What does Paganism mean in the Bible?


1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Paganism
(Latin: paganus, villager, rustic)
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years.
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. The former clung to some distinctions between right and wrong, law and license; the new definitely rejects all such distinction and seeks to be a law unto itself.
Although Christian missionaries have made great progress in thwarting paganism, much of the world is still pagan. There are many and various obstacles to their conversion, e.g., hostile civilgovernments; strong racial traditions in favor of false religions; prevalence of corrupt moral practises, such as polygamy; but as all these obstacles have often been overcome by devout and courageous Apostles, the greatest difficulty must be considered to be the lack of a sufficient number of missionaries. The reasons of this shortage are easily understood: the vocation must be very select; the training is long and arduous, and includes the mastery of difficult languages that cannot be learned from books; when all this has been surmounted, there are the risks of travel in barbarous lands, disease, and persecution; only the very choicest spirits can successfully encounter these. The maintenance of missionaries is also very expensive; and it is too often the case that the existing bodies of devoted missionary priests are hindered by lack of funds from properly performing even their daily labors.
Pagan systems of morality may be divided into two main schools of thought, that of Hedonism, and that of Cynicism and Stoicism. In general, Hedonism teaches that the highest good and happiness lies in pleasure. Various philosophers differ as to whether this pleasure consists in a perpetually joyous disposition (Democritus), in mere sensuality (Aristippus), or in a combination of rational and sensual enjoyment (Epicurus). The Cynics, on the contrary, taught that pleasure is an evil and that the truly wise man is above human laws. The Stoics endeavored to purify the views of this school. The earlier Stoics, Zeno and his disciples, believed that virtue, to be sought for its own sake, sufficed for human happiness. The later Stoics, the Romans, although influenced by Christianity, differed little from the early Stoics. Midway between these schools are the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates believed happiness the ultimate object of human activity, and virtue the necessary means to it; the virtues, however, are only varieties of wisdom. Plato held that the highest good consisted in imitation of God, the Absolute Good, only partly realizable in this life; virtue was the ordering of conduct according to the dictates of right reason, and included justice, temperance, fortitude, and wisdom. Aristotle, founder of systematic ethics, started from experience rather than theory; he maintained that true ultimate happiness could be had only by the most perfect activity of the reason, which springs in turn from virtue.
Some saints are shown in art in the company of pagans. They include
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a pagan
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Paganism
The religious worship and discipline of Pagans, or the adoration of idols and false gods. The theology of the Pagans according to themselves, as Scxvola and Varrs, was of three sorts. The first of these may well be called fabulous, as treating of the theology and genealogy of their deities, in which they say such things as are unworthy of deity; ascribing to them thefts, murders, adulteries, and all manner of crimes; and therefore this kind of theology is condemned by the wiser sort of heathens as nugatory and scandalous: the writers of this sort of theology were Sancho-niatho, the Phoenician; and of the Grecians, Orpheus, Hesiod, Pherecyde, &c. The second sort, called physic, or natural, was studied and taught by the philosophers, who, rejecting the multiplicity of gods introduced by the poets, brought their theology to a more natural and rational form, and supposed that there was but one Supreme God, which they commonly make to be the sun; at least, an emblem of him, but at too great a distance to mind the affairs of the world, and therefore devised certain demons, which they considered as mediators between the Supreme God and man; and the doctrines of these demons, to which the apostle is thought to allude in 1Ti_4:1. were what the philosophers had a concern with, and who treat of their nature, office, and regard to men; as did Thales, Pythagoras, Plato, and the Stoics. The third part called politic, or civil, was instituted by legislators, statesmen, and politicians: the first among the Roman and Numa Pompilius; this chiefly respected their gods, temples, altars, sacrifices, and rites of worship, and was properly their idolatry, the care of which belonged to the priests; and this was enjoined the common people, to keep them in obedience to the civil state. Thus things continued in the Gentile world, until the light of the Gospel was sent among them: the times before were times of ignorance, as the apostle calls them: they were ignorant of the true God, and of the worship of him; and of the Messiah, and salvation by him. Their state is truly described, Eph_2:12. that they were then without Christ; aliens from the commonwealth of Israel; strangers from the covenants of promise: having no hope, and without God in the world; and, consequently, their theology was insufficient for their salvation. The reader will find some admirable reflections on the growth of heathenism among modern Christians, in the 3d volume of the Rev. W. Jones's Works.
Webster's Dictionary - Paganism
(n.) The state of being pagan; pagan characteristics; esp., the worship of idols or false gods, or the system of religious opinions and worship maintained by pagans; heathenism.

