What does Pagan mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
נָכְרִיּ֑וֹת foreign 4
הַנָּכְרִיּֽוֹת foreign 2
ἐθνικὸς adapted to the genius or customs of a people 1
זָרִ֖ים to be strange 1
הַכֹּהֲנִֽים priest 1
נֵכָ֑ר foreign 1
נָכְרִיּ֖וֹת foreign 1
נָכְרִיּוֹת֙ foreign 1
؟ נָכְרִיּֽוֹת foreign 1

Definitions Related to Pagan

H5237


   1 foreign, alien.
      1a foreign.
      1b foreigner (subst).
      1c foreign woman, harlot.
      1d unknown, unfamiliar (fig.
      ).
      

H2114


   1 to be strange, be a stranger.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to become estranged.
         1a2 strange, another, stranger, foreigner, an enemy (participle).
         1a3 loathsome (of breath) (participle).
         1a4 strange woman, prostitute, harlot (meton).
      1b (Niphal) to be estranged.
      1c (Hophal) to be a stranger, be one alienated.
      

H5236


   1 foreign, alien, foreignness, that which is foreign.
      1a foreignness, foreign gods.
      1b alien, foreigner.
      1c foreign (vanities).
      

H3548


   1 priest, principal officer or chief ruler.
      1a priest-king (Melchizedek, Messiah).
      1b Pagan priests.
      1c priests of Jehovah.
      1d Levitical priests.
      1e Zadokite priests.
      1f Aaronic priests.
      1g the high priest.
      

G1482


   1 adapted to the genius or customs of a people, peculiar to a people, national.
   2 suited to the manners or language of foreigners, strange, foreign.
   3 in the NT savouring of the nature of pagans, alien to the worship of the true God, heathenish.
      3a of the Pagan, the Gentile.
      

Frequency of Pagan (original languages)

Frequency of Pagan (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Pagan
(Latin: paganus, villager, rustic)
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years.
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. The former clung to some distinctions between right and wrong, law and license; the new definitely rejects all such distinction and seeks to be a law unto itself.
Although Christian missionaries have made great progress in thwarting paganism, much of the world is still pagan. There are many and various obstacles to their conversion, e.g., hostile civilgovernments; strong racial traditions in favor of false religions; prevalence of corrupt moral practises, such as polygamy; but as all these obstacles have often been overcome by devout and courageous Apostles, the greatest difficulty must be considered to be the lack of a sufficient number of missionaries. The reasons of this shortage are easily understood: the vocation must be very select; the training is long and arduous, and includes the mastery of difficult languages that cannot be learned from books; when all this has been surmounted, there are the risks of travel in barbarous lands, disease, and persecution; only the very choicest spirits can successfully encounter these. The maintenance of missionaries is also very expensive; and it is too often the case that the existing bodies of devoted missionary priests are hindered by lack of funds from properly performing even their daily labors.
PAGANISM AND MORALITY AMONG THE GREEKS AND ROMANS
Pagan systems of morality may be divided into two main schools of thought, that of Hedonism, and that of Cynicism and Stoicism. In general, Hedonism teaches that the highest good and happiness lies in pleasure. Various philosophers differ as to whether this pleasure consists in a perpetually joyous disposition (Democritus), in mere sensuality (Aristippus), or in a combination of rational and sensual enjoyment (Epicurus). The Cynics, on the contrary, taught that pleasure is an evil and that the truly wise man is above human laws. The Stoics endeavored to purify the views of this school. The earlier Stoics, Zeno and his disciples, believed that virtue, to be sought for its own sake, sufficed for human happiness. The later Stoics, the Romans, although influenced by Christianity, differed little from the early Stoics. Midway between these schools are the views of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Socrates believed happiness the ultimate object of human activity, and virtue the necessary means to it; the virtues, however, are only varieties of wisdom. Plato held that the highest good consisted in imitation of God, the Absolute Good, only partly realizable in this life; virtue was the ordering of conduct according to the dictates of right reason, and included justice, temperance, fortitude, and wisdom. Aristotle, founder of systematic ethics, started from experience rather than theory; he maintained that true ultimate happiness could be had only by the most perfect activity of the reason, which springs in turn from virtue.
Some saints are shown in art in the company of pagans. They include
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a pagan
Holman Bible Dictionary - Gods, Pagan
One of the great distinctivesof Judeo-Christian religion is monotheism—the recognition and reverence of only one God. By contrast, pagan religions of the biblical world were polytheistic, worshiping many gods.
Old Testament Many pagan gods had their origin as gods of certain places such as cities or regions. In Old Testament times, such gods or a combination of gods became nationalistic symbols as their cities or regions struggled for political dominance. The names of Near Eastern kings thus frequently contained a national god's name. The kings of Israel and Judah, for example, often bore names which contained a shortened form of the Hebrew name of Yahweh: Jo-, Jeho-, or -iah. A by-product of the connection between gods and certain locales was the belief that a god's power was limited to certain regions. Thus, officials of the Syrian king advised a battle with Israel on the plains observing, “their gods are gods of the hills” (1 Kings 20:23 ). Israel, against the background of this common belief, struggled with the concept that God was the Lord over all aspects of creation.
Egyptian Gods. Egyptian religion included a great number of gods. Many were personifications of the enduring natural forces in Egypt, such as the Sun (Re or Atum), sky (Nut), earth (Geb), and so on. Certain gods were associated with a particular place, such as Ptah of Memphis. Other gods, like Maat (truth and justice), Sekhmet (war and disease), and Bes (god of childbirth) ruled over aspects of life. Still others combined these categories so that Thoth was god of Hermopolis, the moon, and wisdom, while Hathor was goddess of Denderah, the sky, and love. Some of the gods were worshiped in animal form, such as the Apis bull which represented the god Ptah of Memphis. The Osiris myth was popular with the common people and became the principle of divine kingship. See Egypt . Osiris, the good king, was murdered and dismembered by his brother Seth. Osiris' wife, Isis, gathered his body to be mummified by the jackal-headed embalming god Anubis. Magically restored, Osiris was buried by his son, Horus, and reigned as king of the underworld. Horus, meanwhile, overcame the evil Seth to rule on earth. Thus, in death the pharaoh was worshiped as Osiris, while the legitimate heir became the living Horus by burying his dead predecessor.
The position of certain deities was a factor of the political situation. The gods' names which dominate pharaohs' names in a dynasty show both the dominant city and its dominant god. Thus the god Amen, later called Amen-Re, became the chief god of the empire because of the position of Thebes. Under Amenhotep III, the successes of the empire led to internal power struggles between the powerful priesthood of Amen-Re and the throne. Amenhotep IV changed his name to Akhenaton and embarked on a revolutionary reform which promoted worship of the sun disc Aton above all other gods. The reforms of Akhenaton failed. His second successor made clear his loyalties to Amen-Re by changing his name from Tutankhaton to Tutankhamen and abandoning the new capital in favor of Thebes. The following dynasty, while promoting Amen-Re seems to have favored gods of the north. The names of the gods Seth of Avaris, Ra of Heliopolis, and Ptah of Memphis are evident in the Nineteenth Dynasty names Seti, Ramses, and Merneptah.
No Egyptian gods are mentioned in the Bible, and the complex Egyptian religion did not significantly influence the Hebrews. Some have tried to posit a relationship between the reforms of Akhenaton and the monotheism of Moses, but the differences between Atonism and the Mosaic view of God are far greater than the similarities.
Mesopotamian Gods The complex system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia included thousands of gods. The most important are reviewed here.
The patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities became the high gods of the Mesopotamian pantheon. Anu, god of the heavens and patron of Uruk (biblical Erech; Genesis 10:10 ), did not play a very active role. Enlil of Nippur ruled over the earth. The god of Eridu, Ea, was lord of the underground waters and the god of craftsmen. The feared Nergal of Cutha was the god of plague and the underworld. Gods of other cities became prominent through political circumstance. Thus, the god and namesake of the original Assyrian capital, Ashur, rose in importance with the rise of that empire. Ninurta, god of war and hunting, was patron for the Assyrian capital Calah. After the political rise of Babylon, Marduk was considered the chief god and was given the epithet Bel (equivalent to the Canaanite term Baal), meaning “lord” ( Isaiah 46:1 ; Jeremiah 50:2 ; Jeremiah 51:44 ). The Enuma elish , or Babylonian Creation Epic, tells of a cosmic struggle in which, while other gods were powerless, Marduk slew Tiamat (the sea goddess,fjcr representative of chaos). From the blood of another slain god, Ea created mankind. Marduk's son Nabu (Nebo in Isaiah 46:1 ), the god of nearby Borsippa and of scribes, became especially exalted in the neo-Babylonian period as seen in the name Nebuchadnezzar. Several important gods were associated with heavenly bodies. Shamash was god of the sun and played a prominent role. The moon god Sin was revered in the cities of Ur and Haran, both associated with Abraham's origins (Genesis 11:31 ). Ishtar (the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth) was goddess of the morning and evening star. In addition to her astral associations, Ishtar fulfilled a dual role as the goddess of war and the goddess of love and fertility. Temple prostitution was an important part of her cult and gave Uruk, the city of her older Sumerian equivalent, Inanna, a sordid reputation. Among the masses Ishtar was very popular and referred to as the “queen of heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ). Closely connected with Ishtar was her consort, the spring vegetation god Tammuz. A myth ells of Tammuz' betrayal by Ishtar, his subsequent death, and descent into the underworld. This event was commemorated by an annual mourning for the god in the fourth month which fell during summer. Ezekiel lamented this pagan practice by certain women of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 8:14 ). The death of Tammuz reflected and coincided with the annual wilting of spring vegetation in the Near East. Also associated with fertility was the storm god Adad, the Canaanite Hadad.
In addition to their cosmic nature, the gods were thought of as present in their image, or idol, and living in the temple as a king in his palace. The gilded wooden images were in human form, clothed in a variety of ritual garments, and provided with meals. On occasion the images were carried in ceremonial processions or to “visit” one another in different sanctuaries.
Canaanite Gods The gods of the Canaanites made the greatest impact on the Israelites. While many of these are related to Mesopotamian gods, Canaanite religion was not well understood until the discovery of religious texts in the 1920s at the Syrian city of Ugarit. See Canaan.
The chief god of the Canaanite pantheon was called El, the generic Semitic word for “god.” El, however, was viewed as a grandfatherly, retiring god and did not play an active role. By far the most prominent role must be assigned to Baal around whom the Ugaritic myths revolve. These myths represent Baal as the storm god with power over rain, wind, and clouds, and thus over the fertility of the land. The cycle of the seasons is represented in the myths by Baal's struggle with Mot (literally, “death”), who represented drought and brought forth dry barren fields. During the dry season (summer) Baal was forced temporarily into the underworld by Mot, but his recurring return brought forth the rainy season (winter) and restored fertility to the land. In another myth, Baal defeated Yam (literally “sea”), the god of chaos, in much the way that the Babylonian Marduk defeated Tiamat. Baal was often pictured standing on the back of a bull or wearing a helmet adorned with horns to emphasize his role as the chief fertility god.
Some confusion surrounds the various usages of Baal in the Old Testament. Fifty-eight times Baal is used as a divine name in the singular, but eighteen times it appears in the plural form (RSV “Baalim,” NIV “Baals”). Thus, Baal was also used to designate various local gods, such as Baal-peor (“Baal of Peor,” Numbers 25:3 ). Perhaps these should be viewed as local manifestations of a single Baal, the Semitic storm god. In the Ugaritic myths, Baal is frequently identified with the storm god Hadad (Adad of Mesopotamia), perhaps as a title. In fact, the Hebrew word baal means “lord” or “possessor.” Other divine names in the Old Testament combine Baal and a noun, such as Baal-berith (“Lord of the covenant,” Judges 9:4 ) and Baal-zebub (“Lord of flies,” 2 Kings 1:2 ). While the Hebrew word baal was not in itself considered pagan, perhaps its use as a divine title in Canaanite religion is behind God's rejection of the appellation Baali, “my master” (Hosea 2:16-17 ). In the Ugaritic myths, Baal's sister/consort Anat, goddess of war and love, assisted in his victories. Closely associated with Anat and more important in Palestine was another goddess of war/love, Astarte, the Mesopotamian Ishtar. Astarte (a Greek form of the name) appears in the Old Testament in the singular as “Ashtoreth, the goddess of the Zidonians” (1Kings 11:5,1 Kings 11:33 ; 2 Kings 23:13 ) as well as in the plural form, Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 , 1 Samuel 7:4 ; 1 Samuel 12:10 ), representing local manifestations of the godess. As the female counterpart of Baal, Astarte/Ashtoreth seems to have been worshiped through sacred prostitution designed to promote fertility. Another goddess of fertility was Asherah, in the Ugaritic texts the wife of El. Worship of Asherah was apparently quite pronounced throughout Palestine (1 Kings 14:23 NIV). See 2 Kings 21:7 NIV) and removed from the Temple ( 2 Kings 23:6 NIV). It was clearly of wood, however, being “cut down” ( Judges 6:25-30 ). Asherah was often worshiped in connection with Baal (Judges 3:7 ; 2 Kings 17:16 ), her object appearing alongside the latter's altar (Judges 6:25 , Judges 6:30 ). The fertility aspects of the Canaanite gods was an inviting snare to the Israelites. New to farming and having just settled in Canaan after a generation of nomadic life in the desert, the Israelites were particularly tempted to serve the gods said to control the fertility of that land. A great deal of syncretism must have occurred, mixing elements of Baalism with worship of God. Indeed, Jeroboam's golden calves at Dan and Bethel may have been an attempt to identify Yahweh of Israel with the Baal of the Canaanite elements of the kingdom and to combine their traditions. Archaeological evidence of such syncretism can be seen in the recent discovery in the Sinai of a jar inscribed with prayer to “Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah.” Baalism reached its peak in the northern nation of Israel under King Ahab and his wife Jezebel who aggressively sponsored worship of Baal in Samaria (1 Kings 16:31-33 ). The drought at this time and Elijah's contest with the prophets of Baal were intended to show that the God of Israel, not Baal, was truly Lord of the rain (1 Kings 17:1 ; 1 Kings 18:20-45 ).
Various other deities of Palestine impacted the Old Testament story. The Arameans of Damascus (Syria) worshiped the generic Semitic storm god Hadad, frequently referred to by the epithet Rimmon (2 Kings 5:18 ), meaning “thunder.” Sometimes the names Hadad and Rimmon were coupled (Zechariah 12:11 ). The god Dagon of the Philistines (Judges 16:23 ) was apparently a Semitic god of grain mentioned in the Ugaritic texts as Dagan, the father of Baal. The Philistines worshiped Dagon in temples at Ashdod (1 Samuel 5:1-5 ) and Beth Shean (1 Chronicles 10:10 ). The national god of the Ammonites was called Molech (1 Kings 11:7 ). There are no vowels in Hebrew, so in ancient times Molech was written with the same consonants (MLK) as the Hebrew/Semitic word for king, melek . Thus, Molech may have served as a title (“the king”; compare Amos 1:15 ) for the Ammonite god much as Baal served as a title for the storm god. The pronunciation Molech comes from the substitution for the original vowels with those from the Hebrew word bosheth , “shame,” and is an intentional insulting misvocalization. The alternate name Milcom (1 Kings 11:5 ; Jeremiah 49:1 ,Jeremiah 49:1,49:3 TEV) is a corruption of a variant form meaning “their king.” Worship of Molech involved human sacrifice, especially making one's children “pass through the fire” ( Leviticus 18:21 ; Leviticus 20:2-5 ; 2 Kings 23:10 ; Jeremiah 32:35 ). In Judah, this practice was conducted at Tophet in the Valley of Hinnom on the southwest side of Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 28:3 ). Jephthah's reply to the Ammonites (Judges 11:24 ) refers to Chemosh as their god. Chemosh, the national god of the Moabites (Numbers 21:29 ; Jeremiah 48:46 ), thus may be identical to Molech although they are listed separately as abominations brought to Jerusalem by Solomon (1 Kings 11:7 ). Chemosh is mentioned prominently in the famous Moabite Stone. Mesha, king of Moab, probably offered up his son Chemosh (2 Kings 3:27 ). The Canaanite god Horon was evidently worshiped in the two cities of Beth-horon (“house of Horon”). Resheph (Hebrew for “flame” or “pestilence” Habakkuk 3:5 ) was a god of lague, equivalent to the Nergal of Mesopotamia.
New Testament The pagan gods of the New Testament world were the deities of the Greco-Roman pantheon and certain eastern gods whose myths gave rise to the mystery religions. The conquests of Alexander the Great of Macedon took the Greek culture throughout the Near East. The resulting Hellenistic culture included the acceptance of Greek gods. Conquered peoples did not see a totally new religious system; rather they assimilated or identified their gods with the Greek gods. Thus Ishtar/Astarte was identified with Aphrodite, and Zeus was identified with various Near Eastern deities.
By New Testament times, thinking persons no longer accepted the system of Greek mythology literally. The Greek gods had become an integral part of Hellenistic culture that dominated the Roman empire, and many of the gods had strong local appeal. In the west, old Roman gods were identified with Greek counterparts.
A few of the Greco-Roman gods are mentioned in the New Testament. At the head of the Greek pantheon was Zeus, the Roman Jupiter, god of the sky, originally the weather or storm god. With the syncretism of the Hellenistic period following Alexander the Great's conquests, Zeus was equated with the Semitic storm god Hadad. As the supreme Greek deity, however, Zeus was readily identified with the chief god of any region. Thus, when Antiochus IV attempted to force Hellenism on the Jews in 167 B.C., he transformed the Jewish Temple into a temple to Zeus. A huge altar to Zeus at Pergamum is probably the “Satan's throne” of Revelation 2:13 . The messenger of the Greek gods was Hermes (Roman, Mercury). When the people of Lystra assumed Barnabas and Paul to be gods (Acts 14:8-18 ), they called Paul Hermes because he was the spokesman; and they identified Barnabas with Zeus or Jupiter. The oxen and garlands they brought forward were appropriate offerings for Zeus. Hermes was also the god of merchants and travelers. Artemis was the Greek goddess of the wildwood, of childbirth, and, consequently, of fertility. The great mother goddess of Asia Minor worshiped at Ephesus was identified with Artemis, the Roman Diana. Her temple at Ephesus was one of the seven wonders of the aancient world and an object of pilgrimages. Artemis of the Ephesians was depicted in statues at Ephesus with many breasts, perhaps inspired by a sacred stone (a meteorite?; Acts 19:35 ) kept in the temple. Paul's work in Ephesus resulted in an uproar incited by the silversmiths who sold souvenirs to the pilgrims (Acts 19:23-41 ).
Other Greco-Roman gods are not mentioned in the New Testament but formed an important part of Hellenistic culture. The most popular of the gods was Apollo, pictured in Greek art as the epitome of youthful, manly beauty. He served as the god of medicine, law, and shepherds. Aphrodite was the Greek goddess of sexual love and beauty. She was identified with the Semitic godddess Ishtar/Astarte and with the Roman Venus. Although not mentioned in the New Testament, a temple to Aphrodite at Corinth was said to employ a thousand cultic prostitutes and contributed to the city's reputation for immorality. Athena, namesake and patron of the city of Athens, was a virgin goddess connected with arts and crafts, fertility, and war. She was identified with the Roman Minerva. Hera, whose Roman equivalent was Juno, was the wife of Zeus and goddess of marriage, women, and motherhood. Also not mentioned is the important Poseidon, Neptune to the Romans, god of the sea, earthquakes, and—oddly—horses. The war god of Greece was Ares, equated with the Roman god Mars. Hephaistos, the Roman Vulcan, was god of fire and the patron of smiths. Hades, called by the Romans Pluto, was the Greek god of the underworld. His name became the Greek word used in the New Testament for the abode of the dead (Matthew 11:23 ; Matthew 16:18 ; Luke 10:15 ; Luke 16:23 ; Acts 2:27 ,Acts 2:27,2:31 ; Revelation 1:18 ; Revelation 20:13-14 ).
Certain Greek gods became the centers of cults which were quite influential in New Testament times. Foremost among these is the cult of Demeter or the Eleusinian mysteries. Demeter was the Greek goddess of grain who, according to the myth, ceased to function when her daughter Persephone was abducted into the underworld by Hades. Persephone was eventually released to her mother but forced to spend a third of each year in the underworld, a cycle which reflected the annual growth cycle of grain. Secret rites of initiation into the cult took place annually at Eleusis. The Greek god of wine, intoxication, and fertility was Dionysus, the Roman Bacchus. His cult involved orgiastic feasts in which wild animals were torn apart alive and eaten raw, originally only by groups of women. Sick persons appealed to the popular god of healing, Asclepius, by visiting special sanctuaries in certain cities. See Fertility Cult ; Mystery/Mystery Religions.
In the process of hellenization, the mixing of Greek and Near Eastern culture, certain Near Eastern deities were adopted as the centers of new cults, usually called the myster religions. Generally these systems of belief involved the adoption of a Near Eastern god and myth having to do with fertility. The mystery religions, including the cults of Eleusis and Dionysus, filled a vacuum left by the fading popularity of the older Greek gods and became the primary comeptitors of Christianity in the early centuries of the church.
The Egyptian myth of Osiris was modified and became the center of a widely popular cult of Serapis and Isis. Serapis was a syncretistic combination of Osiris and the Apis bull of Memphis. Another mystery religion centered around Mithra, a Persian god, and his myth. Initiation into the cult was limited to men and involved the slaying of a bull above the initiate who bathed in its blood. The cult of Cybele or Magna Mater (“Great Mother”) came from Asia Minor. The myth involved the death and restoration of her consort Attis and was similar to the Mesopotamian myth of Ishtar and Tammuz (see above) as well as that of Atargatis and Hadad in Syria. Perhaps related is the myth of the vegetation god Adonis (fromfjcr pbadon, “lord”) of the Phoenicians, whose death was mourned much like that of Tammuz. The idea of a dying and rising god has been compared to the death and resurrection of Christ, but the death of those gods was mythical, cyclical, and involuntary, in contrast to the historical, once-for-all act of Christ motivated by love.
Daniel C. Browning Jr.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Gods And Goddesses, Pagan
God early and clearly commanded the descendants of Abraham not to have any other gods besides him (Exodus 20:3 ). This strict, undivided loyalty was the basis of the covenant relationship God established between himself and the people of Israel.
Sadly, the whole of biblical history is punctuated by the numerous times the people of God turned away from him to engage in the worship of a strange god or goddess. People in the lands surrounding Israel had deities that continually tempted the Israelites to turn from their own God.
Artemis . Greek goddess (K. J. V. Diana) of fertility worshiped at Ephesus and elsewhere during the New Testament era. Her worship combined Greek, Roman, and Anatolian elements and dates back to ca. 1000 b.c. In Ephesus a temple was built in the third century b.c. to replace an earlier one that burned down and became known as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. A well-known statue of Artemis emphasizes fertility. Paul's preaching directly challenged her worship and precipitated a riot that only official interaction could quell (Acts 19:23-41 ). In the end the worship of Christ prevailed and the cult of Artemis disappeared from history.
Asherah . The people of Israel had been settled in the promised land for only a brief time before their attention turned to the deities of the Canaanites. The Book of Judges chronicles this apostasy. The people forsook the Lord God to serve Asherah and her husband Baal (Ashteroth is an alternative name for Asherah, Judges 2:13 ; 3:7 ).
The name "Asherah" and its variant spellings occur thirty-nine times in the Old Testament. In a number of these instances, Baal is mentioned along with Asherah. Evidence from Ugaritic mythologies and other texts suggests that the term refers to both the Canaanite goddess and cultic objects facilitating her worship.
That Baal and Asherah are mentioned together in several Old Testament passages suggests that the Canaanites and other peoples considered Asherah to be an important "high deity" along with Baal. The most explicit passage disclosing the close relationship between the two comes from the narrative about Ahab and Jezebel's confrontation with Elijah (1 Kings 18:1-19:18 ). Their endorsement of and participation in the worship of these Canaanite deities is the most extreme of any incidents related in Scripture concerning Israelite rulers who adopted the worship of these gods. In fact, Jezebel went so far as to insist that Ahab provide for the worship of her Phoenician deities.
Asherah was one of the three chief consort-goddesses within the Canaanite pantheon, along with Astarte (or Ashtaroth) and Anath. These three goddesses were jealous rivals. In the mythology, Asherah is portrayed as the consort of both El and Baal. In the Ugaritic myths she clearly emerges as the consort of El, the chief high god of the west Semitic pantheon. The Canaanite myths associated El with the source of fresh water, located in the distant west or north. On this basis El's consort was identified mainly as a sea-goddess. During the kingdom period of Israel's history she was the goddess at the side of Baal. On some occasions, however, she comes across as a fierce opponent of Baal—particularly when she thought she would lose her authority or influence among other members of the pantheon or when Baal preferred Anath instead of Asherah as his sexual intimate. The conflict and enmity between Baal and Asherah provided an explanation for the alternating two-climate season each year in the Mediterranean region.
The most shocking endorsement of Israel's buying into Canaanite religion was the construction of a temple for the worship of Baal at Samaria. This, as mentioned above, was promoted by Ahab (869-850 b.c.) and Jezebel, his wife, who was the daughter of the Tyrian king Ethbaal (1 Kings 16:29-34 ). This temple was constructed with the help of Tyrian artisans, along with an altar on which to offer sacrifices and a "sacred pole" (NRSV) or "wooden image" (NKJV). Because of this apostasy, judgment was poured out on Ahab and Jezebel. Jehu later destroyed this temple (2 Kings 10:18-31 ).
During the reign of Manasseh (687-642 b.c.) Canaanite religion was appropriated by the people of Judah from Geba to Beer-sheba (2 Kings 16:4-14 ). Manasseh added various aspects of Canaanite (a carved image of Asherah, 2 Kings 21:7 ) and other religions to the city of Jerusalem. He even offered his own son as burnt offering (2 Kings 21:6 ). Josiah later cleansed Jerusalem of the excesses of Canaanite worship (2 Kings 23 ).
The Israelites had been warned before settling the land of Canaan about established religious worship sites, particularly the "high places" taken over intact during the conquest. These sites were often furnished with basic cultic objects and resident sacred personnel. Cultic features included the following: small clay figurines (Judges 3:7 ; Micah 5:13 ); "sacred pillars" (1 Kings 14:23 ); an "incense altar" (2 Chronicles 30:14 ); an altar for offering the whole burnt offering (2 Kings 21:5 ) and "priests" and "priestesses."
Several Canaanite high places were appropriated by Israel's religious leaders early in the settlement, including Bethel (Judges 1:22-26 ), Shiloh (1 Samuel 1:1-18 ), and Gibeah (1 Samuel 13:1-4 ). Both Solomon (1 Kings 11:1-4 ) and Manasseh (2 Kings 21:1-17 ) encouraged worship at high places. Asherah and Baal worship caused the downfall of the northern and southern kingdoms of Israel.
Ashtoreth . Ashtoreth was a popular goddess in several cultures. Her worship attracted the Israelites shortly after their settlement in Canaan. At the heart of this pagan religion was the worship of the fertility or fecundity "forces/features" that characterized the animate aspects of the created world. Ashtoreth's popularity among the Phoenicians and other northwest Semitic peoples was long-standing.
The major confrontation between Ashtoreth and Yahweh took place during the days of Eli, Samuel, and Saul. Particularly after the defeat on Mount Gilboa, the people of Israel faced an almost imponderable theological dilemma. Instructions were sent throughout the land of the Philistines to proclaim victory over Israel and their God Yahweh. The proclamation was to be made in the temples of their idols and among the people (1 Samuel 31:6-10 ): the Baals and Ashtoreths were mightier than the Lord!
Ashtoreth's influence was finally discredited by Josiah, who "cleaned house" by destroying the shrines erected by Solomon. He made clear that Yahweh was the onlyand trueGod for the people of Israel
Baal . Baalthe most significant male deity of the Canaanitesand his consort Asherah were the most alluring deities confronting Israel in the promised land following the conquest. The numerous references to Baal in the Old Testament indicate his attractiveness and influence on the Israelites. The Book of Judges chronicles the numerous times the people fell to the temptation to worship Baal. During the time of Ahab and Jezebel Baal was declared the official national deity. A temple and hundreds of officiants were established for Baal's worship in Samaria (1 Kings 16:29-34 ). A final chapter concerning Baal worship was written during the reigns of Jehu and Josiah, when the southern kingdom and its capital were purged of the worship of Baal (2 Kings 10 ; 23:1-30 ).
Baal's name derives from the Semitic word ba'lu, meaning "lord." He was assumed to fulfill several significant roles by the peoples who worshiped him. As god of the storm the roar of his voice in the heavens was the thunder of the sky. He was the god who both created and granted fertility. He was the deity slain by enemies who thus fell into the hands of Death. During the time that Baal was under the control of Death, the vegetation wilted or ceased and procreation stopped. He was the god of justice, feared by evildoers.
The Book of Kings recounts that Jezebel used the plan of the Baal temple in Sidon for the construction of a similar temple in Samaria. Ahab agreed with her to make Baal worship the royal religion of the northern kingdom (1 Kings 16:29-31 ). Baal, like Asherah, was also worshiped at high places.
The cult of Baal involved the offering of many animal sacrifices. Priests would officiate on behalf of the persons presenting sacrificial animals to the god. Some of the northern kingdom rulers even "made their sons pass through fire"offering their own sons as sacrifices to Baal. "Holy prostitutes"both male and femalewere available to worshipers, encouraging the fertility of both land and people.
Baal-zebub, Beel-zebul . Phoenician god worshiped at Ekron in Old Testament times (2 Kings 1:2-16 ). Original meaning of the name is unknown but the Old Testament form, Baal-zebub, means "Lord of the flies"; in Jesus' day this god is derisively called Beel-zebul (NIV Beelzebub), "lord of dung, " and identified with Satan, the ruler of demons (Matthew 12:24 ). Jesus' enemies accused him of casting out demons by invoking Beel-zebul (Mark 3:22 ) and even of being his embodiment (Matthew 10:25 ). Jesus, rejecting this calumny, pointed out that the expulsion of demons was Satan's defeat, heralding the arrival of God's kingdom (Luke 11:20-22 ).
Chemosh . Chemosh was the primary national god of the Moabites and Ammonites. The Moabites are called the "people of Chemosh" in the passage of Scripture that details the travels of the Israelites through Edom, Moab, and Ammon, (Numbers 21:21-32 ). During the reign of Solomon worship of Chemosh, along with that of other pagan gods, was established and promoted in the city of Jerusalem. Jeremiah specifically condemns the worship of Chemosh (chap. 38). The prophet focuses on the god's impotence by showing him going into captivity with his priests and people.
Dagon . Dagon was the highly venerated national deity of the Philistines. Each city of the Philistine pentapolis had its temple for the worship of this god. The temple statuary portraying Dagon was characterized by an upper human torso, with the lower torso of a fish. The major cultic rite in Dagon's worship was human sacrifice.
When the Philistines captured and overcame Samson, the five Philistine cities planned a great celebration. Dagon had delivered their enemy into their hands (Judges 16:23-24 )! The Philistines called for a sacrifice to their god. Presumably they intended to offer Samson as a human holocaust/offering. Dagon was, however, defeated by Yahweh.
Dagon haunted the reigns of both Saul and David. The Israelites relied on their theological understanding that Yahweh was mightier than Dagonbut, unfortunately, with an inexcusable naivete. When they brought the ark of the covenant from Shiloh and took it into battle against the Philistines, it did not result in their victory. However, the presence of the ark in Philistine hands led to the challenge to their god, Dagon, and the return of the ark to the Israelites.
Throughout the narratives relating the encounters between the people of Israel and the Philistines, there persists an underlying theological dilemma. Which deity is greaterand therefore the one to worship and serve: the Lord God or Dagon?
Hadad . Hadad was a prominent god among the Arameans, Syrians, and other west Semitic peoples. The name appears especially in the Edomite genealogy of Genesis 36 and in the history of the two Israelite kingdoms to the downfall of the northern kingdom in 722 b.c.
Hadad was the deification of natural forces and war. He was viewed as the god of the storm, who displayed his power in thunder, lightning, and rain. He was credited with both the good (desirable) and bad (undesirable) sides of storms. He was regarded as the origin and regulator of the beneficial rains, making him the principle of life and fertility. The Assyrians saw him as a mighty warrior-god. He was portrayed as standing on the back of a bull, wearing the horns of the bull on his helmet and wielding a mace and thunderbolt.
The name "Hadad" was used in reference to a human individual to indicate the essence or being of the patron deity, the power bestowed on that person, and bestowal of favor or help against an enemy or opponent. The name is used of a number of important persons in the scriptural record. Several rulers of the Edomites contemporary with David and Solomon had the name "Hadad."
Leviathan . Leviathan can be identified with Lotan, sea-monster of the Ugaritic Texts mythology. The Ugaritic myth recounts how Lotan and Baal were locked in mortal combat, until Baal killed the sea-monster. Leviathan is also mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh. The references to Leviathan in Scripture occur almost exclusively in poetic or semipoetic passages, emphasizing the might and control of the Lord God over the forces of nature.
Marduk . Marduk was the chief deity of Babylon. He became the supreme god among the older Sumerian gods as creator and ruler. Enlil was the original chief god until the Code of Hammurabi and the Creation Epic focused on Marduk instead. Jeremiah prophesied that Marduk would be put to shame (Jeremiah 50:2 ).
Milcom . Milcom, called the "abomination" of the Ammonites, was apparently the chief deity of the Ammonites or Moabites. The "abomination" label seems to convey both the detestable aspect of origin and of the worship of Lot's descendants. Solomon built a worship facility for this foreign deity (see 1 Kings 11:5,7 , 33 ). Milcom is sometimes identified with Molech, but this is incorrect since the two gods were worshiped individually.
Molech . Molech or Moloch was another "abomination" of the Ammonites. Solomon also built a high place for this god in Jerusalem. The worship of this god was particularly odious, as it required human sacrifice.
Queen of Heaven . Jeremiah was directed by God to speak out the Lord's disapproval of Israel's worship of the "Queen of Heaven" (7:18; 44:17-19). This female astral deity was particularly worshiped by the women in Judah and Egypt during the time of Jeremiah. Children were gathering firewood; women were busily kneading dough for cakes to be offered to this queen. The details and activity suggest that the Canaanite goddess Astarte was the deity motivating the people in Jerusalem to such frenzied worship activity.
Tammuz . Tammuz was a Syrian and Phoenician god of fertility, venerated in the worship of idols and elaborate, extreme rituals. The Greeks adopted Tammuz as one of their prominent deities, changing his name to Adonis. Ezekiel lists the worship of Tammuz as one of the abominations in God's sight (8:1-18) that was being practiced in the temple precincts in Jerusalem. The chanting of a litany of woes (or, singing a song, of lamentation see Ezekiel 8:14 ) shows that the cult of Tammuz was active in Jerusalem.
Harvey E. Finley
See also Idol, Idolatry
Bibliography . W. F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion of Israel ; idem, From the Stone Age to Christianity ; idem, History, Archaeology and Christian Humanism ; idem, Yahweh and the Gods of Canaan ; W. Dever, Recent Archaeological Discoveries and Biblical Research ; M. Eliade, ed., Encyclopedia of Religion ; J. Finegan, Myth and Mystery ; A. Lamaire, BAR (1984): 43-51; J. B. Pritchard, ed., Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament ; M. S. Smith, The Early History of God ; G. E. Wright, Biblical Archaeology .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Pagan
See Nations, the
Webster's Dictionary - Pagan
(1):
(n.) Of or pertaining to pagans; relating to the worship or the worshipers of false goods; heathen; idolatrous, as, pagan tribes or superstitions.
(2):
(n.) One who worships false gods; an idolater; a heathen; one who is neither a Christian, a Mohammedan, nor a Jew.
King James Dictionary - Pagan
PA'GAN, n. L. paganus, a peasant or countryman, from pagus, a village. A heathen a Gentile an idolater one who worships false gods. This word was originally applied to the inhabitants of the country, who on the first propagation of the christian religion adhered to the worship of false gods, or refused to receive christianity, after it had been received by the inhabitants of the cities. In like manner, heather signifies an inhabitant of the heath or woods, and caffer, in Arabic, signifies the inhabitant of a hut or cottage, and one that does not receive the religion of Mohammed. Pagan is used to distinguish one from a Christian and a Mohammedan.
PA'GAN, a. Heathen heathenish Gentile noting a person who worships false gods.
1. Pertaining to the worship of false gods.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Pagan
See Heathen.
 
