What does Orphan mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Orphan
Person who has been deprived of parents. The meaning is clearly demonstrated in Lamentations 5:3 : "We have become orphans and fatherless, our mothers like widows." Since the father was the main means of economic support for the family unit in the ancient Near East, his absence left his wife and children in a particularly vulnerable condition (2 Kings 4:1-7 ). Consequently in the Bible, and in the ancient Near East, orphans and widows are usually mentioned together as the epitome of the poor and deprived of society, the personae miserabiles.
The Old Testament . The first reference to orphans in the Bible is found in the earliest law code of ancient Israel, the Covenant Code (Exodus 21-24 ). In this text, given to a group of recently liberated slaves, the Lord passionately desired the protection of the orphan: "Do not take advantage of a widow or an orphan. If you do and they cry out to me, I will certainly hear their cry. My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless" (22:22). To have compassion on the powerless, represented by the orphan, is to have the same zeal as God, who is known especially as "the helper of the fatherless" (Psalm 10:14 ), the helper of the helpless (Job 29:12 ). Consequently the yardstick by which Israelite society is measured in the prophetic critique is its concern to protect and provide for the totally dependent, a prime example of which was the orphan (Isaiah 1:23 ; 10:2 ; Jeremiah 5:28 ; Ezekiel 22:7 ; Malachi 3:5 ). True repentance meant justice for the orphan (Isaiah 1:17 ; Jeremiah 7:6 ; 22:3 ; Zechariah 7:10 ).
Israel used the metaphor of an orphan to describe its own origins. A fatherless Israel was adopted by Yahweh and became his firstborn son (Exodus 4:22 ). Ezekiel described Israel as an infant abandoned to die by its parents; Yahweh, however, had mercy and adopted her into his family (chap. 16). If Yahweh judged the people, it was as if they had become orphans without a father (Lamentations 5:3 ). But they could at the same time hope for salvation, for in Yahweh "the fatherless find compassion" (Hosea 14:4 ).
The New Testament . There are only two certain references to orphans. James 1:27 emphasizes the Old Testament teaching. The essence of true religion is "to look after orphans and widows in their distress." Helping the helpless is at the core of what it means to be religious, as it was in the Old Testament.
A metaphorical usage also occurs. Christ stated at the last supper that he would not leave his disciples as orphans but come to them in the presence of his Spirit (John 14:18 ). It is this Spirit that allows Christians to call out, "Abba, Father" (Romans 8:15 ). They are no longer spiritual orphans but can begin to pray, "Our Father" (Matthew 6:9 ).
Stephen G. Dempster
Bibliography . F. C. Fensham, JNES 21 (1962): 129-39; D. E. Gowan, Int 41 (1987): 341-53; R. Patterson, BSac 130 (1973): 223-34; H. Ringgren, TDOT, 6:477-81; H. E. von Waldow, CBQ 32 (1970): 182-204.
Webster's Dictionary - Orphan
(1):
(n.) A child bereaved of both father and mother; sometimes, also, a child who has but one parent living.
(2):
(a.) Bereaved of parents, or (sometimes) of one parent.
(3):
(v. t.) To cause to become an orphan; to deprive of parents.

Sentence search

Ithmah - An Orphan
Orpheline - ) An Orphan
Poverty - See Poor, Orphan, Widow
Orphaning - ) of Orphan...
Orphanhood - ) The state or condition of being an Orphan; Orphanage
Ithmah - (ihth' mah) Personal name meaning, “orphan
Orphanage - ) An institution or asylum for the care of Orphans. ) The state of being an Orphan; Orphanhood; Orphans, collectively
Bereaved, Bereft - 1: ἀπορφανίζω (Strong's #642 — Verb — aporphanizomai — ap-or-fan-id'-zo ) lit. , "to be rendered an Orphan" (apo, "from," with the thought of separation, and Orphanos, "an Orphan"), is used metaphorically in 1 Thessalonians 2:17 (AV, "taken from;" RV, "bereaved"), in the sense of being "bereft" of the company of the saints through being compelled to leave them (cp. The word has a wider meaning than that of being an Orphan. ...
