What does New Testament mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Chronology of the New Testament
CHRONOLOGY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT . In this article it is proposed first to examine the books of the NT, so as to determine as far as possible their relative chronology, that is, the length of time between the principal events narrated; and then to investigate the points of contact between the NT and secular history, and thus to arrive at the probable dates of the incidents in the former. It must, however, he remembered that the Gospels and Acts are not biographies or histories in the modern sense of the terms. The writers had a religious object; they wished to teach contemporary Christians to believe ( John 20:31 ), and were not careful to chronicle dates for the benefit of posterity. Sir W. Ramsay points out ( St. Paul the Traveller 6 , p. 18) that a want of the chronological sense was a fault of the age, and that Tacitus in his Agricola is no better (until the last paragraph) than the sacred writers. It must also be noted that reckoning in old times was inclusive. Thus ‘three years after’ ( Galatians 1:18 ) means ‘in the third year after’ (cf. Acts 19:8 ; Acts 19:10 with Acts 20:31 ); ‘three days and three nights’ ( Matthew 12:40 ) means ‘from to-day to the day after to-morrow’ ( Matthew 17:23 ). Cf. also Genesis 42:17 f.
I. Relative Chronology
1. Interval between our Lord’s birth and baptism . This is determined by Luke 3:23 to have been about 30 years, but the exact interval is uncertain. The RV [1] translates: ‘Jesus himself, when he began (lit. beginning) [2], was about thirty years of age,’ and so most moderns, though the word ‘beginning,’ standing by itself, is awkward; it perhaps denotes the real commencement of the Gospel, the chapters on the Birth and Childhood being introductory (Plummer). The difficulty of the phrase was early felt, for the Old Syriac and the Peshitta Syriac omit the participle altogether, and Clement of Alexandria ( Strom . i. 21) has merely ‘Jesus was coming to his baptism, being about,’ etc. The AV [3] , following Irenæus and also the Valentinians whom he was opposing, renders: ‘began to be about 30 years of age,’ which can mean only that Jesus was 29 years old. Irenæus ( Haer . II. xxii. 4 f.) says that Jesus was baptized ‘being 30 years old,’ having ‘not yet completed his 30th year,’ He ‘then possessing the full age of a teacher.’ The translation of AV [3] is judged to be grammatically impossible, though it is odd that the Greek-speaking Irenæus did not discover the fact, unless we are to suppose that his Latin translator misrepresents him. Let us, then, take the RV [1] translation; but what is the meaning of ‘about 30 years’? Turner (art. ‘Chronology of NT’ in Hastings’ DB [6] the most complete modern work on the subject in English) and Plummer ( St. Luke, in loc. ) think that any age from 28 to 32 would suit; but Ramsay, who remarks that St. Luke’s authority for his early chapters was clearly a very good one, and that he could not have been ignorant of the real age, thinks that the phrase must mean 30 plus or minus a few months. There seems to be some doubt as to the age when a Levite began his ministry at this time, as the age had varied; but we may follow Irenæus in thinking that 30 was the full age when a public teacher began his work. On this point, then, internal evidence by itself leaves us a latitude of some little time, whether of a few months or even of a few years.
2. Duration of the ministry . Very divergent views have been held on this subject. ( a ) Clement of Alexandria ( loc. cit. ), and other 2nd and 3rd cent. Fathers, the Clementine Homilies (xvii. 19, ‘a whole year’), and the Valentinians (quoted by Irenæus, ii, xxii. 1), applying ‘the acceptable year of the Lord’ ( Isaiah 61:2 ; cf. Luke 4:18 f.) literally to the ministry, made it last for one year only. The Valentinians believed that Jesus was baptized at the beginning, and died at the end, of His 30th year. A one-year ministry has also been advocated by von Soden ( EBi [7] , art. ‘Chronology’) and by Hort (see below). The latter excises ‘the passover’ from John 6:4 . This view is said to be that of the Synoptists, who, however, give hardly any indications of the passing of time. ( b ) The other extreme is found in Irenæus ( loc. cit. ), who held, as against the Valentinians, that the ministry lasted for more than ten years. He takes the feast of John 5:1 to be a Passover, but does not mention that of John 6:4 . He considers, however, that the Passovers mentioned in Jn. are not exclusive; that Jesus was a little less than 30 years old at His baptism, and over 40 when He died. This appears (he says) from John 8:56 f., which indicates one who had passed the age of 40; and moreover, Jesus, who came to save all ages, must have ‘passed through every age,’ and in the decade from 40 to 50 ‘a man begins to decline towards old age.’ He declares that this tradition came from ‘John the disciple of the Lord’ through ‘those who were conversant in Asia with’ him i.e. probably Papias; and that the same account had been received from other disciples. But here Irenæus almost certainly makes a blunder. For a 3rd cent. tradition that Jesus was born a.d. 9, was baptized a.d. 46, and died a.d. 58 at the age of 49, see Chapman in JThSt [7]3 viii. 590 (July, 1907). ( c ) Eusebius ( HE i. 10), followed as to his results provisionally by Ramsay ( Was Christ born at Bethlehem ? 3 , p. 212f.), makes the ministry last over three years (‘not quite four full years’), and this till lately was the common view. Melito ( c [9] . a.d. 160) speaks of Jesus working miracles for three years after His baptism ( Ante-Nic. Chr. Lib . xxii. p. 135). ( d ) Origen and others, followed by Turner ( op. cit. p. 409 f.), Sanday (art. ‘Jesus Christ’ in Hastings’ DB [6] , p. 610 ff.), and Hitchcock (art. ‘Dates’ in Hastings’ DCG [11] , p. 415 f.), allow a little more than two years for the ministry (‘Judas did not remain so much as three years with Jesus,’ c. Cels . ii. 12).
Indications of a ministry of more than a single year are found in the Synoptics; e.g. Mark 2:23 (harvest) Mark 6:39 (spring; ‘green grass’), for the length of the journeys of Mark 6:56 to Mark 10:32 shows that the spring of Mark 6:39 could not be that of the Crucifixion. Thus Mk. implies at least a two years’ ministry. In Lk. also we see traces of three periods in the ministry: (1) Mark 3:21 to Mark 4:30 , preaching in the wilderness of Judæa and in Nazareth and Galilee, briefly recorded; (2) Mark 4:31 to Mark 9:50 , preaching in Galilee and the North, related at length; (3) 9:51-end, preaching in Central Palestine as far as Jerusalem. Ramsay ( op. cit. p. 212) takes each of these periods as corresponding roughly to one year. In Jn. we have several indications of time: Mark 2:13 ; Mark 2:23 (Passover), Mark 4:35 (four months before harvest; harvest near), Mark 5:1 (‘a feast’ or ‘the feast’), Acts 28:11-141 (Passover, but see below), Mark 7:2 (Tabernacles, autumn), Mark 10:22 (Dedication, winter). In two cases ( Mark 5:1 , Mark 6:4 ) there is a question of text; in Mark 5:1 the reading ‘a feast’ is somewhat better attested, and is preferable on internal grounds, for ‘the feast’ might mean either Passover or Tabernacles, and since there would be this doubt, the phrase ‘the feast’ is an unlikely one. If so, we cannot use Mark 5:1 as an indication of time, as any minor feast would suit it. In Mark 6:4 Hort excises ‘the passover’ (Westcott-Hort, NT in Greek , App. p. 77 ff.). But this is against all MSS and VSS [12] , and rests only on the omission by Irenæus (who, however, merely enumerates the Passovers when Jesus went up to Jerusalem; yet the mention of Mark 6:4 would have added to his argument), and probably on Origen (for him and for others adduced, see Turner op. cit. p. 408); on internal grounds the omission is very improbable, and does not in reality reconcile Jn. and the Synoptics, for the latter when closely examined do, as we have seen, imply more than a single year’s ministry. The note of time in John 4:35 seems to point to (say) January (‘there are yet four months and then cometh the harvest’), while the spiritual harvest was already ripe (‘the fields … are white already unto harvest’), though Origen and others less probably take the former clause to refer to the spiritual, the latter to the material, harvest, which lasted from 15th April to 31st May (see Westcott, Com. in loc. ). We may probably conclude then that in the ministry, as related in Jn., there were not fewer than three Passovers, and that it therefore lasted (at least) rather more than two years. But did the Fourth Evangelist mention all the Passovers of the ministry? Irenæus thought that he mentioned only some of them; and though his chronology is clearly wrong, and based (as was that of his opponents) on a fanciful exegesis, Lightfoot ( Sup. Rel . p. 131) and Westcott ( Com . p. lxxxi.) are inclined to think that in this respect he may to a very limited extent be right. Turner, on the other hand, considers that the enumeration in Jn. is exclusive, and that the notes of time there are intended to correct a false chronology deduced from the Synoptics. On the whole we can only say that the choice apparently lies between a ministry of rather over two years, and one of rather over three years; and that the probability of the former appears to be slightly the greater.
3. Interval between the Ascension and the conversion of St. Paul . We have no certain internal evidence as to the length of this interval. Acts 2:46 f. may imply a long or a short time. We have to include in this period the spread of the Church among the Hellenists, the election of the Seven, and the death of Stephen, followed closely by St. Paul’s conversion. For this period Ramsay allows 2 1 / 2 Timothy 4 years, Harnack less than one year; but these conclusions come rather from external chronology (see II.) than from internal considerations. It is quite probable that in the early chapters of Acts St. Luke had not the same exact authority that he had for St. Paul’s travels, or even for his Gospel (see Luke 1:2 f.).
4. St. Paul’s missionary career . The relative chronology of St. Paul’s Christian life may be determined by a study of Acts combined with Galatians 1:18 ; Galatians 2:1 . Indications of time are found in Acts 11:26 ; Acts 18:11 ; Acts 19:8 ; Acts 19:10 ; Acts 20:6 ; Acts 20:16 ; Acts 20:31 ; Acts 21:1-5 ; Acts 21:27 ; Acts 24:1 ; Acts 24:11 ; Acts 24:27 ; Acts 25:1 ; Acts 25:6 ; Acts 27:9 ; Acts 27:27 ; Acts 28:7 ; 1618100881_59 ; Acts 28:17 ; Acts 28:30 . With these data we may reconstruct the chronology; but there is room for uncertainty (1) as to whether the visit to Jerusalem in Galatians 2:1 was that of Acts 11:30 or that of Acts 15:4 , and whether the ‘three years’ and ‘fourteen years’ of Galatians 1:18 ; Galatians 2:1 are consecutive (so Lightfoot, Rackham), or concurrent (so Ramsay, Turner, Harnack); (2) as to the length of the First Missionary Journey; and (3) as to the later journeys after the Roman imprisonment. If the ‘three years’ and ‘fourteen years’ are consecutive, a total of about 16 years (see above) is required for the interval between the conversion and the visit of Galatians 2:1 . But as the interval at Tarsus is indeterminate, and the First Journey may have been anything from one to three years, all systems of relative chronology can be made to agree, except in small details, by shortening or lengthening these periods. For a discussion of some of the doubtful points named see art. Galatians [13], § 3 , and for the details of the events see art. Acts of the Apostles, § 5 ff.
The following table, in which the year of St. Paul’s conversion is taken as 1, gives the various events. Ramsay’s calculation is taken as a basis, and the differences of opinion are noted.
1, 2. Conversion near Damascus, Acts 9:3 ; Acts 22:5 ; Acts 26:12 ; retirement to Arabia, Galatians 1:17 ; preaching in Damascus, Acts 9:20-22 (?), Galatians 1:17 .
3. First visit to Jerusalem, Acts 9:26 , Galatians 1:18 , ‘three years after’ his conversion.
4 11. At Tarsus and in Syria-Cilicia, Acts 9:30 , Galatians 1:21 [14].
12. To Antioch with Barnabas, Acts 11:26 .
13. Second visit to Jerusalem, with alms Acts 11:30 [15]
14 16. First Missionary Journey, to Cyprus, Acts 13:4 ; Pamphylia, and Southern Galatia (Pisidian Antioch, Acts 13:14 ; Iconium, Acts 13:51 ; Lystra, Acts 14:6 ; Derbe, Acts 14:20 ), and back by Attalia to Antioch, Acts 14:26 [16].
17. Apostolic Council and third visit to Jerusalem, Acts 15:4 [3].
18 20. Second Missionary Journey, from Antioch through Syria-Cilicia to Derbe and Lystra, Acts 15:41 ; Acts 16:1 ; through the ‘Phrygo-Galatic’ region of the province Galatia to Troas, Acts 16:6-8 ; to Macedonia, Acts 16:11 ; Athens, Acts 17:15 ; and Corinth, Acts 18:1 , where 18 months are spent; thence by sea to Ephesus, Acts 18:19 ; Jerusalem (fourth visit), Acts 18:22 ; and Antioch, where ‘some time’ is spent, Acts 18:23 .
21 24. Third Missionary Journey, from Antioch by the ‘Galatic region’ and the ‘Phrygian region,’ Acts 18:23 , to Ephesus, Acts 19:1 , where two years and three months are spent, Acts 19:8 ; Acts 19:10 ; by Troas 2 Corinthians 2:12 , to Macedonia, Acts 20:1 ; and Corinth,
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - New Testament, Divorce in the
God's will in regard to the important matter of indissolubility of marriage was first revealed to man in Paradise, when God created man and woman and united them in marriage so that "they shall be two in one flesh" (Genesis 2). God did not withdraw His will by permitting divorce in the Law of Moses, for divorce was merely tolerated. A husband could divorce his wife (not vice versa) because of some indecent deed by giving her a "bill of divorce." The rabbis and their schools disputed as to what constituted an indecent act, whether adultery or something less evil.
"And there came to him
[1] the Pharisees tempting him, and saying: Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Who answering, said to them: Have ye not read, that he who made man from the beginning, made them male and female? And he said: For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be in one flesh. Therefore now they are not two, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder. They say to him: Why then did Moses command to give a bill of divorce, and to put away? He saith to them: Because Moses by reason of the hardness of your heart permitted you to put away your wives. But from the beginning it was not so. And I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and he that shall marry her that is put away committeth adultery." (Mattahew 19)
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Divorce in the New Testament
God's will in regard to the important matter of indissolubility of marriage was first revealed to man in Paradise, when God created man and woman and united them in marriage so that "they shall be two in one flesh" (Genesis 2). God did not withdraw His will by permitting divorce in the Law of Moses, for divorce was merely tolerated. A husband could divorce his wife (not vice versa) because of some indecent deed by giving her a "bill of divorce." The rabbis and their schools disputed as to what constituted an indecent act, whether adultery or something less evil.
"And there came to him [1] the Pharisees tempting him, and saying: Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause? Who answering, said to them: Have ye not read, that he who made man from the beginning, made them male and female? And he said: For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be in one flesh. Therefore now they are not two, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let no man put asunder. They say to him: Why then did Moses command to give a bill of divorce, and to put away? He saith to them: Because Moses by reason of the hardness of your heart permitted you to put away your wives. But from the beginning it was not so. And I say to you, that whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and he that shall marry her that is put away committeth adultery." (Mattahew 19)
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Names in New Testament
Of the 173 names of persons given in the New Testament, 62 are of unknown meaning. Of these 60 are taken from the Greek, one Greek from Latin, and one from the Hebrew. In the Old Testament the majority of proper names are derived from the Hebrew; in the New Testament, from the Greek. In the latter, of the names dealing with the Deity. They are:
Ananias, Jehovah protects
Elizabeth, worshipper of God
Gabriel, strong man of God
Gamaliel, God recompenses
Heli, Jehovah is high
Jesus, Jehovah saves
John, gift of God
Matthias, gift of Jehovah
Michael, who is like God?
Nathanael, gift of God
Timothy, honoring God
Zachary, Jehovah remembers
Zebedee, gift of God
A large class of proper names for men and women is made up of adjectives denoting personal characteristics, such as
Andrew, manly
Asyncritus, incomparable
Bernice, victorious
Clement (Latin), kind
Eunice, victorious
Pudens, modest
Timon (Hebrew), honorable
Zacheus, pure
Names of things, and words referring to trades or avocations were taken as proper names:
Andronicus, conqueror
Anna, grace
Caiphas, oppressor
Judas, praise
Malchus, ruler
Manahen, comforter
Mary (Hebrew), bitter sea
Philip, lover of horses
Prochorus, leader of a chorus
Salome, peace
Tyrannus, tyrant
Some names seem to have been suggested by particular circumstances:
Cleophas, of an illustrious father
Joseph, whom the Lord adds
Mnason, he who remembers
Onesiphorus, bringer of profit
Philologus, lover of words
Sosipater, saviour of his father
Names of animals and plants are not frequent, the only example being
Damaris, heifer
Dorcas and Tabitha, gazelle
Susanna, lily
Rhode, rosebush
Names derived from numbers are
Quartus, fourth
Tertius and Tertullus, third
Names without Christian significance and probably derived from pagan mythology are:
Apollo, contracted form, of Apollonios, belonging to Apollo
Apollyon
Diotrephes, nourished by Jupiter
Epaphroditus, beautiful
Hermes
Hermogenes
Phebe, shining
"Bar" in a name means "son of," e.g.,
Barabbas, son of the learned man
Barnabas, son of consolation
Barsabas, son of Sabas
Bartimeus, son of Timai
Bartholomew, son of Tolmai
There is only one word derived from a color,
Rufus, red
Names derived from kindred are
Thomas and Didymus, twin
Trophimus, foster-child
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - New Testament, Names in
Of the 173 names of persons given in the New Testament, 62 are of unknown meaning. Of these 60 are taken from the Greek, one Greek from Latin, and one from the Hebrew. In the Old Testament the majority of proper names are derived from the Hebrew; in the New Testament, from the Greek. In the latter, of the names dealing with the Deity. They are:
Ananias, Jehovah protects
Elizabeth, worshipper of God
Gabriel, strong man of God
Gamaliel, God recompenses
Heli, Jehovah is high
Jesus, Jehovah saves
John, gift of God
Matthias, gift of Jehovah
Michael, who is like God?
Nathanael, gift of God
Timothy, honoring God
Zachary, Jehovah remembers
Zebedee, gift of God
A large class of proper names for men and women is made up of adjectives denoting personal characteristics, such as
Andrew, manly
Asyncritus, incomparable
Bernice, victorious
Clement (Latin), kind
Eunice, victorious
Pudens, modest
Timon (Hebrew), honorable
Zacheus, pure
Names of things, and words referring to trades or avocations were taken as proper names:
Andronicus, conqueror
Anna, grace
Caiphas, oppressor
Judas, praise
Malchus, ruler
Manahen, comforter
Mary (Hebrew), bitter sea
Philip, lover of horses
Prochorus, leader of a chorus
Salome, peace
Tyrannus, tyrant
Some names seem to have been suggested by particular circumstances:
Cleophas, of an illustrious father
Joseph, whom the Lord adds
Mnason, he who remembers
Onesiphorus, bringer of profit
Philologus, lover of words
Sosipater, saviour of his father
Names of animals and plants are not frequent, the only example being
Damaris, heifer
Dorcas and Tabitha, gazelle
Susanna, lily
Rhode, rosebush
Names derived from numbers are
Quartus, fourth
Tertius and Tertullus, third
Names without Christian significance and probably derived from pagan mythology are:
Apollo, contracted form, of Apollonios, belonging to Apollo
Apollyon
Diotrephes, nourished by Jupiter
Epaphroditus, beautiful
Hermes
Hermogenes
Phebe, shining
"Bar" in a name means "son of," e.g.,
Barabbas, son of the learned man
Barnabas, son of consolation
Barsabas, son of Sabas
Bartimeus, son of Timai
Bartholomew, son of Tolmai
There is only one word derived from a color,
Rufus, red
Names derived from kindred are
Thomas and Didymus, twin
Trophimus, foster-child
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Text of the New Testament
TEXT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT . 1 . The text of the NT as read in ordinary copies of the Gr. Testament, and as translated in the AV [1] of 1611, is substantially identical with that printed by Stephanus (Robert Estienne) in 1550, and by the Elzevirs in their popular edition of 1624. To this text the Elzevirs in their next edition (1633) applied the phrase ‘Textum ergo habes nunc ab omnibus receptum’; and by the name of Textus Receptus (TR [2] ) or Received Text, it has since been generally known. The edition of Stephanus was based upon the two earliest printed texts of the NT, that of Erasmus (published in 1516), and that of the Complutensian Polyglot (printed in 1514, but not published until 1522); and he also made use of 15 MSS, mostly at Paris. Two of these (Codd. D [3] and L, see below, § 7 ) were of early date, but not much use was made of them; the others were minuscules (see § 5 ) of relatively late date. The principal editor of the Complutensian Polyglot, Lopez de Stunica, used MSS borrowed from the Vatican; they have not been identified, but appear to have been late, and ordinary in character. Erasmus, working to a publisher’s order, with the object of anticipating the Complutensian, depended principally upon a single 12th cent. MS for the Gospels, upon one of the 13th or 14th for the Epistles, and upon one of the 12th for the Apocalypse. All of these were at Basle, and were merely those which chanced to be most accessible.
