What does Owe mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ὀφείλεις to owe. 3
ὀφείλετε to owe. 1
προσοφείλεις to owe beside. 1

Definitions Related to Owe

G3784


   1 to Owe.
      1a to Owe money, be in debt for.
         1a1 that which is due, the debt.
   2 metaph.
   the goodwill due.
   

G4359


   1 to Owe beside.
   

Frequency of Owe (original languages)

Frequency of Owe (English)

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Owe
(1):
(v.) Hence: To have or be under an obigation to restore, pay, or render (something) in return or compensation for something received; to be indebted in the sum of; as, the subject owes allegiance; the fortunate owe assistance to the unfortunate.
(2):
(v.) To have or possess, as something derived or bestowed; to be obliged to ascribe (something to some source); to be indebted or obliged for; as, he owed his wealth to his father; he owed his victory to his lieutenants.
(3):
(v.) To possess; to have, as the rightful owner; to own.
(4):
(v.) To have an obligation to (some one) on account of something done or received; to be indebted to; as, to iwe the grocer for supplies, or a laborer for services.
King James Dictionary - Owe
OWE, o. Gr., Eng. own.
1. To be indebted to be obliged or bound to pay. The merchants owe a large sum to foreigners. A son owes help and honor to his father.
One was brought to him who owed him ten thousand talents.
Matthew 18 .
Owe no man any thing, but to love one another. Romans 13 .
2. To be obliged to ascribe to to be obliged for as, that he may owe to me all his deliverance. 3. To possess to have to be the owner of. This is the original sense, but now obsolete. In place of it, we use own, from the participle. See Own. Thou dost here usurp the name thou owest not.
4. To be due or owing. O deem thy fall not ow'd to man's decree.
This passive form is not now used.
OWE, To be bound or obliged.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Owe
A — 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to owe, to be a debtor" (in the Passive Voice, "to be owed, to be due"), is translated by the verb "to owe" in Matthew 18:28 (twice); Luke 7:41 ; 16:5,7 ; Romans 13:8 ; in 15:27, RV, "they (gentile converts) owe it" (AV, "it is their duty"); Philemon 1:18 . See BEHOVE , DEBT , DUE , DUTY , GUILTY , INDEBTED , MUST , NEED , OUGHT.
A — 2: προσοφείλω (Strong's #4359 — Verb — prosopheilo — pros-of-i'-lo ) "to owe besides" (pros, "in addition," and No. 1), is used in Philemon 1:19 , "thou owest (to me even thine own self) besides," i.e., "thou owest me already as much as Onesimus' debt, and in addition even thyself" (not "thou owest me much more").
B — 1: ὀφειλέτης (Strong's #3781 — Noun Masculine — opheiletes — of-i-let'-ace ) "a debtor" (akin to A, No. 1), is translated "which owed" in Matthew 18:24 , lit., "a debtor (of ten thousand talents)." See DEBTOR.

Sentence search

Duty - 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to Owe, to be indebted," is translated "it was our duty," in Luke 17:10 , lit. , "we Owe (ought) to do;" so in Romans 15:27 , AV, "their duty is:" RV, "they Owe it
Justice - Among men, it is ordinarily understood as a virtue by which we give to every one what is his due, what we Owe him. God does not Owe, nor can He Owe anything to anyone. Whatever there is outside of God is the creature of God, and the Creator cannot Owe anything to His creature
Owe - Owe, o. The merchants Owe a large sum to foreigners. A son Owes help and honor to his father. ...
One was brought to him who Owed him ten thousand talents. ...
Owe no man any thing, but to love one another. To be obliged to ascribe to to be obliged for as, that he may Owe to me all his deliverance. Thou dost here usurp the name thou Owest not. ...
Owe, To be bound or obliged
Owed - ) of Owe...
Fairs - (Latin: feria, holiday) ...
Fairs Owe their origin to religious festivals, on which the people assembled for purposes of devotion. Fairs were common in England, France, and Germany in medieval times and many modern market gatherings Owe their origin to them
Owe - A — 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to Owe, to be a debtor" (in the Passive Voice, "to be Owed, to be due"), is translated by the verb "to Owe" in Matthew 18:28 (twice); Luke 7:41 ; 16:5,7 ; Romans 13:8 ; in 15:27, RV, "they (gentile converts) Owe it" (AV, "it is their duty"); Philemon 1:18 . ...
A — 2: προσοφείλω (Strong's #4359 — Verb — prosopheilo — pros-of-i'-lo ) "to Owe besides" (pros, "in addition," and No. 1), is used in Philemon 1:19 , "thou Owest (to me even thine own self) besides," i. , "thou Owest me already as much as Onesimus' debt, and in addition even thyself" (not "thou Owest me much more"). 1), is translated "which Owed" in Matthew 18:24 , lit
Behove - 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to Owe," is once rendered "behove," Hebrews 2:17 ; it indicates a necessity, owing to the nature of the matter under consideration; in this instance, the fulfillment of the justice and love of God, voluntarily exhibited in what Christ accomplished, that He might be a merciful and faithful High Priest. See BOUND , DEBT , DUE , DUTY , GUILTY , INDEBTED , MUST , NEED , OUGHT , Owe
Owing - ) of Owe...
Chlorophyll - ) Literally, leaf green; a green granular matter formed in the cells of the leaves (and other parts exposed to light) of plants, to which they Owe their green color, and through which all ordinary assimilation of plant food takes place. Similar chlorophyll granules have been found in the tissues of the lower animals
Benevolence - ...
The duties of benevolence include those we Owe to men, purely on the ground of their being of the same species with ourselves; such as sympathy, relief, & c; those we Owe to our country, desiring its honour, safety, prosperity; those we Owe to the church of God, as love, zeal, &c. ; those we Owe to families and individuals, as affection, care, provision, justice, forbearance, &c. So far, however, as we are able to prefer the good of others to our own, and sacrifice our own comfort for the welfare of any about us, so far it may be said to be disinterested
Lecture Warburtonian - To this foundation we Owe the admirable discourses of Hurd, Halifax, Bagot, and many others
Indians, Illinois - To Father Gravier we Owe the first grammar and dictionary of the language
Children, Duties of - Children Owe the same obligations to superiors who replace their parents
Duties of Children - Children Owe the same obligations to superiors who replace their parents
Illinois Indians - To Father Gravier we Owe the first grammar and dictionary of the language
Secular Clergy - (Latin: secularis, pertaining to the world) ...
A term applied to the clergy, who are not members of a religious order, and whose immediate superior is the bishop of the diocese, to whom they Owe obedience and under whose direction they labor for the sanctification of souls, and for this purpose are not bound by rule of cloister, but are more freely in touch with persons of the world
Ought - , or auxiliary) Was or were under obligation to pay; Owed. ...
(6):...
of Owe...
Eustochium Julia, Saint - She was learned in Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and many of Saint Jerome's biblical commentaries Owe their existence to her influence
Cabal of Devotees - The General Hospital and the Seminary of Foreign Missions Owe their foundation to this association
Indebted - 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to Owe, to be a debtor," is translated "is indebted" in Luke 11:4
Rebel - One who revolts from the government to which he Owes allegiance, either by openly renouncing the authority of that government, or by taking arms and openly opposing it. A rebel differs from an enemy, as the latter is one who does not Owe allegiance to the government which he attacks
Female - Among plants, that which produces fruit that which bears the pistil and receives the pollen of the male flowers. To the generous decision of a female mind, we Owe the discovery of America
Belong - ) To be a part of, or connected with; to be appendant or related; to Owe allegiance or service
Would - (2) Ophelon (the 2nd aorist tense of opheilo, "to Owe") expresses a wish, "I would that," either impracticable, 1 Corinthians 4:8 , RV (AV, "would to God"); or possible, 2 Corinthians 11:1 ; Galatians 5:12 ; Revelation 3:15
Owe - ) Hence: To have or be under an obigation to restore, pay, or render (something) in return or compensation for something received; to be indebted in the sum of; as, the subject Owes allegiance; the fortunate Owe assistance to the unfortunate. ) To have or possess, as something derived or bestowed; to be obliged to ascribe (something to some source); to be indebted or obliged for; as, he Owed his wealth to his father; he Owed his victory to his lieutenants
Should - ...
Note: In 1 Corinthians 9:10 , AV, opheilo, "to Owe," is rendered "should" (RV, "ought to")
Charm - A kind of spell, supposed by the ignorant to have an irresistible influence, by means of the concurrence of some infernal power, both on the minds, lives, and properties of those whom it has for its object. Doddridge, "which are commonly called charms, and seem to have no efficacy at all for producing the effects proposed by them, are to be avoided; seeing if there be indeed any real efficacy in them, it is generally probable they Owe it to some bad cause; for one can hardly imagine that God should permit good angels in any extraordinary manner to interpose, or should immediately exert his own miraculous power on trifling occasions, and upon the performance of such idle tricks as are generally made the condition of receiving such benefits
Ireland, John - He organized a systematic movement for the colonization of different parts of Minnesota, and various settlements Owe their origin and prosperity to his labors
John Ireland - He organized a systematic movement for the colonization of different parts of Minnesota, and various settlements Owe their origin and prosperity to his labors
Christianity - Christianity is the inspiration to which our art, architecture, painting, music, and literatures Owe what is most beautiful and elevating in them
Benedictines - The time when this order came into England is well known, for to it the English Owe their conversion from idolatry
Gala'Tians, the Epistle to the, - To it and the Epistle to the Romans we Owe most directly the springing up and development of the ideas and energies of the Reformation
Debt - " ...
Note: In Matthew 18:30 , opheilo, "to Owe," is translated "debt" in the AV (RV, "that which was due
Mother - Mothers are endowed with an all-powerful control over their offspring; and most men of eminence in the world have acknowledged their great indebtedness to maternal influence. " The Christian church already Owes much, and will Owe infinitely more, to the love, patience, zeal, and self-devotion of mothers in training their children for Christ
Apostolici - " What little is recorded about them, beyond the name, we Owe to Epiphanius ( Haer. " Any true historical connexion, however, between the Apostolici and either the Marcionists or the Manicheans is highly improbable
Catholic, Roman - The improper notion, commonly held by those not members of the Church when using the term "Roman Catholic," is that the term "Catholic" is a genus, of which those who Owe allegiance to the Pope form a species
Theft - " This law requires justice, truth, and faithfulness in all our dealings with men; to Owe no man any thing, but to give to all their dues; to be true to all engagements, promises, and contracts; and to be faithful in whatever is committed to our care and trust
Creed - Shaped in their developed form by doctrinal controversy and Conciliar definition, the Creeds Owe their origin to the necessities of worship and the instinct of public confession in the Church, felt at baptism to begin with
Belgium - From the 6th to the 8th century it was led by bishops, as Saint Eloi, Saint Lambert, and Saint Hubert, and numerous missionaries, notably Saint Amand (died 675), Bishop of Maastricht and founder of many monasteries to which the Belgians Owe much of their attachment to the Catholic Faith
Praise - When passing its natural line, it becomes the ruling spring of conduct; when the regard which we pay to the opinions of men encroaches on that reverence which we Owe to the voice of conscience and the sense of duty; the love of praise, having then gone out of its proper place, instead of improving, corrupts; and instead of elevating, debases our nature
Roman Catholic - The improper notion, commonly held by those not members of the Church when using the term "Roman Catholic," is that the term "Catholic" is a genus, of which those who Owe allegiance to the Pope form a species
Guilt - A deep feeling of guilt, even if caused by oppressive parenting, can yet have a positive effect in deepening our appreciation of our failures before God and the debt of obedience that we Owe. In the parable of the unmerciful servant Jesus shows that we Owe God an enormous debt, far greater than we could possibly repay (Matthew 18:21-35 )
Due - ...
B — 1: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) signifies "to Owe, to be indebted," especially financially, Matthew 18:30 , RV, "that which was due;" Matthew 18:34 , "all that was due
Hellenists - The Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, were those who lived in Egypt, and other parts where the Greek tongue prevailed: it is to them we Owe the Greek version of the Old Testament, commonly called the Septuagint, or that of the Seventy
Due - It has no connection with Owe. Owed that ought to be paid or done to another. That which is Owed that which one contracts to pay, do or perform to another that which law or justice requires to be paid or done
Assyria - ), greatest of all Assyrian kings, to whom we Owe part of our knowledge of Assyro-Babylonian history, as he caused the most important historical texts and inscriptions to be copied and placed in a fine library which he built in his palace. With his death, Assyrian power declined
Debtor - 1: ὀφειλέτης (Strong's #3781 — Noun Masculine — opheiletes — of-i-let'-ace ) "one who Owes anything to another," primarily in regard to money; in Matthew 18:24 , "who Owed" (lit. , "a debt-ower" (chreos, "a loan, a debt," and No. ...
Note: In Matthew 23:16 opheilo, "to Owe" (see DEBT), is translated "he is a debtor
Paulus of Asia - We Owe our knowledge of him to the Ecclesiastical History of John of Ephesus (Dr. The historian describes him as an honest and simple-minded old man, dwelling quietly in his monastery in Caria, when the patriarch had him brought to Constantinople and imprisoned in his own palace, until, overcome by harsh treatment, he was compelled to receive the communion at his hands, besides signing an act of submission, which he was not allowed to read (given by the historian), to the effect that he accepted the decrees of Chalcedon and the jurisdiction of the patriarch of Constantinople
Religion - Religion, as distinct from virtue, or morality, consists in the performance of the duties we Owe directly to God, from a principle of obedience to his will. In this sense, religion comprehends the belief and worship of pagans and Mohammedans, as well as of christians any religion consisting in the belief of a superior power or powers governing the world, and in the worship of such power or powers
Victricius - Paulinus of Nola, to whose letters we Owe some details of his life
Need, Needs, Needful - , Matthew 3:14 ; 6:8 ; 9:12 , RV, "(have no) need," AV, "need (not)," the RV adheres to the noun form; so in Matthew 14:16 ; Mark 14:63 ; Luke 5:31 ; 22:7 ; Ephesians 4:28 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:9 ; in the following, however, both RV and AV use the verb form, "to need" (whereas the original has the verb echo, "to have," with the noun chreia as the object, as in the instances just mentioned): Luke 15:7 ; John 2:25 ; 13:10 ; 16:30 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:8 ; 1 John 2:27 ; Revelation 22:5 ; in all these the verb "to have" could well have been expressed in the translation. " ...
B — 5: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to Owe, be bound, obliged to do something," is translated "must ye needs," in 1 Corinthians 5:10 ; in 1 Corinthians 7:36 it is used impersonally, signifying "it is due," and followed by the infinitive mood of ginomai, "to become, to occur, come about," lit. "it is due to become," translated "(if) need (so) require," See BEHOVE , BOUND , DEBT , DUE , DUTY , GUILTY , INDEBTED , MUST , OUGHT , Owe
Shall - ) To Owe; to be under obligation for
Sheep - The benefits which mankind Owe to it are numerous. Its fleece, its skin, its flesh, its tallow, and even its horns and bowels are articles of great utility to human life and happiness. The first, called the "Bidoween sheep," differs little from the large breed among us, except that the tail is somewhat longer and thicker
Hell - In a broad sense it may mean: ...
the limbo of infants (limbus parvulorum), where those who die in original sin, but without personal mortal sin, are deprived of the happiness which would come to them in the supernatural order, but not of happiness in the natural order; ...
the limbo of the Fathers (limbus patrum) where the souls of the just who died before Christ awaited their admission to heaven, which had been closed against them in punishment for the sin of Adam; ...
purgatory, where the just who die in venial sin or who still Owe a debt of temporal punishment for sin are cleansed by suffering before their admission to heaven. Human reason, however, unaided by revelation, could not know with certainty all that is actually known of hell
University of Bologna - Modern literature and science Owe much to this university and classical studies flourished there under such great humanists as Francesco Filelfo (1398-1481) and in more recent times Giuseppe Mezzofanti (1774-1849), later a cardinal
Must - ...
2: ὀφείλω (Strong's #3784 — — opheilo — of-i'-lo, of-i-leh'-o ) "to Owe," is rendered "must
Babylon (2) - As Chaldæa gained in power its name was applied to the whole country, including Babylon. 625, Babylonia speedily extended its sway over most of western Asia and Egypt, and under Nebuchadnezzar became a vast empire, lasting, however, less than a century, and fell before the Medians under Cyrus and Darius, b. Rawlinson, "far more than to Egypt, we Owe the art and learning of the Greeks. Under the less able rulers who followed, the power of the empire declined, and it fell a comparatively easy prey to the Medo-Persians under Cyrus, b
Oratory - But in some canons the name oratory seems confined to private chapels or places of worship set up for the convenience of private families, yet still depending on the parochial churches, and differing from them in this, that they were only places of prayer, but not for celebrating the communion; for if that were at any time allowed to private families, yet, at least, upon the great and solemn festivals, they were to resort for communion to the parish churches. The Priest of the Oratory in France were established on the model of those in Italy, and Owe their rise to cardinal Berulle, a native of Champagne, who resolved upon this foundation in order to revive the splendour of the ecclesiastical state, which was greatly sunk through the miseries of the civil wars, the increase of heresies, and a general corruption of manners
Chromatius, Bishop of Aquileia - He was a native of Aquileia, where he resided under the roof of his widowed mother, together with his brother Eusebius and his unmarried sisters. of Altino, and the liberality with which they both contributed to the expenses, we Owe several of Jerome's translations of and commentaries on the books of O. ...
We have under his name 18 homilies on "the Sermon on the Mount," commencing with a Tractatus Singularis de Octo Beatitudinibus, followed by 17 fragments of expositions on c His interpretation is literal, not allegorical, and his reflections moral rather than spiritual
See, Roman - To the Roman Church we Owe the closing of the Canon of the Scriptures, and the beginnings of Canon Law. The supremacy of the Roman See has been attacked since then, however, in the Greek Schism, Protestantism, etc
Roman See - To the Roman Church we Owe the closing of the Canon of the Scriptures, and the beginnings of Canon Law. The supremacy of the Roman See has been attacked since then, however, in the Greek Schism, Protestantism, etc
Work, Theology of - ...
However, the primal commission for humanity to subdue the earth remains in force. Followers of Christ know they Owe their employers an honest day's work
Business - They are to be honest (1 Thessalonians 4:12), to Owe no man anything (Romans 13:8), to avoid covetousness which leads to dishonesty (Hebrews 13:5), and to refuse to go into partnership with extortioners (1 Corinthians 5:11). ), and at Ephesus showed no tenderness for the profits of idolatrous silversmiths (Acts 19:24-27)
Elect - (1 Timothy 5:21) No doubt they Owe their steadfastness to Christ, as their Head and Sovereign, in election and dominion; while Christ's seed, the church, are preserved by union. For as some angels have fallen, so might all, if not upheld by a superior power to themselves
Servant - ...
