What does Nineveh mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
נִֽינְוֵ֖ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 3
νινευῖται a Ninevite 2
בְּנִֽינְוֵֽה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 2
נִֽינְוֵ֔ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 2
נִ֣ינְוֵ֔ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
נִֽינְוֵ֛ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
נִֽינְוֶ֖ה‪‬ capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
וְנִֽינְוֵ֗ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
וְנִֽינְוֵ֖ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
בְּנִֽינְוֵ֔ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
נִינְוֵ֖ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
נִֽינְוֵ֑ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
וְנִינְוֵ֥ה capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1
נִֽינְוֵה֙ capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river 1

Definitions Related to Nineveh

H5210


   1 capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria; located on the east bank of the Tigris river, 550 miles (880 km) from its mouth and 250 miles (400 km) north of Babylon.
   Additional Information: Nineveh = “abode of Ninus”.
   

G3536


   1 a Ninevite, an inhabitant of Nineveh.
   

Frequency of Nineveh (original languages)

Frequency of Nineveh (English)

Dictionary

Hitchcock's Bible Names - Nineveh
Handsome; agreeable
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Nineveh
First mentioned in Genesis 10:11 , which is rendered in the Revised Version, "He [1] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh." It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3 ; 4:11 ) as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2 Kings 19:36 ; Isaiah 37:37 ). The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up with prophetic denunciations against this city. Its ruin and utter desolation are foretold (Nah.1:14; 3:19, etc.). Zephaniah also (2:13-15) predicts its destruction along with the fall of the empire of which it was the capital. From this time there is no mention of it in Scripture till it is named in gospel history (Matthew 12:41 ; Luke 11:32 ). This "exceeding great city" lay on the eastern or left bank of the river Tigris, along which it stretched for some 30 miles, having an average breadth of 10 miles or more from the river back toward the eastern hills. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins. Occupying a central position on the great highway between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, wealth flowed into it from many sources, so that it became the greatest of all ancient cities.
About B.C. 633 the Assyrian empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about B.C. 625, being joined by the Babylonians and Susianians, again attacked it, when it fell, and was razed to the ground. The Assyrian empire then came to an end, the Medes and Babylonians dividing its provinces between them. "After having ruled for more than six hundred years with hideous tyranny and violence, from the Caucasus and the Caspian to the Persian Gulf, and from beyond the Tigris to Asia Minor and Egypt, it vanished like a dream" (Nahum 2:6-11 ). Its end was strange, sudden, tragic. It was God's doing, his judgement on Assyria's pride (Isaiah 10:5-19 ).
Forty years ago our knowledge of the great Assyrian empire and of its magnificent capital was almost wholly a blank. Vague memories had indeed survived of its power and greatness, but very little was definitely known about it. Other cities which had perished, as Palmyra, Persepolis, and Thebes, had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness; but of this city, imperial Nineveh, not a single vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood was only matter of conjecture. In fulfilment of prophecy, God made "an utter end of the place." It became a "desolation."
In the days of the Greek historian Herodotus, B.C. 400, it had become a thing of the past; and when Xenophon the historian passed the place in the "Retreat of the Ten Thousand," the very memory of its name had been lost. It was buried out of sight, and no one knew its grave. It is never again to rise from its ruins.
At length, after being lost for more than two thousand years, the city was disentombed. A little more than forty years ago the French consul at Mosul began to search the vast mounds that lay along the opposite bank of the river. The Arabs whom he employed in these excavations, to their great surprise, came upon the ruins of a building at the mound of Khorsabad, which, on further exploration, turned out to be the royal palace of Sargon, one of the Assyrian kings. They found their way into its extensive courts and chambers, and brought forth form its hidded depths many wonderful sculptures and other relics of those ancient times.
The work of exploration has been carried on almost continuously by M. Botta, Sir Henry Layard, George Smith, and others, in the mounds of Nebi-Yunus, Nimrud, Koyunjik, and Khorsabad, and a vast treasury of specimens of old Assyrian art has been exhumed. Palace after palace has been discovered, with their decorations and their sculptured slabs, revealing the life and manners of this ancient people, their arts of war and peace, the forms of their religion, the style of their architecture, and the magnificence of their monarchs. The streets of the city have been explored, the inscriptions on the bricks and tablets and sculptured figures have been read, and now the secrets of their history have been brought to light.
One of the most remarkable of recent discoveries is that of the library of King Assur-bani-pal, or, as the Greek historians call him, Sardanapalos, the grandson of Sennacherib (q.v.). (See ASNAPPER .) This library consists of about ten thousand flat bricks or tablets, all written over with Assyrian characters. They contain a record of the history, the laws, and the religion of Assyria, of the greatest value. These strange clay leaves found in the royal library form the most valuable of all the treasuries of the literature of the old world. The library contains also old Accadian documents, which are the oldest extant documents in the world, dating as far back as probably about the time of Abraham. (See SARGON .)
"The Assyrian royalty is, perhaps, the most luxurious of our century [2]...Its victories and conquests, uninterrupted for one hundred years, have enriched it with the spoil of twenty peoples. Sargon has taken what remained to the Hittites; Sennacherib overcame Chaldea, and the treasures of Babylon were transferred to his coffers; Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal himself have pillaged Egypt and her great cities, Sais, Memphis, and Thebes of the hundred gates...Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G. Maspero, page 271).
The bas-reliefs, alabaster slabs, and sculptured monuments found in these recovered palaces serve in a remarkable manner to confirm the Old Testament history of the kings of Israel. The appearance of the ruins shows that the destruction of the city was due not only to the assailing foe but also to the flood and the fire, thus confirming the ancient prophecies concerning it. "The recent excavations," says Rawlinson, "have shown that fire was a great instrument in the destruction of the Nineveh palaces. Calcined alabaster, charred wood, and charcoal, colossal statues split through with heat, are met with in parts of the Nineveh mounds, and attest the veracity of prophecy."
Nineveh in its glory was (Jonah 3:4 ) an "exceeding great city of three days' journey", i.e., probably in circuit. This would give a circumference of about 60 miles. At the four corners of an irregular quadrangle are the ruins of Kouyunjik, Nimrud, Karamless and Khorsabad. These four great masses of ruins, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as composing the whole ruins of Nineveh.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Nineveh
Nineveh (nîn'e-veh), perhaps dwelling of Nina, the capital and greatest city of Assyria. It was founded by Nimrod, Genesis 10:11, and was on the eastern bank of the river Tigris, about 250 miles in a direct lino north of the rival city of Babylon, and not far from 550 miles northwest of the Persian Gulf. Assyrian scholars are not agreed in respect to the size of this ancient city. Some, as Layard, regard it as covering a large parallelogram, whose sides were each from 18 to 20 miles long, and the ends 12 to 14 miles wide. This view would include the ruins now known as Konyunjik, Nimrud, Khorsabad, and Keremles. Diodorus Siculus makes the circumference of the city 55 miles, including pastures and pleasure grounds. This view of the great extent of the city is, on the other hand, sharply disputed by Rawlinson, who thinks it highly improbable that this ancient city should have had an area about ten times that of London. He would reject it on two grounds, the one historical and the other topographical. He maintains that the ruins of Khorsabad, Keremles, Nimrud, and Konyunjik bear on their bricks distinct local titles, and that these titles are found attaching to distant cities in the historical inscriptions. According to his view, Nimrud would be identified with Calah, and Khorsabad with Dur-sargina, or "the city of Sargon." He further claims that Assyrian writers do not consider these places to be parts of Nineveh, but distinct and separate cities; that Calah was for a longtime the capital, while Nineveh was a provincial town; that Dur-sargina was built by Sargon—not at Nineveh, but near Nineveh; and that Scripture similarly distinguishes Calah as a place separate from Nineveh, and so far from it that there was room for a great city between them. See Genesis 10:12. He also suggests that a smaller city in extent would answer the requirements of the description in the book of Jonah, which makes it a city of "three days' journey." Jonah 3:3. As already stated, Nineveh was founded by Asshur, or, as the marginal reading of Genesis 10:11 states, Nimrod. When Nineveh became the capital of Assyria is not definitely known, but it is generally believed it was during the reign of Sennacherib. The prophecies of the books of Jonah and Nahum are chiefly directed against this city. The latter prophet indicates the mode of its capture. Nan. 1:1-8; 2:6, 8; 3:18. Nineveh was the capital of Assyria during the height of the grandeur of that empire, and in the time of Sennacherib, Esar-haddon, and Assur-bani-pal. It was besieged for two years by the combined forces of the Medes and Babylonians, was captured, and finally destroyed b.c. 606. Excavations have been made by M. Botta, Layard, Hormuzd Rassam, Loftus, and George Smith. They have brought to light, among others, the following noted buildings: 1. Three ruined temples, built and restored by many kings in different ages. 2. The palace of Shalmaneser, as improved by subsequent rulers. 3. A palace of another ruler, restored by Sennacherib and Esar-haddon. 4. A palace of Tiglath-pileser II. 5. A temple of Nebo. 6. The southwest palace of Sennacherib. 7. The northwest palace of the same ruler. 8. The city walls built by the latter king and restored by Assur-bani-pal. See Assyria. The prophecies respecting the destruction of Nineveh are very specific; the prophet seemed to see her in her desolation and exclaims: "Nineveh hath been from of old like a pool of water... Nineveh is laid waste: who will bemoan her?... Thy worthies are at rest; thy people are scattered upon the mountains, and there is none to gather them." Nahum 2:8; Nahum 3:7; Nahum 3:18, R. V. "The Lord... will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like the wilderness. And herds shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations; both the pelican and the porcupine shall lodge in the chapiters thereof; their voice shall ring in the windows; desolation shall be in the thresholds... how is she become a desolation, a place for beasts to lie down in!" Zephaniah 2:11; Zephaniah 2:13-15. These prophecies have been literally fulfilled. The city was destroyed; its very site was lost and unknown for centuries; it has now been found, its ruins opened, but are uninhabited except by wild beasts.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Nineveh
NINEVEH (Assyr. [1] Ninâ, Ninûa ) is said in Genesis 10:11 to have been founded by Nimrod in Assyria. Nineveh was included in the dominions of Hammurabi, who restored the temple of Ishtar there. It was early an important city, and is frequently referred to in the royal inscriptions, but Sennacherib first raised it to the position of capital of Assyria. It lay on the E. of the Tigris, opposite the modern Mosul. Its chief remains are buried beneath the mounds of Kouyunjik and Nebi Yunus, but the outline of the old walls can be traced. They enclosed some 1,800 acres, with a circumference of about 8 miles. The mound of Kouyunjik is separated from the mound of Nebi Yunus by the Khoser, and overlies the palaces of Sennacherib to the S., and Ashurbanipal to the N. The southern mound, Nebi Yunus, covers palaces of Sennacherib and Esarhaddon. The Nineveh of Sennacherib’s day lay largely outside this area, and included the Rebit Ninûa , or Rehoboth-ir, which extended as far as Khorsa bad, where Sargon built a great city, Dûr-Sargon. The traditions of its great size may be due to a reminiscence of this outer girdle of inhabited country. The fall of Nineveh (b.c. 606) is referred to by Nahum and Zephaniah ( Nahum 2:13 ). 2 Kings 19:36 and Isaiah 37:37 know it as the city of Sennacherib. For Jonah’s mission, see Jonah. Later, Tobit ( Tob 1:10 ; Tob 1:17 etc.) and Judith ( Jdt 1:1 ) refer to it, and the Ninevites are named in Matthew 12:41 , Luke 11:30 ; Luke 11:32 .
C. H. W. Johns.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Nineveh
(See ASSYRIA.) Nimrod builded Nineveh (Genesis 10:11); Herodotus (i. 7) makes Ninus founder of Nineveh. and grandson of Belus founder of Babylon; which implies that it was from Babylon, as Scripture says, that Nineveh's founder came. Nin is the Assyrian Hercules. Their mythology also makes Ninus son of Nimrod. Jonah is the next Scripture after Genesis 10 that mentions Nineveh. (See JONAH.) Sennacherib after his host's destruction "went and dwelt at Nineveh" (2 Kings 19:36). Jonah (Jonah 3:3) describes it as an "exceeding great city of three days' journey" round (i.e. 60 miles, at 20 miles per day) with 120,000 children "who knew not their right hand from their left" (Jonah 4:11), which would make a population in all of 600,000 or even one million. Diodorus Siculus (ii. 3), agreeing with Jonah's "three days' journey," makes the circumference 55 miles, pastures and pleasure grounds being included within, from whence Jonah appositely (Jonah 4:11) mentions "much cattle." G. Smith thinks that the ridges enclosing Nebi Yunus and Koyunjik (the mounds called "tels" opposite Mosul) were only the walls of inner Nineveh, the city itself extending beyond to the mound Yarenijah.
The parallelogram in Assyria covered with remains has Khorsabad N.E.; Koyunjik and Nebi Yunus (Nineveh in the narrow sense) near the Tigris N.W.; Nimrud and Athur between the Tigris and Zab, N.W.; and Karamles at a distance inward from the Zab S.E. From Koyunjik to Nimrud is 18 miles; from Khorsabad to Karamles 18; from Koyunjik to Khorsabad 13 or 14; from Nimrud to Karamles 14. The length was greater than the breadth; so Jonah 3:4 "entered into the city a day's journey." The longer sides were 150 furlongs each, the shorter 90 furlongs, the whole circuit 480 or 460 miles. Babylon had a circuit of only 385 miles (Clitarchus in Diod. ii. 7, Strabo xvi. 737). The walls were 100 ft. high, with 1,500 towers, and broad enough for three chariots abreast. Shereef Khan is the northern extremity of the collection of mounds on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and is five and a half miles N. of Koyunjik. There is also an enclosure, 5,000 yards in circuit, once enclosed by a moat at Selamivah three miles N. of Nimrud. Nimrud in inscriptions is called Kalkhu or Calah in Genesis 10:11; Khorsabad is called Sargina from Sargon. At Kileh Sherghat is the presumed original capital," Asshur," 60 miles S. of Mosul, on the right or western bank of the Tigris.
Sennacherib first made Nineveh the capital. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests around. It subsequently, with Rehoboth, Ir, Calah, and Resen, formed one great city, "Nineveh" in the larger sense. Thothmes III of Egypt is mentioned in inscriptions as capturing Nineveh. Phraortes the Mede perished in attempting to do so (Herodotus i. 102). Cyaxares his successor, after at first raising the siege owing to a Scythic invasion (Herodotus i. 103, 106) 625 B.C., finally succeeded in concert with the Babylonian Nabopolassar, 606 B.C., Saracus the last king, Esarhaddon's grandson, set fire to the palace and perished in the flames, as Ctesias states, and as the marks of fire on the walls still confirm. So Nahum 3:13; Nahum 3:15, "fire shall devour thy bars." Charred wood, calcined alabaster, and heat splintered figures abound. Nahum (Nahum 2) and Zephaniah (Zephaniah 2:13-15) foretold its doom; and Ezekiel (Ezekiel 31) shortly after attests the completeness of its overthrow, as a warning of the fatal issue of pride, Isaiah 10:7-14; Diodorus (ii. 27) says there was a prophecy that Nineveh should not fall until the river became its enemy.
The immediate cause of capture was the city walls destruction by a sudden rise in the river. So Nahum (Nahum 1:8; Nahum 2:6; Nahum 2:8) foretold "with an over running flood He will make an utter end of the place;" "the gates of the rivers shall be opened and the palace shall be dissolved," namely, by the inundation; "Nineveh is of old like a pool of water (though of old defended by water around), yet (its inhabitants) shall flee." There was a floodgate at the N.W. angle of the city, which was swept away; and the water pouring into the city "dissolved" the palace foundation platform, of sundried bricks. Nineveh then totally disappears from history; it never rose again. Nahum (Nahum 1:10; Nahum 3:11) accords with Diodorus Siculus that the final assault was made during a drinking bout of king and courtiers: "while they are drunken as drunkards, they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry ... Thou shalt be drunken," etc. The treasures accumulated by many kings were rifled, as Nahum foretells; "take ye the spoil of silver ... gold, for there is none end of the store;" the people were "scattered upon the mountains" (Nahum 3:18).
He calls it "the city of bloods," truly (Nahum 3:1); the wall carvings represent the king in the act of putting out his captives' eyes, and dragging others by a hook through the lips and a cord. Other cities have revived, but Nahum foretells "there is no healing of thy bruise" (Nahum 3:19). Lucian of Samosara near the Euphrates asserts none in his day even knew where Nineveh stood. Its former luxury is embodied in the statue of Sardanapalus as a dancer, which he directed (Plutarch says) to be erected after his death, with the motto "eat, drink, enjoy lust ... the rest is nothing!" The language of its inscriptions is Semitic, for the main population was a colony of Asshur, son of Shem; and besides the prevalent Semitic a Turanian dialect has been found on tablets at Koyunjik, derived from its original Cushite founder Nimrod of Babylon and his band. At Nimrud the oldest palaces are in the N.W. grainer, the most recent at the S.E. The table of Karnak in Egypt (1490 B.C.) connects Niniu (Nineveh) with Naharaima or Naharaim or Mesopotamia. Sir H. Rawlinson published 1862 an Assyrian canon from the monuments.
The first kings reigned when the early Chaldee empire had its seat in lower Mesopotamia. Asshur-bil-nisis, Buzur Ashur, and Asshur Vatila from 1653 to 1550 B.C., when Purnapuriyas and Durri-galazu were the last of the early Chaldaean monarchy. Then Bel Sumill Kapi founds a dynasty after a chasm of two centuries. "Bellush, Pudil, and Ivalush" are inscribed on bricks at Kileh Sherghat, 1350-1270 B.C. Shalmaneser I, son of Ivalush I, is mentioned on a genealogical slab as founder of Nimrud. Tiglath-i-nin his son inscribes himself" conqueror of Babylon"; Sargon finally conquered it. Tiglath-inin's successor Ivalush II (1250 B.C.) enlarged the empire and closes the dynasty. By a revolution Nin pala Zira ascends the throne, "the king of the commencement" as the Tiglath Pileser cylinder calls him. Then Asshurdahil, Mutaggil Nebo, Asshur-ris-ilim (conqueror of a Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon), Tiglath Pileser I (subdued Meshech), Asshur-belkala; a blank of two centuries follows when David's and Solomon's extensive dominion has place. Asshur-iddin-akhi begins the next dynasty (950-930 B.C.).