The TR [2] is consequently derived from (at most) some 20 or 25 MSS, dating from the last few centuries before the invention of printing, and not selected on any estimate of merit, but merely as being ready to the editor’s hands. They may be taken as fairly representative of the great mass of Gr. Test. MSS of the late Middle Ages, but no more. At the present time we have over 3000 Greek MSS of the NT, or of parts of it, and they range back in age to the 4th cent., or even, in the case of a few small fragments, to the 3rd. The history of Textual Criticism during the past two centuries and a half has been the history of the accumulation of all this material (and of the further masses of evidence provided by ancient translations), and of its application to the discovery of the true text of the NT; and it is not surprising that such huge accessions of evidence, going back in age a thousand years or more behind the date of Erasmus’ principal witnesses, should have necessitated a considerable number of alterations in the details of the TR [2] . The plan of the present article is, first to set forth a summary of the materials now available, and then to indicate the drift of criticism with regard to the results obtained from them.
2 . The materials available for ascertaining the true text of the NT (and, in their measure, of all other ancient works of literature) fall into three classes: (1) Manuscripts, or copies of the NT in the original Greek; (2) Versions, or ancient translations of it into other languages, which were themselves, of course, originally derived from very early Greek MSS, now lost; (3) Quotations in ancient writers, which show what readings these writers found in the copies accessible to them. Of these three classes it will be necessary to treat separately in the first instance, and afterwards to combine the results of their testimony.
3 . Manuscripts . It is practically certain that the originals of the NT books were written on rolls of papyrus , that being the material in universal use for literary purposes in the Greek- and Latin-speaking world. Each book would he written separately, and would at first circulate separately; and so long as papyrus continued to be employed, it was impossible to include more than a single Gospel or a group of short Epistles in one volume. Consequently there could be no collected ‘New Testament’ at this early stage, and no question (so far as the conditions of literary transmission were concerned) of fixing a Canon of books to be included in such a collection. Papyrus is a material (made from the pith of the stem of the Egyptian water-plant of that name) which becomes brittle with age, and quite unable to resist damp; consequently papyrus MSS have almost wholly perished, from friction and use if they remained above ground, from moisture if they were buried beneath it. Only in Middle and Upper Egypt, where the soil is extraordinarily dry, have buried papyri survived. Literary works and business documents have been dug up of late years in Egypt in very large numbers, ranging from about b.c. 500 to a.d. 700, so that the styles of writing in use at the time when the NT books were written are well known to us; but Christianity and its literature are not likely to have penetrated much beyond Lower Egypt in the first two centuries of their existence, and consequently it is perfectly natural that no manuscripts of the NT of this period are now extant. From the latter part of the 3rd cent. a.d. a few small fragments have been recovered, which show that some of the NT books were known in Middle Egypt at that date; but the only papyrus MS as yet discovered which can be said to have substantial textual importance, is one (Oxyrhynchus Pap. 657, 3rd 4th cent.) containing about a third of Hebrews, which is the more valuable because Cod. B is defective in that book. Besides the natural causes just mentioned for the disappearance of early Biblical MSS, it should be remembered that Christian books (especially the official copies in the possession of Churches) were liable to destruction in times of persecution.
4 . These conditions, which amply account for the disappearance of the earliest MSS of the NT, were fundamentally altered in the 4th century. The acceptance of Christianity by the Roman Empire gave a great impulse to the circulation of the Scriptures; and simultaneously papyrus began to be superseded by vellum as the predominant literary material. Papyrus continued to be used in Egypt until the 8th cent. for Greek documents, and, to a leaser and decreasing extent, for Greek literature, and for Coptic writings to a still later date; but the best copies of books were henceforth written upon vellum. Vellum had two great advantages: It was much more durable, and (being made up in codex or book-form, instead of rolls) it was possible to include a much greater quantity of matter in a single manuscript. Hence from the 4th cent. it became possible to have complete copies of the NT, or even of the whole Bible; and it is to the 4th cent. that the earliest extant Biblical MSS of any substantial size belong.
5 . Vellum MSS are divided into two classes, according to the style of their writing. From the 4th cent. to the 10th they are written in uncials , i.e. in capital letters, of relatively large size, each being formed separately. In the 9th cent. a new style of writing was introduced, by the adaptation to literary purposes of the ordinary running hand of the day; this, consisting as it did of smaller characters, is called minuscule , and since these smaller letters could be easily linked together into a running hand, it is also commonly called cursive . In the 9th cent. the uncial and minuscule styles are found co-existing, the former perhaps still predominating; in the 10th the minuscules have decidedly triumphed, and the uncial style dies out. Minuscules continue in use, with progressive modifications of form, until the supersession of manuscripts by print in the 15th cent.; at first always upon vellum, but from the 13th cent. onwards sometimes upon paper.
6 . Uncial MSS being, as a class, considerably older than the minuscules, it is natural to expect that the purest and least corrupted texts will be found among them; though it is always necessary to reckon with the possibility that a minuscule MS may be a direct and faithful representative of a MS very much older than itself. Over 160 uncial MSS (including fragments) of the NT or of parts of it are known to exist, of which more than 110 contain the Gospels or some portion of them. In the apparatus criticus of the NT they are indicated by the capital letters, first of the Latin alphabet, then of the Greek, and finally of the Hebrew, for which it is now proposed to substitute numerals preceded by O. Further, since comparatively few MSS contain the whole of the NT, it is found convenient to divide it into four groups: (1) Gospels, (2) Acts and Catholic Epistles, (3) Pauline Epistles, (4) Apocalypse; and each group has its own numeration of MSS. The uncial MSS which contain all of these groups, such as those known as A and C, retain these designations in each group; but when a MS does not contain them all, its letter is given to another MS in those groups which it does not contain. But here again it is now proposed to adopt a simpler system, by which nearly every MS will have one letter or number to itself, and one only.
7 . A selection of the most important uncial MSS will now be briefly described, so as to indicate their importance in the textual criticism of the NT:
א . Codex Sinaiticus , originally a complete codex of the Greek Bible. Forty-three leaves of the OT were discovered by Tischendorf in the monastery of St. Catherine at Sinai in 1844, and acquired by him for the University Library at Leipzig; while the remainder (156 leaves of the OT, and the entire NT, with the Epistle of Barnabas and part of the ‘Shepherd’ of Hermas, on 148 leaves) were found by him in the same place in 1859, and eventually secured for the Imperial Library at St. Petersburg. The Bible text is written with four columns to the page (the narrow columns being a survival from the papyrus period); and palæographers are now generally agreed in referring the MS to the 4th cent., so that it is one of the two oldest MSS of the Bible in existence. Tischendorf attributes the original text of the MS to four scribes, one of whom he believes (though, in the opinion of many, this is very questionable) to have been also the scribe of the Codex Vaticanus (B); and the corrections to six different hands, of whom the most important are א a (about contemporary with the original scribe), and א ca and א cb (of the 7th cent.). The corrections of א ca were derived (according to a note affixed to the Book of Esther) from a MS corrected by the martyr Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen and founder of the library of Cæsarea. It has been held that א itself was written at Cæsarea, but this cannot be regarded as certain. The character of its text will be considered in § 40 ff. below.
A. Codex Alexandrinus , probably written at Alexandria in the 5th cent., and now in the British Museum. From an uncertain, but early, date it belonged to the Patriarchs of Alexandria; it was brought thence by Cyril Lucar in 1621, when he became Patriarch of Constantinople, and was presented by him to Charles i. in 1627, and so passed, with the rest of the Royal Library, to the British Museum in 1757. It contains the whole Greek Bible, with the exception of 40 lost leaves (containing Matthew 13:1-5813 to Matthew 25:6 , John 6:50 to John 8:52 , 2 Corinthians 4:13 to Ephesians 1:1-2322 ); it also originally contained the two Epistles of Clement and the Psalms of Solomon, but the Psalms and the conclusion of the Second Epistle have disappeared, together with one leaf from the First Epistle. The text of the NT is written by three scribes, with two columns to the page: there are many corrections by the original scribes and by an almost contemporary reviser (A a ).
B. Codex Vaticanus , No. 1209 in the Vatican Library at Rome, where it has been since about 1481. It is probably the oldest and the best extant MS of the Greek NT, and its evidence is largely responsible for the changes of text embodied in the English RV [6] . It is written in a small, neat uncial, probably of the 4th cent., with three columns to the page. It originally contained the whole Bible (except the Books of Maccabees), possibly with additional books, like א and A ; but it has lost from Hebrews 9:14 to the end of the NT, including the Pastoral Epistles (but not the Catholic Epistles, which follow the Acts and hence have escaped) and Apocalypse.
C. Codex Ephraemi , in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. This is a palimpsest , i.e. a manuscript of which the original writing has been partially washed or scraped off the vellum in order to use it again to receive other writing. In this case the original writing was the text of the Greek Bible, written in the 5th cent., in one broad column to the page; and this was sacrificed in the 12th cent. in order to inscribe on the same vellum some treatises by St. Ephraem of Syria. Only 64 leaves of the OT now survive, and 145 of the NT (out of 238); and often it is impossible to decipher the original writing. The MS is therefore only fitfully and intermittently of service.
D. Codex Bezae , in the University Library at Cambridge, to which it was presented in 1581 by Theodore Beza, who obtained it in 1562 from the monastery of St. Irenæus at Lyons. It contains the Gospels and Acts, in Greek and Latin, the former occupying the left-hand pages and the latter the right. It is mutilated, Acts 22:29 to end being lost, together with all, except a few words of the Catholic Epistles, which followed. It is generally assigned to the 6th cent., though some would place it in the 5th. Its place of origin has been variously supposed to besouthern France, southern or western Italy, or Sardinia, but the evidence is not decisive in favour of any of these. Its text is very remarkable, containing a large number of additions and some notable omissions as compared with the TR [2] ; in some places the Latin version seems to have been accommodated to the Greek, and in others the Greek to the Latin. As will be shown below, its type of text belongs to a family of which the other principal representatives are the Old Latin and Old Syriac versions.
D 2. Codex Claromontanus , in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. Contains the Pauline Epistles in Greek and Latin, written probably in the 6th century. The Latin text is practically independent of the Greek. Before the Epistle to the Hebrews is a list of the books of the NT, with the number of stichoi (or normal lines of 16 syllables each) in each of them, which must be descended from a very early archetype, since it places the books in an unusual order, and includes in the list several uncanonical books (cf. descriptions of א and A ); the order is Mt., Jn., Mk., Lk., Romans 1:1-32 and 2 Cor., Gal., 1618100881_4 and 2 Tim., Tit., Col., Philippians 1:1-2 Peteret., James 1:1-27 ; James 2:1-26 , James 2:3 Jn., Jude, Barnabas, Apoc [8] , Acts, Hennas, Acts of Paul, Apoc. [9] of Peter (Th., He., and Phil, being omitted). The MS was in the monastery of Clermont, whence it was acquired by Beza, who was also owner of D [3] . It may probably have been written in Italy. Other Græco-Latin MSS of the Pauline Epistles are E3 F2 G3 , which all go back to the same archetype as D2.
E 2. Codex Laudianus , in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Contains the Acts, in Greek and Latin, the latter holding the place of precedence on the left. Probably 7th cent.; was in Sardinia at an early date, and may have been written there; thence came to England (probably with Theodore of Tarsus in 669), and was used by Bede. The Greek text is somewhat akin to that of D [3] ; the Latin has been accommodated to the Greek, and is of little independent value. It is the earliest MS extant that contains Acts 8:37 , though the verse was in existence in the time of Irenæus (late 2nd century).
H 3. Codex Coislinianus 202. Fragmentary remains of a copy of the Pauline Epistles, written in the 6th (or perhaps the 7th) century. Originally at Mt. Athos, in the Laura monastery, where 8 leaves still remain. The rest was used as material for binding MSS, which became scattered in various quarters; 22 leaves are at Paris; 3 each at St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kieff; and 2 at Turin. The text of 22 more pages has been more or less completely recovered from the ‘set-off’ which they have left on the surviving leaves. The MS represents the text of the Pauline Epistles as edited by Euthalius of Sulca in the 4th century.
L. Codex Regius , in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris. Contains the Gospels; of the 8th century. It is remarkable as containing the shorter conclusion of Mk. (see RVm [12] ) as well as the usual longer one (16:9 20); and its readings often agree with those of B against TR [2] .
N. Codex Petropolitanus . Contains the Gospels, written in large silver letters on purple vellum, in the 6th century. Forty-five leaves have long been known (33 at Patmos, 6 in the “Vatican, 4 in the British Museum, and 2 at Vienna); and 182 more leaves came to light in 1896 in Asia Minor, and are now at St. Petersburg. Rather less than half the original MS is now extant, including portions of all Gospels. The MS forms part of a group with three other purple MSS, Σ , Σ b , and Φ , all probably having been originally produced at Constantinople, and descended from a single not remote ancestor.
R. Codex Nitriensis , in the British Museum. A palimpsest copy of Lk. of the 6th cent., imperfect. The text differs frequently from the TR [2] .
T. A number of fragments from Egypt, mostly bilingual, in Greek and Coptic (Sahidic). The most important (T or T a in the library of the Propaganda at Rome) consists of 17 leaves from Lk. and Jn., of the 5th cent., with a text closely akin to that of B and א . T 1 (otherwise 099 ) has the double ending to Mark.
Z . Codex Dublinensis , at Trinity College, Dublin. A palimpsest, containing 295 verses of Mt., of the 6th cent., probably from Egypt, with a text akin to א .
Λ . Codex Tischendorfianus III., in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. Contains Lk. and Jn., of the 9th cent.; Mt. and Mk., written in minuscules, are at St. Peters burg (Evan. 566). This MS is chiefly notable for a subscription stating that its text was derived ‘from the ancient copies at Jerusalem.’ Similar subscriptions are found in about 12 minuscule MSS.
Σ . Codex Rossanensis , at Rossano in Calabria, 6th century. Contains Mt. and Mk., written in silver letters on purple vellum, with illustrations. Its text is closely akin to that of N, both being probably copies of the same original.
Σ b (in future to be known as O). Codex Sinopensis , in the Bibliothèque Nationale at Paris; of the 6th cent.; 43 leaves from Matthew 7:1-29 ; Matthew 8:1-34 ; Matthew 9:1-38 ; Matthew 10:1-42 ; Matthew 11:1-30 ; Matthew 12:1-50 ; 1618100881_7 ; Matthew 14:1-36 ; Matthew 15:1-39 ; Matthew 16:1-28 ; Matthew 17:1-27 ; Matthew 18:1-35 ; Matthew 19:1-30 ; Matthew 20:1-34 ; Matthew 21:1-46 ; Matthew 22:1-46 ; Matthew 23:1-39 ; Matthew 24:1-51 , written in gold letters on purple vellum, with 5 illustrations similar in style to those in Σ . It was picked up for a few francs by a French naval officer at Sinope in 1899. Its text is akin to that of Ν and Σ .
Φ . Codex Beratinus , at Belgrade in Albania: the fourth of the purple MSS, and belonging to the same school as the others, and probably of the same date. Contains Mt. and Mk., in a text akin to N and Σ , but not so closely related to them as they are to one another.
These are all the uncials of which it is necessary to give separate descriptions. A new MS of the Gospels, apparently of the 5th cent., and containing a text of considerable interest, was found in Egypt in 1907, and is now in America, but is still unpublished. Large fragments of a 6th cent. MS of the Pauline Epistles were found at the same time.
8 . Passing to the minuscules , we find the number of witnesses overwhelming. The last inventory of NT MSS (that of von Soden) contains 1716 copies of the Gospels, 531 of Acts, 628 of Pauline Epp., and 219 of Apoc [8] ; and of this total, as stated above, less than 160 are uncials. The minuscule MSS are usually indicated by Arabic numerals,* [16] separate series being formed for the four divisions of the NT. The result of this is that when a MS contains all four parts (which is the case, only with about 40 MSS) it is known by four different numbers; thus a certain MS at Leicester bears the numbers Evan. 69, Act. 31, Paul. 37, Apoc. [9] 14. It is, of course, impossible to give any individual account of so great a mass of MSS; indeed, many of them have never been fully examined. But it is the less necessary, because by far the greater number of the minuscule MSS contain the same type of text, that, namely, of the TR [2] . The fact that at least 95 out of every 100 minuscule MSS contain substantially the TR [2] may be taken as universally admitted, whatever may he the Inferences drawn from it; and it is only necessary to indicate some of those which depart most notably from this normal standard, and ally themselves more or less with the early uncials.
Thus in the Gospels 33* [8]0 is akin to the text found in B א ; so, to a lesser extent, is the group of the four related MSS, 1 118 131 209; also 59, 157, 431, 496, 892; while the type of text found in D [3] and in the Old Latin and Old Syriac versions has left its mark notably upon 473, and more or less on 235, 431, 700, 1071, and on a group of related MSS (known from the scholar who first called attention to it as the ‘Ferrar group’) consisting of 13, 69, 124, 346, 348, 543, 713, 788, 826, 828. In Acts and Cath. Epp., 61 and 31 are the most notable adherents of B, while 31, with 137, 180, 216, 224, also shows kinship with D [3] . A group consisting of Acts 15:40 , 83, 205, 317, 328, 329, 393 seems to represent an edition of Acts prepared by Euthalius of Sulca in the 4th century. In Paul, the most noteworthy minuscules are 1, 17, 31, 47, 108, 238; the Euthalian edition is found in 81, 83, 93, 379, 381. In Apoc. [9] (where uncials are scarce and minuscules consequently more important) the best are 1, 7, 28, 35, 38, 68, 79, 87, 95, 96. No doubt, as the minuscule MSS are more fully examined, more will be discovered which possess individual characteristics of interest; but with the large number of uncials of earlier date on the one hand, and the general uniformity of the great mass of minuscules on the other, it is not very likely that much important textual material will be derived from them. It may be possible to establish relationships between certain MSS (as in the case of the Ferrar group), and to connect them with certain localities (as the Ferrar group appears to be connected with Calabria); but not much progress has yet been made in this direction.