 

Sentence search

Heathen - ) Gentile; Pagan; as, a heathen author. ) An individual of the Pagan or unbelieving nations, or those which worship idols and do not acknowledge the true God; a Pagan; an idolater
Paganism - ) The state of being Pagan; Pagan characteristics; esp. , the worship of idols or false gods, or the system of religious opinions and worship maintained by Pagans; heathenism
Semipagan - ) Half Pagan
Paien - ) Pagan
Payen - ) Pagan
Entilish - ) Heathenish; Pagan
Jupiter - See Gods, Pagan ; Greece
Jupiter - See Gods, Pagan ; Greece
Ashtoreth - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Chemosh - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Dagon - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Artemis - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Asherah - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Baal - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Baal-Zebub - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Beelzebub - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Hadad - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Leviathan - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Marduk - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Milcom - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Molech, Moloch - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Tammuz - See Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
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Paganly - ) In a Pagan manner
Mercury - (muhr' cyoo ree) See Gods, Pagan ; Hermes
Pagandom - ) The Pagan lands; Pagans, collectively; Paganism
Painim - ) A Pagan; an infidel; - used also adjectively
Paganity - ) The state of being a Pagan; Paganism
Ethnic - ) A heathen; a Pagan
Delator - An accuser; an informer; one who denounced the early Christians to the Pagan authorities
Succoth Benoth - ” A Pagan deity which people from Babylon brought with them to Israel when it was resettled by the Assyrians after the fall of Samaria in 722 B. See Gods, Pagan ; Sakkuth
Pagans - NIV, REB, and RSV sometimes use Pagans as the translation of the Greek ethnoi ( 1 Corinthians 5:1 ; 1 Corinthians 10:20 ), which is generally translated Gentiles (so KJV, NAS). In English, Gentile relates to ethnic background while Pagan refers to religious affiliation. See Gentiles ; Gods, Pagan
Sekes - ) A place in a Pagan temple in which the images of the deities were inclosed
Demetrius - A Pagan silversmith who made shrines for Diana at Ephesus, and opposed Saint Paul (Acts 19)
Paganize - ) To behave like Pagans. ) To render Pagan or heathenish; to convert to Paganism
Meath, Ireland, Diocese of - Pagan and Christian historic relics abound, including Brugh-na-Boinne, cemetery of the Pagan kings, Tara and several royal palaces, and the sculptured crosses and round tower of Kells
Caesaropapism - In the Pagan Roman Empire, the emperors were not only the civilheads of the state but also the religious heads, holding the office of Pontifex Maximus. Some Christian emperors and kings, as well as states, have endeavored to meddle in the purely ecclesiastical affairs of the Church, thus unconsciously emulating the Pagan priest-emperors
Mercurius - See Gods, Pagan ; Hermes
Heathen - from heath, that is, one who lives in the country or woods, as Pagan from pagus, a village. A Pagan a Gentile one who worships idols, or is unacquainted with the true God. Gentile, Pagan as a heathen author
Humanism - It had both a Pagan and a Christian aspect. On one side, it dignified a Pagan conception of life, as extolled by classical writers, which consisted in the full development of man, towards a better enjoyment of life and nature and in a consequent rejection of the supernatural and unworldly ideals of the Scholastics. The history of humanism begins with Dante (1265-1321), who, with true genius, combined classical materials with Christian ideals, and Petrarch (1304-1374), who represents the Pagan side of the movement. The extreme humanistic spirit rebelled against theology and the Church, and the moral and religious views of Pagan antiquity led many humanists to live dissolutely
Legends of the Saints - Further research has shown the origins of these fanciful details to be Pagan rather than Christian, being drawn from the tales of the Pagan deities and heroes. The fact that the honoring of Christian saints took the place of the honoring and adoring of the local Pagan gods and demigods, afforded an opportunity for the abuse of attributing to the saint the deeds of the Pagan demigods. There is however no proof that any Pagan deity was metamorphosed into a Christian saint
Dispute - These include ...
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a Pagan...
Arguing - These include ...
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a Pagan...
Argument - These include ...
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a Pagan...
Ethnical - ) Pertaining to the gentiles, or nations not converted to Christianity; heathen; Pagan; - opposed to Jewish and Christian
Heathen (2) - ‘pagan,’ from Paganus, ‘a countryman or villager. ...
It has been pointed out that Paganus also means ‘a civilian’ in opposition to ‘a soldier,’ and that thus a Pagan would also mean one who was not a soldier of Christ. This secondary meaning of Pagan probably came into use through a contemptuous designation by soldiers of non-military persons as ‘countrymen
Apocalyptic Number - , Pagan Rome) are also numerals which, added together, amount to this number
Mount of Corruption - Hill on the southern ridge of the Mount of Olives upon which Solomon built Pagan shrines for use by his wives
Mount of Corruption - Hill on the southern ridge of the Mount of Olives upon which Solomon built Pagan shrines for use by his wives
Diaspora - (Greek: exile) ...
The name given to the dispersion of countless Jews, scattered through Pagan lands. They kept aloof from Pagan rites and practises; but in commercial and social life mixed more freely with non-Jews than their Palestinian brethren approved
Gash - In modern translations to cut the skin as a sign of mourning (Jeremiah 41:5 ; Jeremiah 47:5 ; Jeremiah 48:37 ) or in the worship of Pagan dieties (1 Kings 18:28 )
Arkite - A term used by Bryant to denote one of the persons who were preserved in the ark; or who, according to Pagan fables, belonged to the ark
Rancheria - ) Formerly, in the Philippines, a political division of the Pagan tribes
Re - See Egypt ; Gods, Pagan
Hegai - Hegias is mentioned by the Pagan Ctesias as of Xerxes' ("Ahasuerus") court
Ate - ...
In Pagan mythology, the goddess of mischief, who was cast down from heaven by Jupiter
Ammonians - Milner calls him "a Pagan Christian," who imagined that all religions, vulgar and philosophical, Grecian and barbarous, Jewish and Gentile, meant the same thing in substance. He undertook, by allegorizing and subtilizing various fables and systems, to make up a coalition of all sects and religions; and from his labours, continued by his disciples,—some of whose works still remain,—his followers were taught to look on Jew, philosopher, vulgar, Pagan, and Christian, as all of the same creed," and worshippers of the same God, whether denominated "Jehovah, Jove, or Lord
Idolater - ) A worshiper of idols; one who pays divine honors to images, statues, or representations of anything made by hands; one who worships as a deity that which is not God; a Pagan
Demon - ) A spirit, or immaterial being, holding a middle place between men and deities in Pagan mythology
Misteca - Evangelized by the Dominicans, they are Catholics with survivals of Pagan customs
Mixteca - Evangelized by the Dominicans, they are Catholics with survivals of Pagan customs
Easter - From this Pasch the Pagan festival of "Easter" was quite distinct and was introduced into the apostate Western religion, as part of the attempt to adapt Pagan festivals to Christianity
Celsus - A Pagan philosopher of the second century, who composed a work against Christianity, in which he so expressly refers to the facts of the Gospels, and to the books of the New Testament, as to have furnished important undesigned testimony to their antiquity and truth
Raisin Cakes - Hosea 3:1 (NRSV) links raisin cakes with the worship of Pagan deities (compare Jeremiah 7:18 )
Kaiwan - ” See Chiun ; Gods, Pagan ; Sakkuth
Pagan - ) Of or pertaining to Pagans; relating to the worship or the worshipers of false goods; heathen; idolatrous, as, Pagan tribes or superstitions
Idolater - A worshiper of idols one who pays divine honors to images, statues, or representations of any thing made by hands one who worships as a deity that which is not God a Pagan
Titular Bishop - One who has been appointed by the Holy See to a diocese which, in former times, had been canonically established and possessed cathedral church, clergy, and laity, but on account of Pagan occupation of the diocesan territory has now neither clergy nor people
New - Faith is like a new birth; grace acts like a new leaven; the Christian compared with the Pagan is like a new man, in contrast with the old
Jealousy, Waters of - It could not injure the innocent or punish the guilty except by miracle; contrary to Pagan ordeals, wherein the innocent could scarcely escape except by miracle
Marcellian, Saint - They were twin sons of Pagan parents, and were cast into prison for professing Christianity
Mark, Saint Martyr - They were twin sons of Pagan parents, and were cast into prison for professing Christianity
Auxerre, France - Many decrees were directed against Pagan customs
Orgies - ) A sacrifice accompanied by certain ceremonies in honor of some Pagan deity; especially, the ceremonies observed by the Greeks and Romans in the worship of Dionysus, or Bacchus, which were characterized by wild and dissolute revelry
Proselyte - ) A new convert especially a convert to some religion or religious sect, or to some particular opinion, system, or party; thus, a Gentile converted to Judaism, or a Pagan converted to Christianity, is a proselyte
Emerentiana, Saint - According to the acts of Saint Agnes she was a foster-sister to that saint; while praying at Saint Agnes's grave she was stoned to death by the Pagan mob, thus receiving the baptism of blood
Missionary Sisters of the Immaculate Conception - Religious institute founded by Abbe Bourassa in 1902 at Notre Dame des Neiges, near Montreal, for the conversion of Pagan nations and the propagation of the faith
Chambers of Imagery - It could refer to secret rooms containing idols or pictures on the walls (see Ezekiel 8:10 ; Ezekiel 23:14 ) probably related to Pagan religions
Entile - ) Belonging to the nations at large, as distinguished from the Jews; ethnic; of Pagan or heathen people
Institute of the Christian Virgins - They follow the rules of the Congregation of Providence, and devote themselves to the care of the sick and to the Christian instruction of Pagan Chinese women and children in their homes
John ii, Pope - He was the first to change his name on assuming the papacy as his birth name (Mercurius) was derived from that of a Pagan god
Gottschalk, Saint - In the midst of this work some Pagan tribes rebelled and Gottschalk was martyred
Hanukkah - ” After Antiochus Epiphanes conducted Pagan worship in the Temple, Judas Maccabeus cleansed the Temple from the pollution of Pagan worship
Eliashib - Nehemiah was angry with him for preparing a room therein for his Pagan connection (Nehemiah 13:4-7), in opposition to God's prohibition (Deuteronomy 23:3-4). His grandson too had married the Pagan Horonite Sanballat's daughter (Nehemiah 13:28)
Honoratus, Saint - He was born of Pagan parents in northern Gaul, and after his conversion to Christianity, embarked, c
Baal - " He was a god of weather, associated with thunder, which appointed the times of the rains, and was considered to be the son of the Pagan god Dagon
Jethro - Eventually he abandoned his Pagan lifestyle and joined the Israelites in the desert shortly after the Exodus
Fools, Feast of - It marked the brief supremacy of those ordinarily in subordinate positions and was attended by great buffoonery and license, which probably originated in ancient Pagan customs
Feast of Fools - It marked the brief supremacy of those ordinarily in subordinate positions and was attended by great buffoonery and license, which probably originated in ancient Pagan customs
Sibylline Books - Originally the Sibyls were Pagan prophetesses, whose utterances written in hexameter verse were preserved in Rome and other places. In the 2century BC the Hellenistic Jews, for propaganda purposes, issued verses similar in form to the Sibylline prophecies; and later, certain Christians in the early centuries did the same, for the like purpose of disseminating the doctrines of their religion
Minucius Felix - He is best known by his "Octavius," a dialogue on Christianity, at Ostia, between Caecilius Natalie, a Pagan, and Octavius Januarius, a Christian, wherein Caecilius is confounded, Minucius judging the debate
Monastic School of Aran - Remains of distinct monasteries at Killeany, Kilronan, Kilmurvey, and at the Seven Churches, can now be seen side by side with the ruins of Pagan architecture
Jest - Ephesians 5:4 characterizes jesting or mocking speech as part of a Pagan life-style
Merodach - See Gods, Pagan
Aran, Monastic School of - Remains of distinct monasteries at Killeany, Kilronan, Kilmurvey, and at the Seven Churches, can now be seen side by side with the ruins of Pagan architecture
Euphemia, Saint - (Greek: of good report) ...
Virgin, martyr at Chalcedon, c307 Consecrated to virginity, her purity excited the hatred of the Pagan persecutors
Egbert, Saint - He was instrumental in sending missionaries to the Pagan tribes of Friesland
Terebinth - The tree had religious connections as a place under which Pagan gods were worshiped (Hosea 4:13 ; Ezekiel 6:13 ) which were at times taken up in Israel's religion (Genesis 35:4 ; Joshua 24:26 ; Judges 6:11 ; 1 Kings 13:14 )
Zeus - See Greece ; Gods, Pagan
Adalbert, Saint - Attempting to evangelize the people of Hungary and the Poles, he was killed at the instigation of a Pagan priest
God, City of - Celebrated apologetic work of Saint Augustine, constituting the most complete defense of Christianity against the attacks of Paganism. In a desperate attempt to crush the new religion, Paganism employed libel and calumny besides the sword, the most persistent accusation being that the Christians were guilty of the evils which befell the Roman Empire. Prosperous under the gods, the Pagans could now say with a semblance of truth, "Rome perished in Christian times!" The result was demoralizing, for many simple Christians, bewildered and at a loss for a reply, faltered in their faith. In 22 books, written at intervals from 412 to 427, and published in parts as written, the great Doctor surveys the whole course of history pointing out that the downfall of Rome was caused not by the Christians but by the immorality of Pagan cults, by the perversions of Pagan philosophies, by Pagan unbelief, and by the corruption of Pagan life
Hadad-Rimmon - Such mourning could be compared only to the “mourning of Hadad-rimmon,” apparently a reference to Pagan worship ceremonies, perhaps for a dying and rising god
Christina, Saint - The daughter of a Pagan nobleman, she embraced Christianity, and in her zeal destroyed the gold and silver idols of her father, distributing them as alms among the poor
Dympna, Saint - According to legend she fled from Ireland to Gheel with the priest Gerebernus, to escape the unholy desire of her own father, a Pagan king of Ireland
Dimpna, Saint - According to legend she fled from Ireland to Gheel with the priest Gerebernus, to escape the unholy desire of her own father, a Pagan king of Ireland
Bochim - ” Place where angel of God announced judgment on Israel at beginning of the period of Judges because they had not destroyed Pagan altars but had made covenant treaties with the native inhabitants
Martyrs of Cuncolim - Five religious of the Society of Jesus, accompanied by some Christians, who were surrounded by Pagan villagers of Cuncolim, India, and put to death, July 25, 1583
Smyrna - Although several Pagan cults were among its religions, the official stance was toward worship of the emperor of Rome
Gad - ...
Pagan divinity (Isaiah 65:11, where the Hebrew Gad is rendered "fortune")
Satyrs - to the evil spirits of the desert, literally, "shaggy goats," hence applied to an object of Pagan worship or a demon dwelling in the desert (2 Chronicles 11:15; Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:14)
Smyrna - Although several Pagan cults were among its religions, the official stance was toward worship of the emperor of Rome
Missionary Sisters of Our Lady of Africa - Their purpose is the regeneration of Pagan womanhood and the relief of spiritual and corporal misery
Shrine - 1: ναός (Strong's #3485 — Noun Masculine — naos — nah-os' ) "the inmost part of a temple, a shrine," is used in the plural in Acts 19:24 , of the silver models of the Pagan "shrine" in which the image of Diana (Greek Artemis) was preserved
Nicolaitans - The Nicolaitans have been linked to the type of heresy taught by Balaam (Numbers 25:1-2 ; 2 Peter 2:15 ), especially the Pagan feasts and orgies that they apparently propagated in the first-century church
Brimstone - Places touched by lightning were called theia, and, as lightning leaves a sulphurous smell, and sulphur was used in Pagan purifications, it received the name of theion, Luke 17:29 ; Revelation 9:17,18 ; 14:10 ; 19:20 ; 20:10 ; 21:8
White Sisters - Their purpose is the regeneration of Pagan womanhood and the relief of spiritual and corporal misery
Jupiter - The character attributed to him in Pagan mythology was a compound of all that is wicked, obscene, and beastly in the catalogue of human crime
Hadar - A reverent copyist may not have wanted to introduce the name of the Pagan god into Genesis
Tammuz - According to the Pagan religion, Tammuz was betrayed by his lover, Ishtar, and as a result dies each autumn
Handicraft - ) Jewish workmen, as distinguished from the Pagan workmen in ancient times, were not slaves, nor were their trades hereditary
Sackbut - Along with the other instruments in the list, it apparently was not used in worship but only in more popular settings, possibly representing a rebuke from the biblical writer for a Pagan musical setting for worship
Monica, Saint - She was brought up in the faith; but her husband, Patricius, was a Pagan and the laxity of his morals was a trial to her
Samson - At a Pagan festival, Samson knocked down the pillars supporting the building, killing himself and thousands of Philistines
Shimshon - At a Pagan festival, Samson knocked down the pillars supporting the building, killing himself and thousands of Philistines
Lucifer - The prophet taunted the king by calling him “son of the dawn” (NIV), a play on a Hebrew term which could refer to a Pagan god but normally indicated the light that appeared briefly before dawn
Greed - Greed marked the Gentile or Pagan way of life (Ephesians 4:19 )
Oswald of Northumbria, Saint - He died in the Battle of Maserfeld against the Pagan King Penda of Mercia
Pantaleon, Saint - Martyr; one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers; died c305 According to legend he was the son of a rich Pagan, but was instructed in Christianity by his mother; he studied medicine and became court physician to Emperor Maximianus; he was denounced to the emperor as a Christian by envious colleagues, but resisted firmly the temptations offered him to apostatize, was condemned to death, subjected to atrocious tortures from which he remained miraculously immune, and was finally decapitated
Added, Saint - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the Pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground
Felix, Saint 30 Aug - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the Pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground
Frisians - Under the leadership of Radbod, a fanatical Pagan, they obtained possession of Frisia (716), forced Saint Willibrord and the missionaries to leave, but finally were forced to surrender Western Frisia to keep the peace
Margaret, Saint - Virgin, martyr, one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers; died Pisidia, Asia Minor, c275 She was the daughter of a Pagan priest, but was brought up a Christian by her nurse, was disowned by her father, refused to marry a Roman prefect, Olybrius, was subjected to tortures which left her unharmed, and was decapitated
Repetitions - , meaningless and mechanically repeated phrases, the reference being to Pagan (not Jewish) modes of prayer
Bamah - "high place", akin to the Greek Pagan bomos ) unto this day. " The very name implies the place is not sanctioned by ME; (God); it implies its own Paganness: My place is called mizbeach , "altar
Northumbria, Oswald of, Saint - He died in the Battle of Maserfeld against the Pagan King Penda of Mercia
Gentile - gens, nation, race applied to Pagans. ...
In the scriptures, a Pagan a worshipper of false gods any person not a Jew or a christian a heathen. Pertaining to Pagans or heathens
Adauctus, Saint - Felix was a Roman priest; ordered to offer sacrifice to the Pagan gods, he refused, and at his prayer the idols fell shattered to the ground
Jethro - Jethro of Midian (Abraham's descendant) celebrated a sacrificial meal with Aaron and Israel's elders; the representative firstfruits of the Pagan who would afterward enter into fellowship with God and His people; as Amalek, another descendant of Abraham, represents on the contrary the Pagan world hostile to the Lord and His people
Sibmah (1) - Sibmah was near Heshbon; "the lords of the Pagan," the Assyrian princes invading Moab, destroyed all the luxuriant vines
Bersabee - She was the Christian wife of the Pagan King Ethelbert, and welcomed Saint Augustine on his mission to England, 597
Olaf Haraldson, Saint - His Pagan subjects rebelled and exiled him to Russia
Catechist - It was his business to expose the folly of the Pagan superstition, to remove prejudices, and answer objections; to discourse on behalf of the Christian docrines; and to give instruction to those who had not sufficient knowledge to qualify them for baptism
Beersheba - She was the Christian wife of the Pagan King Ethelbert, and welcomed Saint Augustine on his mission to England, 597
Shrine - Later, shrines were seen as Pagan (2 Kings 17:29 )
Haraldson, Olaf, Saint - His Pagan subjects rebelled and exiled him to Russia
Pethor - 24:1, 6); on an island in the river Euphrates, and partly also extending both sides of the river; for ages the seat of an ancient Pagan worship; a good center for influencing the Arabs on the E
Renaissance - Humanism divided into two phases: ...
pagan, which was characterized by its heathen corruptness and which was patronized by the upper classes who preferred unrestrained pleasure to self-denial and continence
Christian, which held to the rule of life instituted by Christ and which made use of the classics only as a means to embellish His teachings.
The outstanding representatives of the latter are: ...
Ambrogio Traversari
Antonio di Vercelli
Cardinal Albergati
Cardinal Capranica
Cardinal Cesarini
Francesco Barbaro
Giannozzo Manetti
Gregorio Cornaro
Leonardo Bruni
Maffeo Vegio
Niccolo de' Niccoli
Saint Bernardine of Siena
Saint John Capistran
Tommaso Parentucelli (Pope Nicholas V)
Vittoria Colonna
Vittorino da Feltre
Among the Pagan humanists may be mentioned: ...
AEneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pope Pius II)
Ariosto
Baccadelli
Bandelli
Bibbiena
Cambi Masuccio
Decembrio
Galateo
Guarino
Lorenzo Valla
Machiavelli
Marsuppini
Poggio Bracciolini
Poggio Filelfo
Pomponazzi
Pontano
Against the array of Pagan thinkers and writers of the Renaissance, the Church offers more than 88 Saints and Blesseds in the years from 1400 to 1520, and the offenders themselves, in the majority of cases, sought the consolation of the Sacraments before their death. Her opposition was directed against the return to the Pagan spirit with its rationalism, scepticism, and contempt for revealed religion
Soothsaying - The word is allied to mainomai, "to rave," and mania, "fury" displayed by those who were possessed by the evil spirit (represented by the Pagan god or goddess) while delivering their oracular messages
Balak - It is difficult to resist the conclusion that, if Balaam is the teacher of Gnosticism, Balak is the Roman power which has adopted syncretism and seeks to compel the Christians to adopt its ways also, and so makes them fall into the corruptions attendant on Pagan worship
Eunice - a Pagan (Acts 16:1)
Isles - " God will dry up the fountains of the Pagan idolatry and oracles, i
Marduk - See Babylon ; Bel ; Gods, Pagan
Omen - Pagan prophesy employed reading of omens ( Numbers 24:1 NAS, RSV; Ezekiel 21:21 NIV)
Edwin, Saint - The title martyr has been given to him because he was slain in conflict with the Pagan king, Penda of Mercia, an enemy of the Faith
Lois - Pagan; Lystra was her home
Holocaust - (Greek: kolos, whole; kaustos, burnt) ...
An offering entirely consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some Pagan nations of antiquity
Bardic Schools in Ireland - These schools, which were attached rather to individual teachers than to localities, were the direct offshoots of the ancient Pagan Druidic foundations, and taught by a comprehensive and specialized system or curriculum which included metrical text-books, fragments of which may be found in the Book of Leinster (c
Society of the Divine Word - Founded in 1875 at Steyl, near Tegelen, Holland, by Saint Arnold Janssen, for the propagation of the Catholic religion among Pagan nations
Mysteries - A term used to denote the secret rites of the Pagan superstition, which were carefully concealed from the knowledge of the vulgar. The learned bishop Warburton supposed that the mysteries of the Pagan religion were the invention of legislators and other great personages, whom fortune or their own merit had placed at the head of those civil societies which were formed in the earliest ages in different parts of the world
Zealot - A group of Jews, led by a man called Judas the Galilean, rebelled against this direct taxation, claiming that God’s people should not pay taxes to a Pagan emperor. Because of their zeal in trying to keep Israel free from Pagan influence, they became known as Zealots (or Patriots)
Pagan - (Latin: Paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old Pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years.
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that Paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. ...
Although Christian missionaries have made great progress in thwarting Paganism, much of the world is still Pagan. ...
PaganISM AND MORALITY AMONG THE GREEKS AND ROMANS ...
Pagan systems of morality may be divided into two main schools of thought, that of Hedonism, and that of Cynicism and Stoicism. ...
Some saints are shown in art in the company of Pagans. They include ...
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a Pagan...
Paganism - (Latin: Paganus, villager, rustic) ...
an expression of early Christians for heathen and heathenism, since the old idolatrous beliefs and practises lingered in country places after Christianity became common in the cities
one who does not acknowledge the true God and practises idolatry
natural religion tending to degenerate because unaided by true religion, distorting the knowledge of God and gradually accepting belief in many false gods, resting morality on uncertain principles and therefore degrading it
condition of humanity with which the Church had to struggle for a thousand years, gradually substituting in the more enlightened world a Christian civilization for what had survived of the old Pagan and later Greco-Roman civilizations of more than five thousand years.
It is owing chiefly to opposition to the Church, its persecution and suppression in many places since the Reformation that Paganism is again asserting itself, and the new or neo-paganism is worse than that which preceded Christianity. ...
Although Christian missionaries have made great progress in thwarting Paganism, much of the world is still Pagan. ...
PaganISM AND MORALITY AMONG THE GREEKS AND ROMANS ...
Pagan systems of morality may be divided into two main schools of thought, that of Hedonism, and that of Cynicism and Stoicism. ...
Some saints are shown in art in the company of Pagans. They include ...
Saint Ambrose of Milan bishop arguing with a Pagan...
Food Offered to Idols - The identification of the object of the offering by the term “idol” suggests that it was a name which originated outside first-century Paganism. The Greek-speaking Pagans of the New Testament era would be more likely to use terms that would mean “food (things) offered to a deity or divinity. ...
Pagan sacrifices could be thought of as typically consisting of three portions. The one who offered the sacrifice sometimes used the remaining portion as the main course in a meal which might be served at or near the Pagan temple. At Corinth, Paul had plunged into the Pagan world in an attempt to bring them the message of Christ. It is not difficult to imagine a problem emerging as to whether a Christian was doing wrong by the public or private use of food that had been devoted to a Pagan deity
Days, Rogation - The older procession of April 25, called therefore Major Litany, Christianized a Pagan procession in honor of the god Robigus
Guardian - The guardian appears to be an image for the “elemental things of the world,” that is, of celestial or demonic powers regarded as gods by Pagan Gentiles
Ben-Hinnom - Pagan child sacrifices occurred here, some kings of Judah included (Ahaz, 2 Chronicles 28:3 ; Manasseh, 2 Chronicles 33:6 )
Midst - ...
The phrase, in the midst, often signifies involved in, surrounded or overwhelmed by, or in the thickest part, or in the depths of as in the midst of afflictions, troubles or cares in the midst of our contemplations in the midst of the battle in the midst of Pagan darkness and error in the midst of gospel light in the midst of the ocean in the midst of dissensions
Ephraem, Saint - His father was a Pagan priest, and he was instructed in Christian precepts by Saint James, Bishop of Nisibis, whom he assisted in renewing the moral life of the citizens of that city
Guardian Angel - Moreover, theologians commonly teach that every member of the human race at the moment when the soul is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an individual angel; and that this angel remains his guardian until death, whether the child grow into sinner or saint, Pagan or Christian
Angel, Guardian - Moreover, theologians commonly teach that every member of the human race at the moment when the soul is infused into the body, is entrusted to the keeping of an individual angel; and that this angel remains his guardian until death, whether the child grow into sinner or saint, Pagan or Christian
Love Feasts - There were, however, similar common meals among the Pagan religious brotherhoods
Rogation Days - The older procession of April 25, called therefore Major Litany, Christianized a Pagan procession in honor of the god Robigus
Offering - Pagan nations also present offerings to their deities
Pagan - Paganus, a peasant or countryman, from pagus, a village. Pagan is used to distinguish one from a Christian and a Mohammedan
Continence - Scipio the younger exhibited the nobles example of continence recorded in Pagan history an example surpassed only by that of Joseph in sacred history
Superstitious - 1: δεισιδαιμονία (Strong's #1175 — Noun Feminine — deisidaimon — dice-ee-dahee-mon-ee'-ah ) "reverent to the deity" (deido, "to fear;" daimon, "a demon," or "pagan god"), occurs in Acts 17:22 in the comparative degree, rendered "somewhat superstitious," RV (AV, "too superstitious"), a meaning which the word sometimes has; others, according to its comparative form, advocate the meaning "more religious (than others)," "quite religious" (cp
Candace - Pliny (6:35) and Strabo (17:820), Pagan authors, confirm Scripture as to Candace being the name of the Ethiopian queens, as Pharaoh was common to the Egyptian kings
Idol - An image, form or representation, usually of a man or other animal, consecrated as an object of worship a Pagan deity
Eloi, Saint - He converted the numerous Pagan tribes in his diocese and continued his work of building churches and monasteries
Eligius, Saint - He converted the numerous Pagan tribes in his diocese and continued his work of building churches and monasteries
Septuagint - Greek religious words usually had meanings that related to Pagan religious practices of the Greek world, and because of this the Septuagint translators chose their words carefully. In their consideration of teaching concerning God and Christian belief, they should understand Greek words in relation to the Hebrew words they represent, rather than in relation to the Pagan ideas of the Greeks
Savior - In a Pagan world offering numerous “saviors” such as the Pagan gods Zeus and Asclepius, the Roman emperor, and various philosophers, the church witnessed to Christ as the savior who could rescue humanity from the penalty and power of sin
Laeghaire - Laeghaire (2) ( Lagerie , phonetically Leary ), Pagan monarch of Ireland, reigning at Tara in the county of Meath. ...
He probably died a Pagan
Maternus, Julius Firmicus - Maternus (3), Julius Firmicus, an acute critic of Pagan rites and doctrines and a vigorous apologist for the Christian faith, known from his treatise de Errore Profanarum Religionum , composed between 343 and 350, very valuable for its details of the secret rites of Paganism. He concludes with earnestly exhorting the emperors to suppress Paganism by force; thus giving one of the earliest specimens of Christian intolerance. There are probably embodied in it some fragments of the ancient Greek writer Evemerus, whose work upon Paganism, now lost, was largely used by all the Christian apologists. A contemporary Pagan Julius Firmicus Maternus, usually styled junior, wrote a work (between 330 and 360) on judicial astrology, mentioned by Sidon
Flavius Claudius Julianus - Constantius died on the way to meet him, in 361; Julian advanced in triumph to Constantinople, and immediately ordered a return to Pagan worship and issued many decrees against Christians
Julian the Apostate - Constantius died on the way to meet him, in 361; Julian advanced in triumph to Constantinople, and immediately ordered a return to Pagan worship and issued many decrees against Christians
Julianus, Flavius Claudius - Constantius died on the way to meet him, in 361; Julian advanced in triumph to Constantinople, and immediately ordered a return to Pagan worship and issued many decrees against Christians
Oracles - The Pagan "oracles" ceased when Christianity supplanted Paganism
Lapwing - " Its unclean habits, searching for worms and insects in dunghills, and the superstition with which the Pagan regarded it, led to the Mosaic ranking of it among unclean birds
Rehoboam - He continued the Pagan ways which Solomon had allowed (1 Kings 14:21-24 ) and fought against Jeroboam and Shishak of Egypt
Sun - See Gods, Pagan
Apostate, Julian the - Constantius died on the way to meet him, in 361; Julian advanced in triumph to Constantinople, and immediately ordered a return to Pagan worship and issued many decrees against Christians
Animals in Christian Art - Animals in Christian art have greater importance than in Pagan art