Sentence search

Ethnicism - ) Heathenism; Paganism; idolatry
Pagandom - ) The pagan lands; pagans, collectively; Paganism
Paganity - ) The state of being a pagan; Paganism
Paganical - ) Of or pertaining to pagans or Paganism; heathenish; paganish
Repaganize - ) To paganize anew; to bring back to Paganism
Entilism - ) Hethenism; Paganism; the worship of false gods
Paganize - ) To render pagan or heathenish; to convert to Paganism
Heathenism - ) The religious system or rites of a heathen nation; idolatry; Paganism
Ethnophrones - A sect of heretics in the seventh century, who made a profession of Christianity, but joined thereto all the ceremonies and follies of Paganism, as judicial astrology, sortileges, auguries, and other divinations
Greenland - It was a Catholic country from the 11th to the 16th century, lapsed thereafter into Paganism, and since 1721 has become entirely Lutheran
Nicolas - A proselyte of Antioch, that is, one converted from Paganism to the religion of the Jews
Alban, Saint - According to legend, he was converted from Paganism by a cleric, Amphibalus, whom he sheltered in his house
Entility - ) Paganism; heathenism
Theophilus - We can only say of him, in general, that most probably he was a man of some note, who lived out of Palestine, and had abjured Paganism in order to embrace Christianity
Hyena - " But the Hebrew 'ayit joined to it always means a bird; and "speckled" symbolizes the blending of Paganism with the utterly diverse, divinely-ordained law
Haakon the Good - Subsequently he introduced judicious reforms, but his efforts to crush Paganism failed, leading to civilwar, in which he was slain by Eric's sons
Good, Haakon the - Subsequently he introduced judicious reforms, but his efforts to crush Paganism failed, leading to civilwar, in which he was slain by Eric's sons
Dadon, Saint - In 640 he was consecrated Archbishop of Rouen, where he extirpated the remnants of Paganism
Ouen, Saint - In 640 he was consecrated Archbishop of Rouen, where he extirpated the remnants of Paganism
Owen, Saint - In 640 he was consecrated Archbishop of Rouen, where he extirpated the remnants of Paganism
Epicureans - They have been called the "Sadducees" of Greek Paganism
Decius, Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus - He hoped to solve the pressing internal problems by reviving Paganism
Caius Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius - He hoped to solve the pressing internal problems by reviving Paganism
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - Maternus (3), Julius Firmicus, an acute critic of pagan rites and doctrines and a vigorous apologist for the Christian faith, known from his treatise de Errore Profanarum Religionum , composed between 343 and 350, very valuable for its details of the secret rites of Paganism. He concludes with earnestly exhorting the emperors to suppress Paganism by force; thus giving one of the earliest specimens of Christian intolerance. There are probably embodied in it some fragments of the ancient Greek writer Evemerus, whose work upon Paganism, now lost, was largely used by all the Christian apologists
Christian - Also, the name of the religion which He founded, of its doctrines and precepts; of the life, habits of virtue, piety, spirit and character of His followers; of the Church which is rightly known by this name, as against sects which assume it (Christian Scientists, Christian Socialists); of the civilization which this religion developed in the world as distinguished from the civilizations of Paganism, Islamism, Judaism
Hilary, Saint - Brought up in Paganism, he later embraced the Catholic Faith and in 350 was made Bishop of Poitiers
Religion, Comparative - The effort of many students of this science to prove that Christianity is merely an evolution of the religions of primitive races and of Paganism has proved futile chiefly through the studies of Catholic experts in ethnology, and the labors of Catholic missionaries among primitive peoples, notably the members of the Society of the Divine Word
Serapion, Solitary of Scete - Cassian tells us that an abbat Isaac explained to him in connexion with Serapion's conversion that the Anthropomorphite heresy was simply a relic of Paganism
Epistles of Saint Peter - Saint Peter the Apostle wrote two Epistles, both addressed to converts from Paganism in Asia Minor
Stratonice, Martyr at Cyzicum - Her father, Apollonius, after every effort to win her back to Paganism had failed, became her most bitter accuser
Pagan -
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that Paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. ...
Although Christian missionaries have made great progress in thwarting Paganism, much of the world is still pagan. ...
Pagan systems of morality may be divided into two main schools of thought, that of Hedonism, and that of Cynicism and Stoicism
Paganism -
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that Paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. ...
Although Christian missionaries have made great progress in thwarting Paganism, much of the world is still pagan. ...
Pagan systems of morality may be divided into two main schools of thought, that of Hedonism, and that of Cynicism and Stoicism
Proselyte - In the later Jewish sense this term designates a convert from Paganism to Judaism
Gaza - Gaza was peopled by the descendants of Ham, Genesis 10:19; by the Anakim, Joshua 11:22; given to Judah, Joshua 15:47; the scene of Samson's exploits, Judges 16:1-31; under Solomon's rule and called Azzah, 1 Kings 4:24; smitten by Egypt, Jeremiah 47:1; Jeremiah 47:5; prophesied against, Amos 1:6-7; Zephaniah 2:4; Zechariah 9:5; noticed in New Testament only in Acts 8:26; a chief stronghold of Paganism and the worship of the god Dagon
Relapse - ) To fall from Christian faith into Paganism, heresy, or unbelief; to backslide
Catacombs, Roman - The catacombs originated in connection with the tombs which belonged to the early converts from Paganism. Early sculpture is represented by the sarcophagi used by the converts from Paganism
Roman Catacombs - The catacombs originated in connection with the tombs which belonged to the early converts from Paganism. Early sculpture is represented by the sarcophagi used by the converts from Paganism
Oracles - The pagan "oracles" ceased when Christianity supplanted Paganism
Apostasy - The primitive Christian church distinguished several kinds of apostacy; the first, of those who went entirely from Christianity to Judaism; the second, of those who complied so far with the Jews, as to communicate with them in many of their unlawful practices, without making a formal profession of their religion; thirdly, of those who mingled Judaism and Christianity together; and, fourthly, of those who voluntarily relapsed into Paganism
Peter, Epistles of - It appears to have been addressed to Christian churches in Asia Minor, composed primarily of converted Jews and proselytes, but including many converts from Paganism, 1 Peter 4
Alaric - This age witnessed the last efforts of Paganism to assert itself as the ancient and national religion, and Rome was its last stronghold. The almost miraculous discomfiture of the heathen Radagaisus by Stilicho, in spite of his vow to sacrifice the noblest senators of Rome on the altars of the gods which delighted in human blood, was accepted as an ill omen by those at Rome who hoped for a public restoration of Paganism (Gibbon, iv. The book in which Zosimus related the fall of Rome has been lost, so that we have to gather information from Christian sources; but it is plain that the destruction and loss was chiefly on the side of Paganism, and that little escaped which did not shelter itself under the protection of Christianity. On his return heathen temples were converted into Christian churches; "with Paganism expired the venerable titles of the religion, the great High Priests and Flamens, the Auspices and Augurs. Alaric was also instrumental in driving Paganism from Greece. Gibbon says that "the invasion of the Goths, instead of vindicating the honour, contributed, at least accidentally, to extirpate the last remains of Paganism" (vol
Nonna, Mother of Gregory Nazianzen - To her example, aided by her prayers, he ascribes the conversion of his father from the strange medley of Paganism and Christianity which formed the tenets of the Hypsistarian sect, to which by birth he belonged (Greg
Gentile - ...