Asshur-danin-il and Iralush III follow; then Tiglath-i-nin; Asshur-idanni-pal next after ten victorious campaigns built a palace at Calah, 360 ft. long by 300 broad, with man lions at the gateways, and by a canal brought the Zab waters to Calah; he was "lord from the upper Tigris to Lebanon and the great sea." His son Shalmaneser II took tribute from Tyre and Sidon and fought Benhadad and Hazael. A picture represents him receiving from Jewish captives tribute of Jehu king of Israel, gold, pearl, and oil. He built the central palace of Nimrud, opened by Layard. The black marble obelisk (in the British Museum) records his exploits and Jehu's name. Then Shamas-Iva, Iralush IV and his wife Semiramis, a Babylonian princess, Shalmaneser III, Asshur-danin-il II, Asshur-lush. Then Tiglath Pileser II, probably Pul, usurps the throne by revolution, for he does not mention his father as others do, 744 B.C. Under him "Menahem" appears in inscriptions, and "tribute from the house of Omri" i.e. Samaria (2 Kings 15:19; 2 Kings 15:29).
Ahaz enlisted him as ally against Samaria and Damascus; Tiglath Pileser conquered them and received tribute from Jahu-khazi or Ahaz. An inscription in the British Museum records Rezin's death (Rawlinson's Monarchies, 2:398,399). Tiglath Pileser built a new palace at Nimrud. Then Shalmaneser IV (not in the canon) (2 Kings 17:3-4) assailed Samaria, upon Hoshea's leaguing with So of Egypt, and withholding tribute. In a chamber at Koyunjik was found among other seals now in British Museum the seal of So or Sabacho and that of Sennacherib affixed to a treaty between them, of which the parchment has perished. Sargon ("king de facto") usurped the throne and took Samaria (he says in inscriptions) in his first year; he built the palace at Khorsabad. Sennacherib his son succeeded 704 B.C. and reigned 24 years. He built the palace at the S.W. corner of Koyunjik, covering 100 acres almost, excavated by Layard. (See SENNACHERIB.) Of it 60 courts, halls (some 150 ft. square), and passages (one 200 ft. long) have been discovered. The human headed lions and bulls at its many portals are some 20 ft. high. Esarhaddon succeeded, as he styles himself "king of Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Meroe, and Ethiopia;" or Asnapper; he imprisoned Manasseh. (See ASNAPPER; MANASSEH.)
He built a temple at the S.W. corner of Nimrud, and a palace at Nebi Yunus. Asshurbani-pal succeeded, a hunter and warrior; his library of clay tablets, religious, legal, historical, and scientific, is in British Museum. He built a palace at Koyunjik, near Sennacherib's. His son, the last king, Asshuremid-ilin or Asshur-izzir-pal (Saracus or Sardanapalus), built the S.E. edifice at Nimrud. The palace walls were from five to fifteen feet thick, erected on an artificial platform 30 to 50 ft. above the surrounding level, and paneled with slabs of coarse alabaster sculptured and inscribed. The plaster above the alabaster wainscoting was ornamented with figures; the pavement was of alabaster or flat kiln-burnt bricks resting on bitumen and fine sand. The Nimrud grand hall is only 35 ft. broad (though 160 ft. long), to admit of roofing with the short beams to be had. The ceilings were gaily colored.
The portals were guarded by colossal human headed bulls; thence was an ascent to a higher platform, and on the top a gateway, sometimes 90 ft. wide, guarded also by winged bulls; inside was the great door, opening into a sculpture adorned passage; then the inner court, then the state apartments. There may have been an upper story of sun-dried bricks and wood, for there are no stone or marble columns or burnt brick remains. The large halls may have been roofless, a ledge projecting round the four sides and supporting an awning as shelter against rain and sun. However Zephaniah 2:14 mentions "the cedar work," cedars from Lebanon may have reached from wall to wall with openings for light.
The chambers were built round the central hall. In Nahum 2:3 translated "the chariots (shall be furnished) with fire flashing scythes," literally, "with the fire of scythes" or "iron weapons." No traces of such scythe-armed chariots are found in Assyria; either then it applies to the besiegers, or "the chariots shall come with the glitter of steel weapons." The "red shield" (Nahum 2:3) accords with the red painting of the shields and dresses in the sculptures. The king, with beardless eunuch behind holding an umbrella and the winged symbol of Deity above, appears in various carvings; he was despotic. Kitchen operations, husbandry and irrigation implements are represented also.
Religion. The man bull and man lion answer to Nin and Nergal, the gods of war and the chase. Nisroch the eagle-headed god and Dagon the fishheaded god often appear in the sculptures. The sacred tree answers to Asheerah, "the grove" (2 Kings 21:7). The chief gods were Asshur, Bel, Beltis or Myletta, Sin the moon, Shamash (Hebrew shemesh ) the sun, Vul or Iva the thunder wielder, Nin, etc. "Witchcrafts" and "whoredoms" in connection with Nineveh's worship are denounced by Nahum 3:4. The immense palaces, the depositories of the national records, were at once the gods' temple and the king's abode, for he was the religious head of the nation and the favorite of the gods.
Language and writing. Clay cylinders pierced through so as to turn round and present their sides to the reader, bricks, and slabs are the materials inscribed on. The wedge (cuneus from whence "cuneiform") in various forms and directions, upright, horizontal, and diagonal, is the main element of the 250 distinct alphabetical characters. This mode of writing prevailed for 2000 years B.C. in Assyria, Babylonia, and eastern Persia. The alphabet is syllabic. Determinatives are prefixed to some words, as
↓ - prefixed marks the word as a man's name;
↓↓ - marks the plural;
↓← - marks the dual.
It is related to Hebrew, thus, u "and" is the Hebrew ve ; ki is in both "if"; anaku or Hebrew 'anoki "I"; 'atta' in both is "thou"; 'abu or'ab (Hebrew), "father"; nahar in both is a "river." Feminine nouns end in -it or -at; Hebrew end with -ith. Sh is the shortened relative pronoun "who, which," as in later Hebrew; mah in both asks a question. The verb as in Hebrew is conjugated by pronominal suffixes. The roots are biliteral, the Hebrew both biliteral and triliteral. Μit , "to die"; Hebrew muth . Sib , "to dwell"; Hebrew yashab . Τiglath means "adoration." Ρal , "son," the Aramaic bar ; sat "king"; ris, Hebrew rosh , "head."
The northwestern palace of Nineveh has the longest inscription; it records concerning Sardanapalus II. Sennacherib's inscription concerning Hezekiah, on two man-headed bulls from Koyunjik, is the most interesting. Bas-reliefs of the siege of Lachish accompany it. (See LACHISH.) By a tentative process recurring proper names were first deciphered by Grotefend, Rawlinson, Hincks, Fox Talbot, Oppert, etc., as in Darius' inscription at Behistun. Parallel parts of the same inscription in snorter language (as the hieroglyphics and Greek on the Rosetta stone enabled Champollion to discover the former) verified the results, and duplicate phrases brought, out the meaning of words.
Tombs. Chaldaea is as full of tombs as Assyria is void of them. Probably Chaldaea was the burial place of the Assyrian kings; Arrian (Exped. Alex. 7:22) states that their tombs were in the marshes S. of Babylon.
Art, Commerce. Egyptian art is characterized by calm repose, Assyrian art by energy and action. Egyptian architecture is derived from a stone prototype, Assyrian from a wooden one, in agreement with the physical features of the respective countries. Solomon's temple and palace, with grand hall and chambers, paneled with slabs sculptured with trees, the upper part of the walls painted in various colors, the winged cherubim carved all round, the flowers and pomegranates, correspond to the Nineveh palaces in a great measure. Silk, blue clothes, and embroidered work were traded in by Nineveh's merchants (Ezekiel 27:23-24; Nahum 3:16). The Chaldaean Nestorians in the Kurdistan mountains and the villages near Mosul are the sole representatives of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Nineveh
Situated on the Tigris River in northern Mesopotamia, Nineveh was one of the great cities of the ancient world, and became capital of the powerful Assyrian Empire (Genesis 10:11-12; 2 Kings 19:36). (For map of Assyria and details of Nineveh’s history see ASSYRIA.) On one occasion the city was saved from a threatened invasion when the people responded to the preaching of God’s prophet Jonah (Jonah 1:1; Jonah 3; Jonah 4:11; Matthew 12:41; see JONAH).
Though the Assyrians were used by God to punish his people Israel, they were among the most brutal oppressors in recorded history. The prophets of God assured them of a fitting divine punishment (Isaiah 10:5; Isaiah 10:12-16; Nahum 1:1; Nahum 3:1-7; Zephaniah 2:13; see NAHUM). This judgment fell in 612 BC, when the besieging Babylonians overcame Nineveh’s defences by bursting open the water gates, breaking through the wall and flooding the city (Nahum 2:6-8). The Babylonians then plundered and smashed the city, leaving it a heap of ruins. It was never rebuilt (Nahum 2:9-10; Nahum 3:1; Nahum 3:7; Zephaniah 2:13-15).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Nineveh
(nihn' uh vuh) The greatest of the capitals of the ancient Assyrian Empire, which flourished from about 800 to 612 B.C. It was located on the left bank of the Tigris River in northeastern Mesopotamia (Iraq today). Its remains are represented by two mounds named Quyundjiq “Many Sheep” and Nebi Yunus “The Prophet Jonah.”
Biblical References Nineveh is first mentioned in the Old Testament as one of the cities established by Nimrod (Genesis 10:9-12 ). It was the enemy city to which God called the reluctant prophet Jonah in the 8th century B.C. The Book of Jonah calls it “that great city” ( Genesis 1:2 ; Genesis 4:11 ), and “an exceeding great city” (Genesis 3:3 ). The additional phrase “of three days' journey” (Genesis 3:3 ) has been rendered by the NIV: “a visit required three days.” The phrase could be an idiom which would refer to the first day for travel to, the second for visiting, and the third day for the return from a site. The phrase “more than a hundred and twenty thousand people who cannot tell their right hand from their left” (Genesis 4:11 ) has sometimes been taken to refer to children, which would yield a population of 600,000. The area within the city walls, however, would not have contained more than 175,000.
The final biblical references are from Nahum, who prophesied the overthrow of the “bloody city” by the attack of the allied Medes and Chaldeans in 612 B.C. By 500 B.C. the prophet's words (Nahum 3:7 ) “Nineveh is laid waste” were echoed by the Greek historian Herodotus who spoke of the Tigris as “the river on which the town of Nineveh formerly stood.”
Excavations A Muslim village and cemetery have occupied the site of Nebi Yunus, preventing excavations there. The tell of Quyundjiq which rises 90 feet above the plain has attracted excavators after it was first accurately sketched by C. J. Rich in 1820.
In 1842Paul Emile Botta, the French consul at the nearby city of Mosul, became the first excavator of the Near East, when he began digging at Quyundjiq. In 1845 the Englishman, A. H. Layard, dug briefly at Quyundjiq for a month. Both moved to other sites they mistakenly believed to be Nineveh. Layard later returned in 1849 to Quyundjiq and discovered Sennacherib's palace there.
Hormuz Rassam, a native of Mosul assisted Layard and then worked at the site of Quyundjiq 1852-54,1878-82. He found Ashurbanipal's palace and library in 1853. George Smith, who had deciphered the Babylonian flood story in the Gilgamesh Epic in 1872, was sent to the site by The Daily Telegraph . In 1873 he found a tablet which contained 17 further lines of the flood story. Iraqi scholars made some soundings in 1954 at Nebi Yunus which confirmed Layard's guess that Esarhaddon's palace lay here.
Palaces Sennacherib (704-681 B.C.) who built the enormous southwest palace at Quyundjiq. We observe on his reliefs captive Philistines, Tyrians, Aramaeans, and others working under the supervision of the king himself. His “palace which has no equals” covered five acres and had 71 rooms, including two large halls 180 feet long and 40 feet wide. He boasted that the materials for the palace included “fragrant cedars, cypresses, doors banded with silver and copper painted brick,. . . curtain pegs of silver and copper, alabaster, breccia, marble, ivory.” The rooms were embellished with 9,880 feet of sculptured reliefs, depicting Assyrian victories over enemy cities, including the Judean city of Lachish, captured in 701 B.C. Sennacherib's city was enclosed by eight miles of walls with fifteen gates. It had gardens and parks, watered by a thirty-mile long aqueduct.
Ashurbanipal (669-28 B.C.), the last great Assyrian king, built the northern palace with its magnificent reliefs of royal lion hunts. He amassed a library of 20,000 tablets, which contained important literary epics, magical and omen collections, royal archives and letters. See Assyria.
Edwin Yamauchi
Chabad Knowledge Base - Nineveh
Capital of Assyria: The prophet Jonah, in approximately 650 BCE, describes Nineveh as being "an exceedingly great city, a walk of three days" and having 220,000 inhabitants. Jonah was sent there to prophetically foretell the city's imminent destruction, due to its inhabitants’ evil ways. The people of Nineveh repented and the city was spared—as is recounted in the Book of Jonah, which is read on Yom Kippur.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Nineveh
The capital of the ancient kingdom of Assyria. It was founded very early by Nimrod. Genesis 10:11,12 ; cf. Micah 5:6 . It was doubtless comparatively small at first, but nothing is related of its progress until Jonah was sent, about 1,300 years after its founding, to threaten its destruction. It was then an exceeding great city (lit. 'a great city unto God') of three days' journey, probably signifying, its circumference. A three days 'journey' is estimated by Niebuhr to be about ninety English miles. This area would include gardens, pastures (which the 'much cattle' would necessitate), and pleasure grounds. The population was large, but not densely located together as in modern cities. There were 120,000 that could not discern their right hand from their left, probably children, which would give a population of about 600,000.
Jonah took a day's journey in the city, delivering his message as he proceeded. The people believed God, and, led by the king, humbled themselves, fasted, and ceased from their evil deeds. Jonah 3 , Jonah 4 . God saw their works and turned from the evil that He had threatened. This king was perhaps Shalmaneser 2, whose reign has been dated at B.C. 858-823.
Nineveh is next mentioned in 2 Kings 19:36 ; Isaiah 37:37 , when Sennacherib, after the destruction of his army by God, retired to Nineveh, where he was slain by two of his sons.
The other references to Nineveh in scripture are occupied with its judgement and foretelling its destruction. The prophecy of Nahum is especially devoted to this. Diodorus asserts that there was an ancient prophecy that Nineveh should not fall till the river became an enemy to the city; which happened in the third year of the siege, when the river partially overflowed the city. In the prophecy of Nahum it is said, "with an overrunning flood he will make an utter end of the place"; "the gates of the rivers shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved." Nahum 1:8 ; Nahum 2:6 . It was to be totally destroyed and not rise again. "a desolation, and dry like a wilderness." Nineveh had been very proud, and had said in its heart, "I am, and there is none beside me"; it should be a place for wild beasts. Zephaniah 2:13-15 : cf. Isaiah 10:5-19 . It had been 'a city of blood,' and full of lies and robbery; it should be made vile; its destruction should be final: there would be no healing of its bruise. Nahum 3:1,19 . In Ezekiel 31:3-17 Assyria is compared to a cedar of high stature, which had been brought to utter ruin.
Nineveh may be regarded as typical of the world in its haughty pride, glorying in its prowess. It was the power used by God to carry out His indignation against Israel: it is thus called "the rod of mine anger," and the indignation of Jehovah against His land and people ceases in the destruction of the Assyrian — a reference to some power in the last days which will morally succeed to the character of the Assyrian, and be destroyed subsequent to Babylon. Isaiah 14:24,25 . Historically Assyria fell before Babylon.
The account of the taking of Nineveh is thus given by Ctesias, preserved in Diodorus Siculus, ii. 27,28. Cyaxares, the Median monarch, aided by the Babylonians under Nabopolassar, laid siege to the city. His efforts were in vain; he was repulsed again and again; but receiving reinforcements he overcame the Assyrian army and they were shut up in the city. He then attempted to reduce the city by blockade, but was unsuccessful for two years, till his efforts were unexpectedly assisted by an extraordinary rise of the Tigris, which swept away a part of the walls and allowed the Medes to enter. The Assyrian king Saracus, in despair, burnt himself in his palace. The conquerors gave up the whole to the flames, and it was razed to the ground.
Rawlinson and others do not credit this account, they consider it undeserving a place in history. Some such destruction would, however, agree with scripture, which, as quoted above, speaks of the water, it also refers to the place being pillaged of its gold and silver, "for there is none end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture." Nahum 2:9 . Those who of late years have examined the mounds testify to its destruction by fire. Calcined sculptured alabaster statues split by heat, charcoal, and charred wood have been found buried in bricks and earth. For years search has been made among its ruins, and there is yet much to be examined. The principal museums of Europe are stored with the relics, and many tablets have been discovered, one of which gives a remarkable account of the deluge. It may indeed be said that the library of Nineveh has been opened in modern times, and the details of the records made thousands of years ago can now be read.
The principal ruins are found at:
1. Kouyunjik (or Nineveh proper), opposite Mosul, which is situate 36 22' S, 43 E.
2. Some eighteen miles south-east, lies Nimroud.
3. About twelve miles nearly northward are ruins at Karamles.
4. About twelve miles north-west lies Khorsabad.
These four places may be taken as the corners of the ancient city. They form a trapezoid of about sixty miles in circumference. The walls of the ancient city may have extended further, except where bounded by the river Tigris. The excavations reveal extensive buildings with the entrances adorned with winged bulls and other sculptures. In some places the marks of the chariot wheels can be traced on the limestone pavements.