Note: The corresponding adjective, Orphanos, is translated "desolate" in John 14:18 (AV, "comfortless"); "fatherless" in James 1:27 ; see DESOLATE , FATHERLESS
Fatherless - 1: ὀρφανός (Strong's #3737 — Adjective — Orphanos — or-fan-os' ) properly, "an Orphan," is rendered "fatherless" in James 1:27 ; "desolate" in John 14:18 , for AV, "comfortless
Orphan - ) To cause to become an Orphan; to deprive of parents
Orphan - The meaning is clearly demonstrated in Lamentations 5:3 : "We have become Orphans and fatherless, our mothers like widows. Consequently in the Bible, and in the ancient Near East, Orphans and widows are usually mentioned together as the epitome of the poor and deprived of society, the personae miserabiles. The first reference to Orphans in the Bible is found in the earliest law code of ancient Israel, the Covenant Code (Exodus 21-24 ). In this text, given to a group of recently liberated slaves, the Lord passionately desired the protection of the Orphan: "Do not take advantage of a widow or an Orphan. To have compassion on the powerless, represented by the Orphan, is to have the same zeal as God, who is known especially as "the helper of the fatherless" (Psalm 10:14 ), the helper of the helpless (Job 29:12 ). Consequently the yardstick by which Israelite society is measured in the prophetic critique is its concern to protect and provide for the totally dependent, a prime example of which was the Orphan (Isaiah 1:23 ; 10:2 ; Jeremiah 5:28 ; Ezekiel 22:7 ; Malachi 3:5 ). True repentance meant justice for the Orphan (Isaiah 1:17 ; Jeremiah 7:6 ; 22:3 ; Zechariah 7:10 ). ...
Israel used the metaphor of an Orphan to describe its own origins. If Yahweh judged the people, it was as if they had become Orphans without a father (Lamentations 5:3 ). There are only two certain references to Orphans. The essence of true religion is "to look after Orphans and widows in their distress. Christ stated at the last supper that he would not leave his disciples as Orphans but come to them in the presence of his Spirit (John 14:18 ). They are no longer spiritual Orphans but can begin to pray, "Our Father" (Matthew 6:9 )
Campbell, James - He was a member of the board of city trusts, Philadelphia, president of the board of trustees of Jefferson Medical School for 25 years, and for 45 years vice-president of Saint Joseph's Orphan Asylum
James Campbell - He was a member of the board of city trusts, Philadelphia, president of the board of trustees of Jefferson Medical School for 25 years, and for 45 years vice-president of Saint Joseph's Orphan Asylum
Asylum - ) An institution for the protection or relief of some class of destitute, unfortunate, or afflicted persons; as, an asylum for the aged, for the blind, or for the insane; a lunatic asylum; an Orphan asylum
Margaret Haughery - She was brought to Baltimore by her father, Charles Gaffney, but at an early age was left a homeless Orphan. After her husband's death at New Orleans, 1836, she consecrated her life to succoring the Orphans and the poor, and died mourned as "the mother of the Orphans
Haughery, Margaret - She was brought to Baltimore by her father, Charles Gaffney, but at an early age was left a homeless Orphan. After her husband's death at New Orleans, 1836, she consecrated her life to succoring the Orphans and the poor, and died mourned as "the mother of the Orphans
Sisters of Charity of Providence - The congregation manages hospitals, Orphan asylums, homes, and Indian missions, in the United States, Canada, and Alaska
Sisters of Saint Joseph of Carondelet - The congregation, comprising five provinces (Saint Louis, Saint Paul, Troy, Los Angeles, and Augusta) in 26 archdioceses and dioceses of the United States includes colleges, academies, diocesan high schools, Indian and deaf-mute schools, hospitals, Orphan
Damian, Peter, Saint - Left an Orphan at an early age, he was adopted by an elder brother and became a swineherd
Sisters of Saint Joseph -(Philadelphia) - Established in 1847, when four members of the community at Carondelet, in response to Bishop Kenrick's appeal, took charge of an Orphan asylum in Philadelphia. The sisters manages parochial elementary and high schools, a college, academies, industrial and commercial schools, an Orphanage, a deaf-mute institute, day nursery, and settlement house in the archdioceses of Baltimore and Philadelphia, and the dioceses of Harrisburg, Newark, and Trenton
