What does Old Testament mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

People's Dictionary of the Bible - Old Testament
Old Testament. See Scriptures.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Sacrifices in the Old Testament
The notion that God is honored by man if the latter, who is the king of all creation, offers to his Creator some of the beings which are nearer to him, is so natural that we find it put into practise from the very dawn of the history of mankind (Genesis 4). All ancient peoples, Semitic peoples included, whose institutions we know, offered sacrifices. The patriarchs acted in accordance with this custom; and when Moses, under God's direction, drew up the religious code of the Hebrews, he sanctioned the practise, only removing from it whatever elements were obviously adverse to the dignity of the Divine nature. Under the general name of sacrifices are included in the Mosaic worship two kinds of offerings, bloody and unbloody.
BLOODY SACRIFICES
Consisted in the slaying of certain animals: ram (or he-lamb, or again ewe- lamb), goat, bull (or calf, or heifer), turtle-dove, and pigeon. Human sacrifices were absolutely banned from the worship of the true God. It is true that God declared that the first male child born in a family belonged to Him; but it should be redeemed, not slain. Human sacrifices among the Hebrews are always spoken of as an abomination committed by people contaminated through the influence of their pagan neighbors. The victim offered must be without blemish (Leviticus 22; Malachias 1). The offerer led it to the entrance of the tabernacle or temple, and laid his hand upon its head, transferring thereby to it his intention of adoration, thanksgiving, atonement, or petition, as the case might be. The animal was then slain, regularly by the offerer, save in the case of birds, which were killed by the priest. The priest's office was to receive the blood of the victim and to offer it, pouring it round about the altar or anointing therewith some parts of the same altar. The true essence of the bloody sacrifice resided precisely in that oblation of the blood, for, as is explained in Leviticus 17, by virtue of the life contained in the blood, which belongs to God, atonement is made by the application of that blood upon the altar. The fat covering the entrails, the two kidneys with their fat, the great lobe of the liver of all animals offered in sacrifice, and the fat tail of the rams were burned upon the altar; the other parts were disposed of in various ways according to the various sacrifices.
Four kinds of bloody sacrifices are enumerated.
1) The most perfect as well as the oldest and most usual was the holocaust, or whole burnt offering. The Hebrew ritual styled it oldh (raising), because the whole victim, except the hide (which was given to the priests) and the hip muscle, was made to ascend to God in fire and smoke as an expression of man's absolute subjection to God. As the "perpetual oblation," it was offered twice daily, morning and evening. A holocaust accompanied likewise the cleansing of the leper, the purification after childbirth, the purification of the Nazir, etc. Private holocausts were frequent, and could be offered even at the instance of pagans (no imposition of hands then took place). Holocausts were offered by various Syrian kings, and Emperor Augustus ordered a daily whole burnt offering of two lambs and a steer in the Temple.
2) Sin-offering was intended to expiate misdeeds committed through ignorance, forgetfulness, or hastiness. Deliberate crimes were not so expiable; among these were reckoned the omission of circumcision, the desecration of the Sabbath, blasphemy, failure to celebrate the pasch, eating of blood, working or failure to fast on the Day of Atonement. The kind of victim offered depended not so much on the gravity of the offense as on the dignity of the person. The blood was rubbed on the horns of the altar of holocausts or the altar: of incense, according to cases, then the remainder was poured out at the foot of the altar. The choice pieces (fat, kidneys, lobes of the liver) were burnt on the altar, and the rest eaten by the priests in the outer court.
3) Guilt-offering was especially appointed for transgressions demanding restitution. In addition to the restitution proper, which was taxed at six-fifths of the value of the thing concerned, a guilt-sacrifice had to be offered. This consisted of a ram, whose blood was sprinkled around the altar; the fatty portions were consumed on the altar of holocausts, and the rest of the flesh was eaten by the priests inside the holy place.
4) Peace-offerings were either in thanksgiving or in fulfilment of a vow, or simply voluntary. The rite of these sacrifices contained two special features, the first of which was the remarkable ceremony of the "wave" and "heave," which the Talmud describes as follows: the priest, after cutting off the breast and right shoulder of the victim, placed the breast on the hands of the offerer, then, putting his own bands under those of this person, moved them backward and forward (wave) in token of the reciprocity in giving and receiving between God and the offerer. The same ceremony was then performed with the right shoulder, except that the motion of the hands (heave) was upward and downward. The breast and shoulder used in these ceremonies went to the priests and their families. The second special featur:e of this kind of sacrifice was that the remainder of. the flesh went back to the offerer, who ate it with his friends near the sanctuary; guests, ceremonially clean, and the poor could be invited to these sacrificial meals. Should anything of a thanksgiving-offering remain after that, it should be burned; if, on the other hand, anything remained of a sacrifice for a vow or a free-will offering after the sacrificial meal, it could be eaten on the second day; but the remnant must be burned. To these various kinds of bloody sacrifices must be added that of the paschal lamb, and two others, of a rather extraordinary character, offered outside the sacred enclosure; viz., that of the red heifer, the ashes of which entered into the composition of the "water of aspersion"; and of the heifer slain at the occasion of the murder of a man in case the murderer remained unknown.
UNBLOODY SACRIFICES
More properly oblations, were, with the exception of incense, offerings of articles of solid or liquid food. They consisted of toasted ears of corn or shelled grain, and of the finest wheaten flour, both together with oil and incense, and also unleavened bread. All bread offered at the sanctuary had to be unleavened, except that made of the first-fruits and presented at the Pentecost, and the bread offered with thanksgiving-sacrifices; even these were not brought to the altar but went to the priests. All food-offerings prepared from corn were seasoned with salt; honey was banned from all sacrifices. These food-offerings accompanied every holocaust and peace-offering, but never sacrifices for sin or guilt, save at the cleansing of a leper. They were also on occasions offered by themselves. Oil and wine were the only liquid articles used in connection with sacrifices, and were never offered independently. Oil entered into the preparation of the bread; some also was burned with the other gifts on the altar; wine was poured out as a libation before the altar.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Old Testament, Sacrifices in the
The notion that God is honored by man if the latter, who is the king of all creation, offers to his Creator some of the beings which are nearer to him, is so natural that we find it put into practise from the very dawn of the history of mankind (Genesis 4). All ancient peoples, Semitic peoples included, whose institutions we know, offered sacrifices. The patriarchs acted in accordance with this custom; and when Moses, under God's direction, drew up the religious code of the Hebrews, he sanctioned the practise, only removing from it whatever elements were obviously adverse to the dignity of the Divine nature. Under the general name of sacrifices are included in the Mosaic worship two kinds of offerings, bloody and unbloody.
BLOODY SACRIFICES
Consisted in the slaying of certain animals: ram (or he-lamb, or again ewe- lamb), goat, bull (or calf, or heifer), turtle-dove, and pigeon. Human sacrifices were absolutely banned from the worship of the true God. It is true that God declared that the first male child born in a family belonged to Him; but it should be redeemed, not slain. Human sacrifices among the Hebrews are always spoken of as an abomination committed by people contaminated through the influence of their pagan neighbors. The victim offered must be without blemish (Leviticus 22; Malachias 1). The offerer led it to the entrance of the tabernacle or temple, and laid his hand upon its head, transferring thereby to it his intention of adoration, thanksgiving, atonement, or petition, as the case might be. The animal was then slain, regularly by the offerer, save in the case of birds, which were killed by the priest. The priest's office was to receive the blood of the victim and to offer it, pouring it round about the altar or anointing therewith some parts of the same altar. The true essence of the bloody sacrifice resided precisely in that oblation of the blood, for, as is explained in Leviticus 17, by virtue of the life contained in the blood, which belongs to God, atonement is made by the application of that blood upon the altar. The fat covering the entrails, the two kidneys with their fat, the great lobe of the liver of all animals offered in sacrifice, and the fat tail of the rams were burned upon the altar; the other parts were disposed of in various ways according to the various sacrifices.
Four kinds of bloody sacrifices are enumerated.
1) The most perfect as well as the oldest and most usual was the holocaust, or whole burnt offering. The Hebrew ritual styled it oldh (raising), because the whole victim, except the hide (which was given to the priests) and the hip muscle, was made to ascend to God in fire and smoke as an expression of man's absolute subjection to God. As the "perpetual oblation," it was offered twice daily, morning and evening. A holocaust accompanied likewise the cleansing of the leper, the purification after childbirth, the purification of the Nazir, etc. Private holocausts were frequent, and could be offered even at the instance of pagans (no imposition of hands then took place). Holocausts were offered by various Syrian kings, and Emperor Augustus ordered a daily whole burnt offering of two lambs and a steer in the Temple.
2) Sin-offering was intended to expiate misdeeds committed through ignorance, forgetfulness, or hastiness. Deliberate crimes were not so expiable; among these were reckoned the omission of circumcision, the desecration of the Sabbath, blasphemy, failure to celebrate the pasch, eating of blood, working or failure to fast on the Day of Atonement. The kind of victim offered depended not so much on the gravity of the offense as on the dignity of the person. The blood was rubbed on the horns of the altar of holocausts or the altar: of incense, according to cases, then the remainder was poured out at the foot of the altar. The choice pieces (fat, kidneys, lobes of the liver) were burnt on the altar, and the rest eaten by the priests in the outer court.
3) Guilt-offering was especially appointed for transgressions demanding restitution. In addition to the restitution proper, which was taxed at six-fifths of the value of the thing concerned, a guilt-sacrifice had to be offered. This consisted of a ram, whose blood was sprinkled around the altar; the fatty portions were consumed on the altar of holocausts, and the rest of the flesh was eaten by the priests inside the holy place.
4) Peace-offerings were either in thanksgiving or in fulfilment of a vow, or simply voluntary. The rite of these sacrifices contained two special features, the first of which was the remarkable ceremony of the "wave" and "heave," which the Talmud describes as follows: the priest, after cutting off the breast and right shoulder of the victim, placed the breast on the hands of the offerer, then, putting his own bands under those of this person, moved them backward and forward (wave) in token of the reciprocity in giving and receiving between God and the offerer. The same ceremony was then performed with the right shoulder, except that the motion of the hands (heave) was upward and downward. The breast and shoulder used in these ceremonies went to the priests and their families. The second special featur:e of this kind of sacrifice was that the remainder of. the flesh went back to the offerer, who ate it with his friends near the sanctuary; guests, ceremonially clean, and the poor could be invited to these sacrificial meals. Should anything of a thanksgiving-offering remain after that, it should be burned; if, on the other hand, anything remained of a sacrifice for a vow or a free-will offering after the sacrificial meal, it could be eaten on the second day; but the remnant must be burned. To these various kinds of bloody sacrifices must be added that of the paschal lamb, and two others, of a rather extraordinary character, offered outside the sacred enclosure; viz., that of the red heifer, the ashes of which entered into the composition of the "water of aspersion"; and of the heifer slain at the occasion of the murder of a man in case the murderer remained unknown.
UNBLOODY SACRIFICES
More properly oblations, were, with the exception of incense, offerings of articles of solid or liquid food. They consisted of toasted ears of corn or shelled grain, and of the finest wheaten flour, both together with oil and incense, and also unleavened bread. All bread offered at the sanctuary had to be unleavened, except that made of the first-fruits and presented at the Pentecost, and the bread offered with thanksgiving-sacrifices; even these were not brought to the altar but went to the priests. All food-offerings prepared from corn were seasoned with salt; honey was banned from all sacrifices. These food-offerings accompanied every holocaust and peace-offering, but never sacrifices for sin or guilt, save at the cleansing of a leper. They were also on occasions offered by themselves. Oil and wine were the only liquid articles used in connection with sacrifices, and were never offered independently. Oil entered into the preparation of the bread; some also was burned with the other gifts on the altar; wine was poured out as a libation before the altar.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Canon of the Old Testament
The spirit of prophecy continued in the Israelite church, with intervals of intermission, down to Malachi. If any uninspired writing had been put forward as inspired it would have been immediately tested and rejected. Compare the instances, 1 Kings 22:5-28; Jeremiah 28; Jeremiah 29:8-32. At the same time the presence of the living prophets in the church caused the exact definition of the completed canon to be less needful, until the spirit of prophecy had departed. Accordingly (as the rabbis allege, compare 2 Esdras) it was at the return from the Babylonian captivity that Ezra and "the great synagogue" (a college of 120 scholars) collected and promulgated all the Old Testament Scriptures in connection with their reconstruction of the Jewish church. Nehemiah, according to 2 Maccabees 2:13, "gathered together the acts of the kings, and the prophets, and of David."
Zechariah (Zechariah 7:12) speaks of "the law" and "the former prophets" upon which the later prophets rested; the succeeding sacred writers, under inspiration, setting their seal to their predecessors by quotations from them as Scripture. Nehemiah (Nehemiah 9:30) saith, "Thou testifiedst by Thy Spirit in Thy prophets." Daniel (Daniel 9:2) "understood by THE books (so the Hebrew) the number of the years whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem"; probably Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:1-10), others explain it the books of the Old Testament or of the prophets. "The book of the law of the Lord" (2 Chronicles 17:9) was what the Levites under Jehoshaphat taught throughout all Judah. An increased attention to the law, the sanctified result of affliction during the captivity, was the probable cause under God of the complete abandonment of idolatry on their return (Psalms 119:67; Psalms 119:71).
Psalm 119, one continued glorification of the law or word of God, was probably the composition of Ezra "the priest and ready scribe in the law of Moses" (Ezra 7:6; Nehemiah 8:9). The restorer of the national polity based it on the law, the Magna Charta of the theocracy. Israel is the real speaker throughout; and the features of the psalm suit the Jews' position just after their return from Babylon. Their keenness to return to the law appears in Nehemiah 8:1-8; Ezra the priest read to "all the people gathered as one man into the street before the water gate ... from the morning until the midday." The arrangement and completion of the canon accounts for Ezra's honorable title "priest" becoming merged in that of" scribe." "The synagogue of scribes" (1 Maccabees 7:12) was a continuation probably of that founded by Ezra. Nehemiah and Malachi added their own writings as the seal to the canon.
The translator of Ecclesiasticus (131 B.C.) mentions the three integral parts, "the law, the prophets, and the remainder of the books," as constituting a completed whole; just as the Lord Jesus refers to the whole Old Testament: "the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (answering to the hagiographa or the Kethubim), Luke 24:44, compare Acts 28:23; and comprehends all the instances of innocent blood shedding in the formula "from Abel to Zacharias," i.e. from Genesis the first book to 2 Chronicles, the last of the Hebrew Bible (Matthew 23:35). So Philo, our Lord's contemporary, refers to "the laws, ... the prophets, ... and the other books." The law is the basis of the whole, the prophets apply the law to the national life, the hagiographa apply it to the individual. (See BIBLE.) Josephus refers to the 22 books of Scripture, namely, 5 of Moses, 13 of the prophets extending to the reign of Artaxerxes (the time of Nehemiah), 4 containing hymns and directions for life (c. Apion, 1:8): i.e. the FIVE of MOSES; THIRTEEN prophetical books, namely,
(1) Joshua,
(2) Judges and Ruth,
(3) the two of Samuel,
(4) the two of Kings
(5) the two of Chronicles,
(6) Ezra and Nehemiah,
(7) Esther,
(8) Isaiah,
(9) Jeremiah and Lamentations,
(10) Ezekiel,
(11) Daniel,
(12) the twelve minor prophets,
(13) Job; and FOUR remaining, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon: the 22 thus being made to answer to the 22 letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Joshua Judges, Job, etc., are reckoned, in the Jewish use of the term "prophet" for inspired historian or writer, among" the former prophets."
These sacred 22 are distinct from other Hebrew writings such as Ecclesiastes 12:12. Josephus says: "it is an innate principle with every Jew to regard them as announcements of the divine will, perseveringly to adhere to them, and if necessary willingly to die for them." "The faith with which we receive our Scriptures is manifest; for though so long a period has elapsed, no one has dared to add to, detract from, or alter them in any respect." The warnings: "add thou not to His words, lest He reprove thee and thou be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6), "neither shall ye diminish ought from it" (Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32), fenced in the Old Testament canon as Revelation 22:18-19 fences in the New Testament The Lord and His apostles quote all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, the Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Ezekiel.
Josephus denies the Apocrypha the same authority: "from the time of Artaxerxes to our own everything has been recorded; but these accounts are not worthy of the same credit, owing to the absence of the regular succession of prophets." The Apocrypha was never in the Hebrew canon. The cessation of the prophetic gift marks the point of time in both Testaments when the canon was complete. Antiochus Epiphanes (168 B.C.) in persecuting the Jews sought out "the books of the law" and burnt them (1 Maccabees 1:56). To possess a book of the covenant was made a capital offense. Just so the persecution of Diocletian in New Testament times was especially directed against those possessing the Christian Scriptures. The New Testament writers have not one authoritative quotation from the Apocrypha.
Some quotations in the New Testament are not directly found in the canonical books; thus Judges 1:17 takes a portion of the uninspired book of Enoch, and by inspiration stamps that portion as true; Paul also refers to facts unrecorded in Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:8; Ephesians 5:14; Hebrews 11:24); see also John 7:38; James 4:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:8. Melito of Sardis (A.D. 179), after an exact inquiry in the East gives the Old Testament books substantially the stone as ours, including under "Esdras" Nehemiah, Ezra, and Esther. Origen excludes expressly 1 Maccabees from the canon though written in Hebrew Jerome gives our canon exactly, which is also the Hebrew one, and designates all others apocryphal. "Whatever is not included in the enumeration here made is to be placed among the Apocrypha" He puts Daniel in the hagiographa.
The Alexandrine Jews, though more lax in their views, had at the beginning of the Christian era the same canon as the Hebrew of Palestine. But by admitting into the Septuagint Greek version of Old Testament the Apocrypha they insensibly influenced those Christian fathers who depended on that version for their knowledge of Old Testament, so that the latter lost sight of the gulf that separates the Hebrew canon from the Apocrypha. To the Jews, saith Scripture," were committed the oracles of God" (Romans 3:2). It never accuses them of altering the Scriptures. Their testimony condemns the decree of Rome's council of Trent that the apocryphal books deserve "equal veneration" as Scripture, and that all are "accursed" who do" not receive the entire books with all their parts as sacred and canonical." (See APOCRYPHA.)
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Chronology of the Old Testament
CHRONOLOGY OF THE OLD TESTAMENT . The importance of a fixed era by which to date events was not discovered by the Hebrews until after their national existence came to an end. All the endeavours to fix such an era which we find in our OT like the dating of the building of Solomon’s Temple 480 years from the Exodus ( 1 Kings 6:1 ) belong to the post-exilic period. During the existence of the monarchy all that was thought necessary was to date by the years of the reigning king. If we had a complete series of public documents for all the reigns, this would answer very well for historical purposes. But what has actually come down to us is at best only a fragmentary series of notices based in part on official records.
Numerical statements there are in plenty in the Bible, and among them all those in the Books of Kings most deserve attention as the basis for a scientific chronology. At first sight their accuracy seems to be guaranteed, because they check each other for the time covered by the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Not only does the author give us the length of the reigns in the two lines, but he has taken pains to work out a series of synchronisms, that is, he dates the accession of each king by the regnal year of his contemporary monarch in the other kingdom. But comparison of these figures with each other shows that they cannot all be accurate. For example, we learn that Jehoshaphat of Judah came to the throne in the fourth year of Ahab of Israel; also that Ahab reigned 22 years. Yet we are told that Ahaziah, who followed Ahab after his death, came to the throne in the seventeenth year of Jehoshaphat, and in addition that Ahaziah’s brother Jehoram, who could be crowned only after the two years’ reign assigned to the latter, succeeded in the eighteenth of Jehoshaphat (1 Kings 22:41 ; 1 Kings 22:51 , 2 Kings 3:1 ).
This example makes us give up the synchronisms and turn our attention to the length of reigns, where we have reason to suppose that the figures are drawn from earlier documents. The history gives a convenient point of division at the accession of Jehu in Israel and of Athaliah in Judah, for these two came to the throne in the same year. The two series of lengths of reigns ought to give the same sum for the period. But they do not. In one line we find 95 years and in the other 98.
It is possible that the discrepancy here is due to the mode of reckoning. The reigns are given as so many years without regard to fractions, yet it will be manifest that few if any reigns are an exact number of years with no months or days. Where the method of dating by regnal years is in vogue, the fractions may be treated in two ways. If a king dies in the tenth year of his reign, for example, the calendar year may continue to be called his tenth; and the next calendar year will be the first of his successor. But it will also be possible to begin at once to date by the first year of the new king, making the next calendar year his second. In this latter case the public records will show more years (judging by the dates) than there actually are, by one in each reign. According to this method, the number of years from Rehoboam to Athaliah would be 90, which cannot be far from correct. The next period, however, from Athaliah to Hezekiah, and from Jehu to the fall of Samaria, gives us greater difficulty. Here we find the sum of years in one line to be greater than in the other by more than twenty. The various hypotheses which have been advanced to overcome this discrepancy do not concern us in the present article. All that we need to note is that the figures of the Hebrew text do not give us a sure basis for a chronology.
If this is true in what we have reason to suppose is the most reliable of the OT dates, the case is even worse when we examine the earlier period of the history. No doubt the authors of the Pentateuchal narratives thought themselves able to give the length of time which had elapsed from the creation of the world. There is no other way to interpret their language. In the genealogy of the sons of Adam, for example (Genesis 5:1-32 ), we read how Adam was 130 years old when he begat Seth, Seth 105 years old when he begat Enosh, and so on down to the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in which the Flood came. The summing up of the figures gives us 1656 years from the Creation to the Flood.
The unhistorical character of the numbers in this table is now generally conceded. The conclusions of natural science concerning the duration of man upon the earth are enough to invalidate the calculation. But this gives additional interest to the inquiry as to what the authors had in mind. It has been pointed out that if to the sum we have just obtained we add the years from the Flood to the Exodus of Israel from Egypt, we get 2666, that is, two-thirds of 4000. Now the interest that the writer had in this calculation was probably due to the theory which he had formed or which had come down to him by tradition, that the length of time from the Creation to the coming of the Messiah would be 4000 years.
Four thousand is 100 generations of 40 years each. Any one who is familiar with the OT figures will recall how common it is to find 40 years as a round number. The 40 years of the wilderness wandering, 40 years of peace in the time of several of the Judges, 40 years each for David and Solomon, are sufficiently marked. Then we recall the 480 years from the Exodus to the building of the Temple 12 generations of 40 years each. It is probable also that a similar term was counted from the building of the Temple to its rebuilding under Darius or to the end of the Exile, while it is not without significance that the duration of the Northern Kingdom was calculated to be 240 years.
All this shows that these late Biblical writers were dominated by a theory. It must be noticed also that more than one theory had an influence. The Greek translators, working in the second century before Christ, had a Hebrew text which differed considerably from ours in this matter of numbers. They reckoned nearly 600 years more from the Creation to the Flood than the sum in our Bible, while from the Flood to the Call of Abraham they make nearly 800 more. The copy of the Pentateuch which circulated among the Samaritans has a still different system. The question which of these systems is the earliest is still unsettled. It may be said to have only an academic interest, since we know that no one of them gives us authentic data for the antiquity of the world.
Fortunately our appreciation of the Bible does not depend upon the accuracy of its dates. In general the picture it gives of the sequence of events from the time of the Judges down to the Fall of Jerusalem is correct. Of late years we have received welcome light on the dates of certain Biblical events from the Assyrian and Babylonian inscriptions. These empires had made great advances in astronomy, and consequently in the regulation of the calendar. While they did not date from a fixed era, they had a reckoning of time which secured accuracy for their historical records. Each calendar year was named for an official whom we call an eponym , and records were kept showing the series of eponyms with brief notes of the events in each one’s year. These lists have come down to us in fragmentary form, but we are able by them to correct some of the dates of our Hebrew history. The accuracy of the Babylonian system has been tested by its records of eclipses as far back as the year b.c. 763.
More than a hundred systems of Biblical Chronology have been invented or reckoned out another testimony to the uncertain nature of the Biblical data. The received system, which has found a place in the margin of our reference Bibles, is well known to be that of the learned Archbishop Ussher. By the Babylonian canon we are now able to correct its figures. These are for the early period too high. Thus for David, Ussher gives us the date 1056. But reckoning back from the earliest Assyrian allusion to Israel, this should be about 1010. The amount of error is less as we come down to later times, and disappears at the Fall of Samaria. From David down to the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, therefore, we are able to give approximately correct dates for our history. Before the time of David there must be some uncertainty, which up to the present time has not been much mitigated by the Egyptian inscriptions. From the time of the rebuilding of the Temple under Darius we are also in uncertainty, though this period does not bulk largely in the received OT.
H. P. Smith.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Old Testament
OLD TESTAMENT . See Bible, Canon of OT, Text of OT.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the Old Testament
CANON OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
1. Explanation of terms . The word ‘Testament’ is the Eng. tr. [1] Of the Gr. Diathçkç , which in its turn represents the Heh. Berîth or ‘Covenant.’ The epithet ‘Old’ was introduced by Christians after the NT had come into being. Jews recognize no NT, and have a polemic interest in avoiding this designation of their Holy Scripture. The Gr. word kanôn , meaning primarily a measuring-rod, a rule, a catalogue, was applied by Christian authors of the 4th cent. to the list of books which the Church acknowledged to be authoritative as the source of doctrine and ethics. In investigating how the Hebrew race formed their Bible, these later appellations of their sacred books have to be used with the reservations indicated.
2. The three periods of formation . Briefly stated, the process of forming the OT Canon includes three main stages. Under the influence of Ezra and Nehemiah, the Law ( Torah ) as in the Pentateuch was set apart as Holy Scripture; at some date prior to b.c. 200, the Prophets ( Nebîîm ), including the prophetic interpretation of history in the four books Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings had been constituted into a second canonical group; by b.c. 132, most, though not all, of the remaining books ranked as Scripture. This third group was defined, and the OT Canon finally fixed, by the Synod of Palestinian Jews held at Jamnia, near Joppa, about the year a.d. 90.
3. Pre-canonical conditions
( a ) The art of writing . The formation of language and the invention of writing must precede the adoption of a sacred book. An illiterate race can have no Scripture. Israel’s language was in its main features an inheritance from the common ancestors of the Semites; even its religious vocabulary was only in part its own creation. As to writing, the Semites in Babylonia had used the cuneiform syllabic script, and Egypt had Invented the hieroglyphs before the Hebrews had arisen as a separate race. But, happily for the Canon, an alphabet had become the possession of some of the Semitic family before the Hebrews had anything to put on record. The provincial governors of Canaan about b.c. 1400 sent their reports to Egypt in Babylonian cuneiform; whereas Mesha, king of Moab, and Panammu, king of Ya’di in North Syria, in extant Inscriptions from about b.c. 900, make use of an Aramaic alphabet. After b.c. 1400, and some time before b.c. 900, must therefore be placed the genesis of the Hebrew alphabet.
( b ) Absence of any precedent . In the case of other sacred books, the influence of a historical precedent has contributed to their adoption. Recognizing the OT, Christians were predisposed to use a literary record in preserving the revelation they had received. Similarly Islam admitted the superiority of ‘the people of a book’ (Jews and Christians), and were easily induced to accord like sanctity to their own Koran. But such a precedent did not come into operation in the early religion of Israel. It is true that the Code of Hammurabi ( c [2] . b.c. 2200) was recorded on stone, and publicly set forth as the rule of civil life in Babylonia. But this method of regulating communal life can hardly have affected the earliest legislators in Israel. The relation of the Code of Hammurabi to the Mosaic Laws appears to be correctly indicated by Mr. Johns: ‘The coexisting likenesses and differences argue for an independent recension of ancient custom deeply influenced by Babylonian law.’ Egypt also had literature before Moses, but the Hebrews appear to have acted on an independent initiative in producing and collecting their religious literature. The OT Canon is thus peculiar in being formed as the first of its kind.
( c ) Religious experience . Other conditions of a less general kind have also to be noted. The religious leaders of the people must have had definite convictions as to the attributes of Jehovah before they could judge whether any given prophet or document were true or false. The life depicted in the book of Genesis reveals a non-writing age, when religious experience and unwritten tradition were the sole guides to duty. The Sinaitic legislation, although it formed the basis of national life, did not till late in the monarchy penetrate the popular consciousness. Mosaic Law provided that Divine guidance would be given through the voice of prophets and of priests ( Deuteronomy 18:18 ; Deuteronomy 19:17 ; Deuteronomy 21:5 ; Exodus 20:1-268 ); with these living sources of direction, it would be less easy to feel dependence on a book. The symbolism of a sacrificial system compensated for the want of literature. It was only after books of various kinds had become prevalent that the utility of writing began to be appreciated. Isaiah ( Isaiah 30:8 ), about b.c. 740, perceives that what is inscribed in a book will be permanent and indisputable. On the other hand, Hosea ( Hosea 8:12 ), about b.c. 745, sees a limit to the efficacy of a copious literature. The exponents of the traditional Law appear to have applied it with arbitrary freedom. Even a high priest in Josiah’s reign had apparently had no occasion to consult the Law-book for a long period. Variations appear in the reasons annexed even to the Decalogue; and the priests who offered incense to the brazen serpent in the Temple in the days of Hezekiah cannot have regarded the Tables of the Law in the light of canonical Scripture.
4. Josiah’s reformation . The first trace of a Canon is to be found in the reign of King Josiah about b.c. 621. By this time the Northern Kingdom had disappeared with the Fall of Samaria (b.c. 722). It had left behind, as its contribution to the future Bible, at least the works of Hosea and the Elohist historian. The prophets, Isaiah I., Amos, and Micah, had delivered their message a century ago, and their words were in the possession of their disciples. The fate of the ten tribes had vindicated the prophetic warnings. The beginnings of Israel’s history were made familiar by the beautiful narratives of the Jahwist historian. Many songs were known by heart, and contributed to the growth of a feeling that the nation had a Divine mission to fulfil. Laws, that had been kept for rare reference in the sanctuary, were studied by disciples of the prophets, and were expounded with a new sense of their Divine obligation. The annals of the monarchy had been duly recorded by the official scribes, but their religious significance was as yet unthought of. Other books, which afterwards disappeared, were also in circulation. Such were ‘the Book of the Wars of the Lord’ ( Numbers 21:14 ), and ‘the Book of Jashar’ ( Joshua 10:13 , 2 Samuel 1:18 ). In such conditions at Jerusalem there came about Josiah’s reformation, described in 2 Kings 22:1-20 ; 2 Kings 23:1-37 .
5. Inspiration recognized in the Bk. of Deuteronomy . A book identified on satisfactory grounds with our Deuteronomy (excluding possibly the preface and the appendix) was discovered in the Temple and read to the king. In consequence, Josiah convened a general assembly at Jerusalem, and read the words of the book to all the people. All parties agreed that this Lawbook should constitute a solemn league and coveoant between themselves and Jehovah. The grounds of its acceptance are its inherent spiritual power, the conviction it produced that it truly expressed the will of Jehovah, and also its connexion with the great name of Moses. The book was not imposed merely by royal authority; the people also ‘stood to the covenant.’ These conditions combine to give Deuteronomy canonical authority of an incipient kind from that date onwards (b.c. 622).
6. Pentateuch made canonical . The next stage in the growth of the Canon is found in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (b.c. 457 444). Much had happened in the intervening 170 years. The captivity in Babylon (b.c. 586 536) intensified national feeling and made their books more precious to the exiles. Temple ceremonial had now no place in religious practice; and spiritual aspiration turned to prayer and reading, both public and private. Fresh expositions of the Mosaic Law were prepared by the prophet Ezekiel (b.c. 592 570), and by the anonymous priest who put the Law of Holiness ( Leviticus 17:1-16 ; Leviticus 18:1-30 ; Leviticus 19:1-37 ; Leviticus 20:1-27 ; Leviticus 21:1-24 ; Leviticus 22:1-33 ; Leviticus 23:1-44 ; Leviticus 24:1-23 ; Leviticus 25:1-55 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 ) into written form. Just as the Fall of Jerusalem in a.d. 70 supplied the Incentive for recording in the Mishna the oral tradition of the Pharisees, so in Babylon expatriation impelled the priestly families to write out their hereditary usages, thus forming the document known as the Priestly Code. The problem of suffering, national and individual, was considered in the work of the Second Isaiah and in the book of Job. The past history of Israel was edited so as to show the method of Divine Providence. The Restoration of the Temple (b.c. 516) and the prophecies of Haggai and Zechariah began a new chapter in the story of Judaism. Many of the Jews remained in Babylon, and continued their activity in the study of the national literature. From Babylon they sent Ezra the scribe (b.c. 457) and Nehemiah (b.c. 444) with help for the Jerusalem community. Under the influence of these leaders the Pentateuch was made canonical ( Nehemiah 8:1-18 ; Nehemiah 9:1-38 ; Nehemiah 10:1-39 ). This work had been formed by constructing a ‘Harmony’ of the various expositions of Mosaic Law ( 1618541214_43 ; Exodus 21:1-36 ; Exodus 22:1-31 ; Exodus 23:1-33 , Deut., Leviticus 17:1-16 ; Leviticus 18:1-30 ; Leviticus 19:1-37 ; Leviticus 20:1-27 ; Leviticus 21:1-24 ; Leviticus 22:1-33 ; Leviticus 23:1-44 ; Leviticus 24:1-23 ; Leviticus 25:1-55 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 , and the Priestly Code) and combining these with the histories of the Jahwist and the Elohist. The initial cosmology shows the high plane of religious thought that had now been attained. Some opposition appears to have come from the priests, who favoured mixed marriages and a Samaritan alliance; but the people as a whole ‘make a sure covenant and write it. And our princes, our Levites, and our priests seal unto it’ ( Nehemiah 9:38 ). That this Canon included only the Torah is proved by the fact that the Samaritans, who were severed from Judaism shortly after Nehemiah’s time, never had any Canon beyond the Pentateuch. Their apocryphal Joshua does not prove that Ezra’s Canon was the Hexateuch. Had Joshua been attached to the Law, the LXX [3] version of it would have been less inaccurate. Nor is it easy to see how a book so solemnly adopted could ever after have been relegated to a secondary place.
7. Canon of the Prophets . The next addition to the Canon consists of the Prophets, reckoned as 8 books Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and the Twelve (Minor Prophets) forming one book. No account of their canonization is available, and the process has to be inferred from what is known of the period. The books themselves give some guidance. Under the influence of Deut., history was studied so as to reveal the progress of a Divine purpose. The books of Kings record events down to about b.c. 560, hence their preparation for the Canon must have been some time later. Isaiah includes the works of the first and second of that name, besides chapters from later sources. The redaction of the whole must have been made at a time when the separate authorship was forgotten. Jeremiah (b.c. 627 586) is supplemented by extracts from the book of Kings written after 560. The Twelve include Malacbi, who wrote between b.c. 458 and 432. Jonah and Zechariah are also late, and the latter book has a supplement of uncertain date. Internal evidence thus implies that when the Law was made canonical, the prophets had not been carefully edited or collected into one group. The Chronicler, writing about b.c. 300, recognizes that the Law has become Holy Scripture, but he makes the freest use of the history in Samuel and Kings. After Malachi the people became well aware that the voice of true prophecy had ceased ( Zechariah 13:3 , Nehemiah 6:7 ; Nehemiah 6:14 , Psalms 74:9 , 1Ma 9:27 , etc.). The predictions of the prophets had been ominously vindicated by the course of history. Such observations would tend continually to increase the veneration for the prophetic literature. The rivalry of Hellenic culture after the cooquests of Alexander the Great ( c. [4] b.c. 300) may possibly have suggested to the Jews an Increase of their own sacred Canon. At all events, the canonization of the prophetic literature had become matter of past history by b.c. 200. This limit is fixed by the testimony of Jesus ben-Sira, who writes the book in the Apocrypha called Ecclesiasticus. His praise of the famous men in Israel (chs. 44 50) shows that the Law and the Prophets were invested with canonical authority in his day. The Lectionary of the Synagogue would quickly establish the unique position of the Law and the Prophets as Holy Scripture (cf. Acts 13:15 ; Acts 13:27 ).
8. The Hagiographa made canonical . The third division of the OT is called in Hebrew Kethûbhîm , i.e. ‘Writings.’ In Greek the name is Hagiographa , i.e. ‘Sacred Writings.’ In a Hebrew Bible these books are arranged in the following order:
1. The Poetical Books: Psalms, Proverbs, Job.
2. The Five Megilloth (‘Rolls’): Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther.
3. Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, Chronicles.
This group is much more varied in form and substance than the first two parts of the Canon. Several of these books may have been prized as highly as the Prophets, though their inclusion in the Second Canon would have been incongruous. The Psalter, for instance, had been for long familiar through its use in Temple services; and its influence on religious life was great, apart from any declaration of canonicity. But as some Psalms ( e.g. 74, 79) appear to have been composed about b.c. 170 160, the final collection of the smaller hymnaries into the Psalter of five books cannot have been made before b.c. 150. The priestly summary of history in Chron., Ezr.-Neh. would be widely acceptable in an age when the Priestly Code was the dominant influence. The book about Daniel, published during the Maccabæan persecutions (b.c. 165), quickly won recognition and proved its religious worth.
( a ) Disputed books . A hesitating approval was extended to Esther, Canticles, and Eccleslastes, owing to the nature of their contents. Other books, apocalyptic and apocryphal, were competing for a place in the religious library. There is no means of showing how or when the third group was separated from other books. The conjecture is probable that the effort of Antiochus Epiphanes to destroy the copies of the Law may have evoked the determination to preserve the later religious literature by giving it a place in the Canon.
( b ) Prologue to Sirach . The earliest testimony to the existence of sacred books in addition to the Law and the Prophets is given in the Prologue to Ecclesiasticus. The grandson of ben-Sira wrote in Egypt about b.c. 132, and made a Greek translation of his kinsman’s ‘Wisdom.’ In the preface he refers three times to ‘the Law, the Prophets, and the other books of our fathers.’ He speaks of Greek versions of these books. But this statement does not say that the third group was definitely completed. In the 1st cent. a.d., the schools of Hillel and Shammal differed as to whether Ecclesiastes was in the Canon or not.
( c ) New Testament . The NT expresses a doctrine of Holy Scripture; it acknowledges a threefold division ( Luke 24:44 ); it implies that Chronicles was the last book in the roll of the OT ( Matthew 23:35 , Luke 11:51 ); but it does not quote Esther, Cant., Eccl., and leaves undecided the question whether these disputed books were as yet admitted to the Canon.
( d ) Philo . Philo of Alexandria (d. a.d. 40) acknowledges the inspiration of Scripture (the Mosaic Law pre-eminently), and quotes many of, but not nearly all, the OT books. His use of the Greek Apocrypha for information only, suggests, however, that he did know of a Palestinian limit to the third group.
( e ) Josephus . Josephus (a.d. 100), defending his earlier books against adverse reviews, maintains that Jewish records had been made by trained historians. The elegant inconsistencies of Greek narratives had no place in his authorities.
‘It is not the case with us,’ he says ( c. Apion . i. 8), ‘to have vast numbers of books disagreeing and conflicting with one another. We have but two-and-twenty, containing the history of all time, books that are justly believe din.… Though so great an interval of time has passed, no one has ventured either to add or to remove or to alter a syllable; and it is the instinct of every Jew from the day of his birth to consider these books as the teaching of God, to abide by them, and, if need be, cheerfully to lay down life in their behalf.’
The number 22 is probably due to his reckoning, with the LXX [3] , Ruth and Judges as one, and Lamentations and Jeremiah as one. It is less likely that he refused to count Cant, and Eccl. as Scripture. His words reveal the profound reverence now entertained for the OT as a whole, although individuals may still have cherished objections to particular books.
( f ) Synod of Jamnia . The completion of the Hebrew Canon must be associated with a synod held at Jamnia, near Joppa, where the Sanhedrin settled after Jerusalem was taken by Titus (a.d. 70). The popularity of the Alexandrian OT, including Apocrypha, and the growing influence of NT books caused the Rabbinical teachers to remove all doubt as to the limits of their Scripture. ‘All Holy Scriptures defile the hands (the Hebrew phrase for ‘are canonical’): Canticles and Eccleslastes defile the hands.’ Such was the dictum at Jamnia ( c [2] . a.d. 90) to which Rabbi’ Akiba (d. a.d. 135) appealed in dismissing the possibility of reopening discussion on the limits of the Canon.
9. Text . The Hebrew Bible was now complete. Elaborate precautions were taken to secure an unchangeable text; and a system of vowel-signs was invented some centuries later to preserve the old pronunciation. It has been considered strange that the oldest dated MS of the OT should be so recent as a.d. 916, whereas the Greek Bible and NT are found in MSS of the 4th and 5th centuries. This may be due to the requirement of the Synagogue that the copy in use should be perfect, and that any roll deficient in a word or letter should be suppressed, if not destroyed. The vigilant care of copies in use lessened the interest in superseded MSS.
10. Relation of the Church to the OT . The NT freely acknowledges Divine inspiration in the OT. Such a formula as ‘All this was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet’ ( Matthew 1:22 ), Implies that the Supreme Disposer of events had Intimated His purpose through the prophets. Posterity, therefore, rightly apprehends any occurrence when it has detected its place in the scheme of things foretold by the prophets. But it is also recognized that Scripture may be misapplied, and that therefore criticism is essential. The Interpretation of the OT must differ among Jews and Christians. The logic of events cannot be Ignored, and the Advent of the Messiah cannot be treated as a negligible accident. The attitude of our Lord has the effect of making the OT a subordinate standard as compared with His own words and the teaching of the Apostles. He did not report the word of the Lord as received by vision or prophecy; in His own name He supplied what was wanting in Law and Prophets. He did not pronounce any book in Itself adequate to determine the communion between the Living God and living men; all Scripture must be illuminated by the testimonium Spiritus Sancti . The 24 Hebrew books are valid for the Church only in so far as their authority is sanctioned by the NT. But, subject to this limitation, the OT remains ‘profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for Instruction which is in righteousness’ ( 2 Timothy 3:16 ).
D. M. Kay.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Old Testament
The first part of the Christian Bible, taken over from Israel. It tells the history of the nation Israel and God's dealings with them to the return from Exile in Babylon. For Jews it is the complete Bible, sometimes called Tanak for its three parts (Torah or Law, Nebiim or Prophets, Kethubim or Writings). Christians see its complement in the New Testament, which reveals Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. The Old Testament has three major divisions: Law, Prophets (Former and Latter), and Writings. The Law (Genesis—Deuteronomy) begins with the creation of the world and concludes as Israel is about to enter the Promised Land. The Prophets—Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah Ezekiel, and the Twelve Minor Prophets—continue with the nation in the land of Palestine until the Exile and includes prophetic messages delivered to the nation. The Writings (all other books) contain the account of the return from Exile, collected wisdom literature from throughout the nation's history, and selected stories about God's leading in individual lives. See Bible, Formation and Canon.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament
The influence of the Old Testament is seen throughout the New Testament. The New Testament writers included approximately 250 express Old Testament quotations, and if one includes indirect or partial quotations, the number jumps to more than 1,000. It is clear that the writers of the New Testament were concerned with demonstrating the continuity between the Old Testament Scriptures and the faith they proclaimed. They were convinced that in Jesus the Old Testament promises had been fulfilled.
Types of Quotations
1. Formula quotations are introduced by a typical introductory quotations formula which generally employ verbs of “saying” or “writing.” The most common introductory formulas are: “as the Scripture hath said” (John 7:38 ); “What saith the Scripture” (Galatians 4:30 ); “it is (stands) written,” emphasizing the permanent validity of the Old Testament revelation (Mark 1:2 ; Romans 1:17 ; Romans 3:10 ); “that it might be fulfilled,” emphasizing the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies (Matthew 4:14 , Matthew 12:17 , Matthew 21:4 ); “God hath said,” “He saith,” “the Holy Spirit says,” which personify Scripture and reflect its divine dimension (Romans 9:25 ; Romans 10:21 ; 2 Corinthians 6:16 ); “Moses,” “David,” or “Isaiah” says which emphasize the human element in Scripture (Romans 10:16 , Romans 10:19-20 ; Hebrews 4:7 ).
2. Composite quotations combine two or more Old Testament texts drawn from one or more of the sections of the Hebrew Old Testament canon (The Law, Prophets, and Writings). For example, Romans 11:8-10 quotes from the Law ( Deuteronomy 29:4 ), the Prophets (Isaiah 29:10 ) and the writings (Psalm 69:22-23 ). In some cases, a series of Old Testament texts may be used in a commentary-like fashion as in John 12:38-40 and Romans 9-11 . Composite quotes are often organized around thematic emphases or catchwords in keeping with a practice common to Judaism and based on the notion set forth in Deuteronomy 19:15 that two or three witnesses establish the matter. The “stumbling stone” motif reflected in Romans 9:33 ( Isaiah 8:14 ; Isaiah 28:16 ) and 1 Peter 2:6-9 ( Isaiah 8:14 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Psalm 118:22 ) is a good example of this method.
3. Unacknowledged quotations are often woven into the fabric of the New Testament text without acknowledgment or introduction. For example, Paul quoted Genesis 15:6 in his discussion of Abraham ( Galatians 3:6 ) and Genesis 12:3 ( Galatians 3:8 ) with no acknowledgment or introductory formula.
4. Indirect quotations or allusions form the most difficult type of Old Testament quotation to identify. The gradation from quotation to allusion may be almost imperceptible. An allusion may be little more than a clause, phrase, or even a word drawn from an Old Testament text which might easily escape the notice of the reader. For example, the reader might easily miss the fact that the words spoken from the cloud at the transfiguration of Jesus as recorded in Matthew 17:5 combine three separate Old Testament texts: “Thou art my Son” ( Psalm 2:7 ), “in whom my soul delighteth” (Isaiah 42:1 ), and “unto him ye shall hearken” (Deuteronomy 18:15 ).
Sources of Old Testament Quotations Since the New Testament was written in Greek for predominantly Greek readers, it is not surprising that a large majority of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament are drawn from the Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint (LXX). Of Paul's 93 quotes, 51 are in absolute or virtual agreement with the LXX, while only 4 agree with the Hebrew text. This means that 38 diverge from all known Greek or Hebrew Old Testament texts. Of Matthew's 43 quotes, 11 agree with the LXX, while the other 32 differ from all known sources. How then are these quotes to be explained? The New Testament writers may have used a version of the Old Testament which is unknown to us, or they may have been quoting from memory. It is also possible that the New Testament writers were more concerned with meaning and interpretation. It has also been suggested that the Old Testament quotations may have been drawn from “testimony books,” collections of selected, combined, and interpreted Old Testament texts gathered by the early Christian community for proclamation and apologetics. The frequent use of certain Old Testament texts, such as Psalm 110:1 , Isaiah 43:1 , and so forth, in the preaching and writing of the early church and the discovery of such collections at Qumran seem to support such a possibility.
The Uses of Old Testament Quotations The New Testament writers used Old Testament quotations for at least four reasons: (1) to demonstrate that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's purposes and of the prophetic witness of the Old Testament Scriptures ( Romans 1:2 ; Matthew 4:14 ; Matthew 12:17-21 ; Matthew 21:4-5 ); (2) as a source for ethical instruction and edification of the church ( Romans 13:8-10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:1 ); (3) to interpret contemporary events (Romans 9-11 ; Romans 15:8-12 ); (4) to prove a point on the assumption that the Scripture is God's Word (1 Corinthians 10:26 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:55 ). The approaches employed in the use of the Old Testament are reflective of first century Judaism as represented in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo of Alexandra, and later rabbinic Judaism. Some Old Testament quotations are used in their literal historical sense and, therefore, have the same meaning in the New Testament as they had in the Old Testament. The quotation of Psalm 78:24 in John 6:31 is a good example of such usage. Some quotations reflect a typical approach to interpreting the Old Testament in first-century Judaism known as midrash . Midrash is an exposition of a text which aims at bringing out its contemporary relevance. The Old Testament text is quoted and explained so as to make it apply to or be meaningful for the current situation. The use of Genesis 15:6 in Romans 4:3-25 and the use of Psalm 78:24 in John 6:31-58 reflect such an approach.
Some Old Testament texts are interpreted typologically . In this approach, the New Testament writer sees a correspondence between persons, events, or things in the Old Testament and persons, events, or things in their contemporary setting. The correspondence with the past is not found in the written text, but within the historical event. Underlying typology is the conviction that certain events in the past history of Israel as recorded in earlier Scriptures revealed God's ways and purposes with persons in a typical way. Matthew's use of Hosea 11:1 ( Hosea 2:15 ) suggests that the Gospel writer saw a correspondence between Jesus' journey into Egypt and the Egyptian sojourn of the people of Israel. Jesus recapitulated or reexperienced the sacred history of Israel. The redemptive purposes of God demonstrated in the Exodus (reflected by the prophet Hosea) were being demonstrated in Jesus' life. In some cases, the understanding and application of the Old Testament quotation is dependent on an awareness of the quotation's wider context in the Old Testament. The use of the quotation is intended to call the reader's attention to the wider Old Testament context or theme and might be referred to as a “pointer quotation .” In first-century Judaism where large portions of Scripture were known by heart, it was customary to quote only the beginning of a passage even if its continuation was to be kept in mind. A good example of this use may be seen in Romans 1-3 . Paul had discussed both the faithfulness of God and the sinfulness of humanity. In Romans 3:4 Paul quoted Psalm 51:4 to support his first point. He continued his argument with a further reference to human wickedness which is, in fact, the subject of Psalm 51:5 ; but he did not feel the need to quote the verse, since it was already suggested to those familiar with the biblical text. Finally, there is a limited allegorical use of the Old Testament text in which the text is seen as a kind of code having two meanings—the literal, superficial level of meaning, and a deeper, underying meaning such as in Galatians 4:22-31 .
Despite similarities with contemporary Jewish use(s) of the Old Testament, the New Testament writers interpreted the Old Testament in a radically new way. New Testament writers did not deliberately use a different exegetical method. They wrote from a different theological perspective. The writers of the New Testament were convinced that the true meaning of the Old Testament is Jesus Christ and that He alone provides the means of understanding it. True interpretation of the Old Testament is achieved by reading Old Testament passages or incidents in light of the event of Christ. While many of the Old Testament texts quoted in the New Testament had already been accepted as messianic (for example, Psalm 110:1 ) or could in light of Jesus' actual life claim to be messianic (Psalm 22:1 ; Isaiah 53:1 ), for the early Christians, all Scripture was to be interpreted by the fact of Christ because it is to Him that the Old Testament Scripture points (John 5:39 ). In summary, the New Testament writer quoted or alluded to the Old Testament in order to demonstrate how God's purposes have been fulfilled and are being fulfilled in Jesus.
Hulitt Gloer
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Old Testament in the New Testament, the
The New Testament proclaims its indebtedness to the Old Testament on the very first page. Matthew begins with an Old Testament genealogy that makes sense only to those who are familiar with the people and events to which it refers (1:1-17). Thus the New Testament signals at the start an engagement with the Old Testament that touches every page and makes great demands on its readers.
Statistics and Styles of Quotations . The New Testament does not simply express its dependence on the Old Testament by quoting it. The fourth edition of the United Bible Societies' Greek Testament (1993) lists 343Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, as well as no fewer than 2,309 allusions and verbal parallels. The books most used are Psalms (79 quotations, 333 allusions), and Isaiah (66 quotations, 348 allusions). In the Book of Revelation, there are no formal quotations at all, but no fewer than 620 allusions.
As far as the styles of quotation, sometimes the New Testament authors employed techniques current among first-century Jewish teachers. These include midrash, a style of expanded narrative with interpretive comments inserted (e.g., Stephen's speech in Acts 7:2-53 ); pesher, a style found particularly in the Dead Sea Scrolls, in which Old Testament texts are connected with specific contemporary events (e.g., Acts 2:16 ; Romans 10:8 ); and gezerah shawa, a style in which two or more verses that use the same word in different parts of the Bible are interpreted in the light of each other (e.g., Hebrews 4:3-7 ). But generally the New Testament authors show considerable independence in forging wholly new ways of reading the Scriptures, based on their revolutionary experience of Jesus the Christ. For instance, Paul's conversion experience revolutionized his attitude toward the Law. After all, obedience to the Law had led him to persecute the Messiah! Following this, he could not continue to read and interpret the Scriptures as before. "Through the law I died to the law, " he exclaims (Galatians 2:19 ). New styles of exegesis resulted, as we shall see below.
New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: Legitimate?New Testament "Awareness" of the Old Testament . Many New Testament scholars maintain that the New Testament use of the Old Testament works within a closed logical circle: it depends on Christian presuppositions and reads the Old Testament in a distinctly Christian way (even if employing Jewish methods of exegesis), often doing violence to the true meaning of the Old Testament texts employed. Thus, New Testament arguments based on the Old Testament, it is held, would generally be convincing to Christians but hardly to Jews. If this is true, it will be hard to vindicate the New Testament authors from the charge of misusing the Scriptures.
This approach, however, ignores several crucial features of the use of the Old Testament by the New Testament authors. As numerous studies have now shown, these authors generally assumed knowledge of the Old Testament context from which quotations were drawn. They were concerned to communicate with and convince their fellow Jews, not just to nurture a private faith. They did not want simply to jettison their Jewish heritage, but sought genuinely to understand how the "word" spoken through the prophets related to the new "word" now revealed in Christ (this applies even to Paul, whose "not under law, but under grace" [1] looks at first sight like wholesale rejection of the Old Testament ). Finally, they sensitively explored the Old Testament for points at which its very inconsistencies or incompleteness pointed ahead to Jesus as the answer . It is worth giving some examples of this latter point.
Matthew has a special fondness for the messianic prophecies in Isaiah (1:23; 2:23; 4:15-16; 8:17; 12:17-21) and other prophets (2:6,17; 21:5; 26:31). He clearly regarded these as incomplete without Jesus.
John focuses his presentation of Jesus around the figure of Moses. One of the arguments he deploys is that even the mighty Moses was unable to deliver Israel from her most powerful enemies: death (6:49; 8:51-53) and sin (8:12,31-34). But Jesus does!
Stephen's powerful speech (Acts 7:2-53 ) turns on the thought that the promise given to Abraham in Genesis 15:13-14— ;paraphrased by Stephen as "you will worship me in this place" (v. 7)has never yet been fulfilled. Stephen traces a history in which all the significant encounters with God occurred away from "this place, " and then points to the ambivalent Old Testament traditions concerning the temple, the "place" above all where God was meant to be worshiped yet a "place" where by definition he cannot dwell (vv. 48-50)!
Paul is naturally drawn to the Old Testament prophecies concerning the blessing of the Gentiles. In connection with these he discerns a tension at the heart of Old Testament theology, between the exclusivism of the covenant and the central covenant confession, the Shema: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one" (Deuteronomy 6:4 ). But if God is one, reflects Paul, then he cannot be just the God of Israel, but must treat all his creatures equally. Is he not the God of Gentiles too? (Romans 3:29-30 ). And in 2Corinthians 3:7-11Paul employs an argument about Moses similar to that in John 6 : for all his glorious status, the effect of Moses' ministry was condemnation and death.
The author of Hebrews employs this kind of argument frequently. The string of quotations from the psalms in 1:5-13 are applied to Christ because they say things about the human Davidic king that actually could be true of no mere human being. Similarly, Psalm 8:4-6 ( Hebrews 2:6-8 ) says things about "man" that are not true of any manexcept one. The author also discerns tensions within the Old Testament theology of priesthood. How can priests save people from things to which they themselves are prey (5:2-3; 7:23)? But Jesus makes up this deficiency (7:25-28). And alongside the levitical priesthood another priesthood inexplicably appears in the Old Testament, that of Melchizedek. Similarly, the tabernacle itself harbors contradictions: it was meant to be "the tent of meeting, " and yet it was structured to keep God separate! "The Holy Spirit was showing by this that the way into the Most Holy Place had not yet been disclosed" (9:8). And, above all perhaps, the sacrificial system of the Old Testament proclaims its own inadequacy by the requirement of constant repetition (10:1-4). In passages like Jeremiah 31:31-34 (8:8-12; 10:15-17) and Psalm 40:6-8 (10:5-7), the author finds, within the Old Testament itself, the expectation of something better.
Do such arguments distort and wrench the Old Testament? Many argue that, even though they arise from Christian faith, they nonetheless show true sensitivity to its inner dynamic. Rabbinic Judaism in the post-New Testament period sought to "complete" the Scriptures by filling out the body of its case law, reinterpreting the sacrificial legislation ethically, and gently downplaying the significance of the messiah (in the main). The New Testament authors, by contrast, focus the whole "story" of the Old Testament onto Jesus, as summarized below, using even its tensions prophetically, to point toward the Christ who is Jesus. Undoubtedly, the New Testament authors believed that their Christian faith enabled them to make better sense of the Old Testament than they ever could as Jews.
Patterns of Use . The New Testament authors both use the Old Testament to explain Jesus and use Jesus to explain the Old Testamenta circular process in which each is illuminated by the other. This circular relationship may be helpfully summarized under the following five headings.
Old Testament Theology Confirmed . The authority of the Old Testament is nowhere questioned in the New Testament, even at the points wheredramaticallythe authority of Jesus is set alongside or even over it (e.g., Matthew 5:17-18,27-30 ; Mark 7:19 ; Hebrews 1:1-3 ). Thus, all the great themes of the Old Testament are confirmed, even when they are also developed in various ways: God as the one creator and ruler of the nations, the election of Israel to be the light of salvation for the world, the presence of God with his people, the possibility (and actuality) of revelation through appointed instruments, history as moving toward God's purposed goal for the world.
But the New Testament is no mere restatement of Old Testament themes, because of its vital focus on Jesus. So, for instance, the "wisdom" theme of Proverbs and Job, which had already been considerably developed in the intertestamental period, is used by both John and Paul to help explain Jesus, who is both God and separate from God (John 1:1-14 ; Philippians 2:5-11 ).
Old Testament Prophecy Fulfilled . All the New Testament authors (except James) pick up messianic and other prophecies from the Old Testament and locate their fulfillment in Jesus and in the church. Some prophecies are quoted frequentlyespecially those relating to the Davidic Messiah, the Son of Man, the prophet like Moses, and the "Servant" of Isaiah (see examples below). But it is possible to discern particular interests:
Matthew finds prophecy fulfilled in several individual features of Jesus' ministry (e.g., 2:6,17, 23; 4:15-16; 8:17; 10:35-36; 12:18-21; 13:35; 21:5). Mark focuses particularly on the prophecy of the suffering "servant" in Isaiah 53 (10:45), which he links to the "Son of Man" prophecy of Daniel 7:13-14 . Luke adds an interest in the prophecies concerning Israel (e.g., Luke 1:68-73 ; Acts 2:17-21 ; 15:16-18 ; 26:22 f). John finds special importance in the prophecy of Deuteronomy 15:15-18 , that God will raise up a figure like Moses to speak his word to his people (1:45; 5:46; 6:14; 7:40; 8:28; 12:48-50). Paul draws especially on the prophecies of the blessing of the Gentiles (e.g., Romans 10:19 ; 15:9-12 ; Galatians 3:8-9 ). Hebrews makes prominent use of the "new covenant" prophecy of Jeremiah 31:31-34 (8:7-13; 9:15; 10:15-18). The climax of Revelation draws on the climax of Isaiah: both conclude with the vision of a "new heaven and a new earth." Revelation also draws on Ezekiel's concluding prophecy of the rebuilding of the temple (Ezekiel 40-48 ). Old Testament History Reread . Claiming the fulfillment of specific, future-oriented prophecies is only a small element in the prophetic treatment of the Old Testament. Some basic features of the Old Testament "story" become prophetic in the light of Christthat is, they are discovered to have a forward-looking, predictive function because their provisionality is revealed by the appearance of something (some one ) much greater and better. The word often used to describe this treatment of the Old Testament is "typology." This technique may be illustrated by the use made of the Exodus, which receives frequent typological treatment.
Matthew suggestively applies Hosea 11:1 to Jesus' return from Egypt (2:15), highlighting the parallel between Israel, who failed the temptations in the wilderness, and Jesus, who came through them victoriously to form the heart of a renewed people of God. John 6 presents the feeding of the five thousand as a glorious repetition of the manna miracle, signaling a greater exodus from sin and death. Paul applies the exodus themes of "slavery" and "redemption" spiritually to the work of the cross (e.g., Romans 3:24 ; 8:23 ; Ephesians 1:7,14 ), and finds in the wilderness wanderings several typological foreshadowings of Christ and the church (1 Corinthians 10:1-13 ). Hebrews develops the theme of the political "rest" enjoyed by Israel in the promised land and applies it typologically to that spiritual sharing of the life of God himself, which is the fruit of the work of Christ for all believers (3:1-4:13). First Peter 2:9-10 uses Exodus 19:5-6 , a central statement of exodus theology, to make Israel a type of the church. Revelation uses the Egyptian plagues typologically (8:7-12), and applies the numbering of the exodus tribes to the church (7:4-8). These examples do scant justice to the extent to which the exodus is used as a "type" of the salvation now to be experienced in Christ. Other Old Testament features treated typologically include the temple, Jerusalem (and the associated ideas of worship, security, and the presence of God), the annual festivals, and kingship. This treatment is symptomatic of a fundamental "rereading" of the history of Israel.
Old Testament People Expanded . One of the most surprising features of the New Testament use of the Old Testament is the way in which the exclusivism of the Old Testament covenant (Israel as the elect) gives way to a new understanding of the people of God in which racial identity plays no role, and Jews and Gentiles have equal membership based just on faith and common possession of the Spirit. The movement from one to the other is a special interest of Luke (see especially Acts 10-11 ) and of Paul (see especially Romans 9-11 ), one of the most sustained New Testament engagements with Old Testament texts).
Many Jewish Christians did not want to "reread" the Old Testament understanding of "people" in this way. Paul had to labor hard to defend his conviction that Abraham was the father of all who believe in Christ , not just the father of the Jewish nation (Romans 4:9-17 ; Galatians 3:6-9 ). Certain Old Testament texts were especially important for him, but more important than particular texts was the conviction that the spiritual experience described by texts like Genesis 15:6 , Psalm 32:1-2 , and Habakkuk 2:4 was exactly that now being enjoyed by his Gentile converts: by believing in Jesus, they were being "justified by faith" just like Abraham and David ( Romans 4:22-25 ).
Old Testament Religion Renewed . The New Testament understanding of the Spirit builds on that of the Old Testament, but is surprising nonetheless. Only prophets and other leaders were anointed with the Spirit in the Old Testament. Hence the shocking nature of Jesus' encouragement actually to ask God for the Holy Spirit (Luke 11:13 )! So now, possessing the Spirit in common, the whole church occupies a prophetic status, admitted like the prophets of the old covenant into the presence of God himself and is now enabled to share the worship of heaven by the Spirit, and to "worship in spirit and in truth" ( John 4:24 ), rather than through a program of ritual.
The worship of the Old Testament is focused on a physical temple on earth. New Testament worship focuses on its heavenly counterpart by the Spiritthe heavenly temple where God truly dwells and Christ has gone before.
Stephen Motyer
Bibliography . G. L. Archer and G. C. Chirichigno, Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament: A Complete Survey ; D. L. Baker, Two Testaments, One Bible: A Study of the Theological Relationship between the Old and New Testaments ; D. A. Carson and H. G. M. Williamson, It Is Written: Scripture Citing Scripture ; B. S. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection on the Christian Bible ; E. E. Ellis, Paul's Use of the Old Testament ; R. T. France, Jesus and the Old Testament ; R. B. Hayes, Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul ; K. Stendahl, IDB, 1:418-32; P. Stuhlmacher, Reconciliation, Law and Righteousness .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Old Testament
The conscientious preservation of the discrepancies of parallel passages (as Psalm 14 and Psalm 53; Psalm 18 and 2 Samuel 22; Isaiah 36-39; and 2 Kings 18-20; Jeremiah 52 and 2 Kings 24-25; Ezra 2 and Nehemiah 7), notwithstanding the temptation to assimilate them, proves the accuracy of Ezra and his associates in transmitting the Scriptures to us. The Maccabean coins and the similar Samaritan character preserve for us the alphabetical characters in which the text was written, resembling those in use among the Phoenicians. The targums, shortly before Christ, introduced the modern Aramaic or square characters now used for Hebrew.
Keil however attributes these to Ezra. No vowel points were used, but in the later books matres lectionis or vowel letters. The words were separated by spaces, except those closely connected. Sections, parshioth, are marked by commencing a new line or by blank spaces. The greater parshioth are the sabbath lessons marked in the Mishna, and perhaps dating from the introduction of the square letters; distinct from the verse divisions made in Christian times. Pesukim is the term for "verses." The Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch are the oldest documents with which to criticize our Hebrew text. Gesenius has shown the inferiority of the Samaritan text to our Hebrew Pentateuch:
(1) it substitutes common for unusual grammatical forms;
(2) it admits glosses into the text;
(3) it emends difficult passages, substituting easier readings;
(4) it corrects and adds words from parallel passages;
(5) it interpolates from them;
(6) it removes historical and other difficulties of the subject matter;
(7) Samaritanisms in language;
(8) passages made to agree with the Samaritan theology.