In relation to the character of servant, as it refers to the service the whole creation Owe the Lord, we may take up the language of the Psalmist, and say, all things continue, according to JEHOVAH'S ordinance: for all things serve thee. " (Job 12:16) Wicked men, and devils, as well as the faithful servants of JEHOVAH, may be said to minister to the Lord's will and pleasure; and though not by their intentions, yet by the overruling and sovereign power of God, do carry on his administrations in his almighty government. ...
And in relation to the word servant, in the mutual services men Owe, and are in fact exercising, of receipt towards one another; here also, the subject is almost boundless. "Listen O isles unto me; and harken ye people from far! the Lord hath called me, from the bowels of my mother hath he made mention of my name; and said unto me, Thou art my Servant, O Israel, in whom I will be glorified?"...
Such then being plainly and evidently the case, that the Lord Jesus Christ is JEHOVAH'S Servant, it will be highly proper and important that every follower of the Lord Jesus Christ should have a just and right conception of the sense in which this is meant in Scripture. ...
And so far was this act of humiliation from lessening the infinite dignity of the Lord Jesus Christ, or in a single circumstance departing from his own essential power and GODHEAD, that had he not been God as well as man, he could not have been a suited person of JEHOVAH'S Servant. And although he did veil the glories of the GODHEAD, during the time of his tabernacling in substance of our flesh here below, yet was it utterly impossible to be a moment void of it; and oftentimes he caused it to burst forth in wonderful display of sovereign glory and power
Brotherly Love - ” However, the idea of brotherly love is much more extensive than these few occurrences. ...
Jesus constantly taught His followers the principle of “brotherly love,” even though the New Testament never records Him using this very word. ” Also in Romans 13:8-10 , he declared, “Owe no man any thing, but to love one another,” and in 1 Corinthians 8:13 , on causing a weaker brother to stumble, he wrote, “If meat make my brother to offend, I will eat no flesh
Debt - To the borrower they were a misfortune ( Deuteronomy 28:12 ; Deuteronomy 28:44 ); to the lender a form of charity. Pledges were allowed, but under strict limitations ( Deuteronomy 24:10 , Job 24:3 ). It must be admitted, however, that apart from a priori considerations the obvious interpretation is a total remission of debts (so the older, and Jewish commentators). The word is chosen to emphasize our duty of forgiveness, and it has a wide meaning, including all we Owe to God
Neighbour - local, but always ethicized; it varies, however, in the width of its application. ...
The kind of conduct which a man is said to Owe to his neighbour out of love comprises mainly the following: consideration for his scruples, tenderness for his weaknesses, the sacrifice of one’s own pleasure to his, but with the object of building up his character (Romans 15); abstinence from gratification of lust or of quarrelsomeness at his expense (Galatians 5); abstinence from ‘respect of persons’-because of the disrespect inflicted by it on other persons (James 2)-and from censoriousness (James 4:11-12); the speaking and doing of the simple truth (Ephesians 4:15; Ephesians 4:25); and generally, the rendering to every man of his due (Romans 13)
Psalms - " But it is specially to David and his contemporaries that we Owe this precious book
Loans - verb (ὀφείλω) is variously rendered in the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘owed,’ ‘owest,’ ‘that was due’ (Matthew 18:28; Matthew 18:30; Matthew 18:34, Luke 7:41; Luke 16:5; Luke 16:7 of financial obligation); ‘debtor’ (Matthew 23:16; Matthew 23:18 [1]), ‘duty’ (Luke 17:10), ‘ought’ (John 13:14; John 19:7), ‘indebted’ (Luke 11:4; all of moral obligation); and the noun (ὀφειλέτης) is translated ‘owed’ (Matthew 18:24 of money debt), ‘debtors’ (Matthew 6:12 of moral debts), ‘offenders’ (Luke 13:4 [2] of guilt before God). Because then, in the Gospel narratives, debtors and creditors, borrowers and lenders figure largely, we are not able to say that the teaching of Jesus either supports or condemns modern commercial arrangements. This uncertainty cannot, however, affect the meaning, which is determined by the preceding verses, and though the rendering of the Authorized Version must be rejected on critical grounds, it may well stand as an adequate gloss. It is the duty of giving Jesus teaches, as if He said, ‘Let your lending be giving’—a rule of charity which experience justifies, and which, from the would-be borrower’s side, receives support in St. Paul’s saying, ‘Owe no man anything, save to love one another’ (Romans 13:8)
Apparition - … It is to their faith in the Κα that we Owe all our knowledge of the home life of the people of ancient Egypt. … The power of passing from the Physical World into the Spiritual is potential in every soul, but is actualized only in a few. 88–108—in which Dante explains his conception of the disembodied soul as having the power of operating on matter and impressing upon the surrounding air the shape which it animated in life (Aquinas), thus forming for itself an aerial vesture (Origen and St
Mesrobes - With this as a basis and with the help of various persons who possessed some traditionary knowledge of ancient Armenian, as Plato chief librarian at Edessa and two learned rhetoricians, Epiphanius and Rufinus, he composed the alphabet which the Armenians adopted in 406, the seven vowels having been made known, it was said, by direct revelation from heaven (cf. 9 among the Arabs, movements to which we Owe the preservation of some of the most precious monuments of antiquity, as Tatian's long-lost Diatessaron , pub
Flesh - This physical life, however, has been corrupted through sin, and this gives ‘flesh’ its particular meaning in the writings of Paul. ...
When sinners repent and trust in the saving power of Christ, they receive new life and freedom through the Spirit of Christ who comes to dwell within them. The original sinful human nature remains with them till the end of their present earthly existence, but through Christ they are now free from its power (Romans 6:14; Romans 6:18; Romans 8:1-2; Romans 8:10-12; see JUSTIFICATION). If, now that they are believers, they readily give in to the flesh, it will soon bring them under its power again. They have no obligation to the flesh; they Owe it nothing
Tribes of Israel - Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher the Canaanite tribes of the concubines who were admitted to union with the other tribes Owe their position also to these principles. History, however, gives us no record of Reuben’s priority in leadership, but assigns that rôle to Joseph, so that the primacy of the Reuben tribe must go back to an earlier time and to the East Jordan. It is possible that the tribes which entered Canaan under Reuben’s leadership, or during his supremacy, were classed under Leah, while those which followed under the lead of Joseph were classed under Rachel
Eve - Formed from "one of Adam's ribs," taken by God from Adam in a deep sleep; type of the church formed from the opened side of her Heavenly Bridegroom (from whence flowed blood and water) in the death sleep, so as by faith in His atoning blood, and by the cleansing water of His Holy Spirit, to be "bone of His bone, and flesh of His flesh" (Ephesians 5:25-32; 1 John 5:6). ...
He was first formed, then Eve (1 Timothy 2:13), of the man and for the man (1618450770_8); teaching the subjection and reverence which wives Owe their husbands
Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church - To him we Owe the custom of dating events from the birth of our Saviour, though he is now acknowledged to have placed the era four years too late. The period called after him was borrowed from Victorius of Aquitaine, who flourished 100 years earlier, and is said to have invented it
Answer - Paul, discussing the despair of Elijah, asks ‘What saith the answer (χρηματισμός, ‘Divine oracle’) of God unto him?’...
The passages with which we are most concerned, however, ate those which speak of the Christian answer or ‘defence’ (so usually in Revised Version ) against critics from within or without the Church (ἀπολογέομαι, ἀπολογία). Paul’s answers to those who denied his Apostleship, the Judaizers who followed him from place to place and attempted to undermine his teaching and influence among his converts in his absence-a fact to which we largely Owe the letters to the Galatians and the Corinthians, or at least the most characteristic and polemical portions of them
Obedience - But to obey one’s superior is a debt we Owe in accordance with the Divine order immanent in things; and as a consequence is good. … The act we are considering has, however, a special ground of praiseworthiness on account of its special object. For the will of the superior however made known is in a way an implicit command: and obedience appears so much the more ready, in proportion as it anticipates an explicit command by obeying, when the will of the superior is perceived
Puritans - ...
The queen made many attempts to repress every thing that appeared to her as an innovation in the religion established by her almost unlimited authority she readily checked open and avowed opposition, but she could not extinguish the principles of the Puritans, 'by whom alone, ' according to Mr. Hume, 'the precious spark of liberty had been kindled and was preserved, and to whom the English Owe the whole freedom of their constitution. ...
The different principles, however, on which they had originally divided from the church establishment at home, operated in a way that might have been expected when they came to the possession of the civil power abroad. Those who formed the colony of Massachusetts's Bay, having never relinquished the principles of a national church, and of the power of the civil magistrate in matters of faith and worship, were less tolerant than those who settled at New Plymouth, at Rhode Island, and at Providence Plantations. The number of them who did so, however, was very small. At the same time, however, it must be acknowledged that a goodly number of each of the three denominations have adhered to the doctrine and spirit of their forefathers; and have proved the efficacy of their principles by their concern to be holy in all manner of conversation
Earth - The material world had a beginning when God “made the earth by His power,” “formed it,” and “spread it out” ( Owe their origin to the Lord “who made heaven and earth” ( Urim And Thummim - This rendering or rather, taking the words as abstract plurals, ‘Light and Perfection’ seems to reflect the views of the late Jewish scholars to whom we Owe the present vocalization of the OT text; but the oldest reference to the sacred lot suggests that the words express two sharply contrasted ideas. ’ Winckler and his followers, on the other hand, start from ‘light’ as the meaning of Urim , and interpret Thummim as ‘darkness’ (the completion of the sun’s course)
Melchizedek - At the same time it may perhaps be said that, as contrasted with the Levitical priests who succeeded to their priestly offices by reason of their descent, an ancient priest-king is really typical of our Lord, inasmuch as it is likely that, in a primitive age, such a one would Owe his position to his natural endowments and force of character
Son of David - The Messiah does not Owe His dignity to His Davidic descent. There is, however, no reason to suppose that, as used in NT times, the title alluded to military prowess, or to a career of conquest on the part of the Messiah. To the Jew of the later pre-Christian centuries, David stood for much else besides military prowess and political prestige
Law - We are not under it, however, as a covenant of works, Galatians 3:13 . Hence this law only prescribes and regulates the duties betwixt equals, omitting such as relate to the Supreme Being, as well as those which we Owe to our inferiors
Nimrod - And from that Nimrod was led on to build cities with walls, and towers, and barracks, and fortresses. ...
Archbishop Whately thinks that the whole story of the building of the Tower of Babel, the confounding of the speech of the builders, and their consequent disruption and dispersion, north, south, east, and west, is a veiled history of a great outbreak of religious controversy in that early and eastern day. In 1849 there was much less freedom allowed in the Church of England for such speculations than there is in our day; and thus it was that Dr. Whately had to come out about the Tower of Babel in one of the foreign tongues of Babel, and behind the veil of anonymity. A living writer in the same church looks on the Tower of Babel as a 'sublime emblem'; and Landor makes Isaac Barrow and Isaac Newton talk together in his noble English about that Tower as if it had been, at the top at least, the first astronomical observatory of those Babylonian fathers of that queen of the sciences. But we come back from all these, not uninstructive speculations in their way, to the powerfully written passage before us, in which so much is told us in such small space. For we are all working at the building of that Tower: we are all too much given over to words and to names, to sects and to parties, to men and to churches. Words rule us, and things lose all power over us. Let every man enter into himself, and he will be sure to find a whole Tower of Babel, with all its consequences, standing in his own mind and in his own heart continually. The only possible escape from that Tower and its confoundings and confusions is to get clean away from the letter which killeth, and to go down into the spirit which giveth liberty and life. Newman says of Thomas Scott, that he Owes him his own soul. I do not Owe my soul to Behmen, or to any of his school; but I Owe some lessons in my soul's deliverance and purification that I would be a cold-hearted creature if I did not on all hands acknowledge and share with you
Chaldaea - Herodotus (1:193) stated that grain yielded the sower from two to three hundred fold. ...
We Owe to them the preservation of many fragments of Greek learning, as the Greeks had previously Owed much of their eastern learning to the Chaldees
the Angel of the Lord - " The same JEHOVAH went before the Israelites by day in a pillar of cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire; and by Him the law was given amidst terrible displays of power and majesty from mount Sinai. " So in Hosea 12:2 ; Hosea 12:5 , it is said, "By his strength he had power with God; yea, he had power over the Angel, and prevailed. " Of this Angel let it be observed, that he is here represented as the guide and protector of the Israelites; to him they were to Owe their conquests and their settlement in the promised land, which are in other places often attributed to the immediate agency of God; that they are cautioned to "beware of him," to reverence and stand in dread of him; that the pardoning of transgressions belongs to him; finally, "that the name of God was in him
Eclipse - Thus, to an eclipse of the moon incidentally noticed by the great Jewish chronologer, Josephus, shortly before the death of Herod the Great, we Owe the determination of the true year of our Saviour's nativity
John, Theology of - John that we Owe the three great utterances, ‘God is Spirit’ ( John 4:24 ), ‘God is Light’ ( 1 John 1:5 ), ‘God is Love’ ( 1 John 4:8 ; 1 John 4:16 ). The context, however, points rather to the ineffable purity of His nature and the need of holiness in those who profess to hold fellowship with Him. John’s thought: his conclusions are, ‘He that loveth not knoweth not God’ ( John 5:28-29 ), ‘We also ought to love one another’ (v. But the statement that God is love goes behind all these for the moment, and teaches that the principle of self-impartation is essential, energetic, and ever operating in the Divine nature, and that it is in itself the source of all life, all purifying energy, and all that love which constitutes at the same time the binding and the motive power of the whole universe. It does not follow, however, that St. John, however, availed himself of another meaning of the Greek word Logos , and he emphasizes the Divine ‘utterance,’ which reveals the mind and will of God Himself, giving a personal and historical interpretation to the phrase. John more than to any other writer we Owe the development of the Christian doctrine of the Godhead, as modified by the above cardinal conceptions. To him we Owe the definition, ‘sin is lawlessness’ ( 1 John 3:4 ). John, but he emphasizes with tremendous power the contrast between flesh and spirit, between light and darkness. John’s writings chiefly we Owe the idea of ‘the world as a dark and dire enemy,’ vague and shadowy in outline, but most formidable in its opposition to the love of the Father and the light of the life of sonship. He does not dwell on the phenomena of demoniacal possession, but he has much to say of ‘the devil’ or ‘the evil one’ as a personal embodiment of the principle and power of evil. ...
Lest, however, what might be called the mystical element in John’s theology should be exaggerated, it is well to note that the balance is redressed by the stress laid upon love in its most practical forms. Similarly strong language is used as regards social relationships and the love of others; for the word ‘brother’ must not be narrowed down to mean exclusively those who belong to the Christian communion. ’...
No more comprehensive phrase, however, to describe in brief the blessings of the gospel is to be found in St
Lamb - -(1) In Philip’s interpretation of this passage to the eunuch who questioned him concerning its meaning, he showed that its fulfilment was found in Jesus (Acts 8:32). ...
According to Revelation 5:6, in the central place before the throne, in the midst of the four and twenty elders, and the four living creatures, the Revelationist turned to see a Lion, symbol of majesty and overmastering power, when lo! instead of a lion he beheld a Lamb, standing, bearing still the wound by which He was slain in sacrifice, yet with the emblems of power and wisdom in the highest degree. ‘He looked to see power and force, whereby the foes of his faith should be destroyed, and he saw love and gentleness by which they should be conquered’ (G. But always at the heart of every picture of the Lamb throughout this book is the never-to-be-forgotten fact of His sacrifice and victorious power, and all the properties and functions of the Exalted Christ take their rise from this fact. Henceforth the life of the world must be dominated by the ideal which He has realized, and the power for its fulfilment must proceed from Him. Not a higher and a lower worship are here, but the two are of the same order and unite in one stream. (c) To Him as slain the redeemed Owe their power over sin and death (Revelation 5:6; Revelation 5:9; Revelation 5:12, Revelation 7:10; Revelation 7:14, Revelation 12:11, Revelation 14:4); nor in this connexion does the author shrink from the word ‘purchase. The Lamb bears the marks of a violent death at the hand of others, yet He is all-powerful (Revelation 5:6). The secret of His nearness to God, of His personal victory and power over others, and the common spirit by which His activity on earth is bound to that in heaven, is found in love. And still further, central in the throne of God, the law of the moral order of the world, the power which moves history to its goal, the all-pervading spirit of the angelic hosts, the principle in which the paradoxes of life are resolved, the magnet which draws heaven down to earth and domiciles it with men, and the light in which all social good is revealed and glorified is sacrificial love
Forgiveness - The verb, however, is rare outside the Gospels in the sense of ‘forgive. ...