John Bosco, Saint - A priest at Turin, he decided to devote his life to neglected Orphan boys, and in February, 1842, he formed the Oratory, an association of twenty youths, whose numbers grew rapidly and for whom he built night-schools, technical schools, workshops, and a dormitory
Esther, Book of - A book of the Bible, relating the history of a Jewish Orphan girl named Edissa, later Esther, written probably not later than the time of Esdras, by an unknown author
Lemuel - Abstemious; a pleader for and patron of those who cannot defend themselves, the widow and Orphan
Roch, Saint - Left an Orphan at twenty, he distributed his fortune among the poor
Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary - The order manages schools, a college, an academy, and an Orphanage for girls, all in the states of Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio. The members of this community conduct a college, academies, high schools, elementary schools, boys industrial school, Orphan asylums, infant home, nursery, and a sodality home
Filippo Lippi - Educated as an Orphan in the Carmelite convent near Florence, he joined the order at 16
Lippi, Fra Filippo - Educated as an Orphan in the Carmelite convent near Florence, he joined the order at 16
Marie de Rabutin Chantal, Marquise de Sevigne - Having become an Orphan at age six, she was educated by the Abbe de Coulanges, her uncle, who taught her Latin, Spanish and Italian, and gave her his own practical spirit and deep sense of religion
Religious of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Sheph - The order has convents, industrial homes and Orphan asylums throughout the world
Fatherless - A person without a male parent, often rendered Orphan by modern translations. Orphans are often mentioned with widows as representatives of the most helpless members of society (Exodus 22:22 ; Deuteronomy 10:18 ; Psalm 146:9 ). Orphans were often forced to beg for food (Psalm 109:9-10 ). God, however, has a special concern for Orphans and widows (Deuteronomy 10:18 ; Psalm 10:14-18 ; Psalm 146:9 ; Hosea 14:3 ) evidenced in the title “a father of the fatherless” (Psalm 68:5 ). Old Testament law provided for the material needs of Orphans and widows who were to be fed from the third year's tithe (Deuteronomy 14:28-29 ; Deuteronomy 26:12-13 ), from sheaves left forgotten in the fields (Deuteronomy 24:19 ), and from fruit God commanded to be left on the trees and vines (Deuteronomy 24:20-21 ). Orphans and widows were to be included in the celebrations of the worshiping community (Deuteronomy 16:11 ,Deuteronomy 16:11,16:14 ). God's people were repeatedly warned not to take advantage of Orphans and widows (Exodus 22:22 ; Deuteronomy 24:17 ; Deuteronomy 27:19 ; Psalm 82:3 ; Isaiah 1:17 ). In the New Testament, James defined worship acceptable to God as meeting the needs of Orphans and widows (Isaiah 1:27 ). ...
God's exiled people were described as Orphans without home or inheritance (Lamentations 5:2-3 ). The Old Testament image of the Orphan without a helper at the court perhaps forms the background for Jesus' promise that His disciples would not be left Orphans (John 14:18 , NAS, NIV, NRSV; “comfortless”, KJV; “bereft”, REB). Paul described his painful separation from the Thessalonian Christians as being Orphaned (1 Thessalonians 2:17 , NRSV)
Ammon (or Amon), Saint - Being left an Orphan by his parents, wealthy people near Alexandria, he was forced by his uncle to marry
Flaget, Benedict Joseph - In 1834 his diocese was limited to Kentucky and Tennessee, and it soon had a seminary, 4 colleges, 3 religious orders of men, 3 convents, several academies, and an Orphan asylum
Benedict Joseph Flaget - In 1834 his diocese was limited to Kentucky and Tennessee, and it soon had a seminary, 4 colleges, 3 religious orders of men, 3 convents, several academies, and an Orphan asylum
Nevada - He served first as a missionary to the Indians of California and was sent by Archbishop Alemany, in 1863, to Virginia City, Neveda, where he built a church and established the Saint Vincent de Paul Society, as well as two schools, an Orphan asylum, and a hospital, all much needed in the unorganized mining community
Jean Racine - Early an Orphan, he was sent by relatives to the College of Beauvais, to Port Royal, and to the College of Harcourt
Racine, Jean - Early an Orphan, he was sent by relatives to the College of Beauvais, to Port Royal, and to the College of Harcourt
Orphanages - (Greek: Orphanos, deprived of parents) ...
