles 12:40 )
Fig, Fig Tree - The fig tree (Ficus carica ) is very common in Palestine
Ornaments, Personal, - There is sufficient evidence in the Bible that the inhabitants of Palestine were equally devoted to finery
Judaea, Judea - Paul, in Galatians 1:22 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:14 , speaks of the 'churches of Judaea' which would seem to embrace the whole of Palestine
Issachar - The tribe descended from him inherited land that covered the important Plain of Esdraelon and Valley of Jezreel in northern Israel (see Palestine; JEZREEL)
Paphnutius, Surnamed Bubalus - 30, 31), and with some others had in 373 already found refuge at Diocaesarea in Palestine (Tillem
Sennach'Erib, - 699) Sennacherib made his second expedition into Palestine. Sennacherib reached his capital in safety, and was not deterred by the terrible disaster which had befallen his arms from engaging in other wars, though he seems thenceforward to have carefully avoided Palestine
Desert - Not meaning a barren, burning, sandy waste, in the case of Sinai and Palestine. It is "desert" only in comparison with the rich agriculture of Egypt and Palestine
Brick - According to Flinders Petrie, the earliest Palestine bricks followed the Babylonian pattern. ...
Reference may also be made to the use of clay as a writing material, which was introduced into Palestine from Babylonia, and, as we now know, continued in use in certain quarters till the time of Hezekiah at least
Philistines - of Palestine when Abraham went to sojourn at Gerar, Genesis 20 ; and both Abraham and Isaac had certain contentions with them respecting the wells which they had digged. Their five cities commanded the coast road from Egypt to Syria, and there is proof that Egypt had a strong hold on Palestine before the arrival of Joshua; but it was then declining
Sheep - Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp. '" The common sheep of Syria and Palestine are the broad-tailed, which, when fattened, have tails of an enormous size
Shepherd - Shepherds in Palestine and the East generally go before their flocks, calling to them, and the sheep follow; comp. '" The common sheep of Syria and Palestine are the broad-tailed, which, when fattened, have tails of an enormous size
Nain - 477; Stanley, SP Tabor, Mount - [2] 364; Stanley, SP [3] 419; Merrill, Galilee, 54; Robinson, BRP Olive - This tree ( Olea europea ) is the first-named ‘king of the trees’ ( Judges 9:8-9 ), and is, in Palestine at any rate, by far the most important. The peculiar grey-green foliage with its silver sheen, and the wonderful twisted and often hollow trunks of the tree, are very characteristic of Palestine scenery. Nor can the present writer, after careful inquiries all over Palestine, find any knowledge of such a custom. ’ Where groves of wild olives are found in Palestine, they are probably always the descendants of cultivated trees long ago destroyed
Palesti'na - " Palestine in the Authorized Version really means nothing but Philistia. --Palestine, then, is designated in the Bible by more than one name. (Matthew 19:1 ; Mark 10:1 ) ...
The Roman division of the country hardly coincided with the biblical one, and it does not appear that the Romans had any distinct name for that which we understand by Palestine. --Palestine is essentially a mountainous country. On the east it is the broad bottom of the Jordan valley, deep down in which rushed the one river of Palestine to its grave in, the Dead Sea. This central lowland, which divides with its broad depression the mountains of Ephraim from the mountains of Galilee is the plain of Esdraelon or Jezreel the great battle-field of Palestine. --The chacteristics already described are hardly peculiar to Palestine, but there is one feature, as yet only alluded to, in which she stands alone. --"Probably there is no country in the world of the same extent which has a greater variety of climate than Palestine. --The botany of Syria and Palestine differs but little from that of Asia Minor, which is one of the most rich and varied on the globe. Next to the vine, or even in some respects its superior in importance, ranks the olive, which nowhere grows in greater luxuriance and abundance than in Palestine, where the olive orchards form a prominent feature throughout the landscape, and have done so from time immemorial. The fig forms another most important crop in Syria and Palestine. Palestine is especially distinguished for its wild flowers, of which there are more than five hundred varieties. --It will be sufficient in this article to give a general survey of the fauna of Palestine, as the reader will find more particular information in the several articles which treat of the various animals under their respective names. Jackals and foxes are common; the hyena and wolf are also occasionally observed; the lion is no longer a resident in Palestine or Syria. There does not appear to be at present any wild ox in Palestine. The ox of the country is small and unsightly in the neighborhood of Jerusalem, but in the richer pastures the cattle, though small, are not unsightly The common sheep of Palestine is the broadtail, with its varieties. Palestine abounds in numerous kinds of birds. In the south of Palestine especially, reptiles of various kinds abound. It has been remarked that in its physical character Palestine presents on a small scale an epitome of the natural features of all regions, mountainous and desert, northern and tropical, maritime and inland, pastoral, arable and volcanic. But in Palestine it is not too much to say that there does not exist a single edifice or part of an edifice of which we call be sure that it is of a date anterior to the Christian era
Metals - of Palestine; i. The hills of Palestine yielded copper (Deuteronomy 8:9). Tin (bdiyl ) was doubtless imported through the Phoenicians from Cornwall to Tarshish, and thence to Palestine (Ezekiel 27:12; Isaiah 54:17; Isaiah 1:25); the Assyrian bronze bowls, having one part tin to ten copper, now in the British Museum, consist of metal probably exported 3,000 years ago from the British isles
Hermon - of Palestine (Joshua 12:1), over against Lebanon (Joshua 11:17), adjoining Bashan (1 Chronicles 5:23). A center to Syria and Palestine; the watershed of the Jordan fountains, and of the Syrian Abana and Pharpar of Damascus, the Orontes of Antioch, and the Leontes. Lebanon means the "white" mountain, the Mont Blanc of Palestine
Eagle - "A majestic and royal bird, the largest and most powerful seen in Palestine, far surpassing the eagle in size and power" (Tristram). The golden eagle; the spotted, common in the rocky regions; the imperial; and the Circaeros gallicus (short-toed eagle), living on reptiles only: Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October, 1876), are all found in Palestine
Sennacherib - Smith, in Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October 1872, p. The kings of Palestine mentioned as submitting to Sennacherib are Menahem of Samaria, Tubal of Sidon, Kemosh Natbi of Moab, etc. This was probably two years after the first, but late in his reign Sennacherib speaks of an expedition to Palestine apparently
Jor'Dan - (the descender ), the one river of Palestine, has a course of little more than 200 miles, from the roots of Anti-Lebanon to the head of the Dead Sea. ) It is the river of the "great plain" of Palestine --the "descender," if not "the river of God" in the book of Psalms, at least that of his chosen people throughout their history. The physical features of the Ghor , through which the Jordan flows, are treated of under Palestine
Mines And Mining - Finely worked arrowheads found alongside large quantities of animal bones indicated the dependence upon hunting by Neolithic man in Palestine. ” Palestine, however, was relatively poor in copper ore. Tin deposits in Mesopotamia made the growth of this new technology easier in the northern Fertile Crescent, while Palestine and Egypt, without local tin deposits and mines, were forced to import raw materials. In Palestine, the Timna copper mines came under the control of the Egyptians during the Late Bronze period. Copper supplies dwindled, and the import of tin and copper by Egypt and Palestine was disrupted, forcing metalsmiths to develop a new method for tool manufacture. Iron mines located in the Gilead near Ajlun at Magharat Warda probably served as one of the earliest iron sources in Palestine, possibly providing for the ion bedstead of Og, king of Bashan. ...
The Bible speaks of the Philistines as controlling the ironworking skills in Palestine (1 Samuel 13:19-22 ), an ability that prevented Israelite domination over the Philistine settlements in the Coastal Plain and Shephelah. For the most part, tools in Palestine continued to be made of bronze
Transjordan - The most prominent topographical feature of Palestine is the Jordan River Valley, referred to in the Old Testament as the “Arabah” and called today, in Arabic, the Ghor. This valley represents a huge geographical fault line which is prominent also in Lebanon, where it creates the Beqa'a Valley, continues southward from Palestine to form the Red Sea, and extends even as far as Mozambique in east Africa. See Jordan, Palestine . In either case, we know that the old trade route which traversed the Transjordan would have played an important role in the economy of ancient Palestine and was refurbished by the Romans who named it the Via Nova Traiana . ), the various regions of Syria-Palestine fell under Assyrian domination
Syria - (ssihr' ih uh) The region or nation directly north of Palestine in the northwest corner of the Mediterranean Sea. ...
Name and Geography Syria is most properly a geographical term for the northwestern Mediterranean region situated between Palestine and Mesopotamia, roughly equal to the modern states of Syria and Lebanon with small portions of Turkey and Iraq. ...
Syria, like Palestine, has four basic geographical features as one moves from the Mediterranean eastward: (1) a narrow coastal plain; (2) a line of mountains; (3) the rift valley; and (4) fertile steppe fading into desert. See Palestine ; Rivers. By New Testament times, Aramaic was the language commonly spoken in Palestine and probably used by Jesus
River - Matthew 7:25, Mark 1:5, Luke 6:48 John 7:38]'>[1])...
The Jordan is the only river in Palestine proper, worthy of the name. Among the other streams and mountain torrents in Palestine there are the Kishon, which drains Galilee westward; the Yarmuk and the Jabbok, which carry the waters of Bashan and Gilead into the Jordan; the Leontes and Orontes, which rise in CCEle-Syria and drain the great basin between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and the Euphrates, greatest of All, forming the boundary of Palestine on the N. ...
The rivers mentioned in apostolic history carry us beyond Palestine. When the rivers of Asia Minor and Palestine are in flood, to ford them is little less than a tragedy
Balm - The shrub so named was highly valued, and was almost peculiar to Palestine
Bulrush - It is no longer found in Egypt, but grows luxuriantly in Palestine, in the marshes of the Huleh, and in the swamps at the north end of the Lake of Gennesaret
Bottle - Although glass was not unknown in Palestine in Bible times, the various words rendered ‘bottle’ in AV Chameleon - The chameleon ( Chamœleonvulgaris ) is a very common Palestine lizard
Frederick Barbarossa - Having taken the cross in 1189, he started for Palestine, and while crossing the River Saleph in Asia Minor, met with a sudden death
Frederick i - Having taken the cross in 1189, he started for Palestine, and while crossing the River Saleph in Asia Minor, met with a sudden death
Scorpion - It occurs plentifully in Palestine, ten species being known; it is nocturnal in its habits, and kills small insects, spiders, etc
Stork - ]'>[1] , abu said ‘father of good luck’) is a bird much loved in Palestine, where in its migration northwards it arrives in the spring ( Jeremiah 8:7 ); it does great good by clearing the crops of caterpillars and locusts: when the storks arrive plentifully, it is anticipated that the harvests will be unusually good
Terebinth - The terebinth or turpentine tree ( Sir 24:16 ) Pistacia terebinthus , the butm of the Arabs is one of the most imposing trees in Palestine
Ossifrage - It is not a gregarious bird, and is found but rarely in Palestine
Silver - Possibly the hills of Palestine may have afforded some supply of this metal
Judah - The whole southern part of Palestine fell to Judah's lot; but the tribes of Simeon and Dan possessed many cities which at first were given to Judah
Fishing, the Art of - Was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine
Spikenard - , the Pistacia Terebinthus, which grows in Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, etc
Signet - When digging a shaft close to the south wall of the temple area, the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, at a depth of 12 feet below the surface, came upon a pavement of polished stones, formerly one of the streets of the city
Hagarenes - of Palestine
Adoni-Zedec - Lord of justice or righteousness, was king in Jerusalem at the time when the Israelites invaded Palestine (Joshua 10:1,3 )
Rechabites - They belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel into Palestine, and dwelt among them
Thunder (2) - In mountainous Palestine, with the long deep gorge of the Jordan, it is perhaps the most awe-inspiring of natural phenomena
Corn - It is possible Indian grain or maize was known and used in Palestine as it was at Thebes in Egypt, where grains and leaves of it have been found under mummies
Scorpion - The wilderness of Sinai is especially alluded to as being inhabited by scorpions at the time of the exodus, and to this day these animals are common in the same district, as well as in some parts of Palestine
Elah, Valley of - ...
This open space is probably the valley of Elah or terebinths, of which one of the largest in Palestine stands near
Megiddo - (For map and other details of the region see Palestine
Brass - Copper is not found in Palestine proper, but in the Lebanon and Hermon (possibly the ‘mountains of brass’ of Zechariah 6:1 )
Cock - Cocks and hens were probably unknown in Palestine until from two to three centuries before Christ’s time
Latin - Throughout Palestine, while Latin was the language of the administration, Greek was the main language of commerce, and Aramaic the language of common intercourse among Jews
Augustus - He ruled the Roman Empire, including Palestine, when Jesus was born and ordered the taxation that brought Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem (Luke 2:1 )
Jebusites - A race of people, descendants of Canaan, son of Ham, living in Palestine when the land was promised to Abraham
Coney - The rabbit, which is only another name for Coney, is not known in Palestine
Iron - It was in use in Palestine before the Israelites entered, for they found that the Canaanites had chariots of iron
Hazor - Ancient city and capital of northern Palestine
Barbarossa, Frederick - Having taken the cross in 1189, he started for Palestine, and while crossing the River Saleph in Asia Minor, met with a sudden death
Siddim, the Vale of - The Imperial Bible Dictionary makes Siddim a Hamitic word occurring in Egyptian monuments, the Shet-ta-n or: land of Sheth," part of the Rephaim who possessed that part of Palestine
Shittah - If the ark had been made in Palestine, oak or cedar would have been its material; its being said to be made of shittah, the wood of the wilderness, is an undesigned propriety and mark of truth (Exodus 25:10)
Unicorn - It is most probable thata species of wild ox, the Bos primigenius, is referred to; these may have been known in Palestine, as was the lion, though they are now extinct
Embalming - Joseph also was himself embalmed, that his body might be carried with the children of Israel when they left Egypt for Palestine
Tabor - A single limestone mountain in central Palestine
de'Bir - (a sanctuary ), the name of three places of Palestine
Iron - It was in use in Palestine before the Israelites entered, for they found that the Canaanites had chariots of iron
Millet - Durra is also used in Palestine and Syria, and it is generally agreed that it yields much more than any other kind of grain
Earthquake - Palestine has been often visited by earthquakes
Leopard - It seems from Scripture that the leopard could not be rare in Palestine
Cornelius - A Roman centurion, stationed at Caesarea in Palestine, supposed to have been of a distinguished family in Rome
Dove - In Palestine seven varieties of the Columbœ are found
de'Bir - (a sanctuary ), the name of three places of Palestine
Caesare'a - (Acts 8:40 ; 9:30 ; 10:1,24 ; 11:11 ; 12:19 ; 18:22 ; 21:8,16 ; 23:23,33 ; 25:1,4,6,13 ) was situated on the coast of Palestine, on the line of the great road from Tyre to Egypt, and about halfway between Joppa and Dora
ar'Abah - It indicates more particularly the deep-sunken valley or trench which forms the most striking among the many striking natural features of Palestine, and which extends with great uniformity of formation from the slopes of Hermon to the Elanitic Gulf (Gulf of Akabah ) of the Red Sea; the most remarkable depression known to exist on the surface of the globe
Eagle - At least four distinct kinds of eagles have been observed in Palestine, viz
Eagle, - Its habits agree with those related of the eagle in scripture, and they are plentiful in Palestine
Jezreel - 1 Samuel 29:11; see Palestine)
Felix - As Roman governor of Judea from AD 52 to 60, Felix had some influence on Jewish affairs in Palestine
Paulinianus - He shared his brother's journeys in Palestine and settled with him in Bethlehem, where he probably remained to the end of his life
Ashkelon - It is situated in the south of Palestine on the Mediterranean coast, and in Old Testament times was one of the ‘five cities of the Philistines’
Canaan - ...
It is well worthy our observation, that while, among all the early writers, both sacred and profane, the very blessed state of Palestine, or Canaan, for we name it by either, extending both the sacred river Jordan as a country, is continually described; later travellers speak of it as a dry, and inhospitable place. Hecat‘us, who lived at the time of Alexander the Great, and who wrote in the reign of Ptolemy, describes Palestine as a most fruitful province
Aramaic - And, though it doubtless underwent various changes, this was the language commonly spoken in Palestine when our Lord was on earth, and is the language called HEBREWin the N. In the ninth century the language in Palestine gave way to the Arabic, and now Aramaic is a living tongue only among the Syrian Christians in the district around Mosul
Kishon River - the scene of similar battles of old, for Esdraelon was always a great battle field of Palestine, nachal qidumim . Conder identifies "the waters of Megiddo" with the springs which flow from the mound of Mujedda ruin, and the countless streams in the valley of Jezreel (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October, 1877, p
Esau - Esau received a blessing, but neither he nor his descendants were to occupy the fertile land of Palestine (Genesis 27:39 ). As Jacob neared Palestine, he made plans for confronting his wronged brother and allaying his anger
Mizpah - The name of several places in Palestine. The land of Mizpeh, in the north of Palestine, the residence of the Hivites, Joshua 11:3; possibly identical with—4
Seleucia - ; Murray’s Handbook to Syria and Palestine, 1903, p. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria4, 1906, p
Nob - of the north road, opposite Shafat, is a tell with cisterns hewn in the rock and traces of a town (Courier, Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement). Warren (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement) objects to Nob's being identified with Nebi Samwil that the latter is four miles and a half from Jerusalem, and separated from it by the deep ravine, wady Beit Hanina; the Assyrian king marching (Isaiah 10) from Geba to Jerusalem would be more likely to find Nob on his way, at that Scopus (near the city) from whence Titus looked down upon Jerusalem, rather than turning away four miles and a half to Nebi Samwil
Carmel - A hilly promontory by which the sea-coast of Palestine is broken, forming the south side of the hay of Acca . of places conquered by him in Palestine, Maspero sees in one name the words Rosh Kodsu , ‘holy headland,’ referring to Carmel
Mountain - The geography of Palestine featured high mountains and deep rifts. See Palestine
Leopard - Hosea 13:7), as well as the same ruthless cruelty, as that much-dreaded inhabitant of Palestine and the East. Tristram, SWP Stones - PRECIOUS STONES were much valued in Palestine. In the exploration of Palestine many large stones have been found, which apparently had been erected as memorial stones
Fox - That jackals were common in Palestine appears from the names of places compounded with shual , as Hagar-shual, Shaalbim; (compare Foxhayes, etc. The common jackal of Palestine is the Canis aureus which may be heard nightly; also the Vulpes vulgaris
South - (See JUDAH; Palestine. In Joshua 15:21-322 it is called "the wilderness of Judah South of Arad"; a strip of hilly country, running from the Dead Sea westward across Palestine, obliquely to the S
Astrology - Travelling to Palestine, they ascertained at Jerusalem that the Messiah was expected to be born in Bethlehem, and directing their steps thither they saw the ‘star’ in front of them all the way, till they came to the house where the infant Jesus was found. 7, and it is quite conceivable that this or some similar phenomenon may in God’s providence have led the Wise Men, even through the mistaken principles of their science, actually to visit Palestine about the time when Jesus was born
Rock - Palestine, being a mountainous country, had also many rocks, which formed a part of the country's defence; for in time of danger the people retired to them, and found a refuge against any sudden irruption of the enemy. Josephus in several places speaks of hollow rocks, where thieves and robbers had their haunts; and travellers still find a great number of them in Palestine, and in the adjoining provinces
Luke - This explains why the sea journey to Palestine and the events that followed in Jerusalem and Caesarea are recorded in some detail (Acts Chapters 20-26). Paul and his party were in Palestine for at least two years (Acts 24:27), and Luke no doubt used this time to gather information from eye-witnesses of the life of Jesus to include in his Gospel
Games - ...
Playing pieces of varying designs as well as game boards of ivory and stone have been discovered at Samaria, Gezer, Megiddo, and other sites in Palestine. Excavations at Debir (tell beit Mirsim) in Southern Palestine unearthed a limestone board with ten glazed playing pieces and an ivory “die. Herod the Great built many amphitheaters in Palestine, including one near Jerusalem where men condemned to death fought with wild animals. ...
The process of hellenization (the forcing of Greek culture on the Jews) brought amphitheaters and gymnasia to Palestine
Joppa - Yâfâ; modern name Jaffa)...
Joppa is a maritime town of Palestine, 33 miles S. side of the town, and forming a harbour which, though small and insecure, is yet the best on the whole coast of Palestine. Herod the Great, who did much to hellenize Palestine, left the Pharisaic purity of Joppa untainted. Guérin, Description géographique … de la Palestine: ‘Judée,’ 1869, i
Lamp Lampstand - Recent excavation in Palestine has greatly increased our knowledge of the types of lamps in use during the various epochs of antiquity. , 1912), has multiplied examples, and, together with Excavations in Palestine during 1898-1900 (F. Bronze lamps play little part in Palestine, and even terra-cotta forms are uncommon. It cannot be said that Palestine has produced many examples of these, although they were in use, fashioned from materials of wood, stone, and metal
Language of Christ - ...
At the present day, perhaps, most scholars would admit that the vernacular of Palestine in the time of our Lord was Semitic, and not Greek; but a difference is observed between their theory and their practice; for in all kinds of theological writings, critical as well as devotional, the references to the text of the Gospels constantly assume that the Greek words are those actually uttered by our Lord. It would be heard in the seaports, and in the neighbourhood of the great roads by which communication was kept up through Palestine between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. ...