Side by side with these instances, however, we must put the noun, ἅφεσις. Here, the figure of the cancelling of a debt is joined to another-rescue from some usurping power; and this (in the passage in Eph. Paul takes up the suggestion implied in the word ἄφεσις, ‘a cancelled debt,’ already familiar to Pharisaic thought, and develops it into his doctrine of justification: there is a debt-all men Owe it-caused by the nonperformance of the necessary works; judgment must therefore be given against us; but with the Judge who would pronounce the sentence there is also grace. ‘The importance of faith, however, is never left unexpressed, faith being at once surrender to, reliance on, and identification with its object
Nicodemus - ); and though he did not become an avowed disciple, he protested in the Sanhedrin against the hasty condemnation of Jesus (John 7:50 f. There is a very general agreement that the discourses in the Fourth Gospel Owe something of their form to the Evangelist
Samuel - And all that must have worked powerfully together to make young Samuel the pure, prayerful, holy child before God and man that he early was and continued to be. All Samuel's past life had been spent in animating and purifying, and restoring the republic; but when he saw that a kingdom was coming in, instead of meeting it with resistance and obstinacy and lifelong hostility, the great man bowed to the will of God and the will of Israel, and cast in his lot with the new dispensation. That school of the prophets to which we Owe so much of Samuel himself; to which we Owe David, and Gad, and Nathan, and all their still greater successors; that great school was the creation and the care of Samuel's leisure from office. How much of the Old Testament itself we Owe to the prophets, and the preachers, and the psalmists, and the sacred writers, and other trained students of Samuel's great school, we have not yet fully found out. But the throne was destined to stand long after Saul was cast out of it; and Samuel is determined to do his very best to secure it that Saul's successors shall have around them and over their people a class of men who, if not indeed prophets,-Samuel cannot secure that-the wind bloweth where it listeth,-yet Samuel can and will secure that there shall be an estate of learned and earnest-minded men, who shall watch over the religion and the morals of the people, in the prophetical spirit and in the prophetical name
Arabia - Many of the luxuries attributed to it, however, were products of further lands, which reached Palestine and Egypt through Arabia. They have never been completely subjugated by any neighboring power. The Wahabees are one of the most powerful sects, named from Abd el Wahab, who in the beginning of last century undertook to reform abuses in Mahometanism. To the Arabs we Owe our arithmetical figures. The Arabic is more flexible and abounding in vowel sounds, as suits a people light hearted and impulsive; the Hebrew is weightier, and has more consonants, as suits a people graver and more earnest
Theophilus (2) - On this point, however, there has been some difference of opinion. seems to see, as the main obstacles to the Faith, not hypocrisies, nor Jewish backsliding, but the temptations of wealth and social position acting upon half-hearted converts; and his sayings about building the tower, putting the hand to the plough, renouncing all one’s possessions, and hating father and mother, are pathetic indications of what must have been going on in the divided household of many a young Theophilus. ’ In the case of Theophilus, however, wealth and dignity did not form an obstacle to faith. To his open-mindedness we Owe, in one sense, two of the most important historical documents in early Christian literature. Luke was led to write his Gospel narrative, an instance of the ‘first and noblest use’ of the human imagination, ‘that is to say, of the power of perceiving things which cannot be perceived by the senses,’ viz
Satan - Nevertheless, in a work of this kind, I cannot prevail upon myself to pass it wholly by, without offering a few brief observations concerning the Scripture account which is given us of one, to whose infernal malice we Owe all the miseries, sorrows, and evils of the present life. (1 John 3:8) So again the apostle Paul, in his Epistle to the Hebrews, was commissioned to tell the church that forasmuch"as the children were partakers of flesh and blood, he, that is, Christ, also himself likewise took part of the same, that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil, and deliver them who through fear of death were all their life-time subject to bondage. But be this as it may, very certain it is, that among the grand purposes for which the Son of God became incarnate this was eminently one, that he should conquer the devil and all the powers of hell, and "root out of his kingdom all things that offend. The first he did when through death, as the Scripture speaks, he destroyed him that had the power of death; and the second conquest was, and is, in every individual instance of his people, when by his regenerating grace in the sinner's heart he converts him from sin to salvation, and the sinner is translated out of "the kingdom of darkness into the kingdom of God's dear Son. " (Colossians 1:13)...
And there is another and a open display of victory: which the Lord Jesus Christ will obtain over Satan, before a whole congregated world, when he will set up a visible kingdom upon earth before the final judgment, during which period the Scriptures tell us Satan will be shut up, and his power restrained from tempting any of Christ's church, as he now is permitted to do, neither will he during that period be allowed to deceive the world and make the ungodly harrass and afflict Christ's people any more. " (Romans 16:20) In the meantime let us join that song of heaven, for we truly bear a part in it—"Now is come salvation and strength, and the kingdom of our God, and the power of his Christ, for the accuser of our brethren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night
Hegesippus, Father of Church History - We Owe our only information as to his date to a statement of his own, preserved by Eusebius (iv. We may be permitted to doubt, however, whether the sentence thus referred to was carried out, for not only was it unlawful for the Sanhedrin to punish by death without consent of the Roman authorities, but Josephus informs us immediately after that the charge of the citizens against Ananus was, that it was not lawful for him to assemble a Sanhedrin without the procurator's assent, nothing being said of the stoning to death. ...
An important question remains: Was Hegesippus of the Judaizing Christian party?...
Baur looks upon him as representing the narrowest section of the Jewish Christians even as a most declared enemy of St. We must regard him as a Catholic, not as a Judaizing Christian, and his statements as to the condition of the church in his day become a powerful argument against, rather than in favour of, the conclusions of that school
Almsgiving - Mark 2:1-11), ‘good works’ which Christ ‘showed you from the Father’ (Mark 10:32); tells the Lord’s defence of Mary’s act (Mark 12:8); and drops a hint twice over (Mark 12:6 and Mark 13:29) of Christ’s own practice of giving something to the poor out of His scanty wallet. Matthew the converted tax-gatherer who left all and followed Him, and St. He exposes also the ugliness of boasting of our giving before God (Luke 18:11 parable of the Pharisee and the Publican); insists that justice, mercy, and truth are of infinitely greater importance than minute scrupulousness in tithing, and lays down the comprehensive principle that, however there may be opportunities for us to do more than we have been explicitly commanded, yet we never can do more than we Owe to God: ‘When ye have done all, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which it was our duty to do’ (Luke 17:10)
Sincerity - It has no longer, however, the sense of ‘unadulterated’ other than in an ethical sense, so that the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 goes back to the older version of Wyclif—‘without gile. ’ ‘Sincerity’ must, however, always bear the association of that which is unmixed. In so far as this word differs from others of like meaning, it contemplates character as ‘the purged, the winnowed, the unmingled. ...
In his Life of Jesus, Renan makes allowance for a lower standard of sincerity in the East than that to which the Western nations conform. There is, however, no need to resort to such explanations; the narratives make it sufficiently plain that Jesus deliberately refused to work upon popular illusions. Nowhere is there a more stern demand for truth and sincerity than in the Apostolic writings, which Owe their inspiration to ‘the mind of Christ. An oath lowers the value of normal speech
Psalms, Book of, - It is, however, with David that Israelitish psalmody may be said virtually to commence. The course of David's reign was not, however, as yet complete. The solemn assembly convened by him for the dedication of the materials of the future temple, 1 Chronicles 28,29 , would naturally call forth a renewal of his best efforts to glorify the God of Israel in psalms; and to this occasion we doubtless Owe the great festal hymns, Psal 65-68, containing a large review of the past history, present position and prospective glories of God's chosen people. The Psalter describes God as he is: it glows with testimonies to his power and providence, his love and faithfulness, his holiness and righteousness
Leander (2) - They are quite in accordance with Leander's known, style, especially with that of the homily which concludes the council and was avowedly written and delivered by him. " To Reccared the pope writes: "To our honoured brother and fellow-bishop Leander we have sent the pallium as a gift from the see of the blessed apostle Peter, which we Owe to ancient custom (antiquae consuetudini ), to your deserts, and to his dignity and goodness. 167) maintains it was nothing more than a mark of honour and distinction, and did not carry with it the apostolic vicariate, which had, however, been bestowed on his predecessors in the see, Zeno, and Sallustius, by popes Simplicius and Hormisdas (Tejada y Ramiro, ii. Caesarius, to whom pope Vigilius gave the pallium when the vicariate had been previously bestowed (Vigil. Gams, however, holds that in Gregory's mind at any rate the pallium carried with it the vicariate, and that the phrase antiquae consuetudini is to be taken as referring to the vicariates of Zeno and Sallustius, and as implying the recognition by Gregory of an ancient claim on behalf of the see of Seville to represent the apostolic see in Spain. Isidore, however, in his Life of his brother ( de Vir
Hopkinsians - Universal good-will also implies the whole of the duty we Owe to our neighbour, for justice, truth, and faithfulness, are comprised in universal benevolence; so are temperance and chastity. That, in order to faith in Christ, a sinner must approve in his heart of the divine conduct, even though God should cast him off for ever; which, however, neither implies love of misery, nor hatred of happiness. That the infinitely wise and holy God has exerted his omnipotent power in such a manner as he purposed should be followed with the existence and entrance of moral evil into the system. For the wisdom and power of the Deity are displayed in carrying on designs of the greatest good; and the existence of moral evil has undoubtedly occasioned a more full, perfect, and glorious discovery of the infinite perfections of the divine nature, than could otherwise have been made to the view of creatures. Jonathan's righteousness was imputed to Mephibosheth when David showed kindness to him for his father Jonathan's sake
Genesis - It was speedily discovered, however, that this characteristic does not occur alone, but is associated with a number of other features, linguistic, literary, and religious, which were found to correspond in general with the division based on the use of the Divine names. , the Creation, when the Sabbath was instituted; the Flood, followed by the prohibition of eating the blood; and the Abrahamic Covenant, of which circumcision was the perpetual seal. ]'>[4] , however, we Owe the chronological scheme, and the series of genealogies already referred to as constituting the framework of the book as a whole. The process by which the two elements came to be blended can, however, partly be explained
Amen - They have a deep interest for Christians, not merely as a reminder of their essential unity and their ancient history, and as a recollection of the debt which we Owe to a race so often despised, but as a reminiscence of the very words which came from our Lord’s own mouth, in the days when He was sowing the seed of which we are reaping the fruits. In this, as in all else, He was no slavish imitator of contemporary Rabbis, He spoke ‘as having authority and not as the scribes’ (Mark 1:22), and in this capacity it is not surprising that He found a new use for the word of emphasis, which neither His predecessors nor His followers have ventured to imitate, though the title applied to Him in Revelation 3:14 is founded upon His own chosen practice
Shepherds - Unfettered by the cumbrous ceremonies of regal power, they led a plain and laborious life, in perfect freedom and overflowing abundance. In the wealth, the power, and the splendour of patriarchal shepherds, we discover the rudiments of regal grandeur and authority; and in their numerous and hardy retainers, the germ of potent empires. Hence the custom so prevalent among the ancients, of distinguishing the office and duties of their kings and princes, by terms borrowed from the pastoral life: Agamemnon, shepherd of the people, ‘Αγαμεμνονα ποιμενα λαων , is a phrase frequently used in the strains of Homer. " In many other places of Scripture, the church is compared to a sheep fold, the saints to sheep, and the ministers of religion to shepherds, who must render, at last, an account of their administration to the Shepherd and Overseer to whom they Owe their authority. The patriarch Jacob, though he was the son of a shepherd prince, kept the flocks of Laban, his maternal uncle; and his own sons followed the same business, both in Mesopotamia, and after his return to the land of Canaan. The sheep of the Bedoween Arabs in Egypt, and probably throughout the east, are very fine, black-faced and white-faced, and many of them clothed in a brown coloured fleece: and of this superior breed the ample flocks of the Syrian shepherds consisted. But it is needless to multiply quotations; every scholar knows that the Greek and Roman classics abound with allusions to this office, which in those days was one of great importance and dignity, on the faithful discharge of which the power and splendour of an eastern potentate greatly depended
Nin'Eveh - Unlike the vast masses of brick masonry which mark the site of Babylon, they showed externally no signs of artificial construction, except perhaps here and there the traces of a rude wall of sun-dried bricks. Some are mere conical heaps, varying from 50 to 150 feet high; others have a broad flat summit, and very precipitous cliff-like sites furrowed by deep ravines worn by the winter rains. Botta's discoveries at Khorsabad were followed by those of Mr. Although only the general plan of the ground-floor can now be traced, it is evident that the palaces had several stories built of wood and sun-dried bricks, which, when the building was deserted and allowed to fall to decay, gradually buried the lower chambers with their ruins, and protected the sculptured slabs from the effects of the weather. It is to this accumulation of rubbish above them that the bas-reliefs Owe their extraordinary preservation. All refer to public or national events; the hunting-scenes evidently recording the prowess and personal valor of the king as the head of the people-- "the mighty hunter before the Lord. Thus decorated without and within, the Assyrian palaces must have displayed a barbaric magnificence, not, however, devoid of a certain grandeur and beauty which probably no ancient or modern edifice has exceeded. A list of nineteen or twenty kings can already be compiled, and the annals of the greater number of them will probably be restored to the lost history of one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world
Birth of Christ - ’ According to Harnack, we Owe this word to St. —The extravagant assertion must, of course, not be forgotten, that we Owe these opening chapters of St. §
(c) If the interpolator of these two verses in question had done his work so ‘clearly and effectively’ as Schmiedel maintains, it is surely surprising that he should have allowed any of those passages in the original document to stand which could refer in any way to Joseph’s parentage. ...
If credit be allowed to the Acts of the Apostles, it would seem that St. John was also ignorant of our Lord‘s descent from David?*
Atheist - That Atheism existed in some sense before the flood, may be suspected from what we read in Scripture, as well as from Heathen tradition; and it is not very unreasonable to suppose, that the deluge was partly intended to evince to the world a heavenly power, as Lord of the universe, and superior to the visible system of nature. This was at least a happy consequence of that fatal catastrophe; for, as it is observed by Dean Sherlock, "The universal deluge, and the confusion of languages, had so abundantly convinced mankind of a divine power and providence, that there was no such creature as an Atheist, till their ridiculous idolatries had tempted some men of wit and thought, rather to own no God than such as the Heathens worshipped. " However, to Tillotson, and other able writers, we Owe its suppression in this country; for they pressed it down with a weight of sound argument, from which it has never been able to raise itself. For although in our time, in France and Germany a subtle Atheism was revived, and spread its unhallowed and destructive influence for many years throughout the Continent, it made but little progress in this better-instructed nation. ...
Of all the false doctrines and foolish opinions that ever infested the mind of man, nothing can possibly equal that of Atheism, which is such a monstrous contradiction of all evidence, to all the powers of understanding, and the dictates of common sense, that it may be well questioned whether any man can really fall into it by a deliberate use of his judgment. All nature so clearly points out, and so loudly proclaims, a Creator of infinite power, wisdom, and goodness, that whoever hears not its voice, and sees not its proofs, may well be thought wilfully deaf, and obstinately blind. If they suppose that the world was made by chance, and is every moment subject to be destroyed by chance again; no man can be so absurd as to contend, that it is as comfortable and desirable to live in such an uncertain state of things, and so continually liable to ruin, without any hope of renovation, as in a world that is under the preservation and conduct of a powerful, wise, and good God. Lastly, if they suppose the world to be eternally and necessarily self-existent, and consequently that every thing in it is established by a blind and eternal fatality; no rational man can at the same time deny, but that liberty and choice, or a free power of acting, is a more eligible state, than to be determined thus in all our actions, as a stone is to move downward, by an absolute and inevitable fate
Redemption - ’ Instead of them, however, the NT writers elected to employ forms which embody in their very structure an open assertion that the mode of deliverance spoken of is by ‘ransom. ...
Of course, even words like these, in the very form of which the modal implication is entrenched, and which Owe, in fact, their existence to the need of words emphasizing the mode unambiguously, may come to be used so loosely that this implication retires into the background or even entirely out of sight. That λυτροῦσθαι, λύτρωσις, ἀπολύτρωσις have suffered in their NT usage such a decay of their essential significance cannot be assumed, however, without clear proof. In neither case, however, is either element of thought really suppressed entirely. ...
It would be strange if so remarkable a declaration had produced no echoes in the teaching of our Lord’s followers. ...
It is only an elaboration of the central idea of this declaration when Paul (Titus 2:14), stirred to the depths of his being by the remembrance of all that he Owes to ‘our great God and Saviour, Jesus Christ,’ for ‘the epiphany of whose glory’ he is looking forward as his most ‘blessed hope,’ celebrates in burning words the great transaction to which he attributes it all: ‘who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a people for his own possession, zealous of good works. ’ The two statements have fundamentally the same content, expressed, however, in the one case negatively, and in the other positively. The verbs used in the two statements are, however, different. This is only to say, in our current modes of speech, that the ransom paid by Christ, when He gave Himself for us, purchases for us not only relief from the guilt but also release from the power of sin. And he too seeks to gain force for his exhortation by reminding them of what they Owe to Christ their Ransomer. Lightfoot phrases it in his note on Colossians 1:14, with which the ransoming is thus defined to be just ‘remission of sins,’ is the more noteworthy because it is apparently directly contrasted as such with the wider ‘deliverance’ (ἐρύσατο) from the power of darkness and removal into the Kingdom of the Son of God’s love, for which it supplies the ground. ...
The great passage in which the nature of our ransoming is unfolded for us, however, is Romans 3:24. The fundamental declarations of this very pregnant passage are, that men, being sinners, can be justified only gratuitously, by an act of pure grace on God’s part; that God, however, can so act towards them in His grace, only because there is a ransoming (ἀπολύτρωσις) available for them in Christ Jesus; and that this ransoming was procured by the death of Christ as an expiatory sacrifice, enabling God righteously to forgive sins. There is, however, not even an antinomy here: the gratuitousness of justification quoad homines cannot possibly exclude the grounding of that act in the blood of Christ, as a ransom paid for men from without
John, Epistles of - The use of literary parallels always requires care; but in this case the similarity is so close as incontestably to establish a connexion between the two documents, whilst the handling of the same vocabulary is so free as irresistibly to suggest, not that the writer of the Gospel borrowed from the Epistle, or vice versa , but that the two writings proceed from the same hand. Some contend that Gospel and Epistle proceed from the same author, who, however, was not the Apostle John, but John the Presbyter or some later writer. In both the same great central truths are exhibited, in the same form and almost in the same words; but in the Gospel they are traced to their fount and origin; in the Epistle they are followed out to their only legitimate issues in the spirit and conduct of Christians in the world. however, always the best mode of exposition, and if the writer has not consciously mapped out into exact subdivisions the ground he covers, he follows out to their issues two or three leading thoughts which he keeps consistently in view throughout. ...
Such an outline is not, however, a sufficient guide to the contents of the Epistle, and a very different arrangement might be justified. The writer does not, however, as has been asserted, ‘ramble without method,’ nor is the Epistle a ‘shapeless mass. The enunciation of principles, however, is uncompromising and very searching. ’ There is a stern ring, implying however no harshness, about the very exhortations to love, which shows how indissolubly it is to be identified with immutable and inviolable righteousness. If to this Epistle we Owe the great utterance, ‘God is Love’ here twice repeated, but found nowhere else in Scripture to it we Owe also the sublime declaration, ‘God is Light, and in him is no darkness at all. This is, however, a mere conjecture, and the letter is addressed, not to a church official, but to a private layman, apparently of some wealth and influence. But Diotrephes an official of the church, perhaps its ‘bishop’ or a leading elder who loved power, asserted himself arrogantly, and was disposed to resist the Apostle’s authority
John - The only words in the Synoptic Gospels attributed specifically to John are: “Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name and we forbad him, because he followeth not us” (Mark 9:38 ; Luke 9:49 ). Luke 22:8 , however, identifies Peter and John as the two disciples who were sent to prepare the Passover meal for Jesus and the disciples. Many would agree, however, that the strongest case can be made for the apostolic authorship of Revelation, followed in order by the Gospel and Epistles. He would be filled with the Holy Spirit, and as a prophet he would have the spirit and power of Elijah. John's baptism may Owe something to the Essene practices, but we cannot determine the extent of this influence. Thus, the witness of John the Baptist to Jesus is featured, deflecting any possibility that later followers of the Baptist might argue that John was superior to Jesus (Matthew 3:11-12 ; Galatians 2:9 ; Luke 3:15-17 ; John 1:15 , John 1:19-36 ). Years later, a group of John's followers were found around Ephesus, among them the eloquent Apollos (Acts 18:24-19:7 ); and for centuries John's influence survived among the Mandeans, who claimed to perpetuate his teachings
Liberty - It is precarious, however, to find positive evidence of this, as A. It was the Roman Emperors who gave the people of the provinces power to enjoy the rights of citizenship. The poor, hired labourers, however, of James 5:4 were not technically δοῦλοι. The development of such a notion naturally followed upon the development of the notion of conscience itself, which in turn was bound up with the growing sense of human individuality and personal responsibility. ...