Institutions dedicated to the rearing of Orphaned children. The Jews and Greeks (apparently not the Romans) made the support of Orphans a part of their recognized social order. In the 4th century, Orphanages as we know them, were fostered by Saint Ephraem, Saint Basil, Saint John Chrysostom and other bishops. The greatest fignre in the history of the care for Orphans is Saint Vincent de Paul (1576-1660). Work for Orphans was one of the great parts of his apostolate of charity, and for this work he established the Sisters of Charity, whose Orphanages exist to this day in all parts of the world. The first is the recognition that whenever possible the Orphan should not be left permanently in the Orphanage, but should be given a place in the normal family life of some foster home. The second is the attempt to make the Orphanage as much as possible like an ordinary home. Instead of one large building in which all the Orphans live a common life, a number of small houses are provided, and the children are distributed among them in groups containing different ages and different types, supervised by an adult who should strive to fill the role of a parent to them
Mordecai - He adopted his cousin Hadassah (Esther), an Orphan child, whom he tenderly brought up as his own daughter
Foundling Asylums - In the United States, the first Orphan asylum was founded in New Orleans, 1129, by the Ursuline Sisters
Asylums, Foundling - In the United States, the first Orphan asylum was founded in New Orleans, 1129, by the Ursuline Sisters
Merchant Guilds - The guildsmen took part as a corporate body in all religious celebrations in the town, organized festivities, provided for sick and impoverished brethren, undertook the care of their Orphan children, and provided for Masses for deceased members
Guilds, Merchant - The guildsmen took part as a corporate body in all religious celebrations in the town, organized festivities, provided for sick and impoverished brethren, undertook the care of their Orphan children, and provided for Masses for deceased members
Society of Saint Vincent de Paul - The society has Orphan asylums, immigrant aid societies, fresh-air nurseries, industrial schools, hospitals, etc
Lord's Prayer, - ( Isaiah 1:2 ); Mali 1:6 Or mentioned as a last resource of the Orphan and desolate creature, (Isaiah 63:16 ) but never brought out in its fullness, as indeed it could not be, till he was come by whom we have received the adoption of sons
Desolate, Desolation - ...
B — 2: ὀρφανός (Strong's #3737 — Adjective — Orphanos — or-fan-os' ) (Eng. , "orphan;" Lat
Mordecai - A Benjamite, first cousin of Esther, queen of Ahasuerus, who, being an Orphan, had been brought up by him
Esther - Being an Orphan she was brought up by her cousin Mordecai
Esther - ’ She was the daughter of Abihail, of the tribe of Benjamin, and was brought up, an Orphan, in the house of her cousin Mordecai , in Shushan
Louisiana - Their activities included a school, a hospital, and an Orphan asylum
Albany - Conroy, erected Saint Joseph's church, established a home for the aged in care of the Little Sisters of the Poor, and Orphanages under the direction of the Sisters of Charity and the Christian Brothers. Charitable institutions in the city include Saint Peter's Hospital, in charge of the Sisters of Mercy, House of the Good Shepherd, for delinquent females and for the educating and reforming of wayward children, Saint Vincent's Female Orphan Asylum under the supervision of the Sisters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul, who also have under their care a maternity hospital and infant home, and two day nurseries in care of the Sisters of Mercy and the Sisters of Saint Joseph
Esther - ...
Summary of the story...
When the Persian king decided to replace his queen, the woman chosen was Esther, an Orphan Jew who had been brought up by her cousin Mordecai
Child - As a result they may be greatly disadvantaged and even exploited (Exodus 22:22-24; Deuteronomy 26:12; Deuteronomy 27:19; James 1:27; see Orphan)
Chicago, Illinois - In 1849 an Orphan asylum was erected by Reverend James Oliver Van de Velde, in order to care for the children whose parents died during the cholera epidemic of that year
Widow - Indeed, she was frequently placed alongside the Orphan and the landless immigrant (Exodus 22:21-22 ; Deuteronomy 24:17,19 , 20-21 ) as representative of the poorest of the poor (Job 24:4 ; 29:12 ; 31:16 ; Isaiah 10:2 ) in the social structure of ancient Israel, as well as in the ancient Near East. She was thus called to remember her liberation and to imitate her God who was not only the father of the Orphan, but the legal defender of the widow (Psalm 68:6 ) and the guardian of her property (Proverbs 15:25 ). ...