The greater part of the NT consists of writings intended for the benefit of Jews who resided outside Palestine, and of converts from heathenism. For such readers the vernacular of Palestine would have been unsuitable; and those of the writers who were not familiar with Greek could employ a translator. It is forgotten that Syriac, Samaritan, and the so-called Hebrew of Palestine, were nearly related. However, the object of this article is not to deny that Christ knew, and sometimes spoke, Greek, but to reinforce the arguments by which we conclude that the vernacular of Palestine was Semitic, and that therefore Christ’s teachings were, for the most part, delivered in a different tongue from that in which they have come to us in the Greek Gospels. ...
By far the greater number of personal and place names connected with Palestine in the NT are of Semitic derivation, but they afford no evidence in relation to our inquiry. Probably it varied considerably in different parts of the Holy Land, and there were ‘dialects’ rather than ‘a dialect’ of Palestine
Samaria - "It was the only great city of Palestine created by the sovereign. ) ...
In the time of Christ, Western Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee. Samaria occupied the centre of Palestine (John 4:4 )
Ed - It is remarkable that not one of the famous towns of Palestine owes its originate Israel. , crossed Jordan to return to their eastern possessions; not the ford near Jericho, but the Damieh ford the highway from the eastern uplands to central Palestine (identified with the "city Adam"), opposite to the opening of the broad wady Far'ah, the route from Shiloh the national sanctuary to Gilead and Bashan. the going up which leads to Ayd equates to Ed (Conder, Palestine Exploration)
Grafting - ); and this is the universal view among olive growers in modern Palestine. Fischer states that in Palestine it is still ‘customary to re-invigorate an olive tree which is ceasing to bear fruit, by grafting it with a shoot of wild olive, so that the sap of the tree ennobles this wild shoot, and the tree now again begins to bear fruit’ ( Der Ölbaum , 9). In response to inquiries made in the main olive-growing districts of Palestine, he is assured that it is never done; and that, for the purpose indicated, it would be perfectly futile
Gaza - It was ‘the frontier city of Syria and the Desert, on the south-west, as Damascus on the north-east’ (Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, London, 1877, p. Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine, London, 1841, p. Guérin, Description géographique … de la Palestine, pt
Shishak - A Pharaoh of the 21st dynasty took Gezer in Palestine from the Canaanites (1 Kings 9:16) and gave it as a present to his daughter, Solomon's wife. of Palestine. He was not strong enough to attack Assyria; so he contented himself with subjugating Palestine and the parts of Arabia bordering on Egypt, so as to make them an effectual barrier against Assyria's advance
Dispersion - Diaspora ) given to the Jewish communities outside Palestine ( 2Ma 1:27 , John 7:35 , James 1:1 , 1 Peter 1:1 ). Only a few of these Babylonian Jews returned to Palestine. , the legitimate Aaronic high priest, who had left Palestine because he hated Antiochus IV
Isaiah - 701) led a powerful army into Palestine. ) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of which threatened Jerusalem (2 Kings 16:5 ; 37:8 ). He made no more expeditions against either Southern Palestine or Egypt
Reed - The reed of Egypt and Palestine is the Arundo donax, which grows to the height of 12 feet, its stalk jointed like the bamboo, "with a magnificent panicle of blossom at the top, and so slender and yielding that it will lie perfectly flat under a gust of wind, and immediately resume its upright position
Grove - " It has been identified with the Tamariscus orientalis, five species of which are found in Palestine
Naphtali - It lay in a rich and fertile portion of Northern Palestine, partly along the Lebanon range, called "the mount of Naphtali" Joshua 19:32-39; Joshua 20:7, R
Ananias - He was sent as a prisoner to Rome by Quadratus, the governor of Syria, and Jonathon was appointed in his place; but being discharged by the emperor Claudius, he returned to Palestine, and Jonathon being murdered through the treachery of Felix, Ananias appears to have performed the functions of the high priest as a substitute, until Ishmael was appointed by Agrippa
Alexander - 336, and within twelve years overran Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, founded Alexandria, conquered the Persians, and penetrated far into the Indies
Hivites - One of the tribes of Palestine which the Israelites displaced ( Exodus 3:8 ; Exodus 3:17 Rain - The Palestine year is divided roughly into two parts the rainy and the dry
Sheep - "The sheep of Palestine are longer in the head than ours, and have tails from 5 inches broad at the narrowest part to 15 inches at the widest, the weight being in proportion, and ranging generally from 10 to 14 lbs
Copper - Copper abounded in Palestine (Deuteronomy 8:9 ; Isaiah 60:17 ; 1 Chronicles 22:3,14 )
Mole - The true mole (Talpa Europoea) is not found in Palestine
Hare - " The two principal species in Palestine are the Lepus syriacus and the Lepus aegyptiacus
Fenced Cities - There were in Palestine (1) cities, (2) unwalled villages, and (3) villages with castles or towers (1 Chronicles 27:25 )
Juniper - It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine
Jezreel - The geography of Palestine made Jezreel a major route for travel from north to south and from east to west
Eshtaol - Black (Palestine Exploration) identifies Eshtaol with Eshu'a
Thistles (2) - The term, however, is loosely employed, and probably embraces several genera of spinous plants, in which Palestine is peculiarly rich
Q - A common version of the Q hypothesis regards Q as written in Greek in Palestine, perhaps Caesarea, between a
Nicholas of Bari, Saint - In his youth he is supposed to have made a pilgrimage to Egypt and Palestine; shortly after his return he became bishop
Nicholas of Myra, Saint - In his youth he is supposed to have made a pilgrimage to Egypt and Palestine; shortly after his return he became bishop
Myra, Nicholas of, Saint - In his youth he is supposed to have made a pilgrimage to Egypt and Palestine; shortly after his return he became bishop
Hophra - Hophra must have been defeated by Nebuchadnezzar in Syria in attempting to resist the progress of the Babylonian army, and he received the fugitives from Palestine after the destruction of Jerusalem in b
Sandal - We have express notice of the thong (Authorized Version "shoe latchet") in several passages, notably (Genesis 14:23 ; Isaiah 5:27 ; Mark 1:7 ) Sandals were worn by all classes of society in Palestine, even by the very poor; and both the sandal and the thong or shoe-latchet were so cheap and common that they passed into a proverb for the most insignificant thing
Togarmah - against Palestine; this and Genesis 10:3 imply Togarmah's connection with the Japhetic races, which modern research confirms as to Armenia
Bani - Ancestor of Uthai of tribe of Judah who was among first Israelites to return to Palestine from Babylonian Exile about 537 B
Fish - Fish are found in enormous numbers in all the inland waters of Palestine, and especially in the Lake of Galilee, Lake Huleh, and the ‘meadow lakes’ of Damascus
Grass - Pasturage, as it occurs in Western lands, is unknown in Palestine
Irrigation - In Palestine the need for artificial irrigation is not so great, as is indicated by the contrast with Egypt in Deuteronomy 11:10
Island, Isle - In Isaiah 20:6 Palestine is called ‘this isle’ (AV Kenizzites - ]'>[2] also ( Genesis 15:18-21 ) counts the Kenizzites among the pre-Israelitish inhabitants of Palestine
Market Place - ...
Herod rebuilt many of the cities of Palestine following the Greek pattern which included open areas for public gathering (Greek: agora )
Pomegranate - This was a fruit of Palestine, beautiful in its appearance, and very pleasant in its taste; and therefore Christ, in celebrating the loveliness of the church, compares her temples to "a piece of pomegranate within her locks
Caleb - 'South of Caleb,' apparently the south of Palestine, occupied by Caleb and his descendants
So - A little later So contended with Sargon in southern Palestine
Mustard Seed - The one that best answers to the description is the sinapis nigra, a common mustard plant in Palestine
Bari, Nicholas of, Saint - In his youth he is supposed to have made a pilgrimage to Egypt and Palestine; shortly after his return he became bishop
Caesara Philippi - It is thus distinguished from the Caesarea of Palestine
Lily, - The well-known flower of graceful form, of which there are several species that grow in the fields and valleys of Palestine
Ham - To the Cushites, or children of his eldest son, Cush, were allotted the hot southern regions of Asia, along the coasts of the Persian Gulf, Susiana or Chusistan, Arabia, &c; to the sons of Canaan, Palestine and Syria; to the sons of Misraim, Egypt and Libya, in Africa
Beer-Sheba - An old place in Palestine which formed the southern limit of the country
Famine - A scarcity in Palestine was once occasioned, Judges 6:4-6, by the invasion of the Midianites, and another (or the same) is referred to in Ruth 1:1
Stork - In Palestine it builds its nest on trees
Pelican - Leviticus 11:18 , sometimes translated cormorant, Isaiah 34:11 Zephaniah 2:14 ; a voracious waterfowl, somewhat gregarious and migratory, frequenting tropical climates, and still found on the waters of Egypt and Palestine
George, Saint - (Greek: farmer) ...
Martyr, patron of England, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, died Lydda, Palestine, c303He was known to the Greeks as the "Great Martyr
Plough - Ploughs were drawn by oxen asses, and heifers, Deuteronomy 22:10 Judges 14:18 ; at this day camels and cows are also used in Palestine
Pomegranate - It was abundant in Palestine, Numbers 13:23 Deuteronomy 8:8
Geshur, Geshuri, Geshurites - ...
There was also a people of the same name in the south of Palestine, near the Philistines, Joshua 13:2 ; 1 Samuel 27:8
Naphtali - ...
The tribe of Naphtali, called Nephtalim in Matthew 4:15 , were located in a rich and fertile portion of northern Palestine; having Asher on the west, the upper Jordan and part of the sea of Tiberias on the east; and running north into the Lebanon range, some lower offshoots of which prolonged to the south formed the "mountains of Naphtali," Joshua 19:32-39 20:7
Festus, Portius - To oblige the Jews, Felix, when he resigned his government, left Paul in bonds at Caesarea in Palestine, Acts 24:27 ; and when Festus arrived, he was entreated by the principal Jews to condemn the apostle, or to order him up to Jerusalem-they having conspired to assassinate him in the way
Gil'e-ad - " (Psalm 60:7 ; Genesis 37:25 ) The name Gilead, as is usual in Palestine, describes the physical aspect of the country: it signifies "a hard rocky region
Ken'Ite, the, - and Ken'ites ( smiths ), The, inhabited the rocky and desert region between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai, east of the Gulf of Akabah
Dispersion - Some of these were descendants of people who had been taken captive to foreign lands by Assyria, Babylon and other invaders of Palestine
Pontianus, Bishop of Rome - Except the priests of Palestine Arabia, Phoenicia, and Achaia, the world consents to his condemnation
Galilee - " In the time of our Lord, Galilee embraced more than one-third of Western Palestine, extending "from Dan on the north, at the base of Mount Hermon, to the ridges of Carmel and Gilboa on the south, and from the Jordan valley on the east away across the splendid plains of Jezreel and Acre to the shores of the Mediterranean on the west. " Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria, and Galilee, which comprehended the whole northern section of the country (Acts 9:31 ), and was the largest of the three
Hebrew - " Abram in Palestine was to the inhabitants the stranger from beyond the river (Genesis 14:13). In entering Palestine he spoke Chaldee or Syriac (Genesis 31:47)
Winds - wind brings rain from the sea (1 Kings 18:44-45); its precursor is cloud (Luke 12:54), prevailing in Palestine from November to February. ; blowing over the Arabian peninsula, it is parching when it reaches Palestine
Euphrates - Viewing Palestine as the centre of God's dealings with the earth, the Euphrates was the barrier between East and West. The great Syrian desert of Arabia separated the southern part of the river from Palestine
Goat - Goats are among the most valued possessions of the people of Palestine. Goats supply most of the milk used in Palestine ( Proverbs 27:27 ); they are also killed for food, especially the young kids ( Genesis 27:9 , Judges 6:19 ; Judges 13:15 etc
Carmel - "
A prominent headland of Central Palestine, consisting of several connected hills extending from the plain of Esdraelon to the sea, a distance of some 12 miles or more. "No mountain in or around Palestine retains its ancient beauty so much as Carmel
Judea - Judah thus occupied all the southern portion of Palestine, while the northern part was called Galilee, and the middle Samaria. After the captivity, as most of those who returned were of the kingdom of Judah, the name Judah, or Judea, was applied generally to the whole of Palestine, Haggai 1:1,14 2:2 ; and this use of the word has never wholly ceased
Fig - The fig tree is common in Palestine and the East, and flourishes with the greatest luxuriance in those barren and stony situations where little else will grow. The dried figs of Palestine were probably like those which are brought to our own country; sometimes, however, they are dried on a string
Proselyte - In Palestine itself, even Roman centurions learned to love the conquered nation built synagogues for them, (Luke 7:5 ) fasted and prayed, and gave alms after the pattern of the strictest Jews, (Acts 10:2,30 ) and became preachers of the new faith to the soldiers under them. The Jews of Palestine were eager to spread their faith by the same weapons as those with which they had defended it
Galilee - Galilee was the province of Palestine north of Samaria. ...
After the return of the Jews from the Exile, the population was concentrated for the greater part in Judæa, and the northern parts of Palestine were left to the descendants of the settlers established by Assyria. Owing to moisture derived from the Lehanon mountains, Galilee is the best-watered district of Palestine, and abounds in streams and springs, though the actual rainfall is little greater than that of Judæa. The result of this enhanced water supply is seen in the fertility of the soil, which is far greater than anywhere in Southern Palestine
Manger - ...
There is, of course, nothing improbable in this traditional view that the place where Mary sought shelter was a cave, for throughout Palestine such caves or grottoes were and are commonly used as stables. He says (SP Language - The Hebrew or Canaanites dialect, Isaiah 19:18 , was spoken in Palestine, and probably with little variation in Phoenicia and the Phoenician colonies, as for instance, at Carthage and other places. The remains of the Phoenician and Punic dialects are too few and too much disfigured to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively these languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine. It flourished in its purest form in Palestine, among the Phoenicians and Hebrews, until the period of the Babylonish exile; soon after which it declined, and finally was succeeded by a kind of Hebraeo-Aramaean dialect, such as was spoken in the time of our Savior among the Jews. The West Aramaean had flourished before this for a long time in the east and north of Palestine; but it now advanced farther west, and during the period that the Christian churches of Syria flourished, it was widely extended. Arabic is now the vernacular language of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in a great measure of Palestine and all the northern coast of Africa; while it is read and understood wherever the Koran has gone, in Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary
Gold - It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:1 ; Job 28:16 ), but not in Palestine
Mohammed - Commercial journeys to Syria and Palestine gained him an acquaintance with Jews and Christians and an imperfect knowledge of their religion and traditions
Horites - and later became an important element in the Canaanite population of Palestine
Aram - Nearly synonymous with Syria; the Hebrew name of the whole region northeast of Palestine, extending from the Tigris on the east nearly to the Mediterranean on the west, and to the Taurus range on the north
Partridge - ...
The commonest partridge in Palestine is the Caccabis saxatilis, the Greek partridge
Discalced Carmelite Order - Its mother-house is in Rome and is established in Spain, Italy, England, Ireland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Malta, Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Persia, British India (in the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin), Egypt, the United States, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia
Order of Discalced Carmelites - Its mother-house is in Rome and is established in Spain, Italy, England, Ireland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Malta, Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Persia, British India (in the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin), Egypt, the United States, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia
Sycamore - Although it may be admitted that the sycamine is properly, and in ( Luke 17:6 ) the mulberry, and the sycamore the mulberry, or sycamore-fig ( Ficus sycomorus ), yet the latter is the tree generally referred to in the Old Testament and called by the Septuagint sycamine, as ( 1 Kings 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 27:28 ; Psalm 78:47 ; Amos 7:14 ) The Sycamore or fig-mulberry, is in Egypt and Palestine a tree of great importance and very extensive use
Shiloh - "No spot in Central Palestine could be more secluded than this early sanctuary, nothing more featureless than the landscape around; so featureless, indeed, the landscape and so secluded the spot that from the time of St
Elah - It marks the upper end of the Elah valley, and forms a noted object, being one of the largest terebinths in Palestine
Kabzeel - to Petra; a spot likely to be occupied, though remote, as a stronghold, the key of Palestine toward Moat and Edom, guarding the pass Ez Zuweirah, by which the Moabites under Sanballat, the Ammonites under Tobiah, and the Arabians under Geshem, might attack the Jews (Nehemiah 4:12)
Aram - of Palestine to the Euphrates and Tigris
Deacon - " For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred language of Palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew
Turtle, Turtle-Dove - Three species are found in Palestine, (1) the turtle-dove (Turtur auritus), (2) the collared turtle (T
Forest - Large expanses of forest covered the majority of the hills in Palestine during the Old Testament period
Horites - Robinson, BRP Rain - Palestine was a land dependent upon the yearly rains to ensure an abundant harvest and an ample food supply for the coming year
Nebaioth - Hence they are to be sought for not far from the south-eastern borders of Palestine
Mule - In these ways they came into Palestine (1 Kings 18:5)
Weaving - While in the earlier days in Palestine weaving was done mostly by men, later it fell more and more into the hands of women
West - —In Palestine the direction of the setting sun is also that of the sea, and the West is therefore the source from which rain is generally expected (1 Kings 18:44, Luke 12:54)
Magi - Men whose interpretation of the stars led them to Palestine to find and honor Jesus, the newborn King (Matthew 2:1 )
Aenon - The Palestine explorer, Lieut
Lebanon - A mountain famous in Scripture, and highly celebrated: it separates Syria from Palestine
Fig, Fig-Tree - There are several kinds of fig-trees, but the well-known tree called the Ficus Carica is common in Palestine and very productive
Spices - Balsam or balm of Gilead, Αmyris opobalsamum ; a tropical plant that grew in the plains of Jericho and the hot valleys of southern Palestine
Zaanaim, Plain of - (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, October 1877, p
Aloes - aguru ); it has nothing to do with the familiar bitter aloes of medicine, or with the American aloe, now much cultivated in gardens in Palestine, but a recent importation
Tiglathpileser, Tilgathpilneser - In the reign of Pekah, king of Israel, he overran the northern part of Palestine, and took away the people as captives
Agrippa ii - At the age of 21Claudius gave him the tetrarchies of Trachonitis, Abilene, and other parts of the North East of Palestine
Arabians - ...
During the captivity some Arabians became settlers in Palestine and were enemies to Nehemiah
Antipatris - (Ἀντίπατρις)...
Antipatris, a Hellenistic town of Palestine, stood at the eastern edge of the Plain of Sharon, where the military road from Jerusalem to Caesarea left the hills
Lot - ...
Since the land of Palestine was allocated among the tribes by the casting of the “lot,” these allotments came to be known as their lots: “This then was the lot of the tribe of the children of Judah by their families; even to the border of Edom …” ( a'Ram -
The name by which the Hebrews designated, generally, the country lying to the northeast of Palestine; the great mass of that high tableland which, rising with sudden abruptness from the Jordan and the very margin of the Lake of Gennesaret, stretched at an elevation of no less than 2000 feet above the level of the sea, to the banks of the Euphrates itself
a'Phek - (strength ), the name of several places in Palestine
Kadesh-Barnea - But that it lay on the east side of Mount Hor, is evident; for why should Moses send messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom, requesting permission to pass through his territories in the way to Canaan, if they were already at the verge of Palestine Numbers 20:14 ? This application, however, was necessary if his territories were situated between Canaan and the Israelites
Elath - The fortress of Akaba, near by, now often visited by travelers from Mount Sinai to Palestine, is only important for the protection of pilgrims to Mecca
Lion - Lions were common in Palestine, (See Job 4:10,11
Ant - Like species have been found in Texas and South America, and are known to exist in Palestine
pa'Ran, el-pa'Ran - (peace of caverns ), a desert or wilderness, bounded on the north by Palestine, on the east by the valley of Arabah, on the south by the desert of Sinai, and on the west by the wilderness of Etham, which separated it from the Gulf of Suez and Egypt
Bottle - Tear-bottles were small urns of glass or pottery, made to contain the tears of mourners at funerals, and placed in the sepulchres at Rome and in Palestine
Drink, Strong - With regard to the application of the term in later times we have the explicit statement of Jerome, as well as other sources of information, from which we may state the that following beverages were known to the Jews:--
Beer , which was largely consumed in Egypt under the name of zythus , and was thence introduced into Palestine
Pomegranate - It belongs to the natural order Myrtaceae (Myrtle), being, however, rather a tall bush than a tree, The foliage is dark green, the flowers are crimson, the fruit, which is about the size of art orange, is red when which in Palestine is about the middle of October
Deborah - She is chiefly remembered for directing Israel’s victory over the forces of Sisera in northern Palestine
Origen - About 215 he visited Palestine, where he was invited to preach, though still a layman. Later while journeying to Greece he was ordained at Cresarea; Demetrius, Bishop of Alexandria, was displeased at this and Origen, forced to quit the catechetical school, 231, settled at Caesarea in Palestine and resumed his teaching
Fig Tree - The Bible supposes the presence of the fig-tree throughout all Palestine, and regards it as one of the characteristic products of the land (Deuteronomy 8), together with the vine, so that a land which has neither fig-tree nor vine is considered wretched (Numbers 20). Figs, with other fruit, were brought back from Palestine by the envoys of Moses to give an idea of the fertility of the land (Numbers 13)
Gaza - According to the records of Thutmose III, Thutmose captured Gaza on his first campaign to Palestine and made it a major Egyptian center. The Amarna Letters identify Gaza as the district headquarters for Egyptian holdings in southern Palestine
Scorpion - More than eight species have been noted in Palestine. , ‘Central Palestine and Phcenicia,’ pp
Mizpah, Mizpeh - ” A name commonly used in Palestine to refer to places used to provide security. The account of Joshua's encounter with Jabin, king of Hazor (Joshua 11:1 ) refers to “the land of Mizpah” (Joshua 11:3 ) and “the valley of Mizpeh” (Joshua 11:8 ), a region in north Palestine, the location of which is unknown
Goshen - Joseph naturally placed his family on the border land between Egypt and Palestine, the promised land, and at the same time near himself at Tunis or else Memphis the capital of Egypt. Palestine, between Gaza and Gibeon (Joshua 10:41; Joshua 11:16), and a city (Joshua 15:51); between the S
Market, Market-Place - —The landscape of Palestine was characterized by the number of its villages and the absence of isolated dwelling-houses on the cultivated lands. The Palestine village had a path of communication leading through it to other villages, and this thoroughfare, or the widest and most central part of it, became the market-place
Ham - ) In the second tradition Shem, Japheth, and Canaan stand not for large divisions of the world, but for certain much smaller divisions within the limits of Palestine . ‘ Shem ’ evidently stands for the Hebrews, or for some portion of them (see Genesis 10:21 in the other tradition), and ‘Japheth’ for some unknown portion of the population of Palestine who dwelt ‘in the tents of Shem’ ( Genesis 9:27 ), i
Canaanites - They thence "spread to the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of Taurus. The "Canaanites," as distinguished from the Amalekites, the Anakim, and the Rephaim, were "dwellers in the lowlands" (Numbers 13:29 ), the great plains and valleys, the richest and most important parts of Palestine
Sheba (2) - SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8). But Conder (Palestine Exploration, January 1875) identifies Sheba with Tell el Seba, two miles of Beersheba, and on the line to Moladah (Joshua 19:2); its well is a quarter of a mile W
Edom - ...