Gentile - , all Pagan nations who were ignorant of the true God, and idolaters
Goat-Demons - This passage demonstrates that the word represents beings that were objects of Pagan worship
John Chrysostom, Saint - He studied under the Pagan Libianus, most famous orator of his day; devoted himself to an ascetic life; was baptized c
Misrule, Lord of - " There is little doubt that the license and buffoonery which came to be associated with this, as with other medieval feasts, had their origin in Pagan times
Orientation - The practise of turning toward the east in prayer, a Pagan custom adopted by the early Christians who attached to it a new significance, for the East was man's original home, in the East Christ lived on earth, and from the East He will come to judge mankind
Canterbury, Augustine of, Saint - From the monastery of Saint Andrew, in Rome, Pope Gregory I, learning that the Pagans in Britain were disposed to embrace the Faith, sent Augustine and his Benedictine brethren to instruct them. Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet and was hospitably welcomed by AEthelberht, King of Kent, who, though Pagan, was married to a Christian, Bertha
Mesech - Gog's chief vassal, ideal representative of the Pagan barbarian world
Hymn - In an cient Pagan literature a hymn was a song in honor of gods or heroes
Lord of Misrule - " There is little doubt that the license and buffoonery which came to be associated with this, as with other medieval feasts, had their origin in Pagan times
Augustine of Canterbury, Saint - From the monastery of Saint Andrew, in Rome, Pope Gregory I, learning that the Pagans in Britain were disposed to embrace the Faith, sent Augustine and his Benedictine brethren to instruct them. Augustine landed on the Isle of Thanet and was hospitably welcomed by AEthelberht, King of Kent, who, though Pagan, was married to a Christian, Bertha
Allard, Paul - He was author of the following ecclesiastical histories of the early Christians: Christian Slaves from the Early Days of the Church until the End of the Roman Power in the West; Christian Art under the Pagan Emperors; History of the Persecutions; Christianity and the Roman Empire; Saint Basil; Julian the Apostate; Ten Lessons on the Martyrs
Herodians - Upholders of the Herodian dynasty, regarding it as the safeguard against direct Pagan rule which the Jews loathed, and also as the best compromise between the ancient faith and Pagan civilization. , and a blending of honours to Pagan gods along with the recognition of Jehovah and the law
Publican - Inquisitorial proceedings and unscrupulous extortion in a conquered country made the office, hateful already as the badge of God's elect nation's subjection to Pagan, still more so. Most Jews thought it unlawful to pay tribute to Pagan. Publican became synonymous with "sinner" and "pagan" (Luke 15:1-2; Matthew 18:17; Matthew 5:46; Matthew 21:31; Mark 2:15-16)
Baal (2) - " Also "the men (baliy , occupants) of Shechem," the ancient city of the Hivite Hamor (Judges 9:2-51); the occupants of Keilah, bordering on Pagandom (1 Samuel 23:11-12); Uriah the Hittite; "lords of the Pagan" (Isaiah 16:8)
Notre Dame, Paris - The site was occupied by a Pagan temple during the Roman Empire, by the Church of Saint Stephen during the 5th century, and finally by Saint Marie, or Notre-Dame, Cathedral
Martin of Tours, Saint - The son of a Pagan military tribune, he was educated at Pavia, and at an early age enrolled in the Roman army
Egyptian, the - ...
Such a sizeable following suggests that either an Egyptian Jew or a proselyte to Judaism was the leader of the revolt rather than a Pagan Egyptian
Claudius - 50 and 52): a sample of the ignorance of Pagan writers in respect to Christ and Judaism
Kidron Valley - Here certain kings of Judah destroyed idols and other Pagan objects removed from the Temple area (1 Kings 15:13 ; 2Kings 23:4,2Kings 23:6,2 Kings 23:12 ; 2 Chronicles 29:16 ; 2 Chronicles 30:14 )
Tours, Martin of, Saint - The son of a Pagan military tribune, he was educated at Pavia, and at an early age enrolled in the Roman army
Saturninus, Saint - To reach his church, Saint Saturninus had to pass the capitol where there was a temple, and the Pagan priests ascribed to his frequent passings the silence of their oracles
Oracle - In the literature of the Apostolic Church the word ‘oracle’ has lost its technical Pagan meaning
Enlightenment - ...
Two passages in Hebrews (Hebrews 6:1-5; Hebrews 10:32), which presuppose this enlightenment, call for special attention because they have been thought to contain reference ‘to baptism on the one hand, and to the Pagan Mysteries on the other. ...
In reference to the Mysteries, it may be said to be probable that the term ‘enlightened,’ occurring in these two passages, is one of the many NT words which reproduce the phraseology made current by these Pagan cults. The twice-mentioned ‘tasting’ suggests the symbolic tasting and eating in the Pagan ceremonies. ’...
In relation to the dependence which the NT shows in this subject, as in others, upon both the phraseology and religious ideas of earlier and lower cults, it must be borne in mind that a richer and fuller content has been poured by Christianity into those Pagan forms of expression, and that here, as in the case of the Jewish Law, Christ came ‘not to destroy, but to fulfil. Cheetham, The Mysteries, Pagan and Christian, 1897; R
Nebuzaradan - The Pagan knew, through Jeremiah, it was Jehovah's doing; compare the prophecy, Deuteronomy 29:24-25
Dedicate, Dedication - The things that were set apart included the altar in the tabernacle (Numbers 7:10-88 ), images of Pagan deities (Daniel 3:2-3 ), silver and gold (2 Samuel 8:11 ), Temple (1 Kings 8:63 ; Ezra 6:16-18 ), walls of Jerusalem (Nehemiah 12:27 ), and private dwellings (Deuteronomy 20:5 )
Cecilia, Saint - According to her legendary acts, which originated in the 5th century, she was a virgin of noble birth, espoused to Valerian, a Pagan whom she converted, with his brother Tiburtius
Epicureans - Materialism and sensual selfishness was the ultimate tendency of Epicurus' teaching; but his bold criticism of Pagan polytheism, the claims of the body, and individual freedom, were the better elements in it
Gentile - In matters of religion, a Pagan, or worshipper of false gods. , in treatises or laws concerning religion, they signified Pagans, neither Jews nor Christians; and in civil affairs they are used for all such as were not Romans. ...
See HEATHEN, PaganISM
Hymenaeus - Ramsay suggests that it is a Christian adaptation of a Pagan idea, when a person wronged by another, but unable to retaliate, consigned the offender to the gods and left punishment to be inflicted by Divine power
Claudia - Pudens in Martial, and in the inscription, appears as a Pagan
Procession - Processions are said to be of Pagan original
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint - Of a noble Pagan family, he was educated for the career of a lawyer. When he became bishop there were only 17 Christians in his flock and at his death there were but 17 Pagans in the whole town of Caesarea
Gregory Thaumaturgus, Saint - Of a noble Pagan family, he was educated for the career of a lawyer. When he became bishop there were only 17 Christians in his flock and at his death there were but 17 Pagans in the whole town of Caesarea
Orion - , canst thou loose the bonds by which he is chained to the sky?...
The language is adapted to the current conceptions (just as we use the mythological names of constellations without adopting the myths), but with this significant difference that whereas those Pagan nations represented Orion glorified in the sky the Hebrew view him as a chained rebel, not with belt, but in "bands
Eulogius, Bishop of Edessa - Though there was a Catholic bishop here the population was almost entirely Pagan, and the two presbyters commenced missionary work among them
Thaumaturgus, Gregory, Saint - Of a noble Pagan family, he was educated for the career of a lawyer. When he became bishop there were only 17 Christians in his flock and at his death there were but 17 Pagans in the whole town of Caesarea
Pegasius, Bishop of Troas - He had evidently discerned Julian's tendency to Paganism. The bishop turned Pagan on the accession of Julian, whose letter was written to plead his cause on the ground that such converts needed encouragement
Gallienus p. Licinius, Emperor - 13), which might have been done without a legal recognition of Christianity; but Eusebius has preserved a copy of the encyclical rescript which the emperor addressed to the Christian bishops of the Egyptian province, which shews that the position of "the bishops" is perfectly recognized by the Pagan government. The rescript informs the bishops that orders have been issued to the Pagan officials to evacuate the consecrated places; the bishops' copies of the rescript will serve as a warrant against all interference in reoccupying
Gerizim And Ebal - After the Assyrians captured the Northern Kingdom, the mixed race of people began mixing Pagan worship and worship of Yahweh (2 Kings 17:33 ). Over 1500 marble steps led to the Pagan temple
Lucius (11) - 25), not by monks and clergy and laity, but by Euzoius, and the imperial treasurer Magnus, at the head of a large body of soldiers; while the Pagan populace intimated their friendly feeling towards the Arian bishop by hailing him as one who did not worship the Son of God and who must have been sent to Alexandria by the favour of Serapis. Lucius surrounded himself with Pagan guards, and caused some of the orthodox to be beaten, others to be imprisoned, exiled, or pillaged, for refusing his communion, these severities being actually carried out by Magnus and Palladius as representing the secular power. He took an active part in the attack on the monks of Egypt; finding them immovably attached to the Nicene faith, he advised that their chief "abbats," the two Macarii, should be banished to a little Pagan island; but when the holy men converted its inhabitants, the Alexandrian people made a vehement demonstration against Lucius, and he sent the exiles back to their cells (Neale, Hist
Hinnom, Valley of - The worshipers of the Pagan deities, Baal and Molech, practiced child sacrifice in the valley of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10 )
Jubilee - This ceremony symbolizes the right of sanctuary, which goes back to Pagan times and which was actually then observed on the site of the Lateran
Lucifer - The language is primarily drawn from that of Satan himself, the spirit that energized the Pagan world power Babylon, that now energizes the apostate church, and shall at last energize the last secular antichrist (the fourth kingdom little horn) and his champion, the false prophet (the third kingdom little horn), the harlot's successor, who shall oppress Israel, as the fourth kingdom little horn oppresses the Gentile world: Daniel 7:8-26 (Chaldee); Daniel 8:9-11 (Hebrew); Revelation 13:4; Revelation 16:13-14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9
Mephibosheth - Mephibosheth may be an intentional change by copyists to avoid writing the Pagan god's name “baal
Art, Byzantine - In sculpture, through the revulsion of feeling against the Pagan gloriflcation of the human form, it was limited to the carving of flat surfaces and intricate openwork capitals
George, Saint - The Pagan town of Selena in Libya had been harassed by a dragon exhaling a pestilential breath; in order to placate him sheep were offered as victims, but when the supply of these was exhausted, the inhabitants of the town were substituted
Vow - A solemn promisemade to God, or by a Pagan to his deity
Vitus - , a youthful martyr in Diocletian's persecution; the son of a Pagan gentleman in Sicily, but secretly trained in Christianity by his nurse Crescentia and her husband Modestus
Babylon - ...
In Revelation 14:8 ; 16:19 ; 17:5 ; and 18:2, "Babylon" is supposed to mean Rome, not considered as Pagan, but as the prolongation of the ancient power in the papal form. Rome, Pagan and papal, is regarded as one power
Demon, Demoniac - A — 1: δαίμων (Strong's #1142 — Noun — daimon — dah'ee-mown ) "a demon," signified, among Pagan Greeks, an inferior deity, whether good or bad. " In Acts 17:18 , it denotes an inferior Pagan deity
Cuttings - " The prohibition was directed against the Pagan self inflicted mutilation or baldness which was supposed to propitiate the manes of the dead; probably a milder substitute (Homer, Iliad 23:141) for the human sacrifices offered over the dead, as the 12 Trojans immolated by Achilles at Patrochus' burial (Homer, Iliad 23:171,176), and as among the ancient Seythians (Herodotus, 4:71) and modern Africans (e. The cuttings also expressed excessive grief, death being to the Pagan a dark blank future (contrast 1 Thessalonians 4:13)
Nativity of Christ, Feast of the - Many peculiar customs of the day are the outcome of the Pagan celebrations of the January calends
Christmas - Many peculiar customs of the day are the outcome of the Pagan celebrations of the January calends
Hippo, Augustine of, Saint - He was the son of Patricius, a Pagan, and of Saint Monica, and received a Christian education but, on proceeding to Carthage to study law, he became a slave to immorality and eventually embraced Manichaeism
Nicolo Machiavelli - Though he died a Christian, his life and writings are Pagan, exhibiting a dislike for Christian virtue and the authority of the papacy
Machiavelli, Nicolo - Though he died a Christian, his life and writings are Pagan, exhibiting a dislike for Christian virtue and the authority of the papacy
James, Epistle of Saint - The contents and spirit of the Epistle indicate that it was most probably written before the year 49, since no mention is made of the problem concerning the relation between Jewish and Pagan Christians, which called for settlement at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15; Galatians 2)
Brick - Isaiah (Isaiah 65:3 ) condemned Israel for their Pagan-like practice of offering incense on altars of brick
Theater - Public performances began with a sacrifice to a Pagan deity, usually the patron god of the city
Devoted Thing - The Pagan confounded the two ideas, the devoted thing under ban (as criminals and captives), and the sacrifice of one's flock or herd as a voluntary offering in worship; but Scripture keeps them distinct
Epistle of Saint James - The contents and spirit of the Epistle indicate that it was most probably written before the year 49, since no mention is made of the problem concerning the relation between Jewish and Pagan Christians, which called for settlement at the Council of Jerusalem (Acts 15; Galatians 2)
Antidikomarianitae - The controversy arose out of the then prevailing reverence for virginity, which in its extreme form had led certain women, originally from Thrace, but dwelling in Arabia, to celebrate an idolatrous festival in honour of the Virgin, by taking certain cakes (κολλύριδες ) about in chariots, and then solemnly offering them to her and consuming them, in imitation of the Lord's Supper, or (more probably) of the Pagan worship of Ceres
Augustine of Hippo, Saint - He was the son of Patricius, a Pagan, and of Saint Monica, and received a Christian education but, on proceeding to Carthage to study law, he became a slave to immorality and eventually embraced Manichaeism
Rahab - Those who maintain that she was a harlot, pretend that she was perhaps one of those women who prostituted themselves in honour of the Pagan deities; as if this could extenuate her crime, or the scandal of her profession if she was a public woman
Cistern - In Jeremiah 14:1 , the Pagan gods were symbolized as broken cisterns that could not hold water
Divorce - ...
But this would make the marriage between one Pagan man and one Pagan woman a "sacrament," which in the Christian sense would be absurd; for Ephesians 5:23-32, which Rome quotes, and Mark 10:5-12 where even fornication is not made an exception to the indissolubility of marriage, make no distinction between marriages of parties within and parties outside of the Christian church
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus, Poet - , maintain that he was a Pagan, while Jos. passim), nor have alluded so constantly to Pagan rites and mythology without some expression of disbelief. Paulinus of Nola, when the latter had forsaken the service of the Pagan Muses for the life of a Christian recluse. ), displays him to us rather as a Christian by conviction, still clinging to the Pagan associations of his youth, and incapable of understanding a truth which had revealed itself to his friend, that Christianity was not merely a creed but a life. Paulinus nowhere chides Ausonius for his Paganism; on the contrary, he assumes his Christianity (Paulin
Georgius, Arian Bishop of Alexandria - But George was far from recommending his form of Christianity either to the orthodox or to the Pagans of Alexandria. He manifested his anti-pagan zeal by arbitrary acts and insulting speeches, procured the banishment of Zeno, a prominent Pagan physician (Julian, Ep. 45), prevented the Pagans from offering sacrifices and celebrating their national feasts (Soz. George was in the height of his pride and power: he had persecuted and mocked the Pagans (Socr. The shout arose, "Away with George!" and "in a moment," says the Fragmentist, they threw him into prison, with Diodorus and Dracontius, the master of the mint, who had overthrown a Pagan altar which he found standing there (Ammian. Then the Pagan mob again assembled, dragged them forth with "horrible shouts" of triumph, and kicked them to death
Smyr'na - It seems not impossible that the message to the church in Smyrna contains allusions to the ritual of the Pagan mysteries which prevailed in that city
Fair - ...
2: εὐδία (Strong's #2105 — Noun Feminine — eudia — yoo-dee'-ah ) denotes "fair weather," Matthew 16:2 , from eudios, "calm;" from eu, "good," and dios, "divine," among the Pagan Greeks, akin to the name for the god Zeus, or Jupiter
Fornication, Fornicator - A — 1: πορνεία (Strong's #4202 — Noun Feminine — porneia — por-ni'-ah ) is used (a) of "illicit sexual intercourse," in John 8:41 ; Acts 15:20,29 ; 21:25 ; 1 Corinthians 5:1 ; 6:13,18 ; 2 Corinthians 12:21 ; Galatians 5:19 ; Ephesians 5:3 ; Colossians 3:5 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:3 ; Revelation 2:21 ; 9:21 ; in the plural in 1 Corinthians 7:2 ; in Matthew 5:32 ; 19:9 it stands for, or includes, adultery; it is distinguished from it in 15:19; Mark 7:21 ; (b) metaphorically, of "the association of Pagan idolatry with doctrines of, and professed adherence to, the Christian faith," Revelation 14:8 ; 17:2,4 ; 18:3 ; 19:2 ; some suggest this as the sense in Revelation 2:21
Godliness - In Pagan Greek sources eusebeia (godliness, piety) refers to worship of the gods and to respect for the representatives of institutions regarded as divinely ordained (parents, judges, the emperor)
Revelling - ...
With such Pagan ideas in mind, St
Holy Childhood, Association of the - Its chief ends are: to draw young children near to the Infant Jesus that they may practise Christian charity and contribute to the salvation of Pagan children; to procure baptism for these infidels, and educate them to spread Christianity among their countrymen. Children may be enrolled in this association immediately after Baptism, by contributing one cent monthly, and reciting a Hail Mary daily, for the poor Pagans
Belgium - Christianity was introduced in the west by Saint Piat as early as the second half of the 3century, but was lost through Pagan invasion, and the work of conversion was not completed until the 8th century
Association of the Holy Childhood - Its chief ends are: to draw young children near to the Infant Jesus that they may practise Christian charity and contribute to the salvation of Pagan children; to procure baptism for these infidels, and educate them to spread Christianity among their countrymen. Children may be enrolled in this association immediately after Baptism, by contributing one cent monthly, and reciting a Hail Mary daily, for the poor Pagans
Altar - ...
2: βωμός (Strong's #1041 — Noun Masculine — bomos — bo'-mos ) properly, "an elevated place," always denotes either a Pagan "altar" or an "altar" reared without Divine appointment
Idol, Idolatry - The most prevalent form of idolatry in biblical times was the worship of images or idols that represented or were thought to embody various Pagan deities. Both intermarriage and formal treaties were prohibited because of necessary affiliation with Pagan gods (Exodus 23:32-33 ), leading to eventual fellowship (Exodus 34:15 ) and worship of idols (Numbers 25:2-3 ). God even placed limits of philosophical inquiry upon his people, indicating that they were not to seek the method of Pagan worship because of associated evil practices (Deuteronomy 12:30-31 ). Both external documents and the Bible itself testify to Pagan theophoric elements in the naming of children. Economically it took the produce of the land and many hours of labor from the worker who brought the fruit of his labor to the priest who officiated over the Pagan rituals. As the gospel message spread it encountered various forms of idolatry in the Pagan world as attested in Acts, especially Paul's encounters at Athens (17:16-31) and Ephesus (19:23-34). Spender...
See also Divination ; Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
Bibliography
Nanjing, China, Archdiocese of - Jesuits control: ...
Aurora University, Shanghai
Saint Ignatius College, Zikawei
Little Seminary, Zikawei
Theological Seminary, Zikawei
The Marist Brothers conduct ...
Saint Francis Xavier's College
College of Joan of Arc, Shanghai
The Daughters of Charity maintain ...
Saint Mary's Hospital, Shanghai
Saint Joseph's Civil Hospital, Shanhai
The Helpers of the Holy Souls have boarding and day schools in Shanghai; an Apostolic school, Christian, and Pagan boarding schools at Zikawei
Blindness - The Pagan conquerors sometimes blinded captives (2 Kings 25:7; 1 Samuel 11:2)
El - “El” refers to the God of Israel and in other passages to one of the Pagan gods
Stoics - 115), as a Stoic, gives their purest specimens of Pagan morality; and the emperor Marcus Aurelius tried to realize them in his public conduct
Molech - ...
A second suggestion is that “Molech” is the name of a Pagan deity to whom human sacrifices were made. Thus, this title was a divine epithet expressing contempt for the Pagan god
Bar-Kochba - The revolt erupted because the Roman Emperor Hadrian had begun to rebuild Jerusalem as a Pagan city with plans to replace the ruined Jewish Temple with one dedicated to Jupiter
Religion - ...
2: δεισιδαιμονία (Strong's #1175 — Noun Feminine — deisidaimonia — dice-ee-dahee-mon-ee'-ah ) primarily denotes "fear of the gods" (from deido, "to fear," daimon, "a Pagan deity," Eng
Sunday - To call it Sunday, is to set our wisdom before the wisdom of God, and to give that glory to a Pagan idol which is due to him alone
Nicolaitans - " The "lovefeasts" (Judges 1:12) thus became Pagan orgies
Drunkenness - Drunkenness is a Pagan custom, not a Christian one ( 1 Peter 4:3 )
Baptism For the Dead - And Paul could argue from Pagan parallels without immediately condemning them (see, e. Is he then arguing that even Pagans, if their baptism for the dead be properly understood, testify unconsciously to a bodily resurrection? ...
R
Basilica - Basilicas were the first Pagan edifices to be converted into Christian churches, being best adapted for Christian worship
Polytheism - Baal was the god of rain and exercised a powerful influence over the religion of many Pagan cultures and even into the Jewish community
Voice - , Revelation 6:10 ; 18:22 ; 19:1,5 ; (f) of a Pagan god, Acts 12:22 ; (g) of things, e
Elements - But, in Colossians 2:8 , the elements or rudiments of the world are so closely connected with philosophy and vain deceit, or an empty and deceitful philosophy, that they must be understood there to include the dogmas of Pagan philosophy; to which, no doubt, many of the Colossians were in their unconverted state attached, and of which the Judaizing teachers, who also were probably themselves infected with them, took advantage to withdraw the Colossian converts from the purity of the Gospel, and from Christ their living head
Catholic Latin Literature - Term applied to those writings of the Christian era which are composed in Latin, are peculiar to the Church in the West, and whose contents are Christian, as opposed to Pagan, in spirit
Bethshean - The ruins are of a Pagan character, and occupy a space three miles in circumference
Midian, Midianites - The Midianites are associated with the Moabites in seducing Israel into immorality and Pagan worship at Baal-peor (Numbers 25:1-18 )
Jaazer - The vine spread itself round the margin of the sea, and reached beyond to the other side; a sad contrast to the coming desolation, when "the Pagan lords" should "break down the principal plants"! "Therefore I will weep with the weeping of Jaazer," i
Rabshakeh - "...
Rabshakeh was a zealous pleader for his master, reckless of truth, glossing over the real miseries of deportation by Assyria (Isaiah 36:16-17), pretending to have Jehovah on his side, yet classing Jehovah with the idols of other lands overthrown by Assyria (Isaiah 36:18-20, liars need to have good memories), trying to rob the godly of their one only but sure trust in trouble, misrepresenting Hezekiah's faithful act in removing forbidden high places to Jehovah, as though he thereby had dishonored and so forfeited the favor of Jehovah (Isaiah 36:7), boasting of Assyria's might, as if, because Judah could not supply 2,000 riders if even Assyria supplied the horses, it were impossible the Jews could repel one of the least of Assyria's captains (Isaiah 36:8-9); in filthy and blasphemous language he threatens to reduce them to eat their own excrement in the extremity of famine (Isaiah 36:12; 2 Chronicles 32:11): a sample of the true nature of the Pagan attack on Jerusalem, at once arrogant, blasphemous, and reckless of all decency
Dream - The revelation of God's will in dreams is characteristic of the early and less perfect patriarchal times (Genesis 28:12; Genesis 31:24; Genesis 37:5-10); to Solomon, 1 Kings 3:5, in commencing his reign; the beginnings of the New Testament dispensation (Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:13; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 2:22); and the communications from God to the rulers of the Pagan world powers, Philistia, Egypt, Babylon (Genesis 20:3; Genesis 40:5; Genesis 41:1); Elihu, Job 33:15; Daniel 2; Daniel 4:5, etc. But it is the Israelites Joseph and Daniel who interpret; for Pagandom is passive, Israel active, in divine things to the glory of the God of Israel
Robbers of Churches - The term ‘churches’ according to the Elizabethan usage could be applied to Pagan temples
Zarephath - The choice, among all others, of the widow of Pagan Phœnician Zarephath, and of Naaman the leper of heathen Syrian Damascus, to receive the favours of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, filled the crabbed synagogue hearers of Nazareth with wrath and murder (Luke 4:25 ff
Hour (Figurative) - Thus the Apocalypse speaks (Revelation 14:15) of the ‘hour’ for reaping the harvest of the earth, which is the ‘hour’ of God’s judgment (Revelation 14:7) upon the Pagan world. the Gnostic propagandists
Heaven - Among Pagans, the residence of the celestial gods. The Pagan deities celestials
Rest, Remain - ” Thus, God “allowed” the Pagan nations “to remain” in Canaan during Joshua’s lifetime ( Eclectics - The consequence was, that Pagan ideas and opinions were by degrees mixed with the pure and simple doctrines of the Gospel
Slavery - Even in Pagan Greece and Rome the slave was often treated humanely, never so badly as the slaves under Moslem masters, and never worse than slaves under reputed Christian masters in modern times
Temple - Among Pagans, a building erected to some pretended deity, and in which the people assembled to worship. The most celebrated of the ancient Pagan temples were that of Belus in Babylon, that of Vulcan at Memphis, that of Jupiter at Thebes, that of Diana at Ephesus, that of Apollo in Miletus,that of Jupiter Olympius in Athens, and that of Apollo at Delphi
Mother - , of Christians, the metropolis, mother-city, used allegorically, just as the capital of a country is "the seat of its government, the center of its activities, and the place where the national characteristics are most fully expressed;" (3) symbolically, of "Babylon," Revelation 17:5 , as the source from which has proceeded the religious harlotry of mingling Pagan rites and doctrines with the Christian faith
Valentinianus (2) - His name is celebrated in church history in connexion with two matters: (1) An attempt in 384 by the Roman Senate to restore the altar of Victory and the Pagan rites connected with the Senate
Abomination - ...
Second, tô‛êbah is used in some contexts to describe Pagan practices and objects: “The graven images of their gods shall ye burn with fire; thou shalt not desire the silver or gold that is on them, nor take it unto thee, lest thou be snared therein: for it is an abomination to the Lord thy God. tô‛êbah may represent the Pagan cultic practices themselves, as in Candles, Blessed - Among the furnishings of the tabernacle of Moses and the Jewish Temple there was a seven-branched candlestick; and among Pagans the use of lights in services and processions was common. In Pagan times this was a festival-day, with processions and lights in honor of the gods
Feast - Many of them were instituted on a Pagan model, and perverted to similar purposes
Hymn, Candle-Light - Among the furnishings of the tabernacle of Moses and the Jewish Temple there was a seven-branched candlestick; and among Pagans the use of lights in services and processions was common. In Pagan times this was a festival-day, with processions and lights in honor of the gods
Leviathan - ...
The ancient Pagan myths concerning Leviathan were familiar to the Hebrews of the Old Testament
Sowing - 143) and from Pagan (e
Destroy - This word also expresses the complete “destruction” of the Pagan high places ( Sirmium, Stonemasons of - They were stonemasons belonging to Pannonia, engaged in the imperial quarries; one of them, Simplicius, was a Pagan. The Pagans, jealous of their skill, accused them before Diocletian, who, however, continued to protect them. The Pagans thereupon procured an order for their execution
Oath - ...
To appeal to a Pagan god by oath is to acknowledge his deity, and is therefore forbidden (Joshua 23:7; Jeremiah 5:7; Jeremiah 12:16; Amos 8:14), as in swearing to appeal to God is recognizing Him (Deuteronomy 6:13; Isaiah 19:18; Isaiah 65:16). An oath even to a Pagan king is so binding that Jehovah's chief reason for dethroning Zedekiah and giving him over to die in Babylon was his violating his oath to Nebuchadnezzar (Ezekiel 17:13-20; 2 Chronicles 36:13)
Walk - Some scholars suggest that “walking behind” Pagan gods (or even the true God) arose from the Pagan worship where the god was carried before the people as they entered the sanctuary
Honorius, Flavius Augustus, Emperor - ...
There is an important enactment against Paganism in the first year of Honorius's reign (Cod. 13) which forbids all sacrifices and apparently all public assemblage for Pagan worship. 14 all privileges of Pagan priesthood or ministry were done away. ...
Ambrose had successfully resisted the reintroduction of the altar or statue of Victory into the senate-house in 384; and by 399 it may have appeared to Honorius's advisers that the time was come when Paganism might be hastened out of existence. The Paganism of the Roman senate and people was connected with the proudest associations of their public and domestic history, and it lingered long in the old patrician houses of the metropolis and among the rustic population. It may have been intended to end this division by direct attempts at suppressing Paganism. The death-struggle of a Paganism long fostered, and quite without real devotion, contributed to the final overthrow of Rome. 37) and the hostility of Zosimus on the Pagan side seem to justify Gibbon's honourable estimate of him. ...
The anti-pagan legislation of 399–400 prepared for the consummating decree of confiscation in 408. , on the "Decay of Paganism," vol. 16, where he points out how offerings of produce without sacrifice might be used, and the various evasions by which absolutely Pagan celebration might elude Christian rule. ...
The irruption of the Pagan and ferocious Radagaisus is dated by Gibbon 406, by Tillemont 405. There were 6 statutes on heretics and Pagans—XVI. Two edicts to enforce laws on Jews, Gentiles, or Pagans, and heretics. ...
His later legislation has little historical interest, but the enactments on Paganism and heresy from 413 to 423 were as follows: Two against repetition of baptism, a. All Pagan priests were required to return to their native place. Confiscation to the church or the emperor of lands and grounds used for Pagan purposes. To become a Pagan was now a capital offence. In 416 Gentiles, or persons guilty of participation in Pagan rites, were excluded from the army and from official or judicial positions. He was able to say that he believed there were very few Pagans remaining, and so far his persecution may seem to have been successful, as with the Donatists and others. 22 and 23) ran thus: "Paganos, si qui supersunt, quanquam jam nullos esse credamus, promulgatorum legum jam dudum praescripta compescant. 23) stated that Pagans caught in acts of idolatrous ceremonial ought to be capitally punished, but are only subject to loss of property and exile. " He ended with a strong caution against any violence on Christian pretences to Pagans or Jews leading quiet and legal lives, with penalty of triple or fourfold f restitution. The temptation to a Christian emperor to hold heresy or Paganism an offence against the State, which he personified (at least on earth, and in heathen theory in heaven), was too much for man. Pagan emperors had claimed to rule as personal and present divinity, and this claim had always specially embittered their persecution of the Christian faith. Ambrose must have felt that the remaining Paganism of Rome was his chief difficulty, and his influence must have been accordingly exerted on Honorius in his first days
False Worship - This Pagan worship of Mithra, represented by sol invictus (the invincible sun) was a powerful challenge to Christianity. ...
False worship does not necessarily center in practice of Pagan or idolatrous cults. Its presence in the Bible extends from the self-exalting disobedience in the Garden of Eden to compromising accommodation with the emperor cult and other Pagan religions seen in the Book of Revelation
Hatred - The early Church extorted from that Pagan world the beautiful tribute, ‘See how these Christians love one another!’ The Spirit of Christ moved His followers to ‘put away all bitterness and wrath … with all malice,’ to be ‘kind one to another’ (Ephesians 4:31 f. ...
To orthodox Judaism, as well as to cultured Hellenism and the hard Pagan Roman world, it seemed natural to love only one’s friends. The writer of Revelation does not conceal his loathing of Pagan Rome, calling it ‘a hold of unclean and hateful birds’ (Revelation 18:2), and Jude (Judges 1:23) bids evangelists who snatch brands from the burning ‘have mercy with fear, hating even the garment spotted by the flesh