However, as a help in arriving at the text in difficult passages, it has its use. The Samaritan text agrees with the Septuagint in more than one thousand places where both differ from the Masoretic, yet their independence is shown in that the Septuagint agree with the Masoretic in a thousand places, and both herein differ from the Samaritan text. A revised text existed probably along with our Hebrew one in the centuries just before Christ, and was used by the Septuagint. The Samaritans altered it still more (Gesenius); so it became "the Alexandrian Samaritan text." The Samaritans certainly did not receive their Pentateuch from the Israelite northern kingdom, for they have not received the books of Israel's prophets, Hosea, Jonah, Amos. Being pagan, they probably had the Pentateuch first introduced among them from Judah by Manasseh and other priests who joined them at the time of the building of the Mount Gerizim temple.
Josephus (contra Apion i. 8) boasts that through all past ages none had added to, or taken from, or transposed, aught of the sacred writings. The Greek translation of Aquila mainly agrees with ours. So do the targums of Onkelos and Jonathan. Origen in the Hexapla, and especially Jerome, instructed by Palestinian Jews in preparing the Vulgate, show a text identical with ours in even the traditional unwritten vowel readings. The learning of the schools of Hillel and Shammai in Christ's time was preserved, after Jerusalem's fall, in those of Jabneh, Sepphoris, Caesarea, and Tiberias. R. Judah the Holy compiled the Mishna, the Talmud text, before A. D. 220. The twofold Gemara, or commentary, completed the Talmud; the Jerusalem Gemara of the Jews of Tiberias was written at the end of the fourth century; the Babylonian emanated from the schools on the Euphrates at the end of the fifth century. Their assigning the interpretation to the targumist, as distinguished from the transcriber, secured the text from the conjectural interpolations otherwise to be apprehended.
The Talmudic doctors counted the verses in each book, and which was the middle verse, word, and letter in the Pentateuch, and in the psalms, marking it by a large letter or one raised above the line (Leviticus 11:42; Psalms 80:14). The Talmudists have a note, "read, but not written," to mark what ought to be read though not in the text, at 2 Samuel 8:3; 2 Samuel 16:23; Jeremiah 31:38; Jeremiah 50:29; Ruth 2:11; Ruth 3:5; Ruth 3:17; also "written but not (to be) read," 2 Kings 5:18; Deuteronomy 6:1; Jeremiah 51:3; Ezekiel 48:16; Ruth 3:12. So the Masoretic Qeri's (marginal readings) in Job 13:15; Haggai 1:8. Their scrupulous abstinence from introducing what they believed the truer readings guarantees to us both their critical care in examining the text and their reverence in preserving it intact. They rejected manuscripts not agreeing with others (Taanith Hierosol. 68, section 1). Their rules as to transcribing and adopting manuscripts show their carefulness.
The soph-pasuk (":" colon) marking the verse endings, and the maqqeph ("-" hyphen), joining words, were introduced after the Talmudic time and earlier than the accents. The maqqeph embodies the traditional authority for joining or separating words; words joined by it have only one accent. Translate therefore Psalms 45:4 without "and," "meekness-righteousness," i.e. righteousness manifesting itself in meekness. The Masorah, i.e. tradition (first digested by the doctors in the fifth century), compiled in writing the thus accumulated traditions and criticisms, and became a kind of "fence of the law." In the post-Talmudic period THE MASORAH (Buxtorf, Tiberias) notes:
(1) as to the verses, how many are in each book, the middle verse in each; how many begin with certain letters, or end with the same word, or had a certain number of words and letters, or certain words a number of times;
(2) as to the words, the Qeri 's (marginal readings) and kethib 's (readings of the text); also words found so many times in the beginning, middle, or end of a verse, or with a particular meaning; also in particular words where transcribers' mistakes were likely, whether they were to be written with or without the vowel letters; also the accentuation;
(3) as to the letters, how often each occurred in the Old Testament, etc., etc.
The written Masorah was being formed from the sixth century to the tenth century. Its chief value is its collection of Qeri's, of which some are from the Talmud, many from manuscripts, others from the sole authority of the Masoretes. The Bomberg Bible contains 1171. The small number in the Pentateuch, 43, is due to the greater care bestowed on the law as compared with the other Scriptures. The Masorah is distinguished into magna and parva (an abridgment of the magna, including the Qeri's and printed at the foot of the page). The magna is partly at the side of the text commented on, partly at the end. Their inserting the vowel marks in the text records for us the traditional pronunciation. The vowel system was molded after the Arabian system, and that after the Syrian system. The acceders in their logical signification were called "senses"; in their musical signification, "tones." They occur in the Masorah, not in the Talmud. The very difficulties which are left unremoved, in explaining some passages consistently with the accents and the vowel points, show that both embody, not the Masoretes' private judgment, but the traditions of previous generations.
Walton's Polyglot gives readings also of the Palestinian and of the Babylonian Jews; the former printed first in the Bomberg Bible by R. Jacob ben Chaim, 216 in all, concerning the consonants, except two as to the mappik. Aaron ben Asher, a Palestinian, and R. Jacob, a Babylonian Jew, having collated manuscripts in the 11th century, mention 864 different readings of vowels, accents, and makkeph , and (Song of Solomon 8:6) the division of a word. Our manuscripts generally agree with Ben Asher's readings. The Masorah henceforward settled the text of Jewish manuscripts; older manuscripts were allowed to perish as incorrect. Synagogue rolls and manuscripts for private use are the two classes known to us. Synagogue rolls contain separately the Pentateuch, the haphtaroth (literally, "dismissals," being read just before the congregations departed) or sections of the prophets, and the megilloth , namely, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther: all without vowels, accents, and sophpasuks.
The Sopherim Tract appended to the Babylonian Talmud prescribes as to the preparation of the parchment for these rolls, and the ceremonial required in writing them. They are not sold; it is supposed that only vitiated copies, rejected by the synagogue, have gotten into Christian hands. The Spanish writing is rounder and modern, the German and Polish writing is more angular, designated the tam ("perfect") and the welsh ("foreign") respectively. Private manuscripts are in book form, the inner margin being used for the Masorah Parva, the upper and lower margins for the Masorah and rabbinical comments. Sections and verses are marked. One wrote the consonants, another the vowels and accents in a fainter ink, another the Masorah. Most manuscripts are of the 12th century. Kennicott assigns No. 590 of his collation to the 10th century. DeRossi assigns to A.D. 1018, and his own (No. 634) to the eighth century. The Spanish manuscripts, like the Masorah, place Chronicles before the hagiographa; the German manuscripts, like the Talmud, place Jeremiah and Ezekiel before Isaiah; and Ruth, separate from the other megilloth , before Psalms.
Of the 581 manuscripts collated by Kennicott, 102 have the whole Old Testament. Pinner found at Odessa manuscripts (presented by a Karaite of Eupatoria in 1839 to the Odessa Hist. and Antiq. Society), one of which, brought from Derbend in Daghestan, appears from the subscription older than A.D. 580. If this is correct, it is the oldest extant. Another, a manuscript of the prophets, inscribed A.D. 916, has vowels and accents differing from the ordinary form, and placed above the letters. The China manuscripts resemble the European; so the manuscript brought by Buchanan from Malabar. The manuscript in a cave under the synagogue of Aleppo bears inscription: "I Moses ben Asher wrote this cycle of Scripture with all correctness, as the good hand of God was upon me ... in the city of Tiberias. Amen. Finished 827 years after the destruction of the second temple." The Psalter, with Kimchi's commentary, was the first printed Hebrew scripture, at Bologna, in A.D. 1477; at Soncino the first whole Hebrew Bible, one of which edition is in Exeter College, Oxford.
In 1494 Gersom printed at Brescia the edition from which Luther made his German translated Bomberg at Venice printed in 1518 the first edition with Masorah, targums, and rabbinical comments; Felix del Prato, a converted Jew, being editor. Bomberg at Venice printed the second rabbinical Bible, four vols. fol., 1525, with the text corrected from the Masorah by R. Jacob ben Chaim, a Tunisian Jew. Jos. Athias, a rabbi and printer at Amsterdam, compared previous editions with a manuscript, A.D. 1299, and a Spanish manuscript 900 years old, and printed an edition 1661 with preface by Leusden, professor at Utrecht. Van der Hooght's edition, 2 vols. 8vo, 1705, which is our textus receptus, rests on Athias'. Kennicott's Dissertations on the Printed Text, 1753 and 1759, drew from the English public 10,000 British pounds to secure a collation of manuscripts throughout Europe. He and Brans of Helinstadt collated 581 Jewish and 16 Samaritan manuscripts (half of them throughout, the rest only in select passages), and 40 printed editions. The result was printed with Van der Hooght's text, 1776-80.
DeRossi at Parma gave from ancient versions various readings of SELECT PASSAGES, and from the collation on them of 617 manuscripts, and 134 besides, which Kennicott had not seen; four vols. 1784-1788, a fifth vol. 1798. The variations were trifling, chiefly of vowel letters; so that we have the assurance that our Old Testament text is almost as pure as attainable. The ancient versions alone need more careful scrutiny. Jerome's Vulgate is the best critical help on disputed passages. Aquila's, Symmachus', and Theodotion's versions are only fragments. The Syriac leans on the Septuagint. The targums are only paraphrases; still, they, if all agreeing together for a reading, furnish a strong presumption in its favor. The Septuagint confirms a reading if otherwise rendered probable, but not by itself alone. Smith's Bible Dictionary. conjectures on Psalms 76:10, from the Septuagint, techageka for tachgor , "the remainder of wrath shall keep holiday to Thee."
But the Hebrew text is susceptible of the KJV if the cognate Arabic is an authority. Or else the Hebrew literally, is "Thou girdest Thyself with the remainder of the foe's wrath," i.e., even to its last remains (compare Psalms 75:8) it serves as a weapon to gird Thyself with for their destruction (Hengstenberg); or, "those left of the foe, who vented their wrath against Thee, Thou girdest Thyself with, making them acknowledge and praise Thy power" (Maurer): Psalms 75:11; Isaiah 49:18; Psalms 68:30. The Septuagint is two centuries later than the last book of Old Testament It is only in the period immediately following the closing of the Old Testament canon that its few corruptions have arisen, for subsequently the jealous care of its purity has been continually on the increase. The Septuagint translators neither knew enough Hebrew for rightly fulfilling their task, nor used what they knew to the best purpose. Transcription subsequently has much corrupted their version, it being in great demand and often therefore transcribed hastily without the scrupulous care with which the Hebrew text was most carefully guarded.
The New Testament quotes mainly the Septuagint Old Testament, but corrects it by the Hebrew when needful (Matthew 21:5; Matthew 9:13; Matthew 4:15-16; John 19:37; 1 Corinthians 3:19; 1 Corinthians 15:54; Luke 22:37; Romans 9:33). The Septuagint alone is quoted throughout Epistle to the Hebrew, except for Hebrews 10:30. A specimen of corrections from the Qeri in conjunction with the Septuagint is Isaiah 9:3, "its" for "not"; but the difficulty of the reading favors the text, "Thou hast multiplied the nation and (soon after) not increased the joy"; for the increase of the true Israel by Gentile converts to Christianity was soon followed by the growth of corruption and antichrist; but he in turn is to be destroyed, as Midian was by Gideon, to the "joy" of the elect nation. In Psalms 22:16 Aquila (A.D. 133), a Jew, reads "they disfigured," confirming the reading in KJV, "they pierced my hands," in opposition to "they enclosed as a lion my hands," etc. So the Septuagint, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic, Vulgate.
The little Masorah admits that the Hebrew, which in Isaiah 38:13 means "as a lion," has a different sense here. The Septuagint and Samaritan Pentateuch agree in the easier reading of Deuteronomy 32:5, "they (belong) not to Him, children of spot" (defilement); compare Ephesians 5:7; but the Hebrew text is intelligible, "they are not His children, but their blemish," i.e. the disgrace of God's children. For "after the commandment" (Hosea 5:11) the Septuagint, Syriac, and targums read "vanity," Jerome "filthiness." But the "commandment" which Ephraim "walked after" is Jeroboam's (1 Kings 12:28-33; 2 Kings 10:28-33; Micah 6:16). Interpretation. The literal system prevailed in Palestine, the allegorical in the Alexandria. Philo is an instance of the latter class. Later Jewish writers searched for recondite meanings in the places, construction, and orthography, apart from the logical context. The Kabala ("reception," "received tradition") attached symbolical meanings to the number of times a word or letter recurred, or to the number which letters represented.
For instance the Hebrew letter 'Αleph ( א ), a, is found six times in the first verse of Genesis and six times in 2 Chronicles 36:23, the last verse of the Hebrew Bible, therefore the world will last 6,000 years. This is the Gematria method. By the Notarjekon process new significant words were formed out of the initial or final words of the text, or a word's letters were made the initials of a new significant series of words. By the Τemurah) ("change") process new words were obtained, by anagram (or transposition of letters; whereby they supposed, for instance, that Michael must be the angel meant in Exodus 23:23, because it has the same letters as "my angel" in Hebrew by transposition) or by the Atbash alphabet where the last letter of the alphabet represented 'Αleph ( א ), the last but one Βet[1] ( ב ), and so on; thus Sheshach would mean Babel or Babylon. The Christian interpreters soon rejected these subtleties and maintained the historical reality of Old Testament events. Clement of Alexandria laid down the fourfold view of the Old Testament: literal, symbolical, moral, and prophetic (Strom. 1:28).
Origen (de Princip. 4:11) his scholar recognizes in it a body, soul, and spirit; the first for the simple, the second for the more advanced, the third for the perfect. Allegory (of which the Song and Galatians 4:21-31 are divinely sanctioned instances) and analogy are pressed too far by him, so much so that he denies the literal sense of Genesis 1-4. Contrast the right use, the moral deduced from the literal sense (Deuteronomy 25:4 with 1 Corinthians 9:9), and spiritual truths shadowed forth in the literal. (1 Corinthians 10:1-11; Hebrews 8:5; Romans 11:4-5; Romans 9:13-21, etc.) Diodore of Tarsus in the fourth century attended only to the letter of Scripture. Theodore of Mopsuestia pursued the grammatical method so exclusively that he rejected rationalistically the Old Testament prophetic references, as if the application to Messiah was only by accommodation. Chrysostom accepted the literal and spiritual, and especially dwelt on the moral sense.
Theodoret similarly combined the literal, historical, allegorical, and prophetical. Hilary of Poictiers drew forth the sense that Scripture intended, not what might be forced out of it. Augustine made the literal sense of Scripture history the basis of the mystical, so that the latter should not be "a building resting on air" (Serm. ii. 6). Luther truly says, "the best grammatical (literal) interpreter is also the best theologian." On the Old Testament Jarchi (A.D. 1105), Aben Ezra (1167), Kimchi (1240), and especially Nicholas of Lyre (1341, in his Postillae Perpetuae) set the example of literal interpretation. It was said, "Si Lyra non lyrasset, Luther non saltasset "; if Lyra had not piped, Luther would not have danced. The moral must rest on the grammatical (literal) historical, and the spiritual on both. These four in some passages co-exist. Others, as the genealogies and many historical details, are links joining together the significant parts. Others are simply moral and spiritual, as Proverbs. Often the moral teaching lies not in separate passages, as, for instance, the speeches of the book of Job, but in the general tenor and issue of the whole, to unfold which the separate passages work together. The New Testament is the key to the Old Testament.
As Christ and His apostles in the New Testament interpreted many parts and facts of the Old Testament, so we must interpret other parts and facts of the Old Testament which they have left uninterpreted, on analogous principles of interpretation. The New Testament does not note the spiritual meaning of every Old Testament type and history, and the fulfillment of every prophecy; space would not admit of it. That is our part, with prayer for the Holy Spirit. "Ιn Vetere Τestamenlo Νovum latet, in Νovo Vetus patet "; the New Testament is hidden in the Old Testament, the Old Testament is revealed in the New (2 Corinthians 3:6-18). The whole substance of the Old Testament is in the New Testament, but the details are to be unfolded by prayerful search.
The literal interpretation is quite consistent with recognizing metonymies, as "mouth" substituted for "word," the cause put for the effect; metaphors, as "hardness" said of the heart; parabolic images (Isaiah 5:1-7; Judges 9:8-15, where the history can be discerned only by recognizing the allegory); personifications; anthropomorphisms, or human conceptions as the "hand," "fingers," "wrath," etc., applied to God; allegory, having no outward reality, as the Song of Solomon is nevertheless the vehicle of representing the historical being, the heavenly Bridegroom, and His church the bride. Again, the prophets depict events as accomplished at once, which in fact were the work of a long period, e.g. Babylon's destruction (Isaiah 13). Each fresh stage in the gradually fulfilled accomplishment is an earliest of a further stage, and at length of the final consummation. Preliminary typical fulfillments do not exhaust but point onward to the exhaustive fulfillment. The moral aim is the reason for the disproportionate space occupied by personal biographies of men remarkable for piety or wickedness, and for the gaps which occur in parts of the Old Testament history.
Whatever illustrates God's providence, man's sinfulness, believers' frailties, God's mercy and faithfulness, is narrated at length at the sacrifice of symmetry. Important wars and political revolutions are briefly noticed. Those events are made prominent and full which illustrate the onward march of the kingdom of God. The Holy Spirit's inspiration alone could enable the writers to put the events in the due proportion of God's design. Christ and His apostles bring to light the moral and spiritual truths wrapped up in the Old Testament letter (Matthew 5-7; Matthew 19:5-6; Matthew 22:32<
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Old Testament
See BIBLE.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Old Testament
I. TEXT OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. --
History of the text. -A history of the text of the Old Testament should properly commence from the date of the completion of the canon. As regards the form in which the sacred writings were little doubt that the text was ordinarily were preserved, there can be written on skins, rolled up into volumes, like the modern synagogue rolls. (Psalm 40:7 ; Jeremiah 36:14 ; Ezekiel 2:9 ; Zechariah 5:1 ) The original character in which the text was expressed is that still preserved to us, with the exception of four letters, on the Maccabaean coins, and having a strong affinity to the Samaritan character. At what date this was exchanged for the present Aramaic or square character is still as undetermined as it is at what the use of the Aramaic language Palestine superseded that of the Hebrew. The old Jewish tradition, repeated by Origen and Jerome, ascribed the change to Ezra. [1] Of any logical division, in the written text, of the rose of the Old Testament into Pesukim or verses, we find in the Tulmud no mention; and even in the existing synagogue rolls such division is generally ignored. In the poetical books, the Pesukim mentioned in the Talmud correspond to the poetical lines, not to our modern verses. Of the documents which directly bear upon the history of the Hebrew text, the earliest two are the Samaritan copy of the Pentateuch and the Greek translation of the LXX. [2] In the (translations of Aquila and the other Greek interpreters, the fragments of whose works remain to us in the Hexapla, we have evidence of the existence of a text differing but little from our own; so also (in the Targums of Onkelos and Jonathan. A few centuries later we have, in the Hexapla, additional evidence to the same effect in Origin's transcriptions of the Hebrew text. And yet more important are the proofs of the firm establishment of the text, and of its substantial with our own, supplied by the translation of Jerome, who was instructed by the Palestinian Jews, and mainly relied upon their authority for acquaintance not only with the text itself, but also with the traditional unwritten vocalization of brings us to the middle of the Talmudic period. The care of the Talmudic doctors for the text is shown by the pains with which they counted no the number of verses in the different books and computed which were the middle verses, words and letters in the Pentateuch and in the Psalms. The scrupulousness with which the Talmudists noted what they deemed the truer readings, and yet abstained from introducing them into the text, indicates at once both the diligence with which they scrutinized the text and also the care with which even while knowledging its occasional imperfections, they guarded it. Critical procedure is also evinced in a mention of their rejection of manuscripts which were found not to agree with others in their readings; and the rules given with refer once to the transcription and adoption of manuscripts attest the care bestowed upon them. It is evident from the notices of the Talmud that a number of oral traditions had been gradually accumulating respecting both the integrity of particular passages of the text itself and also the manner in which if was to be read. This vast heterogeneous mass of traditions and criticisms, compiled and embodied in writing, forms what is known as the Masorah , i.e. Tradition. From the end of the Masoretic period onward, the Masorah became the great authority by which the text given in all the Jewish MSS. was settled.
Manuscripts . --The Old Testament MSS. known to us fall into two main classes: synagogue rolls and MSS. for private use of the latter, some are written in the square, others in the rabbinic or cursive, character. The synagogue rolls contain separate from each other, the Pentateuch, the Haphtaroth or appointed sections of the prophets, and the so-called Megilloth, viz. Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther. Private MSS. in the square character are in the book form, either on parchment or on paper, and of various sizes, from folio to 12mo. Some contain the Hebrew text alone; others add the Targum, or an Arabic or other translation, either interspersed with the text or in a separate column, occasionally in the margin. The upper and lower margins are generally occupied by the Masorah, sometimes by rabbinical commentaries, etc. The date of a MS. is ordinarily given in the subscription but as the subscriptions are often concealed in the Masorah or elsewhere, it is occasionally difficult to find them: occasionally also it is difficult to decipher them. No satisfactory criteria have been yet established by which the ages of MSS. are to be determined. Few existing MSS. are supposed to be older than the twelfth century. Kennicott and Bruns assigned one of their collation (No. 590) to the tenth century; Deuteronomy Rossi dates if A.D. 1018; on the other hand. one of his own (No. 634) he adjudges to the eighth century. Since the days of Kennicott and Deuteronomy Rossi modern research has discovered various MSS. beyond the limits of Europe. Of many of these there seems no reason to suppose that they will add much to our knowledge of the Hebrew text. It is different with the MSS. examined by Pinner at Odessa. One of these MSS. (A, No. 1), a Pentateuch roll, unpointed, brought from Derbend in Daghestan, appears by the subscription to have been written previous to A.D. 580 and if so is the oldest known biblical Hebrew MS. in existence. The forms of the letters are remarkable. Another MS. (B, No. 3) containing the prophets, on parchment, in small folio, although only dating, according to the inscription, from A.D. 916 and furnished with a Masorah, is a yet greater treasure. Its vowels and accents are wholly different from those now in use, both in form and in position, being all above the letters: they have accordingly been the theme of much discussion among Hebrew scholars.
Printed text . --The history of the printed text of the Hebrew Bible commences with the early Jewish editions of the separate books. First appeared the Psalter, in 1477, probably at Bologna, in 4to, with Kimchi's commentary interspersed among the verses. Only the first four psalms had the vowel-points, and these but clumsily expressed. At Bologna, there subsequently appeared in 1482, the Pentateuch, in folio, pointed, with the Targum and the commentary of Rashi; and the five Megilloth (Ruth--Esther), in folio with the commentaries of Rashi and Aben Ezra. From Soncino, near Cremona, issued in 1486 the Prophetae priores (Joshua--Kings), folio, unpointed with Kimchi's commentary. The honor of printing the first entire Hebrew Bible belongs to the above-mentioned town of Soncino. The edition is in folio, pointed and accentuated. Nine copies only of it are now known, of which one belongs to Exeter College, Oxford. This was followed, in 1494, by the 4to or 8vo edition printed by Gersom at Brescia, remarkable as being the edition from which Luther's German translation was made. After the Brescian, the next primary edition was that contained in the Complutensian Polyglot, published at Complutum (Alcala) in Spain, at the expense of Cardinal Ximenes, dated 1514-17 but not issued till 1522. To this succeeded an edition which has had more influence than any on the text of later times the Second Rabbinical Bible, printed by Bomberg al Venice, 4 vols. fol., 1525-6. The editor was the learned Tunisian Jew R. Jacob hen Chaim. The great feature of his work lay in the correction of the text by the precepts of the Masorah, in which he was profoundly skilled, and on which, as well as on the text itself, his labors were employed. The Hebrew Bible which became the standard to subsequent generations was: that of Joseph Athiais, a learned rabbi and printer at Amsterdam. His text Was based on a comparison of the previous editions with two MSS.; one bearing date 1299, the other a Spanish MS. boasting an antiquity of 900 years. It appeared at Amsterdam 2 vols. 8 vo, 1661.
Principles of criticism . --The method of procedure required in the criticism of the Old Testament is widely different from that practiced in the criticism of the New Testament. Our Old Testament textus receptus is a far more faithful representation of the genuine Scripture; but, on the other hand, the means of detecting and correcting the errors contained in it are more precarious, the results are more uncertain, and the ratio borne by the value of the diplomatic evidence of MSS. to that of a good critical judgment and sagacity is greatly diminished. It is indeed to the direct testimony of the MSS. that, in endeavoring to establish the true text, we must first have recourse. The comparative purity of the Hebrew text is probably different in different parts of the Old Testament. In the revision of Dr. Davidson, who has generally restricted himself to the admission of corrections warranted by MS., Masoretic or Talmudic authority, those in the book of Genesis do not exceed eleven; those in the Psalms are proportionately three times as numerous; those in the historical books and the Prophets are proportionately more numerous than those in the Psalms. II. QUOTATIONS FROM THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. --The New Testament quotations from the Old form one of the outward bonds of connection between the two parts of the Bible. They are manifold in kind. In the quotations of all kinds from the Old Testament in the New. We find a continual variation from the letter of the older Scriptures. To this variation three causes may be specified as having contributed: First, all the New Testament writers quoted from the Septuagint; correcting it indeed more or less by the Hebrew, especially when it was needful for their purpose occasionally deserting it altogether; still abiding by it to so large an extent as to show that it was the primary source whence their quotations were drawn. Secondly, the New Testament writers must have frequently quoted from memory. Thirdly, combined with this there was an alteration of conscious or unconscious design. Sometimes the object of this was to obtain increased force. Sometimes an Old Testament passage is abridged, and in the abridgment so adjusted, by a little alteration, as to present an aspect of completeness, and yet omit what is foreign to the immediate purpose. ( Acts 1:20 ; 1 Corinthians 1:31 ) At other times a passage is enlarged by the incorporation of a passage from another source: thus in (Luke 4:18,19 ) although the contents are professedly those, read by our Lord from (Isaiah 61:1 ) ... we have the words "to set at liberty them that are bruised," introduced from (Isaiah 58:6 ) (Sept.); similarly in (Romans 11:8 ; 29:4) is combined with (Isaiah 29:10 ) In some cases still greater liberty of alteration assumed. In someplaces,again, the a words of the original are taken up, but employed with a new meaning. Almost more remarkable than any alteration in the quotation itself is the circumstance that in (Matthew 27:9 ) Jeremiah should be named as the author of a prophecy really delivered by Zechariah; the being that the prophecy is based upon that in (Jeremiah 18:1 ; Jeremiah 19:1 ) ... and that without a reference to this original source the most essential features of the fulfillment of Zechariah's prophecy would be misunderstood.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Old Testament
1. The Old Testament in the primitive Church.-By the opening of the Christian era the limits of the OT Canon had been practically fixed, and a high doctrine of its inspiration developed within the Jewish Church. The real Author of the books embraced within the Canon was God Himself; and, charged as they were with His Spirit, they were holy as He was, and ‘defiled the hands’ of those who touched them. The OT Scriptures were thus the final norm of faith and conduct, and an appeal to their authority was decisive (see article Scripture). The early generation of Christians inherited this tradition. As children of the household of Israel, they grew up in the atmosphere of the OT revelation; and, even when they passed to the fuller life in Christ, they carried with them their reverence for the ancient Scriptures. No need for a distinctively Christian literature was yet felt. The books of the OT were the ‘oracles of God,’ which enshrined the Divine rule of life, not for the Fathers only, but for those also who had been called and redeemed in Christ. Being read mainly in the Greek or Aramaic versions, and interpreted, with the freedom characteristic of the age, as a collection of independent ‘prophecies’ or predictions of things to come, they were easily made to cover the great facts associated with Christ’s teaching, personality, and work. In this light they were regarded also as a sufficient guide to Christian conduct.
The clearest reflexion of this simple attitude towards the OT is found in the apostolic preaching in Acts. The theme of all the utterances found there is the salvation won through Christ’s death and resurrection. But the burden of proof rests on the authority of the Scriptures, as represented by the Septuagint . Christ Himself is the Prophet whose coming was heralded by Moses (Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37), and His death is the ‘fulfilling’ of ‘the things which God foreshewed by the mouth of all the prophets’ (Acts 3:18). To Him the mysterious prophecy of the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 is directly applied (Acts 8:32 f.). His resurrection, likewise, is that which was ‘foreseen’ by David in his protest against God’s ‘Holy One’ seeing corruption (Acts 2:25 ff.), and points forward to the final restoration of all things ‘whereof God spake by the mouth of his holy prophets which have been since the world began’ (Acts 3:21). The outpouring of the Spirit at Pentecost is equally the fulfilment of Joes’s glorious vision of the latter days (Acts 2:16 ff.), while the persecution that followed the first triumphs of the gospel marks the rage of kings and nations against the Lord and His Anointed, as foretold ‘by the Holy Ghost, by the mouth of our father David thy servant’ (Acts 4:25 f.). Even the tragedy of Judas’ end is the immediate working out of the curse denounced in Psalms 69:25 against the enemies of the righteous (Acts 1:20).
2. The Old Testament and the conflict for spiritual freedom.-So long as the preaching of the gospel was confined to Jews, the new wine was easily kept within the old bottles. But a conflict was inevitable when the wine began to ferment, and the freedom of the faith to assert itself against Jewish limitations. This conflict is already foreshadowed in St. Stephen’s preaching; but it became acute only with the conversion and world-wide ministry of St. Paul.
The Apostle to the Gentiles was a Pharisee ‘of the straitest sect,’ brought up at the feet of Gamaliel, and thus imbued not merely with a deep reverence and love for the Scriptures, but also with the Rabbinic method of expounding them, in entire independence of their historical setting and significance, as a store-house of separate ‘oracles,’ the manifold sense of which (literal, allegorical, rational, and mystical) was to be deduced by the interpreter’s own insight, logical acumen, or fancy, according to the rules laid down by representative Rabbis. His love for the ‘sacred writings’ St. Paul naturally brought with him into the service of Christ. His sermons and Epistles are steeped in the language of the OT, and proof-texts are abundantly used to point the edge of an argument, or to emphasize his counsels for Christian life (see article Quotations). Like his Jewish teachers, the Apostle continued to read the Scriptures as a body of independent ‘words,’ each charged with a life and force of its own. He is usually indifferent to the exact exegesis of his texts, following the Septuagint even when its rendering is faulty, though occasionally he does appear to cite from the original Hebrew. In other directions he claims a wide freedom in his reproduction and application of texts. Nor has he shaken himself quite clear of Rabbinic subtleties. Thus the narrowing of Abraham’s ‘seed’ to Christ (Galatians 3:16) is a thoroughly characteristic example of the verbal exegesis of the Rabbis. The allegory of Sarah and Hagar, the freewoman and the handmaid (Galatians 4:21 ff.), and the extracting of a hidden personal principle from the humane law of the unmuzzled ox (1 Corinthians 9:9 f., 1 Timothy 5:18), illustrate the ‘manifold sense’ read into the letter of Scripture; while the bold way in which he transfers to Gentile Christians the promises made to Israel (Romans 9:8 ff.), and finds in the Deuteronomist’s great thought of the nearness of the Law suggestions of Christ’s descent to earth and His rising from the dead (Romans 10:6 ff.), or in the ‘strange tongues’ of Isaiah 28:11 ff. a forecast of Christian ‘tongues’ (1 Corinthians 14:21), betrays the unrestrained liberty of interpretation exercised by the Jewish exegete. It is remarkable, however, that the Apostle is so little influenced by Rabbinic methods. Apart from these few survivals from a dead past, which touch only the periphery of his thought, there is nothing in his Epistles that reminds us of the arbitrary and highly extravagant exegetical results of his Jewish contemporaries. So deeply has he entered into the spirit of his Master that his whole treatment of the OT is marked by a sanity and sobriety of mind, enriched with a breadth, sympathy, and penetrating insight surpassed only by Christ.
In his preaching to the Jews St. Paul follows the practice of the earlier apostles, though with a new fullness and range. ‘He reasoned with them from the scriptures, opening and alleging, that it behoved the Christ to suffer, and to rise again from the dead’ (Acts 17:2 f.; cf. Acts 28:23 ff.). Thus in his speech at Antioch he sets forth Jesus as the Saviour of David’s seed brought unto Israel ‘according to the promise,’ whose condemnation and death at the hands of the people and rulers of Jerusalem were the fulfilment of the words of the prophets ‘which are read every sabbath,’ and His resurrection the bringing to pass of ‘the holy and sure blessings of David,’ as promised in Psalms 2, 8 (Acts 13:23 ff.). In his Epistles, too, he cites OT texts as direct predictions of the gospel. The new faith of which he was called to be an Apostle is ‘the gospel of God, which he promised afore by his prophets in the holy scriptures’ (Romans 1:1 f.; cf. Romans 3:21). Christ both died and rose again ‘according to the scriptures’ (1 Corinthians 15:3 f.), while proof-texts are adduced for the promise of the Spirit (Galatians 3:14), the destruction of human wisdom through the foolishness of preaching (1 Corinthians 1:19), the universal range of the preaching of salvation (Romans 10:18), the vital principle of righteousness by faith (Romans 1:17, Romans 3:21, Galatians 3:11), the fatal unbelief of the Jews (Romans 10:16 ff.) and the calling of the Gentiles (Romans 9:25 ff., Romans 10:19 f., Romans 15:9 ff.), the final salvation of Israel (Romans 11:26 f.), Christ’s victory over all His enemies (1 Corinthians 15:24 ff.), and the swallowing up of death and sin in the immortality won through Him (1 Corinthians 15:54 f.).
So far, then, the OT is treated as a Jewish book, pointing to the fulfilment of the ‘promise’ in Christ. But the extension of the gospel to the Gentiles, which was an essential part of this promise (cf. above), of necessity involved a change in the Apostle’s attitude to the Scriptures. As a Jewish book, the OT made no direct appeal to other nations. They had their own modes of thought and expression, and the most cultivated of them possessed a literature of surpassing beauty and power. On occasion the Apostle might approach their conscience by this path (cf. especially his speech to the Athenians); but his mind was so saturated with OT ideas, and the book itself was so manifestly the Word of God which made men ‘wise unto salvation’ (2 Timothy 3:15), that he could not withhold it from any nation. Irrespective, then, of the Jewish origin and cast of the whole, he deliberately transformed it into a Christian book, in which Christ was openly identified with the God of the Jews (cf. Romans 10:13 f., Romans 11:26 f., Ephesians 4:8; Ephesians 5:14, etc.), and the history of Israel was read typically (τυπικῶς, ‘by way of pattern’ or ‘figure’), as a series of illustrative moral examples, ‘written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages are come’ (1 Corinthians 10:11). Thus the promise to Abraham is extended to all who walk in the steps of his faith, whether in circumcision or in uncircumcision (Romans 4:12), while ‘it was not written for his sake alone, that it (his faith) was reckoned unto him (for righteousness), but for our sake also, unto whom it shall be reckoned, who believe on him that raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was delivered up for our trespasses, and was raised for our justification’ (Romans 4:23 ff.). The true Israel unto whom the Word was given is no more Abraham’s seed according to the flesh, but ‘the children of the promise,’ whether Jew or Gentile (Romans 9:6 ff., Galatians 3:28). Thus ‘whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that through patience and through comfort of the scriptures we might have hope’ (Romans 15:4).
This transformation of the OT into a distinctively Christian book was the more easily effected as the conflict for freedom turned decisively around the Law. For orthodox Judaism the Law was the heart of the Scriptures, the very ‘holy of holies.’ Like the other apostles, St. Paul was a child of the Law, who excelled them all in his zeal for its honour. Even as a Christian he remained under its influence, and was ready in the interests of the gospel, if need were, to circumcise and to carry through the statutory vows for himself and his converts (cf. his procedure in Acts 16:3; Acts 18:18; Acts 21:23 ff.). But to impose the Law on Gentile Christians as a necessary condition of their salvation would inevitably reduce Christianity to a mere Jewish sect. The Apostle knew, moreover, from personal experience, as well as from observation of life, that there was no saving power in the Law. As coming from the holy God, the Law was holy, and its commandment ‘righteous and good.’ But so weak and sinful was human flesh that the very constraint of the Law not only awoke the consciousness of sin, but roused an inward opposition, and thus actually provoked sin. Hence the paradox of moral life, that the ‘law of sin’ in man’s members ‘worked death through that which is itself good-that through the commandment sin might become exceedingly sinful.’ And the only real virtue of the Law was to drive men in despair to Christ (Romans 7:7 ff.).
On this profound psychological analysis the Apostle based his new reading of OT history. For him the Law was no longer the heart and spirit of the older revelation, but a mere parenthesis or side-issue. Sin was a great fact which directly entered the world (εἰσῆλθεν) in Adam. To circumvent its fatal effects, grace likewise entered (Romans 5:12 ff.). The Law came in sideways (παρεισῆλθεν), and therefore in a subordinate and non-essential capacity (Romans 5:20). Its purpose was not to save men, but to hold them in ward or prison until the true faith should be revealed (Galatians 3:23). At best, it was but the slave-boy (παιδαγωγός), who kept them under a certain moral restraint until Christ came (εἰς Χριστόν, i.e. ‘up to the time of Christ’), when they might be ‘justified by faith’ (Galatians 3:24). Thus the gospel had its spiritual affinities, not with the Law, but with that faith of Abraham which was the beginning of the promise (Galatians 3:15 ff.). In a real sense, indeed, the gospel was already inherent in the covenant between God and Abraham, confirmed 430 years before the giving of the Law, and remaining valid in spite of its interposition. If it be rightly read, therefore, the OT is a revelation of the same grace as is made manifest in Christ. Only the Jews have obscured its true character by the fatal emphasis they have placed on the Law. The veil with which Moses covered his face when he spoke to the people is a symbol of that still darker veil lying heavily upon the heart of Israel ‘at the reading of the old covenant,’ which will never be removed until they turn to Christ. In Him the veil has been ‘done away.’ And all who have found liberty through Him, ‘with unveiled face beholding as in a mirror [1] the glory of the Lord,’ are able to trace that glory shining through the ancient Scriptures, and are likewise ‘transformed into the same image from glory to glory’ (2 Corinthians 3:12 ff.).
3. The Old Testament as the foreshadowing of the gospel.-In the Epistle to the Hebrews the problem is attacked from a different point of view. The underlying assumptions are, no doubt, the same. The OT is treated throughout as the very Word of God, and quotations are introduced with the formula, ‘he saith’ (λέγει), used of God Himself (Hebrews 1:5 ff; Hebrews 5:5 f.), or the Holy Spirit (Hebrews 3:7 ff., Hebrews 10:15 ff.), or God speaking through the Spirit (Hebrews 4:3 ff., Hebrews 8:8 ff.), or even the Messiah (Hebrews 2:12 f., Hebrews 10:5 ff.), irrespective of their human authorship. But the widest freedom of interpretation is claimed. The author cites invariably from the Septuagint , being evidently ignorant of the original Hebrew. He is quite unfettered, too, by the historical application of texts. Thus not merely are Messianic Psalms like Psalms 2 and Psalms 110 referred directly to Christ (Hebrews 1:5; Hebrews 1:13 f.), but the highly dubious אֱלֹהִים, ‘O God,’ of Psalms 45:6 and the ‘son of man’ in Psalms 8:4 are both identified with Him (Hebrews 1:8 f., Hebrews 2:6 ff.), while even Isaiah’s description of himself and his children as ‘signs and portents in Israel’ (Isaiah 8:18) is cited as a proof of Jesus’ oneness with His people and His participation in the same flesh and blood as theirs, ‘that through death he might bring to nought him that had the power of death, that is, the devil; and might deliver all them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage’ (Hebrews 2:13 ff.). But, as a Jew of the school of Alexandria, he is much more influenced by the allegorical spirit than St. Paul. To him, indeed, the OT is a system of signs and symbols, foreshadowings and anticipations of something better, which is to be found only in Christ and the ‘new covenant’ of grace.
The opening paragraph lays down the famous contrast between the multiform and fragmentary character of the older revelation and the fullness of the light that came through Christ. ‘God, having of old time spoken unto the fathers through the prophets in many parts and in many modes, hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in a Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, through whom also he made the worlds, who being the effulgence (ἀπαύγασμα) of his glory, and the very impress of his essence (χαρακτὴρ τῆς ὑποστάσεως αὐτοῦ), and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had made purification of sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high’ (Hebrews 1:1 ff.). The history of revelation is here set forth under the categories of Platonic idealism. As this world is but a dim and flickering shadow of the eternal realities, thrown upon the screen of the passing present, the OT is a broken and changing expression of God’s mind, given through many different media, and sharing the imperfection bound up in all of them, while the revelation in Christ is the full ‘shining forth’ of the Divine glory through the perfect image or embodiment of the eternal Majesty. The real value of the OT Scriptures, therefore, is to point forward to the Light, and then to pass away as the shadow before the sunshine.
The author applies the same categories to the Law, by which, however, he means not the moral command that pressed so hard on the conscience of St. Paul, but the system of Levitical ordinances, as carried through in the service of the Temple. This also was a ‘copy and shadow (ὑπόδειγμα καὶ σκιά) of the heavenly things,’ an earthly adumbration of the worship carried through in the eternal temple above (Hebrews 8:5). As such, every part of the ritual had its significance (cf. esp. Hebrews 9:1 ff.). But the Law itself was quite powerless to save. ‘It is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins’ (Hebrews 10:4). It was equally impossible that high priests subject to the infirmities and mortality of human nature should by their daily and yearly sacrifices, offered continually and without change, ‘make perfect them that draw near’ (Hebrews 7:23 ff., Hebrews 9:9 ff., Hebrews 10:1 f.). In these sacrifices remembrance was made of sins, and the worshipper’s thoughts were thereby directed towards the perfect Sacrifice yet to be offered (Hebrews 10:3). The ‘very image’ (αὐτὴ ἡ εἰκών), the clear, full expression of the ‘good things’ of which the Law was but a dim, uncertain ‘shadow,’ was found only in Christ, by the offering of whose body sin was expiated once for all, and a ‘new and living way’ opened through the veil, ‘that is to say, his flesh,’ into the holy place where God is (Hebrews 10:5 ff.). The Aaronic priesthood was thus as imperfect a channel of the mediation of grace as the prophets had been of the revelation of God’s mind. Both were but foreshadowings of the ‘new covenant’ (Hebrews 8:7 ff.), ‘a parable for the time now present’ (Hebrews 9:9). The truest OT type of Christ was Melchizedek, coming, as He did, from the heavenly sphere, ‘without father, without mother, without genealogy, having neither beginning of days nor end of life,’ to bear immediate witness to the Divine (Hebrews 7:1 ff.).
4. Practical use of the Old Testament.-Christian interest in the OT is by no means exhausted by such discussions as to its relation to the gospel. The main test of its ‘inspiration’ is rather the practical one of helpfulness ‘for teaching, for judgment, for correction, for discipline in righteousness, that the man of God may be complete, furnished completely unto every good work’ (2 Timothy 3:16 f.). Thus St. Paul not merely checks his own fiery outburst against the high priest by calling to mind the injunction not to speak evil of a ruler (Acts 23:5), but cites the Decalogue and other moral precepts of the OT as still binding upon his readers (cf. Romans 12:19 f., 1 Corinthians 9:9, 2 Corinthians 6:17 f., 2 Corinthians 9:9, Ephesians 6:2, 1 Timothy 5:18, 2 Timothy 2:19), and with equal freedom adduces OT heroes as examples or warnings (e.g. Adam in Romans 5:12 f.; Eve in 2 Corinthians 11:3, 1 Timothy 2:14; Abraham in Romans 4:1 ff., Galatians 3:6 ff.; Moses and the children of Israel in 1 Corinthians 10:1 ff.). The fate of the rebellious Israelites is likewise held forth as a warning to Christian believers in Hebrews 3:12 ff.; but the noblest instance of this practical use of the OT in the Epistle is found in the great roll-call of faith (ch. 11). In the remaining books the speculative interest has almost vanished, and the OT is cited mainly for its ethical value. Of the six quotations in James, five are unmistakably ethical; and even the text from Genesis 15:6, which St. Paul made the basis of his doctrine of justification by faith, is adduced as a proof of justification by works (as the necessary fruit of faith). In the same way the Apostle refers to Rahab, Job, and Elijah as notable examples of works, patience, and prayer respectively (James 2:25, James 5:11; James 5:17 f.). Even in 1 Peter, where the primitive conception of the OT as a body of predictions fulfilled in Christ finds clear expression (Hebrews 1:10 f., Hebrews 2:6 ff.), the actual use of the Scriptures is predominantly practical (cf. 1 Peter 1:16, Hebrews 3:6; Hebrews 3:10 ff., Hebrews 5:5). The few suggestions of the OT traceable in 2 Peter (e.g. 2 Peter 2:5 ff, 2 Peter 2:15 f, 2 Peter 2:22) and 1 John (1 John 3:12) are of the same character; while the numerous reminiscences in Revelation, if not distinctively ethical, are yet concrete and imaginative, the clothing of the writer’s own dreams in the majestic symbolism of the OT poets and prophets (see article Quotations).
Literature.-A. Tholuck, Das AT [2] im NT6, Gotha, 1868; L. Diestel, Gesch. des AT [2] in der christl. Kirche, Jena, 1868, p. 6 ff.; B. Jowett, St. Paul’s Epp. to Thess., Gal. and Rom., vol. i.: ‘Essays and Dissertations,’ London, 1894; C. Clemen, Der Gebrauch des AT [2] in den neutest. Schriften, Gütersloh, 1895; G. H. Gilbert, Interpretation of the Bible, New York, 1908; A. Harnack, Degmengeschichte3, Freiburg, 1898, i. 41 ff.; H. St. J. Thackeray, The Relation of St. Paul to Contemporary Jewish Thought, London, 1900; the New Testament Theologies of B. Weiss (Eng. translation , Edinburgh, 1882-83), W. Beyschlag (Eng. translation , do., 1895), H. J. Holtzmann (2Tübingen, 1911), etc.; Sanday-Headlam, International Critical Commentary , ‘Romans,’5 Edinburgh, 1902; B. F. Westcott, Hebrews, London, 1889, p. 469 ff.; A. B. Bruce, The Epistle to the Hebrews, Edinburgh, 1899.
A. R. Gordon.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Old Testament (i. Christ as Fulfilment of)
OLD TESTAMENT (I. Christ as fulfilment of).† [1]
1. The ideals of life found in the OT by Jesus.—Jesus’ conception of the life of the OT is that of the life which is proper to the children of God (Matthew 5-7). It is the normal relation of fellowship between God and His children, obedience to God and to His messengers (Matthew 7:24). The life for which the prophets laboured, that which they represented as the ideal, was adopted by Him as the ideal, and their labours were continued by Him. He claimed no less an authority to carry on the development of the ideal than the greatest of the prophets had exercised. As the prophet taught (Isaiah 50:10) that those loyal to Jehovah should obey His representative, so did Jesus when He combined such sayings as ‘He that doeth the will of my Father’ (Matthew 7:21), and ‘He that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them’ (Matthew 7:24, Luke 6:45-49).
The OT ideal of religious life was the earlier stage of a religious development which He came to continue. It needed no essential change to become that which He wished to establish. It was characterized by an imperative demand for a righteousness which consisted in a thoroughgoing obedience to God, and this was just what Jesus demanded and exemplified. Moreover, while Jesus taught that the ideal of life was to be found in the OT, He was far from teaching that all that was in the OT contributed to this ideal. When He had occasion, He expressly taught that even the lawgiver, Moses, permitted practices which belonged to a lower plane of living than that of the principles contained in the OT. There was so much in the human heart that was hostile to these principles, that for a time a standard of life lower than these ideals was permitted (Matthew 19:8).
Jesus, like the prophets, was certain that the religious life for which He laboured was to become a universal religion. His claim of permanence for His utterances (Matthew 24:35, Matthew 11:10-147 Luke 21:33) was also a claim that His teachings had the changeless quality of the word of God under the Old Covenant (Isaiah 40:8; Isaiah 55:10-11; cf. Isaiah 51:6), and of God’s law under the New (Matthew 5:18, Luke 16:17). Words uttered by Him when the Greeks sought to see Him (John 12:32), were an assumption to Himself personally of the universal significance for human history which the prophets (Isaiah 11:9, Habakkuk 2:14) had claimed for the religion of Jehovah. This claim to a unique place in human history and identification of Himself with those lofty utterances of the OT, show that in the mind of Jesus the religious life of the OT had a unique place among the religions of the world. This is equally seen in His declaration to the Samaritan woman (John 4:22), ‘Ye worship that which ye know not: we worship that which we know: for salvation is of the Jews.’
Jesus addressed His hearers constantly as having the true religion, as nominally recognizing the true and living God, and as needing to do no more than live up to their own religion. He saw in the OT a universal ideal of society, and the principles for a programme of its establishment. The ideal society was one in which the lost should have been saved; into which the called and chosen should have been gathered; in which the repentant should have found pardon, the distressed and scattered should have found comfort; the members of which should love God supremely, and each other as themselves, and should be humble, meek, and pure in heart. During the progress of the establishment of this society, those who belonged to it would be called upon to be merciful, to hunger and thirst after righteousness to be peacemakers, to endure persecution for righteousness’ sake patiently, to love enemies, to devote themselves to God without pretence and with singleness of mind; and yet to live lives of radiant goodness, to bring forth an abundant fruitage of beneficence for the sake of Jesus and in His name, to observe the duties which grow out of the natural relations of life, to lose their lives for His sake and the gospel’s, to seek first this ideal society arid God’s righteousness, to go to Jesus and take His yoke upon themselves, and look upon a life of lowliest ministry as the life of highest honour.
In these conceptions Jesus was developing the OT ideal, as will be seen later. An important element in developing the ideal was a maturing of the conception of God. Since Jesus was an ‘OT saint’ (A. B. Davidson, Theology of the Old Testament, 520), the OT God was His God. Moses had been able to add new elements of meaning to Israel’s conception of God in connexion with the name ‘Jehovah.’ Jesus made a further advance by using the OT word ‘Father’ as applied to God, making it the dominant name in His own thought, and reading into this dominant conception of Fatherhood all the OT elements of the thought of God. Jesus so enlarged the conception of God that He practically gave a new revelation as the basis of the new development of religious life which He was promoting. This enlargement came in part from replacing the name ‘Jehovah’ by the name ‘Father,’ partly by the assumption on His part of a unique Sonship into which none of His disciples might enter (Matthew 11:27), partly by the new place given to the Spirit which was no more than adumbrated in the OT.
In these views Jesus was at variance with many of the people among whom He lived. The Jews at large were incapable of understanding them. For Pharisees and Sadducees the OT was a finality. It was a full and complete law incapable of further development. It was to be accomplished, fulfilled, simply by obedience to its letter. Prophecy was formal and literal, and their interpretations were often puerile. The Apocryphal literature shows how far short they fell of the ideals of the ancient prophets in spite of their ethical zeal. There was attachment to noble ethical ideals, and desire to attain them, and yet blindness to the real nature of these ideals. There was a lack of insight into the nature of their own religion, and an incapacity to live anywhere except on the surface of things.
2. Jesus and the Law.—Jesus found in the OT not only the ideal of a life, but also commandments, moral and ritual, by which this ideal was to be realized. It is certain that He regarded the OT as supremely authoritative for the conduct of life. He so accepted it and used it. He emphasized it as giving an authoritative revelation or the mind and will of God. He met temptation (Matthew 4:4; Matthew 4:7; Matthew 4:10, Luke 4:4; Luke 4:12; Luke 4:8) with precepts for life (Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 6:16; Deuteronomy 6:13), which exactly fitted the emergency. He also referred to the Ten Commandments as specific directions for conduct (Matthew 15:4, Mark 7:10 a; Matthew 19:18-19 a, Mark 10:19, Luke 18:20). He treated the OT as giving authoritative legislation when (Matthew 22:37; Luke 24:26-27 Mark 12:29-31, Luke 10:28) He quoted or approved other commands found in the Law (Deuteronomy 6:4-5, Leviticus 19:18; Leviticus 19:34) as chief rules for life. His practice is not the only indication of His mind. He made a definite declaration of principles, and gave abundant illustration of what He meant by it. The Sermon on the Mount is luminous on this point: Matthew 5:17 f. ‘Think not that I came to destroy the law or the prophets: I came not to destroy, but to fulfil’; cf. Luke 16:17.
His words to John the Baptist (Matthew 3:15 ‘Suffer it now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness’) show that His conception of fulfilment included His own personal performance of any and every duty which was incumbent upon Him according to the Law, so that nothing should be wanting to His full performance of every human duty. In other utterances, as John 4:34; John 5:36; John 17:4, His use of τελέω shows that His idea of fulfilment meant the completion of the tasks laid upon Him to accomplish. It should be borne in mind that He considered, and even claimed, that His conduct and will were in perfect harmony with the will of God (Matthew 7:21; Matthew 12:50, Mark 3:35, Matthew 26:39, Mark 14:36, Luke 22:42, John 5:30; John 6:38; John 8:46). This is a real and important mode of His fulfilment of the Law. If He did no more, it would be small help to those who were to preach the gospel. He did it because He was able to do far more, He was able to complete the Law as a law, i.e. to bring it to its perfection as a law. See, further, artt. Law and Law of God.
One wishes to find a olear utterance of the mind of Jesus respecting the imprecatory Psalms. Perhaps it is to be found in Matthew 10:34-36. If the basis of the current Jewish morality respecting revenge found support, as some think, in Psalms 41:11, (10) (‘But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon me, and raise me up, that I may requite them’) and the imprecatory Psalms, then we find the mind of Jesus in respect of those Psalms an expression of feelings which belong to the individual relations in life. Hate, divorce, and revenge are contrary to the principles of the society which Jesus came to establish, and they have no place in His ideal Kingdom.
The OT often had an ideal in solution, as it were, which in the mind of Jesus was precipitated into crystals of perfect and imperishable form. An illustration is the inchoate ideal of Job 31:29 ‘If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me, or lifted up myself when evil found him’; cf. Proverbs 24:17 ‘Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, and let not thy heart be glad when he is overthrown’; Proverbs 24:29 ‘Say not, I will do so to him as he has done to me, I will render to the man according to his work’; Proverbs 20:22 ‘Say not thou, I will recompense evil; wait on the Lord, and he will save thee’; Proverbs 25:21 ‘If thine enemy be hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he be thirsty, give him water to drink’; Exodus 23:4-5 ‘If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help with him’; 1 Samuel 24:4-8 the example of David in sparing the life of Saul when he had him in his power; also the similar instance of Elisha in sparing the Syrians (2 Kings 6:22); Psalms 7:5 b (4b) ‘Yea, I have delivered him that without cause was mine adversary.’ These were expressions of an ideal as yet unformed; passing through the mind of Jesus, they appear in the form, ‘Love your enemies, and pray for them that persecute you’ (Matthew 5:44), or more completely in Luke 6:27 b, Luke 6:28 ‘Love your enemies, do good to them that hate you, bless them that curse you, pray for them that despitefully use you.’ And they are exemplified in His prayer on the cross, Luke 23:34 ‘Father, forgive them: for they know not what they do’ (on this verse see Westcott-Hort, Gr. Test. ii. pp. 67, 68).
The ideal of true life found in the OT was fellowship with God. The necessary condition of such a life was perfect obedience to the law of love. Jesus found these principles in the literature of the OT, and their authority came from the Spirit, who moulded the life of which the OT was a growth.
3. Jesus and prophecy.—The recorded utterances of Jesus seem to indicate that He laid as real stress on the fulfilment of the prophecies of the OT as He did upon the fulfilment of the Law. This was a necessary consequence of the conviction that the ideal was to be realized. In Law and Prophets alike Jesus found declarations of the Divine purposes in human history, and intimations of the programme of the accomplishment of this purpose. In respect to the latter He expressed a firm confidence that the will of God as declared in the Law should be accomplished. In the Law and the Prophets He found intimations of Himself, of His experiences, and of the relation of these experiences to the establishment of the Kingdom. ‘Ye search the scriptures, because ye think that in them ye have eternal life’ (John 5:39). Were the intimations which Jesus found in the Prophets detailed and exact predictions which He was to fulfil? How did He look at the OT in relation to His own life? Did the Messianic conceptions of Jesus come chiefly from predictions which He found in the OT? Early in His ministry (Luke 4:21), after reading from Isaiah 61:1-2 He said, ‘To-day hath this scripture been fulfilled in your ears.’ He continued, and the contents of His speech are described (Lukr 4:22a), ‘And all bare him witness, and wondered at the words of grace which proceeded out of his mouth.’ What these words of grace may have been is left to our conjecture. They may have been like the answer sent to John the Baptist at another time, which seems to show that Jesus regarded the work He was doing in preaching good news to the poor, healing the sick, restoring sight to the blind, as the fulfilment of the utterance of the prophet in this passage. But also the fact that He Himself was doing this work was seen by Jesus as a fulfilment of that prophecy. It is only reasonable to interpret the words of Jesus as affirming that He regarded Himself ‘personally as included within the scope of the passage. Again, ‘For I say unto you, that this which is written must be fulfilled in me, And he was reckoned with transgressors: for that which concerneth me hath fulfilment’ (Luke 22:37). ‘That which concerneth me’ probably means that which in the Divine counsel concerned Him, whether written or unwritten. The words quoted by Him from Isaiah 53:12 were a part of the Divine counsel, according to the thought of Jesus. He says in effect: This utterance includes me within its scope and finds its culmination and perfect realization in my experience. The same may be said of the following, ‘But that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth my bread lifted up his heel against me’ (John 13:18); ‘But this Cometh to pass that the word may be fulfilled that is written in their law, They hated me without a cause’ (John 15:25), i.e. ‘the words of the OT find their completion in my experience.’
All the most important utterances of Jesus concerning fulfilment of OT prophecy found in His work or experience were attached to no specific Scripture passage, and furthermore we are unable to find a specific OT utterance as the basis. This is a very significant fact, and deserves more careful attention than was needed in the case of the passages just mentioned; cf. Matthew 26:54 ‘How then should the scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?’; Matthew 26:56 ‘But all this is come to pass, that the scriptures of the prophets might be fulfilled’; less fully in Mark 14:49 ‘But this is done that the scriptures might be fulfilled’; Luke 18:31 ‘And he took unto him twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all the things that are written by the prophets shall be accomplished unto the Son of Man.’ Most important of all are Matthew 22:39,; Luke 24:44-47 ‘Behoved it not the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into his glory? And beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.… And he said unto them, These are my words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, how that all things must needs be fulfilled, which are written in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms, concerning me. Then opened he their mind, that they might understand the scriptures, and he said unto them, Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer, and rise again from the dead the third day; and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name unto all the nations, beginning from Jerusalem.’ In these passages Jesus taught plainly that the OT testified that His death and resurrection were necessary antecedents to the preaching of repentance and the forgiveness of sins. In other words, according to Jesus, the OT clearly showed that His death and resurrection were a necessity in the Divine economy. The exact nature of this necessity has not been preserved in the record of the teachings of Jesus. We may say that in harmony with Scripture we should regard this necessity as not due to any arbitrariness on God’s part, or to any necessity of a mechanical conformity to the utterances in the OT. Rather, in the nature of things, it was due to the hardness of the human heart, which necessitated such experiences on the part of a Saviour in order to overcome its hardness.
It is quite significant that no one passage is quoted or mentioned in the reports of the teaching of Jesus given by Him after His resurrection. Yet He taught His disciples explicitly that His sufferings, death, and resurrection were necessary in order to fulfil the OT. Further, the disciples, after they understood the Scriptures, also saw the necessity of the death and resurrection. For the most part, the early utterances of the Apostles, as recorded in the Book of Acts, show the same reticence respecting specific OT passages which Jesus had shown.
We must believe that in its general tenor the Apostles taught what they had learned of Jesus. Is it not possible that the speech of Stephen before the Sanhedrin gives us very nearly the character of the teaching of Jesus? This is an argument from broad historical analogies and principles rather than a use of particular passages. In support of this suggestion we may turn to the utterances of Jesus, before His crucifixion, respecting His sufferings. See art. Announcements of Death.
The only passages of the OT which Jesus is recorded as having quoted in any relation to His sufferings are Psalms 35:19; Psalms 41:9 (Hebrew 10) Psalms 69:4 (Hebrews 5), Isaiah 53:12, and Zechariah 13:7. Did Jesus see specific predictions in these passages?
Before attempting to answer this question, it will be well to note what He said respecting the suffering of others than Himself which was due to their religious activities. He affirmed that in the past the world had been bitterly hostile towards those who worked for the doing of God’s will on earth. In Matthew 5:11 f., Luke 11:47-49, and similar passages, Jesus called to mind the fact that God’s messengers to His people had encountered bitter hostility throughout the past. In passages like Matthew 10:17; Matthew 10:22; Matthew 5:44; Matthew 23:29-31; Matthew 23:34; Matthew 23:37, Mark 10:30, Luke 12:49-53; Luke 13:34, John 15:18-25; John 17:14-15. He showed that such hostility is inevitable in the progress of His Kingdom. The spirit and methods of the world in the midst of which His Kingdom must develop are wholly alien to those of the Kingdom, therefore Jesus must meet hostility, and so must His disciples. The work of Jesus in the establishment of the Kingdom was conditioned by a long historical development which had already been centuries in progress when He came.
A long-continued historical movement, however complex, tending toward one goal has a substantial unity of character in all stages of its development. The various attitudes assumed by men towards the great features of such a movement are substantially the same from generation to generation, from age to age. Human beings persistently manifest their attitude in modes that are practically identical. Hence arise the oft-noted historical parallels. The fact that at one stage of a movement persons may act as persons do at another stage is the essential element of a historical parallel. In a long-continued development of a specific character nearly identical situations will often be repeated, and nearly identical experiences will often occur.
More noteworthy than mere historical parallels is the substantial identity of moral attitude and conduct seen in the persons whose experiences constitute the historical parallels. These facts can be verified from the political life of all peoples which has been recorded and transmitted to us. Nay, even movements separated widely in time and place, and not in the direct lines of historical development, give striking instances of historical parallels, and substantial identity of human character and conduct. This is notably exemplified in the entire history of the attempt to establish an ideal society, from Moses until the present day. Every attempt of men to establish the coming perfect society had some likeness to the labours which were to follow it. Every person, therefore, who shared in the earlier parts of the work in some respect foreshadowed those who should come later, including Him who should complete it. The earlier is the type of the later. So the persons in the earlier stages were typical of those in the later stages. So also were the Institutions which were auxiliary to the labours of these persons, or instrumental in their hands, typical of elements involved in the final accomplishment of the work to which they contributed. The later experiences are more complex than the earlier ones. For this reason we may say that the earlier ones foreshadowed the later, but we do not say that the earlier ones show with anything like exactness what the later ones were to be. Nevertheless, there is so much of likeness that similar language may often be used respecting them both. The names or descriptions of the earlier may, in a measure, fit the later. It was thus that Jesus properly gave the name Elijah to John the Baptist (Matthew 17:10-13), and appropriated for him the utterance in Malachi 4:5 (Heb. 3:23), as He had done more explicitly (1618541214_44) in the use of Malachi 3:1.
It is a most noteworthy fact that men who would gain power over others to secure their, transformation of character, must gain that power by self-denial and suffering. This was the philosophy of history given by Deutero-Isaiah. It was recognized by Stephen in his address before the Sanhedrin. Is it likely that Jesus had any less insight into the meaning of the history of His race, and the nature of the work which He had to do, than the prophet of the Exile? The teachings of Jesus show that He saw that the ideal state of society could come only by means of a contest with human selfishness and victory over it. The conflict presents essentially the same aspects in all stages of its progress. A successful issue of any long struggle is the consummation of all the previous stages of that struggle. Any complete realization of an ideal sought in the past is the consummation of that ideal. Also any conflict or experience securing the consummation of the ideal is equally the consummation of those seemingly fruitless conflicts and sufferings in the previous stages of the striving after the ideal. The history of redemption is organic. All the earlier stages typify the later ones.
Among other things, two facts have come to clear recognition at some stage in this discussion. One is that Jesus knew that the society which He was labouring to establish, the Kingdom of God, was certain to be established, and that both the chief place in the establishment of it and the supreme place in it after its establishment belonged to Him. The other fact is that Jesus recognized the inevitable and deeply rooted antagonism which He and His society must encounter and overcome, and that the way of suffering was the only path by which He could reach the goal of success. The conviction of the certainty of the establishment of the Kingdom of God must accordingly carry with it the conviction that all the conflicts and sufferings necessary to the establishment of this Kingdom were equally certain. Without doubt, Jesus saw in the OT Scriptures those experiences narrated and depicted which were necessary as the conditions of accomplishing the work which belonged to the establishment of the Kingdom of God. He claimed that He was establishing the Kingdom, that the foremost place in it belonged to Him, and that the position of men in the Kingdom was determined by relation to Himself. Accordingly He, the pre-eminent agent in the establishment of the Kingdom, in order to accomplish the purpose for which He was labouring, must accept into His experience all the trial and conflict which could befall any person engaged in the same work. OT prophecy, therefore, as a programme of the establishment of the Kingdom, depicted the experiences and labours of God’s servants, which were an unavoidable part of their work in achieving the results which they sought. The Synoptics record the sense of Jesus that sufferings prophesied in connexion with the establishment of the Kingdom were necessary (δεῖ, Matthew 16:21 et al.). He saw that the goal was certain to be reached, and that the OT representation of the toils, sufferings, and experiences necessary for the accomplishment of the labour which He was to perform concerned Him more fully than they concerned any one else, because the chief place in the Kingdom was His. So all the partial successes and the unsuccessful attempts in past generations to establish the ideal society were prophetic of what must come before the goal should be reached.