When Israel was approaching the land of Palestine, Moses appealed to Edom to let them pass through their country, but they refused. When the king of the north in a future day invades Palestine and overthrows countries as far as Egypt, "Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon" will escape, being reserved to be subdued by Israel
Edom - (For details of the Arabah see Palestine. ...
Years later, after the Romans had conquered Palestine (63 BC), an Idumean named Herod was appointed ‘king’ of Palestine under the governing authority of Rome
Synagogue - ...
Facts about synagogues Synagogues existed not only among the many Jews who lived outside Palestine but also among those who lived in Palestine. Luke 4:16-21 is the best biblical passage on what happened in a synagogue service in first-century Palestine. This shows that Christian Jews were still in some synagogues, especially those outside Palestine
Judea - In 63 BC Rome took control of Palestine and made it a province of the Roman Empire. In those days Palestine was known as Judea, meaning ‘land of the Jews’. The name was used sometimes for Palestine as a whole, as for example when Herod the Great governed the region (Luke 1:5). But in general people thought of Palestine as consisting of three sections, the northern known as Galilee, the central as Samaria and the southern as Judea (John 4:3-4)
Gennesaret, Land of - Stanley’s ‘Note’ in refutation, SP [9] ; Socin in Baedeker’s Palestine and Syria, 291; Stewart, Land of Israel, 264; Conder, Primer of Bible Geog. ; Stanley, SP Judaea - During the period of the Roman occupation the term was sometimes used as a general expression for Palestine as a whole (BJ i. Apart from this exceptional usage, the name ordinarily—as we find it in the NT and the writings of Josephus—is applied to the southernmost of the three districts—Galilee, Samaria, Judaea—into which Western Palestine was divided in the time of Christ. —Stanley, SP Judaea - During the period of the Roman occupation the term was sometimes used as a general expression for Palestine as a whole (BJ i. Apart from this exceptional usage, the name ordinarily—as we find it in the NT and the writings of Josephus—is applied to the southernmost of the three districts—Galilee, Samaria, Judaea—into which Western Palestine was divided in the time of Christ. —Stanley, SP Willows - " There are several species of the salix in Palestine, but it is not indigenous to Babylonia, nor was it cultivated there
First Crusade - " Several disorganized and undisciplined bands set out, one led by Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless, but were scattered or slain before ever reaching Palestine
Job - A dweller in Hus, east of Palestine; not an Israelite, but an upright man who is suddenly the victim of weighty affiictions, losing his goods, and his children and becoming a prey to leprosy
Order de Santiago de la Espada - The order extended into Portugal, France, Italy, Hungary, and Palestine, and at one time comprised 83 commanderies, 2 cities, 178 boroughs and villages, 200 parishes, 5 hospitals, 5 convents and 1 college; it numbered 400 knights and could muster over 1000 lances
Order of Saint James of Compostela - The order extended into Portugal, France, Italy, Hungary, and Palestine, and at one time comprised 83 commanderies, 2 cities, 178 boroughs and villages, 200 parishes, 5 hospitals, 5 convents and 1 college; it numbered 400 knights and could muster over 1000 lances
Sickle - In Palestine the flint sickle goes back to the later Stone age (Vincent, Canaan d’après t’exploration récente , 388 ff
Alliance - When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Leviticus 18:3,4 ; 20:22,23 )
Nebo - " It is about 2,643 feet in height, but from its position it commands a view of Western Palestine
Mandrake - Palestine
Owl - ...
Owls are very plentiful in Palestine
Giants - ...
A second class of giants who inhabited pre-Israelite Palestine was the rephaim
Jabin - King of Hazor in northern Palestine, near the Merom waters
Tadmor - " Solomon fixed on the site, an oasis in the desert which lies between Palestine and Babylonia, as the commercial entrepot between Jerusalem and Babylon
Well - Drawing water from the cisterns or wells that abound in Palestine occupies much of the women’s time
Midian - The people traded with Palestine, Lebanon, and Egypt
Ben-Hadad - Under him Damascus lost his father’s conquests in Palestine ( 2 Kings 13:24 f
Beth-Horon - In few places in Palestine can we with greater precision set history in its geographical setting; the whole ancient road, with abundant traces of Roman work, can be followed throughout, and the two Beit ‘Urs , less than two miles apart, stand sentinel above the road as the two Beth-horons did in ancient times
Beard - This is in contrast to Romans and Egyptians who preferred clean shaven faces and to other desert nomads and others living in Palestine who often clipped or cut their beards (on the latter see Jeremiah 9:26 ; Jeremiah 25:23 ; Jeremiah 49:32 )
Jabneel - ‘The port would seem to be naturally better than any along the coast of Palestine S
Antipatris - The crusaders' castle of Mirabel was built on the foundations of an older edifice; at its foot are the largest springs in Palestine
Ashdod - It was on the high road from Palestine to Egypt which doubtless led Sargon king of Assyria to take it by his general, about B
Cedar - It cannot be considered as one of the trees of Palestine proper, but is constantly connected in scripture with Lebanon, where it still grows in a group of some 300, a few being very old, and with no others near: the neighbouring people regard them with reverence
Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria Prima - Having passed over to Palestine, he was ordained by Theotecnus, bp
Stork, - alba ) are numerous in Palestine
Gaza - frontier town of Palestine, and did a large trade with the caravans to and from Egypt
Drowning - —Drowning never was or could be a recognized form of capital punishment in so poorly watered a country as Palestine, as it was in Assyria and Babylonia
Wells - There are several Hebrew words for the wells that were in Palestine
Alexan'Der Iii - He subjugated Syria and Palestine B
Cisterns - And reservoirs were very common in Palestine, both in the country and in cities
Shalmaneser - Scripture reports that he came into Palestine, subdued Samaria, and obliged Hoshea to pay him tribute; but in the third year, being weary of this exaction, Hoshea combined secretly with So, King of Egypt to remove the subjection
Deb'Orah - ) She lived under the palm tree of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in Mount Ephraim, (Judges 4:5 ) which, as palm trees were rare in Palestine, "is mentioned as a well-known and solitary landmark
Mid'Ian - Southward they extended along the eastern shore of the Gulf of Eyleh (Sinus AElaniticus ); and northward they stretched along the eastern frontier of Palestine
Greece, Greeks, Gre'Cians - The histories of Greece and Palestine are little connected with each other
Hellenist - ...
Within Palestine, however, there were still many Aramaic-speaking Jews
Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem - 330) wrote to Macarius with the other bishops of Palestine about the profanation of the sacred terebinth of Mamre by idolatrous rites (Euseb
Silvanus, Solitary of Sinai - Silvanus (12) , solitary of Sinai, a native of Palestine
Flowers - Flowers grew abundantly during springtime in Palestine. Numerous kinds of wild flowers could be found in the plains and mountainsof Palestine. In Palestine the warm spring temperatures joined with the winter rains to produce beautiful, blooming plants and flowers. Several varieties of roses could be found in Palestine. ...
Other Though not specifically mentioned by kind in the Bible, other varieties of flowers grew in Palestine
Alexander - After a long siege, this city was taken and sacked; and Alexander entered Palestine, A. ...
Having left Jerusalem, Alexander visited other cities of Palestine, and was every where received with great testimonies of friendship and submission. Passing through Palestine, he was informed that the Samaritans, in a general insurrection, had killed Andromachus, governor of Syria and Palestine, who had come to Samaria to regulate some affairs. The above particulars of Alexander are here introduced because, from his invasion of Palestine, the intercourse of the Jews with the Greeks became intimate, and influenced many events of their subsequent history
Chronology of the Biblical Period - Recent finds at Ebla have indicated a high degree of civilization in Syria-Palestine at least 500 years earlier. ...
The Intertestamental Period During the Intertestamental Period, Palestine was first under the control of the Persians. Persian rule ended with the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great in 333-332 B. After the death of Alexander, Palestine fell first under Ptolemaic rule (323-198 B. Seleucid rule brought a strong move to bring Hellenistic culture to Palestine, ending with the desecration of the Temple in Jerusalem and the persecution of Jews by Antiochus IV (Epiphanes) in 167 B
Uz - The description of Job, however, as one of ‘the children of the East’ ( Job 1:3 ) is most naturally understood to refer to the east of Palestine. of Palestine, and that the Book of Job appears to represent its hero as living in the neighbourhood of the Arabian or Syro-Arabian desert
Shechem - Shechem became one of the cities of refuge, the central city of refuge for Western Palestine (Joshua 20:7 ), and here the bones of Joseph were buried (24:32). Stanley says it is "the most beautiful, perhaps the only very beautiful, spot in Central Palestine
Canaan (2) - The modern name of Palestine, or the land of the Philistines, was originally applied to the region lying along the coast of the Mediterranean, southwest of the Land of Promise, but in its present usage denotes the whole country bounded by the Jordan on the east the Mediterranean on the west, Arabia on the south, and Lebanon on the north. For later history see Palestine
Samaria - A city and district of Palestine. In New Testament times Samaria was one of the Roman divisions of Palestine lying between Galilee and Judæa; so that any one who would pass straight from one of these provinces to the other "must needs go through Samaria
Israel, Kingdom of - In the time of Solomon the area of Palestine, excluding the Phoenician territories on the shore of the Mediterranean, did not much exceed 13,000 square miles. And when Judah itself was carried off to Babylon, many of the exiled Israelites joined them from Assyria, and swelled that immense population which made Babylonia a second Palestine
Metals - (1 Kings 10:21,27 ) Brass, or more properly copper, was a native product of Palestine. Iron, like copper, was found in the hills of Palestine
Antiochus - Both the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae began eras of their own, and some of the kings of each era had to do with Palestine and the Jews. He re-takes Palestine. Ptolemy recovers...
Palestine. In the meantime an army from Egypt had re-taken Palestine; but...
Antiochus, on his return, again obtained the mastery there
Sychar - ; Robinson, BRP Philistines, the - Philistine refers to a group of people who occupied and gave their name to the southwest part of Palestine. Politically, the Philistines had a highly organized city-state system comprised of five towns in southwest Palestine: Ashdod, Gaza, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron (1 Samuel 6:17 ). , but their influence continues through the use of the name Palestine, a name derived from “Philistine. ” See Palestine
Philistines - The inhabitants of the Maritime Plain of Palestine (cf. Palestine, 1) from the period of the Judges onward to the 6th cent. They afterwards made incursions on the northern coast of Egypt as well as on the coast of Palestine. During the time of Eli these invaders were trying to make their way into the central ridge of Palestine, and in one of the battles captured the ark of Jahweh, which a pestilence (probably bubonic plague) induced them to return ( 1 Samuel 4:1-22 ; 1 Samuel 5:1-12 ; 1 Samuel 6:1-21 )
Roads - map of Palestine in vol. ]'>[2] ; Stanley, SP [3] : Conder, Palestine; Kinglake, Eothen
Jacob's Well - 4829; Robinson, BRP Amalekites - " A nomadic tribe, occupying the peninsula of Sinai and the wilderness between Palestine and Egypt (Numbers 13:29; 1 Samuel 15:7; 1 Samuel 27:8). This would accord with the mention of them (Genesis 14:7) long before Esau's grandson, the Edomite Amalek; also with Judges 3:13; Judges 5:14; Judges 12:15, where "Amalek" and "the mount of the Amalekites" appear in central Palestine, whither they would come in their passage westward. On Israel's route from Egypt to Palestine, Amalek in guerrilla warfare tried to stop their progress, and was defeated by Joshua, under Moses, whose hands were stayed up by Aaron and Hur, at Rephidim (Exodus 17:8-16)
Palmtree - The Ρhoenix dactylifera , the date palm; for which Palestine was famous, as appears from the many names derived from it. The pilgrims to Palestine used to bring home palms, from whence they were called "palmers. Once the prevalent fruit tree, it now is nowhere in Palestine except in the Philistine plain
Come Up, Ascend - 13:1) toward Palestine or other points northward. ...
The use of ‛âlâh to describe the journey from Egypt to Palestine is such a standard phrase that it often appears without the geographical reference points. Even the return from the Exile, which was a journey from north to south (Palestine), is described as a “going up” (Ezra 2:1)
Animals - The Nubian wild ass of Egypt has been identified as the ass of Palestine and the Bible. When the Israelites returned to Palestine from the Babylonian captivity, they brought with them 6,720 asses (Ezra 2:67 ), about six times the number of horses and camels they possessed. When camels were introduced into Palestine is a matter of ongoing debate. ...
The swine of the Bible, in most instances, probably were the wild pig, still common in Palestine. ...
The Hebrew word translated bat is the generic name for many species of this mammal found in Palestine. Modern zoologists have cited at least twenty different species in the area of Palestine. It is believed that three species of deer lived in Palestine in Bible times: red, fallow, and roe. Once numerous in Palestine, the hyena appears only at night. Known for its gracefulness and speed, it was common in Palestine in Old Testament times, especially in the forests of Lebanon, but is seldom found there now. Five were killed around Jerusalem just before World War II, and one was killed in Southern Palestine near Beersheba soon after the war. In Palestine, lions seemed to prefer the vegetation of the Jordan valley (Jeremiah 49:19 ). ” They have disappeared from Palestine, with the last one killed near Megiddo in the thirteenth century. Common in Palestine in biblical times, the wolf constantly threatened sheep and shepherds and earned a reputation for viciousness (Genesis 49:27 ; Matthew 7:15 ; Luke 20:3 ). In Palestine it lives in trees and bushes and hangs onto branches with its long tail
Amalekites - We cannot assign the place of their habitation, except in general it is apparent that they dwelt south of Palestine, between Mount Seir and the border of Egypt; and it does not appear that they possessed many cities, though one is mentioned in 1 Samuel 15:5
Rimmon (1) - The currency of the latter among the Hebrews (as Rimmon ) is to be attributed to the long Babylonian occupation of Palestine before Aramæan times
Rod - The rods, sticks, staves, and clubs carried or otherwise used by the Hebrews were probably as varied in size and shape as those in use among the inhabitants of Palestine at the present day, of which a minute description, with illustrations, is given by Baldensperger in PEFSt Shepherd - The duties of a shepherd in an unenclosed country like Palestine were very onerous
Property - 17:13 (an early occurrence of the word) Abram is promised the territory of Palestine as a familial or tribal possession until the indiscriminate future
Necho ii - ), where he met and conquered the Assyrian army, and thus all the Syrian provinces, including Palestine, came under his dominion
Snake - Snakes were widespread throughout the Palestine region
Moth - ...
The Τinea pellionella and Τinea biselliata still abound in Palestine
Heshbon - HESHBON is the modern Hesbân , finely situated close to the edge of the great plateau of Eastern Palestine
Robbery - Palestine contained various groups called Zealots, famous for zeal in Judaism and opposition to Rome
Taanach - (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January 1877, p
Lye - This was the type of lye normally used in Palestine, for there are no known deposits of sodium bicarbonate there
Plant (Verb) - He placed them in Palestine, and expected a great harvest for the glory of His Name
Heath - It flourishes in the wet season in southern Palestine
Sisera - (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p
Gadarenes - It was a city of Palestine, so called, perhaps, from being walled, from Cedar, surrounded or trooped in
Desert - " It is most frequently used for those tracts of waste land which lie beyond the cultivated ground in the immediate neighborhood of the towns and villages of Palestine
Bear - That bears were common in Palestine appears from several passages of the Old Testament
Lebanon - A double mountain range to the north of Palestine, consisting of a western chain, Lebanon proper, and an eastern
Sharon - A plain adjoining the seacoast of Palestine between Carmel and Joppa, about sixty miles in length and of variable width, expanding inland as it stretches from the promontory of Carmel towards the south
Lilly - Of this queenly plant, several varieties are found among the wild flowers of Palestine, the profusion, beauty, and fragrance of which are the delight of travelers
Caesarea - Often called Caesarea of Palestine, situated on the coast of the Mediterranean sea, between Joppa and Tyre
Judah - The southeastern part of Palestine fell to their lot
Jew - Partly from the predominance of the members of the old kingdom of Judah among those who returned to Palestine, partly from the identification of Judah with the religious ideas and hopes of the people, all the members of the new state were called Jews (Judeans) and the name was extended to the remnants of the race scattered throughout the nations
Desert - " It is most frequently used for those tracts of waste land which lie beyond the cultivated ground in the immediate neighborhood of the towns and villages of Palestine, and which are a very familiar feature to the traveller in that country
Hittites - It extended from northern Palestine across Syria and into Asia Minor
Trade And Commerce - United under a powerful sovereign, Palestine could levy large contributions on the traffic of the surrounding nations; and this appears to have been done in Solomon’s time. The iconoclastic attitude which prevails in the OT causes the plastic arts to be ordinarily referred to with scorn and indignation; but of their existence in Palestine there is no doubt, and the considerable market that existed for images probably led to no small development. ...
This gold must all have been imported, as there are no mines in Palestine; and indeed we are told that it came, with other produce as well as silver, from the mysterious Ophir and Tarshish; and that the enterprise was a joint venture of Solomon and the king of Tyre, the latter probably supplying the vessels, the former the produce which was exchanged for these goods, unless indeed the gold was procured by raiding. In favour of the latter supposition, it has been pointed out that the commodities known to have been exported from Palestine at one time, or another were ill-suited for conveyance on lengthy voyages, and unlikely to be required in the countries where the gold was procured. There is in the OT no allusion to the practice of coining metal, and where sums of money are mentioned they are given in silver; the effect, however, of the quantities of gold brought into Palestine in Solomon’s time was not, according to the historian, to appreciate silver, as might have been expected, but to depreciate it, and render it unfashionable. Various objects are mentioned in connexion with Solomon’s enterprises, as newly introduced into Palestine. Palestine has no internal waterways, and goods brought to it from other countries had to reach it either by sea or across desert. Before the construction of railways in Palestine, transport was ordinarily on the backs of men or animals, and of the latter camels are mentioned in connexion with goods brought from Arabia ( 1 Kings 10:2 , Isaiah 60:6 etc. ), and even with such as were carried in Syria and Palestine ( 2 Kings 8:9 , 1 Chronicles 12:40 ). The result of similar legislation in Moslem countries is to make the rate of interest enormously high, and in Palestine it may have had the same effect. The prophets appear to have anticipated that the exiles would carry on in their new home the same agricultural pursuits as had occupied them in Palestine ( Jeremiah 29:5 ); and it would appear that till the taking of Jerusalem by Titus, and perhaps even later, agriculture remained the normal occupation of the Israelites, whereas in modern times this pursuit has passed entirely out of their hands
Pharaoh - This Pharaoh afterward made an expedition into Palestine, took Gezer, and gave it to his daughter, Solomon's wife. Pharaoh-hophra, the Apries of secular history, was the second successor of Necho, and entered Palestine, probably in b
Oil - The extraction of oil from olives is abundantly confirmed by archaeological findings of stone presses found at several sites in Palestine. Since olives were found in abundance in Palestine, olive oil was also used as a commodity of trade (1 Kings 5:11 ; Ezekiel 27:17 ; Hosea 12:1 )
Matthew, Gospel According to - ...
The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the writer show that this Gospel was written for Jewish Christians of Palestine. , the Aramaic or Syro-Chaldee dialect, then the vernacular of the inhabitants of Palestine), and afterwards translated into Greek, either by Matthew himself or by some person unknown
Water - Palestine contains several natural sources of water: rain, springs, wells, and a few short, perennial streams. The average annual rainfall in Palestine is about 25 inches, all of which normally falls between November and April
Grave - While the use of pits for collective burial sites is not mentioned in the Bible, several have been excavated in Palestine. ...