To the rise of Christianity we very specially Owe an advanced conception of conscience and its corollary, the claim to freedom to act in accord with the behests of conscience. D (Luke 6:5) wherein He says to a man found working on the Sabbath, ‘If thou knowest what thou art doing, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, thou art accurst and a transgressor of the law
Levites - Substituted for the firstborn males of all Israel whom Jehovah claimed as His when He saved Israel from the stroke on Egypt's firstborn; the Levites, 22,000; the firstborn males, 22,273; the odd 273 above were to be redeemed at five shekels each (Numbers 3:45-51), the fixed price for redeeming a victim vowed in sacrifice (Numbers 18:16; Leviticus 27:6). The Gershonites bore the tent hangings and curtains; the Merarites the tabernacle boards, bars, and pillars; the Kohathites under Eleazar bore the vessels on their shoulders (Numbers 7:9); the Gershonites and Merarites under Ithamar (Numbers 4:28; Numbers 4:33), because of their weighty charge, were allowed oxen and wagons. ...
The Levites were purified for service with bathing, shaving, washing clothes, imposition of Israel' s hands, waving them as a wave offering to Jehovah (compare our gospel "living sacrifice," Romans 12:1) toward the four points of the compass, in token of entire consecration of all their powers; the Levite then laid hands on one bullock offered for a sin offering and another for a burnt offering. Korah's rebellion through seeking the priesthood was followed by a fresh defining of the Levites' office (Numbers 16; Numbers 18:1-7). Their temple psalmody was the forerunner of our church music; and to them we probably Owe the preservation of some of the Scriptures
Hospitality - ...
In the desert, every tent, however poor its owner, offers welcome to the traveller. ...
The right, however, is limited. Every stranger met in the open is assumed to be an enemy: he will Owe his safety either to his own prowess or to fear that his tribe will exact vengeance if he is injured. By frequent renewal, however, it might become permanent. to claim protection of a powerful man, and thus pass under shelter of his name even before his tent is reached
Wealth (2) - To him we Owe the story of Zacchaeus, a rich man who won Jesus’ commendation even though he still retained half his wealth (Luke 19:1-10). In all these, gifts and possessions, including wealth, are represented as bestowed on men by God. The same truth is implied in the petition, ‘Give us this day our daily bread’ (Matthew 6:11, Luke 11:3), and in the sayings: ‘If God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is and to-morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?’ (Matthew 6:30, Luke 12:28); ‘Your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things
Kindness (2) - The quality it denotes, however, is an evangelical virtue. parallel this benign goodness is expressed in the concrete picture of sunshine and rain bestowed equally upon the evil and the good, the just and the unjust. This line of thought, however, regarding God was arrested in later Judaism; God’s transcendent kingly greatness was emphasized in Jewish thought in our Lord’s time, and His grace and loving-kindness had fallen into the background. Is it not significant that Jesus declares God’s kindness without any qualification whatever, and shows Himself all unconscious that any difficulties are thereby occasioned, that there is anything requiring to be explained and adjusted? The parable of the Unmerciful Servant displays God’s benignity; but the truculence which shows itself unaffected by an amazing experience of forgiving mercy must needs lose the boon which that benignity bestowed. ...
Similarly, the problem of suffering and misery, which times without number has evoked the cry ‘Is God good?’, is not allowed by Jesus to qualify in any way His declaration of the kindness of God. ...
The ideal of a relation of kindness between man and man is, however, not altogether an original and peculiar feature in our Lord’s teaching. , in Hosea) hesed is presented as the right characteristic of human relationships, even as it denotes God’s graciousness to men; and as a term belooging to common life it indicates that ‘those who are linked together by the bonds of personal affection, or of social unity, Owe to one another more than can be expressed in the forms of legal obligation’ (W
Death - Charles maintains in his Jowett Lectures on Eschatology ) or no, it seems to represent very primitive beliefs which survived in one form and another, even after the stern Jahwistic prohibition of necromancy was promulgated. ...
( c ) Other ideas of death as not terminating man’s existence and interests were, however, reached in later prophetic teaching, mainly through the thought of the worth of the individual, the significance of his conscious union with God, and of the covenant relations established by God with His people ( Jeremiah 31:1-40 ; cf. It did not of itself necessarily lessen the terrors of death (see Psalms 13:3 ); but we Owe it to Christ and the Christian faith mainly that such a representation of death has come to mitigate its bitterness, such a use as is also found elsewhere in NT ( e. The conception, however, is not found exclusively in the Johannine writings. The feeling that ‘the sting of death is sin’ is, however, widely existent in NT
the Man Who Had Not on a Wedding Arment - I shall Owe my own soul, if it is saved at last, to the proper books. I have not read Bruce so often, I am ashamed to say, as Jowett had read Boswell. Many men call themselves the chief of sinners; but I know, and Thou knowest, better than that
Eucharist - In the former passage, however, it is difficult to resist the conclusion that if ἡ κλάσις τοῦ ἅρτου must have some religious significance. -We Owe to purely accidental circumstances the preservation of an account of St. This, however, is accidental. And it has been pointed out that it is most improbable that we Owe to St. It is hardly conceivable that the author of the 1st chanter of Romans would here allowed himself to be directly influenced by any particular heathen cult. It should, however, be admitt
High Place, Sanctuary - The term ‘sanctuary’ is used by modern students of Semitic religion in two senses, a wider and a narrower. In the narrower sense ‘sanctuary’ is used of every recognized place of worship, provided with an altar and other apparatus of the cult, the special designation of which in OT is bâmâh , EV Wages - One of the few bright moments during the dark days of the judges is reflected in the story of Ruth, a Moabite widow, who faithfully determines to help her widowed Israelite mother-in-law. Few are the rulers who, like Josiah, protected the powerless from the powerful; the majority are like his son, whose life was obsessed with making a profit through oppression and extortion (Jeremiah 22:16-17 ). The parable of the unforgiving servant demonstrates that all are deeply in debt to God; all debts that human beings Owe to each other are trivial in comparison
Historical - Biblical learning Owes something to this, and may come to Owe a good deal more—no one can say. Nay, there is a recognized principle that ‘the harder reading is probable’; though we must be able to discriminate the sort of ‘difficult’ reading which suggests a powerful while perhaps erratic mind, from that which rather suggests a blundering copyist. Sanday’s recent Criticism of the Fourth Gospel (though he has the wider as well as the narrower problem before him)
Church Government - But officials chosen to do spiritual work in a spiritual community needed spiritual gifts of some hind; and what these men received in ordination was a spirit of power and love and discipline (2 Timothy 1:7) (see Westcott, Ephesians, 1906, p. These showed their liberality by electing men, all of whom bear Greek names and were presumably, but not certainly, Greek-speaking Jews, who would be more acceptable to the murmuring Hellenists. One of the Seven was only a proselyte, and we have here a very early illustration of the expansive power of the Church. ...
The apostles’ plan of leaving the choice of the Seven to the community was perhaps followed by St. They are ‘spiritual’ men (πνευματικοί), endowed by the Spirit (πνεῦμα) with powers (χαρίσματα) which are not common to all Christians; and their authority depends not upon election or appointment by others, but upon these personal endowments, exercised with the consent of the congregation. But here again these guides, like the ‘apostles, prophets, and teachers,’ seem to Owe their appointment to personal qualities. The laying on of hands was used in blessing; and the person who blesses does not transmit any good gift which he possesses himself: he invokes what he has no power to bestow, but what he hopes that God will bestow. The gift which Timothy received at his ordination was just such as was required for ruling infant churches: it was ‘a spirit of power, and love, and discipline’ (2 Timothy 1:5; 2 Timothy 1:7). ‘Elders’ are borrowed from it
the Much Forgiven Debtor And His Much Love - I was warned against him and against his followers, and I see now that they who so warned me were right. There was a certain creditor which had two debtors: the one Owed five hundred pence, and the other fifty. ...
When I stand before the throneDressed in beauty not my ownWhen I see Thee as Thou art,Love Thee with unsinning heart,Then, Lord, shall I fully know,Not till then how much I Owe. Chosen not for good in me,Wakened up from wrath to flee,Hidden in the Saviour's side,By the Spirit sanctified,Teach me, Lord, on earth to show,By my love, how much I Owe
Barzillai - The old hero took his ancient tower, and his great estate, and his own future, and the future of his family all in his hand that day. For, how he anticipated all David's possible wants! How he put himself into all David's distressed place! How he did to David as David would have done to him! How he came down from his high seat, with all his years on his head, in order with his own hand to conduct the king over Jordan! And, then, with what sweetness of manner and music of speech he excused himself out of all the royal rewards and honours and promotions David had designed and decreed to put upon him!...
The service and the loyalty I Owe,In doing, pays itself. Barzillai having showed us how to live, shows us also how to die
Lazarus - The evangelist to whom we Owe Lazarus had not room within his limits to tell us any more about Lazarus. ' 'He loves both old and young; able and weak; he affects the very brutes, and birds, and flowers of the field
Joseph And Mary - Surely if ever a suffering soul had to seek all its righteousness and all its strength in God alone, it was the soul of the Virgin Mary in those terrible days that followed the annunciation. ...
It is to the meeting of Mary and Elizabeth that we Owe the Magnificat, the last Old Testament psalm, and the first New Testament hymn, "My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. If this was the greatest work ever wrought by the power and the grace of Almighty God among the children of men, and if Mary's faith entered into it at all, then how great her faith must have been! Elizabeth saw with wonder and with worship how great it was
Jordanis, Historian of the Goths - 222–242) is a compendium of the history of the world, of little value, and only important as indicating the strong feeling of the Goth Jordanis that the power of the Roman empire was to last to the end of time. Since the discovery of the Anekdoton Holderi , however, it has become practically certain that the Gothic History of Cassiodorius was composed some years before 533; probably not later than 521. However little individuality as a historian Jordanis may have had, it lay with him to choose and adapt his extracts from Cassiodorius in accordance with his own feelings, and there is enough of himself in the work to enable us to catch something of his spirit. After two centuries of struggles between rival principles in church and state the next Italian ecclesiastic who attained importance as a historian, Paulus Diaconus, himself, like Jordanis, of Teutonic race, was able to witness the return of imperial power of old Rome and to have friendly intercourse with the new Teutonic emperor. For the spirit of the age and times which we thus seem to gather from Jordanis's work we Owe him a debt of gratitude, and also for his preservation, if only in a broken form, of fragments from the greatest work of Theodoric's great secretary. Here Jordanis first saw the 12 books of the Gothic history, and was allowed by the steward of Cassiodorius a second perusal of the work
Eutyches And Eutychianism - "The word ὁμοούσιος does not occur in Holy Scripture; we Owe it to the definitions of the Fathers. And similarly we Owe to them the affirmation of the two natures. Theodosius applauded and confirmed the decisions of the synod in a decree which denounced Flavian, Eusebius, and others as Nestorians, forbad the elevation of their followers to episcopal rank, deposed them if already bishops, and expelled them from the country. Anatolius convened a synod of such bishops, archimandrites, priests, and deacons as were at Constantinople, and in the presence of the Roman legates subscribed the tome, and, together with the whole assembly, anathematized Eutyches, Nestorius, and their followers. Nestorianism was still powerful among the bishops of Syria, and would unquestionably bias the views of many, should a council be called in the East, as the emperor desired. But, in deference to the emperor's convictions, he consented to send representatives to the future council, while he urged that no fresh discussion should be allowed whether Eutyches was heretical or not, or whether Dioscorus had judged rightly or not, but that debate should turn upon the best means of reconciling and dealing mercifully with those who had gone wrong. The archdeacon Aetius recited in his presence the confession of faith approved at the previous session, and when the emperor asked if it expressed the opinion of all, shouts arose from all sides, "This is the belief of us all! We are unanimous, and have signed it unanimously! We are all orthodox! This is the belief of the Fathers; this is the belief of the Apostles; this is the belief of the orthodox; this belief hath saved the world! Long live Marcian, the new Constantine, the new Paul, the new David! Long live Pulcheria, the new Helena!" ...
Imperial edicts speedily followed the close of the council (Nov
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Whether Theodore had been previously baptized is doubtful; Chrysostom, however, speaks of him shortly afterwards in terms which seem to imply his baptism (ad Th. His conversion was speedy, sincere, and marvellously complete, but was followed by a reaction which threatened an utter collapse of his new-found life. His letters, long known to the Nestorians of Syria as the Book of Pearls , are lost; his followers have left us few personal recollections. The council of Ephesus, however, while it condemned Nestorius by name, contented itself with condemning Theodore's creed without mentioning Theodore; and the Nestorian party consequently fell back upon the words of Theodore, and began to circulate them in several languages as affording the best available exposition of their views (Liberat. It is almost certainly to this cause that we Owe the preservation in a Latin dress of at least one-half of Theodore's commentaries on St. The name of Theodore, however, disappears almost entirely from Western church literature after the 6th cent. Ebedjesu was struck by the care and elaboration bestowed upon the work. It is, nevertheless, a considerable monument of his expository power, and the best illustration we possess of the Antiochene method of interpreting O. —One fragment only remains of the commentary on the Acts; we Owe it to the zeal of Theodore's opponents at the Fifth council. With the rest of the Antiochians he probably followed the old Syrian canon in rejecting II. " As a matter of fact, "death came by sin"; and the dissolution of soul and body was followed by the still more serious dissolution of the bond which in the person of man had hitherto knit together the visible and invisible creations. The same result followed in the case of each descendant of Adam who sinned; and since all si
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - Since, therefore, the Son did not share in any way the essence of the Father, what is His relation to God, and to what does He Owe His origin? Eunomius's answer lay in a distinction between the essence ( οὐσία ) and the energy (ἐνεργεία ) of God. The Son may in this sense be regarded as the express image and likeness of the ἐνεργεία of the Father, as He conferred on Him divine dignity in the power of creation. He held that Christ had been sent to lead other creatures up to God, the primal source of all existence, as a Being external to Himself, and that believers should not stop at the generation of the Son, but having followed Him as far as He was able to lead them, should soar above Him, as above all created beings, whether material or spiritual, to God Himself, the One Absolute Being, as their final aim, that in the knowledge of Him they might obtain eternal life. In harmony with this formal, intellectual idea of knowledge, as the source of Christian life, Eunomius assigned a lower place to the sacraments than to the teaching of the word, depreciating the liturgical, as compared with the doctrinal, element of Christianity. Photius speaks very depreciatingly of his studied obscurity, the weakness of his arguments, and his logical power. 25), were much esteemed by his followers, who, according to Jerome, valued their authority more highly than that of the Gospels (Hieron
Mediation Mediator - It is hardly likely, however, that Jesus Himself felt the influence of this non-Jewish teaching. Denney, The Death of Christ, 1902, and Jesus and the Gospel4, 1913, where the writer powerfully argues that Christianity is justified in the mind of Christ). He was received up (Acts 1:2), but He will come again (Acts 1:11), and meanwhile His Name has power (Acts 3:6). The clearness of Peter’s conception of the power of the living Christ appears in Acts 4:10-12, where he claims that the impotent man is made whole in the name of Jesus, and that Jesus is the Stone, rejected by the Jewish builders, but made the Head of the Corner by God in His Kingdom and the only hope of salvation for men everywhere (cf. He is our passover sacrifice (1 Corinthians 5:7), in His name we were washed and justified (1 Corinthians 6:11), we were bought with a price (1 Corinthians 6:20, 1 Corinthians 7:23), and Owe a life of holiness to Christ. Paul expressly places baptism on a lower plane than the gospel which he preached (1 Corinthians 1:15-17), which he could not have done if it had per se saving efficacy or was the means of obtaining the benefit of Christ’s mediatorial work. But the resurrection of Christ is guarantee of His power to save, so that ‘in Christ shall all be made alive’ (Isaiah 5:14-21,)
Mary, the Virgin - Her greeting is in reality a psalm, brief though it is and overshadowed by the still more wonderful hymn which it called forth in response. The evidence adduced, however, does not seem sufficient to override the verdict of all the rest of antiquity, that the Hymn is Mary’s and not Elisabeth’s. Before leaving this part of her history, it may be well to emphasize how much of what we know of the Birth, Infancy, and Childhood of our Lord we Owe to accounts given by His mother. The Return from Egypt was followed by a life in retirement at Nazareth. It is, however, an easily drawn inference from the absence of any mention of Joseph in the later Gospel narrative, that he died during this interval
Paul as a Controversialist - Speaking on this whole matter for myself, I Owe a great debt to the conductors of that journal, and to Butler, and to Bengel
Barnabas - Whoever will quarrel, and fall out, and forget what they Owe to one an other, that can never, by any possibility, happen to Paul and his old patron Barnabas-so you would have said. Has Paul forgotten all that he once Owed to Barnabas? And why does Barnabas's so sweet and so holy humility so fail him when he is so far on in the voyage of life? "Mariners near the shore," says Shepard, "should be on the outlook for rocks
Isaiah, Book of - Similarly, in the Koran the record of Mohammed’s call does not occur till Sura 96; in this case the reason is that the editors of the Koran followed the rather mechanical principle of arranging the suras according to their size. 2 12 and 13 23 (apart from subsequent interpolations or amplifications) as they lay before the editor who united them, probably Owed their form to post-exilic editors. 1, 2 12, 13 23 and 28 33 consist in large part of prophetic poems or sayings of Isaiah; many of them were (presumably) written as well as spoken by Isaiah himself, others we not improbably Owe to the memory of his disciples
Man (2) - But Jesus followed out the prophetic ideal. He was often moved to compassion by the multitudes which followed Him; they were as sheep without a shepherd; they heard Him gladly, and even tarried with Him a whole day, and that in a desert place (Mark 1:41; Mark 6:30-36). Many of the most striking sayings of Jesus, however, occur in utterances addressed to individuals. Men were amazed at and charmed by Jesus’ power of speech; they ‘wondered at the words of grace which proceeded out of his mouth’ (Luke 4:22). The common flowers and grass Owe their life to Him (Matthew 6:25-34; Matthew 10:29-30). ...