See HEATHEN, Paganism
Pegasius, Bishop of Troas - He had evidently discerned Julian's tendency to Paganism
God, City of - Celebrated apologetic work of Saint Augustine, constituting the most complete defense of Christianity against the attacks of Paganism. In a desperate attempt to crush the new religion, Paganism employed libel and calumny besides the sword, the most persistent accusation being that the Christians were guilty of the evils which befell the Roman Empire
Apostasy - The first was that of those who relapsed from Christianity into Judaism; the second, that of those who blended Judaism and Christianity together; and the third was that of those who, after having been Christians, voluntarily relapsed into Paganism
Ecuador - The Jesuits later joined in the labors, and Christianity spread through the country, but after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767 and the subsequent revolution, the natives relapsed into Paganism
Aquila - Paul afterward quitted Aquila's house, and abode with Justus, near the Jewish synagogue at Corinth; probably, as Calmet thinks, because Aquila was a converted Jew, and Justus was a convert from Paganism, that in this case the Gentiles might come and hear him with more liberty
Lithuania - In the 13th century a Diocese of Lithuania, dependent directly on Rome, was created at the request of the ruler, Prince Mendog; he and his family had embraced Christianity, but reverted to Paganism before missionary work had made much progress
Valentinianus (1) - They were directed against immorality, not Paganism, as is evident from the fact, which Ambrose ( l. ) laments, that he tolerated the public profession and practices of Paganism in the Roman senate-house
Maximus of Ephesus - A "master of theurgic science," commonly reckoned among the neo-Platonic philosophers, the interest of whose life consists merely in the fact that he supplied an essential link in the transit of the emperor Julian from Christianity to Paganism. By such acts as these, and by his initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries, he passed over to Paganism, though his having done so was still unknown to the world
Machabees, the - Syrian attempts to force Greek Paganism on the Jews, the profanation of the Temple at Jerusalem, and the massacre which followed, brought the nation to arms under Mathathias, a priest of the sons of Joarib
Swine - It was the sacrosanct character of swine that lay at the root of the prohibition in Leviticus 11:7 and Deuteronomy 14:8 ; and the eating of swine’s flesh and offering of swine’s blood ( Isaiah 65:4 ; Isaiah 66:3 ; Isaiah 66:17 ) are clearly regarded as a sign of lapse into Paganism
African Church - ...
Paganism came to an end when the temples were closed in 399
Marcianus, Flavius, Emperor of the East - ...
Marcian also took measures to suppress the last remnants of Paganism. 1, 455, directed the strict enforcement of the laws against Paganism
Honorius, Flavius Augustus, Emperor - ...
There is an important enactment against Paganism in the first year of Honorius's reign (Cod. ...
Ambrose had successfully resisted the reintroduction of the altar or statue of Victory into the senate-house in 384; and by 399 it may have appeared to Honorius's advisers that the time was come when Paganism might be hastened out of existence. The Paganism of the Roman senate and people was connected with the proudest associations of their public and domestic history, and it lingered long in the old patrician houses of the metropolis and among the rustic population. It may have been intended to end this division by direct attempts at suppressing Paganism. The death-struggle of a Paganism long fostered, and quite without real devotion, contributed to the final overthrow of Rome. , on the "Decay of Paganism," vol. ...