We must believe that this typical nature of the OT records and prophecy was that which Jesus had in His mind when He applied the OT prophecies to Himself. This is a principle, and the use which Jesus made of the OT in ethical and spiritual matters was so prevalently that of principle, that it is most natural to regard the use of prophecy as that of principle. Like the Semitic mode of presenting principles by concrete examples, so was His use of the OT Scriptures by definite illustrations and allusions to individuals. The instances noted above of the use of Isaiah 53:12, Zechariah 13:7, Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of).
OLD TESTAMENT (II. Christ as student and interpreter of).
1. Importance of the subject.—In studying the Gospels, it is hardly possible to exaggerate the importance of the subject of Christ’s knowledge of and use of the Scriptures of the OT. These constituted the main part of the literature of His fellow-countrymen, and by all of them were regarded with a reverence second to nothing else.
In our own day it has become possible to study this subject as no previous generation has ever had the opportunity of doing. Careful textual investigation of the NT has enabled us to be much more sure of the actual form of the text than ever before, and the patient comparative study of the Gospels has set forth their inter-relation and dependence upon one another in a clearer fashion for the ordinary reader than at any other time. Much more care has also been expended on the study of the OT, both In Hebrew and in Greek, and, consequently, the influence of the latter version upon the language of the NT has been rendered clearer. Much study has also been given to the language of the NT, so that we are better able to tell when the LXX Septuagint influences it, and when the vocabulary is less that of the OT than it is of the common contemporary speech. The discoveries of recent years among the papyri of Egypt have given us much insight into the ordinary Greek of the period, so that many words formerly supposed to belong exclusively to the LXX Septuagint are now known to belong to the everyday language of the market-place. Investigations of another order have made us better acquainted than before with the vast amount of literature current in the circles of Judaism, only a small portion of which is contained in the Apocrypha of our English Bible. The various Apocalypses in particular exerted an immense influence upon the generation to which our Lord belonged, and much of their language and ideas can be traced in the pages of the Gospels. Again, the mere improvement in the methods of printing has made the study of this subject easier for present-day students. Take such a copy of the Greek text as that of Westcott and Hort. A cursory examination of it shows that not only actual quotations, but even reminiscences, when these consist of not more than a word or two, are printed in uncial type, and so reveal at a glance the fact that there are traces of the OT in the passage. It is very striking to run through the Gospels in such a form, and to find how large a portion of them, comparatively speaking, is made up of OT phraseology. A similar expedient is carried out in the Twentieth Century NT, save that there quotations and reminiscences from the Apocryphal literature are also indicated. In Weymouth’s translation, The NT in Modern Speech, the actual quotations from the OT are also indicated in special type, and more clearly still these various sources are indicated in Weizsäcker’s German translation of the NT. All these are indications of how thoroughly modern scholars realize the importance of setting forth the presence of OT language in the text of the NT. This, however, is not mainly of antiquarian or historical interest, but derives its greatest significance from the bearing that it has upon the personal thought and action of our Lord. It is always of the greatest interest and significance to discover the intellectual forces that have moulded any great personality. ‘Books that have influenced me’ always constitute an illuminative section of the autobiography of any great thinker or writer; and to discover that the recorded conversations and addresses of our Lord reveal to us as clearly as they do the literature upon which He has nurtured His own soul, is a great help both in the interpretation of His teaching and in the understanding of His message and mission.
2. Difficulties of the subject.—Fascinating as this study is, it is beset with many peculiar difficulties, (a) First among these is the question of language. It is now generally recognized that the language our Lord spoke was Aramaic, the then current colloquial speech of Palestine. This is, as is well known, revealed in certain expressions in that language quoted in the Gospels, as, for example, the words upon the Cross and those spoken at the raising of Jairus’ daughter. The fact that our Lord commonly spoke Aramaic implies, of course, that all the reports of His speeches and conversations are translations, and this at the outset necessarily complicates the question we wish to investigate, for the references that are clearly obvious to the OT or other writings may be the work of the translator; and, on the other hand, many traces of OT language present in the original address may now be lost sight of. It is a further question whether and how far the existing Gospels depend upon an Aramaic original or originals. The well-known tradition, derived from Papias, that Matthew’s Gospel was originally composed in Aramaic, has been taken as a basis for various theories, that seek to account for existing divergences among the Synoptics by the supposition that these consist of different translations of the same original.
(b) The second difficulty that attaches to the preliminary investigation of the subject is as to whether our Lord Himself quoted from the original Hebrew text of the OT, or from the Septuagint. A knowledge of Hebrew was not usual among the common people, and in the synagogue services the reading of the Hebrew text was always accompanied by that of an Aramaic paraphrase;* [1] p. 112).] but, of course, it is impossible to tell whether in any one individual case a knowledge of the sacred language might not in some way have been acquired. But the evidence goes to show that the Greek version of the OT was that most commonly in use, and the majority of the quotations in the Gospels are made from it. Swete has pointed out that the large number of citations common to the three Synoptics, or to two of them, are directly taken from the LXX Septuagint , while in the case of citations that are peculiar to one Gospel a larger proportion show independence of the LXX Septuagint text. Some of these peculiar instances will be examined in detail later in this article; but a curious discovery has been made, namely, that certain quotations contained in the Gospels reveal a closer agreement with Cod. A than with any other existing text of the Greek OT—a tendency that has also been discovered in the writings of Josephus and of Philo, while Swete also points out that there is an ‘occasional tendency in NT quotations to support Theodotion against the LXX Septuagint ’ (Introd. to the OT in Greek, p. 395). It would thus, appear that the NT writers may have employed a form of text different from that of the LXX Septuagint as now known to us in what we reckon its best textual form; but whether, of course, this is only a peculiarity of the writer or was also the form of text familiar to and used by our Lord Himself, is impossible to decide.
An interesting illustration of our Lord’s apparent intimate acquaintance with the LXX Septuagint , where that differs from the Hebrew, is given by Dr. Horton in the case of the Book of Proverbs. In Proverbs 9:12 there is a long addition in the LXX Septuagint text to that of the ordinary Hebrew, the latter part of which runs as follows: ‘For he hath forsaken the ways of his vineyard, and gone astray in the paths of his field; for he walketh through a desert without water (διατορεύεται διʼ ἀνύδρου ἐρήμου) and over a land that is set in thirsty places; and with his hands he gathereth that which is without fruit.’ The phrase used above for ‘through a desert without water’ is that employed in the description of the conduct of the unclean spirit in our Lord’s parable in Matthew 12:43. Again, in Proverbs 4:21 the LXX Septuagint , instead of ‘Let them not depart from thine eyes,’ reads ‘in order that thy fountains may not fail thee,’ using a metaphor which recurs frequently in the pages of the book (see Proverbs 18:4; Proverbs 14:27; Proverbs 16:22), and is frequently employed by our Lord Himself in His language with reference to the ‘water of life’ (cf. John 7:38, and what is said of that passage below).
(c) The third difficulty is that which attaches to the method of the Evangelists in reporting our Lord’s sayings. For instance, in Luke 11:29-30 our Lord says that no sign shall be given to the men of His own generation save the sign of Jonah; ‘for even,’ He adds, ‘as Jonah became a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of Man be to this generation … the men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold a greater than Jonah is here.’ It is obvious that in Lk.’s understanding of the saying the parallel between Jonah and Christ is that of the preacher of righteonsness, and the result that his preaching had upon his hearers; but when we turn to the parallel in Matthew 12:40, we find the sign distinctly given as the fact of Jonah’s being three days and nights in the maw of the sea-monster, and as a parallel with the Son of Man’s being three days and three nights in the heart of the earth. But the close of the passage is the same as that given by Lk., so that it seems pretty certain that this fantastic and allegorical interpretation was not due to our Lord Himself, but to the Evangelist, a fact that is made the more probable by the consideration that He seems never to have hinted at His resurrection except to the immediate circle of His disciples. Another instance is to be found in Mark 7:11-12 and its parallel in Matthew 15:5-6, where Mk. in the explanation of the custom of Corban makes our Lord say, ‘Ye no longer suffer him to do aught for his father or his mother,’ while Mt. says, ‘He shall not honour his father (or his mother).’ A further study of these two parallel passages will also reveal the fact that a passage from Isaiah quoted in each of them has a different connexion in each Evangelist, and that either considerable freedom must have been used in reporting our Lord’s words, or the Evangelists have themselves introduced the passage as appropriate to the occasion. The well-known method of Mt., in particular, of introducing OT passages as illustrative of incidents in our Lord’s history or as explicative of His teaching, makes it the more difficult in the case of the First Gospel to feel certain when we have our Lord’s own words and when the sayings are attributable to the writer.
3. How Jesus learned to know the OT.—Jewish boys were from their earliest years made familiar with the contents of the OT, particularly with the books of the Law (see Boyhood, and Education). They were not only taught to commit many passages to memory, but there seems to have been a pretty widespread knowledge of reading. While the primary steps in such education were no doubt carried out in the home, there is pretty clear testimony that everywhere schools for at least elementary education were established. Within the home circle also children were accustomed from a very early age to observe certain practices enjoined by the Law, e.g. the keeping of the Sabbath, fasting on the Day of Atonement, the simpler forms of prayer, and grace at meals. Boys at least, as soon as they could walk the requisite distance, were required to be present at the chief festivals in the Temple, and in particular were bound to observe the Feast of Tabernacles. At the earliest manifestation of manhood’s estate being reached, the full observance of the Law was enjoined upon the youth, and, consequently, our Lord’s appearance in the Temple at the age of twelve is quite in accordance with the regular practice of the time. On this occasion the boy Jesus gained His first insight into the Temple worship. Whether He returned at all, or frequently, during His youth and early manhood, to the Holy City, we have no means of ascertaining; but in Nazareth He would seem to have been a constant attender at the synagogue services, for such is noted in the Gospels as being His practice; and when He returned to the town, after His public ministry had begun, it was not His presence in the synagogue that surprised His fellow-townsmen, but the learning of one whom they had previously regarded as an ordinary comrade. In the services of the synagogue He would be familiar not only with the recognized reading of the Law in accordance with the prescribed practice and order, and may even have been frequently called upon in His youth to read, but in the chief Sabbath service He would also become familiar with passages read from the Prophets. These might be chosen at will by the appointed reader, a practice of which Jesus probably availed Himself (Luke 4:17). The Scriptures were not only read in these services, but were paraphrased into the popular language of the people. It is uncertain whether the interpreter was a fixed official, or whether his function was left open to be undertaken by any competent member of the congregation. It is at least permissible to think that Jesus may Himself have played this part many times in the quiet of the Nazareth synagogue, and by the exquisite appropriateness of His language have already shown Himself capable of making the word of God an attractive message to the common people. This is at least a possible fancy, and if it is true, it would form an excellent training for His subsequent service as a deeper interpreter of the inner meaning of both Law and Prophets.
It is almost certain that our Lord would have another advantage in gaining a familiar knowledge of the OT, and in enabling Him to use that knowledge for the benefit of His countrymen, the advantage, namely, of being familiar with another language that was then the common speech of the civilized world, namely, Greek. The LXX Septuagint was, as we have already seen, the Bible most generally used by the Jewish community, and it is quite possible that Jesus Himself read it. In any case, if He could speak Greek (see art. Language of Christ), He would have the immense advantage that belongs to any one who grows up able to speak and think in two languages almost indifferently. It seems as if the condition of affairs then prevalent in Palestine was similar to that which exists in many parts of the Highlands of Scotland, or in Wales, at the present moment. The people will always read a book like the Bible by preference in their own tongue, and its language will naturally be most familiar to them in that form, but they can at will translate it into English, though that English may not, and very likely will not, agree verbally with the version in use. Some such process as this may account for many variants that are found in the Greek quotations from the OT in the pages of the NT. But the alacrity thus attained in mental processes and in the rapid change, not only from the idiom of one speech to that of another, but also from the mental atmosphere of one to that of another, is a great education, and helps the man with a natural gift as a teacher to develop his inborn genius in directions very valuable for those he has to teach.
4. Jesus as interpreter of the OT.—Having now seen how Jesus acquired His knowledge of the OT Scriptures, the next matter of importance is to discover how He attained to His position as an interpreter of them. There was a class of official interpreters, and neither by training nor by personal claim did He belong to this section. Yet His methods of interpretation created far more surprise among His hearers than did the teaching of the orthodox and recognized men of learning. It was not only that His methods possessed the charm of novelty, but that they enabled the people to feel that for the first time their Scriptures had become a new and living book, which no longer pressed upon their souls like a heavy burden, but itself enabled them to bear life’s greatest loads. He became, therefore, a popular interpreter of the Book to the weary heart of humanity; while He became, on the other hand, a hated teacher to the privileged class, who felt their profession endangered both by His methods and by the reception they met with at the hands of the crowd. He regarded the OT with much more real reverence than did the scribes, and, indeed, He spoke of it in a way that might almost sound extravagant in its praise, but He also treated its message with a freedom that was surprising, and broke through the husk of the letter till He found for men the strength and the sweetness of the kernel they had not before tasted.
(a) The great ideas that were regulative of the OT revelation were also those which guided the conduct and practice of our Lord, ideas that were central to His thinking, and loyalty to which He demanded not only from all His followers, but from the people who themselves professed to reverence them. The OT idea of righteousness of conduct as consisting in both outward obedience to the ceremonial observance of the Law and inward obedience to its spiritual precepts, were the two points round which His own teaching and practice appear to have centred. It was this, we are told (Matthew 3:15), that led Him to undergo the ceremony of baptism at the hands of John, as it was this also that on more than one occasion made Him quote the great spiritual commandments of the Law as containing within themselves the secret of eternal life.
(b) It is not, of course, possible to judge fully from the scanty references preserved in the Gospels as to how far our Lord employed the histories of the OT to illustrate His teaching; but inasmuch as we have no material other than these upon which to form a judgment, we must examine the records that we possess. The difficulty is increased, moreover, by our uncertainty as to when the statements are clearly those of the Master Himself, and when they are due to the editing hand of the Evangelist.
In the passage, for example, in which He refers to Noah’s flood (Matthew 24:37 ff., Luke 17:26 f.), He has been dealing with the question of the future history of the world. In Mt. the words occur in the middle of the great apocalyptic passage, which is more than likely to have been much influenced by later ideas, and more altered than many sections of the Gospel. As Lk. reports the reference, it is contained in a short section of teaching to the disciples that follows upon a question asked by the Pharisees; but it is a section which also bears upon it the impress of apocalypse, and may be a passage extracted by the Evangelist from what the present writer regards as most probably the first collection of the sayings of Jesus, i.e. His apocalyptic utterances about the future. Apocalypse was so favourite a form of literature in our Lord’s day, and exercised so strong an influence upon His contemporaries, that it seems more than likely that the first series of His words to be reduced to writing would be that which in form and substance most readily fell in with current conceptions. Such a collection of sayings also best accounts for the variety of form in which this particular section appears in the first three Gospels, and may also lie behind St. Paul’s well-known passages in the Epp. to the Thessalonians. If the theory here suggested is a sound one, that collection of our Lord’s sayings would be in the hands not only of St. Paul, but probably also of his correspondents; and consequently his language and imagery would not only be familiar and intelligible, but would have the authority of Christ behind it. In the parallel passage in Lk., above referred to, there is added to the reference to Noah a reference to the history of Lot, and the fate of Sodom and the Cities of the Plain is again referred to by our Lord when He utters His judgment upon the generation that rejected Him, and declares that in the Final Judgment it shall be more tolerable for Sodom than for them (Matthew 10:15; Matthew 11:24, Luke 10:12). In the same connexion He makes reference to the fate of Tyre and Sidon. According to Matthew 12:40, our Lord speaks of Jonah’s being swallowed by the sea-monster, but from the parallel in Lk. we should judge that the reference was made only to Jonah’s preaching and the subsequent repentance of the Ninevites (Luke 11:29; Luke 11:32).
All the Synoptics (Matthew 12:3 f., Mark 2:25 f., Luke 6:3 f. contain a reference to an incident in the life of David, viz. his eating the shew-bread, and, according to Mk. and Lk., his sharing it with his companions. The account of Mk. has a peculiar difficulty, inasmuch as ‘Abiathar’ is given as the name of the priest, where the OT narrative (1 Samuel 21:1 ff.) states that it was ‘Ahimelech’ (see Abiathar). To Elijah the prophet there is more than one reference. In answer to the question asked by the disciples as to what is meant by the statement of the religious authorities that Elijah must be the precursor of the Messiah (a doctrine founded on Malachi 4:5), our Lord replies that the advent of Elijah has already taken place—a statement which in one connexion (Matthew 11:14) is directly referred by Jesus in its fulfilment to John the Baptist, whereas in another place (Matthew 17:13) this interpretation is given by the Evangelist himself. Another reference to the history of the same prophet is-that to his visit to the widow of Sidon in the time of the great famine (Luke 4:25 f.), where also an illustration is taken from Elisha’s cleansing of Naaman the Syrian. In the former passage there is again a divergence from the OT as to the length of the period of famine. The latter two passages occur in the address in the synagogue of Nazareth, for which, of course, we have only the authority of Lk.; but inherent probability is in favour of our Lord’s using such illustrations to show the wider reach of His mission, though it is not perhaps quite probable that He would have done so, as Lk. represents, at the very outset of His ministry. We may therefore, perhaps, regard the fact of the reference as a correct tradition, but the place and manner of it as due to the Evangelist himself.
The glory of the court of Solomon is twice referred to in the Gospels, and that in words of Christ. The first instance is the unfavourable comparison between the splendour of the great monarch and the beauty of the field flowers (Matthew 6:29, Luke 12:27). The second occasion is the reference to the story of the visit of the ‘queen of the South’ to the court of Solomon, and the argument that inasmuch as a greater than Solomon is here,’ she will bring into condemnation Christ’s contemporaries. A general reference to the ill-treatment of the prophets at the hands of their countrymen is made in the pathetic lament over Jerusalem, attributed to our Lord in Matthew 23:37, Luke 13:34, while a more specific reference is contained in the immediately preceding verses in Mt.—a passage, however, that is fraught with peculiar difficulties. The whole section is that which contains the woes uttered against the scribes and Pharisees, and bears considerable trace of later editing, even if it is to be attributed, in very much of its present form, to the writer of the Gospel. The passage referred to is contained in Matthew 23:29-36, where the religious teachers are spoken of as those who ‘build the sepulchres of the prophets and garnish the tombs of the righteous, and who say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we should not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.’ The passage then proceeds to a prophecy of what is to happen later to further witnesses that will be sent, and of their ill-treatment; they are to be scourged and persecuted from city to city—an obvious reference to the treatment of the early Christian missionaries, and, in all likelihood, with the knowledge of their fate before the writer’s mind. The conclusion of the passage speaks of the judgment that is to come upon the men of that generation for all the blood shed on the earth, from that of ‘Abel the righteous unto the blood of Zachariah, son of Barachiah, whom ye slew between the sanctuary and the altar.’ It is very difficult to decide what is meant by this last reference, the supposed original passage (2 Chronicles 24:21) having a different name for the father of Zachariah (see Barachiah). In John’s Gospel there is a reference (2 Chronicles 3:14) to the brazen serpent raised by Moses in the wilderness, and in His controversy with the Sadducees our Lord shows His acquaintance with the passage in the life of Moses that relates the revelation at the burning bush (Mark 12:26).
These historical references may seem very slight, but they are sufficient to show Jesus’ intimate acquaintance with the history of His people, seeing that He was able to employ at will illustrations from what one might consider remote and unlikely incidents in the national story. We must remember also that He was not dealing with historical questions in His teaching, and that all references to these are purely casual. He seems to have accepted the history as it stood recorded, and not to have dealt with it in any critical spirit; for what concerned Him most was its spiritual significance, and this He could best show by accepting the narratives as they stood in the recognized Scripture.
(c) It is of extreme interest to discover, if we can, what books of the OT Jesus turned to with the greatest interest and affection. So far as the available evidence is concerned, it would seem, as we might expect, that the writings which were most familiar to Him were those in which the spirit of the prophets reached its highest level, and on which His countrymen and fellow-religionists had most perfectly matured their own spiritual life—such books as Isaiah, the Psalms, and that most spiritual setting forth of the Law, the Book of Deuteronomy. There is another of the prophets—in all likelihood a native of Galilee, where our Lord Himself was brought up—who seems to have influenced His thought and teaching not a little, viz. Hosea. Out of the 39 books which compose the OT, 14 are directly quoted by Jesus in the records we possess. These are Gen. [2] , Ex., Lev., Num., Deut., Sam. [3] -Kings, Ps., Is., Jer., Dan., Hos., Zech., Malachi. His particular interest in Deut. is shown in the fact that in the narrative of the Temptation all the quotations with which He meets the assaults of Satan are taken from that book; and when He declares the essence of the Law to inquirers who ask for it, He invariably states it in the Deuteronomic form. Passages from the Psalms were apparently not only frequently upon His lips, but He used their language on various occasions to describe the real significance of His mission, as when He refers (Matthew 21:42 ||) to the ‘stone which the builders rejected’ as being significant of Himself, and so consecrated the passage to the later usage of the Church. That He used the Psalms to strengthen His own spiritual life, is pretty clear from various instances in His recorded language of their phraseology underlying His own forms of expression; but most clearly from His words upon the cross, where it seems that one of the Psalms, the 22nd, was the subject of His reflexion in that supreme hour. Of the prophet Isaiah He evidently made frequent use. According to the narrative in Lk. (Luke 4:17 f.), His ministry opened with an appropriation and interpretation of the great passage in Isaiah 61, which is elsewhere (Matthew 11:5) employed as part of the proof that He Himself is carrying out the Messianic programme. If the reference to the ‘keys of the kingdom of heaven’ (Matthew 16:19) be authentic, the phrase probably comes from another passage in Isaiah (Isaiah 22:22), which reads, ‘The key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder, and he shall open and none shall shut, and he shall shut and none shall open.’ In the case of Hosea it is not only that the suggestive words from Hosea 6:6 are twice quoted (Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7), but that the words in which He is accustomed to speak of His resurrection are also found in Hosea 6:2. Hosea is a prophet who is fond of parables, and some of his illustrations from nature are

Sentence search

Tes'Tament, Old, - [1] Old Testament - 3249
Allegory - ...
Old Testament Allegory Scholars generally agree that none of the Old Testament was written allegorically. For example, interpreting the Song of Solomon as an allegory of God's love for Israel rather than as a collection of romantic love songs may have played a role in the acceptance of that book into the Old Testament canon. ...
Allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament arose among Hellenistic Jews in Alexandria during the second century B. Philo sought to preserve Old Testament traditions against Greek perspectives in science and philosophy. He applied allegory to many portions of the Old Testament where the biblical views seemed to contradict contemporary secular understandings. The rabbis placed more emphasis on extracting legal prescriptions from the traditions, while other interpreters were more attracted to viewing the Old Testament in terms of prophecies to be fulfilled. ...
New Testament New Testament writers have more in common with the approaches of Palestinian Jewish interpreters of the Old Testament than with Hellenistic interpreters like Philo. A strong prophetic-fulfillment interpretation of the Old Testament also is evident. ...
While Jesus never made allegorical interpretations of the Old Testament, some of His parables were interpreted as allegories. Other parables draw on obvious Old Testament images (such as the vineyard representing Israel). ...
1 Corinthians 5:6-8 is not so much an interpretation of the Old Testament as it is the use of an Old Testament image that finds fulfillment in the sacrifice of Christ, our Passover. 1 Corinthians 10:1-11 draws heavily on the fulfillment that “followed” the Old Testament people in the person of Christ. These approaches are not far from Matthew's citations of Old Testament testimonies about Christ. ...
On the other hand, 1 Corinthians 9:8-10 departs completely from the literal meaning of the law as it applied to muzzling oxen; and Galatians 4:21-31 is a thorough allegorization of the Old Testament. The writer of Hebrews followed in that same spirit in dealing with Old Testament themes like Melchizedek, the Old Testament priesthood, and the tabernacle
o.t. - = Old Testament ...
Septuagint, the (Lxx) - The Septuagint is the Greek translation of the Old Testament. The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew. Shortly afterwards the rest of the Old Testament was also translated
Septuagint - ” Oldest Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament. Most New Testament quotations of the Old Testament are from the Septuagint
Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament - The influence of the Old Testament is seen throughout the New Testament. The New Testament writers included approximately 250 express Old Testament quotations, and if one includes indirect or partial quotations, the number jumps to more than 1,000. It is clear that the writers of the New Testament were concerned with demonstrating the continuity between the Old Testament Scriptures and the faith they proclaimed. They were convinced that in Jesus the Old Testament promises had been fulfilled. ” The most common introductory formulas are: “as the Scripture hath said” (John 7:38 ); “What saith the Scripture” (Galatians 4:30 ); “it is (stands) written,” emphasizing the permanent validity of the Old Testament revelation (Mark 1:2 ; Romans 1:17 ; Romans 3:10 ); “that it might be fulfilled,” emphasizing the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies (Matthew 4:14 , Matthew 12:17 , Matthew 21:4 ); “God hath said,” “He saith,” “the Holy Spirit says,” which personify Scripture and reflect its divine dimension (Romans 9:25 ; Romans 10:21 ; 2 Corinthians 6:16 ); “Moses,” “David,” or “Isaiah” says which emphasize the human element in Scripture (Romans 10:16 , Romans 10:19-20 ; Hebrews 4:7 ). Composite quotations combine two or more Old Testament texts drawn from one or more of the sections of the Hebrew Old Testament canon (The Law, Prophets, and Writings). In some cases, a series of Old Testament texts may be used in a commentary-like fashion as in John 12:38-40 and Romans 9-11 . Indirect quotations or allusions form the most difficult type of Old Testament quotation to identify. An allusion may be little more than a clause, phrase, or even a word drawn from an Old Testament text which might easily escape the notice of the reader. For example, the reader might easily miss the fact that the words spoken from the cloud at the transfiguration of Jesus as recorded in Matthew 17:5 combine three separate Old Testament texts: “Thou art my Son” ( Psalm 2:7 ), “in whom my soul delighteth” (Isaiah 42:1 ), and “unto him ye shall hearken” (Deuteronomy 18:15 ). ...
Sources of Old Testament Quotations Since the New Testament was written in Greek for predominantly Greek readers, it is not surprising that a large majority of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament are drawn from the Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint (LXX). This means that 38 diverge from all known Greek or Hebrew Old Testament texts. How then are these quotes to be explained? The New Testament writers may have used a version of the Old Testament which is unknown to us, or they may have been quoting from memory. It has also been suggested that the Old Testament quotations may have been drawn from “testimony books,” collections of selected, combined, and interpreted Old Testament texts gathered by the early Christian community for proclamation and apologetics. The frequent use of certain Old Testament texts, such as Psalm 110:1 , Isaiah 43:1 , and so forth, in the preaching and writing of the early church and the discovery of such collections at Qumran seem to support such a possibility. ...
The Uses of Old Testament Quotations The New Testament writers used Old Testament quotations for at least four reasons: (1) to demonstrate that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's purposes and of the prophetic witness of the Old Testament Scriptures ( Romans 1:2 ; Matthew 4:14 ; Matthew 12:17-21 ; Matthew 21:4-5 ); (2) as a source for ethical instruction and edification of the church ( Romans 13:8-10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:1 ); (3) to interpret contemporary events (Romans 9-11 ; Romans 15:8-12 ); (4) to prove a point on the assumption that the Scripture is God's Word (1 Corinthians 10:26 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:55 ). The approaches employed in the use of the Old Testament are reflective of first century Judaism as represented in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo of Alexandra, and later rabbinic Judaism. Some Old Testament quotations are used in their literal historical sense and, therefore, have the same meaning in the New Testament as they had in the Old Testament. Some quotations reflect a typical approach to interpreting the Old Testament in first-century Judaism known as midrash . The Old Testament text is quoted and explained so as to make it apply to or be meaningful for the current situation. ...
Some Old Testament texts are interpreted typologically . In this approach, the New Testament writer sees a correspondence between persons, events, or things in the Old Testament and persons, events, or things in their contemporary setting. In some cases, the understanding and application of the Old Testament quotation is dependent on an awareness of the quotation's wider context in the Old Testament. The use of the quotation is intended to call the reader's attention to the wider Old Testament context or theme and might be referred to as a “pointer quotation . Finally, there is a limited allegorical use of the Old Testament text in which the text is seen as a kind of code having two meanings—the literal, superficial level of meaning, and a deeper, underying meaning such as in Galatians 4:22-31 . ...
Despite similarities with contemporary Jewish use(s) of the Old Testament, the New Testament writers interpreted the Old Testament in a radically new way. The writers of the New Testament were convinced that the true meaning of the Old Testament is Jesus Christ and that He alone provides the means of understanding it. True interpretation of the Old Testament is achieved by reading Old Testament passages or incidents in light of the event of Christ. While many of the Old Testament texts quoted in the New Testament had already been accepted as messianic (for example, Psalm 110:1 ) or could in light of Jesus' actual life claim to be messianic (Psalm 22:1 ; Isaiah 53:1 ), for the early Christians, all Scripture was to be interpreted by the fact of Christ because it is to Him that the Old Testament Scripture points (John 5:39 ). In summary, the New Testament writer quoted or alluded to the Old Testament in order to demonstrate how God's purposes have been fulfilled and are being fulfilled in Jesus
Old Testament - Old Testament
Israel, Kingdom of - (See ISRAEL; CHRONOLOGY, Old Testament
Sarepta - The Old Testament ZAREPHATH
Hexateuch - ) The first six books of the Old Testament
Old Testament - Old Testament
Ecclesiastes - ) One of the canonical books of the Old Testament
Japho - (jay' foh) KJV, TEV spelling for Joppa in Old Testament
Fate - The Old Testament speaks of death as the common fate of humankind (Psalm 49:12 ; Psalm 81:15 ; Ecclesiastes 2:14 ; Ecclesiastes 3:19 ; Ecclesiastes 9:2-3 ). The Old Testament similarly speaks of violent death as the destiny of the wicked (Job 15:22 ; Isaiah 65:12 ; Hosea 9:13 )
Satan - (Hebrew: an adversary, enemy) ...
Name for the chief demon or devil (1Par 5), frequently used as a common noun in the Old Testament (3Kings 5). The form Satanas is used throughout the New Testament in the Vulgate, while the form Satan occurs in the Old Testament only
Abia - In the New Testament the same as ABIJAH in the Old Testament, which see
Octateuch - ) A collection of eight books; especially, the first eight books of the Old Testament
Stream of Egypt - occurs once in the Old Testament-- (Isaiah 27:12 ) [1] RIVER OF EGYPT - 3664
Adonai - ) A Hebrew name for God, usually translated in the Old Testament by the word "Lord"
Elohistic - ) Relating to Elohim as a name of God; - said of passages in the Old Testament
sa'Ron, - the district in which Lydda stood, (Acts 9:35 ) only; the Sharon of the Old Testament
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - The New Testament proclaims its indebtedness to the Old Testament on the very first page. Matthew begins with an Old Testament genealogy that makes sense only to those who are familiar with the people and events to which it refers (1:1-17). Thus the New Testament signals at the start an engagement with the Old Testament that touches every page and makes great demands on its readers. The New Testament does not simply express its dependence on the Old Testament by quoting it. The fourth edition of the United Bible Societies' Greek Testament (1993) lists 343Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, as well as no fewer than 2,309 allusions and verbal parallels. , Stephen's speech in Acts 7:2-53 ); pesher, a style found particularly in the Dead Sea Scrolls, in which Old Testament texts are connected with specific contemporary events (e. ...
New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: Legitimate?New Testament "Awareness" of the Old Testament . Many New Testament scholars maintain that the New Testament use of the Old Testament works within a closed logical circle: it depends on Christian presuppositions and reads the Old Testament in a distinctly Christian way (even if employing Jewish methods of exegesis), often doing violence to the true meaning of the Old Testament texts employed. Thus, New Testament arguments based on the Old Testament, it is held, would generally be convincing to Christians but hardly to Jews. ...
This approach, however, ignores several crucial features of the use of the Old Testament by the New Testament authors. As numerous studies have now shown, these authors generally assumed knowledge of the Old Testament context from which quotations were drawn. They did not want simply to jettison their Jewish heritage, but sought genuinely to understand how the "word" spoken through the prophets related to the new "word" now revealed in Christ (this applies even to Paul, whose "not under law, but under grace" [1] looks at first sight like wholesale rejection of the Old Testament ). Finally, they sensitively explored the Old Testament for points at which its very inconsistencies or incompleteness pointed ahead to Jesus as the answer . Stephen traces a history in which all the significant encounters with God occurred away from "this place, " and then points to the ambivalent Old Testament traditions concerning the temple, the "place" above all where God was meant to be worshiped yet a "place" where by definition he cannot dwell (vv. 48-50)!...
Paul is naturally drawn to the Old Testament prophecies concerning the blessing of the Gentiles. In connection with these he discerns a tension at the heart of Old Testament theology, between the exclusivism of the covenant and the central covenant confession, the Shema: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one" (Deuteronomy 6:4 ). The author also discerns tensions within the Old Testament theology of priesthood. And alongside the levitical priesthood another priesthood inexplicably appears in the Old Testament, that of Melchizedek. And, above all perhaps, the sacrificial system of the Old Testament proclaims its own inadequacy by the requirement of constant repetition (10:1-4). In passages like Jeremiah 31:31-34 (8:8-12; 10:15-17) and Psalm 40:6-8 (10:5-7), the author finds, within the Old Testament itself, the expectation of something better. ...
Do such arguments distort and wrench the Old Testament? Many argue that, even though they arise from Christian faith, they nonetheless show true sensitivity to its inner dynamic. The New Testament authors, by contrast, focus the whole "story" of the Old Testament onto Jesus, as summarized below, using even its tensions prophetically, to point toward the Christ who is Jesus. Undoubtedly, the New Testament authors believed that their Christian faith enabled them to make better sense of the Old Testament than they ever could as Jews. The New Testament authors both use the Old Testament to explain Jesus and use Jesus to explain the Old Testamenta circular process in which each is illuminated by the other. ...
Old Testament Theology Confirmed . The authority of the Old Testament is nowhere questioned in the New Testament, even at the points wheredramaticallythe authority of Jesus is set alongside or even over it (e. Thus, all the great themes of the Old Testament are confirmed, even when they are also developed in various ways: God as the one creator and ruler of the nations, the election of Israel to be the light of salvation for the world, the presence of God with his people, the possibility (and actuality) of revelation through appointed instruments, history as moving toward God's purposed goal for the world. ...
But the New Testament is no mere restatement of Old Testament themes, because of its vital focus on Jesus. ...
Old Testament Prophecy Fulfilled . All the New Testament authors (except James) pick up messianic and other prophecies from the Old Testament and locate their fulfillment in Jesus and in the church. Old Testament History Reread . Claiming the fulfillment of specific, future-oriented prophecies is only a small element in the prophetic treatment of the Old Testament. Some basic features of the Old Testament "story" become prophetic in the light of Christthat is, they are discovered to have a forward-looking, predictive function because their provisionality is revealed by the appearance of something (some one ) much greater and better. The word often used to describe this treatment of the Old Testament is "typology. Other Old Testament features treated typologically include the temple, Jerusalem (and the associated ideas of worship, security, and the presence of God), the annual festivals, and kingship. ...
Old Testament People Expanded . One of the most surprising features of the New Testament use of the Old Testament is the way in which the exclusivism of the Old Testament covenant (Israel as the elect) gives way to a new understanding of the people of God in which racial identity plays no role, and Jews and Gentiles have equal membership based just on faith and common possession of the Spirit. The movement from one to the other is a special interest of Luke (see especially Acts 10-11 ) and of Paul (see especially Romans 9-11 ), one of the most sustained New Testament engagements with Old Testament texts). ...
Many Jewish Christians did not want to "reread" the Old Testament understanding of "people" in this way. Certain Old Testament texts were especially important for him, but more important than particular texts was the conviction that the spiritual experience described by texts like Genesis 15:6 , Psalm 32:1-2 , and Habakkuk 2:4 was exactly that now being enjoyed by his Gentile converts: by believing in Jesus, they were being "justified by faith" just like Abraham and David ( Romans 4:22-25 ). ...
Old Testament Religion Renewed . The New Testament understanding of the Spirit builds on that of the Old Testament, but is surprising nonetheless. Only prophets and other leaders were anointed with the Spirit in the Old Testament. ...
The worship of the Old Testament is focused on a physical temple on earth. Chirichigno, Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament: A Complete Survey ; D. Ellis, Paul's Use of the Old Testament ; R. France, Jesus and the Old Testament ; R
Similitude - The Old Testament used it of things being like God. Three words are translated “similitude” in the Old Testament: demuth (2 Chronicles 4:3 ; Daniel 10:16 ), tabnith (Psalm 106:20 ; Psalm 144:12 ), and temunah (Numbers 12:8 ; Deuteronomy 4:12 )
Abiud - Son of Zorobabel, in the genealogy of the Lord Jesus, Matthew 1:13 : not mentioned in the Old Testament
Haggada - ) A story, anecdote, or legend in the Talmud, to explain or illustrate the text of the Old Testament
Dead Sea - The name in the Old Testament is never this, but "the Salt Sea" , "sea of the plain
Saron - SHARON in Old Testament The article in the Greek shows the name denotes a district
Whelp - A lion's cub, used figuratively in the Old Testament (see Genesis 49:9 ; Jeremiah 51:38 ; Nahum 2:11 )
Peshitto - ) The earliest Syriac version of the Old Testament, translated from Hebrew; also, the incomplete Syriac version of the New Testament
Targum - ) A translation or paraphrase of some portion of the Old Testament Scriptures in the Chaldee or Aramaic language or dialect
Addi - The name cannot be traced in the Old Testament
Deuterocanonical - ...
Of the Old Testament these are: ...
1,2Machabees
Baruch
Ecclesiasticus
Judith
Tobias
Wisdom
parts of Daniel (3,24-90; 13,14)
parts of Esther (10:4, to 16:14)
Of the New Testament these are: ...
2,3John
2Peter
Apocalypse
Hebrews
James
John (7,53, to 8,11)
Luke (22,43-44)
Mark (16,9-20)
Protestants commonly reject the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament as apocryphal
Most High - Name for God, occurring frequently in the Old Testament and New Testament
ta'Phon, - It is probably the Beth-tappuah of the Old Testament
Pentateuch - ) The first five books of the Old Testament, collectively; - called also the Law of Moses, Book of the Law of Moses, etc
jo'Sech, - the form of name given in the Revised Version for JOSEPH , in (Luke 3:26 ) It is not found in the Old Testament
Adonai - Lord, ruler, lord of lords, a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament
Paulician - They rejected the Old Testament and the part of the New
Jannes - These names are not found in the Old Testament, but are often mentioned in the rabbinical books, 2 Timothy 3:8
Lord - A title commonly used of God in the Old Testament, but commonly appropriated to Christ in the New Testament. In the Old Testament Greek version and those dependent on it, as the Vulgate in this matter, it is used in place of Jahweh (Jehovah), the proper name of God among the Israelites
Apron - Translation of a Hebrew word in the Old Testament otherwise translated as girdle (1 Samuel 18:4 ; 2 Samuel 18:11 ; 2 Samuel 20:8 ; 1 Kings 2:5 ; Isaiah 3:24 ). In the Old Testament the girdle was an inner garment wrapped around the waist
Jehovist - ) The writer of the passages of the Old Testament, especially those of the Pentateuch, in which the Supreme Being is styled Jehovah. ...
(2):...
The author of the passages of the Old Testament, esp
Aoudad - It is, perhaps, the chamois of the Old Testament
Sala'Thi-el - ( 1 Chronicles 3:17 ) The Authorized Version has Salathiel in (1 Chronicles 3:17 ) but everywhere else in the Old Testament Shealtiel
Jaddua - ...
...
The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament (Nehemiah 12:11,22 ), sons of Jonathan
ba'Ruch, Book of - One of the apocryphal books of the Old Testament
Octapla - ) A portion of the Old Testament prepared by Origen in the 3d century, containing the Hebrew text and seven Greek versions of it, arranged in eight parallel columns
Hexapla - ) A collection of the Holy Scriptures in six languages or six versions in parallel columns; particularly, the edition of the Old Testament published by Origen, in the 3d century
Leviticus - ) The third canonical book of the Old Testament, containing the laws and regulations relating to the priests and Levites among the Hebrews, or the body of the ceremonial law
Old Law - The Mosaic dispensation, the "Old Covenant"; also the books of the Old Testament; the institutions, laws, religious rites, and traditional customs which prevailed among the Jews, prior to the coming of Christ
Meat Offering - KJV term used about 130 times in the Old Testament for a food offering in contrast to a drink offering (libation)
Elohist - ) The writer, or one of the writers, of the passages of the Old Testament, notably those of Elohim instead of Jehovah, as the name of the Supreme Being; - distinguished from Jehovist
Anagoge - the application of the types and allegories of the Old Testament to subjects of the New
Sido'Nians, - the Greek form of the word Zidonians, usually so exhibited in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament
Shallum - This is a very common name in the Old Testament, and frequently given by the Hebrews to their children: and is not to be wondered at, for it is derived from Shalem, peace
Forgive - ” This verb appears 46 times in the Old Testament. The basic meaning undergoes no change throughout the Old Testament. ” No other Old Testament verb means “to forgive,” although several verbs include “forgiveness” in the range of meanings given a particular context (e. ...
The verb occurs throughout the Old Testament. In the typology of the Old Testament, sacrifices foreshadowed the accomplished work of Jesus Christ, and the Old Testament believer was assured of “forgiveness” based on sacrifice: “And the priest shall make an atonement [2]” ( Old Testament saints, while involved in sacrificial rites, put their faith in God
Septuagint - A Greek version of the Old Testament, so call because it was the work of seventy, or rather of seventy-two interpreters. Pertaining to the Septuagint contained in the Greek copy of the Old Testament
Christology - The branch of theology dealing specially with the nature and personality of Jesus Christ, His realization of the types and prophecies of the Old Testament, and His life and teachings as narrated in the Gospels
Jehovistic - ) Relating to, or containing, Jehovah, as a name of God; - said of certain parts of the Old Testament, especially of the Pentateuch, in which Jehovah appears as the name of the Deity
Lamentation - ) A book of the Old Testament attributed to the prophet Jeremiah, and taking its name from the nature of its contents
Seventy - The Septuagint or seventy translators of the Old Testament into the Greek language
Jearim - ” Component of several Old Testament place names including Kiriath Jearim, Mount Jearim, Fields of Jearim, and the wood of 1 Samuel 14:26
Lord - For the use of ‘Lord’ among the Israelites of Old Testament times see YAHWEH
Sheol - Old Testament . Through much of the Old Testament period, it was believed that all went one place, whether human or animal (Ecclesiastes 9:2-3 ), whether righteous or wicked (Psalm 49:12,14,20 ). ...
Toward the end of the Old Testament, God revealed that there will be a resurrection of the dead (Isaiah 26:19 ). ...
The fact that theology develops within the Old Testament and between the Old Testament and the New Testament does not mean that the Bible is contradictory or contains errors. That some Old Testament saints believed in Sheol, while the New Testament teaches clearly about heaven and hell, is nor more of a problem than that the Old Testament contains a system of atonement by animal sacrifice now made obsolete in Christ (Hebrews 10:4-10 ) or that the Old Testament teaches God is one (Deuteronomy 6:4 ) while the New Testament reveals a Trinity
Antitype - Adam, Noe, Moses, David are some of the Old Testament types of Christ
Seventy - 277, the Old Testament was translated into Greek, by the united labours of about seventy learned Jews, and that translation has been since known by the version of the LXX
Masora - (maw' ssoh raw) Hebrew term meaning, “tradition,” used for note added to the margins of manuscripts of the Masoretic text of the Old Testament as a safeguard to transmission of the text
Mina - The mina of the Old Testament was valued at sixty shekels
Hananiah - There are 15 persons of (his name mentioned in the Old Testament
Lxx - The Roman numeral seventy which serves as the symbol for the Septuagint, the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament
Canon - The Canon consists of the 39 books of the Old Testament and the 27 books of the New
Eliezer - A name which occurs 11 times in the Old Testament
Canon - The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament writers. ) also contained every book we now have in the Old Testament Scriptures. As to the time at which the Old Testament canon was closed, there are many considerations which point to that of Ezra and Nehemiah, immediately after the return from Babylonian exile
Law, New - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
New Law - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
Rephan - Acts 7:1 follows the earliest Greek Old Testament translation reading at Amos 5:26
Soul - The Old Testament . It appears 755 times in the Old Testament. ...
Nepes [1] in the Old Testament is never the "immortal soul" but simply the life principle or living being. ...
Frequently in the Old Testament nepes [ Leviticus 17:10 ; 23:30 ). ...
Clearly, then, in the Old Testament a mortal is a living soul rather than having a soul. Compared to nepes [1] in the Old Testament, psyche [9] appears relatively infrequently in the New Testament. This may be due to the fact that nepes [1] is used extensively in poetic literature, which is more prevalent in the Old Testament than the New Testament. ...
Psyche , as its Old Testament counterpart, can indicate the person (Acts 2:41 ; 27:37 ). As in the Old Testament, the soul relates humans to the animal world (1 Corinthians 15:42-50 ) while it is the spirit of people that allows a dynamic relationship with God. Dryness, Themes in Old Testament Theology ; R. Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the Old Testament ; H. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament
Alexandria - More importantly, Alexandria was the place where seventy Jewish scholars prepared the first Greek translation of the Old Testament. This is known as the Septuagint (referred to in writing as LXX) and was widely used in New Testament times along with the Hebrew Old Testament (see SEPTUAGINT). ...
A feature of the Alexandrian school of Jewish Old Testament scholars was that their interpretations were detailed, earnest, philosophical and often extravagant. In the New Testament there is a record of one of them, Apollos, whose knowledge of Old Testament references to the Messiah was extraordinary
Liturgy, Apostle in - Name given, in the Greek Church, to the Epistle of the Mass, which is invariably of Apostolic origin and never taken from the Old Testament, and also to the book containing the epistles and antiphons for every Sunday and feast-day
Apostle in Liturgy - Name given, in the Greek Church, to the Epistle of the Mass, which is invariably of Apostolic origin and never taken from the Old Testament, and also to the book containing the epistles and antiphons for every Sunday and feast-day
Bestiality - Sexual intercourse between a human and an animal, punishable by death in Old Testament legal codes
Jewry - " It occurs once in the Old Testament, Daniel 6:13, where it is rendered "Judah" in the R
Shimei - There were several of this name in the Old Testament
Abinadab - There were several of this name in the Old Testament
Zephaniah - A prophet in the Old Testament whose preaching produced the thirty-sixth book of the Old Testament
Sadducee - The Sadducees accepted only the Torah, the first five books of the Old Testament, as authoritative. They held rigidly to the Old Testament law and a denying the life after death, reward and punishment after death, the resurrection, and the existence of angels and demons
Paradise - (par' uh disse) Old Persian term which means literally “enclosure” or “wooded park,” used in the Old Testament to speak of King Artaxerxes' forest (Nehemiah 2:8 ), and twice of orchards (Ecclesiastes 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:13 ). The Greek Old Testament (Septuagint used “paradise” to translate the Hebrew words for the Garden of Eden in Genesis 2-3
Gaza - ...
Gaza features in a number of Old Testament stories, among them those concerning Samson (Judges 16:1-3; Judges 16:21-30). (For a map of the region and details of the Old Testament history of Gaza see PHILISTIA
Messiah - mashiah), in all the thirty-nine instances of its occurring in the Old Testament, is rendered by the LXX. The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41,4:25 (RSV, "Messiah"), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice ( Daniel 9:25,26 ; RSV, "the anointed one"). The first great promise (Genesis 3:15 ) contains in it the germ of all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on earth. , of those prophets whose works form a part of the Old Testament canon
Godhead - ...
Old Testament Foundations The core concepts of the divine nature are found in Old Testament monotheism. ...
New Testament New Testament concept of God's nature correlates with the Old Testament. In the main, however, continuity exists with the Old Testament understanding
Immanuel - In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isaiah 7:14,8:8
Peshitta - The Old Testament was likely translated between A
Sod'Omites - This word does not denote the inhabitants of Sodom; but it is employed in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament for those who practiced as a religious rite the abominable and unnatural vice from which the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah have derived their lasting infamy
Sembiani - He persuaded his followers that wine was a production of Satan and the earth, denied the resurrection of the body, and rejected most of the books of the Old Testament
Seraiah - There were several of this name in the Old Testament
Cinneroth - or CINNERETH, a city on the north-western side of the sea of Galilee; which, from it, is frequently called in the Old Testament the sea of Cinneroth: from which word, that of Genesaret, in the New Testament, is conjectured by Dr
Malachi - The last of the prophets of the Old Testament, and called "the seal" because his prophecies form the closing book of the canon of the Old Testament
Almighty - Paul used Almighty once at the end of a series of Old Testament quotations to imitate Old Testament style and to underline divine power to bring His word to fulfillment
Foolishness - ” This noun appears 25 times in the Old Testament. ” This abstract noun appears 13 times in the Old Testament
Paradise - " The LXX, or Greek translators of the Old Testament, make use of the word paradise, when they speak of the garden of Eden, which Jehovah planted at the creation, and in which he placed our first parents. There are three places in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament where this word is found, namely, Nehemiah 2:8 ; Song of Solomon 4:13 ; Ecclesiastes 2:5
Javan - Elsewhere in the Old Testament, the name Javan is used to denote Greece
Hasideans - The group's name derived from the Old Testament concept of the Hasidim , the “saints” or “faithful
Pitfall - Pitfall in the Old Testament suggests hidden or unrecognized dangers
Uest - Some think these guests are the believing Israelites of the Old Testament
Whirlwind - This is often referred to in the Old Testament as one of the means wielded by God in His judgements on the earth
Hagiographa - ) The last of the three Jewish divisions of the Old Testament, or that portion not contained in the Law and the Prophets
Elohim - Name commonly used for God in the Old Testament; a plural form, not of number, but of majesty and rank, regarded by ancient Jewish and early Christian writers as derived from El, singular form for God
Pound - A weight and a sum of money, put, in the Old Testament, 1 Kings 10:17 Ezra 2:69 Nehemiah 7:71 , for the Hebrew MANEH, which see; and in the New Testament, for the Attic MINA, which was equivalent to one hundred drachmae, or about fourteen dollars
Jew'ry - It occurs several times in the Apocalypse and the New Testament, but once only in the Old Testament -- ( Daniel 5:13 ) Jewry comes to us through the Norman-French, and is of frequent occurrence in Old English
Abstinence - ...
Old Testament The most prominent examples of abstinence in the Old Testament relate to the Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11 ), food laws (Leviticus 11:1 ; Leviticus 19:23-25 ; Deuteronomy 14:1 ), the Nazarite vow (Numbers 6:1 ), and fasting. ...
New Testament Old Testament forms of abstinence continued in the New Testament period, but the forms themselves frequently were points of controversy between Jesus and the religious leaders (Mark 2:18-3:6 )
Sacred Scripture - In the Old Testament, Scripture is used in the general sense of writing (Exodus 32; 2Para. The Apostles and their disciples called the Old Testament simply "the Scripture" (Luke 4; John 2), or "the Scriptures" (Matthew 21; Luke 24; Acts 17); or, referring to its divine origin "the Holy Scriptures" (Romans 1), and "the Sacred Letters" (2 Timothy 3). These terms, however, were not confined to the Old Testament exclusively, for we find that Saint Peter extends the designation "Scripture" to the Pauline espistles (2 Peter 3), and that Paul himself seemingly refers by the same expression (1 Timothy 5) to both Deuteronomy 25:4 and Luke 10:7
Scripture, Sacred - In the Old Testament, Scripture is used in the general sense of writing (Exodus 32; 2Para. The Apostles and their disciples called the Old Testament simply "the Scripture" (Luke 4; John 2), or "the Scriptures" (Matthew 21; Luke 24; Acts 17); or, referring to its divine origin "the Holy Scriptures" (Romans 1), and "the Sacred Letters" (2 Timothy 3). These terms, however, were not confined to the Old Testament exclusively, for we find that Saint Peter extends the designation "Scripture" to the Pauline espistles (2 Peter 3), and that Paul himself seemingly refers by the same expression (1 Timothy 5) to both Deuteronomy 25:4 and Luke 10:7
Holy One of Israel - In the Old Testament, this designation is used especially in the Book of Isaiah
Manuscript - Large numbers of New Testament and some Old Testament manuscripts survive from the first few centuries B
Exodus - ) The second of the Old Testament, which contains the narrative of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt
Aaronites - Equivalent to the phrases “sons of Aaron” and “descendants of Aaron” used often in the Old Testament
Libya - It was inhabited by a Hamitic race, spoken of in the Old Testament under the name of Lehabim or Lubim
Septuagint - In Alexandria in Egypt, the large Jewish population was almost entirely Greek-speaking, and for their sake the Hebrew Bible (our Old Testament) was translated into Greek. In New Testament times most of the Christians were Greek-speaking, even those of Jewish background, and the Septuagint provided them with a ready-made translation of the Old Testament in their own language. New Testament writers, in quoting from the Old Testament, usually used the Septuagint rather than translate from the Hebrew (see QUOTATIONS). Often they gave words new meaning or significance in the context of Hebrew Old Testament ideas
Advocate - ...
Old Testament While the word advocate is not found in the Old Testament, the concept of advocacy is found. Such a portrayal stands in line with Old Testament ideas of advocacy, but supersedes it. In contrast to Old Testament advocates, Jesus is both the one righteous Advocate and the “atoning sacrifice” (NIV) for the world's sins (1 John 2:2 )
Wash - It is used some 72 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament. Kâbas occurs in the Hebrew Old Testament 51 times. It is found for the first time in the Old Testament in Old Testament primarily in the sense of “washing” clothes, both for ordinary cleansing ( Canon of Scripture, the, - The Old Testament appears from that time as a whole. The Old Testament Canon is ratified by the fact that the present Old Testament books were those accepted in the time of Christ and endorsed by him, and that of 275 quotations of the Old Testament in the New, no book out of the Canon is quoted from except perhaps the word of Enoch in Jude
Canticle - ) The Song of Songs or Song of Solomon, one of the books of the Old Testament
Bridegroom - In the Old Testament, the Bride is Israel and the Bridegroom is the Father, but in the New Testament, the Bride is the church, and the Bridegroom is the Lord JESUS
Expiation - ...
The idea of vicarious expiation runs through the whole Old Testament system of sacrifices
ja'Sher - (upright ) ,Book of ( "the book of the upright" ), alluded to in two passages only of the Old Testament
Douay Bible - 1582, the Old Testament at Douai, A
he'Brew Language - The books of the Old Testament are written almost entirely in the Hebrew language
Lauds - Traditionally, Lauds consisted of antiphonal psalms, a canticle of the Old Testament together with Little Chapter, Hymn, Benedictus and Oration. In the revision of the Breviary by Pius X, the traditional structure of Lauds was retained but a new arrangement of psalms was made and the number of Old Testament canticles, from which one is chosen, was extended
Oracles - " In the New Testament the Spirit-inspired Scriptures (Romans 3:2; Hebrews 5:12; 1 Peter 4:11) of the Old Testament are so called. Others translated, "let him speak as (becomes one speaking) oracles of God," which designates the New Testament words (afterward written) of inspired men by the same term as was applied to the Old Testament Scriptures; in the Greek there is no article
Religion - James 1:26-27, threeskos , threeskeia ; distinct from eulabees ("reverent"; from the Old Testament standpoint; "cautious fear toward God"), "devout" (Luke 2:25); theosebees , "godly"; eusebees , "pious. The Old Testament cult or "religious service" (threeskeia ) was ceremony and ritual; the New Testament religious service consists in acts of mercy, love, and holiness
Jaddua - Son and successor in the high priesthood of Jonathan or Johanan, and last of the high priests mentioned in the Old Testament
Drachma - Mentioned in the Old Testament when Judas sends 12,000 drachmas to Jerusalem that sacrifices may be offered for the dead (2Macabees)
Bibles, Rhymed - Rhyme is found in the Hebrew text of the poetic books of the Old Testament only sporadically and accidentally; but portions of the Scriptures have been done into rhyme in English, French, and Italian
Cerdonians - They denied the incarnation and the resurrection, and rejected the books of the Old Testament
Tradition - Thus the Jews pretended that, besides their written law contained in the Old Testament, Moses had delivered an oral law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by tradition
Chronicle - ) The two canonical books of the Old Testament in which immediately follow 2 Kings
Wormwood - The Old Testament prophets pictured wormwood as the opposite of justice and righteousness (Amos 5:7 ; Jeremiah 23:15 )
Shemaiah - There are many of this name in the Old Testament
Enesis - ) The first book of the Old Testament; - so called by the Greek translators, from its containing the history of the creation of the world and of the human race
Gergesenes - (See Matthew 8:28) It is more than probable, that this was the same nation as is called in the Old Testament Girgashites; one of the cities of Canaan beyond the sea of Tiberias
Jaddu'a - He is the last of the high priests mentioned in the Old Testament, and probably altogether the latest name in the canon
Genesis - a canonical book of the Old Testament, so called from the Greek γενεσις , genesis, or generation, because it contains an account of the origin of all visible things, and of the genealogy of the first patriarchs
Berea - Paul preached the gospel here with success; the ingenuous Bereans examined his doctrine by the Old Testament scriptures, and many believed, Acts 17:10,14 ; 20:4
Rhymed Bibles - Rhyme is found in the Hebrew text of the poetic books of the Old Testament only sporadically and accidentally; but portions of the Scriptures have been done into rhyme in English, French, and Italian
New Birth - In these Old Testament passages God's Spirit is viewed as doing a revolutionary work in the lives of God's people in the new covenant age. It fits well contextually in terms of Nicodemus' familiarity with the Old Testament and the need for some intelligibility on his part. Finally, it coheres with the use of water in the Old Testament to symbolize renewal and cleansing. ...
Whether Old Testament believers possessed the new birth is a difficult question. No Old Testament text explicitly states that Old Testament believers were born again or regenerated. There is a relative absence of a developed theology of the Spirit in the Old Testament. But, given the universality of the need for the new birth, it can be argued that Jesus' teaching on the absolute necessity of the new birth for entrance into the kingdom of God analogically demands that Old Testament believers also had to have the divine life imparted to them through God's Spirit. The Old Testament saints were born again when they responded in faith to God's revealed message; New Testament saints, when they respond in faith to Jesus Christ
Atonement - The atonement by Jesus Christ is the great distinguishing peculiarity of the gospel, and is presented in a great variety of terms and illustrations in both the Old Testament and the New. It is used in the Old Testament to translate a Hebrew word which means a covering; implying that by a Divine propitiation the sinner is covered from the just anger of God
Scripture - Invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we usually call the Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:15,16 ; John 20:9 ; Galatians 3:22 ; 2 Peter 1:20 ). The Old Testament canon in the time of our Lord was precisely the same as that which we now possess under that name
Pentecost - The word ‘pentecost’ means ‘fifty’, and comes from the Greek translation of the Old Testament. In the Old Testament this festival is called the Feast of Harvest, the Feast of Firstfruits and the Feast of Weeks
Septuagint - The seventy, is the name of the most ancient Greek version of the Old Testament, and is so called because there were said to have been seventy translators. This ancient version contains many errors, and yet as a whole is a faithful one, particularly in the books of Moses; it is of great value in the interpretation of the Old Testament, and is very often quoted by the New Testament writers, who wrote in the same dialect
Abba - ...
Old Testament Although abba does not occur in the Old Testament, its Hebrew associate ab occurs frequently. On occasion the Old Testament speaks of God in the role of Father to Israel ( Exodus 4:22 ; Deuteronomy 32:6 ; Isaiah 45:9-11 ; Malachi 2:10 ) or to Israel's king (2 Samuel 7:14 ; Psalm 2:7 ; Psalm 89:26-27 )
Adultery - ...
Old Testament Israel's covenant law prohibited adultery (Exodus 20:14 ) and thereby made faithfulness to the marriage relationship central in the divine will for human relationships. Many Old Testament regulations deal with adultery as the adulterous man's offense against the husband of the adulterous wife. ...
Several Old Testament prophets used adultery as a metaphor to describe unfaithfulness to God. ...
New Testament Jesus' teachings expanded the Old Testament law to address matters of the heart
Epistle, the - Epistles, though sometimes from the Acts of the Apostles or fromone of the books of the Prophets of the Old Testament
Negeb - The region features prominently in the Old Testament story from the time of Abraham onwards (Genesis 13:1; Numbers 13:25-29; 1 Samuel 30:14)
Psalm - ) Especially, one of the hymns by David and others, collected into one book of the Old Testament, or a modern metrical version of such a hymn for public worship
Melchizedek - Some are quite sure that he was an Old Testament incarnation of CHRIST JESUS Himself
Sycamine Tree - Luke 17:6; distinct from the SYCAMORE (Luke 19:4; Septuagint in Old Testament translated the latter however sycamine , meaning the Egyptian sycamine )
Berea - Paul preached the Gospel with great success, and where his hearers were careful to compare what they heard with the scriptures of the Old Testament, Acts 17:10 ; for which they are commended, and held out to us as an example of subjecting every doctrine to the sole test of the word of God
Abbreviations - =Septuagint, or Greek Version of the Old Testament; ä, as in fär; â, as in câre; ê, as in thêre; ë, as in tërm; ï, as in pïque; ô, as in fôr; ôô, as in fôôd; ŏŏ, as in fŏŏt; û, as in fûrl; the other abbreviations are self-explanatory
Sheol - (Hebrew: a cave) ...
In the Old Testament times it was the place where the souls of the dead abide: the land of oblivion (Psalms 87); called Hades in the Greek New Testament (Luke 16), and later used as a synonym for Gehenna, the hell of torments, the Latin infernus
Son of Man - ...
It was understood as a designation of the Messiah, according to Old Testament predictions, Psalm 80:17 Daniel 7:13,14 ; but appears to indicate especially his true humanity or oneness with the human race
Brass - " In most places of the Old Testament the correct translation would be copper, although it may sometimes possibly mean bronze a compound of copper and tin
Hebrew Language - The language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. In the Old Testament it is only spoken of as "Jewish" (2 Kings 18:26,28 ; Isaiah 36:11,13 ; 2 Chronicles 32:18 ). This name is first used by the Jews in times subsequent to the close of the Old Testament. " Whether this language, as seen in the earliest books of the Old Testament, was the very dialect which Abraham brought with him into Canaan, or whether it was the common tongue of the Canaanitish nations which he only adopted, is uncertain; probably the latter opinion is the correct one. ...
The Hebrew of the Old Testament has only about six thousand words, all derived from about five hundred roots
Anoint - It occurs approximately 70 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. The word is found for the first time in the Old Testament in Old Testament most commonly uses mâshach to indicate “anointing” in the sense of a special setting apart for an office or function. ” A word that is important both to Old Testament and New Testament understandings is the noun mâshı̂yach, which gives us the term messiah. Interestingly enough, the only person named “messiah” in the Old Testament was Cyrus, the pagan king of Persia, who was commissioned by God to restore Judah to her homeland after the Exile ( Scriptures - Jews of New Testament times had a collection of sacred writings (now known as the Old Testament) which they referred to as the Scriptures. During the time of the early church, Christians recognized the writings of Jesus’ apostles and other leading Christians also as Scripture, and therefore as having equal authority with the Old Testament writings (1 Corinthians 14:37; 1 Timothy 5:18; 2 Peter 3:16; see CANON). If Christians want to know more about the character of God and the kind of life that God requires of his people, they will need all God’s Word, both Old Testament and New (see INTERPRETATION). The Old Testament shows how, under the old covenant, God chose the nation Israel as his people, and prepared it to be the channel through which he would provide a saviour for the world. (Concerning the New Testament writers’ use of Old Testament passages see QUOTATIONS. )...
Divisions of the Scriptures...
Jews divided their Scriptures (our Old Testament) into three parts, which they called the Law, the Prophets and the Writings. The names of some Old Testament books in the Christian Bible differ from those in the Hebrew Bible. ...
The order in which the books are arranged, whether in the Old Testament or the New, is simply the result of established practice and carries no divine authority
Pride - The Old Testament . While pride is sometimes used in the Old Testament in a positive sense (i. ...
Fifteen Old Testament texts (NIV ) contain the word "arrogance, " nearly half of them (7) in the prophets (Isaiah 2:17 ; 9:9 ; 13:11 ; Jeremiah 13:15 ; 48:29 ; Ezekiel 7:10 ; Hosea 5:5 ; 7:10 ). Thus, in the Old Testament books, the prideful are generally associated with the wicked, the arrogant, the presumptuous, and those who are insolent toward God. ...