It was destroyed about B.C. 606, by the Medes and Babylonians, and the fall of this city was the end of the kingdom of Assyria.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Nineveh
A city, and the capital of Assyria. Derived from Naah, handsome. We have a very interesting account in the book of Jonah concerning the Ninevites, and the number of souls it then contained, when the prophet was sent to exercise his ministry there: to which I therefore refer. Historians give wonderful accounts of Nineveh. They make it the most ancient as well as the most populous and powerful city of the world. The founder of it certainly was Nimrod. (See Genesis 10:10-12) It stood on the banks of the Tigris, supposed to be seven leagues long; for Jonah relates that it was three days journey to go through it. And where is it now? Where is Nineveh and Babylon, and the seven churches of proconsular Asia? Alas! not a vestige of either remains. Let the reader turn to the thirteenth chapter of Isaiah's prophecy, and read from Isaiah 13:19-22, to see a picture of God's desolation upon sinful nations and kingdoms. Thus do all monarchies fade and die away, while the kingdom of God and his Christ shall endure for ever. How sweetly Paul speaks on the subject. (Hebrews 12:28)
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Nineveh
This capital of the Assyrian empire could boast of the remotest antiquity. Tacitus styles it, "Vetustissima sedes Assyriae;" [1] and Scripture informs us that Nimrod, after he had built Babel, in the land of Shinar, invaded Assyria, where he built Nineveh, and several other cities, Genesis 10:11 . Its name denotes "the habitation of Nin," which seems to have been the proper name of "that rebel," as Nimrod signifies. And it is uniformly styled by Herodotus, Xenophon, Diodorus, Lucian, &c, ‘Η Νινος , "the city of Ninus." And the village of Nunia, opposite Mosul, in its name, and the tradition of the natives, ascertains the site of the ancient city, which was near the castle of Arbela, according to Tacitus, so celebrated for the decisive victory of Alexander the Great over the Persians there; the site of which is ascertained by the village of Arbil, about ten German miles to the east of Nunia, according to Niebuhr's map. Nineveh at first seems only to have been a small city, and less than Resen, in its neighbourhood; which is conjectured by Bochart, and not without reason, to have been the same as Larissa, which Xenophon describes as "the ruins of a great city, formerly inhabited by the Medes," and which the natives might have described as belonging la Resen, "to Resen." Nineveh did not rise to greatness for many ages after, until its second founder, Ninus II, about B.C. 1230, enlarged and made it the greatest city in the world. According to Diodorus, it was of an oblong form, a hundred and fifty stadia long, and ninety broad, and, consequently, four hundred and eighty in circuit, or forty-eight miles, reckoning ten stadia to an English mile, with Major Rennel. And its walls were a hundred feet high, and so broad that three chariots could drive on them abreast; and on the walls were fifteen hundred towers, each two hundred feet high. We are not, however, to imagine that all this vast enclosure was built upon: it contained great parks and extensive fields, and detached houses and buildings, like Babylon, and other great cities of the east even at the present day, as Bussorah, &c. And this entirely corresponds with the representations of Scripture. In the days of the Prophet Jonah, about B.C. 800, it seems to have been a "great city, an exceeding great city, of three days' journey," Jonah 1:2 ; Jonah 3:3 ; perhaps in circuit. The population of Nineveh, also, at that time was very great. It contained "more than sixscore thousand persons that could not discern between their right hand and their left, beside much cattle," Jonah 4:11 . Reckoning the persons to have been infants of two years old and under, and that these were a fifth part of the whole, according to Bochart, the whole population would amount to six hundred thousand souls. The same number Pliny assigns for the population of Seleucia, on the decline of Babylon. This population shows that a great part of the city must have been left open and unbuilt.
The threatened overthrow of Nineveh within three days, was, by the general repentance and humiliation of the inhabitants, from the highest to the lowest, suspended for near two hundred years, until "their iniquity came to the full;" and then the prophecy was literally accomplished, in the third year of the siege of the city, by the combined Medes and Babylonians; the king, Sardanapalus, being encouraged to hold out in consequence of an ancient prophecy, that Nineveh should never be taken by assault, till the river became its enemy; when a mighty inundation of the river, swollen by continual rains, came up against a part of the city, and threw down twenty stadia of the wall in length; upon which, the king, conceiving that the oracle was accomplished, burned himself, his concubines, eunuchs, and treasures; and the enemy, entering by the breach, sacked and rased the city, about B.C. 606. Diodorus, also, relates that Belesis, the governor of Babylon. obtained from Arbaces, the king of Media, the ashes of the palace, to erect a mount with them near the temple of Belus at Babylon; and that he forthwith prepared shipping, and, together with the ashes, carried away most of the gold and silver, of which he had private information given him by one of the eunuchs who escaped the fire. Dr. Gillies thinks it incredible that these could be transported from Nineveh to Babylon, three hundred miles distant; but likely enough, if Nineveh was only fifty miles from Babylon, with a large canal of communication between them, the Nahar Malka, or Royal River. But we learn from Niebuhr, that the conveyance of goods from Mosul to Bagdat by the Tigris is very commodious, in the very large boats called helleks; in which, in spring, when the river is rapid, the voyage may be made in three or four days, which would take fifteen by land. The complete demolition of such immense piles as the walls and towers of Nineveh may seem a matter of surprise to those who do not consider the nature of the materials of which they were constructed, that is, of bricks, dried or baked in the sun, and cemented with bitumen, which were apt to be "dissolved" by water, or to moulder away by the injuries of the weather. Beside, in the east, the materials of ancient cities have been often employed in the building of new ones in the neighbourhood. Thus Mosul was built with the spoils of Nineveh. Tauk Kesra, or the Palace of Chosroes, appears to have been built of bricks brought from the ruins of Babylon; and so was Hellah, as the dimensions are nearly the same, and the proportions so singular. And when such materials could conveniently be transported by inland navigations, they are to be found at very great distances from their ancient place, much farther, indeed, than are Bagdat and Seleucia, or Ctesiphon, from Babylon.
The book of Nahum was avowedly prophetic of the destruction of Nineveh; and it is there foretold that "the gates of the river shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved. Nineveh of old, like a pool of water, with an overflowing flood he will make an utter end of the place thereof,"
Nahum 2:6 ; Nahum 1:8-9 . The historian describes the facts by which the other predictions of the prophet were as literally fulfilled. He relates that the king of Assyria, elated with his former victories, and ignorant of the revolt of the Bactrians, had abandoned himself to scandalous inaction; had appointed a time of festivity, and supplied his soldiers with abundance of wine; and that the general of the enemy, apprised by deserters, of their negligence and drunkenness, attacked the Assyrian army while the whole of them were fearlessly giving way to indulgence, destroyed great part of them, and drove the rest into the city. The words of the prophet were hereby verified: "While they be folden together as thorns, and while they are drunken as drunkards, they shall be devoured as stubble fully dry," Nahum 1:10 . The prophet promised much spoil to the enemy: "Take the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold; for there is no end of the store and glory out of all the pleasant furniture," Nahum 2:9 . And the historian affirms that many talents of gold and silver, preserved from the fire, were carried to Ecbatana. According to Nahum 3:15 , the city was not only to be destroyed by an overflowing flood, but the fire, also, was to devour it; and, as Diodorus relates, partly by water, partly by fire, it was destroyed.
The utter and perpetual destruction and desolation of Nineveh were foretold: "The Lord will make an utter end of the place thereof. Affliction shall not rise up the second time, She is empty, void, and waste,"
Nahum 1:8-9 ; Nahum 2:10 ; Nahum 3:17-19 . "The Lord will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria, and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. How is she become a desolation, a place for beasts to lie down in," Zephaniah 2:13-15 . In the second century, Lucian, a native of a city on the banks of the Euphrates, testified that Nineveh was utterly perished, that there was no vestige of it remaining, and that none could tell where once it was situated. This testimony of Lucian, and the lapse of many ages during which the place was not known where it stood, render it at least somewhat doubtful whether the remains of an ancient city, opposite to Mosul, which have been described as such by travellers, be indeed those of ancient Nineveh. It is, perhaps, probable that they are the remains of the city which succeeded Nineveh, or of a Persian city of the same name, which was built on the banks of the Tigris by the Persians subsequently to A.D. 230, and demolished by the Saracens, A.D. 632. In contrasting the then existing great and increasing population, and the accumulating wealth of the proud inhabitants of the mighty Nineveh, with the utter ruin that awaited it, the word of God by the Prophet Nahum, was, "Make thyself many as the canker worm, make thyself many as the locusts. Thou hast multiplied thy merchants above the stars of heaven: the canker worm spoileth and flieth away. Thy crowned are as the locusts, and thy captains as the great grasshoppers which camp in the hedges in the cold day: but when the sun riseth, they flee away; and their place is not known where they are," or were. Whether these words imply that even the site of Nineveh would in future ages be uncertain or unknown; or, as they rather seem to intimate, that every vestige of the palaces of its monarchs, of the greatness of its nobles, and of the wealth of its numerous merchants, would wholly disappear; the truth of the prediction cannot be invalidated under either interpretation. The avowed ignorance respecting Nineveh, and the oblivion which passed over it, for many an age, conjoined with the meagreness of evidence to identify it, still prove that the place where it stood was long unknown, and that, even now, it can scarcely with certainty be determined. And if the only spot that bears its name, or that can be said to be the place where it was, be indeed the site of one of the most extensive of cities on which the sun ever shone, and which continued for many centuries to be the capital of Assyria,—the principal mounds, few in number, which show neither bricks, stones, nor other materials of building,—but are in many places overgrown with grass, and resemble the mounds left by intrenchments and fortifications of ancient Roman camps, and the appearances of other mounds and ruins less marked than even these, extending for ten miles, and widely spread, and seeming to be the wreck of former buildings,—show that Nineveh is left without one monument of royalty, without any token whatever of its splendour or wealth: that their place is not known where they were; and that it is indeed a desolation, "empty, void, and waste," its very ruins perished, and less than the wreck of what it was. Such an utter ruin, in every view, has been made of it; and such is the truth of the divine predictions!
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Nineveh
Dwelling of Ninus, the metropolis of ancient Assyria, called by the Greeks and Romans "the great Ninus;" situated on the east bank of the Tigris, opposite and below the modern Mosul. Its origin is traced to the times near the flood. See NIMROD . For nearly fifteen centuries afterwards it is not mentioned. In the books of Jonah, and Nahum it is described as an immense city, three days' journey in circuit, containing more than one hundred and twenty thousand young children, or probably six hundred thousand souls. It contained "much cattle," and numerous parks, garden groves, etc. Its inhabitants were wealthy, warlike, and far advanced in civilization. It had numerous strongholds with gates and bars; and had multiplied its merchants above the stars: its crowned princes were as locusts, and its captains as grasshoppers. With this description agrees that of the historian Diodorus Siculus, who says Nineveh was twenty-one miles long, nine miles broad, and fifty-four miles in circumference; that its walls were a hundred feet high, and so broad that three chariots could drive upon them abreast; and that it had fifteen hundred towers, each two hundred feet high.
Nineveh had long been the mistress of the East; but for her great luxury and wickedness, the prophet Jonah was sent, more than eight hundred years before Christ, to warn the Ninevites of her speedy destruction. See also Isaiah 14:24,25 . Their timely repentance delayed for a time the fall of the city; but about 753 B. C., the period of the foundation of Rome, it was taken by the Medes under Arbaces; and nearly a century and a half later, according to the predictions of Nahum, Nahum 1:1-3:19 , and Zephaniah 2:13 , it was a second time taken by Cyaraxes and Nabopolassar; after which it no more recovered its former splendor. Subsequent writers mention it but seldom, and as an unimportant place; so complete was its destruction, that for ages its site has been well-nigh lost, and infidels have even denied that the Nineveh of the Bible ever existed. The mounds which were the "grave" of its ruins, Nahum 1:14 , were covered with soil as to seem like natural hills. But since 1841, Layard, Botta, and others have been exploring its remains, so long undisturbed. The mounds chiefly explored lie at three corners of a trapezium about eighteen miles long, and twelve miles wide, and nearly sixty in circumference, thus confirming the ancient accounts of its vast extent. The recent excavations disclose temples and palaces, guarded by huge winged bulls and lions with human heads. The apartments of these buildings are lined with slabs of stone, covered with sculptures in basrelief, and inscriptions in arrow-headed characters which have been in part deciphered; and these sculptured memorials of the history and customs of the Assyrians, together with the various articles made of glass, wood, ivory, and metals, now brought to light after a burial of twenty-four centuries, furnish invaluable aid in the interpretation of Scripture, and most signally confirm its truth. Our surprise is equal to our gratification, when we behold the actual Assyrian account of events recorded in Kings and Chraonicles. Not only do we find mention made of Jehu, Menehem, Hezekiah, Omri, Hazael, etc., and of various cities in Judea and Syria; but we discover Sennacherib's own account of his invasion of Palestine, and of the amount of tribute which king Hezekiah was forced to pay him; also pictures representing his capture of Lachish, 2 Kings 18:14 , and his officers, perhaps the railing Rabshakeh himself, presenting Jewish captives to the king, etc. (See cut and details in SENNACHERIB .)
These mural tablets also furnish a graphic comment on the language of the prophet Ezekiel; and as he was a captive in the region of Ninveh, he had no doubt heard of, and had probably seen these very "chambers of imagery," as well as the objects they represent. We there find reproduced to our view the men and scenes he describes in Ezekiel 23:6,14,15 , etc.; Ezekiel 26:7-12 : "Captains and rulers clothed most gorgeously," "portrayed with vermilion," "girded with girdles upon their loins," "exceeding in dyed attire upon their heads." The "vermilion" or red color is quite prevalent among the various brilliant colors with which these tablets were painted, Ezekiel 23:14,15 . Here are "horsemen riding upon horses," "princes to look to" in respect to war-like vigor and courage; and their horses of high spirit, noble form, and attitudes, and decked with showy trappings. Here, in fine, are the idols, kings, and warriors of Nineveh, in various scenes of worship, hunting, and war; fortresses attacked and taken; prisoners led in triumph, impaled, flayed, and otherwise tortured; and sometimes actually held by cords attached to hooks which pierce the nose or the lips, 2 Kings 19:28 Isaiah 37:29 , and having their eyes put out by the point of a spear, 2 Kings 25:7 . For other cuts see NISROCH, SENNACHERIB, SHALMANEZER, and WAR .
The Christian world is under great obligations to Layard and Botta for their enterprising explorations, and to Rawlinson and Hincks for their literary investigations of these remains. To the student of the Bible especially these buried treasures are of the highest value, and we may well rejoice not only in this new accumulation of evidence to the truth of the history and prophecies of Scripture, but in the additional light thus thrown on its meaning. How impressive too the warning which these newly found memorials of a city once so vast and powerful bring to us in these latter days and in lands then unknown, to beware of the luxury, pride, and ungodliness that caused her ruin.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Nineveh, Ninevites
NINEVEH, NINEVITES.—The great city of Nineveh was on the eastern bank of the Tigris, opposite the modern city of Mosul. (For account of it see art. in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iii. 553 f.). In Matthew 12 and Luke 11 are grouped several logia of our Lord, short pithy passages, each of which appears to be a whole in itself. Two of these contain references to Jonah and the Ninevites.
1. Matthew 12:38-40 || Luke 11:29-30. It would seem that on two occasions, the second of which is narrated in these passages, the Pharisees asked for a sign. Christ’s preaching and miracles were not enough for them. They wanted Him to prove His Divine mission by some overwhelming marvel that would force them to believe in it, if it were truly Divine. The first occasion is in Mark 8:11 f. || Matthew 16:1-4, where they asked for ‘a sign from heaven.’ This He met with a definite refusal (Mk.). St. Matthew, however, adds to the answer words which really belonged to the second occasion—‘except the sign of Jonah.’ The answer on the second occasion contains this exception in both Gospels. (In St. Matthew the Pharisees are addressed, in St. Luke the multitudes ‘when they were coming crowding up,’ ἐπαθροιζομένων). But the meaning of the explanation which our Lord adds is somewhat obscure: ‘for as Jonah became to the Ninevites a sign, so shall also the Son of Man be to this generation’ (Lk.). It is important to notice that the ‘sign’ did not consist in the preaching of Jonah and of the Son of Man. Jesus had been preaching already, whereas the sign was still future (‘shall be’). And the story of Jonah in the OT does not, of itself, throw any light on the difficulty. Jonah started from Joppa to sail westward (Tarshish), and the storm occurred near enough to the shore to make the sailors try to row back for safety. When Jonah, therefore, was vomited up by the fish on to the dry land, it was presumably near Joppa. Then he received the second command to go to Nineveh. According to the story, therefore, Jonah was in no sense a sign to the Ninevites. One of two conclusions is inevitable; either that there was a current Haggadic tradition about Jonah and Nineveh which was known to our Lord and His hearers but has been lost to us, or that the word ‘Ninevites’ has supplanted some other word in the original text of St. Luke, having been introduced by the influence of Luke 11:32. St. Matthew obviates the difficulty by omitting the name altogether; but he (or some later writer, cf. Sanday, Bampton Lectures, p. 433) represents our Lord as teaching that ‘as “Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale” (= Jonah 1:17), so shall the Son of Man be in the heart of the earth three days and three nights.’ The ‘sign of Jonah’ is thus the sign of the resurrection. That, and that only, will be the supreme vindication of Christ’s Divine mission. [1] and some Latin Manuscripts add the harmonistic statement καὶ καθὼς Ἰωνᾶς ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τοῦ κήτους ἐγένετο τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας οὕτως καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ γῇ, ‘and as Jonah (was) in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, so also (is, or shall be) the Son of Man in the earth.’ It is conceivable that this was the more original form of the words in St. Matthew]. The question whether this passage necessitates the belief that our Lord accepted the story of Jonah as historically true is dealt with in art. Jonah.