His later legislation has little historical interest, but the enactments on Paganism and heresy from 413 to 423 were as follows: Two against repetition of baptism, a. The temptation to a Christian emperor to hold heresy or Paganism an offence against the State, which he personified (at least on earth, and in heathen theory in heaven), was too much for man. Ambrose must have felt that the remaining Paganism of Rome was his chief difficulty, and his influence must have been accordingly exerted on Honorius in his first days
Ecclesiastical History - It shows us that the increase of Christianity produced in the countries where it was received, the overthrow and extinction of Paganism, which, after a feeble resistance, perished about the sixth century
Dianius, Bishop of Caesarea - Dianius keenly felt the absence of his eloquent and able young counsellor, especially when Julian endeavoured to re-establish Paganism
Sun - The Canaanites and other people worshiped the “sun” as a god, and this Paganism appeared among Israelites in times of spiritual decline ( Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus - He signalized his entrance on his office by a vehement outburst of zeal against the relics of Paganism at Cyzicus. 361, Eleusius, with the other deposed prelates, returned to his see, but was soon expelled a second time by Julian, on the representation of the heathen inhabitants of Cyzicus, for his zeal against Paganism (Soz
Nethinim - ); below the children of "mixed marriages" (mamzerim ), but above proselytes fresh from Paganism and emancipated slaves
Burnt Offering - Jephthah's vow was without divine warrant, and due to the half Paganism of his early life (Judges 11:4)
Architecture, Gothic - It may be fittingly called the "Catholic Style," since it was the expression of the new civilization introduced by the Church after the struggle with Paganism, and since it remains today the supreme artistic achievement of that civilization
Gothic Architecture - It may be fittingly called the "Catholic Style," since it was the expression of the new civilization introduced by the Church after the struggle with Paganism, and since it remains today the supreme artistic achievement of that civilization
Paphos - There they were near one of the most famous shrines of Paganism, the home of Aphrodite, the foam-born ‘Paphian Queen,’ Old Paphos being the centre of her worship for the whole earth
Drink, Drank - ...
B — 3: ποτίζω (Strong's #4222 — Verb — potizo — pot-id'-zo ) "to give to drink, to make to drink," is used (a) in the material sense, in Matthew 10:42 ; 25:35,37,42 (here of "ministering" to those who belong to Christ and thus doing so virtually to Him); 27:48; Mark 9:41 ; 15:36 ; Luke 13:15 ("to watering"); Romans 12:20 ; 1 Corinthians 3:7,8 ; (b) figuratively, with reference to "teaching" of an elementary character, 1 Corinthians 3:2 , "I fed (you with milk);" of "spiritual watering by teaching" the Word of God, 1 Corinthians 3:6 ; of being "provided" and "satisfied" by the power and blessing of the Spirit of God, 1 Corinthians 12:13 ; of the effect upon the nations of "partaking" of the abominable mixture, provided by Babylon, of Paganism with details of the Christian faith, Revelation 14:8
Alliances - But alliances by marriage with idolaters are reprobated as incentives to latitudinarianism first and at last, to conformity with Paganism (Deuteronomy 7:3-6)
Coelicolae - The Christians convinced themselves that a stand must be made more earnestly than ever against any heresy which would seduce their members in the direction of either Judaism or Paganism
Divination - Of all attempts to look into futurity by such means, as well as resorting to charms and other methods of curing diseases, and discovering secrets, we may say, that they are relics of Paganism, and argue an ignorance, folly, or superstition, dishonourable to the Christian name; and are therefore to be reproved and discouraged
Jezebel - The deeper the church penetrated into Paganism, the more pagan she became
Food Offered to Idols - The identification of the object of the offering by the term “idol” suggests that it was a name which originated outside first-century Paganism
Revela'Tion of st. John, - (b) The Praeterist expositors, who are of opinion that the Revelation has been almost or altogether fulfilled in the time which has passed since it was written; that it refers principally to the triumph of Christianity over Judaism and Paganism, signalized in the downfall of Jerusalem and of Rome
Christianity (History Sketch) - Not only were their modes of worship treated with scrupulous reverence, but their gods, in conformity with the genius of Paganism, were incorporated or associated with the deities of Rome, and they were thus joined to their conquerors by the strongest ties by which the affections can be secured. From the nature of Paganism, it was perfectly consistent with its spirit to conjoin, with any particular mode of it, the forms which elsewhere prevailed. ...
Not only was persecution, after the reign of Constantine, at an end, but with the exception of the short reign of Julian, who, having apostatized from Christianity, and become intoxicated with the fascinating speculations of the Platonic philosophy, was eager to raise the temples which his predecessor had laid in ruins, promotion and wealth and honour could be most effectually secured by transferring to the Gospel the zeal which had been in vain exhausted to preserve the sinking fabric of Paganism and idolatry. The church, after it had been firmly established, and had, amidst the riches and honours with which it was endowed, forgotten that it should not have been of this world, conceived it incumbent, as an evidence of its zeal, or, as was too often the case, for extending its power and its influence, to make attempts to substitute the cross of Christ for the emblems of Paganism
Theodosius i., the Great - ...