9 . One other class of MSS remains to be mentioned, namely the Service-Books or Lectionaries , in which the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles were divided into portions to be read on each day throughout the ecclesiastical year. These books fall into two classes, according as they contain the lessons from the Gospels ( Evangelia or Evangeliaria † [24] ) or from the Acts and Epistles ( Praxapostoli ). Nearly 1100 MSS of the former class are known, and 300 of the latter. Over 100 of these are uncials, but with hardly an exception they are of relatively late date (9th cent. or later), the uncial style being retained later for these liturgical books than elsewhere. Of the value of their evidence little can definitely be said, since few of them have been properly examined. A priori they might be of considerable value, since service-books are likely to he conservative, and also to preserve local peculiarities. They might be expected, therefore, to be of great value in localizing the various types of text which appear in the MSS, and in preserving early variants from a period before the establishment of a general uniformity. As a matter of fact, however, these claims have not yet been substantiated by any actual examination of lectionaries, and it may be questioned whether, as a whole, any of them goes back to a period before the extinction of the local and divergent texts.
The standard lists of NT MSS are those of C. R. Gregory ( Prolegomena to Tischendorf’s NT Græce , ed. 8, 1894, reproduced in German, with additions, in his Textkritik des NT , 1900), and F. H. A. Scrivener ( Introduction to the Criticism of the NT , 4th ed. by E. Miller, 1894). The new list of H. von Soden ( Die Schriften des NT , vol. i. pt. i. 1902) contains rectifications and additions to Gregory’s list, with a new numeration. For Gregory’s revised list, which, it may be hoped, will be accepted as the standard, see Die griechischen Handschriften des NT (Leipzig, 1908).
10 . Versions. The second class of authorities, as indicated in § 2 , is that of Versions, or translations of the NT into languages other than Greek. It is only the earlier versions that can be of service in recovering the original text of the NT; modern translations are of importance for the history of the Bible in the countries to which they belong, but contribute nothing to textual criticism. The early Versions may be divided into Eastern (Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, Arabic, Ethiopic, etc.) and Western (Latin and Gothic), but the distinction is of little importance. Age is a more important factor than locality, and the two oldest and, on the whole, most important (though not necessarily the most trustworthy) are the Old Latin and Old Syriac versions, which, moreover, are in many respects akin to one another. Next in importance are the Coptic versions and the Latin Vulgate; and the Armenian and the later Syriac versions are also of considerable value. It will be convenient to describe the several versions under their respective countries in the first instance, and to defer the discussion of their characters and affinities until the tale of our authorities is complete.
A . Syriac Versions.
11 . The Old Syriac Version (OS). The evidence for the character, and even the existence, of the primitive version of the NT in Syriac is of comparatively recent discovery. Before 1842 the earliest extant Syriac version was the Peshiṭta (see below), to which, however, a much higher antiquity was assigned than is now generally admitted. In that year, however, Dr. W. Cureton discovered, among the manuscripts brought to the British Museum from the convent of S. Maria Deipara in the Nitrian desert in Egypt, an imperfect Gospel text very different from the Peshiṭta. This (which was not finally published by Cureton until 1858) was known for 50 years as the ‘Curetonian Syriac,’ and the relative age of it and the Peshiṭta was a matter of controversy among scholars. In 1892 two Cambridge ladies, Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, discovered in the monastery of St. Catherine at Sinai a palimpsest MS, which was subsequently recognized from their photographs as containing a text closely akin to the Curetonian. Comparison of the two showed that they represented different recensions of the same version, the Lewis or Sinaitic MS (Syr.-Sin.) containing the earlier form of it. Neither is complete. The Curetonian (Syr.-Cur.) contains nothing of Mk. except Mark 16:17-20 , just sufficient to show that the last twelve verses were present in this form of the version, though they are absent from Sin.; of Jn. it has only about five chapters, and there are large gaps in Mt. and Luke. Sin. contains a large part of all four Gospels, but none is intact. Both MSS are assigned to the 5th cent., Sin. being probably the earlier; but the version which they represent must go back to a much more remote age. In text they are akin to the Codex Bezae and its allies, and are among the most important witnesses to this type of text.
12 . The Diatessaron . The question of the age of this version is complicated by that of its relations to another very early embodiment of the Gosp
Easton's Bible Dictionary - New Testament
(Luke 22:20 ), rather "New Covenant," in contrast to the old covenant of works, which is superseded. "The covenant of grace is called new; it succeeds to the old broken covenant of works. It is ever fresh, flourishing, and excellent; and under the gospel it is dispensed in a more clear, spiritual, extensive, and powerful manner than of old" (Brown of Haddington). Hence is derived the name given to the latter portion of the Bible. (See TESTAMENT .)
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Canon of the New Testament
"The prophets" in the Christian church, speaking themselves under inspiration, and those having the Spirit's gift," the discerning of spirits," acted as checks on the transmission of error orally before the completion of the written word. Secondly it was under their inspired superintendence that. the New Testament Scriptures were put forth as they were successively written. 1 Corinthians 14:37; "if any man ... be a prophet or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things that I write ... are the commandments of the Lord." Thus by the twofold sanction of inspiration, that of the authors and that of the judges, the canonicity of each book is established. By God's gracious providence most of the books of the New Testament were in the church's possession years before the death of leading apostles, all of them before the death of John. If spurious books had crept into the cycle of professedly inspired books, they would have been at once removed by apostolic authority.
The history of the New Testament canon in its collected form is not so clear as the evidence for the inspiration of its separate books. Probably each leading church made for itself a collection of those books which were proved on good testimony to have been written by inspired men, and sanctioned as such originally by men having the "discerning of spirits," as well as by uninspired men in the several churches. See 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 John 4:1. Thus, many collections would be made. Their mutual accordance in the main, as that of independent witnesses, is the strongest proof of the correctness of our canon, especially when we consider the jealous care with which the early churches discriminated between spurious and authentic compositions. This view is confirmed by the doubts of some, churches at first concerning certain New Testament books, proving that each church claimed the right to judge for itself; while their mutual love led to the freest communication of the inspired writings to one another.
At last, when the evidence for the inspiration of the few doubted ones was fully sifted, all agreed. And the third council of Carthage (A.D. 397) declared that agreement by ratifying the canon of the New Testament as it is now universally accepted. The earliest notice of a collection is in 2 Peter 3:16, which speaks of "all the epistles" of Paul as if some collection of them then existed and was received in the churches as on a par with "the other Scriptures." The earliest uninspired notice is that of the anonymous fragment of "the canon of the New Testament" attributed to Caius, a Roman presbyter, published by Muratori (Ant. Ital., 3:854). It recognizes all the books except Epp. Hebrew, James, the 2 Epp. Peter, and perhaps 3 John. It condemns as spurious "the Shepherd, written very recently in our own times at Rome by Hermes, while his brother Plus was bishop of the see of Rome," i.e. between A.D. 140 and 150.
Thus the canon in far the greater part is proved as received in the first half of the 2nd century, while some of John's contemporaries were still living. In the same age the Peshito or Syriac version remarkably complements the Muratorian fragment's canon, by including also Hebrew and James. In the latter part of the 2nd century Clement of Alexandria refers to "the gospel" collection and that of all the epistles of "the apostles." The anonymous epistle to Diognetus still earlier speaks of "the law, the prophets, the gospels, and the apostles." Ignatius of Antioch, a hearer of John (Ep. ad Philad., section 5), terms the written gospel "the flesh of Jesus," and the apostles, i.e. their epistles, "the presbytery of the church." Theophilus of Antioch (Ad Autolycum, 3:11) and Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., 2:27) term the New Testament writings "the Holy Scriptures." Tertullian (Adv. Marc, 4:2) uses for the first time the term" New Testament," and calls the whole Bible "the whole instrument of both Testaments."
Thus, there is a continuous chain of evidence from the apostles down to the 3rd century. The quotations by the fathers (of whom Origen quotes at least two thirds of New Testament), and the oldest versions, the Syriac, Latin, and Egyptian, prove that their Scriptures were the same as ours. Eusebius the ecclesiastical historian (A.D. 330) mentions (3:25) all the 27 books of the New Testament, dividing them into the universally acknowledged and the debated; the latter the epistles of James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John, and Apocalypse, "received by the majority," and at last received by all the churches when the evidence had been more fully tested. A third class he calls "the spurious," as "the Shepherd of Hermas," "the Epistle of Barnabas," "the Acts of Paul," which all rejected. Moreover all our oldest Greek manuscripts of the epistles contain those epistles once doubted by some; so do all the versions except the Syriac; see above.
The church of Rome was certainly not infallible when it once rejected the Epistle to the Hebrew. Afterward it acknowledged its error and accepted it. Rome says we received the canon from the church (meaning herself), and that therefore we are bound to receive her authority as infallible in interpreting it. But we did not receive her original view of the spuriousness of the Epistle to the Hebrew. Nor have we received most of our manuscripts, testimonies of fathers and versions, from Rome, but, from the Greek, Syrian, and African churches. Further, even if the premises were true the conclusion is false. Because a body of men witness to and transmit a work deriving all its authority from God, it does not follow they are its infallible interpreters. If the argument were true the Jews could use it with tenfold power against all Christians, for the Jews unquestionably are the witnesses and transmitters of the Old Testament to us (Romans 3:2); and on Rome's principle we should be bound to accept the Jews' interpretation of it, renounce Christianity and become Jews.
Nothing but almighty Providence could have constrained both the Jews (in the case of the Old Testament) and the Roman and Greek apostate churches (in the case of the New Testament) to witness for the very Scriptures which condemn them. It utterly disproves the infidel allegation of collusion and corruption of the Scriptures. Again Rome argues, since the rule of faith must be known, and since some books of Scripture were not universally received until the 4th century, Scripture cannot be the rule of faith. The answer is: those portions of Scripture are not the rule of faith to those to whom they are not given with full means of knowing them as such. But all Scripture is the rule of faith to all to whom it is given, and who may, if they will, know it. That could not become a portion of inspired Scripture in the 4th century which was not so before. Man can never make that inspired which God has not; nor can the doubts of some divest of inspiration that which God has inspired.
The council of Carthage did not make aught part of Scripture which was not so before. It merely sealed by declaration the decision which the churches previously came to by carefully sifting the testimony for each book's inspiration. Even at the council of Nicea (A.D. 325) Constantine appeals to "the books of the evangelists, apostles; and prophets" as "the divinely inspired books for deciding their controversies." Accordingly in the Nicene Creed, "according to the Scriptures," quoted from 1 Corinthians 15:4, implies their being recognized as the standard. The Diocletian persecution (A.D. 303) was directed against the Christian Scriptures; whoever delivered them were stigmatized as "traitors" (tradilores), so that they must have then existed as a definite collection. They were publicly read in the churches (Colossians 4:16) as an essential part of worship, just as the law and the prophets were in the synagogue (Justin Martyr, Apol., 1:66).
Practically, as soon as they were severally thus read and accepted in the apostolic age by men in the churches having the discernment of spirits, they were canonized, i.e. immediately after having been written. The transition from oral to written teaching was gradual. Catechizing, i.e. instructing by word of mouth, was the mode at first, and "faith" then "came by hearing" (Luke 1:4; Romans 10:17), in which however there was always an appeal to Old Testament Scripture (Acts 17:11). But that the orally taught might know more fully "the (unerring) certainty ten asphaleian of those things wherein they had been instructed," and to guard against the dangers of oral tradition (illustrated in John 21:23-24), the word was committed to writing by apostles and evangelists, and was accredited publicly by the churches in the lifetime of the writers.
The approach of their death, their departure to foreign lands, their imprisonment, and the need of a touchstone to test heretical writings and teachings in their absence, all made a written record needful. The cessation of miracles and personal inspiration was about the same time as the written inspired word was completed. Bishop Kaye (Ecclesiastes Hist., 98-100) observes that Justin Martyr, Theophilus, etc., only make general assertions of miracles still continuing, being loath to see what seemingly weakened their cause, the cessation of miracles; but they give no specific instance. The cessation was so gradual as hardly to be perceived at first. The power probably did not extend beyond those younger disciples on whom the apostles conferred it by laying on hands (Acts 8:17; Acts 8:19). Thus miracles would cease early in the 2nd century, shortly after John's death and the completion of the canon.
The scantiness of direct quotations from Scripture in the apostolic fathers arises from their being so full of all they had seen and heard, and so dwelling less on the written word. But they take it for granted, and imitate the tone and salutations of the apostolic epistles. All four make some express references to New Testament Scripture. With much that is good in the apostolic fathers, their works "remind us what the apostles would have been, had they not been inspired, and what we ourselves should be, if we had not the written word" (Wordsworth, Canon Scr., p. 137). So far from there being a gradual waning of inspiration from the writings of the apostles and evangelists to those of succeeding Christian writers, there is so wide a chasm (the more remarkable as the early fathers had the apostolic writings to guide them) that this alone is a strong proof that the Scripture writers were guided by an extraordinary divine power.
Their previous habits (as being some of them illiterate, and all bigoted Jew) prove that nothing but divine power could have so changed them from their former selves as to be the founders of a spiritual and worldwide dispensation (see Luke 24:25; Luke 24:49), utterly alien to their Jewish prejudices. Their style accords with their supposed position, simple and unlearned (except Paul's), yet free from aught offensive to the polished. If it be asked why we do not receive the epistles of Barnabas and of Clement, the Acts of Paul and Thecla (one of the earliest apocryphal writings), etc., we answer not because (as Rome would have us say) the churches could not err in judgment in rejecting them, but because as a matter of evidence we believe they did not err. These works were not received by contemporary Christians who had the best opportunity of knowing evidences of authenticity and inspiration. If one or two cite them it is the exception, not invalidating the otherwise uniform testimony against them.
The internal evidence of their style is fatal to their pretensions. So "The Acts of Paul"; Tertullian (De Bapt., 17) testifies its author was excluded by John from the office of presbyter for having written it. The New Testament is a complete organic whole, so that even one book could not be omitted without loss to the completeness of the Christian cycle of truth. As the Old Testament is made up of the law, and the doctrinal, historical, and prophetical books; so in the New Testament the four Gospels are the fundamental law, based, as in the Pentateuch, on the included history; the Acts unfold the continued history; the Epistles are the doctrinal, the Apocalyptic revelations the prophetical, elements. Canonical is sometimes used in the Christian fathers, not in the sense divinely authoritative, but proper for public reading in church. Thus Gregory of Nazianzum calls the Apocalypse the last work of grace, and yet apocryphal, i.e. fit for private not public reading in church.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - New Testament
(See BIBLE; CANON; INSPIRATION.) hee kainee diatheekee . See Hebrews 9:15-17; Hebrews 8:6-13. The Greek term diateeeekee combines the two ideas "covenant" and "testament," which the KJV gives separately, though the Greek is the same for both. "Covenant" expresses its obligatory character, God having bound Himself by promise (Galatians 3:15-18; Hebrews 6:17-18). "Testament" expresses that, unlike other covenants, it is not a matter of bargaining, but all of God's grace, just as a testator has absolute power to do what he will with his own. Jesus' death brings the will of God in our favor into force. The night before His death He said "I appoint unto you by testamentary disposition (diatitheemi ) a kingdom" (Luke 22:29). There was really only one Testament - latent in the Old Testament, patent in the New Testament. The disciples were witnesses of the New Testament, and the Lord's Supper was its seal. The Old and New Testament Scriptures are the written documents containing the terms of the will.
TEXT. The "Received Text" (i.e. the "Τextus Receptus " or TR) is that of Robert Stephens' edition. Bentley (Letter to Wake in 1716 A.D.) said truly, "after the Complutenses and Erasmus, who had very ordinary manuscripts, the New Testament became the property of booksellers. R. Stephens' edition, regulated by himself alone, has now become as if an apostle were its compositor. I find that by taking 2,000 errors out of the Pope's Vulgate (i.e. correcting by older Latin manuscripts the edition of Jerome's Vulgate put forth by Sixtus V, A.D. 1590, with anathemas against any who should alter it 'in minima particula,' and afterwards altered by Clement VIII (1592) in 2,000 places in spite of Sixtus' anathema) and as many out of the Protestant pope Stephens' edition, I can set out an edition of each (Latin, Vulgate, and Greek text) in columns, without using any book under 900 years old, that shall so exactly agree word for word, and order for order, that no two tallies can agree better. ... These will prove each other to a demonstration, for I alter not a word of my own head."
The first printed edition of the Greek Testament was that in the Complutensian Polyglot, January, 10, 1514 A.D. Scripture was known in western Europe for many ages previously only through the Latin Vulgate of Jerome. F. Ximenes de Cisneros, of Toledo, undertook the work, to celebrate the birth of Charles V. Complutum (Alcala) gave the name. Lopez de Stunica was chief of its New Testament editors. The whole Polyglot was completed the same year that Luther affixed his 95 theses against indulgences to the door of the church at Wittenberg. Leo X lent the manuscripts used for it from the Vatican. It follows modern Greek manuscripts in all cases where these differ from the ancient manuscripts and from the oldest Greek fathers. The Old Testament Vulgate (the translation which is authorized by Rome) is in the central column, between the Greek Septuagint and the Hebrew (the original); and the editors compare the first to Christ crucified between the impenitent (the Hebrew) and the penitent (the Greek) thief!
Though there is no Greek authority for 1 John 5:7, they supplied it and told Erasmus that the Latin Vulgate's authority outweighs the original Greek! They did not know that the oldest copies of Jerome's Vulgate omit it; the manuscript of Wizanburg of the eighth century being the oldest that contains it. Owing to the Complutensian Greek New Testament not being published, though printed, until the Polyglot was complete, Erasmus' Greek New Testament was the first published, namely, by Froben a printer of Basle, March 1516, six years before the Complutensian. The providence of God at the dawn of the Reformation thus furnished earnest students with Holy Scripture in the original language sanctioned by the Holy Spirit. Erasmus completed his edition in haste, and did not have the scruples to supply, by translating into Greek front the Vulgate, both actual hiatuses in his Greek manuscripts and what he supposed to be so, especially in the Apocalypse, for which he had only one mutilated manuscript.
To the outcry against hint for omitting the testimony of the three heavenly witnesses he replied, it is not omission but non-addition; even some Latin copies do not have it, and Cyril of Alexandria showed in his Thesaurus he did not know it; on the Codex Montfortianus (originally in possession of a Franciscan, Froy, who possibly wrote it, now in Trinity College, Dublin) being produced with it, Erasmus INSERTED it. So clumsily did the translator of the Vulgate Latin into Greek execute this manuscript that he neglects to put the necessary Greek article before "Father," "Word," and" Spirit." Erasmus' fifth edition is the basis of our "Received Text." In 1546 and 1549 R. Stephens printed two small editions at Paris, and in 1550 a folio edition, following Erasmus' fifth edition almost exclusively, and adding in the margin readings from the Complutensian edition and from 15 manuscripts collected by his son Henry, the first large collection of readings. The fourth edition at Geneva, 1551, was the first divided into modern verses. Beza next edited the Greek New Testament, generally following Stephens' text, with a few changes on manuscript authority.
He possessed the two famous manuscripts, namely, the Gospels and Acts, now by his gift in the university of Cambridge; "Codex Bezae" or "Cantabrigiensis," D; and the epistles of Paul, "Codex Clermontanus" (brought from Clermont), now in the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris; both are in Greek and Latin. The Elzevirs, printers at Leyden, published two editions, the first in 1624, the second in 1633, on the basis of R. Stephens' third edition, with corrections from Beza's. The unknown editor, without stating his critical principles, gravely declares in the preface: "texture habes ab omnibus receptum, in quo nihil immutatum aut corruptum damus "; stranger still, the public for two centuries has accepted this so-called "Received Text" as if infallible. When textual criticism was scarcely understood, theological convenience accepted it as a compromise between the Roman Catholic Complutensian edition and the Protestant edition of Stephens and Beza. Mill (1707) has established Stephens' as the Received Text in England; on the continent the Elzevir is generally recognized.