2. Matthew 12:41 || Luke 11:32. The words in the two Gospels are identical. [2] omits the whole passage in St. Luke]. St. Matthew places side by side the two logia relating to Jonah, and then introduces the one that relates to Solomon and ‘the queen of the south.’ St. Luke transposes the latter two, ‘either for chronology, or effect, or both’ (Plummer). Our Lord again addresses the ‘evil generation.’ ‘Ninevites (ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται, no article; Authorized and Revised Versions ‘the men of Nineveh’) shall stand up (as witnesses) in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it, because they repented in accordance with the message preached by Jonah (εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ),’ whereas this generation has not repented though a far greater than Jonah is preaching to it; ‘something greater (πλεῖον, cf. Luke 11:31, Matthew 12:6) than Jonah is here.’
A. H. M‘Neile.

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Rehoboth (2) - "the streets of the city"), Calah, Resen, and Nineveh. (See NIMROD; ASSYRIA; Nineveh. ) The four were probably afterwards combined under the one name Nineveh; the words in Genesis 10:11-12, "the same is a great city," refer to the united whole, not to the single Resen
Assyrian - See Nineveh
Nin'Evites, - the inhabitants of Nineveh
Rehoboth-ir - It immediately follows Nineveh, and might mean a suburb of that city, originally separate from it, but later annexed and containing some of its most spacious streets or market-places. ]'>[1] rçbît Ninâ (‘broad places of Nineveh’), mentioned by king Esarhaddon (b. In taking it over, ‘the city’ was substituted for ‘Nineveh
Resen - Head of the stream; bridle, one of Nimrod's cities (Genesis 10:12 ), "between Nineveh and Calah. " It has been supposed that the four cities named in this verse were afterwards combined into one under the name of Nineveh (q
Nineve - (nihn' eh veh) KJV alternate form of Nineveh (Luke 11:32 )
Feroher - ) A symbol of the solar deity, found on monuments exhumed in Babylon, Nineveh, etc
Calah - City Nimrod built along with Nineveh and Rehoboth (Genesis 10:8-12 ). It is modern tell Nimrud on the east bank of Tigris River where it joins Upper Zab River twenty miles south of Nineveh
Nineveh - Capital of Assyria: The prophet Jonah, in approximately 650 BCE, describes Nineveh as being "an exceedingly great city, a walk of three days" and having 220,000 inhabitants. The people of Nineveh repented and the city was spared—as is recounted in the Book of Jonah, which is read on Yom Kippur
Asshur - He went from the land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. At a later date the capital was shifted to Ninua, or Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern bank of the river. (See CALAH; Nineveh
Resen - An ancient Assyrian city, between Nineveh and Calah, Genesis 10:12
Jonah - He was swallowed by a large fish while trying to avoid prophesying concerning the destruction of Nineveh as he had been commanded to by G-d. ...
Jonah, the book of: The book of Tanach relating Jonah's mission to prophesy to Nineveh, his attempt to avoid fulfilling this duty, and Nineveh's return to G-d
Nisroch - An Assyrian idol, in the temple of which at Nineveh Sennacheribwas slain
Calah - The Kalach of the inscriptions, one of the great fortresses which after the fall of Nineveh (cf. Both Nineveh and Calah were, however, always separate in structure and in administration. it is said to have been founded by Nimrod, and, along with Nineveh and other cities, to have formed part of ‘the great city
Bectileth - A plain between Nineveh and Cilicia
Nineveh - Nineveh (nîn'e-veh), perhaps dwelling of Nina, the capital and greatest city of Assyria. " He further claims that Assyrian writers do not consider these places to be parts of Nineveh, but distinct and separate cities; that Calah was for a longtime the capital, while Nineveh was a provincial town; that Dur-sargina was built by Sargon—not at Nineveh, but near Nineveh; and that Scripture similarly distinguishes Calah as a place separate from Nineveh, and so far from it that there was room for a great city between them. As already stated, Nineveh was founded by Asshur, or, as the marginal reading of Genesis 10:11 states, Nimrod. When Nineveh became the capital of Assyria is not definitely known, but it is generally believed it was during the reign of Sennacherib. Nineveh was the capital of Assyria during the height of the grandeur of that empire, and in the time of Sennacherib, Esar-haddon, and Assur-bani-pal. The prophecies respecting the destruction of Nineveh are very specific; the prophet seemed to see her in her desolation and exclaims: "Nineveh hath been from of old like a pool of water. Nineveh is laid waste: who will bemoan her?. will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like the wilderness
Nisroch - Nisroch (nĭsrŏch), great eagle? An Assyrian deity in whose temple at Nineveh Sennacherib was murdered by his sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer
Resen - ” City Nimrod founded between Nineveh and Calah (Genesis 10:12 )
Huzzab - The verbal translation is probably correct, pointing to God's established plan announced through the prophet to defeat Assyria and its capital Nineveh. Otherwise, the term is describing Nineveh in figurative language, perhaps referring to deportation of dressed-up idols defeated in war
Resen - (See ASSYRIA; Nineveh. of Koyunjik or Nineveh
Nose - Rings were inserted in the noses of animals, to guide and control them; and according to the recently discovered tablets at Nineveh, captives among the Assyrians were sometimes treated in the same way, 2 Kings 19:28 Ezekiel 38:4 . See Nineveh
Huzzab - This seems to be a symbolical name for Nineveh
Nahum, Book of - The subject of this prophecy is the approaching complete and final destruction of Nineveh, the capital of the great and at that time flourishing Assyrian empire. Nineveh was a city of vast extent, and was then the centre of the civilzation and commerce of the world, a "bloody city all full of lies and robbery" (Nahum 3:1 ), for it had robbed and plundered all the neighbouring nations. 625) when Nineveh was destroyed apparently by fire, and the Assyrian empire came to an end, an event which changed the face of Asia. (See Nineveh
Drunkard - This refers to Nineveh
Nisroch - According to the etymology, the name would signify "the great eagle;" and the earlier Assyrian sculptures recently exhumed at Nineveh have many representations of an idol in human form, but with the head of an eagle, as shown above. The other accompanying cut, representing a winged figure in a circle, armed with a bow, is frequently met on the walls of ancient Nineveh in scenes of worship, and is believed to be an emblem of the supreme divinity of the Assyrians
Nineveh - Nineveh (Assyr. Nineveh was included in the dominions of Hammurabi, who restored the temple of Ishtar there. The Nineveh of Sennacherib’s day lay largely outside this area, and included the Rebit Ninûa , or Rehoboth-ir, which extended as far as Khorsa bad, where Sargon built a great city, Dûr-Sargon. The fall of Nineveh (b
Bruit - ...
Nahum 3:19 (b) Here is a graphic description of the howling, wailing, and crying of Nineveh in her judgment
re'Sen - (bridle ), ( Genesis 10:12 ) one of the cities built by Asshur, "between Nineveh and Calah
Calah - It was at some distance from Nineveh, and Resen lay between them
Resen - The great city "between Nineveh and Calah" one of the four cities built by Asshur, or by Nimrod in Asshur
Nahum - Nahum prophesied before the destruction of Nineveh, which he predicts, and probably in the reign of Hezekiah. It describes with much beauty and poetic force the siege and destruction of Nineveh as a punishment for her wickedness
Rehoboth - Rehoboth-Ir, “broad places of the city,” likely denotes an open space within Nineveh or its suburbs (Genesis 10:11 ) rather than a separate city between Nineveh and Calah
Calah - , Nimrod]'>[1] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Genesis 10:11 , RSV). It has been conjectured that these four cities mentioned in Genesis 10:11 were afterwards all united into one and called Nineveh (q
Rehoboth - A city of Assyria, near Nineveh, founded by Asshur or Nimrod
Ninevites - (nihn' uh vitess) Residents of the Assyrian capital Nineveh (Luke 11:30 ,Luke 11:30,11:32 )
Rab-Shakeh - See Nineveh and SENNACHERIB
Asnapper - " He formed at Nineveh a library of clay tablets, numbering about 10,000. (See Nineveh
Nahum - The prophecy is against Nineveh, and foretells its destruction, though, like other prophecies, it has an application to the future, when 'Assyria' will again be the open enemy of Israel. Not only is the destruction of Nineveh foretold, but the Assyrian nation also should come to a full end. ...
Nahum 2 concerns the city of Nineveh directly. God had allowed Jacob to be disciplined and 'emptied out;' but now Nineveh must be dealt with. This name is supposed by some to be symbolical of Nineveh, the one 'established,' or 'held to be impregnable,' as in the margin ; others, however, believe it refers to the reigning queen, who should be led captive with her maids. Nahum 3:8-10 show that as 'populous No' (the renowned Thebes, with its hundred gates), had been brought to nought (probably by Sargon, king of Assyria), so should Nineveh fall. Fire is spoken of several times, and the explorations that have been made at the ruins of Nineveh abundantly prove that fire did its destructive work. See Nineveh
Nineveh - Tacitus styles it, "Vetustissima sedes Assyriae;" [1] and Scripture informs us that Nimrod, after he had built Babel, in the land of Shinar, invaded Assyria, where he built Nineveh, and several other cities, Genesis 10:11 . Nineveh at first seems only to have been a small city, and less than Resen, in its neighbourhood; which is conjectured by Bochart, and not without reason, to have been the same as Larissa, which Xenophon describes as "the ruins of a great city, formerly inhabited by the Medes," and which the natives might have described as belonging la Resen, "to Resen. " Nineveh did not rise to greatness for many ages after, until its second founder, Ninus II, about B. The population of Nineveh, also, at that time was very great. ...
The threatened overthrow of Nineveh within three days, was, by the general repentance and humiliation of the inhabitants, from the highest to the lowest, suspended for near two hundred years, until "their iniquity came to the full;" and then the prophecy was literally accomplished, in the third year of the siege of the city, by the combined Medes and Babylonians; the king, Sardanapalus, being encouraged to hold out in consequence of an ancient prophecy, that Nineveh should never be taken by assault, till the river became its enemy; when a mighty inundation of the river, swollen by continual rains, came up against a part of the city, and threw down twenty stadia of the wall in length; upon which, the king, conceiving that the oracle was accomplished, burned himself, his concubines, eunuchs, and treasures; and the enemy, entering by the breach, sacked and rased the city, about B. Gillies thinks it incredible that these could be transported from Nineveh to Babylon, three hundred miles distant; but likely enough, if Nineveh was only fifty miles from Babylon, with a large canal of communication between them, the Nahar Malka, or Royal River. The complete demolition of such immense piles as the walls and towers of Nineveh may seem a matter of surprise to those who do not consider the nature of the materials of which they were constructed, that is, of bricks, dried or baked in the sun, and cemented with bitumen, which were apt to be "dissolved" by water, or to moulder away by the injuries of the weather. Thus Mosul was built with the spoils of Nineveh. ...
The book of Nahum was avowedly prophetic of the destruction of Nineveh; and it is there foretold that "the gates of the river shall be opened, and the palace shall be dissolved. Nineveh of old, like a pool of water, with an overflowing flood he will make an utter end of the place thereof,"...
Nahum 2:6 ; Nahum 1:8-9 . ...
The utter and perpetual destruction and desolation of Nineveh were foretold: "The Lord will make an utter end of the place thereof. "The Lord will stretch out his hand against the north, and destroy Assyria, and will make Nineveh a desolation, and dry like a wilderness. In the second century, Lucian, a native of a city on the banks of the Euphrates, testified that Nineveh was utterly perished, that there was no vestige of it remaining, and that none could tell where once it was situated. This testimony of Lucian, and the lapse of many ages during which the place was not known where it stood, render it at least somewhat doubtful whether the remains of an ancient city, opposite to Mosul, which have been described as such by travellers, be indeed those of ancient Nineveh. It is, perhaps, probable that they are the remains of the city which succeeded Nineveh, or of a Persian city of the same name, which was built on the banks of the Tigris by the Persians subsequently to A. In contrasting the then existing great and increasing population, and the accumulating wealth of the proud inhabitants of the mighty Nineveh, with the utter ruin that awaited it, the word of God by the Prophet Nahum, was, "Make thyself many as the canker worm, make thyself many as the locusts. Whether these words imply that even the site of Nineveh would in future ages be uncertain or unknown; or, as they rather seem to intimate, that every vestige of the palaces of its monarchs, of the greatness of its nobles, and of the wealth of its numerous merchants, would wholly disappear; the truth of the prediction cannot be invalidated under either interpretation. The avowed ignorance respecting Nineveh, and the oblivion which passed over it, for many an age, conjoined with the meagreness of evidence to identify it, still prove that the place where it stood was long unknown, and that, even now, it can scarcely with certainty be determined. And if the only spot that bears its name, or that can be said to be the place where it was, be indeed the site of one of the most extensive of cities on which the sun ever shone, and which continued for many centuries to be the capital of Assyria,—the principal mounds, few in number, which show neither bricks, stones, nor other materials of building,—but are in many places overgrown with grass, and resemble the mounds left by intrenchments and fortifications of ancient Roman camps, and the appearances of other mounds and ruins less marked than even these, extending for ten miles, and widely spread, and seeming to be the wreck of former buildings,—show that Nineveh is left without one monument of royalty, without any token whatever of its splendour or wealth: that their place is not known where they were; and that it is indeed a desolation, "empty, void, and waste," its very ruins perished, and less than the wreck of what it was
Resen - ]'>[1] , by Nimrod, and described as lying between Nineveh and Calah ( i. That the words ‘the same is a great city’ should refer to Resen alone seems unlikely more probably Nineveh, Rehoboth-ir, and Calah are included, the two latter forming, with Resen, suburbs of the first
Sackcloth - It was put upon animals by the people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:8 )
Calah - of the Tigris) and builded Nineveh and Rehoboth-ir (i. " The four formed one "great" composite city, to which Nineveh, the name of one of the four in the restricted sense, was given; answering now to the ruins E
Nimrod - And "out of that land went forth Asshur," or 'he went out to Assyria,' and built Nineveh and other cities. So that Nimrod and his descendants were those who founded both Babylon and Nineveh
Nahum - They relate solely to the destruction of Nineveh by the Babylonians and Medes, and are introduced by an animated display of the attributes of God. The preparation for the destruction of Nineveh, and the description of that destruction, are expressed in the most glowing colours; and at the same time the prophet writes with a perspicuity and elegance which have a just claim to our highest admiration
Nimrod - He established an empire in Shinar, the classical Babylonia, the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh: and extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen
Yonah - ) (a) the prophet sent by G-d to urge the people of Ninveh to repent; (b) the Book of Jonah, read during the afternoon prayers on Yom Kippur ...
Yonah The book of Tanach relating Jonah's mission to prophesy to Nineveh, his attempt to avoid fulfilling this duty, and Nineveh's return to G-d
Cankerworm, - " It devours much herbage, and is used as a figure of the enemies that would destroy Nineveh
Halah - Halah may have been Hallahhu, northeast of Nineveh
Achmetha - It was surrounded by seven walls, and at one period was considered the strongest and most beautiful city of the east, except Nineveh and Babylon
Nis'Roch - (the great eagle ) an idol of Nineveh, in whose temple Sennacherib was worshipping when assassinated by his sons, Adrammelech and Shizrezer
Nahum - His prophecy consists of three chapters, which form one discourse, in which he foretells the destruction of Nineveh in so powerful and vivid a manner, that he might seem to have been on the very spot. The best interpreters adopt Jerome's opinion, that he foretold the destruction of Nineveh in the time of Hezekiah, after the war of Sennacherib in Egypt mentioned by Berosus
Achmetha - Ezra 6:2 , supposed to mean Ecbatana, a city of Media, inferior to none in the East but Babylon and Nineveh
Huzzab - ’ But Wellhausen and others have considered it a proper name referring to the Assyrian queen, or to the city of Nineveh personified
Ashes - We find it adopted by Job, Job 2:8 ; by many Jews when in great fear, Esther 4:3 ; and by the king of Nineveh, Jonah 3:6
Sennacherib - Defeated and shamed, Sennacherib returned to his capital Nineveh where he was slain by his own sons
Infinite - There was 'no end' to the strength of Ethiopia and Egypt in supporting the city No; yet it was carried away: so would God's judgements fall upon Nineveh
Plaster - In Daniel 5:5 the accuracy of Scripture appears; the Nineveh walls were paneled with alabaster slabs, but no alabaster being procurable at Babylon enamel or stucco ("plaster") for receiving ornamental designs covers the bricks; on it Belshazzar's doom was written
Flood - ...
Nahum 1:8 (a) Thus is described the power of the invading army that conquered the city of Nineveh. Jonah was sent to Nineveh with a warning, and the people repented. About seventy-five years later Nahum wrote his prophecy of the destruction of Nineveh because they had returned to their wicked ways
Nineveh - ...
Nineveh is next mentioned in 2 Kings 19:36 ; Isaiah 37:37 , when Sennacherib, after the destruction of his army by God, retired to Nineveh, where he was slain by two of his sons. ...
The other references to Nineveh in scripture are occupied with its judgement and foretelling its destruction. Diodorus asserts that there was an ancient prophecy that Nineveh should not fall till the river became an enemy to the city; which happened in the third year of the siege, when the river partially overflowed the city. " Nineveh had been very proud, and had said in its heart, "I am, and there is none beside me"; it should be a place for wild beasts. ...
Nineveh may be regarded as typical of the world in its haughty pride, glorying in its prowess. ...