But, generally, it is the ideal which is present with Jesus; He prefers to look at the possibilities; He does not see capacity for evil; He tries rather to discover the latent powers and potencies of good. If the inner life was watched, and its waters and streams kept pure, all was well; from without there was no danger, because things had no power
the Pharisee - While others again had been known not to give a tenth only of all that they possessed, but who positively bestowed all their goods to feed the poor. In one of the most powerful of his Roman Catholic sermons, entitled "The Religion of the Pharisee," Dr. Newman brings out this about a Pharisee's unbroken heart in his own incomparably powerful and impressive way. " And, though I almost Owe my soul to the great Puritans, yet, acting on Dr
Joseph - And then Joseph's intellectual gifts were such that, taken along with the purity and the nobility of his character, they lifted him up out of a pit, and out of a prison, and set him in a seat of power and of honour scarcely second to the seat of Pharaoh himself. And, tomorrow, when you buy an apprentice, or a message boy, of his widowed mother for five shillings a week, think of Joseph for a moment, and say to yourself, Who knows what the future may have in store for my message boy and for me? Who knows how I may go down, while he goes up? Who knows the talents of God that may lie hidden in that friendless buy? Who knows what place he may be predestined to fill in the church and in the world? And even if he comes to nothing of all that; if he never becomes a great man, yet, even so, such thoughts, such imaginations, such forecasts will help you to treat him well, and will help to make you a good man and a good master, whatever your slave-boy may come, or may not come, to be. She that is envied for her beauty may perchance Owe all her misery to it; and another may be for ever happy for having no admirers of her person. The sensuality of Egypt would have soon swallowed him up. The Lord was with him to more imprisonment, and then to more promotion; to more and more honour, and place, and power, till this world had no more to bestow upon Joseph
Canaan, History And Religion of - ), Egypt's power extended as far northward as Ugarit. From this general time period come the Egyptian Execration Texts which list peoples and princes of the area who Owe their allegiance to Egypt. ...
When the Egyptians were able to expel the Hyksos in the sixteenth century, the Egyptians were able to extend their power over Canaan. Again, however, Egyptian power weakened. Stories in the book of Joshua (Genesis 9:1-2 ; Genesis 10:1-5 ) indicate that in emergency situations the independent city-state kings formed defense coalitions, but no one had power to unite all Canaan against Israel. On the one hand, each deity had a clear duty assignment, while on the other hand considerable fluidity flowed in deity perception. The Ugaritic Baal, however, referred to the ultimate Baal!...
Whereas El was located at some distance from the people, Baal was easily accessible. Mot was clearly understood as a power capable of rendering impotent Baal's regenerative powers. This mode of human arrogance undergirded the tower of Babel story in Genesis 11:1 . Through these events he established himself as the god of supreme power within the pantheon, built the palace or temple which he merited by virtue of his victory over Yam, and in the third scenario struggled with, succumbed to, and ultimately escaped from the clutches of Mot. During the meal, Baal opened one of the windows and bellowed out the window, surely understood as an indication of thunder's origin, given Baal's association as god of the storm. ...
In Israel, however, the initial king, Jeroboam I (922-901 B
Light - ” Christianity is not acquired, as an art, by long practice; it does not carve and polish human nature with a graving tool; it makes the whole man; first pouring out his soul before God, and then casting him in a mould’ (Jowett’s Paul, ii. You Owe it a duty. This, however, cannot be the original sense of the saying, and there is no reason why one should give up the interpretation which makes the lamp here equivalent to the teaching of Jesus or the knowledge of the gospel (see Expos. If Christians, however, are to arise and shine, it must be because their light has come. The purity, the noiseless energy, the streaming rays of light, all suggested religious qualities to the mind, until the light of God came to be an expression for the healing influence and vitalizing power exercised by Him over human life. His person formed the creative power in the life of the human soul. In the Fourth Gospel, however, this idea is developed with singular precision and breadth. This antithesis means more, however, than a metaphysical dualism running through the world. The light has to be followed (John 8:12, cf. 1 John 2:8), where οὐ κατέλαβεν probably means ‘failed to overpower, or extinguish’ (cf
Paul as a Student - And I myself Owe so much to good books that I cannot stop myself on this subject as long as I see a single student sitting before me
Angels (2) - Paul who speaks most explicitly of ‘the principalities and powers in the heavenly places’ (Ephesians 3:10), and of Christ’s being ‘exalted far above all rule, and authority, and power, and dominion’ (Ephesians 1:21); and ‘evidently Paul regarded them as actually existent and intelligent forces’ (Robinson, in loco); but the same conception presents itself in the Gospels in the reference to archangels, who were four, or in some authors seven, in number: Gabriel, Raphael, Michael, and Uriel being those most frequently mentioned. They ‘do not Owe their existence to the ordinary process of filiation, but to an immediate act of creation’ (Godet, OT Studies, 7); thus resembling in their origin the bodily nature of those who are ‘sons of the resurrection. Christ’s reply is in effect this: The source of your error is that you do not fully recognize the power of God. In that way you limit unduly the power of God. This is clearly taught in one utterance of Christ’s, recorded in Matthew 24:36 || Mark 13:32 ‘Of that day and hour knoweth no man, not even the angels of heaven. ’ The same deep interest in the progress of the Church appears in Ephesians 3:10, where we are taught that one great purpose which moved God to enter on the work of human salvation was, that ‘through the Church the manifold wisdom of God might be made known to the principalities and powers in heavenly places
Jephthah And His Daughter - She that is envied for her beauty may perchance Owe all her misery to it, and another may be for ever happy for having no admirers of her person. Their hearts were as black as hell with remorse and with terror as they approached Jephthah's dreadful den and saw his naked savages glowering at them through their spears. Richard Owen, the great anatomist, from a few inches of fossil bone constructed a complete creature of a long past and forgotten world, and made it live and go about again before us. Those terrified elders Owed their life that day to her
Division of the Earth - But Chronus represented Noah, who divided the world among his three sons, allotting the upper regions of the north to Japheth, the maritime or middle regions to Shem, and the lower regions of the south to Ham. And this Ion is said by Eusebius to have been the ringleader in the building of the tower of Babel, and the first introducer of idol worship, and Sabianism, or adoration of the sun, moon, and stars. This critical distinction between the Iaones and the Iones, the Yavanas, and the Yonigas, we Owe to the sagacity of Faber. The Pathrusim occupied a part of Lower Egypt, called from them Pathros, Isaiah 11:11 . Beyond the Jebusites, were settled the Emorites, or Amorites, Numbers 13:29 , who extended themselves beyond Jordan, and were the most powerful of the Canaanite tribes, Genesis 15:16 ; Numbers 21:21 , until they were destroyed by Moses and Joshua, with the rest of the devoted nations of Canaan's family. Moreover, in this dispersed state, they could, whenever God pleased, be made reciprocal checks upon each other, by invasions and wars, which would weaken the power, and humble the pride, of corrupt and vicious communities
Ebionism (2) - ]'>[1] It seems most probable that originally this name, like Nazarenes (Acts 24:5), was applied to all Christians; but whether it was first adopted by the followers of Christ themselves or given them by others it is impossible to say. ...
While, however, it seems impossible to distinguish between Nazarenes and Ebionites, and improper in this connexion to think of a separation into clear-cut sects, there were undoubtedly differences of tendency within the general sphere of Ebionism. —Apart from the existence of special Ebionite Gospels, the idea has been common, both in ancient and modern times, that certain of the Canonical Gospels Owe something of their substance or their form to the positive or negative influence of Ebionite sources or Ebionite surroundings. Such interpretations, however, spring from a very superficial exegesis (cf. It is to be noted, however, that our Lord’s strongest utterance against wealth is found in Matthew (Matthew 19:24) and Mark (Mark 10:25), as well as Luke (Luke 18:25); and that a comparison of the Third Synoptic with the other two reveals occasional touches, on the one side or the other (note, e. It is a mistake, however, to suppose that the work was intended as a direct polemic against Cerinthus and his followers. 33), Jesus was nothing more than a naturally-begotten man—the son of Joseph and Mary—upon whom at His baptism the Christ came down from the absolute power (αὐθεντία) of God, thus making him the revealer of the Father and the miracle-working Messiah; but from whom this Christ-Spirit departed before the Passion, so that it was only the man Jesus who endured the cross, while the spiritual Christ remained untouched by suffering
Lord's Supper. (i.) - The Gospels as they now stand are said to Owe so much to the thought and practice of the growing Church, that it is necessary to read between the lines in order to detect the simple form of the Eucharist on the day of its first celebration, when ‘it signified rather the abrogation of the old worship and the near approach of the Kingdom than the institution of a new worship. The transcendental element in worship, however brightly or faintly the contemporary life of Israel may have been illumined by the spiritual truth of the prophets, had all but vanished from the official Judaism of our Lord’s day. He discovers and applies to Himself the title ‘Son of Man,’ and in virtue of His position inaugurates changes in religion which constitute a breach with the past, for His doctrine concerning worship, foreshadowed by the prophets, antiquates bloody sacrifices and opaque ritual. No less evident, however, was the inability of the disciples to understand that the road of service even unto death was the road to the crowning glory of the Kingdom. He is comparing the Christian life with the old Passover upon which the Feast of Unleavened Bread followed (Exodus 12:19; Exodus 13:7). Zahn, however, holds that the Quartodecimans interpreted the latter in accordance with the former (Gesch
Ebionism And Ebionites - ...
These explanations Owe their origin to the tendency to carry back Ebionism or the date of its founder as far as possible. The existence of an "Ebion" is however now surrendered. ) it was the turning-point in the life of Jesus: from that moment He was endued with power necessary to fill His mission as Messiah; but He was still man. The different phases through which Ebionism passed at different times render it, however, difficult to distinguish clearly in every case between Gnostic and Pharisaic Ebionism. They held that there were two antagonistic powers appointed by God—Christ and devil; to the former was allotted the world to come, to the latter the present world. Some affirmed that He was created (not born) of the Father, a Spirit, and higher than the angels; that He had the power of coming to this earth when He would, and in various modes of manifestation; that He had been incarnate in Adam, and had appeared to the patriarchs in bodily shape; others identified Adam and Christ. ...
Ebionite Christianity did not, however, last very long, neither did it exercise much influence west of Syria while it lasted. 3)—however different from the tone of Clement and St
Property (2) - —Under this title two questions arise: (1) Is the possession of private property right according to the principles of the teaching and example of Jesus? (2) In what ways is a follower of Jesus to acquire and to use his property? These questions touch one another when it is suggested that a Christian should give away all his property and not seek to gain any more. They may, however, be kept distinct, and the second discussed on the assumption that the possession of private property is justifiable. However, from the popular feeling about the rich, and the existence of the Essenes as a socialistic community, we may gather that the way was quite open for Jesus to adopt the doctrines of Communism; and the argument that in His teaching we find the seed of Socialism, which only required conditions of thought and life such as are found in modern times to become fully matured, is not justified. The phenomenon, however, of what is known as Christian Socialism has to be noted. Luke was) show no trace of the community of goods, nor is any condemnation expressed because of this; (3) those who had houses and lands sold them; (4) Peter in what he said to Ananias (Acts 5:4) clearly indicated that the right to private property was not questioned (‘Whiles it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power?’). Again, some force must be allowed to the fact that in several of the parables (Luke 19:12, Matthew 21:33) Jesus used the rights which men have over their property to illustrate the duty which all Owe to God. This argument cannot be pressed too far, but still such illustrations would be practically impossible to one who held that the possession of private property, with the power it gives over others, is wrong. Thus it is clear that Jesus expects His followers to cultivate a spirit of aloofness and independence in relation to the world and its wealth. This renunciation of wealth is a general command holding for all who would be followers of Jesus, but it receives special emphasis in regard to the rich from the way in which the young ruler who had great possessions was dealt with. ...
Apart from the general use which a follower of Jesus is to make of all his property, which is to be determined in relation to his own spiritual welfare and that of others, he is called upon also to give (alienate) a portion of his possessions to the poor and to the support of religion. Such giving, however, is never to be formal and impersonal, an easy way of satisfying a fugitive emotion of pity
Sacraments - The term ‘breaking of bread’ in Acts 2:42; Galatians 3:26-27,; Acts 20:7 may refer to the Agape as well as to the Lord’s Supper; its reference to the latter, however, is not less obvious, but, on the contrary, more obvious, than its reference to the former. ...
Recent research has thrown interesting light upon the environment of pagan ideas and practice amid which the Gentile Churches were planted; but its results do not substantiate the hypothesis that Christian sacraments Owe either inception or character to this source. It bore witness to the presence and power of the Holy Spirit dividing to every man severally as He willed. The co-existence, moreover, of ceremonial side by side with charismatic life, especially with a charismatic life so universal and powerful as was manifested at the first, affords a proof of the vigour and stability of the ceremonies themselves. The mere prevalence, however, of these sacramental observances from the first itself affords strong presumption as to the exceptional reverence in which they were held
Papyri And Ostraca - The tradition that had come down to us was on the whole the tradition preserved in the history of what was great the history of nations, potentates, the intellectual leaders in art, science, and religion; and that is true in great measure of the inscriptions, which for the most part Owe their origin to princes, cities, and wealthy Individuals. ...
Only those rare inscriptions that originated in the middle and lower classes of ancient society had to some extent counterbalanced the one-sidedness of the materials available as sources. The papyri and ostraca, however, have remedied the defect in a most unexpected manner. Of course these texts, when re-discovered in our own day, throw a flood of light upon the upper cultivated class, but for the most part they are documents of the middle and lower classes. Their value lies in the inimitable fidelity with which they reflect the actual life of ancient society, especially in its middle and lower strata. Less obvious, however, but none the less great, is the indirect value of the papyri, and chiefly the non-literary documents of private life. Paul and this alone constitutes a large part of the value of the papyri to NT study so they make live again for us the men of the middle and lower classes of the age of the Primitive Christian mission to the world, especially for him who has ears to hear the softer notes between the lines
Religious Experience - A universal experience, or an intuitive consciousness, gives us knowledge lifted to the highest power. Every baby is born blind and dumb and without the power to will, and there may be some tribes with poor eyes and slow tongues and no theology; but in normal humanity there is a latent capacity for sight and speech and volition, and at least a hope that the soul has relations with the supernatural. There is no more of an attempt to prove God’s existence than man’s existence, or God’s power of speech than man’s. Each soul possesses as its birthright a knowledge of moral distinctions, a sense of moral obligation, a, conscious power of obedience or disobedience to such law as the soul knows. He showed no hesitancy in calling Himself ‘meek and lowly,’ while in almost the same breath He demanded absolute submission of intellect and will from all who expected to remain His ‘friends,’ or hoped to be at peace with God hereafter (e. He is represented as claiming, without misgiving, to be the expected Messiah and Judge of the world (Mark 8:29), who has power to forgive sins (Mark 2:10), and to whom all men Owe absolute spiritual allegiance (Mark 8:34; Mark 8:38). The self-consciousness of Jesus was the spring underneath the Temple-altar, out of which flowed the healing waters of Christianity. Whereas they had been blind, they could now see; whereas they had been helpless, they now had conscious victory over sin; and new powers in many directions were theirs. It is constantly assumed as a fact of consciousness, and often declared in unequivocal language, that every man has so flagrantly sinned against light and become such a slave to sin that he needs the very power of the Almighty to enable him to fulfil his moral duty and reach his spiritual ideal. There can be no doubt that ‘praising God,’ and ‘gladness of heart,’ and an exhilaration which was like the exhilaration of wine, were characteristic of the earliest Christian experiences (Acts 2:15; Acts 2:46-47), Every later Apostolic experience, however jubilant, appears prophetically in Jn. Newborn thoughts and feelings and powers must develop until the vital functions are practically reversed (Mark 8:35; Mark 12:30; Mark 12:35, Matthew 5:3-10; Matthew 16:25, Luke 17:35)
Lord's Prayer (ii) - ’ But apart from the consecration of long and hallowed use, the name is appropriate as giving expression to the fact that the prayer comes to us from the very lips of our Lord. If we take the three petitions of the first group, God appears to be addressed: (1) as the Father whose name must be hallowed, (2) as the King whose Kingdom is to come, (3) as the Lord of heaven and earth whose will must be fulfilled. It is for those who are the children of God by Christian faith that this prayer is meant, those who turn to Him with filial hearts, prepared to say: ‘Hallowed be thy name. ’ The phrase speaks to us of His greatness and holiness, of the reverence we Owe Him, of His power to bless. ...
(b) First Petition: ‘Hallowed be thy name. It is our Father in heaven whose name is to be hallowed. To pray that it may be hallowed is to pray that God as revealed to us by Christ may be accepted and honoured by ourselves and others—that we may turn to Him as our Father with loving, trustful hearts, and give Him the honour that is due. (2) But again it was a hope of the future, a Kingdom not realized as yet, but one day to be revealed in power by the Parousia of the Son of Man Himself (Matthew 13:41 f. And so, when we pray for the coming of God’s Kingdom, we are praying that Christ the King may enter into our hearts, that He may take full possession of them, that the gospel of the Kingdom may spread throughout the world, and that its principles may work in human society with subduing power. ...
Perhaps, however, there is most to be said for the view that ἑτιούσιος is a word specially coined, after the analogy of the LXX Septuagint τεριούσιος (Exodus 19:5, Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, for Heb. It is when we ask ourselves, ‘How much Owest thou unto thy Lord?’ that the full extent of our shortcoming begins to appear
Acts of the Apostles (2) - Modern criticism, however, has reached the conviction that in this second work more of the author’s idiosyncrasy is to be detected than in his Gospel. For, in spite of his advanced speculations on the subject of Christ, in spite of his doctrine of pre-existence and his cosmological Christology, the Apostle holds fast in Romans 1:4 and Philippians 2:9 to the notion that Jesus became ‘Son of God in power’ through His resurrection from the dead, and was invested with the title ‘Lord’ at His exaltation. Hence the copious Scripture proofs, which, however, deal more with the resurrection than with the sufferings and death (Acts 2:25 ff. ’ For, if Christ did descend to Hades, He was not given over to its power (Acts 2:31), God ‘having loosed “the pangs of death,” because it was not possible that he should be holden of it’ (Acts 2:24), ‘nor did his flesh see corruption’ (Acts 2:31). ...