Antonius - ...
Anthony was evidently a man, not merely of strong determination, but of ability, and the discourses, if indeed they are his, which his disciples record as addressed to themselves and to the Pagan philosophers who disputed with him, shew that if he read little he thought much. He met objections against the doctrines of the Incarnation and the Resurrection as mysterious by the retort that the Pagan mythology, whether in its grossness as apprehended by the vulgar or as the mystical system of philosophers, was equally above reason. From their dialectical subtleties he appealed to facts, to a Christian's contempt of death and triumph over temptation; and contrasted the decay of Pagan oracles and magic with the growth of Christianity in spite of persecutions
Magic - ...
Magic was considered an aspect of Pagan wisdom; magicians were counted as wise men (Psalm 58:5 ; Daniel 1:20 ; 2:13 ) and officials of foreign governments (Genesis 41:6 ; Exodus 7:11 ; Daniel 2:2 ). Different from Pagan sources, the Old Testament writers did not see a connection between magic and the gods. The man of God healed the sick, revealed hidden things, performed wonders, and pronounced curses and blessings, just like a Pagan magician. In fact, there were some linguistic similarities between words used for exorcism and healing in the New Testament and Pagan magical rites
Horse - ...
Considerable opposition to the horse arose in Israel, seeing horses as symbols of Pagan luxury and dependence on physical power for defense
Names in New Testament - They are: ...
Ananias, Jehovah protects
Elizabeth, worshipper of God
Gabriel, strong man of God
Gamaliel, God recompenses
Heli, Jehovah is high
Jesus, Jehovah saves
John, gift of God
Matthias, gift of Jehovah
Michael, who is like God?
Nathanael, gift of God
Timothy, honoring God
Zachary, Jehovah remembers
Zebedee, gift of God
A large class of proper names for men and women is made up of adjectives denoting personal characteristics, such as ...
Andrew, manly
Asyncritus, incomparable
Bernice, victorious
Clement (Latin), kind
Eunice, victorious
Pudens, modest
Timon (Hebrew), honorable
Zacheus, pure
Names of things, and words referring to trades or avocations were taken as proper names: ...
Andronicus, conqueror
Anna, grace
Caiphas, oppressor
Judas, praise
Malchus, ruler
Manahen, comforter
Mary (Hebrew), bitter sea
Philip, lover of horses
Prochorus, leader of a chorus
Salome, peace
Tyrannus, tyrant
Some names seem to have been suggested by particular circumstances: ...
Cleophas, of an illustrious father
Joseph, whom the Lord adds
Mnason, he who remembers
Onesiphorus, bringer of profit
Philologus, lover of words
Sosipater, saviour of his father
Names of animals and plants are not frequent, the only example being ...
Damaris, heifer
Dorcas and Tabitha, gazelle
Susanna, lily
Rhode, rosebush
Names derived from numbers are ...
Quartus, fourth
Tertius and Tertullus, third
Names without Christian significance and probably derived from Pagan mythology are: ...
Apollo, contracted form, of Apollonios, belonging to Apollo
Apollyon
Diotrephes, nourished by Jupiter
Epaphroditus, beautiful
Hermes
Hermogenes
Phebe, shining
"Bar" in a name means "son of," e
New Testament, Names in - They are: ...
Ananias, Jehovah protects
Elizabeth, worshipper of God
Gabriel, strong man of God
Gamaliel, God recompenses
Heli, Jehovah is high
Jesus, Jehovah saves
John, gift of God
Matthias, gift of Jehovah
Michael, who is like God?
Nathanael, gift of God
Timothy, honoring God
Zachary, Jehovah remembers
Zebedee, gift of God
A large class of proper names for men and women is made up of adjectives denoting personal characteristics, such as ...
Andrew, manly
Asyncritus, incomparable
Bernice, victorious
Clement (Latin), kind
Eunice, victorious
Pudens, modest
Timon (Hebrew), honorable
Zacheus, pure
Names of things, and words referring to trades or avocations were taken as proper names: ...
Andronicus, conqueror
Anna, grace
Caiphas, oppressor
Judas, praise
Malchus, ruler
Manahen, comforter
Mary (Hebrew), bitter sea
Philip, lover of horses
Prochorus, leader of a chorus
Salome, peace
Tyrannus, tyrant
Some names seem to have been suggested by particular circumstances: ...
Cleophas, of an illustrious father
Joseph, whom the Lord adds
Mnason, he who remembers
Onesiphorus, bringer of profit
Philologus, lover of words
Sosipater, saviour of his father
Names of animals and plants are not frequent, the only example being ...
Damaris, heifer
Dorcas and Tabitha, gazelle
Susanna, lily
Rhode, rosebush
Names derived from numbers are ...
Quartus, fourth
Tertius and Tertullus, third
Names without Christian significance and probably derived from Pagan mythology are: ...
Apollo, contracted form, of Apollonios, belonging to Apollo
Apollyon
Diotrephes, nourished by Jupiter
Epaphroditus, beautiful
Hermes
Hermogenes
Phebe, shining
"Bar" in a name means "son of," e
New Mexico - In 1680, Indian revolts against Spanish government and against the efforts of the missionaries to put down Pagan practises culminated in a massacre during which 21 missionaries were killed, the churches destroyed, and all traces of religion obliterated
Table - Contrasting ‘the Lord’s table’ with ‘the tables of demons,’ as he scornfully calls the riotous feasts of Pagan idolatry, he urges the moral impossibility of passing from the pure atmosphere of Christian fellowship into the tainted air of heathen licence and debauchery
Inquire of God - Other methods of discerning God's will rejected by the biblical writiers include: consulting mediums, wizards, and necromancers (Deuteronomy 18:10-11 ; 1Samuel 28:3,1 Samuel 28:7 ; Isaiah 8:19 ); consulting teraphim (Judges 17:5 ; Judges 18:13-20 ; Hosea 3:4 ; Zechariah 10:2 ); and consulting Pagan dieties (Baal-zebub, 2Kings 1:2-3,2 Kings 1:16 ; Malcham or Milcom, Zephaniah 1:5 )
Pilgrimage - Hezekiah's and Josiah's reforms attempted to destroy the Pagan sites of pilgrimage and idol worship (2 Kings 18:4 ; 2 Kings 23:8 ) and make Jerusalem the exclusive focus of pilgrimage
Adultery - Idolatry (Ezekiel 23:27 ) and other Pagan religious practices (Jeremiah 3:6-10 ) were viewed as adulterous unfaithfulness to the exclusive covenant that God established with His people
High Place - The Canaanites served their gods on these hills, where Pagan priests presented the sacrifices to the gods: Israel imitated this practice (1 Kings 3:2), even when they sacrificed to the Lord. This was permissible until the temple was constructed; however, history demonstrates that Israel soon adopted these “high places” for Pagan customs
Jonah - The Pagan fable of Hercules springing into a sea monster's jaws and being three days in its belly, when saving Hesione (Diodor. It seemed strange to Kimchi that this book is in the canon, as its only prophecy concerns Nineveh, a Pagan city, and does not mention Israel, of whom all the other prophets prophesy. A Pagan city repents at a strange prophet's first preaching, whereas Israel, God's elect, repented not, though admonished by their own prophets at all seasons. God spares the prayerful penitent: (1) the Pagan sailors, (2) Jonah, (3) Nineveh. But God's plan was by Pagan Nineveh's example to teach the covenant people Israel how inexcusable is their impenitence; Israel must, if she continue impenitent, go down, and Pagan Assyria rise over her
Fornication - In the Pagan world, while μοιχεία was regarded as sinful on a woman’s part mainly on the ground that it infringed the husband’s rights, fornication or sexual intercourse outside the marriage bond or even by husbands was allowable. Christian morality is contrasted with Pagan in this respect. They have their counterparts in Pagan literature (see Dobschütz, Christian Life in the Primitive Church, p. There was no public opinion in Paganism to suppress fornication. The very fact that the Pagan gods were represented as prone to sensuality had a degrading influence on ordinary morality, however much the stories of the gods may have been ridiculed or allegorized in enlightened coteries
Alaric - This age witnessed the last efforts of Paganism to assert itself as the ancient and national religion, and Rome was its last stronghold. Pagans and Christians had retorted upon each other the charge that the calamities of the empire were due to the desertion of the old or new system of faith respectively, and the truth of falsehood of either was generally staked upon the issue. The almost miraculous discomfiture of the heathen Radagaisus by Stilicho, in spite of his vow to sacrifice the noblest senators of Rome on the altars of the gods which delighted in human blood, was accepted as an ill omen by those at Rome who hoped for a public restoration of Paganism (Gibbon, iv. " In the first siege of Rome both Pagan and Christian historians relate the strange proposal to relieve the city by the magical arts of some Etruscan diviners, who were believed to have power to call down lightning from heaven, and direct it against Alaric's camp. 2 (a work written between 413 and 426 with the express object of refuting the Pagan arguments from the sack of Rome), and his tract, de Excidio Urbis ( Opp. The book in which Zosimus related the fall of Rome has been lost, so that we have to gather information from Christian sources; but it is plain that the destruction and loss was chiefly on the side of Paganism, and that little escaped which did not shelter itself under the protection of Christianity. The Pagan inhabitants of Rome were scattered over Africa, Egypt, Syria, and the East, and were encountered alike by St. On his return heathen temples were converted into Christian churches; "with Paganism expired the venerable titles of the religion, the great High Priests and Flamens, the Auspices and Augurs. Alaric was also instrumental in driving Paganism from Greece. Gibbon says that "the invasion of the Goths, instead of vindicating the honour, contributed, at least accidentally, to extirpate the last remains of Paganism" (vol
Mithraism - (Sanskrit: mitra, friend) ...
A Pagan religion which consisted mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian sun-god Mithra
Norway - Haakon the Good and Olaf Trygvesson, two of the earliest kings of united Norway, gave their protection to Christian churches and priests and attempted to abolish Pagan sacrifices
Hair - This restriction probably originally forbade some Pagan custom (Deuteronomy 14:1-2 ), but orthodox Jews still wear long sidecurls
Prostitution - ...
God’s prophets sometimes likened political and commercial agreements between Israel and Pagan nations to acts of prostitution
Hecebolius, a Rhetor at Constantinople - After the death of Constantius however Hecebolius followed the example of his former pupil and became a "fierce Pagan" (γοργὸς Ἕλλην; Socr
Altar - ...
Mizbêach is also used of Pagan altars: “But ye shall destroy their altars, break their images, and cut down their groves” ( Bowl - (1) In a single passage (Exodus 27:8) it is employed with its classical connotation, except that the offering which the vessel holds is not the Pagan libation of wine, but the Levitical gift of incense
Divine, Practice Divination - ...
Divination was a Pagan parallel to prophesying: “There shall not be found among you anyone who makes his son or daughter pass through the fire, one who uses divination. Balaam was well-known among the Pagans as a diviner; at the same time, he recognized Yahweh as his God ( Artaxerxes - Asa had another serious failure of faith late in his reign when, suffering from a disease in the feet, he looked for healing through Pagan sorcerers instead of trusting in God (2 Chronicles 16:12-14)
Peregrinus, Called Proteus - Other writers, Pagan and Christian alike, of the same age, mention him: e
Amalekites - ), "Beginning of the Pagan (was) Amalek, and its end (shall be) destruction" (even to the perishing, under Saul, David, and finally Hezekiah, 1 Chronicles 4:42-43). In age, power, and celebrity this Bedouin tribe was certainly not "the first of the nations," but (as margin) "the first Pagan nation which opened the conflict of Pagandom against the people of God
Daniel, the Book of - He does not, as they writing amidst the covenant people do, make God's people the foreground; but writing in a Pagan court he makes the world kingdoms the foreground, behind which he places the kingdom of God, destined ultimately to be all in all. His book written amidst Pagan isolation is the Old Testament Apocalypse, as the Revelation of John written in the lonely Patmos is the New Testament Apocalypse; the two respectively stand apart, his from the prophets, John's from the epistles. Under David and Solomon the theocracy attained its Old Testament climax, being not only independent but ruling the surrounding Pagan; so this period was made type of the Messianic (as it ultimately shall be manifested). But his heavenly insight into dreams which baffle the Chaldaeans' lore represents the covenant people's inner superiority to their Pagan lords. In Daniel 2 the world kingdoms are seen by the Pagan king in their outward unity and glory, yet without life, a metal colossus; in Daniel 7 they appear to the prophet of God in their real character as instinct with life, but mere beast life, terrible animal power, but no true manhood; for true manhood can only be realized by conscious union with God, in whose image man was made
Genesis, the Book of - Pagan cosmogonies abound in crude poetical and philosophical speculations, either representing God and matter as co-eternal, or pantheistically confounding God and matter, making Him its pervading spirit. Another marked distinction between the oldest Pagan compositions and Genesis is they are palpably mythical in substance and poetical in form, history not arising until a later stage of national development. ...
The names of God occurring are: ΕL , the shortened form of ΕLΟΗΙΜ ; ΕLΙΟΝ , "Most High" (only in Genesis 14:18 ΕL ΕLΙΟΝ , but in Psalms found alone, and with ΕLΟΗΙΜ and JEHOVAH Υahweh ); and SΗΑDDΑΙ "Almighty," in the Pentateuch generally with EL, The plural is that of excellence and majesty; Elohim combining in Himself the several attributes assigned to distinct gods by the Pagan false gods as well as to the true God; and is the word used where Pagan people, as the Egyptians, or foreigners, as Hagar, Eliezer of Damascus, the Egyptians, etc
Ecclesiastical History - Connected with Jewish and Pagan history, it will show us the total destruction of Jerusalem, the overthrow of the Jewish church and state; and the continuance of that unhappy nation for 1700 years, though dispersed over the face of the earth, and oppressed at different times by Pagans, Christians, and Mahometans. It shows us that the increase of Christianity produced in the countries where it was received, the overthrow and extinction of Paganism, which, after a feeble resistance, perished about the sixth century
Religion - Though a monotheist (believer in one God) would not use “fear of the gods” to describe Judaism, the expression is natural on Pagan Roman lips (Acts 25:19 )
Emperor Worship - Standing trial if they worshiped the Pagan gods, that is, the emperor and the imperial cult, they would be freed
Dog - "Beware of the (Greek) dogs," those impure persons of whom I told you often" (Philippians 3:2; Philippians 3:18-19); "the abominable" (Revelation 21:8; compare Revelation 22:15; Matthew 7:6); Pagan in spirit (Titus 1:15-16); dogs in filthiness, snarling, and ferocity against the Lord and His people (Psalms 22:16; Psalms 22:20); backsliding into former carnality, as the dog "is turned to his own vomit again" (2 Peter 2:22)
Vows - der Askese; Daab, Die Zulässigkeit der Gelübden, 1896; Ramsay, ‘Greek of Early Church and Pagan Ritual’ in ExpT Calvary - A Pagan temple on the site was razed and a shrine built in its place
Gehazi - Gehazi presumptuously stifled conscience with the plea that a "Syrian" Pagan ought not to have been" spared," as his master had "spared this Naaman," and even dared to invoke Jehovah's name, as though his obtaining money by false pretenses from him would be a meritorious act: "as the Lord liveth, I will take somewhat of him
Gentiles - Hebrew Gowy , "the nations" (or "pagan," derived from the Greek ethnee ), as opposed to Israel (Nehemiah 5:8)
Philosophy - In Athens, the Epicurean, and Stoic philosophers made a jest of Paul's discourse; and in many places of his epistles, he opposes the false wisdom of he age, that is, the Pagan philosophy, to the wisdom of Jesus Christ, and the true religion, which to the philosophers and sophists seemed to be mere folly, because it was built neither on the eloquence nor the subtlety of those who preached it, but on the power of God, and on the operations of the Holy Ghost in the hearts and minds of believers; and because it did not amuse and flatter man, but probed him a guilty rebel against God, in perishing need of a Savior
Grecians - The Grecians or Greek-speaking Jews were at once Jewish missionaries to the Pagan, witnessing everywhere against the prevalent polytheism, and pioneers to prepare unconsciously the way for the gospel missionary. At first those scattered abroad "preached to, the Jews only" (the word is not "Hebrew" but "Jews," including "Grecians"); afterward some of them preached to Pagan "Greeks
Satan - When Solomon added more and more Pagan wives to his harem, God was greatly displeased ( Pagan shrines for his wives, God raised up “adversaries” against him(1 Kings 11:14), a direct action which caused the Edomites and Syrians to revolt against Israel
Symmachus q. Aurelius - Aurelius, the last eminent champion of Paganism at Rome, son of L. In 393 the Pagan party had a momentary triumph. ...
Though a champion of the Pagan cause, Symmachus was on excellent terms with the Christian leaders
Boar - Its destroying a vineyard partly by eating the grapes, partly by trampling the vines under foot, is the image of the Pagan world power's ravaging of Israel, Jehovah's choice vine, transplanted from Egypt into the Holy Land
Anoint - Interestingly enough, the only person named “messiah” in the Old Testament was Cyrus, the Pagan king of Persia, who was commissioned by God to restore Judah to her homeland after the Exile ( Germanus, Bishop of Paris - In 557 he was present at the third council of Paris, and appears to have exercised considerable influence over Childebert, whose edict against Pagan revelry on holy days may have been due to St
Constantius i, Flavius Valerius, Emperor - Although a Pagan, he disapproved of the persecution of Diocletian, and contented himself by closing a few churches and overthrowing some dilapidated buildings, respecting (as the author of the de Morte Persecutorum says) the true temple of God
Bel - " Selden thinks that this history ought rather to be considered as a poem or fiction, than a true account: as to the dragon, he observes, that serpents, dracones, made a part of the hidden mysteries of the Pagan religion, as appears from Clemens Alexandrinus, Julius Firmicus, Justin Martyr, and others
Lie - ...
Note: In Romans 1:25 the "lie" or idol is the outcome of Pagan religion; in 1 John 2:21,22 the "lie" is the denial that Jesus is the Christ; in 2 Thessalonians 2:11 the "lie" is the claim of the Man of Sin
Titus, Bishop of Bostra - The Pagan inhabitants made the authoritative revival of their cult by Julian the signal for organized attacks on their Christian fellow-citizens
Esther, Theology of - It is not certain whether it was a Pagan festival (either Babylonian, Persian, or indigenous) that was appropriated for Jewish purposes. Even the names of Mordecai and Esther betray a Pagan background
Ruth - A "blossom of Pagandom stretching its flower cup desiringly toward the light of revelation in Israel. Boaz was an Israelite without guile, full of holy reverence for every ordinance of God and man, and full of benevolent love and friendliness toward the poor Pagan woman. ...
There is also involved a Messianic trait, prophetic of the coming world wide church, in the fact that Ruth, a Pagan of a nation so hostile to Israel as Moab, was counted worthy to be tribe mother of the great and pious king David on account of her love to Israel and trust in Israel's God
Heathen - ...
A similar etymological uncertainty presents itself in the care or the synonym, ‘pagan. ‘Pagan’). , Paganus came to mean in classical Latin, ‘a civilian,’ as opposed to a miles. They were Pagani (Tac. 14: ‘paganorum manus … Inter milites’; ii. 20: ‘paganorum lixarumque’: Pliny, Ep. 18: ‘et milites et Pagani’). Paul had warranted them in doing (Ephesians 6:14 f, 2 Timothy 2:3), and for which they found a further warrant in the early application of the word sacramentum, ‘the military oath,’ to baptism, regarded as Pagani (‘outsiders,’ not soldiers at all)* Petrus ii., Archbaptist of Alexandria - " But the Arians seized the opportunity for which they had been waiting, and employed, as in 340, the agency of a Pagan prefect. Palladius, by means of bribes, assembled a "crowd of Pagans and Jews" and beset that same church of Theonas within which Syrianus had all but seized Athanasius in 356. Peter tells us that the Pagans esteemed Lucius as the favourite of Serapis, because he denied the divinity of the Son; and dwells on the brave confessorship (1) of 19 priests and deacons whom Magnus, after vain attempts to make them Arianize, transported to the Pagan city of Heliopolis in Phoenicia, sending also into penal servitude 23 monks and others who expressed their sympathy; (2) of 7 Egyptian bishops exiled to Diocaesarea, a city inhabited by Jews, while some other prelates were "handed over to the curia," their official immunity from onerous curial obligations being annulled in requital of their steadfastness in the faith. Peter adds that children were tortured, and intimates that some persons were actually put to death or died of cruel usage, and that, after the old usage in Pagan persecutions, their remains were denied burial
Pharisees - In contrast to "mingling" with Grecian and other heathen customs, which Antiochus Epiphanes partially effected, breaking down the barrier of God's law which separated Israel from Pagandom, however refined. The treatise Cholin in the Mishna lays down a regulation as to "clean and unclean" (Leviticus 20:25; Leviticus 22:4-7; Numbers 19:20) which severs the Jews socially from other peoples; "anything slaughtered by a Pagan is unfit to be eaten, like the carcass of an animal that died of itself, and pollutes him who carries it. Tradition set aside moral duties, as a child's to his parents by" Corban"; a debtor's to his creditors by the Mishna treatise, Avodah Zarah (1:1) which forbade payment to a Pagan three days before any Pagan festival; a man's duty of humanity to his fellow man by the Avodah Zarah (2:1) which forbids a Hebrew midwife assisting a Pagan mother in childbirth (contrast Leviticus 19:18; Luke 10:27-29)
Idol - See Food Offered to Idols ; Gods, Pagan
Judge (Office) - Instructions on proper exercise of judgment include: the call to judge reputed prophets by their fruits (Matthew 7:5-17 ); encouragement for Christians to judge what is right for themselves and thus avoid Pagan lawcourts (Luke 12:57-59 ; 1 Corinthians 6:1-6 ); and instructions regarding church cases (Matthew 18:15-20 )
Interpret, Interpretation, Interpreter - Hermes, the Greek name of the Pagan god Mercury, who was regarded as the messenger of the gods), denotes "to explain, interpret" (Eng
Blindness - ...
Paul tells the Corinthian believers that blindness aptly describes the spiritual state of Pagan unbelievers
Offense - The emphasis of 1Peter is holiness of one's life before God and the subsequent rejection of the Pagan nations
Asylum - Such institutions were practically unknown among Pagan peoples
Pachomius, Saint - If we may trust this writer, Pachomius was born of wealthy Pagan parents in Lower Egypt, before the council of Nicaea
Image - Eusebius, however, vouches none of these things; nay, he supposes that the woman who erected this statue of our Saviour was a Pagan, and ascribes it to a Pagan custom
Charlemagne - He waged victorious warfare against the Pagan Saxons, to whom he gave the alternative of baptism or death, their leader Wittekind finally accepting Christianity in 785
Charles the Great - He waged victorious warfare against the Pagan Saxons, to whom he gave the alternative of baptism or death, their leader Wittekind finally accepting Christianity in 785
Moon - ...
Sabaism (from tsaabaa' "the heavenly hosts") was the earliest of false worships; it appears in our Pagan names Sun day, Mon (moon) day; and in Job 31:26, "if I beheld the sun
Hate, Hatred - God hates Pagan idolatry (Deuteronomy 12:31 ) as well as hypocritical Hebrew worship (Isaiah 1:14 ; Amos 5:21 )
Hebron - Near it was the oak or terebinth, a place of Pagan worship
Banking - These institutions both Pagan and Jewish had the general confidence of the people
Ignorant, Ignorance - ...
Ignorance is used to characterize the Pagan world that had not received the special revelation of God (Acts 17:23,30 ; 1 Peter 1:14 — cf
Asherah - The association of the word with Pagan worship is unquestioned by scholars
Cappadocia - Pagan Cappadocia was devoted chiefly to the cult of Ma, and the strength of its anti-Christian forces is indicated in Strabo’s description of two leading cities, Comana and Morimene
Pray - Prayer is directed not only toward Yahweh but toward Pagan idols as well ( Athens - Clarke, the traveller, remarks, "It is not possible to conceive a situation of greater peril, or one more calculated to prove the sincerity of a preacher, than that in which the Apostle was here placed; and the truth of this, perhaps, will never be better felt than by a spectator, who from this eminence actually beholds the monuments of Pagan pomp and superstition by which he, whom the Athenians considered as the setter forth of strange gods, was then surrounded: representing to the imagination the disciples of Socrates and of Plato, the dogmatist of the porch, and the skeptic of the academy, addressed by a poor and lowly man, who, ‘rude in speech,' without the ‘enticing words of man's wisdom,' enjoined precepts contrary to their taste, and very hostile to their prejudices
Pietists - That all mixture of philosophy and human science with divine wisdom, was to be most carefully avoided; that is, that Pagan philosophy and classical learning should be kept distinct from, and by no means supersede, Biblical theology
Banking - These institutions both Pagan and Jewish had the general confidence of the people
People of the Land - Disapproval is expressed in Ezra and Nehemiah for the Pagan half-Jew and half-Gentile, essentially non-observant Jews (see Ezra 10:2 ,Ezra 10:2,10:11 ; Nehemiah 10:28-31 )
Cross, Crucify - In order to increase the prestige of the apostate ecclesiastical system Pagans were received into the churches apart from regeneration by faith, and were permitted largely to retain their Pagan signs and symbols
Antiochus - Pagan sacrifices were ordered in every town in Judæa, and every month a search was made to discover whether any Jew possessed a copy of the Law or had circumcised his children. a Pagan altar, probably to Olympian Zeus, was erected on the altar of burnt-offering, and the entire Jewish worship seemed threatened with extinction
Holy, Holiness - ...
In the first clear biblical usage of the term that introduces a human to the character of God as holy, there are both similarities to and differences from Pagan attempts to define holiness. Pagan worshipers in that region could not have reflected on the nature of the holy with that sort of clarity. These ideas, apparent in the Pagan religions, were incorporated and then transformed by the Israelites in light of the Holy One who revealed his nature by word and action. ...
Without the concept of a personal God to discern the meaning of existence, the Pagan mind formulated a variety of interpretive tools to express reality. The Pagan format of a "below-above" interpretation of reality, which scholars have called a "continuous" worldview, was challenged by the audacious claim of Israel to be created by and related to the only Holy One. Probably most instructive of all, as well as being a radical polemic of the irrational motivations behind Pagan notions of holiness, is the fact that Yahweh is looking for those who are willing to "walk" with him rather than cower in fear alone (5:22,24; 6:9; 24:40; 48:15)
Divination - ...
Why would the Bible record such strong negative injunctions against inductive divination? Deuteronomic law especially attacks everything connected with Pagan religions
Garden - On the other hand, Pagan sacrifices were sometimes offered in gardens (Isaiah 65:3 ; Isaiah 66:17 ); and gardens were used as burial sites (2Kings 21:18,2 Kings 21:26 ; John 19:41-42 )
Beauty - The Hebrew mind that reflected on God's goodness in nature was in contrast to the Pagan mind-set of the surrounding nations, which often went so far as to declare that the world was totally evil
Salt - A spiritual wisdom and Christian grace, at once quickening the gifts of Nature and hallowing the charms of culture, are to replace Pagan wit as the savour of that human intercourse which is the feast of reason and the flow of souls
Schoolmaster - The Roman paedagogi, however, under the degeneration of Pagan manners in the Empire, soon got a bad name
Lying - In the Pagan, e
Alliances - But alliances by marriage with idolaters are reprobated as incentives to latitudinarianism first and at last, to conformity with Paganism (Deuteronomy 7:3-6). When Pagans renounced idolatry for Israel's God, Israelites might lawfully wed them, as Rahab, Ruth, Zipporah. Violation of it brought down divine wrath, even when made with a Pagan (Joshua 9:18; Joshua 9:2 Samuel 21; Ezekiel 17:16)
Smyrna - " At Polycarp's martyrdom they clamoured with the Pagan for his being cast to the lions; the proconsul opposed it, but, impotent to restrain the fanaticism of the mob, let them He him to the stake; the Jews with their own hands carried logs for the pile which burned him
Antioch - As was the case with many of the Roman cities of the east, Antioch's patron deity was the Pagan goddess Tyche or “Fortune
Coelicolae - The Christians convinced themselves that a stand must be made more earnestly than ever against any heresy which would seduce their members in the direction of either Judaism or Paganism. If, moreover, as their name may indicate, the Coelicolae openly professed their adhesion to the Jewish worship of the One God and rejected the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, this would be an error for which their abhorrence of Pagan forms of idolatry would not compensate
Moloch - There are various sentiments about the relation that Moloch had to the other Pagan divinities
Jezebel - The deeper the church penetrated into Paganism, the more Pagan she became
Sigebert i - Sigebert recruited his forces with Pagan Germans from beyond the Rhine (iv
Ark of the Covenant - Pagan nations too had their mystic arks (whence arcanum is the term for a mystery), but so distinct in use from the Mosaic that the differences are more prominent than the resemblances. ...
It was not moved from its "rest" (Psalms 132:8; Psalms 132:14) when once Jerusalem became the fixed capital, and the hill of Zion God's chosen seat, until its forcible removal under Nebuchadnezzar; God giving up the apostate Jews to the Pagan world power. The originality of the tabernacle furniture and arrangements is more striking than the superficial resemblances which have been traced to Pagan usages
Daniel - ...
He gave a noble proof of faithfulness combined with wisdom at this early age, by abstaining from the food of the king's table, as being defiled with the usual idolatry at Pagan feasts (Daniel 1:8-16), living for ten days' trial on pulse and water, and at the end looking fairer and fatter than those fed on the king's dainties. As at the beginning of the covenant people's history their kinsman Joseph, so toward its close Daniel, by the interpretation of dreams (Daniel 2; Daniel 4), was promoted to high place in the court of their Pagan masters. God manifested His irresistible power in Daniel and his friends, as representing the theocracy then depressed, before the Pagan king who deemed himself divine
Feasting - Pagan feastings. Paul exhorts Christians to use psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, he is contrasting the grand reverent music of Christian meetings with the ribald songs of Pagan feasts. The great moralists of Paganism condemned these bouts, and St. Christians would of course be looked on by their former Pagan associates as austere, gloomy Puritans for leaving aside these practices. ...
These Christian feasts were early misunderstood by Pagans
Art - Nor did His disciples have anything to say against the art of the Pagan cities where they went, though they had much to say about the wickedness: they are silent on the subject, except for a few illustrations from engraving and painting in Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:5; Hebrews 10:1. ’ Was there, we must ask any such antagonism as a matter of history? When Westcott wrote, Christian archaeology was still in its infancy; much that we now have was still undiscovered, and that which was known was uncertain in date and inaccurately reproduced; notions still held the field which have since been disproved, as, for instance, that which credits the early Church with the wanton destruction of Pagan monuments, when, as a matter of fact, the ancient Roman temples were, after the triumph of Christianity, long kept in repair at the expense of the Christian State, as the chief glory of the city. Thus the natural scientist Metchnikoff—writing, as people do, about matters which are outside his province—declares in The Nature of Man that Christianity lowered our conception of human nature, and gives as evidence this statement:—‘Sculpture, which played so great a part in the ancient world, and which was intimately associated with Greek ideals, began to decline in the Christian era,’—the real truth being, as we shall see, that sculpture had been declining for several generations in Pagan hands, and that Christian artists did what they could with the decadent craft. ’ This rhetorical answer cannot be taken as denying the use of art by the African Christians: it is a vindication of the spiritual nature of Christian worship, and the ‘lifeless temples’ must be referred to Paganism, since there was nowhere any shrinking from the erection of church buildings. ...
This is, in fact, the conclusion to which the literary evidence leads us: the early Christians were told to keep clear of Paganism, with which their daily work was often so closely involved, but they were not told to forswear art. gradually in technique, as the Pagan art was declining. These were easily to be seen, and could be wrought on the spot, which was an important consideration in days when it was difficult to order Christian sculpture from Pagan shops. It would be an easier matter to have executed in the public studios a subject that could bear a Pagan interpretation; and thus it is that we do find a statue of the Good Shepherd which probably belongs to the 3rd cent. , though one would naturally expect Christians who lived in Pagan times to be shy of the use of statuary. Modern archaeology has proved this idea to be mistaken; and, having pointed out what is now known as to the early use of art by the Church, we need not follow the subsequent history of painting and sculpture, of architecture and the handicrafts, in their developments and decadences, except to say that, though art in the Christian era has been sometimes rude and sometimes Pagan, it has at its best—when most perfect in technique and most imbued with spiritual purpose—excelled all else that the world has been able to produce: even the perfect statuary of Greece was outrivalled by such an artist as Michael Angelo, who reveals not only the body but the soul within the body also. ’ Pagan reaction has, indeed, more than once taken refuge in art, as it has also taken refuge in science; but the fault does not lie in either