Theodosius sought to suppress Paganism also. The emperor was taking sterner measures against Oriental Paganism, and had just sent Cynegius as his deputy into Egypt and the East to see that his orders were strictly carried out; whereupon the monks, as Libanius expressly states, rose up and utterly destroyed the temple. In 382 Gratian issued an order abolishing the altar of Victory, as hitherto retained in the senate house, and the other traces of Paganism which still remained
Hezekiah - Ahaz's political involvements with Assyria brought idolatry and Paganism into the Temple (2 Kings 16:7-20 )
Ceremony - Many of them were borrowed from Judaism, but more from Paganism
Lie, Lying - The Pauline representation of Paganism bases its degrading moral Influence on the fact that it is founded essentially on a lie ( Romans 1:22 )
Gaza - In the time of Eusebius and Jerome it was still a notable Greek city, where Paganism stoutly resisted Christianity; and it played an important part in the time of the Crusades
Fable - Newman, ‘was the conflict of Christianity with the old established Paganism; with the Oriental Mysteries, flitting wildly to and fro like spectres’ (Development of Christian Doctrine, 1878, p
Leo i, Emperor - The same year he passed stern laws against Paganism and issued a fresh edict in favour of hospitals
Victor Vitensis - It shews the persistence of Paganism at Carthage and mentions the temples of Memory and of Coelestis as existing till the Vandals levelled them after their capture of Carthage
Saints - That is, they are considered undefiled by Paganism if at least one of their parents is a Christian
Learning - As the Christians were opposed by the Pagans and the Jews, they were excited to the study of Pagan and Jewish literature, in order to expose the absurdities of the Jewish traditions, the weakness of Paganism, and the imperfections and insufficiency of philosophy
Mediator - Indeed the whole religion of Paganism was a system of mediation and intercession
Doubt - —Lyttelton, Modern Poets of Faith, Doubt, and Paganism; Illingworth, Christian Character; James, The Will to Believe; Carlyle, Sartor Resartus; Browning, Christmas-Eve and Easter-Day; Tennyson, In Memoriam (edited, with commentary, by A
Ceremony - Many of them were borrowed from Judaism, but more from Paganism
Education - All this was wholly different from the speculative and uncertain maxims of morality taught by Paganism
Germany - Boniface dealt a death blow to Paganism, symbolized in cutting down the sacred oak of Geismar, founded the monastery of Fulda, and opened the first convents for women in Germany
Perpetua, Vibia - He published an edict forbidding any fresh conversions from Paganism to Judaism or Christianity, while imposing no penalties on original Jews or Christians
Possidius, Bishop of Calama - His own account represents him as a convert from Paganism, becoming on his conversion an inmate of the monastery at Hippo, probably c
Painting, Religious - In the Venetians of the period, Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese, there is such freedom, such reveling in gorgeous color and in brilliant pageantry that they are unjustly accused of Paganism in spite of fine achievement in essentially religious subjects
Religious Painting - In the Venetians of the period, Giorgione, Titian, Tintoretto, and Veronese, there is such freedom, such reveling in gorgeous color and in brilliant pageantry that they are unjustly accused of Paganism in spite of fine achievement in essentially religious subjects
Pontus - From 1Peter it is clear that about the year 80, the probable date of the Epistle, there were Christians in that country, and these converts from Paganism to Christianity probably came there from the Asian coasts or from Rome
Symmachus q. Aurelius - Aurelius, the last eminent champion of Paganism at Rome, son of L
Theodotus, Martyr at Ancyra - 303) notes a passage in the Acts of these sufferers (§ 14) as a valuable illustration of the Paganism of Galatia
Wicked - In Colossians 1:21 the works of Paganism are called ἔργα πονηρά because they establish enmity between God and men: the rendering ‘wicked works’ of AV expresses this better than ‘evil works’ of RV
Happiness - ...
(1) The failure of Paganism. Paganism withdrew from the struggle to provide happiness
Circumcision - When Greek Paganism threatened to swamp Judaism some two centuries before Christ was born, circumcision became a distinctive indication of Jewish fidelity to the covenant
Devote, Devoted - Individuals or villages promoting Paganism were to be destroyed (Deuteronomy 7:26 ; 13:16-18 )
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus, Poet - Paulinus nowhere chides Ausonius for his Paganism; on the contrary, he assumes his Christianity (Paulin
Corinth - The traveller surveys the site of this celebrated city; he discovers not a vestige of the altars of Paganism, but perceives some Christian chapels rising from among the cottages of the Greeks
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - —The usurpation of Magnentius in Gaul seems to have been largely a movement of Paganism against Christianity and of the provincial army against the court. There was the same disposition on the part of the empire to put down Paganism and the same elements of reaction
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - Soon after he conceived it his duty to visit his parents and convert them from Paganism. Martin was especially called upon to fight Paganism
Establishments - That whatever was the practice of heathens in this respect, this forms no argument in favour of that system which is the very opposite to Paganism
Sidon (2) - At length her limited territory, her merely commercial aim, her being sapped by colonization and dissension, her final surrender of leadership to Tyre, combined with her conquests by the world-powers, left her under the Romans in the days of Christ a merely provincial capital, richer in the vices of ancient Paganism than in its virtues
Antichrist - The Papists imagine they view in the prophetical picture of antichrist, imperial Rome, elated by her victories, exulting in her sensuality and her spoils, polluted by idolatry, persecuting the people of God, and finally falling like the first Babylon; whilst a new and holy city, represented by their own communion, filled with the spotless votaries of the Christian faith, rises out of its ruins, and the victory of the cross is completed over the temples of Paganism
Theodosius ii., Emperor - Paganism became in itself a disability
Emperor-Worship - Caesarism and Paganism. -It is necessary to make a few remarks on the relation of the new religion to the old Paganism, because in sermons and other popular treatments of the subject the facts are often mis-stated. Thus it is entirely erroneous to say that the new religion owed any of its strength to the decay of the old Paganism; it was only in close alliance with the old that Caesarism as a religion could continue in existence
Patricius, or Saint Patrick - 433), determining to strike a blow at the very centre of Celtic Paganism, directed his course towards Tara. Patrick and king Laoghaire and his priests is marked by a series of miracles and legends, terminating, however, with the defeat of Paganism and the baptism of great numbers of the Irish, including Laoghaire himself, who yielded a nominal adhesion to the truth
Antioch - ...