Coffins were generally not used in ancient Palestine
Hittites - Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three different tribes. They were closely allied to the Amorites, and are frequently mentioned along with them as inhabiting the mountains of Palestine
Vine, - (Genesis 40:9-11 ; Psalm 78:47 ) The vines of Palestine were celebrated both for luxuriant growth and for the immense clusters of grapes which they produced, which were sometimes carried on a staff between two men, as in the case of the spies, (Numbers 13:23 ) and as has been done in some instances in modern times. In Palestine, at present, the finest grapes, says Dr
Tower - 3), two of which, Hippicus and Phasaelus, are probably represented to some extent by two of the towers of the modern citadel, the latter being partly preserved in the so-called David’s Tower (Picturesque Palestine, i. 18; Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, 421)
Midian, Mtdianites - ...
The next we hear of the Midianites is in the period of the Judges, when they invaded the territory of central Palestine in hordes, and were put to rout by Gideon and his three hundred men (Judges 6:1-40 ; Judges 7:1-25 ; Judges 8:1-35 ). These Midianites seem to have lived to the east of Palestine, and to have gained access to the west Jordan lands through the valley of the Jabbok
Eusebius Emesenus, Bishop of Emesa - His education was continued in Palestine and subsequently at Alexandria. In Palestine he studied theology under Eusebius of Caesarea and Patrophilus of Scythopolis, from whom he contracted the Arian leanings which distinguished him to the end of his life
Nets - In the Gospels they are mentioned only in connexion with fishing, which was an important industry on the very prolific inland waters of Palestine. This net is still much used in Palestine
Egypt - In one of his campaigns he overran the southern part of Palestine, where the Israelites had not yet settled. A list of the places he captured in Palestine is engraved on the outside of the south wall of the temple of Karnak. On the death of Solomon, Shishak, king of Egypt, invaded Palestine (1 Kings 14:25 ). They most fully confirm the historical statements of the Book of Joshua, and prove the antiquity of civilization in Syria and Palestine. As the clay in different parts of Palestine differs, it has been found possible by the clay alone to decide where the tablets come from when the name of the writer is lost. , the last of this dynasty, from the kings and governors of Phoenicia and Palestine
Fish, Fisher, Fishing - Out of 39 (Lortet) or 43 (Tristram) species known in Palestine, from 22 to 24 are found in the Lake of Tiberias and its immediate vicinity. ...
A considerable number of the above species belong properly to Palestine, but the fauna of Palestinian fish shows, nevertheless, a close connexion with that of Africa and not with that of the Mediterranean basin. Josephus, had already noted this fact, and they raised the question of the possibility of a subterranean communication between the waters of Egypt and those of Palestine. 506–510; Tristram, ‘Fauna and Flora’ (PEF Palestine - In his inscriptions, and those of Thothmes III, Τu-netz , "Holy Land," occurs, whether meaning "Phoenicia" or "Palestine". On the western verge of Asia, and severed from the main body of Asia by the desert between Palestine and the regions of Mesopotamia and Arabia, it looks on the other side to the Mediterranean and western world, which it was destined by Providence so powerfully to affect; oriental and reflective, yet free from the stagnant and retrogressive tendencies of Asia, it bore the precious spiritual treasure of which it was the repository to the energetic and progressive W. The plain of Jezreel or Esdraelon on its northern side, separating the Ephraim mountains from those of Galilee, and stretching across from the Mediterranean to the Jordan valley, was the great battlefield of Palestine. The rival empires, Egypt and Babylon-Assyria, could march against one another only along the maritime western plain of Palestine and the Lebanon plain leading toward and from the Euphrates. Thus Rameses II marched against the Chitti or Hittites in northern Syria, and Pharaoh Necho fought at Mefiddo in the Esdraelon plain, the battlefield of Palestine; they did not meddle with the central highlands, "The S. Mount Ephraim (jebel Nablus) contains some of the most productive land in Palestine. The hills throughout Palestine are crowned with remains of fenced cities, scarcely a town existed in the valleys. The Jordan valley is the special feature of Palestine. and suggested by Palestine which stands between E. In contrast to Egypt, Assyria, and Greece, Palestine does not contain an edifice older than the Roman occupation. Palestine is a much disturbed mountainous tract of limestone, of the secondary or jurassic and cretaceous period. Esdraelon plain is watered by the finest springs of Palestine, and has a volcanic soil. Palestine is the southern and eastern limit of the Asia Minor flora, one of the richest in the earth, and contains many trees and herbs as the pine, oak, elder, bramble, dogrose, hawthorn, which do not grow further S. Palestine was once covered with forests which still remain on the mountains, but in the lower grounds have disappeared or given place to brush wood
Joshua, the Book of - 1480 down to the time of Joshua, and consisting of official communications from Amorite, Phoenician, and Philistine chiefs to the king of Egypt, they afford a glimpse into the actual condition of Palestine prior to the Hebrew invasion, and illustrate and confirm the history of the conquest. , gives a curious account of a journey, probably official, which he undertook through Palestine as far north as to Aleppo, and an insight into the social condition of the country at that time. The Egyptian garrisons that had held possession of Palestine from the time of Thothmes III
Caesarea - Carmel is the city of Caesarea, known also as Caesarea-on-the-Sea (Maritima), Caesarea Sebaste, Caesarea of Palestine, and Caesarea of Judea. ...
The first formal archaeology of the site was a surface survey done by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1873, directed by Conder and Kitchener. This very important discovery is the one artifact that places Pontius Pilate in Palestine and confirms the historical reports
Geology of Palestine - GEOLOGY OF Palestine...
I. The land of Palestine (using the name in its widest sense to include the trans-Jordanic plateau and the Sinai Peninsula) is divided by its configuration and by natural boundary lines into five strongly contrasted divisions. This is the most important constituent of the rocks of Palestine
Famine - For the actual situation in Palestine compare Josephus, Ant. It was so for the Empire, owing to State policy, and for Palestine because of the insecurity of the times, culminating in the siege of Jerusalem, during which famine was extreme. the relation between famine and the rainfall, by Ellsworth Huntington, who concludes that ‘the second half of the first century may have been slightly drier than the first half, for at that time famines prevailed to an unusual extent’ (Palestine and its Transformation, 1911, p
False Christs - Over them lie traces of the experiences of the early Christians during the latter half of the seventh decade in Palestine, when the political convulsion of the country was accompanied by religious agitation and moral crises of a strange nature. of our era was full of unrest for the Jews of Palestine. ’ False Christs would thus be equivalent to false Messiahs (so Mark 13:21, Matthew 24:23), and the logion would be a warning against the claims and pretensions of the numerous impostors who swarmed in Palestine down to the days of Bar Cochba (131–135 a
Paula, a Roman Lady - Paula (2) , a noble and wealthy Roman lady, who accompanied Jerome to Palestine in 385, and lived the rest of her life at Bethlehem, dying in 404. With him she braved the winter's journey through Lebanon to Palestine [1] and Egypt, from whence returning the whole party settled in Bethlehem in the autumn of 386. Her letter to Marcella inviting her to come to Palestine (Hieron
Thorn - and Vulgate by Rhamnus, or Lycium Europoeum, a thorny shrub, which is common all over Palestine
Isaiah - The Assyrians were invading Galilee and Palestine
Isaias - The Assyrians were invading Galilee and Palestine
Building - ...
The Israelites were by occupation shepherds and dwellers in tents (Genesis 47:3 ); but from the time of their entering Canaan they became dwellers in towns, and in houses built of the native limestone of Palestine
Merom - Height, a lake in Northern Palestine through which the Jordan flows
Engedi - (Palestine Exploration, August, 1875
Ezer - Otherwise, a different Ephraim from the son of Jacob is meant, or Ephraim, the son of Jacob, entered Palestine, but the Bible did not preserve a story of his travels
Josephus, Flavius - Following the conflict between Rome and the Jews of Palestine (A
Sheep - In the dry semi-desert regions around Palestine, many of the Arabs and other tribal people moved with their flocks from place to place, looking for pastures and water (Genesis 26:12-22; Exodus 3:1; Isaiah 13:20)
Magog - They invaded Palestine, and besieged Ascalon under the Egyptian Psamineticus
Commerce - Palestine supplied Tyre with grain, honey, oil, balm, and wine (Ezekiel 27:17; Acts 12:20)
Olive - Olive trees, both wild and cultivated, were among the most common trees of Palestine (Deuteronomy 8:8; Judges 15:5; 1 Chronicles 27:28; Luke 22:39)
Kenites - Smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai
Galilee, Sea of - ” A freshwater lake nestled in the hills of northern Palestine
Hormah - On the other hand, Naqb es-Safâ agrees better with the position of Arad; but it seems too far from Kadesh, being more than 40 miles to the north-east (Robinson, BRP Dung - It is recorded in Luke 13:8 and Isaiah 25:10 that the people of Palestine used it for that purpose
Divided Kingdom - The beginning of the dividend kingdom marked the beginning of the end for the nations of Judah and Israel as influential entities in Palestine
Pool - Such are the vast cisterns in the temple hill that have recently been discovered by the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund
Sodom And Gomorrah - Two cities in Palestine at the time of Abraham
Lachish - ...
Lachish was identified by Conder with Tell el-Hesy , an important mound in the Gaza district, which was partially excavated with success by Flinders Petrie and Bliss for the Palestine Exploration Fund (1890 1893)
Bathing - The public baths of the Greek culture were unknown in Palestine before the second century
Sopater - Paul, who accompanied him from Greece to Asia Minor on his return journey to Palestine, whither he was bearing the offering of the churches ‘for the poor among the saints that are at Jerusalem’ (Romans 15:26)
Josiah - The Scythians are supposed to have invaded Palestine between the thirteenth and the eighteenth year of his reign
Milk - ...
Numbers 13:27 (b) This is a type of the multitude of blessings that abounded in the land of Palestine
Abel-Beth-Maacha - of Palestine, "a mother in Israel" (2 Samuel 20:19), i
Flag - An undesigned coincidence that so many Egyptian words should occur in Exodus, just what we should expect if it be, as it professes, Moses' record; but no Hebrew reared in Palestine long after the Exodus would have had the knowledge of the Egyptian tongue which the many plainly Hebraized Egyptian words in Exodus indicate that its author possessed; nor would the author have used these words with out explanation of their meaning, had he not known that his readers were equally familiar with them
Famine - ...
Failure of the heavy rains in November and December in Palestine (Genesis 12:10; Genesis 26:1-2), and of the due overflow of the Nile, along with E
Gerizim - The summit of the mountain commands a view embracing nearly the whole of Palestine
Sharon - (See Palestine
Banquet - —The people of Palestine in Christ’s day—as, indeed, throughout the East generally—were fond of social feasting
Sheep - Abounded in the pastures of Palestine
Hebron - An ancient town of Palestine, about 20 miles south of Jerusalem, first called Kirjath-arba, or city of Arba
Masons - in Palestine, show various different styles of finishing, by which the period in which they were erected may be approximately ascertained
Tribulation - , "the tribulation, the great one" (not as AV, without the article), is not that in which all saints share; it indicates a definite period spoken of by the Lord in Matthew 24:21,29 ; Mark 13:19,24 , where the time is mentioned as preceding His second advent, and as a period in which the Jewish nation, restored to Palestine in unbelief by gentile instrumentality, will suffer an unprecedented outburst of fury on the part of the antichristian powers confederate under the Man of Sin (2 Thessalonians 2:10-12 ; cp
Pomegranate - רמון , Numbers 13:23 ; Numbers 20:5 ; 1 Samuel 14:2 , &c, a low tree growing very common in Palestine, and in other parts of the east
Cloud - From May to September, Palestine has no rain or clouds, but God produced them for His people (1 Samuel 12:17-18 ; 1 Kings 18:44 )
Beasts - Few are mentioned in the Bible but such as lived in Palestine and the countries adjacent
Ship - Paul's time, vessels passing from Palestine to Italy, sometimes wintered on the way! ...
Acts 27:12 28:11
Beth'Lehem -
One of the oldest towns in Palestine, already in existence at the time of Jacob's return to the country
be-er'-Sheba, - (well of the oath ), the name of one of the old places in Palestine which formed the southern limit of the country
Earthquake - 5,2) relates the particulars of a dreadful earthquake in Palestine about B
Esdra-e'Lon - "The great plain of Esdraelon" extends across central Palestine from the Mediterranean to the Jordan, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee
Petrus, a Solitary - After visiting the holy places at Jerusalem and Palestine, he settled at Antioch, living in an empty tomb on bread and water, and keeping a strict fast every other day
Salvina - Her fame having spread to Palestine, Jerome, though a stranger, wrote her a letter—the arrogant tone of which might well have offended, if the coarseness had not shocked her
Magdala - 159) turns Megiddo into Magdalum, so some Manuscripts in Matthew 15:39 turn Magdala into Magadan’ (SP Palestine - PALESTINE. ...
Yet the influence of Palestine on Jesus is equally unquestionable. ...
The geographical features of Palestine are strongly marked; and they include, in a very small field, mountains, rivers, plains, lakes and sea-coast. This is not merely the result of the fact that local tradition and foolish ways of honouring sacred places have disfigured and stultified so many spots of Palestine. ...
Palestine is a little and compressed country, where not only geographical features, but the facts and associations of national history are gathered, so close as to force themselves upon the attention at every step. ...
Two aspects of the land, taken as a whole, must be remembered, especially if we would understand what it meant to Jesus—Palestine as an oasis, and Palestine as a focus. ...
Palestine as an oasis. ...
For Jesus also Palestine was an oasis. It is indeed true that the Palestine of His time was no longer the ‘garden enclosed’ which the prophets had striven to keep it. ...
Palestine as a focus. —If Palestine was no longer an oasis in the full sense in which it had been so in OT times, it was more a focus than it had ever been before. At the time of Jesus, Palestine was the meeting-point of East and West. Paul utilized the Roman roads for the spread of the gospel, he was but carrying out the work which Jesus initiated when He placed that gospel within the charged mine of Palestine. —Not only was Palestine in close proximity with Gentile neighbours in the time of Jesus; the land itself was overrun with Gentiles, and no account of the meaning of Palestine for Jesus can ignore that fact. ...
One fact of great significance in the life of Palestine was that it had to be lived in constant view of the desert tribes to the east of it
Leprosy - —The name of a disease common in Palestine in the time of Christ, for the cleansing of which many mighty works were performed. Of these diseases, to take a few examples, we seem to be able to recognize psoriasis in the expression ‘a leper white as snow’; favus (a common disease among Eastern Jews to-day) and perhaps ‘ringworm’ in the description of the ‘plague of the head and the beard’ (Leviticus 13:29-30); and the disease vitiligo in the symptom termed ‘freckled spot’ (בֹּהַק, Leviticus 13:39), the exactly equivalent word بهق (bohak) being used for this condition in Palestine and Arabia to-day. ...
When it is remembered that it is only in very recent years, in the life of the present generation of medical men, that the true nature both of leprosy (elephantiasis) and of ‘scrofula’ has been discovered, it is difficult to believe that the Jews of Palestine, even in NT times, recognized the sharply-defined varieties of disease we do to-day. In Palestine, in particular, the great majority of the lepers have never eaten fish at all, as they come from inland villages: fish is very seldom eaten by the Moslems in Palestine, and the only people who eat it—the Jews regularly, and the Christians at their fasts when living in the cities—suffer least from this disease. ...
(3) In Palestine, as has been already suggested, the great majority of cases are of the mixed form; cases of pure anaesthetic type are exceptional. ...
Leprosy in modern Palestine is not a common disease, but is prominently to the front from three causes: firstly, because of the interest excited in Christians of all Churches, and the special appeal made to their charitable feelings from the traditional view that these sufferers are the veritable lepers of the OT and NT; secondly, because its results are so manifest and repulsive, and its progress so slow, that a comparatively small number of cases are very much in evidence; and, lastly, because practically all the lepers in the land are segregated together by order of the Government in a few chief towns, all resorted to by travellers. At Damascus also there is a community, some members of which are also drawn from Palestine, but the majority from Syria and around Damascus; the traditional ‘House of Naaman’ is their home. Including these last, there must be between 100 and 120 lepers in Jerusalem, some 25 at Ramleh, about 40 at Nâblus; altogether, allowing for some Palestine lepers in the Damascus community, there are not more than 200 known victims of this disease in the country. It is not the rule in Palestine, at any rate, that whole villages or families become leprous, but a case arises here and there. Any one who will consult a map of modern Palestine will appreciate from how wide an area, both W
Canaan - of Palestine. The four Hamitic races occupied a continuous tract comprising the Nile valley, Palestine, S. The Phoenicians were Semitic (from Shem), but the Canaanites preceded them in Palestine and Lower Syria. ) The Canaanites' first settlement in Palestine was on the Mediterranean, in the region of Tyre and Sidon; thence they spread throughout the land. of the Dead Sea, 120 miles, with a breadth from eight to 14; this, the most sunken region in Palestine, also was occupied by the Canaanite; Amalek occupied the S. region between Egypt and Palestine. to Palestine by) Hamath," opened out Palestine on the N. Tristram remarks, What has been observed of the physical geography of Palestine holds equally true of its fauna and flora. The "places" (maqowm ) which God commanded Israel to destroy, where the Canaanites "served their gods upon the high mountains, and hills, and under every green tree" (Deuteronomy 12:2), exactly answer to the fellaheen 's Arabic makam (the same word as in Deuteronomy) in Palestine, or Mussulman kubbehs with little white topped cupolas dotted over the hills
Olive Olive-Tree - It grows plentifully almost everywhere near the shores of the Mediterranean, and is abundant in Palestine
Sela - For some description of the buildings of Petra and the rock architecture which have given the city great fame, see Bædeker’s Palestine , p
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - He wrote the Gospel in Palestine for converts from Judaism, to confirm them in their faith in Jesus as the promised Messias, and to convince the unbelievers that they had rejected the Redeemer
Title - Aramaic (which was spoken ordinarily by the people of Jerusalem and the pilgrims from Palestine), Latin (the official language), and Greek (the lingua franca of the world)
Cedar - It grew very abundantly in Palestine, and particularly on Lebanon, of which it was "the glory" (Isaiah 35:2 ; 60:13 )
Eden - It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia
Megiddo - The valley or plain of Megiddo was part of the plain of Esdraelon, the great battle-field of Palestine
Jude, Epistle of - 66 or 70, and apparently in Palestine
Almond - A native of Syria and Palestine
Salt - (For further details of the Dead Sea and the Negeb see Palestine
Transfiguration - Jesus’ transfiguration took place on a high mountain, possibly Mt Hermon, not far from Caesarea Philippi in northern Palestine (Matthew 16:13; Matthew 17:1)
Menahem - under Palestine
Medicine - ...
The washing's, the restriction in diet to clean animals and the prohibition of pork, the separation of lepers, the laws of marriage and married intercourse (Leviticus 15), the cleanliness of the camp (Deuteronomy 23:12-14), and the comprehension of all varieties of healthful climate in Palestine, account for Israel's general exemption from epidemics and remarkable healthiness
Ekron - The site is one of the largest in Palestine, covering some 50 acres
Taanach - ...
Taanach thus sat along one fork of the major north-south road of antiquity that went through Palestine, usually called the Via Maris
Fountain - The limestone rock of Palestine is especially suited for the formation of springs
Cistern - In Palestine, the climate and geological formation of the country render the storage of water a prime necessity of existence
Magog - of Palestine, not far from Meshech and Tubal, whose home is shown by Assyrian notices to have been N
Manger - Caves under the houses are extensively used in Palestine as stables
Wilderness of the Wandering, - They went as far as Kadesh, on the southernmost border of Palestine, from which place spies were sent up into the promised land
Thieves, the Two - The men who under this name appear in the history of the crucifixion were robbers rather than thieves, belonging to the lawless bands by which Palestine was at that time and afterward infested
Well - Wells in Palestine are usually excavated from the solid limestone rock, sometimes with steps to descend into them
Cities of Refuge - This proves that the sacred boundary was a square, having its four angles at the four cardinal points (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, Oct
Hare - The rabbit (Lepus cuniculus ) seems to be unknown in Syria and Palestine
Dew - In Palestine failing in early summer, again in autumn, and supplying the absence of rain
Earthquake - Traces of volcanic agency abound in Palestine
Cistern - ) The dryness between May and September in Palestine makes reservoirs necessary; of which the larger are called "pools," the smaller "cisterns
Zerubbabel - ...
According to Ezra 3:1 , Zerubbabel and Jeshua (or Joshua, the high priest) rebuilt the altar and in their second year (538?) laid the foundation of the Temple, but their work was halted by opposition from persons who had remained in Palestine during the Exile (Ezra 4:1-6 ,Ezra 4:1-6,4:24 )
Brook - ...
The slopes of the mountain range of Western Palestine are deeply furrowed by a succession of great wadys
Josiah - He therefore invaded Palestine with an army
Lion - ’...