Most of the adjectives joined with "pride" in the Old Testament are negative in connotation, including words such as "stubborn" (Leviticus 26:19 ), "overweening" (Isaiah 16:6 ), "willful" (Isaiah 10:12 ), and "great" (Jeremiah 13:9 ). ...
Finally, in the Old Testament, what are some of the results of pride? It led to Uzziah's downfall (2 Chronicles 26:16 ); it hardened the heart of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 5:20 ); it goes before destruction (Proverbs 16:18 ); it does not seek God (Psalm 10:4 ); it brings disgrace (Proverbs 11:2 ); it breeds quarrels (Proverbs 13:10 ); it deceives (Jeremiah 49:16 ; Obadiah 1:3 ); it brings low (Proverbs 29:23 ; Isaiah 2:11 ; 23:9 ); it humbles (Isaiah 2:17 ; Daniel 4:37 ). Both James (4:6) and Peter (1 Peter 5:5 ) cite this Old Testament text, including the word hyperephanos [3]5, one who behaves arrogantly toward those who are too weak to retaliate. Using language largely from the Old Testament, Mary tells how God will scatter the proud—possibly a reference to a specific group in society and political life
Idumea - “Idumea” is the term used in the Greek version of the Old Testament and in the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus for Edom
Bibles, Polyglot - This work exhibits printed texts of the Old Testament in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, and of the New Testament in Greek and Latin
Lord - ) In small letters and with initial capital "Lord" represents Αdonai in KJV of Old Testament
Usury - The Old Testament laws prohibited a Jew from charging another Jew usury but permitted it when money was loaned to a Gentile (Deuteronomy 23:19-20 )
Scriptures - The scriptures are, quite simply, the Bible which consists of 39 books in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament
Unlearned - , and general acquaintance with the Old Testament Scriptures, but that Christ and His disciples were not rabbiically learned, never had sat at the feet of the great doctors of the law, they were only laics
Mount Hermon - The faithful in the Old Testament celebrated the beauties of Hermon in their songs
Humility - ...
Old Testament The Old Testament connects the quality of humility with Israel's lowly experience as slaves in Egypt—a poor, afflicted, and suffering people (Deuteronomy 26:6 ). ” In Old Testament thought, humility was closely associated with individuals who were poor and afflicted ( 2 Samuel 22:28 ). ...
The Old Testament promised blessings to those who were humble: (1) wisdom (Proverbs 11:2 ); (2) good tidings (Isaiah 61:1 ); and (3) honor (Proverbs 15:33 ). The New Testament affirms, as does the Old Testament, that God will exalt those who are humble and bring low those who are proud (Luke 1:52 ; James 4:10 ; 1 Peter 5:6 )
Theophany - A theophany is a visible manifestation of God usually restricted to the Old Testament. Such characteristics as having the name of God, being worshiped, and recognized as God has led many scholars to conclude that the angel of the Lord is really Jesus manifested in the Old Testament
Old Testament - Christians see its complement in the New Testament, which reveals Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. The Old Testament has three major divisions: Law, Prophets (Former and Latter), and Writings
Captive - ...
Ephesians 4:8 (a) These captives are the Old Testament believers who took advantage of the sacrifices, were protected by the blood of those offerings, but were held in paradise as captives until the Blood of the Lord JESUS would blot out their sins. Immediately after Calvary, CHRIST went down to paradise and took all of these Old Testament believers up to Heaven to be with GOD
Interesting Facts About the Bible -  ...
OLD TESTAMENT. ...
The word Jehovah occurs 6853 times in the Bible; the word and 35,543 times in the Old Testament, and 6853 times in the New Testament The shortest chapter in the Bible is Psalms 117:1-2
Dismayed, To Be - ” Used primarily in the Hebrew Old Testament, this verb has been identified in ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic texts by some scholars. The word is used approximately 50 times in the Hebrew Old Testament and occurs for the first time in Far - ” A common Semitic term, this word was known in ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic long before the Hebrew of the Old Testament. The word is used about 55 times in the Hebrew Old Testament and it occurs for the first time in Mass, Proper of the - It consists of ...
the first four chants of the choir
introit
gradual (or tract)
Alleluia (or perhaps a sequence)
offertory
Communion
lessons
epistle
Gospel (sometimes added lessons from the Old Testament)
the prayers said by the celebrant
collect
Secret
postcommunion
There are often several of each to commemorate feasts coinciding with that being kept
Bible, Hebrew - Except Wisdom and 2Machabees, which were composed in Greek, all of the Old Testament books were written originally in Hebrew, in the old Phenician characters (later exchanged for the "square" script), but without vowels, separation of words, or division into chapters and verses
Teman - ...
...
A place in Southern Idumea, the land of "the sons of the east," frequently mentioned in the Old Testament
Armageddon - The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q
Trachonitis - It was on the northern edge of the territory known in Old Testament times as Bashan (Numbers 32:33; Deuteronomy 32:14; see BASHAN)
Ephod - (Hebrew: aphad, clothe) ...
A robe of the high priest, mentioned in the Old Testament, like the scapular worn externally by monks
Deep - ...
Romans 10:7 (a) Undoubtedly this word refers to "Sheol" of the Old Testament
Amber - Some think that the Greek (Septuagint) and Latin (Vulgate) translations of the Old Testament suggest the substance known as electrum—an amalgam of silver and gold
Archer - Several Old Testament passages mention archery in warfare (Genesis 49:23-24 ; 2 Samuel 11:24 )
Hebrew Bible - Except Wisdom and 2Machabees, which were composed in Greek, all of the Old Testament books were written originally in Hebrew, in the old Phenician characters (later exchanged for the "square" script), but without vowels, separation of words, or division into chapters and verses
Cock - The domestic cock and hen were early known to the ancient Greeks and Romans, and as no mention is made in the Old Testament of these birds, and no figures of them occur on the Egyptian monuments, they probably came into Judea with the Romans, who, as is well known, prized these birds both as articles of food and for cock-fighting
Chamberlain, - For chamberlain as used in the Old Testament, see [1]
Honey - ...
Old Testament During Bible times, honey appeared in three forms: (1) honey deposited from wild bees (Deuteronomy 32:13 ), (2) honey from domesticated bees (one of the products “of the field” 2 Chronicles 31:5 ), and (3) a syrup made from dates and grape juice (2 Kings 18:32 ). ...
Almost all references to honey in the Old Testament are to wild honey. ...
Bee keeping is not mentioned specifically in the Old Testament
Congregation - ...
In the Greek Old Testament edah was usually translated by sunagoge, qahal by ekklesia . There is a direct spiritual continuity between the congregation of the Old Testament and the New Testament church. Significantly the Christian community chose the Old Testament term for the ideal people of God called to salvation ( ekklesia ), rather than the term which described all Israelites collectively (sunagoge )
Descent to Hades - The spirits may have been the “sons of God” of Genesis 6:2 , the people of Noah's day, the Old Testament sinners, Old Testament people who were true to God, fallen angels, the evil spirits or demonic powers whom Jesus contested in His earthly ministry. The prison may have been Sheol or Hades according to Old Testament thinking, a special place of captivity for sinners, a place of punishment for fallen angels, a place of security for such angels where they thought they could escape Christ's power, or a place on the way to heaven where the faithful of old waited to hear the message of Christ's final atoning victory
Armor - Old Testament symbolism emphasizes that God himself is the protector of his people. " Thereafter, the shield becomes perhaps the most common symbol of God's steadfast love and protection in the Old Testament. Whereas Old Testament symbolism emphasizes the personification of God as shield, the New Testament reveals various aspects of God's redemptive provision as the means by which the believer may lay hold of God's protection
Chaldea - ...
The Chaldeans In Old Testament times different peoples occupied southeastern Mesopotamia at various times. ...
Relation to Babylonia At first the Chaldeans lived in tribal settlements, rejecting the urban society of the Babylonians to the northwest—so-called after the leading city-state of the region, Babylon, to which the Old Testament refers over 300 times. At this time the Chaldeans begin to appear in the Old Testament, first, as possible allies with Judah against Assyria, but later, as a direct threat to Judah and Jerusalem
Fish, Fishing - Old Testament Fish are mentioned often in the Bible but not by the different kinds. ...
References to fishing as an occupation are rare in the Old Testament because, for the most part, in Old Testament times the Mediterranean coast was controlled by the Philistines and Phoenicians. Two Old Testament texts (Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 ; Isaiah 19:10 ) speak of fishpools and fish ponds, possibly an indication of commercially raised fish or of fish farming. ...
The most famous Old Testament fish was the great fish of the Book of Jonah (Jonah 1:17 ), one God prepared especially for the occasion and one whose species the Old Testament does not indicate
Ineffable - (Latin: in, not; effari, to express) ...
Inexpressible, used: (1) of God, meaning that His perfections are so great that it is impossible to express them in words; ...
(2) of His Name, Jehovah (Yahveh, Yahweh), which, among the Jews in the Old Testament was held in such veneration that only priests were permitted to pronounce it in the sanctuary and even then in a low tone, the people using the substitute Adonai, Lord, Ruler
Sacrifice - Some of the sacrifices of the Old Testament represented various aspects of the work of CHRIST on the Cross
Jehovah - Name of God in the Old Testament, occurring about 6000 times
High Places - Probably originally altars on any slight elevation, mentioned in the Old Testament
Cainan - He is nowhere named in the Old Testament
Antipatris - It is located on the site of Old Testament Aphek
Pound - [1] ...
A sum of money put in the Old Testament, (1 Kings 10:17 ; Ezra 2:69 ; Nehemiah 7:71 ) for the Hebrew maneh , worth in silver about
Scripture, Unity And Diversity of - ...
The interdependence of the Old Testament and New Testament requires a view of unity. The Old Testament is incomplete without the next chapter, the New Testament. The New Testament is not understandable without the Old Testament as a prolegomena. The use of the Old Testament in the Old Testament (e. , the call narrative of Jeremiah 1 reflects Deuteronomy 18 ) and the Old Testament in the New Testament illustrates this interdependence. The naturalness of this relationship is noted in that the New Testament uses the Old Testament as proof texts, showing continuity with the Old Testament in theological assertions, analogies in redemptive history (e. The use of the Old Testament in the New Testament as direct predictive prophecy is much less frequent than the above categories, but the fact of prophetic fulfillment argues strongly for the unity of the Bible. Prophetic fulfillment within the Old Testament and especially during the earthly messianic era demonstrates God's sovereign control over history and the resultant unity of the redemptive record. ...
The preaching of John the Baptist and Jesus did not totally take Israel by surprise because it was in concord with the Old Testament prophets. Paul presented promise and fulfillment themes from the perspective that his teaching is identical with the Old Testament promises (cf. The Book of Revelation does not contain one formal quote from the Old Testament, yet it cannot be understood without a thorough knowledge of all biblical revelation that preceded it. The classic text of Romans 3 defines sin by stringing Old Testament quotes together. The Old Testament presents the relationship between God and humankind in terms of a series of covenants. Old Testament theology forms many of its concepts around covenantal terminology. The New Testament correlates with the Old Testament concerning Jesus' place of birth, family line, forerunner, suffering, death, and future kingdom. Matthew is so conscious of this correlation that he creates a quotation from the Old Testament on a very broad analogy of Jesus as the rejected one in order to justify Jesus being raised in Nazareth (Matthew 2:23 ). All Bible students wish Luke would have recorded more than a mere reference of Jesus' exposition of himself from the Old Testament (24:25-27; 24:44). The Acts of Yahweh in the Old Testament (Joshua 6:15-21 ), and the teaching of the God-Man (Luke 9:54-55 ) in the New Testament appear on opposite ends of a continuum to many. Meadors...
See also Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the ; Old Testament in the New Testament, the ...
Bibliography . Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; D
Lightning - In the Old Testament, lightning is always associated with God. The New Testament both continues Old Testament associations and adds new uses
Scripture - This word occurs but once in the Old Testament, where an angel speaks of 'the scripture of truth. In the New Testament the various parts of the Old Testament are referred to as 'the scriptures'; they are the 'holy scriptures,' 2 Timothy 3:15 ; they must needs be fulfilled; they cannot be broken
Set in Order - ” While it occurs some 75 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, this root is also found in modern Hebrew, being connected with “editing” and “dictionary. ” The word is first found in the Old Testament in Pass On, Pass Away - ” Common to both biblical and modern Hebrew, this term appears approximately 30 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. ” With this meaning châlaph first occurs in the Old Testament in Sell - It occurs approximately 70 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament and is found for the first time in the Old Testament in Sprinkle - ” Used 35 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament, in 26 of those times it expresses the “throwing” or “sprinkling” of blood against the sacrificial altar or on the people. In the first use of zâraq in the Old Testament, it describes the “throwing” of handsful of dust into the air which would settle down on the Egyptians and cause boils ( Alms - The word is not found in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament, but is frequent in the New Testament. Alms-giving is a subject of praise in the Old Testament—e
Abstain, Abstinence - The King James Version never uses this group in the Old Testament and only seven times in the New Testament. The New International Version has three occurrences in the Old Testament (Exodus 19:15 ; 31:17 ; Numbers 6:3 ) and a similar group in the New Testament. There is a continuum of continuity and discontinuity between the Old Testament and New Testament in this regard. The New Testament upholds the normative moral codes of the Old Testament and exhorts believers to abstain from practices that would violate those codes (cf. On the other hand, the Old Testament places food laws (Leviticus 11 ; signified codes of holiness in contradistinction to other nations) and Sabbath observance into the moral realm. Old Testament ceremonial regulations (e. The category of vows in the Old Testament provides an occasion for believers to demonstrate special dedication to God. Making vows was never imposed upon an Old Testament believer as an obligation (Deuteronomy 23:22 ), but once a vow was made, it was a solemn and binding duty to keep it (Deuteronomy 23:21-23 ; Malachi 1:14 ; cf. Most Old Testament vows were of a positive nature, but the vow also could be a promise to abstain from some normally acceptable activity for a religious purpose. Fasting in the Old Testament was only required by law on the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16:29 ). The relative frequency of the vocabulary for fasting is well balanced between the Old Testament and New Testament and indicates that it was a common religious practice
Aramaic - Related Old Testament Passages—2 Kings 18:26 ; Ezra 4:8-6:18 ; Ezra 7:12-26 ; Daniel 2:4-7:28 ; Jeremiah 10:11 . ...
Old Testament Although the Arameans never founded a great national state or empire, by the eleventh century they had established several small states in Syria, and their language came to be known from Egypt to Persia. ...
Parts of the Old Testament were written in Aramaic: Ezra 4:8-6:18 ; Ezra 7:12-26 ; Daniel 2:4-7:28 ; Jeremiah 10:11 . The Palestinian Talmud and the Targums (translations of Old Testament books into Aramaic) also were written in Palestinian Jewish Aramaic
Natalis, Alexander - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Maccabees - ) Books of the Apocrypha: interesting as giving a Jewish history of many events which occurred after the sacred Canon closed with Malachi; especially the heroic and successful struggle of the Maccabees for Judah's independence against the Old Testament antichrist and persecutor, Antiochus Epiphanes, of whom Daniel 8; Daniel 11 foretells
Noel, Alexander - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Testament - The word has come to be used in describing the two main divisions of the Bible: The Old Testament and The New Testament
Baking - The Old Testament speaks most often of the baking of bread and cakes, which were the main part of the meal for Hebrews and Canaanites alike (Genesis 19:3 ; Exodus 12:39 ; Leviticus 26:26 ; 1 Kings 17:12-13 ; Isaiah 44:15 )
Aramaic - Fragments of the Old Testament (Daniel 2:4-7:29) and Saint Matthew's Gospel were written originally in Aramaic
Unclothed - Four times in the Old Testament we read that "the spirit of God clothed Himself with
Testament - ) One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; - often limited, in colloquial language, to the latter
Alexander Natalis - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Alexander Noel - He was a Dominican and wrote a history of the by Old Testament, commentaries on the Epistles and Gospels, and a history of the first century of Christianity (24 volumes, 1677-86)
Gentiles - Thus, in the Old Testament it designates the collection of nations of non-Israelitic stock (2 Esdras 5) and alien to the worship and customs of the true religion
Sabaoth - But it is the Greek transliteration of the Hebrew Tsebaoth, "hosts" or "armies," so often recurring in the Old Testament, "the Lord of hosts," Isaiah 1:9, "the Lord God of hosts," i
Italy - Not mentioned in the Old Testament, unless under general terms, as Chittim, Isles of the sea
City of David - In the Old Testament, the phrase “the city of David” refers to Jerusalem
Miz'ra-im, - (the two Egypts; red soil ), the usual name of Egypt in the Old Testament the dual of Mazor, which is less frequently employed
Antichrist - The Old Testament uses the figure of a dragon to symbolize evil's conflict with God existing from the time of creation to God's final triumph (Isaiah 27:1 ; cf. In the Old Testament and New Testament the image of the beast is used to describe both the power and intensity of evil and to declare God's ultimate victory. The figure of the antichrist and the man of lawlessness do not occur in the Old Testament, although their New Testament use is replete with Old Testament allusions. In the New Testament these figures function in line with the Old Testament conviction that God will ultimately defeat the forces of evil
Frog - This reptile is mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Exodus 8:2-14 ; Psalm 78:45 ; 105:30 )
Ishmaelite - References to them in the Old Testament are relatively few
Heracleonites - The Heracleonites denied the authority of the prophecies of the Old Testament; maintained that they were mere random sounds in the air; and that St
Bodyguard - In the Old Testament, soldiers were included among the king's bodyguard because of acts of bravery
se'Lah - This word, which is found only in the poetical books of the Old Testament, occurs seventy-one times in the Psalms and three times in Habakkuk
Viper - Some scholars take the Old Testament references to refer to the Echis Colorata
Lips - In the Old Testament, lips frequently take the character of the whole person
Hexapla - Origen's (186-254) colossal critical edition of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek
Cainan - This Cainan, however, is not named in the three Old Testament genealogies, Genesis 10:24 ; 11:12 ; 1 Chronicles 1:24 , nor in any ancient version
Lamb - The sacrifices of the Old Testament were an ordained and perpetual foreshadowing not only of his spotless holiness and his unresisting meekness, Isaiah 53:4-9
Jupiter - Antiochus Epiphanes (Daniel 8, 11), the Old Testament antichrist, to subvert the Jewish religion, dedicated the temple of Jehovah at Jerusalem to the Greek Olympian Jupiter
Fool, Foolishness, And Folly - The words are especially predominant in the Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament. Old Testament Usage Seven different Hebrew words are usually translated by the single English word, “folly. In examining the literature of the Old Testament, one gains a deeper appreciation for these various shades of meaning. ...
Since numerous examples of foolishness can be found in the Old Testament, additional references provide a more complete perspective: Job 2:10 ; Job 30:8 ;Job 30:8;42:8 ; Psalm 53:1 ; Proverbs 17:7-21 ; Isaiah 9:17 ; Jeremiah 4:22 . The various shades of meaning related to the Old Testament words, all translated “foolishness” in the English versions, provide a background picture for the New Testament usage of “fool” and “folly. ”...
New Testament Usage The contrasting elements of wisdom and folly evident in the Old Testament were clearly in the mind of Paul when he asked, “hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?” (1 Corinthians 1:20 )
Synagogue, the Great - To this end they collected all the sacred writings of the former ages and their own and so completed the canon of the Old Testament. The absence of any historical mention of such a body, not only in the Old Testament and the Apocrypha, but in Josephus, Philo, etc
Cham - He is mentioned in the Old Testament as having been irreverent towards his father when the latter was intoxicated
Bastard - In the Old Testament the rendering of the Hebrew word Mamzer' , Which means "polluted
Watch - The Old Testament seems to have had three watches rather than four
Marrow - In Old Testament times, marrow was regarded as among the choicest of foods (Psalm 63:5 ; Isaiah 25:6 )
Ahio - A member of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:14 ), but the Septuagint or earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament reads “their brothers” or kinfolk
Genesis - The first book of the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament, containing the history of the creation, of the apostasy of man, of the deluge, and of the first patriarchs, to the death of Joseph
Greece - It is named four times in the Old Testament as Greece or Grecia, Zechariah 9:13; Daniel 8:21; Daniel 10:20; Daniel 11:2, and once in the New Testament, Acts 20:2
Elders - In the church of the Old Testament, elders were the fathers of the tribes, and had the government in a great measure committed to them
Pardon - The Old Testament believers were already aware that the condition for seeking pardon was a repentant heart rather than ritual exactness (1 Chronicles 29:18 )
Cain'an - It seems certain that his name was introduced into the genealogies of the Greek Old Testament in order to bring them into harmony with the genealogy of Christ in St
Wisdom - ...
The Old Testament . In the Old Testament wisdom at one level describes skilled arts and artisans, like weavers (Exodus 35:25-26 ), architects (Exodus 35:30-36:1 ), and goldsmiths (Jeremiah 10:9 ). Thus, the major thrust of wisdom in the Old Testament was a code of moral conduct. ...
Certain theological presuppositions undergird the Wisdom Literature of the Old Testament. Sometimes in the Old Testament this phrase is a general term for religion (since the Old Testament has no specific word for religion), and sometimes, as in the Book of Proverbs, the phrase carries a meaning very close to the New Testament concept of faith. ...
The wisdom books of the Old Testament are Job, Ecclesiastes, and Proverbs. Bullock, An Introduction to the Old Testament Poetic Books ; J. Crenshaw, Old Testament Wisdom ; J
Canon - It consists of the Old Testament canon, which had become established during the centuries before the time of Christ, and the New Testament canon, which became established during the early centuries of the Christian era. ...
The Old Testament collection...
Under the guiding control of God, a recognized body of sacred writings was growing up in Israel. No person or group of persons decided to make an Old Testament canon. ...
No one knows for certain when the collection of sacred writings that we call the Old Testament was completed, but there are good reasons for thinking that Ezra and Nehemiah helped shape it towards its final form. our Old Testament) was firmly established by the time of Christ (Matthew 21:42; Luke 24:27; John 5:39). (For the composition of the Old Testament see SCRIPTURES. For the authority of the Old Testament canon that Jesus and New Testament writers acknowledged see INSPIRATION. ...
Early Christian writings...
In the early days of the church, the ‘Bible’ that the Christians used was what we call the Old Testament (Luke 24:27; Luke 24:44; Acts 8:32; Acts 17:2; Acts 17:11; Romans 1:2; Romans 4:3; Romans 9:17; 2 Timothy 3:15-16). But with the coming of Jesus, Christians saw that God’s revelation did not end with the Old Testament. Apostles had God-given authority, and Christians recognized their teachings and writings as having the same authority as the Old Testament Scriptures (1 Corinthians 14:37; 1 Thessalonians 5:27; 2 Thessalonians 2:15; 2 Thessalonians 3:14; 2 Peter 3:2; Revelation 1:1-3). ...
A growing collection...
As the writings of the apostles circulated, they gradually grew into a new collection in addition to, yet equal to, the Old Testament collection (2 Peter 3:15-16)
Hope - ...
The Old Testament . ...
In the Old Testament believers are encouraged to wait for God hopefully, expectantly. ...
For much of the Old Testament period hope was centered on this world. Toward the end of the Old Testament God made known his plan to bring his everlasting kingdom to earth (Daniel 2:44 ; 7:13-14 ) and to raise the dead (12:2). ...
Parallel to those passages in the Old Testament where those who hope are not put to shame, Paul says hope does not disappoint us (Romans 5:5 ). ...
In the Old Testament hope has to do with waiting for, looking for, desiring. ...
As hope is connected with patient endurance in the Old Testament, so in the New Testament trials lead to hope (Romans 5:3-4 ) and hope is steadfast (1 Thessalonians 1:3 ). ...
In the Old Testament hope is linked with "putting confidence in" or "taking refuge in. ...
Reminiscent of the Old Testament false objects of hope, Paul counsels the wealthy not "to set their hope in wealth" (1 Timothy 6:17 ). ...
From the above list it is apparent that, in contrast to the Old Testament, New Testament hope is primarily eschatological. After being introduced late in Old Testament times, hope in the resurrection of the dead grew in the intertestamental period in such proportion that Paul could speak of the resurrection as the "hope of Israel" (Acts 28:20 ; 24:15 ; 26:6-8 ). Zimmerli, Man and His Hope in the Old Testament
Fistula - ...
2) In the Old Testament, a scented reed yielding perfume, used in the composition of spices burned in sacrifices (Isaiah 43; Jeremiah 6), and in the oil of unction (Exodus 30)
Highest - In the Old Testament, Most High often occurs as a designation for the God of Israel when Gentiles are in view (Genesis 14:18-22 ; Numbers 24:16 ; and frequently in Daniel)
Name of Mary - First mentioned in the Old Testament as the name of the sister of Moses
Leviticus - The third Book of the Bible, named from its contents, as it deals exclusively with the service of God and the religious ceremonies of the Old Testament as carried out by the members of the tribe of Levi, both priests and Levites
Calamus - ...
2) In the Old Testament, a scented reed yielding perfume, used in the composition of spices burned in sacrifices (Isaiah 43; Jeremiah 6), and in the oil of unction (Exodus 30)
Lydda - In the Old Testament (1 Chronicles 8:12 ) it is called Lod
Rock - tsur), employed as a symbol of God in the Old Testament (1 Samuel 2:2 ; 2 Samuel 22:3 ; Isaiah 17:10 ; Psalm 28:1 ; 31:2,3 ; 89:26 ; 95:1 ); also in the New Testament (Matthew 16:18 ; Romans 9:33 ; 1 Corinthians 10:4 )
Jacob's Well - The Old Testament contains no reference to it
Belial - Worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper name
Mary, Name of - First mentioned in the Old Testament as the name of the sister of Moses
Hen (2) - As "the eagle stirring up her nest, fluttering over her young, spreading abroad her wings, taking, bearing them on her wings," represents the Old Testament aspect of Jehovah in relation to Israel under the law (Deuteronomy 32:11), so the "hen," Christ the lowly loving Son of God gathering God's children under His overshadowing wing, in the gospel (Ruth 2:12; Psalms 17:8; Psalms 91:4)
Cainan - Luke used this early Greek translation of the Old Testament and included Cainan in Christ's ancestors ( Luke 3:36 )
Captain of the Temple - Pashhur (“chief governor in the house of the Lord,” Jeremiah 20:1 ) and Seraiah (“ruler of the house of God,” Nehemiah 11:11 ) held this office in the Old Testament times
Agostino Ciasca - He discovered and edited a valuable Arabic version of the "Diatessaron," and published the extant fragments of a very ancient Coptic Old Testament in the Borgian museum
Jehovah - An anglicized pronunciation of the Hebrew tetragrammaton, YHWH, which are the four consonant letters used to spell God’s name in the Old Testament (Exodus 3:14)
Hebrews - The aim of this epistle is to prove from the Old Testament the divinity, humanity, atonement and intercession of Christ, and his preeminence over Moses and the angels of God; to demonstrate the superiority of the gospel to the law, and the real object and design of the Mosaic institution
Hebron - (Hebrew: league) ...
Ancient royal city of Chanaan, famous in biblical history; mentioned in Old Testament (Genesis 13), when Abraham went to the vale of Mambre, a name given to Hebron
Siphon - ...
2) In the Old Testament, a scented reed yielding perfume, used in the composition of spices burned in sacrifices (Isaiah 43; Jeremiah 6), and in the oil of unction (Exodus 30)
Bear - That bears were common in Palestine appears from several passages in the Old Testament, 1 Samuel 17:34,36,37 ; 2 Samuel 17:8 ; 2 Kings 2:24
Frog, - The mention of this reptile in the Old Testament is confined to the passage in ( Exodus 8:2-7 ) etc
Abba - ...
Jews of Old Testament times never used abba when addressing God, but Jesus used it when praying to his Father (Mark 14:36)
Flesh - ...
The Old Testament. The Old Testament employs two terms to denote flesh: basar [ Genesis 2:21 ; Leviticus 13:10-11 ; Ezekiel 37:6 ; Daniel 1:15 ; Micah 3:3 ) and animals alike (Exodus 21:28 ), including animal flesh used for food (Genesis 9:2-4 ) and in sacrifice (1 Samuel 2:13 ; Isaiah 65:4 ; Hosea 8:13 ). It is safe to say that all of the New Testament uses of flesh are made from these Old Testament building blocks. While the New Testament appropriates the Old Testament foundation, it also builds on it, some writers giving the term their own distinctive twist. ...
Writings Employing Chiefly the Old Testament Usages . In the Synoptic Gospels "flesh" is used only four times (aside from Old Testament quotations in Mark 10:8 ; and Luke 3:6 ). Mark 13:20 is a typical use of the Old Testament expression "all flesh. In Luke 24:39 the "flesh and bones" of the risen Jesus contrast with the immateriality of ghosts, implying a positive estimate of materiality that again harmonizes with the Old Testament. The first two are Old Testament quotations. The Epistle to the Hebrews likewise reflects Old Testament usage. The remaining concentration of instances of flesh in this grouping is found in the First Epistle of Peter, where there are examples (aside from the Old Testament quotation in 1:24). Both of these uses are in line with Old Testament thought. ...
Uses Akin to the Old Testament . Most of the uses found in the Old Testament are also present in the Pauline literature. This picture accords generally with that of the Old Testament
Bible, Editions of the - Since the Bible was written (the Old Testament in Hebrew, the New Testament in Greek) many centuries before the invention of printing, the only way to multiply copies was by hand. Various editions of the Hebrew Old Testament have been published by eminent scholars, both Jewish and Christian
Editions of the Bible - Since the Bible was written (the Old Testament in Hebrew, the New Testament in Greek) many centuries before the invention of printing, the only way to multiply copies was by hand. Various editions of the Hebrew Old Testament have been published by eminent scholars, both Jewish and Christian
Perdition - ...
Old Testament Words of the family from which perdition is derived usually relate to a state of physical rather than moral or religious destruction. The Old Testament sometimes links this term to the concept of Sheol (2 Samuel 22:5 ; Psalm 18:4 )
Malachi - The last of the minor prophets, and of all the Old Testament writers; so little known, that it is doubted by some, though without sufficient reason, whether his name be a proper name, or only a generical one, signifying the angel of the Lord that is, a messenger, a prophet, Haggai 1:13 ; Malachi 3:1 . Thus the Old Testament closes with Predictions of the Messiah, and the New Testament opens with the record of their fulfillment
Armageddon - ...
Armageddon is a Hebrew word, although it does not occur in the Old Testament. ...
In Old Testament history Megiddo was a place of numerous decisive battles because of the broad plain that stood before it. ...
Some interpreters take John's designation literally, expecting the armies of the earth to gather against God in the endtimes below the remains of Old Testament Megiddo; others see in it a more figurative element
Form - ” The word is found just over 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. The first occurrence in the Old Testament is in Old Testament are found in the Book of Isaiah, with God as the subject of most of them
Abbreviations - ...
OT Old Testament. to the Literature of the Old Testament. ...
SBOT Sacred Books of Old Testament. to the Literature of the Old Testament
People of God - ” This promise involves a God-people and people-God relationship which is the center of the Old Testament. Truly, the church carries the ideas from the Old Testament that the remnant in the figure of the Servant is the witness of universal salvation and the agent of a final revelation. The idea of God's people in the Old Testament culminates in the person of the Servant who is the idea of the remnant personified as an individual. ...
Christ claimed His servant-messiahship, for He is the Son of David, fulfilling the promise of God in the Old Testament
Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer - ...
Old Testament Three Hebrew words express the legal and commercial use of the redemptive concept. The verbal form in the Old Testament is always used in a religious sense such as the covering of sin or the making of atonement for sin. ...
The doctrine of redemption in the Old Testament is not derived from abstract philosophical thought but from Hebrew concrete thinking. In the Old Testament the terms and ideas are frequently used symbolically to emphasize dramatically the redemptive or saving activity of God. The basic Old Testament reference is the Exodus. The Old Testament witness is that God is “my strength and my redeemer” (Psalm 19:14 )
Imposition of Hands - A perfectly natural gesture signifying the communication of some favor, blessing, power, or duty; mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with patriarchs blessing their children, the consecration of priests, and sacrifice
Messias - " The word is applied to the future Saviour in the Old Testament (Psalms 2), in telling of the conspiracy of the enemies of Jehovah and "his Christ
Dead Sea - In the Old Testament it is called "sea of the wilderness" (Joshua 1:3); "east sea" (Joel 2; Zachariah 14); "salt sea" (Genesis 14); and "sea of the desert" (Deuteronomy 3)
Tiberias, Sea of - In the Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth
Zion - In the later books of the Old Testament this name was sometimes used (Psalm 87:2 ; 149:2 ; Isaiah 33:14 ; Joel 2:1 ) to denote Jerusalem in general, and sometimes God's chosen Israel (Psalm 51:18 ; 87:5 )
Jannes And Jambres - Though the names do not appear in the Old Testament, rabbinic tradition identified Jannes and Jambres as being among those Egyptian magicians who sought to duplicate for Pharaoh the miracles performed by Moses (Exodus 7:11 )
Asia - In the Old Testament "Asia" does not occur
Shallum - Several Old Testament characters of lesser importance also had the name Shallum
Philo Judaeus - A member of a wealthy Jewish family in Alexandria, Egypt, He was well educated in Greek schools and used the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, as his Bible
Golgotha - The Hebrew term appears twice in the Old Testament in its literal sense
Rabsaris - ” The Old Testament records that the rabsaris was sent on two occasions to deal with the Israelite kings ( 2 Kings 18:17 ; Jeremiah 39:3 )
Jaddua - The last high priest and the latest name in Old Testament, supposing 1 Chronicles 3:22-24 corrupt
Lydda - The Old Testament Lod (1 Chronicles 8:12 ), Lydda was a Benjaminite town near the Plain of Sharon
Stairs - There were stairs in two visions in the Old Testament: Jacob's ladder may have been stairs (Genesis 28:12 ); Ezekiel's temple had stairs (Genesis 43:17 )
Hands, Imposition of - A perfectly natural gesture signifying the communication of some favor, blessing, power, or duty; mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with patriarchs blessing their children, the consecration of priests, and sacrifice
Samson - A well-known character in the Old Testament: in one grand instance, as a Nazarite, a type of the Lord Jesus Christ
Vail - ...
2 Corinthians 3:14 (a) This represents the peculiar unbelief which fills the hearts and minds of the people of Israel as they read the Old Testament and cannot see CHRIST depicted there
Samaria - Samaria forms an interesting history to the church, both in the Old Testament and the New
Albigenses - This error taught that there were two gods: the good god of light usually referred to as Jesus in the New Testament and the god of darkness and evil usually associated with Satan and the "God of the Old Testament
Abaddon - It occurs six times in the Old Testament, in three of which it is associated with hell (sheol): Job 26:6 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; Proverbs 27:20 ; once with death: 'Destruction and Death say,' etc
Viper - This word in the Old Testament possibly designates some particular species of hissing and venomous serpent, but its exact application cannot be determined
Crystal, - ...
kerach occurs in numerous passages in the Old Testament to denote "ice," "frost," etc
Inspiration - ...
Jesus and his followers acknowledged the Old Testament writings as God’s Word written by people who were inspired by God’s Spirit. Therefore, they could quote the spoken words of God as being the words of the Old Testament writer who recorded them (cf. Isaiah 65:1-2 with Romans 10:20), or they could quote the words of the Old Testament writer himself as being the words of God (cf. This is seen in some of the New Testament writers’ quotations from the Old Testament. They give such close attention to the words used that they may even base an explanation or teaching on a particular word in an Old Testament portion (cf. Therefore, the New Testament writers may at times quote Old Testament portions without a word-for-word exactness. ...
Authority of the Scriptures...
Jesus acknowledged the Old Testament as the authoritative Word of God. ...
Paul and Peter were the two writers who spoke specifically of the Old Testament writings as being God-given (2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:21). Yet both of them speak of New Testament writings as having the same authority as the Old Testament. ...
In 1 Timothy 5:18 Paul quoted as ‘Scripture’ a statement whose first part came from Deuteronomy 25:4 and whose second part came from Luke 10:7, showing that he considered Luke’s Gospel to have equal authority with the Old Testament. Likewise Peter, in 1 Corinthians 14:37 grouped the writings of Paul with ‘the other Scriptures’, showing that he considered Paul’s writings to have equal authority with the Old Testament
Perfection - Under the Old Testament program, the priests could never rest. There is no need of a repetition as in the Old Testament days
Giants - ...
Old Testament The earliest biblical reference to giants is to the nephilim born to the “daughters of men” and the “sons of God” ( Genesis 6:1-4 ). ...
The Old Testament also records cases of individual giants
Apoc'Rypha -
Old Testament Apocrypha . Their relation to the canonical books of the Old Testament is discussed under CANON
Crete - In Old Testament times the Mediterranean island of Crete was known as Caphtor. It was at one time the homeland of a people who, in the early days of the Old Testament story, sailed east and settled on Canaan’s Mediterranean coast, where they became known as the Philistines (Deuteronomy 2:23; 1 Samuel 30:14; Jeremiah 47:4; Amos 9:7; see PHILISTIA; CHERETHITES)
Book of Life - In Old Testament times it may have meant simply the register of all living people. ...
Among those known as God’s people, from Old Testament times to the present, there are those who become apostates or who were not genuine believers in the first place
Asherah - ”...
The Hebrew word for Asherah occurs 40 times in the Old Testament. ...
The writers of the Old Testament referred to the image of Asherah as well as to “prophets” belonging to her and to vessels used in her worship (1 Kings 15:13 , 1 Kings 18:19 ; 2 Kings 21:7 , 2 Kings 23:4 ; 2 Chronicles 15:16 ). Over half of the Old Testament references to Asherah can be found in the books of Kings and Chronicles. ”...
The writers of the Old Testament did not provide an actual description of an “asherah” or the origin of the worship of Asherah
Holy Spirit - ...
Old Testament The term “Holy Spirit” in the Old Testament is found only in Psalm 51:11 ; Isaiah 63:10-11 . The Old Testament has numerous examples when God inspired the prophets indirectly by the Spirit. The prime revelation of the Spirit in the Old Testament, in the personal sense, is by means of prophecy. Ezekiel and Isaiah express the idea of the Spirit more than any other Old Testament source. This prophetic foreshadowing, in light of the individual, sporadic, and temporary manifestation of the Spirit in the Old Testament, looked forward to a time when the Spirit of God would revitalize His chosen people, empower the Messiah, and be lavishly poured out on all humankind. In the prophetic Book of Revelation, John, in Old Testament fashion, depicted himself as a prophet inspired by the Spirit
Everlasting Punishment - The Old Testament never directly addresses the issue of “everlasting punishment. All “punishment” in the Old Testament is executed within history (e. Though one can find expressions of individual guilt, punishment and forgiveness in the Psalms, and though one can find the language of universal judgment in the prophets—that is, that unfaithful Israel and all the nations of the world will be historically punished—it is not until after the Old Testament that the notions of “eternal punishment” or “everlasting judgment” are developed
Everlasting Punishment - The Old Testament never directly addresses the issue of “everlasting punishment. All “punishment” in the Old Testament is executed within history (e. Though one can find expressions of individual guilt, punishment and forgiveness in the Psalms, and though one can find the language of universal judgment in the prophets—that is, that unfaithful Israel and all the nations of the world will be historically punished—it is not until after the Old Testament that the notions of “eternal punishment” or “everlasting judgment” are developed
Take, Handle - It occurs approximately 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. It occurs almost 70 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. It is used for the first time in the Old Testament in the passive sense with reference to the ram “caught in a thicket by his horns” ( Atonement - In the Old Testament the word is used mainly in connection with the offering of sacrifices for sin. The Old Testament sacrifices were not a way of salvation. )...
The sacrifices of the Old Testament pointed to the one great sacrifice that is the only basis on which God can forgive a person’s sins, the death of Christ
Teach - Lâmad is found approximately 85 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament. ” This word is first used in the Hebrew Old Testament in Old Testament, specifically Old Testament. ...
The first use of this verb in the Old Testament is in
Old Testament
Laying on of Hands - ...
Old Testament Laying on of hands is primarily associated in the Old Testament with the sacrifices prescribed in the Law. While the primary texts convey little of the spiritual meaning of these rituals, later Old Testament texts emphasize the importance of “a broken spirit: a broken and a contrite heart” (Psalm 51:17 ). ...
The act of laying on of hands had other meanings in the Old Testament. In addition, the Old Testament frequently uses the image of laying hands on someone as an act of arrest, capture, or violence (Genesis 27:22 ; Exodus 22:11 ; 2 Chronicles 23:15 ; Esther 2:21 ). Some view healing by laying on of hands as an extension of the Old Testament blessing
Biblical Theology - The Old Testament writers are aware of a future fulfillment to Yahweh's present promises to his people; that fulfillment, while multifaceted, is summed up in Jesus messianic ministry. While biblical theology can err in overstating the ways the Old Testament foreshadows and predicts the Messiah, and the ways in which the New Testament finds its meaning in Jesus Christ, it may likewise err in denying him his central place in the grand drama of both biblical and world history. The early chapters of Genesis, corroborated by subsequent statements in both Old Testament and New Testament, affirm that God created the world by fiat decree ("And God said cf. The basic dynamic of God's people honoring their Lord through fidelity to his revealed written word is basic to the faith that both Old Testament and New Testament model and prescribe. ...
The five Old Testament books of Moses, the Pentateuch, set forth a lofty practical and spiritual agenda. Bultmann's quip that the Old Testament is not a history of redemption but of disaster (Unheilsgeschichte ) is overly dour, yet captures an important dimension of this segment of Old Testament history and thus its theology. This material furnishes a gnomic counterpart to the more prevalent Old Testament literary forms of narrative and law. Biblical theology minimizes the theology distinct to any of these Old Testament forms at the peril of attenuating Scripture's full message. The office of prophet is central to the Old Testament. Like the Old Testament office of priest and king, it not only actualizes God's redemptive work in Old Testament times but also foreshadows the offices fulfilled by the Messiah yet to come. The final book of the Old Testament testifies to their labor, yet decries a people still divided in their loyalties between God and their own willfulness. ...
The truly faithful fewtheir number seems seldom if ever to constitute a hegemony among Abraham's physical descendants throughout Old Testament historyappear to dwindle steadily once the Old Testament period proper ends. During these decades the religious forms and theological idioms of the Old Testament, diverse in themselves, are transformed into patterns that give Judaism as seen in New Testament times its distinctive faces. A biblical-theological survey of the Old Testament and its aftermath finds that time to have arrived in the days of Jesus' birth. Luke 1-2 describes the Old Testament hopes of figures like Zechariah, Elizabeth, Mary, Simeon, and Anna as these all voice confidence in the fidelity of God to his Old Testament promises. God's reign, graphically and variously prefigured in Old Testament events and institutions, is actually at hand. ...
Jesus' ministry, then, is the culmination of God's saving plan established in Old Testament times. Not clearly foreseen, apparently, by either Old Testament prophets or the earliest New Testament disciples, was the already-not yet complexion of the messianic age. Eschatologically oriented portions of both Old Testament and New Testament, in particular the Book of Revelation, furnish rich resources for reflection and guidance. In Old Testament theology, works by luminaries like Procksch, Eichrodt, Vriezen, Jacob, and von Rad have commanded attention. Yet both Old Testament and New Testament theology, like mainline theological thought generally, are currently in disarray. Many Old Testament and New Testament scholars openly reject classic Christian understanding of the Bible, finding neither unity nor a saving message in itand certainly not definitive truth. Some even reject the possibility of Old Testament or New Testament theology, let alone biblical theology as a combination of the two, convinced that critical analysis of the Bible can result in nothing more than what ephemeral and disputed literary or social science methods yield. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament, 2 vols. Hasel, Old Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate and New Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate ; B. , The Flowering of Old Testament Theology ; R
Son of Man - In the Old Testament it is used only in Psalm 80:17 and Daniel 7:13 with this application
Nahum, Book of - A book of the Old Testament, written between 666 or 662 B
Gnashing of Teeth - In the Old Testament, gnashing of teeth was an expression of anger reserved for the wicked and for one's enemies (Job 16:9 ; Psalm 35:16 ; Psalm 37:12 ; Lamentations 2:16 )
Heritage - The Old Testament frequently refers to the promised land as Israel's heritage from God (Exodus 6:8 ; Psalm 16:6 ; Psalm 135:12 )
Oil, Olive - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony (Exodus 27); it was also used in many religious ceremonies, e
Olive Oil - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony (Exodus 27); it was also used in many religious ceremonies, e
Oracle - In the Old Testament used in every case, except 2 Samuel 16:23 , to denote the most holy place in the temple (1 Kings 6:5,19-23 ; 8:6 )
Sab'Aoth, the Lord of, - " Sabaoth is the Greek form of the Hebrew word tsebaoth "armies," and is translated in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament by "Lord of hosts," "Lord God of hosts
Caterpillar - Used in the Old Testament (1 Kings 8:37 ; 2 Chronicles 6:28 ; Psalm 78:46 ; Isaiah 33:4 ) as the translation of a word (hasil) the root of which means "to devour" or "consume," and which is used also with reference to the locust in Deuteronomy 28:38
Executioner - The Old Testament law does not know the role of the representative executioner who acts on behalf of the society
Rachel - ...
Two Old Testament passages outside Genesis name Rachel
District - In the Old Testament district often connotes a part of a larger whole, either the provinces of an empire (1 Kings 20:14-19 ), regions within a country (2 Chronicles 11:23 ), or sections of a city (Nehemiah 3:9-18 )
Cinnamon - A perfume only in Old Testament (Exodus 30:23); a condiment with us
Creationism - Young earth creationists generally believe that God created the universe, the earth, and living things on the earth and that the Old Testament literally describes six, 24 hour periods
Version - ) A translation; that which is rendered from another language; as, the Common, or Authorized, Version of the Scriptures (see under Authorized); the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament
Hypocrite - In the Old Testament, the Hebrew word caneph, which is rendered "hypocrite," "counterfeit," signifies also a profane wicked man, a man polluted, corrupted, a man of impiety, a deceiver
Alpha - With Omega, the last letter, it is used in the Old Testament and in the New to express the eternity of God, as including both the beginning and the end
Phile'Tus - 68-64) Thep appear to have been persons who believed the Scripture of the Old Testament, but misinterpreted them, allegorizing away the doctrine of the resurrection and resolving it all into figure and metaphor
Inn - The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament
Immortality - The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament
Brother - The Hebrew word is used in various senses in the Old Testament, as,
Any kinsman, and not a mere brother; e
Branch - One of the names that Israelites of Old Testament times gave to the expected Messiah was ‘the Branch’
Peace, Spiritual - ...
Old Testament The concept of spiritual peace is most often represented by the Hebrew root slm and its derivatives, the most familiar being by the noun shalom . ) The Law, the Prophets, and the Writings of the Old Testament each bear testimony that such peace is the gift of God, for God alone can give peace in all its fullness (Leviticus 26:6 ; 1 Chronicles 12:18 ; 1 Chronicles 22:9 ; 1 Kings 2:33 ; Isaiah 26:12 ; Isaiah 52:7 ; Ezekiel 34:25 ; Ezekiel 37:26 ; Zechariah 6:13 ; Malachi 2:5-6 ; Job 22:21 ; Job 25:2 ; Psalm 4:8 ; Psalm 29:11 ; Psalm 37:37 ; Psalm 85:8 ; Psalm 122:6-8 ; Psalm 147:14 ; Proverbs 3:17 ). Thus peace and righteousness are often linked in the Old Testament (Psalm 72:7 ; Psalm 85:10 ; Isaiah 9:7 ; Isaiah 32:17 ; Isaiah 48:18 ; Isaiah 60:17 ), as are peace and justice (Isaiah 59:8 ). Throughout the Old Testament spiritual peace is realized in relationship. Thus, the New Testament gives more attention to the understanding of spiritual peace as an inner experience of the individual believer than does the Old Testament
Philistia - Thenceforward, during the whole period of Old Testament history, the Israelites and the Philistines were frequently brought in contact. The Philistines are mentioned 310 times in the Old Testament, from Genesis to Zechariah
Abaddon - ...
The word only occurs once in the New Testament (Revelation 9:11 ) and five times in the Old Testament (Job 26:6 ; 28:22 ; 31:12 ; Psalm 88:11 ; Proverbs 15:11 ). So in the Old Testament Abaddon means the place of utter ruin, death, desolation, or destruction
Betrothal - ...
Old Testament The biblical terms, betrothal and espousal, are almost synonymous with marriage, and as binding
Lake of Fire - ...
The Old Testament explicitly portrays God's fiery judgment at history's consummation, but not hell (Isaiah 66:15-16,24 ; Ezekiel 38:22 ). Jesus extensively uses the imagery of "hell-fire" (Matthew 5:22 ; 7:19 ; 13:40-42,50 ; 18:8-9 ; 25:41 ; Mark 9:43,48-49 ; Luke 16:24 ; John 15:6 ), derived from the Old Testament descriptions of God's retributive judgment, particularly Sodom's ruin (Genesis 19:24 ; Leviticus 10:2 ; Numbers 16:35 ; Isaiah 34:10 ; Luke 17:29 ; Jude 7 )
Pit - The Old Testament . Since God did not reveal the hope of resurrection and the glories of heaven until late in Old Testament times, many expressions are quite negative
Bible - It is divided into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine books, and the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books. There is a break of 400 years between the Old Testament and the New. ) ...
The Old Testament is divided into three parts:, 1. The ancient Jews divided the Old Testament into certain sections for use in the synagogue service, and then at a later period, in the ninth century A
Sheol - When the Old Testament writers spoke about the afterlife, they referred to it by using the Hebrew word sheol (translated into the Greek as hades). ...
The Old Testament writers expressed their view of the afterlife in broad general terms. The hope of the Old Testament believers was that God would not desert them in sheol, but would bring them into a new and joyful experience of life in the presence of God (Job 19:26; Psalms 16:10-11; Psalms 49:15; Psalms 73:24; cf. ...
During the latter part of the Old Testament era, believers became more firmly convinced that beyond death lay the resurrection (Daniel 12:1-2)
Scriptures - Doth the Old Testament shadow forth by type and figure the person work, character, and relation of the Lord Jesus Christ? And what is the New Testament record but the sum and substance of the same? Doth the Old Testament relate the prophecies, hold forth the promises, and insist upon the doctrines, which were to be revealed openly, and completed in the person of Jesus? And is not Jesus, in the testimony given of him in the New Testament, the spirit of prophecy, the yea and amen of all the promises, and the pardon and remission of sins, the glorious doctrine in his blood and righteousness fully proclaimed and confirmed to his church and people? In short, the former prefigured, and the latter realized, the immense event of salvation, and all in Christ. Nothing do we find predicted of Jesus in the Old Testament but what the New brought forth the accomplishment of; and nothing that we hear of or meet with concerning the person and glory of Christ in the New Testament, but what the Old had foretold. And it is the most blessed of all employments to be everlastingly studying those precious oracles of divine truth, which the Lord Jesus so strongly enjoined in relation to the Old Testament, and which all his believing people find more refreshing than their necessary food, both in the Old and New
Arabia - ...
Old Testament The Arabian peninsula, together with the adjoining lands which were home to the biblical Arabs, includes all of present-day Saudi Arabia, the two Yemens (San'a' and Aden), Oman, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Kuwait, as well as parts of Iraq, Syria, Jordan, and the Sinai Peninsula. This refers to the people of the northwestern parts of the Arabian territory, whom the Old Testament writers knew as nomadic herders of sheep and goats, and later, of camels. ” Furthermore, many of the names of the Old Testament refer to people or tribes who were ethnically and linguistically Arab
Antichrist - It is a rather late term in Christianity, although its origin can be traced back to the Old Testament book of Daniel. In that Old Testament apocalypse, the term antichrist appears in two forms: 1) an individual who opposes God, or 2) a collective antichrist. ...
Old Testament The Old Testament, described the antichrist in various ways
Scripture - " Christ refers frequently to passages in the Old Testament in this way, and once designates the entire collection by the three divisions known to the Jews, "the Law of Moses, and the Prophets, and the Psalms. , only once in the Old Testament; but compare 2 Kings 22:13; Psalms 40:7, and Psalms 119:1-176. In the New Testament Paul's epistles are classed with the Old Testament as "Scripture. , and Philo, to designate single books of the Old Testament; and later by Chrysostom—350-407 a. There are 39 separate books in the Old Testament, and 27 in the New Testament, making 66 books in the Bible. The Jews, besides dividing the Old Testament into the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms, or the writings, as before noted, made other divisions in toe text of separate books for convenience in reading in public worship. From these grew the modern division of the Old Testament into chapters and verses. The original text of the Old Testament is Hebrew (except a small portion in Chaldaic); the New Testament was written in Greek. The oldest extant Hebrew Old Testament manuscripts date from the tenth century. The New Testament Greek text has received greater critical study than even the Old Testament text. The oldest translation of the Old Testament is the Greek, made about two centuries before Christ. The chief translations are: Wyckliffe's New Testament, from the Latin in 1380, and his followers also translated the Old Testament; these were written. The Anglo-American revised Bible, New Testament, 1881, Old Testament, 1885. The Old Testament was given specially at first to the Jews, and the New Testament to the disciples of Christ. The Old Testament is fulfilled in the New. There are not less than 265 direct quotations from the Old Testament in the New, and 350 further allusions in the New Testament to the Old Testament, which imply that the latter was the word of God. Again and again Christ and his apostles cited and approved of the Old Testament as the truth of God, and the New Testament expressly declares: "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. From the Mosaic book of Deuteronomy in the Old Testament Jesus quoted texts to withstand the awful conflict in the temptations of the devil. It was from the Old Testament books that Jesus talked on the way to Emmaus with two disciples, "beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself
Appear, Appearance - The Old Testament . The Hebrew word most commonly used for appearance in the Old Testament is raa [1]. One of the defining characteristics of God in the Old Testament is that he is the one who appears (Exodus 6:3 ). A common pattern in the Old Testament is that through his appearance to one person God subsequently reveals himself to all of Israel (Leviticus 9:23 ). ...
God appears in the Old Testament to reveal his character, identity, and purposes for Israel. ...
While the majority of Old Testament references to God's appearances tell of specific historical moments, there is also expectation of future appearances. As in the Old Testament God's appearances serve to direct (Matthew 2:13 ) and disclose his purposes (Matthew 17:1 ; Mark 9:4 ; Luke 9:31 ). ...
Just as the authority of an Old Testament prophet or leader involved having received an appearance from God, so an essential requirement for apostleship in the New Testament is having received an appearance from the risen Christ. Again as in the Old Testament the appearance of God is purposeful and those who receive it also receive a commission (Acts 10:40-42 ). As in the Old Testament, the New Testament refers to people appearing before God—at the judgment seat (2 Corinthians 5:10 )
Demiurge - Valentinus regarded him as the offspring of a union of matter with lower wisdom, a distant emanation from the Supreme God; other Gnostics identified him with Jehovah, God of the Jews and the Old Testament from whose power, Christ of the New Testament, Son of the Good God, rescued us
Hexateuch - A modern designation for the first six books of the Old Testament viewed as a literary unity
Kuyunjik - It existed as early as 1800 and in the time of Sennacherib (7th century) was the capital of the empire, the center of the worship of Ishtar, and well known in the Old Testament in connection with the prophets, especially as the theater of Jonas's mission
Mount Sinai - The Old Testament speaks of Mount Sinai and Mount Horeb as synonymous; some writers say they are two mountains of the same range
Cherub/Cherubim - The word(s) occurs over 90 times in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament at Hebrews 9:5, "And above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat; but of these things we cannot now speak in detail
Census - A census or enrollment of the people is mentioned several times in the Old Testament and notably in the New Testament (Luke 2), the enrollment of "the whole world" which occasioned the journey of Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem wherc Christ was born
Nile - Dark; blue, not found in Scripture, but frequently referred to in the Old Testament under the name of Sihor, i
Fear of the Lord the - Is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety (Proverbs 1:7 ; Job 28:28 ; Psalm 19:9 )
Greece - Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan ( Genesis 10:2-5 ); and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament till the time of (Joel 3:6 )
Neapolis - Equates to Shechem in Old Testament, Sychar in New Testament Now Nablus, corrupted from Neapolis
Harmony of the Gospels - The term harmony is also used in reference to the agreement which the Gospel bears to natural religion, the Old Testament, the history of other nations, and the works of God at large
Beg - That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant evidence (Exodus 23:11 ; Deuteronomy 15:11 ), but there is no mention of beggars properly so called in the Old Testament
Emerods - On the basis of the earliest Greek Old Testament reading, the NIV includes the margin reading “tumors of the groin
Ninive - It existed as early as 1800 and in the time of Sennacherib (7th century) was the capital of the empire, the center of the worship of Ishtar, and well known in the Old Testament in connection with the prophets, especially as the theater of Jonas's mission
Villages - Cities are often mentioned in the Old Testament with their dependent villages
Holiness - (Anglo-Saxon: perfect, or whole) ...
In the Old Testament the Hebrew, kadosch (holy), signified separation from the profane, dedication to God's service, e
Worm - Both the Old Testament and the New Testament speak of the place of the ungodly and unbeliever as being that where the worm is always alive and working (Isaiah 66:24 : Mark 9:44 ,Mark 9:44,9:48 )
Cana - It is not mentioned in the Old Testament
Pharisee - They considered the entire Old Testament to be authoritative, unlike the Sadducees who only accepted the first five books
Elect - In the Old Testament the term is applied only to the Israelites in as far as they were called to be the chosen people of God
Sinai, Mount - The Old Testament speaks of Mount Sinai and Mount Horeb as synonymous; some writers say they are two mountains of the same range
Hay - chatsir ), the rendering of the Authorized Version in ( Proverbs 27:25 ) and Isai 15:6 Of the Hebrew term, which occurs frequently in the Old Testament, and denotes "grass" of any kind
Lessons, the - Two Lessons are to be readat each service in accordance with the custom of the earlyChristians, one from the Old Testament and one from the New
Israel, Spiritual - The church, one gathering of all believers under the lordship of Christ as the continuation of God's work with Old Testament Israel. This is in contrast to most references in the Old Testament to religious or secular assemblies or to those in the New Testament that designate a local congregation of Christians, but never in any way mean a building. In Old Testament times they constituted the people of God, for He chose them as His own for faithful service
Bible, Texts And Versions - Old Testament Text and Versions. The difficulty of tracing the history of the Old Testament text is the scarcity of manuscripts that go back beyond the ninth and tenth century. The manuscripts used most frequently in editing the Old Testament today are of this variety. This refers to the text of the first five books of the Old Testament as it was preserved among the Samaritans after their separation from Judah about 400 B. ...
Another tool to trace the history behind the Masoretic text is the Aramaic paraphrases of the Old Testament known as the Targums . Because they are paraphrases and not strict translations, the Targums are more of interest for determining Jewish doctrine in the time of their origin than for determining the early stages of the text of the Old Testament. This is a Greek translation of the Old Testament made from about 250 to 100 B. It was made in Alexandria, Egypt, to meet the needs of Jews and others who wanted to read the Old Testament but lacked the facility to read Hebrew. There are other Greek translations of the Old Testament made by Jews to replace the Septuagint. The oldest copies of Old Testament Scriptures found in these discoveries are manuscripts written in the second century before Christ. Along with Old Testament manuscripts, the caves preserved documents written by the participants in the community and their founders. Biblical manuscripts have been found containing fragments or complete copies from every book of the Old Testament except Esther. ...
Other versions of the Old Testament such as the Syriac, Old Latin, the Latin Vulgate, etc. About half of the Old Testament quotes in Paul are from the Septuagint as are almost all of the quotes in 1Peter, James, and Hebrews. The term “Old Testament,” implying a “New Testament,” was first used by Christians in A. The earliest of these to contain the New Testament also contain the Old Testament (in the form of the Septuagint with the outside books) and other Christian writings such as 1,2Clement or The Shepherd of Hermas and the Letter of Barnabas
Expiation, Propitiation - In the Septuagint, the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament, hilasmos appears in Leviticus 25:9 in the expression, “day of atonement”; in Psalm 130:4 to confess that there is “forgiveness” with God; in Numbers 5:8 in the expression the “ram of the atonement”; and in Ezekiel 44:27 as a “sin-offering. ...
Some scholars interpret these Old Testament references to mean that God has acted as the subject to cover and forgive sins. ...
The background of the idea is the Old Testament sacrificial system. When this happened, the prophets of the Old Testament frequently protested against the externalism of the priestly cult of sacrifice, saying much more effect came through a humble heart, the sacrifice of repentance (Psalm 51:17 ; Isaiah 1:10-20 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Hosea 6:6 ; Joel 2:13 ; Micah 6:6-8 ). ...
In the Old Testament, the note of grace is clearly present. The Old Testament repeats its promise that God remains gracious even in our sinning, that He stands ready to forgive even before we are ready to repent (Psalm 78:21-28 ; Psalm 89:28-34 ; Isaiah 65:1-2 ; Jeremiah 31:1-3 , Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; Hosea 6:1-2 ). ...
The New Testament shows how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament system of sacrifices and thus replaced it with His own work on the cross. The Old Testament system could not purify the consciences of those who offered them (Hebrews 8:7 , Hebrews 8:13 ; Hebrews 10:1-4 ). All ritual requirements for sacrifice in the Old Testament are replaced by the sacrifice of the cross, which wipes away the record of our debts to God (Colossians 2:14 ; Hebrews 10:14-18 )
Canon of the Old Testament - Accordingly (as the rabbis allege, compare 2 Esdras) it was at the return from the Babylonian captivity that Ezra and "the great synagogue" (a college of 120 scholars) collected and promulgated all the Old Testament Scriptures in connection with their reconstruction of the Jewish church. " Daniel (Daniel 9:2) "understood by THE books (so the Hebrew) the number of the years whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah the prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolation of Jerusalem"; probably Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (Jeremiah 29:1-10), others explain it the books of the Old Testament or of the prophets. ) mentions the three integral parts, "the law, the prophets, and the remainder of the books," as constituting a completed whole; just as the Lord Jesus refers to the whole Old Testament: "the law of Moses, the prophets, and the psalms" (answering to the hagiographa or the Kethubim), Luke 24:44, compare Acts 28:23; and comprehends all the instances of innocent blood shedding in the formula "from Abel to Zacharias," i. " The warnings: "add thou not to His words, lest He reprove thee and thou be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6), "neither shall ye diminish ought from it" (Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32), fenced in the Old Testament canon as Revelation 22:18-19 fences in the New Testament The Lord and His apostles quote all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, the Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. ...
Some quotations in the New Testament are not directly found in the canonical books; thus Judges 1:17 takes a portion of the uninspired book of Enoch, and by inspiration stamps that portion as true; Paul also refers to facts unrecorded in Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:8; Ephesians 5:14; Hebrews 11:24); see also John 7:38; James 4:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:8. 179), after an exact inquiry in the East gives the Old Testament books substantially the stone as ours, including under "Esdras" Nehemiah, Ezra, and Esther. But by admitting into the Septuagint Greek version of Old Testament the Apocrypha they insensibly influenced those Christian fathers who depended on that version for their knowledge of Old Testament, so that the latter lost sight of the gulf that separates the Hebrew canon from the Apocrypha
Poetry - About one-third of the Old Testament is poetry, the oldest, the purest, and the most sublime in the world. There are five so-called poetical books in the Old Testament: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon
Arad - (ay' rawd) names two towns of significance to the Old Testament and two Old Testament men
Maid, Maiden - In the Old Testament amah and shipchah refer to female slaves. Mary's reference to herself as the “handmaid [1] of the Lord” ( Luke 1:38 ,Luke 1:38,1:48 ) reflects the Old Testament use
Type - ...
The Old Testament types include persons, officers, objects, events, rites, and places. ...
However striking the points of resemblance which an Old Testament event or object may present to something in the New Testament, it is not properly a type unless it was so appointed by God, and thus has something of a prophetic character
Family - The basic composition of a family changes from the Old Testament to the New Testament. ...
Old Testament The span of the Old Testament allowed for much transition in the family. ...
Structure The Old Testament family represents a larger body that the English word suggests. However, the father was also to be loving, and the divine mercy of the New Testament was based on the compassionate Old Testament father (Psalm 103:1 ). ...
Commitment The Old Testament family was close-knit, and family loyalty was very strong. The covenant was central to understanding Old Testament family relationships as well as relationships with God. ...
Functions The family of the Old Testament had the purposes of reproduction, instruction, care giving, maintaining traditions, and conveying wisdom. ...
Structure As in the Old Testament the Greek words used to describe family did not refer exclusively to our understanding of the nuclear family. Another term (oikos ) meant a house or a building but could also refer to a lineage or clan much like the Old Testament word for household (1 Corinthians 1:16 ). This New Testament love expanded the Old Testament understanding of steadfast love (hesed ) by developing an unconditional, accepting love known initially in the love of God (John 3:16 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1 ). ...
Marriage in the New Testament was founded on a love bond experienced by both male and female in contrast to the arranged marriage of the Old Testament. This mutual love commitment was a radical departure from the Old Testament marriage model. ...