Ezekiel - Daniel's prophecies were later than those of Ezekiel, but his fame for piety and wisdom was already established (Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 16: 28; Ezekiel 16:3); and the Jews in their low state naturally prided themselves on one who reflected such glory on their nation at the Pagan capital (Daniel 1-2). ...
(7) Predictions against foreign nations during Ezekiel's silence regarding his own people; since judgment begins at the house of God it will visit the Pagan world: Ezekiel 25-32; some of these were uttered later than others, but all began to be given (Havernick) after the fall of Jerusalem. ...
(8) In the 12th year of the captivity, when the fugitives from Jerusalem (Ezekiel 33:21) had reached Chaldaea, he foretells better times, Israel's restoration, God's kingdom triumphant over Seir, the Pagan world powers, and Gog: Ezekiel 33-39. ...
For Daniel was rather a seer, unveiling the future in the Pagan court, but not discharging the prophetical office as Ezekiel among the covenant people; therefore his book was not classed with the prophets but with the hagiographa
Fellowship - Pagan religions could even use the koin - stem to describe union and communion with their god or gods. Thus Paul forbad his readers from partaking in Pagan religious meals, which would result in sharing “fellowship” with evil, supernatural forces or demons (1 Corinthians 10:19-21 )
Food - " Moreover, the Pagan consumed blood in their sacrifices, in contrast to Jehovah's law, which would make His people the more shrink from any seeing conformity to their ways. ...
The prohibition "thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk" (Exodus 23:19) is thought by Abarbauel to forbid a Pagan harvest superstition designed to propitiate the gods; to which a Karaite Jew, quoted by Cudworth (Speaker's Commentary), adds, it was usual when the crops were gathered in to sprinkle the fruit trees, fields, and gardens as a charm
Joel - The mention of "the valley of Jehoshaphat" (Joel 3:12) alludes to Jehoshaphat's victory (2 Chronicles 20), the earnest of Israel's future triumph over the Pagan; though occurring long before, it was so great an event as to be ever after a pledge of God's favor to His people. They are plainly called "the Pagan" (Joel 2:17), "the northern (a quarter from whence locusts do not come) army" (Joel 2:20), "all the nations" (Joel 3:2), "strangers" (Joel 3:17)
Convert, Conversion - Such proselytes would be circumcised, picture their cleansing by engaging in a baptismal washing, offer sacrifices, and would be expected to live a life of moral virtue in contrast to their Pagan past
Brother - As the outer Pagan world knew believers by the name "Christian," so they know one another by the name "brethren" (Acts 11:26; Acts 26:28; 1 Peter 4:16; compare Matthew 25:40; Acts 11:29)
Blasphemy - Acts 6:13 ), as was also the light and irresponsible utterance of the sacred Name ( Isaiah 52:6 , Ezekiel 36:20 , Deuteronomy 5:11 ), the degradation of Jehovah-worship by conformity to Pagan rites ( Ezekiel 20:27 ), and the continued wilful transgression of Divine commands and despising of ‘the word of the Lord’ ( Numbers 15:30 f
Chaos - While vehemently denouncing idolatry and unmistakably proclaiming the matchless power of the One Almighty God, biblical writers did not hesitate to draw upon these prevalent Pagan images to add vividness and color to their messages, trusting that their Israelite hearers would understand the truths presented
Necromancy - Michael Hagan...
See also Divination ; Idol, Idolatry ; Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ...
Bibliography
Honest - Deceit (δοῦλος) finds its place in the black list of Pagan vices (Romans 1:29): it is one of the signs of an unregenerate world (Romans 3:13; cf
Ashtaroth - ...
The biblical writers often coupled Baal with Ashtaroth as a designation of Pagan worship (Judges 2:13 ; Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Samuel 12:10 )
Shiloh (2) - From Shiloh came the half Pagan men, with offerings for the Lord's house, who had cut themselves, and whom Ishmael slew (Jeremiah 41:5)
Whoring, To Go; Harlot, To Be - This was especially true when Israel went after the Canaanite gods, for the worship of these Pagan deities involved actual prostitution with cult prostitutes connected with the Canaanite shrines
Christian (the Name) - Of these, the fontal reference in Acts 11:26 explains that the name by which the religion of Jesus has been known for nineteen centuries was coined by the Pagan slang of Antioch on the Orontes, a city which, like Alexandria, was noted for its nicknames. It meant no more to these Syrian Pagans than some leader of revolt or obscure religious fanatic in Palestine. ’ It was the Pagan community of Antioch alone that would invent and apply this title. But the local, heterogeneous Paganism yielded an incomparably richer harvest to the efforts of the Christian age is, so that the general success of the movement produced, for the first time, a noticeable alteration in the proportions of Jewish and Gentile Christians—so noticeable, indeed, that, as the historian points out, it necessitated an attempt on the part of the outside public to verbally classify the adherents of the new faith. Even were it Latin, it would be hasty to attribute (with Baur) the origin of the term to Rome, where Tacitus is our first Pagan witness for its currency about a. 3), of a disposition to ignore or deny its Pagan origin and to represent it as a creation of the Apostolic or early Christian consciousness
Cabbala - This opinion, however, may be traced up to a prejudice which originated with the Jews, and passed from them to the Christian fathers, by which they were led to ascribe all Pagan wisdom to a Hebrew origin: a notion which very probably took its rise in Egypt, when Pagan tenets first crept in among the Jews. Philo, Josephus, and other learned Jews, in order to flatter their own vanity, and that of their countrymen, industriously propagated this opinion; and the more learned fathers of the Christian church, who entertained a high opinion of the Platonic philosophy, hastily adopted it, from an imagination that if they could trace back the most valuable doctrines of Paganism to a Hebrew origin, this could not fail to recommend the Jewish and Christian religions to the attention of the Gentile philosophers. The Jewish mysteries, thus enlarged by the accession of Pagan dogmas, were conveyed from Egypt to Palestine, at the time when the Pharisees, who had been driven into Egypt under Hyrcanus, returned with many other Jews into their own country
Malachi - These became intermingled with the Pagan during the 60 years that elapsed before Ezra (Ezra 9:6-15; Nehemiah 1:3); "the remnant . ...
Ezra the priest purified the nation from within of Pagan elements and restored the law; Nehemiah did the outer work of rebuilding the city and restoring the national polity (Auberlen)
Thyatira - To enlightened Christians no real harm can come from initiation into the gild with the conventional Pagan rites, from partaking of food sacrificed to idols, and even from witnessing the riotous mirth of the heathen orgies. The union of the Christian Church with the Pagan association is nothing less than treason to Christ; in the language of Hebrew and Christian Puritanism, it is fornication or adultery (Revelation 2:20-22)
Jehoiakim - The names were often from the Pagan gods of the conqueror. In this case not so; the Pagan kings Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar made Jehoiakim and Zedekiah ("Jehovah's righteousness") confirm their covenant of subjection with the seal of Jehovah's name, the Jews' own God, by whom they had sworn fealty
Altar - ’ The NT contains only a single distinct reference to a Pagan altar-the βωμός which St. How revolting it is, then, to pass from the altar of God or, by parity of reasoning, from the τρὰπεζα τοῦ Κυρίου, to the orgies of Pagan gods, the τρὰπεζα δαιμονίων
Altar - ’ The NT contains only a single distinct reference to a Pagan altar-the βωμός which St. How revolting it is, then, to pass from the altar of God or, by parity of reasoning, from the τρὰπεζα τοῦ Κυρίου, to the orgies of Pagan gods, the τρὰπεζα δαιμονίων
Gods, Pagan - By contrast, Pagan religions of the biblical world were polytheistic, worshiping many gods. ...
Old Testament Many Pagan gods had their origin as gods of certain places such as cities or regions. Ezekiel lamented this Pagan practice by certain women of Jerusalem (Ezekiel 8:14 ). While the Hebrew word baal was not in itself considered Pagan, perhaps its use as a divine title in Canaanite religion is behind God's rejection of the appellation Baali, “my master” (Hosea 2:16-17 ). ...
New Testament The Pagan gods of the New Testament world were the deities of the Greco-Roman pantheon and certain eastern gods whose myths gave rise to the mystery religions
Emperor-Worship - Many inscriptions might be quoted which show that the Eastern Pagan world found its Messiah in Caesar, the language in some cases bearing a resemblance to Jewish Messianic psalms and prophecies. Caesarism and Paganism. -It is necessary to make a few remarks on the relation of the new religion to the old Paganism, because in sermons and other popular treatments of the subject the facts are often mis-stated. Thus it is entirely erroneous to say that the new religion owed any of its strength to the decay of the old Paganism; it was only in close alliance with the old that Caesarism as a religion could continue in existence. The Church proclaimed Jesus, the Pagan world acclaimed Caesar. ‘Son of God,’ certainly had a root quite independent of Caesarism, and all as applied to Christ and Christians had a different content from the same terms applied to Caesar by Pagans, the parallelism is too complete to be pure coincidence. Any religiously-minded Pagan must have felt the difficulty of the real godhead of Caesar. ...
The proclamation of a spiritual Kingdom with a King to whom all the highest titles borne by Caesar really applied cannot but have made a strong appeal to the interest of many of the more serious in Pagan cities (cf. From another point of view this strange parallelism may be regarded as one among many aspects of a providential preparation of the Pagan world for Christianity
Immanuel - Lobstein characterizes the method applied to the documents of the Bible by Usener as ‘supremely defective,’ and, after admitting the ‘remarkable likenesses to our Gospel tradition’ in the Pagan parallels he has accumulated, says: ‘Yet the conclusions which he draws from them go singularly beyond his premisses: the Jewish and Christian factors suffice to explain the genesis of the myth of the Nativity’ (The Virgin Birth of Christ, pp. This was ultimately derived from the Pagan stories of children of the gods, but was not taken over directly from Paganism by Jewish Christianity. It had arisen on the soil of Judaism itself, and it is in the Judaeo-pagan syncretism, with its doctrine that the Messiah must be born of a virgin, that the origin of the belief is to be sought. ’ The same view is taken by the scholars who regard the doctrine as purely Pagan in origin. On the other hand, a good many scholars take the view that the story was created, not simply out of Pagan materials, but on Pagan soil and among Gentile Christians
Sardis - Most of the Christians had fallen back to the Pagan level of life
Ceremony - Many of them were borrowed from Judaism, but more from Paganism. Middleton has given a fine discourse on the conformity between the Pagan and popish ceremonies, which he exemplifies in the use of incense, holy water, lamps and candles before the shrines of saints, voltive gifts round the shrines of the deceased, &c
Discipline - Such an education was to avoid the heavy-handed, physical brutality practiced by their Pagan neighbors
Caesarea Philippi - Caesarea Philippi, which had been the center for Pagan worship, thus became an important site for Christians because of Jesus' association with it
Lebanon - See Gods, Pagan
Harlot - Pagan gods and goddesses ‘had their due secret solemnities whithersoever Greek (and partly Roman) colonists took their Lares and Penates’ (Baring-Gould in Chambers’ Encyc
Anchor - ’ The use of an anchor as a figure of hope was not new, for it is found in pre-Christian Greek and Latin authors, and an anchor appears on ancient Pagan medals as an emblem of hope
Worship, Worshiping - 3); Acts 17:23 (see DEVOTION); in 2 Thessalonians 2:4 , "that is worshiped;" every object of "worship," whether the true God or Pagan idols, will come under the ban of the Man of Sin
Harlot - Pagan gods and goddesses ‘had their due secret solemnities whithersoever Greek (and partly Roman) colonists took their Lares and Penates’ (Baring-Gould in Chambers’ Encyc
Patrophilus of Scythopolis - He died very soon afterwards, for his grave was desecrated during the temporary Pagan reaction under Julian in 361, when his remains were scattered and his skull mockingly used as a lamp (Theoph
Ishmael - The Pagan law of blood revenge necessitates every Arab's knowing the names of his ancestors for four generations, so that the race is well defined. ...
So on the second day fourscore devotees with shaven beards, rent clothes, having cut themselves with Pagan mutilations (see Leviticus 19:27-28; Deuteronomy 14:1), were seen by Ishmael from the higher ground on which he was, advancing from the N. They came from Shechem, Shiloh, and Samaria, where such Pagan usages prevailed, expressive of sorrow; they hereby indicated their grief at the destruction of the temple and city
God - A knowledge of the character and attributes of Pagan “gods” was thought to enable the worshipers to manipulate or influence the deities in a more effective way than they could have if the deity’s name remained unknown. This designation would have sounded strange coming from a Pagan Persian ruler, had it not been for the policy of religious toleration exercised by the Achaemenid regime. Although such false “gods” were being worshiped by Pagan nations (and perhaps worshiped by some of the Hebrews who were in exile in Babylonia), these deities would ultimately perish because they were not eternal in nature
Theophilus (2) - Some critics still hold that Theophilus was simply a Pagan interested in Christianity. For this there is no evidence whatsoever, and we have already seen that there was no necessary incongruity in applying such a title of honour, Pagan though it was, to a fellow-Christian
Pseudepigrapha - The Jews took over the originally Pagan writings and modified them by inserting ideas about monotheism, Mosaic requirements, and Jewish history. It pronounces God's judgment upon Pagan nations, but holds out hope that they may turn to God
Proselytes - In Psalms 94:6, as the Pagan do not make widow and strangers their chief object of attack, "the stranger" is probably the saint in relation to this world (Psalms 39:12), and "the widow" is the widowed church awaiting Christ's glorious epiphany to avenge her on antichrist (Luke 18:3-8). Any good in Paganism was lost, and all that was bad in traditional Judaism was acquired. Simon ben Gamaliel said: "when a Pagan comes to enter the covenant we ought to stretch out, our hand to him and bring him under the wings of God" (Jost, Judah, Kingdom of - The diminution of numbers intensified the theocratic element by eliminating all that was Pagan and attracting all the godly in northern Israel. , prepared Judah for the 70 years' captivity; Ezekiel and Daniel witnessed for God to them, and to the Pagan world power in it
Charities - The Pagan civilizations had a larger organization and hence a greater respect for the rights of strangers
Naphtali - Pagan neighbours soon made it and northern Israel "Galilee of the Gentiles
Fertility Cult - See Asherah ; Ashtoroth; Baal ; Canaan, History and Religion of ; Dagon ; Diana ; Gods, Pagan ; High Place ; Prostitution ; Tammuz ; Ugarit
Heathen - Upwards of 480 millions (nearly half the globe, ) however, are supposed to be yet in Pagan darkness
Saints - This sense of Jehovah's separateness from the sins of the people and from the Pagan idols of the lands in which they dwelled was the heart of Jewish monotheism. That is, they are considered undefiled by Paganism if at least one of their parents is a Christian
Abomination, Abomination of Desolation - Hebrews did not want to write or pronounce the Pagan term “bacal” and so substituted “abomination” (shiqquts)
Learning - As the Christians were opposed by the Pagans and the Jews, they were excited to the study of Pagan and Jewish literature, in order to expose the absurdities of the Jewish traditions, the weakness of Paganism, and the imperfections and insufficiency of philosophy
River; Wadi - This passage appears to be a literary allusion to the Pagan concept of the creation and structure of the world—the next verse is “Who shall ascend into the hill of the Lord?” ( Eat - Unlike the Pagan deities ( am ha'Arez - (Jeremiah 44:21, Haggai 2:4, Zechariah 7:5), and (3) like ‘pagan’ from , was applied to those remote from or untouched by the culture (particularly religious culture) of the time, till it became (4) finally, an expression of contempt meaning ‘uncultured,’ ‘rude,’ ‘barbarous,’ ‘irreligious,’ applied to a certain class or even to a member of that class
Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople - Idolatry was universally suppressed, heathen books were burnt, Pagan images destroyed, the professors of the old religion imprisoned and flogged
Idol - ” In any case the item is associated with Pagan worship and perhaps with worship of God
Herodians - Herod had introduced several Heathen idolatrous usages; for, as Josephus says, he built a temple to Caesar, near the head of the river Jordan; he erected a magnificent theatre at Jerusalem, instituted Pagan games, and placed a golden eagle over the gate of the temple of Jehovah; and he furnished the temples, which he reared in several places out of Judea, with images for idolatrous worship, in order to ingratiate himself with the emperor and the people of Rome; though to the Jews he pretended that he did it against his will, and in obedience to the imperial command
Reformation - ...
CAUSES The causes of the Reformation were: ...
the weakening of papal authority through the protracted residence at Avignon, the dissensions of the Great Schism of the West, and the worldliness of some popes
the reservation of too many ecclesiastical appointments to the Roman Curia
the opposition to papal authority on the part of some bishops who were in reality temporal princes rather than spiritual rulers
the poverty, ignorance, or unfitness for their sacred calling of many of the lower clergy
the wealth of Rome, of the monasteries in Germany and England, and the dissensions among their inmates
the ignorance, superstition, and religious indifference prevalent among many Christians
the tendency in civilgovernments to encroach upon the rights of the Church
the social unrest consequent upon the disintegration of the feudal system
the support given the new movement by the secular power, which was thus enabled to usurp the religious authority of the pope and to confiscate the property of the Church
the revival of Pagan religious thought and practise
the restlessness and love of material gain attendant upon the geographical discoveries
the printing press so effectively used by the innovators to calumniate the Church and spread their views
Occupation (2) - People indulged in Pagan-like worry over the question, What shall we eat, and what shall we drink, and wherewith shall we be clothed? instead of seeking first the Kingdom of God and His righteousness (Matthew 6:31 ff
Colossians, Letter to the - ...
The false teaching in Colossae...
This teaching was an early form of Gnosticism, a kind of religious philosophy that combined Christian belief with Pagan mythology
Porphyrius, Bishop of Gaza - The people of Gaza were then almost all Pagan, and the position of a zealous Christian bishop was one of no small difficulty and even danger
Prison (2) - ...
If those mutilations and other horrid cruelties, familiar to the older Pagan world, were less common, still vindictiveness rather than reformation was a note of imprisonment at the dawn of the Christian era
Bible - The Pagan ancient sacred stories, as those of the Hindus, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, present scenes of the unseen world merely gratifying idle curiosity and a prurient imagination. Another striking fact is, Israel has left scarcely any remains of art, and certainly nothing comparable to the masterpieces of the Pagan; but it has handed down the Book which infinitely excels all that the genius of the whole world beside has produced. Pantheism, and the worship of nature as an abstract entity, lay at the root of all Pagan idolatries. The Pagan mythologies in their indecent histories of gods counteracted their moral precepts
Zechariah, the Book of - ...
The first vision represents Jehovah' s messengers announcing that after walking to and fro through the earth they found it at rest (in contrast to and counterworking Satan who "walks to and fro upon the earth" to hurt the saints, Job 1:7); this secure rest of the Pagan earth is the interceding Angel's plea for the desolate temple and Judah, and elicits Jehovah's great jealousy for Zion, so that He returns to her with mercies and with judgments on the Pagan oppressor (Haggai 2:20-23). Four chariots, symbolizing the fourfold dispensations of Providence as regards the contact of the four great world powers with Judaea, come out from between the two mountains Zion and Moriah (the seat of the temple, representing the theocracy) where the Lord is (Zechariah 2:10), and from whence He sends His ministers of judgments on the Pagan; the red horses in one represent carnage; the black, sorrow and famine (Revelation 6:5-6); the white, joy and victory; the grisled or piebald, a mixed dispensation, partly prosperity, partly adversity; all alike working together for good to Israel. Jehovah gave them up to a foolish (wicked) shepherd (Zechariah 11:15-17) since they would not have the good Shepherd; namely, Rome Pagan and papal, and finally the blasphemous antichrist (John 5:43; Luke 15:22; Daniel 12:1; Daniel 9:27; 2 Thessalonians 2:3-12; Revelation 13:5-6; 1618488157_86)
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria - 522) obtained from Theodosius a commission to demolish the Pagan temples of Alexandria (Socr. quarter of the city, which had been the popular sanctuary of Alexandrian Paganism, and now became their stronghold of "furious despair" ( Orat. Terrified by the shouts which proclaimed this mandate, the desperadoes abandoned the Serapeum; and Theophilus, with a great body of soldiers, exultant Christians, and astounded Pagans, ascended the hundred steps leading up the mound, and penetrated into the faintly lighted sanctuary, from within which the Christians afterwards believed that Olympius, on the night before the evacuation, had heard a voice chanting "Alleluia" (Soz. The one exception was an image of an ape, which Theophilus set up in a public place "in perpetuam rei memoriam," to the vexation of the Pagan grammarian Ammonius, who lived to teach the young Socrates at Constantinople, and used to complain seriously of the injustice thus done to "Greek religion" (Socr. During the demolition of various temples there were found hollow statues of bronze and wood, set against the walls, but capable of being entered by the priests, who thus carried on their impostures, which Theophilus explained to his Pagan fellow-citizens (Theod. But when the Nile-gauge was removed from the Serapeum to the church, the Pagans asked, Would not the god avenge himself by withholding the yearly inundation his power had been wont to effect? It was, in fact, delayed. We know not the nature of those concessions to the Pagans which, according to a letter from Atticus to Theophilus's nephew Cyril, Theophilus made at this time for the sake of peace (Cyril, Epp. 202), but they did not prevent a Pagan like Eunapius from abusing him
Tabernacle - In Pagan temples this is where the gods were believed to sit and eat. ...
In all the Pagan temples the innermost space was reserved for the idol, the visual expression of the Pagan insistence that the divine is clothed with this world, and that this world is the body of the divine
Manliness - The starting-point of Pagan ethics is the analysis of the term ‘happiness’ (εὐδαεμσνία), regarded not as a subjective state of feeling, but as an objective form of being. Self is the beginning, centre, and aim of Pagan ethical thought. The virtues of the Pagan are ‘inflated and arrogant’ (Augustine), even where they inculcate the same conduct as the Christian virtues (cf
Devil - His misrepresentation of God as one arbitrary, selfish, and envious of His creature's happiness, a God to be slavishly-feared lest He should hurt, rather than filially loved, runs through all Pagan idolatries. The mixture of some elements of primitive truth in Paganism accords with Satan's practice of foiling the kingdom of light by transforming himself at times into an "angel of light. In Pagan countries instances occur wherein Satan seemingly exercises a more direct influence than in Christian lands
Cherub (1) - Whereas Pagan sacrificed to appease their God, Bible sacrifices were brought before God expressing the propitiation which He had already in His gracious purpose made by His Son (Revelation 13:8). ...
The Pagan knowledge of the cherubim of the Book of Revelation is implied in Ezekiel 28:13-14, where the king of Tyre is represented as having been "in Eden the garden of God," and as boasting that he is "the anointed cherub that covereth," i
Christian - it is of common occurrence-in Pagan writers, the Apologists, the author of the Didache, and so on. This was intelligible enough in Pagan writers. 3) does this intentionally, saying to Pagans: ‘When you wrongly say Chrestians [2] (for your knowledge of the name is limping), it is composed of suavity and benignity’ [3]
Drunkenness - The apostles did not fight against the social customs of Pagan nations with a new legalism. ...
That this is true of the vulgar and of the educated alike, both in Pagan and in Christian times, is attested not only by a thousand drinking-songs but by the orgies of the ‘Symposium’ and the ‘Noctes Ambrosiamae
Clean, Cleanness - Some writers claimed that they were designed so as to avoid Pagan idolatrous practices. Animals associated with Pagan cults were prohibited, as were unfamiliar or repulsive creatures, and those species that fed upon carrion
Priest - 1: ἱερεύς (Strong's #2409 — Noun Masculine — hiereus — hee-er-yooce' ) "one who offers sacrifice and has the charge of things pertaining thereto," is used (a) of a "priest" of the Pagan god Zeus, Acts 14:13 ; (b) of Jewish "priests," e
Funeral, Rites - The ancient Christians testified their abhorrence of the Pagan custom of burning their dead, and always deposited the body entire in the ground; and it was usual to bestow the honour of embalming upon the martyrs, at least , if not upon others
Nazareth - Nazareth bore a bad name even in Galilee (for Nathanael who said "can any good thing come out of Nazareth?" was of Galilee), which itself, because of its half Pagan population and rude dialect, was despised by the people of Judea
Religion - " The religions which exist in the world have been generally divided into four, the Pagan, the Jewish, the Mahometan, and the Christian; to which articles the reader is referred
Hagar - In either view the words show Hagar was now no Pagan, but had become in some degree a believer in the God of Abraham
Mark, John - Mark readily accompanied him as "minister" (hufretes , "subordinate") to the country of his kindred; but had not the spiritual strength to overcome his Jewish prejudices which he probably imbibed from his spiritual father Peter (Galatians 2:11-14), so as to accompany Paul the apostle of the Gentiles further than Perga of Pamphylia, in his first missionary tour to the Pagan
Anger - ...
The Anger of God Unlike Pagan gods, whose tirades reflect the fickleness of their human creators, Yahweh "expresses his wrath every day" because he is a righteous judge ( Psalm 7:11 )
Pharisees - The Pharisees had many Pagan notions respecting the soul; but Bishop Bull, in his Harmonia Apostolica, has clearly proved that they held a resurrection of the body, and that they supposed a certain bone to remain uncorrupted, to furnish the matter of which the resurrection body was to be formed
Prostitution - ...
See also Gods and Goddesses, Pagan ; Idol, Idolatry ; Immorality, Sexual ...
...
Gate - The open spaces near the gates were used for Pagan sacrifices (Acts 14:13; 2 Kings 23:8)
Palmtree - Rigid motionless uprightness is the point of comparison to the Pagan idols in Jeremiah 10:4-5
Colosse - Paul assures them, that since he had heard of their faith in Christ Jesus, and of their love to all Christians, he had not ceased to return thanks to God for them, and to pray that they might increase in spiritual knowledge, and abound in every good work; he describes the dignity of Christ, and declares the universality of the Gospel dispensation, which was a mystery formerly hidden, but now made manifest; and he mentions his own appointment, through the grace of God, to be the Apostle of the Gentiles; he expresses a tender concern for the Colossians and other Christians of Phrygia, and cautions them against being seduced from the simplicity of the Gospel, by the subtlety of Pagan philosophers, or the superstition of Judaizing Christians; he directs them to set their affections on things above, and forbids every species of licentiousness; he exhorts to a variety of Christian virtues, to meekness, veracity, humility, charity, and devotion; he enforces the duties of wives, husbands, children, fathers, servants, and masters; he inculcates the duty of prayer, and of prudent behaviour toward unbelievers; and after adding the salutations of several persons then at Rome, and desiring that this epistle might be read in the church of their neighbours the Laodiceans, he concludes with a salutation from himself, written, as usual, with his own hand
Education - All this was wholly different from the speculative and uncertain maxims of morality taught by Paganism. He spoke with authority and with finality on the truths which had perplexed the Pagan world, the existence of God, the moral order, immortality, the value of the present and of the future life
Germany - Boniface dealt a death blow to Paganism, symbolized in cutting down the sacred oak of Geismar, founded the monastery of Fulda, and opened the first convents for women in Germany. This Pagan imperial policy was again attempted by Frederick Barbarossa who was vanquished by Pope Alexander III
Ara'Bia - Magianism, an importation from Chaldaea and Persia, must be reckoned among the religions of the Pagan Arabs; but it never had very numerous followers
Lord's Day - ...
But from the fact that early Christians did not coin the term κυριακός, but found it ready to hand in the vocabulary of the day, it does not necessarily follow that they used it as the Pagan world used it. ’ He prefers (though, indeed, with a certain amount of caution) to regard this Christian mode of naming the first day of the week as analogous to the custom of the Pagan world in Egypt and Asia Minor whereby the first day of each month was called Σεβαστή (= Imperial). ’ This, to say the least, is not self-evident; and Deissmann may well hesitate, as he does, to maintain that the Christians thus consciously copied the Pagan use. At the same time the parallelism in such use among Jews, Christians, and Pagans is a matter of some interest. liturgical names for Sunday (dies dominica, κυριακή) and Saturday (sabbatum, σάββατον), the whole liturgical scheme of the week having come down from early times when Christiana discarded the use of day-names associated with Pagan gods. (No institution of like kind was known in Paganism. ’...
(b) Again, the persistence, or survival, of the pre-Christian and Pagan designation ‘Sunday’ is a matter of interest, especially since, being tacitly denuded of its ancient associations with sun-worship, it has come to be invested to the Christian mind with all the meaning attached to ‘Lord’s Day,’ and used interchangeably with that name
Sibylline Oracles - ...
But what is the Sibyl, a Pagan figure, doing in this Christian connexion? How did she come to till so strange a rôle? The answer to these questions is the subject of the present article. His action was bitterly resented, as we can see from the indignant verses of Rutilius Numantianus, but the protect did not affect the fact; Stilicho’s action had made it impossible for the authorities to appeal in future to this ancient relic of Pagan divination. the literary method of the Sibylline oracles had been exploited by one or more Jewish authors at Alexandria, in the interests of religious apologetic and propaganda. [8] They chose this Pagan form in order not only to convey threats of doom against persecuting powers like Assyria and Rome, but also to win a hearing among outside circles for their own monotheism and moralism. ]'>[19] The Church appropriated them, appealed to them, edited them in her own interests, composed fresh ones, and, in general, treated the Jewish Sibylline oracles much as the Alexandrian Jews had treated the Pagan ones
Gnosticism - The philosophy was constructed out of Jewish, Pagan, and Christian elements, and was due mainly to the inevitable contact and conflict between these various modes of thought. It was an attempt to Incorporate Christian with Jewish and Pagan ideas in solving the problems of life
Nehemiah - Nay, more, he daily entertained 150 Jews, besides those that came from among the Pagan. " Psalms 126:2 is Israel's song at the time: "then said they among the Pagan, the Lord hark done great things Jot them . ...
The law awakened a sense of sin (Nehemiah 9); so first they put away strangers, as Israel must be a separate people, and read the law a fourth of the day, and another fourth confessed sin and worshipped, the Levites leading; then they made a covenant to walk in God's law, not to intermarry with Pagan, to keep the sabbath, and to pay a third of a shekel each for the service of God's temple, to bring the firstfruits and firstborn, and not to "forsake the house of our God," (Nehemiah 10) the princes, Levites, and priests sealing it
Judges, the Book of - The judges were God's vice-gerents in carrying out part of that particular providence which distinguished Israel's God from the idols of the Pagan around. Intermarriages with Pagan neighbours, Gentile associations, the beauty of the Canaanite women, the pomp, gaiety, and voluptuousness of their rites, the hope of learning the future by idolatrous divination, superstitious fears of the alleged gods of the locality where they settled, inclined Israel to add to Jehovah's worship the Pagan idolatries (for they had too strong proofs of the divine law to renounce it wholly)