Lions have been extinct in Palestine since the time of the Crusades, but evidently were once plentiful, especially in the thickets along the Jordan (Jeremiah 49:19 ; Jeremiah 50:44 , Zechariah 11:3 )
Hour - This varied in Palestine, from ten of our hours in the winter to fourteen in the summer; so that the hours in summer would be nearly half as long again as in the winter
Sosipater - Paul afterwards on at least part of his return journey to Palestine
Levite - Barnabas of Cyprus, where there were numerous Jews and Christians (1 Maccabees 15:23, Acts 11:19), was a landowner, though a Levite (Acts 4:36), the old ordinance (Numbers 18:24) against the possession of real estate having long before fallen into abeyance, and probably having never been meant to apply to land outside Palestine
Oak - " The Quercus psedo-coccifera is the most abundant in Palestine, covering Carmel with dense brushwood eight to twelve feet high
Levelling - In mountainous countries like Palestine landslips are not uncommon, and in this way roads are blocked, or obstructed by falling débris
Yale, Valley - There are few places in Palestine which resemble the valleys of other countries
Barley - Such loaves are still the bread of the poorest in Palestine
Jael - Wife of Heber the Kenite, a descendant of Jethro, father-in-law of Moses, who was head of an Arab clan which was established in the north of Palestine
Ezra - " He was among the captives in Babylon, and by his own request was permitted to return to Palestine
Ammonius - Driven from Egypt, the brothers took refuge first in Palestine (Niceph
Zaretan - (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p
Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary - The origin of the feast day is not known but it was celebrated in Palestine before the year 500
Gog - 665); and it has been conjectured (Sayce) that this name might have reached Palestine as that of a distant and successful king, who might be made a typical leader of a horde of invaders from the North
Gospel of Saint Matthew - He wrote the Gospel in Palestine for converts from Judaism, to confirm them in their faith in Jesus as the promised Messias, and to convince the unbelievers that they had rejected the Redeemer
Pul (2) - He being thus master of the Assyrian portion next Palestine appeared to the Jews to be "king of Assyria," about 763-760 B
Frankincense (2) - It seems clear that no such tree existed in Palestine, but that the frankincense used there was imported through Arabia (cf
Pomegranate - In Egypt (Numbers 20:5), and in Palestine (Numbers 13:23; Deuteronomy 8:8)
Horeb - See Sinai and Palestine, p
Amarna, Tell el - ...
The letters were primarily diplomatic communications between Egypt and Egyptian-controlled territories, including Syria and Palestine
Abba - It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say 'Father' in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places
Anna - 36), which, though one of the Ten Tribes of the Dispersion, was still represented in Palestine
Phenicia - It is certain that, from the conquest of Palestine by the Hebrews, its limits were narrow, containing no part of the country of the Philistines, which occupied all the coast from Mount Carmel along the Mediterranean, as far as the borders of Egypt
Ai - called by the LXX, Gai, by Josephus, Aina, and by others Ajah, a town of Palestine, situate west of Bethel, and at a small distance north-west of Jericho
Philip - PHILIP, the second of the seven deacons, Acts 6:5 , was, some say, of Caesarea in Palestine
Ephraim - " The sons of Ephraim having made an inroad into Palestine, the inhabitants of Gath killed them
Neighbor - " There were no farmhouses scattered over the agricultural areas of Palestine; the populations, gathered in villages, went to and fro to their toil
Leopard - Probably, these animals were numerous in Palestine; as we find places with a name intimating their having been the haunts of leopards: Nimrah, Numbers 32:3 ; Beth-Nimrah, Numbers 32:36 ; Joshua 13:27 ; and "waters of Nimrim," Isaiah 15:6 ; Jeremiah 48:34 ; and "mountains of leopards," Song of Solomon 4:8
Bethlehem - It is one of the oldest in Palestine
Luke (2) - This is not surprising in so clear-sighted an observer, especially as he certainly visited and perhaps more than once resided in Palestine
Gilead or Galeed - A part of Gilead was the district now called Belka, one of the most fertile in Palestine
Ethiopia - This would explain how he could obtain access to the land of Palestine without passing through Egypt
Gardens - Gardens were inclosed by walls, or by hedges of rose bushes, wild pomegranate trees, or to her shrubs, many of which in Palestine have long and sharp thorns, 2 Samuel 23:6,7 Job 1:10 Proverbs 15:19 Hosea 2:6
Dew - The process whereby dew is formed is enhanced in Eastern countries like Palestine, where the surface of the ground and the air in contact therewith are highly heated during the daytime, but where at night, and particularly under a cloudless sky, the heat of the ground is radiated into space and the air becomes rapidly cooled down
Honey - Was formerly very plentiful in Palestine, and hence the frequent expressions of Scripture which import that that country was a land flowing with milk and honey, Leviticus 20:24
ez'ra - It appears that Ezra's great design was to effect a religious reformation among the Palestine Jews
Jacob's Well - This is one of the few sites in Palestine about which there is no dispute
Gadarenes', Girgesenes', Gerasenes' - This city was better known than Gadara or Gergesa; indeed in the Roman age no city of Palestine was better known
Egypt, Land of - As to rain the country differs materially from Palestine, which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven;" for in Egypt, except by the sea-coast, it rarely rains, the land being watered from the river, which rises once a year, overflowing its banks in many places, and, as it retires, leaving a rich sediment on the soil
Fish - (4:18) In Palestine, the Sea of Galilee was and still is remarkable well stored with fish
Camel - The species of camel which was in common use among the Jews and the heathen nations of Palestine was the Arabian or one-humped camel, Camelus arabicus
Plains - Out of Palestine we find denoted by the word bik'ah the "plain of the land of Shiner," ( Genesis 11:2 ) the "plain of Mesopotamia," (Ezekiel 3:22,23 ; 8:4 ; 37:1,2 ) and the "plain in the province of Dura
Caesarea - ...
The Palestine coast south of Mt Carmel had no good sites for harbours, because of the shallow waters and sandy shores
Hebron - It was situated at the point where two main highways crossed, the north-south route from central Canaan to Egypt, and the east-west route from the Dead Sea to the Mediterranean coast (for map see Palestine)
Cyprus - In the Old Testament scattered references refer to the island as Kittim (Chittim, Isaiah 23:1 ; Jeremiah 2:10 ), although in some passages the term has a wider scope and includes lands other than Cyprus lying west of Palestine (Daniel 11:30 ). has been found in Asia Minor, Egypt, Palestine, and Syria; contacts also were maintained with Crete, the Aegean Islands, and Greece
Lebanon - of Palestine, running in parallel lines from S. " Lebanon is a delightful retreat from the sultry heat of the plains and of Palestine, cooled as it is by the snows which crown its peaks
Caesarea - Joppa and Dora had been previously the only harbors of Palestine. ...
The great castle (Shubeibeh) built partly in the earliest ages still remains the most striking fortress in Palestine
Ashtaroth - Among the people of Palestine, Ashtaroth may have taken over Anath's role. Many other clay figurines of Astarte have been found at sites throughout Palestine
Ass - ]'>[3] hamar ) is the most universally useful domesticated animal in Palestine. ...
Wild asses are not to-day found in Palestine, though, it is said, plentiful in the deserts to the East (Job 24:5 ), where they roam in herds and run with extraordinary fleetness ( Job 39:5 )
Cattle - Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed the most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of Palestine (Genesis 12:16 ; 13:5 ; 26:14 ; 21:27 ; 29:2,3 ). Goats also formed a part of the pastoral wealth of Palestine (Genesis 15:9 ; 32:14 ; 37:31 )
Ephraim - The name is also given to the tribe of which he was the head, and also to the district of Palestine that fell to his lot. ...
The territory of the tribe was in the heart of Palestine, having Manasseh on the north, Benjamin on the south, and Dan on the west
Stone - ...
Palestine was (and is) famous for its ubiquitous “stone. That building with “stone” was the rule rather than the exception in Palestine is suggested by the biblical writer’s allusion to the Mesopotamian custom of using clay bricks ( Carmel - in the southern part of Palestine, where Nabal the Carmelite, Abigail's husband, dwelt, Joshua 15:55 ; 1 Samuel 25. CARMEL was also the name of a celebrated mountain in Palestine
Corn - Palestine was anciently very fertile in grain, which furnished in a great measure the support of the inhabitants. Clarke says, "In the island of Cyprus I observed upon the ground the sort of stones used for grinding corn, called querns in Scotland, common also in Lapland, and in all parts of Palestine
Gal'Ilee - ( Joshua 20:7 ; 1 Kings 9:11 ) In the time of our Lord all Palestine was divided into three provinces, Judea, Samaria and Galilee. --It is estimated that of the 1000 square miles in Palestine west of the Jordan, nearly one-third, almost 2000 square miles, belongs to Galilee
Ephraim - The name is also given to the tribe of which he was the head, and also to the district of Palestine that fell to his lot. ...
The territory of the tribe was in the heart of Palestine, having Manasseh on the north, Benjamin on the south, and Dan on the west
Melania, a Roman Lady - ), was with her in 374 in Egypt, and possibly in Palestine (ib. Melania, who had only been in Egypt six months, went with a large body of exiled bishops, clergy, and anchorets to a place near Diocaesarea in Palestine, where she supported them at her own expense
Rock - Stanley, SP Philistia, Philistines - The territory of Philistia consisted largely of the plainlands that stretched along the Mediterranean coast of Palestine. The region was known in ancient times as ‘the land of the Philistines’, from which we get the modern name ‘Palestine’. The coast road from Egypt to Palestine was known as ‘the way of the land of the Philistines’, and the Mediterranean Sea was sometimes called ‘the Sea of the Philistines’ (Exodus 13:17; Exodus 23:31)
ir-ha-Heres - MSS), being the original reading, which was altered afterwards by the Jews of Palestine into heres , ‘destruction,’ in order to obtain a condemnation of the Egyptian temple, and by the Jews of Egypt into tsedek , ‘righteousness’ (LXX [11] ), and then further, by the Jews of Palestine, as a counter-blow, into ‘city of destruction’ (Heb
Canaan, Land of - The land possessed by the descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham, which was until recently called Palestine. ...
The name Palestine is often now used as synonymous with Canaan, but in the scripture that term and 'Palestina' refer to the land of the Philistines, the narrow border on the sea coast in the south of Canaan. ...
The land on the west of the Jordan and some portions on the east have been surveyed, firstly by the officers of the Palestine Exploration Fund, which has been the means, as far as their judgement goes, of identifying many Biblical sites
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - (land of palm trees ) a tract of country, of which Tyre and Sidon were the principal cities, to the north of Palestine, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea bounded by that sea on the west, and by the mountain range of Lebanon on the east. Their worship was a constant temptation for the Hebrews to Polytheism and idolatry -- ...
Because undoubtedly the Phoenicians, as a great commercial people, were more generally intelligent, and as we should now say civilized, than the inland agricultural population of Palestine. ...
The Phoenician religion had in other respects an injurious effect on the people of Palestine, being in some points essentially demoralizing, For example, it mentioned the dreadful superstition of burning children as sacrifices to a Phoenician god
Gospels - ...
Preserving the message...
After the resurrection and ascension of Jesus, his followers spread the good news of salvation through him, firstly in Jerusalem, and then throughout Palestine and neighbouring countries. No doubt he had done much of his research during the two years he had just spent in Palestine with Paul (Acts 24:27). The place most commonly suggested for the writing of such a book is Antioch in Syria, which was closely connected with the Jewish churches of Palestine and with the mission to the Gentile nations (Acts 11:19-22; Acts 11:27-29; Acts 13:1-4; Acts 14:26-27; Acts 15:1-3; Acts 15:22; Acts 15:30; see MATTHEW, GOSPEL OF)
Jews - ...
After a period of approximately 70 years, Cyrus, King of Persia, gave the exiles permission to return, and about 50,000 Jews followed Zorobabel to Palestine in 538 BC. Herod, an Idumean, was appointed King of Judea by Rome, and not long after his death Roman procurators assumed control of the government in Palestine. The rapacity and cruelty of these procurators led at length to an organized revolt against Rome, which terminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and of its Temple in the year 70 AD, and in the dispersion of the Jews of Palestine throughout the civilized world. The following religious sects exist today: ...
Orthodox Jews, who believe in the inspiration of Scripture and who cling to the prescriptions of the Mishna and Talmud
Conservative Jews, who also hold the inspiration of Scripture, but who have adapted the prescriptions of tradition to modern Conditions
Liberal or Reformed Jews, who have very lax views about the inspiration of Scripture, who try to make their beliefs conform to modern rationalistic theories, and who have abandoned many of the ancient customs and practises
Zionism is a movement to make Palestine the national home of the Jews and the chief center of Jewish culture
Mining And Metals - Though Palestine proper is deficient in mineral resources, yet these were present to some extent on its borders, and were not only abundantly found, but even largely developed, in other parts of the ancient East. Deuteronomy 33:25 ), though inapplicable to Palestine proper, may hold good of the Lebanon district or (as has been suggested by some) of the Sinaitic region. While it figured in the history of Israel from the beginning (see the spoils of Egypt [5], Midian [6], and Jericho [7]), it became specially plentiful in Palestine in the time of Solomon ( 1 Kings 10:14 ; 1 Kings 10:21 ), the main sources of it being Ophir ( 1 Kings 9:28 ; 1 Kings 10:11 ), Tarshish ( 1 Kings 10:22 ), and Sheba ( 1 Kings 11:2 , Psalms 72:15 ). ...
Flint is a form of silica, and occurs abundantly, in the form of nodules, in many of the limestone rocks of Palestine
House (2) - The ordinary house of the ancient Hebrew, we may be sure, was much like that found in Palestine to-day—it could hardly be cruder, or more primitive. Palestine, as known to history, has had few great forests, and little timber of any kind suited for building. In a limestone country like Palestine, if one dig deep enough, he finds almost anywhere a stratum of solid rock. ...
The Graeco-Roman architecture of the Hellenistic period did not exert any very marked or lasting influence upon the architecture of Palestine, partly because of the Jewish antipathy to the Hellenizing tendency, and partly because it was confined to the larger buildings, such as palaces, baths, theatres, temples, etc
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - Sabas in Palestine was standing. His Palestine life lasted more than 25 years, and Sophronius Sophista is frequently mentioned as his companion, once with a remark that it was "before he renounced the world. This again assists the chronology; for as the Persians obtained possession of Jerusalem in 615 and in 616 advanced from Palestine and took Alexandria (Rawl. Sophronius and 12 fellow-disciples sailed with the body to Palestine, but, hearing at Ascalon that Sinai was beset by Arabs, took it up to Jerusalem (in the beginning of the eighth indiction, e
Transportation And Travel - At first this meant following the paths animals made through the hills and valleys of Palestine. They also functioned as the principle link from which branched lesser roads connecting cities and towns in Palestine to the rest of the Near East (Proverbs 8:2-3 ). ...
Geographical Factors in Travel Perhaps the greatest obstacle that travelers and road builders had to overcome was the rugged geographical character of Palestine. The hilly spine of central Palestine forced the traveler to zigzag around steep ascents (such as that between Jericho and Jerusalem), or follow ridges along the hill tops (the Beth Horon route northwest of Jerusalem), or go along watersheds (Bethlehem to Mizpah). ...
The rough coastline of Palestine lacked a good, deep-water port for shipping. ...
No physical remains of chariots have been found in Palestine, although a magnificent example of a royal Egyptian chariot was discovered in the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamon (about 1300 B. ...
The broader roads and heavy wheeled vehicles of Palestine were also used, in the period of the Assyrian conquest, to transport the people into Exile
Herod - ...
A glance at the map shows that Palestine is an organic part of the Mediterranean world. For another, the fact that Palestine was the frontier towards Egypt made its political assimilation to Northern Syria a military necessity. Palestine needed the strong hand. Yet Rome was not ready to assume direct control of Palestine. He was once driven out of Palestine by an alliance between the Hasmonæan house and the Parthians (Jos. He made life and property in Palestine safe from every foe but his own tyranny. The Empire was slowly closing in on Palestine
Sepulchre - Ancient tombs of this kind are very common in Palestine still. Bliss and Macalister, PEF Cosmetics - ...
Utensils, Colors, and Manufacture of Cosmetics Cosmetic utensils of glass, wood, and bone have been found in archeological excavations in Palestine, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. In Palestine, most frequently uncovered are limestone bowls or palettes. Possibly imported from Syria, the palettes were common in the northern part of Palestine from about 1000 B
Manasseh - This territory on the east of Jordan was more valuable and of larger extent than all that was allotted to the nine and a half tribes in the land of Palestine. ) ...
On the west of Jordan the other half of the tribe of Manasseh was associated with Ephraim, and they had their portion in the very centre of Palestine, an area of about 1,300 square miles, the most valuable part of the whole country, abounding in springs of water. Manasseh has been called the "Nero of Palestine
Nazareth - He was never far from the crowds, often (such were Roman oppression and Jewish sedition) the madding crowds of Galilee, and ‘all the rumour of the Empire entered Palestine close to Nazareth’ (G. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine23, 1912; V. de la Palestine, pt. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria, 1912, p
Grape - " Many eye witnesses assure us, that in Palestine the vines, and bunches of grapes, are almost of an incredible size. " Forster, in his Hebrew Dictionary, (under the word Eshcol,) says, that he knew at Nurnburg, a monk of the name of Acacius, who had resided eight years in Palestine, and had also preached at Hebron, where he had seen bunches of grapes which were as much as two men could conveniently carry. Hasselquist is inclined to believe that the prophet here means the solanum incanum, "hoary nightshade," because it is common in Egypt and Palestine, and the Arabian name agrees well with it
Nazareth - He was never far from the crowds, often (such were Roman oppression and Jewish sedition) the madding crowds of Galilee, and ‘all the rumour of the Empire entered Palestine close to Nazareth’ (G. Stanley, Sinai and Palestine23, 1912; V. de la Palestine, pt. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria, 1912, p
Canaan - ) "Palestine," Exodus 15:14 , a name derived from the Philistines, who migrated from Egypt, and having expelled the aboriginal inhabitants, settled on the borders of the Mediterranean. By heathen writers, the Holy Land has been variously termed Palestine, Syria, and Phoenicia. At present, Palestine is subject to the sultan of Turkey, under whom the pashas of Acre and Gaza govern the seacoast and the pasha of Damascus the interior of the country. The variations of sunshine, clouds, and rain, which with us extend throughout the year, are in Palestine confined chiefly to the winter or rainy season. And yet some parts of Palestine still show an astonishing fertility; and wherever the soil is cultivated, it yields a hundred fold
Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel - Established historical records of the Order date back to the 12th century; the Rule it now observes is that given by Saint Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 1206, to the Hermits of Mount Carmel in Palestine
Moriah - ]'>[1] to denote the Canaanite natives of Palestine
Samaria - It is one of the largest and most important mounds in ancient Palestine
Stork - Both species are very numerous in Palestine
Sparrow - " The Greek stauthion (Authorized Version "sparrow") occurs twice in the New Testament, ( Matthew 10:29 ; Luke 12:6,7 ) (The birds above mentioned are found in great numbers in Palestine and are of very little value, selling for the merest trifle and are thus strikingly used by our Saviour, (Matthew 10:20 ) as an illustration of our Father's care for his children
Carmelite Order - Established historical records of the Order date back to the 12th century; the Rule it now observes is that given by Saint Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 1206, to the Hermits of Mount Carmel in Palestine
Carmelites - Established historical records of the Order date back to the 12th century; the Rule it now observes is that given by Saint Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, 1206, to the Hermits of Mount Carmel in Palestine
Kadesh - Holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from Horeb
Epistles - The narrow limits of Palestine made direct personal communication easy
Catacombs, Roman - They imitated the cemeteries which the Jews living at Rome had laid out in the manner of the rock-graves of Palestine
Syria - In the time of the Romans, Syria included also a part of Palestine and Asia Minor
Zidon - It was the first home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive commercial relations became a "great" city (Joshua 11:8 ; 19:28 )
Reuben, Tribe of - Stanley's Sinai and Palestine
Hittites - In Joshua (Joshua 1:4; Joshua 9:1; Joshua 11:3-4; Joshua 12:8) they appear as the principal power occupying upper Syria, between Palestine and the Euphrates
Kadesh - Holy, or Kadesh-Barnea, sacred desert of wandering, a place on the south-eastern border of Palestine, about 165 miles from Horeb
Sanhedrim - As the highest court of judicature, "in all causes and over all persons, ecclesiastical and civil, supreme," its decrees were binding, not only on the Jews in Palestine, but on all Jews wherever scattered abroad
Sycomore - In Palestine it is found principally along the coast and in the low-lying plains around Jericho, and is often planted by the roadside
Tooth - Among the modern inhabitants of Palestine, on account of the similarity in physical accompaniment, the same Arabic word is used to indicate both violent indignation and the sorrow of bereavement
Galilee - ” The northern part of Palestine above the hill country of Ephraim and the hill country of Judah (Joshua 20:7 )
Medeba - Many ancient remains have come to light, a large pool with solid walls, remains of gates, towers, four churches, some fine mosaics, especially a deeply interesting and important mosaic map of Christian Palestine and Egypt
Thorns - Palestine abounded in a great variety of such plants
Hor - It "rises like a huge castellated building from a lower base" (Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, 86)
Beersheba - It is recognized as the southern boundary of Palestine in the frequent phrase ‘from Dan unto Beersheba’ ( Judges 20:1 etc
Bird - ...
Birds abound in Palestine, and evidently did so in ancient times
Languages of the Bible - , it replaced Hebrew as the spoken language of Palestine
Lamps, Lighting, Lampstand - Each branch may have had a seven-spouted lamp (Zechariah 4:2 ), as do some individual lamps found in Palestine
Vineyard - ...