The account of the taking of Nineveh is thus given by Ctesias, preserved in Diodorus Siculus, ii. It may indeed be said that the library of Nineveh has been opened in modern times, and the details of the records made thousands of years ago can now be read. Kouyunjik (or Nineveh proper), opposite Mosul, which is situate 36 22' S, 43 E
Rab-Saris - " Such officers, high in honor and in trust, are found on the mural tablets of Nineveh so wonderfully preserved to this day; and in the Ottoman Porte of our own times the Kislar Aga, or chief of the black eunuchs, is one of the highest dignitaries
Nin'Eveh - Nineveh is situated on the eastern bank of the river Tigris, 50 miles from its mouth and 250 miles north of Babylon. Asshur, or according to the marginal reading, which is generally preferred, Nimrod is there described, ( Genesis 10:11 ) as extending his kingdom from the land of Shinar or Babylonia, in the south, to Assyria in the north and founding four cities, of which the most famous was Nineveh. The kingdom of Assyria and of the Assyrians is referred to in the Old Testament as connected with the Jews at a very early period, as in (Numbers 24:22,24 ) and Psal 83:8 But after the notice of the foundation of Nineveh in Genesis no further mention is made of the city until the time of the book of Jonah, or the eighth century B. In this book no mention is made of Assyria or the Assyrians, the king to whom the prophet was sent being termed the "king of Nineveh," and his subjects "the people of Nineveh. 645) directs his prophecies against Nineveh; only once against the king of Assyria. 630, couples the capital and the kingdom together, (Zephaniah 2:13 ) and this is the last mention of Nineveh as an existing city. The destruction of Nineveh occurred B. This total disappearance of Nineveh is fully confirmed by the records of profane history. The political history of Nineveh is that of Assyria, of which a sketch has already been given. [1] Previous to recent excavations and researches, the ruins which occupied the presumed site of Nineveh seemed to consist of mere shapeless heaps or mounds of earth and rubbish. --The first traveller who carefully examined the supposed site of Nineveh was Mr. (Since then very many and important discoveries have been made at Nineveh, more especially those by George Smith, of the British Museum. Prophecies relating to Nineveh, and illustrations of the Old Testament . (Nahum 3:18 ) The fullest and the most vivid and poetical picture of Nineveh's ruined and deserted condition is that given by Zephaniah, who probably lived to see its fall. --much diversity of opinion exists as to the identification of the ruins which may be properly included within the site of ancient Nineveh. --The ruins of Nineveh have furnished a vast collection of inscriptions partly carved on marble or stone slabs and partly impressed upon bricks anti upon clay cylinders, or sixsided and eight-sided prisms, barrels and tablets, which, used for the purpose when still moist, were afterward baked in a furnace or kilo. The people of Nineveh spoke a Shemitic dialect, connected with the Hebrew and with the so called Chaldee of the books of Daniel and Ezra
Nahum - In Nahum 2:1 , he looked forward to the destruction of Nineveh which took place in 612 B. , probably close to the time of the fall of Nineveh. destroyed the capital, Nineveh. ...
The second chapter graphically portrays the future fall of Assyria's capital, Nineveh. Nineveh was a massive city with a defensive wall that measured eight miles in circumference and ranged in height from 25 to 60 feet. ...
The Book of Nahum closes with more threats against Nineveh. , so the same fate would befall Nineveh (Nahum 3:8-11 )
Nineveh - Historians give wonderful accounts of Nineveh. And where is it now? Where is Nineveh and Babylon, and the seven churches of proconsular Asia? Alas! not a vestige of either remains
Bricks - Those found among the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are about a foot square and four inches thick
Huzzab - Commonly represented as queen of Nineveh
Ashur - It is believed that Ashur originally dwelt in the land of Shiner and about Babylonia, but that he was compelled by the usurper Nimrod to depart from thence, and settle higher toward the springs of the Tigris, in the province of Assyria, so called from him, where some think he built the famous city of Nineveh, and those of Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen, Genesis 10:11-12
Huz'Zab - (fixed ), according to the general opinion of the Jews, was the queen of Nineveh at the time when Nahum delivered his prophecy
Nim'Rod - , from which we learn (1) that he was a Cushite; (2) that he established an empire in Shinar (the classical Babylonia) the chief towns being Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh; and (3) that he extended this empire northward along the course of the Tigris over Assyria, where he founded a second group of capitals, Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah and Resen
Jonath - How the word of the Lord came to Jonah, Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it, for their wickedness is come up before me. And how Jonah fled to Tarshish, and would not go to Nineveh; and how, on going down to Joppa, he found a ship going to Tarshish; so be paid the fare thereof, to go down to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. But no booking-clerk in Joppa could have counted up to Jonah all it would cost him all his future life on earth to have fled to Tarshish from his duty to Nineveh, and from the presence of the Lord his God. He will be the very best ambassador that could possibly be sent to the king of Nineveh. With a great joy in God Jonah will be an ambassador to beseech the king of Nineveh and all his nobles and all his people to be reconciled to the righteous God of Israel. Come, said the men of Nineveh, and hear what the prophet from Israel has to say to our city, for he has just been vomited out of the fish's belly to preach repentance to us, and to our city. ...
Till the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, and turned every one from his evil way, and from the violence that was in their hands. Jonah was exceedingly displeased, and he was very angry at the repentance and deliverance of Nineveh, because, like all his people in the house of Israel, he both feared and hated Nineveh with his whole soul. Nineveh, as Jonah knew, was predestinated and prepared, and prophesied of God to he the fast-coming scourge and the cruel prison-house of the conquered and captive Israel. And, such was the power and the policy of Nineveh, and such was the sin and the weakness of Israel, that Jonah could look for not one atom of hope for his country unless it was in the great and insufferable wickedness of Nineveh, and in the swift and sure judgment of God against Nineveh. And thus it was that every report that came across the wilderness of the increasing wickedness of Nineveh, Jonah rejoiced in that, and took comfort out of that both for himself and for his people. It was the best thing that could happen to Jonah when the word of the Lord came to him and said, Arise, go to Nineveh, that great city, and cry against it, for their wickedness is come up before me. Jonah's heart beat high with hope that Nineveh was now so near her destruction. And if only all possibility of her repentance and reformation could be kept back from Nineveh for forty days, then all might yet be well with Jonah and with his foredoomed people. With a God so given to mercy at the first sign of repentance in a sinner, Jonah felt that Israel was not safe till Nineveh was completely destroyed, and for ever blotted out. Perish my prophet's place: perish the presence of God and all, rather than that I should take a single step to preach repentance to Nineveh! And Jonah rose up to free to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord, with the result that all the world knows. And, then, when he was shut up to choose between preaching in Nineveh, or making his bed in the belly of hell; and, then, when his compulsory preaching ended as he felt sure it would end-it displeased Jonah exceedingly, and he was very angry. It displeased Jonah exceedingly that the Lord had not destroyed Nineveh, and he was very angry. Poor Jonah! who had to make his choice between the belly of hell and the possible repentance, and preservation, and prosperity of Nineveh. I will provoke them to anger with a foolish nation!...
...
John Calvin is certainly correct when he says that Jonah had far more respect to his own reputation as a prophet of the divine judgment to Nineveh than he had either to the good of Nineveh or to the glory of God. Jonah was exceedingly displeased at the success of his mission to Nineveh, and I myself have taken a part in missions in my ministry also, the success of which sometimes makes me sick at heart. ...
But Jonah came to himself again during those five-and-twenty days or so, from the east gate of Nineveh back to Gath-hepher, his father's house. And thus it is that we have now lying open before us to this day the very identical psalm that Jonah sang every new morning on his way home from Nineveh to the land of Israel
Nisroch - The god of Nineveh, in whose temple Sennacherib was assassinated by his sons (2 Kings 19:37; Isaiah 37:38). Rawlinson says "Asshur had no temple in Nineveh in which Sennacherib could have been worshipping
Rehoboth - , of Nineveh
Adrammelech - The king returning to Nineveh, after his unhappy expedition made into Judea against king Hezekiah, was killed by his two sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, while at his devotions in the temple of his god Nisroch, Isaiah 37:38 ; 2 Kings 19
Sargon - The northwest palace at Nimroud in the ruins of Nineveh was built by him
Walls - Slabs of marble or alabaster line the walls of Solomon's buildings, as those of Nineveh
Ladder - 243; Layard, Nineveh , ii
Joannes (507) Saba, Orthodox Monk of Dilaita - Joannes (507) Saba, a native of Nineveh, fl
Jonah, Book of - It gives an account of (1) his divine commission to go to Nineveh, his disobedience, and the punishment following (1:1-17); (2) his prayer and miraculous deliverance ((1:17-2:10);); (3) the second commission given to him, and his prompt obedience in delivering the message from God, and its results in the repentance of the Ninevites, and God's long-sparing mercy toward them (ch. Nineveh was spared after Jonah's mission for more than a century
Nergal - Nimrod deified, "the mighty hunter before the Lord," from whom naturally the kings of Babylon and Nineveh would claim descent. Pul sacrificed to Nergal in Cutha, and Sennacherib built a temple to him in Tarbisa near Nineveh
Nahum - Nahum, as God’s spokesman, announced a fitting judgment on Assyria, enlivening his message with graphic descriptions of the destruction of Assyria’s capital, Nineveh. Nineveh was conquered by the armies of Babylon in 612 BC. The prophet then describes the coming attack on Nineveh (2:1-9), which is to be punished because of the fierce cruelty with which it destroyed its victims (2:10-13). A third poem gives a further description of Nineveh’s overthrow
Bittern - Is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isaiah 14:23 ; 34:11 ; Zephaniah 2:14 )
Adrammelech - Son and murderer of Sennacherib in Nisroch's temple at Nineveh
Gabael - When blindness and poverty came on Tobit in Nineveh, he recollected, after prayer, the long-forgotten treasure ( Tob 4:1 ), and wished his son Tobias to fetch it ( Tob 4:21 )
Asshur - that a son of Ham named Asshur built Nineveh; and then in Genesis 10:22 and 1 Chronicles 1:17 Asshur is named as the son of Shem
Adram'Melech - ...
Son of the Assyrian king Sennacherib, who, with his brother Sharezer, murdered their father in the temple of Nisroch at Nineveh, after the failure of the Assyrian attack on Jerusalem
Nineveh - ) Nimrod builded Nineveh (Genesis 10:11); Herodotus (i. 7) makes Ninus founder of Nineveh. and grandson of Belus founder of Babylon; which implies that it was from Babylon, as Scripture says, that Nineveh's founder came. Jonah is the next Scripture after Genesis 10 that mentions Nineveh. ) Sennacherib after his host's destruction "went and dwelt at Nineveh" (2 Kings 19:36). Smith thinks that the ridges enclosing Nebi Yunus and Koyunjik (the mounds called "tels" opposite Mosul) were only the walls of inner Nineveh, the city itself extending beyond to the mound Yarenijah. ; Koyunjik and Nebi Yunus (Nineveh in the narrow sense) near the Tigris N. ...
Sennacherib first made Nineveh the capital. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests around. It subsequently, with Rehoboth, Ir, Calah, and Resen, formed one great city, "Nineveh" in the larger sense. Thothmes III of Egypt is mentioned in inscriptions as capturing Nineveh. 27) says there was a prophecy that Nineveh should not fall until the river became its enemy. So Nahum (Nahum 1:8; Nahum 2:6; Nahum 2:8) foretold "with an over running flood He will make an utter end of the place;" "the gates of the rivers shall be opened and the palace shall be dissolved," namely, by the inundation; "Nineveh is of old like a pool of water (though of old defended by water around), yet (its inhabitants) shall flee. Nineveh then totally disappears from history; it never rose again. Lucian of Samosara near the Euphrates asserts none in his day even knew where Nineveh stood. ) connects Niniu (Nineveh) with Naharaima or Naharaim or Mesopotamia. "Witchcrafts" and "whoredoms" in connection with Nineveh's worship are denounced by Nahum 3:4. "...
The northwestern palace of Nineveh has the longest inscription; it records concerning Sardanapalus II. Solomon's temple and palace, with grand hall and chambers, paneled with slabs sculptured with trees, the upper part of the walls painted in various colors, the winged cherubim carved all round, the flowers and pomegranates, correspond to the Nineveh palaces in a great measure. Silk, blue clothes, and embroidered work were traded in by Nineveh's merchants (Ezekiel 27:23-24; Nahum 3:16)
Jonah - The mention of Nineveh's being "an exceeding great city" implies it was written before the Assyrian inroads had made them know too well its greatness. a real miracle typifying the like event in His own history, and assumes the prophet's execution of his commission to Nineveh; "the men of Nineveh repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold a greater than Jonah is here. " The miracle is justified by the crisis then in the development of the kingdom of God, when Israel by impenitence was about to fall before Assyria, and God's principle of righteous government needed to be exhibited in sparing Nineveh through the preaching of Jonah, spared himself after living entombment. It seemed strange to Kimchi that this book is in the canon, as its only prophecy concerns Nineveh, a pagan city, and does not mention Israel, of whom all the other prophets prophesy. He felt repugnance to deliver the Lord's warning to Nineveh ("cry against it," Jonah 1:2), whose destruction he desired, not their repentance. Instinctively Jonah shrank from delivering a message which might eventuate in Nineveh being spared, the city by which Israel was to suffer. His desire was that Nineveh's sudden overthrow, like Sodom's, might produce the effect which his words failed to produce, to rouse Israel from impenitence. God spares the prayerful penitent: (1) the pagan sailors, (2) Jonah, (3) Nineveh. Jonah was a type to Nineveh and Israel of death following sin, and of resurrection on repentance; preeminently of Christ's death for sin and resurrection by the Spirit of God (Matthew 12:40). Jehovah's next message (more definite and awful than the former) was faithfully delivered by Jonah: "yet 40 days and Nineveh shall be destroyed. Guilty Jonah, saved from his living tomb, gave a ray of hope to guilty Nineveh. God granted to Nineveh, however, a double mercy: (1) that the people repented immediately after threatening, (2) that pardon immediately followed repentance. ...
Their deep reverence for their gods (as appears from their inscriptions), as well as Jonah's deliverance (which was known to them, Luke 11:30), and probably his previous prophecy which had been fulfilled, of Israel's deliverance under Jeroboam II from Syria with which Nineveh had been long warring, all made them ready to heed his message. ...
The end of his commission had not failed, namely, leading Nineveh to repentance. If Nineveh had been the prominent object with him he would have rejoiced at the result. But Jonah regarded Nineveh's destruction by God's judgment as likely to startle Israel out of its apostate security, heightened by its prosperity under Jeroboam II. Moreover, Nineveh was the foretold (Hosea 9:3; Hosea 11:5; Hosea 11:11; Amos 5:27) executioner of God's coming judgment on Israel. Nineveh's destruction, in Jonah's view, meant Israel's safety. But God's plan was by pagan Nineveh's example to teach the covenant people Israel how inexcusable is their impenitence; Israel must, if she continue impenitent, go down, and pagan Assyria rise over her. Hope to the penitent however sunken, condemnation to the impenitent however elevated in privileges, are the lessons our Lord draws from Nineveh (Matthew 12:41). ...
God's pathetic and condescendingly touching appeal winds up the book; God's tender accents are the last that reach the ear, the abruptness of the close making them the more impressive "thou hast had pity on the gourd for the which thou hast not laboured, neither madest it grow; which came up in a night and perished in a night; and should not I spare Nineveh, that great city, wherein are more than six score thousand persons (120,000 children under four, Deuteronomy 1:39) that cannot discern between their right hand and their left hand (giving a total, if the children be a fifth, of 600,000 population), and also much cattle?" God saw the root of faith in Jonah, therefore corrected his perverse self will by an appropriate discipline. ...
Jonah's figurative gourd, Israel's preservation through Nineveh's destruction, though not selfish, was self-willed
Jonah - After three days, typical of our Savior's stay in the tomb, the fish cast Jonah out upon the shore; the word of the Lord a second time directed him to go to Nineveh, and he obeyed. See Nineveh
Adrammelech - Son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, Isaiah 37:38 ; 2 Kings 19:37 , who, upon returning to Nineveh after his fatal expedition against Hezekiah, was killed by his two sons, Adrammelech and Sharezer, through fear, according to Jewish tradition, of being sacrificed to his idol Nisroch
Jonah - It is chiefly interesting from the two-fold character in which he appears, (1) as a missionary to heathen Nineveh, and (2) as a type of the "Son of man
Holofernes - According to the Book of Judith, Holofernes was the general entrusted by Nehuchadnezzar, ‘king of Nineveh,’ with the task of wreaking vengeance on ‘all the earth’ ( Jdt 2:1 ; Jdt 2:4 )
Walls - (Luke 6:48 ) ...
A feature of some parts of Solomon's buildings, as described by Josephus, corresponds remarkably to the method adopted at Nineveh of incrusting or veneering a wall of brick or stone with slabs of a more costly material, as marble or alabaster
Sennacherib - Hezekiah, king of Judah, having refused to pay him tribute, though he afterward submitted, he invaded Judea with a great army, took several forts, and after repeated, insolent, and blasphemous messages, besieged Jerusalem; but his army being suddenly smitten with a pestilence, which cut off a hundred and eighty-five thousand in a single night, he returned to Nineveh, where he was murdered in the temple of Nisroch by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer, and was succeeded by his other son, Esar-haddon, 2 Kings 19:7 ; 2 Kings 19:13 ; 2 Kings 19:37
Bittern - Nineveh and Babylon became a possession for "the bittern" and other wild birds, Isaiah 14:23 34:11 Zephaniah 2:14
Rehoboth - Usually placed near to Nineveh, but see No
Nineveh - , Nimrod]'>[1] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh. 633 the Assyrian empire began to show signs of weakness, and Nineveh was attacked by the Medes, who subsequently, about B. Other cities which had perished, as Palmyra, Persepolis, and Thebes, had left ruins to mark their sites and tell of their former greatness; but of this city, imperial Nineveh, not a single vestige seemed to remain, and the very place on which it had stood was only matter of conjecture. Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G. "The recent excavations," says Rawlinson, "have shown that fire was a great instrument in the destruction of the Nineveh palaces. Calcined alabaster, charred wood, and charcoal, colossal statues split through with heat, are met with in parts of the Nineveh mounds, and attest the veracity of prophecy. " ...