Ass - ) In Jeremiah 2:24 headstrong, undisciplinable obstinacy, and untamable perversity, and lust after the male, answering to Israel's spiritual lust after idols and alliances with Pagan, are the point (Hosea 2:6-7): "all they (the males) that seek her will not (have no need to) weary themselves in searching for her, in her month (the season when sexual impulse is strongest), they shall find her" putting herself in their way, and not needing to be sought cut by the males
Virgin, Virgin Birth - There is no thought of sexual relations between God and Mary, an idea which can be found in some Pagan religions where the deities were thought of as engaging in such practices
Joppa - Peter, always impulsive and uncalculating, went straight to Pagan Caesarea, and delivered a speech which opened the gates of Christ’s Church to ‘every nation’ (Acts 10:35)
Fire - This distinguishes it from the Pagan idol Vesta's fire, the Magian fire, that of the Parsees, etc
Haggai - the semi-pagan colonists of what had once been the Northern Kingdom, 2 Kings 17:24-41 ), whose wish to co-operate had been refused ( Ezra 4:1-5 ); and, this external obstruction being reinforced by indifference on the part of the Jews themselves ( Haggai 1:4 ), the site of the Temple remained a waste for a period of 15 years
Ancestors - ...
Though Israel was forbidden to practice the cult of the dead, she often departed from God's injunctions and engaged in the worship of Pagan deities
Paulinus, Missionary to Northumbria - ...
In 625 Edwin, king of Northumbria, wished to marry Ethelburga, daughter of Eadbald, king of Kent, who objected to a Pagan son-in-law
Propitiation - ; and for the opposite view, maintaining the classical and Pagan use of the Gr. Bushnell also maintains that the language of Scripture accords with the Pagan idea of propitiation, but he rejects the idea itself on ethical grounds, suggesting that the apostolic writers did not really mean what their words mean-an evasion which creates an exegetical impasse (cf. This difference of construction marks a difference between Pagan and biblical ideas; for although propitiating God may be indirectly involved in phrases used in the OT, it is not direct and prominent as in non-biblical writers. The writer noticeably departs from the classical construction of the verb, and adopts the biblical, making its object ‘the sins of the people’; he thus avoids making God the object of the propitiation, producing in doing so a construction strange at the same time to Greek ears and to Pagan ideas
Ezra, Book of - God can use a Pagan “to fulfill the word of the Lord. God's work may get Pagan authorization and support
Captivity - ...
Those who apostatized to Assyrian and Babylonian idolatry were absorbed among the Pagan. " Again returning they revolted under Bar-Cochaba "the son of a star" (Numbers 24:17); but Adrian destroyed them, and built a Pagan city, AEia, where Jerusalem had stood
Jehoshaphat - " His prayer in the congregation in the Lord's house is a model "O Lord God of our fathers (therefore we the children have a covenanted claim on Thee), art not Thou God in heaven (therefore hast rule thence over all)? Rulest not Thou over all the kingdoms of the Pagan (therefore the Pagan invaders of Thine elect nation cannot escape Thee)? And in Thine hand is there not power and might, so that none is able to withstand Thee (therefore this horde cannot)? Art not Thou our God who didst drive out the inhabitants of this land before Thy people Israel, and gavest it to the seed of Abraham Thy friend for ever? (Thy covenant forever with 'Thy friend,' and Thine honour at stake, require Thy interposition)
New Moon - the action taken by the Christian Church in relation to Pagan festivals (e. The things he condemns, however, were Pagan, not Jewish
Hell - ” The term originally referred to a ravine on the south side of Jerusalem where Pagan deities were worshiped ( 2 Kings 23:10 ; Jeremiah 7:32 ; 2 Chronicles 28:3 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 )
Deliver - ...
The fact that God delivers as he does is a polemic against the Pagan rulers who challenge his ability to rescue his people
Cross - The Pagan Egyptians, Copts, Indians, and Persians, all have the same sacred emblem
Ezra - Israel is the speaker throughout whom the psalmist represents, and whose calling it was to testify for the word of truth before the Pagan world powers (compare Psalms 119:23-46)
Jehoahaz - The people set up Jehoahaz out of order; Johanan is never after mentioned; the Pagan Pharaoh set up Jehoiakim; Nebuchadnezzar Zedekiah
Amos - ...
Amos 9:11-15; David's fallen tabernacle shall be raised, the people re-established in prosperity in their own land, no more to be pulled out, and the conversion of the Pagan shall follow the establishment of the theocracy finally; compare Amos 9:12 with Acts 15:17
Self- Examination - ’ Thus, the Apostle throws his converts back upon the test of their own heart-experience so as to produce a complete severance from Pagan vices, and further so that he himself, who has to condemn these vices, will be approved as having done his duty and will be found to be undeserving of the censure that has been poured on him
Carpenter - A curious anecdote is recorded by Farrar, to the effect that Libanius, a Pagan sophist and devoted admirer of Julian the Apostate, inquired of a Christian, ‘What is the carpenter doing now?’ The answer was, ‘He is making a coffin
Antichrist - Grotius, Hammond, Bossuet, and others, supposed Rome Pagan to be designed; but Rome Christian seems more evident, for John "saw the beast rise up out of the sea, " Revelation 13:1
Dinooth, Dinothus, Abbat of Bangor Iscoed - 123), when Ethelfrid, the Pagan king of Northumbria, invaded the Britons at Chester
Phrygia - The enthusiasm with which the Pagan Phrygians were in the habit of throwing themselves into the worship of Cybele re-appeared in the Phrygian type of Christianity, which gave birth to Montanism with its spiritual ecstasies and prophetic visions
Herod - He built a theater and amphitheater, and introduced Pagan games in honour of Caesar every fifth year at Jerusalem. He rebuilt Samaria and its temple, and called it Sebaste (Greek for Augusta) in honour of Augustus; also Caesarea on the site of Straton, and made provision at it for Pagan worship. Herodias having gained this first step, like her prototype Jezebel, found the next step an easy one; at the first "convenient day" (his birthday, which he observed with the Herodian characteristic aping of Roman ways, in defiance of Jewish abhorrence of the Pagan custom) when Herod made a supper to his lords, and Herodias' daughter by dancing so pleased him that he promised to give whatever she might ask, Herodias prompted her to ask for John's head. 19:7, section 1, notices the Herods' magnificent celebration of their" birthdays," which became proverbial and were celebrated by the Herodians even at Rome, as noticed by the Pagan Persius, 5:180)
Hosea, Theology of - Turning away from God they took the fruits of the land and offered them to Pagan idols, eventually attributing the source of these blessings to the gods of Canaan (2:8; 11:1). Caught up in the rituals of this fertility cult Israel attributed the gifts of God to Pagan gods (2:8)
Moab - But for her usurpation of Israel's land, and for saying "Judah is like unto all the Pagan," i. fares no better for having Jehovah for her God than the Pagan who have idols, God "would open her side from the cities on her frontiers, the glory of the country (a glorious country in richness of soil), Bethjeshimoth, Baalmeon, and Kiriathaim, unto the men of the East," i
Esther - Similarly, Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah, who held official posts in the Persian court, wrote under inspiration the books which bear their names, and which describe the relations of the Jews to the Pagan world power. The design apparently was, in the absence of the visible theocracy while God's people were under the Pagan world power, that the historic facts should speak for themselves with expressive silence (just as the book of nature does: Psalm 19; Romans 1:20), attesting God's providence even when God hid His name and verbal manifestation
Patriarchs, the - ...
As Abram moved along the trading routes leading to Shechem, Bethel, and the Hebron area and mingled with the Pagan Canaanites, God's promise that the childless Sarai would bear a son could only be accepted by faith. Despite his apparent materialism, Jacob was a person of deep spirituality who, like Abraham, was esteemed highly by his Pagan neighbors
Theodosius i., the Great - We may take the ecclesiastical legislation under two heads: (1) against heretics; (2) against Pagans. ...
Theodosius sought to suppress Paganism also. "de Paganis, Sacrificiis et Templis," enables us to trace accurately his progress. The emperor was taking sterner measures against Oriental Paganism, and had just sent Cynegius as his deputy into Egypt and the East to see that his orders were strictly carried out; whereupon the monks, as Libanius expressly states, rose up and utterly destroyed the temple. He issued, however, a decree in 393 to the count of the East, prohibiting all interference with Judaism and specially forbidding attacks on their synagogues; but he significantly omitted all such protective measures as regards Pagan temples. In 382 Gratian issued an order abolishing the altar of Victory, as hitherto retained in the senate house, and the other traces of Paganism which still remained. The usurper Eugenius restored the Pagan emblems and ritual, but Theodosius, on his victory, again abolished them, and adopted sterner measures against the vestal college
Song of Solomon - Another view tries to see it as an adaptation of Pagan fertility rituals
High Place - An elevated site, usually found on the top of a mountain or hill; most high places were Canaanite places of Pagan worship
Circumcision - This in itself was distinctively different from contemporary Pagan practices, which seem to have associated the rite either with puberty or with approaching marriage. When Greek Paganism threatened to swamp Judaism some two centuries before Christ was born, circumcision became a distinctive indication of Jewish fidelity to the covenant
Golden Rule - His compassion for people is seen in his love for the aliens among Israel, Pagan nations such as Nineveh, and sinful persons such as Gomer in Hosea
Synagogue - Local worship was discouraged during most of the Old Testament because it often was associated with Pagan practices
Astrology - Jeremiah also referred to the Pagan veneration of Ishtar or Venus (7:18; 44:17-19) as well as celestial bodies generally (8:2; 19:13)
Rahab (1) - Harlotry was not counted "sin" among the Pagan, though not respectable; but when she adopted a pure faith she began a pure life
Envy - Very different from this passion of holy desire was the φθόνος of the Pagan gods (τὸ θεῖον πᾶν ἐστι φθονερόν, says Solon, Herod
Covetousness - ’ It is the mark of a Pagan mind to be full of anxious and self-centred concern for meat and drink and raiment (Matthew 6:32)
Inspiration And Revelation - God had implanted in the human breast the desire for Himself; men were seeking Him, if haply they might feel after Him and find Him; even Pagan poets had realized that mankind was His offspring (Acts 17:27-28). ...
We observe how the Apostle singles out at once the best and the most prominent side of Pagan religion, making abstraction of its worst features. At the bottom of most of the Pagan cults that prevailed over the East-as, for instance, in the wide-spread worship under the names of Osiris, Adonis, Attis-was the celebration of seed-time and harvest. And here, too, there was many a Pagan who, though without the privileges which the Jew enjoyed through the possession of a written law, faithfully observed such inner law as he had
Isaiah - Israel in the Babylonian exile, suffering as God's representative amidst Pagan conquerors, is viewed as "the servant of Jehovah"; but as the mass of Jews were suffering for their sins the idea of "servant of Jehovah" limited itself to the elect, the holy seed of Israel's future. The Holy Spirit enlightened Isaiah's natural powers to foresee its rise and his spiritual faculties to foresee its fall, the sure result, in God's ways, of the pride which Pagan success generates; also Judah's restoration as the covenant people with whom God according to His immutable faithfulness would not be wroth forever. Again Isaiah 25-27, is the lyric prophecy of the downfall of the world city, the coming blessed personal epiphany of the Lord to His people, and the destruction of the foe (Isaiah 25), Judah's and Israel's resurrection politically and spiritually (Isaiah 26), the church vineyard ever kept by Jehovah (Isaiah 27); it forms the finale to Isaiah 13-23, concerning the Pagan foes of Israel
Abortion - Although many Pagan practices made their way into the early church, some were considered idolatrous or so morally repugnant that they remained outside. In the second and third centuries, as the church's Jewish heritage was matched or surpassed by Roman and Pagan influences, explicit condemnations of abortion became necessary. Gorman, Abortion and the Early Church: Christian, Jewish and Pagan Attitudes in the Greco-Roman World ; G
Immorality, Sexual - God had chosen the covenant nation to be an illustration to Pagan society of how individuals can become as holy as God through implicit faith in him and continuous obedience to his commandments. While general condemnations of homosexuality occur in Leviticus, none of the Pagan Near Eastern religions thought it either necessary or desirable to enact comparable legislation, since for them such activities were all part of normal religious life in temples or other places of cultic worship. The extended description of wanton immorality in Romans 1:24-32 discusses women spurning natural sexual relationships for unnatural ones, that is, indulging in lesbian activities of the kind practiced at Lesbos in Pagan Greek religious ceremonies
Persecution - Their open attacks upon Paganism made them extremely obnoxious to the populace, by whom they were represented as a society of atheists, who, by attacking the religious constitution of the empire, merited the severest animadversion of the civil magistrate. Horrid tales of their abominations were circulated throughout the empire; and the minds of the Pagans were, from all these circumstances, prepared to regard with pleasure or indifference every cruelty which could be inflicted upon this despised sect. Many things contributed toward it; as the laws of the empire, the emperor's zeal for his religion, and aversion to Christianity, and the prejudices of the Pagans, supported by falsehoods and calumnies against the Christians. " The violence of Pagan intolerance was most severely felt in Egypt, and particularly at Alexandria. This latter was excited not only by his own cruelty and superstition, but likewise by his mother, who was a zealous Pagan. There is, however, sufficient of well authenticated facts to assure us amply of the cruel and intolerant disposition of the professors of Pagan philosophy
Clean, Unclean - This further separated Israel from her Pagan neighbors. ...
Israel was not to cook a goat in its mother's milk not because it was a Pagan practice, but because it was inappropriate to combine that which was a symbol of life (mother's milk) with the death of that for which it was meant to give life, especially in the context of the Festival of Tabernacles (so the context of Exodus 23:19 ) celebrating the life-giving power of Yahweh
Exodus, Book of - God's leader delivers God's message to Pagan leaders (Exodus 5:1-23 ). God's power is superior to Pagan religious symbols (Exodus 9:1-7 )
Holy Day - We must also remember that as Christianity in the course of its missionary expansion came in contact with Hellenistic Judaism, the Pagan religions spirit, with its insistence on the observance of heathen festivals, would encourage a return to and an emphasis upon ‘holy days. At the same time, it is apparent from the contest that the Galatians had, no doubt through the influence of Pagan festivals, laid great stress on the observance of those days as connected with deliverance from the power of the στοιχεῖα, which are undoubtedly intermediate beings, connected with the growth of angelology in later Judaism, and readily identified by the Galatians with heathen demonic powers, in which they once believed (cf. Paul is not here condemning the observance of holy days as such, but only as leading, by way of a revived Judaism, back to Paganism
Italy - ...
The rise of Pagan humanism and moral laxity among clergy and laity alike in the 15th century was offset by the development of extraordinary sanctity (Saint Bernardine of Siena, Saint John Capistran, Saint Antoninus of Florence, Saint Frances of Rome)
Corinth - ...
The most significant Pagan cult in Corinth was the cult of Aphrodite
Magi - " The peculiarity of Balaam was, he stood partly on Pagan magic and soothsaying augury, partly on true revelation
Barnabas - But the Pagan writer Cicero (Epist. Loving sympathy with others, freedom from narrowness and suspicion, and largeness of heart characterized him in his frank trustfulness toward the late persecutor but now converted Saul, and toward those converted from Pagandom without any transitional stage of Judaism
Burial - The law (Leviticus 19:28) forbade cuttings in the flesh for the dead, usual among the Pagan
Gentiles - (jehn tiless) People who are not part of God's chosen family at birth and thus can be considered “pagans. ” Though not synonymous in English “Gentiles,” “nations,” “pagans,” “heathens” are variants chosen by translators to render goyim in Hebrew and ethnoi in Greek. “Gentile” and “nation” suggest race or territory, while “pagans” and “heathen” suggest religion. “Pagan” is not in the KJV but is in the RSV at 1 Corinthians 5:1 ; 1 Corinthians 10:20 for ethnoi , and is used numerous times in the NIV for both goy and ethnos
Syria - ” See Canaan; Gods, Pagan
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - ” In the Pagan world it was associated with the cycle of nature and the nature gods, or the survival of a “spiritual part” of a person after death
Titus - Hence flowed their love of "fables" (Titus 1:14), which even Pagan poets ridiculed, as for instance their assertion that they had in their land Jupiter's sepulchre
Hell - "Τartarus ," the Pagan Greek term for the place of enchainment of the Titans, rebels against God, occurs in 2 Peter 2:4 of the lost angels; the "deep," or "abyss," or "bottomless pit," (abussos ) Luke 8:31; Revelation 9:11
Circumcision - So, circumcision kept them distinct from uncircumcised Canaanite Pagan around
Sex, Biblical Teaching on - All nonmarital sex is outside the boundaries of the will of this ethical God (see Amos 2:6-8 where Israel was to reject sex at the Pagan shrines)
Long-Suffering - LONG-SUFFERING (μακροθυμία), like another fruit of the Spirit, love (ἀγάπη), has almost entirely non-pagan connexions
Sidon (2) - At length her limited territory, her merely commercial aim, her being sapped by colonization and dissension, her final surrender of leadership to Tyre, combined with her conquests by the world-powers, left her under the Romans in the days of Christ a merely provincial capital, richer in the vices of ancient Paganism than in its virtues. Thus the primary Gospel of Mark, the more ancient Sinaitic and Vatican Manuscripts , Professor Weiss, and the Revisers do not hesitate to depict Jesus as entering Gentile territory (twice), entering a (probably) heathen house, and dispensing blessings upon a Pagan woman, going then yet farther ‘through Sidon’ and Decapolis
Zephaniah, Theology of - Since Pagan practices are condemned (1:4-9), many suggest a date prior to 621 b
Friends Friendship - ’...
It has often been pointed out that friendship occupies an apparently much smaller place in the NT than in the OT or than in the writings of Pagan antiquity
Seek - Pagan people and sometimes even apostate Israelites “inquired of” heathen gods
Feasts - He then defiled the Jewish temple by setting up an altar in honour of the Pagan gods and sacrificing animals that the Jews considered unclean
Meletius, Bishop of Antioch - of Vercelli, to establish unity in order to resist the Pagan emperor; and this was one of the principal objects of a council held at Alexandria in 362 (Hefele, Conciliengeschichte , i
Theodosius ii., Emperor - Paganism became in itself a disability. had been Pagan; now by a law of Dec. 21), Pagans were prohibited from entering the military and civil services or attaining any judicial office. These measures seem to have produced an apparent uniformity, as Theodosius, in law 22 passed in 423, refers to the "pagans who remain, though we believe there are none such. " The law, however, as yet protected them if they lived peaceably; thus law 24 forbids Christians making attacks on Jews and Pagans living among them
Temple of Jerusalem - The great prophets preached that, in their Temple worship, Israel was not able to avoid syncretism with Pagan religious impulses or the hypocritical irrelevance of meaningless overemphasis upon ritual without righteous obedience to their sovereign Overlord (Isaiah 1:10-17 ; Micah 6:6-8 ; Jeremiah 7:1-26 ). During the long and disastrous reign of King Manasseh many abominable idols and Pagan cult objects were placed in the Temple which good King Josiah had to remove during his reform (2Kings 23:4-6,2 Kings 16:17 ). Both Hezekiah and Josiah were able to centralize worship in the Jerusalem Temple during their reforms and even recover some worshipers from the north for the Jerusalem sanctuary, but Josiah's successor, Jehoiakim, reversed all of Josiah's reforms and filled up the Temple with Pagan abominations (Ezekiel 8:1 )
Christianity - In the Pagan religions we find many anticipations of Christianity, but in Judaism there is a definite and Divine preparation for it. The Pagan faiths, so far from explaining its origin, serve rather to reveal the world’s great need of it. The Paganism that reared altars to an unknown God proved impotent to redeem human life from the dominion of evil (see Romans 1:21 ff. Unlike the religions of the Pagan world, Judaism was based upon a moral law of wonderful purity and breadth
Saviour (2) - Luke in calling Jesus σωτήρ was influenced by these and similar Pagan forms of expression current in the cult of the Emperors, and that the same influence may be seen at work in the frequency with which the Pastoral Epistles and 2 Peter employ the title. Paul purposely avoided its use, because of the eudaemonistic, political flavour it had acquired from these Pagan associations. Luke, in the ‘Gospel of the Infancy,’ the writer of the Pastorals, the writer of 2 Peter, and the Fourth Evangelist, meant to represent Christ as the true σωτήρ in whom lay the reality of what Paganism falsely ascribed to its rulers, dead or living. —Soltau (Die Geburtsgeschichte Jesu Christi, 1902) reaches the same conclusions, independently of Harnack, on the basis of the same and other classical material, and also asserts derivation of the story of the virgin birth from the same Pagan circle of ideas
Christian Life - 100 as marking the extreme limit of the Apostolic Age, our authorities for determining the characteristics of Christian practice and of the Christian life in its inner and outer aspects are but meagre, consisting of the NT writings, the Didache, 1 Clement, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Epistles of Ignatius, some fragments of Papias and Hegesippus preserved by Eusebius, and a few contemporary references in Pagan writers like Tacitus and Suetonius. His memorable indictment of Pagan vice in Romans 1:21 ff. The gentler virtues which found no place in Pagan ethics, such as sincerity, humility, reasonableness (Philippians 4:5), patience, meekness, brotherly love, kindness (Galatians 5:22), are united with love and temperance or self-control; while joy, peace, and thankfulness (cf
Christ in Art - ’...
All these symbols, it will be noticed, are common ones, such as would not excite comment among Pagans. ...
The earliest representation of the Cross by itself—the swastica or ‘fylfot’ —which is found in the Catacombs in the 3rd cent, and is not uncommon in the earliest Christian textiles—was a form so ‘dissimulated’ as to pass unnoticed among Pagans who were accustomed to its use as a conventional ornament. ...
That the death upon the Cross was ‘foolishness’ to Pagans as well as a stumbling-block to the Jews (1 Corinthians 1:18; 1 Corinthians 1:23), is curiously illustrated by the caricature of the Crucifixion which was scratched on the wall of the pages’ quarter at the Palatine in the latter part of the 2od cent. Pagan. —Early Christian art is classical not only in its reserve about the Cross, not only in its use of the ordinary classical decorative subjects, but also in its use of certain Pagan myths as symbolizing aspects of the Christian faith. It is remarkable that the moral value of the better elements of mythology should have been thus recognized at the very tombs of martyrs who had suffered at the hands of Paganism. The peacock and the phœnix, symbols of immortality, and thus of Christ triumphing over death, as well as the dolphin, carrier of souls to the Isles of the Blessed, were other Pagan types that continued in use among the Christians. In spite of the realism of the Good Shepherd pictures, there is a certain hieratic grace and dignity about the figure that marks it at once as a Christian subject, though the figure of a shepherd was common enough in Pagan art (e
Destroy, Destruction - Paul refers to a Pagan altar as "the table of demons" (1 Corinthians 10:21 ). Thus God merely makes Pagan nations who have already chosen the road to destruction (Matthew 7:13 ) more powerful and hence more capable of expressing their rebellious tendencies
Corinth - The immorality was notorious even in the Pagan world; so that "to Corinthianize" was proverbial for playing the wanton. But they never told him about the serious evils, which came to his ears only through some of the household of Chloe (1 Corinthians 1:11), contentions, divisions, lawsuits brought before Pagan courts by Christian brethren against brethren (1 Corinthians 6:1)
Gods And Goddesses, Pagan - At the heart of this Pagan religion was the worship of the fertility or fecundity "forces/features" that characterized the animate aspects of the created world. During the reign of Solomon worship of Chemosh, along with that of other Pagan gods, was established and promoted in the city of Jerusalem
Stoics - -The old mythologies and Pagan practices had now lost their power over the Greek mind. It may certainly be acknowledged that in these two Pagan writers we reach the high-water mark of non-Christian ethics
Sacrifices in the Old Testament - Human sacrifices among the Hebrews are always spoken of as an abomination committed by people contaminated through the influence of their Pagan neighbors. Private holocausts were frequent, and could be offered even at the instance of Pagans (no imposition of hands then took place)
Old Testament, Sacrifices in the - Human sacrifices among the Hebrews are always spoken of as an abomination committed by people contaminated through the influence of their Pagan neighbors. Private holocausts were frequent, and could be offered even at the instance of Pagans (no imposition of hands then took place)
Building - The call to purity and separateness here, drawn from Israel's scriptures (Exodus 29:45 ; Leviticus 26:11-12 ; 2 Samuel 7:14 ; Isaiah 52:11 ; Ezekiel 37:26-28 ), ha sin mind primarily the defilement of Pagan religious practices (cf
Korah - ...
Korah's sin answers to that of sacerdotalist ministers who, not content with the honour of the ministry (nowhere in the New Testament are Christian ministers called "sacrificing" or "sacerdotal priests," hiereis, a term belonging in the strict and highest sense to Jesus alone; restricted to Him and the Aaronic and Pagan priests, and spiritually applied to all Christians: Matthew 8:4; Acts 14:13; Hebrews 5:6; Revelation 1:6; Revelation 5:10; Revelation 20:6; 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:9), usurp Christ's sacrificing and mediatorial priesthood; also to that of all men who think to be saved by their own doings instead of by His mediatorial work for us (Acts 4:12)
Blood - The law of retaliation in blood affected only the manslayer, and not also (as among Pagan nations) his relatives (Deuteronomy 24:16)
Peter, Second, Theology of - In conformity to the evil influences of their Pagan culture, they distorted the apostolic teachings about freedom from the law (1:20-21; 2:21; 3:15-16; cf
Philosophy - Paul uses philosophical reasoning to discredit Pagan superstition
Nations, the - The New Testament Greek ethnos [2] is rendered "nation(s)" (36 times), "pagan(s)" (8 times), "Gentiles" (84 times), and "heathen" (one time ) in the New International Version
Know, Knowledge - " They have been influenced by the Hebrew word yada [1], such influence having been mediated through the Septuagint, but they also reflect an adaptation demanded by a Pagan world ignorant of God's existence
Kill, Killing - It could be used of oxen (Matthew 22:4 ), flocks (John 10:10 ), by Peter in Acts (10:13; 11:7), for the Passover (Luke 22:7 ), of Christ as the Passover lamb (1 Corinthians 5:7 ), and by Paul in comparing Pagan and Hebrew sacrifice (1Col 8:4-13; 10:25-30)
Galilee - Tiglath Pileser carried away captive its Israelite population to Assyria; then Esarhaddon colonized it with Pagan (2 Kings 15:29; 2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:2; Ezra 4:10)
Galerius, Emperor - 33), but also upon that of the Pagan Aurelius Victor ( Epit
Galatians, the Epistle to the - Accustomed, when Pagan, to the mystic worship of Cybele prevalent in the neighboring Phrygia, they the more readily were led to believe that the full privileges of Christianity could only be attained by submitting to elaborate ceremonial symbolism (Galatians 4:9-11; Galatians 5:7-12)
Antioch - ...
In 362, the emperor Julian spent some months at Antioch; which were chiefly occupied in his favourite object of reviving the mythology of Paganism. The grove at Daphne, planted by Seleucus, which, with its temple and oracle, presented, during the reigns of the Macedonian kings of Syria, the most splendid and fashionable place of resort for Pagan worship in the east, had sunk into neglect since the establishment of Christianity. Many Christians, indeed, suffered from the zeal of the Pagans; but, as it would appear, without the sanction of the emperor
Corinthians - Now, as their mutual confidence in each other more and more decreased, they brought, to the disgrace of Christianity, their complaints before the Pagan tribunals, 1 Corinthians 6:1
Feasts - Many of these festivals were instituted on a Pagan model, and perverted to similar purposes
Heaven - All the views presented to us of this eternal residence of good men are pure and noble; and form a striking contrast to the low hopes, and the gross and sensual conceptions of a future state, which distinguish the Pagan and Mohammedan systems
Hornet - The vindictive power that presided over this dreadful scourge was worshipped at Ekron, in Palestine, through fear, the reigning motive of Pagan superstition, under the title of Baal-zebub, "master or lord of the hornet," whence Beelzebub, in the New Testament, "the prince of demons," Matthew 12:24
Idol, Idolatry - When they buy food at the market or eat at the house of Pagan friends, they have no need to ask whether the food has been offered to idols
Olympias, the Younger - Her family was of high rank, but Pagan
Rabbulas, Bishop of Edessa - He received a liberal education, and was well versed in Pagan literature
Eschatology - Pagan gods and Pagan political rulers seemed to hold all things in their grip. Instead of coming as a warrior Messiah to destroy the Pagan nations and their gods, God came as a humble Servant who was put to death, but then was unexpectedly resurrected. However, this meant that not only Pagans, but they, too, were God's enemies (Romans 5:10 )
Government - ...
With the passing of strong leadership at the death of Joshua and the increasing influence of Pagan Canaanite customs on Israelite life, the covenant fell into disrepute and the elders lost control of their communities. This Pagan model was contrary to theocratic concepts and met with God's disapproval. Nevertheless, he allowed Samuel to anoint Saul as Israel's first "king" (Saul was really a charismatic leader rather than a Pagan type of king)
Paul - unto strange cities," and "breathing out threatenings and slaughter," he was on his journey to Damascus with authoritative letters from the high priest empowering him to arrest and bring to Jerusalem all such, trusting doubtless that the Pagan governor would not interpose in their behalf. a separatist, but now 'separated' unto something infinitely higher) from my mother's womb (therefore without any merit of mine), and calling me by His grace (which carried into effect His 'good pleasure,' eudokia ), revealed His Son in me, that I might preach Him among the Pagan," independent of Mosaic ceremonialism (Galatians 1:11-20). ...
His address to the Pagan Athenians corresponds (Acts 17:24-29); there he says "God winked at the times of ignorance, but now commandeth all to repent," as here, "who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways," and Romans 3:25, "on account of the praetermission (passing by without judicial cognizance) of the past sins in the forbearance of God
Offence (2) - They know, for example, that an idol is nothing in the world, and that is enough to answer all questions about their relation to idolatry—about buying and eating meat which had been sacrificed in a Pagan temple, about attending a Pagan friend’s feast in the temple, and so forth. The use of Christian liberty in an environment of Paganism no doubt presented many moral problems, all with possibilities of σκάνδαλον in them. A false solution, legitimating a free relation to Pagan worship and its ordinary festive and sensual accompaniments, which no doubt caused many to stumble, is denounced in Revelation 2:14; possibly in the ‘Apostolic decree’ of Acts 15:28 f. 1 ‘Am I not free?’—is written in the very spirit of Mark 9:43-47, and in 1 Corinthians 10 the Apostle warns his converts of the peril which awaits them, if secure in their Christianity they slip into easy relations with Paganism
Virgin Birth - Pagan parallels are scarcely more fitting. Greek and Egyptian mythology, for example, depict lustful Pagan deities begetting male offspring through carnal relations with women
Ireland - Arriving in a Pagan land he first preached to the leaders, realizing that when they were converted the people would follow. By the 7th century Paganism had for the most part disappeared and the monastic schools flourished
Expiation, Propitiation - God was not waiting to be appeased (as in the Pagan, Greek conception)
Corrupt, Verb And Adjective. Corruption, Corruptible, Incorruption, Incorruptible - ...