Psalm 80:15 (a) The vineyard is GOD's people gathered as a nation in Palestine
Mizpah, Mizpeh - It was 'under Hermon,' and therefore in the north of Palestine, Joshua 11:3 ; this is possibly the same as ...
3
Carmel - direction toward the Mediterranean, where it forms a notable promontory, the only one in Palestine
Art - The finest product of modern excavation in Palestine in the domain of art is probably the Hebrew seal with the lion marchant found at Megiddo (see Seals)
Jehoiakim - The evacuation of Palestine followed, and Jehoiakim was obliged to submit to the Babylonians
Jerahmeel - of Palestine, with which David cultivated friendly relations during his exile ( 1 Samuel 27:10 ; 1 Samuel 30:29 )
Band - The forces in Palestine seem to have been originally Herod’s troops, taken over by the Romans; they were recruited in the Greek cities in or around the country, such as Caesarea, Ascalon, Sebaste
Galilee - In the time of our Lord, Palestine was divided into three provinces, of which Galilee was the most northern
Lebanon - The mountain range in the north of Palestine. It is mentioned as the northern boundary of Palestine
he'Brews, Epistle to the - --The epistle was probably addressed to the Jews in Jerusalem and Palestine
Fig - This, Ficus carica, was a tree very common in Palestine
Fig Tree - This, Ficus carica, was a tree very common in Palestine
Synagogue - Ruins of synagogues, in several places in Palestine, have been found
Collection For the Poor Saints - Political instability and general economic depression were problems in Palestine
Food - Palestine was favored with an abundance of animal food, grain, and vegetables
City - The towns and cities of Palestine were commonly built on heights, for better security against robbers or invaders
Persia, Persians - Asian empire of antiquity, whose power, moreover, was upon the whole consistently employed for the protection of the subject peoples, including in the great satrapy ‘beyond the River’ the Hebrew community in Palestine which was reestablished by the generosity of Cyrus himself (see Ezra and Neh
Roman Catacombs - They imitated the cemeteries which the Jews living at Rome had laid out in the manner of the rock-graves of Palestine
he'Bron - Genesis23:19 About a mile from the town, up the valley, is one of the largest oak trees in Palestine
na'Hum - On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Palestine, ( Nahum 1:4 ) to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile
ga'za - It is the last town in the southwest of Palestine, on the frontier towards Egypt
Jezreel - It has been called the battle-field of Palestine
Band - The forces in Palestine seem to have been originally Herod’s troops, taken over by the Romans; they were recruited in the Greek cities in or around the country, such as Caesarea, Ascalon, Sebaste
Joppa - of Palestine (Joshua 19:46)
Adder - This is supposed to be the 'yellow viper' of Palestine, which lurks in dens, and whose poison is deadly
Division of the Earth - Moses refers to it, as handed down to the Israelites, "from the days of old, and the years of many generations; as they might learn from their fathers and their elders," and farther, as conveying a special grant of the land of Palestine, to be the lot of the twelve tribes of Israel:—...
"When the Most High divided to the nations their settlements, When he separated the sons of Adam, ...
He assigned the boundaries of the peoples [1] According to the number of the sons of Israel: For the portion of the Lord is his people, ...
Jacob is the lot of his inheritance," ...
Deuteronomy 32:7-9 . ...
And this furnishes an additional proof of the justice of the expulsion of the Canaanites, as usurpers, by the Israelites, the rightful possessors of the land of Palestine, under Moses, Joshua, and their successors, when the original grant was renewed to Abraham, Genesis 15:13-21 . And the knowledge of this divine decree may satisfactorily account for the panic terror with which the devoted nations of Canaan were struck at the miraculous passage of the Red Sea by the Israelites, and approach to their confines, so finely described by Moses:—...
"The nations shall hear [2] and tremble, Sorrow shall seize the inhabitants of Palestine. 2614, or five hundred and forty-one years after the deluge, and one hundred and ninety-one years after the death of Noah, in the following order:—"To the sons of Shem was allotted the middle of the earth, namely, Palestine, Syria, Assyria, Samaria, Singar, [4] Babel, [5] Persia, and Hegiaz; [6] to the sons of Ham, Teimen, [7] Africa, Nigritia, Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Scindia, and India; [8] to the sons of Japheth, also, Garbia, [9] Spain, France, the countries of the Greeks, Sclavonians, Bulgarians, Turks, and Armenians. " In this curious and valuable geographical chart, Armenia, the cradle of the human race, was allotted to Japheth, by right of primogeniture; and Samaria and Babel to the sons of Shem; the usurpation of these regions, therefore, by Nimrod, and of Palestine by Canaan, was in violation of the divine decree. Even so late as the tenth generation after the flood in Abraham's days, there were considerable tracts of land in Palestine unappropriated, on which he and his nephew, Lot, freely pastured their cattle without hinderance or molestation. The Caphtorim and the Casluhim, whose descendants were the Philistim of Palestine, occupied the district which lies between the delta of the Nile and the southern extremity of Palestine, Deuteronomy 2:23 ; Amos 9:7 . This country of Aram is frequently rendered Syria in Scripture, Judges 10:6 ; Hosea 12:12 , &c; which is not to be confounded with Palestine Syria, into which they afterward spread themselves, still retaining their original name of Αριμοι , or Arameans, noticed by Homer in his "Iliad
Biblical Chronology - ), and during a census ordered by Augustus and carried out in Syria and Palestine by Cyrinus (Luke 2). The imprisonment and trial of Saint Paul, and his subsequent voyage to Rome, are dated from the departure of Felix and the arrival of Festus in Palestine; but every year from 55-61 has been claimed for this event
Hexapla - Eusebius relates, that Origen, after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several versions that had been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his Tetrapla and Hexapla; others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. Now, Origen, who had held frequent disputations with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that they always objected to those passages of Scripture quoted against them, appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages, and confound the Jews, by showing that the Seventy had given the sense of the Hebrew; or rather to show, by a number of different versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easily confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other
Babylon, Kingdom of - 3800) and his son, Naram-Sin, who conquered a large part of Western Asia, establishing their power in Palestine, and even carrying their arms to the Sinaitic peninsula. ...
In the time of Khammu-rabi, Syria and Palestine were subject to Babylonia and its Elamite suzerain; and after the overthrow of the Elamite supremacy, the Babylonian kings continued to exercise their influence and power in what was called "the land of the Amorites
Thorn - high, the Arab nebk , abound in Palestine; the nebk fringes the Jordan. The thorny ononis or "rest harrow" also abounds in Palestine
Tyre - Stanley, Sinai and Palestine, new ed. Baedeker, Palestine and Syria4, do
Pelagians - From Africa, Pelagius passed into Palestine, while Celestius remained at Carthage, with a view to preferment, desiring to be admitted among the presbyters of that city. And by Orosius, a Spanish presbyter, whom Augustin had sent into Palestine for that purpose, before an assembly of bishops met at Jerusalem, yet he was dismissed without the least censure; and not only so, but was soon after fully acquitted of all errors by the council of Diospolis
Robber - ...
Palestine has always, if its government has been weak, been infested by robbers, to whom its rocks and caves afford plentiful cover and shelter (cf. Caesarea Philippi - The area is one of the most lush and beautiful in Palestine, with groves of trees and grassy fields abounding. ) in which Antiochus the Great defeated the Egyptians and thereby took control of Palestine for the Seleucids
Milk - ’ Butter cannot be kept sweet under the climatic conditions of Palestine, but must be boiled, producing the samn or clarified butter universally prized throughout the East. ...
There has been much discussion of late as to the origin of the popular expression ‘ flowing with milk and honey ,’ so frequently used in OT to describe Palestine as an ideal land abounding in the necessaries and delicacies of life
Couch - The Tel el-Amarna tablets show how early such luxury prevailed in Palestine, and state that even in those ancient times couches of rare and costly wood inlaid with gold were sent as presents from Palestine to Egypt
Fig, Fig-Tree - ’...
The fig-tree is native to Palestine and is found either cultivated or wild all over the country. As a matter of fact, its foliage affords better shade and protection than any other tree in Palestine
Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine - Euthymius (4) , abbat in Palestine, born in 377, at Melitene in Armenia, and placed at an early age under the direction of its bishop, Otreius. The story spread over Palestine and the neighbouring countries, and Euthymius was besieged with applications for medical assistance and prayer
Accho - It is a seaport of Palestine, thirty miles south of Tyre, and, in the first partition of the holy land, belonged to the tribe of Asher; but this was one of the places out of which the Israelites could not drive the primitive inhabitants. Since this period, the fortifications have been considerably increased; and although to the eye of an engineer they may still be very defective, Acre may be considered as the strongest place in Palestine
Jericho - It was the key to Western Palestine. " It would seem that the Egyptian troops had before this been withdrawn from Palestine
Medicine - Palestine was probably a comparatively healthy country in Bible times, as it is now. On the whole, the medical knowledge of the Bible peoples was very defective; nor are there any traces of medical education in Palestine. ; it may be a sort of malarial fever which occurs in certain parts of Palestine, and is occasionally accompanied by jaundice. This may be ague, or even typhoid, which is common in Palestine. ]'>[4] ‘irritation’); either some unspecified kind of irritating disease, or erysipelas ; but this latter disease is not of frequent occurrence in Palestine. As the plague is not endemic in Palestine, the Jews probably incurred it by mixing with their neighbours
Israel - ( a ) Some traditions, such as those concerning kinship with non-Palestinian tribes, the deliverance from Egypt, and concerning Moses, were brought into Palestine from the desert. 1500 that Jacob-el was a place-name in Palestine. Ruten ) is an old name of Palestine or of a part of it. 1300, and were moving westward for a little more than a century (see Paton, Syria and Palestine , 103 ff. Benjamin is said to have been the youngest son of Jacob, born in Palestine a long time after the others. ), this tribe probably joined the confederacy after the conquest of Palestine. These tribes, along with the other Abrahamidæ the Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites moved westward from the Euphrates along the eastern border of Palestine. to the Exile , 6) regards the Khabiri, who in the el-Amarna tablets lay siege to Jerusalem, as Hebrews who made an incursion into Palestine, c
Probably we shall not go far astray, if we suppose that the Leah tribes were roaming the steppe to the south of Palestine where Menephtah defeated them, while the Rachel tribes, enticed into Egypt by the opportunity to obtain an easier livelihood, became entangled in trouble there, from which Moses emancipated them, perhaps in the reign of Menephtah himself. Naturally they desired the most fertile land in the region, Palestine. ]'>[7] claims that Og, the king of Bashan, was conquered at this time, but it is probable that the conquest of Bashan by a part of the tribe of Manasseh was a backward movement from the west after the conquest of Palestine was accomplished
Economic Life - Economic life in ancient Palestine involved the simple desire to improve the condition of life and to expand contact with other peoples. ...
Like most of the rest of the Near East, the economy of ancient Palestine was primarily agricultural. Palestine has a remarkably varied geographic pattern and huge shifts in climate. A desolate wilderness region lies near the Dead Sea, while well-watered farm lands are found in the Shephelah plateau (between the coastal plain and the hill country) and in the Galilee area of northern Palestine. ...
The semi-tropical climate of Palestine includes a hot, dry summer and autumn during which no rains fall for six months. The fact that Abram's first experience in Palestine was a famine (Genesis 12:10 ) is not surprising. ...
Local Village Economy Agriculture in ancient Palestine took three basic forms: grain production (barley and wheat), cultivation of vines and fruit trees, and the care of oleaginous plants (olive, date, sesame) from which oil was extracted for cooking, lighting, and personal care uses. ...
Urbanization and the imposed demands of foreign conquerors brought greater complexity to the economic life of the people of Palestine
Joshua - And while it is difficult on any reading of the history to understand why all our sources say nothing about the conquest of Central Palestine, this becomes doubly difficult if originally this was the scene of Joshua’s first activity and influence. ...
It seems more probable that Joshua led the nation in their first assault on Palestine, that under his leadership the entry by Jericho was won, and a wedge thrust into the land by the capture of Bethel and Ai. ...
Modern criticism has insisted on connecting the book more closely with the Pentateuch, on the ground that, since all the Pentateuch documents look forward to the fulfilment of Jahweh’s promise of Palestine, Joshua, which relates the conquest, is a necessary sequel. This, however, forgets ( a ) that all Hebrew history is a unity in which the conquest of Palestine is merely an incident; ( b ) that Deuteronomy looks forward beyond the conquest to the erection of a national sanctuary, for which Joshua provides no more than the foundation. It is sufficient to mention one the absence of any account of the conquest of Central Palestine. ]'>[4] ’s narrative of the conquest of Central Palestine; possibly it was derived from E Nahum (2) - The allusions in Nahum indicate local acquaintance with Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 1:15; Nahum 2:2) and only general knowledge of Nineveh (Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3). Nisroch) thy grave," foretells Sennacherib's murder 20 years after his return from Palestine, "as he was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god" (Isaiah 37:38). ...
The historical facts presupposed in Nahum are Judah's and Israel's humiliation by Assyria (Nahum 2:2); the invasion of Judah (Nahum 1:9-11); the conquest of No-Amon or Thebes in Upper Egypt, probably by Sargon (Isaiah 20) who, fearing lest Egypt should join Palestine against him, undertook an expedition against it, 717-715 B
Water (2) - —For an Eastern country, Palestine (except in the Negeb and the districts which are desert) has a fairly abundant supply of water. —Conder, Palestine, pp
Lamp - The unearthing of thousands of lamps in the course of recent Palestine exploration, sometimes as many as two or three hundred from a single grave, has made it possible to trace the development of the lamp from early pre-Israelite to Byzantine times. 1; Bliss and Macalister, Excavations in Palestine (in the sequel cited as BM Exc . In addition to the normal lamp with a single wick, the excavations in northern and southern Palestine have brought to light numerous specimens of ‘multiple lamps,’ a favourite form of which consisted of a bowl, having its rim pinched into three, four, or seven spouts (see BM Exc
Giant - ]'>[3] , is used of several probably different aboriginal peoples of Palestine, and probably meant ‘giants. Taken together, this evidence seems to suggest that the name Rephaim was applied to the pre-Canaanite races of Palestine. We naturally find the most evident traces of them in those districts of Palestine and its borders more recently occupied by past invaders, as in the East of Jordan and Philistia
Bethabara - ]'>[2] The ancient writers do not seem to take into account the possibility of the names occurring more than once in Palestine. Husbandry - ...
The soil of Palestine is very fruitful, if the dews and vernal and autumnal rains are not withheld. This sort of wheat does not flourish in Palestine: the wheat of Palestine is of a much better kind
Coins - , after Alexander overran the Persian Empire, Greek coinage was circulated widely in Palestine, according to archaeological research. Such symbols continued to be used by Herod and other appointed Jewish rulers after Palestine submitted to Roman domination. The denarius was the daily pay for Roman soldiers and the wage of a day laborer in Palestine (Matthew 20:21 )
Herod - (huhr' uhd) The name given to the family ruling Palestine immediately before and to some degree during the first half of the first Christian century. ...
The most prominent family member and ruler was Herod, son of Antipater who had been appointed governor of Idumea by Alexandra Salome, the Maccabean queen who ruled Palestine 78-69 B. By sheer force of personality and lack of hesitancy in executing even the close members of his own family, he strengthened his position as undisputed ruler of Palestine under the permission of Roman authority. Because of his effective administration, he virtually made Palestine what it was in the first Christian century
Philistim - It is certain that, in the time of Abraham, the Canaanites were in possession of the rest of the land, to which they gave their name: but the extreme south of Philistia, or Palestine, was even then possessed by the Philistines, whose king, Abimelech, reigned at Gerar. The time of their coming to Palestine is unknown; but they had been long in Canaan when Abraham came thither, in the year of the world 2083. There is great probability that the Philistines could not withstand him, but were reduced to his obedience, as well as the other people of Syria, Phenicia, and Palestine. It has shared in the general destruction; and, notwithstanding its proud title of the capital of Palestine, it is now no more than a defenceless village," (baldness has come upon it,) "peopled by, at most, only two thousand inhabitants. " There is yet another city which was noted by the prophets, the very want of any information respecting which, and the absence of its name from several modern maps of Palestine, while the sites of other ruined cities are marked, are really the best confirmation of the truth of the prophecy that could possibly be given
Galilee - As applied to this particular district in north-western Palestine, the form used is either הַנָּלִיל, ‘the district’ (Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:32, 1 Kings 9:11, 2 Kings 15:29, 1 Chronicles 6:76), or נְּלִיל הַנּוֹיִם, ‘district of the nations’ (Isaiah 9:1). Within these limits lay ‘a region of mountain, hill, and plain, the most diversified and attractive in Palestine’ (Masterman, Studies in Galilee, p. ), the highest mountain in western Palestine. Even to-day, when such large tracts lie uncultivated, no part of Palestine is more productive. -At the partition of west Palestine among the twelve tribes, Galilee fell to the lot of Issachar, Zebulun, Asher, and Naphtali, who did not drive out the original inhabitants. Guérin, Description … de la Palestine, pt. du Talmud, Paris, 1868, §§ 188-240; SWP Kabbala - It attained prominence in Spain in the 13th century, was disseminated at the time of the expulsion of the Jews from that country, and became identified with Palestine
Tiberias - 70), Tiberias became one of the chief residences of the Jews in Palestine
Mesopotamia - Orfa, Abram's native city, and Haran, his resting place between Chaldaea and Palestine, are in Padan Aram (Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2)
Ashkelon - , but on the main road from Egypt to Palestine
Sinai - The Sinai Peninsular is the dry region that lies south of Palestine between the two northern arms of the Red Sea
Merchant - ) Tyre's trading partners included twenty-two nations or peoples encompassing Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia
Sword - The sickle or curved sword was used throughout Mesopotamia, Egypt, and in Palestine
Megiddo - The hill has recently been excavated by the German Palestine Society, and fortifications going back before b
East - of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia
Stone - Palestine is a stony country
Jackal - The jackal ( Canis aureus ) is exceedingly common in Palestine; its mournful cries are heard every night
Winepress - Wine making has always been a major industry in Syria-Palestine
Loaf - And at the present time one may see this loaf in almost every part of Palestine
Cubit - In the Palestine Exploration this subject has not been lost sight of
Gog And Magog - These, 'coming out of the north,' as a cloud to cover the land,' will attack Israel in the land of Palestine, but will be smitten by God
Fountain - ...
Thus to Palestine peculiarly of eastern lauds the psalmist's language is appropriate, "He sendeth the springs into the valleys which run among the hills" (Psalms 104:10)
Ophir - This location is supported because of its distance from Palestine and the products that are characteristic of Africa that are mentioned in biblical texts (1 Kings 9:28 ; 1Kings 10:11,1 Kings 10:22 )
Gath - It was partially excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund in 1899, but, unfortunately, the whole mound being much cumbered with a modern village and its graveyards and sacred shrines, only a limited area was found available for excavation, and the results were not so definite as they might have been
Gibeon - A town in Palestine north of Jerusalem
Capernaum - The "land of Gennesaret," near, if not in, which it was situated, was one of the most prosperous and crowded districts of Palestine
Famine (2) - —Though the general fertility of Palestine is frequently alluded to in the Bible, yet the country was, as we know, by no means free from the danger of famine, whether brought about by drought or by the devastations of locusts and other pests, or by the destructive hand of man
Fan - ’ There is, however, the significant fact that down to the present day two winnowing implements are used in Palestine which bear practically the same names as those which occur in Isaiah 30:24
Copts - He is, in reality, little more than bishop of Cairo; except that he goes to Jerusalem every Easter, and visits some other places in Palestine, which own his jurisdiction
Quail - I have met with it in the wilderness of Palestine, near the shores of the Dead Sea and the Jordan, between Jordan and Jericho, and in the deserts of Arabia Petrea
Jehoiakim - Palestine was now invaded and conquered by Nebuchadnezzar
Galilee - In the time of Christ, included all the northern part of Palestine lying west of the Jordan and north of Samaria
Sisters of Saint Clare - The Order has houses in Italy, Corsica, Palestine, Prussia, Bavaria, Holland, Belgium, Ireland, England, France, Spain, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Canada, and the United States
Second Order of Saint Francis - The Order has houses in Italy, Corsica, Palestine, Prussia, Bavaria, Holland, Belgium, Ireland, England, France, Spain, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Canada, and the United States
Grapes - The grapes of Palestine were very fine, of great size and high flavor, Numbers 13:24
Beth'el - (the house of God ) well known city and holy place of central Palestine, about 12 mlles north of Jerusalem
Gib'e-ah - Like most words of this kind it gave its name to several towns and places in Palestine, which would doubtless be generally on or near a hill
Gal'Ilee, Sea of - The surrounding region was then the most densely peopled in all Palestine
Jotham - ) The olive, fig, and vine, the most valuable products of Palestine, represent the nobler persons like Gideon, who bear fruit to God's glory and man's good, and wish no transference to kingly positions ("to float about restless and insecure", nuwah , instead of being rooted in the soil: Judges 9:9)
Ethiopia - ...
To most of the people of Palestine, Ethiopia was the southernmost country they knew of
Theodosius, a Monophysite Monk - of Jerusalem in the church of the Resurrection, and at once proceeded to ordain bishops for Palestine, chiefly for those cities whose bishops had not yet returned from Chalcedon
Vine, Vineyard - ...