In 362, the emperor Julian spent some months at Antioch; which were chiefly occupied in his favourite object of reviving the mythology of Paganism
Oracle - Plutarch has a treatise on the ceasing of some oracles; and Van Dale, a Dutch physician, has a volume to prove they did not cease at the coming of Christ; but that many of them ceased long before, and that others held till the fall of Paganism, under the empire of Theodosius the Great, when Paganism being dissipated, these restitutions could no longer subsist. " With respect to the origin of oracles, they were probably imitations, first, of the answers given to the holy patriarchs from the divine presence or Shechinah, and secondly, of the responses to the Jewish high priest from the mercy seat: for all Paganism is a parody of the true religion
Mediation Mediator - For mediation in Paganism and in the OT see W. Paganism has its ‘redeemer gods,’ but Christianity is rooted in the OT
Ireland - By the 7th century Paganism had for the most part disappeared and the monastic schools flourished
Man of Sin - Paul boldly transfers from the sphere of Paganism in which Jewish apocalyptic had placed it, and sets down in the sphere of Judaism itself
Woman - Doubtless this feature of its influence has often been exaggerated, either by painting too darkly the vices of Paganism or by neglecting the actual Limitations of historical Christianity. There is some measure of truth in the assertion that ‘the change from the heroic to the saintly ideal, from the ideal of Paganism to the ideal of Christianity, was a change from a type which was essentially male to one which was essentially feminine’ (Lecky, History of European Morals8, vol
Joshua, the Book of - ...
The Hebrew people saw Paganism as a poison
Arnobius - The first two are devoted to the defence of Christianity, the remainder to the exposure of Paganism
Aetius, Arian Sect Founder And Head - Leontius; and being subsequently introduced to Gallus by Theophilus Blemmys, he was sent by him to his brother Julian to win him back from the Paganism into which he was lapsing
Fulness of the Time - Conscious of being raised above the manifold forms of heathen superstition around them, the colonies of Jews settled in the trading cities of foreign lands felt themselves impelled to aspire after a certain elevation of life; while the loftier moral teaching they maintained in their synagogues attracted considerable numbers of proselytes from Paganism
Proselytes - Any good in Paganism was lost, and all that was bad in traditional Judaism was acquired
Anathema - Or, introduced into the Church from some form of Paganism, they had been so familiar with the evil inspiration that swept them along to the worship of ‘dumb idols’ (1 Corinthians 12:2) as to be disposed to plead inspiration for any tongues or doctrines of their own, to whatever extent Jesus was degraded therein
Gods - In modern oriental Paganism they amount to many millions, and are, in fact, innumerable
Truth (2) - ) and so-called ‘philosophers’ or religious theorists, in Judaism and Paganism, who refused to accept the Christian estimate of Jesus, and probably preferred Gnostic presentations of communion with God. The present passage, taken along with a remark like that of John 18:37 (‘every one that is of the truth heareth my voice’), suggests a view of Paganism similar to that of Romans 2:12 f
Messiah - Also, Paul taught his converts who were mainly converted to Christ from Paganism that Jesus was the universal Lord whose mission was wider than any Jewish hope could embrace
Devil - The mixture of some elements of primitive truth in Paganism accords with Satan's practice of foiling the kingdom of light by transforming himself at times into an "angel of light
Fornication - There was no public opinion in Paganism to suppress fornication
Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch - Its ostensible object is to convince a heathen friend Autolycus a man of great learning and an earnest seeker after truth of the divine authority of the Christian religion while at the same time he exhibits the falsehood and absurdity of Paganism
John the Baptist - There is a Pauline ring in the stern reminder that Abraham’s spiritual seed may spring from the stones of Paganism ( Luke 3:8 , but also Matthew 3:9 , cf
Feasting - The great moralists of Paganism condemned these bouts, and St
Diodorus, Presbyter of Antioch - On the accession of Julian, his attempt to rekindle an expiring Paganism provided a new field for the energies of Diodorus
Simon Magus - ...
Such a system is obviously an amalgam of Paganism and Christianity. ’ His conclusions are: ‘(1) That all we know of the original Simon Magus is contained in Acts; (2) that from very early times he has been confused with another Simon’; and he adds: ‘Before such an amalgam of Paganism and Christianity could be propounded, it is evident that Christianity must have been for some little time before the world, and that the system cannot possibly be traced back to Simon Magus. ...