Nineveh in its glory was (Jonah 3:4 ) an "exceeding great city of three days' journey", i. These four great masses of ruins, with the whole area included within the parallelogram they form by lines drawn from the one to the other, are generally regarded as composing the whole ruins of Nineveh
Nineveh, Ninevites - NINEVEH, NINEVITES. —The great city of Nineveh was on the eastern bank of the Tigris, opposite the modern city of Mosul. Then he received the second command to go to Nineveh. One of two conclusions is inevitable; either that there was a current Haggadic tradition about Jonah and Nineveh which was known to our Lord and His hearers but has been lost to us, or that the word ‘Ninevites’ has supplanted some other word in the original text of St. ’ ‘Ninevites (ἄνδρες Νινευεῖται, no article; Authorized and Revised Versions ‘the men of Nineveh’) shall stand up (as witnesses) in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it, because they repented in accordance with the message preached by Jonah (εἰς τὸ κήρυγμα Ἰωνᾶ),’ whereas this generation has not repented though a far greater than Jonah is preaching to it; ‘something greater (πλεῖον, cf
Assur - Its capital was Nineveh on the Tigris (a name meaning "arrow", implying "rapidity", but see Hiddekel). The chief cities were Nineveh, answering to the mounds opposite Mosul (Nebi Yunus and Koyunjik), Calah or Hulah, now Nimrud Asshur, now Kilek Sherghent; Sargina, now Khorsabad; Arbela, Arbil (G. Smith thinks the ridges enclosing Koyunjik and Nebi Yunus were only the wall of inner Nineveh, the city itself extending much beyond this, namely, to the mound Yarenijah. Nineveh was at first only a fort to keep the Babylonian conquests in that quarter; but even then a temple was founded to the goddess at Koyunjik. of Nineveh, rebuilt the temple; the region round Nineveh in the 19th century being under Assyria's rulers. In Herodotus Ninus the founder of Nineveh is the son of Belus, the founder of Babylon. city markets), Calah, Resen, and Nineveh (in the restricted sense), formed one great composite city, Nineveh (in the larger sense): Jonah 3:3. The monuments confirm Genesis 10:9-12, that the Shemitic Assyrians proceeding out of Babylonia founded Nineveh long after the Cushite foundation of Babylon. of the later capital; here therefore, at this city then called Asshur, not at Nineveh, was the early seat of government. ...
A royal library of clay tablets, numbering probably 10,000, was made by him at Nineveh, from which the British Museum has got its most precious treasures. Shalmaneser claims the victory, but he was forced, to return to Nineveh. But as it is impossible to identify Tiglath Pileser's predecessor Asshut-lush with Pul, and as Assyria was then in a depressed state through internal troubles, Pul was probably monarch at Babylon (Berosus, the Babylonian historian, calls him "king of the Chaldoeans") while Asshur-lush reigned at Nineveh. The magnificent palace of Sennacherib (the assailant of (See HEZEKIA) at Nineveh, as also the buildings erected by Sargon and Esarhaddon (the carrier away of Manasseh to Babylon, 2 Chronicles 33:11) show the power and wealth of Assyria at this period. succeeded, who was wholly given to the chase, and who decorated his palace walls at Nineveh with sculptures representing its triumphs. besieged Nineveh
Hiss - ...
Other nations and cities were also the objects of hissing: Edom (Jeremiah 49:17 ); Babylon (Jeremiah 50:13 ); Tyre (Ezekiel 27:36 ); and Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:15 )
Merodach-Baladan - Merodach-baladan continued to rebel against the Assyrians, coming out of exile more than once to oppose the kings of Nineveh
Zephaniah - He denounces the judgments of God against the idolatry and sins of his countrymen, and exhorts them to repentance; he predicts the punishment of the Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites, and Ethiopians, and foretels the destruction of Nineveh; he again inveighs against the corruptions of Jerusalem, and with his threats mixes promises of future favour and prosperity to his people; whose recall from their dispersion shall glorify the name of God throughout the world
Jonah - He relates that he was commanded by God to go to Ninevah, and preach against the inhabitants of that capital of the Assyrian empire; that, through fear of executing this commission, he set sail for Tarshish; and that, in his voyage thither, a tempest arising, he was cast by the mariners into the sea, and swallowed by a large fish; that, while he was in the belly of this fish, he prayed to God, and was, after three days and three nights, delivered out of it alive; that he then received a second command to go and preach against Nineveh, which he obeyed; that, upon his threatening the destruction of the city within forty days, the king and people proclaimed a fast, and repented of their sins; and that, upon this repentance, God suspended the sentence which he had ordered to be pronounced in his name. See Nineveh and See GOURD
Nineveh - ”...
Biblical References Nineveh is first mentioned in the Old Testament as one of the cities established by Nimrod (Genesis 10:9-12 ). the prophet's words (Nahum 3:7 ) “Nineveh is laid waste” were echoed by the Greek historian Herodotus who spoke of the Tigris as “the river on which the town of Nineveh formerly stood. Both moved to other sites they mistakenly believed to be Nineveh
Sennacherib - (See HEZEKIAH: ASSYRIA; Nineveh. Sennacherib was the first who made Nineveh the seat of government. He embanked with brick the Tigris, restored the aqueducts of Nineveh, and repaired a second palace at Nineveh on the mound of Nebi Yunns
Nimrod - According to one interpretation of Genesis 10:11 , he also founded Nineveh and the Assyrian empire; though this is usually understood to have been done by Asshur, when expelled by Nimrod from the land of Shinar, Micah 5:6
Bittern - The accompaniment of the desolation reigning in Babylon (Isaiah 14:23), Idumea (Isaiah 34:11), Nineveh (Zephaniah 2:14)
Esar-Haddon - He is said to have reigned twenty-nine or thirty years at Nineveh, and thirteen years at Babylon; in all forty-two years
Gourd - So Augustine, the Septuagint, and the Syriac explain the Hebrew qiqayown ; so modern Jews and Christians at Mosul (Nineveh). The region is one of great fertility (Layard, Nineveh and Babylon)
Ashurbanipal - The library was located in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh and was discovered in 1853. Babylon, under Nabopolassar, threw off Assyrian domination and Nineveh, the capital city, fell to the Medes in 612
na'Hum - It is, however, certain that the prophecy was written before the final downfall of Nineveh and its capture by the Medes and Chaldeans, cir. The subject of the prophecy is, in accordance with the superscription, "the burden of Nineveh," the destruction of which he predicts
Nimrod - From that land he went forth to Asshur and builded Nineveh. ...
If so (which his rebellious character makes likely) he abandoned Babel for a time after the miraculous confusion of tongues, and went and founded Nineveh. So Κiprit Αrba , "king of the four races," is an early title of the first monarchs of Babylon; Chedorlaomer appears at the head of four peoples; "king of the four regions" occurs in Nineveh inscriptions too; after Sargon's days four cities had the pre-eminence (Rawlinson, 1:435, 438,4 47). Tradition mentions a Belus king of Nineveh, earlier than Ninus; Shamas Iva (1860 B. (Layard, Nineveh 2:231)
Brick - Bricks appear to have been, in Egypt and at Nineveh, very generally sun-dried: for the Babylonian buildings they were more commonly burnt in kilns
Alabaster, - The noted sculptured slabs from Nineveh are made of this material
Cities - (Genesis 4:17 ) After the confusion of tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city
Unicorn - A fine bas-relief of this animal was uncovered recently by the excavations of Nineveh
Neco - Neco began to reign three years after the fall of Nineveh, the Assyrian capital
Walls - Archaeologists estimate that the walls of Nineveh were wide enough to drive three chariots abreast and the walls of Babylon were wide enough to drive six chariots abreast on the top
Tear (Verb) - ...
Nahum 2:12 (b) In this way we learn of the wrath of Nineveh and Assyria against the people of Israel
Astyages - These two princes besieged Saracus in Nineveh, took the city, and dismembered the Assyrian empire
no-Amon - This city was as mighty as Nineveh; yet judgment and ultimate desolation were threatened against it. It is evident from the words of Nahum that Thebes fell earlier than Nineveh
Nimrod - "And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar: out of that land he went forth to invade Assyria; and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resin, between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city," Genesis 10:8-12 . Though the main body of the Cushites was miraculously dispersed and sent by Providence to their destinations along the sea coasts of Asia and Africa, yet Nimrod remained behind, and founded an empire in Babylonia, according to Berosus, by usurping the property of the Arphaxadites in the land of Shinar; where "the beginning of his kingdom was Babel," or Babylon, and other towns: and, not satisfied with this, he next invaded Assur, or Assyria, east of the Tigris, where he built Nineveh, and several other towns. The marginal reading of our English Bible, "He went out into Assyria," or to invade Assyria, is here adopted in preference to that in the text: "And out of that land went forth Ashur, and builded Nineveh," &c. The meaning of the word Nineveh may lead us to his original name, Nin, signifying "a son," the most celebrated of the sons of Cush
Cart, Wagon - monarchy may be seen in the Assyrian representation of the siege of Lachish (Layard, Monuments of Nineveh , ii
Tigris - bank, opposite Mosui, were Nineveh and Calah, a little N
Ripe - ...
Nahum 3:12 (b) The figure used in this case describes the wickedness of Nineveh which made her ready for the judgment of GOD
Accad - of Mesopotamia, midway between Orfa and Nineveh
Bittern - Harmer, "that a word which occurs but three times in the Hebrew Bible should be translated by three different words, and that one of them should be otter!" Isaiah, prophesying the destruction of Babylon, says that "the Lord will make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water;" and Zephaniah 2:14 , prophesying against Nineveh, says that "the cormorant and bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it: their voice shall sing in the windows
Cities - After the confusion of tongues the descendants of Nimrod founded Babel, Erech, Accad and Calneh, in the land of Shinar, and Asshur, a branch from the same stock, built Nineveh, Rehoboth-by-the-river, Calah and Resen, the last being "a great city
Zephaniah - , and the destruction of Nineveh, foretold in Zephaniah 2:13 , occurred in 625 B
Pelican - One of the ‘unclean’ birds ( Leviticus 11:18 , Deuteronomy 14:17 ) inhabiting the ruins of Nineveh ( Zephaniah 2:14 , where AV Bitumen - of Nineveh (Layard, Nineveh and its Remains , II
Jonah - Jonah was directed to go and cry against that great city Nineveh; but instead of obeying, he fled from the presence of the Lord. Jonah now obeyed, and proclaimed "Yet forty days, and Nineveh shall be overthrown. See Nineveh. He said to God that he did well to be angry about the gourd, but God condescended to reason with him, saying that as Jonah had had pity on the gourd which cost him nothing; so God had had pity on Nineveh, a city with more than 120,000 inhabitants who knew not their right hand from their left, besides very much cattle
Esarhaddon - Having conquered Merodach Baladan's sons, Esarhaddon made Babylon directly subject to the Assyrian crown, instead of being governed by viceroys, and as king of each of the two empires resided by turns at Nineveh and Babylon. Scripture by a striking minute coincidence with truth represents Manasseh as carried to Babylon, not to the Assyrian capital Nineveh; which would seem inexplicable but for the above fact, revealed by the monuments. Saracus burnt himself in his palace, and Nineveh was taken
Nahum (2) - The allusions in Nahum indicate local acquaintance with Palestine (Nahum 1:4; Nahum 1:15; Nahum 2:2) and only general knowledge of Nineveh (Nahum 2:4-6; Nahum 3:2-3). , 100 years before the event foretold, namely, the overthrow of Nineveh by the joint forces of Cyaxares and Nabopolassar in the reign of Chyniladanus, 625 or else 603 B. "The burden of Nineveh. Nahum encourages his countrymen with the assurance that, alarming as their position seemed, assailed by the mighty foe which had already carried captive the ten tribes, yet that not only should the Assyrian fail against Jerusalem, but Nineveh and his own empire should fall; and this not by chance, but by Jehovah's judgment for their iniquities. Several phases of an idea are presented in the briefest sentences; as in the sublime description of God in the beginning, the overthrow of Nineveh, and that of No Amon
Signet - The impression of a signet ring on fine clay has recently been discovered among the ruins at Nineveh
Alexandria - It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness
Ahasuerus - known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh
Destitution: of London - We have no reason to congratulate ourselves on what we are doing, if we only think of the great work which still buried amid the ruins of Nineveh
Nineveh - Situated on the Tigris River in northern Mesopotamia, Nineveh was one of the great cities of the ancient world, and became capital of the powerful Assyrian Empire (Genesis 10:11-12; 2 Kings 19:36). (For map of Assyria and details of Nineveh’s history see ASSYRIA. This judgment fell in 612 BC, when the besieging Babylonians overcame Nineveh’s defences by bursting open the water gates, breaking through the wall and flooding the city (Nahum 2:6-8)
Esarhaddon - He united Babylonia to Assyria without reducing it to a mere province, and resided at Nineveh and sometimes at Babylon
Sell - Nineveh is accused of “selling” or “betraying” other nations ( Nahum - of Nineveh; and accordingly he is said to have lived there, a descendant of a member of the ten tribes who was deported in b. The second chapter is a swift and vivid description of the siege of Nineveh, its capture and sack, with the complete desolation that followed. The cause of destruction is to be found in the diplomatic barlotry, whereby nations and races had been lured and sold; and so richly merited will be the woe, that none will be left or disposed to pity or bemoan Nineveh ( Nahum 3:7 ). This plea is followed by the statement that such a literary form points to a late origin; and consequently the prologue is held to have been composed or constructed in the post-exilic period, and prefixed as an appropriate Introduction to the oracle of Nahum on account of its expression of the general principle of God’s avenging justice, of which the drama of Nineveh was supposed to afford a striking illustration. Vividness and force, severity towards sin, fervent confidence in God, are features of all three chapters, which are further knit together by their theme, the first setting up God’s throne of judgment and announcing His sentence on Nineveh, the others portraying the execution of that sentence. 664 663, but before the fall of Nineveh in b. After the death of Ashurbanipal the Medes rapidly grew in strength, and laid siege to Nineveh, but were called away by an invasion of their own country; and the city was spared for nearly twenty years. 191) that Nahum is neglected by the Bible-reader, as though the story of Nineveh had little connexion with the progress of the Kingdom of God, and were merely a complete and isolated fact of the past with no relation to present needs. For Nahum, Nineveh fills up the whole canvas
Assyr'ia, as'Shur, - was a great and powerful country lying on the Tigris, (Genesis 2:14 ) the capital of which was Nineveh. --The Mesopotamian researches have rendered it apparent that the original seat of government was not at Nineveh, but at Kileh-Sherghat, on the right bank of the Tigris. Under Sargon the empire was as great as at any former era, and Nineveh became a most beautiful city. The most important of them is the finding of the stone tablets or books which formed the great library at Nineveh, founded by Shalmaneser B
Races - North Semites : ( a ) Babylonians (Shinar, Accad, Bahel, Erech); ( b ) Assyrians (Asshur, Nineveh, Calah); ( c ) Aramæans (Syrians); ( d ) Canaanitish peoples (1) Ammonites, (2) Amorites, (3) Canaanites, (4) Edomites, (5) Hivites, (6) Israelites, (7) Jebusites, (8) Moabites, (9) Phœnicians (Tyre, Sidon, Arvad, etc
Hoshea - The alliance did him no good; it was revealed to the court of Nineveh by the Assyrian party in Ephraim, and Hoshea was immediately seized as a rebellious vassal, shut up in prison, and apparently treated with the utmost Indignity
Omri - It appears, under the name of Beth-Omri, on the stone tablets recently exhumed by Layard from the ruins of Nineveh
Hoshe'a - The alliance did him no good; it was revealed, to the court of Nineveh by the Assyrian party in Ephraim, and Hoshea was immediately seized as a rebellious vasal, shut up in prison, and apparently treated with the utmost indignity
Joannes (509), Monk - of Nineveh, stated that Joannes had been a monk 70 years before his departure from Bêth-Haba; 30 years he had lived as a solitary, 40 with Jacobus as a coenobite
Assyria - Playfair, as the most probable:—"The founder of it was Ashur, the second son of Shem, who departed from Shinar, upon the usurpation of Nimrod, at the head of a large body of adventurers, and laid the foundations of Nineveh, where he resided, and erected a new kingdom, called Assyria, after his name, Genesis 10:11 . Several tributary princes afterward reigned in Nineveh; but we hear no more of the kings of Assyria, but of those of Babylon. Cyaxares, king of Media, assisted Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in the siege of Nineveh, which they took and destroyed, B. He began his reign at Nineveh, in the year of Nabonassar 42; and in the year 68 extended it over Babylon. Saosduchinus, after a reign of twenty years, was succeeded at Babylon, and probably at Nineveh also, by Chyniladon, in the year B. Chyniladon was either then or soon after succeeded at Nineveh by the last king of Assyria, called Sarac by Polyhistor. Nabopolassar being old, and Astyages dead, their sons Nebuchadnezzar and Cyaxares led the armies of the two nations against Nineveh, slew Sarac, destroyed the city, and shared the kingdom of the Assyrians. In the reign of Josiah, when Zephaniah prophesied, Nineveh and the kingdom of Assyria were standing; and their fall was predicted by that Prophet, Zephaniah 1:3 ; Zephaniah 2:13 . But in the third and fourth years of Jehoiakim, the successor of Josiah, the two conquerors having taken Nineveh, and finished their war in Assyria, prosecuted their conquests westward; and, leading their forces against the king of Egypt, as an invader of their right of conquest, they beat him at Carchemish, and took from him whatever he had recently taken from the Assyrians, 2 Kings 24:7 ; Jeremiah 46:2 ; "and therefore we cannot err," says Sir Isaac Newton, "above a year or two, if we refer the destruction of Nineveh, and fall of the Assyrian empire, to the third year of Jehoiakim," or the hundred and fortieth, or according to Blair, the hundred and forty-first year of Nabonassar; that is, the year B
Sennacherib - His great achievement was the creation of Nineveh as a metropolis of the Empire. He built the great palace of Kouyunjik and the great wall of Nineveh
Nineveh - With this description agrees that of the historian Diodorus Siculus, who says Nineveh was twenty-one miles long, nine miles broad, and fifty-four miles in circumference; that its walls were a hundred feet high, and so broad that three chariots could drive upon them abreast; and that it had fifteen hundred towers, each two hundred feet high. ...