The early church, the messianic community, defined the essence of true religion as demonstrating compassion to the poor and needy, in particular the widow and the Orphan (James 1:27 )
Verily - ]'>[3] and the Talmud warns against ‘an Orphan Amen,’ meaning one uttered without consideration, or in ignorance whereto the response is being made
Widows - Widows and Orphans are alluded to by St. In Hermas we find repeatedly such sentiments as the following: ‘Instead of fields then buy ye oppressed souls as each one can, and widows and Orphans mercifully visit (ἐπισκέπτεσθε) and do not overlook them’ (Sim. Fasting is recommended so that by the saving thus effected the widow and the Orphan might be filled (v. Deacons who exercise their office wickedly, robbing widows and Orphans of their livelihood, are spots on the Church (ix. Heretics are censured by Ignatius because ‘they do not care for the love-feast or for brotherly love (περὶ ἀγάπης), nor yet for the widow nor the Orphan’ (ad Smyrn. Aristides in his Apology can say of Christians as a whole: ‘From the widows they do not turn away their countenance; they rescue the Orphan from him who does him violence’ (see Hermas, Vis. ...
The OT (Deuteronomy 14:29, Job 29:13, Isaiah 1:17, Jeremiah 22:3, Ezekiel 22:7, Zechariah 7:10, Malachi 3:5), the Apocrypha (Sirach 4:10, ‘Be as a father to Orphans, and in place of a husband to their mother’), and Rabbinical literature (W. There were deposits for widows and Orphans in the treasury of the Temple (2 Maccabees 3:10), and from the gospel we learn that even well-to-do widows were robbed by the Pharisees and that others were subject to spoliation without legal redress (Mark 12:40; see Swete, in loc
Vine - The Israelites were also required to indulge the poor, the Orphan, and the stranger, with the use of the grapes on the seventh year
Stranger - That he occupies a status inferior to that of the born Israelite is indicated by the fact that he is classed with the widow and Orphan as needing special consideration ( Deuteronomy 10:18 , Deuteronomy 14:29 , Deuteronomy 29:14 ; Deuteronomy 29:19 ), and that the right of intermarrying is denied him ( Deuteronomy 7:1 ff
Security of the Believer - ...
The biblical view of assurance or security is rooted in the conviction that when Jesus departed from the disciples, the Lord did not Orphan them or leave them without support
Tithe, Tithing - Every third year tithes remained in the hometown and were given to the Levite, alien, Orphan, and widow (vv
Foreigner - Yet, although ancient Near Eastern law codes stressed protection for the widow and Orphan, only Israel's contained legislation for the resident alien
Esther - Esther is the story of a Jewish Orphan girl raised by her uncle, Mordecai, in Persia
Psalms the Book of - The 49 not having titles, the Talmud calls "Orphan Psalms
Vine - Nor did they gather their grapes on the sabbatical year; the fruit was then left for the poor, the Orphan, and the stranger, Exodus 23:11 Leviticus 25:4,5,11
Olympias, the Younger - She was left at an early age the Orphan heiress of an immense fortune
New York, City of - In 1817 an Orphan asylum was founded in charge of the Sisters of Charity and the "New York Catholic Benevolent Society" for its supervision was incorporated, 1817, by the legislature, the first Catholic 8Ociety in the state to be so legalized; in 1829 the Union Emigrant Society, the forerunner of the Irish Emigrant Society and the Emigrant Industrial Savings Bank, was founded, and was followed by the establishment of several other societies for immigrant aid
Justice - God “executes justice for the Orphan and the widow, and loves the strangers, providing them food and clothing” (Deuteronomy 10:18 , NRSV; compare Hosea 10:12 ; Isaiah 30:18 ). These groups include widows, Orphans, resident aliens (also called “sojourners” or “strangers”), wage earners, the poor, and prisoners, slaves, and the sick (Job 29:12-17 ; Psalm 146:7-9 ; Malachi 3:5 )
Psalms, the Book of - " ...