Thus, an uncritical Greek text of publishers has been for ages submitted to by Protestants, though abjuring blind assent to tradition, and laughing at the claim to infallibility of the two popes who declared each of two diverse editions of the Vulgate to be exclusively authentic. (The council of Trent, 1545, had pronounced the Latin Vulgate to be the authentic word of God). Frequent handling and transmission soon destroyed the originals. If the autographs of the inspired writers had been preserved, textual criticism would not have been necessary. But the oldest MSS, existing, Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph) Codex Vaticanus (B), Codex Alexandrinus (A), are not older than the fourth century. Parchment was costly (2 Timothy 4:13). Papyrus paper which the sacred writers used (2 John 1:12; 3 John 1:13) was fragile. No superstitious or antiquarian interest was felt in the autographs which copies superseded. The Diocletian persecution (A.D. 303) attacked the Scriptures, and traditores (Augustine, 76, section 2) gave them up.
Constantine ordered 50 manuscripts to be written on fair skins for the use of the church. God has not seen fit (by a perpetual miracle) to preserve the text from transcriptional errors. Having by extraordinary revelation once bestowed the gift, He leaves its preservation to ordinary laws, yet by His secret providence furnishes the church, its guardian and witness, with the means to ensure its accuracy in all essentials (Romans 3:2). Criticism does not make variations, but finds them, and turns them into means of ascertaining approximately the original text. More materials exist for restoring the genuine text of New Testament than for that of any ancient work. Whitby attacked Mill for presenting in his edition 30,000 various readings found in manuscripts. Collins, the infidel, availed himself of Whitby's unsound argument that textual variations render Scripture uncertain. Bentley (Phileleutherus Lipsiensis), reviewing Collins' work, shows if ONLY ONE manuscript had come down there would have been no variations, and therefore no means of restoring the true text; but by God's providence MANY manuscripts have come down - some from Egypt, others from Asia, others from the western churches.
The numbers of copies and the distances of places prove that there could be no collusion nor interpolation of all the copies by ANY ONE of them. Moreover, by the mutual help of the various copies, all the faults may be mended - one copy preserving the true reading in one place, another in another. The ancient versions too, the ante-Jerome Latin, Jerome's Vulgate, the Syriac (second century), the Coptic, and the Thebaic or Sahidic (third century), as well as the citations in Greek and Latin fathers, additionally help toward ascertaining the true text. The variety of readings, so far from making precarious, makes the text ALMOST CERTAIN. The worst manuscript extant contains all the essentials of Christianity. Bentley collated the Alexandrinus manuscript, and was deeply interested to find that Wetstein's collation of the Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus of Paris (C) confirmed the Alexandrinus readings. Comparative criticism begins with Bentley.
He found the oldest manuscripts of Jerome's Vulgate differ widely from the Clementine, and agree both in the words and in their order (which Jerome preserved in his translated "because even the order of the words is a mystery": Ep. ad Pamm.) with the oldest Greek manuscripts The citations of the New Testament by fathers are then especially valuable as evidences, when a father cites words expressly, or a special word which agrees with ancient manuscripts and versions, for such could hardly come from transcribers. Bentley obtained a collation of the Codex Vaticanus from Mico, an Italian, which his nephew T. Bentley verified in part. Woide transcribed it, and H. Ford edited it in 1799. The Latin version before Jerome's having become variously altered in different copies caused the need for his translation from the original Greek of manuscripts current at Rome (and in a few passages probably from Origen's Greek manuscripts in the Caesarean library), at Damasus' suggestion. He acknowledges he did not emend all that he could have.
And in his commentaries, he appeals to manuscripts against what he had adopted at Rome. Origen's readings show a text agreeing with manuscripts A, B, C (usually considered Alexandrian) rather than with the Western and Latin authorities. The Alexandrian and the western authorities coming from different quarters are independent witnesses. Bengel (1734) laid down the principle, "the hard is preferable to the easy reading," the copyist would more probably originate an easy than a hard reading. He observed differences in classes of manuscripts and versions. The Alexandrian manuscripts, few but far weightier, represent the more ancient ones; the far more numerous Byzantine manuscripts the more recent, family or class. The Byzantine or Constantinopolitan mutually concur, because copied from one another; the Alexandrian have some mutual discrepancies which render their concurrence in many more passages against the received text the weightier, because they prove the absence of collusion and mutual copying.
The Greek fathers prior to Jerome's Vulgate in quoting the Greek Testament agree with the readings in the oldest manuscripts, as does the Vulgate. Griesbach (1774) affirmed the sound rule, "no reading, however good it seems, ought to be preferred to another unless it has at least some ANCIENT testimonies." Also, coeteris paribus, "the shorter is preferable to the longer reading," for copyists tend to add rather than omit; notes in the margin, such as the parallel words of the same incident in different Gospels, creep into the text, and texts, like snowballs, grow in transmission.
Lachmann first cast aside the received text as an authority entirely, and reconstructed the text as transmitted by our most ancient authorities, namely, the oldest Greek manuscripts: A, B, C, D, Delta (Claromontanus), E, G, H, P, Q, T, Z; citations in Origen; the ante-Jerome Latin in the oldest manuscripts: a, b, c, d, e, Laudianus, Actuum, f Claromontanus Paul. Epp., f f Sangermanensis Paul. Epp., g Bornerianus Paul. Epp., h Primasius in the Apocalypse; Jerome's Vulgate in the oldest manuscripts: Fuldensis, and its corrections by Victor of Capua, and Amiatinus or Laurentianus; readings in Irenaeus, Cyprian, Hilary of Poictiers, and Lucifer of Cagliari. Wiseman suggested that the "Old Latin" (ante-Jerome) version was made in Africa, of which "the Italian version" (Augustine de Doctr. Christ., 2:15) was a particular recension current in upper Italy. To Lachmann's authorities other ancient versions besides the Latin ones need to be added; also the oldest manuscripts need accurate collation. Cardinal Mai's edition of the Vaticanus manuscript is not altogether reliable.
Tischendorf has added to our Greek manuscripts Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph), which he found on Mount Sinai in 1844 and rescued from papers intended to light the stove in the convent of Catherine. Only in 1859 did he obtain the whole - the Septuagint, the whole New Testament, the whole Epistle ascribed to Barnabas, and a large part of the Shepherd of Hermas (on vellum). It was first deposited in St. Petersburg, having been presented to Alexander II of Russia, who had 300 copies, in four folio volumes, printed at his own expense in 1862. In 1863 the popular edition was published, containing the New Testament, Barnabas, and Hermas; Scrivener has published a cheap collation of it. Lachmann is wrong in slavishly adhering to the principal authorities when agreeing in an unquestionable error; still "the first Greek Testament printed wholly on ancient authority, irrespective of modern traditions, is due to C. Lachmann" (Tregelles, "Printed Text of Greek Testament," an admirable work). Tischendorf followed, adding however many manuscripts and versions of later date to the older authorities (including the two old Egyptian and the two Syriac versions).
Rightly, in parallel passages (e.g. the synoptical Gospels) he prefers those testimonies in which accordance is not found, unless there be good reason to the contrary, for copyists tried to bring parallel passages into accordance. Also in discrepant readings he prefers that one which may have been the common starting point to the rest. Also those which accord with New Testament Greek and with the writer's particular style. It retains the Alexandrian forms of Greek words, though seeming barbarous, for this style of Greek was common in the New Testament era to Palestine, Egypt, and Libya, and appears in the Septuagint. As leempsetai for leepsetai ; vowels changed, katherizo for katharizo ; augment doubled, or omitted; Rho ( ρ ) not doubled, as erantisen ; unusual forms, epesa , anathema for anatheema , etc. While maintaining the paramount weight of ancient authorities, he admits more modern ones in case of conflicting evidence.
Alexandria was in the early ages the center for publishing Greek manuscripts; hence, our oldest manuscripts were copied there, though the originals were written elsewhere. The oldest manuscripts are written in uncial (capital) letters; the modern ones in cursive or small letters. Besides the versions above mentioned the Gothic of Ulphilas (fourth century), the Aethiopic, and the Armenian are important. These all were translated surely from the Greek itself; we are not sure of the rest.
THE ORDER OF THE NEW TESTAMENT BOOKS. The fragment of Muratori's (See CANON , Melito, Irenaeus, and Origen, arrange the Gospels as we have them. Acts follow. Then Paul's epistles in Eusebius, in the Latin church, and in Jerome's Vulgate (oldest manuscripts) But the uncial manuscripts A, B, C, also Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, and the council of Laodicea (A. D. 364) place the general or universal epistles before Paul's. A, B, C also place epistle to Hebrew after 2 Thessalonians. Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph) puts Hebrew after 2 Thessalonians, Acts after Philemon, the universal (general) epistles after Paul's letters and the Book of Acts.
OLDEST MANUSCRIPTS. 'aleph, B, fourth century; A, C, Q, T, fragments, fifth century; D, P, R, Z, E2, D2, H3, sixth century; theta, seventh century; E, L, lambda, xi, B2, eighth century; F, K, M, X, T, delta, H2, G or L2, F2, G2, K2, M2, ninth century; G, H, S, V (E3), tenth century. In the Gospels 'aleph, A, B, C, D, and the fragments Z, J, N, gamma, P, Q, T, are of primary authority; the uncial manuscripts are of secondary authority, and mostly agreeing with these, are L, X, delta; there are cursive manuscripts - 1, 33, 69 - which support the old manuscripts. In Acts, the oldest manuscripts are 'aleph, A, B, C, D, E; G, H, and the F(a) fragment have a text varying from the oldest manuscripts; the cursives 13 and 31 agree with the oldest manuscripts. In the universal epistles 'aleph, A, B, C, G; the uncial J differs from these oldest manuscripts. In the Pauline epistles 'aleph, A, B, C, D (and E Sangermanensis, its copy), and H; the cursives 17 and 37 agree with the oldest manuscripts. In Revelation 'aleph, A, C; B Basilianus (not Codex Vaticanus), a valuable but later uncial; cursives 14 and 38 agree often with the oldest manuscripts.
PRIMARY AUTHORITIES. Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph), see above. The Codex Alexandrinus (A) given by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I, 1628; now in the British Museum; it contains the Old Testament, the Septuagint, and begins the New Testament with Matthew 25:6, and lacks John 6:50 - 8:52; the New Testament part was published in facsimile by Woide in 1786. Codex Vaticanus (B) contains the Old Testament and the New Testament (down to Hebrews 9:14; the remainder, to end of Revelation, was added in the 15th century. Also, the original does not have epistles to Timothy, Titus, Philemon. There are four collations: by Bartolocci, 1669, in manuscript, in Bibliotheque du Roi, Paris; that by Mico for Bentley, 1720, published 1799; that by Birch, except Luke and John, 1798; that by Mai, published 1858 4to, 1859 8vo; was still not accurate. It was originally written in the middle of the fourth century in Egypt; its text agrees with Alexandrian authorities. Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus, or palimpsest (C); the Syrian Ephraem wrote 38 tracts on the parchment, after sponging out the old writing, to save writing materials.
It was scarce even then. Peter Allix, a French pastor, 17th century, detected the Old and New Testament uncials underneath. C. Hase, 1834, restored the writing by chemicals. Wetstein collated it. Written in Egypt early in fifth century, corrected in sixth, and again in ninth century, to agree with Constantinopolitan text. Brought to Florence at the fall of the Greek empire; thence Catherine de Medici brought it to the Bibliotheque du Roi, Paris. It lacks 2 Thessalonians, 2 John 1, and several passages. Tischendorf edited it 1843. Bezae Cantabrigiensis (D), Beza having presented it 1581. It was brought from Greece to the monastery of Irenaeus at Lyons; at the sack of Lyons Beza found it in 1562. It comes from the sixth century. Kipling edited it 1793. It contains the Gospels and Acts with a Latin version. Mutilated and interpolated; the interpolations are easily distinguished from the original. Its text is mostly like the ancient Latin versions. It has peculiarities that were probably not in the sacred originals.
Nevertheless, it still supports Codex Vaticanus (B) in readings which have been proved to be independently ancient. Codex Dublin (Z) rescriptus fragment of Matthew. Barrett had it correctly engraven, facsimile, 1787. In 1801 he, when eyesight was failing, gave the text in ordinary Greek letters on each opposite page, full of errors which the accompanying uncials confuted. Tregelles by chemicals discovered additional portions and restored the whole. It comes from the sixth century. Codex Cottonianus (J), in the British Museum. Fragments of Matthew and John. Published by Knittel in 1762. Codex Caesareus Vindobonensis (N), a fragment of the same manuscript: Luke 24. Vaticanus (gamma), fragment of the same manuscript: part of Matthew. Codex Guelpherbytani (P, Q), two fragmentary rescriptae, sixth century: P, the Gospels; Q, Luke and John: in the ducal library at Wolfenbuttel. Codex Borgianus, a fragment of John with a Coptic version, fifth century; published by Giorgi at Rome, 1789.
SECONDARY AUTHORITIES. L., Bib. Reg. Paris., of the Gospels; text related to B; Tischendorf edited it. Monacensis (X), fragment of the four Gospels. San Gallensis (delta), in the library of Gall, Greek and Latin four Gospels. Delta and G, Boernerianus, of Paul's epistles, are severed parts of the same book. Manuscripts of Acts, besides 'aleph, A, B, C, D. E, Laudianus, Greek and Latin; Laud gave it to Bodleian Library, Oxford; brought from Sardinia; Hearne edited it 1715; sixth century (Tischendorf). F(a), fragm. in Scholia of Old Testament manuscript in Bened. Library, Germain; seventh century. G, Bibl. Angelicae at Rome; ninth century. So H, Mutinensis. Manuscripts of the universal epistles, besides 'aleph, A, B, C, G. Mosquensis (J) contains of them all. In Paul's epistles it is marked K. It differs from the ancient authorities, and sides with the Constantinopolitan. Manuscripts of Paul's epistles besides 'aleph, A, B, C, D (delta in Lachmann), Claromontanus, Greek and Latin, in Royal Library, Paris; came from Clermont, Beza had owned it; all Paul's epistles except a few verses; Tischendorf published it, 1852; sixth century.
H, Coislinianus, at Paris; fragment of Paul's epistles; brought from Mount Athos; Montfaucon edited it in 1715; though Constantinopolitan in origin it agrees with the ancient authorities, not the Byzantine and received text; sixth or seventh century, but its authority is that of the best text of Caesarea in the beginning of the fourth century; the transcriber's note is, "this copy was collated with a copy in Caesarea belonging to the library of S. Pamphilus and written with his own hand." F, G, agree with the oldest manuscripts F, Angiensis, Greek and Latin, bequeathed by T. Bentley to Trin. Coll., Cambridge, agrees in most readings with Boernerianus G. Epistle to Hebrew is wanting in both. The Latin in F is the Vulgate, in G the old Italian or ante-Jerome Latin. C.F. Matthaei published it in 1791. Both come from the ninth century. Manuscripts of Revelation besides 'aleph, A, C. B, Basilianus, in the Vatican, eighth century; Tischendorf edited it.
MANUSCRIPTS IN CURSIVE LETTERS. From the 10th to 16th century. 600 of the Gospels, 200 of Acts and universal epistles, 300 of Paul's epistles, 100 of Revelation; besides 200 evangelistaria, and 70 lectionaria or portions divided for reading as lessons in church. Scrivener makes the total - 127 uncials, 1461 cursives.
ANCIENT VERSIONS.
(1) The ante-Jerome Latin. Translated from oldest Greek manuscripts, a text related to D, and of a different family from the Alexandrian manuscripts. It adheres to the original Greek tenses, cases, etc., in violation of Latin grammar. A Jew probably was the translator (Ernesti, Inst. 2:4, section 17). The copies, though varying, have a mutual resemblance, indicating there was originally one received Latin version. From their agreement with the citations of African fathers, Tertullian and Cyprian, Wiseman infers the archetypal text originated in northern Africa, from whence it passed to Italy (second century) when Irenaeus' translator knew it. Variations arose in different copies; alluding to these Augustine said, "the Italian (i.e. a particular revision of the old Latin version current in upper Italy) is to be preferred to the rest." He distinguishes between "emended copies," (i.e. brought from Africa to Italy, and there emended from Greek manuscripts also improved in Latinity), and "nonemended copies," i.e. retaining the text of their African birthplace unaltered.
The purest text is in Codex Vercellensis and Codex Veronensis, a and b, transcribed by Eusebius the martyr, fourth century, published by Blanchini, Evang. Quadr., at Rome, 1749. Colbertinus Evang., c, 11th century, but agreeing with oldest text; Sabatier published at Paris, 1751. Cantabrigiensis of the Gospels, Acts, and 3 John, d; accompanies D, but is not translated from it. Palatinus of the Gospels, e; in Libr. Vienn.; fourth or fifth century; Tischendorf edited it, Lips., 1847. Laudianus, of Acts; in E, e. Claromontanus, the Latin version in D of Paul's epistles, Sangermanensis, the Latin in E of Paul's epistles. Boernerianus in G, of Paul's epistles. Also Corbeiensis (ff in Tisch.) of universal Epistles; Martianay edited it at Paris, 1695; very ancient.
(2) The same version revised in upper Italy appears with a Byzantine tendency in Codex Brixianus, f.
(3) The Old Latin appears more accordant with the Alexandrian old Greek manuscripts in Bobbiensis, k, containing a fragment of the New Testament. Tischendorf edited it at Vienna in 1847.
THE VULGATE OF JEROME (i.e. the version which supplanted all former versions in the then common tongue, Latin, and came into common use), made A.D. 383; see above. The copies of the old Latin had fallen into mutual discrepancies. Jerome, collating the Latin with Greek manuscripts considered by him, the greatest scholar of the Latin church, ancient at the end of the fourth century, says he "only corrected those Latin passages which altered the sense, and let the rest remain." He rejects certain interpolated Greek manuscripts, "a Luciano et Ηesychio nuncupatos ", on the ground that the versions made in various languages before the additions falsify them, suggesting the use of the oldest versions, namely, to detect interpolations unknown in the Greek text of their day. The texts of Sixtus V (1590) and Clement VIII (1592), authorized with anathemas, differ widely from Jerome's true text as restored by the Amiatinus manuscript or Laurentianus, which was transcribed by Servandus, abbot of Monast. Amiata, 541; now in Laurentian Lib., Florence. Tischendorf published it 1850. Fuldensis manuscript of whole New Testament, the four Gospels harmonized, with preface by Victor of Capua.
EGYPTIAN VERSIONS.
(1) The Coptic or Memphitic, of Lower Egypt, third century; D. Wilkins edited it, Oxford, 1716.
(2) Sahidic or Thebaic, of Upper Egypt; Woide, or rather his successor H. Ford, edited it in the New Testament from Codex Alexandrinus, 1799.
(3) Basmuric, a third Egyptian dialect.
ETHIOPIC. Said to be by Frumentius, who introduced Christianity into Ethiopia in fourth century; Pell Platt edited it; previously Bode gave a Latin version of it in 1753.
SYRIAC VERSIONS.
(1) Cureton published the Syriac manuscripts brought by Dr. Tattam from the Natrian monastery, Lower Egypt, now in the British Museum. These differ widely from the common (as in Rich's manuscript 7157 in British Museum, much altered by transcribers) Peshito, i.e. pure Syriac, version, called so from its chose adherence to the original Greek; second century.
(2) The Harclean, a later Syriac version by Polycarp, suffragan to Philoxenus, bishop of Hierapolis, 508; White published it as "the Philoxenian." The Armenian, by Mesrobus, early in the fifth century, made from Greek manuscripts; brought from Alexandria and from Ephesus. Zohrab edited it at Venice, 1805. The Gothic, by Ulphilas, from the Greek; fourth century. Gabelentz and Loebe edited it, 1836. Versions later than sixth century are valueless as witnesses to the ancient text. Citations in Greek and Latin fathers down to Eusebius inclusive; important in fixing the text of the fourth and previous centuries, only in cases where they must be quoting from manuscripts and not from memory. Origen quotes almost two thirds of New Testament except James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Revelation. Adamantius' ("Origen") copies appealed to by Jerome (on Matthew 24:36; Galatians 3:1) were written probably by Origen; Pamphilus' copy was from Origen's text. Textual variations and ancient manuscripts of Origen who died in 254 A.D., and of Tertullian in 220 A.D., testify that the text varied in different copies and versions even then.