Nineveh had long been the mistress of the East; but for her great luxury and wickedness, the prophet Jonah was sent, more than eight hundred years before Christ, to warn the Ninevites of her speedy destruction. Subsequent writers mention it but seldom, and as an unimportant place; so complete was its destruction, that for ages its site has been well-nigh lost, and infidels have even denied that the Nineveh of the Bible ever existed. Here, in fine, are the idols, kings, and warriors of Nineveh, in various scenes of worship, hunting, and war; fortresses attacked and taken; prisoners led in triumph, impaled, flayed, and otherwise tortured; and sometimes actually held by cords attached to hooks which pierce the nose or the lips, 2 Kings 19:28 Isaiah 37:29 , and having their eyes put out by the point of a spear, 2 Kings 25:7
Gourd - "It is grown in great abundance on the alluvial banks of the Tigris and on the plain between the river and the ruins of Nineveh
Tiglath-Pileser Iii. - He was the founder of what is called "the second Assyrian empire," an empire meant to embrace the whole world, the centre of which should be Nineveh
Osnappar - He is distinguished chiefly as the great conserver of the ancient Babylonian literature, whose rich and varied collections have come to us from his own library in Nineveh
Rasshopper - ...
Nahum 3:17 (a) The great men of Nineveh flourished in times of prosperity and peace
Gourd -
Kikayan only in ( Jonah 4:6-10 ) The plant which is intended by this word, and which afforded shade to the prophet Jonah before Nineveh, is the Ricinus commnunis , or castor-oil plant, which, a native of Asia, is now naturalized in America, Africa and the south of Europe
Gog - " It has been supposed to be the name of a district in the wild north-east steppes of Central Asia, north of the Hindu-Kush, now a part of Turkestan, a region about 2,000 miles north-east of Nineveh
Ararat - 900 they borrowed the cuneiform characters of Nineveh, and from this time we have inscriptions of a line of kings who at times contended with Assyria
Nebuchadrezzar - The fall of Nineveh gave Egypt a chance to reclaim Syria, and Pharaoh-Necho made an attempt to regain it
Scythians - ...
According to the Greek historian Herodotus, a Scythian attack forced the Medes to withdraw from an assault against Nineveh (apparently 626-620 B
Hide - ...
Nahum 3:11 (b) Probably this figure indicates that Nineveh was to be so completely destroyed that no one would ever be able to find her and to rebuild her as a city
Ahasue'Rus - [1] This first Ahasuerus is Cyaxares, the conqueror of Nineveh
Ahasuerus - The first Ahasuerus is Cyaxares, the conqueror of Nineveh, b
Gourd - Since, however, it is now known that in the vicinity of the ancient Nineveh, a plant of the gourd kind is commonly trained to run over structures of mud and brush, to form booths in which the gardeners may protect themselves from the terrible beams of he Asiatic sun, this goes far to show that this vine, called in the Arabic ker'a, is the true gourd of Jonah
to'Bit, Book of, - It is represented and completed shortly after the fall of Nineveh (B
Condemn - The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it
Empty - Nineveh is empty
Paradise - Earthly cities, Nineveh, Babylon, and Thebes, rested on mere force; Athens and Corinth on intellect, art, and refinement, divorced from morality; Tyre on gain; even Jerusalem on religious privileges more than on love, truth, righteousness, and holiness of heart before God
Assyria - Of these provinces, Adiabene was the most fertile and important; in it was situated Nineveh the capital; and the term Assyria, in its most narrow sense, seems sometimes to have meant only this province. See Nineveh
Jonah, Theology of - Jonah's audience is called "the men of Nineveh, " not "Assyrians. The king of Nineveh is nameless, as is the captain of the ship. In Nineveh God saw their deeds not their nationality (4:10). Jonah is extremely happy as he watches to see what will happen in Nineveh (4:6). ...
One who is truly penitent must, like the king of Nineveh, remove all symbols of personal sovereignty and abdicate the throne to acknowledge the total lordship of God (3:6)
Nahum, Theology of - After all, the prophet exults in the violent downfall of the city of Nineveh and the death of its inhabitants. , the year Nineveh fell to the invading army made up of Babylonians and Medes. ...
This representation of the fall of the city evokes a series of taunts and woes directed toward Nineveh. Nineveh is as "good as dead. Nineveh feels invulnerable, but then so did Thebes and look what happened to that bastion of Egyptian strength (3:8-10). Nineveh's fortresses are "ripe figs" about to be eaten and her troops are like women
Sennacherib - Sennacherib returned with all speed to Nineveh, and turned his arms against the nations south of Assyria, and afterwards towards the north. ...
A most remarkable confirmation of the above Bible history has been found in the long buried ruins of ancient Nineveh. See Nineveh, NISROCH, SHALMANESER, and SO
Euphrates And Tigris Rivers - Nineveh, the ancient capital of the Assyrian Empire, was located on its east bank
Lachish - Sennacherib’s Lachish campaign is commemorated by a sculpture from Nineveh, now in the British Museum
Sennacherib - He seems to have been the first who fixed the seat of government permanently at Nineveh, which he carefully repaired and adorned with palaces and splendid buildings
So - A singular fact has been brought to light by the recent explorations at Nineveh, corroborating the Scripture record the more forcibly, because unexpected and direct
Architecture - " To the race of Shem is attributed (Genesis 10:11,12,22 ; 11:2-9 ) the foundation of those cities in the plain of Shinar, Babylon Nineveh and others
Assyria - Nineveh was destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians, and Assyria became a province of these countries
Pul (2) - Assyrian records make no mention of Pul; but Berosus mentions Pul a Chaldoean king exactly at this time, while Assbur-lush was reigning at Nineveh
Hezekiah - Assyrian annals of Sennacherib discovered at Nineveh agree with this account
Aqueducts - ) brought water into Nineveh from the river Gomel
Lachish - It was taken by Sennacherib, and among the slabs discovered at Nineveh is one representing the king sitting on his throne, with captives from Lachish kneeling before him, while his troops, passing in review, show the spoils they have taken
Cherub, Cherubim - the sphinx, the winged bulls and lions of Nineveh, etc
Image - See Nineveh
Palace - Solomon's palace is illustrated by those of Nineveh and Persepolis lately discovered. At Nineveh, on the eight feet high alabaster wainscoting were sculptured men and animals (Ezekiel 23:14), whereas the second commandment restrained the Jews from such representations
Ashtoreth - , Ishtar of Nineveh, Ishtar of Kidmuru (temple at Nineveh), and Ishtar of Arbela, were especially worshipped. 1800) aptly calls ‘queen of the gods, into whose hands are delivered the commands of the great gods, lady of Nineveh, daughter of Sin, sister of Shamash, who rules all kingdoms, who determines decrees, the goddess of the universe, lady of heaven and earth, who hears petitions, heeds sighs; the merciful goddess who loves justice
Jonah - There is no mention in Kings of any connexion of Jonah with Assyria, but it is quite possible that the memory of a visit to Nineveh was preserved by tradition or in some lost historical work. Book of Jonah...
(1) Analysis...
Jonah, the son of Amittai, is commanded by Jahweh to go to Nineveh and announce there impending judgment (Jonah 1:1 f. He is then cast by the fish on the land at a place not specified ( Jonah 2:10 ), is commanded to discharge the neglected duty, goes to Nineveh and delivers his message over a third of the city ( Jonah 3:1-4 ). Since Nineveh is clearly referred to as no longer standing: ‘Now Nineveh was an exceeding great city’ ( Jonah 3:3 ), the terminus a quo cannot be placed earlier than about b. 600 (fall of Nineveh b. The anonymous reference to the Assyrian king, and perhaps the description of him as ‘the king of Nineveh’ ( Jonah 3:6 ), suggests a considerable interval between Assyrian times and the composition of the book
Assyria, History And Religion of - The foundation of other Assyrian cities, notably Calah and Nineveh, appears in Genesis 10:11-12 . Sennacherib's conquest of Lachish is shown in graphic detail in carved panels from his palace at Nineveh. The ancient city of Nineveh was rebuilt as the new royal residence and Assyrian capital. Plans for revolt began immediately; but Assyrian officers got wind of the plot, captured the rebels, and sent them to Nineveh. The combined armies of the Babylonians and the Medes laid siege to Nineveh. And all who look on you will shrink from you and say, Wasted is Nineveh; who will bemoan her? whence shall I seek comforters for her? There is no assuaging your hurt, your wound is grievous. Ishtar, the Canaanite Astarte/Ashtaroth (Judges 10:6 ; 1 Samuel 7:3-4 ; 1 Kings 11:5 ), was very popular as the “Queen of Heaven” (Jeremiah 7:18 ; Jeremiah 44:17-19 ,Jeremiah 44:17-19,44:25 ) and served as the patron goddess of Nineveh
Immorality - In addition, the sinfulness of Tyre (Isaiah 23:17 ) and Nineveh (Nahum 3:4 ) are portrayed in this manner
No - In grandeur and extent it can only be compared to Nineveh
Syria - The third, and to us most interesting, period is that during which the kings of Assyria were dominant over the plains of Syria; when Tyre, Sidon, Ashdod, and Jerusalem bowed beneath the conquering armies of Shalmaneser, Sargon, and Sennacherib; and when at last Memphis and Thebes yielded to the power of the rulers of Nineveh and Babylon, and the kings of Assyria completed with terrible fulness the bruising of the reed of Egypt so clearly foretold by the Hebrew prophets
Seal - "The use of a signet-ring by the monarch has recently received a remarkable illustration by the discovery of an impression of such a signet on fine clay at Koyunjik, the site of the ancient Nineveh
Medes - 625 took a leading part in the destruction of Nineveh
Sepharvaim - Here probably was a library, similar to that found at Nineveh, and which has been in part deciphered by G
Ashes - We find it adopted by Job 2:8 ; by many Jews when in great fear, Esther 4:3 ; and by the king of Nineveh, Jonah 3:6
Chald a - For further notices see Babylon, Assyria, and Nineveh
jo'Nah - Having already, as it seems, prophesied to Israel, he was sent to Nineveh
Isaacus Ninivita, Anchorite And Bishop - Matthew at Nineveh. Isaac's fame as an anchorite became so great that he was raised to the bishopric of Nineveh, which, however, he resigned on the very day of his consecration, owing to an incident which convinced him that his office was superfluous in a place where the gospel was little esteemed
Media - This monarch entered into an alliance with the king of Babylon, and invaded Assyria, capturing and destroying the city of Nineveh (B
Lachish - " (See Nineveh
City - The later dates assigned to the building of Nineveh, Babylon, etc. But Nineveh's admitted of chariots passing, and had large parks and gardens within (Nahum 2:4)
Bruise - ...
Nahum 3:19 (b) This word is used to describe the permanent and deep-seated wickedness in the hearts of the men of Nineveh which caused GOD to utterly destroy the city
Zephaniah, the Book of - Motive to it: God's coming judgments on Israel's foes, the Philistines, Moabites, Ammonites (the land of which three nations the remnant of Jehovah's people shall possess), Ethiopians, and Nineveh, which shall be a desolation;...
"He will famish all the gods of the earth (by destroying the nations worshipping them), and men shall worship Him" each in his own house (Zephaniah 2:4-15)
Jonah - The title “king of Nineveh” (3:6) seems to imply that the city was the capital of Assyria, which it became only at the end of the eighth century. The book's extraordinary features—the seemingly exaggerated size of Nineveh (3:3); Jonah's survival with a song in the fish's interior, digestive juices notwithstanding; and the suddenly appearing/disappearing plant (4:6,7)—are meant to rivet the hearers' attention and to enhance the purpose of the book
Assyria - Nineveh became its capital. He beautified Nineveh and carried his arms in various directions. 606 Nineveh was taken and destroyed. (Sarakos) ?...
Fall of Nineveh ? 606...
The Assyrians were idolaters: from the inscriptions the names of hundreds of gods can be gathered
Medes - Finally he captured Nineveh 625 B. (See Nineveh; ASSYRIA. ...
Cyaxares after taking Nineveh tried to extend his empire even beyond Assyria's boundary, the Halys, to the Aegean Sea
Sennach'Erib, - Seems to have been the first who fixed the seat of government permanently at Nineveh, which he carefully repaired and adorned with splendid buildings
Assyria - A great empire of western Asia, founded at a very early date probably the oldest on the Euphrates, and is traced to Asshur, Genesis 10:10-11, who built Nineveh, Rehoboth (?), Calah, and Resen. Babylon is older than Nineveh; it was the beginning of Nimrod's empire, but not content with the settlements he had acquired, he invaded the country called Asshur from the son of Shem, and there founded cities afterwards most famous. ), its capital, and Media (Mada), with Ecbatana (Agamtanu = Achmetha, Ezra 6:2), its capital, and Armenia (Urartu = Ararat, 2 Kings 19:37), and the land of the Hittites (Chatti), who, we thus learn, as well as from the Egyptian inscriptions, had their chief seat far to the north of Damascus—Carchemish (Gargamish), their capital, being on the Euphrates, not far from the latitude of Nineveh (modern Jerabis). , Nineveh and Assyria push into Hebrew territory
Hezekiah - " Sennacherib fled with the shattered remnant of his forces to Nineveh, where, seventeen years after, he was assassinated by his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer (2 Kings 19:37 )
Damascus - The kingdom of Syria remained a province of Assyria till the capture of Nineveh by the Medes (B
Cush (2) - Nimrod's kingdom began with Babel or Babylon, from whence "he went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh" (Genesis 10:11 margin)
Medes, Media - In the later years of the Assyrian empire they regained their independence, and under their king, Cyaxares, who had formed an alliance with the rising Chaldæan power, they destroyed the city of Nineveh (b
Prophecy - ...
There is in like manner a large number of prophecies relating to those nations with which the Jews came into contact, as Tyre (Ezekiel 26:3-5,14-21 ), Egypt (Ezekiel 29:10,15 ; 30:6,12,13 ), Ethiopia (Nahum 3:8-10 ), Nineveh (Nahum 1:10 ; 2:8-13 ; 3:17-19 ), Babylon (Isaiah 13:4 ; Jeremiah 51:7 ; Isaiah 44:27 ; Jeremiah 50:38 ; 51:36,39,57 ), the land of the Philistines (Jeremiah 47:4-7 ; Ezekiel 25:15-17 ; Amos 1:6-8 ; Zephaniah 2:4-7 ; Zechariah 9:5-8 ), and of the four great monarchies (Daniel 2:39,40 ; 7:17-24 ; 8:9 )
Riblah - From Riblah the roads were open by the Euphrates to Nineveh, or by Palmyra to Babylon, by the S
Cedar - ...
The Nineveh inscriptions state that the palaces were in part constructed of cedar; this proves on microscopic examination to be yew; so that by "cedar of Lebanon" the wood of more than one tree is meant, the pine cedar, Scotch fir, yew, deodara
Hart - The deer is represented on the slabs at Nineveh, and seems to have abounded anciently in Syria, though not there now
Lachish - This was graphically recorded in a large and elaborate bas relief on the walls of the royal palace in Nineveh
Josiah - Nineveh was falling, if not already fallen. the Medes attacked Nineveh. , the Medes, Babylonians, and Susianians destroyed Nineveh and divided the empire
Cush - Nahum used this historical example to pronounce doom on Nineveh, the capital of Assyria (Nahum 3:9 )
Babylon (2) - At the fall of Nineveh, b
Tigris - The Tigris is rarely mentioned in the Bible, though it features as the river on which Assyria’s capital, Nineveh, was built (Nahum 2:6-8; cf. Nahum 3:8; see Nineveh)
Mourning - Penitent mourning was often expressed by fasting, so that the words are interchanged as synonymous (Matthew 9:15), and the day of atonement, when they "afflicted their souls," is called "the fast" (Acts 27:9; Leviticus 23:27; Israel, 1 Samuel 7:6; Nineveh, Jonah 3:5; the Jews when hereafter turning to Messiah, Zechariah 12:10-11)
Book - Many such tablets have been found in the excavations made at Nineveh, Babylon and other places
Foot - See Nineveh
Palace - The recent discoveries at Nineveh have enabled us to understand many of the architectural details of this palace, which before they were made were nearly wholly inexplicable
Mouth - ...
Nahum 3:12 (b) By this we understand that Nineveh would become an easy prey to an invading army, who would destroy her inhabitants and carry away her possessions. The eater is the enemy that shall come to conquer Nineveh
Sennacherib - All these things were brought to me at Nineveh, the seat of my government
Sargon - He records that he thoroughly repaired the walls of Nineveh, which he raised to be the first city of the empire; and that near it he built the palace and town (Khorsabad) which became his chief residence, Dursargina; from it the Louvre derived its series of Assyrian monuments
Laver - Layard describes similar vessels at Nineveh, of smaller size
Ahasuerus - The Graecised form is Cyaxares; king of Media, conqueror of Nineveh; began to reign 634 B
Armour - ' These were raised a little above the head, as may be seen by some of the sculptures from Nineveh
Fast, Fasting - When Nineveh was threatened with destruction the king humbled himself, proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth: every one was to cry mightily to God, and put away his evil
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - He is sometimes confused with Isaacus of Nineveh
Book - Large libraries of this character have been round in the ruins of Nineveh, Babylon, and adjacent cities
Condemn - For instance, Jesus said the men of Nineveh would condemn His own unrepentant generation (Matthew 12:41 ); James warned the brethren that teachers were subject to greater criticism (James 3:1 ); and Paul urged Titus to use healthful speech in his teaching to avoid criticism (Titus 2:8 )
Babylonia - After the building of Nineveh by Ninus, 1237 B
Queen (2) - Some have supposed that our Lord refers to a woman as the correlative to the men of Nineveh previously spoken of
Hezekiah, King of Judah - Of the Assyrians 185,000 were slain in one night: Sennacherib returned to Nineveh and was subsequently killedby two of his own sons
Temple - The hekal with its 15 usages as “palace” refers to the palaces of Ahab (1 Kings 21:1), of the king of Babylon (2 Kings 20:18), and of Nineveh ( Manasseh - It was probably Sargon or Esar-haddon, king of Assyria, who sent Tartan into Palestine, and who taking Azoth, attacked Manasseh, put him in irons, and led him away, not to Nineveh, but to Babylon, of which Esar-haddon had become master, and had reunited the empires of the Assyrians and the Chaldeans
Cry - ...