The vine ( Vitis vinifera ) is supposed to be a native of the shores of the Caspian, but has been cultivated in Palestine from the earliest times, as is witnessed by the extensive remains of ancient vineyards. The Israelites found Palestine ready planted with vineyards ( Deuteronomy 6:11 , Joshua 24:13 , Nehemiah 9:25 )
Desert - Areas with little rainfall to the east and south of Palestine and inhabited by nomads with flocks and herds. The Bible pictures raiders from the desert—Amalekites, Midianites, Ishmaelites—threatening Palestine farmers. ...
Palestine's desert areas received brief if hard rains in March and April
Hezekiah - The latter has probability on its side, and as we know that Sennacherib invaded Palestine in 701 the calculation is easily made. The petty kingdoms of Palestine were restive under the yoke, and they were encouraged by the Egyptians to make an effort for independence
Fig - The common fig, fruit of the Ficus carica , is cultivated from one end of Palestine to the other, especially in the mountainous regions, occupying to-day a place as important as it did in Bible times. ...
Figs are eaten in Palestine not only fresh but dried, the fruit being often threaded on to long strings for convenience of carriage
Courtesy - The people of Palestine in Christ’s time were no exception to this rule. Mackie, Bible Manners and Customs; Geikie, Holy Land and the Bible; Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine [1]; Martensen, Christian Ethics, i
Hexapla - Eusebius relates that Origen after his return from Rome under Caracalla, applied himself to learn Hebrew, and began to collect the several versions that had been made of the sacred writings, and of these to compose his Tetrapla, and Hexapla: others, however, will not allow him to have begun till the time of Alexander, after he had retired into Palestine, about the year 231. Now, Origen, who had held frequent disputations with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that they always objected against those passages of Scripture quoted against them, and appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages and confound the Jews, by showing that the LXX had given the sense of the Hebrew, or rather, to show, by a number of different versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easily confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other
Shepherd - In Palestine and its vicinity, besides those who united the keeping of flocks and herds with the tillage of the ground, there were and still are numbers of nomads or wandering shepherds confining themselves to no settled home. In the vast deserts east and south of Palestine they found many spots which in winter and spring were clothed with verdure, Exodus 3:1 Psalm 65:12
Language of Christ - The practically unanimous verdict of recent scholars is that, considerably before the time of Christ, though when is uncertain, Hebrew had ceased to be spoken in Palestine, and its place as the vernacular had been taken by Aramaic, the language represented in OT by Ezra 4:8-16; Ezra 7:12-26, Jeremiah 10:11, and Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28, and mistakenly named ‘Chaldee. While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascendency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the language of sacred literature, the language in which Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures. ...
At the time of Christ, then, Palestine was bilingual, Greek as well as Aramaic being, to some extent at least, spoken. For, as undoubtedly spoken by some of the Palestinian Jews, as the language of perhaps the great majority of His countrymen scattered throughout the Roman world, as the predominant language of the representatives of the Gentile world in Palestine and of that Gentile world itself, which, though wide, was not yet wider than He conceived the scope of His mission to be, and as, besides, the language of the Septuagint Version of the OT, which had no doubt acquired considerable popularity, it may reasonably be assumed that Christ would acquire some knowledge of Greek, and be able, in some measure at least, to speak it. That the ascended Christ should have spoken to Saul in Aramaic is unintelligible except on the supposition that that had been the language which He had spoken when on earth, and that it was the prevailing language of Palestine. ’...
That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine. The case for Aramaic as the prevailing language of Palestine in the time of Christ, and the language, therefore, which Christ must necessarily have employed generally in His teaching, is thus incontestably established by the direct evidence of the Acts and of Josephus. —Pfannkuche, Language of Palestine, Clark’s Cabinet Library, vol
Galilee - ...
The most northerly of the three provinces of Palestine, namely, Galilee, Samaria, Judaea (John 4:3-4; Luke 17:11; Acts 9:31). Its population being the densest of any part of Palestine, and its freedom from priestly and pharisaic prejudice, were additional grounds for its receiving the larger share of His ministry. The scenery is bolder and richer than that of southern Palestine
Ammonites - We know from the latter, for example, that an Ammonite king named Ba'sha, along with Ahab of Israel and other kings of the region, defended Syria-Palestine against Shalmaneser III in 853 B. Later Shalmaneser penetrated the very heart of Syria-Palestine, exacting tribute from the Israelites and, although it is not recorded, probably also from the Ammonites. Philadelphia came to be regarded as one of the Decapolis cities, a federation of ten Greek cities in Palestine (Matthew 4:25 ), and was annexed with the whole Decapolis region to the Roman empire in A
Mount Mountain - Palestine being an exceptionally mountainous country, it was natural that Biblical writers should often allude to its physical features; but it is noteworthy that they spend little time in describing the mere scenery. The view from Olivet is one of the most extensive in all Palestine, including the Holy City, the hill country of Judaea , much of the Jordan Valley, a portion of the Dead Sea, and the broad sweep of the mountains of Gilead and Moab. ’ It is the highest peak in all Palestine and Syria, rising 9,050 ft
Mount Mountain - Palestine being an exceptionally mountainous country, it was natural that Biblical writers should often allude to its physical features; but it is noteworthy that they spend little time in describing the mere scenery. The view from Olivet is one of the most extensive in all Palestine, including the Holy City, the hill country of Judaea , much of the Jordan Valley, a portion of the Dead Sea, and the broad sweep of the mountains of Gilead and Moab. ’ It is the highest peak in all Palestine and Syria, rising 9,050 ft
Luke, Gospel of - ) Luke probably assembled much of the material for his book while he was helping Paul during the two years of Paul’s imprisonment in Palestine (cf. ...
Later, Luke travelled with Paul from Palestine to Rome (Acts 27:2; Acts 28:16). It begins with Jesus’ reminder of the cost of discipleship (9:51-62) and his sending out of an additional seventy disciples to hasten the spread of the gospel into all regions of Palestine (10:1-24)
James - Tradition says he labored in Palestine and Egypt
Shadow - The intensive heat, particularly in the summer, made shade and shadows important in Palestine
Tarshish (1) - From Jonah 1:3 ; Jonah 4:2 we may infer that it was far from Palestine, probably in the extreme west of the Mediterranean
Eagle - ) ...
There have been observed in Palestine four distinct species of eagles, (1) the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos); (2) the spotted eagle (Aquila naevia); (3) the common species, the imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca); and (4) the Circaetos gallicus, which preys on reptiles
Stranger - He was distinct from the proper "foreigner," inasmuch as the latter still belonged to another country, and would only visit Palestine as a traveller: he was still more distinct from the "nations," or non-Israelite peoples
Bethel -
A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai
Machpelah - (See Palestine Quarterly Statement, October 1882)
Lily - ...
Of the true "floral glories of Palestine" the pheasant's eye (Adonis Palestina), the ranunuculus (R
Ham - Perhaps an Egyptian settlement, Egypt being closely connected with this southern part of Palestine
Etam - of El-Burak (Solomon's Pools) called Ain Atan, answering to the Hebrew for Etam (Tyrwhitt Drake, Palestine Exploration)...
Enroll, Enrollment - Justin Martyr, a native of Palestine, writing in the middle of the 2nd century, asserts thrice that Quirinius was present in Syria at the time mentioned by Luke (see Apol
Spices - From very early times spices were in great demand among the peoples of Palestine and surrounding countries
Hachilah, the Hill - Conder (Palestine Exploration) identifies Hachilah with a high hill bounded by deep valleys N
Naphtali, Tribe of - The southern portion of Naphtali has been called the "Garden of Palestine
Chariot - The Canaanites in the valleys of Palestine had chariots of iron (Joshua 17:18 ; Judges 1:19 )
Caves - The chalky limestone prevalent in Syria and Palestine abounds in caves, clefts, and fissures, which are so frequently alluded to in Scripture under a variety of names
Bitumen - It occurs both in Mesopotamia and Palestine
Merom, the Waters of - This identification is accepted by Robinson ( BRP Israelite - It is a name of honour, and is to be distinguished from both ‘Hebrew’ and ‘Jew,’ the former being, at least in NT times, a Jew with purely national sympathies, who spoke the native Hebrew or Aramaic dialect of Palestine; while the Jew was one who belonged to the ancient race wherever he might be settled and whatever his views
Heal - ...
2 Chronicles 7:14 (b) Here is a promise from GOD that He will remove the curse, the drought, and the famine from the land of Palestine and cause it to become fruitful again
Corn - ...
Hosea 2:22 (b) The figure here describes the blessing that will come to Palestine when Israel is fully restored as a nation
Shechem - When Jacob returned to Palestine, Hamor the Hivite was its king
Sychar - (See Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1877, p
Pontius Pilate - Procurator of Palestine A
Garden - In the long dry summer of Palestine the fruitfulness of the garden depends upon abundant water supply ( Numbers 24:6 )
Alexander, Bishop of Jerusalem - This being the first occasion of the translation of a bishop, as well as of the appointment of a coadjutor bishop, and in apparent violation of the canons of the church, it was deemed essential to obtain the sanction of the whole episcopate of Palestine
Barley - ...
In Palestine the normal time for sowing barley is about the beginning of October: when the winter is exceptionally cold and wet, sowing takes place early in February
Dust - —The long droughts and fierce heat of Palestine, together with the softness of the limestone rock—the prevailing formation—make for the production of dust in great quantities
Fowl - It denotes ‘birds,’ of which there are many species in Palestine, including some which are only birds of passage with us
Agabus - 43), and Josephus testifies to the severity of the famine in Palestine and refers to measures adopted for its relief (Ant
Eustochium, 3rd Daughter of Paula - This treatise excited great animosity against Jerome, and was one cause of his leaving Rome and returning to Palestine
Barley - In Palestine the barley was sown about October, and reaped in the end of March, just after the passover
Vine - The vines of Palestine were celebrated both for luxuriant growth and for the immense clusters of grapes which they produced, which were sometimes carried on a staff between two men, as in the case of the spies
Hebron - The environs of the city are very fertile, furnishing the finest vineyards in Palestine, numerous plantations of olive and other fruit trees, and excellent pasturage
Pit - ’ The systematic exploration of Palestine has brought to light many series of underground caves which were used at various periods as dwelling-places (cf
Dan - (Revelation 7:5-7 ) ...
The well-known city, so familiar as the most northern landmark of Palestine, in the common expression "from Dan even to beersheba
e'Dom, Idumae'a - (Isaiah 34:5-8 ; 63:1-4 ; Jeremiah 49:17 ) After this they settled in southern Palestine, and for more than four centuries continued to prosper
Josh'ua - Joshua returned to the camp at Gilgal, master of half of Palestine
Thorn, Thorns - The "thorns" of the crown plaited by the soldiers, are usually identified with those of the Zizyphus spina Christi, some 20 feet high or more, fringing the Jordan and abundant in Palestine; its twigs are flexible
Peregrinus, Called Proteus - He escaped justice by transferring his property to the municipality and then passed over to Palestine, where he became a Christian, and, according to Lucian's account, a bishop or at least a presbyter
Pinianus, Husband of Melania the Younger - Being now free, though poor, Pinianus, with his wife and mother-in-law, went to Egypt, saw the monasteries of the Thebaid, and thence to Palestine, settling at Bethlehem
Tribes of Israel - ]'>[2] ’s genealogy (Genesis 29:1-35 ; Genesis 30:1-43 ), is not 12 but 13, and in the following order:...
Leah tribes Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah 4 Bilhah (Rachel) tribes Dan, Naphtali 2 Zilpah (Leah) tribes Gad, Asher 2 Leah tribes Issachar, Zebulun 2 Rachel tribes Joseph = (Manasseh, Ephraim) 2 Benjamin (born in Palestine), Genesis 35:18 1 13 To obtain the number 12 from this scheme it is necessary to omit Levi, or to count Manasseh and Ephraim as one. Benjamin appears as the last of the sons because this tribe came into existence last of all, and in Palestine ( Genesis 35:16-20 )
Gibeon - ...
The most remarkable incident connected with this city was the victory Joshua gained over the kings of Palestine (Joshua 10:16-27 ). This eventful battle of Beth-horon sealed the fate of all the cities of Southern Palestine
Sep'Tuagint - [1] The Jews of Alexandria had probably still less knowledge of Hebrew than their brethren in Palestine their familiar language was Alexandrian Greek. They would naturally follow the same practice as the Jews in Palestine; and hence would arise in time an entire Greek version
Dan - A city in northern Palestine, once called Laish ( Judges 18:29 ) or Leshem ( Joshua 19:47 ), though the ancient record of the battle of four kings against five gives the later name ( Genesis 14:14 ). It was in the north boundary of Palestine
Crowd - The splendid road system of Palestine facilitated the gathering of such crowds. Palestine bulks so large in spiritual significance that one is apt to forget how small it is
Leb'Anon, - a mountain range in the north of Palestine. It is the "white mountain" --the Mont Blane of Palestine
Giant - The Anakim, or the sons of Anak, were the most famous giants of Palestine. The catacombs of ancient Egypt and Palestine; the cenotaph, if it be truly such, in the great pyramid; the tomb of Alexander the Great, are all calculated for bodies of ordinary dimensions
Ara'Bia - (desert, barren ), a country known in the Old Testament under two designations:--
The East Country , ( Genesis 25:6 ) or perhaps the East, ((Genesis 10:30 ; Numbers 23:7 ; Isaiah 2:6 ) and Land of the Sons of the East , ( Genesis 29:1 ) Gentile name, Sons of the East , ( Judges 6:3 ; 7:12 ; 1 Kings 4:30 ; Job 1:3 ; Isaiah 11:14 ; Jeremiah 49:28 ; Ezekiel 25:4 ) From these passages it appears that Land of the East and Sons of the East indicate, primarily, the country east of Palestine, and the tribes descended from Ishmael and from Keturah; and that this original signification may have become gradually extended to Arabia and its inhabitants generally, though without any strict limitation. They appear to have settled chiefly north of the peninsula in Desert Arabia, from Palestine to the Persian Gulf
Luciferus i, Bishop of Calaris - The proceedings were irregular and disorderly, and after some personal altercations the emperor sent Lucifer into exile His banishment lasted from 355 to 361, and was mostly spent at Eleutheropolis in Palestine, subject to the persecutions of the Arian bp. There may, however, have been some additional hardship in the removal of Lucifer from Palestine to the Thebaid, where he remained till the death of Constantius in 361
Maximinus ii., Emperor - Of the martyrs of Palestine, to whom Eusebius dedicates a whole book of his history, most suffered by his orders and many in his presence. Theodosia, a virgin of Tyre, was drowned, Silvanus tortured, and the confessors of Phaeno in Palestine sent to the mines (Eus
Money - That the precious metals, gold and silver, and to a less extent copper, were the ordinary media of exchange in Palestine from a time long prior to the appearance there of the Hebrews, is now amply attested by evidence from Egypt and Babylonia, and even from the soil of Palestine itself. ’...
As there can be no question of the existence of coined money in Palestine until the Persian period, the first step in the study of the money of OT is to master the system of weights adopted for the weighing of the precious metals. ...
Although we have literary and numismatic evidence for the gold and silver shekels of these tables only, it may now be regarded as certain that other standards were in use in Palestine in historic times for weighing the precious metals. In view of what has just been said regarding the variety of standards in use in Palestine in early times, it would be unwise, in the present state of our knowledge, to pronounce as to the value of the price paid in this transaction. On the other hand, where gold is concerned, as in the case of the 30 talents which Sennacherib ‘appointed unto Hezekiah’ ( 2 Kings 18:14 ), we may with some confidence assume the gold standard common to Palestine and Assyria. , but it is very improbable that any ‘coins’ reached Palestine before the fall of the Jewish State in b. established himself in Egypt, to which be soon added Palestine. wrested Palestine from the Ptolemys. Money in Palestine under the Romans
Pottery in Bible Times - ...
Developments in Pottery Production in Palestine The significance of pottery analysis may be highlighted in a general way by recognizing the major developments of pottery production in Palestine throughout biblical history period by period. During the MB IIb, an unusual group of juglets indicate pottery exchange with Egypt which during this period was politically joined to Syria-Palestine. ) This period generally coincides with the vibrant New Kingdom period in Egypt when Palestine primarily was under Egyptian control, a rule that became more concentrated and demanding toward the end of the period. In Palestine a growing number of Greek imports appeared, especially toward the end of the period
Nazarene (2) - Peraea - The sanitary properties of these sulphurous waters are highly extolled by many ancient writers, and to this day they have maintained their reputation among the Bedawin and fellahîn of Palestine, so much so that the bathing-place is regarded by all parties as a neutral ground’ (Description of Suria, by Mukaddasi, translation by Guy le Strange
3. For later history, Guy le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems
Croisade, or Crusade - May be applied to any war undertaken on pretence of defending the cause of religion, but has been chiefly used for the expeditions of the Christians against the infidels for the conquest of Palestine. Jerusalem had been taken and Palestine conquered by Omar. An opinion was about this time also prevalent in Europe, which made these pilgrimages much more frequent than formerly: it was imagined, that the 1000 years mentioned in Revelation 20:1-15 : were fulfilled; that Christ was soon to make his appearance in Palestine to judge the world; and consequently that journeys to that country were in the highest degree meritorious, and even absolutely necessary. ...
The multitudes of pilgrims who now flocked to Palestine meeting with a very rough reception from the Turks, filled all Europe with complaints against those infidels, who profaned the holy city, and derided the sacred mysteries of Christianity even in the place where they were fulfilled. king of England, arrived at Palestine, at the head of the English croisade; but finding it most advantageous to conclude a peace, he reembarked, and steered towards Italy. In 1244, the Karasmians being driven out of Turkey by the Tartars, broke into Palestine, and gave the Christians a general defeat near Gaza
Forest - ...
Palestine was more wooded very anciently than afterward; the celebrated oaks and terebinths here and there were perhaps relics of a primeval forest on the highlands
Wilderness - This word is used of the wilderness of Beersheba (Genesis 21:14 ), on the southern border of Palestine; the wilderness of the Red Sea (Exodus 13:18 ); of Shur (15:22), a portion of the Sinaitic peninsula; of Sin (17:1), Sinai (Leviticus 7:38 ), Moab (Deuteronomy 2:8 ), Judah (Judges 1:16 ), Ziph, Maon, En-gedi (1 Samuel 23:14,24 ; 24:1 ), Jeruel and Tekoa (2 Chronicles 20:16,20 ), Kadesh (Psalm 29:8 )
Eleazar - The word here rendered "hill" is Gibeah, the name of several towns in Palestine which were generally on or near a hill
Canticle of Canticles - The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon
Lebanon - ...
Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary of Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:7 ; 11:24 )
Court - The Eastern house represented on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria is much like that now found, and doubtless found in the time of Christ, in Palestine
Pilate - In the Roman government of Palestine, the regions of Judea and Samaria were governed by procurators, or governors, sent out from Rome
Simon - A hundred thousand Jews from Palestine had been settled in this province by Ptolemy Soter (B
Sheep - ...
The common sheep of Palestine is the fat-tailed sheep ( Ovis aries , var
Proselyte - , a comer to Palestine; a sojourner in the land (Exodus 12:48 ; 20:10 ; 22:21 ), and in the New Testament for a convert to Judaism
Timnah - (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, pp
Monophysites - The Monophysites, however, properly so called, are the followers of Severus, a learned monk of Palestine, who was created patriarch of Antioch, in 513, and Petrus Fullenis
River - A river in our sense is seen by few in Palestine
Hormah - Palestine
Turtle (Dove) - The Τurtur auritus abounds in Palestine; plaintive tender melancholy characterizes its note
Bethlehem - The name of two places in Palestine
Kadesh - It lies in the territory of the ‘Azâzine Arabs, about 50 miles south of Beersheba, to the south-west of Naqb es-Safâh a pass opening towards Palestine from Wâdy el-Fiqra , which may he the Ascent of Akrabbim and east of Wâdy Jerûr
Olive (Tree) - ...
Hosea 14:6 (b) Here we see a picture of Israel restored to her place of prominence and power with the land healed, the rains falling on rich pastures, and the glory of all lands again seen in Palestine
Gethsemane - —Robinson, BRP Camel - ' Camels were not thus used in Palestine, but the prophecy refers to messengers coming from Babylon and there another species of camel was common, called the Bactrian Camel, with two humps; these were at times linked in pairs to rude chariots
Crown of Thorns - 429) supposes it was the thorn-tree or nubk of the Arabs, which is very common in the warmer parts of Palestine
Seasons - Summer }...