The earliest Christians, being filled themselves with the Spirit, and having enjoyed intercourse with the apostles, were less tenacious of the letter of Scripture than the church had found it necessary to be ever since. The internal evidence of the authority of the New Testament, and its public reading in church, and its universal acceptance by Christians and heretics alike as the standard for deciding controversies, indicate the reverence felt for it from the first. But the citations of the Gospels in Justin Martyr, and previously in the apostolic fathers, show that besides the written word the oral word was still in men's memories; also frequent transcription, the Harmonies (Ammonius in third century made a Diatessaron, weaving the four Gospels into one) trying to bring all four into literal identity by supplying omissions in one from another, marginal notes creeping into the text; variation gradually arising in distant regions, "the indolence of some transcribers, and corrections by others by way of addition, or taking away as they judged fit" (Origen in Matthew 8), all caused copies to differ in different places.
Providentially early versions of diverse regions afford means of detecting variations. Citations in fathers often support the versions' readings against the interpolated texts, so that if even there were no Greek manuscripts to support the versions' readings the evidence would still be on the side of these. But we have manuscripts habitually supporting the readings which are in
Holman Bible Dictionary - Jewish Parties in the New Testament
Judaism in New Testament times was diverse. We read of Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herodians. One man is called a Zealot. From other sources we learn of the Essenes. Pharisees The Pharisees constituted the most important group. They appear in the Gospels as the opponents of Jesus. Paul claimed that he was a Pharisee before becoming a Christian (Philippians 3:5 ). They were the most numerous of the groups, although Josephus stated that they numbered only about six thousand. They controlled the synagogues and exercised great control over the general population.
No surviving writing gives us information about the origin of the Pharisees. The earliest reference to them is dated in the time of Jonathan (160-143 B.C.), where Josephus refers to Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. Their good relations with the rulers ended in the time of John Hyrcanus (134-104 B.C.). They came to power again when Salome Alexandra became queen (76 B.C.).
The name “Pharisee” means “the separated ones.” It may mean that they separated themselves from the masses of the people or that they separated themselves to the study and interpretation of the law. It is usually assumed that they were the spiritual descendants of the Hasidim, the loyal fighters for religious freedom in the time of Judas Maccabeus. They appear to be responsible for the transformation of Judaism from a religion of sacrifice to one of law. They were the developers of the oral tradition, the teachers of the two-fold law: written and oral. They saw the way to God as being through obedience to the law. They were the progressives of the day, willing to adopt new ideas and adapt the law to new situations.
The Pharisees were strongly monotheistic. They accepted all the Old Testament as authoritative. They affirmed the reality of angels and demons. They had a firm belief in life beyond the grave and a resurrection of the body. They were missionary, seeking the conversion of Gentiles (Matthew 23:15 ). They saw God as concerned with the life of a person without denying that the individual was responsible for how he or she lived. They had little interest in politics. The Pharisees opposed Jesus because He refused to accept the teachings of the oral law.
Sadducees The Sadducees were the aristocrats of the time. They were the party of the rich and the high priestly families. They were in chargeof the Temple and its services. They claimed to be descendants of Zadok, high priest in the time of Solomon. However, the true derivation of their name is unknown. In all our literature, they stand in opposition to the Pharisees. They sought to conserve the beliefs and practices of the past. They opposed the oral law, accepting the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, as the ultimate authority. The Sadducees were materialistic in their outlook. They did not believe in life after death or any reward or punishment beyond this life. They denied the existence of angels and demons. They did not believe that God was concerned with what people did. Rather people were totally free. They were politically oriented, supporters of ruling powers, whether Seleucids or Romans. They wanted nothing to threaten their position and wealth, so they strongly opposed Jesus.
Zealots The Zealots receive only brief mention in the New Testament. Simon, one of the disciples, is called Zealot (Luke 6:15 ). John 18:40 uses a word for Barabbas that Josephus used for Zealot. Josephus states that the Zealots began with Judas the Galilean seeking to lead a revolt over a census for taxation purposes (A.D. 6). He did not use the name Zealot until referring to events in A.D. 66, the beginning of the Jewish revolt against Rome. The Zealots were the extreme wing of the Pharisees. In contrast with the Pharisees, they believed that only God had the right to rule over the Jews. They were willing to fight and die for that belief. For them patriotism and religion were inseparable.
Herodians The Herodians are mentioned in only three places in the New Testament (Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 3:6 ; Mark 12:13 ). In the earliest reference in Mark, they joined with the Pharisees in a plot to kill Jesus. The other two passages refer to the sending of Pharisees and Herodians to ask Jesus about paying taxes to Caesar. It is assumed that they were Jews who supported Herod Antipas or sought to have a descendant of Herod the Great given authority over Palestine. At this time Judea and Samaria were under Roman governors.
Essenes We know of the Essenes through the writings of Josephus and Philo, a Jewish philosopher in Alexandria, Egypt. They are not mentioned in the New Testament. More information about the Essenes has come to light since 1947 with the discovery of the manuscripts from the caves above the Dead Sea, commonly called the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is generally believed that the people of the Scrolls were closely related to the Essenes. They may have begun at about the same time as the Pharisees and Sadducees. The Essenes were an ascetic group, many of whom lived in the desert region of Qumran, near the Dead Sea. They took vows of celibacy and perpetuated their community by adopting male children. However, some Essenes did marry. When one joined the Essenes, he gave all his possessions to the community. A three-year period of probation was required before full membership was granted. The Essenes devoted themselves to the study of the law. They went beyond the Pharisees in their rigid understanding of it. There is no evidence that either Jesus or John the Baptist had ever had any relation to Qumran. Jesus would have strongly opposed their understanding of the law.
The vast majority of the people were not a member of any of these parties, although they would have been most influenced by the Pharisees. See Intertestamental History and Literature; Dead Sea Scrolls ; Synagogue ; Temple.
Clayton Harrop
Holman Bible Dictionary - Jews in the New Testament
The word Jew is derived ultimately from the tribe of Judah through Middle English Iewe , Old French Ieu , Latin Iudaeus , and Greek Ioudaios (compare the woman's name Judith , which originally meant “Jewess”). The Old Testament Era The Hebrew yehudim meant originally descendants of the tribe of Judah and then those who inhabited the territories claimed by them (2 Kings 16:6 ; 2 Kings 25:25 ; Jeremiah 32:12 ). With the deportation and subsequent assimilation of the “Ten Lost Tribes” of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians after 722 B.C., the only Israelites to survive into the exilic period (with a few from the tribe of Benjamin, e.g. Mordecai, who is called a “Jew” in Esther 2:5 ) were those from Judah, hence the name Jews (Nehemiah 1:2 ). The corresponding Aramaic word is used in Daniel 3:8 ,Daniel 3:8,3:12 .
The Intertestamental Period The Greek name Ioudaios (plural Ioudaioi ) was used for the Israelites in the Greek and Roman world. This is the name used in the treaty between Judas Maccabeus and the Romans, described in 1 Maccabees 8:23-32 : “May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews”
Matthew, Mark, Luke The term Ioudaios occurs relatively rarely in the Synoptic Gospels, the first three Gospels which are closely parallel to each other. The word occurs but five times in Matthew, seven times in Mark, and five times in Luke, usually in the expression “King of the Jews” (12 of the total of 17). Of the remaining occurrences only Matthew 28:15 designates Jews as contrasted to Christian believers.
John By contrast the word Ioudaios occurs 70 times in the Gospel of John. Some of these references are quite positive, especially in the dialogue between Jesus and the woman of Samaria ( John 4:1 ). In John 4:9 the woman says to Jesus, “thou, being a Jew,” and in John 4:22 Jesus says, “salvation is of the Jews.” Many of the Jews believed in Jesus ( John 8:31 ; John 11:45 ; John 12:11 ). Other references are neutral as in John 3:1 , where Nicodemus is described as a ruler of the Jews.
The description of Jesus' opponents reveals a striking difference between the Synoptic Gosepls and John. Whereas the former names Jesus' enemies as scribes and Pharisees, high priests and Sadducees, the Gospel of John simply uses the general term “Jews.” The term often implies Jewish authorities as in John 7:13 ; John 9:22 ; John 19:38 ; John 20:19 .
The Jews impugned Jesus' birth and His sanity (John 8:48 ), and even alleged that He was demon possessed (John 8:52 ). The Jews questioned His statements about the Temple (John 2:20 ) and were scandalized at His claim to be the bread from heaven (John 6:41 ). They regarded His affirmations of equality with the Father as blasphemous and picked up stones to kill Him (John 5:18 ; John 7:1 ; John 10:31 ,John 10:31,10:33 ; John 11:8 ).
The heightened use of the term “Jews” in John to serve as a general designation for those who denied that Jesus was the Christ may be explained by the fact that John's Gospel was composed at a later date than the Synoptics—after such events as the destruction of Jerusalem in A.D. 70 and the insertion of a curse upon the minim (“heretics,” especially Christians) into the daily synagogue prayer in A.D. 80 had increased mutual hostilities between Jews and Christians.
Acts Paul was a Jew from Tarsus (Acts 21:39 ; Acts 22:3 ). After his dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus, his fellow Jews sought to kill him (Acts 9:23 ). King Herod Agrippa I arrested Peter and killed the Apostle James, believing this would please the Jews (Acts 12:1-3 ).
Following his conviction that the gospel should be preached first to the Jews (Romans 1:16 ), Paul on his missionary journeys began his preaching in the Jewish synagogues—at Salamis on Cyprus (Acts 13:5 ), at Iconium (Acts 14:1 ), at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1 ), at Athens (Acts 17:15-17 ), and at Corinth (Acts 18:1 ). Though he made some converts among the Jews, even converting the synagogue ruler at Corinth (Acts 18:8 ), and no doubt had success among the “god fearers” or proselytes who were interested in converting to Judaism (Acts 13:43 ; Acts 17:4 ), the majority of the Jews reacted violently against Paul's message (Acts 13:50 ; Ephesians 2:8-98 ; Acts 17:5 ; Acts 18:12 ). Paul therefore turned his efforts increasingly toward the Gentiles, the non-Jews.
Pauline Letters As the “apostle to the Gentiles,” Paul argued against “Judaizers” that Gentile converts did not have to be circumcized, that is, become Jews first, before they became christians (Acts 15:1-5 ). His arguments were accepted by James and the church council at Jerusalem held about A.D. 49. Paul, who had been “an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee” (Philippians 3:5 ) and had been more zealous in his pursuit of Judaism than his peers (Galatians 1:13-14 ), came to the radical conclusion that a true Jew is not one who was physically descended from Abraham (compare John 8:31-41 ), adhered to the Torah or Law of Moses (Romans 2:17 ,Romans 2:17,2:28 ) and was circumcized. For Paul a true Jew is one who believes that Jesus is the Messiah or Christ (Galatians 3:26-29 ), relies on God's grace and not works of the law (1618100881_32 ), and has been circumcized in his heart by the Holy Spirit (Galatians 2:2-9 ; Galatians 5:6 ). In spite of his grief that most of his fellow Jews did not accept his message, Paul did not teach that God had abandoned the Jews but believed that God still has a plan for them (Romans 9-11 ). (Note: the word Ioudaios is not found in any of the non-Pauline letters of the New Testament.)
Revelation The two references in the Book of Revelation are to the church at Smyrna (Revelation 2:9 ) and the church at Philadelphia (Revelation 3:9 ), where there were those who claimed to be Jews but who were denounced as the “synagogue of Satan” because they opposed Christians. See Israel ; Hebrews ; Pharisees ; Sadducees .
Edwin Yamauchi
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - New Testament
NEW TESTAMENT. See Bible, Canon of NT. Text of NT.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - New Testament
See INSPIRATION, and SCRIPTURE.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Canon of the New Testament
CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT
1. Title . The Greek word ‘canon,’ meaning originally a ‘rod’ and so a ‘rule for measuring,’ is used in a variety of senses by the Patristic writers, among the most familiar instances being the expressions ‘rule of truth’ and ‘rule of faith’ for the doctrinal teaching officially recognized by the bishops. Hence, since we meet with the phrase ‘canonical books’ in Origen, as rendered by Rufinus’ translation, before we see the substantive ‘canon’ applied to the list of NT books, it has been argued that the adjective was first used in the sense of ‘regulative,’ so that the phrase means ‘the books that regulate faith or morals.’ But the substantive must mean the’ list’ of books, and in Athanasius we have a passive participle in the phrase ‘ canonized books,’ i.e. books belonging to the Canon; soon after which the actual word ‘canon’ is applied to the books of the NT by Amphilochius, the bishop of Iconium (end of 4th cent. a.d.). The NT Canon, then, is the list of NT books, and this simple meaning, rather than ‘the regulative books,’ is the more likely Interpretation of the expression to have occurred to people who were in the habit of using the term for lists of officials, lists of festivals, etc. The question of the Canon differs from questions of the authenticity, genuineness, historicity, inspiration, value, and authority of the several NT books in concerning itself simply with their acceptance in the Church. Primarily the question was as to what books were read in the churches at public worship. Those so used became in course of time the Christian Scriptures. Then, having the value of Scripture gradually associated with them, they came to be treated as authoritative. The first stage is that of use in the form of Church lessons; the second that of a standard of authority to be employed as the basis of instruction, and to be appealed to in disputed cases of doctrine or discipline.
2. The Formation of the Canon in the 2nd Century . The very earliest reading of NT books in the churches must have occurred in the case of epistles addressed to particular churches, which of course were read in those churches; next come the circular letters ( e.g. Ephesians 1:1-23 Petereter), which were passed round a group of churches. Still this involved no repeated liturgical use of these writings as in a church lectionary. During the obscure period of the sub-Apostolic age we have no indication of the use of epistles in church worship. Clement of Rome assumed that the church at Corinth was acquainted with 1 Corinthians, although he was writing nearly 40 years after St. Paul had sent that Epistle to the church, and a new generation had arisen in the interval; but there is no proof or probability that it was regularly read at the services. The earliest references to any such reading point to the Synoptic Gospels as alone having this place of honour, together with the OT prophets. This was the case in the worship described by Justin Martyr (1 Apol . lxvii.). A little later Justin’s disciple Tatian prepared his Harmony ( Diatessaron ) for use in the church at Edessa. This was constructed out of all four Gospels; i.e. it included John, a Gospel probably known to Justin, though not included in his Memoirs of the Apostles. As yet no epistles are seen in the place of honour of church reading side by side with OT Scriptures. But long before this a collection had been made by Marcion ( c [1] . a.d. 140) in his effort to reform the Church by recalling attention to the Pauline teaching which had fallen into neglect. Marcion’s Canon consisted of a mutilated Gospel of St. Luke 10:1-42 Epistles of St. Paul (the 3 Pastoral Epistles being omitted). Although other early Church writers evidently allude to several of the Epistles ( e.g. Clemens Rom., Ignatius, Polycarp, ‘Barnabas’), that is only by way of individual citation, without any hint that they are used in a collection or treated as authoritative Scripture. Marcion is the earliest who is known to have honoured any of the Epistles in this way. But when we come to Irenæus (180) we seem to be in another world. Irenæus cites as authoritative most of the books of the Christian Scriptures, though he does not appear to have known Hebrews. We now have a NT side by side with the OT; or at all events we have Christian books appealed to as authoritative Scripture, just as in the previous generation the LXX [2] was appealed to as authoritative Scripture. Here is evidence of a double advance: (1) in the addition of the Epistles to the Gospels as a collection, (2) in the enhancement of the value of all these books for the settlement of questions of doctrine.
This is one of the most important developments in the thought and practice of the Church. And yet history is absolutely silent as to how, when, where, and by whom it was brought about. Nothing is more amazing in the history of the Christian Church than the absence of all extant contemporary references to so great a movement. The 30 years from Justin Martyr, who knew only a collection of 3 Gospels as specially authoritative, and that simply as records of the life and teaching of Christ, to Irenæus, with his frequent appeals to the Epistles as well as the Gospels, saw the birth of a NT Canon, but left no record of so great an event. Irenæus, though bishop of Lyons and Vienne in Gaul, was in close communication with Asia Minor where he had been brought up, and Prof. Harnack conjectures that bishops of Asia Minor in agreement with the Church at Rome deliberately drew up and settled the Canon, although we have no historical record of so significant an event. It may be, however, that Irenæus was himself a pioneer in a movement the necessity of which was recognized as by common consent. Some authoritative standard of appeal was wanted to save the essence of Christian teaching from being engulfed in the speculations of Gnosticism. The Gospels were not sufficient for this purpose, because they were accepted by the Gnostics, who, however, interpreted them allegorically. What was needed was a standard of doctrinal truth, and that was found in the Epistles.
Near this time we have the earliest known Canon after that of Marcion, the most ancient extant list of NT books in the Catholic Church. This is named the ‘Muratorian Fragment,’ after its discoverer Muratori, who found it in a 7th or 8th cent. monk’s commonplace book in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, and published it in 1740. The fragment is a mutilated extract of a list of NT books made at Rome probably before the end of the 2nd cent., since the author refers to the episcopate of Pius as recent ( nuperrime temporibus nostris ), and Pius I., who died in a.d. 157, is the only bishop of Rome of that name in the early age to which unquestionably, as internal evidence indicates, the original composition must be assigned. The fragment begins in the middle of a sentence which appears to allude to St. Peter’s connexion with our Second Gospel, and goes on to mention Luke as the Third Gospel and John as the Fourth. Therefore it evidently acknowledged the 4 Gospels. Then it has Acts, which it ascribes to Luke, and it acknowledges 13 Epistles of Paul admitting the Pastorals, but excluding Hebrews, though it subsequently refers to ‘an Epistle to the Laodiceans,’ and another ‘to the Alexandrians forged under the name of Paul,’ as well as ‘many others’ which are not received in the Catholic Church ‘because gall ought not to be mixed with honey.’ Further, this Canon includes Judges 1:2 Epistles of John, and the Apocalypse, which it ascribes to John. It also has the Book of Wisdom, which it says was ‘written by the friends of Solomon in his honour,’ and the Apocalypse of Peter, although acknowledging that there is a minority which rejects the latter work, for we read ‘we receive moreover the Apocalypses of John and Peter only, which [3] some of our body will not have read in the church.’ This indicates that the author’s church as a whole acknowledges the Apocalypse of Peter, and that he associates himself with the majority of his brethren in so doing, while he candidly admits that there are some dissentients. Lastly, the Canon admits Hermas for private reading, but not for use in the church services. We have here, then, most of our NT books; but, on the one hand, Hebrews 1:1-14 ; Hebrews 2:1-18 Petereter, James, and one of the 3 Epistles of John are not mentioned. They are not named to be excluded, like the forged works referred to above; possibly the author did not know of their existence. At all events he did not find them used in his church. On the other hand, Wisdom, without question, and the Apocalypse of Peter, though rejected by some, are included in this canon, and Hermas is added for private reading.
Passing on to the commencement of the 3rd cent., we come upon another anonymous writing, an anti-gambling tract entitled ‘Concerning dice-players’ ( de Aleatoribus ), which Prof. Harnack attributes to Victor of Rome (a.d. 200 230). In this tract the Shepherd of Hermas and the Didache are both quoted as ‘Scripture.’ The author refers to three divisions of Scripture: (1) Prophetic writings the OT Prophets, the Apocalypse, Hermas; (2) the Gospels; (3) the Apostolic Writings Paul, 1 John, Hebrews.