Commitment The Old Testament concept of covenant became the foundation for the new covenant in Jesus Christ
Bible - ...
The Old Testament contains thirty-nine books. They arranged the books of the Old Testament in three divisions, called, the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings, that is, the Holy Writings. The Holy Writings (Hagiographa) embrace all the remaining books of the Old Testament, namely, (according to the Masorectic arrangement,) Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles. In the arrangement of the Old Testament books now prevalent, the historical books come first, then the devotional and didactic, and lastly the prophetical. The Jews ascribe to Ezra the honor of arranging and completing the canon of the Old Testament books, being inspired for this work by the Spirit of God, and aided by the learned and pious Jews of his day. The division into verses was made in the Old Testament in 1450, and recognized in the Hebrew Concordance of Rabbi Nathan. He also modified and completed the division of the Old Testament into verses, in an edition of the whole Bible, the Vulgate, in 1555
Bible - ) The Book by way of eminence, - that is, the book which is made up of the writings accepted by Christians as of divine origin and authority, whether such writings be in the original language, or translated; the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments; - sometimes in a restricted sense, the Old Testament; as, King James's Bible; Douay Bible; Luther's Bible
Dragon - (Greek: drakon, serpent) ...
In the Old Testament, especially in the Psalms, a designation for some very large sea animal (Psalms 103) or a serpent (Psalms 90)
Lebanon - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Libanus - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Mountain, White - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Didascalia Apostolorum - The Old Testament, the Gospels, and Epistles are frequently quoted
Instructions of the Apostles - The Old Testament, the Gospels, and Epistles are frequently quoted
Hiss - In the Old Testament an army or nation hissed at their enemy's city or land that suffered defeat or disaster (Jeremiah 19:8 )
Rock - The Old Testament often speaks of God as being like a rock to his people
Dish - The Old Testament uses three terms for dish: a large, shallow metal dish (Judges 5:25 ; Judges 6:38 ), a platter (2 Kings 21:13 ), and a deep dish or bowl (Exodus 25:29 ; Exodus 37:16 ; Numbers 4:7 ; Numbers 7:13 )
Wills - The case of houses in walled towns was different, and there can be no doubt that they must, in fact, have frequently been bequeathed by will, (Leviticus 25:30 ) Two instances are recorded in the Old Testament under the law of the testamentary disposition, (1) effected in the case of Ahithophel, (2 Samuel 17:23 ) (2) recommended in the case of Hezekiah
Market - In the Old Testament this word occurs only once
Decay - Hebrews 8:13 (b) The Lord uses this strange word to describe the condition of the Old Testament plan and method of dealing with men according to "the law of Moses
Atonement - The Old Testament atonements offered by the high priest were temporary and a foreshadow of the real and final atonement made by Jesus
Fruit - The Lord in the Old Testament Scripture gave exceeding great and precious promises of blessings, which were to be expected in the fruits and effects under the New Testament dispensation; and in the gospel the Lord Jesus confirmed the whole, when promising to send the Holy Ghost, and testified of his manifold gifts which should follow
Numbers - a canonical book of the Old Testament, being the fourth of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses; and receives its denomination from the numbering of the families of Israel by Moses and Aaron, who mustered the tribes, and marshalled the army, of the Hebrews in their passage through the wilderness
Call - The first passage in the Old Testament in which we meet with this phrase, is Genesis 4:26 , where we read, "Then began men to call on the name of the Lord," or Jehovah; the meaning of which seems to be, that they then first began to worship him in public assemblies
Elihu - Four other persons of the same name are mentioned in the Old Testament
Rabbi - (Hebrew: rab, lord, teacher) ...
In the Old Testament, the epithet rab denoted any eminent title of office, even the general of an army (Jeremiah 39)
White Mountain - In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Jephthah - Paul numbers Jephthah among the saints of the Old Testament distinguished for their faith, Hebrews 11:32
Eye - (The practice of painting the eyelids to make the eyes look large, lustrous and languishing is often alluded to in the Old Testament, and still extensively prevails among the women of the East, and especially among the Mohammedans
Hell - ...
Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. ...
...
...
The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament
Judith, Book of - An Old Testament chronicle which takes its name from the valiant woman who by her courage, resourcefulness, and confidence in God saved the city of Bethulia from destruction at the hand of Holofernes, general of Nabuchodonosor, king of Ninive. On the other hand, Catholic tradition from the earliest times has always considered the Book as historical, and the Council of Trent has defined its character as an inspired writing by placing it among the canonical books of the Old Testament
Tithe - It cannot be affirmed that the Old Testament law of tithes is binding on the Christian Church, nevertheless the principle of this law remains, and is incorporated in the gospel (1 Corinthians 9:13,14 ); and if, as is the case, the motive that ought to prompt to liberality in the cause of religion and of the service of God be greater now than in Old Testament times, then Christians outght to go beyond the ancient Hebrew in consecrating both themselves and their substance to God
Transfiguration - ...
Moses and Elijah, the two people of the Old Testament era who appeared with Jesus, possibly symbolized the law and the prophets (Matthew 17:3). Jesus was God’s chosen one, to whom the Old Testament pointed
Repentance of God - Old Testament description of God's reaction to human situations. ...
The concept of God's repentance is not limited to one section of the Old Testament, but can be found throughout the Law, Prophets, and Writings
Book of Life - ...
The Old Testament refers to a record kept by God of those who are a part of His people (Exodus 32:32 ; Isaiah 4:3 ; Daniel 12:1 ; Malachi 3:16 ). In the Old Testament this may simply mean people not in the book die, leaving the list of the living
Hamor - ...
Stephen with elliptical brevity sums up from six chaps, of Old Testament in one sentence the double purchase (by Abraham from Ephron the Hittite, Genesis 23; and by Jacob from the children of Hamor), the double burial place (Abraham's cave of Machpelah and Jacob's ground near Shechem), and the double burial (of Jacob in the cave of Machpelah, and of Joseph in the ground at Shechem), just because the details were familiar to both himself and the Jewish council; not, as rationalism objects, because he was ignorant of or forgot the historical facts so notorious from the Old Testament
Aqueducts - Related Old Testament Passages—2 Samuel 5:8 ; 2 Kings 18:17 ; 2 Kings 20:20 ; 2Chronicles 32:3-4,2 Chronicles 32:30 ; Isaiah 7:3 ; Isaiah 22:11 ; Isaiah 36:2 ...
Old Testament The simplest aqueducts were troughs cut out of rock or soil and sometimes lined with mortar
Abba - In the, Old Testament Ab was not restricted in its use to children. God had been revealed in the Old Testament as Jehovah, the Almighty, etc
Shut - It is found some 80 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament. Sâgar is used for the first time in the Old Testament in the story of the creation of the woman from the rib of the man: “And the Lord God … closed up the flesh instead thereof” ( Falsehood - The word sheqer occurs 113 times in the Old Testament. ...
The Old Testament saint was instructed to avoid “deception” and the liar: “Keep thee far from a false matter; and the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for I will not justify the wicked” ( Scripture - The term is used some fifty times in the New Testament for some or all of the Old Testament. This is apparent in the way the New Testament speaks about the Old Testament. New Testament writers often used formulas like “God says” and “the Holy Spirit says” to introduce Old Testament passages
Day of the Lord - The day of the Lord rests on the Hebrew term, yom , “day,” the fifth most frequent noun used in the Old Testament and one used with a variety of meanings: time of daylight from sunrise to sunset (Genesis 1:14 ; Genesis 3:8 ; Genesis 8:22 ; Amos 5:8 ); 24 -hour period (Genesis 1:5 ; Numbers 7:12 ,Numbers 7:12,7:18 ; Haggai 1:15 ); a general expression for “time” without specific limits (Genesis 2:4 ; Psalm 102:3 ; Isaiah 7:17 ); the period of a specific event (Isaiah 9:3 ; Jeremiah 32:31 ; Ezekiel 1:28 ). ”...
The Old Testament prophets used a term familiar to their audience, a term by which the audience expected light and salvation (Amos 5:18 ), but the prophets painted it as a day of darkness and judgment (Isaiah 2:10-22 ; Isaiah 13:6 ,Isaiah 13:6,13:9 ; Joel 1:15 ; Joel 2:1-11 ,Joel 2:1-11,2:31 ; Joel 3:14-15 ; Amos 5:20 ; Zephaniah 1:7-8 ,Zephaniah 1:7-8,1:14-18 ; Malachi 4:5 ). The Old Testament language of the day of the Lord is thus aimed at warning sinners among God's people of the danger of trust in traditional religion without commitment to God and to His way of life. ...
New Testament writers took up the Old Testament expression to point to Christ's final victory and the final judgment of sinners
Convert, Conversion - ...
The Old Testament . The concept of conversion is actually very rare in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament the passage that comes closest to meaning "convert" is Isaiah 55:7 . In the New Testament conversion seems to summarize the call of the church in response to Jesus' commission to preach repentance for the forgiveness of sins to all the nations, as the Old Testament called for (Luke 24:43-47 )
Stone - The Greek Old Testament usually has lithos (lithos) for 'eben. ”...
The noun 'eben occurs in the Old Testament 260 times, with almost equal frequency in the singular (and collective) as in the plural. And several occurrences of 'eben in the Old Testament have been viewed as messianic, as evidenced by the Greek Old Testament, rabbinic writings, and the New Testament, among them: Resurrection - ...
Old Testament The preexilic portions of the Old Testament contain no statements which point certainly to a hope of resurrection from the dead even though some of Israel's neighbors had such a belief. In addition, God took from the earth two Old Testament figures before their deaths: Enoch (Genesis 5:24 ) and Elijah (2 Kings 2:9-11 ). The Old Testament emphasis on the sovereignty of God in all matters easily led to the prophetic statements. ...
The Old Testament statements about resurrection are scant and do not reveal clear theological reflection. ...
Paul's discourses on the nature of the resurrected body broadens the Old Testament idea of a restored Israel to include the redemption of persons complete with bodies
God - The Old Testament . In the Old Testament the plural form elohim [1] became the favored generic term for God. This development is lost in obscurity, but the evidence from ancient literature contemporary with the Old Testament attests to the use of the plural form in other cultures around Israel as the designation of a single deity that embodies the entirety of divine life. Thus the God of the Old Testament is from the beginning the God who stands apart from nature and rules over it. As the story of the Old Testament unfolds, it is appropriate to describe him as the God of history. Regardless of whether the creation narrative is early or late in its composition, its canonical position in the Old Testament gives it anterior advantage, and the biblical reader proceeds through the Old Testament with this view of the Creator God who was personally involved in the world he created. This meaning not only takes seriously the immediate context, but the larger context of the Old Testament as well. This promise of divine presence with Israel reaches its summit in the Old Testament text of Isaiah 7:14 , when God promises that a child would be born and that his name would be Immanuel, which means "God is with us. God's saving Israel from Egypt becomes the paradigm of saving in the Old Testament, so that when Israel faces the national crisis of exile to Babylonia, the imagery of God's saving Israel from Egypt is the standard with which the return to Judea is compared. While God's saving action in the Old Testament is largely set in time and space, it is the foundation on which the New Testament builds the doctrine of eternal salvation that transcends time and space. Further, already in the Fourth Servant Song of Isaiah (Isaiah 52:13-53:12 ), God's saving action becomes passive suffering and thus forms a link between the Old Testament view of God and the New Testament view of the suffering Messiah. Although the Old Testament can speak of God in plural terms (e. The same vocabulary that describes God in the Old Testament is used to call Israel to covenant loyalty. The Old Testament God as a God of war becomes prominent in the era between the exodus and the monarchy. ...
Yet we must admit that the command to wage war against the Canaanites and God's involvement in such wars pose a challenge to Old Testament theology. At the same time, we also have to remember that the Old Testament speaks out of an ancient context in which survival was most often the survival of the fittest. In these national crises, God is seen as a God of judgment and wrath, but in the return from exile and the restoration, the Old Testament presents him as the God of compassion and salvation. God is known in the Old Testament as the God of wisdom in the Torah and Prophets, but this attribute never receives the kind of emphasis it does among the wise men (sages) and in the Wisdom Literature they produced (Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes). Yet the psalms are a microcosm of Old Testament religion. Whatever portrait of God one finds in these genres of the Old Testament can generally also be identified somewhere in the psalms. Although they portray God as the God of Israel who Acts on their behalf in history, the psalms are the basic Old Testament witness to personal religion. From the Christian point of view, the God of the Old Testament is the same God as in the New, except he manifests himself in different ways, most importantly in the incarnation. Yet the basic attributes of God are the same as those of the Old Testament. When the Old Testament was translated into Greek, the name YHWH or Adonai was rendered by the Greek word kurios, which means "Lord. Rather it declares, also like the Old Testament, that he exists and manifests himself in
Mount Carmel - (Hebrew: garden, or garden land) ...
A mountain 9 miles southwest of Acre, frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, as fertile, blessed, beautiful
Jonathan - (Hebrew: Jehovah has given) ...
Name of several personages in the Old Testament
Pledge - The Old Testament regulated this practice
Tile, Tiling - For plans of a city drawn on ‘bricks’ or ‘tablets’ of soft clay, which were afterwards baked hard, see ‘Ezekiel,’ in SBOT Carmel, Mount - (Hebrew: garden, or garden land) ...
A mountain 9 miles southwest of Acre, frequently mentioned in the Old Testament, as fertile, blessed, beautiful
Humiliation of Christ - His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of God (Acts 2:23,24 ; Psalm 40:6-8 ), (2) fulfil the Old Testament types and prophecies, (3) satisfy the law in the room of the guilty (Isaiah 53 ; Hebrews 9:12,15 ), procure for them eternal redemption, (4) and to show us an example
Bethnimrah - That this is the scene of John 1:28; Mark 1:5; Matthew 3:5, appears from there being abundant water, and its being near "the region round about Jordan," the CICCAR of the Old Testament, the oasis of Jericho, accessible to "Jerusalem and all Judea
Weights - ...
...
Shekel, "a weight," only in the Old Testament, and frequently in its original form (Genesis 23:15,16 ; Exodus 21:32 ; 30:13,15 ; 38:24-29 , etc
Pestilence - Old Testament writers understood pestilence to be sent by God (Exodus 9:15 ; Jeremiah 15:2 ; Habakkuk 3:5 ; Amos 4:10 ), sometimes by means of a destroying angel (2 Samuel 24:16 ; 1 Chronicles 21:15 )
Porch - The vast majority of Old Testament references concern the “porch” of the Jerusalem Temple as in 1Kings 6:3,1Kings 6:12,1 Kings 6:19
Ghost - All eleven Old Testament references involve the phrase “give up the ghost” (for example, Genesis 25:8 ; Genesis 35:29 ) which means to cease breathing or simply to die
Dissolution - The dissolution of the world is an awful event, which we have reason to believe, both from the Old Testament and the New, will certainly take place
Nurse - In Old Testament times children were often nursed as long as three years (1 Samuel 1:22-24 )
Liberty, Liberation - One of the dominant themes of the Old Testament is that Yahweh is the God who liberated the Israelites from their bondage in Egypt
Anathema - (Greek: placed on high, as were offerings to the divinity in the "temples) ...
Word used in the Old Testament to mean something offered to God (Jud
Elam - The name of six persons in the Old Testament
Elders - Church officers; in the early part of the Old Testament the term designated the chiefs of tribes and later the men of special influence and dignity and the lay element in the Sanhedrin
Scripture, Liberty in - In the Old Testament the idea of liberty was almost entirely absent, religion meant the "fear of the Lord" (Psalms 33), servant was the name of the good (Psalms 18; Hebrews 3)
Paulicianism - Originally they held the following: ...
the God of the material universe and the God of the spirItual world are distinct ...
all matter is evil ...
the Old Testament is to be rejected ...
Christ was not incarnate but was an angel whose mother was the heavenly Jerusalem ...
Baptism and the Eucharist consist in hearing the Word of God ...
there are no other sacraments ...
They were also Iconoclasts
Eternal Punishment - ...
The Old Testament . , the flood and the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah) shows that the Old Testament focuses on premature death when dealing with the fate of the ungodly, not on life after death. ...
If the predominant evangelical view is correct, in the Old Testament sheol sometimes refers to a netherworld to which the wicked go at death. ...
Revelation combines the Old Testament picture of the wicked drinking the cup of God's wrath (e. Why does God teach such a terrible doctrine in his Word? For two reasons: to provide believers with powerful motivation for evangelism, and to make us grateful to him who redeemed us by suffering the pains of hell for us, both negatively (poena damni, the deprivation of the Father's love, Matthew 27:45-46 ) and positively (poena sensus, the positive infliction of torments in body and soul, Matthew 26:38-39,42 , 44 ; John 18:11 , against the Old Testament background of the cup of God's wrath )
Blessing - ...
The Old Testament Terms for blessing abound in the Old Testament, occurring over 600 times. ...
Three common themes are present in formal Old Testament blessings. As in the Old Testament, when these words are ascribed to God they are rendered "praise" (Romans 1:25 ; 9:5 ; 2 Corinthians 11:31 ). Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; H
Wrath, Wrath of God - ...
Old Testament The wrath of God appears in the Old Testament as a divine response to human sin and injustice. ...
The Old Testament often speaks of a “day” coming in the future which will be “The great day of the Lord a day of wrath” (Zephaniah 1:14-15 NRSV). Jesus affirmed the Old Testament teaching about such a day. The Old Testament psalms of lament such as Psalm 53:1 ; Psalm 137:1 show how humans can freely express their anger to God
Adoption - ...
Old Testament References to adoption are rather rare in the Old Testament. ...
The practices of polygamy (multiple wives—see Genesis 29:1 ; Deuteronomy 21:15-17 ) and concubinage (socially accepted cohabitation without marriage—see Genesis 16:2 ; Genesis 30:3 ) served as means of ensuring descendants in Old Testament times. ...
The Old Testament examples of Moses (Exodus 2:10 ) and Esther (Esther 2:7 ,Esther 2:7,2:15 ) took place in foreign cultures and may reflect those settings more than the Hebrew practice. Some Old Testament traditions approach the idea that Israel's relationship with God was that of an adopted child (Exodus 4:22 ; Deuteronomy 14:2 ; Hosea 11:1 ), though the idea is never stated explicitly (compare Romans 9:4 )
Teach, Teacher - Although several Hebrew words are translated "teach" in English translations of the Old Testament, two words predominate: yara [1], "to point out, " and lamad [2], "to goad. The New Testament confirms Old Testament teaching that heterosexual monogamy is the ideal family setting for the teaching of children (Matthew 19:4-6,19 ; 1 Corinthians 5:1 ; 6:16 ; Ephesians 5:31 ; 6:1-3 ; 1 Peter 3:7 ). The repeated stress of both Old Testament and New Testament on care for widows and orphans indicates that the covenant community is to strengthen the family and, if necessary, serve as a sort of surrogate family setting. ...
The role of teaching in Israel's family life must be seen in the context of teaching in the Old Testament community. His ministry of word and deed and his redemptive sacrifice fulfill the Old Testament prototypes: kings, priests, and prophets. His approach to the Old Testament differs from that of Israel's leaders in that his teaching stresses love, justice, and mercy over external matters. This teaching was carried out through the kings, priests, and prophets of the Old Testament theocratic community. These three Old Testament motifs coalesce in Jesus the Messiah, who enables the new covenant community to be taught by spiritually gifted teachers who lead the church
Hades - ...
The Old Testament . Since death is not a natural occurrence but invaded creation through the fall and Satan's destructive work (Genesis 2-3 ), the Old Testament personifies Sheol as the power of Satan and his demonic hosts (Job 18:14 ; Psalm 18:4-5 ; Isaiah 28:15 ; Jeremiah 9:21 ). The Old Testament confidently awaits God's victory over Sheol (Psalm 98 ; Isaiah 25:8 ; Hosea 13:14 ). This is the path of the Old Testament righteous ( Isaiah 53 ). ...
For some commentations these references to Hades and the dead are problematic and contradict the Old Testament. The New Testament does significantly modify the Old Testament concept of Hades as a shadowy abode of all the dead. Like the Old Testament, the New Testament personifies Hades and associated terms, such as death, abyss, and Abaddon, as the demonic forces behind sin and ruin (Acts 2:24 ; Romans 5:14,17 ; 1 Corinthians 15:25-26 ; Revelation 6:8 ; 9:1-11 ; 20:14 ). When Jesus promises that the "gates of Hades" will never overcome the church (Matthew 16:18 ), this phrase parallels Old Testament expressions tied to evil's power and persecution (Psalm 9:13 ; 107:17-20 )
Interpretation - They will understand the messages of the Old Testament prophets and the New Testament letter-writers only as they understand the circumstances in which the writers wrote. People in Old Testament times recognized the differences between a teacher of the law, a prophet and a wisdom teacher (Jeremiah 18:18) and interpreted their writings accordingly (see LAW; PROPHECY; WISDOM LITERATURE). ...
Unless people are reading the Bible in the original languages (Hebrew in the Old Testament, Greek in the New), whatever they are reading is a translation (see MANUSCRIPTS; SCRIPTURES). The meaning of a word in the Old Testament may be different from its meaning in the New, and different again from its meaning today (e. This is especially so in the case of Old Testament books. The Old Testament exists as Scripture in its own right (2 Timothy 3:15-16) and Christians should recognize this. The Old Testament revelation might have been imperfect, but only in the sense of being incomplete, not in the sense of being incorrect. The fuller revelation in Christ does not correct the Old Testament revelation, but develops it and brings it to fulfilment (Hebrews 10:1; 1 Peter 1:10-12)
Esdraelon - Old Testament Esdraelon, also called the Great Plain of Esdraelon or the Plain of Jezreel, is the area assigned to Zebulun and Issachar (Joshua 19:10-23 ). ...
The historical and biblical significance of Esdraelon in the Old Testament is its association with war and bloodshed. Revelation 16:16 echoes the Old Testament portrayal of Esdraelon as a place of war and tragedy
Symbol - Symbols in the Old Testament are related to symbols of the New Testament in important ways. Many of the events of the Old Testament foreshadow events of the New Testament. For example, the sacrificial lamb in the Old Testament points to the sacrificial death of Christ
Enemy - ...
Several Hebrew words are rendered “enemy” in the Old Testament. ”...
In the Old Testament enemy generally referred to the national enemies of Israel. This is also the teaching of the Old Testament (Proverbs 24:17 ; Proverbs 25:21 )
Mizpah, Mizpeh - ...
The town of Mizpeh located in the territory of Benjamin (Joshua 18:26 ) seems to be the most important of the Mizpeh's in the Old Testament. In spite of the numerous references to this important Old Testament site, its location is still debated. ...
The important role of Mizpah played in Old Testament history is reflected in the many events associated with the site
Melchizedek - Priest of "God Most High" who appeared in patriarchal times, but whose significance was remembered throughout Old Testament times and eventually explained in the Book of Hebrews. ...
For the writer of Hebrews to look at these Old Testament passages about Melchizedek along christological lines is in keeping with the practice of other New Testament writers. Early Christians were convinced that it was they upon whom the end of the ages had come and hence felt that the Old Testament was written in some divinely intended way to point to them
Education in Bible Times - In fact, the Old Testament record indicates repeatedly that the success of the Hebrew community and the continuity of its culture were conditioned by the knowledge of and obedience to God's revealed law (Joshua 1:6-8 ). ...
Education in Old Testament Times . The aim or purpose of Old Testament education is encapsulated within the revelation given to Abraham concerning the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. " This divine directive embodies the very essence of Hebrew education in the Old Testament, affirming the primacy of parental instruction. " What is meant by this phrase and how does it relate to the religious content of education in the Old Testament?...
Generally speaking, "the way of the Lord" refers to knowledge of and obedience to the will of God as revealed through act and word in Old Testament history. Later, the psalmist condensed this covenant content of Old Testament education into the phrase "the law of the Lord" (Psalm 119:1 ). ...
Naturally, the content of Hebrew education expanded as God continued to reveal himself and his redemptive plan to the Israelites through the centuries of Old Testament history. ...
In time, the Hebrew poetic and wisdom traditions and the prophetic tradition were included in the covenant content of Old Testament education. The wisdom tradition served as a practical commentary on the law or covenant legislation, while the prophetic tradition functioned as a theological commentary on Old Testament law. Theologically, the practice of education as outlined in Old Testament revelation resulted in God's covenant blessing for the Hebrew people. There were basically three agencies or institutions responsible for the education of youth in Old Testament times: the home or family, the community, and formal centers of learning. While the Old Testament emphasizes the role of the father as teacher, both parents are given charge to train their children (Proverbs 1:8,6:20 ; 31:26 ). ...
Although the Old Testament lacks specific documentation, it is assumed by analogy to known practices in the rest of the ancient Near East that formal learning centers or schools existed in ancient Israel. Hints of these organized schools for particular training are scattered throughout the Old Testament, especially in the company of the prophets associated with Elisha (2 Kings 2:3,5 ; 6:1-2 ; cf. ...
In addition to formal learning centers, the Old Testament indicates specialized training took place in organized labor guilds of various sorts. The Talmud was accorded equal standing with the Old Testament Scriptures in the Jewish rabbinic schools. The precedent for understanding study as an act of worship stems from the Old Testament, where the psalmist remarked that all those who delight in the works of God study (or "worshipfully investigate") them (Psalm 111:2 ). Much of the New Testament understanding of education is simply assumed from the practice of the Old Testament and Judaism. Likewise, the goal of educating the whole person, mind and character, carries over from Hebrew practice in the Old Testament. Even the methodology of both instilling information and drawing out or developing the innate talents and abilities of the student finds its antecedent in the Old Testament. Not only was he forceful, persuasive, and dynamic in his presentation, but the content of his teaching was rooted in the message of the Old Testament Scripturesthe word of God. Whybray, The Intellectual Tradition in the Old Testament ; M
Devote, Devoted - This does not mean that the Old Testament condones racial violence. In the Old Testament non-Israelites were not killed because of their race but because of the harm they might do. ...
It is also necessary to note that the Old Testament does not condone wartime atrocities. The Old Testament set rules for treatment of war prisoners (Deuteronomy 21:10-14 ). Ullendorff, Documents from Old Testament Times ; M. Unger, Archaeology and the Old Testament
Golden Rule - The Old Testament . " With regard to the Old Testament, two main points prevail. ...
Matthew 22:37-40 may serve as the "hermeneutical bridge" that joins the Golden Rule with the message of the Old Testament. ...
Such themes are present throughout the Old Testament. Likewise Exodus 34:6 represents an oft repeated theme in the Old Testament. ...
Yet the Old Testament is replete with exhortations to hate the wicked
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - ...
Old Testament Teaching A fully defined doctrine of Satan is not fund in the Bible until New Testament times. A number of reasons have been suggested for the relatively limited material on Satan in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament a primary emphasis is placed on the supremacy of and the power of the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, who delivered the Hebrews from the slavery of Egypt. ...
Satan, the chief of the fallen angels, is mentioned in a number of places in the Old Testament. When Satan does appear in the Old Testament he is always the adversary of God's people. ...
The most extensive Old Testament discussion of Satan is in Job
te'Rah - ( Genesis 11:24-32 ) The account given of him in the Old Testament narrative is very brief
Market-Place - This word occurs in the Old Testament only in Ezekiel 27:13
Sarah - " She is also mentioned as Sara in Hebrews 11:11 among the Old Testament worthies, who "all died in faith
Pinnacle - The pinnacle (literally, “little wing”) of the Temple (Matthew 4:5 ; Luke 4:9 ) is not mentioned in the Old Testament, intertestamental literature, or rabbinic sources
Lorenzo Ghiberti - Ten compartments represent scenes from the Old Testament
Laver - The Old Testament describes the lavers used in the tabernacle and in Solomon's Temple
Village - The Old Testament distinguishes between the city and the village
Agag - ...
Old Testament Agag, whose name means “fiery one,” was king of the Amalekites, a tribal people living in the Negev and in the Sinai peninsula
Baruch - (Hebrew: blessed) ...
Prophet of the Old Testament, disciple of Jeremias, and author of the Book of Baruch
Sabbath - where the rest which the Lord gives to the trusting soul is compared to the sabbath of the Old Testament
Heaven - There are four Hebrew words thus rendered in the Old Testament
Help - ‛Âzar is first found in the Old Testament in Jacob’s deathbed blessing of Joseph: “… The God of thy father, who shall help thee …” ( Prosper - Occurring some 65 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament, the word is first found in Zacharias - He is mentioned as being the martyr last recorded in the Hebrew Scriptures, as Abel was the first—2d Chronicles being placed last in their Old Testament Scriptures
Partiality - Old Testament law contains frequent warnings to avoid partiality in rendering legal decisions (Leviticus 19:15 ; Deuteronomy 1:17 ; Deuteronomy 16:19 )
Palestine - Denotes, in the Old Testament, the country of the Philistines, which was that part of the land of promise extending along the Mediterranean Sea on the varying western border of Simeon, Judah, and Dan, Exodus 15:14 Isaiah 14:29,31 Joel 3:4
Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione - Ten compartments represent scenes from the Old Testament
Clay - As the sediment of water remaining in pits or in streets, the word is used frequently in the Old Testament
Altar - ...
Old Testament The Hebrew word for altar that is used most frequently in the Old Testament is formed from the verb for slaughter and means literally, “slaughter place. ...
While animals were a common sacrifice in the Old Testament, altars were also used to sacrifice grain, fruit, wine, and incense. ...
In the Old Testament, altars are distinguished by the material used in their construction. Apparently the Exodus restrictions concerning unhewn stones, like those concerning steps, were not consistently followed throughout the Old Testament period. ...
The third type altar mentioned in the Old Testament is the bronze altar. ...
Another Hebrew word for altar that is used infrequently in the Old Testament means literally, “high place” (Hebrew, bamah ). The altar of incense described in the Old Testament (Exodus 30:1-6 ) is mentioned in Luke (Luke 1:11 ). Several New Testament references to altars refer back to Old Testament altar events (Romans 11:3 ; James 2:21 ). In Revelation, John described a golden altar (Revelation 9:13 ) that, like the Old Testament bronze altar, had horns
Blessing And Cursing - Old Testament individuals might bless God (Genesis 9:26 ; Ezekiel 18:10 ; Ruth 4:14 ; Psalm 68:19 ). “Bless” occurs in the New Testament only ten times, in contrast to 122Old Testament occurrences. The concept is almost exclusively Old Testament, which speaks of “curse” (89), “cursed” (65), “curses” (18), and “cursing” (8). Of the 199 biblical uses of the words, 180 are in the Old Testament and only 19 in the New Testament. ...
An early word for “curse” in the Old Testament is arar and is used primarily in poetic and legal sections of the Old Testament. ...
Another word used for “curse” in the Old Testament (qalal ) has less severe implications, although it probably came to be used as a synonym for the harsher term (arar ). According to Old Testament thought patterns, the formally spoken word had both an independent existence and the power of its own fulfillment
Purity-Purification - ...
Old Testament Usage...
1. Thus, a basic Old Testament meaning is that of “refined, purified, without flaw, perfect, clean. ...
Since Psalm 15:1 and Psalm 24:1 speak of qualifications for worship in terms of ethical purity, it is important not to distinguish sharply between ritual and ethical purity in the Old Testament. Thus sin and ritual uncleanness stand together in the Old Testament as unacceptable to the Lord. ...
Purification Rituals Since the Old Testament assumes that the people would encounter sin and unhycleanness, it provides a way to return to cleanness. Old Testament meanings are often reflected. ...
Purification through sacrifice is also mentioned in the New Testament and applied to the death of Christ, a purification which does not need repeating and thus is on a higher level than Old Testament sacrifices (Hebrews 9:13-14 )
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - --
Arabic versions of the Old Testament were made from the Hebrew (tenth century), from the Syriac and from the LXX ...
Arabic versions of the New Testament . -- Targum , a Chaldee word of uncertain origin, is the general term for the Chaldee, or more accurately Aramaic, versions of the Old Testament. GREEK VERSIONS OF THE Old Testament. --It is a remarkable fact that in the second century there were three versions executed of the Old Testament Scriptures into Greek. -- ...
Of the Old Testament. In the early times of Syrian Christianity there was executed a version of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew, the use of which must have been as widely extended as was the Christian profession among that people. The only Syriac version of the Old Testament up to the sixth century was apparently the Peshito
Slave, Slavery - This historical and legal antecedents to slavery in the Old Testament are derived from the nations of the Fertile Crescent, ranging from Babylon to Egypt. ...
The Old Testament . The Old Testament record of Israel's origin and development demonstrates that they functioned within the cultural milieu of their own time. Slavery is accepted in the Old Testament as part of the world in which Israel functioned. The Old Testament raised the status of the slave from property to that of a human being who happened to be owned by another person (Exodus 21:20,26-27 ; Job 31:13-15 ; Ecclesiastes 7:21-22 ). ...
The Old Testament provides numerous opportunities for the manumission of slaves. The New Testament in contrast with the Old Testament does not record the origin and development of a national entity
Immorality - Both in the Old Testament and in the New Testament the word has a figurative meaning as well, referring to idolatry or unfaithfulness to God. ...
In the Old Testament zanah regularly refers to wrongful heterosexual intercourse, primarily in regard to women ( 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 ; Jeremiah 3:1 ; Hosea 4:13 )
Apocrypha - Those which were in existence in the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the Jews into the canon of the Old Testament, because they had no Hebrew original and were regarded as not divinely inspired. The Talmud contains no trace of them; and from the various lists of the Old Testament Scriptures in the early centuries, it is clear that then as now they formed no part of the Hebrew canon
Inn - In the Old Testament the Hebrew word translated “inn” or “lodging place” might refer to a camping place for an individual (Jeremiah 9:2 ), a family on a journey (Exodus 4:24 ), an entire caravan (Genesis 42:27 ; Genesis 43:21 ), or an army (Joshua 4:3 ,Joshua 4:3,4:8 ). It is doubtful that inns in the sense of public inns with a building existed in Old Testament times
Forerunner - This sense is seen in the Septuagint or earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament once (Wisdom of Song of Solomon 12:8 ) where wasps were the forerunners of the armies of Israel. The Old Testament used the common image of advance agents sent ahead of a king to make arrangements for his travel to picture the mission of a prophetic messenger preparing the way for God's coming (Isaiah 40:3 ; Malachi 3:1 )
Testament, New - These terms, from signifying the two dispensations, came soon to denote the books wherein they were written, the sacred writings of the Jews being called the Old Testament; and the writings superadded by the apostles and evangelists, the New Testament. "Until this day remaineth the veil untaken away, in the reading of the Old Testament
Island - Crete (the Old Testament Caphtor, Jeremiah 47:4 ; Amos 9:7 ) is an island 152 miles long located to the southeast of Greece (Titus 1:5 , Titus 1:12 ). Cyprus (home of the Old Testament Chittim, Jeremiah 2:10 ; Ezekiel 27:6 ) is an island 75 miles long located toward the eastern end of the Mediterranean (Acts 4:36 ; Acts 11:19-20 among others)
Apollos - An educated man, Apollos handled the Old Testament Scriptures with forcefulness. ...
Because of Apollos' knowledge of the Old Testament, Luther suggested that Apollos might well be the writer of the Book of Hebrews
Mercy-Seat - Much is spoken of in the Old Testament Scripture concerning this sacred part of the temple, from whence the Lord promised to commune with his people. ) This, as a type of the Lord Jesus, is eminently to be regarded, since it serves to teach us, that by efficacy of redemption, the Old Testament saints, as well as New Testament believers, were alike included in the merits of "the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world
Touch - It is used some 150 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. ” This noun formed from naga’ occurs about 76 times in the Old Testament
Commandment - ” This noun occurs 181 times in the Old Testament. Only about ten percent of all occurrences in the Old Testament fit this category
Satisfied, To Be - It occurs some 96 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. In its first occurrence in the Old Testament text, śâba‛ expresses the idea of “being filled, sated”: “… When the Lord shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full …” ( Music - Of the music of the Old Testament Scripture it is no easy matter to form a right apprehension. (See 1 Samuel 19:19-24)...
But, while all possible allowance is made to this view of the music of the Hebrews, we cannot conceive that all that is said of musical instruments in the Old Testament Scriptures means literally so to be received
Hell - In the Old Testament this is the word generally and unfortunately used by our translators to render the Hebrew Sheol . It is clear that in many passages of the Old Testament Sheol can only mean "the grave," and is rendered in the Authorized Version; see, for example, ( Genesis 37:35 ; 42:38 ; 1 Samuel 2:6 ; Job 14:13 ) In other passages, however, it seems to Involve a notion of punishment, and is therefore rendered in the Authorized Version by the word "hell
Consecration - In the religion of Old Testament Israel, these ‘set apart’ people or things were called ‘holy’, and the act of declaring, acknowledging or making them holy was called sanctification, consecration, or dedication (Exodus 13:2; Exodus 29:1; Exodus 29:27; Exodus 29:36). Though the word itself is not always used, the meaning is consistent with that of the Old Testament
Word - The Old Testament . The concept of the word of God is a major Old Testament theme. In the Old Testament God's word is creative (Psalm 33:6 ), good (Micah 2:7 ), holy (Jeremiah 23:9 ), complete (Jeremiah 26:2 ), flawless (2 Samuel 22:31 ; Psalm 12:6 ; 18:30 ; Proverbs 30:5 ), all-sufficient (Nehemiah 8:14-15 ; Isaiah 50:4 ; Jeremiah 15:16 ), sure (Isaiah 31:2 ; 45:23 ; Jeremiah 44:28 ), right and true (Judges 13:12,17 ; 1 Samuel 3:19 ; Psalm 33:4 ; Isaiah 55:11 ), understandable (Deuteronomy 4:10,12 , 36 ; Nehemiah 8:12 ), active (Hosea 6:5 ), all-powerful (Psalm 68:11-14 ; 147:15-18 ), indestructible (Jeremiah 23:29 ), supreme (Psalm 17:4 ), eternal (Psalm 119:89 ; Isaiah 40:8 ), life-giving (Deuteronomy 32:46-47 ), wise (Psalm 119:130 ), and trustworthy (2 Samuel 7:28 ; 1 Kings 17:16 ). The common Old Testament expression, "the word of the Lord came, " indicates the sending and reception of divine prophecy. The New Testament reiterates the Old Testament depiction of the word of God as the divine means of creating and sustaining all things (Hebrews 11:3 ; 2 Peter 3:5-7 ), as divine revelation (Romans 3:2 ; 1 Peter 4:11 ), and as prophetic speech (Luke 3:2 ; 2 Peter 1:19 ). ...
But the New Testament significantly deepens the Old Testament in light of the incarnation. ...
Similar to its Old Testament uses, the word of God as the gospel is to be kept free of distortion (2 Corinthians 4:2 ) and is to be preached in its fullness (Colossians 1:25 ). Although the Old Testament never uses the concept of word to describe the expected coming of the messiah, the New Testament significantly develops its theological meaning by equating the Old Testament concept of word of God with the person and work of Jesus Christ. Whereas extrabiblical concepts may have influenced, to a limited degree, the New Testament formulation of Jesus as the Word, the main influence comes from the Old Testament itself. The phrase en arche ("in the beginning") recalls the opening words of the Old Testament in Genesis 1:1 . ...
The New Testament views the incarnate Jesus as none other than the Old Testament word of God personified (John 1:14 a). ...
Thus in connection to the Old Testament picture of the word of God, the New Testament understands Jesus as the ultimate means through which God created, revealed, and personified himself to creation. In view of these Old Testament considerations, for a Gospel writer to profess that his testimony is true, reliable, is a weighty claim (John 21:24 ; cf. In the Old Testament, the words God had given Moses at Sinai became written law (Exodus 24:3 ; Deuteronomy 4:10-14 ; 27:3 ; 31:24-29 ). The Old Testament word of God as written scripture represents "all the laws that come from your [4] mouth" (v. ...
By the New Testament era, the word of God as Scripture referred to the entire Old Testament, to the Law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms (cf. The idea of Scripture as being "God-breathed" (2 Timothy 3:16 ) suggests that the entire Old Testament represents God's revealed word and holds supreme authority for faith and practice
Testimony - The biblical concept of testimony or witness is closely allied with the conventional Old Testament legal sense of testimony given in a court of law. In the Old Testament, the truth claims have to do mainly with God and the revelation of himself to Israel; in the New Testament, this picture is greatly deepened with the additional revelation of Jesus Christ, and now to all the world. ...
Testimony in the Old Testament . ...
Concerning Old Testament general revelation, the psalmist praises the created order for revealing and bearing witness to God's glory and supremacy (Psalm 8:1-4 ; 19:1-6 ; 29 see Job 36:24-33 ; 37:1-13 ). ...
Concerning God's special revelation of himself to Old Testament Israel, the Ten Commandments are called the Testimony (Exodus 31:8 ); as the revelation of God's legislation, they testify to his person and work and to his expectations for Israel. ...
The Old Testament prophets also reveal God's mind and will when testifying against Israel (2 Chronicles 24:19 ; Amos 3:13 ) and the nations (Zephaniah 3:8 ). All instances of this kind of prophecy in the Old Testamentof which there are manyappear as divine testimony against unrepentant peoples. The seat of justice in Old Testament Israel was the legal assembly, which usually met near the town gate. ...
Old Testament writers frequently use the language of the lawcourt to express God's disposition toward various individuals and groups of people. ...
Testimony also appears in the Old Testament as the legal proof of God's trustworthiness. ...
Furthermore, to invoke God as witness in oaths and binding agreements in the Old Testament implicitly indicates the participant's complete confidence in God as irreproachable, and thus as utterly reliable. The New Testament takes up the Old Testament concept of testimony and greatly expands it in light of God's special revelation in Jesus Christ. In the same sense, Jesus declares that the Old Testament Scriptures testify about him (5:39), as will the Holy Spirit, whom he will send to his followers from heaven (15:26) and the apostles (15:27). It would have been untenable for Jewish Christians to use the Old Testament legal procedure for establishing the legitimacy of the gospel via the testimony of multiple witnesses, if all the while knowing that historically the events had not transpired in the way they had so claimed. In a more general sense, it also refers to the way believers appealed to Jesus' life, the Old Testament Scriptures, the Spirit's presence and personal testimony to substantiate the legitimacy of the gospel message. The interrelation between testifying and preaching in the New Testament closely resembles the Old Testament example in Isaiah 43-44
Burial - Burial was a matter of great importance in the Old Testament. Graves were sometimes marked with pillars (Genesis 35:20 ; 2 Kings 23:17 ), and places where famous Old Testament figures were buried were known for generations to come (Acts 2:29 ) and were even adorned by them (Matthew 23:29 ). The Old Testament writers routinely describe the burials of the major characters in the narrative (for a number of the judges little is recorded about them except where they were buried — cf. ...
The strong emphasis in the Old Testament on burial serves to bind the dead with their ancestors, and, hence, the Jews together as a people
Peace - In the Old Testament, peace (Heb. The New Testament, though using the Greek word for ‘peace’, retained the breadth of ideas found in the Old Testament and so gave the word a richer meaning. When God’s prophets warned the Old Testament Israelites of certain judgment if they continued in their sin, false prophets comforted the rebellious people with false assurances of salvation (Jeremiah 8:10-11; Colossians 1:20-223; Jeremiah 14:19; Ezekiel 13:10). ...
Peace with God through Jesus Christ...
No matter what expressions of salvation people of Old Testament times experienced, the fulness of salvation awaited the coming of Jesus Christ, the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6; Luke 1:79)
Bible, Canon of the - In the Old Testament canon there were questions about Esther for a period of time because it does not contain the name of God. "
The Old Testament Canon Although Christians include both Old and New Testaments in their canon, Jews do not accept a "New" Testament and repudiate the identification of their canon as the "Old" Testament. Extant Greek Old Testament manuscripts, whose text is quoted often in the New Testament, contain apocryphal books. But the Hebrew Old Testament canon recognized by Palestinian Jews (Tanak) did not include the fourteen books of the Apocrypha. Even though the New Testament was written in Greek, Protestant and evangelical Bibles do not embrace either the content or the arrangement of the Greek Old Testament. Greek Old Testament manuscripts typically preserve the Alexandrian order, which arranged books according to their subject matter (narrative, history, poetry, and prophecy). Therefore, the Jewish people of Bible times never had the complete Old Testament as we know it. ...
The Old Testament refers to about fifteen books not contained in it, such as the Book of Jashar (Joshua 10:13 ) and the Book of the Annals of Solomon (1 Kings 11:41 ). Although some books of the Old Testament were discussed in Judea at the Pharisaic Council of Jamnia in a. Analysis of the process is more historical than biblical, since the church of the New Testament, like the Israel of the Old Testament, never had the complete canon during the time spanned by its canonical literature. Ryle, The Canon of the Old Testament ; J
Person, Personhood - While God is absolute in the Old Testament, he revealed his Godness through his contact with humans in words and deeds. ...
Thus, common Old Testament anthropological thought holds that a human being is a body, rather than having a body. ...
While weakness is associated with basar [8] in the Old Testament, there is no indication that it is a source of evil. The Hebrew word leb [12] is the most common Old Testament term for the person. ...
The Old Testament has little interest in anatomy. No connection is made in the Old Testament between the heart and the beating of the pulse. ...
Human relationship in the Old Testament goes beyond marriage. While individual value, worth, and responsibility are recognized in the Old Testament, there is no tendency to the rugged individualism of Western culture. Rather in the Old Testament the individual was able to implicate the entire nation either in blessing or judgment and a single person such as the king could represent the whole nation as if it were an individual. Dryness, Themes in Old Testament Theology ; R. Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the Old Testament ; H. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament
King, Kingship - The terms "king" and "kingship" are common biblical words, occurring over 2,500 times in the Old Testament and 275 times in the New Testament. In the Old Testament the most numerous references to "king" and "kingship" occur in the narratives dealing with the periods of the united and divided kingdoms of ancient Israel. This, however, does not mean that reference to kingship is limited to narrative sections of the Old Testament. ...
This juxtaposition of divine and human kingship in the Old Testament period presented ancient Israel with a duality of sovereigns. This duality of sovereigns was the source of one of the major theological problems in the Old Testament period. How was Israel to understand the relationship between their obligation to Yahweh, the divine King, on the one hand, and their obligation to the human king on the other? What was the role of the human king in ancient Israel, and to what extent was this role realized? What conditions gave rise to the idea of the coming of a future messianic king who would someday establish peace and justice in all the earth?...
It is important to understand the way in which the Old Testament presents the relationship between divine and human kingship. , Vatke, Gressmann, von Rad), the Old Testament does not suggest that the idea of the kingship of Yahweh was a projection derived from the human institution. ...
The question of the Old Testament's apparently ambivalent attitude toward the institution of the monarchy is rooted in the description of the rise of kingship in Israel (1 Samuel 8-12 ). Jesus is the one who fulfilled the royal messianic promises of the Old Testament. Jesus laid claim to fulfillment of the messianic prophecies of the Old Testament when at his trial before the Sanhedrin he was asked by the high priest whether he was the Messiah. In Jesus the duality of sovereigns present in the Old Testament period is eliminated. Bruce, New Testament Development of Old Testament Themes ; G. Van Groningen, Messianic Revelation in the Old Testament ; D
Typology - This article will examine how various words in the family are used and how typology functions in interpreting the...
Old Testament. ...
Typology as a Method of Interpreting the Old Testament Sometimes the New Testament explicitly refers to its method of interpreting the Old Testament as “type,” or “typically. ” Usually, however, the New Testament uses typology as a method of interpreting the Old Testament without explicitly saying so. Typology involves a correspondence , usually in one particular matter between a person, event, or thing in the Old Testament with a person, event, or thing, in the New Testament. Old Testament warnings Paul used this kind of typology in 1 Corinthians 10:1-11 . Paul stressed one point of correspondence between the Old Testament events and the New Testament message: All the people participated in these experiences, but God was not pleased with most of them; the majority died in the desert and could not enter the Promised Land ( 1 Corinthians 10:5 ). ...
One point of correspondence between an Old Testament event and a New Testament event shows the same God at work in both covenants. Typology, a comparison stressing one point of similarity, helps us see the New Testament person, event, or institution as the fulfillment of that which was only hinted at in the Old Testament
Condemnation - In the Old Testament theocracy God mediated his justice through judges, kings, priests, and prophets. ...
In the Old Testament rebellion against God began in the garden of Eden (Genesis 3 ). Thus the Old Testament generally stresses the justice of God in punishing sinners during the present life, not the afterlife (but see Daniel 12:2 ). To probe this theme further in the Old Testament, one should study the Hebrew words sapat [1], "to judge, " and mispat [2], "judgment. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; D
Torah - (toh' ruh) Hebrew word normally translated “law” which eventually became a title for the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament. ...
Old Testament Though universally translated “law” in the KJV, torah also carries the sense of “teaching” or “instruction,” as reflected in more recent translations ( Job 22:22 ; Psalm 78:1 ; Proverbs 1:8 ; Proverbs 4:2 ; Romans 3:21-2677 ; Isaiah 30:9 ). The meaning, law , is certainly present in the Old Testament. Subsequent Old Testament writings continue to speak of Torah as “The Law” in this sense (Isaiah 5:24 ; Jeremiah 32:23 ; Jeremiah 44:10 ; Daniel 9:11 ), often as “the book of the law,” the “law of Moses,” or a combination (Joshua 1:8 ; Joshua 8:31-32 ,Joshua 8:31-32,8:34 ; 2 Kings 14:6 ). ...
New Testament During New Testament times the limits on the Old Testament canon were being finalized
Old Testament - " In the post-Talmudic period THE MASORAH (Buxtorf, Tiberias) notes:...
(1) as to the verses, how many are in each book, the middle verse in each; how many begin with certain letters, or end with the same word, or had a certain number of words and letters, or certain words a number of times;...
(2) as to the words, the Qeri 's (marginal readings) and kethib 's (readings of the text); also words found so many times in the beginning, middle, or end of a verse, or with a particular meaning; also in particular words where transcribers' mistakes were likely, whether they were to be written with or without the vowel letters; also the accentuation;...
(3) as to the letters, how often each occurred in the Old Testament, etc. ...
Of the 581 manuscripts collated by Kennicott, 102 have the whole Old Testament. The variations were trifling, chiefly of vowel letters; so that we have the assurance that our Old Testament text is almost as pure as attainable. The Septuagint is two centuries later than the last book of Old Testament It is only in the period immediately following the closing of the Old Testament canon that its few corruptions have arisen, for subsequently the jealous care of its purity has been continually on the increase. ...
The New Testament quotes mainly the Septuagint Old Testament, but corrects it by the Hebrew when needful (Matthew 21:5; Matthew 9:13; Matthew 4:15-16; John 19:37; 1 Corinthians 3:19; 1 Corinthians 15:54; Luke 22:37; Romans 9:33). The Christian interpreters soon rejected these subtleties and maintained the historical reality of Old Testament events. Clement of Alexandria laid down the fourfold view of the Old Testament: literal, symbolical, moral, and prophetic ( Old Testament prophetic references, as if the application to Messiah was only by accommodation. " On the Old Testament Jarchi (A. The New Testament is the key to the Old Testament. ...
As Christ and His apostles in the New Testament interpreted many parts and facts of the Old Testament, so we must interpret other parts and facts of the Old Testament which they have left uninterpreted, on analogous principles of interpretation. The New Testament does not note the spiritual meaning of every Old Testament type and history, and the fulfillment of every prophecy; space would not admit of it. "Ιn Vetere Τestamenlo Νovum latet, in Νovo Vetus patet "; the New Testament is hidden in the Old Testament, the Old Testament is revealed in the New (
2 Corinthians 3:6-18). The whole substance of the Old Testament is in the New Testament, but the details are to be unfolded by prayerful search. The moral aim is the reason for the disproportionate space occupied by personal biographies of men remarkable for piety or wickedness, and for the gaps which occur in parts of the Old Testament history. Christ and His apostles bring to light the moral and spiritual truths wrapped up in the Old Testament letter (Matthew 5-7; Matthew 19:5-6; Matthew 22:32<
Miracle Plays - The mysteries may be grouped under three cycles: ...
that of the Old Testament
that of the New Testament
that of the saints
Sometimes they represented matters which were not religious
Spikenard - nerd ) is mentioned twice in the Old Testament viz
Shekinah - The word is not found in the Old Testament, but was introduced into the Jewish religious vocabulary by rabbis of a later era
Glass - " This is the only allusion to glass found in the Old Testament
Doorkeeper - ...
The Hebrew word underlying the translation “doorkeeper” in Psalm 84:10 (KJV, RSV, NIV) appears only once in the Old Testament
Nicolas Poussin - Choosing subjects from mythology and the Old Testament he attained such fame by 1639 that he was invited to the French court by Louis XIII
Diamond - This would indicate “diamonds” are not meant in the Old Testament references
Fringe - Though Jesus observed the Old Testament requirement, He criticized those who wore excessively long tassels to call attention to their piety ( Matthew 23:5 )
Mystery Plays - The mysteries may be grouped under three cycles: ...
that of the Old Testament
that of the New Testament
that of the saints
Sometimes they represented matters which were not religious
Vows - Vows in the Old Testament usually were conditional
Deal Out, Deal With - ” Found in both biblical and modern Hebrew, this word occurs 35 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Rend, Tear - Used some 63 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, it is found for the first time in Cast Down - Its first use in the Old Testament is in Recompense, Reward - ...
In its first occurrence in the Old Testament, the word has the sense of “repaying” or “restoring”: “Why have you returned evil for good?” ( Talent - Talents of silver, by weight, are frequently mentioned in the Old Testament
Ecclesiastes - a canonical book of the Old Testament, of which Solomon was the author, as appears from the first sentence
Joppa - called also Japho in the Old Testament, which is still preserved in its modern name of Jaffa or Yafah, a sea port of Palestine, situated on an eminence in a sandy soil, about seventy miles north-west of Jerusalem
Whale - Neither the Old Testament nor the New Testament, when correctly rendered, affirms that it was a whale which swallowed Jonah, but "a great fish
Septuagint - (Greek: seventy) ...
The name given to the Greek translation of the Old Testament made from the Hebrew by different authors, between 300,130 B
Common - In the Old Testament, that which was common (alternately profane) was contrasted with that which was holy
Harp - The instrument most nearly resembling our harp was the Hebrew NEBEL, translated, psaltery in the Old Testament, Psalm 57:8 81:2 92:3 108:2
Testament - The name of each general division of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures as the Old Testament the New Testament
Caesare'a Philip'pi - Caesarea Philippi has no Old Testament history, though it has been not unreasonably identified with Baal-gad
God - There are three principal designations of God in the Old Testament—Elohim, Jehovah (Javeh), and Adonai. The first is used exclusively in the first chapter of Genesis; chiefly in the second book of Psalms, Psalms 42:1-11; Psalms 43:1-5; Psalms 44:1-26; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 46:1-11; Psalms 47:1-9; Psalms 48:1-14; Psalms 49:1-20; Psalms 50:1-23; Psalms 51:1-19; Psalms 52:1-9; Psalms 53:1-6; Psalms 54:1-7; Psalms 55:1-23; Psalms 56:1-13; Psalms 57:1-11; Psalms 58:1-11; Psalms 59:1-17; Psalms 60:1-12; Psalms 61:1-8; Psalms 62:1-12; Psalms 63:1-11; Psalms 64:1-10; Psalms 65:1-13; Psalms 66:1-20; Psalms 67:1-7; Psalms 68:1-35; Psalms 69:1-36; Psalms 70:1-5; Psalms 71:1-24; Psalms 72:1-20, called the Elohim Psalms, and occurs alternately with the other names in the other parts of the Old Testament. The unity of the Godhead is emphasized in the Old Testament, while the trinity is only shadowed forth, or at best faintly brought out
Pray - ” Found in both biblical and modern Hebrew, this word occurs 84 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. ...
The first occurrence of pâlal in the Old Testament is in Old Testament: Moses “prays” for the people’s deliverance from the fiery serpents ( Faith - ...
Old Testament Expressions The word “faith” occurs in the Old Testament only twice in the KJV, eighteen times in the RSV, and sixteen times in the NIV. ...
Only the third verb form was rendered with the Greek word for faith in the New Testament and in the Septuagint, an early Greek version of the Old Testament originating in Alexandria. Thus, we find no Hebrew noun for “faith” in the Old Testament, only verbs that have been translated with “faith” because of New Testament influence. ...
If we do not find the noun “faith” in the Old Testament, we surely find the concept named with other words. In the Old Testament faith is described as the “fear of God” (Genesis 20:11 ; Psalm 111:10 ; Ecclesiastes 12:13 ; Malachi 4:2 ), and in terms of trust (2 Chronicles 20:20 ; Psalm 4:5 , Isaiah 26:4 ), and obedience (Exodus 19:5 ; 1 Samuel 15:22 , Jeremiah 7:23 ). Faith is a New Testament concept that encompasses and enriches these Old Testament concepts. The English versions of the Old Testament have translated a pair of Hebrew verbs using the noun “faith. ...
Because the Old Testament does not have a word equivalent to the English noun, “faith,” does not mean the idea of faith is unimportant for the Old Testament. Habakkuk 2:4 was properly taken by Paul as the center of Old Testament religion
Apocrypha - " "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not. ...
The Old Testament Apocrypha, often referred to simply as "the Apocrypha, " is a collection of Jewish books that are included in the Old Testament canons of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christians, but not of Protestants. They were eventually included in Christian copies of the Greek Old Testament and, later, the Latin Vulgate. ...
Several of these writings are tied closely to Old Testament books. Many of them were attributed to major Old Testament figures; they are called the Pseudepigrapha. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. ...
Apart from the issue of canonicity, the Old Testament Apocrypha has had a pronounced and pervasive influence on Western culture. , The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha ; J. , The Apocryphal Old Testament ; M
Bible, Inspiration of the - " The scope of prophecy here is uncertain: It may refer simply to the corpus of the writing prophets, or more broadly to the historical books of the Old Testament also, or indeed (as Warfield argues) to the whole Old Testament. "...
The prophetic books of the Old Testament are largely composed of extended passages placed by the writer in the mouth of God. The evidence of the New Testament (and, indeed, of the development of Jewish attitudes to the books of the Old Testament before that time) suggests something very different: that these books had been accorded the status of inspired Scripture. That the incarnate Son of God should treat the Old Testament in this fashion offers the strongest possible endorsement of the divine inspiration of Holy Scripture, neatly illustrated in Matthew 19:4-5 were Jesus quotes Genesis 2:24 ("For this reason a man will leave his father and mother "). By analogy with the Old Testament, we might anticipate that the Spirit would ensure a further canonical record of the work of God in Christ
Redeem, Redemption - ...
The Old Testament . In the Old Testament, redemption involves deliverance from bondage based on the payment of a price by a redeemer. The paradigm of Yahweh's redemptive activity in the Old Testament is the historical deliverance of Israel from Egyptian bondage, but the metaphor of redemption was also utilized by the prophets in relation to the Babylonian captivity. There is only one explicit Old Testament reference to redemption from sin (Psalm 130:8 ), the emphasis falling in the majority of references on God's deliverance from the results of sin. He applied to himself the things said in the Old Testament of the Servant of the Lord concerning his rejection, humiliation, death, and resurrection (Mark 8:31 ; 9:31 ; 10:33-34 ). Likewise, New Testament writers apply to him the Servant texts and terminology from the Old Testament (e
Bible - ...
The Lord comprehends and stamps with divine sanction the whole Old Testament, under the threefold division recognized by the Jews, "the law, the prophets, and the psalms" (including all the holy writings not included in the other two, namely, the Hagiographa) (Luke 24:44). Clement of Alexandria speaks of the New Testament making up with the Old Testament "one knowledge. " The Syrian version (Peshitto) at the close of the 2nd century contains the New Testament with the Old Testament. in the passage concerning Elias; Acts 8:32, "the place of the Scripture"; show that some divisions of the Old Testament existed, with titles from their subjects. ...
To the histories succeed the epistles of Paul the apostle of faith, Peter of hope, and John of love, unfolding the gospel facts and truths more in detail; just as in the Old Testament the histories come first, then the inspired teachings based on and intimately connected with them, in Psalms, Proverbs, the Song of Solomon of Solomon, and the Prophets. Finally comes Revelation, answering to Daniel, the prophetic Apocalypse of the Old Testament The first three Gospels are called "the synoptical Gospels," giving a synopsis of Christ's ministry in Galilee; John's gives His ministry in Judea. ...
The New Testament 27 books, emanating from nine different persons, and the Old Testament 39 books, separated from each other by distances of time, space, and character, yet form a marvelously intertwined unity, tending all to the one end. ...
The credibility of the Old Testament is established by establishing that of the New Testament, for the Lord quotes the Old Testament in its threefold parts, "the law, the prophets, and the psalms," as the word of God. The sacred Canon of the Old Testament was completed under Ezra. The monotheism of the Old Testament is the very opposite to the tendencies of Gentile and Israelite alike to idolatry. " The tongue through which the Old Testament revelation of God speaks is the Hebrew, that of the chosen nation, except parts of Ezra and Daniel and Jeremiah. "...
How remarkably too God kept the Jews, our librarians of the Old Testament, from altering, to meet their prejudices, the sacred books that record their sins and national disgrace. She has shown her will to add to Scripture itself adding the Apocrypha to the Old Testament just where her addition cannot prejudice the cause of truth fatally, for the Jews witness against her in this. ...
There is a break in revelation now, just as there was for 400 years between the Old Testament and the New Testament, after the outburst of them in connection with the rearing of the second temple. ...
The Jews scattered providentially over the world by the captivity, and everywhere bearing the Old Testament, matured the universal expectancy during the silent centuries. Finally, the miracles wrought in connection with the Bible, and attested on infallible proofs, and the prophecies of the Old Testament (proved to have been given when they profess to be, by the fact that the Jews who oppose Christianity attest their age, and fulfilled minutely in the New Testament) establish the inspired truth of the Bible
Old Testament - TEXT OF THE Old Testament. -A history of the text of the Old Testament should properly commence from the date of the completion of the canon. [1] Of any logical division, in the written text, of the rose of the Old Testament into Pesukim or verses, we find in the Tulmud no mention; and even in the existing synagogue rolls such division is generally ignored. --The Old Testament MSS. --The method of procedure required in the criticism of the Old Testament is widely different from that practiced in the criticism of the New Testament. Our Old Testament textus receptus is a far more faithful representation of the genuine Scripture; but, on the other hand, the means of detecting and correcting the errors contained in it are more precarious, the results are more uncertain, and the ratio borne by the value of the diplomatic evidence of MSS. The comparative purity of the Hebrew text is probably different in different parts of the Old Testament. QUOTATIONS FROM THE Old Testament IN THE NEW TESTAMENT. In the quotations of all kinds from the Old Testament in the New. Sometimes an Old Testament passage is abridged, and in the abridgment so adjusted, by a little alteration, as to present an aspect of completeness, and yet omit what is foreign to the immediate purpose
Apocrypha - The Old Testament Apocrypha consists of fourteen books, the chief of which are the Books of the Maccabees (q
Peter, First Epistle of - " It contains about thirty-five references to the Old Testament
Pan - A vessel of metal or earthenware used in culinary operations; a cooking-pan or frying-pan frequently referred to in the Old Testament (Leviticus 2:5 ; 6:21 ; Numbers 11:8 ; 1 Samuel 2:14 , etc
Sepulchre - Of this purchase by Abraham there is no direct record in the Old Testament
Fable - There are two clear examples in the Old Testament
Soldier - ...
Israel’s Old Testament history is full of stories of the heroic deeds of its soldiers
Flogging - The Old Testament recognized flogging as a form of punishment (Deuteronomy 25:1-3 ) though limiting it to 40 blows so that the neighbor who was punished would not be degraded
Riddle - ...
The Hebrew word for riddle also appears elsewhere in the Old Testament
Gates of Jerusalem And the Temple - On the east, entrance from the Kidron Valley was signed principally through the Sheep Gate (modern Stephen or Lion Gate) in New Testament times and by a recently found gate (Spring, 1986) south of the modern city walls in Old Testament times
Manna - ...
Old Testament
Manaen - ” In the Old Testament, those who shared the king's table were persons recognized as valued members of the court ( 2 Samuel 9:10-13 ; 2 Samuel 19:28 ; 1 Kings 2:7 ; 2 Kings 25:29 ; Nehemiah 5:17 )
Rust - In the style of an Old Testament prophet, James outlined God's future judgment on the wealth-reliant rich as if it were already accomplished (James 5:1-6 )
Pearl - In the Old Testament ( Exodus 28:21), the names of these same men were on stones
Job - The patriarch, from whom one of the poetical books of the Old Testament is named
Chaldee Language - Employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old Testament, viz
Scribe - We read in the Old Testament Scripture of this office in the time of the Kings, and it should seem at that time that it was an employment of great power
Sackcloth - Rending the garment, and putting on sackcloth, are terms every where to be met with in the Old Testament
Hermit - This mode of religious life is considered to date from the early persecutions of the Church, though its Old Testament precursor is found in Elias
Ashes, Blessed - The use of ashes to express humiliation and sorrow was common in ancient religions, and is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament
Jesus Christ - I only detain the reader just to remark on the blessed name, that all that bore it in the Old Testament church became types, more or less, of the Lord Jesus
Ulai - (Daniel 8:16) When we consider what is said of the voice of the Lord God, walking in the garden in the cool of the day, Genesis 3:8; when we mark the same grace manifested upon many occasions during the Old Testament dispensation, 1 Samuel 3:4; 1 Kings 19:9; and when we call to mind, the numberless sweet and gracious tokens of the Lord Jesus, manifested to his servants in the early ages, before he openly tabernacled in substance of our flesh: may we not venture to suppose this voice to have been Him, who in after ages openly tabernacled among us? I only humbly propose the question
Earring - We find that in the Old Testament scripture, the earring was a token and pledge of overtures to marriage
Overlay, Spy - It occurs for the first time in the Old Testament in the socalled Mizpah Benediction: “The Lord watch between me and thee …” ( Will, Be Willing - 24:5, where Abraham’s servant who is about to be sent to find a wife for Isaac says: “Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land …?”...