We Owe a special debt of gratitude to the author of the Acts for having drawn for us several pictures illustrating the prominent part played in the early Church by the Spirit and the Name of the exalted Christ. Through this Spirit the exalted Lord is ever present with His own; He imparts power and success to the words of the Apostles (Acts 2:37, Acts 5:33, Acts 6:5); and miracles are wrought by the power of God (Acts 6:8). It is noteworthy, however, that it is only rarely that the Spirit of God is introduced in this connexion; far more frequently it is the Name of Christ that, like a present representative of the Lord, works miracles (Acts 3:16, Acts 4:30)
Physician - Later, Apollo was assigned as his father, and a snake became the symbol of his healing power. Whatever of surgery was applied, as of binding or anointing, was probably performed by temple attendants, whom the patient’s dream identified with supernatural power. ) followed Pythagoras, and also professed magical powers of healing. ...
The name, however, which stands out above all others in the history of Greek medicine is that of Hippokrates. They form, however, a tolerably compact body of writings, and for 2,000 years have turned attention away from speculation to observation, and thus have profoundly influenced the medical ideal. (1) He followed Empedokles in holding to the four elements and the four conditions, but added the four humours-black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm. (3) To physis and dynamis, which is really the vis medicatrix naturCE, in distinction from the power of the gods, all recovery is referred. ‘Natural powers are the healers of disease. ...
The Hippokratic Oath is herewith given:...
‘I swear by Apollo, the physician, by Asklepios, by Hygeia, by Panakeia, and by all gods and goddesses, that I will fulfil religiously, according to the best of my power and judgment, the solemn vow which I now make. They were, however, handicapped by lack of anatomical and physiological knowledge. ), for seventeen years a prisoner at the Persian court of Artaxerxes Mnemon, showed a general interest in poisons, and wrote a book on hellebore. Herophilos of Chalcedon in Bithynia, one of the most distinguished physicians of antiquity, followed closely the methods of Hippokrates. ...
By reason of the special conditions of the time, toxicology exerted a powerful fascination over very many experimenters in Asia Minor. The strict methodists conceded neither specific disease nor specific remedies, and disallowed such medicines as purgatives, emetics, diuretics, and emmenagogues. To him we Owe descriptions of ginger, pepper, gentian, alces, and wormwood, and also metallic agents such as quicksilver, acetate of lead, and copper oxides
Ideas (Leading) - ’...
It is plain that among the Jews in our Lord’s time there was a widely spread expectation of some great person who was to be leader of the chosen people, and through whom that people were to be established as a great world-power. Commandments which classify actions, forbidding some and enjoining others, however necessary they may be for purposes of moral education, have always this defect, that they are sure, sooner or later, to come into conflict, and so give rise to perplexity and to casuistry. By showing the power of this principle to deepen the received code, He was able to alter the popular conception of the moral ideal. We Owe this noble teaching to our Lord Himself. By precept and example He taught His followers to think of the Almighty as their Father in heaven. Our Lord will set nothing lower before us
Gnosticism - By gnosis, however, we have to understand not knowledge gained by the use of the intellect, but knowledge given in a special revelation. Not greater intellectual power than the Christians possessed, but a fuller and better revelation, was what the Gnostics claimed to have. The lower was but a shadow of the higher; still it was a copy of it. Mill took, and argued that either the Creator was not all-good or He was not all-powerful. The tendency became strong, however, to make him hostile to God, an enemy of Light and Truth (the blasphemia Creatoris). The view was that from God there emanated a series of beings called ‘aeons,’ each step in the genealogy meaning a diminution of purity; and the Demiurge was the creation of an aeon far down, indeed the very lowest in the scale. Some systems taught a multitude of such ‘words of power’; in other systems one master word was given, e. This followed logically from their identification of the God of the Jews with the Demiurge, an ignorant, and in some cases an evil, Being. Gnosticism Owes its being to that syncretism. It is difficult, however, to prove that the Kabbâlâ is not later than Gnosticism, though there is practical certainty that its history was a long one before it took final shape. -How is this connexion to be conceived or explained? What did Gnosticism Owe to Christianity? Before Christianity we picture Gnosticism as vague, fluid, unstable. ...
It is not easy to answer the question, Is the soteriology of Gnosticism borrowed from Christianity, or is it too an independent thing? Some points are quite plain which may justify our accepting the latter alternative. 4 [6]) says that the followers of Nicolas misunderstood his saying that ‘we must fight against the flesh and abuse it. It is, however, to exaggerate that, to find references to Gnosticism in verses where terms occur that afterwards became technical terms in Gnostic systems, viz
John the Baptist - In view, however, of St. It is full of poetry, no doubt, but it is the kind of poetry which bursts like a flower from the living stem of actual truth. All this, however, is purely conjectural, and it is best to be content to say that John was born in a town unknown, in the hill country of Judah. ...
But whatever the outward tenor of John’s way in that priestly house in the hill country of Judah, a great crisis must have come at last, followed by a sudden break in his manner of life. But spiritual instincts and powers which had long been unknown in Israel began to make themselves felt in the young man’s heart, and this son of a priest went forth into the deserts to be shaped in solitude into a prophet mightier than Elijah or Isaiah. Cheyne, however, holds out for carob-beans (Encyc. we Owe the information that he baptized on both sides of the river (John 1:28; John 3:28; John 10:40). The author, however, makes the Baptist refer to the descent of the Spirit upon Jesus in the form of a dove (John 1:32 ff. ) as an authenticating sign which he received that He was the Messiah; and this incident is represented by the other three as following immediately upon the baptism, though the first two, and probably the third also, describe the visible sign as bestowed upon Jesus Himself along with the approving voice from heaven (Matthew 3:16, Mark 1:10 f
Job - ; in the German MSS, which have been followed in most printed editions, after Ps. It is not improbable, however, that the arrangement of the latter is wrong in a few passages: e. This is followed by a series of three dialogues extending over chs. ...
The dialogues are followed by a monologue spoken by Job (chs. 30), and what Marshall calls ‘Job’s oath of self-vindication’ an emphatic disavowal of definite forms of transgression, in a series of sentences most of which begin with ‘if,’ sometimes followed by an imprecation (ch. 38 42:6) is devoted to Jahweh’s answer to Job’s complaint, calling attention to the Divine power, wisdom, and tenderness revealed in creation, in the control of natural forces and phenomena, in the life of birds and beasts, and in the working of Providence in human history, and suggesting that He who could do all this might surely he trusted to care for His servant; and Job’s penitent retraction of his ‘presumptuous utterances. The fourth reason is not without weight, but it must be allowed that there are some very fine things in these chapters, and it must be remembered that they have probably been handed down less carefully than some other parts of the book, on account of the disfavour with which some of the ancient Jews regarded Elihu (‘inspired by Satan’ Test. ’ The remaining three reasons, however, seem to be nearly decisive. The book is mainly not entirely, as one of the Rabbis thought ( Baba bathra , 15 a ) a work of imagination, but, in the judgment of most, with a traditional nucleus, the extent of which, however, is uncertain, as there are features in both the Prologue and the Epilogue which suggest literary invention: e. The Austrian scholar Bickell, who has been followed by Duhm, and in England by Dillon, has tried to show that the poem was written throughout in quatrains, but the textual havoc wrought in the attempt seems to prove clearly that he is, in part at least, on the wrong track. The chief object of the poet to whom we Owe the dialogues, and probably the Prologue and the Epilogue, and the speeches of Jahweh, and we may add, of the compiler or editor of the whole book, is to give a better answer to the question, ‘Why are exceptionally good men heavily afflicted?’ than that generally current in Jewish circles down to the time of Christ. It must be allowed that the three characters are not as sharply distinguished as would be the case in a modern poem, the writer being concerned mainly with Job, and using the others to some extent as foils. These parallels, however, interesting as they are, do not in the least interfere with the originality and boldness of the Hebrew poem, which must ever be regarded as the boldest and grandest effort of the ancient world to ‘justify the ways of God to men
Personality - ’ In other words, it is the power of self-assertion on lines of character. The whole range of enjoyment in the pursuit of happiness on the one hand, and of endurance in the path of duty on the other, rests on the use of this power of self-determination. ...
(b) ‘I must’ Not, however, until ‘I will’ is consummated in ‘I must’ is the height of personality reached, for its liberty of will is given for the sake of its voluntary obedience. He supplied the key of knowledge to self-consciousness and the nerve of power to self-determination. ...
Prove them facts? That they o’erpass my power of proving...
Proves them such. But that is only the intellectual aspect of what we Owe Him. (With Paul, however, these two words fall apart in psychological connotation). Deeds of themselves, however zealously performed, are outside this realm (Matthew 7:22 f. In a word, religion is raised to personality-power. (2) To man’s self-determination He brought the gift of the Holy Spirit, as a power in aid (παράκλητος) of the fettered personality. ‘Actually and in fact Justification is only accomplished by an act of human freedom, an act of the deepest self-consciousness in man, appropriating the redeeming love of the Son of God by the power of awakening and life-giving grace’ (Martensen, Dogmatics, p
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - Long before Aramaic replaced Hebrew as the spoken language, it exercised an influence through the spoken on the written language such as is commonly exercised by the language of one neighbouring people on another, that is to say, Hebrew borrowed words from Aramaic, as English borrows words from French and French from English. The Hebrew alphabet vowelless . The Hebrew alphabet used by the OT writers consisted of twenty-two consonants: it contained no vowels, in this resembling Phœnician, Moabitic, and the ancient Arabic and Syriac alphabets. Our knowledge of the pronunciation of Hebrew words, as far as the vowels are concerned, depends on three main sources: (1) Jewish tradition, which is embodied in vowel signs invented between the 4th and 9th centuries a. , and written under, over, or in the consonants of the ancient text; (2) the Greek versions, which transliterate a large number of Hebrew words, especially, but by no means only, the proper names; (3) the Assyrian texts: these, being written in a language which expressed in writing vowel sounds as well as consonantal, give us the vowels of such Hebrew names as they cite. ...
Though in the oldest Hebrew MSS of the Bible the consonants of the original text are accompanied by the vowels which express at once the traditional pronunciation and the traditional interpretation of the text, it is now as generally accepted that the vowels formed no part of the original text as that the earth revolves round the sun. Since considerable importance attaches to this Jewish tradition as to the pronunciation, it will be necessary to represent the vowels in our discussion of the text, but it is important also to indicate their secondary origin and subordinate position. The vowels will be represented by English small letters printed under the consonant after which they are to be pronounced; thus D aBaR, pronounced dabar . The Jewish scholars distinguished by different signs between long and short vowels; no attempt will be made here to mark these distinctions, and the peculiar half-vowels, the shĕva’s , as they are termed, will be left unrepresented. Letters doubled in pronunciation, but without a vowel between them, were represented by the letter written once, not twice. Date of the addition of vowels to the OT text . The date at which the vowels were attached to the consonants of the Hebrew text can be determined only within broad limits. Earlier attempts to represent vowel sounds . Long before the invention of vowel points certain consonants had been used, though neither systematically nor consistently, to indicate the vowel sounds: thus H Sinlessness - Those who are possessed of it would acknowledge that they Owe it to Christ, their communion with God being based on the sense of reconciliation through Christ, and their benevolence towards men due to their adoption of His views as to the dignity and destiny of human nature. No other NT writer has, however, set down statements on this theme so striking and beautiful as those of the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, who calls Jesus ‘holy, guileless, undefiled, separated from sinners’ (Hebrews 7:26); and, in another passage, declares: ‘We have not an high priest that cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities, but one that hath been in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin’ (Hebrews 4:15). Of all the testimonies of the NT, however, the one to which we turn with the keenest curiosity is the testimony of Jesus Himself; and we have to see whether He committed Himself on this subject. Jesus, however, differs in this respect radically from them all, and science must assign a reason for the contrast. During the greater portion of Christian history, however, it has been taken for granted that He was without sin; this being the very least that has been spontaneously conceded by any affecting to believe on Him in any sense. ...
However the enigma is to be solved, certain it is that Jesus was tempted. The scenes in the Wilderness, in Gethsemane, and on the Cross, when He is represented as in conflict with the powers of evil, were not less severe than the similar experiences of ordinary mortals, but far more so. Much more, however, than is known of the Gospel to the Hebrews would require to be ascertained before this could be asserted; it may have been the organ of an Ebionite tendency in the early Church, to which such an invention would have been congenial (cf. We know, however, too little of the way in which the soul is transmitted to be sure of this. And if it must be allowed, on the other hand, that we know too little to have scientific assurance of the contrary, yet the providential arrangement seems intended to suggest this end. If even Adam, in an empty and sinless world, fell, what chance was there of another, standing in a world so corrupt and a society so perverted as that in which Jesus lived, moved and had His being? To bring the Divine nature, however, into play, to account for the sinlessness, would obscure the reality of the temptation of Jesus; and it obscures the vital truth that His sinlessness was not only a gift but an attainment, which He had to secure afresh on every step of a human development, and which rendered Him supremely well-pleasing to His Father in heaven. Although, however, His sinlessness does not directly prove His Divinity, it is not without a bearing on it of an important kind: it lends weight to all His statements, and especially to His statements about Himself. Death is for sinners; but why should one die who is sinless? This was the puzzle with which the followers of Jesus were perplexed when He was lying in the grave, and it seemed as if His cause had perished in this unanswerable enigma
Education - The rise of the synagogue, and of the order of Scribes in connexion therewith, exercised a powerful influence upon the progress of education among the mass of the people. However this may be, schools were placed upon a satisfactory and permanent footing by Joshua bên-Gamaliel, who is said to have been high priest from a. We hear of Rabbis who were needle-makers, tanners, and followed other occupations, and who, like St. But in due course the children were sent to school, in Rabbinic times apparently under the protection of a pœdagogue, better known, however, in Greek family life (Galatians 3:24). The example of Priscilla, the wife of Aquila, shows that a Jewess (who did not Owe all her training to Christianity) might be possessed of high gifts and attainments (Acts 18:26). Every effort, however, must be made even by the poor to train their children in the best possible way, and if this is beyond them to do it according to their means’ [de Lib. Down to the Roman period at least, this educational exclusiveness was maintained, and only the sons of those who were full citizens were the subjects of education, although there were cases in which daughters rose to distinction in letters, and even examples of slaves, like the philosopher Epictetus, who burst the restraints of their position and showed themselves capable of rising to eminence in learning and virtue. ’ Grammar was succeeded by rhetoric, which had accomplished its purpose when the student had acquired the power of speaking offhand on any subject under discussion. Paul Owed the power to ‘move in Hellenic Society at his ease’ (W. A century later Marcus Aurelius endowed the four great philosophical schools of Athens-the Academic, the Peripatetic, the Epicurean, and the Stoic. -The sentiment which caused education to be so prized among the Jews must in course of time have caused it to be greatly desired among the followers of Christ
Jerusalem - His historical works cover the period with which we have here to deal, and it is to the details there furnished that we Owe most of our knowledge of the fortunes and aspect of the city in the Apostolic Age. It has always to be kept in mind, however, that there is considerable difference of opinion on many points, and that the views of the minority, or even of an individual, although we may not be able to accept them, are to be regarded with respect. extremity it was marked by the three towers of Herod the Great-Hippicus, Phasaël, and Mariamne (or Mariamme); and at the Temple end it ran near to the bridge which gave access from the S. From the Tower of Hippicus the wall ran southwards and followed approximately the line of the modern W. , together with Herod’s three towers, was spared by Titus and utilized by him for the ‘Camp. ]'>[1] towers, compared with sixty on the First Wall and ninety on the Third. The Gate Genath has not been located, but it must have been in the neighbourhood of the three great towers, and perhaps lay inside of all three. The most conspicuous feature on the wall was the Tower of Psephinus at the N. corner, which is named in conjunction with the three great towers of Herod, and may have existed at an earlier time (Smith, Jerusalem, ii. point, according to Josephus, at the Tower of the Corner, opposite the ‘Monument of the Fuller’; and the E. This view has much to commend it, although it is not admitted by those who advocate that the Third Wall followed the line of the present wall in its entire course (Smith, Jerusalem, i. The enclosure of the sanctuary did not, however, extend so far N. wall lower down the Tyropaeon Valley. After the Temple was taken the way was open to the ‘Lower City’ and the Akra, which is almost synonymous with the ‘Lower City,’ i. the Lower Tyropaeon Valley from the First Wall to the Pool of Siloam together with the S. corner of the ‘Upper City’ also was a strong place within four walls, with the three great towers upon the N. The Lower Aqueduct, which brought water to the Temple enclosure from a distance of 200 stadia, is ascribed to Pontius Pilate during the years preceding his recall and was in a way responsible for his demission of office (a. it is evident that the Temple area was at a lower level than the Castle, for stairs led down to the court. 3) we also infer that it was in the ‘Lower City,’ for it perished together with Akra and the place called Ophlas. It is worthy of note, however, that, as in the case of St
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - A small but powerful party of malcontents (i. Eusebius, to whom we Owe our knowledge of Hegesippus, does indeed declare that that writer ‘makes some remarks concerning the Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians’ (HE
Love is all-powerful: love, His own attribute, is acceptable to God: seek love, and you shall be saved (xlix. -The terms in which the Epistle speaks of God are unmistakably borrowed from the language of the OT and the Jewish synagogue. 2), who showed us ‘as in a mirror’ the very ‘face’ of God (xxxvi. In the present He is a living power poured out upon the Church (xlvi
Law - The term, however, is used in Scripture with considerable latitude of meaning; and to ascertain its precise import in any particular place, it is necessary to regard the scope and connection of the passage in which it occurs. ...
The term law, is, however, eminently given to the Mosaic law; on the principles and spirit of which, a few general remarks may be offered. My doctrine shall drop rain: my speech shall distil as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb and as the showers upon the grass," Deuteronomy 32:1 , &c. That character by which the supreme Being is most clearly distinguished from every other, however exalted; that character from which the acutest reasoners have endeavoured demonstratively to deduce, as from their source, all the divine attributes, is self-existence. And again: "Unto thee it was showed, that thou mightest know that the Lord he is God; there is none else beside him. ...