Neither of these Canons can be regarded as authoritative either ecclesiastically or scientifically, since we are ignorant of their sources. But they both indicate a crystallizing process, in the Church at Rome about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd centuries, that was tending towards our NT, though with some curious variations. The writings of the Fathers of this period agree in the main with Irenæus in their citations from most of the NT books as authoritative a condition very different from that of Justin Martyr half a century earlier. Two influences may be recognized as bringing this result about: (1) use in churches at public worship, (2) authoritative appeals against heresy especially Gnosticism. It was necessary to settle what books should be read in church and what books should be appealed to in discussion. The former was the primary question. The books used at their services by the churches, and therefore admitted by them as having a right to be so employed, were the books to be appealed to in controversy. The testing fact was church usage. Canonical books were the books read at public worship. How it came about that certain books were so used and others not is by no means clear. Prof. Harnack’s theory would solve the problem if we could be sure it was valid. Apart from this, (1) traditional usage and (2) assurance of Apostolic authorship appear to have been two grounds relied upon.
Turning to the East, we find Clement of Alexandria (a.d. 165 220) acknowledging the 4 Gospels and Acts 14:1-28 Epistles of Paul (Hebrews being included), and quoting 1 and 2 John 1:1 Petereter, Jude, and the Apocalypse. He makes no reference to James 2:1-26 Petereter, or 3 John, any of which he may perhaps have known, as we have no list of NT books from his hand, for he does not name these books to reject them. Still, the probability as regards some, if not all, of them is that he did not know them. In the true Alexandrian spirit, Clement has a wide and comprehensive idea of inspiration, and therefore no very definite conception of Scriptural exclusiveness or fixed boundaries to the Canon. Thus he quotes Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter, and the Sibylline Writings as in some way authoritative. He was a literary eclectic who delighted to welcome Christian truth in unexpected places. Still he had a NT in two volumes which he knew respectively as ‘The Gospel’ and ‘The Apostle’ (see Euseb. HE vi. 14). Origen (a.d. 184 253), who was a more critical scholar, treated questions of canonicity more scientifically. He acknowledged our books of the OT and some parts of the Apocrypha, such as 1 Mac.; and in the NT the 4 Gospels, Acts 13:1-52 Epistles of Paul, Hebrews (though the latter as of doubtful authorship; nevertheless in his homily on Joshua he seems to include it among St. Paul’s works, since he makes them 14, when he writes that ‘God, thundering on the 14 trumpets of his [4] Epistles, threw down even the walls of Jericho, that is all the instruments of idolatry and the doctrines of the philosophers’), 1Peter , 1 John, Revelation. He does not directly mention the Epistles of James or Jude, although he seems to refer to them once in a rhetorical way, classing Peter, James, and Jude with the 4 Evangelists as represented by Isaac’s servants if we are to trust Rufinus’ version. He mentions 2 Peter 2:1-22 and 3 John as of disputed genuineness, and refers to the Gospel of the Hebrews in an apologetic tone, the Gospels of Peter and James, and the Acts of Paul, and quotes Hermas and Barnabas as ‘Scripture,’ while he admits that, though widely circulated, Hermas was not accepted by all. It is a significant fact, however, that he wrote no commentaries on any of those books that are not included in our NT.
3. The Settlement of the Canon in the Fourth and Fifth Centuries . An important step towards the settlement of the Canon on historical and scientific lines was taken by Eusebius, who, with his wide reading and the great library of Pamphilus to resort to, also brought a fair and judicious mind to face the problems involved. Eusebius saw clearly that it is not always possible to give a definite affirmative or negative answer to the question whether a certain book should be in the Canon. Therefore he drew up three lists of books (1) The books that are admitted by all, (2) the books which he is disposed to admit although there are some who reject them, (3) the books that he regards as spurious. A fourth class, which really does not come into the competition for a place in the Canon, consists of heretical works which ‘are to be rejected as altogether absurd and impious’ ( HE iii. 25). The first class, consisting of the books universally acknowledged, contains the 4 Gospels; Acts; the Epistles of Paul which in one place (iii. 3) are reckoned to be 14, and therefore to include Hebrews, although in another place (vi. 14) Hebrews is placed in the second class, among the disputed books; 1Peter ; 1 John; and Revelation (doubtfully). The second class, consisting of books widely accepted, though disputed by some (but apparently all admitted by Eusebius himself), contains James; Judges 1:2 Petereter regarded in another place (iii. 3) as spurious; 2 and 3 John. The third class, consisting of spurious works, contains the Acts of Paul; the Shepherd of Hermas; the Apocalypse of Peter; the Didache; and perhaps, according to some, the Revelation. Under the orders of Constantine, Eusebius had 50 copies of the Scriptures sumptuously produced on vellum for use in the churches of Constantinople. Of course these would correspond to his own Canon and so help to fix it and spread its influence. After this the fluctuations that we meet with are very slight. Athanasius in one of his Festal Letters (a.d. 365) undertakes to set forth in order the books that are canonical and handed down and believed to be Divine. His NT exactly agrees with our Canon, as does the NT of Epiphanius ( c [1] . a.d. 403). Cyril of Jerusalem (who died a.d. 386) gives a list of ‘Divine Scriptures’ which contains all the NT except the Revelation; and Amphilochius of Iconium (a.d. 395) has a versified catalogue of the Biblical books, in which also all our NT books appear except the Revelation, which he regards as spurious; Amphilochius refers to doubts concerning Hebrews and to a question as to whether the number of Catholic Epistles Isaiah 7 or 3. Even Chrysostom (who died a.d. 405) never alludes to the Revelation or the last 4 Catholic Epistles. But then he gives no list of the Canon. One of the Apostolical Canons (No. 85), which stand as an appendix to the 8th book of the Apostolical Constitutions (85), and cannot be dated earlier than the 4th cent. in their present form, gives a list of the books of Scripture. Sirach is here placed between the OT and the NT with a special recommendation to ‘take care that your young persons learn the wisdom of the very learned Sirach.’ Then follow the NT books the 4 Gospels, 14 Epistles of Paul (Hebrews therefore included in this category), 2 Epistles of Peter, 3 of John, James, Judges 1:2 Epistles of Clement, the 8 books of the Constitutions , Acts. Thus, while Clement and even the Apostolical Constitutions are included, the Revelation is left out, after a common custom in the East. Manifestly this is an erratic Canon.
Returning to the West, at this later period we have an elaborate discussion on the Canon by Augustine (a.d. 430), who lays down rules by which the canonicity of the several books claimed for the NT may be determined. (1) There are the books received and acknowledged by all the churches, which should therefore be treated as canonical. (2) There are some books not yet universally accepted. With regard to these, two tests are to be applied: ( a ) such as are received by the majority of the churches are to be acknowledged, and ( b ) such as are received by the Apostolic churches are to be preferred to those received only by a smaller number of churches and these of less authority, i.e. not having been founded by Apostles. In case ( a ) and ( b ) conflict, Augustine considers that ‘the authority on the two sides is to be looked upon as equal’ ( Christian Doctrine , II. viii. 12). Thus the tests are simply Church reception, though with discrimination as to the respective authority of the several churches. The application of these tests gives Augustine just our NT.
Jerome (a.d. 420) also accepts our NT, saying concerning Hebrews and the Revelation that he adopts both on the authority of ancient writers, not on that of present custom. He is aware that James has been questioned; but he states that little by little in course of time it has obtained authority. Jude was even rejected by most people because it contained quotations from Apocryphal writings. Nevertheless he himself accepts it. He notes that 2 and 3 John have been attributed to a presbyter whose tomb at Ephesus is still pointed out. The immense personal influence of Augustine and the acceptance of Jerome’s Vulgate as the standard Bible of the Christian Church gave fixity to the Canon, which was not disturbed for a thousand years. No General Council had pronounced on the subject. The first Council claiming to be (Ecumenical which committed itself to a decision on the subject was as late as the 16th cent. (the Council of Trent). We may be thankful that the delicate and yet vital question of determining the Canon was not flung into the arena of ecclesiastical debate to be settled by the triumph of partisan churchmanship, but was allowed to mature slowly and come to its final settlement under the twofold influences of honest scholarship and Christian experience. There were indeed local councils that dealt with the question; but their decisions were binding only on the provinces they represented, although, in so far as they were not disputed, they would be regarded as more or less normative by those other churches to which they were sent. As representing the East we have a Canon attributed to the Council of Laodicea ( c [1] . a.d. 360). There is a dispute as to whether this is genuine. It is given in the MSS variously as a 60th canon and as part of the 59th appended in red ink. Half the Latin versions are without it; so are the Syriac versions, which are much older than our oldest MSS of the canons. It closely resembles the Canon of Cyril of Jerusalem, from which Westcott supposed that it was inserted into the canons of Laodicea by a Latin hand. Its genuineness was defended by Hefele and Davidson. Jülicher regards it as probably genuine. This Canon contains the OT with Baruch and the Epistle of Jeremy, and all our NT except the Revelation. Then in the West we have the 3rd Council of Carthage (a.d. 397), which orders that ‘besides the Canonical Scriptures nothing be read in the Church under the title of Divine Scriptures,’ and appends a list of the books thus authorized in which we have the OT, the Apocrypha, and just our NT books. Here we have a whole province speaking for those books; when we add the great authority of Augustine, who belongs to this very province, and the influence of the Vulgate, we can well understand how the Canon should now be considered fixed and inviolable. Thus the matter rested for ten centuries.
4. Treatment of the Canon at the Renaissance and the Reformation . The question of the Canon was revived by the Renaissance and the Reformation, the one movement directing critical, scholarly attention to what was essentially a literary question, the other facing it in the interest of religious controversy. Erasmus writes: ‘The arguments of criticism, estimated by the rules of logic, lead me to disbelieve that the Epistle to the Hebrews is by Paul or Luke, or that the Second of Peter is the work of that Apostle, or that the Apocalypse was written by the Evangelist John. All the same, I have nothing to say against the contents of these books, which seem to me to be in perfect conformity with the truth. If, however, the Church were to declare the titles they bear to be canonical, then I would condemn my doubt, for the opinion formulated by the Church has more value in my eyes than human reasons, whatever they may be’ a most characteristic statement, revealing the scholar, the critic, the timid soul and the satirist (?). Within the Church of Rome even Cardinal Cajetan Luther’s opponent at Augsburg freely discusses the Canon, doubting whether Hebrews is St. Paul’s work, and whether, if it is not, it can be canonical. He also mentions doubts concerning the five General Epistles, and gives less authority to 2 and 3 John and Jude than to those books which he regards as certainly in the Holy Scriptures. The Reformation forced the question of the authority of the Bible to the front, because it set that authority in the place of the old authority of the Church. While this chiefly concerned the book as a whole, it could not preclude inquiries as to its contents and the rights of the several parts to hold their places there. The general answer as to the authority of Scripture is an appeal to ‘the testimony of the Holy Spirit.’ Calvin especially works out this conception very distinctly. The difficulty was to apply it to particular books of the Bible so as to determine in each case whether they should be allowed in the Canon. Clearly a further test was requisite here. This was found in the ‘analogy of faith’ ( Analogia fidei ), which was more especially Luther’s principle, while the testimony of the Holy Spirit was Calvin’s. With Luther the Reformation was based on justification by faith. This truth Luther held to be confirmed ( a ) by its necessity, nothing else availing, and ( b ) by its effects, since in practice it brought peace, assurance, and the new life. Then those Scriptures which manifestly supported the fundamental principle were held to be ipso facto inspired, and the measure of their support of it determined the degree of their authority. Thus the doctrine of justification by faith is not accepted because it is found in the Bible; but the Bible is accepted because it contains this doctrine. Moreover, the Bible is sorted and arranged in grades according as it does so more or less clearly, and to Luther there is ‘a NT within the NT,’ a kernel of all Scripture, consisting of those books which he sees most clearly set forth the gospel. Thus he wrote: ‘John’s Gospel, the Epistles of Paul, especially Romans, Galatians, Ephesians, and 1Peter these are the books which show thee Christ, and teach all that it is needful and blessed for thee to know even if you never see or hear any other book, or any other doctrine. Therefore is the Epistle of James a mere epistle of straw ( eine rechte stroherne Epistel ) since it has no character of the gospel is it’ (Preface to NT, 1522; the passage was omitted from later editions). Luther places Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse at the end of his translation, after the other NT books, which he designates ‘the true and certain capital books of the NT, for these have been regarded in former times in a different light.’ He regards Jude as ‘indisputably an extract or copy from 2Peter.’ Nevertheless, while thus discriminating between the values of the several books of the NT, he includes them all in his translation. Luther’s friend Carlstadt has a curious arrangement of Scripture in three classes, viz. (1) The Pentateuch and the 4 Gospels, as being ‘the clearest luminaries of the whole Divine truth’; (2) The Prophets ‘of Hebrew reckoning’ and the acknowledged Epistles of the NT, viz. 13 of Paul, 1Peter , 1 John; (3) the Hagiographa of the Hebrew Canon, and the 7 disputed books of the NT. Dr. Westcott suggested that the omission of Acts was due to its being included with Luke. Calvin is more conservative with regard to Scripture than the Lutherans. Still in his Commentaries he passes over 2 and 3 John and the Revelation without notice, and he refers to 1 John as ‘the Epistle of John,’ and expresses doubts as to 2Peter; but he adds, with regard to the latter,’ Since the majesty of the Spirit of Christ exhibits itself in every part of the Epistle, I feel a scruple in rejecting it wholly, however much I fail to recognize in it the genuine language of Peter’ ( Com. on 2Peter , Argument). Further, Calvin acknowledges the existence of doubts with respect both to James and to Jude; but he accepts them both. He allows full liberty of opinion concerning the authorship of Hebrews; but he states that he has no hesitation in classing it among Apostolical writings. In spite of these varieties of opinion, the NT Canon remained unaltered. At the Council of Trent (1546) for the first time the Roman Catholic Church made an authoritative statement on the Canon, uttering an anathema ( ‘anathema sit ’) on anybody who did not accept in their integrity all the books contained in the Vulgate. Thus the Apocrypha is treated as equally canonical with the OT books; but the NT Canon is the same in Roman Catholic and Protestant Canons. Translations of the Bible into the vernacular of various languages laid the question of the Canon to rest again, by familiarizing readers with the same series of books in all versions and editions.
5. The Canon in Modern Criticism . In the 18th cent. the very idea of a Canon was attacked by the Deists and Rationalists (Toland, Diderot, etc.); but the critical study of the subject began with Semler (1771 5), who pointed out the early variations in the Canon and attacked the very idea of a Canon as an authoritative standard, while he criticised the usefulness and theological value of the several books of the NT. Subsequent controversy has dealt less with the Canon as such than with the authenticity and genuineness of the books that it contains. In the views of extreme negative criticism canonicity as such has no meaning except as a historical record of Church opinion. On the other hand, those who accept a doctrine of inspiration in relation to the NT do not connect this very closely with critical questions in such a way as to affect the Canon. Thus doubts as to the authorship of the Pastoral Epistles, 2Peter, James, etc., have not given rise to any serious proposal to remove these books from the NT. The Canon rests mainly on tradition and usage. But the justification for it when this is sought is usually found (1) in the Apostolic authorship of most of the NT books; (2) in the Apostolic atmosphere and association of the remaining books; (3) in the general acceptance and continuous use of them in the churches for centuries as a test of their value; (4) in their inherent worth to-day as realized in Christian experience. It cannot be said that these four tests would give an indefeasible right to every book to claim a place in the Canon if it were not already there e.g. the small Epistle of Jude; but they throw the burden of proof on those who would disturb the Canon by a serious proposal to eject any of its contents; and in fact no such proposal as distinct from critical questions of the dates, authorship, historicity, etc., of the several books is now engaging the attention of scholars or churches.
W. F. Adeney.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Offices in the New Testament
Positions of leadership in the New Testament church including deacons , elders , pastors , apostles , bishops , and evangelists . In the New Testament, the concept of “office” speaks to functions and tasks, rather than status and position. Consequently, offices are dynamic rather than static and related to charismatic gifts of the Spirit rather than to the privileges of authority. Both the general terms used for “ministry” and the specific names and requirements of offices lead to this conclusion.
Many Greek words were available to describe Christian ministry. Some of these words, such as arche , from which comes the prefix in “archbishop,” focus on rule and headship. Others, such as leitourgia , the root of the word liturgy , were widely used in Greek culture to refer to public service, secular as well as sacred. With very few exceptions, however, the New Testament writers chose the term diakonia , a Greek term which denoted serving at tables and which was not used for religious service in either the Greek Old Testament or in contemporary Greek writings.
Throughout the New Testament, humble, even menial service is expected of those who lead in the name of Christ. Jesus used the analogy of a person reclining at a table and another serving, identified Himself as “one who serves,” and asserted that among His followers those who lead must likewise be servants (Luke 22:26-27 ; see also Matthew 20:25-28 ; Mark 10:42-45 ). The clear implication is that, whatever the other qualifications for leadership may be, diakonia is the prerequisite.
The New Testament also clearly teaches that the call to follow Christ is a call to the responsibility of service, and the abilities for that service are gifts from God. All ministries are not the same. The most prominent image of the church's order is Paul's depiction of the church as a body (1 Corinthians 12:1 ). Just as the body depends on each member fulfilling its function, so the health of the church as a whole, and the ministry of individuals, depends on each member exercising the gifts that God has given. Every Christian has an office, a ministerial function to perform. The only head of the church is Christ. The order of the church is not based on a hierarchy of position and authority but on the faithfulness of the members in exercising their gifts of ministry.
Some offices are given names or descriptive titles in the New Testament, but it gives very little discussion of the job descriptions of the various offices and no indication of a ranking of them. The nature of some of the offices, of course, makes them more prominent in the life of the church.
Perhaps the most prominent New Testament office is that of apostle . See Disciples, Apostles. Although some of the apostles apparently remained in Jerusalem, the primary task of apostles was to spread the message of Christ. To accomplish that task many apostles, such as Peter and Paul, traveled widely, ministering to many churches rather than to one church.
Other officers whose tasks apparently were not limited to one church were prophets and evangelists . The prophets, similar to those in the Old Testament, were probably those who had demonstrated a gift for inspired preaching. Although some of those termed prophets spoke in tongues, Paul valued more highly those whose message was understood by the church (1 Corinthians 14:4-5 ). Since prophetic utterance involved a direct gift from God, prophecy carried a greater risk of abuse than most other offices. Consequently, Paul advised that prophets should be tested carefully (1 Thessalonians 5:19-21 ; 1 Corinthians 14:29-33 ). Very few prophets are mentioned specifically; among them are the four daughters of Philip (Acts 21:8-9 ). Though many prophets seem to have not had a settled ministry (Acts 21:10-11 ), others, as evidenced by Paul's discussion in 1 Corinthians 14:1 , apparently exercised their gift within a local church. The term evangelist is used only three times in the New Testament, with reference to Timothy ( 2 Timothy 4:5 ), to Philip (Acts 21:8 ), and to a kind of spiritual gift (Ephesians 4:11 ). Although spreading the gospel was central to several offices, we do not have enough to know whether “evangelist” was regularly a distinct office.
Two offices which apparently appeared in almost every church, at least by the end of the New Testament period, were elder and deacon . Although the evidence is not clear and is variously interpreted, the office of bishop was probably originally equivalent to that of elder. The tasks involved in these offices are not as easy to outline as those of apostles and prophets. The qualifications for bishops (elders) indicate that the office included a wide range of pastoral and administrative functions. Elders should be mature Christians of good repute, with gifts for teaching and pastoral ministry (1 Timothy 3:1-7 ; Titus 1:6-9 ). Since the word translated “bishop” means “overseer,” it is natural to assume that a principal function of the office was to oversee the spiritual and physical life of the church. In every passage in which elders and/or bishops are mentioned, they appear to be ministers settled in local churches.