It is to be noted that in all but 2 instances of its use in the Old Testament (Job 39:9; Mourn - Found in the Hebrew Old Testament 39 times, 'âbal is used in the simple, active verbal form primarily in poetry, and usually in a figurative sense
Look - It occurs approximately 70 times in the Old Testament
Forget - Shâkach is found for the first time in the Old Testament in King - ) The title of two historical books in the Old Testament
Asia - In the Old Testament it is not found; in the New Testament it means a small Roman province, in Asia Minor, in the northwest corner of Asia
Law - The law, the prophets, and the psalms, Luke 24:27; Luke 24:44; Acts 13:15, thus designate the entire Old Testament
Revelation Book of - It is for the New Testament what Daniel is for the Old Testament
Satan - The proper name appears five times in the Old Testament, 1 Chronicles 21:1; Job 1:6; Job 1:12; Job 2:1; Zechariah 3:1; in the New Testament 25 times; the word "devil" occurs 25 times; "the prince of this world," three times; "the wicked one," six times; "the tempter," twice
Balaam - A prophet in Old Testament history
Ecclesiastes - The preacher, the name of a book of the Old Testament, usually ascribed to Solomon
Inspiration - ...
Christ everywhere treats the Old Testament Scripture as infallibly true, and of divine authority-the word of God
Kid'Ron, - Mark 14:26 ; Luke 22:39 The distinguishing peculiarity of the Kidron valley --mentioned in the Old Testament-- is the impurity which appears to have been ascribed to it
Heaven - There are four Hebrew words thus rendered in the Old Testament which we may briefly notice
Hades - The Greek word hades was used in Bible times as the equivalent of the Hebrew word sheol, the name used in the Old Testament for the world of the dead
Consecration - ...
Old Testament God is said to be kadosh or “holy. ...
In the Old Testament the ordination of persons to the service of God is indicated by the phrase “to fill the hand
Dwelling - The Old Testament repeatedly promises that those who keep the covenant will dwell in safety (Leviticus 25:18-19 ; Zechariah 2:10-11 ). The Old Testament idea of God's dwelling with His people (Ezekiel 37:27 ) is developed in a variety of ways in the New Testament
Disabilities And Deformities - ...
Old Testament Several words in the Old Testament describe typical disabilities and deformities:...
Blemish meant a deformity or spot (Leviticus 21:17-21 )
Abyss - ...
In the Old Testament abyssos [1] never translates Sheol , so in the Old Testament it never carries the idea of the realm of the dead or the afterlife
Faithfulness - In the Old Testament, God's faithfulness and covenant love are closely related (Deuteronomy 7:9 ; Psalm 25:10 ; 85:10 ). God remains faithful to New Testament believers, both fulfilling and promising to fulfill the promises of the Old Testament
Camp, Encampment - In the Old Testament English translators usually use “camp” or “encampment” to translate Hebrew machaneh . ...
In the Greek translation of the Old Testament machaneh is rendered parembole , literally “a putting alongside
Akkadian - ...
Akkadian studies have had a profound effect on Old Testament studies in at least four areas. Second, the literary (poetic) texts and legal texts have provided a rich source for comparative study of Old Testament poetry and law texts
Aging - ...
Old Testament References to aging persons in the Old Testament stress the physiological changes of aging (1 Kings 14:4 ; 2 Samuel 19:35 ; Ecclesiastes 12:1-5 ; Zechariah 8:4 ), the wisdom of the aging (Deuteronomy 32:7 ; Job 12:12 ), the honor due the aging (Exodus 20:12 ; Leviticus 19:32 ), and the continuing service of the aging (Genesis 12-50 , the patriarchs; Joshua 13:1 ; Joshua 14:10 ; Psalm 92:14 ; Joel 2:28 )
Lessons - The church of England, in the choice of lessons, proceeds as follows:...
for all the first lessons on ordinary days, she directs to begin at the beginning of the year with Genesis, and so continue till the books of the Old Testament are read over, only omitting Chronicles, which are for the most part the same with the books of Samuel and Kings; and other particular chapters in other books, either because they contain the names of persons, places, or other matters less profitable to ordinary readers. After Genesis follow chapters out of the books of the Old Testament, as they lie in order; only on festival Sundays, such as Easter, Whitsunday, &c
Hagiography - This word is not used in the Bible, but, nevertheless, as it hath been used by the Jews in a way of distinction concerning certain parts of the word of God in the Old Testament Scripture, it may not be improper to notice it in a work of this kind. The word Hagiography, which means holy writings, is generally applied, by the Jews to all the books of the Old Testament, excepting the Law and the Prophets
Imagery - The multiplicity of Old Testament literary images for God serves as a corrective of human attempts to box God in. ...
In His parables, Jesus continued the Old Testament practice of using vivid images for God: a shepherd seeking one lost sheep (Luke 15:4-7 ); a woman seeking one lost coin (Luke 15:8-10 ); a father waiting patiently for the return of one son and taking the initiative to reconcile the other (Luke 15:11-32 ). The Old Testament pictures God's people as: a faithless wife (Jeremiah 3:20 ); a wild vine (Jeremiah 2:21 ); a wild donkey in heat (Jeremiah 2:24 ); God's beloved (Jeremiah 11:15 ); God's bride (Jeremiah 2:2 ); God's servant (Jeremiah 30:10 ); and God's son (Hosea 11:1 )
Sheol - Only once does the Old Testament speak of Sheol specifically as the abode of the wicked (Psalm 9:17 ). ...
Though the overall picture of Sheol is grim, the Old Testament nevertheless affirms that God is there (Psalm 139:8 ; Proverbs 15:11 ) or that it is impossible to hide from God in Sheol (Job 26:6 ; Amos 9:2 ). The Old Testament also affirms that God has power over Sheol and is capable of ransoming souls from its depths (Psalm 16:10 ; Psalm 30:3 ; Psalm 49:15 ; Psalm 86:13 ; Job 33:18 ,Job 33:18,33:28-30 )
Darkness - "Darkness" in both the Old Testament (Heb. The time of God's ultimate judgment, the day of the Lord, is portrayed in both the Old Testament and New Testament as a day of darkness (Joel 2:2 ; Amos 5:18,20 ; Zephaniah 1:15 ; Matthew 24:29 ; Revelation 6:12-17 ). The Old Testament and New Testament describe the future of the ungodly in terms of eschatological darkness, symbolizing perdition (1 Samuel 2:9 ; Matthew 22:13 ; Jude 12-13 )
Vengeance - This apparent dissimilarity lead Marcion in the second century, Schleiermacher in the eighteenth century, and some scholars since then to conclude that the Old Testament religion was inferior to that of the New Testament. Such a view characterizing the Old Testament as absolute demand for vengeance overlooks Joseph's forgiving his brothers (Genesis 45:1-4 ) and David's sparing the lives of Saul (1 Samuel 26 ) and later Saul's family (2 Samuel 9:9-13 ). Divine vengeance in the Old Testament is not to be understood as God's desire for self-gratification in exacting punishment, but as an expression of displeasure over all unrighteousness to restore the original balance (Joel 3:19-21 )
False Prophet - Old Testament While the term “false prophet” does not occur in the Old Testament, references to false prophets are clear. The pages of the Old Testament are filled with men and women who fit the description of a false prophet given in Jeremiah 14:14 (NAS): “The prophets are prophesying falsehood in My name
Excommunication - Old Testament In the Old Testament, excommunication came as a curse from God as punishment for sin (Deuteronomy 27:26 ; Deuteronomy 28:15 ; Psalm 119:21 ; Malachi 2:2-9 ; Malachi 4:6 ). Old Testament terms for excommunication include: Karath , to be excluded or cut off (Exodus 12:15 , Exodus 12:19 ; Leviticus 17:4 , Leviticus 17:9 ); cherem , banish, devote, or put to destruction (Exodus 22:19 ; Leviticus 27:28-29 ; Joshua 6:17 ); and qelalah , desolation or thing of horror (2 Kings 22:19 ; Jeremiah 25:18 )
Genealogies - ...
Old Testament Genealogies are recorded in the Old Testament as early as Genesis 4:1 . Various enrollments by family lineage are referenced at significant junctures in Old Testament history (Numbers 1:19-49 ; Ezra 8:1 )
Orphan - ...
The Old Testament . James 1:27 emphasizes the Old Testament teaching. " Helping the helpless is at the core of what it means to be religious, as it was in the Old Testament
Servant, Service - ...
In the Old Testament, the Hebrew word for servant, ebed [ Genesis 24:35 ; Exodus 21:21 ), and performed a variety of work. ...
Many persons in the Old Testament are called "servants, " among them Abraham (Genesis 26:24 ), Jacob (Genesis 32:4 ), Joshua (Joshua 24:29 ), Ruth (Ruth 3:9 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 1:11 ), Samuel (1 Samuel 3:9 ), Jesse (1 Samuel 17:58 ), Uriah the Hittite (2 Samuel 11:21 ), Joab (2 Samuel 14:20 ), Isaiah (Isaiah 20:3 ), Daniel (Daniel 9:17 ), Ben-Hadad of Aram (1 Kings 20:32 ), and Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (Jeremiah 25:9 ). ...
One striking modification of usage from the Old Testament to the New is the occurrence of the word groups latreia [ Hebrews 8:10 )
Reproach - ” This noun occurs in the Old Testament and in rabbinic Hebrew. Cherpâh occurs 70 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. The word appears about 50 times in the Old Testament, once in Rebel - Mârâh occurs some 50 times in the Old Testament, and its usage is scattered throughout the Old Testament (historical, prophetic, poetic, and legal literature). …” The Old Testament sometimes specifically states that someone “rebelled” against the Lord; at other times it may refer to a rebelling against the word of the Lord ( Sing - ” It occurs approximately 50 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, with about half of these uses being in the Book of Psalms, where there is special emphasis on “singing” and “shouting” praises to God. While it occurs almost 90 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, it is not used until Old Testament
Throne - ...
Kissê' occurs 130 times in the Hebrew Old Testament and, as is to be expected, the frequency is greater in the historical books and the prophetical works. ”...
In the Old Testament the basic meaning of kissê' is “seat” or “chair. Since the Davidic dynasty received the blessing of God, the Old Testament has a number of references to “the throne of David” ( Condemn - ...
Old Testament The word appears first in the context of a court of law (Exodus 22:9 ) where a judge hears a charge against a thief and condemns the culprit. The three-way usage of the word in the Old Testament continued into the New. As in the Old Testament, God is also the source of condemnation in the New
Inheritance - Israelites of Old Testament times considered an inheritance to be more than merely an amount of property received upon the death of one’s parents. But like the Old Testament inheritance, it is a gift that comes from God himself (Matthew 25:34; James 2:5). ...
Israel in the Old Testament...
When Canaan was divided among Israel’s twelve tribes, each tribal area was known as the inheritance of that tribe (Joshua 15:20; Joshua 16:8; Joshua 18:2)
Adultery - ...
Old Testament regulations...
According to the law of Moses, the punishment for adultery was death by stoning (Leviticus 20:10; John 8:3-5). The Old Testament prophets repeatedly spoke of Israel’s unfaithfulness to God as spiritual adultery, or spiritual prostitution (Jeremiah 5:7; Jeremiah 23:10; Ezekiel 16:30-38; Ezekiel 23:4-5; Ezekiel 23:11; Hosea 9:1; see PROSTITUTION). ...
New Testament teachings...
Like the Old Testament, the New Testament looks upon marriage as a permanent union
Targum - A name given to the Chaldee paraphrases of the books of the Old Testament. ...
These Targums are of great use for the better understanding not only of the Old Testament, on which they are written, but also of the New. As to the Old Testament, they serve to vindicate the genuineness of the present Hebrew text, by proving it to be the same that was in use when these Targums were made; contrary to the opinion of those who think the Jews corrupted it after our Saviour's time. They also very much serve the Christian cause against the Jews, by interpreting many of the prophecies of the Messiah in the Old Testament in the same manner as the Christians do
Suffering - ...
Old Testament The Semitic mind dealt with concrete situations rather than abstract forms. The Old Testament writers, accordingly, sought to identify the causes and purposes of suffering when it happened. As eschatological hopes matured in late Old Testament and intertestamental times, the righteous looked forward to the Day of the Lord when they would be vindicated and justice would reign (Daniel 12:1 ). Christian writers in the New Testament incorporated the trials of Christ into their existing Old Testament understanding of suffering
Age, Old (the Aged) - ...
The Old Testament also uses "gray head" (seba [25:8). The Old Testament places high value on the elderly, as is evident from the command in Leviticus 19:32 : "Rise in the presence of the aged (seba [1]), show respect for the elderly (zaqen [2]) and revere your God. "...
As in the Old Testament, the New Testament term "elder" (presbytes [ Luke 1:18 ). Though the specific origins of eldership in the early church are uncertain, it seems clear that the office was based on the Old Testament and early Jewish custom of bestowing honor and respect to members of the community of advanced age. The Old Testament custom of honoring the aged with positions of favor politically and socially was continued in the New Testament practice of conferring leadership roles on the "elders
Sanctification - The New Testament usage is greatly dependent upon the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, for meaning. ...
Old Testament In Old Testament thought the focus of holiness (qadosh ) is upon God. Here, the two streams of Old Testament meaning are significant: the cultic and the ethical. ...
The link of New Testament thought to Old Testament antecedents in the cultic aspect of sanctification is most clearly seen in Hebrews
Hospitality - There appears to have been some decline in hospitality from the period of the Old Testament to that of the New Testament, since hospitality is omitted from later Greco-Roman virtue lists. ...
The Old Testament. Old Testament teaching identifies the Israelites as alienated people who are dependent on God's hospitality (Psalm 39:12 ; see also Hebrews 11:13 ). Old Testament teaching also expected the Israelites to practice hospitality and serve as hosts, treating human life with respect and dignity. Besides presenting the model of Abraham, the Old Testament specifically commanded hospitality. The Old Testament allusions in the feeding of the 5,000 (Mark 6:30-44 ) reveal the identity of Jesus. As in the Old Testament, righteous behavior in the New Testament includes the practice of hospitality. Duke, "Toward an Understanding of Hospitality in the Old Testament"; J. Wright, "Establishing Hospitality in the Old Testament: Testing the Tool of Linguistic Pragmatics
Pentateuch - (pehn' tuh teuhch) First five books of Old Testament The word Pentateuch comes from two Greek words Penta “five” and teuchos meaning “box,” “jar,” or “scroll. ...
Many attempts have been made to classify the laws in the Old Testament according to their types. Christians often speak of Old Testament laws as moral, civil, and ceremonial, but the Old Testament does not use those categories to classify its laws. Rather than attempting to isolate certain moral laws, it would be better to try to detect moral and ethical principles in all types of Old Testament laws. Some recent scholars have classified the laws in the various parts of the Old Testament as: criminal law, civil laws, family laws, cultic (worship) laws, and charitable (humanitarian) laws. ...
Old Testament laws were given in the context of the covenant. Old Testament laws were given to redeemed people to tell them how to live as people of God. ...
The Old Testament contains many “sayings” of various kinds. ...
Deuteronomy is the only place in the Old Testament where long sermons are found. ...
Date and Authorship The problem of the date and authorship of the Pentateuch is one of the major critical problems of the Old Testament. Sampey wrote,...
Possibly the higher criticism of the Pentateuch is the most important critical problem confronting students of the Old Testament. Sampey, Syllabus For Old Testament Study (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1924), p. Late in the Old Testament period, the tradition arose which seemingly refers to the Pentateuch as the “Book of Moses” (2 Chronicles 35:12 ). He popularized and synthesized the views of many Old Testament scholars and said that the Pentateuch was a compilation of four basic literary documents identified as J, E, D, and P
Apocrypha - Jews did not stop writing for centuries between the Old Testament and the New. They did not attain canonical status, but some of them were cited by early Christians almost on a level with the Old Testament writings, and a few were copied in biblical manuscripts. These are not a part of the Old Testament but are valued by some for private study. Although never part of the Hebrew Scriptures, all fifteen apocryphal books except 2Esdras appear in the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint. In a number of places, it differs from the Old Testament account. It is believed that this writing drew from some of the same sources used by the writers of the canonical Old Testament books. The Three Guardsmen Story, 1 Esdras 3:1-5:3 , is the one significant passage in 1Esdras that does not occur in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament book of Esther, God is never named. However, it differs from the Old Testament account. It claims to be the prayer of the repentant king whom the Old Testament pictured as very wicked (2 Kings 21:10-17 ). Daniel in the Old Testament and Revelation in the New Testament represent this type of writing. Twenty-four are a rewrite of the canonical Old Testament while the other seventy are to be given to the wise
Christians, Names of - The origin of these names is traceable to the Old Testament, Jesus' teaching, the church, and nonbelievers. They describe, in part, the Old Testament Jewish roots of Christianity, the role of the Godhead within Christianity, the union of believers with God and Christ, the nature of Christian life and conduct, and the importance of the gospel. ...
Names Associated with Old Testament Israel . Comparable to the Old Testament's depiction of national Israel as Abraham's physical descendants, the New Testament depicts the church as his spiritual heirs. ...
The New Testament posits a high degree of continuity between Old Testament Israel and the church. The way in which Christians have frequently taken over and adapted Old Testament names and terms relating to Israel to describe themselves particularly strengthens this link. As God's temple, all believers have his Spirit living in them-a pervasive divine indwelling unknown to Old Testament Israel. Thus, like Old Testament Israel, the church appears as a kingdom of priests. But unlike Old Testament Israel, they become ministers of a new covenant (John 15:13-151 ). ...
Old Testament writers frequently describe Jerusalem as the city of God's presence, the city of God (Psalm 48:1,8 ; 87:3 ), and the holy place where the Most High dwells (Psalm 46:4 ). Was it Christianity or Judaism that stood directly in line with the Old Testament promises of God? This dilemma was resolved through the realization that Christians too were predestined to share in God's plan of salvation
Nations, the - The Old Testament . But it is clear that the Old Testament writers generally viewed the nations as failing to fulfill even these broad parameters. Approximately half of the references to the nations in the Old Testament refer to them in a negative fashion. God's use of the nations in the Old Testament underscores the fact that, for the biblical writers, both the nations and Israel were under the sovereignty of God. ...
The Old Testament is usually negative and seldom positive toward other ethnic groups, but the nations can stand as neutral observers of God's glory (1 Chronicles 16 ; Psalm 45:17 ; Malachi 1:11 ), of God's wrath (Isaiah 12:4 ), and of the Suffering Servant (Isaiah 52:15 ). When referring to the nations, ethnos [2] continues the negative attitude embodied in its use in the Old Testament
Holy Spirit - ...
Old Testament . Some have argued that Old Testament believers were saved and sanctified by the Spirit just as New Testament believers. But such teaching appears nowhere in the Old Testament. However people were made right with God, the focus of the Old Testament roles of the Spirit lies elsewhere. All of these uses recur throughout the Old Testament, but one other remains unique to these earliest daysequipping Bezalel and Oholiab with the skills of craftsmanship for constructing the tabernacle (Exodus 31:3 ; 35:31 ), although the provision of gifts of the Spirit in the New Testament will become a close analogue. First Samuel 16:13 further suggests that David retained the Spirit as a permanent possession, apparently unlike others in the Old Testament. The first of these texts demonstrates a characteristic fear in Old Testament times; even David in his unique situation did not have the assurance of God's abiding presence that would later characterize the New Testament age. Isaiah 63:10-11 contains the only other Old Testament use of "Holy Spirit, " harking back to God's guidance of Moses and the wilderness wanderers. ...
The Old Testament thus concludes self-consciously open-ended, anticipating a new era in which the Spirit will work among a greater number of individuals and different kinds of people to create a more faithful community of men and women serving God. The fulfillment of these promises in the New Testament conforms to the prophecy of the Old Testament. Although relatively infrequent in his Old Testament appearances, the Spirit now emerges to dominate the theology and experience of the major New Testament witnesses. This prophecy alerts his parents to his unique nature; no one in Old Testament times was filled so early. ...
Jesus agrees with the Old Testament prophets that Scripture is Spirit-inspired (Matthew 22:43 , ; citing Psalm 110:1 ). With Elizabeth (Luke 1:41 ), Zechariah (1:67), and Simeon (2:25-27), the Spirit comes with temporary power as in the Old Testament. ...
The testimony of Acts agrees with the Gospels that the Old Testament writers were inspired by the Spirit (Acts 1:16 ; 4:25 ; 28:25 ), as was Jesus himself (1:2). He inspires predictive prophecy (11:28; 21:11), even if it remains subject to potential misinterpretation by the prophets in ways not found in the Old Testament. Neve, The Spirit of God in the Old Testament ; J. Wood, The Holy Spirit in the Old Testament
Douay Bible - " The translation of the Old Testament was published several years later, after the college had returned to Douai
Nets - In the Old Testament a term denoting the fisher's net appears (Isaiah 19; Habacuc 1); another word is used in the Hebrew corresponding to drag (Habacuc 1:15-16), and to net (Habacuc 1:17)
Deafness - According to the Old Testament God makes persons deaf or hearing (Exodus 4:11 )
Johann Eck - He published a German version of the Scriptures, of which he translated the Old Testament from the original
Johann Eckius - He published a German version of the Scriptures, of which he translated the Old Testament from the original
Johann Maier - He published a German version of the Scriptures, of which he translated the Old Testament from the original
Maier, Johann - He published a German version of the Scriptures, of which he translated the Old Testament from the original
Jude, Epistle of Saint - The illustrations are mostly drawn from the Old Testament and, what is remarkable, from the Jewish apocalyptic literature, i
Bible, Douay - " The translation of the Old Testament was published several years later, after the college had returned to Douai
Flesh - In the Old Testament denotes (1) a particular part of the body of man and animals (Genesis 2:21 ; 41:2 ; Psalm 102:5 , marg
Enoch - He is spoken of in the catalogue of Old Testament worthies in the Epistle to the (Hebrews 11:5 )
Malachi - Messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon (Malachi 4:4,5,6 )
Mesopotamia - In the Old Testament it is mentioned also under the name "Padan-aram;" i
Samaritan Pentateuch - The New Testament also, when quoting from the Old Testament, agrees as a rule with the Samaritan text, where that differs from the Jewish
Abel - His name is mentioned by the Holy Ghost with peculiar honour, in that illustrious list of Old Testament saints, who all died, as they had lived, by faith
Injury - Old Testament law provided two responses to injuries; retaliation in kind (“eye for eye, tooth for tooth” (Exodus 21:24 ) and compensation
Ambassador - In the Old Testament the Hebrew word Tsir , Meaning "one who goes on an errand," is rendered thus ( Joshua 9:4 ; Proverbs 13:17 ; Isaiah 18:2 ; Jeremiah 49:14 ; Obadiah 1:1 )
Integrity - Several Old Testament characters are designated persons of integrity: Noah ( Genesis 6:9 ); Abraham (Genesis 17:1 ); Jacob (Genesis 25:27 ); Job (Job 1:1 ,Job 1:1,1:8 ; Job 2:3 ); and David (1 Kings 9:4 )
Locust - The Hebrew Old Testament uses different words to describe the insect at its various stages of life, from egg to larvae to adult insect
Lame, Lameness - In the Old Testament, lame animals were not acceptable sacrifices (Deuteronomy 15:21 ; Malachi 1:8 ,Malachi 1:8,1:13 )
Valley - ...
Five Hebrew terms are designated “valley” in the Old Testament
Calves, Golden - The only such pedestal Old Testament teaching allows was the ark of the covenant
Mammon - The word is not used in the Old Testament
Loins - The Old Testament sometimes uses loins as the seat of physical strength (Nahum 2:1 )
Jesse - Jesse's genealogy is twice given in full in the Old Testament, viz
Epistle of Saint Jude - The illustrations are mostly drawn from the Old Testament and, what is remarkable, from the Jewish apocalyptic literature, i
Targum - No doubt, the Targum, took its rise from the Chaldee Paraphrase of the books of the Old Testament
Ahaziah - (ay huh zi' uh) names two Old Testament kings, the king of Israel (850-840 B
Administration - The Old Testament seeks to lead people in authority to establish a society in which God's law brings fairness and justice to all people without favoritism and prejudice
Eckius, Johann - He published a German version of the Scriptures, of which he translated the Old Testament from the original
Eck, Johann - He published a German version of the Scriptures, of which he translated the Old Testament from the original
Moses - The name (as the margin of our Bibles states) means drawn out The illustrious history of Moses forms so large a page in the sacred volume of the Old Testament, that it supersedes the necessity of saying much about him here
Pestilence - ” The word occurs fewer than 60 times in the Old Testament, and mainly in the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel
Stumble, Be Weak - ” It occurs in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament approximately 60 times, the first time being in Escape - Mâlaṭ occurs approximately 95 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Drive Out - ” Nâdach occurs approximately 50 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, and its first use is in the passive form: “And lest thou … shouldest be driven to worship them …” ( Discern - It occurs approximately 50 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Bullock - Pâr occurs 25 times in the Old Testament, and its first appearance is in c Sarea-Philippi - It was the northern limit of our Lord's journeys, Matthew 16:13; Mark 8:27, and was probably Baal-gad of Old Testament history
Unicorn - " The word occurs seven times in the Old Testament
Woe - , in numerous passages, especially of the Old Testament, Habakkuk 2:6,9,12,15,19 Zephaniah 3:1
Translate - The Old Testament was translated into the Greek language more than two hundred years before Christ
Fox - Probably the jackal is the animal signified in almost all the passages in the Old Testament where the Hebrew term occurs
Ornaments, Personal, - In the Old Testament
Joppa - In Old Testament days Joppa was Israel’s only port on the Mediterranean coast
Forgiveness - ...
Forgiveness in the Old Testament The primary means of obtaining forgiveness in the Old Testament is through the sacrificial system of the covenant relationship, which God established when He brought His people out of Egypt. The Old Testament sacrificial system could never give once-for-all forgiveness. According to the Old Testament, only God could forgive sins; yet Jesus declared that He could do so, and He did (Mark 2:1-12 ; John 8:2-11 ). He saw His own death as the fulfillment of the Old Testament sacrificial system
Amen - ...
Amen is never used solely to confirm a blessing in the Old Testament, but Israel did accept the curse of God on sin by it (twelve times in Deuteronomy 27 , and in Nehemiah 5:13 ), and once Jeremiah affirms God's statements of the blessings and the curses of the covenant with an amen (Jeremiah 11:5 ). Amen lego humin also punctuates the teaching of truths unknown in the Old Testament, and seasons startling sayings for which Jesus offers no proof other than his own authority. So in Matthew 5 Jesus comments on the Old Testament or Jewish interpretations of it six times in the chapter, saying, "You have heard that it was said , but I tell you. " He concludes the first section with the amen in 5:26, and by so doing asserts that his authority exceeds the Jewish interpreters', and even brings a revelation that surpasses that of the Old Testament law itself. ...
Paul's use of amen returns to the Old Testament world, except that he utters amen only to bless, not to curse
Spirit - The Old Testament . It appears 389 times in the Old Testament. Dryness, Themes in Old Testament Theology ; R. Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the Old Testament ; H. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament
Shadow - ...
Old Testament The Hebrew tsel speaks of shadow as protection and as transitory, short-lived, and changing. References to death come from Old Testament prophecy—Matthew 4:16 and Luke 1:79 picking up Isaiah 9:2
Counselor - Old Testament Significance . The Old Testament counselor served to advise the king on such matters as national defense and plans for war (1 Kings 12:6-14 ; 2 Chronicles 22:5 )
Book, Book of Life - "...
An anguished interchange between a wrathful Yahweh and a pleading Moses after the discovery of the golden calf illustrates the Old Testament understanding of the Book of Life. In the Old Testament focus on divine reward and punishment in this life, the blessed on the list receive their blessings here and now and those stricken from the book suffer in this life, not in some eternal future
Fatherless - Old Testament law provided for the material needs of orphans and widows who were to be fed from the third year's tithe (Deuteronomy 14:28-29 ; Deuteronomy 26:12-13 ), from sheaves left forgotten in the fields (Deuteronomy 24:19 ), and from fruit God commanded to be left on the trees and vines (Deuteronomy 24:20-21 ). The Old Testament image of the orphan without a helper at the court perhaps forms the background for Jesus' promise that His disciples would not be left orphans (John 14:18 , NAS, NIV, NRSV; “comfortless”, KJV; “bereft”, REB)
Say, Utter, Affirm - ” The word is a verbal form of the verb ne'ûm, which occurs only once in the entire Old Testament: “Behold, I am against the prophets, saith [1] the Lord, that use their tongues, and say [2], He saith [1]” ( Old Testament is virtually limited to a word from God
Promise - Israelites of the Old Testament era made their promises usually in the forms of covenants, oaths and vows. ...
Some of these promises are in the nature of fulfilled prophecies, where God’s promises of Old Testament times find their fulfilment in the events of Christ and the gospel (Luke 1:32-33; Luke 1:72-73; Acts 13:23; Acts 13:32; Romans 1:2; Romans 15:8; Galatians 3:14; Hebrews 9:15; cf
Poetry - Much of the Old Testament is written in poetry. ...
The New Testament, though written in Greek and mainly in prose, contains quotations from Old Testament poems
Deliverance, Deliverer - In the Old Testament deliverance most often refers to victory in battle (Judges 15:18 ; 2 Kings 5:1 ; 2 Kings 13:17 ; 1 Chronicles 11:14 ; 2 Chronicles 12:7 ). The Old Testament consistently stresses God as the giver of deliverance rather than the human agent
Zechariah - ...
The most important of the prophets named Zechariah was the man whose book is part of the Old Testament. ...
Of the priests named Zechariah, the best known in Old Testament times was the man who rebuked King Joash and the people of Jerusalem for their idolatry
Memorial - The concept of "remembering" recurs prominently in the Bible, particularly in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament God may remember to have mercy or to judge
Malachi - The last of the prophets, in closing the sacred canon of the Old Testament Scripture. And with this man's ministry, the Holy Ghost closeth the sacred volume of the Old Testament Scripture
Scriptures - (See BIBLE; CANON; INSPIRATION; Old Testament; NEW TESTAMENT. 2 Timothy 3:15-16, "all Scripture (pasa grafee ; every portion of "the Holy Scripture") is God-inspired (not only the Old Testament, in which Timothy was taught when a child, compare Romans 16:26, but the New Testament according as its books were written by inspired men, and recognized by men having "discerning of spirits", 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:37), and (therefore) profitable," etc
Septuagint, the - As this version of the Old Testament is constantly referred to in biblical works, a short account of it is appended. The Oxford Presshas a full Concordance, including the Apocrypha...
The Hebrew Old Testament was also anciently translated into Greekby Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion, but of these only fragments remain in Origen's Hexapla, except Theodotion's Daniel, which is usually preferred to the translation of that prophet by the LXX
Altar - Mizbêach occurs about 396 times in the Old Testament. Another Old Testament noun derived from zabach is zabach (162 times), which usually refers to a sacrifice that establishes communion between God and those who eat the thing offered
Plow - ” It is found approximately 50 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. ”...
The use of chârash in the sense of “working or engraving” metals is not used in the Old Testament as much as it might have been if Israel had been as given to such craftsmanship as her neighbors, or perhaps because of the commandment against images ( Cocceians - He considered the Old Testament as a mirror, which held forth figuratively the transactions and events that were to happen in the church under the dispensation of the New Testament, and unto the end of the world. He maintained, that by far the greater part of the ancient prophecies related to Christ's ministry and mediation, and the rise, progress, and revolutions of the church; not only under the figure of typical persons and transactions, but in a more direct manner; and that Christ was, indeed, as much the substance of the Old Testament as of the New
Slaughter - ” This word is a common Semitic term for sacrifice in general, although there are a number of other terms used in the Old Testament for specific sacrificial rituals. There is no question that this is one of the most important terms in the Old Testament; zâbach is found more than 130 times in its verbal forms and its noun forms occur over 500 times. ” This word is used more than 400 times in the Old Testament. ...
Countless “altars” are referred to as the story of Israel progresses on the pages of the Old Testament: that of Noah ( Soul - In the Hebrew of the Old Testament the word is nephesh. ...
Old Testament usage...
The writers of the Old Testament did not speak of the soul as something that exists apart from the body. The Old Testament does not say in what way people live on after death
Dreams - ...
Dreams were important in the Old Testament, too. In the Old Testament the interpreted dreams were most often those of prophets and rulers. The Old Testament Joseph had this kind of dream in Genesis 37:1 . ...
In the Old Testament Joseph and Daniel are the preeminent interpreters of dreams
Blessedness - ...
In the Old Testament this blessedness may involve material things, but forgiveness is foremost (Psalm 32:1 ). Blessedness in the Old Testament at times assures certain material blessings (Genesis 39:5 ). The occasional Old Testament association of blessedness with material advantages is reversed in the New Testament and is linked with financial destitution. Mitchell, The Meaning of b r k "to bless"in the Old Testament ; C
Mind - ” As in the Old Testament the term heart ( kardia ) is sometimes used to represent the concept mind . ” Paul said that Israel's “minds were blinded” so that they could not understand the Old Testament ( 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; see also 2 Corinthians 4:4 ; 2 Corinthians 11:3 ). In the Old Testament, especially, this is true because of the lack of an exact equivalent for mind . The word heart fills this void, and the New Testament follows the practice of the Old Testament very closely
Death - ...
The Old Testament does not, however, teach that persons were annihilated at death. The Old Testament calls Sheol “the pit” (1618541214_61 ; Ezekiel 26:19-21 ; Jonah 2:1-6 ), personifies it as “the king of terrors” (Job 18:13-14 ), and describes it as a house or city with bars (Job 17:16 ) where gloomy darkness prevails (Psalm 88:12 ). Some Bible students see resurrection hope suggested or even clearly taught in other Old Testament passages. ...
The Old Testament recognized the theological meaning of death as well as its physical meaning. Similar to the Old Testament accounts of some of the partriarchs, Simeon's death would be the peaceful resignation of a life dedicated to God. ...
Conclusions The New Testament assumed the Old Testament concept of body-soul unity and the late Old Testament and intertestamental concept of resurrection
Salvation - ...
Old Testament For Israelite faith, salvation never carried a purely secular sense of deliverance from death or harm. The primary saving event in the Old Testament is the Exodus (Exodus 14:13 ) which demonstrated both God's power to save and God's concern for His oppressed people (Exodus 34:6-7 ). ...
Some argue that the Old Testament does not link salvation with the forgiveness of sins. Psalm 37:19-40 perhaps provides the best Old Testament case for personal salvation from sin. ...
In the Old Testament, salvation primarily concerns God's saving acts within human history. ...
Throughout most of the Old Testament, salvation is a corporate or community experience. Psalm 51:12 more than any other Old Testament text associates personal salvation with a conversion experience; renewed joy of salvation accompanies God's creation of a new heart and right spirit and assurance of God's abiding presence
Authors of Articles - , Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in Hackney College and New College, London. , Professor of Old Testament Interpretation in the University of Michigan. , Professor of Old Testament Language and Literature in Oberlin College, Ohio. , Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in the Western Theological Seminary, Allegheny. , Professor of Old Testament Languages and Literature in Headingley College, Leeds. , Professor of Old Testament Literature in McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago. , Professor of Old Testament Literature in Meadville Theological School
Prophecy, Prophets - ...
Old Testament Three key terms are used of the prophet. ...
False Prophets Distinguishing between false and true prophets was very difficult, though several tests of authenticity emerge in the Old Testament. This distinctively Christian reading was thought to be legitimate because of Christ's fulfillment and interpretation of the Old Testament (Luke 4:17-21 ). (3) This Christian reading of the Old Testament often takes the form of typological interpretation. The New Testament authors believed Old Testament events, persons, or things foreshadowed the later Christian story. Thus, they used the images of the Old Testament to understand the New Testament realities. (4) Some readers believe that Old Testament words take on a “fuller sense” or meaning. Old Testament expressions may have a divine significance, unforeseen by the Old Testament author, which comes to light only after God's later word or deed. ...
The prophets used phrases such as “the Lord says” or “the Holy Spirit says” as introductory formulas for prophetic insight into the future (Acts 21:11 ), or for inspired adaptation of an Old Testament text (Hebrews 3:7 )
Poetry - No doubt many readers will conjure images of the so-called poetic books in the Old Testament (Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon) upon hearing the term "biblical poetry. ...
Second, the term "poetic books" implies that the other Old Testament material is not poetic. Although there is some difference of opinion among scholars about certain texts between one-third and one-half of the Old Testament is written in a poetic style. ...
The Old Testament . However, Old Testament poetry does not rhyme, and examples of alliteration and assonance are rare. ...
Perhaps one of the two most distinguishing features of Old Testament poetry is the presence of figurative language. ...
The second characteristic of Old Testament poetry, one that is unique to poetry in the ancient Near East, is parallelism. Old Testament poetry only rarely utilizes strophes, unlike much English poetry. ...
In the Old Testament one encounters several different types, or aspects, of parallelism, each demonstrating a different semantic relationship between the lines. The New Testament does not include extended sections that could be designated as poetic in the same sense as in the Old Testament
Adoption - ...
Old Testament Legal adoption was not prescribed in Jewish law or practiced by the Israelites. In fact, the term "adoption" does not occur in the Old Testament. Although not precisely adoption passages, the instances of declared sonship in the Old Testament provide a theological foundation for Israel's designation as the children of God
Hero - ” This word appears 159 times in the Old Testament. ” This word occurs 66 times in the Old Testament, once in Old Testament
Whoring, To Go; Harlot, To Be - The word occurs approximately 90 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. ...
While the term means “to commit fornication,” whether by male or by female, it is to be noted that it is almost never used to describe sexual misconduct on the part of a male in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament sometimes the use of the phrase “go a whoring after” gods implies an individual’s involvement with cult prostitutes
Vessels And Utensils - ...
Types of Vessels The Old Testament sometimes refers to pottery by a generic term translated, “earthen(ware) vessel” (Leviticus 6:28 ; Leviticus 11:33 ; Leviticus 14:5 ,Leviticus 14:5,14:50 ; Numbers 5:17 ; Jeremiah 32:14 ; NIV, “clay jar”). The terms, especially for the Old Testament, are not entirely clear and are variously rendered even within the same English translation. Cups in the modern sense also were virtually unknown in Old Testament times. Lamps in the Old Testament were essentially bowls for oil whose rims were pinched in to hold a wick. ...
“Pot” in the Old Testament (Exodus 16:3 ; Numbers 11:8 ; 2 Kings 4:38-41 ; Job 41:20 ,Job 41:20,41:31 NIV, “caldron”) generally translates several Hebrew words which designate cooking pots. Storejars were often designed to hold standard measures, a common size in the Old Testament period being two baths, averaging twenty-five inches high and sixteen in diameter. ...
Utensils A general word for utensils (KJV, “vessels” or “furniture”) is often used in the Old Testament as a collective term for the gold and bronze articles used in the tabernacle service (Exodus 25:39 ; Exodus 27:3 ,Exodus 27:3,27:19 ; Matthew 26:7 ; NIV, “accessories,” “utensils,” or “articles”). In Old Testament times, grain was ground by hand (Exodus 11:5 ; Isaiah 47:2 ) using grindstones usually made of basalt, a hard volcanic stone with many cavities which made natural cutting edges
Desire - ...
The Old Testament . Hapes [2] has a basic meaning of feeling great favor toward something, and is found seventy-one times in the Old Testament, being translated "delight" or "pleasure" the majority of the time, and "desire" nine times. ...
One of the most frequently used words in the Old Testament to indicate desire is awa [4] and its derivatives, which can be found almost fifty times. " This term is found only three times in the Old Testament: Genesis 3:16,4:7 , and Song of Song of Solomon 7:10 . In the Old Testament human desires were viewed as something natural to humankind
False Worship - ” The most consistent problem with false worship seen in the Old Testament is with the nature or fertility deities—Baals and Ashtaroth, Anath, Astarte—the male and female representations of reproduction and growth. Many of the forms of this false worship involved sexual acts—activities abhorred in the Old Testament laws. Associated with this type of worship was the fairly prevalent view in the Old Testament world that a god had his own territory and that he was relatively powerless outside that place. ...
The many references to false gods with obviously false worship in the Old Testament coupled with the almost total absence of such in the New Testament might suggest that there was little problem with other gods in the New Testament world. Native national gods and fertility deities similar to Baal and Ashtaroth of the Old Testament period still abounded
Righteousness - ...
Old Testament The starting point is the Hebrew notion of God's “righteousness. The Old Testament did not call on the people of Israel to attempt to earn God's favor or to strive to merit God's graces (Psalm 18:1 ). Indeed, the Old Testament teaches that God's gracious favor had been poured out on the nation in God's choosing of Abraham and his descendants. ...
New Testament Greek philosophy understood righteousness to be one of the cardinal virtues, but New Testament authors show that they understood the word in terms of Old Testament thinking about covenantal relations. The human-to-human dimension of righteousness observed in the Old Testament is present in New Testament thought (Philippians 1:3-11 ), but it seems less prominent, perhaps because of the importance of the New Testament concept of love
Blasphemy Against the Holy Spirit - In the Old Testament the term was used specially for derisive language and attitudes toward the God of the covenant with Israel (2 Kings 19:4 ; 6,22 Isa 6,266:3 ; Ezekiel 35:12-13 ). ...
Furthermore, the Spirit is the sign of the new age and the reception of the Spirit is the focus of hope in some Old Testament visions. One suspects that the advent of the Holy Spirit at the baptism of Jesus fulfills this Old Testament hope, and yet Israel remains hardened and grieves the Spirit once again ( Old Testament disobedience, followed by God's promised restoration in sending the Spirit, and now once again the same rejection. What caused stoning in the Old Testament, now incurs eternal condemnation; such a sin is unforgivable
Inheritance - ...
The Old Testament . The Old Testament is rich in its usage of the inheritance metaphor. While Jewish inheritance laws were specific and complete (Numbers 27:8-11 ), almost all references to inheritance in the Old Testament are theological, not legal. ...
The focus of the inheritance concept in the Old Testament is God's promise to Abraham. However, as in the Old Testament, almost all occurrences of the terms for inheritance in the New Testament are theological (Luke 12:13 ; is the lone exception )
Separate - It is found in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament only about 25 times. ” This verb occurs about 10 times in the Old Testament. ...
“To separate” and “to consecrate” are not distinguished from one another in the early Old Testament books. ” There are 16 occurrences of the word in the Old Testament. ...
Most frequently in Old Testament usage, nâzı̂yr is an appellation for one who vowed to refrain from certain things for a period of time: “And this is the law of the Nazarite, when the days of his separation are fulfilled: he shall be brought unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation” ( Create - Out of 49 occurrences of the verb in the Old Testament, 20 are in these chapters. ” These basic meanings are dominant in the Old Testament, but certain poetic passages have long suggested that this verb means “create. The close relationship of Hebrew and Ugaritic and the contextual meaning of qânâh as “create” in the Old Testament passages cited above argue for the use of qânâh as a synonym for “create” along with bârâ', ‘asah, and yatsar. ” This verb, which occurs over 2600 times in the Old Testament, is used as a synonym for “create” only about 60 times. ...
Unfortunately, the word is not attested in cognate languages contemporary with the Old Testament, and its etymology is unclear
Nazarene - The words, "He shall be called a Nazarene," do not occur in the writings of the Old Testament; but the thing or meaning conveyed by them is sufficiently obvious
Dedicate, Dedication - In the Old Testament the people who were set apart included all Israel (Exodus 19:5-6 ; Deuteronomy 7:6 ; Deuteronomy 14:2 ) and the priests (Exodus 29:1-37 )
Apple Tree - A tree known in the Old Testament for its fruit, shade, beauty, and fragrance (Joel 1:12 ; Proverbs 25:11 ; Song of Song of Solomon 2:3 ,Song of Song of Solomon 2:5 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 8:5 )
Contrite - This Old Testament concept is expressed by the Hebrew word daka' and its derivatives
Silver - (Acts 19:24 ) But its chief use was as a medium of exchange, and throughout the Old Testament we find "silver" used for money, like the French argent
Gentile - gentes, which in the Greek translation of the Old Testament is rendered in which sense it frequently occurs in the New Testament; as in Matthew 6:32
Sheba - )...
Sheba was also the name of a number of individuals mentioned in the Old Testament
Bow, Bend - It occurs in the Hebrew Old Testament approximately 35 times
Plant - It occurs approximately 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Alexandria - It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New
Double-Minded - Psalm 12:1-2 forms the Old Testament background of the term
Treasure, Treasury - ...
In Old Testament times treasure might be stored in the king's palace (2 Kings 20:13 ) or in the Temple (1 Kings 7:51 )
Anoint - Ellison, The Centrality of the Messianic Idea for the Old Testament ; V
Lock - In the Old Testament period, door locks were bolts with holes into which small iron or wooden pins would drop to secure the bolt ( Nehemiah 3:3 ,Nehemiah 3:3,3:6 ,Nehemiah 3:6,3:13 ,Nehemiah 3:13,3:15 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:5 ; compare Judges 3:23-24 )
Chasten, Chastisement - The climactic Old Testament word on chastisement is that the Suffering Servant has borne our chastisement, so that we do not have to suffer it (Isaiah 53:5 )
Blow - ” Found in both ancient and modern Hebrew, this word occurs in the Hebrew Old Testament nearly 70 times
Heresy - " In Acts 24:14, where Paul speaks of the Christian religion as "the way which they call heresy," he undoubtedly means to imply that the Christian organization was not a separation from the Old Testament Church, but the true Church itself
Lamb (Male) - ” The word occurs 107 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, and especially in the Pentateuch
Despise - It occurs about 75 times in the Hebrew Old Testament and is found for the first time in Spread Out - ” Found in both ancient and modern Hebrew, this word occurs approximately 65 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Hide - Sâthar occurs approximately 80 times in the Old Testament
Cyprus - It was the Chittim, or Kittim, of the Old Testament
Demons - As frequent accounts are given, in the Old Testament and in the New, of the devil and of demons entering into persons, there is no reason to doubt that they do so now
Devils - As frequent accounts are given, in the Old Testament and in the New, of the devil and of demons entering into persons, there is no reason to doubt that they do so now
Timothy - His father was a Greek and a heathen; his mother, Eunice, was a Jewess, and a woman of piety, as was also his grandmother, Lois, 2 Timothy 1:5, and by them he was early taught in the Scriptures of the Old Testament
Belial - 1: Βελίαλ (Strong's #955 — Noun Masculine — belial — bel-ee'-al ) is a word frequently used in the Old Testament, with various meanings, especially in the books of Samuel, where it is found nine times
Ass - Five Hebrew names of the animals of this family occur in the Old Testament
Bethel - , "house of idols," Hosea 10:5 (in verse 8 simply Aven); taken by Judah, 2 Chronicles 13:19; home of prophets, 2 Kings 2:2-3; of a priest, 2 Kings 17:28; 2 Kings 23:15; 2 Kings 23:19; was desolate, Amos 3:14; Amos 5:5-6; settled by Benjamites after the captivity, Nehemiah 11:31; named about seventy times in the Old Testament; not noticed in the New Testament; now called Beitin (nine miles south of Shiloh), a village of about 25 Moslem hovels, standing amid ruins which cover about four acres
Jes'se - ( Matthew 1:5 ) Jesse's genealogy is twice given in full in the Old Testament, viz
Amen - He is what the Old Testament calls ‘the God of truth’, ‘the God of the amen’ (2 Corinthians 1:20; Revelation 3:14; cf
Jezreel - This region was often a battleground in Old Testament times, and Jezreel sometimes became involved in the fighting (e
Exile - In the Old Testament ‘the exile’, or ‘the captivity’, refers to the period of approximately seventy years that followed Babylon’s conquest of Jerusalem and deportation of the people into captivity in Babylon (2 Kings 24; 2 Kings 25:1-21; Jeremiah 25:11-12; Jeremiah 29:10; Daniel 1:1-4; Ezekiel 1:1-3)
Ashkelon - It is situated in the south of Palestine on the Mediterranean coast, and in Old Testament times was one of the ‘five cities of the Philistines’
Bible, Theology of - It seeks to isolate and express the theological teachings of a specific portion of Scripture, such as the theology of the Pentateuch (first five books of the Old Testament), or the theology of the prophets, or the theology of the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke), or the theology of John, or the theology of the Pauline writings, etc. Many New Testament teachings are not found, or even hinted at, in the Old Testament. These New Testament advances are the completion or fulfillment of what was started in the Old Testament, not a contradiction. A distinct difference separates the Old Testament and the New Testament, but a fundamental unity joins the two Testaments. The Old Testament is the preparation for the New. Theological themes begun in the Old Testament are often carried to completion in the New Testament. For instance, the practice of sacrifice which began as early as Genesis 4:4 (apparently without any divine command) and became an officially commanded practice of the Old Testament under the law given through Moses, was carried through to the climactic once-for-all sacrifice of Jesus Christ as the Lamb of God slain from the foundation of the world. The major portion of the Old Testament is the story of repeated failure to live up to the covenant responsibilities. The doctrine of God begins in the Old Testament with the work of God in creation. The Old Testament has four major emphases concerning God. His coming was prophesied in the Old Testament as the coming of a Messiah, a Suffering Servant who would redeem His people. ...
The church is seen as the new covenant community, the fulfillment of the old covenant community in the Old Testament. It is not a radical break with the old covenant community but is the logical outgrowth of the people of God in the Old Testament era
Friend, Friendship - The Old Testament also affirms friendship between God and human persons. Echoing the Old Testament, James pointed to Abraham, the friend of God, as one whose example of active faith is to be followed (James 2:23 )
Prophecy - The great prediction which runs like a golden thread through the whole contents of the Old Testament is that regarding the coming and work of the Messiah; and the great use of prophecy was to perpetuate faith in his coming, and to prepare the world for that event. ...
But the great body of Old Testament prophecy relates directly to the advent of the Messiah, beginning with Genesis 3:15 , the first great promise, and extending in ever-increasing fulness and clearness all through to the very close of the canon
Emperor Worship - ...
Old Testament Kings who conquered a nation would displace the local gods in favor of their own as a way of establishing authority. The most obvious example of emperor worship in the Old Testament is the well-known story of Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego (Daniel 3:1 )
Angel of the Lord - In many passages in the Old Testament, the angel of the Lord is identified with God, while in other instances a distinction is made between the Lord and the angel. The functions of the angel of the Lord in the Old Testament prefigure the reconciling ministry of Jesus
Brothers - In the Old Testament, the word brother usually refers to the blood relationship of siblings ( Exodus 4:14 ; Judges 9:5 ). ...
The term brother is also used in the Old Testament to signify kinsmen, allies, fellow countrymen
Measure - It occurs 53 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament. The basic meaning of the verb is illustrated in its first occurrence in the Old Testament: “… they did mete it with an omer …” ( Concise Chronological Table of Bible History - There are two chief systems of chronology: one based upon the Hebrew text of the Old Testament, and the other upon the Septuagint, or Greek text, and called the "short" and the "long" chronology. ...
End of Old Testament history
Anointing, - -- ...
In the Old Testament a Deliverer is promised under the title of Messiah, or Anointed, (Psalm 2:2 ; Daniel 9:25,26 ) and the nature of his anointing is described to be spiritual, with the Holy Ghost. (Isaiah 61:1 ) see Luke 4:18 In the New Testament Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the Messiah, or Christ or Anointed, of the Old Testament, ( John 1:41 ; Acts 9:22 ; 17:2,3 ; 18:4,28 ) and the historical fact of his being anointed with the Holy Ghost is asserted and recorded
Leprosy - However, both biblical scholars and medical scientists have clearly shown that what the Old Testament calls leprosy is not always the disease that we today call leprosy. The word used of leprosy in the Old Testament had a broad meaning and denoted a number of infectious skin diseases, some of which could be cured
Contribution - They were designed in the Old Testament to support the poor and, in the New Testament, the needy saints of the church. ...
The Old Testament . A clear Old Testament example of such a collection for widows and the poor is the story of Naomi and Ruth (Ruth 2:2-8 ). The Old Testament clearly made a great impact on Judaism, since many texts address this theme
Joseph - Old Testament 1. Joseph in the Old Testament primarily refers to the patriarch, one of the sons of Israel. The name Joseph is used later in the Old Testament as a reference to the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh (Numbers 1:32 ; Numbers 36:1 ,Numbers 36:1,36:5 ; 1 Kings 11:28 ) or as a designation for the whole Northern Kingdom (Psalm 78:67 ; Ezekiel 37:16 ,Ezekiel 37:16,37:19 ; Amos 5:6 ,Amos 5:6,5:15 ; Amos 6:6 ; Obadiah 1:18 ; Zechariah 10:6 ). ...
Four other men named Joseph are mentioned in the Old Testament: 2
Perfect, Perfection - Two word-groups in the Hebrew Old Testament are translated "perfect" or "perfection": tamam [1] and calal [2]. This view is solidly based in a wide range of Old Testament passages that use words from the tamam 2 Samuel 22:31 ; Psalm 18:30 ). ...
Old Testament references to perfection using the calal [ Lamentations 2:15 ; Ezekiel 16:14 ) or by a city-state like Tyre (Ezekiel 27:3,4 , 11 ; 28:12 )
Ancestors - ...
Old Testament While the word, ancestor , is only found in one Old Testament verse (Leviticus 26:45 ), the number of genealogies tracing family lines in the Old and New Testament indicates that ancestors were significant to the Israelites. ...
The Old Testament includes thirteen principal genealogical lists. ...
New Testament As in the Old Testament, ancestors are honored in the New Testament
Exodus - The most important event in the Old Testament historically and theologically is Israel's Exodus from Egypt. More than a hundred times in all parts of the Old Testament except the Wisdom Literature, Yahweh is proclaimed as “the one who brought you up from the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. The Exodus in the Old Testament was to Israel what the death and resurrection of Christ was to Christians in the New Testament. Old Testament scholars accept the essential historicity of the Exodus. ...
Elements of the wonderful and the ordinary contributed to the greatest Old Testament events. Old Testament scholars have generally agreed that the Exodus occurred either during the eighteenth (1570-1310 B
Prayer - This is not to deny that there was a development in the conception of prayer, though this development is more pronounced in the Old Testament than it is in the New Testament and early church. In fact, most Hebrew terms used in the Old Testament for prayer refer in some sense to petition; prayer in the Old Testament more frequently expressed supplication than anything else. The view of prayer found in the Old Testament, the soil for that in the New Testament, was founded on the Hebraic conception of God as both immanent and transcendent. That is to say, from the beginning of the Old Testament traditions, God and humans engaged in dialoguein conversation made possible by the ascription of personhood to God. This personal relationship established in prayer recurs in almost every book of the Old Testament (especially in Jeremiah). ) It is the last relationship that is most important as we move from the Old Testament's conception of God to the New Testament's. ...
The notion of God as father is not absent from the Old Testament, though it appears only fifteen times. ) Certainly this is true of the Old Testament. Prayer in the Old Testament often pictures the pray-er as an active cooperator. In fact, it sometimes even seems in the Old Testament that God so desires obedience and cooperation that he is unwilling to carry out his purposes until men and women have recognized the divine summons and answered it (e. ...
This Old Testament emphasis is not as clearly set forth in the New Testament, which may account, for example, for some disagreements about the intention of the first three petitions in the Lord's Prayerwhether they are a call for God to act alone (Lohmeyer, for example) or a call to God for help (Augustine, Luther). This set of convictions is particularly a prophetic emphasis in the Old Testament, beginning as early as Samuel's intercession for Saul, which leads to the conclusion that prayer must result in obedience (1 Samuel 7:12,15 ; 15:22-23 ). Thus, prayer in the Old Testament must be discussed in the light of God's covenantal relationship with Israel. The role of mediator in prayer was prevalent in the Old Testament (as in Abraham, Moses, David, Samuel, Amos, Solomon, Hezekiah, Elijah, Elisha, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Israel). Other outstanding Old Testament examples of contention with God in prayer include the prophets Jeremiah (see Jeremiah 12:1 ) and Habakkuk (see Habakkuk 1:2-4 )
Woman - "...
Old Testament Culture . Old Testament culture was overwhelmingly patriarchal. ...
Old Testament wives can function as windows to their husband's career and character. ...
Yet despite all these androcentric illustrations, the ideal woman of Old Testament times can seem surprisingly modern. ...
The Old Testament consistently commends women to monogamous marriage and sexual fidelity, based on God's creation ordinance (Genesis 2:24 ; endorsed again by both Jesus [1] and Paul [2]). Polygamy remained the exception rather than the rule; in twelve of the thirteen Old Testament instances in which it occurred, the husbands were men of great wealthkings and aristocrats. ...
As in all ages of human history, the Old Testament shows women who were victimized by abuse, rape, and even murder: Dinah (Genesis 34 ), Tamar (2 Samuel 13:1-22 ), Jephthah's daughter (Judges 11:29-30 ), and the Levite's concubine (Judges 19 ). An overriding and encouraging message of the Old Testament is God's sovereign outworking of his plans in spite of his people's failures. ...
Old Testament Legislation . Old Testament laws also send mixed signals. ...
Old Testament Leadership . The first-century Jewish world shared many of the cultural assumptions of the Old Testament concerning women. ...
Jesus' ethics preserve and intensify the strong Old Testament emphasis on sexual propriety (Matthew 5:27-30 ; 19:1-12 ), but for the first time make clear that women and men will be judged by identical standards (Matthew 5:32 ; Mark 10:11-12 ). Just as in the Old Testament women enjoyed many prominent roles save one, the rest of the New Testament reveals women in all positions of spiritual leadership save that of elder or overseer. But their participation in these roles was much more common and accepted than in Old Testament times. , Toward Old Testament Ethics ; R
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - In the New Testament, names that were applied to Jesus often had special meanings that went back into Old Testament and intertestamental times. ...
The Old Testament uses the word, shem [ Genesis 32:28 ). ...
In the pseudepigraphical and rabbinic writings of later Judaism, two significant developments centering on the "name" of God occur, though in general the tendency is to repeat the practices of the Old Testament. The expression the "Name" of Jesus is frequent and highly significant in New Testament usage in that it parallels the use of the name of God in the Old Testament. New Testament believers are to live their lives in Jesus' name just as the Old Testament believers were to live in the name of God the Lord. Just as in the Old Testament where the name of God represents the person of God and all that he is, so in the New Testament "the Name" represents all who Jesus is as Lord and Savior. Uses of the term in the Greek Old Testament (LXX) and nonbiblical Greek suggest it carries a threefold connotation: (1) path-breaker (pioneer) who opens the way for others, hence, "guide" or "hero"; (2) the source or founder, hence "author, " "initiator, " "beginning"; and (3) the leader-ruler, hence, "captain, " "prince, " "king. ...
In the Old Testament Israel's leaders—Abraham (Genesis 18:19 ), Moses and Aaron (Psalm 105:26 ; 106:23 ), priests and Levites (Deuteronomy 2:5 ), Saul (1 Samuel 10:24 ), David (1 Kings 8:16 ; 2 Chronicles 6:6 ; Psalm 89:3 ), and the Servant of the Lord (Isaiah 42:1 ; 43:10)— ;are said to be chosen by God. He embodies all that Old Testament chosen ones were to have been. ...
Elsewhere in the New Testament, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews picks up on the Old Testament anoiting of priests and applies the same in relation to Jesus (1:9; 5:8-10; 7:1-28). ...
The significance of the name "Christ" lies in the fact that it was a title granted to Jesus by virtue of his fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy and by his resurrection from the dead. In the Old Testament, "the Holy One of God" is a divine epithet common in the prophets and poetic literature used to communicate the separateness of the Lord. ...
The truth of God's holy oneness, a nonnegotiable Old Testament affirmation (Exodus 20:3 , ; Deuteronomy 6:4 ; Isaiah 43:10-11 ), would seem to rule out, at least among Jews, any application of kyrios [ Philippians 2:9-11 ). The Old Testament had predicted that a deliverer would come in the name of Lord. Yet ascription of full deity to Jesus seems necessitated by Old Testament prophecies as interpreted by Jesus himself. Jesus' disciples, taught by him from the Old Testament and witnesses to his numerous and varied mighty Acts, came to understand and proclaim the truth of Thomas' outburst of recognition: "My Lord [kyrios ]'>[11] [ John 20:28 )
Mission(s) - ...
Mission in the Old Testament While some scholars insist that the Old Testament has little, if anything, to say about mission, the more general understanding is that mission is an important Old Testament concept. Since the Fall (Genesis 3:1 ), God's primary activity has been redemptive, as the confessions in the Old Testament reveal (see Deuteronomy 6:20-24 ; Deuteronomy 26:5-9 ; Joshua 24:2-15 ). ...
The Old Testament emphasized that the nations would have to come to Jerusalem to be saved. Still, the Book of Jonah became the major Old Testament witness to God's love for and willingness to let foreigners relate to Him in worship. Instead of looking to foreigners to come to Jerusalem as did the Old Testament, the church's mission is to go into all the world and not wait for the world to come to it
Law, Ten Commandments, Torah - Law refers both to the revelation of the will of God in the Old Testament and to the later elaboration on the law referred to as the “traditions of the elders” in the New Testament (for example, Mark 7:5 ). ...
The Hebrew term most frequently translated “law” in the Old Testament is torah , used more than 200 times. Torah in the Old Testament came to mean the way of life for faithful Israelites. ...
The concept of torah is closely linked to that of covenant in the Old Testament. By New Testament times torah meant not only the Old Testament Scriptures (the written Law), but also the oral law (unwritten law) of Israel as well. ...
Two kinds of laws can be found in the Old Testament. By the term “law,” Paul meant the Law of God as contained in the Old Testament
Holy Spirit - Yet, though the revelation reaches its climax in Christ, its origins are in the Old Testament. ...
The Old Testament period...
When people of Old Testament times saw some remarkable demonstration of the power of God, they called that power by the Hebrew word ruach. ...
In spite of all this, it is probably still true to say that when the Old Testament people spoke of the Spirit of God, they were thinking more of the living and active power of God than of a person within a trinity. ...
These Old Testament believers, however, did not regard the Spirit as simply an impersonal force. ...
The Spirit always had been fully God and fully personal, even in Old Testament times. They now saw more in Old Testament references to the Spirit of God than the Old Testament believers themselves understood (cf
Good, Goodness - The main Old Testament words for good/goodness come from the Hebrew word tob [ Genesis 6:2 ; 24:16 ; 26:7 ; 2 Samuel 11:2 ; Esther 1:11 ; 2:2-3,7 ) and a "good" man is handsome (1 Samuel 9:2 ). "...
The goodness God's people exhibit shows itself in various moral qualities, notably kindness; hesed [1], translated "goodness" or "kindness, " serves as one of the major synonyms of tob [2], "good, " in the Old Testament. ...
In the Old Testament God's goodness to his people and their goodness in response is based on the covenant between them
Witness, Martyr - In the Old Testament the Hebrew word moed is used to refer to the “meeting” place of God and His people. This act of memorializing is also a witness and is commonly practiced in the Old Testament. ...
The legal concept of witness found in the Old Testament is continued in the New Testament
Soul; Self; Life - It occurs over 780 times in the Old Testament and is evenly distributed in all periods of the text with a particularly high frequency in poetic passages. ” In narrative or historical passages of the Old Testament, nephesh can be translated as “life” or “self,” as in Old Testament ( Death, Mortality - ...
The Old Testament. ...
It is difficult to avoid the fact that in the Old Testament people believed a person's physical remains were interred in one place, and that part of the person capable of consciousness and personality went to another location. In the Old Testament death is an unavoidable reality. Old Testament saints saw through a glass darkly. The only victims of suicide in the Old Testament were men (Ahithophel and Saul) who were faced with imminent, unavoidable death anyway. ...
There is evidence that in the Old Testament death is not as final as is sometimes supposed. Heidel, The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels ; O. Sutcliffe, The Old Testament and Future Life ; N. Tromp, Primitive Conceptions of Death and the Nether World in the Old Testament
Mercy - " In both the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the LXX) and the New Testament, the term behind "mercy" is most often eleos [2] in one form or another, but oiktirmos/oiktiro [3] (compassion, pity, to show mercy) and splanchna/splagchnizomai [4] (to show mercy, to feel sympathy for) also play roles. ...