InscriptionsWith the exception of twenty-five psalms, hence called Orphan psalms, all the rest have inscriptions of various kinds
Violence - Elsewhere, Jeremiah portrays taking advantage of the disadvantaged (orphan, widow, and stranger) as violence (Jeremiah 22:3 )
Jephthah And His Daughter - 'Caius Martius,' says Plutarch, 'being left an Orphan of his father, was brought up under his mother, a widow, and he has taught us by his experience that Orphanage brings many disadvantages to a child, but does not hinder him from becoming an honest man, or from excelling in virtues above the common sort. Debtors, broken men, injured and outcast men, Orphan and illegitimate sons, prodigal sons, and sons with whom their fathers were wearied out; with, no doubt, a sprinkling of salt here and there, as there always is among the most corrupt characters and the most abandoned men. And many of the sons of the elders of Israel ate the fat and drank the sweet at Jephthah's Orphaned table, because of what Jephthah had read long ago on the Lord's wall at Mizpeh
Hospitality - Widows, Orphans, the poor, or sojourners from other lands lacked the familial or community status that provided a landed inheritance, the means of making a living, and protection. In its literature, Israel alone seems to have included the foreign sojourner along with those other alienated persons who were to receive care: the widow, the Orphan, and the poor
Poor And Poverty, Theology of - The words "poor" and "poverty" cover a wide range of meaning, overlapping with terms like "widow" or "orphan, " which underscores the expansive nature of the topic
Paul's Visit to Jerusalem to See Peter - To face the widows and the Orphans of the men he had put to death in the days of his ignorance and unbelief. Now, if any of you have ever made any woman a widow, or any child an Orphan, or done anything of that remorseful kind, do not flee the country
Exodus, Book of - Care for the stranger, widow, Orphan, and poor (Exodus 22:21-27 )...
H
Matthew - His business would not let Matthew stop to think who was a widow, and who was an Orphan, and who was being cruelly treated
Wages - Consequently, hired laborers could be classed with the personae miserabiles, the widow, Orphan, and stranger
Boethius, Anicus Manlius Severinus - As a wealthy Orphan (Cons
Joseph And Mary - Was the Virgin an Orphan, or was Mary's mother such a woman that Mary could have opened her heart to any stranger rather than to her? Be that as it may, Mary found a true mother in Elizabeth of Hebron
Heir Heritage Inheritance - ...
On the other hand, the Latin heres with its derivatives, used by the Vulgate, being a weak form of χῆρος, ‘bereft,’ has the idea of succession; it means literally ‘an Orphan,’ and so hints at the death of the father
Josiah - Josiah is an Orphan and a prince with a terrible heritage of woe
Ethics - The admonition to honor parents was to be no excuse to claim no responsibility to help the poor, the Orphan, and the widow ( Leviticus 25:35 ; Deuteronomy 15:7-11 ; Job 29:12-16 ; Proverbs 12:4 ; Isaiah 58:1 ; Amos 4:1-2 ; Amos 5:12 )
Economic Life - ...
Since life was uncertain and disease and war often took many of the village's inhabitants, laws were provided to insure that the widow, the Orphan, and the stranger would not go hungry. ) where the hero's father Daniel is said to be judging the cases of widows and Orphans at the threshing floor
Abortion - In the Old Testament, both Orphan (or fatherless; yatom [ Deuteronomy 14:29 ; 24:17-21 ; 26:12-13 ; 16:11,14 ) were echoed by prophets whose demands for social justice showed they considered Orphans, widows, and the like particularly defenseless. Job contended strenuously, against the charges of Eliphaz (22:9), that his conduct toward Orphans and widows had been exemplary (29:12-13; 31:16-23)
Individualism - Than this, both are a great deal nearer the position of Him who said, ‘Sell that ye have, and give alms’ (Luke 12:33), ‘woe unto you who are rich’ (Luke 6:24), who denounced the robbery of the widow and the Orphan, and no doubt included every form of ruthless competition whereby the strong get advantage of the weak
Abstinence - 7: ‘Reckon up on this day what thy meal would otherwise have cost thee, and give the amount to some poor widow or Orphan, or to the poor
Esther - And in the long-run, the result of that night's evil work was that Vashti was dismissed into disgrace and banishment, and Esther, the Hebrew Orphan, was promoted into her place. ...
Mordecai was the uncle and the foster-father of the Orphaned Esther
Work - Moreover, it is also a recognition that the fruits of work must be shared with the less fortunate, particularly the foreigner, the widow, and the Orphan (Deuteronomy 14:22-29 ; 26:12-15 )
Offering - They, like the widow, the Orphan, and the resident alien, were to be given the tithe of all farm produce every third year ( Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - On the monthly day appointed each gives to the chest what he likes; the money is disbursed not in feasting and drinking, but in supporting and burying the poor, in providing for destitute Orphan boys and girls, in supporting the aged, the infirm, and the shipwrecked, and in succouring those sent to the mines or incarcerated in prisons ex causa Dei sectae