The amalgam of Paganism and Christianity which was characteristic of Gnosticism, and which was specially obvious in the Simonian system, is readily explicable in the teaching of Simon Magus, who, according to the story in Acts, was brought into intimate contact with Christian teaching without becoming a genuine believer
Galatians, Letter to the - The readers were Gentiles converted from Paganism (Galatians 4:8 ; Galatians 5:2 ; Galatians 6:12 ), although there may have been Jewish Christians and proselytes in the church as well
Foundation - They had a special message and function to the Church already gathered out of Paganism, in contrast to the missionary and pioneer work of the apostles
Offence (2) - The use of Christian liberty in an environment of Paganism no doubt presented many moral problems, all with possibilities of σκάνδαλον in them. 1 ‘Am I not free?’—is written in the very spirit of Mark 9:43-47, and in 1 Corinthians 10 the Apostle warns his converts of the peril which awaits them, if secure in their Christianity they slip into easy relations with Paganism
Cabbala - Philo, Josephus, and other learned Jews, in order to flatter their own vanity, and that of their countrymen, industriously propagated this opinion; and the more learned fathers of the Christian church, who entertained a high opinion of the Platonic philosophy, hastily adopted it, from an imagination that if they could trace back the most valuable doctrines of Paganism to a Hebrew origin, this could not fail to recommend the Jewish and Christian religions to the attention of the Gentile philosophers
Creation - Their theology , on the other hand, is the product of a revelation which placed them far in advance of their heathen contemporaries, and imparted to all their thinking a sanity of imagination and a sublimity of conception that instinctively rejected the grosser features of Paganism, and transformed what was retained into a vehicle of Divine truth
King, Kingship - For these scholars the establishment of the monarchy represented a return to the social model of the old Bronze Age Paganism of the Canaanites, and a rejection of religious foundations derived from the Mosaic formulations of the Sinai covenant
Greece - (see Athens and Corinth), but made slow progress throughout the country, where Paganism, in one form or another, maintained itself till about a
Holy Day - Paul is not here condemning the observance of holy days as such, but only as leading, by way of a revived Judaism, back to Paganism
Prophecy Prophet Prophetess - Scott-Moncrieff, Paganism and Christianity in Egypt, 1913; F
Synagogue - From the outworn creeds of Paganism many earnest souls turned to the synagogue and its teaching for the satisfaction of their highest needs
Repentance - No Christian could forget the new light in which he had come to look upon his past life (the Paganism around him would make this impossible), nor the act of loving self-surrender to a new personal influence which accompanied it (Acts 20:21; cf
Widows - To neglect it is not only to violate Christian law (Mark 7:10-13), but also to fall below the moral standard of Paganism (cf
Divination - Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, Eng
Apocrypha - These stories ridicule Paganism and the worship of idols
Philippi - She calls them servants of ‘God the Most High’-an expression widespread in Paganism, as Ramsay notes (St
Art - ’ This rhetorical answer cannot be taken as denying the use of art by the African Christians: it is a vindication of the spiritual nature of Christian worship, and the ‘lifeless temples’ must be referred to Paganism, since there was nowhere any shrinking from the erection of church buildings. ...
This is, in fact, the conclusion to which the literary evidence leads us: the early Christians were told to keep clear of Paganism, with which their daily work was often so closely involved, but they were not told to forswear art
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - Rendall's Hulsean Essay for 1876, The Emperor Julian; Paganism and Christianity is decidedly the best account of Julian's religious position in English, perhaps in any modern language. He here learnt to know some of the more mystical of the heathen party, to whom Paganism was still a reality and the gods living beings, visions of whom were to be seen by night and whose power still worked signs and wonders
Sabbath - As a concession to Paganism, it may be noticed that the studied name given to the day (dies solis) ‘afforded the possibility of its universal encouragement, without thus appearing to enforce directly an ecclesiastical celebration’ (W
Ezra, the Book of - Ezra the priest took charge of the inner restoration, by purging out Paganism and bringing back the law; Nehemiah the governor did the outer work, restoring the city and its polity
Baptize, Baptism - ...
When, at the diaspora, numerous Gentiles sought admission to Israel, the required public repentance and acceptance of Mosaic Law was accompanied by immersion in water, symbolizing and effecting religious, moral, and ritual cleansing from the defilements of Paganism
Christian (the Name) - But the local, heterogeneous Paganism yielded an incomparably richer harvest to the efforts of the Christian age is, so that the general success of the movement produced, for the first time, a noticeable alteration in the proportions of Jewish and Gentile Christians—so noticeable, indeed, that, as the historian points out, it necessitated an attempt on the part of the outside public to verbally classify the adherents of the new faith
Sabbath - As a concession to Paganism, it may be noticed that the studied name given to the day (dies solis) ‘afforded the possibility of its universal encouragement, without thus appearing to enforce directly an ecclesiastical celebration’ (W
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - 579), upon the rumour of a heathen plot to destroy the Christians of Baalbec, the emperor ordered an officer named Theophilus to suppress Paganism in the East
Gratianus, Emperor - Another act, doubtless at the beginning of his reign, shewed his determination to break with Paganism more effectually than his predecessors had done
Friendship - Christian Ethics is not the successor to the virtues of Paganism, but the new spirit that turned patriotism into brotherhood, elevated friendship into universal love; φιλία becomes ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦίΑ
Paul as a Man of Prayer - There may have been one or two as great intellects as Paul's in some of the surrounding dispensations of Paganism; but then those greatly gifted men had not Paul's privileges, opportunities, and outlets
Persecution - Their open attacks upon Paganism made them extremely obnoxious to the populace, by whom they were represented as a society of atheists, who, by attacking the religious constitution of the empire, merited the severest animadversion of the civil magistrate
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria - quarter of the city, which had been the popular sanctuary of Alexandrian Paganism, and now became their stronghold of "furious despair" ( Orat
Deuteronomy, Theology of - Another mark of the distinction between the purity of Yahwistic faith and the corruption of Paganism is the line of demarcation drawn between the clean and unclean animals (14:1-3)
Ephesians Epistle to the - 4-6 deal with the most constant danger of the Gentile convert-the danger of relapse into the vices of Paganism
Christianity - The Paganism that reared altars to an unknown God proved impotent to redeem human life from the dominion of evil (see Romans 1:21 ff
Saviour (2) - Luke, in the ‘Gospel of the Infancy,’ the writer of the Pastorals, the writer of 2 Peter, and the Fourth Evangelist, meant to represent Christ as the true σωτήρ in whom lay the reality of what Paganism falsely ascribed to its rulers, dead or living
Deluge - While the mind is in this situation, Scripture comes forward, and, presenting a narrative more simple, better connected, and bearing an infinitely greater resemblance to authentic history, than any of those mythological accounts which occur in the traditions of Paganism, immediately flashes the conviction upon the understanding, that this must be the true history of those remarkable facts which other nations have handed down to us, only through the medium of allegory and fable
Gospels - ...