Arise, go to Nineveh, and cry against it
Lion - ...
Nineveh is compared to a lion's den, full of remains of its prey, appropriately, as lion figures abounded in the Assyrian palaces, 1618420103_77 "where is," etc
Babylon, Kingdom of - ...
When Nineveh was destroyed, B
Fierceness - They are a ‘faithless and perverse generation,’ or ‘a wicked and adulterous generation’ seeking after a visible and tangible sign of spiritual things (Matthew 16:4); they shall lose the Kingdom of God (Matthew 21:43); the heathen of Nineveh shall show themselves better judges of eternal realities (Luke 11:32); there is more hope for Tyre and Sidon (Luke 10:14) or for Sodom and Gomorrah than for the spiritually blind (Matthew 10:15); ‘Ye are of your father the devil’ (John 8:44)
Fasting - The Heathens sometimes fasted: the king of Nineveh, terrified by Jonah's preaching, ordered that not only men, but also beasts, should continue without eating or drinking; should be covered with sackcloth, and each after their manner should cry to the Lord, Jonah 3:5-6
Book - Nahum’s prophecy begins with this introduction: “The burden of Nineveh
Repent - As God’s prophet preached to Nineveh, “… God saw their works, that they turned from their evil way; and God repented of the evil, that he had said that he would do unto them …” (Jonah 3:10)
Medes, me'Dia - Cyaxares, the third Median monarch, took Nineveh and conquered Assyria B
Jonah - —A prophet, the story of whose mission to Nineveh is related in the Book of Jonah, and who is probably to be identified with the Jonah of 2 Kings 14:25; referred to by our Lord twice at least (see below) in the Gospels (Matthew 12:39-41 || Luke 11:29-32 and Matthew 16:4). The men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah; and behold, a greater than Jonah is here. Again, the verse concerning the rising up of the men of Nineveh in the judgment follows that referring to the queen of the south instead of preceding it as in Mt
Tyre - On the decline of Nineveh, Tyre again proclaimed her independence (b. 630), and after Nineveh fell (b
Assyria - (See Nineveh; BABYLON
Beast - He regarded the "much cattle" of Nineveh (Jonah 4:11)
Gate - In front of the larger edifices in the remains at Persepolis and Nineveh (Khorsabad) are propylaea, or "porches," like that "for Solomon's throne where he might judge, even the porch of judgment, covered with cedar from one side of the floor to the other" (1 Kings 7:7)
House - The perishable nature of the material explains why, with the exception of the royal palaces, which were built of stone, nearly all Nineveh has completely vanished. If Layard’s rather doubtful theory is correct (Nineveh and its Remains, London, 1849, vol. Layard, Nineveh and its Remains, do
Gourd - The Christians and Jews of Mosul (Nineveh) say, it was not the keroa whose shadow refreshed Jonah, but a sort of gourd, el-kera, which has very large leaves, very large fruit, and lasts but about four months
Babylon - After the fall of Nineveh, b
Tiglath-Pileser - When at home, Tiglath-pileser resided in Nineveh or in Caiah, where he restored the central palace in Hittite style, decorating it with bas-reliefs and the annals of his reign
Fig (Tree) - ...
Nahum 3:12 (b) This is a type of the curse that is to come upon Nineveh
Nebuchadnezzar - ) His father Nabo-polassar having overthrown Nineveh, Babylon became supreme. of the various kingdoms wheresoever he turned his arms, Egypt, Nineveh, Arabia, Phoenicia, Tyre
Golden Rule - His compassion for people is seen in his love for the aliens among Israel, pagan nations such as Nineveh, and sinful persons such as Gomer in Hosea
ba'Bel - On the fall of Nineveh, B
Fast, Fasting - The same formula appears in Ezra 8:21 and Jonah 3:5 , in the last instance initiated by the people of Nineveh as an expression of their repentance at Jonah's preaching
Chaldaea - The Kurds still in Kurdistan between Nineveh and Media may be akin to the ancient Casdim
Scythian - 103-105) of a great victory of the Scythians over Cyaxares and the Medes which compelled the latter to raise the siege of Nineveh
Kerygma - Thus the statement in both Matthew and Luke would mean that the men of Nineveh repented at the message of Jonah
Unconscious Faith - The first is that of the men of Nineveh, whose repentance on Jonah’s appearance among them is told in the Book of Jonah; the second is that of the Queen of the South, whose visit to Solomon’s court is picturesquely narrated in the Book of Kings. In the one case it is written, ‘The people of Nineveh believed God, and they proclaimed a fast’ (Jonah 3:5); in the other the queen says: ‘I believed not the words until I came … and, behold, the half was not told me’ (1 Kings 10:7)
Habakkuk - ...
Nineveh, Assyria's capital, fell in 612 B
Prophesy - Of course, prediction does enter the picture at times, such as in Nahum’s prediction of the fall of Nineveh ( Dibon - Moab is omitted in the list of Syrian independent states confederate with Benhadad of Damascus against Shalmaneser of Nineveh
No - Nahum (Nahum 3:8; Nahum 3:10) in the latter part of that reign speaks of her being already "carried away into captivity, her young children dashed in pieces at the top of all the streets, lots cast for her honourable men, and all her great men bound in chains," notwithstanding her having Ethiopia, Egypt, Put, and Lubim as "her strength and it was infinite," and makes her a warning to Nineveh
Vine - ...
In all respects, except in bearing fruit unto God, Israel was inferior to other nations, as Egypt, Nineveh, Babylon, in antiquity, extent, resources, military power, arts and sciences
Cosmopolitanism - ‘the men of Nineveh … the queen of Sheba shall rise up in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it’; Matthew 8:11 f
Prophets - Zephaniah, soon after the beginning of the reign of Josiah, and before the destruction of Nineveh
Preaching - In the OT ‘preaching’ is referred to explicitly in the case of Jonah’s preaching in Nineveh ( Jonah 3:2 )
Library - ) famous library at Nineveh have provided literary parallels to biblical stories such as the Gilgamesh Epic
Cattle - ...
Baqar were important members of an Israelite household ( Genesis 47:1 ), even being included in prayer and fasting by people of Nineveh (Jonah 3:7 )
Numbers as Symbols - Nineveh was given forty days for repentance
Beauty - ), the touching of the leper in the act of healing (Matthew 8:3), and the words of hope concerning Nineveh (Matthew 12:41) and Tyre (Luke 10:13 f
Scripture - The explorations made of late years in Nineveh and Babylon, Egypt and Palestine, have tended to confirm the credibility of Scripture in many hitherto disputed points. These instances could be multiplied many times, from the discoveries at Tanis, Lachish, Nineveh, Memphis, and from the recovery of inscriptions and letters, and from the mummies of the Pharaohs, of priests, and princes, almost without number
Gentiles (2) - On the other hand, the evil generation of whom the Pharisees were representatives, He declared should be condemned in the judgment by Gentiles, the men of Nineveh and the queen of Sheba (Matthew 12:41 f
Babel - So the monuments of Nineveh speak of the mounds of the palaces being planted with rows of fir trees. ...
He held his court alternately in Nineveh and Babylon, which explains the difficulty and shows the accurate propriety of the Scripture statement that Manasseh, king of Judah, was carried by the captains of the king of Assyria to Babylon (2 Chronicles 33:11). A new era begins with Nabopolassar, appointed ruler of Babylon by the last Assyrian king just when the Medes were making their final assault on Nineveh
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - While its upper flow is swift within narrow gorges, from Mosul and Nineveh southward its course was navigable and was extensively used in antiquity for transport. ...
The banks of the Tigris were dotted by some of the most important cities of antiquity: Nineveh, the capital of Assyria during the Assyrian Empire; Asshur, the original capital of Assyria; Opis (in the vicinity of Baghdad), the important commercial center of Neo-Babylonian and later times; Ctesihyphon, the capital of the Parthians and Sassanians; and Seleucia, capital of the Seleucid rulers of Mesopotamia
Dress - So the king of Nineveh (Jonah 3:6) laid aside his ample addereth for sackcloth
Mission(s) - God told him to go to Nineveh and call the people to repentance
Prophets, the - It may be premised that the burden of the prophets Obadiah, Jonah, and Nahum has special reference to Edom and to Nineveh, that is, to peoples that were always hostile to Israel
Ecbatana - It was situated on a gentle declivity, distant twelve stadia from Mount Orontes, and was in compass one hundred and fifty stadia, and, next to Nineveh and Babylon, was one of the strongest and most beautiful cities of the east
Archaeology And Biblical Study - About the middle of the nineteenth century, English archaeologists excavated portions of the city of Nineveh, capital of the ancient Assyrian Empire at the height of its power. Nineveh is mentioned often in the Old Testament and is featured prominently in two books, Jonah and Nahum. ...
Among the discoveries at Nineveh were two great palaces
Oracles - Because they were God's word, these pronouncements were true, even though they could be changed as in the case of Jonah's pronouncement over Nineveh (Jonah 3:4-9 )
Divination - In the Nineveh sculptures the king is represented with a cup in his right hand, his left hand resting on a bow, also two arrows in the right hand, possibly for divination
Captivity - ...
The apocryphal Tobit pictures the inner life of a Naphtalite family among Shalmaneser's captives at Nineveh
Babylon - ...
Sprawling ancient Babylon covered an area of nearly 1000 acres, making it the largest ancient settlement in Mesopotamia, some fifteen percent larger than Nineveh
Simple, Simplicity - He is a sign to them, as Jonah was to Nineveh
Babylon - He with Cyaxares (the Ahasuerus of Daniel 9:1 ) founder of the Median kingdom, attacked and took Nineveh, and put an end to the Assyrian rule
City - Babylon, Nineveh, Jerusalem, Athens, Rome, Alexandria, Venice, Florence, and the mediaeval cities all mark stages in the development of the higher culture of the race
Weights And Measures - Layard at Nineveh
Fulfillment - While fulfillment may be extended over an indefinite period of time, there are several occasions in Scripture in which a specific situation is being described, such as gestation and birth (Genesis 25:25 ; Job 39:1-2 ; Luke 1:57 ; 2:6 ), or the forty-day period of time announced by Jonah for the destruction of Nineveh (3:3), which was averted when the Ninevites repented
Judgment, Day of - "The men of Nineveh" and "The Queen of the South" will stand up and condemn Jesus' hearers at the day of judgment because they responded to the wisdom of Solomon and the preaching of Jonah and those hearers did not (Matthew 12:41-42 )
Angel - Tobit, who is thought to have resided in Nineveh some time before the captivity, mentions the angel Raphael, Tob_3:17 ; Tob_11:2 ; Tob_11:7 ; and Daniel, who lived at Babylon some time after Tobit, has taught us the names of Michael and Gabriel, Daniel 8:16 ; Daniel 9:21 ; Daniel 10:21
Jeremiah - see) had already celebrated Nineveh’s downfall in his splendid verses. Nineveh avoided capture by the Medes in 625 only at the expense of seeing her lands wasted and her dependencies stripped from her. It was not as the vassal of Nineveh, but in the assertion of his hereditary rights and as guardian of the old territory of Israel, that he challenged Pharaoh-necho, who was attempting to seize the lost western provinces of Assyria, to the fatal encounter of Megiddo in the year 608 ( 2 Kings 22:2 ; 2 Kings 23:15-20 , 2 Chronicles 35:20 )
Babylon, History And Religion of - In 612, with the help of the Medes, the Babylonians sacked the Assyrian capital Nineveh
Joel, Book of - The place of the book in the Canon is not conclusive, for the Book of Jonah, which was manifestly written after the fall of Nineveh, is also found in the former part of the collection of the Twelve, and comes before Micah, the earliest portions of which are beyond doubt much older
Devil - Ives, in his travels through Persia, gives the following curious account of devil-worship: "These people (the Sanjacks, a nation inhabiting the country about Mosul, the ancient Nineveh) once professed Christianity, then Mohammedanism, and last of all devilism
Divination - Nineveh is compared to a well-favoured harlot, the mistress of witchcrafts
Ezekiel - In 612, Nineveh surrendered to the Babylonians, marking the demise of the once great Assyrian power, although pockets of resistance held out for several years
Divination - Thompson, The Report of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon, 1900, also The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 1903-04
Palestine - At a distance had stood the great empires of the East, the Parthians having taken in His time the place of ancient Nineveh and Babylon. The eastern empires of Nineveh and Babylon were gone, and instead of them were those changing hosts of Persian and Parthian warriors who were soon to dispute the world with Rome
Ships And Boats - There are figures of such ships, with sharp beaks for ramming, in Layard’s History of Nineveh , and Sennacherib in his expedition against Merodach-baladan had ships manned by Tyrians
Law - ...
No museum possesses sculptured figures of Jewish antiquities such as are brought from Egypt, Nineveh, Babylon, Persepolis, Greece, and Rome
Eternal Punishment - The mention of the Cities of the Plain (Matthew 10:15) and that of the men of Nineveh (Matthew 12:41) are too incidental and indirect to yield any determining principle
Apocrypha - 100, so long after the life of Nebuchadrezzar as to have made him king of Nineveh, instead of Babylon
Music, Instruments, Dancing - An Assyrian inscription, praising the victory of the Assyrian king Sennacherib over King Hezekiah of Judah, lists male and female musicians as part of the tribute carried off to Nineveh
Temple - Unfortunately, however, no Assyrian temple has yet been exhumed of a nature to throw much light on this subject, and we are still forced to have recourse to the later buildings at Persepolis, or to general deductions from the style of the nearly contemporary secular buildings at Nineveh and elsewhere, for such illustrations as are available
Bible - ...
Yet it is to the Bible alone we have owed for ages almost all that is most certain of the history of Moab (since confirmed by the Moabite stone), of the Amorites, and even of Nineveh and Babylon
Leadership - Elisha took God's message to Syria (2 Kings 8 ), Jonah to Nineveh, and Ezekiel preached among the exiles in Babylon
Prophet - The prophecies concerning Ishmael, Nineveh, Tyre, Egypt, the four empires Babylon, Medo-Persia, Graeco-Macedonia, and Rome, were notoriously promulgated before the event; the fulfillment is dear; it could not have been foreseen by mere human sagacity
Manicheans - ; Lyde's Asian Mystery , and Layard's Nineveh , c
Hezekiah - On returning to Nineveh Sennacherib, according to Tobit 1:18, revenged himself on the Jews then in his power; but that apocryphal book makes him die 55 days afterward, whereas 17 years elapsed: see above
Forgiveness - God as righteous was compelled to bring judgment on Nineveh, but God as merciful sent Jonah to warn the city of the impending judgment
Evil - God's mercy to Nineveh displeased Jonah (4:1) because it embarrassed him; he felt its effects in losing face
Jerusalem - ...
It lay midway between the oldest civilized states; Egypt and Ethiopia on one hand, Babylon, Nineveh, India, Persia, Greece, and Rome on the other; thus holding the best vantage ground whence to act on heathendom
Prophecy - We see Nineveh so completely destroyed, that the place thereof is not and cannot be known; Babylon made 'a desolation for ever, a possession for the bittern, and pools of water;' Tyre become 'like the top of a rock, a place for fishers to spread their nets upon;' and Egypt, 'a base kingdom, the basest of the kingdoms, ' and still tributary and subject to strangers
Paul - " Like Jonah, the outcast runaway, when penitent, was made the messenger of repentance to guilty Nineveh
Proverbs - Damis of Nineveh, the Boswell of Apollonius of Tyana, was once sneered at for the diligence wherewith he recorded his master’s sayings and doings, taking note of every trifle
Noah - In the royal library of the old palace of Nineveh were found about 20,000 inscribed clay tablets, now in the British Museum
Magi - Thompson, Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon; W
Terah - What were Babylon, and Nineveh, and Damascus, and Salem, and all Egypt, to this western world and to this nineteenth century after Christ! What were all the science of Chaldea, and all the lore of Egypt, but the merest rudiments and first elements of that splendid sunshine of all manner of truth and opportunity which floods around us from our youth up! And as we are led on from school to school; and from author to author; and from preacher to preacher; and from one stage of intellectual and spiritual migration and growth to another; to what a stature, to what a breadth, and to what a height of faith, and knowledge, and love, and all manner of grace and truth may we not attain
Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy - In the meantime, before that eschatological moment, there would be a number of divine in-breakings on the historical scene in which the fall of cities such as Samaria, Damascus, Nineveh, Jerusalem, and Babylon would serve as harbingers or foreshadowings of God's final intrusion into the historical scene at the end of history
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - For instance, in 1618420104_36 our Lord says that no sign shall be given to the men of His own generation save the sign of Jonah; ‘for even,’ He adds, ‘as Jonah became a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of Man be to this generation … the men of Nineveh shall stand up in the judgment with this generation and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonah, and behold a greater than Jonah is here
Authority of Christ - He is reproaching an impenitent people, and He refers to the Book of Jonah for a great example of repentance, and that on the part of a heathen race; the men of Nineveh who repented will condemn His unrepentant contemporaries in the day of judgment
Egypt - They were all brought in chains to Nineveh, but Niku was sent back to Egypt with honour, and his son was appointed governor of Athribis