A — 2: φθείρω (Strong's #5351 — Verb — phtheiro — fthi'-ro ) signifies "to destroy by means of corrupting," and so "bringing into a worse state;" (a) with this significance it is used of the effect of evil company upon the manners of believers, and so of the effect of association with those who deny the truth and hold false doctrine, 1 Corinthians 15:33 (this was a saying of the Pagan poet Menander, which became a well known proverb); in 2 Corinthians 7:2 , of the effects of dishonorable dealing by bringing people to want (a charge made against the Apostle); in 2 Corinthians 11:3 , of the effects upon the minds (or thoughts) of believers by "corrupting" them "from the simplicity and the purity that is toward Christ;" in Ephesians 4:22 , intransitively, of the old nature in waxing "corrupt," "morally decaying, on the way to final ruin" (Moule), "after the lusts of deceit;" in Revelation 19:2 , metaphorically, of the Babylonish harlot, in "corrupting" the inhabitants of the earth by her false religion
Revelation, Book of - To make matters worse, false teachers were troubling the churches by encouraging Christians to participate in Pagan religious practices (Revelation 2:14; Revelation 2:20-21)
Bishop - ...
The "apostle" and evangelist" preached to the Pagan, but the bishop-presbyter's office was pastoral (Titus 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:12), including ministration to the sick (James 5:14)
Relics - The latter paid considerable sums for legs and arms, skulls, and jaw-bones (several of which were Pagan, and some not human, ) and other things that were supposed to have belonged to the primitive worthies of the Christian church; and thus the Latin churches came to the possession of those celebrated relics of St
Justice - Such justice was also required of Pagan rulers (Daniel 4:27 ; Proverbs 31:8-9 )
Gestures - This Pagan gesture is an offense to God and possibly has obscene connotations (Ezekiel 8:17 )
Death - This was the hour of Christ's triumph over all the powers of darkness; the hour in which he overthrew dominions and thrones, led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men; then it was that the foundation of every Pagan temple shook; the statue of every false god totterd on its base; the priest fled from his falling shrine, and the heathen oracles became dumb for ever!...
This was the hour when our Lord erected that spiritual kingdom which is never to end
Library - ...
The Jews and Pagan Greeks and Romans used both papyri and parchments in scroll form
Sign - The signs of Pagan prophets similarly serve as a challenge to trust in Yahweh (Deuteronomy 13:1-4 )
Man of Sin - Acts 18:14-16) did shelter the former in its days of weakness from the persecuting rage of Pagan Imperialism that burst upon it as soon as its separateness and its absolute claims were clearly recognized. Paul boldly transfers from the sphere of Paganism in which Jewish apocalyptic had placed it, and sets down in the sphere of Judaism itself
Sorcery - 395-423) proposed to employ the Tuscan sorcerers, who offered the aid of their arts against Alaric, and Litorius, fighting against a successor of Alaric in Gaul, consulted the Pagan seers before the last battle, under the walls of Toulouse
Son of God - The gospel at once opposes the Jews' false monotheism by declaring Christ to be the coequal Son of God, and the Pagan polytheism by declaring the unity of God
Debt, Debtor - We meet ἐλλογέω in Pagan inscriptions and in an Imperial papyrus letter of the time of Hadrian (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East2, 79f
Pilate - The Pagan historian Tacitus ( Statute, Ordinance - The reason for the requirement to abstain from the Pagan practices is that they were considered to be degenerate ( Caesarius, Bishop of Arles - Besides reproving ordinary vices of humanity, he had often to contend against lingering Pagan superstitions, as auguries, heathen rites on the calends, etc
Gardens - In these shady retreats were celebrated, for a long succession of ages, the rites of Pagan superstition
Lord, Lordship - To associate with the Creator one known to be a creature, however exalted, though possible to Pagan philosophers, was quite impossible to a Jew
Phoebe - It was, however, in use to denote the ‘patrons’ of the Pagan religious societies, ‘who were frequently ladies of rank and wealth’ (T
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - 1 instead of on the March equinox, when in the beginning God "divided the light from the darkness" by an equal division, the burning of wax tapers at stones, trees, streams, and crossways, the adornment of tables, the pouring of corn over the log on the hearth, the placing of wine and bread in the wells, the invocation of Minerva by the women at their spinning, the worship of Venus, the incantation of medicinal herbs, divination by birds and by sneezing, are all denounced as Pagan superstitions, offensive to God and dangerous to him who practises them
Petrus, Saint, Archbaptist of Alexandria - (5) Those who to evade trial of their constancy feigned epilepsy promised conformity in writing or put forward Pagans to throw incense on the altar in their stead must do penance for six months more although some of them had already been received to communion by some of the steadfast confessors. ) ...
Very soon after these "canons" were drawn up the persecution was intensified by the Pagan fanaticism of Maximin Daza
Elisha - Naaman desires to take away two mules burden of earth, wherewith to make an altar to Jehovah of the holy land, a sensible memorial to remind him perpetually in his Pagan country of Jehovah' s past favor bestowed on him in Israel (compare Joshua 4:20-21, and the mediaeval campo santos). The man of God's servant is as faithless as the Pagan Naaman's servants were faithful; the highly privileged often fall far below the practice of those with scarcely any spiritual privileges whatever. ...
He even makes it a merit not to "spare" a Pagan, "this Syrian," and dares to invoke God: "my master hath spared this Syrian
Corinthians, First Epistle to the - Ramsay conjectures that the phrase is a Christian adaptation of a Pagan idea, that a person wronged by another but unable to retaliate should consign the offender to the gods and leave punishment to he inflicted by Divine power; Satan would be looked on as God’s instrument in punishing the offender; and the latter, being cast out of the Christian community, would be left as a prey to the devil. Probably many of the Corinthians had retained their connexion with Pagan clubs. The Pagan feast meant a brotherhood or special bond of union; but the two kinds of brotherhood were incompatible
Magi - or Josephus or any Pagan historian. Isaiah 9:2; Isaiah 42:6; Isaiah 49:6-7, Psalms 68:29; Psalms 68:31; Psalms 72:10), supplemented possibly by Jewish or Pagan tradition, the Evangelist is supposed to have built up his story. It is sufficient to point out that if a Palestinian or semi-Palestinian origin of the narratives can be sustained, the hypothesis of direct Pagan influence in their formation must be rejected
Paul the Apostle - Yet his writings show no conscious imitation, and scarcely any significant influence, of the Pagan leading lights of the era. Against most Pagan religions Paul presented a God concerned with social morality and personal ethics; God is not a cipher for a spirit experienced through rites of worship, ascetic denial, or mystical sensuality
Priscillianus And Priscillianism, Priscillian - Both Pagan and Christian authorities attribute mercenary motives to the emperor and state that the possessions of the rich Priscillian and of his followers excited his cupidity (Sulp. Our knowledge has to be gathered from the meagre accounts of their adversaries, the correspondence of eminent men of the time, the acts and canons of councils, the church histories, and a few verbal allusions in contemporary Pagan writers
Violence - ...
In the dramatic prophetic narration of Ezekiel 8 , violence is described as Pagan idolatry that had come to characterize Israel (v
Ephraim (1) - ...
From the time of the severance of the ten tribes from Judah, brought about by Rehoboam's infatuation and Jeroboam's ("ruler over all the charge of the house of Joseph") rousing Ephraim's innate self-elation, Ephraim became the representative and main portion of the northern kingdom; for the surrounding Pagan, the luxurious Phoenicians, the marauding Midianites, the Syrians and Assyrians from the N
Joshua, the Book of - ...
The Hebrew people saw Paganism as a poison. Pagan religious views were a spiritual infection that was both highly contagious and deadly
Malachi, Theology of - How ironic that Israel, God's chosen nation, failed to acknowledge the greatness of her God while Pagan Gentiles became believers in him (see Romans 9:26-33 ). Men were breaking their marriage covenants and wedding Pagans, a sure way to get entangled with idolatry (2:11-14)
Punishment - Other Pagan religious practices such as witchcraft, consulting of spirits, necromancy, divination, sorcery, augury, and soothsaying were proscribed (Leviticus 19:26 ; 20:6 ; Deuteronomy 18:10-11 )
Friend, Friendship - In the Book of Acts Paul's friends include even the Pagan officials of Asia known as Asiarchs (Acts 19:31 )
Samaria - The Pagan pushed into the vacated region, and "Galilee of the Gentiles" ("nations") became an accepted phrase (Isaiah 9:1)
Arnobius - Arnobius was a sincere Pagan; versed in schemes of philosophy; but none the less an unhesitating and even abject idolator. The result was the composition of the Disputations against the Pagans ; whether in their present form or not. The first two are devoted to the defence of Christianity, the remainder to the exposure of Paganism
Fulness of the Time - Conscious of being raised above the manifold forms of heathen superstition around them, the colonies of Jews settled in the trading cities of foreign lands felt themselves impelled to aspire after a certain elevation of life; while the loftier moral teaching they maintained in their synagogues attracted considerable numbers of proselytes from Paganism. ...
In addition to this, account has to be taken of the decay of the old Pagan religions, and the simultaneous influx of Oriental ideas
Poetry - The Hebrew poet sought not self or fame, as the Pagan poets, but was inspired by God's Spirit to meet the want which his own and his nation's aspirations after God created The selection for the psalter was made not with reference to the beauty of the pieces, but to their adaptation for public worship
Wise, Skilled - In Pagan cultures the “wise” man practiced magic and divination: “Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments” ( Blood - The notion, indeed, that the blood of the victims was peculiarly sacred to the gods, is impressed upon all ancient Pagan mythology
Covenant - Did biblical writers borrow the idea of the covenant and its integral elements from Pagan sources when the Old Testament was written—elements such as a self-presentation of the suzerain and his activities, including those done on behalf of the vassals, statements of intent, stipulations, and assurances of well-being if obedient and of curses if disobedient? The legal covenants included provisions for continuity, with emphasis on the suzerain's claim to vassals' children, and were confirmed by an oath or a special ratification ceremony, like the cutting in half of an ox or cow or the sharing of a meal as the conclusion of the act of covenanting. ...
Did biblical writers borrow from Pagan sources when they wrote about Yahweh God's covenantal activities on behalf of and his relationships with his people? There is no reference of any kind in the Bible that this was done. Pagan kings gave concrete expression, in their proud and self-sufficient attitudes, to what Yahweh God had implanted and maintained within his created cosmos
Church - The first missionaries to the Gentiles, the men who took this momentous step of bringing the gospel to Pagans, are for the most part unknown to us. Through the Septuagint , Greek was a Jewish as well as a Pagan instrument of thought, and had become very flexible and simple, capable of expressing new ideas, and yet easily intelligible to plain men. The great Pagan world had to be won by the actual contents of Christianity, which were seen to be better than those of any religion that the world had thus far known. Christianity could offer to a dissatisfied and earnest Pagan all that Judaism could offer and a great deal more
Polycarp - The Martyrium Polycarpi (1-4) mentions the tortures that were inflicted on them, and gives the name of one of them, Germanicus, whose heroism went the length of attracting the wild beast to him and inciting it to devour him, whereupon the Pagan multitude shouted with fury: ‘Away with the atheists’ (αἶρε τοὺς ἀθέους). Polycarp, casting his eyes on the multitude of Pagans who filled the stadium, ‘sighs, and, raising his eyes towards heaven, says, “Away with the atheists!” ’ But he refused to curse the Christ (ix. The whole multitude, composed of Pagans and of Jews living in Smyrna (Ἰουδαίων τῶν τὴν Σμύρναν κατοικούντων) (on the hostility of the Jews towards the Christians see Harnack, Mission und Ausbreitung, Leipzig, 1906, i. 2), which was burned by the soldiers of the proconsul, according to the Pagan custom (xviii. 2, an Alce is mentioned, whose brother Niketes is an influential Smyrnaean Pagan, and very hostile to the Christians
Possession - The later Jews and Christians, in their hatred of the Pagan cults, emphasized this view, and it has ever since been retained as in the English word ‘demon. ‘The church sharply distinguished between exorcists who employed the name of Christ, and Pagan sorcerers and magicians, etc. By the simple sign of the Cross or by repeating the name of the master they professed to be able to cast out devils which had resisted all the enchantments of the Pagan exorcists
Preaching - When the ignorant notions of Pagans, the vices of their practice, and the idolatry of their pretended worship, were in some sad periods incorporated into the Jewish religion by the princes of that nation, the prophets and all the seers protested against this apostasy; and they were persecuted for so doing. Plato was living at this time, teaching dull philosophy to cold academics; but what was he, and what was Xenophon, or Demosthenes, or any of the Pagan orators, in comparison with these men? From this period to that of the appearance of Jesus Christ, public preaching was universal; synagogues were multiplied, vast numbers attended, and elders and rulers were appointed for the purpose of order and instruction. Christianity, it is true, is found in their writings; but how sadly incorporated with Pagan philosophy and Jewish allegory! It must, indeed, be allowed, that, in general, the simplicity of Christianity was maintained, though under gradual decay, during the first three centuries
Philippians - Jewish legalism (Philippians 3:2-11 ), Christian or gnostic perfectionism (Philippians 3:12-16 ), and Pagan libertinism (Philippians 3:17-21 ) are all attacked
Messiah - Even a Pagan king such as Cyrus was qualified as the Lord's anointed (Mark 10:33-347 ) to execute a divinely appointed task. Also, Paul taught his converts who were mainly converted to Christ from Paganism that Jesus was the universal Lord whose mission was wider than any Jewish hope could embrace
Dress - ...
They were even in minute distinctions to be separated from the Pagan, and to remember God is the God of order; and if so in small details, now much more will He disallow the confounding of the eternal distinctions of right and wrong (Genesis 1:11; 1 Corinthians 11:10-15; Deuteronomy 22:5)
Moses - ...
Moses is so strongly interwoven with the religious tradition involving God's plan for human salvation through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and ultimately the Davidic Messiah, and attested to as an authoritative figure for Hebrew culture even in the New Testament period, that he could not possibly have been an invention or a fictional character used as an object of religious or social propaganda. He is to abstain from the iniquitous ways of Pagan neighboring nations, and be to them an example of what God himself is by nature (Exodus 34:6-7 )
Elements - Nor was the belief in astral spirits confined to Pagans. ‘Jewish worship of law and Pagan worship of gods are for him fundamentally the same bondage under the lower world-powers which stand between God and men
Animal - The notion, indeed, that the blood of the victims was peculiarly sacred to the gods, is impressed upon all ancient Pagan mythology
Ideal - Paul was very different from the Pagan one of the Stagirite. This is the inherent fault of all ascetic ideals, whether Pagan or Christian
Lord's Supper. (i.) - The Lord’s Supper and the Pagan Mysteries. Paul, who, he thinks, was the real originator of the rite, having ‘turned a Pagan ceremony to Christian use’ in a moment of ecstasy under the influence of what he had seen of the Greek mysteries in Corinth
Sacrifice - ...
The general prevalence of animal sacrifice among the Pagan with the idea of expiation, the victim's blood and death removing guilt and appeasing divine wrath, is evidently a relic from primitive revelation preserved by tradition, though often encrusted over with superstitions. Thanksgiving alone would make gifts the essence of God's service, as the Pagan bribe their gods by vows and offerings
Deluge - Of so general a calamity, from which only a single family of all who lived then on the face of the earth was preserved, we might naturally expect to find some memorials in the traditionary records of Pagan history, as well as in the sacred volume, where its peculiar cause, and the circumstances which attended it, are so distinctly and so fully related. While the mind is in this situation, Scripture comes forward, and, presenting a narrative more simple, better connected, and bearing an infinitely greater resemblance to authentic history, than any of those mythological accounts which occur in the traditions of Paganism, immediately flashes the conviction upon the understanding, that this must be the true history of those remarkable facts which other nations have handed down to us, only through the medium of allegory and fable. "Let the ingenuity of unbelief first account satisfactorily for this universal agreement of the Pagan world; and she may then, with a greater degree of plausibility, impeach the truth of the Scriptural narrative of the deluge
Hosea - God will remove the Pagan elements of their worship (Hosea 2:16-17 )
Benedictus of Nursia, Abbott of Monte Cassino - Martin, the founder of monasticism in France, within the very walls of the Sun-god's temple—it was customary to reconsecrate, not to destroy, Pagan edifices (Greg
Lamentations - Thus, the words originally applied to Josiah (Lamentations 4:20) Jeremiah now applies to the throne of Judah in general, the last representative of which, Zedekiah, had just been blinded and carried to Babylon (compare Jeremiah 39:5-7): "the breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits, of whom we said, Under his shadow we shall live among the (live securely in spite of the surrounding) Pagan
Unbelief - They were guilty of quarrelling, and insisted so much on their presumed rights that they did not hesitate to go to law with a Christian brother before Pagan judges
Image - Paul is reviewing the corruption of the Pagan world and the perversity with which men neglected the living God for ‘the likeness of an image’ of men, birds, quadrupeds, and reptiles, all our references are found in the Apocalypse and concern the particular form of idolatry that acutely distressed the early Church, viz
Worldliness - The sensuality of the Pagan world is the subject of unsparing indictment (Romans 1:24 ff
Promise - God, the Great King, promised land and rich blessings to the Israelites if they for their part, would worship him alone as their one true God and live in Pagan society as a holy nation, thereby witnessing to God's reality and power
Omniscience - ...
On the subject of the divine omniscience, many fine sentiments are to be found in the writings of Pagans; for an intelligent First Cause being in any sense admitted, it was most natural and obvious to ascribe to him a perfect knowledge of all things. Not only on this subject does the manner in which the Scriptures state the doctrine far transcend that of the wisest Pagan theists; but the moral of the sentiment is infinitely more comprehensive and impressive
Colossians - It is this Christian motivation which distinguishes these house rules from those that can be found in Jewish and Pagan sources
Turn - To change, as from one opinion or party to another as, to turn one from a tory to whig to turn Mohammedan or a Pagan to a Christian
Purity (2) - and Pagan Ritual’ in ExpT Sacraments - ...
Recent research has thrown interesting light upon the environment of Pagan ideas and practice amid which the Gentile Churches were planted; but its results do not substantiate the hypothesis that Christian sacraments owe either inception or character to this source. But the utmost influence upon the sacraments with which these Pagan rites can be credited in the Apostolic Age is that of having provided the sacramental vocabulary with perhaps one or two convenient words then in current use and of having prepared the way, through familiarity with symbolic worship and its circle of ideas, for the reception of sacramental observances and teaching among Gentile Christians
Tarsus - Paul learned sympathy with athletics, and tolerance for the good elements in Pagan religion
Isaac - This corruption of the Scripture history of Isaac's sacrifice was based on the Pagan idea of the most precious human sacrifice being needed to appease the gods in times of calamity
Divination - The Angekoks, Esquimaux sorcerers, when converted, have declared that their sorceries, when they were heathen, were not mere impostures, that they were acted on by a power they could not control; but when they believed in Jesus they had neither the will nor the power to do what they used in their Pagan state
Edom - The scattering of Israel among the Pagan (Psalms 44:11) was but partial, enough to gratify Edom's desire to falsify the prophecy, "the elder shall serve the younger
Names of God - ...
Even though El was a term for God in Pagan or polytheistic religions, it is not a designation for an impersonal force like one would find in animism. Pagans worshipped El as a high and lofty God
Angels - They appear, like the prophets and kings in subsequent times, in the character of God's ministers, carrying out God's purposes in relation to Israel and the Pagan world powers (Zechariah 1; 2; 3; 4, etc
Antiochus - The "upright ones with him" were Israelites, so called from their high privileges, though their practice of violence in support of a Pagan king is reprobated
Bethlehem - Considered merely in point of interest, the narrative is not likely to be surpassed by any circumstance of Pagan history
Amos, Theology of - Religion was a syncretistic mix of ritualistic devotion to Yahweh and various Pagan deities. Rather, it is characterized by a multiplicity of shrines and susceptibility to incursions by Pagan deities and their frequently licentious rites (Amos 2:7b-8 ; 3:14 ; 4:4 ; 5:5,26 ; 7:9 ; 8:14 )
Individualism - ...
Extreme Socialism and extreme Individualism, moreover, have this in common, that both carry on their propaganda in the interests of the individual and in the hope of arriving at a better state of society. The usual way of avoiding this difficulty is to say that He could not be expected to look to a Pagan State as we are justified in looking to the Christian State. First, Is the State ever Christian in our Lord’s sense? Second, It was not the Pagan but the Theocratic State our Lord dealt with nearly all His days
Preaching - When the ignorant notions of Pagans, the vices of their practice, and the idolatry of their pretended worship, were in some sad periods incorporated into the Jewish religion by the princes of that nation, the prophets and all the seers protested against this apostacy, and they were persecuted for so doing. Plato was alive at this time, teaching dull philosophy to cold academics; but what was he, and what was Xenophon or Demosthenes, or any of the Pagan orators, in comparison with these men? From this period to that of the appearance of Jesus Christ, public preaching was universal: synagogues were multiplied, vast numbers attended, and elders and rulers were appointed for the purpose of order and instruction. Christianity, it is true, is found in their writings; but how sadly incorporated with Pagan philosophy and Jewish allegory! It must, indeed, be allowed, that, in general, the simplicity of Christianity was maintained, though under gradual decay, during the three first centuries
Wisdom - In a period when the licentious customs of the Pagan world were finding eager acceptance in Judah, such a powerful and beautiful vindication of the character of unselfish love was urgently needed, and was calculated to play an important part in the preservation of true religion
Atonement - " The universal prevalence of propitiatory sacrifices over the Pagan world implies a primitive revelation of the need of expiatory atonement, and of the inefficacy of repentance alone to remove guilt
Deuteronomy, the Book of - It calls for total separation from Pagan practices and godless life-styles
Romans, the Epistle to the - The Pagan and Jew alike under condemnation (Romans 1; 2)
Sabbath - ...
The consistency of the prophets' call to honor the Sabbath testifies in part to the growing need, especially during the exilic period, to preserve Jewish identity in a Pagan environment
Happiness - Pagan and Christian Ideals compared. ...
(1) The failure of Paganism. Paganism withdrew from the struggle to provide happiness
Altar - Except in emergencies (as Judges 6:24; 1 Samuel 7:9-10; 2 Samuel 24:18; 2 Samuel 24:25; 1 Kings 8:64; 1 Kings 18:31-32) only the one altar was sanctioned (1618488157_73; Deuteronomy 12:13-14), to mark the unity and ubiquity of God, as contrasted with the many altars of the manifold idols and local deities of Pagandom. Diogenes Laertius, Pausanias, and Philostratus, Pagan writers, confirm the accuracy of Scripture by mentioning several altars at Athens to the unknown or unnamed deity
Antichrist - The wounding to death and then the healing of the beast's deadly wound answers to the revival of idolatry and the setting up of a virtually Pagan kingdom again at Rome in the eighth century (Revelation 13:3)
Alexandria - -While the eclecticism of Alexandrian religion was represented in its Pagan aspect by the cultus of the Serapeum, the most famous of the city’s temples, in which the attempt was made to blend the creeds of Greece and Egypt, the grafting of Judaism on Hellenism flowered into a system which had far more influence upon the permanent thought of the world
Anointing (2) - In the ancient world, Jewish and Pagan alike, it was customary to refresh guests at banquets by pouring cool and fragrant ointment on their heads
Angel - But, without noticing all the wild reveries which have been propagated by bold or ignorant persons, let it suffice to observe, that by "the sons of God" we are evidently to understand the descendants of Seth, who, for the great piety wherein they continued for some time, were so called; and that "the daughters of men" were the progeny of wicked Cain As to the doctrine of tutelary or guarding angels, presiding over the affairs of empires, nations, provinces, and particular persons, though received by the later Jews, it appears to be wholly Pagan in its origin, and to have no countenance in the Scriptures
Mystery - Mysterien, 1896; also Cheetham, The Mysteries Pagan and Christian, 1897; and Hatch, The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, ch
John the Apostle - At Paul's second visit there John (esteemed then with James and Peter a "pillar") gave him the right hand of fellowship, that he should go to the Pagan and they to the circumcision (Galatians 2:9)
Slave, Slavery - If, as Matthew Arnold puts it,...
‘On that hard Pagan world disgust...
And secret loathing fell. -One thing is clear, however surprising it may seem to some: it was no part of the Christian propaganda to attack slavery as a system and seek its overthrow. 177, Pagan slaves gave evidence against their Christian masters (Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. It emphasized qualities that Paganism neglected or under-rated, as was only natural since Roman society in general held slaves in utter contempt
Miracle - The pretended miracles mentioned by Pagan historians and poets, are not said to have been publicly wrought to enforce the truth of a new religion, contrary to the reigning idolatry. ...
Besides all this, they were wrought in support of revelations which opposed all the religious systems, superstitions, and prejudices, of the age in which they were given; a circumstance which of itself sets them in point of authority, infinitely above the Pagan prodigies, as well as the lying wonders of the Romish church
Offering - Hosea proclaimed to Israel that its Pagan bull-god would “be carried unto Assyria for a present [2]” ( Pagan “provocation of their offering” which apostate Israel gave to other gods, while in Family Life And Relations - ...
Possibly because of the disruptive effect of Christian conversion on Pagan homes, a considerable effort is made by the New Testament writers to articulate the familial nature of the kingdom of God
Family - Since the early churches were house churches, family relationships were very important because of the Pagan forces which threatened them
Levites - It is the peculiarity of the Mosaic system, as distinguished from Pagan systems, that the Levites, the ministers of religion, not merely performed religious rites, but without vows of celibacy, freely intermarrying with the other tribes, were dispersed among the nation to teach moral and religious truths to all, of whom they formed the twelfth part (Deuteronomy 31:9-13)
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - Some had been quarrelsome and revengeful (1 Thessalonians 5:13; 1 Thessalonians 5:15); others had even relapsed into Pagan lusts, fornication, and adultery (1 Thessalonians 4:3-10)
Lord - See God's Pagan
Micah, Theology of - ...
In the first of these visions with regard to the last days Micah sees Mount Zion established as the true religion over all false, Pagan religions (4:1)
James, Theology of - Many of James' ethical exhortations find parallels in Jewish and even Pagan Greek literature
Lord's Supper, the - To eat at the table of Pagan gods is to fellowship with demons and to make a mockery of the Lord's Supper, for in the Eucharist there is fellowship with God in Christ and with fellow believers in the body of Christ
Epicureans - Not content with preaching in the synagogue to Jews and proselytes, he sought Pagan hearers in their famous market-place, thus imitating Socrates 400 years before
the Angel of the Church in Pergamos - Another thing that greatly attracts our commentators to Pergamos is the intensely interesting and extraordinarily productive field of Pagan antiquities that Pergamos has proved itself to be
Arts - From the prevalence of sacrifice, Pagan (Acts 14:13; Acts 14:18; Acts 15:20; Acts 15:29 etc
Diocletian, Emperor - It was characteristic of his fate as representing the close of Pagan imperialism, that he was the last emperor who celebrated a triumph at Rome, and the last to receive the honour of apotheosis from the Roman senate (Preuss, p
Idolatry - It is certain, that the sentient nature and divinity of the sun, moon, and stars, was strenuously asserted by the philosophers, particularly by Pythagoras and his followers, and by the Stoics, as well as believed by the common people, and was, indeed, the very foundation of the Pagan idolatry. From the imaginary office ascribed to them, they became the grand objects of the religious hopes and fears of the Pagans, of immediate dependence and divine worship. As to the nature of these demons, it has been generally believed, that they were spirits of a higher origin than the human race; and, in support of this opinion, it has been alleged, that the supreme deity of the Pagans is called the greatest demon; that the demons are described as beings placed between the gods and men; and that demons are expressly distinguished from heroes, who were the departed souls of men
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - Martin's infancy was passed at Pavia in Italy, where his father was for some time stationed, and there he received his education, apparently a Pagan one. Soon after he conceived it his duty to visit his parents and convert them from Paganism. Martin was especially called upon to fight Paganism
Monnica - But Ambrose had forbidden the usage, partly because it was much abused to intemperance, partly (a significant fact) because it so closely resembled the Pagan parentalia
Psalms, Theology of - Yahweh is glorified as the creator who governs and sustains nature (8; 19:1-6; 29:3-9; 33:6-9; 104:2-30; 135:6-7; 136:4-9; 146:6; 147:4-5,8-9,15-18; 148:1-10), the omnipotent one in contrast to impotent Pagan deities (135:5,15-18; 136:2), the controller of the destinies of people and nations (33:10-19; 100:3; 114:1-2; 136:3; 147:6; 149:2-9), the lawgiver (19:7-11), and the one who manifests his goodness through his enduring covenantal love, faithfulness and benefactions toward his people (100:5; 111:5-9; 113:7-9; 136:1 passim ; Psalm 89:26-27; 146:5-9; 147:2-3,13-14,19-20; John 15:24-2548). The psalmists emphasize Yahweh's all-encompassing rule by extolling his work as creator (93:1b; 96:5b), his evident glory and majesty (47:1-2; 93:1-4; 96:1-3,6-9; 97:1-6; 99:1-3), his sovereignty and victorious exploits among the nations (47:3-9; 98:1-3), his omnipotence in comparison to the impotence of Pagan deities (96:4-5; 97:7-9), and his establishment of universal justice and righteousness (96:10-13; 98:4-9; 99:4)
Jerusalem - The desecration of the Temple, and the attempt to force the Jews to sacrifice to Pagan deities ( 1M Malachi 1:2 ), led to the rebellion headed by the Maccabæan family, wherein, after many vicissitudes, the short-lived Hasmonæan dynasty was established at Jerusalem. In 134 the rebellion of the Jews under Bar Cochba was crushed by Hadrian, and the last traces of Judaism extinguished from the city, which was rebuilt as a Pagan Roman town under the name of Ælia Capitolina
Millenarians - Paul, in which a conversion from Paganism to Christianity, and a reformation of life is called a "resurrection from the dead," Romans 6:13 ; Ephesians 5:14 . Blessed and happy, indeed, will be this period; and it is very observable, that the martyrs and confessors of Jesus, in papist as well as Pagan times, will be raised to partake of this felicity. And though we may not imagine that all the inhabitants of the globe will have the true and saving knowledge of the Lord; yet we may expect such a universal spread of light and religious knowledge as shall root up Pagan, Mohammedan, and antichristian delusions, and produce many good effects upon those who are not really regenerated, by awing their minds, taming their ferocity, improving their morals, and making them peaceable and humane
Trinity - That nearly all the Pagan nations of antiquity, says Bishop Tomline, in their various theological systems, acknowledged a kind of Trinity, has been fully evinced by those learned men who have made the Heathen mythology the subject of their elaborate inquiries. From this word the Pagan title of Iao and Jove is, with the greatest probability, supposed to have been originally formed; and in the Golden Verses of Pythagoras, there is an oath still extant to this purpose, "By Him who has the four letters