(2) Greek and oriental philosophy had drawn attention to religious and moral speculations, which at once exposed and undermined Paganism, and yet with all its endless labors gave no satisfactory answer to the questionings and cravings of man's spiritual being
Covenant - Its covenant character marks off the religion of Israel as a religion of real, conscious, spiritual fellowship between God and His people, in distinction from the religions of Paganism, in which either the Deity and the creature are pantheistically fused, or the God-head after a deistic fashion is so far removed from the creature as to render true communion impossible, and where the relation between a national god and his worshippers is not a matter of choice but of necessity on both sides
Miracles - Both dispensations were inaugurated by miracles, and then mainly left to ordinary providence; only that the Old Testament church, at times when surrounding Paganism, as in Elijah's times, threatened to swamp it, was vindicated by miracles
Wisdom - In ‘Cleon,’ browning adopts the same attitude in his study of the failure of Paganism, even in its forma of highest, culture, to solve the riddle of human, life and to answer the requirements of the human spirit
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - Although Paganism as a system and organized power was defunct (i
Animals - A scavenger in ancient times, this animal became a symbol for baseness and Paganism (Matthew 7:6 )
Nestorian Church - —Under Parthian rule, which was tolerant, and where the state religion was an outworn and eclectic Paganism, the new faith spread rapidly and easily
Regeneration - This is not to say that Christianity borrowed its ideas from Paganism at the same time that it felt the most intense revulsion against the idolatries, but only that certain common religious thought-forms concerning miraculous purifications and transformations were current, and Christianity inevitably expressed its own new-born faith in the language of the day
Turning - The gospel made its appeal at first to those who had grown up in a world ruled by principles the very opposite of those of the Divine Kingdom, and the transition from either Judaism or Paganism to Christianity was bound to be of the nature of an absolute and sudden break
Lord's Day - (No institution of like kind was known in Paganism
Slave, Slavery - It emphasized qualities that Paganism neglected or under-rated, as was only natural since Roman society in general held slaves in utter contempt
Immanuel - This was ultimately derived from the pagan stories of children of the gods, but was not taken over directly from Paganism by Jewish Christianity
Boyhood of Jesus - ’...
(b) Another writer says beautifully: ‘Seeing Mary sigh for three days for her Divine Son, I see again humanity during the 3000 years of Paganism, wandering in search of God
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - Christianity had now for nearly a century been the religion of the emperors; Paganism was fast becoming a system of the past; the capture of Rome by Alaric during his pontificate, regarded as the divine judgment on the heathen city and causing the dispersion and ruin of the remains of the heathen nobility, completed the downfull of the ancient order
Annunciation, the - Luke’s Gentile readers must have felt the unspeakable difference between the coarse impurity of imagined intercourse between mortals and divinities, in the religious legends of Paganism, and the dignity and delicacy of the spiritual narrative which St
Peter Epistles of - In this sense these Christians may have been converts from both Judaism and Paganism, but certain incidental references in the Epistle suggest that they belonged mainly to the latter class
Christ in Art - It is remarkable that the moral value of the better elements of mythology should have been thus recognized at the very tombs of martyrs who had suffered at the hands of Paganism
Jews - Paganism which once covered the earth, is extinct
Millenarians - Paul, in which a conversion from Paganism to Christianity, and a reformation of life is called a "resurrection from the dead," Romans 6:13 ; Ephesians 5:14
Ambrosius of Milan - of Rome, protested strongly against any such concessions to Paganism; and Victory, as it was said, favoured in the result her enemy more than her champion
Augustinus, Aurelius - Paganism and the de Civitate Dei ; § 10
Christ in Reformation Theology - ’ Beyond them there is the unknown God of philosophical Paganism, the God whom Jews, Turks, and pagans ignorantly worship
Christianity - But the external factors which largely influenced the development of Christianity—Jewish beliefs and precedents, Greek philosophy and intellectual habitudes, Roman polity and law, the superstitious ideas and observances of Paganism—must be taken into account by those who are studying the nature of the change which came over Christianity in the first thousand years of its history
Hosius (1), a Confessor Under Maximian - ...
In the relations between Christianity and Paganism there is ground for thinking that the position of Hosius at this time must have been somewhat of a representative one on the Christian side; otherwise it is difficult to understand why the emperor should have addressed to him a law declaring free such slaves as were emancipated in the presence of the bishops or clergy (a
Cyprianus (1) Thascius Caecilius - " These views appear fully developed in his first epistle, and in the application of texts in his early Testimonies; it is incredible that they should have been borrowed from Paganism, and unhistorical to connect them with Judaizers