These seasons must overlap each other in Palestine, and are somewhat different in the hill country from what they are in the plains and valleys
Marcionites - Or MARCIONISTS, Marconistae, a very ancient and popular sect of heretics, who, in the time of Epiphanius, were spread over Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Persia, and other countries: they were thus denominated from their author Marcion
Aramaic - In Syria-Palestine the western group includes Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Samaritan, Palmyrene, and Nabataean
Labor - , of the land of Palestine]'>[2]” ( Mat'Thew, Gospel of - -- This Gospel was probably written in Palestine for Jewish Christians
Palm Tree - It flourishes in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the oases of Arabia ( Exodus 15:27 , Numbers 33:9 ), but its cultivation has for long been much neglected in Palestine
Ownership - The Romans oversaw the control of lands in Palestine, requiring heavy taxes from owners
Peraea - It is perhaps the most picturesque and beautiful part of Palestine
Solomon, Song of - The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon
Song of Solomon - The earlier interpreters all agreed with the traditional view that Solomon wrote it; and the familiar acquaintance with matters of natural science and with the geographical features of Palestine accords well with the genius of Solomon
Melania the Younger, Daughter of Publicola - When through the rapacity of the rebel count Heraclian she was denuded of her property, and thus set free from the promise to remain at Hippo, she accompanied her husband to Egypt, and, after staying among the monastic establishments of the Thebaid and visiting Cyril at Alexandria, eventually went to Palestine, and, together with her mother Albina, settled at Bethlehem in 414
Narcissus, Bishop of Jerusalem - According to the Synodicon , Narcissus presided over a council of 14 bishops of Palestine held at Jerusalem a
Hittites - ]'>[1] document ( Exodus 3:8 ; Exodus 3:17 ) to have been one of the pre-Israelitish occupants of Palestine. 1150) a Hittite dynasty invaded northern Palestine
Essenes (2) - 5) and Philo at 4000; and while there is no evidence of their existence as an order outside Palestine, within its area they were widely distributed, being found in a great many of the villages and small towns, as well as in Jerusalem, where there was a ‘Gate of the Essenes. And it remains either to assume that foreign influences had percolated unobserved, or to suppose that the characteristic phenomena emerged independently in Persia, Greece, and Palestine
Hasmonean - ) until Roman occupation of ancient Palestine, in 63 B. Maccabee was the nickname given to the early warriors, and Hasmonean, a variant to Asmoneus the great-grandfather of Mattathias, was used as a reference for the sons and grandchildren of Mattathias who would rule as governors, kings, and queen of ancient Palestine
Mary - They travelled with Jesus around Palestine and were present at his crucifixion. After Herod’s death the family returned to Palestine and settled in Nazareth (1618738793_67; Matthew 2:19-23)
Obadiah, Theology of - Within the century, Edom's fortunes started to slide, finally losing its land to the Arabs, though its ethnic presence is still evident in southern Transjordan and Palestine (see Nehemiah 2:19 ; 4:7 ; 6:1 ), even in the later name of the Negev region in southern Palestine as Idumaea (1 Maccabees 4:29 )
Grecians - ...
"Greek" means either a native of Greece or else a Gentile in general (Romans 10:12; Romans 2:9-10, margin) "Grecian" is a foreign Jew, literally, one who speaks Greek, as contrasted with a home Jew, a "Hebrew," dwelling in Palestine, or rather one speaking the sacred tongue, Hebrew, whether dwelling in Palestine or elsewhere
Armour - ), and Julius Caesar to those of Palestine (ib. The Roman auxiliaries who garrisoned Judaea were recruited wholly from the Greek cities of Palestine, such as Sebaste and Caesarea
Gospel - The unanimous testimony of ancient writers is in favor of a Hebrew original, that is, that it was written in the language of Palestine and for the use of the Hebrew Christians. But, on the other hand, the definiteness and accuracy of this testimony is drawn into question; there is no historical notice of a translation into Greek; and the present Greek gospel bears many marks of being an original; the circumstances of the age, too, and the prevalence of the Greek language in Palestine, seem to give weight to the opposite hypothesis
Moab, Moabites - Patriarchal Palestine , p. ...
At the time of the approach of the Hebrews to Palestine the Moabites were so strongly intrenched in their land that the invaders avoided all conflict with them (Deuteronomy 2:9 , Judges 11:15 , 2 Chronicles 20:16 ), although they conquered king Sihon, who had subdued all of Moab north of the Arnon ( Numbers 21:21-31 , Deuteronomy 2:24-35 ). ...
Early in the period of the Judges, the Moabites not only had regained control of all this territory, but had extended their power into western Palestine so as to oppress the Benjamites (Judges 3:12-30 )
Arabia - by Palestine and Syria, E. Many of the luxuries attributed to it, however, were products of further lands, which reached Palestine and Egypt through Arabia. Between the gulfs of Suez and Akabah; Palestine and Egypt are its northern boundary
Furniture - ...
Palestine, however, does not enjoy the climate which would have saved wooden furnishings for study today. Consider the home of the “wealthy woman” of Shunem (in lower northern Palestine about five miles east of Megiddo), found in 2 Kings 4:8-37 . ...
A few other artifacts from Jericho and from only a few other sites in Palestine depict other common furniture objects such as benches and stools and bronze objects
Tools - The average knife in Palestine was between 6,10 inches, but a mold has been found to produce 16-inch blades. Early Iron Age levels at several archaeological sites in Palestine have produced examples of both types. Plumb lines were used quite early in Egypt and Palestine for determining verticality and levels in construction
Dress (2) - John the Baptist had his raiment (ἔνδυμα) of camel’s hair, and a girdle of leather about his loins (Matthew 3:4 ||)—like many a roughly clad man in Palestine to-day. In dealing with the former more important subject, the probable costume of the founders of Christianity, the most hopeful sources of information are (1) the costumes of Jews, and (2) the dresses worn to-day among people of simple life in modern Palestine. The clothes of the ordinary fellah, or peasant in modern Palestine, are five in number,—shirt, cloak, girdle, shoes, and head-dress. The costume of the Palestine peasant, above described, was probably, with no doubt differences in materials and in cut, the costume of the country folk of NT and pre-NT times. In every one of these details the use of the modern ‘abâ in Palestine could furnish parallels. The unsatisfactoriness of patching with new cloth a much worn garment (Matthew 9:16, Mark 2:21), and the ubiquitousness of that scourge, the clothes-moth (1618738793_93 Luke 12:33), are daily to be seen illustrated in Palestine. ‘Dress and Personal Adornment in Modern Palestine,’ by Masterman in Biblical World, 1902; Nowack’s and Benzinger’s Heb
Money (2) - This verse may be taken as evidence that gold as well as silver and copper coins circulated in Palestine in the time of our Lord, although no gold coin is mentioned in the Gospels. 72), the heavier royal tetradrachms would tend to be driven out of circulation by the lighter Phœnician coins, which, besides, as corresponding exactly to the Hebrew shekel, were in special demand in Palestine for religious purposes (see below, under ‘Didrachm’). ...
A vexed question, which cannot be held to be yet decided, is whether prior to the time of the first Jewish revolt any silver coins had been produced in Palestine itself. Schürer holds that the Romans imposed their monetary standard more rigorously in Palestine than elsewhere, and that even the Herodian coins followed the Roman system (HJP
Before proceeding to speak in detail of the coins named in the Gospels, it will be well to give in tabular form the main elements of the two systems, the Greek and the Roman, which obtained concurrently in Palestine at the time of our Lord. In the Gospels it occurs only in the parable of the Lost Coin, where, of course, it must be understood of some coin current in Palestine. The only coins then current in Palestine which answered exactly to the ‘shekel of the sanctuary’—leaving out of account the shekels commonly but probably erroneously assigned to Simon Maccabaeus (see above)—were those which had for long been coined in the Phœnician cities; and the Temple tax, along with other sacred dues, was paid in this currency
Inn - ...
Thus Stapfer (Palestine in the Time of Christ, 1866, p. ’ Other writers convey the impression that the only in as existing in Palestine were a few khans, as bare and comfortless as those now found in many parts of the East, and often described by modern travellers (see, e. ‘Gast’ in Hamburger’s RE) may, of course, be a reason why inns in the modern sense of the word should be less needed than in Western countries; but the statement that ‘the warm commendations of hospitality in the NT show that even in the Roman period the buildings set apart for strangers to lodge in were of a simple character in Palestine’ (Encyc. ’...
The influx of Greeks into Palestine, the constant presence of a large Roman element, civil and military, the mixed retinue attached to the Herodian court, the increase of trade, the importation of foreign workmen, the presence in several towns of companies of gladiators, actors, and the like,—would necessitate not only inns, but various kinds and grades of inns
Septuagint - ...
According to him, Ptolemy Philadelphus sent to Palestine for some learned Jews, whose number he does not specify; and these, going over to the island of Pharos, there executed so many distinct versions, all of which so exactly and uniformly agreed in sense, phrases, and words, as proved them to have been not common interpreters, but men prophetically inspired and divinely directed, who had every word dictated to them by the Spirit of God throughout the entire translation. It is even possible that the sanhedrim, in order to ascertain the fidelity of the work might have sent to Palestine for some learned men of whose assistance and advice they would have availed themselves in examining the version. The five books of Moses, indeed, were the only books read in the synagogues until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria; who having forbidden that practice in Palestine, the Jews evaded his commands by substituting for the Pentateuch the reading of the prophetic books. ...
The Septuagint version, though originally made for the use of the Egyptian Jews, gradually acquired the highest authority among the Jews of Palestine, who were acquainted with the Greek language, and subsequently also among Christians: it appears, indeed, that the legend above confuted, of the translators having been divinely inspired, was invented in order that the LXX might be held in the greater estimation. Hody was of opinion that Josephus, who was a native of Palestine, corroborated his work on Jewish antiquities from the Hebrew text, yet Salmasius, Bochart, Bauer, and others, have shown that he has adhered to the Septuagint throughout that work
Mount of Olives - —PEF [12] ; Socin and Benzinger in Baedeker’s Palestine and Syria; J
Libraries - More important was the library of Caesarea in Palestine collected by the martyr Pamiphilus (died 308), which contained a number of manuscripts used by Origen in Rome
Leviticus - Canon Tristram, speaking of the remarkable discoveries regarding the flora and fauna of the Holy Land by the Palestine Exploration officers, makes the following statement:, "Take these two catalogues of the clean and unclean animals in the books of Leviticus [1] and Deuteronomy [2]
Music, Instrumental - e, "bored through," a flute or pipe (1 Samuel 10:5 ; 1 Kings 1:40 ; Isaiah 5:12 ; Jeremiah 48:36 ) which is still used in Palestine
Cush - One branch, called the Cossaeans, settled in the mountainous district on the east of the Tigris, known afterwards as Susiana; another occupied the lower regions of the Euphrates and the Tigris; while a third colonized the southern shores and islands of the gulf, whence they afterwards emigrated to the Mediterranean and settled on the coast of Palestine as the Phoenicians
Hebrew Language - ) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Barak - ...
This little army, aided by a providential storm in the enemy's face (according to Josephus), rushed down the hill of their encampment, Tabor, and routed Jabin's 900 iron chariots and unwieldy host in the plain of Jezreel (Esdraelon), "the battlefield of Palestine
Dispersion - The dispersion included all the twelve tribes, the ten tribes carried away by the Assyrians as well as Judah carried to Babylon, though Judah alone returned to Palestine (James 1:1; Acts 26:7)
Thorns Thistles - ...
Thorns and thistles of various kinds are found all over Palestine
Maon - (Conder, Palestine Expl
Mediterranean Sea, the - ” Following the conquest of Palestine by Pompey in 63 B
Hebron - A very ancient city in Palestine, 20 miles S
Well - Song of Solomon 4:12; in Palestine wells are excavated in the limestone, with steps descending to them (Genesis 24:16)
Jacob's Well - Rogers and Miss Peache have contributed 150 British pounds for clearing the well and protecting it with stonework (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, April 1877)
Hospitality - —This marked Oriental virtue prevailed in Palestine in Christ’s day
Mill-Stone - —The hand-mill used in Palestine consists of two stone discs, from a foot to a foot and a half in diameter, the upper being about 2 in
Doors - ...
Matthew 24:33 (a) This refers to the close proximity of the return of our Lord after the nation of Israel has been formed anew and established in Palestine
Lattice - Shaw, in his travels, hath given upon several occasions many circumstantial particulars of the construction of their houses in Palestine, and, among the many, of their plan of the lattices used in the terrace, and in the other parts of their buildings
Succoth - (See Palestine Exploation Quarterly Statement, April 1878, p
Candle - —Candles were not much in use in an oil-bearing country like Palestine, and are not referred to in the Bible
Salt Sea - The lake on the south of Palestine, now commonly called the Dead Sea, because it was for long judged that nothing having life could exist in it; but some inferior organisms (as the polygaster) have been found in it at its northern end
Galilee - It was bounded on the south by Samaria, and embraced the whole of the north part of Palestine
Dioscorus, the Monk - Driven from Egypt, the "Tall Brethren" took refuge in Palestine, but later resolved to appeal for protection to the emperor and to Chrysostom in person
Eusebius (99), Presbyter of Cremona - of Jerusalem, in vindication of his conduct on his recent visit to Palestine, a
Stranger - The others were persons who, though not natives, had a home in Palestine; the latter were נרום , strangers or foreigners, in the strict sense of the word
Lamp - As this custom no doubt prevailed in Egypt and the adjacent regions of Arabia and Palestine in former times, it imparts a beauty and force to some passages of Scripture which have been little observed
First-Fruits - This rule is not supposed to have applied to the trees the people found on entering Palestine
World - Oikoumene, the inhabited earth, Matthew 24:14, the people of it, Acts 17:31, sometimes the Roman empire, the then civilized world, Acts 17:6, including Palestine and adjacent parts
Olive - It is always classed among the most valuable trees of Palestine, which is described as a land of oil olive, and honey, Deuteronomy 6:11 8:8 Habakkuk 3:17
Threshing - ...
The instrument most used in Palestine at this time is simply two short planks fastened side by side and turned up in front, like our common stone-sledge, having sharp stones or irons projecting from the under side, Isaiah 28:27 41:15 Amos 1:3
Lebanon - White, a long chain of mountains on the north of Palestine, so named from the whitish limestone of which they are composed and in part perhaps from their snowy whiteness in winter
e'Gypt - It is bounded on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, on the east by Palestine, Arabia and the Red Sea, on the south by Nubia, and on the west by the Great Desert
Hospitality - —This marked Oriental virtue prevailed in Palestine in Christ’s day
Joannes Iii, Bishop of Jerusalem - of Jerusalem, by the emperor Anastasius, John, deacon of the Anastasis, was forcibly thrust into his episcopal seat by Olympius, prefect of Palestine, on his engaging to receive Severus of Antioch into communion and to anathematize the decrees of Chalcedon (Cyrill
Mennas - On May 2, 536, he presided at a council assembled by Justinian at Constantinople at the request of 11 bishops of the East and of Palestine, and of 33 other ecclesiastics, to finish the case of Anthimus, and to decide those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the Eutychian monk Zoara
Amorites - ...
Later these Amorites migrated down into Palestine, and were well established in certain areas by the time Abraham arrived (Genesis 14:7; Genesis 14:13)
Nebuchadnezzar - ) This secured to Egypt the possession of the Syrian provinces of Assyria, including Palestine. Nebuchadnezzar also subdued the whole of Palestine, and took Jerusalem, carrying away captive a great multitude of the Jews, among whom were Daniel and his companions (Daniel 1:1,2 ; Jeremiah 27:19 ; 40:1 )
Mizpah - Here Israel assembled to choose a leader in its "misery" when Ammon, having oppressed eastern Palestine, was threatening also to attack Judah and Ephraim W. Condor (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, January, 1875) identifies Nob with Nebi Samwil, the Arabs mistaking Nob "high place" for Nebi "prophet
Agriculture - The year in Palestine was divided into six agricultural periods: ...
SOWING TIME - Tisri, latter half (beginning about the autumnal equinox. The extensive and easily-arranged system of irrigation from the rills and streams from the mountains made the soil in every part of Palestine richly productive ( Psalm 1:3 ; 65:10 ; Proverbs 21:1 ; Isaiah 30:25 ; 32:2,20 ; Hosea 12:11 ), and the appliances of careful cultivation and of manure increased its fertility to such an extent that in the days of Solomon, when there was an abundant population, "20,000 measures of wheat year by year" were sent to Hiram in exchange for timber (1Kings 5:11), and in large quantities also wheat was sent to the Tyrians for the merchandise in which they traded (Ezekiel 27:17 )
Spices - They were brought into Palestine from India, Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. KJV translates the word as “camphire,” but camphire was not native to Palestine and may not have been known in biblical times
Sycamore - The trees are very common in Palestine, Arabia, and Egypt; grow large, and to a great height; and though their grain is coarse, are much used in building. This incident also furnishes a proof that the sycamore was still common in Palestine; for this tree stood to protect the traveller by the side of the highway
Jordan - The chief river of Palestine, running from north to south, and dividing the Holy Land into two parts, of which the larger and more important lay on the west. But besides these, there is a third and longer stream, which rises beyond the northern limit of Palestine, near Hasbeia on the west side of mount Hermon, flows twenty-four miles to the south, and unites with the other streams before they enter the "waters of Merom," now lake Huleh, the Jordan flows about nine miles south-ward to the sea of Tiberias, through which its clear and smooth course may be traced twelve miles to the lower end
Oil - OIL (שָׁמֶן, ἔλαιον), by which we are to understand olive oil, was from the very earliest times one of the main products of Palestine, for already in days prior to the Hebrew settlement, Canaan was ‘a land of oil olives’ (Deuteronomy 8:8). In common and daily use, and to the Eastern one of the necessaries of life, oil played a large part in the home trade of Palestine (2 Kings 4:7), and was, further, a most valuable export
Animals - The beasts of burden in Palestine in the time of our Lord were the ass and the camel. ...
The Syrian goat, Capra mambrica, is the most common breed in Palestine. Poultry were kept in Palestine in the time of our Lord, as is clear from the references to the cock (ἀλέκτωρ) and the hen (ὄρνις). 80), were the only dogs known in Palestine, with the exception of the Persian greyhound; and though they could be trained enough to act as watch-dogs for the sheep-folds,* Mishnah - ...
The Mishnah of Rabbi is the basis of the Talmud which was written in Palestine about 360 A. First, it has helped in reconstructing specific elements in the Judaism of Palestine at the time of Jesus. An earlier generation of Christian scholars tended to see the Mishnah as descriptive of the practices of Judaism in Palestine during Jesus' life
Alexander, of Alexandria - But Arius ere long found that he could not maintain his position in the city when under the ban of the archbishop; it may be that Alexander had power actually to banish him; and he repaired to Palestine, where, as he expected, he found that his representations of the case made a favourable impression on several bishops, including Eusebius of Caesarea. Of these, some were sufficiently effectual in Palestine to constrain Arius to seek an abode at Nicomedia. Arius now returned into Palestine, and three bishops of that country, one of whom was Eusebius of Caesarea, permitted him to hold religious assemblies within their dioceses
Cloth, Clothing - ...
Wild flax originated in the regions of Palestine and the Caucasus. The importance of flax production in Palestine is reflected in the Gezer calendar. Cotton needs a warm humid climate for quality growth and processing and thus was produced less widely in Palestine
Edom - They took part with the Chaldeans when Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem, and afterwards they invaded and held possession of the south of Palestine as far as Hebron
Dead Sea Scrolls - The origins of the Essenes are uncertain: one major view is that they descended from the “Pious,” who had fought for religious independence with the Maccabees; on another view they originated in Exile in Babylonia, returning to Palestine sometime in the third or second century B
ta'Bor - (a mound ), or Mount Tabor, one of the most interesting and remarkable of the single mountains in Palestine
Hebron - ...
One of the largest oaks in Palestine is found in the valley of Eshcol, about 3 miles north of the town
Mizpah -
A place in Gilead, so named by Laban, who overtook Jacob at this spot (Genesis 31:49 ) on his return to Palestine from Padan-aram
Lachish - Tel el Hesy commands the approach to the hills (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, Jan
Nebaioth - of Palestine, is unknown to the Arab writers, yet it is on native coins, it must therefore have been lost long before any Arab wrote on geography or history
Oil - Olive trees were grown extensively in Palestine, and Israel exported oil to other countries (1 Kings 5:11; Ezekiel 27:17; Hosea 12:1)
Shechem - (For maps of the region see Palestine
Caves - Numerous caves pit the cliffs and mountains of Palestine
Judaizers - Amidst the rising pressures of Jewish nationalism in Palestine during the mid-first century, and increased Zealot animosity against any Jew who had Gentile sympathies, it would appear that these Jewish Christians embarked on a judaizing mission among Paul's converts in order to prevent Zealot persecution of the Palestinian church
Gerizim - Gerazim commands one of the finest views in Palestine, being 2,500 ft
Gog - , who invaded Palestine and besieged Ascalon under Psammeticus
Soldiers - —Throughout the Roman Empire, and especially in a praetorian province like Syria, of which the various divisions of Palestine practically formed part, soldiers were a common sight, and took a prominent share in the administration of affairs
Joshua - Joshua returned to the camp at Gilgal, having conquered half of Palestine
Hebrew - only in Acts 6:1 to distinguish the Greek-speaking Jews from those of Palestine, and in 2 Corinthians 11:22 and Philippians 3:5 concerning the ancestors of Paul, wherein, to meet the cavilling of the Judaising teachers, he calls himself a Hebrew of the Hebrews, one who had descended without any Gentile or proselyte blood
Eagle - The description concerns his invasion of Palestine and his victory over the King of the Jews
Manger - But travellers accustomed to the journies in Palestine, explain the circumstances connected with inns different to this nation
Stranger - The stranger included the "mixed multitude" from Egypt (Exodus 12:38); the Canaanites still remaining in Palestine and their descendants, as Uriah the Hittite and Araunah the Jebusite, Doeg the Edomite, Ittai the Gittite; captives in war, fugitives, and merchants, amounting under Solomon to 153,600 males (2 Chronicles 2:17), one tenth of the population
Brimstone - ...
In the Graeco-Roman period the hot sulphur springs of Palestine, on both sides of the Dead Sea, at Tiberias, and in the valley of the Yarmuk, were used medicinally
Den -