Christianity - No where except in the Scriptures have we a perfect system of morals; and the deficiencies of Pagan morality only exalt the purity, the comprehensiveness, the practicability of ours. With Pagans the authority of moral rules was either the opinion of the wise, or the tradition of the ancient, confirmed, it is true, in some degree, by observation and experience; but to us, they are given as commands immediately issuing from the supreme Governor, and ratified as his by the most solemn and explicit attestations. A Pagan could draw, though not with lines so perfect, a beau ideal of virtue, which he never thought attainable; but the "full assurance of hope" is given by the religion of Christ to all who are seeking the moral renovation of their nature; because "it is God that worketh in us to will and to do of his good pleasure. As one proof of this, among many others, consider only the shocking carnage made in the human species by the exposure of infants, the gladiatorial shows, which sometimes cost Rome twenty or thirty lives in a month; and the exceedingly cruel usage of slaves allowed and practised by the ancient Pagans. Men and women of all ages and ranks, and even those of the first dignity, embraced the Christian faith; insomuch that the Pagans complained that the revenues of their temples were ruined
Discipline - Matthew 18:17 commands the community to treat the offender "as a Pagan or a tax collector
Ezekiel - ...
Major Themes Prominent themes of the book include God's presence (Ezekiel 1:26-28 ; Ezekiel 48:35 ), the sovereign authority of God over all nations (Israel as well as Pagan nations), individual responsibility (Ezekiel 18:1-32 ), righteousness (Ezekiel 18:5-9 ), submission to God as the key to blessing (Ezekiel 9:4 ; Ezekiel 16:60-63 ; Ezekiel 18:30-32 ; Ezekiel 36:22-38 ), and hope for the future of the people of God (37–48)
Herod - And the Pagan streak in him was sure, sooner or later, to come to light
Rome And the Roman Empire - Traditional religion was stressed, and 82 Pagan temples were renovated
Repentance - ’ (See Schweitzer, Geschichte der paulinischen Forschung, 1911, who points out that the same stress on the importance of ethies in the descriptions of the coming world after the Parousia effectually distinguishes Jewish and Christian from Pagan eschatology. No Christian could forget the new light in which he had come to look upon his past life (the Paganism around him would make this impossible), nor the act of loving self-surrender to a new personal influence which accompanied it (Acts 20:21; cf
Luke, Gospel of - Samaritans enter the kingdom ( Luke 9:51-6 ; Luke 10:30-37 ; Luke 17:11-19 ) as well as Pagan Gentiles (Luke 2:32 ; Luke 3:6 ,Luke 3:6,3:38 ; Luke 4:25-27 ; Luke 7:9 ; Luke 10:1 ,Luke 10:1,10:47 )
Sepulchre - To the apostles, such a spirit was paralleled only by Pagan malice
Prayer - An instinct of every nation, even Pagan (Isaiah 16:12; Isaiah 44:17; Isaiah 45:20; 1 Kings 18:26)
Divination - Cumont, The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism, Eng. Pagan testimony is to the same effect
Sanctify - Some scholars see an emphasis here on divine power, arguing that at this stage of their history Israel’s concept of holiness was similar to that of the Pagans, namely, that “holy” signified the presence of extraordinary power. This sense can be applied to Pagan holy days: “Proclaim a solemn assembly for Baal. Even Pagans declare holy war: “Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, prepare the nations against her, call together against her the kingdoms of Ararat, Minni …” ( Ananias And Sapphira - Till we waken up, and take the Patriarchal, and Mosaic, and Prophetic, and Apostolic, and even Pagan way of taxing our income, and laying aside a definite and a liberal part of it for church and charity, we need never expect to inherit the promises, or to enter into that liberty of heart and hand which awaits us and our children
Church - In distinction from worship as it was practiced in the Pagan cults of Greece and Rome, Christian worship not only stressed the relation of a person to the Deity but went beyond this to stress that worship should edify and strengthen the Christians present (1 Corinthians 14:26 ) and should challenge Pagans to accept Christ (1 Corinthians 14:20-25 )
Philippi - She calls them servants of ‘God the Most High’-an expression widespread in Paganism, as Ramsay notes (St. ...
Her conversion was the signal for an outburst of Pagan hatred, to which St
John, the Epistles of - 25) relates that John, after Domitian's death, returned from Patmos to Ephesus, and went on missionary tours into the Pagan regions around, and visited the churches, ordaining bishops and clergy (compare 2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:9-10; 3 John 1:14)
Nation (2) - He filled the high priest’s office with his own creatures; and by building theatres and Pagan temples showed scant respect for the national ideal
Providence - As against the Pagan notion of chance (wh
Prudentius, Marcus (?) Aurelius Clemens Prudentius - He has a great fondness for art, wishing to keep even Pagan statues if regarded only as ornaments ( c
John, the Gospel According to - Containing a large Christian church, a synagogue of zealous Jews, and the most famous of Pagan temples that of Artemis or Diana, it was a common meeting ground for widely diverse creeds
Rome - What the Church, the great destroyer of Roman Pagan buildings, did not ruin, it modified and used for its own purposes. , 1889, Pagan and Christian Rome, do
Christ in Reformation Theology - He maintained that in the heart of the system there was, instead of the God whom Jesus had revealed, the abstract entity of Pagan philosophy, an unknown deity—for God could never be revealed by metaphysics. ’ Beyond them there is the unknown God of philosophical Paganism, the God whom Jews, Turks, and Pagans ignorantly worship. It justified Luther’s rejection of the complicated discussions of the Schoolmen, and his accusation that what he called their ‘sophistry’ was partly Pagan; and it also showed clearly that Christian worship ought to be simplified too
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - 24–58, The Pagan Reaction under Julian , which gives a fresh and vigorous view of the subject. Rendall's Hulsean Essay for 1876, The Emperor Julian; Paganism and Christianity is decidedly the best account of Julian's religious position in English, perhaps in any modern language. He here learnt to know some of the more mystical of the heathen party, to whom Paganism was still a reality and the gods living beings, visions of whom were to be seen by night and whose power still worked signs and wonders. The Pagan coterie soon discovered the importance of their convert, and imbued him with the notion that he was the chosen servant of the gods to bring back again Hellenic life and religion
Leo i, the Great - There is no trace in his writings that his education comprised any study of Pagan authors, and he was throughout life ignorant of Greek ( Epp. Leo, now among the saints, thought it not unworthy of him to go himself to meet the barbarian Attila, that he might free from captivity of the body not Christians only, but Jews and Pagans, surely your holiness will be touched by the captivity of soul under which we are suffering. He views the heresy as a mixture of Manicheism with other forms of evil, heretical and Pagan, and exhorts Turribius to gather a synod of all the Spanish provinces to examine into the orthodoxy of the bishops; with this view he sends letters to the bishops of the various provinces, but urges that at least a provincial synod of Gallicia should be held (c
Lois And Eunice - And, but for some Pagan and overpowering influences holding him back, under the transforming influences of Lois's noble character and Eunice's holy beauty he would surely have become all that Lois and Eunice prayed for so unceasingly that he might become before the marriage
Sanctification, Sanctify - Accordingly, in 1 Thessalonians 4:4 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:7 ‘sanctification’ is opposed specifically to ‘lust’ and sexual ‘uncleanness’ by contrast, probably, with the Pagan ‘consecration’ to impure deities, as in the case of the hieroduloi of Corinth (cf
Baptism - The universal expectation of the Messianic king "in the whole East" (says Suetonius, a Pagan writer, Vespas
Ezra, the Book of - ); and these intermingled with the Pagan, and were in "affliction and reproach" (Ezra 9:6-15; Nehemiah 1:3). Ezra the priest took charge of the inner restoration, by purging out Paganism and bringing back the law; Nehemiah the governor did the outer work, restoring the city and its polity
Baptize, Baptism - ...
When, at the diaspora, numerous Gentiles sought admission to Israel, the required public repentance and acceptance of Mosaic Law was accompanied by immersion in water, symbolizing and effecting religious, moral, and ritual cleansing from the defilements of Paganism. Against this background, baptism is no merely physical washing (as in Judaist, Essene, or Pagan circles), but "the pledge of a good conscience towards God" and threatening civic authorities, ensuring innocent social conduct
Jews, Judaism - Gager, The Origins of Anti-Semitism: Attitudes Toward Judaism in Pagan and Christian Antiquity ; H
Golden Rule - ’...
In its negative form the saying is found in both Jewish and Pagan sources before the Christian era
Individuality - ...
Our Lord does not really differ from the Pagan view that the worth of the individual depends upon his individuality
Metaphors - Ramsay, ‘Greek of Early Church and Pagan Ritual’ (Expos
Acts - God expands the mission to "pagan peoples" (Acts 13:13-52 )
Judgments of God - Cyril, the deacon, was murdered by some Pagans, at Heliopolis, for his opposition to their images. The last Pagan prince, who was a formidable enemy to Christianity, was Radagaisus, a king of the Goths
Individuality - ...
Our Lord does not really differ from the Pagan view that the worth of the individual depends upon his individuality
Joannes, Bishop of Ephesus - ...
In 546 he was entrusted with an inquiry into the secret practice of Pagan rites by professing Christians. 579), upon the rumour of a heathen plot to destroy the Christians of Baalbec, the emperor ordered an officer named Theophilus to suppress Paganism in the East
Isaiah - It censures the moral depravity of rulers, of those who succumb to Pagan practices, of those who practice external rites without true identification with their meaning
Evangelize, Evangelism - ...
The initial act of bringing the news of military victory can be a religious act for Pagan nations as well (1 Samuel 31:9 ; cf
Rome, Romans - Lanciani (all published by Macmillan): Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent Discoveries, Pagan and Christian Rome, The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome, The Destruction of Ancient Rome, and New Tales of Old Rome,—see also his chapters in W
Exodus, the Book of - The divine aim was to vindicate Jehovah's lordship, not merely over the enslaved Hebrew but over Egypt and its king, the representative of the Pagan world powers with whom God's controversy is, "to the end that thou mayest know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth" (Exodus 8:22)
Bible, Theology of - The theme was hard to establish in the minds of the people who repeatedly fell into worship of idols and Pagan deities. God is not fickle and changeable like the gods of the Pagans
Incarnation - This teaching found ready support and sympathy among men who had not shaken off Pagan habits of thought, and in opposing it the Church was contending for a true Theism, which cannot endure the multiplication of objects of worship, no less than for Christianity
Marriage - Although Pagan customs encouraged marriage with anyone (cf
Homosexuality - Thus the modern supposition of a tolerant Pagan society subsequently oppressed by Judeo-Christian taboos is a complete myth
Minister, Ministration - ‘If we wish to feel the contrast of the Pagan and the Christian ideals of greatness, we have only to compare the Aristotelian picture of the μεγαλόψυχος, the proud aristocrat who lives to prove his independence and superiority, with that other picture of a Life that poured itself out in the service of others’ (Seth, Ethiopic Principles, 264)
Confession (of Christ) - It was above all else by the personal confessions of humble individuals—a testimony often sealed with blood (Revelation 2:13; Revelation 12:11)—that the Pagan empire of Rome was cast down and the Church of Christ built upon its ruins
Zechariah, Theology of - Christ is controlled by Israel's God, not by the Pagan deities. It was also partly fulfilled in the many Pagans who became "God-fearers
Friendship - —Friendship was esteemed among the Pagans and received memorable treatment at the hands of Aristotle (Ethics, Bks. Christian Ethics is not the successor to the virtues of Paganism, but the new spirit that turned patriotism into brotherhood, elevated friendship into universal love; φιλία becomes ΦΙΛΑΔΕΛΦίΑ. The Pagans found little spiritual rest or inspiration in their religion, and human friendship was neither a reflexion nor a suggestion of a Divine fellowship. The distinctive word with Christ is love and not friendship, and, by reason of this, Christianity excels the Pagan ideals
Expediency - ...
It must be remembered that Pagan sentiment viewed ordinary sexual laxity in anything but a serious light: in fact, it was a prevalent belief among the heathen in apostolic times that fornication was no sin
Demoniac - The word demon is used by Pagan writers often in a good sense, and is applied to their divinities; but the demons of holy writ are malignant spirits
Magi - " This renders Pagan nations more evidently "without excuse
Peter, Second Epistle of - A greater affinity may be traced with the Sadducaic spirit of portions of the Jewish and semi-pagan world, where scepticism as to spiritual realities went hand in hand with practical immorality
Philippians, Epistle to - The emphasis on the practice of virtue, especially in 1618488157_73 , is said to reflect the finest contemporary teaching of the Pagan world, but the form is pervaded with the purest Christian spirit
Eucharist - But it is unlikely that in a passage where the argument would have been satisfied by the use of one word ‘body’ on the analogy of the common Pagan identification of the god with the sacrifice, he should have used the longer phrase ‘communion of the body’ if he had not felt that the single word would have failed to give the exact meaning
Miracle - But other mighty deeds also demonstrate the Lord's supremacy over the Pagan god of water, fertility, and life: Elijah alone can predict drought and rain (chaps
Peter, the Epistles of - The persecutions to which they were exposed were annoyances and reproach for Christ's sake, because of their nut joining Pagan neighbours in riotous living; so they needed warning lest they should fall
Priest - Except for the nearest relatives they were not to mourn for the dead (Leviticus 21:1-5, the highest earthly relationships were to be surrendered for God: Numbers 17:5) nor to shave the head as Pagan priests did, nor make cuttings in the flesh (Leviticus 19:28)
Prophet - ...
Daniel on the other hand is excluded from them, though abounding in the predictive element, because he did not belong to the order of prophets officially, but ministered in the Pagan court of the world power, Babylon
Jephthah And His Daughter - It is really of little consequence in what age of the world, or in what dispensation of providence, patriarchal, Mosaic, Pagan, or Christian, or just in what way, and just among what things, the mind and the heart and the will of Jephthah and Jesus Christ are worked out within us-If only they are worked out within us
Division of the Earth - See the numerous authorities adduced in support of the identity of the Gomerians and Celts, by that learned and ingenious antiquary, Faber, in his "Origin of Pagan Idolatry
Manicheans - 1344) Probably as in the case of the Pagan persecutions the vigour with which they were enforced varied with the dispositions of local magistrates
Preaching - The ancient world was familiar with much propaganda work done by travelling teachers of various philosophical schools. In Athens he did not hesitate to quote a Pagan pcet (Acts 17:28), and expounded the philosophy of the Christian religion
Deuteronomy, Theology of - This is in opposition to the notion of the multiplicity of Pagan gods and their respective shrines, all of which must be eradicated, including the prophets who promote these competing (if nonexistent) deities (13:5,9-10). Another mark of the distinction between the purity of Yahwistic faith and the corruption of Paganism is the line of demarcation drawn between the clean and unclean animals (14:1-3)
Thessalonians Epistles to the - Christian progress will involve complete severance from the impurity of Pagan life
Idol - 5:4), notices the contrast between Judaism and the whole Pagan world, which disproves the notion that it borrowed from the latter and consecrated several of their rites
Kings, the Books of - The Egyptian king Psinaches' patronage of Hadad the Edomite (1 Kings 11:19-20): Solomon's alliance with his successor Psusennes who reigned 35 years; Shishak's (Sesonchis I) accession toward the close of Solomon's reign (1 Kings 11:40); his conquest of Judea under Rehoboam, represented on a monument still at Karnak which mentions "the king of Judah," the time of the Ethiopian dynasty of So (Sabak) and Tirhakah, of the 25th dynasty; the rise and speedy fall of Syrian power, Assyria overshadowing it; the account of Mesha harmonizing with the (See DIBON stone; Assyria's struggles with Egypt and Babylon's' sudden supremacy under Nebuchadnezzar over both Assyria and Egypt: all these notices in Kings accord with independent Pagan history and inscriptions
Ezekiel, Theology of - The terms "Magog, " "Meshech, " and so forth refer to tribes in the Black Sea area (such as the Scythians), but the specific identity is not nearly so important as the fact that they were Pagan, warlike peoples in the north
Hezekiah - wide), wherein the Jewish physiognomy of the captives is discernible, after mentioning the capture of the 200,150 Jews he adds, "then I prayed unto God," the only instance of God's name in an inscription without a Pagan adjunct
Revelation of John, the - No early father held the first theory; few but rationalists hold it, who limit John's vision to his own age, Pagan Rome's persecutions, and its consequently anticipated destruction
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - The Corinthians had boasted of their wisdom and knowledge (1 Corinthians 4:10 ; 8:1 ), perhaps in the tradition of the Pagan Sophists, but Paul recognized their boasts as hollow and unfounded
Gospel - The case was different, however, in purely missionary and pioneer work, not only in rude places such as Lystra, but also among the more cultured, though equally Pagan, populations in the great cities of the Empire, both in Asia and in Europe
Old Testament - Being Pagan, they probably had the Pentateuch first introduced among them from Judah by Manasseh and other priests who joined them at the time of the building of the Mount Gerizim temple
Organization (2) - ...
So that which comes to be known by the Greek Pagan title ἐκκλησία, ‘the Church,’ is gradually organized
Woman - Or God may use the compassion of Pagan royalty to preserve and nurture the savior of his own people (Pharaoh's daughter and Moses Exe 2:1-10)
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - This rules out an older but still popular theory that the name "Lord" was projected back onto Jesus only long after his death by Gentile Christians whose Pagan religious background caused them to have no scruples about applying the title kyrios [2] to a mere human being
Sanctification - God also used Cyrus, a Pagan ruler, to discipline Israel (Isaiah 45:1 )
Holiness Purity - There is an implied contrast with a Pagan type of prayer (v
Character - Though there was discontent and division in the Church, and even an occasional subsidence to the vicious levels of Pagan society, the ideal could be steadily built up again in the sure hope of a radiant future, when the secret working of the absent Bridegroom in His own should be accomplished (Ephesians 5:27, Colossians 3:3-4; 1 Peter 1:3-5)
Jesus Christ - The language of the New Testament, and compare it with the state of the Pagan world at the time of its publication
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - On his expedition against the Persians Julian had advanced as far as Haran a town so famous for obstinate adherence to heathenism that Haranite in Syriac is equivalent to Pagan and there determined to hold a great sacrifice to which he commanded the Edessenes to send chosen citizens to do him homage and to grace by their presence his restoration of the old cult. Hymns 31-34 treat of Haran and the many troubles its bishop, Vitus, endured from the Pagans there
Papyri And Ostraca - official certificates by the authorities responsible for the Pagan sacrifices, that the holder of the papyrus had performed the prescribed sacrifices
Progress - The truth is that even at so late a date in history as the time of Christ’s advent in it, the mind of Pagan antiquity had nowhere been awakened to the clear consciousness that man had been pursuing, and that he had still for unknown ages to continue pursuing, a progressive destiny
Creation - ...
This creation of all things out of nothing distinguishes the Bible from all Pagan cosmogonies and philosophical speculations, which make matter eternal
Miracles - Early Christian writers, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Origen, occasionally appeal to miracles in proof of Christianity; but state that their Pagan opponents, admitting the facts, attributed them to magic; which accounts for the fewness of their references to miracles. Both dispensations were inaugurated by miracles, and then mainly left to ordinary providence; only that the Old Testament church, at times when surrounding Paganism, as in Elijah's times, threatened to swamp it, was vindicated by miracles
Wisdom - From the Corinthian letter we can see that there was an outcrop of old Pagan habits and a reversion to type among men who had never really been evangelized. In ‘Cleon,’ browning adopts the same attitude in his study of the failure of Paganism, even in its forma of highest, culture, to solve the riddle of human, life and to answer the requirements of the human spirit
Job, Theology of - This metaphorical description of God counteracts the Pagan myths, which depicted the Canaanite storm-god Baal-Hadad and the Mesopotamian counterpart Adad holding a flash of lightning as a weapon
Hell - Elements of Egyptian thought enter into its literary form, among the most striking of which is the idea of the weighing of souls-a scene that often occurs on the Egyptian Pagan monuments
Prophecy - ...
Pagans had their oracles, augurs, and soothsayers; modern idolaters their necronancers and diviners; and the Jews, Christians, and Mahometans, their prophets. The pretensions of Pagans and impostors, have, however, been justly exposed; while the Jewish and Christian prophecies carry with them evident marks of their validity. Its sudden bursts of eloquence, its earnest warmth, its affecting exhortations and appeals, affords very interesting proofs of that lively impression, and of that inspired conviction, under which the prophets wrote; and which enable them, among a people not distinguished for genius, to surpass, in every variety of composition, the most admired productions of Pagan antiquity
Oracle - Among the Pagans they were held in high estimation; and they were consulted on a variety of occasions pertaining to national enterprises and private life. ...
Most of the Pagan deities had their appropriate oracles. Plutarch has a treatise on the ceasing of some oracles; and Van Dale, a Dutch physician, has a volume to prove they did not cease at the coming of Christ; but that many of them ceased long before, and that others held till the fall of Paganism, under the empire of Theodosius the Great, when Paganism being dissipated, these restitutions could no longer subsist. " With respect to the origin of oracles, they were probably imitations, first, of the answers given to the holy patriarchs from the divine presence or Shechinah, and secondly, of the responses to the Jewish high priest from the mercy seat: for all Paganism is a parody of the true religion
Hell - Elements of Egyptian thought enter into its literary form, among the most striking of which is the idea of the weighing of souls-a scene that often occurs on the Egyptian Pagan monuments
Nestorian Church - —Under Parthian rule, which was tolerant, and where the state religion was an outworn and eclectic Paganism, the new faith spread rapidly and easily. For them to proselytize from the state faith was a crime, punishable with death, though they were allowed to convert Pagans. Internal troubles arose, however, caused by the quarrels of Christians, and by their habit of "using Pagan patronage"—i
Proverbs - How comes it that Greek and Latin sayings were current among the Jews? The Jewish attitude toward Pagan culture was one of bitter hostility
Aristion (Aristo) - But as Eusebius gives no account of Aristo’s writings, although making it a principal object of his work to describe early Christian authorities, it is probable that Aristo of Pella was not a Christian, but a Jewish or (more probably) Pagan writer. In the text it follows the statement that Hadrian ‘established in Jerusalem a community of Pagans and Christians whose bishop was Mark
Judgment Damnation - It is improbable that this conception was a creation of the Church; rather have we to think of the adoption and Christianizing of a current Pagan myth of a saviour-god descending into the under world to wrest the sceptre from its powers
Virgin Birth - It is difficult to trace in so restrained a narrative the ‘pagan substratum’ of which Usener speaks
Feasts And Festivals of Israel - Those who reject the idea of propitiation assert that it is a Pagan notion that makes God appear vicious
Sacrifice - Paul does allude to Pagan ideas of communion through sacrifice (1 Corinthians 10:18; 1 Corinthians 10:28), he was intimately acquainted with the minutiae of the Levitical system and even definitely associated himself with its observance (Acts 21:26; Acts 24:11; Acts 24:17 f
Ideas (Leading) - Noble and virtuous with the splendid but imperfect nobility and virtue of Pagan Greece, the great-souled man is proud, self-satisfied and pompons
Regeneration - ]'>[1] The gospel of regeneration was not a striking novelty either to the Jewish or to the Pagan world, and if the condition of regeneration were simply stated as a belief that Jesus was the Messiah the Son of God, it might seem quite consonant with the common faith of the time. This is not to say that Christianity borrowed its ideas from Paganism at the same time that it felt the most intense revulsion against the idolatries, but only that certain common religious thought-forms concerning miraculous purifications and transformations were current, and Christianity inevitably expressed its own new-born faith in the language of the day
Noah - A medal of Apamea, a Pagan monument, in Septimius Severus' reign represented the current tradition namely, a floating ark, two persons within, two going out of it; a bird is on the ark, another flying to it with a branch; No is on some coins: evidently borrowed from the Hebrew record
Wandering Stars - The Qur’ân sanctions and enjoins warfare upon non-Muslims as part of the propaganda of the mission. But Christians are never for a moment supposed to take any part in the former; it is a clash of Pagan powers. Besides, His kingdom was not of this world; no Christians who had understood His instructions could dream of allying themselves with the dagger-men in Jerusalem or even with the loyalist Jews who manned the walls of the city so heroically, in the spirit, though not with the success, of their ancestors who faced Pagans with ‘the high praises of God on their lips and a two-edged sword in their hands’ (Psalms 149:6)
Bible - The word ‘Bible’ strictly employed is the title of the Jewish and Christian Scriptures, though occasionally by a loose usage of the term it is applied to the sacred writings of Pagan religions
Jesus Christ - Other fragmentary material from Jewish and Pagan sources is also well known and has a certain corroborative value that is quite helpful
Sexuality, Human - Together, they obviously represented a Pagan, and therefore local, influence on the religion of Judah (Deuteronomy 23:17 ; 1 Kings 14:24 ; 15:12 ; 22:46 ; 2 Kings 23:7 )
John, Theology of - Philo, in some respects, even allegorizes God's Word in the Old Testament to wed his Jewish faith with Pagan ideas
Offerings And Sacrifices - The verb thuo, [John 10:10 ; Acts 10:13 ; 11:7 ) and prepared for a wedding feast (Matthew 22:4 ) or other kind of celebration (Luke 15:23,27,30 ); (2) the slaughter of the Passover lamb (Mark 14:12 ; Luke 22:7 ; 1 Corinthians 5:7 ); and (3) offerings to Pagan gods (Acts 14:13,18 ; 1 Corinthians 10:20 )
Hermas Shepherd of - His office is that of a prophet, and his mission is to recall Christians from the danger of too intimate contact with Pagan social influence
Work - As well as the blessing, however, there is also the constant dangerto idolize the results of work, prosperity, and consequently assume that human strength alone or the fertility gods of the Pagan neighbors are responsible for the abundance (Deuteronomy 8:17 ; 32:15 )
Psalms - " The Pagan regarded Jehovah as designating the local God of Israel, but not God absolutely, possessing the whole fullness of the Godhead
Beatitude - —In our Lord’s declarations of blessedness He used a word (μακάριος) which has an instructive history, and passed by the Pagan word for ‘happiness’ or ‘well-being’ (εὐδαιμονία) which is not found in the New Testament
Annunciation, the - Luke’s Gentile readers must have felt the unspeakable difference between the coarse impurity of imagined intercourse between mortals and divinities, in the religious legends of Paganism, and the dignity and delicacy of the spiritual narrative which St. ...
It has been pointed out already that the beauty, dignity, and delicacy of the story of the Annunciation are tokens of historic reality; for the fictions about similar subjects in Pagan, Jewish, and Christian literature are, in these respects, so very different
Prophecy - The double sense of many prophecies in the Old Testament, says an able writer, has been made a pretext by ill disposed men for representing them as of uncertain meaning, and resembling the ambiguity of the Pagan oracles
Abram - The intentional offering up of Isaac is not to be supposed as viewed by Abraham as an act sanctioned by the Pagan practice of human sacrifice
Elijah - He was not yet revealed to the half-pagan Samaritans as clearly as Jehovah had been through Elijah to Israel, the elect nation
Gospels, Apocryphal - In some cases it is not impossible that current Pagan legends and folk-stories were attached to Mary and Jesus
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - ...
The official institution of the office of prophet took place in Moses' day (Deuteronomy 18:15-22 ): After God had warned Israel about attempting to get supernatural information from bogus Pagan sources (Deuteronomy 18:9-14 ), he announced that he would "raise up for [7] a prophet like [8] from among [9] own brothers" (v
Divinity of Christ - They are anticipations only: since neither the Pagan foregleams nor the Hebrew forecasts offered sufficient data for a complete or consistent delineation of an actual Person
Forgiveness (2) - In Pagan ethics to revenge an injury and punish an enemy to the utmost was manly, to forgive was mean-spirited
Augustine - " He frequently complains of this oppressive weight of occupation in which his love of his flock had engaged him, by obeying the Apostolical precept, which forbids Christians from going to law before Pagan tribunals
Paul - As at all periods of his life their author was not only the propagandist of a definite faith but an opponent of contrary doctrines, a doctrinal or dogmatic character could not help appearing in what he wrote. Taking it for granted that the substance of his recent preaching amongst them must still be well remembered, he contents himself with the plainest exhortations to a life in harmony with the gospel of Christ-as, for instance, to abstain from the peculiarly Pagan sin of fornication and to love one another
Vulgate - Germany was almost wholly Pagan
Jerusalem (2) - In Latin Pagan writers, e
Augustinus, Aurelius - Paganism and the de Civitate Dei ; § 10. Pagan
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - Receiving intelligence that the people of Caesarea, so far from apostatizing with him and building new Pagan temples, had pulled down the only one still standing (Greg
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - is a most significant proof of the far-reaching influence exercised by Pagan thought and speculation on the Gentile church of that age
Chrysostom, John, Bishop of Constantinople - In his zeal for the suppression of Pagan idolatry he obtained an imperial edict, a
Clement of Alexandria - 1), pure and spiritual as contrasted with the sensuality and idolatry of the Pagan rites, clear and substantial as compared with the vague hopes of poets and philosophers (2–9)
Donatus And Donatism - They invaded Pagan temples that death might be found from the sword of some infuriated idolator; they entered courts of justice and frightened judges ordered their instant execution; travellers were stopped and threatened with instant death if they did not slay the suppliants
Odes of Solomon - Why should we extend the ‘secret discipline’ to the simple practice of washing with water represented in Israelite circles by various ablutions with which the commonest Pagan was familiar? How then could Tertullian have written his treatise de Baptismo? The field that this theory gives to the disciplina arcani is probably too extensive to be taken seriously into consideration
Originality - The Judaizers precipitated the crisis; the reform was carried through with too great haste, with the result that the world, in becoming Christian, remained more Pagan than if Hellenism had retained its mastery
Theodoretus, Bishop of Cyrrhus - It is in 12 discourses, and furnishes a very able and eloquent defence of Christianity against the ridicule and ignorant accusations of Pagan philosophers, written probably before 437
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Theodore regards Job as an historical character, but considers him as traduced by the author of the book, whom he considers to have been a Pagan Edomite
Mahometanism - That they should renounce all idolatry; and that they should not steal, nor commit fornication, nor kill their children (as the Pagan Arabs used to do when they apprehended they should not be able to maintain them, ) nor forge calumnies; and that they should obey the prophet in all things that were reasonable