The Old Testament. The pattern of God's dealings with people in the Old Testament, at the core of which is mercy, also provides the shape for understanding his dealings in the New Testament. Although the redemptive ministry of Christ comes to be thought of as the clearest expression of God's mercy, the Old Testament theme continues to be sounded as the basis for a people of God. Paul links this same divine commitment of mercy to undeserving people in the Old Testament with God's stubborn pursuit of Israel in and through Christ in the New Testament era and its extension to the Gentiles (Romans 9:15-16,23 ; 11:31-32 ; 15:9 ). ...
Similarly, the New Testament writers echo the Old Testament belief that mercy belongs to God (2 Corinthians 1:3 ; James 5:11 ) and that this resource of mercy is inexhaustible (Ephesians 2:4 ). The counterpart to the theme of the establishment of God's covenant with Israel in the Old Testament is the New Testament theme of God's gracious provision of salvation through the work of Christ. Peter (1 Peter 1:3 ) reached back to the Old Testament records of God's establishment of a covenant with Israel and connected them with the new life in Christ to describe the salvation of Christians: "By his great mercy he has given us a new birth through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead" (NRSV). Snaith, The Distinctive Ideas of the Old Testament
Hinnom, Valley of - The valley had a somewhat unglamorous history during the Old Testament period
Lessons of the Roman Breviary - The scriptural lessons from the Old Testament and New Testament, recited in the first nocturn of Matins, are usually three in number; the three historical lessons, recited in the second nocturn, contain a brief biography of the saint or an account of the feast that is celebrated; the third group of three lessons, recited in the third nocturn, is a homily from one of the Doctors or Fathers of the Church on the Gospel proper to the feast of the day
Bible, Books of the - According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Josue
Judges
Ruth
1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)
3,4Kings (1,2Kings)
1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)
Esdras
Nehemiah
Tobias
Judith
Esther
1,2Machabees
7 didactical books:
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)
Wisdom and
Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)
18 prophetical books:
Isaias
Jeremias (with Lamentations)
the major prophets
Baruch
Ezechiel
Daniel
the minor prophets
Osee
Joel
Amos
Abdias or Obadiah
Jonas
Micah
Nahum
Habacuc
Sophonias or Zephaniah
Aggeus or Haggai
Zacharias
Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Peter, Second Epistle of - This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament
Eternal Life - This expression occurs in the Old Testament only in Daniel 12:2 (RSV, "everlasting life")
Slime, - The three instances in which it is mentioned in the Old Testament are illustrated by travellers and historians
Jezreel - The Old Testament uses the name to refer to the entire valley of Jezreel which separates Galilee from Samaria, including the valley of Esdraelon
Ivory - Sources outside the Old Testament, indicate that elephants existed in northern Syria during the second millennium B
Innocence, Innocency - In the Old Testament the adjective innocence is more common than the noun
Melchizedek - ...
Old Testament When Abraham returned from the Valley of Siddim where he defeated Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and the kings aligned with Kedorlaomer, Melchizedek greeted Abraham with bread and wine
Way - This usage was common also among believers in Old Testament times (Psalms 16:11; Psalms 18:21; Psalms 18:30; Psalms 18:32; Psalms 27:11)
Dial - But the division into 12 hours is not implied in the Old Testament day
Manasseh - In almost typical Old Testament fashion, Manasseh, the elder brother, did not receive the blessing of the firstborn (Genesis 48:13-20 )
Dog - ...
...
Revelation 22:15 (a) GOD is informing us that false leaders, evil teachers and other similar characters who are described as "dogs" in the Old Testament and the New, will not be permitted to enter Heaven
Foundation of the World - ‘Old Testament Hebrew has no term which would quite correspond to the Greek ὁ κόσμος’ (Dalman, Words of Jesus, p
Esdras - He is also credited with the collection of the canonical books of the Old Testament extant in his time
Reckon - This word occurs about 20 times in the Old Testament
Meditate - Found only 25 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, it seems to be an onomatopoetic term, reflecting the sighing and low sounds one may make while musing, at least as the ancients practiced it
Come Near, Approach - It occurs 125 times in the Hebrew text of the Old Testament
Desolate, To Be - It occurs approximately 90 times in the text of the Hebrew Old Testament
Wither - It is found approximately 70 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Jonathan - The eldest son of Saul, and one of the loveliest characters in Old Testament history
Proverb, the Book of - By whose care this book was compiled in its present form, is unknown; there is no book of the Old Testament, however, whose canonical authority is better attested
Word - "The word of the Lord" was a common phrase in the Old Testament, always denoting some revelation of Jehovah
Roman Breviary, Lessons of the - The scriptural lessons from the Old Testament and New Testament, recited in the first nocturn of Matins, are usually three in number; the three historical lessons, recited in the second nocturn, contain a brief biography of the saint or an account of the feast that is celebrated; the third group of three lessons, recited in the third nocturn, is a homily from one of the Doctors or Fathers of the Church on the Gospel proper to the feast of the day
Writ - In this sense, writ is particularly applied to the Scriptures, or books of the Old Testament and New Testament as holy writ sacred writ
Patriarch - (father of a tribe ), the name given to the head of a family or tribe in Old Testament times
Hebrew - (Concerning Hebrew as the language of the Old Testament see MANUSCRIPTS
Lectionary - By thisappointment the Old Testament is read once during the year, andsome portions of it more frequently
Christ, Divinity of - Secondly, Christ claims for Himself an authority and power which in the Old Testament belonged to Yahweh (God) alone: He performs miracles in His own name and confers the same power upon His Apostles; He teaches in His own name and as one having supreme authority; He forgives sin as if committed against Himself; He requires faith and love of Himself as conditions of salvation; He promises to His disciples His perpetual presence and assistance; He promises eternal beatitude for works done on account of Himself; and represents Himself as the final Judge of the living and the dead. In Saint Paul's Epistles Christ is frequently called Kyrios (Lord), a title which in the Old Testament was reserved to God alone
Divinity of Christ - Secondly, Christ claims for Himself an authority and power which in the Old Testament belonged to Yahweh (God) alone: He performs miracles in His own name and confers the same power upon His Apostles; He teaches in His own name and as one having supreme authority; He forgives sin as if committed against Himself; He requires faith and love of Himself as conditions of salvation; He promises to His disciples His perpetual presence and assistance; He promises eternal beatitude for works done on account of Himself; and represents Himself as the final Judge of the living and the dead. In Saint Paul's Epistles Christ is frequently called Kyrios (Lord), a title which in the Old Testament was reserved to God alone
Ethiopia - The Old Testament Hebrew (and Egyptian) name for the region was Cush. The ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, rendered Cush by the Greek word Ethiopia, except where it could be taken as a personal name
Alexandria - The Jews enjoyed equal privileges with the Macedonians, so that they became fixed there, and while regarding Jerusalem as "the holy city," the metropolis of the Jews throughout the world, and having a synagogue there (Acts 6:9), they had their own Greek version of the Old Testament. At Alexandia the Hebrew divine Old Testament revelation was brought into contact with Grecian philosophy
Affliction - ”...
Old Testament The two primary Hebrew words used for affliction mean “to lower, humble, or “deny” (anah ) (Leviticus 16:29 ,Leviticus 16:29,16:31 ; Leviticus 23:27 ,Leviticus 23:27,23:32 ; Isaiah 58:3 ,Isaiah 58:3,58:5 ) and “depressed” (oni ) (Genesis 16:11 ; Deuteronomy 16:3 ; Job 30:15 , Job 30:29 ). ...
In the Old Testament, the source of affliction is (1) God's retribution upon disobedience (Lamentations 3:32-33 ; Isaiah 30:20 ; Jeremiah 30:15 ); (2) the natural conditions of life (Genesis 16:11 ; Genesis 29:32 ; Psalm 25:18 ); (3) personal sin (Psalm 107:17 ); (4) forces of opposition (Isaiah 51:21-23 ); and (5) evil spirits and/or Satan (1 Samuel 16:14 ; Job 1:6-12 )
Generation - ...
In the Old Testament, the word dôr occurs about 166 times; as many as 74 of these are in the repetition "dôr plus dôr," meaning “always. Close to this meaning is the temporal element of dôr: A dôr is roughly the period of time from one’s birth to one’s maturity, which in the Old Testament corresponds to a period of about 40 years ( Pour, Flow - ” Commonly used throughout the history of the Hebrew language, this word occurs in ancient Ugaritic with the same nuances as in the Old Testament. In its first use in the Old Testament, the word is part of the general principle concerning the taking of human life: “Whoso sheddeth man’s blood, by man shall his blood be shed …” ( Hell - he Old Testament uses the word to refer to a place in the depths of the earth. The Septuagint—the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament—used hades to translate the Hebrew word Sheol . Whereas in the Old Testament, the distinction in the fates of the righteous and the wicked was not always clear, in the New Testament hades refers to a place of torment opposed to heaven as the place of Abraham's bosom ( Luke 16:23 ; Acts 2:27 ,Acts 2:27,2:31 ). ...
Punishment for sin is taught in the Old Testament, but it is mainly punishment in this life
Deliver - The Old Testament . The concept of deliverance occurs in the Old Testament with two meanings. ...
In the Old Testament, God's deliverance is almost always from temporal dangers. As in the Old Testament, both meanings of deliverance are found in the New Testament
Paul the Apostle - His exegesis of the Old Testament bears testimony to his rabbinic training. His writings show intimate knowledge of the Greek Old Testament, though there is no reason to suppose that he was ignorant of or unskilled in Hebrew. Paul believes that the Old Testament, as expressive of the God of all, is binding on all. A central tenet of the Old Testament is the radical lostness of humankind. Paul, like Jesus, takes the Old Testament as authoritative and avows that "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23 ). In response Paul speaks disparagingly of the "law, " by which he often means his opponents' legalistic misrepresentation of the Old Testament in the light of then-current oral tradition. Such criticism of legalism is not a Pauline innovation; it was already a prominent feature of the Old Testament itself (1 Samuel 15:22 ; Psalm 40:6-8 ; 51:16-17 ; Isaiah 1:11-15 ; Micah 6:6-8 ) and figures prominently in Jesus' teaching (Matthew 23 ; Mark 7:1-13 ; Luke 11:37-54 ). His dozens of Old Testament quotations, many from the books of Moses, challenge the theory that Paul rejected out of hand the Mosaic Law for Christians. But if Spirit-filled followers of Christ seek the historical background of their faith or moral and theological instruction, then the Old Testament corpus, including the legal portions, may have a beneficial function. ...
This is not to deny the importance of other dimensions of the Old Testament, the bounties of Israel that are the taproot of the church (Romans 11 ). These include "the very words of God" that God entrusted to Old Testament sages and seers (Romans 3:2 ). Ephesians 5:1,8 ) or "children of promise" or "heirs" of salvation (Romans 8:17 ; 9:8 ; Galatians 3:28,31 ) hark back in every case to God's saving work in Old Testament times
God, Names of - In Old Testament times a name expressed identification, but also identity. It is also the most frequent name, occurring in the Old Testament 6,828 times (almost 700 times in the Psalms alone). Yah is a shortened form that appears fifty times in the Old Testament, including forty-three occurrences in the Psalms, often in the admonition "hallelu-jah" (lit. Quite possibly we need to hear the Old Testament meaning for Yahweh behind the words of Jesus when he speaks of himself as "I am" ("It is I, " Matthew 14:27 ; "I am the one, " John 8:24,28 , 58 ). Of the fifty-six lexical attestations to God's holiness in the Old Testament, many include the name/title of "The Holy One" or "Holy One of Israel, " which occurs thirty-one times in the Old Testament, twenty-five occurrences being in Isaiah. The Old Testament designation of God as Father (Deuteronomy 32:6 ; Isaiah 63:16 ; 64:8 ; Jeremiah 3:4,19 ; 31:9 ; Malachi 2:10 ) is employed often in the New Testament: by Paul (Ephesians 1:3 ; 3:14-19 ; 4:6 ; 5:20 ; 6:23 ; cf. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; D. Koehler, Old Testament Theology ; H. Moberley, The Old Testament of the Old Testament ; J. Zimmerli, Old Testament Theology in Outline ; W
Anthropology - ...
Old Testament The Old Testament accounts of history, the poetry of Wisdom Literature, and the pronouncements of the prophets work together to provide the Old Testament picture of humans. According to the Old Testament understanding, a person is not a body which happens to possess a soul. This kind of interpretation attempts to objectify the Old Testament language about God to the extreme. ...
The Old Testament truth that people exist as a totality remained firm in New Testament writings. The soul (Greek, psuche , related to the Old Testament nephesh ) points to the “total self. Like its Old Testament counterpart, the New Testament root meaning of spirit refers to “wind,” “breath,” or “force. Similar to its Old Testament counterpart, flesh (Greek, sarx ) in the New Testament suggests physical failing and the inability to transcend the physical dimension. ...
The New Testament illustrates four specific and distinct dimensions of human existence, but the writers of the New Testament affirm with the Old Testament writers that a human being is a totality, a complete whole. ...
While the Old Testament seems to affirm the survival of the image of God in people even after the Fall, it is also true that the original relationship between the Creator and the created has been altered. Several key themes which are introduced in Old Testament writings and later enriched by the New Testament witness have been noted. The relationship of God and humanity in the Old Testament vision points directly to the relationships of human beings within Christ's church, a community of human beings called out to minister to all of God's creation. The corporate nature of humanity can be seen in the Old Testament concepts of family, tribe, nation, and kingdom, Jesus' calling out of a redemptive community of followers, and the establishment of the church as the corporate body of God's people on earth
False Prophet - Even though the Old Testament does not use the term "false prophet, " it is clear that such "professional prophets" existed throughout much of Israel's history and that they were diametrically opposed to the canonical prophets. False prophets continued to make their presence felt well beyond the days of the Old Testament; indeed, Jesus warned his disciples, and through the apostles, he warned the early church about the character and teachings of such frauds. ...
As was characteristic of false prophets in the Old Testament, their New Testament counterparts were also motivated by greed (2 Peter 2:3,13 ), exhibited arrogance (2 Peter 2:18 ), lived immoral lives (2 Peter 2:2,10-13 ), and generally could be described as ungodly persons (Jude 4 ). Robinson, Inspiration and Revelation in the Old Testament ; J. Sanders, Essays in Old Testament Religion and Theology, pp. Sheppard, Essays in Old Testament Religion and Theology, pp
Justification - Old Testament In its simplest form, the cardinal theme of Scripture could be described as God's relationship with His people. The Old Testament teaches that to be righteous is to fulfill the conditions of the covenant relationship. ...
The search for the abstract noun “justification” in the Old Testament is fruitless. The elemental sense in which the Old Testament employs the idea of “justifying” is best expressed in the phrase “proclaiming to be within the covenant relationship. ...
Not found in the Old Testament, justification is almost as scarce in the New Testament, occurring only three times (Romans 4:25 ; Romans 5:16 ,Romans 5:16,5:18 ). ...
Two related questions present themselves for consideration: (1) What is the relationship between faith and Old Testament law?, and (2) What is the relationship between faith and works? Paul found no room in his theology for an elitist righteousness
Magic - The Old Testament . Magic—the attempt to exploit supernatural powers by formulaic recitations to achieve goals that were otherwise unrealizablewas seen in a negative light in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:26,31 ; 20:6 ; 1 Samuel 28:9 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 44:25 ; 57:3 ; Jeremiah 27:9 ; Ezekiel 22:28 ; Micah 5:12 ; Nahum 3:4 ; Malachi 3:5 ) and was banned under penalty of death (Exodus 22:18 ; Leviticus 20:27 ; Deuteronomy 18:10-11 ). Different from pagan sources, the Old Testament writers did not see a connection between magic and the gods. There are many references scattered throughout the Old Testament to various imitative magical practices, including the use of clothing (2 Kings 2:13-14 ), magic staffs (Exodus 7:9 ), hands (2 Kings 5:11 ), mandrakes (Genesis 30:14-18 ), instruments (2 Kings 6:7 ), hair (Judges 16:17 ), whispering (2 Samuel 12:19 ), spells (Joshua 10:12 ), belomancy (1 Samuel 20:20-22 ), hydromancy (Exodus 15:25 ), and various blessings, curses, and dreams. Old Testament ceremonial regulations appear to have had a magical flavor to them. ...
New Testament Christians viewed magical practices like their Old Testament counterparts
Malachias - " Thus Old Testament prophecy ends as New Testament prophecy begins; compare the message of Gabriel to Zacharias (Luke 1)
Horites - The Septuagint (the ancient Greek translation of the Old Testament), however, substitutes Horites for Hivites in Genesis 34:2 and Joshua 9:7
Basket - Five kinds of baskets are mentioned in the Old Testament
Sycamore - Although it may be admitted that the sycamine is properly, and in ( Luke 17:6 ) the mulberry, and the sycamore the mulberry, or sycamore-fig ( Ficus sycomorus ), yet the latter is the tree generally referred to in the Old Testament and called by the Septuagint sycamine, as ( 1 Kings 10:27 ; 1 Chronicles 27:28 ; Psalm 78:47 ; Amos 7:14 ) The Sycamore or fig-mulberry, is in Egypt and Palestine a tree of great importance and very extensive use
Law - ...
...
The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the rites and ceremonies of worship
Obadiah, Book of - This is the shortest book of the Old Testament
Cyprus - It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament (Numbers 24:24 )
Armageddon - The plain of Esdraelon, the great Old Testament battle field between Israel and the various enemies of Jehovah's people: the scene of Barak's victory over Canaan, and Gideon's over Midian (Judges 4; 5; 7), the scene also of Saul's death and Israel's defeat before the Philistines (1 Samuel 31), and of Josiah's death in battle with Pharaoh Necho (2 Kings 23:29-30)
Forest - Large expanses of forest covered the majority of the hills in Palestine during the Old Testament period
Genuflection - The Jesuit Rosweyd, in his Onomasticon, shows that genuflection, or kneeling, has been a very ancient custom in the church, and even under the Old Testament dispensation; and that this practice was observed throughout all the year, excepting on Sundays, and during the time from Easter to Whitsuntide, when kneeling was forbidden by the council of Nice
Septuagint Chronology - The chronology which is formed from the dates and periods of time mentioned in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament
Theater - Public drama was apparently unknown in Old Testament Israel except for possible worship activities and only arrived with the Greeks after 400 B
Earth - born upon earth, but "earthy," literally, "of heaped clay," answering to the surface "dust" in the Old Testament of which man is made; not merely terrestrial, but terrene, therefore, transitory
Machir - He is recognized in the Old Testament for the assistance he provided Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan (2 Samuel 9:1 , especially 2 Samuel 9:4-5 ) and David during the period of Absalom's rebellion (2 Samuel 17:27-29 )
Scribes - In the Old Testament this word is applied to the officer who carried on the correspondence for a king, the army, etc
Dream - ” This verb, which appears 27 times in the Old Testament, has cognates in Ugaritic, Aramaic, Syriac, Coptic, Arabic, and Ethiopic
Suburbs - An early occurrence in the Old Testament is in Following - 14:21 as an Old Testament prophecy of tongues-speaking, 'achêr figures prominently in the debate on that subject
Stupid Fellow - ” This word occurs in the Old Testament 70 times
Night - ...
During Old Testament times the “night” was divided into three watches: (1) from sunset to 10 P
Remain - Lûn is used approximately 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Rise Up Early - ” Found in both biblical and modern Hebrew, this verb occurs some 65 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Topheth - Tophet occurs only in the Old Testament
Septuagint Chronology - is that which is formed from the dates and periods of time mentioned in the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament
Province -
In the Old Testament this word appears in connection with the wars between Ahab and Ben-hadad
Captain - In the Old Testament the rendering of a Hebrew word generally signifying a military officer
Caiaphas - Like Balaam of the Old Testament, he is a melancholy instance of light resisted, privilege, station, and opportunity abused, and prophetic words concerning Christ joined with a life of infidelity and crime and a fearful death
Verse - The author of the division of the Old Testament into verses, is not ascertained
Lion - (1 Kings 13:24 ; 20:36 ) Among the Hebrews, and throughout the Old Testament, the lion was the achievement of the princely tribe of Judah, while in the closing book of the canon it received a deeper significance as the emblem of him who "prevailed to open the book and loose the seven seals thereof
Ant - This insect is mentioned twice in the Old Testament: in ( Proverbs 6:6 ; 30:25 ) In the former of these passages the diligence of this insect is instanced by the wise man as an example worthy of imitation; in the second passage the ant's wisdom is especially alluded to; for these insects "though they be little on the earth, are exceeding wise
mo'Lech - " Many instances of human sacrifices are found in ancient writers, which may be compared with the description of the Old Testament of the manner in which Molech was worshipped
Ass - Five Hebrew names of the genus Asinus occur in the Old Testament
Minister - In the Old Testament it is applied (1) to an attendance upon a person of high rank, (Exodus 24:13 ; Joshua 1:1 ; 2 Kings 4:43 ) (2) to the attaches of a royal court, ( 1 Kings 10:5 ; 2 Chronicles 22:8 ) comp
Hosanna - ...
The Hebrew form of the word occurs only once in the Old Testament, in Psalms 118
Idol - ” Both Testaments condemn idols, but with idols the Old Testament expresses more concern than the New, probably reflecting the fact that the threat of idolatry was more pronounced for the people of the Old Testament
Divine Retribution - ...
Though the exact phrase “divine retribution” does not occur in the Old Testament, the idea is quite prevalent: people will be repaid in this life for what they do—blessing for good, punishment for evil. As in the Old Testament, the standard for reward and punishment is still God's character, His faithfulness
Presence of God - ...
Old Testament Usage During the patriarchal period, God used a variety of means of revelation to communicate with the people (Genesis 15:1 ; Genesis 32:24-30 ). Much of the Old Testament discussion of the presence of God centers on the fact that God is utterly free to be where God wills but constantly chooses to be with His people to give them life
Mother - Mothers have the same right to obedience and respect as fathers (Exodus 20:12 ; Leviticus 19:3 ), and in Old Testament times death was the fate of those who cursed or assaulted parents (Exodus 21:15 ; Exodus 17:1 ; Deuteronomy 21:18-21 ). Even the Old Testament (Genesis 2:24 ) indicated that a man's devotion to his wife supercedes that to his mother
Kindness - ...
Old Testament The principal word used to express kindness in the Old Testament (chesed ) bears the connotation of a loyal love which manifests itself not in emotions but in actions
Kinsman-Redeemer - ...
Although the doctrine of redemption from sin is taught extensively in the New Testament, it is not connected closely with the Old Testament concept of kinsman-redeemer. Leggett, The Levirate Goel Institutions in the Old Testament ; H
Alms - ...
Old Testament Although the Hebrew language apparently had no technical term to refer to “alms” or “almsgiving,” the practice of charitable giving, especially to the poor, became a very important belief and practice within Judaism. The Old Testament taught the practice of benevolent concern for those in need
Ecclesiastes - (Greek: ekklesiastes, member of the assembly) ...
The protocanonical book of the Old Testament, called in Hebrew Qoheleth (Koheleth), in Latin, Concionator (Saint Jerome), or in English "The Preacher. Hence we should not expect the same precision in expressions concerning the life to come in the Old Testament that is found in the new
Favor - ” The 56 occurrences of this word are scattered throughout Old Testament literature. ” This verb, which occurs 50 times in the Old Testament, has cognates in Ugaritic, Aramaic, Syriac, and Arabic
Maiden, Virgin - Its 50 biblical occurrences are distributed throughout every period of Old Testament literature. Various Old Testament contexts indicate that bethûlâh should be translated “maiden” more often than “virgin
Revelation - The entire Old Testament history of Israel was itself a revelation of God. The Old Testament Scriptures are a revelation of God. The New Testament joins with the Old Testament to form the complete written revelation God has given (see INSPIRATION; SCRIPTURES)
Call, Calling - ...
Old Testament Five main uses of call appear in the Old Testament. ...
New Testament All the senses found in the Old Testament appear again in the New Testament
Sleep - In the Old Testament, natural sleep is occasionally referred to as a sweet blessing of God (Psalm 4:8 ; 127:2 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:6-90 ). This is common in the Old Testament (Job 7:21 ; 14:12 ; Psalm 13:3 ; Jeremiah 51:57 ; Daniel 12:2 ). The expression "he slept with his fathers" is a fixed formula in reference to death, and is used over thirty-five times in the Old Testament
Saints - " In the history of the Old Testament religion, the idea of holiness or separateness was inherent in the concept of God. It was the saints, the holy people of God in the Old Testament, who brought the Messiah and redemption into the world, eventually extending the blessings to the Gentiles. ...
Thus, although Gentile Christians are saints, too, because they were given access to the faith of Abraham and the people of the Old Testament, when redemptive history is discussed the Jews are specially designated the "saints" while the Gentiles are considered believers who were later admitted into this "holy" Jewish nucleus
Septuagint - The Greek version of Old Testament, made for the Greek speaking (Hellenistic) Jews at Alexandria. (See Old Testament. ...
Of 350 quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament only 50 differ materially from Septuagint Its language molded the conceptions of the New Testament writers and preachers
Faithfulness - In the Hebrew Old Testament, the noun occurs 49 times, mainly in the Book of Psalms (22 times). It is significant that John puts these two terms side by side, even as they are found together in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament, the word occurs fewer than 100 times
Eat - The word occurs about 810 times in Old Testament Hebrew and 9 times in Aramaic. ” This word occurs 44 times in the Old Testament. ” This noun has 18 occurrences in the Old Testament
Judgment Day - ...
Old Testament Background The idea of the judgment day reaches back into the Old Testament concepts of divine judgment and the day of the Lord. ...
New Testament Development The New Testament builds on the foundation of the Old Testament and utilizes the language and imagery of the Jewish writings to present the full revelational picture of Judgment Day. As in the Old Testament, divine judgment is both a present and a future reality
Atonement - ...
The Old Testament In the Old Testament atonement, and related phrases, such as sacrifice of atonement, most often translates the Hebrew piel verb kipur [1] and two related nouns, one, kippurim, found always in the plural and signifying the noun equivalent of kipur [1], and the other, kapporeth [1]0, meaning the so-called mercy-seat or the place where the sacrifice of atonement happens. ...
The breadth of the use of the concept in the Old Testament is striking. ...
Atonement for inanimate objects is found twelve places in the Old Testament: Exodus 29:36-37 ; 30:10 ; Leviticus 8:15 ; 14:53 ; 16:10,16 , 18,20 ; Ezekiel 43:20,26 ; 45:20 . ...
Primary among the objects of atonement in the Old Testament are the people of God, but the means of atonement can vary. ...
Certainly the most frequently mentioned means of atonement in the Old Testament were the blood sacrifices, dominating the use of the term by constant reference in the books of Leviticus and Numbers. ...
Perhaps the heart of the Old Testament teaching on atonement is found in Leviticus 16 , where the regulations for the Day of Atonement occur. The Old Testament sacrifices are shown to be but shadows of the real sacrifice of Christ on the cross by the fact of Aaron's sinfulness; an imperfect high priest cannot offer a true sacrifice, just as the blood of bulls and goats could never truly pay for the offense of human sin or substitute for the shedding of human blood. The comprehensive nature of the sacrifice of atonement prefigures the comprehensiveness of the shedding of Christ's blood on the cross, but it limits its effects in the same way the Old Testament limits the effects of its sacrifice on the day of atonementto the people whom God has elected to call his own and them alone
Gospel - ...
The Old Testament . At the close of the Old Testament, the inauguration of this new age is still awaited. Except for Galatians 3:8 and Hebrews 4:2,6 , the New Testament restricts gospel terminology to proclamations made during the time of fulfillment, when the salvation promised in the Old Testament is actually accomplished . According to Mark 1:1-4 the gospel "begins" not in the Old Testament but with John the Baptist, in whom Old Testament prophecy is fulfilled. According to Romans 1:1-5 the gospel promised in the Old Testament is actually given when Jesus comes (see also Acts 13:32-33 ). That kingdom is now being inaugurated: "The time has come" ( Mark 1:15 a) for Old Testament promises to be fulfilled. According to 1Peter the bearers of the gospel focused, as had the Old Testament prophets, upon "the sufferings of Christ and the glories that would follow" (1:11-12)
Salvation - Of the many Hebrew words used to signify salvation, yasa [1] (to save, help in distress, rescue, deliver, set free) appears most frequently in the Old Testament. Commonly, the deliverance of which the Old Testament speaks is material in nature, though there are important exceptions. ...
The Old Testament . In general the Old Testament writers see salvation as a reality more physical than spiritual, more social than individual. This recognition has helped recent biblical scholarship to avoid the earlier pitfall of relegating the role of the Old Testament to that of mere preparation or precursor for the gospel. One cannot escape the fact that for the Jews of the Old Testament salvation was not an abstract concept, but a real and present experience. The New Testament continues the Old Testament affirmation that salvation belongs to God alone, but with greater specificity. By using God's kingdom as a circumlocution for salvation, Jesus deepens the Old Testament conviction that salvation belongs to God, for the kingdom signifies a sphere of reality in which God reigns sovereign
Tradition - )...
The evidence for ancient oral traditions is even stronger in the Old Testament. ...
Since the work of Herman Gunkel in the early part of the twentieth century, most Old Testament scholars have almost universally accepted the idea that many Old Testament texts had a long history of oral transmission before they were ever written. In the Old Testament these were apparently collected and preserved at the various shrines where Israel worshiped. ...
Obviously, in the Old Testament all the traditions of the various worship centers and worshiping communities ultimately were assimilated in Jerusalem. This is particularly true in the Old Testament era. This contentment with things as they were was probably bolstered by the fact that reading and writing were skills limited primarily to the professional scribes in Old Testament times
Divorce - ...
Divorce in the Old Testament . When the rest of the Old Testament and New Testament are examined, it appears that "some indecency" probably had sexual overtones—some lewd or immoral behavior including any sexual perversion, even adultery. Although Deuteronomy 7:1-4 commands Israelites not to make covenants or to intermarry with the people in Canaan when they enter that land, this principle is not normative since the Old Testament permits marriage to believing foreigners (cf. ...
Therefore, although the Old Testament presents God's ideal for marriage as monogamous, permanent, and exclusive, the Old Testament likewise recognizes that divorce and remarriage are present because of sin and must be regulated. Therefore, adultery severs the marriage relationship in the New Testament as did the adulterer's death in the Old Testament. ...
Jesus' teaching confirms and elaborates the Old Testament concepts of marriage and divorce
Trinity - The Old Testament consistently affirms the unity of God through such statements as, “Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord” (Deuteronomy 6:4 ). ...
The Old Testament does feature implications of the trinitarian idea. This does not mean that the Trinity was fully knowable from the Old Testament, but that a vocabulary was established through the events of God's nearness and creativity; both receive developed meaning from New Testament writers. It is remarkable that New Testament writers present the doctrine in such a manner that it does not violate the Old Testament concept of the oneness of God. The early Christian church experienced the God of Abraham in a new and dramatic way without abandoning the oneness of God that permeates the Old Testament. The God of the Old Testament is the same God of the New Testament. His offer of salvation in the Old Testament receives a fuller revelation in the New Testament in a way that is not different, but more complete
Weights And Measures - ...
Weights Considering first the Old Testament evidence, Hebrew weights were never an exact system. One table of Old Testament weights, estimated on a shekel of 11. ...
We should remember however, that this is misleading, for Old Testament weights were never so precise as this. Interesting things weighed in the Old Testament were Goliath's armor (1 Samuel 17:5-7 ) and Absolom's annual haircut (2 Samuel 14:26 ). ...
Although Old Testament measures of capacity varied as much as the difference between the American and English gallon, the following table at least represents the assumptions of the above discussion:...
Dry Measures...
kab...
1. Summarizing on the basis of the common cubit, linear measurements of the Old Testament were:...
Common Cubit...
1 reed...
6 cubits...
8 ft. ...
Measures of area were indefinite in the Old Testament
Parable - In the Old Testament this is used to denote (1) a proverb (1 Samuel 10:12 ; 24:13 ; 2 Chronicles 7:20 ), (2) a prophetic utterance (Numbers 23:7 ; Ezekiel 20:49 ), (3) an enigmatic saying (Psalm 78:2 ; Proverbs 1:6 )
Bible, Concordances of the - There are complete and abridged concordances of the Hebrew Old Testament, the Greek New Testament, as also of many versions
Apparel - In Old Testament times the distinction between male and female attire was not very marked
Alms - Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New
Door - In the Old Testament, “sin lieth at the door” (Genesis 4:7 ) means that sin is very near
Leaven - The common bread of Old Testament times was made with leaven
Scythians - ...
The Old Testament refers to Scythians as Ashchenaz (Genesis 10:3 ; Jeremiah 51:27 )
Net - In the majority of Old Testament cases the seine net is a figure for judgment at the hands of ruthless military forces
Silver - Thus, in most of the Old Testament it is given a priority over gold
Yhwh - God's name in Hebrew known by the technical term “Tetragrammaton” (Greek, meaning four letters), these are the four consonants which make up the divine name (Exodus 3:15 ; found more than 6,000 times in the Old Testament)
Muteness - In the Old Testament muteness is traced to God (Exodus 4:11 )
Chariots - ...
Old Testament Egyptian chariots were the first to be mentioned in the Bible (Genesis 41:43 ; Genesis 46:29 ; Genesis 50:9 )
Habacuc, Book of - In the Old Testament, contains the prophecies of Habacuc, foretelling, as a thing incredible to Juda, the invasion of the Chaldeans
Temple - In this way it resembling the temple of the Old Testament
Famine - ” This verb, which appears in the Old Testament 14 times, has cognates in Ugaritic (rgb), Arabic, and Ethiopic
Distress - ” This verb, which appears in the Old Testament 54 times, has cognates in Aramaic, Syriac, Akkadian, and Arabic
Fight - ” This noun occurs more than 300 times in the Old Testament, indicating how large a part military experience and terminology played in the life of the ancient Israelites
Depart - It is probably the most common term in the Old Testament referring to the movement of clans and tribes
Ahasue'Rus - (lion-king ), the name of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned in the Old Testament
Javan - Javan is the name used in the Old Testament for Greece and the Greeks
Ahasuerus - Ahasuerus (a-hăs-u-ç'rus), lion-king, the name of one Median and two Persian kings mentioned in the Old Testament
Lion - Among the Hebrews, and throughout the Old Testament, the lion was the symbol of the princely tribe of Judah, while in the closing book of the Bible it received a deeper significance as the emblem of him who "prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof
Ruth, Book of - One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament, containing a beautifully written story of a family of Bethlehem in the time of the Judges
Greece, Greeks, Gre'Cians - Accordingly the Old Testament word which is Grecia , in Authorized Versions Greece, Greeks , etc
Sign - ...
Old Testament Oth , the usual Hebrew term for sign, appears in a nontheological sense for a military signal in the fourth Lachish letter and Joshua 2:12 , and for a military standard in Numbers 2:2 and Deuteronomy 13:1-40 . Old Testament signs may be classed according to seven somewhat overlapping functions: 1. ...
New Testament The New Testament employs sign in the full range of Old Testament functions. The above uses approximate the nontheological use of sign by the Old Testament. Though the term sign is not used, Agabus' action in binding Paul with his belt (Acts 21:11 ) parallels the acts of the Old Testament prophets
Color, Symbolic Meaning of - The red heifer (Numbers 19:1-10 ) and scarlet wool (Hebrews 9:19 ) symbolize the Old Testament means of purification through blood; the New Testament powerfully expresses the fullness of Christ's atoning work through a contradictory color image: believers' robes are washed pure white through the blood of the Lamb (Revelation 7:9,13-14 ; 19:13-14 ). Brenner, Colour Terms in the Old Testament ; "Color, " BEB, 1:494-96
Version, the Revised English - A Committee of Revisers was appointed for the Old Testament and another for the New, and the work was proceeded with. A different company translated the Old Testament
Unity - ...
Old Testament Central to the faith of Israel is the confession of the unity of God: “Hear, O Israel: The Lord Your God is one Lord” (Deuteronomy 6:4 ). As in the Old Testament, sin threatened the God-ordained unity
Son of God - In the Old Testament, certain men and angels (Genesis 6:1-4 ; Psalm 29:1 ; Psalm 82:6 ; Psalm 89:6 ) are called “sons of God” (note text notes in modern translations). The concept also is employed in the Old Testament with reference to the king as God's son (Psalm 2:7 )
Guilt - ...
The Old Testament has a semitechnical term foundational for the biblical concept of guilt, and which teaches us that guilt is fundamentally a relational idea. ...
Guilt and Guilt Offering in the Old Testament
Ignorant, Ignorance - The Old Testament . As in the Old Testament, lack of knowledge mitigates sin
Travail - ...
Isaiah 54:1 (a) There is a comparison here between the Law and Grace, between Israel and the Church, between the bondage of the Old Testament, and the freedom of the New. So it is with the Old Testament plan
Compassion, Merciful - ” The words from this root are found 125 times in all parts of the Old Testament. ...
The Greek version of the Old Testament racham consists chiefly of three groups of words that come into the New Testament
Transjordan - The most prominent topographical feature of Palestine is the Jordan River Valley, referred to in the Old Testament as the “Arabah” and called today, in Arabic, the Ghor. ...
The highlands east of the Jordan also played a significant role, especially during Old Testament times. (1) The Yarmuk River, not mentioned in the Bible, drains the area known in Old Testament times as Bashan. (2) Nahr ex-Zerqa, the Jabbok River of Old Testament times, drains the area known then as Gilead
Vision(s) - The Old Testament terms for vision (the Hebrew verbs raa and haza and their several noun derivatives) mean simply to look at or to see. ...
Visions are most frequently found in the prophetic portions of the Old Testament. The extensive use of the term in nearly all the Old Testament prophets implies that visions were a normal medium for receiving the divine word. As such, the "vision" of the Old Testament prophets represents not just a visionary drama perceived by the eyes (as in Isaiah 6 , for example), but also a distinctive worldview or perception of reality that was proclaimed through the prophets
Reconcilation - ...
Old Testament The idea of reconciliation between two people and between Israel and God was dominant in the Old Testament though there was no specific term to express it. All the sacrifices in the Old Testament could never complete the act of drawing near to God and bringing a sinner into a right relationship with God (Hebrews 10:1-18 ). In the Old Testament humans were the subject of the action in attempting to be restored to favor with God, the object
Syria - ...
Old Testament Early History During the Early Bronze Age (about 3200-2200 B. ...
Aramean Kingdoms In most English versions of the Old Testament (KJV, NRSV, NAS) “Syria” and “Syrian” (NIV, NRSV “Aram” or “Aramean”) translate the Hebrew word Aram, which refers to the nations or territories of the Arameans, a group akin to Israel (Deuteronomy 26:5 ). The Old Testament mentions the Aramean kingdoms of Beth-eden in north Syria, Zobah in south-central Syria, and Damascus in the south. Subsequent occurrences of “Aram” or “Arameans” (“Syria” or “Syrians”) in the Old Testament refer to this Aramean kingdom of Damascus
Fatherhood of God - This portrayal, however, is surprisingly rare in the Old Testament. This metaphor for God may have been avoided in the Old Testament due to its frequent use in the ancient Near East where it was used in various fertility religions and carried heavy sexual overtones. "...
A third unique feature of Jesus' teaching concerning the Fatherhood of God is that the frequency of this metaphor is out of all proportion to what we find elsewhere in the Old Testament and other Jewish literature. (Note 165+ times in the four Gospels compared to only 15 times in the entire Old Testament!) This was not justa way Jesus taught his disciples to address God; it was the way
Word - ...
Old Testament Dabar is the primary Hebrew expression for word. ” They are used interchangeably and variously as with the Old Testament dabar . As in the Old Testament, so also Jesus' word demanded decision on the part of the hearers (John 8:51 ; John 12:47 ). More probably logos was chosen because of its meaning in the Old Testament, its Greek translation, and contemporary Hebrew literature, where the concepts of wisdom and word were being spoken of as a distinct manifestation of God
Hebrews, Letter to the - He was probably a Jew (Hebrews 1:1), though he wrote polished Greek and took his Old Testament quotations from the Greek version known as the Septuagint. The Old Testament found its completion in him. ...
Contents of the letter...
God may have used various kinds of people and various rituals to teach people about himself in Old Testament times, but with the coming of Jesus Christ such revelations are no longer needed. Examples from Old Testament times show that if people had true faith they persevered
Delight - ...
The Old Testament . White, Nelson's Expository Dictionary of the Old Testament ; W. Wilson, Old Testament Studies
Fulfill - The ethical sense of fulfill appears in the Old Testament only in connection with meeting the requirements of a vow (Leviticus 22:21 ; Numbers 15:3 ), never in connection with the law. ...
Luke and Acts are especially interested in Christ's suffering and later glorification as the fulfillment of the expectations of all the Old Testament, the law, prophets, and writings (Luke 24:25-26 ,Luke 24:25-26,24:44-47 ; Acts 3:18 ; Acts 13:27-41 ) Jesus interpreted His journey to Jerusalem as a second “exodus” (Luke 9:31 ), an event that would result in freedom for God's people. Typological fulfillment in which Jesus corresponded to Old Testament institutions is more common than correspondence to prehydichytive prophecy
Church - In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew Kahal of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found. We sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but they are one and the same. The Old Testament church was not to be changed but enlarged (Isaiah 49:13-23 ; 60:1-14 )
Joy - In the Old Testament joy (Heb. ...
Fundamental to the Old Testament understanding of joy are God's Acts in history, the most important of which is Israel's deliverance from Egypt (Exodus 18:9-11 ). ...
Old Testament imagery for joy is carried over into the New
Hear, Hearing - Most Old Testament words for hear(ing ) come from the root sm [1], "hear, " or zn [2], "(give) ear, " although qsb [3], "pay attention, " sometimes appears. ...
In the Old Testament God hears both his people's groaning in trouble (Genesis 16:11 ; Exodus 2:24 ; 3:7 ; 6:5 ; Psalm 69:33 ; 102:20 ) and their grumbling against him (Exodus 16:7-9 ; Numbers 14:27 ). ...
The Old Testament image of an "inclined" ear suggests a person leaning over to listen closely
Powers - The background of the key Greek word (dynamis [1]) is found in the Old Testament. The term kosmokratoras does not appear in the Old Testament (LXX), but does occur in the Jewish work T. It appears ten times in the Old Testament (NIV ), most commonly as a translation of the Hebrew kisse [ Colossians 1:16 )
Wicked - The word occurs about 260 times as a noun or an adjective and especially in the poetic literature of the Old Testament. There is no clear answer to this question in the Old Testament. ...
Two other related nouns occur in the Old Testament
Inherit - It is found around 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. The first time nâchal is used in the Old Testament text is in Old Testament, the word has the basic sense of “to possess” rather than “to inherit” by means of a last will and testament
Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life - "...
Old Testament Teaching . Other Old Testament books offer abundant additional affirmation of these and other never-ending aspects of God or his saving provisions. ...
Some deny awareness of a personally significant eternity in most Old Testament Scripture and history. It is likewise true that Old Testament awareness of eternal realities is less specific and complete than that of the New Testament. Yet the progressive nature of biblical revelation (as well as the necessarily restricted scope of each Old Testament book) should be borne in mind. The numerous Old Testament references to the Lord's future and thus to the future of those who trust in him leave little room for insisting that the Old Testament contains no inkling of a life beyond the present world. ...
The Old Testament does not seem to conceive of eternity in purely abstract terms, as a static state of timelessness. The Greek word aion [1] (age, era, lengthy time, eternity) in the Septuagint and New Testament corresponds to the Hebrew Old Testament's olam [2] (a long time, eternity); neither word as used in Scripture answers to the notion of "eternity" that shows up in the ancient philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. ...
The Old Testament, like the New, resists this time-eternity dualism. ...
The Old Testament, then, encourages us to define eternity in terms of the duration of the revealed God's dealings with his people in times past, now, and always. A dominant theme of the New Testament, though not without Old Testament grounding, is eternal (or everlasting) life. Christ's blood, in contrast to that of Old Testament sacrifices, won "eternal redemption" (9:12), and it was by "the eternal Spirit" that Christ offered himself up to God (9:14)
Sin - ...
The Bible Views Sin from Various Perspectives One concept of sin in the Old Testament is that of transgression of the law. ...
Another concept of sin in the Old Testament is as breach of the covenant. )...
The Old Testament also pictures sin as a violation of the righteous nature of God. ...
The Old Testament has a rich vocabulary for sin. Sin is the opposite of righteousness or moral straightness in the Old Testament. ...
The New Testament Perspective of Sin The New Testament picture is much like that of the Old Testament. Several of the words used for sin in the New Testament have almost the same meaning as some of the Hebrew words used in the Old Testament
Birds in Symbolism - In the Old Testament and the New Testament symbolic references to birds occur, and these were multiplied in medieval literature and art
Melchizedek - He is subsequently mentioned only once in the Old Testament, in Psalm 110:4
Point, Points - ...
B — 1: δηλόω (Strong's #1213 — Verb — deloo — day-lo'-o ) "to make plain" (delos, "evident"), is translated "did point unto" in 1 Peter 1:11 , RV (AV, "did signify"), of the operation of "the Spirit of Christ" in the prophets of the Old Testament in "pointing" on to the time and its characteristics, of the sufferings of Christ and subsequent glories
Nehemiah, Book of - This book closes the history of the Old Testament
Jew - The name ‘Jew’ was not used in Old Testament times before the division of the Israelite kingdom
El - ...
Biblical Usage “El” occurs 238 times in the Old Testament, most frequently in Psalms and Job
Ecstasy - In the Old Testament ecstasy was associated with bands or schools of prophets (1Samuel 10:5,1 Samuel 10:9 ; 1 Samuel 19:20 ; 2 Kings 9:1 )
to'Pheth, - The name Tophet occurs only in the Old Testament
Lye - Two Hebrew words are used in the Old Testament for lye
Access - Old Testament religious practices allowed only the high priest to enter the holy of holies and that only once a year (Leviticus 16:2 ,Leviticus 16:2,16:34 )
Scatter - Occurring some 65 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, the word is found for the first time in Heal - It occurs approximately 65 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, appearing first in Job - ) The hero of the book of that name in the Old Testament; the typical patient man
Bear - That bears were common in Palestine appears from several passages of the Old Testament
Libya - These, its earlier inhabitants, appear in the times of the Old Testament, to have consisted of wandering tribes, who were sometimes in alliance with Egypt, and at others with the Ethiopians of Arabia; as their are said to have assisted both Shishak and Zerah in their expeditions into Judea, 2 Chronicles 12, 14, 16
Elias - (Hebrew: Yahweh is God) ...
Prophet of the Old Testament
Elijah - (Hebrew: Yahweh is God) ...
Prophet of the Old Testament
Symbolism, Birds in - In the Old Testament and the New Testament symbolic references to birds occur, and these were multiplied in medieval literature and art
Canticles - It is contained in the catalog given in the Talmud,a nd in the catalogue of Melito; and in short we have the same evidence for its canonicity as that which is commonly adduced for the canonicity of any book of the Old Testament
Eleazar - Of the many people named Eleazar whom the Old Testament mentions, the most important was Eleazar, the third of Aaron’s four sons (Numbers 3:2)
Matthew, Gospel According to - The Gospel is full of allusions to those passages of the Old Testament in which Christ is predicted and foreshadowed. " This Gospel contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament, forty-three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly outnumbering those found in the other Gospels
Water - ...
A Theological Symbol and Metaphor The Old Testament contains laws for the use of water in rituals as a symbol of purification. For example, in the Old Testament water is a metaphor or simile for fear (Joshua 7:5 ), death (2 Samuel 14:14 ), sin (Job 15:16 ), God's presence (Psalm 72:6 ), marital fidelity (Proverbs 5:15-16 ), the knowledge of God (Isaiah 11:9 ), salvation (Isaiah 12:3 ), the Spirit (Isaiah 44:3-4 ), God's blessings (Isaiah 58:11 ), God's voice (Ezekiel 43:2 ), God's wrath (Hosea 5:10 ), and justice (Amos 5:24 )
Human Sacrifice - ...
In the Old Testament, Jephthah sacrificed his daughter as a fulfillment of a vow, although the incident is clearly not normative (Judges 11:30-40 ). Both usages of the term may be reflected in the Old Testament
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - For the Old Testament the Jews distinguished the books contained in the Hebrew Bible (see Protocanonical) from the additional writings (see Deutebocanonical) preserved by the Jews of Alexandria in their venerated Greek version, the Septuagint. Of the Old Testament: the five books of Moses; Josue; Judges; Ruth; four books of Kings; two of Paralipomenon; two of Esdras; Tobias; Judith; Esther; Job; the Psalter; Proverbs; Ecclesiastes; Canticle of Canticles; Wisdom; Ecclesiasticus; Isaias; Jeremias with Baruch; Ezechiel; Daniel; the 12 minor prophets; and two books of Machabees
Salvation - God’s salvation, as the Old Testament spoke of it, had a broad meaning. ...
In the New Testament, salvation may have the same broad meaning as in the Old Testament (Acts 27:20; Acts 27:43; 2 Corinthians 1:10; 2 Thessalonians 3:2; 2 Peter 2:9), but its best known meaning is in relation to deliverance from sin and its consequences
Family - Mishpâchâh occurs 300 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. ”...
The word is related to the verbal root shipchah but the verbal form is absent from the Old Testament
Miriam - The Old Testament Hebrew equates to Mary in New Testament and Mariamne, Herod's wife and victim. Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? Hath He not spoken also by us?" But the phrase "sister of Aaron" (a phrase not likely to have been applied to Miriam by a later writer than Moses) marks her as ranking, not with Moses but with Aaron, and like him subordinate to Moses, the mediator of the Old Testament, and standing to Aaron "instead of God" (Exodus 4:16)
Glory - ) Still, for the Old Testament, the greatest revelation of divine glory came on Sinai (Deuteronomy 5:24 ). New Testament carries forward the Old Testament meaning of divine power and majesty ( Acts 7:2 ; Ephesians 1:17 ; 2 Peter 1:17 )
Beauty - Old Testament Significance . The Old Testament Scriptures are particularly appreciative of nature
Nation - ...
In Old Testament times God chose one nation, Israel, to belong to him (Exodus 19:5-6). ...
Israelites of Old Testament times made such a clear distinction between themselves and others that their usual word for ‘nations’ (plural) developed the special sense of ‘other nations’ (often translated ‘Gentiles’ or ‘heathen’) (Deuteronomy 18:9; Psalms 2:1; Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 30:28; Isaiah 36:18; Isaiah 49:22; Jeremiah 10:1-5; Jeremiah 10:10; see GENTILE)
Baal - “Baal” occurs in the Old Testament as a noun meaning, “lord, owner, possessor, or husband,” and as a proper noun referring to the supreme god of the Canaanites, and often to the name of a man. The victims were burnt alive, a practice in the Old Testament termed “to pass through the fire” (2 Kings 16:3 ; 2 Kings 21:6 )
Bethlehem - ...
In the Old Testament the parenthetical reference to Bethlehem in Genesis 35:19 is perhaps derived from a traditional burial site for Rachel near the village. ...
Other Old Testament references to the village include the mention of a Philistine garrison being there during David's early kingship (2 Samuel 23:14 ), Elhanan's home (2 Samuel 23:24 ), the burial place of Asahel (2 Samuel 2:32 ), and a fort of Rehoboam (2 Chronicles 11:6 )
Saul - ...
Old Testament The Hebrew name Sha' ul is used of four persons in the Old Testament
Adam And Eve - ...
Old Testament The Hebrew word for Eve means “life,” while the Hebrew word for Adam simply means “man. ” The Hebrew word adam is used in at least three different ways in the Old Testament
Ecclesiasticus - Deuterocanonical book of the Old Testament. ...
This is the longest of the didactic books of the Old Testament, 51 chapters, and is usually divided into two unequal parts: 1 to 42,14; and 44 to 50,23
Wing - ...
In the Old Testament kânâph occurs first in the Creation account: “And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good” ( Old Testament, with particular concentration in the description of the 2 cherubim of wood in Solomon’s temple and in Ezekiel’s vision of the “creatures,” or cherubim
Circumcise - ” This verb occurs more than 30 times in the Old Testament. Most of the occurrences in the Old Testament take place in the Pentateuch (20 times) and Joshua (8 times)
Law - ...
Legal Corpora in the Old Testament . "Legalism" that makes "law-keeping" a means of salvation is not taught in the Old Testament. The New Testament's statements about Old Testament law are difficult to harmonize. "All Scripture is useful" (2 Timothy 3:16-17 ), including Old Testament laws. That these cultic regulations were, even in the Old Testament, considered of secondary value, prepares the way for their elimination in Christ. Some laws became impractical and unenforceable if applied literally even in Old Testament times. Some laws seem tied to the specific theological context of the Old Testament. ...
Usage of Old Testament laws suggests that biblical authors sought out and applied the inherent religious and moral principles in the laws even when changed historical, cultural, and theological settings made literal application inappropriate. ...
In 1 Corinthians 5:1-5,13 , Paul affirms on the basis of Leviticus 18:29 that incest, a capital offense in the Old Testament, is immoral and deserves punishment
Angel - Often in the Old Testament angels appear as ordinary men. The brilliant white appearance common to the New Testament angel is not a feature of the Old Testament image. ...
Old Testament Each of the various types of literature in the Old Testament has its own concerns, and angels appear in the texts in ways appropriate to each. ...
New Testament Much of the pattern observed in the Old Testament is repeated in the New
Wise, Skilled - ” This word plus the noun chakemah and the verb “to be wise” signify an important element of the Old Testament religious point of view. ...
Châkâm appears 132 times in the Hebrew Old Testament. Even as the craftsman is said to be skillful in his trade, the Old Testament châkâm was learning and applying wisdom to every situation in life, and the degree in which he succeeded was a barometer of his progress on the road of wisdom. ” This word appears 141 times in the Old Testament. ” This root, which occurs 20 times in the Old Testament, appears in other Semitic languages, such as in the Akkadian word chakamu
Righteous, To Be - The Old Testament is in agreement with this hope. In the Old Testament we meet the name Melchizedek (“king of righteousness”). ”...
The word tsedâqâh, which occurs 157 times, is found throughout the Old Testament (except for Exodus, Leviticus, 2 Kings, Ecclesiastes, Lamentations, Habbakuk, and Zephaniah). ” On the other hand “righteousness” as an abstract or as the legal status of a relationship is also present in the Old Testament. Based upon a special relationship with God, the Old Testament saint asked God to deal righteously with him: “Give the king thy judgments, O God, and thy righteousness unto the king’s son” ( Joel, Theology of - Particularly important in supporting this later date are Joel's apparent quotations from earlier Old Testament literature. There is not reason to connect him with any of the other Joels mentioned in the Old Testament. For Joel, as for the Old Testament generally, the Lord has a special relationship with the people of Jerusalem and Judah. Nor does he mention the law, animal sacrifice, the king, the sages of the wisdom tradition, or other well-known aspects of Old Testament religion. Throughout its usage in the Old Testament it tends to speak of a pouring out that is complete, or at least abundant or extravagant because it is unnecessary. Moreover, in the Old Testament the exact mode of receiving the message was not as important as the fact that it was from the Lord and that it was faithfully proclaimed. ...
The content of prophetic proclamation in the Old Testament varies according to context. Nor do other Old Testament passages (Isaiah 44:3 ; Ezekiel 39:29 ; Zechariah 12:10 ) offer sufficient help in interpreting Joel, being themselves quite general and not specific in terms of the results of the Spirit's outpouring
Joshua, the Book of - This book stands first in the second of the three sections, (1) the Law, (2) the Prophets, (3) the "other writings" = Hagiographa, into which the Jewish Church divided the Old Testament. The value of modern discoveries in their relation to Old Testament history has been thus well described: ...
"The difficulty of establishing the charge of lack of historical credibility, as against the testimony of the Old Testament, has of late years greatly increased
Tradition - The apostles' and evangelists' inspiration is attested by their miracles; their New Testament Scriptures had the additional test without which even miracles would be inconclusive (Deuteronomy 13:1-6), accordance with the existing Old Testament revelation (Acts 17:11). We are no more bound to accept the fathers' interpretation (which by the way is the reverse of unanimous; but even suppose it were so) of Scripture, because we accept the New Testament canon on their testimony, than to accept the Jews' interpretation of the Old Testament because we accept the Old Testament canon on their testimony; if we were, we should be as bound to reject Jesus, with the Jews, as to reject primitive Scripture Christianity with the apostate church
Measures - The different expressions used in the Old Testament about this measure—such as "after the cubit of a man," Deuteronomy 3:11; "after the first measure," 2 Chronicles 3:3; "a great cubit," Ezekiel 41:8—show that it varied. The ephah—a word of Egyptian origin, but often occurring in the Old Testament, Exodus 16:36; Leviticus 5:1-19 : ll; Numbers 5:15; Judges 6:19, etc. The hin—a word of Egyptian origin, but often used in the Old Testament, Exodus 29:40; Exodus 30:24; Numbers 15:4, etc
Angel - ” Even though le'ak does not exist in the Hebrew Old Testament, it is possible to recognize its etymological relationship to mal'âk. In addition, the Old Testament uses the word “message” in Old Testament
Pharaoh - ...
References to ten pharaohs can be clearly distinguished in the Old Testament: the Pharaoh of Abraham, Genesis 12:10-20 ; of Joseph, Genesis 39-50 ; of the Oppression, Ezekiel 29:1-160 ; of the Exodus, Exodus 2:23-15:19 ; of 1 Chronicles 4:18 ; of Solomon, 1 Kings 3-11 ; of Rehoboam, called Shishak, king of Egypt, 1 Kings 14:25 ; of Hezekiah and Isaiah, 2 Kings 18:21 ; Isaiah 36:1 ; of Josiah, 2 Kings 23:29 ; of Jeremiah 44:30 and 1618541215_25
Ignorance - Old Testament law distinguished between sins of ignorance or sin unintentionally (Leviticus 4:2 ,Leviticus 4:2,4:13-14 ; Numbers 15:24-29 ) and premeditated sins (“sin presumptuously” or with a high hand Numbers 15:30-31 )
Olive-Tree - It is mentioned in the first Old Testament parable, that of Jotham (Judges 9:9 ), and is named among the blessings of the "good land," and is at the present day the one characteristic tree of Palestine
Mediator - This word is not found in the Old Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33 , in the word "daysman" (q
Pit - This word appears 37 times in the Bible with no occurrences in the Old Testament prophetic books
Revelation, Book of - In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in language saturated with the Old Testament
Galilee, Sea of - ...
In the Old Testament this sea is called Chinnereth
Thanksgiving - Thanksgiving was central to Old Testament worship
Ear - In the Old Testament the ears are involved in several rites
Poor - Begging was not common under the Old Testament, while it was so in the New Testament times (Luke 16:20,21 , etc
Micah - The best known of several Micahs in the Bible story is the prophet whose book is part of the Old Testament (Micah 1:1; Jeremiah 26:18)
Bathing - It is probably safe to say that the masses of people in both the Old Testament and New Testament had neither the privacy nor the desire for bathing as we know it today
Balances - Balances were well known to the Hebrews and in common use in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:36 ; Job 6:2 ; Hosea 12:7 )
Hebron - Hebron is named about forty times in the Old Testament, but nowhere in the New
Counsel, To - ” Used throughout the history of the Hebrew language, this verb occurs in the Hebrew Old Testament approximately 80 times
Consumed, To Be - Tâmam is found approximately 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament in its verbal forms
Cleave, Split - In its verbal forms, bâqa‛ is found some 50 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Cleave, Cling - ” Occurring just over 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, this term is found very early in the text, in Set, Place - It occurs more than 80 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, for the first time in Capernaum - John 6:24, but not named in the Old Testament
Jeremiah - One of the chief prophets of the Old Testament, prophesied under Josiah, Jehoiakim, and Zedekiah, and also after the captivity of the latter
Law - It should also be noticed that the title "the Law" is occasionally used loosely to refer to the whole of the Old Testament, as in ( John 10:34 ) referring to (Psalm 82:6 ) in (John 15:25 ) referring to (Psalm 35:19 ) and in (1 Corinthians 14:21 ) referring to (Isaiah 28:11,12 )
Backsliding - This is the sort of backsliding that Old Testament Israel was often guilty of, and is more correctly called apostacy (Jeremiah 2:19; Jeremiah 5:6; Jeremiah 8:5; Jeremiah 15:6; Hosea 11:7; cf
Daniel, Theology of - ...
Daniel is the only Old Testament book written completely in apocalyptic language. Daniel, like other Old Testament prophets, is concerned with the Sinai covenant (9:11,13, 15) and with the basic social message of the other prophets (4:27). ...
Daniel's unique position in the Old Testament can also be seen in its purpose. Unlike other Old Testament prophecies, this book does not call its readers to repent and lead a new life. The concluding vision contains the only explicit Old Testament reference to the resurrection (12:1-3). Other Old Testament prophets knew that Yahweh, the god of Israel, was sovereign over the whole world, including the other nations. ...
Daniel is the primary source in the Old Testament revealing events of the future
Hell - Scripture progressively develops this destiny of the wicked: the Old Testament outlines the framework, while the New Testament elaborates on it. ...
The Old Testament . In the Old Testament Sheol denotes the abode of the dead; conscious souls face a shadowy existence in this "land of oblivion" (Job 10:21 ; Psalm 88:12 ; Ecclesiastes 9:10 ; Isaiah 14:10 ). Since death is not a natural occurrence but issues from the fall, the Old Testament confidently awaits God's demonstration of his lordship over Sheol by raising the righteous to life (Genesis 2-3 ; Psalm 16:10 ; 49:15 ; Isaiah 25:8 ; Hosea 13:14 ). While God's kingship also has implications for the wicked, here the Old Testament is more reserved. The Old Testament infrequently suggests a bodily resurrection for the wicked (Daniel 12:2 ), a final judgment and retribution for evil deeds (Psalm 21:10 ; 140:10 ; Malachi 4:1-2 ). These images of God's judgment were well established in the Old Testament and intertestamental literature
Mind/Reason - A number of terms in the Hebrew Old Testament and Greek New Testament are used for mind/reason, some of which overlap in meaning and others that view the internal person from differing perspectives. ...
The Old Testament. The Old Testament terms that serve as references to the mind or reason most often (especially "heart, " "spirit, " "soul") are not limited to these meanings, but cover a wide range of ideas as they seek to describe the inward or invisible dimensions of the human being in a holistic manner (characteristic of "Oriental" thought). ...
Developments in the Hebrew Old Testament are not, for lack of such specialized vocabulary, to be thought of as less sophisticated, but rather as closely related to the Hebrew culture, which considered the intellectual and emotional dimensions of human life from the perspective of the whole person: heart, soul, and spirit are not separate parts of the inner person, but each is a reference to the whole inner person and is to be viewed in relation to the body. While this line of description was of special interest to Paul and he develops it beyond the stage reached in the Old Testament, his thought corresponds closely with the Old Testament. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; G
Chronicles, Books of - by the Jewish elders who translated the Hebrew Old Testament into Greek, producing the Septuagint. ...
Significance of Chronicles' Place in the Canon Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah stand among the Hagiographa , meaning “holy writings,” which is the third division of the Old Testament. ...
The Hebrew Bible places Chronicles as the last book in the Old Testament after even Ezra and Nehemiah. ...
Three explanations are given as to why the Hebrews concluded the Old Testament with Chronicles. One is the view that Chronicles was the last book to be accepted in the Old Testament canon. The third and most likely is to have the Old Testament conclude with God's providential control of history to build (rebuild) His house in Jerusalem. The final admonition of the Hebrew Old Testament then is for God's people to go up to Jerusalem to build God's house (2 Chronicles 9:1-283 )
Version - "This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest interest, (a) as preserving evidence for the text far more ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts; (b) as the means by which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought; (c) as the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament. This translation of the Old Testament seems to have been made not from the original Hebrew but from the LXX. 388), of which only fragments of the Old Testament remain; the Armenian, about A. " Next in order was the Geneva version (1557-1560); the Bishops' Bible (1568); the Rheims and Douai versions, under Roman Catholic auspices (1582,1609); the Authorized Version (1611); and the Revised Version of the New Testament in 1880 and of the Old Testament in 1884
Bible, Formation And Canon of - In the case of the Old Testament, people must have told and retold the stories of God's interaction with Israel before they were collected into the books we now possess. The law of Moses was written down and became the core of the later Old Testament. It is possible that the Old Testament canon as we know it took shape under the influence of the scribe Ezra who rounded off the task long in process. An extraneous factor which speeded the process toward developing a canon was the work of second century reformer Marcion, who proposed dropping the Old Testament and much of the New Testament as well, forcing orthodox Christians to make up their minds on the question of the canonical list
Satan - ...
In the Old Testament, then, Satan is not an evil principle opposing God. (This is one of the "wisdom" themes of the Old Testament. ...
The other common appellation for Satan in the New Testament is "the devil" (diabolos [1]), not found in the Old Testament, but thirty-four times here, meaning one who is traducer, a slanderer. von Rad, Old Testament Theology
Legalism - ...