The word for deacon is derived from diakonia , the basic term for Christian ministry in the New Testament. The qualifications for deacons (1 Timothy 3:8-13 ) imply that they performed a wide variety of important services in their churches, including visiting the sick and administering relief funds. The name of the office also leads to the conclusion that deacons assisted in serving the Lord's Supper. The account of the appointment of the seven, who are not called deacons, may indicate the origin of the office (Acts 6:1 ), although some of the functions of the seven fit other offices equally well. The New Testament apparently refers to female deacons (Romans 16:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:11 , Williams). Ample evidence shows that female deacons were common in the second century. Similar in function to the female deacons, perhaps identical in some cases, were the widows. Apparently referring to a distinct office, 1 Timothy 5:5-10 gives instruction for enrolling in Christian service widows who had demonstrated their maturity and faithfulness.
Apostles , commissioned by Christ Himself, and prophets, whose gifts were directly and immediately from God, did not receive any additional commissioning ceremony from the church. Although there is very little direct evidence about the procedures and ceremonies involved, those who exhibited gifts for other ministerial tasks were chosen and commissioned by the churches. In some passages, the description of one's being set apart for a particular office includes reference to prayer and laying on of hands (see Acts 6:6 ; Acts 13:1-3 ). In these passages, the emphasis is on the presence of spiritual gifts from God and on the church's blessing the ministry of the one chosen. There is no evidence that the ceremonies conferred special rights or status.
In addition to the offices mentioned earlier, the New Testament mentions other tasks and the gifts for performing them. Teachers and the gift of teaching are mentioned often. Sometimes reference to a distinct office may be intended ( 1 Corinthians 12:28 ), but in many cases teaching was apparently a function of the elders (1 Timothy 3:2 ), as well as the apostles and perhaps the prophets. Pastors are mentioned only once ( Ephesians 4:11 ) in a list of those with spiritual gifts. Apparently the elders (bishops) and deacons were charged with pastoral functions. Performing miracles, healing, helping, and speaking in tongues (1 Corinthians 12:28 ) are among the other tasks mentioned for which God has supplied spiritual gifts. Though these tasks may not have involved regular distinct offices, they were important ministerial functions in the early church.
The New Testament clearly teaches that all followers of Christ share in the responsibility of service. In Christ, no one has a special status which separates an officer from the regular members. All have gifts of service, and all must serve. The whole church is a royal priesthood; the only head of the church is Christ. Every member has an “office,” whether or not that office is considered “official.”
Fred A. Grissom
Holman Bible Dictionary - Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament
The influence of the Old Testament is seen throughout the New Testament. The New Testament writers included approximately 250 express Old Testament quotations, and if one includes indirect or partial quotations, the number jumps to more than 1,000. It is clear that the writers of the New Testament were concerned with demonstrating the continuity between the Old Testament Scriptures and the faith they proclaimed. They were convinced that in Jesus the Old Testament promises had been fulfilled.
Types of Quotations
1. Formula quotations are introduced by a typical introductory quotations formula which generally employ verbs of “saying” or “writing.” The most common introductory formulas are: “as the Scripture hath said” (John 7:38 ); “What saith the Scripture” (Galatians 4:30 ); “it is (stands) written,” emphasizing the permanent validity of the Old Testament revelation (Mark 1:2 ; Romans 1:17 ; Romans 3:10 ); “that it might be fulfilled,” emphasizing the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies (Matthew 4:14 , Matthew 12:17 , Matthew 21:4 ); “God hath said,” “He saith,” “the Holy Spirit says,” which personify Scripture and reflect its divine dimension (Romans 9:25 ; Romans 10:21 ; 2 Corinthians 6:16 ); “Moses,” “David,” or “Isaiah” says which emphasize the human element in Scripture (Romans 10:16 , Romans 10:19-20 ; John 6:31-58 ).
2. Composite quotations combine two or more Old Testament texts drawn from one or more of the sections of the Hebrew Old Testament canon (The Law, Prophets, and Writings). For example, Romans 11:8-10 quotes from the Law ( Deuteronomy 29:4 ), the Prophets (Isaiah 29:10 ) and the writings (Psalm 69:22-23 ). In some cases, a series of Old Testament texts may be used in a commentary-like fashion as in John 12:38-40 and Romans 9-11 . Composite quotes are often organized around thematic emphases or catchwords in keeping with a practice common to Judaism and based on the notion set forth in Deuteronomy 19:15 that two or three witnesses establish the matter. The “stumbling stone” motif reflected in Romans 9:33 ( Isaiah 8:14 ; Isaiah 28:16 ) and 1 Peter 2:6-9 ( Isaiah 8:14 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Psalm 118:22 ) is a good example of this method.
3. Unacknowledged quotations are often woven into the fabric of the New Testament text without acknowledgment or introduction. For example, Paul quoted Genesis 15:6 in his discussion of Abraham ( Galatians 3:6 ) and Genesis 12:3 ( Galatians 3:8 ) with no acknowledgment or introductory formula.
4. Indirect quotations or allusions form the most difficult type of Old Testament quotation to identify. The gradation from quotation to allusion may be almost imperceptible. An allusion may be little more than a clause, phrase, or even a word drawn from an Old Testament text which might easily escape the notice of the reader. For example, the reader might easily miss the fact that the words spoken from the cloud at the transfiguration of Jesus as recorded in Matthew 17:5 combine three separate Old Testament texts: “Thou art my Son” ( Romans 4:3-251 ), “in whom my soul delighteth” (Isaiah 42:1 ), and “unto him ye shall hearken” (Deuteronomy 18:15 ).
Sources of Old Testament Quotations Since the New Testament was written in Greek for predominantly Greek readers, it is not surprising that a large majority of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament are drawn from the Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint (LXX). Of Paul's 93 quotes, 51 are in absolute or virtual agreement with the LXX, while only 4 agree with the Hebrew text. This means that 38 diverge from all known Greek or Hebrew Old Testament texts. Of Matthew's 43 quotes, 11 agree with the LXX, while the other 32 differ from all known sources. How then are these quotes to be explained? The New Testament writers may have used a version of the Old Testament which is unknown to us, or they may have been quoting from memory. It is also possible that the New Testament writers were more concerned with meaning and interpretation. It has also been suggested that the Old Testament quotations may have been drawn from “testimony books,” collections of selected, combined, and interpreted Old Testament texts gathered by the early Christian community for proclamation and apologetics. The frequent use of certain Old Testament texts, such as Psalm 110:1 , Isaiah 43:1 , and so forth, in the preaching and writing of the early church and the discovery of such collections at Qumran seem to support such a possibility.
The Uses of Old Testament Quotations The New Testament writers used Old Testament quotations for at least four reasons: (1) to demonstrate that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's purposes and of the prophetic witness of the Old Testament Scriptures ( Romans 1:2 ; Matthew 4:14 ; Matthew 12:17-21 ; Matthew 21:4-5 ); (2) as a source for ethical instruction and edification of the church ( Romans 13:8-10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:1 ); (3) to interpret contemporary events (Romans 9-11 ; Romans 15:8-12 ); (4) to prove a point on the assumption that the Scripture is God's Word (1 Corinthians 10:26 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:55 ). The approaches employed in the use of the Old Testament are reflective of first century Judaism as represented in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo of Alexandra, and later rabbinic Judaism. Some Old Testament quotations are used in their literal historical sense and, therefore, have the same meaning in the New Testament as they had in the Old Testament. The quotation of Psalm 78:24 in John 6:31 is a good example of such usage. Some quotations reflect a typical approach to interpreting the Old Testament in first-century Judaism known as midrash . Midrash is an exposition of a text which aims at bringing out its contemporary relevance. The Old Testament text is quoted and explained so as to make it apply to or be meaningful for the current situation. The use of Genesis 15:6 in 1618100881_97 and the use of Psalm 78:24 in Hebrews 4:7 reflect such an approach.
Some Old Testament texts are interpreted typologically . In this approach, the New Testament writer sees a correspondence between persons, events, or things in the Old Testament and persons, events, or things in their contemporary setting. The correspondence with the past is not found in the written text, but within the historical event. Underlying typology is the conviction that certain events in the past history of Israel as recorded in earlier Scriptures revealed God's ways and purposes with persons in a typical way. Matthew's use of Hosea 11:1 ( Hosea 2:15 ) suggests that the Gospel writer saw a correspondence between Jesus' journey into Egypt and the Egyptian sojourn of the people of Israel. Jesus recapitulated or reexperienced the sacred history of Israel. The redemptive purposes of God demonstrated in the Exodus (reflected by the prophet Hosea) were being demonstrated in Jesus' life. In some cases, the understanding and application of the Old Testament quotation is dependent on an awareness of the quotation's wider context in the Old Testament. The use of the quotation is intended to call the reader's attention to the wider Old Testament context or theme and might be referred to as a “pointer quotation .” In first-century Judaism where large portions of Scripture were known by heart, it was customary to quote only the beginning of a passage even if its continuation was to be kept in mind. A good example of this use may be seen in Romans 1-3 . Paul had discussed both the faithfulness of God and the sinfulness of humanity. In Romans 3:4 Paul quoted Psalm 51:4 to support his first point. He continued his argument with a further reference to human wickedness which is, in fact, the subject of Psalm 51:5 ; but he did not feel the need to quote the verse, since it was already suggested to those familiar with the biblical text. Finally, there is a limited allegorical use of the Old Testament text in which the text is seen as a kind of code having two meanings—the literal, superficial level of meaning, and a deeper, underying meaning such as in Galatians 4:22-31 .
Despite similarities with contemporary Jewish use(s) of the Old Testament, the New Testament writers interpreted the Old Testament in a radically new way. New Testament writers did not deliberately use a different exegetical method. They wrote from a different theological perspective. The writers of the New Testament were convinced that the true meaning of the Old Testament is Jesus Christ and that He alone provides the means of understanding it. True interpretation of the Old Testament is achieved by reading Old Testament passages or incidents in light of the event of Christ. While many of the Old Testament texts quoted in the New Testament had already been accepted as messianic (for example, Psalm 110:1 ) or could in light of Jesus' actual life claim to be messianic (Psalm 22:1 ; Isaiah 53:1 ), for the early Christians, all Scripture was to be interpreted by the fact of Christ because it is to Him that the Old Testament Scripture points (John 5:39 ). In summary, the New Testament writer quoted or alluded to the Old Testament in order to demonstrate how God's purposes have been fulfilled and are being fulfilled in Jesus.
Hulitt Gloer
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Old Testament in the New Testament, the
The New Testament proclaims its indebtedness to the Old Testament on the very first page. Matthew begins with an Old Testament genealogy that makes sense only to those who are familiar with the people and events to which it refers (1:1-17). Thus the New Testament signals at the start an engagement with the Old Testament that touches every page and makes great demands on its readers.
Statistics and Styles of Quotations . The New Testament does not simply express its dependence on the Old Testament by quoting it. The fourth edition of the United Bible Societies' Greek Testament (1993) lists 343Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, as well as no fewer than 2,309 allusions and verbal parallels. The books most used are Psalms (79 quotations, 333 allusions), and Isaiah (66 quotations, 348 allusions). In the Book of Revelation, there are no formal quotations at all, but no fewer than 620 allusions.
As far as the styles of quotation, sometimes the New Testament authors employed techniques current among first-century Jewish teachers. These include midrash, a style of expanded narrative with interpretive comments inserted (e.g., Stephen's speech in Acts 7:2-53 ); pesher, a style found particularly in the Dead Sea Scrolls, in which Old Testament texts are connected with specific contemporary events (e.g., Acts 2:16 ; Romans 10:8 ); and gezerah shawa, a style in which two or more verses that use the same word in different parts of the Bible are interpreted in the light of each other (e.g., Hebrews 4:3-7 ). But generally the New Testament authors show considerable independence in forging wholly new ways of reading the Scriptures, based on their revolutionary experience of Jesus the Christ. For instance, Paul's conversion experience revolutionized his attitude toward the Law. After all, obedience to the Law had led him to persecute the Messiah! Following this, he could not continue to read and interpret the Scriptures as before. "Through the law I died to the law, " he exclaims (Galatians 2:19 ). New styles of exegesis resulted, as we shall see below.
New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: Legitimate?New Testament "Awareness" of the Old Testament . Many New Testament scholars maintain that the New Testament use of the Old Testament works within a closed logical circle: it depends on Christian presuppositions and reads the Old Testament in a distinctly Christian way (even if employing Jewish methods of exegesis), often doing violence to the true meaning of the Old Testament texts employed. Thus, New Testament arguments based on the Old Testament, it is held, would generally be convincing to Christians but hardly to Jews. If this is true, it will be hard to vindicate the New Testament authors from the charge of misusing the Scriptures.
This approach, however, ignores several crucial features of the use of the Old Testament by the New Testament authors. As numerous studies have now shown, these authors generally assumed knowledge of the Old Testament context from which quotations were drawn. They were concerned to communicate with and convince their fellow Jews, not just to nurture a private faith. They did not want simply to jettison their Jewish heritage, but sought genuinely to understand how the "word" spoken through the prophets related to the new "word" now revealed in Christ (this applies even to Paul, whose "not under law, but under grace" [1] looks at first sight like wholesale rejection of the Old Testament ). Finally, they sensitively explored the Old Testament for points at which its very inconsistencies or incompleteness pointed ahead to Jesus as the answer . It is worth giving some examples of this latter point.
Matthew has a special fondness for the messianic prophecies in Isaiah (1:23; 2:23; 4:15-16; 8:17; 12:17-21) and other prophets (2:6,17; 21:5; 26:31). He clearly regarded these as incomplete without Jesus.
John focuses his presentation of Jesus around the figure of Moses. One of the arguments he deploys is that even the mighty Moses was unable to deliver Israel from her most powerful enemies: death (6:49; 8:51-53) and sin (8:12,31-34). But Jesus does!
Stephen's powerful speech (Acts 7:2-53 ) turns on the thought that the promise given to Abraham in Genesis 15:13-14— ;paraphrased by Stephen as "you will worship me in this place" (v. 7)has never yet been fulfilled. Stephen traces a history in which all the significant encounters with God occurred away from "this place, " and then points to the ambivalent Old Testament traditions concerning the temple, the "place" above all where God was meant to be worshiped yet a "place" where by definition he cannot dwell (vv. 48-50)!
Paul is naturally drawn to the Old Testament prophecies concerning the blessing of the Gentiles. In connection with these he discerns a tension at the heart of Old Testament theology, between the exclusivism of the covenant and the central covenant confession, the Shema: "Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one" (Deuteronomy 6:4 ). But if God is one, reflects Paul, then he cannot be just the God of Israel, but must treat all his creatures equally. Is he not the God of Gentiles too? (Romans 3:29-30 ). And in 2Corinthians 3:7-11Paul employs an argument about Moses similar to that in John 6 : for all his glorious status, the effect of Moses' ministry was condemnation and death.
The author of Hebrews employs this kind of argument frequently. The string of quotations from the psalms in 1:5-13 are applied to Christ because they say things about the human Davidic king that actually could be true of no mere human being. Similarly, Psalm 8:4-6 ( Hebrews 2:6-8 ) says things about "man" that are not true of any manexcept one. The author also discerns tensions within the Old Testament theology of priesthood. How can priests save people from things to which they themselves are prey (5:2-3; 7:23)? But Jesus makes up this deficiency (7:25-28). And alongside the levitical priesthood another priesthood inexplicably appears in the Old Testament, that of Melchizedek. Similarly, the tabernacle itself harbors contradictions: it was meant to be "the tent of meeting, " and yet it was structured to keep God separate! "The Holy Spirit was showing by this that the way into the Most Holy Place had not yet been disclosed" (9:8). And, above all perhaps, the sacrificial system of the Old Testament proclaims its own inadequacy by the requirement of constant repetition (10:1-4). In passages like Jeremiah 31:31-34 (8:8-12; 10:15-17) and Psalm 40:6-8 (10:5-7), the author finds, within the Old Testament itself, the expectation of something better.
Do such arguments distort and wrench the Old Testament? Many argue that, even though they arise from Christian faith, they nonetheless show true sensitivity to its inner dynamic. Rabbinic Judaism in the post-New Testament period sought to "complete" the Scriptures by filling out the body of its case law, reinterpreting the sacrificial legislation ethically, and gently downplaying the significance of the messiah (in the main). The New Testament authors, by contrast, focus the whole "story" of the Old Testament onto Jesus, as summarized below, using even its tensions prophetically, to point toward the Christ who is Jesus. Undoubtedly, the New Testament authors believed that their Christian faith enabled them to make better sense of the Old Testament than they ever could as Jews.
Patterns of Use . The New Testament authors both use the Old Testament to explain Jesus and use Jesus to explain the Old Testamenta circular process in which each is illuminated by the other. This circular relationship may be helpfully summarized under the following five headings.
Old Testament Theology Confirmed . The authority of the Old Testament is nowhere questioned in the New Testament, even at the points wheredramaticallythe authority of Jesus is set alongside or even over it (e.g., Matthew 5:17-18,27-30 ; Mark 7:19 ; Hebrews 1:1-3 ). Thus, all the great themes of the Old Testament are confirmed, even when they are also developed in various ways: God as the one creator and ruler of the nations, the election of Israel to be the light of salvation for the world, the presence of God with his people, the possibility (and actuality) of revelation through appointed instruments, history as moving toward God's purposed goal for the world.
But the New Testament is no mere restatement of Old Testament themes, because of its vital focus on Jesus. So, for instance, the "wisdom" theme of Proverbs and Job, which had already been considerably developed in the intertestamental period, is used by both John and Paul to help explain Jesus, who is both God and separate from God (John 1:1-14 ; Philippians 2:5-11 ).
Old Testament Prophecy Fulfilled . All the New Testament authors (except James) pick up messianic and other prophecies from the Old Testament and locate their fulfillment in Jesus and in the church. Some prophecies are quoted frequentlyespecially those relating to the Davidic Messiah, the Son of Man, the prophet like Moses, and the "Servant" of Isaiah (see examples below). But it is possible to discern particular interests:
Matthew finds prophecy fulfilled in several individual features of Jesus' ministry (e.g., 2:6,17, 23; 4:15-16; 8:17; 10:35-36; 12:18-21; 13:35; 21:5). Mark focuses particularly on the prophecy of the suffering "servant" in Isaiah 53 (10:45), which he links to the "Son of Man" prophecy of Daniel 7:13-14 . Luke adds an interest in the prophecies concerning Israel (e.g., Luke 1:68-73 ; Acts 2:17-21 ; 15:16-18 ; 26:22 f). John finds special importance in the prophecy of Deuteronomy 15:15-18 , that God will raise up a figure like Moses to speak his word to his people (1:45; 5:46; 6:14; 7:40; 8:28; 12:48-50). Paul draws especially on the prophecies of the blessing of the Gentiles (e.g., Romans 10:19 ; 15:9-12 ; Galatians 3:8-9 ). Hebrews makes prominent use of the "new covenant" prophecy of Jeremiah 31:31-34 (8:7-13; 9:15; 10:15-18). The climax of Revelation draws on the climax of Isaiah: both conclude with the vision of a "new heaven and a new earth." Revelation also draws on Ezekiel's concluding prophecy of the rebuilding of the temple (Ezekiel 40-48 ). Old Testament History Reread . Claiming the fulfillment of specific, future-oriented prophecies is only a small element in the prophetic treatment of the Old Testament. Some basic features of the Old Testament "story" become prophetic in the light of Christthat is, they are discovered to have a forward-looking, predictive function because their provisionality is revealed by the appearance of something (some one ) much greater and better. The word often used to describe this treatment of the Old Testament is "typology." This technique may be illustrated by the use made of the Exodus, which receives frequent typological treatment.