But to teach the self-existence, the unity, the wisdom, and the power of the Deity, nay, even his moral perfections of mercy, justice, and truth, would have been insufficient to arrest the attention, and command the obedience of a nation, the majority of which looked no farther than mere present objects, and at that early period cherished scarcely any hopes higher than those of a temporal kind,—if, in addition to all this, care had not been taken to represent the providence of God as not only directing the government of the universe by general laws, but also perpetually superintending the conduct and determining the fortune of every nation, of every family, nay, of every individual. However exalted and perfect such a Being might appear to abstract speculation, he was to the generality of mankind as if he did not exist; as their happiness or misery were not supposed to be influenced by his power, they referred not their conduct to his direction. And, finally, it is most evident, that, contrary to all other lawgivers, the Jewish legislator renders his civil institutions entirely subordinate to his religious; and announces to his nation that their temporal adversity or prosperity would entirely depend, not on their observance of their political regulations; not on their preserving a military spirit, or acquiring commercial wealth, or strengthening themselves by powerful alliances; but on their continuing to worship the one true God according to the religious rites and ceremonies by him prescribed, and preserving their piety and morals untainted by the corruptions and vices which idolatry tended to introduce. ...
It is an obvious, but it is not therefore a less important remark, that to the Jewish religion we Owe that admirable summary of moral duty, contained in the ten commandments. Interpreted in this natural and rational latitude, how comprehensive and important is this summary of moral duty! It inculcates the adoration of the one true God, who "made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is;" who must, therefore, be infinite in power, and wisdom, and goodness; the object of exclusive adoration; of gratitude for every blessing we enjoy; of fear, for he is a jealous God; of hope, for he is merciful. In one country we see theft allowed, if perpetrated with address; in others, piracy and rapine honoured, if conducted with intrepidity. ...
Thus, on a review of the topics we have discussed, it appears that the Jewish law promulgated the great principles of moral duty in the decalogue, with a solemnity suited to their high preeminence; that it enjoined love to God with the most unceasing solicitude, and love to our neighbour, as extensively and forcibly, as the peculiar design of the Jewish economy, and the peculiar character of the Jewish people, would permit; that it impressed the deepest conviction of God's requiring, not mere external observances, but heart-felt piety, well regulated desires, and active benevolence; that it taught sacrifice could not obtain pardon without repentance, or repentance without reformation and restitution; that it described circumcision itself, and, by consequence, every other legal rite, as designed to typify and inculcate internal holiness, which alone could render men acceptable to God; that it represented the love of God as designed to act as a practical principle, stimulating to the constant and sincere cultivation of purity, mercy, and truth; and that it enforced all these principles and precepts by sanctions the most likely to operate powerfully on minds unaccustomed to abstract speculations and remote views, even by temporal rewards and punishments; the assurance of which was confirmed from the immediate experience of similar rewards and punishments, dispensed to their enemies and to themselves by that supernatural Power which had delivered the Hebrew nation out of Egypt, conducted them through the wilderness, planted them in the land of Canaan, regulated their government, distributed their possessions, and to which alone they could look to obtain new blessings, or secure those already enjoyed. From all this we derive another presumptive argument for the divine authority of the Mosaic code; and it may be contended, that a moral system thus perfect, promulgated at so early a period, to such a people, and enforced by such sanctions as no human power could undertake to execute, strongly bespeaks a divine original. As the obligation of the moral law upon Christians has, however, been disputed by some perverters of the Christian faith, or held by others on loose and fallacious grounds, this subject ought to be clearly understood
Moses - The king then called upon his wise men and magicians, to know if they could do as much by the power of their gods, "and they did so with their enchantments; for they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron's rod swallowed up their serpents. And though Aaron's serpent swallowed up their serpents, showing the superiority of the true miracle over the false, Exodus 6:10-1103 , it might only lead the king to conclude, that Moses and Aaron were more expert jugglers than Jannes and Jambres, who opposed them, 2 Timothy 3:8 . ...
In the affair of the Golden Calf, ( See CALF ,) the conduct of Moses showed the greatest zeal for God's honour, and a holy indignation against the sin of Aaron and the people. So wonderful was the condescension of God to the voice of a man, and so mighty the power of prayer. " He powerfully appealed to the long-tried mercies and forgivenesses they had experienced ever since their departure from Egypt; and his energetic supplication prevailed; for the Lord graciously said, "I have pardoned, according to thy word: but verily, as I live, all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord;" or shall adore him for his righteous judgments; "for all these men which, have seen my glory and my miracles which I did in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and have tempted me these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice, surely shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers: neither shall any of them that provoked me see it. "He then buried his body in a valley opposite Beth-peor, in the land of Moab; but no man knoweth his sepulchre unto this day," observes the sacred historian, who annexed the circumstances of his death to the book of Deuteronomy, Deuteronomy 34:6 . The preeminence of Moses's character is briefly described by the sacred historian, Samuel or Ezra: "And there arose not a prophet since, in Israel, like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face; in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all his land; and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel," Deuteronomy 34:10-12 . ...
So marked and hallowed is the character of this, the most eminent of mere men, that it has often been successfully made the basis of an irresistible argument for the truth of his divine mission. Where can we find more complete disinterestedness than in Moses? Is not his the character of an upright man, who has the general good, not his own interests, at heart; of a man who submissively acquiesces in the commands of God, without resistance and without demur? When we consider these several things; when we reflect on all the ministry of Moses, on his life, on his death, on his character, on his abilities, and his success; we are powerfully convinced that he was the messenger of God. ...
To Moses we Owe that important portion of Holy Scripture, the Pentateuch, which brings us acquainted with the creation of the world, the entrance of sin and death, the first promises of redemption, the flood, the peopling of the postdiluvian earth, and the origin of nations, the call of Abraham, and the giving of the law
Papias - ]'>[1] which was perhaps meant to lower the authority of both Gospels (since Mark also had Jewish features of the kind in question), Papias cites a tradition derived from a man of the first Christian generation, ‘the Elder’ (? John, see below), as he styles him—...
‘And this the Elder used to say: Mark, indeed (μέν), having been Peter’s interpreter, wrote down with accuracy, yet not in order, everything he bore in mind—the things, namely, either said or done by the Christ (or Lord). Such, however, was the Gospel composed by the Apostle Matthew, as we may infer that Papias went on to quote ‘the Elder’ as saying in effect. 39) to which we Owe our knowledge of it—...
‘But I will not scruple to set down for thee everything, too, that once on a time I learned right well from the Elders and right well bore in mind—in juxtaposition with the (= my own) interpretations, so confirming their truth. Its prevalence may, indeed, have led Papias to lay special emphasis on the realistic aspect of the millennium—a feature in which he was followed by Irenaeus and others, to Eusebius’ keen regret. Probably, however, he used the Johannine Gospel only as a secondary source of exegesis for the standard Matthaean collection of ‘the Oracles’—as, in fact, a ‘book,’ and so less ‘helpful’ than direct oral tradition. The Canon, or ‘rule’ of faith, consisted of the Lord’s words, however obtained, if only it were in purity (cf. But once it is allowed for, Papias becomes a valuable positive witness to our Canonical Gospels, as distinct from other Gospel writings which, no doubt, existed at that time in considerable numbers
Polycarpus, Bishop of Smyrna - He Owes this prominence less to intellectual ability, which does not appear to have been pre-eminent, than to the influence gained by a consistent and unusually long life. The hiatus, however, in the Greek text begins not at c. Polycarp states, however, that his own letter had been invited by the church of Philippi. This difference, however, is explained when we bear in mind that Clement had probably been brought up in Judaism, while Polycarp was born of Christian parents and familiar with the apostolic writings from his youth. "Nay," replied Polycarp "I count it your due that I should offer my defence to you because we have been taught to give due honour to the powers ordained of God; but as for these people I Owe no vindication to them. A third note states that this again had been transcribed by Pionius from a copy much decayed by time, the success of his search for which was due to a revelation made by Polycarp himself, "as will be shewn in what follows," from which we infer that the martyrdom was followed by a Life of Polycarp
Tatianus - He soon discovered that these writings were older than the oldest remains of Greek literature, and in their prophecies and precepts diviner and truer than the oracles and practices of the most powerful gods or the purest philosophers. ) by deprecating as unreasonable the contemptuous animosity of the Greeks towards "Barbarians," and points out that there was no practice or custom current among them which they did not Owe to "Barbarians. To Babylonia they Owed astronomy, to Persia magic, to Egypt geometry, to Phoenicia instruction by letters. We have been taught that the beginning is the power of the Logos. For the Lord of all, being Himself the substance (ὑπόστασις ) of all, in so far that creation had not yet taken place, was alone; but in so far as He was Himself all power, and the substance of things visible and invisible, all things were with Him: (and thus) with Him by Logos-power (διὰ λογιχῆς δυνάμεως ), the very Logos Himself, Who was in Him, subsisted (ὑπέστησε ). Just as many fires are lighted from one torch, but the light of the first torch is not lessened through the kindling of the many, so the Logos coming forth from the power of the Father hath not made Him Who begat Him without Logos (ἄλογον ). One followed the teaching of Plato, a disciple of Epicurus opposed him. ), like the jackdaw strutting about in borrowed plumes. Men ought, therefore, to believe the more ancient authority in preference to the Greeks, who had borrowed from Moses, as from a spring, without acknowledgment ( al. Minos—so famous for his wisdom, shrewdness, and legislative powers—who lived in the 11th generation after Inachus; Lycurgus, the Lacedemonian lawgiver, who was born long after the taking of Troy; Draco, Solon, Pythagoras, and those seven wise men, the oldest of whom lived about the 50th of those Olympiads which began about 400 years after the taking of Troy. To the Spirit is attributed prophetic powers. This action Tatian has also attributed to "the Power of the Logos" (c. The Spirit is the Divine Power of the Logos. : "Die to the world! Live to God!"); and through repentance a call has been granted to those who (according to God's word) are but a little lower than the angels (c. is more marked by allusion than by direct quotation, the cause is the well-known practice of the apologists, who usually abstain from such quotations when writing to Gentiles who would have allowed little authority to them. John's Gospel are, however, both exceptional and indisputable, and testify to a widespread knowledge of that Gospel at the period in question. The third passage is punctuated by Tatian in the manner invariably followed by the early Christian writers (contrast the textus receptus οὐδὲ ἓν ὃ γέγονεν)
Christ in the Early Church - It is scarcely fair, however, to interpret this as if it were a careful theological statement. There can be no question, however, that he teaches the pre-existence and the Divinity of Christ, and that his writings were deeply influenced by the Logos doctrine of St. It was, however, the necessity of meeting both outside attacks on Christianity, and misconceptions of it from within, that gradually forced Christian writers to define more clearly and exactly the nature of Christ. ...
(b) On the other hand, the Monarchians or Patripassians, represented by Praxeas, Noetus, and Sabellius, so merged the personality of the Son and the Holy Spirit in the unity of the Father, that it practically followed from their teaching that the historic Christ was actually the Father Himself who was incarnate, and suffered on the cross, so that, in the spiteful epigram of Tertullian, Praxeas ‘put to flight the Comforter and crucified the Father. This slight sketch of pre-Nicene theology should, however, be sufficient to show that, despite the absence of any statement of faith common to the whole Church, there is an overwhelming consensus of Church belief from the first to the effect (1) that the historic Jesus Christ was truly God, pre-existent with the Father; (2) that He was also truly man; (3) that in Him are permanently united God and man in one Person. ...
(a) The teaching of Arius, a parish priest of Alexandria, who had, however, previously studied at Antioch, brought swiftly the crisis when the Church must definitely and clearly state her belief as to the Person of Christ. To pay Divine honours to a creature, however exalted, was, of course, really idolatry; but for this very reason Arianism was popular with those nominal converts who had never in their heart relinquished their old polytheism. Other problems, however, remained. (β) A reaction in an opposite direction led Eutyches a few years later to exalt the Divinity of Christ at the expense of His humanity, by teaching that the humanity was in some way swallowed up in the Divinity. ...
(d) Eutychianism, however, with its disproportionate reverence for the Divinity of Christ, proved too fascinating for the Eastern mind to be disposed of by the Council of Chalcedon. It is not one of the least evidences to a Divine power working in the Christian Church, that, in an age of cosmopolitan superstition and intellectual unrest, all attempts to assimilate Christianity to heathenism were rejected, and a clearly defined and balanced statement of truth emerged and gained almost entire possession of the field. ...
(b) The unknown author of the Second Epistle of Clement opens his sermon with a burst of enthusiastic gratitude: ‘What recompense then shall we give to Him (Jesus Christ)? or what fruit worthy of His own gift to us? And how many mercies do we Owe Him! For He bestowed the light on us; He spake to us, as a father to his sons; He saved us when we were perishing—He called us when we were not, and from not being He willed us to be. 1) as ‘hastening to Christ’; ‘through them Christ showed that things which appear mean and obscure and contemptible to men are with God of great glory. It is the work of one who profoundly and from the heart believes in Christ as a living Person, in His present power, and His absolute claim upon mankind. The power of the Cross of Christ and His Resurrection from the dead are to Athanasius the greatest of facts, unparalleled in history, illimitable in their future consequences. ‘The achievements of the Saviour,’ he says, ‘resulting from His becoming man, are of such a kind and number that if one should wish to enumerate them, he may be compared to men who gaze at the expanse of the sea and wish to count its waves …; to sum the matter up, behold how the Saviour’s doctrine is everywhere increasing, while all idolatry and everything opposed to the faith of Christ is daily dwindling and losing power and falling; and thus beholding, worship the Saviour, who is above all and mighty, even God the Word’ (54, 55)
Christianity - To the Roman Catholic—who represents the most widely spread and influential of the sections of modern Christianity—its essence consists in submission to the authority of a supernaturally endowed Church, to which, with the Pope at its head, the power has been committed by Christ of infallibly determining the Christian creed, and of finally directing Christian life and worship in all its details. If he claims to be a ‘liberal’ Protestant, he will describe Christianity as a life, not a creed, and declare that all attempts to define belief concerning the Person of Christ and other details of Christian doctrine are so many mischievous restrictions, which only fetter the free thought and action of the truly emancipated followers of Jesus. But, on the other hand, criticism must not be merely subjective and arbitrary, else religious truth is simply that which every man troweth, and Christianity nothing more than what individual Christians choose to think it. Even during this period, however, not only was there room for reflexion and inquiry to arise, but eager inquiry was inevitable. Again and again in the course of His ministry a sifting took place, as the Master made more exacting demands upon the allegiance of His followers, and showed that a cleavage must take place between those who really understood the drift of His teaching and were prepared at all costs to obey it, and those who did not. Christ’s ministry ended, however,—and, considering its brief and tragic character, it was bound to end,—without any clearly formulated answer to the question as to what constituted true discipleship, and how His followers were to be permanently distinguished from the rest of their nation and the world. ...
The question now arises, whether the normative period of the religion ends with the death of Christ, May it be said that when His life is over, the work of the prophet of Nazareth is complete, His words have all been spoken, His religion propounded—it remains that His followers obey His teaching? This position has often been taken, and is usually adopted by those who reject the supernatural element in Christianity. ’ The more powerful a personality is, ‘the less can the sum-total of what he is be known only by what he himself says and does’; we must therefore include in our estimate the effects produced in his followers and the views taken by men of his work. Hence the Church with a true instinct included the Acts and the Epistles in the Canon, as well as the Gospels, and to the whole of these documents we must turn if we would understand what ‘Christianity’ meant to the Apostles and the first generation or two of those who followed Christ. It was chiefly to the Apostle Paul that the Church Owed her hardly won freedom from the bonds of Jewish ceremonial law and the national and religious limitations identified with it. In the first flush of enthusiasm which belongs to the earliest stage of a religions movement, the emotional—which means very largely the motive or dynamical—element is both pure and powerful. The loss of enthusiasm and elasticity may be counterbalanced by increased consolidation, by the gain of a greater power of resisting attacks and retaining adherents. According to Newman’s theory, the original germs of doctrine and worship were developed normally and legitimately as determined by the criteria he specifies—Preservation of type, Continuity of Principle, Power of assimilation, Logical sequence, and the rest. But the whole Reformation movement showed that Christianity as a religion possessed remarkable recuperative power; that the organism could throw off a considerable portion of what seemed its very substance, not only without injury to its life, but with marvellous increase to its vigour; and that the essence of the religion did not lie where the Roman Catholic Church had sought to place it. ‘Evangelical revivals,’ great missionary enterprises, remarkable extensions of the old religion in new lands and under new conditions, unexpected manifestations of new features and resuscitation of pristine energies, have during the last two or three centuries illustrated afresh the same power of recovery and spiritual reinforcement, and raised afresh the question as to what constitutes the essence of a religion which is so full of vitality and so capable of developing from within unanticipated and apparently inexhaustible energies. As they arise, the power and permanence of a religion are tested by its ability to grapple with and to solve them, and by its success or failure is it judged. History has too frequently suggested the question which the poet asks of the suffering Christ—‘Say, was not this Thy passion, to foreknow | In death’s worst hour the works of Christian men?’ What new regenerative influences, swaying the whole of society with wider and freer quickening power, will be developed in the 20th cent. Again and again in the darkest hour light has shone forth, and at the lowest ebb a new flood-tide of energy has arisen, making it possible to distinguish the real religion in its purity and power from its actual embodiment in decadent and unworthy representatives. It was not developed out of Judaism, the Jews were its bitterest opponents; it was not indebted to Greek philosophic thought or to Roman political science, though afterwards it made use of and powerfully influenced both; it had nothing in common with the current superstitions of Oriental religions; it did not Owe its origin to some cunningly devised religious syncretism, such as was not uncommon at the time when Christianity began to infuse life into the declining Roman Empire. Not as a prophet of Nazareth, a religious and ethical teacher, however lofty and inspiring, does Christ stand at the centre of history. Fairbairn has said, ‘It is not Jesus of Nazareth who has so powerfully entered into history; it is the deified Christ who has been believed, loved, and obeyed as the Saviour of the world
Criticism - ’]'>[1] In the year 1835 David Strauss published his Leben Jesu (to be followed exactly ten years later by F. Michaelis was followed by Semler in his Treatise on the Free Investigation of the Canon, the very title of which seemed to mark the new principle of inquiry which was abroad. Baur’s book on the Pastoral Epistles, published in the same year as Strauss’ Life of Jesus (1835), showed that his intention was to treat the NT books in connexion with their historical setting. And here he showed how thoroughly he was prepared to endorse Baur’s view of the late dates of the Gospels, and to assimilate the methods and conclusions of the Tübingen school. The dilemma, therefore, which Ullmann proposed was really this—Did Christ create the Church, or did the Church invent Christ? If the former, Jesus must have been no mere Jewish Rabbi, but a personality of extraordinary power; if the latter, we have an invention which would make the history of Christianity quite incomprehensible. It was, of course, open to Strauss to reply that whilst the powerful personality of Jesus had created the Church, yet subsequently mythical hopes and conceptions might have been at work, transforming and magnifying the idea of the Christ. He not only acknowledged the supremacy of Jesus in the sphere of religion, but he maintained that He possessed such power over the souls of men, to which there may have been conjoined some physical force like magnetism, that He was able to perform cures which were regarded as miraculous. It must not, however, be forgotten that, as Dr. Baur and his followers had fixed men’s attention upon Paul, Keim insists upon the unique and supreme importance of Jesus, and he sees in Him the Sinless One, the Son of God. ...