The Old Testament . In Judaism the entire Old Testament could be called the Law—a usage reflected in the New Testament (John 10:34 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; Galatians 4:21-22 ). From this perspective the strictly legal parts of the Old Testament stand in a narrative setting whose design is to recount God's dealings with his people so as to give them Torah or instruction in the way of life he desires for them. This explains the positive picture of the law in the Old Testament
World - No clear Old Testament references appear to the world as a planet, although Isaiah 40:22 , "the circle of the earth, " is suggestive to some. Many Old Testament uses of world or earth (eres, in poetry sometimes tebel [ Genesis 1:1 ) or an expansion of that expression (Exodus 20:11 ; Nehemiah 9:6 ). ...
The people of the world are called simply the "world" or the "earth" occasionally in the Old Testament and frequently in the New Testament. Although the Old Testament presents the idea that the present world is temporary (Psalm 102:25-27 ), the distinction between this world/age and the world/age to come does not appear clearly until the late intertestamental and New Testament periods
Compassion - ...
The New Testament builds on the Old Testament understanding of God's compassion. The first—eleeo —is used in the Greek Old Testament to translate most of the Hebrew words listed above. In the Greek Old Testament translation oiktiro translates words related to chen and racham . An Old Testament or human minister realizes personal weaknesses and thus moderates personal anger at another's weaknesses ( Hebrews 5:2 )
bi'Ble - These Testaments are further divided into sixty-six books, thirty-nine in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New. --The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, a Shemitic language, except that parts of the books of Ezra ( Ezra 5:8 ; 6:12 ; 7:12-26 ) and of Daniel (Daniel 2:4-7,28 ) and one verse in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 10:11 ) were written in the Chaldee language. --The Old Testament was translated into Greek by a company of learned Jews at Alexandria, who began their labor about the year B. Then followed the Revised Old Testament in 1885, and the Apocrypha in 1894
Christ, Christology - ...
Old Testament and Jewish Background See Messiah . ...
Various groups of individuals in the Old Testament were recipients of a ceremony involving anointing with oil. Such a prophetic figure is not actually called the Messiah in the Old Testament. Their appreciation of who Jesus was took its point of departure from the conviction that, with His resurrection and exaltation, the new age of God's triumph, described in the Old Testament and the intertestamental writings, had indeed dawned, and the Old Testament Scriptures (notably Psalm 110:1 ) had been fulfilled. The crux is seen in Deuteronomy 21:23 which prescribed that anyone hanging on a tree died under God's curse (the verse is quoted in Galatians 3:13 ) A rationale was found in two ways: it came by asserting (1) that Jesus' rejection was already foreseen in the Old Testament, notably Psalm 118:22 ; Isaiah 53:1 , and that His implicit claims to be the Messenger and embodiment of God's kingdom revealed only human unbelief; and (2) that at the resurrection God had reversed this verdict, vindicated His Son, and installed Him in the place of honor and power. ...
Further meditation on Old Testament Scripture gave a clue to Jesus' secret identity and explained His use of the mysterious title “Son of man. It was already in use as the name of Yahweh in the Greek Bible of the Old Testament, and it now was applied to the exalted Christ. ) John's indebtedness is evidently to the Old Testament and intertestamental or early Jewish wisdom teaching where “wisdom” and “word” (often linked with the Mosaic law) are treated as mediators in God's act of creating the world (Proverbs 8:1 ) and as a preexistent revelation of God (in the early Jewish book The Wisdom of Solomon , written in the second century B. ...
Yet even these most explicit statements, along with other teachings in Paul (Philippians 2:6 ; Colossians 1:15 ; Titus 2:13 ; possibly Romans 9:5 ) and Hebrews (Hebrews 1:1-4 ) never compromised the belief in the unity of God, an inheritance the Christians took from their Jewish ancestry as a cardinal element of Old Testament monotheism (belief in one God in a world of many gods)
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - The characteristic which especially distinguishes this Gospel from the others is the frequent citations of and allusions to the Old Testament prophecies
Capstone - The expression is used twice in the Old Testament (Psalm 118:22 ; Zechariah 4:7 )
Hazor - The result was one of the most remarkable victories for Israel recorded in the Old Testament (Joshua 19:36 ; Judges 4:2 ; 1 Samuel 12:9 )
Sacrifice - In the Mosaic period of Old Testament history definite laws were prescribed by God regarding the different kinds of sacrifices that were to be offered and the manner in which the offering was to be made
ir-ha-Heres - The conversion (through the Jewish settlement in Egypt and the Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament) of many Ethiopians to the God of the Jews (Acts 2:6; Acts 2:10-11), e
Sisera - " The part of Deborah's song (Judges 5:24-27 ) referring to the death of Sisera (which is a "mere patriotic outburst," and "is no proof that purer eyes would have failed to see gross sin mingling with Jael's service to Israel") is thus rendered by Professor Roberts (Old Testament Revision): "Extolled above women be Jael, The wife of Heber the Kenite, Extolled above women in the tent
Daemons - It has been generally thought, that by daemons we are to understand devils, in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament
Hellenists - The Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, were those who lived in Egypt, and other parts where the Greek tongue prevailed: it is to them we owe the Greek version of the Old Testament, commonly called the Septuagint, or that of the Seventy
Medicine - The healing art in the Old Testament seems mainly to consist in external applications for wounds, etc
Anoint - Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One (John 1:41 ; Acts 9:22 ; 17:2,3 ; 18:5,28 ), the Messiah of the Old Testament
Eden - ...
“Eden” appears twenty times in the Old Testament but never in the New Testament
Gihon - ...
During the Old Testament period the spring of Gihon was the primary water supply for the city of Jerusalem
Midian, Midianites - The Old Testament mentions the Midianites in widely scattered geographical locations, but their main homeland seems to be east of the Jordan and south of Edom
Potsherd - (paht' sshuhrd) Fragment of a baked, clay vessel, “potsherd” (more commonly called a “sherd” by archaeologists) is used in the Old Testament with both a literal and symbolic or figurative meaning
Envy - Old Testament wisdom frequently warns against envying the arrogant (Psalm 73:3 ), the violent (Proverbs 3:31 ), or the wicked (Psalm 37:1 ; Proverbs 24:1 ,Proverbs 24:1,24:19 )
Fountain - ...
The Old Testament portrays the earth's dry land resting on foundations over the fountains of the deep (Genesis 7:11 )
Dragon - As in the Old Testament texts, the dragon is put under guard (1618541215_8 ; see (Job 7:12 ) and later released for final destruction (Revelation 20:7-10 ; see Isaiah 27:1 )
Babel - The city of Babylon became to the Old Testament writers the symbol of utter rebellion against God and remained so even into the New Testament (Revelation 17:1-5 )
Meat - A special case of the use of meat to mean food is the frequent use of the term “meat offering” (about 130 times in the Old Testament)
Murder - ...
The Old Testament (Genesis 9:6 ) prescribed that a murderer should be prepared to forfeit his own life
Seventy Weeks - The interval between the two is seen as a parenthesis in the prophetic pattern which contains the present church age, a period said not to be revealed in Old Testament prophecy
Violence - The Old Testament affirms that God hates violence (Malachi 2:16 )
Service - Interestingly, the Old Testament never ascribes service to other gods
Prison - In the Old Testament hell consisted of two places
Siloah, Siloam - It is mentioned in the Old Testament as being 'by the king's garden'when the walls of Jerusalem were being rebuilt by Nehemiah (Nehemiah 3:15 )
Bind - The word occurs around 70 times in its verbal forms in the Hebrew Old Testament
Saviour - The temporal saviour is the predominant idea in the Old Testament; the spiritual and eternal saviour of the whole man in the New Testament Israel' s saviour, national and spiritual, finally (Isaiah 62:11; Romans 11:25-26)
Accept - Found approximately 60 times in the text of the Old Testament, one of its first appearances is in Alexander the Great - Related Old Testament Passages—Daniel 7:6 (leopard Alexander the Great); Daniel 8:8 (broken horn death of Alexander); Daniel 11:3-4 (mighty king Alexander); Zechariah 9:1-8 (Alexander's conquest of Palestine)
Assyria - The sources of Assyrian history are the Old Testament, the Greek, Latin, and Oriental writers, and the records and remains of the Assyrian people
Gospel of Saint Matthew - The characteristic which especially distinguishes this Gospel from the others is the frequent citations of and allusions to the Old Testament prophecies
Galilee Sea of - It was also called the "Sea of Tiberias," from the city of that name, John 6:1, and "Sea of Chinneroth" in the Old Testament
Genealogy - Genealogical lists are found all through the historical books of the Old Testament
Hezekiah - Hezekiah's sickness, humiliation, and prolongation of life 15 years in peace, and the prediction that Babylon, then feeble and friendly, would one day carry his descendants into captivity are noticed in Old Testament history, Isaiah 39:1-8; Micah 4:10
Horeb - The special application of Horeb and Sinai in the Old Testament has been much discussed
Aramean - ...
The Old Testament records interactions between Israel and the Arameans on a number of occasions
Anoint - The same symbolism as in the Old Testament is employed in this usage: God's presence and power are resident in the anointing
Bottle - It is proper to keep this in remembrance when reading the Bible, both of the Old Testament and of the New; for the knowledge and use of glass is of modern date
Divide - The word is found approximately 60 times in the Hebrew Old Testament; it appears for the first time in Marvelous, To Be - Found in both biblical and modern Hebrew, pâlâ' occurs some 70 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Rest, Remain - It occurs in the text of the Old Testament approximately 65 times; the first occurrence is in Covenant - The Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the Bible the Old Testament, is the covenant of works; the New Covenant, or New Testament, is that of grace
High Places - Prideaux thinks it probable that the proseuchae, open courts, built like those in which the people prayed at the tabernacle and the temple, were the same as those called high places in the Old Testament
Judge - ) The title of the seventh book of the Old Testament; the Book of Judges
Ethiopia - One of the great kingdoms in Africa, frequently mentioned in Scripture under the name of Cush, the various significations of which in the Old Testament have been mentioned under the article Isaiah 18:1-7 Zephaniah 3:10
Hell - The above and many other passages in the Old Testament show the futility of that opinion which attributes to the Hebrews an ignorance of a future state
Phylacteries - It was probably introduced at a late period in the Old Testament history
Piece of Silver - In the Old Testament the word "pieces" is used in the Authorized Version for a word understood in the Hebrew (if we except) (Psalm 68:30 ) The phrase is always "a thousand," or the like, "of silver
Covenant - The first is called the Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the bible the Old Testament, the Latin rendering of the word covenant
Apollos - He had a detailed knowledge of Old Testament Scriptures concerning the Messiah and became a believer in Jesus
Cyprus - In the Old Testament scattered references refer to the island as Kittim (Chittim, Isaiah 23:1 ; Jeremiah 2:10 ), although in some passages the term has a wider scope and includes lands other than Cyprus lying west of Palestine (Daniel 11:30 ). Tyre and Sidon were the center of Phoenician trade, and the Old Testament underscores the connection between these cities and Cyprus in several passages (Isaiah 23:1-2 , Isaiah 23:12 ; Ezekiel 27:4-9 )
Hymn - ...
Old Testament Ceremonial religious singing is mentioned in the Old Testament in connection with important events, such as the songs in celebration of the Hebrews' passage through the Red Sea (Exodus 15:1-21 ), Deborah and Barak's triumph song after the defeat of the forces of Jabin, king of Hazor (Judges 5:1-31 ), and the women's song at David's victorious return from battle with the Philistines (1 Samuel 18:6-7 )
Care - In the Old Testament several Hebrew words are translated as "care" or a similar word (e. As in the Old Testament, the undertone can be positive or negative
Command, Commandment - ...
Old Testament commandments are not directly binding for Christians. But through Jesus' atonement, humans are pardoned and the enmity between Jews and Gentiles created by the Old Testament commandments is removed (Ephesians 2:15 ), perhaps by abrogating the ceremonial aspects of the law and by empowering Gentile Christians to obey the law of Christ
Caesarea - Gentiles outnumbered Jews in it; and in the synagogue accordingly the Old Testament was read in Greek. Identified with the Baal Gad of Old Testament Herod erected here a temple of white marble to Augustus
Truth - As the Old Testament spoke of the God of truth or, to use the related word, the God of the Amen (Isaiah 65:16), so the New Testament speaks of Jesus as the Amen. This is in keeping with the Old Testament usage of ‘truth’ as applying to the revealed Word of God (Psalms 25:5; Romans 11:33-34; Psalms 119:142; see REVELATION)
Gibeon - ” This “great city” (Joshua 10:2 ) played a significant role in Old Testament history—especially during the conquest of Canaan. ...
Role of the City in the Bible Forty-five Old Testament references are made to Gibeon
Midrash - Midrash is divided into halacha (oral law), midrashic investigation of the lgeal parts of the Old Testament with the aim of establishing rules of conduct, and haggadah , a similar investigation of the nonlegal parts with purpose of edifying or instructing. ...
An important use of the Midrash is that it gives the interpreter of Scripture a greater insight into interpretation from a people closer to the original appearance of the Old Testament books, as well as an understanding of the text across history by Jewish people
Red Sea (Reed Sea) - ...
The Old Testament uses the term yam suph to refer to more than one location. Yam suph marked the ideal southern border of Israel ( Exodus 23:31 ), but the most significant reference of “Red Sea” in the Old Testament was to the place where God delivered Israel from Pharaoh's army (Exodus 15:4 ,Exodus 15:4,15:22 ; Numbers 21:14 ; Duet
Blasphemy - ...
Old Testament Blasphemy draws its Christian definition through the background of the Old Testament
Word - To the Israelites of Old Testament times, God’s word was not simply something written down or spoken out, but something active. The word logos as used in the New Testament may contain some reference to the Greek ideas, but it is better understood in relation to the Old Testament meaning of ‘word’
Brotherly Love - ...
Old Testament Two words in the Old Testament cover the full range of ideas associated with “love,” the Hebrew ahab and hesed , though the latter is often associated with covenant love
Grave - ...
In Old Testament times, a person who touched a grave was unclean (Numbers 19:16-18 ). Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament ; R
Ashdod - ...
Old Testament In the Old Testament Ashdod was a place where some of the Anakim remained during the time of Joshua (Joshua 11:22 )
Ashtaroth - The Old Testament uses the plural form, Ashtaroth, more than the singular form, Ashtoreth. In addition to her worship by the Canaanites, the Old Testament mentions the people of Sidon (1 Kings 11:5 ) and the Philistines (1 Samuel 31:10 ) as reverencing her
Arise - " The Old Testament contains three nouns related to qûm. The most important of these is mâqômwhich occurs 401 times in the Old Testament
Frontlets - Thrice mentioned in Old Testament: totaphot (Exodus 13:16; Deuteronomy 6:8; Deuteronomy 11:18). The Jews probably learned the use of such amulets from the Babylonians during the captivity, for no mention of the phylacteries occurs previously, nor indeed in the Old Testament at all
Ablutions - ...
Old Testament Ablutions were performed for cleansing from the impurity of an inferior or undesirable condition to prepare the person for initiation into a higher, more desirable condition. ...
Old Testament teachings do not give such importance and detail to ablutions
Hear - ” This word appears infrequently in the Old Testament, as in Old Testament attests this word 17 times
Test - ” This root with the basic meaning of smelting and refining is found outside the Old Testament in Akkadian, Phoenician, and Syriac. ...
The verb occurs fewer than 35 times in the Old Testament, mainly in the prophets and in the Book of Psalms
Hell - In the following passages of the Old Testament it seems, however, that a future world of wo is expressed by sheol: "They," the wicked, "spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to sheol," Job 21:13 . Thus, as Stuart observes, in his "Essay on Future Punishment," while the Old Testament employs sheol, in most cases to designate the grave, the region of the dead, the place of departed spirits, it employs it also, in some cases, to designate along with this idea the adjunct one of the place of misery, place of punishment, region of wo
Anointing - In the Old Testament a Deliverer is promised under the title of Messiah, or Anointed, Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:24-26; and the nature of his anointing is described to be spiritual, with the Holy Ghost. In the New Testament Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the Messiah or Christ, or anointed of the Old Testament, John 1:41; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:2-3; Acts 18:4-5; Acts 18:28; and the historical fact of his being anointed with the Holy Ghost is asserted and recorded
Greece - In the Old Testament, is put for the Hebrew word Javan, which is equivalent to Ionia, and seems to include not only Greece but western Asia Minor, and the intervening isles, all settled by the Ionian race, Genesis 10:2 . It is not often mentioned in the Old Testament, Daniel 8:21 10:20 11:2 Joel 3:6 Zechariah 9:13
Gospel - When God’s Old Testament people Israel were in captivity in Babylon and God announced to them that he was going to release them and bring them back to their homeland, that was good news (Isaiah 40:9; Isaiah 52:7; Isaiah 61:1-2). ...
Based on facts...
The gospel that Jesus Christ proclaimed was that the promises God gave to Old Testament Israel were now fulfilled in him
Eye - The Old Testament law of retribution limited vengeance of personal loss to “an eye for an eye” (Leviticus 24:20 ). Extended uses The Old Testament often speaks of the eye where we would speak of the person, reflecting the Hebrew concept of bodily parts as semi-independent entities. The Matthean context of teaching on treasure in heaven (Matthew 6:19 ) and serving mammon or riches (Matthew 6:24 ) as well as the usage in Matthew 20:15 suggest that the familiar Old Testament idea of the evil eye as the stingy eye is in mind here also
Leaven - First Corinthians 5:1-8 also reminds us that the Old Testament background (leaven or leavened is used twenty-two times in the Old Testament) and foundational meaning of leaven goes back to the Passover of Exodus 12-13 and the instruction given in Leviticus and Deuteronomy. Throughout the Old Testament, and into the first century a
Sanctuary - In the Old Testament the word miqdas [ Exodus 25:8 ), where the Israelites offered their various kinds of offerings and sacrifices to the Lord under the supervision of the priesthood. Other Old Testament and New Testament words may sometimes refer to or can even be translated "sanctuary" in some English versions, but none of them actually mean "sanctuary, " strictly speaking. In the Old Testament earthly sanctuary there was a tabernacle (tent) or building in which there was an outer room called "the Holy Place" separated by a veil from an inner room called "the Most Holy Place, " which only the high priest could enter and even he only once a year
Sadducees - Suggestions include linking it with an Old Testament priestly family (Zadok), the Hebrew word for "just" or "righteous" (sdq ) or "fiscal officials" (Gk. These traditions also included certain theological points, such as resurrection and angels and spirits, which, although not particularly emphasized in the Old Testament, were prominent during the intertestamental period. ...
Religiously, the Sadducees were literal in handling the Old Testament Law and resisted the "new" ideas and traditions of the Pharisees
Anthropomorphism - In the typically concrete fashion of the Hebrew mind, the inspired writers of the Old Testament speak of God's eyes, ears, hands, and feet; but they meticulously avoid letting the descriptions become too tangible and concrete. ...
The Image of God Behind the anthropomorphisms of the Old Testament lies another foundational concept. ...
The Incarnation While the Old Testament concept of the image of God is reflected in the New Testament (see 1 Corinthians 11:7 ; James 3:9 ), the idea is transformed in light of the incarnation
Moses - ” The Old Testament depicts Moses as the leader of the Israelites in their Exodus from Egyptian slavery and oppression, their journey through the wilderness with its threats in the form of hunger, thirst, and unpredictable enemies, and finally in their audience with God at Mount Sinai/Horeb where the distinctive covenant bonding Israel and God in a special treaty became a reality. Nothing is known about Moses from sources outside the Old Testament. ...
The Old Testament describes Moses as a heroic leader of the people and as a man of God who brought the people into their special relationship with God. The story about Moses in the Old Testament, found in the extensive narratives from Exodus 1:1 through Deuteronomy 34:1 , can be described as a heroic saga. Perhaps the most important Old Testament figure that must be interpreted as a new Moses is the servant of the Isaiah 40-66 , the model for understanding Jesus in the New Testament
Messiah - “Christ” or Messiah is therefore a name admirably suited to express both the church's link with Israel through the Old Testament and the faith that sees in Jesus Christ the worldwide scope of the salvation in Him. ...
The Old Testament and Early Jewish Background “Anointed” carries several senses in the Old Testament. In the mission to Israel the church had to show how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and came into the world as the “Son of David,” a title closely linked with the Messiah as a royal person. Luke stressed the link between Jesus as the One anointed by the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:16-22 ) in a way that looks back to Isaiah 61:1 , and he recorded Peter's statement (in Acts 10:38 NIV) that “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power” as a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy
Priest, Christ as - The Old Testament . The priestly activity of drawing near to God in sacrifice and prayer is introduced in the Old Testament through Abel the head of a family (Leviticus 8:1-3 ), Melchizedek the king of Salem and priest of God Most High (Genesis 14:18 ), Jethro the priest of Midian (Exodus 18:1 ), Aaron (Exodus 28:1 ), and the Levites (Exodus 32:28-29 ; Numbers 1:47-53 ). This apparently was the consensus of rabbinic interpretation at the time of Jesus, for this Old Testament verse is the most frequently quoted in the New Testament (Matthew 22:44 ; Mark 12:36 ; Luke 20:42-43 ; Acts 2:34-35 ; Hebrews 1:13 ). Childs, Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context ; G. Cody, A History of the Old Testament Priesthood ; O
Moses - This godly man towers above all other persons in the Old Testament period because he was God's instrument for the introduction of covenant law in Israel. But his existence cannot be disproved, either, since other prominent Old Testament figures have neither names nor monuments, as, for example, the Pharaoh with whom Moses contended, and the Egyptian princess who rescued the infant Moses from the Nile. Unquestionably he stood head and shoulders above all other Hebrews, and was for the Old Testament period what Paul was for the New. ...
Perhaps out of deference to his stature there was nobody else in the Old Testament named Moses. ...
In New Testament times the law of Moses constituted the standard of faith and conduct for the Christian church, which was commanded to observe Old Testament obligations of holiness (1 Peter 1:16 )
Homosexuality - ...
The Old Testament . ...
Condemnations of sexual sin in the Old Testament focus on heterosexual Acts, but it is important to note that all sexual sin, including homosexuality, is prohibited in relation to the positive model of marriage presented in Genesis. Thus, while the Old Testament describes homosexual activity as intrinsically unjust or impure, these condemnations do not differ qualitatively from condemnations of heterosexual deviations from the marriage model. ...
The first and most familiar Old Testament passage is the account of intended male rape at Sodom (Genesis 19 ). ...
Explicit condemnation of same-gender sexual relations occurs in two Old Testament passages. Modern revisionists often dismiss these strong passages on the grounds that they are part of the Old Testament purity code and therefore irrelevant to a gospel that frees believers from the constraints of Jewish cultural taboos. Two brief references in Paul's letters, where same-gender sex is mentioned in lists of prohibited activities, are important especially for their link to the Old Testament. These suggestions, however, ignore the Greek Old Testament (LXX) versions of Leviticus 18:22,20:13 , which use both arsenos [ ἄρρην , ἄρσην ]'>[2] and koiten [3], the latter passage placing them side-by-side; literally, "whoever lies with a male, having intercourse (as with) a female. This drawing in of Leviticus to Paul's letters is also significant in that it provides further demonstration that he perceived a moral and not merely purity-based prohibition of homosexual Acts in the Old Testament
Archaeology And Biblical Study - In the past, archaeology has aided Old Testament studies especially, but its value to the student of the New Testament also is now being recognized more fully. Architecture, art, and written sources recovered from numerous ancient sites began to cast rays of light on the Bible, particularly on the Old Testament. Nineveh is mentioned often in the Old Testament and is featured prominently in two books, Jonah and Nahum. Archaeology and the Biblical Text The oldest complete copy of the Old Testament in Hebrew, the Leningrad Manuscript, has a date of A. The Bible, particularly the Old Testament, was copied by hand many times before reaching the form found in the manuscripts just mentioned. Also, some words in the Bible, particularly in the Old Testament, are obscure—their meaning is not certain. ...
A new Old Testament critical text is being prepared by the Hebrew University in Jerusalem from an old codex from the synagogue at Aleppo, Syria, with comparisons with the new materials. At least a fragment of every Old Testament book except Esther was found in the Qumran caves. Modern translations of the Old Testament usually include these improvements. A study of Ugaritic has helped Old Testament scholars better understand the nature and development of the Hebrew language, and it has been of particular value in the clarification of some of the ancient Hebrew poetry contained in the Bible. Also, a number of obscure words in the Old Testament have now been defined by the presence of the same or similar words in the Ugaritic tablets. ...
Earlier scholars defined Old Testament words by comparison with Arabic and by meanings derived from rabbinic tradition. Discovery and decipherment of previously unknown ancient Middle Eastern languages like Sumerian, Akkadian, Hittite, Ugaritic, Aramaic, and Eblite give a wider base for definition of words, making (by the study called Comparative Semitics) for a substantial reorientation of Old Testament vocabulary. One, a longer version, was eventually accepted as the standard by the Jewish people and is the one now translated in the Christian's Old Testament. The shorter version can be found in the Septuagint, the ancient translation of the Old Testament into Greek. 117]'>[1] stated that 262 places out of the 475 mentioned in the Old Testament had with a degree of certainty been identified
Mercy, Merciful - ...
Mercy in the Old Testament Three main Hebrew roots involve the idea of mercy. Chesed Chesed occurs 245 times in the Old Testament, 127 in Psalms alone. Conclusion It is difficult to draw precise distinctions between the various words used in the Old Testament for God's mercy and grace. Nowhere is their interrelatedness more evident than in the following recurrent Old Testament liturgy which combines all three: “God is merciful ( racham ) and gracious (chana ), slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love (chesed ) and faithfulness” (Jeremiah 31:20 ; Numbers 14:18 ; Nehemiah 9:17 ; Psalm 86:15 ; Psalm 103:8 ; Psalm 145:8 ; Joel 2:13 ; Jonah 4:2 ). The New Testament does not share in this assessment, having more in common with the Old Testament perspective on God's mercy. Conclusion As with the Old Testament, the New Testament treatment of God's mercy cannot be separated from His love, His grace, and His faithfulness
Work - ” Found only 57 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, it is used primarily as a poetic synonym for the much more common verb ‘ashah, “to do, to make. Pâ‛al is used for the first time in the Old Testament in the Song of Moses: “… The place, O Lord, which thou hast made for thee to dwell in …” ( Old Testament expression for divine creating. Lamech, Noah’s father, in expressing his hope for a new world, used the noun for the first time in the Old Testament: “And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the Lord hath cursed” ( Old Testament and all types of literature. The Old Testament also calls us to celebrate the “work” of God
Jude, Theology of - By appealing to the Old Testament, to contemporary writings, and to the teaching of the apostles, he affirms the certainty of divine judgment. ...
The recipients of the letter are not specified but they are familiar with the Old Testament, contemporary Jewish literature, and methods of interpretation. This appears in three primary ways: (1) the eschatological fulfillment of the types and prophecies in the Old Testament and apocryphal literature; (2) the certainty of divine judgment upon ungodly sinners; (3) the anticipation of salvation by spiritual discipline and divine protection. He is also the Lord—an allusion to the divine name in the Old Testament (vv
Malachi - Malachi was Jehovah's last inspired messenger of Old Testament, announcing the advent of the great Messenger of New Testament; the transition link between the two dispensations, "the skirt and boundary of Christianity," to which is due his abrupt earnestness. Hence, the "seven weeks" (49 or 50 years) stand by themselves at the beginning of the foretold "seventy weeks" (Daniel 9:25), to mark the fundamental difference between them, as the last period of Old Testament revelation, and the 62 weeks of years that follow without revelation, preceding the final week standing out by itself in unrivaled dignity as Messiah's week. " Thus the closing chapter of Old Testament history is the key of the last of Old Testament prophecy
Furniture - Old Testament Hebrew has no word equivalent to the English terms “furniture” or “furnishings. As a result, we find in the Old Testament translations of keli as arms (weapons), bag or baggage, clothing, equipment, implement, instrument, object, ornament, receptacle, tool, and vessel. Thus, this word will not be of much help with a study of furniture in the Old Testament. To the contrary, this term suggests that the Israelites of Old Testament times were not especially interested in their furniture beyond its practical value
Library - The books were probably scrolls of the Old Testament. ...
Archives and Libraries in the Old Testament Era Abraham came from Mesopotamia, which had a well-developed tradition of palace and temple archives/libraries. They included manuscripts of all of the Old Testament books except for Esther, works from the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, and sectarian compositions such as The Manual of Discipline, The War Scroll, and The Temple Scroll
Son of Man - ...
The Old Testament With the exception of Ezekiel and Daniel, the term Son of man appears in the Old Testament as a synonym for “man,” “humankind” ( Isaiah 56:2 ; Jeremiah 50:40 ; Mark 10:33-3448 ; Psalm 80:17 ; Psalm 146:3 ; Job 25:6 ). Daniel The most distinctive Old Testament use of “Son of man” is in Daniel 7:13 . In the Old Testament, one finds that only with the Servant of Isaiah 53:1
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - The Old Testament . Early in the Old Testament both the language and the concept of thanksgiving are conspicuous by their absence. The Old Testament lacks an independent vocabulary of thanksgiving or gratitude; it uses the verb yada [1], and the cognate noun toda [2], both ordinarily translated as "praise, " to convey the concept. ...
Despite the paucity of the language of thanksgiving, gratitude or something akin to it was foundational for covenant life in the Old Testament
Ate - ...
Hebrews 13:12 (a) As in the Old Testament the sacrifices for sin were carried outside the camp, away from the sanctuary of GOD so the Lord JESUS, when He was made sin for us, and became an offering for us, suffered outside Jerusalem on the hill of Calvary. He fulfilled fully the types in the Old Testament. ...
Revelation 21:12,21, 25 (c) These gates are no doubt poetic figures to represent the fact that only through Israel in the Old Testament as twelve tribes, and the disciples in the New Testament, as twelve men, does any person have any opportunity of entering into GOD's Kingdom. Through the twelve disciples or apostles we receive all knowledge of our Lord JESUS, and His way of salvation, except as typically described in the Old Testament
Apocalyptic - ...
Old Testament While portions of Joel, Amos, Zechariah, and Isaiah have apocalyptic features, Daniel is the only Old Testament book which is wholly apocalyptic. The most complete collection of Jewish and Christian apocalypses ever assembled is in the two volumes, The Old Testament Pseudepigraphs, edited by J. While the Jewish literature that concerns us was the offspring of Old Testament prophecy, the apocalyptic movement had parallels in the contemporary world of the Middle East
Priest, Priesthood - Old Testament Priesthood . The primary word for "priest" in the Old Testament is the Hebrew masculine noun kohen [ Genesis 41:45,50 ; 2 Kings 10:11,19 ). ...
The first occurrence of "priest" in the Old Testament is the reference to the pre-Israelite "Melchizedek king of Salem priest of God Most High" (Genesis 14:18 ). ...
Priests of foreign gods in foreign lands referred to in the Old Testament are Potiphera, Joseph's father-in-law, who was a "priest of On" in Egypt (Genesis 41:45,50 ; 46:20 ), the whole priestly organization in Egypt (Genesis 47:22,26 ), the "priests of Dagon" in Philistia (1 Samuel 5:5 ; 6:2 ), the "priests of Chemosh" in Moab (Jeremiah 48:7 ), and the "priests of Malcam" in Ammon (Numbers 8:14-190 ). In the immediate context as well as in the theology of the Old Testament overall, however, this expression seems to support two main ideas corresponding to the surrounding statements that covenant Israel would become the Lord's "special treasure" and "holy nation" (Exodus 19:5 b, 6 b). ...
First, the closest Old Testament parallel is Leviticus 23:9-21,25,36 ( Old Testament sacrifices as opposed to the cleansing of the "conscience" by the sacrifice of Christ in Hebrews 9:8-10,13-14 )
Church - ...
Second, the Greek term was used more than one hundred times in the Greek translation of the Old Testament in common use in the time of Jesus. The use of the term in the Old Testament in referring to the people of God is important for understanding the term “church” in the New Testament. The first Christians were Jews who used the Greek translation of the Old Testament. For them to use a self-designation that was common in the Old Testament for the people of God reveals their understanding of the continuity that links the Old and New Testaments. The early Christians understood themselves as the people of the God who had revealed Himself in the Old Testament (1618541215_32 ), as the true children of Israel (Romans 2:28-29 ) with Abraham as their father (Romans 4:1-25 ), and as the people of the New Covenant prophesied in the Old Testament (Hebrews 8:1-13 ). As a consequence of this broad background of meaning in the Greek and Old Testament worlds, the term “church” is used in the New Testament of a local congregation of called-out Christians, such as the “church of God which is at Corinth”(Ephesians 1:22-238 ), and also of the entire people of God, such as in the affirmation that Christ is “the head over all things to the church, Which is his body” (1618541215_19 )
Faith - ...
The Old Testament . ...
The setting and origin of the term "faith" as used in the Old Testament are intimately linked to the covenant between God and his people. The transition from the Old Testament to the New Testament understanding of faith involves an appreciation of the continuity between them and that which is unique in the New Testament. The concepts of covenant, people of God, revelation, and the activity of God in history continue from the Old Testament to the New Testament. ...
The Septuagint, as a transitional text between the Hebrew of the Old Testament and the Greek of the New Testament, fixes the theological vocabulary that the church uses to define what God has done, is doing, and will do. The meaning of faith in the New Testament is then both a reflection of its continuity with the Old Testament and an expression of its uniqueness in a different historical and cultural setting. In the representative selections from the Old Testament that we have examined, only one term, mn [1], is consistently translated in the Septuagint by a single concept, pisteuein/pistos [2]. ...
The church, in responding to the example and words of Jesus radicalized the Old Testament meaning of faith. The writer to the Hebrews uses this same definition, plus the examples of Old Testament persons of faith and Jesus, as a basis for the exhortation to live the life of faith and Jesus, as a basis for the exhortation to live the life of faith in the face of its hindrances (Matthew 9:2:12 ). Hals, Grace and Faith in the Old Testament ; D
Synagogue - ...
Origin Some Jewish traditions say that the synagogue was begun by Moses, but the Old Testament does not support this claim. Local worship was discouraged during most of the Old Testament because it often was associated with pagan practices. Psalm 74:8 , written late in Old Testament times, seems to refer to local places of worship destroyed when the Temple was destroyed
Foreigner - ...
The Old Testament . This is the background to the important Old Testament theme of the promise of land. Before the coming of the kingdom, they had to live a nomadic existence as strangers and pilgrims, much like the patriarchs of the Old Testament (Hebrews 11:9-16 )
Peace - ...
The Old Testament anticipated, and the New Testament confirmed, that God's peace would be mediated through a messiah (see Isaiah 9:6-7 ; Micah 5:4-5 ). Durham, Proclamation and Presence: Old Testament Essays in Honor of Gwynne Henton Davies ; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; W
Lawlessness - The Old Testament . The concept of lawlessness comes to expression frequently in the Old Testament through more than twenty Hebrew terms (all of which the Septuagint translates with anomia [1]). The unique circumstances that these writings address, however, called forth additional reflection that both confirms and enlarges on the picture drawn from the Old Testament evidence
Elder - ...
The Old Testament . The office of elder in the New Testament church cannot be fully understood without the background of the Old Testament local elder, an office still functioning in New Testament Judaism with duties pertaining to discipline and leadership (cf. ...
With respect to the duties of an elder, there is a continuity with the basic tasks of the elder in the Old Testament. Like their Old Testament counterparts, the elders are to see to it that the gospel and the demands of the Lord are imprinted in the hearts and lives of God's people (1 Thessalonians 2:11-12 ; 2 Timothy 2:24-26 ). ...
In Revelation 4:4 the twenty-four elders sitting on twenty-four thrones surrounding the throne of God probably represent the entire church (twenty-four for the twelve patriarchs of the Old Testament and the twelve apostles of the New Testament cf
Messiah - Israelites of Old Testament times anointed kings, priests, and sometimes prophets to their positions by the ceremony of anointing. ...
Old Testament expectations...
The most common Old Testament usage of the title ‘anointed’ was in relation to the Israelite king, who was frequently called ‘the Lord’s anointed’ (1 Samuel 24:10; Psalms 18:50; Psalms 20:6). ...
Messianic interpretations...
The idealism of the prophets was not fulfilled in any of the Davidic kings of the Old Testament, but this did not cause the people of Israel to lose hope. Like most Jews they knew of the Old Testament prophecies concerning God’s suffering servant (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 52:13-15; Isaiah 53; see SERVANT OF THE LORD), just as they knew of the prophecies concerning God’s Messiah, but they did not connect the two
God, Name of - " In studies of the Old Testament it has become commonplace to distinguish rather sharply between the "glory theology" of the cultic/priestly literature and the "name theology" of Deuteronomy and the Deuteronomistic history (Joshua through Kings). ...
In spite of the fact that this contrast between "glory theology/immanence" and "name theology/transcendence" has been widely adopted among Old Testament scholars, it needs rather to be set in a different context, one that does not pit crude against sublime or early against later. ...
The distinction suggested here is borne out in the remainder of the Old Testament as well. God's name is the theme and basis for worship, prayer, and actions just as it was in the Old Testament. Just as God had put his name on the place Jerusalem in the Old Testament, now Jesus puts his new namethe name he won for himself in his warfare at the crosson individuals; he proclaims his ownership and dominion, that they belong to him through his conquest on the cross
Parable - " Thus, the allegorical interpretations of Jesus' parables in the Gospels follow the pattern in the Old Testament, a pattern that is abundantly exemplified in rabbinic literature as well. ...
Of Jesus' fifty-two recorded narrative parables, twenty seem to depict him in imagery that in the Old Testament metaphorical use typically referred to God. Most parable studies that deal with the sort of implicit claim Jesus was making through the parables assume that it is a messianic claim, but most of this imagery was not used in the Old Testament to depict the Messiah. Even those symbols that were occasionally also used of the Messiah in the Old Testament (shepherd, king, stone) in Jesus' parables refer more naturally to God. His sense of identification with God was so deep that to depict himself he consistently gravitated to imagery and symbols that in the Old Testament depicted God
Nazareth - Nazareth is not mentioned in the Old Testament, nor by any classical author, nor by any writer before the time of Christ
Olives - ...
Olivet is mentioned several times in the Old Testament, up its slopes David, fleeing from Jerusalem for fear of Absalom, went wearied and weeping
Oils, Holy - Its use is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament
Heavenly City, the - This city is the home to “an innumerable company of angels” (Hebrews 12:22 ), to the assembly of the firstborn (Hebrews 12:23 ; an image of believers redeemed by the death of Christ; compare Exodus 13:13-15 ), and to the righteous made perfect by God (Hebrews 12:23 ; perhaps the Old Testament saints)
Sparrow - This Hebrew word occurs upwards of forty times in the Old Testament
Epistles - The prophet of the Old Testament, if he had anything to communicate, either appeared in person or sent messengers to speak for him by word of mouth
Lions - No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Testament for the lion
Messiah - ) In KJV only in Daniel 9:25-26 of Old Testament; John 1:41; John 4:25, of New Testament Having the immeasurable unction of the Holy Spirit as Prophet, Priest, and King at one and the same time
Syria - Aram), the name in the Old Testament given to the whole country which lay to the north-east of Phoenicia, extending to beyond the Euphrates and the Tigris
Devout - "In that mingled fear and love which, combined, constitute the piety of man toward God, the Old Testament placed its emphasis on the fear, the New places it on the love (though there was love in the fear of God's saints then, as there must be fear in their love now)," Trench, Syn, xlviii
Redemption - Version of the Old Testament of the use of Lutron In man's relation to man ( Leviticus 19:20 ; 25:51 ; Exodus 21:30 ; Numbers 35:31,32 ; Isaiah 45:13 ; Proverbs 6:35 ), and in the same sense of man's relation to God (Numbers 3:49 ; 18:15 )
Money - Two other Hebrew words, qesitah and qinyon, also appear early in the Old Testament, Genesis 33:19; Leviticus 22:11
Hanging - ...
Hanging oneself is mentioned only once in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament
Meekness - In the Old Testament the meek were often the poor and the oppressed (Amos 2:7 ; Amos 8:4 ; Job 24:4 ; Psalm 9:18 ; Proverbs 3:34 ; Proverbs 16:19 )
Bride - In the Old Testament, the prophets presented Israel as a bride who had committed repeated adulteries (Jeremiah 3:1 ; Ezek, 16; Hosea 3:1 )
Meditation - ...
Most references to meditation occur in the Old Testament, especially in the Psalms
Harvest - ...
The Old Testament provides several figurative uses of harvest
Tongue - The wisdom writings of the Old Testament stressed the practical results of the use of the tongue for the individual's life (Proverbs 12:18 ; Proverbs 18:21 ; Proverbs 21:6 ; Proverbs 21:23 ; Proverbs 25:23 ; Proverbs 26:28 ; Proverbs 28:23 )
Unicorn, - the rendering of the Authorized Version of the Hebrew reem , a word which occurs seven times in the Old Testament as the name of some large wild animal
Flock - Two Hebrew words, eder [1] and son , are regularly translated "flock" in the Old Testament and both are rendered by Greek poimne [2] (or its diminutive poimnion [3]) in the Septuagint and New Testament
Dispensation - The period from that, to the time of Christ, finishes the Old Testament dispensation
Messiah - As in ancient times not only the king, but also the priest and the prophet, was consecrated to his calling by being anointed, the word "Messiah" often occurs in the Old Testament in its literal sense, signifying one who has been anointed, 1 Samuel 24:6; Lamentations 4:1-22 :' 20; Ezekiel 28:14; Psalms 105:15; hut generally it has a more specific application, signifying the One who was anointed, the supreme Deliverer who was promised from the beginning, Genesis 3:15, and about whom a long series of prophecies runs through the whole history of Israel from Abram, Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18; Jacob, Genesis 49:10; Balaam, Numbers 24:17; Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:18; and Nathan, 2 Samuel 7:16; through the psalmists and prophets, Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 110:1-7; Isaiah 7:10-16; Isaiah 9:1-7; Isaiah 11:1-16; Isaiah 13:1-22; Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 61:1-11; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Micah 5:2; Malachi 3:1-4, to his immediate precursor, John the Baptist
Kir-Hareseth - ” Known by various names in various texts and various versions of the Old Testament: Kir-Hareseth (Jeremiah 6:1-8 ; Isaiah 16:7 ), Kir-Haraseth (2 Kings 3:25 KJV), Kir-Heres ( Isaiah 16:11 ; Jeremiah 48:31 ,Jeremiah 48:31,48:36 ), and Kirharesh (Isaiah 16:11 KJV)
Leviathan - ...
The ancient pagan myths concerning Leviathan were familiar to the Hebrews of the Old Testament
Holy Oils - Its use is mentioned frequently in the Old Testament
Camel - ...
Old Testament The camel is adapted for desert travel with padded feet, a muscular body, and a hump of fat to sustain life on long journeys
Savior - In the Old Testament God Himself and no other is savior (Isaiah 43:11 ; Isaiah 45:21 ; Hosea 13:4 ), though individuals such as Moses and the judges may serve as agents of God's deliverance
Likeness - Old Testament passages center around two truths: (1) that God is wholly other and cannot be properly compared to any likeness (Isaiah 40:18 ) and (2) that humanity is created in the image and likeness of God (Genesis 1:26 )
Keys - ...
Old Testament The holder of the keys had the power to admit or deny entrance to the house of God (1 Chronicles 9:22-27 ; Isaiah 22:22 )
Loan - ...
Thus Old Testament forbade charging interest to fellow Israelites (Exodus 22:25 ; Leviticus 25:35-38 ; Deuteronomy 23:19 ), for requesting loans indicated economic hardship
Languages of the Bible - The Old Testament was first written in Hebrew, with the exceptions of much of Ezra 4-7 and Daniel 2:4-7:28 , which appear in Aramaic
Lamps, Lighting, Lampstand - Lamps of the Old Testament period were made exclusively of pottery
Kinsman - ...
The Old Testament Book of Ruth is the most striking example of a kinsman who used his power and Jewish law to redeem
Perfect - The word is used in the Old Testament, Isaiah 42:19 in regard to the attitude of GOD's child toward temptation, the call of the world, and the attractions which Satan offers
New Life - ...
The gift of new life was foretold by the prophets in the Old Testament
Gift - In Old Testament times a gift was customarily given for the price of a bride (Genesis 34:12 )
Alexandria - Jewish rabbis gathered in Alexandria to produce the Septuagint (LXX), the Greek translation of the Old Testament
Galilee - A name in the Old Testament for a small district in the northern mountains of Naphtali, around Kedesh-naphtali, and including 20 towns given by Solomon to Hiram, king of Tyre, Joshua 20:7; Joshua 21:32; 1 Kings 9:11; 2 Kings 15:29, and called "Galilee of the nations" in Isaiah 9:1
Amen - ” In the Old Testament it is used to show the acceptance of the validity of a curse or an oath (Numbers 5:22 ; Deuteronomy 27:15-26 ; Jeremiah 11:5 ), to indicate acceptance of a good message (Jeremiah 28:6 ), and to join in a doxology in a worship setting to affirm what has been said or prayed (1 Chronicles 16:36 ; Nehemiah 8:6 ; Psalm 106:48 )
Bether - So Old Testament saints sought the coming of Christ, as upon the mountains of Bether, when in the dark shade of Jewish ordinances they saw the type and shadow of good things to come, and longed for the substance
Minister, Serve - Shârath is found just under 100 times in the Hebrew Old Testament
Former - 8:13), is well represented throughout the entire Old Testament, with the exception of the poetic books and the minor prophets
Destroy - ” Shâmad is found 90 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, the first time in Sheol - Jesus’ teaching in Luke 16:19-31 seems to reflect accurately the Old Testament concept of she'ôl; it is a place of conscious existence after death, one side of which is occupied by the suffering, unrighteous dead separated by a great chasm from the other side peopled by the righteous dead enjoying their reward
Melchiz'Edek - where these two passages of the Old Testament are quoted, and the typical relation of Melchizedek to our Lord is stated at great length
Sanctify - In the Old Testament, to sanctify often denotes to separate from a common to a holy purpose; to set apart or consecrate to God as his special property, and for his service
Mount Samaria - This mount, spoken of in the Old Testament, became memorable, in after-ages, in the New, for the worship of the Samaritans
Fasts - There is no mention of any other periodical fast in the Old Testament except in (Zechariah 7:1-7 ; 8:19 ) From these passages it appears that the Jews, during their captivity, observed four annual fasts, --in the fourth, fifth, seventh and tenth months
Cilicia - ...
In the Old Testament the same region is called Kue (1 Kings 10:28 ; 2 Chronicles 1:16 , RSV, NAS, NIV)
Lord - When Lord, in the Old Testament, is prints in capitals, it is the translation of JEHOVAH, and so might, with more propriety, be rendered
Scribe - In the later times of the Old Testament, especially after the captivity, and in the New Testament, a scribe is a person skilled in the Jewish law, a teacher or interpreter of the law
Sidon - In the Old Testament Genesis 49:13 , and is believed to have been founded by Zidon, the eldest son of Canaan, Genesis 10:15 49:13
Genesis - The first of the sacred books in the Old Testament; so called from the title given to it in the Septuagint, signifying "the book of a generation," or production of all things
Sanctify - Ub the Old Testament, sanctification frequently denotes the ceremonial or ritual consecration of any person or thing to God: thus the Hebrews as a people were holy unto the Lord, through the covenant with its rites and atoning sacrifices, Exodus 31:13 ; and the Jewish tabernacle, altar, priest, etc
Lamb - Most of the Old Testament references to lambs are related to sacrificial rituals
Miracle - The first major cluster of biblical miracles surrounds the central Old Testament act of redemptionthe exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. Here too appear thirteen of the eighteen Old Testament uses of "signs and wonders, " an expression that focuses on the miracles' redemptive significance. The miraculous crossing of the Sea of Reeds (14:21-31), therefore, becomes the prototypical Old Testament miracle of the deliverance of God's people and the destruction of his enemies (15:1-2). It also discloses God's merciful initiatives prior to his giving of the law (20:1-2); in the Old Testament as in the New Testament, salvation by grace precedes God's demands for good works. The two other major miracles that occur in the Old Testament historical books involve the leprosy with which faithless Uzziah is afflicted and the sundial shadow's retreat as a sign to portend Hezekiah's recovery from illness (2 Kings 15:1-8 ; 20:1-11 ). The only other major cluster of Old Testament miracles centers on the life of Daniel and his friends in exile in Babylon. Raising the son of the Nain widow closely resembles the reanimations by Elijah and Elisha (Luke 7:11-17 ) and occurs on virtually the identical site as one of them (Old Testament Shunem). Immediately following his death, nature heralds its unusual significance with an earthquake, the rending of the temple veil, and the opening of tombs of certain Old Testament saints, who would then be raised following Jesus' resurrection (Matthew 27:51-54 ). Apostolic preaching picks up the Old Testament phrase "signs and wonders" to stress the redemptive significance of Christ's ministry (2:22) and to describe how the first Christians continued that work (4:30; 5:12), as commissioned earlier by Jesus himself
Crown - ...
Besides the concept of consecration and exaltation, a second term for crown in the Old Testament (atara) indicated the presence of honor. In these uses the image is much like the Old Testament examples from Psalm 103:4 and Isaiah 28:5
Banquets - ...
The entertainer provided robes for the guests, to be worn in his honor and as a token of his regard, in Old Testament times the Israelites sat at table (1 Samuel 16:11); and in the order of their dignity or seniority (Genesis 43:33); which explains the point of Jesus' exhortation to take the lowest place (Luke 14:7-10; Matthew 23:6). So the cup is not expressly mentioned in the Passover supper in the Old Testament but Deuteronomy 14:26; Isaiah 25:6 imply the use of wine at it
Sanctification - ...
In the Old Testament...
To Israelites of Old Testament times, the basic meaning of holiness was not a condition of moral purity, but a state of being different or separate from the common things of life
Epistle - The first mentioned in the Old Testament is that of David to Joab, sent by Uriah (2 Samuel 11:14); a usage perhaps borrowed from the Phoenicians, with whose king Hiram he was intimate. The epistles are the inspired commentaries unfolding the truths in the histories, the Gospels, and Acts; just as the prophets interpret the spiritual lessons designed by God to be drawn from the Old Testament histories
Gath - ...
By far the most frequently mentioned Gath in the Old Testament is Gath of the Philistines. ...
A number of the highlights of Gath's history are reflected in the Old Testament
Prophet - Colleges, "schools of the prophets", were instituted for the training of prophets, who were constituted, a distinct order (1 Samuel 19:18-24 ; 2 Kings 2:3,15 ; 4:38 ), which continued to the close of the Old Testament. ...
Of the Old Testament prophets there are sixteen, whose prophecies form part of the inspired canon
Age, Ages - The Greek aion [1] in the Septuagint and New Testament corresponds to the Hebrew olam [2] of the Old Testament. "...
This Age and the Age to Come The Old Testament predicts the future coming of God or the Messiah; most forms of postbiblical Judaism (see esp
Malachi - (mal' uh ki) Personal name or common noun meaning, “my messenger,” or “my angel” and name of the last book in the English Old Testament. The dates of most Old Testament prophets are indicated in the superscription of their book by the names of the kings reigning at that time
Obadiah, Book of - “Obadiah” is a common name in the Old Testament. In Old Testament theology the concept of the day of the Lord embraces not only God's people but their no-less-wicked neighbors
Shame - "...
The word-group for shame ("disconcerted, " "disappointed, " "confounded") occurs in the Old Testament most frequently in the Wisdom Literature and in the prophets (especially Isaiah and Jeremiah). David captures the pervasive Old Testament perspective when he says, "Let me not be put to shame, O Lord, for I have cried out to you; let the wicked be put to shame, and lie silent in the grave" (Psalm 31:17 )
Anoint - Isaiah 61:1; Messiah, twice so designated in the Old Testament (Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:25-26), at once Prophet, Priest, and King, the Center of all prophecy, the Antitype of all priesthood, and the Source and End of all kingship (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38). ...
Hereby the New Testament marks Him as the Messiah of the Old Testament (Acts 9:22; Acts 17:2-3; Acts 18:5; Acts 18:28
Ark - ...
Old Testament God warned Noah of His intentions to destroy the earth because of the wickedness of humanity
Baal, Master - The word ba‛al occurs 84 times in the Hebrew Old Testament, 15 times with the meaning of “husband” and 50 times as a reference to a deity. The Old Testament records that Baal was “the god” of the Canaanites
Adam - The word adam occurs 539 times in the Old Testament. ...
Old Testament In Genesis 1:1 mankind is the crown of God's creation
Apostasy - ...
Old Testament The Old Testament speaks of “falling away” in terms of a person's deserting to a foreign king (2 Kings 25:11 ; Jeremiah 37:13-14 ; Jeremiah 39:9 ; Jeremiah 52:15 )
Walk - Old Testament Hebrew attests it about 1,550 times, while the Aramaic uses it a few times. ” This noun occurs 6 times in the Old Testament
Go Away, Leave - ...
The best-known Old Testament captivity was the one brought by God through the kings of Assyria and Babylon ( Old Testament appearances
Death - ” This word appears 150 times in the Old Testament. The Old Testament uses “death” in phrases such as “the day of death” ( Day of Atonement - )...
Atonement through Christ...
The New Testament emphasizes that, although the Old Testament rituals were of benefit in showing people the seriousness of sin, they could not in themselves remove sin. Entrance into the presence of God, which was restricted under the Old Testament system, is now available to all God’s people through their high priest, Jesus Christ (Hebrews 10:19-22; cf
Hebrews - (hee' brewss) Nineteenth book of the New Testament, calling for faithfulness to Jesus, the perfect fulfillment of Old Testament institutions and hope. In actuality, the description of the sacrificial system describes the tabernacle—not the Temple—and comes from the pages of the Old Testament—not through observance of the Temple service. The interest in the Old Testament cult is explained by the fact that the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) was the Bible of the early Gentile church. The writer, in this case, was explaining the meaning of the sacrificial elements in the Old Testament for the new people of God. This same interest in the Old Testament elements of worship was strong in the second century Church Fathers, who were also Gentiles
Family Life And Relations - The Old Testament . ...
Perhaps because it assumes an understanding of the Old Testament or because it is less predicated on the social structure of a single people, the New Testament has much less to say about the family as a sociological unit. ...
Paul and Silas seem to attribute a position of headship to the Philippian jailer not unlike the head of an Old Testament household (Acts 16:31 ): his belief will bring about the salvation of both himself and his entire family. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; I. Jacobson, The Social Background of the Old Testament ; H. Davies, The Old Testament World ; M
Lord - ”...
Humans as Lord The Hebrew word adon , “lord,” is used more than 300 times in the Old Testament for a human's rule over another person. ...
In the Old Testament, Lord usually describes the essence of Yahweh: His power over His people (Exodus 34:23 ; Isaiah 1:24 ), over the entire earth (Joshua 3:13 ; Micah 4:13 ), and over all gods (Deuteronomy 10:17 ; Psalm 135:5 ). The revelation of God in the Old Testament, however, speaks against any such alternative or opposition, for Yahweh alone is Lord. ...
In the Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint), written before the time of Christ, “Yahweh” was written in Hebrew characters. That occurs above all in quotations from the Old Testament and in translating terms such as “angel,” “way,” “word,” “day,” “name,” or “hand” of the Lord. In important passages kurios (Lord) appears in the sense of the Old Testament adonai as Creator of the world and Director of history ( Matthew 9:38 ; Matthew 11:25 ; Acts 17:24 ; 1 Timothy 6:15 ; Book of Revelation)
Arms And Armor - ...
Old Testament The offensive arms of the Old Testament include long, medium, and close range arms, and the defensive items include shields and armor. ...
Leg armor, like the bronze leglets of Goliath (1 Samuel 17:6 ), was not regularly used in the Old Testament times. Often the New Testament uses arms and armor symbolically as in the Old Testament poets and prophetic books. ...
Metaphorical Use In the Old Testament, the devastating effect of a vicious tongue is compared with the destructive purpose of the sword and arrow (Psalm 57:4 ; Psalm 64:3 ; Proverbs 12:18 ). However, when weapons are used metaphorically in the Old Testament, it is usually to help convey the supreme sovereignty of God
Heart - The New Testament follows the Old Testament usage when referring to the human heart in that it gives kardia a wider range of meaning than it was generally accustomed to have. Other emotions are ascribed to the heart, especially in the Old Testament. In the Old Testament, for example, Israel is commanded: “You shall not hate your brother in your heart, but you shall reason with your neighbor, lest you bear sin because of him” (Leviticus 19:17 RSV)
Poetry - ...
One third of the Old Testament is cast in poetry. Poetic sections of the Old Testament are listed below in the order they appear in the Protestant canon. ...
Poetry in the Old Testament...
Genesis 2:23 ; Genesis 3:14-19 ; Genesis 3:23-24 ; Genesis 8:22 ; Genesis 9:25-27 ; Genesis 14:19-20 ; Genesis 16:11-12 ; Genesis 25:23 ; Genesis 27:27-29 ,Genesis 27:27-29,27:39-40 ; Genesis 48:15-16 ; Genesis 49:2-27 ...
Exodus 15:1-18 ,Exodus 15:1-18,15:21 ...
Leviticus 10:3 ...
Numbers 6:24-27 ; Numbers 10:35-36 ; Numbers 12:6-8 ; Numbers 21:14-15 ; Numbers 21:17-18 ,Numbers 21:17-18,21:27-30 ; Numbers 23:7-10 ; Numbers 23:18-24 ; Numbers 24:3-9 ,Numbers 24:3-9,24:15-24 ...
Deuteronomy 32:1-43 ; Deuteronomy 33:2-29 ...
Joshua 10:12-13 ...
Judges 5:2-31 ; Ezekiel 24:3-56 ,Judges 14:14,14:18 ; Judges 15:16 ...
Ruth 1:16-17 ,Ruth 1:16-17,1:20-21 ...
1 Samuel 2:1-10 ; 1Samuel 15:22-23,1 2 Samuel 22:2-51 ; 1 Samuel 18:7 ; Daniel 2:16-207 ; 1 Samuel 29:5 ...
2 Samuel 1:19-27 ; 2 Samuel 3:33-34 ; Samuel 15:33 ; 2 Samuel 23:1-7 ...
1 Kings 8:12-13 ; 1 Kings 12:16 ...
2 Kings 19:21-28 ...
1 Chronicles 16:8-36 ...
2 Chronicles 5:13 ; 2 Chronicles 6:41-42 ; 2 Chronicles 7:3 ; 2 Chronicles 10:16 ; 2 Chronicles 20:21 ...
Ezra 3:11 ...
Job 3:2-42:6 ...
Psalm 1-150 ...
Proverbs 1-31 ...
Ecclesiastes 1:2-11 ,Ecclesiastes 1:2-11,1:15 ,Ecclesiastes 1:15,1:18 ; Ecclesiastes 3:2-9 ; Ecclesiastes 7:1-13 ; Ecclesiastes 8:1 ; Ecclesiastes 10:1-4 ,Ecclesiastes 10:1-4,10:8-20 ; Ecclesiastes 11:1-4 ...
Song of Song of Solomon 1-8 ...
Isaiah—largely poetry...
Jeremiah—poetic selections throughout except for 32–45...
Lamentations 1-5 ...
Ezekiel 19:2-14 ; Ezekiel 23:32-34 ; 1618541215_63 ; Ezekiel 26:17-18 ; Ezekiel 27:3-9 ; Ezekiel 27:25-36 ; Ezekiel 28:1-10 ; Ezekiel 28:12-19 ; Ezekiel 28:22-23 ; Ezekiel 29:3-5 ; Ezekiel 30:2-4 ; Ezekiel 30:6-8 ; Ezekiel 30:10-19 ; Ezekiel 31:2-9 ; Ezekiel 32:2-8 ; Ezekiel 32:12-15 ; Ezekiel 32:19 ...
Daniel 2:20-23 ; Daniel 4:3 ; Daniel 4:34-35 ; Daniel 6:26-27 ; Daniel 7:9-10 ; Daniel 7:13-14 ; 7:23-27 Hosea—all poetry except for 1; 1618541215_42 ; Daniel 3:1-5 ...
Joel—all poetry except for Daniel 2:30-3:8 ...
Amos—largely poetry...
Obadiah 1:1 ...
Jonah 2:2-9 ...
Micah 1-7 ...
Nahum 1-3 ...
Habakkuk 1-3 ...
Zephaniah 1-3 ...
Zechariah 9-11:3 ; Zechariah 11:17 ; Zechariah 13:7-9 ...
Parallelism The predominant feature of Hebrew poetry is parallelism
Philistines, the - References to the Philistines appear in the Old Testament as well as other ancient Near Eastern writings. ...
Several features of Philistine life and culture are reflected in the Old Testament. ...
While our information on Philistine religion is limited, three Philistine gods are mentioned in the Old Testament—Dagon, Ashtoreth, and Baalzebub
Gentiles - The Old Testament noted the filthy ways (Ezra 6:21 ) and worship abominations (2 Kings 16:3 ) of the nations. ...
Jesus' ministry is interpreted in the Gospels in terms of Old Testament expectations for the Gentiles. When rejected in the synagogues, he turned to the Gentiles (Acts 13:46 ; Acts 18:6 ; Acts 28:28 ), understanding his work in the light of Old Testament predictions (Acts 13:47-48 ; Romans 15:9-12 )
Exaltation - In the Old Testament the Lord alone is the One who deserves to be exalted (Isaiah 2:11,17 ). ...
Throughout the Old Testament the people of Israel in particular were exalted by God. ...
In the Old Testament the best illustrations of arrogance come from the lives of Gentile rulers
Worship - Both the Hebrew (Old Testament) and the Greek (New Testament) words usually translated ‘worship’ indicate a kind of humble submission; for example, the submission of a servant to a master. ...
In Old Testament times the Israelites expressed their worship in ceremonial forms such as sacrifices and festivals (1 Samuel 1:3; Psalms 132:7). As in Old Testament times, the spiritual condition of the worshippers was more important than their formal expressions of worship (Mark 7:6-7; John 4:23-24; Philippians 3:3)
Ointment - ...
Terminology The Old Testament uses various words to describe ointment. The Old Testament does not distinguish between oil and ointment. ...
One of the most important uses of ointment in the Old Testament was in religious ceremonies
Monotheism - To support the accuracy of this statement, they examine the central text in the Old Testament for defining Israel's belief about God: the Ten Commandments. ...
A move away from henotheism and polytheism appears first in the Old Testament among the prophets. For the first time in the Old Testament literature, a prophet explicitly argued that no other gods exist
Song of Solomon, Theology of - In many Old Testament Scriptures, marriage is an underlying metaphor for Israel's relationship with God. One of the most memorable scenes in the Old Testament is when God commands his prophet Hosea to marry a prostitute to symbolize his love for a faithless Israel. Rather, we read it in the light of the pervasive marriage metaphor of the Old Testament
Neighbor - This lawyer-scribe unknowingly expresses a fundamental issue in all of ethics: For whom are we responsible in issues of justice and mercy? Jesus' answer was the parable of the Good Samaritan and the fundamental ideas of the parable find their roots in both Old Testament and Jewish soil. Thus, when the Old Testament prescribes treating one's neighbor as oneself (Leviticus 19:18 b), we are to envisage how Israel was to treat fellow Israelites (Leviticus 19:17-18 a) and, only by extension, Gentiles. ...
Thus, when we enter into the New Testament period we are to understand the biblical laws of the Old Testament that speak of neighborliness as injunctions for special treatment of fellow Jews
Peniel - And when the reader hath duly attended to the several striking particularities here recorded, and compared them with other Scriptures, I venture to believe that his conclusions will correspond with mine, that this, and indeed all the representations of the Old Testament concerning the Lord's appearance and manifestation to his people, are directly spoken of in reference to the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. (See Genesis 48:15-16) And if we add to these striking particulars what is said of the Lord, and by the Lord, under the character of human feelings, in other parts of the Old Testament, I cannot but conclude that the whole is abundantly confirmed, that it is the Lord Jesus, and him only, in his mediatorial character, who is all along to be understood as the visible JEHOVAH. (John 17:2-3) Surely nothing can be more blessed than to discover Jesus thus refreshing Old Testament saints with such precious manifestations of himself, as if to shew what love he had to his church and people, and how much he longed for the time appointed when he would openly manifest himself as our glorious Head, and Surety, and Saviour
Colors - To illustrate, Old Testament writers, writing predominantly in the Hebrew language, chose to describe objects not with reference to their colors but with reference to their appearances or likenesses. When the word “color” appears in an English translation of the Old Testament, it most often renders the Hebrew word ayin . Purple is noted to be the color of some of the tabernacle furnishings and priests' garments in the Old Testament (Exodus 26:1 ; Exodus 28:4-6 )
Baptism, Christian - Version of the Old Testament, where it is used of the ablutions and baptisms required by the Mosaic law. The New Testament church is not a new and different church, but one with that of the Old Testament. Under the Old Testament parents acted for their children and represented them. It does not deprive them of any privilege they enjoyed under the Old Testament
Punishment - The Old Testament . As in the Old Testament, so in the New Testament. The Old Testament introduced the notion of eternal punishment in Daniel 12:2 , indicating that the lost will also be resurrected, but for the purpose of eternal shame and contempt. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; G
Nahum, Theology of - ...
In Its Old Testament Setting . At the end of the Old Testament