In spite of much that savours of subjectivity, Keim, however, stands out as the writer who, in the ‘Life of Jesus movement,’ as Nippold has called it, has hitherto treated most fully of the Gospels as authorities, with the exception, perhaps, of Weizsäcker. On the contrary, the investigation of the Gospels showed him that there were two sources at the base of our Synoptic writings, which closely resembled the statements of Papias with regard to the documents which he referred to St. ...
But, on the other hand, it is urged that Ritschl’s own peculiar doctrine and the paramount stress which he laid on our experimental knowledge of Christ’s power to confer spiritual freedom and deliverance, no doubt tended to make him independent of, if not indifferent to, the results of criticism. Ritschl and his distinguished follower W. ...
It is urged, indeed, by the Ritschlians represented by Herrmann, that this faith in the historical Christ guarantees that, whatever criticism may effect, it cannot interfere with the truth and power of the position already won, and with the response made by the human soul to the perfection of Christ presented to us in the Gospels. But whatever may have been the case with Ritschl himself, it can scarcely be said that his method has prevented those who claim in some measure to be his followers from dealing very loosely with the Gospel miracles, or with such events as the Virgin-birth and the Resurrection of the Lord. And it is difficult to see how this process of solution can fail to weaken the impression made by the ‘historical’ Christ, and our confidence in the revelation which we Owe to His life. , that through the impression which Christ makes upon us and our experimental knowledge of His power to confer freedom and deliverance, all uncertainty as to whether the figure of Jesus, which works thus upon us, belongs to legend or to history is in the nature of the case impossible
Desire - As a consequence, we should be compelled to shut out from the region of Desire not only all the lower forms of life, but also all those people who do not live a reflective life. It is not necessary, however, to discuss the matter, for it is not to be questioned that by ideas, and trains of ideas, and ideas, as Dr. ...
One of the many debts which the world Owes to Socrates is the introduction of the conception of a supreme end of life. But Socrates showed that men’s thoughts and actions must be guided by their desire for something which they regarded as desirable. Is the end pleasure, or a pleasurable state of feeling? Is it the avoidance of pain, or is it indifference to, or superiority over, both pleasure and pain? Is pleasure—pain, or indifference to pleasure—pain, or any other description of the end of life something to be referred to and determined by the individual man, or must we bring the thought of common life to bear on the solution of the problem? If we refer to the individual man the power of deciding what is the end of life and what is desirable as a means to that end, are we to think of the end in terms of pleasure as it appears to the enltured man, a man who is familiar with ideas and trains of ideas, or are we to think of pleasure as it appears to the natural man? All these questions were keenly debated in the schools of Greece, and all of them have a bearing on the definition of Desire. Jowett. those which have no antecedent pains, ‘claim a place in the scale of goods’ (Jowett’s Plato, vol. A, Jowett’s translation). He prepared the way for the fuller analysis of pleasure and desire which we Owe to Aristotle, for he showed that pleasures which accompany the active discharge of function are pleasant in themselves; the pleasures which are truly desirable are the pleasures of the wise, all others are a shadow only (Rep. Reason, as mere reasoning, is powerless to shape the will, and mere appetite is quite as powerless. ...
As to the question whether animals can have desires, Aristotle decides that ‘no animal can have the faculty of desire unless it have imaginative power’ (Wallace, p. 183); but then, as imaginative power is connected with the reason or the senses, so animals may have the imaginative power connected with the senses, and thus have what can be designated desires. ‘In the case of men, however, sometimes the images of sense overcome and move the rational volition; sometimes, as in incontinence, two things overcome and stir up one another, desire thus following on desire, much as a ball that players toss about; but the normal and natural course is always that in which the superior course of reason is the more supreme and stimulates to action’ (pp. Grant): ‘If the object of purpose is that which, being in our power, we desire after deliberation, purpose will be a desire of things in our power. ...
It is well to have an emphatic statement of the unity of the thinking, willing, feeling subject placed on record; for up to Green’s advent we were allowed to see thinking, willing, feeling, but the self was altogether out of sight
Authority of Christ - ...
In one respect, He continued, in so doing, the work and power of the prophets. It is only when his message is of this kind that his word is with power. The difficulty is that the ‘mind,’ or ‘conscience,’ or ‘moral personality,’ on which our recognition of the truth and authority of Jesus’ teaching is here made dependent, is not a fixed quantity, and still less a ready-made faculty; it is rather a possibility or potentiality in our nature, which needs to he evoked into actual existence; and among the powers which are to evoke it and make it actual and valuable, by far the most important is that teaching of Jesus which it is in some sense allowed to judge. We are born again by the words of eternal life which come from His lips, and it is the new man so born to whom His word is known in all its power. He said, ‘Follow me,’ and they rose, and left all and followed Him (Matthew 4:18-22; Matthew 9:9). He acknowledges by his sorrow that he would have been a better man—in the sense of the gospel a perfect man—if he had allowed the authority of Jesus to have its perfect work in him. It lay in the Good Master Himself, in His own identification with the good cause, in His own renunciation of all things for the Kingdom of God’s sake; it lay in His power to reveal to this man the weak spot in his moral constitution, and in the inward witness of the man’s conscience (attested by his sorrow as he turned away) that the voice of Jesus was the voice of God, and that through obedience to it he would have entered into life. Experiences like that which inspired Luke 5:8 (‘Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, O Lord’), John 4:29 (‘Come see a man which told me all things that ever I did’), John 21:17 (‘Thou knowest all things, thou knowest that I love thee’), are the basis on which the soul recognizes Christ as Judge. Possession was the current theory of certain morbid conditions of human nature, physical, mental, and probably in some cases also moral; but the one thing of consequence in the Gospel is not that Jesus held this or any other theory about these morbid conditions, but that in Him the power of God was present to heal them. ...
There is, no doubt, great, possibility of error in arguing from such abstract ideas as ‘Divinity’ and ‘humanity,’ especially when they are in some way opposed to one another in our minds: however we may define them, we must remember that they were in no sense opposed or inconsistent in Christ. ‘All things have been delivered unto me by my Father, and no one knoweth the Son save the Father, neither doth any know the Father save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal him. To put it otherwise, the truth which we Owe to Jesus, and for which He is our authority, is not information; it is not a contribution to science, physical or historical—for this we are cast by God on our own resources; it is the truth which is identical with His own being and life in the world, which is embodied or incarnate in Him. (3) When Jesus bodied forth this hope of the future triumph of His cause, and of His own glorious coming, He did it in language borrowed mainly from the OT apocalypse, the Book of Daniel. May not modern Christians, and even the early believers, have taken poetic expressions of the living hope of Jesus more prosaically than He meant them? (4) We must allow for the possibility that in the reports of Jesus’ words which we possess, the reporters may sometimes have allowed the hopes kindled in their own hearts by Jesus to give a turn or a colour, quite involuntarily, to what they tell us. They might not be able to distinguish precisely between the hopes they Owed to Him and the very words in which He had declared His own assurance of victory. He came again in power
Back to Christ - More and more the historical Person was overshadowed by the speculative construction, the historical ministry by the formulas in which its significance was summed up. To this enlarged historical knowledge and new feeling for the historical, we Owe the recognition of the fact that the Christ of history is one thing and the conception of His Person that sprang up on the soil of the Church’s faith another. All we can do here is to indicate the main lines which the criticism of dogma has followed. It was borrowed from I Hellenistic philosophy; and what it originally answered was not any religious need, but the purely intellectual demand that all the manifoldness of this time-world shall be reducible to the unity of a single principle. To hypostatize abstractions, equip them with causal power, and employ them as principles of explanation, was a peculiarity of Greek thought, and one that it is hopeless to revive. An ethical conception of Redemption, as a change in our relation to God effected within our consciousness, requires us to seek the significance of Christ not in the metaphysical background of His nature, but in the ethical and religious traits of His character, which disclose to us the heart of God, and have the power to awaken within us the response of love and faith. The work of Christ is interpreted by means of categories borrowed from the legal discipline of the Roman Church. ’ And in whatever way we account for it, it is certain that Christian ideas cannot be separated from Christ without being stripped of much of their power to maintain themselves in men’s minds and hearts. The idea of an external authority is not, however, surrendered; it is only carried back to the last possible resort, the consciousness of Christ. The historical Christ is the transcendent and miraculous Christ, the Christ who was conscious of a superhuman dignity, and who was declared by the resurrection from the dead to be the Son of God with power (Romans 1:4). This assent, however, though the primary element in faith, is not treated as the whole of it; it becomes effective only when reinforced by the practical elements of feeling and will. ’...
That the stream of religion flows purer at its fountainhead than at its lower readies is a fact which the study of every historical religion confirms. ]'>[3] The figure of Jesus is the grandest and most perfect that God has bestowed on humanity throughout the long course of its upward journey. Not as a constituent does He belong to the Gospel, but He has been its personal realization and power, and will always be felt as such. ]'>[4] But in thus insisting on the dependence of the gospel on the Person behind it for its power in awakening faith, Harnack is to be regarded as representing the type of thought to be described in the next section rather than that described here
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - ) It is commonly cited under the briefer title πρός αἱρέσεις ( contra Haereses ) We possess it entire in the Latin version only, which, however, must have been made from the Greek original very soon after its composition, since the Latin was used by Tertullian some ten years after, in his tractate adv. the first two, we Owe the greater part of the original Greek of bk. Of the works of Justin Martyr Irenaeus knew and used—besides the Syntagma against all Heresies, and the possibly identical Syntagma against Marcion—the first Apologies, without, however, citing it ( Quellen der ältesten Ketzergeschichte , p. His chief object here is to combat the doctrine of the Demiurge or Creator as a subordinate existence outside the Pleroma, of limited power and insight, and separated from the "Father" by an infinite chasm. He also controverts the Valentinian doctrine concerning the Pleroma and its antithesis the Kenoma, the theory of Emanations, of the Fall of Achamoth, and the formation of the lower world through the sufferings of the Sophia ; and finally, at great length, the Gnostic teaching concerning souls, and the distinction between Psychici and Pneumatici. Jerome, apparently copying Eusebius, makes, however, a distinction (de Vir
God - an immaterial, intelligent, and free Being; of perfect goodness, wisdom, and power; who made the universe, and continues to support it, as well as to govern and direct it, by his providence. The great motions in the system performed with the same facility as the least, suggest his almighty power, which gave motion to the earth and the celestial bodies with equal ease as to the minutest particles. It may be in his power to bestow upon us other senses, of which we have at present no idea; without which it may be impossible for us to know all his works, or to have more adequate ideas of himself. In our present state, we know enough to be satisfied of our dependency upon him, and of the duty we Owe to him, the Lord and Disposer of all things. We know that the highest conceptions we are able to form of them, are still beneath his real perfections; but his power and dominion over us, and our duty toward him, are manifest. Locke, yet, having furnished us with those faculties our minds are endowed with, he hath not left himself without a witness; since we have sense, perception, and reason, and cannot want a clear proof of him as long as we carry ourselves about us, To show, therefore, that we are capable of knowing, that is, of being certain that there is a God, and how we may come by this certainty, I think we need go no farther than ourselves, and that undoubted knowledge we have of our own existence. Next it is evident, that what has its being from another must also have all that which is in, and belongs to, its being from another too; all the powers it has must be owing to, and derived from, the same source. This eternal source, then, of all being, must be also the source and original of all power; and so this eternal Being must be also the most powerful. Thus from the consideration of ourselves, and what we infallibly find in our own constitutions, our reason leads us to the knowledge of this certain and evident truth, that there is an eternal, most powerful, and knowing Being, which, whether any one will call God, it matters not. The motion at has must also be from eternity, or else added to matter by some other being, more powerful than matter. But let us suppose motion eternal too, yet matter, incogitative matter, and motion could never produce thought: knowledge will still be as far beyond the power of nothing to produce. For it will hence follow, that all other knowing beings that have a beginning must depend upon him, and have no other ways of knowledge or extent of power than what he gives them; and therefore if he made those, he made also the less excellent pieces of this universe, all inanimate bodies, whereby his omniscience, power, and providence will be established, and from thence all his other attributes necessarily follow. No metaphysical arguments, however, are employed in it for this purpose. What argument could be so effectual to convince them that there was no god in all the earth but the God of Israel? The sovereignty and universal providence of the Lord Jehovah are proved by predictions delivered by the Jewish prophets, pointing out the fate of nations and of empires, specifying distinctly their rise, the duration of their power, and the causes of their decline; thus demonstrating that one God ruled among the nations, and made them the unconscious instruments of promoting the purposes of his will. He is יהוה , JEHOVAH, self-existing; אל , EL, strong, powerful; אהיה , EHIEH, I am, I will be, self- existence, independency, all-sufficiency, immutability, eternity; שדי , SHADDAI, almighty, all-sufficient; אדן , ADON, Supporter, Lord, Judge. By this were manifested—his eternity and self- existence, as he who creates must be before all creatures, and he who gives being to others can himself derive it from none:—his almighty power, shown both in the act of creation and in the number and vastness of the objects so produced:—his wisdom, in their arrangement, and in their fitness to their respective ends:—and his goodness, as the whole tended to the happiness of sentient beings. Obedience was to be followed with the continuance of the divine favour; transgression, with death. His tender mercy, in the compassion showed to the fallen pair; his justice, in forgiving them only in the view of a satisfaction to be hereafter offered to his justice by an innocent representative of the sinning race; his love to that race, in giving his own Son to become this Redeemer, and in the fulness of time to die for the sins of the whole world; and his holiness, in connecting with this provision for the pardon of man the means of restoring him to a sinless state, and to the obliterated image of God in which he had been created. Exemplifications of the divine mercy are traced from age to age, in his establishing his own worship among men, and remitting the punishment of individual and national offences in answer to prayer offered from penitent hearts, and in dependence upon the typified or actually offered universal sacrifice:—of his condescension, in stooping to the cases of individuals; in his dispensations both of providence and grace, by showing respect to the poor and humble; and, principally, by the incarnation of God in the form of a servant, admitting men into familiar and friendly intercourse with himself, and then entering into heaven to be their patron and advocate, until they should be received into the same glory, "and so be for ever with the Lord:"—of his strictly righteous government, in the destruction of the old world, the cities of the plain, the nations of Canaan, and all ancient states, upon their "filling up the measure of their iniquities;" and, to show that "he will by no means clear the guilty;" in the numerous and severe punishments inflicted even upon the chosen seed of Abraham, because of their transgressions:—of his long-suffering, in frequent warnings, delays, and corrective judgments inflicted upon individuals and nations, before sentence of utter excision and destruction:—of faithfulness and truth, in the fulfilment of promises, often many ages after they were given, as in the promises to Abraham respecting the possession of the land of Canaan by his seed, and in all the "promises made to the fathers" respecting the advent, vicarious death, and illustrious offices of the "Christ," the Saviour of the world:—of his immutability, in the constant and unchanging laws and principles of his government, which remain to this day precisely the same, in every thing universal, as when first promulgated, and have been the rule of his conduct in all places as well as through all time:—of his prescience of future events, manifested by the predictions of Scripture:— and of the depth and stability of his counsel, as illustrated in that plan and purpose of bringing back a revolted world to obedience and felicity, which we find steadily kept in view in the Scriptural history of the acts of God in former ages; which is still the end toward which all his dispensations bend, however wide and mysterious their sweep; and which they will finally accomplish, as we learn from the prophetic history of the future, contained in the Old and New Testaments. ...
Thus the course of divine operation in the world has from age to age been a manifestation of the divine character, continually receiving new and stronger illustrations until the completion of the Christian revelation by the ministry of Christ and his inspired followers, and still placing itself in brighter light and more impressive aspects as the scheme of human redemption runs on to its consummation. From all the acts of God as recorded in the Scriptures, we are taught that he alone is God; that he is present every where to sustain and govern all things; that his wisdom is infinite, his counsel settled, and his power irresistible; that he is holy, just, and good; the Lord and the Judge, but the Father and the Friend, of man. " That every other being, however exalted, has its existence from him: "For by him were all things created, which are in heaven and in earth, whether they are visible or invisible. " That the existence of every thing is upheld by him, no creature being for a moment independent of his support: "By him all things consist;" "upholding all things by the word of his power. Barrow, "we mean a Being of infinite wisdom, goodness, and power, the Creator and the Governor of all things, to whom the great attributes of eternity and independency, omniscience and immensity, perfect holiness and purity, perfect justice and veracity, complete happiness, glorious majesty, and supreme right of dominion belong; and to whom the highest veneration, and most profound submission and obedience are due. It excludes all dependency, borrowed existence, composition, corruption, mortality, contingency; ignorance, unrighteousness, weakness, misery, and all imperfections whatever. It includes necessity of being, independency, perfect unity, simplicity, immensity, eternity, immortality; the most perfect life, knowledge, wisdom, integrity, power, glory, bliss, and all these in the highest degree. From such true dominion it follows, that the true God is living, intelligent, and powerful; and from his other perfections, that he is supreme, or supremely perfect; he is eternal and infinite; omnipotent and omniscient; that is, he endures from eternity to eternity; and is present from infinity to infinity. He governs all things that exist, and knows all things that are to be known; he is not eternity or infinity, but eternal and infinite; he is not duration or space, but he endures and is present; he endures always, and is present every where; he is omnipresent, not only virtually, but also substantially; for power without substance cannot subsist. Hence also he must be perfectly similar, all eye, all ear, all arm, all the power of perceiving, understanding, and acting; but after a manner not at all corporeal, after a manner not like that of men, after a manner wholly to us unknown