Matthew suggestively applies Hosea 11:1 to Jesus' return from Egypt (2:15), highlighting the parallel between Israel, who failed the temptations in the wilderness, and Jesus, who came through them victoriously to form the heart of a renewed people of God. John 6 presents the feeding of the five thousand as a glorious repetition of the manna miracle, signaling a greater exodus from sin and death. Paul applies the exodus themes of "slavery" and "redemption" spiritually to the work of the cross (e.g., Romans 3:24 ; 8:23 ; Ephesians 1:7,14 ), and finds in the wilderness wanderings several typological foreshadowings of Christ and the church (1 Corinthians 10:1-13 ). Hebrews develops the theme of the political "rest" enjoyed by Israel in the promised land and applies it typologically to that spiritual sharing of the life of God himself, which is the fruit of the work of Christ for all believers (3:1-4:13). First Peter 2:9-10 uses Exodus 19:5-6 , a central statement of exodus theology, to make Israel a type of the church. Revelation uses the Egyptian plagues typologically (8:7-12), and applies the numbering of the exodus tribes to the church (7:4-8). These examples do scant justice to the extent to which the exodus is used as a "type" of the salvation now to be experienced in Christ. Other Old Testament features treated typologically include the temple, Jerusalem (and the associated ideas of worship, security, and the presence of God), the annual festivals, and kingship. This treatment is symptomatic of a fundamental "rereading" of the history of Israel.
Old Testament People Expanded . One of the most surprising features of the New Testament use of the Old Testament is the way in which the exclusivism of the Old Testament covenant (Israel as the elect) gives way to a new understanding of the people of God in which racial identity plays no role, and Jews and Gentiles have equal membership based just on faith and common possession of the Spirit. The movement from one to the other is a special interest of Luke (see especially Acts 10-11 ) and of Paul (see especially Romans 9-11 ), one of the most sustained New Testament engagements with Old Testament texts).
Many Jewish Christians did not want to "reread" the Old Testament understanding of "people" in this way. Paul had to labor hard to defend his conviction that Abraham was the father of all who believe in Christ , not just the father of the Jewish nation (Romans 4:9-17 ; Galatians 3:6-9 ). Certain Old Testament texts were especially important for him, but more important than particular texts was the conviction that the spiritual experience described by texts like Genesis 15:6 , Psalm 32:1-2 , and Habakkuk 2:4 was exactly that now being enjoyed by his Gentile converts: by believing in Jesus, they were being "justified by faith" just like Abraham and David ( Romans 4:22-25 ).
Old Testament Religion Renewed . The New Testament understanding of the Spirit builds on that of the Old Testament, but is surprising nonetheless. Only prophets and other leaders were anointed with the Spirit in the Old Testament. Hence the shocking nature of Jesus' encouragement actually to ask God for the Holy Spirit (Luke 11:13 )! So now, possessing the Spirit in common, the whole church occupies a prophetic status, admitted like the prophets of the old covenant into the presence of God himself and is now enabled to share the worship of heaven by the Spirit, and to "worship in spirit and in truth" ( John 4:24 ), rather than through a program of ritual.
The worship of the Old Testament is focused on a physical temple on earth. New Testament worship focuses on its heavenly counterpart by the Spiritthe heavenly temple where God truly dwells and Christ has gone before.
Stephen Motyer
Bibliography . G. L. Archer and G. C. Chirichigno, Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament: A Complete Survey ; D. L. Baker, Two Testaments, One Bible: A Study of the Theological Relationship between the Old and New Testaments ; D. A. Carson and H. G. M. Williamson, It Is Written: Scripture Citing Scripture ; B. S. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection on the Christian Bible ; E. E. Ellis, Paul's Use of the Old Testament ; R. T. France, Jesus and the Old Testament ; R. B. Hayes, Echoes of Scripture in the Letters of Paul ; K. Stendahl, IDB, 1:418-32; P. Stuhlmacher, Reconciliation, Law and Righteousness .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Apocrypha, New Testament
is a collective term referring to a large body of religious writings dating back to the early Christian centuries that are similar in form to the New Testament (Gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses) but were never included as a part of the canon of Scripture.
New Testament Jesus used the term apokryphos in his parable of the lamp (Mark 4:22 : “For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested;” paralleled in Luke 8:17 : “For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest;”) to speak of the manifestation of that which has been hidden. In Colossians 2:3 Paul described Christ as being the one “in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.”
Meaning of the Term “Apocrypha” When the term apokryphos occurs in the New Testament, it simply means “hidden things.” This original sense does not include the later meanings associated with it. In the formation of the Christian canon of Scripture, “apocrypha” came to mean works that were not divinely inspired and authoritative. The term was also used by certain groups (for example, Gnostics) to describe their writings as secretive. They believed their writings were written much earlier but kept hidden until the latter days. Such writings were even then only available to the properly initiated. Since the church recognized works that were read openly in services of public worship, the term “apocrypha” came to mean “false” and began to be used to describe heretical material. In contrast to portions of the Old Testament Apocrypha which have been accepted by some branches of the Christian Church, none of the New Testament Apocrypha (with the possible exception of the Apocalypse of Peter and the Acts of Paul ) has ever been accepted as Scripture. Though some scholars allow the term to describe writings that are neither a part of the New Testament nor strictly apocryphal (e.g., apostolic fathers), it seems best to restrict the term to material that was not received into the canon of Scripture, yet, by form and content, claimed for itself a status and authority equal to Scripture.
Purpose of the Apocrypha Three general reasons explain the existence of the New Testament Apocrypha. First, some groups accepted apocryphal writings because they built on the universal desire to preserve the memories of the lives and deaths of important New Testament figures. Regardless of whether the transmitted traditions were true or false, the desire of later generations to know more detail made the apocryphal writings attractive. The second purpose is closely related to the first. Apocryphal works were intended to supplement the information given in the New Testament about Jesus or the apostles. This may be the motivation behind the Third Epistle to the Corinthians (to provide some of the missing correspondence between Paul and the Corinthian church) and the Epistle to the Laodiceans (to supply the letter referred to in Colossians 4:16 ). For the same reason, the apocryphal acts made certain to record the events surrounding the death of the apostles, a matter on which the New Testament is usually silent. Third, heretical groups produced apocryphal writings in an attempt to gain authority for their own particular views. After the death of the apostles and with an increase in persecution and false teaching, the written accounts of the teachings of the apostles (the New Testament) became the standard. If a group wanted to spread its new teaching, it had to make an appeal to apostolic authority. They did this many times by claiming some secret tradition from an apostle or from the Lord through an apostle.
Classification of the New Testament Apocrypha These writings parallel, in a superficial way, the literary forms found in the New Testament: gospels, acts, epistles or letters, and apocalypses. Although this formal similarity exists, the title of an apocryphal work does not necessarily provide a trustworthy description of its character and contents.
1. The apocryphal gospels. This large group of writings can be further classified into infancy gospels, passion gospels, Jewish-Christian gospels, and gospels originating from heretical groups.
Infancy Gospels is the name given to apocryphal works that in some way deal with the birth or childhood of Jesus or both. Though Matthew and Luke stressed the same basic story line, they emphasized different aspects of the events surrounding the birth of Jesus, primarily because of their audience and their own particular purpose in writing. The writers of these apocryphal infancy gospels attempted to correct what they viewed as deficiencies in the canonical accounts and to fill in the gaps they believed existed. Most of the material is concerned with the silent years of Jesus' childhood. The two earliest infancy gospels, from which most of the later literature developed, are the Protoevangelium of James and the Infancy Gospel of Thomas . The Protoevangelium of James seems to have been written to glorify Mary. It includes the miraculous birth of Mary, her presentation in the Temple, her espousal to Joseph (an old man with children), and the miraculous birth of Jesus. This second-century work was extremely popular and undoubtedly had an influence on later views of Mary, the mother of Jesus. The Infancy Gospel of Thomas depicts Jesus in a crude manner as a wonder boy, using his miraculous powers as a matter of personal convenience. This work attempts to fill in the silent years of Jesus' childhood, but does so in a rather repulsive and exaggerated manner. Take the following example (2:1-5): “When this boy Jesus was five years old he was playing at the ford of a brook, and he gathered together into pools the water that flowed by, and made it at once clean, and commanded it by his word alone. He made soft clay and fashioned from it twelve sparrows. And it was the Sabbath when he did this. And there were also many other children playing with him. Now when a certain Jew saw what Jesus was doing in his play on the sabbath, he at once went and told his father Joseph And when Joseph came to the place and saw it, he cried out to him saying: “Why do you do on the sabbath what ought not to be done?' But Jesus clapped his hands and cried to the sparrows: “Off with you!' And the sparrows took flight and went away chirping. The Jews were amazed when they saw this, and went away and told their elders what they had seen Jesus do.” As legend continued to expand, many later infancy gospels developed including the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy, the Armenian Gospel of the Infancy , the Gospel of Pseudo- Matthew , the Latin Infancy Gospel , the Life of John According to Serapion , the Gospel of the Birth of Mary , the Assumption of the Virgin , and the History of Joseph the Carpenter .
Passion Gospels, another class of apocryphal gospel, are concerned with supplementing the canonical accounts by describing events surrounding the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus. The two most important works in this category are the Gospel of Peter and the Gospel of Nicodemus (sometimes called the Acts of Pilate ). The Gospel of Peter is a second-century work which downplays Jesus' humanity, heightens the miraculous, and reduces Pilate's guilt, among other things. The Gospel of Nicodemus (Acts of Pilate) is another example of an apocryphal passion gospel. The trial and death of Jesus is expanded as Nicodemus, the chief narrator, tells of one witness after another coming forward to testify on Jesus' behalf. Pilate gives in to popular demand and hands Jesus over to be crucified. The Gospel of Nicodemus also includes a vivid account of Jesus' “Descent into Hell,” much like that of a Greek hero invading the underworld to defy its authorities or rescue its prisoners. Another apocryphal work that might be classified as a passion gospel is the Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle .
Jewish-Christian Gospels are works that originated among Jewish-Christian groups. They include the Gospel of the Ebionites , the Gospel of Hebrews, and the Gospel of the Nazarenes . Although some scholars equate the Gospel of Hebrews and the Gospel of the Nazarenes , the evidence is inconclusive. The Gospel of the Hebrews , perhaps the most prominent, appears to have been in some ways a paraphrase of the canonical Gospel of Matthew and places a special emphasis on James, the brother of the Lord.
Heretical Gospels cover a wide variety of apocryphal gospels, most of which are considered Gnostic gospels. Gnosticism developed in the second century as a widespread and diverse religious movement with roots in Greek philosophy and folk religion. The Gospel of Truth contains no references to the words or actions of Jesus. Some heretical gospels are attributed to all or one of the twelve apostles. These include the Gospel of the Twelve Apostles and the gospels of Philip, Thomas, Matthias, Judas, and Bartholomew. Written before A.D. 400, the Gospel of Thomas (of no relation to the Infancy Gospel of Thomas ) is a collection of 114 secret sayings “which Jesus the living one spoke and Didymus Judas Thomas wrote down.” This document is one of almost fifty discovered in 1945 near Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt as a part of what many scholars believe was the library of a Gnostic community. The heretical emphases of the Gospel of Thomas are countered in advance by the canonical Epistle of 1John, which emphasizes the gospel of Jesus Christ as the message of life, available for every person to experience. Other gospels in this class include those under the names of Holy Women (for example, the Questions of Mary and the Gospel According to Mary ), and those attributed to a chief heretic such as Cerinthus, Basilides, and Marcion.
2. The apocryphal acts. A large number of legendary accounts of the journeys and heroics of New Testament apostles sought to parallel and supplement the Book of Acts. The five major apocryphal acts are second and third-century stories named after a “Leucius Charinus” and therefore known as the Leucian Acts . Even though they show a high regard for the apostles and include some historical fact, much of what they offer is the product of a wild imagination, closely akin to a romantic novel (with talking animals and obedient bugs).
The Acts of John is the earliest of the group (A.D. 150-160). It contains miracles and sermons by John of Asia Minor and has a distinct Gnostic orientation. It tells the story of John's journey from Jerusalem to Rome and his imprisonment on the isle of Patmos. After many other travels, John finally dies in Ephesus.
The Acts of Andrew , written shortly before A.D. 300, is, like the Acts of John , distinctly Gnostic.
The Acts of Paul was written before A.D. 200 by an Asian presbyter “out of love for Paul.” He was later defrocked for publishing the writing. It is divided into three sections: (1) the Acts of Paul and Thecla, a girl from Iconian who assisted Paul on his missionary travels, (2) correspondence with the Corinthian church, and (3) the martyrdom of Paul.
The Acts of Peter is a late second-century writing that tells of Peter defending the Church from a heretic named Simon Magus by public preaching. Peter, who is forced to flee, later returns to be crucified upside down. Like the other acts, it is ascetic, that is, it promotes a life-style of self-denial and withdrawal from society as a means of combating vice and developing virtue.
The Acts of Thomas is a third-century work, thought by most scholars to have originated in Syriac Christianity. It tells how Judas Thomas, “Twin of the Messiah,” was given India when the apostles divided the world by casting lots. Thomas, though he went as a slave, was responsible for the conversion of many well-known Indians. The ascetic element is again present in Thomas' emphasis on virginity. In the end he was imprisoned and martyred.
Other later apocryphal acts include: the Apostolic History of Abdias , the Fragmentary Story of Andrew , the Ascents of James , the Martyrdom of Matthew ; the Preaching of Peter, Slavonic Acts of Peter , the Passion of Paul , Passion of Peter, Passion of Peter and Paul ; the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, Andrew and Paul , Paul and Thecla, Barnabas, James the Great, Peter and Andrew, Peter and Paul , Philip , and Thaddaeus .
3. The apocryphal epistles. We know of a small group of apocryphal epistles or letters many of which are ascribed to the Apostle Paul. The Epistle of the Apostles is a second-century collection of visions communicating post-resurrection teachings of Christ. The Third Epistle to the Corinthians was purported to be Paul's reply to a letter from Corinth. Though it circulated independently, it is also a part of the Acts of Paul . The Latin Epistle to the Laodiceans is a gathering of Pauline phrases probably motivated by Colossians 4:16 where Paul makes mention of an “epistle from Laodicea.”
Other important apocryphal epistles include the Correspondence of Christ and Abgar , the Epistle to the Alexandrians , the Epistle of Titus , of Peter to James , of Peter to Philip , and of Mary to Ignatius .
4. The apocryphal apocalypses. The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic book in the New Testament, though there are apocalyptic elements in other books (such as Mark 13:1 and parallels; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 ). The term “apocalypse” or “apocalyptic” means “to uncover” and is used to describe a category of writings that seek to unveil the plan of God for the world using symbol and visions. See Apocalyptic . While the New Testament apocalyptic material emphasizes the return of Christ, the later apocryphal apocalypses focus more on heaven and hell. The most popular of these, the Apocalypse of Peter , seems to have enjoyed a degree of canonical status for a time. It presents visions of the resurrected Lord and images of the terror suffered by those in hell. The Apocalypse of Paul is probably motivated by Paul's reference in 2 Corinthians 12:2 of a man in Christ being caught up to the third heaven. The author is thoroughly convinced this was Paul's personal experience and proceeds to give all the details. Other apocalypses include the Apocalypse of James, of Stephen, of Thomas, of the Virgin Mary , and several works discovered at Nag Hammadi.
5. Other apocryphal works. These include the Agrapha (a collection of sayings attributed to Jesus), the Preachings of Peter , the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions , the Apocryphon of John , the Apocryphon of James , and certain Gnostic writings such as the Pistis Sophia , the Wisdom of Jesus , and the Books of Jeu .
Relevance of the New Testament Apocrypha The New Testament Apocrypha is significant for those who study church history. Even though these writings were not included in the canon, they are not worthless. They give a sample of the ideas, convictions, and imaginations of a portion of Christian history. The New Testament Apocrypha also serves as a point of comparison with the writings contained in the canon of the New Testament. By way of contrast the apocryphal writings demonstrate how the New Testament places a priority on historical fact rather than human fantasy. While the New Testament Apocrypha is often interesting and informative, it is usually unreliable historically and always unauthoritative for matters of faith and practice.
J. Scott Duvall
Morrish Bible Dictionary - New Testament
For the general contents of the New Testament see BIBLE. See also COVENANT. The chronology of the principal events recorded in the New Testament is given in the following tables, with approximate dates. The dates of the Epistles of Peter, James, John, and Jude are according to the A.V. For the date of the crucifixion see SEVENTY WEEKS: other dates are reckoned from that.
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT.
B.C.
27 Augustus emperor of Rome
6 Census in Judaea. Birth of John the Baptist
5 Birth of Jesus (Four full years before A.D.) Presentation in the temple.
4 Visit of the magi. Flight into Egypt, Massacre of infants. Death of Herod;
Archelaus made ethnarch of Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea
Herod Antipas tetrarch of Peraea and Galilee. Philip tetrarch of Ituraea, Trachonitis. etc.
A.D.
6 Quirinis (Cyrenius) governor of Syria the second time
Archelaus banished, and Judaea made a province of Syria.
7 Enrolment, or taxation, under Cyrenius. Annas made high priest
8 Jesus at Jerusalem. Luke 2:42-46
14 Tiberias emperor of Rome: reigns alone
17 Caiaphas made high priest
26 Pontius Pilate procurator of Judaea
John commences his ministry. (See TIBERIUS.) Mark 1:1-11
Baptism of Jesus. The Temptation
Miracle of the water made wine at Cana. John 2:1-11
Jesus visits Capernaum
The first Passover. Jesus cleanses the temple. John 2:13-22
John cast into prison. Jesus preaches in Galilee Mark 1:14,15
Jesus at the synagogue at Nazareth: cast out of the city. Luke 4:16-30
Jesus visits the towns of Galilee Mark 1:38,39
27 Jesus visits Jerusalem (probably the second Passover ). John 5 . 1
The twelve Apostles chosen Mark 3:13-19
Sermon on the Mount. Matthew 5 .- 7 ; Luke 6:17-49
Miracles in the land of the Gadarenes. Mark 5:1-20
The Jews offended at Jesus at Nazareth. Mark 6:1-5
Jesus again visits the villages around. Mark 6:6
Jesus sends forth the twelve. Mark 6:7-13
Death of John the Baptist. Mark 6:17-29
Feeding the five thousand. Mark 6:35-44
Miracles in Gennesaret. Mark 6:53-56
28 Approach of the third Passover John 6:4
Feeding the four thousand. Mark 8:1-9
The Transfiguration. Mark 9:2-10
Feast of Tabernacles. John 7 .
Journey towards Jerusalem. Luke 9:51
The seventy disciples sent out. Luke 10:1-16
Feast of Dedication (winter). John 10:22-39
Jesus goes away beyond Jordan. John 10:40-42
The raising of Lazarus at Bethany. John 11:1-44
Jesus retires to Ephraim. John 11:54
29 Jesus' entry into Jerusalem. Cleanses the temple Mark 11:1-18
The Greeks visit Jesus. Voice from heaven. John 12:20-36
The last (fourth) Passover. The Lord's supper Mark 14:1-2
The Crucifixion. Ascension. Pentecost
30-34 The events from Pentecost to Stephen. Acts 2 — Acts 7
35 Martyrdom of Stephen. Saul "a young man" Acts 7:58-60
Great persecution, disciples scattered except the apostles Acts 8:1-4
36 Conversion of Saul (three years before
his flight from Damascus.) Acts 9:26-28 ; (Galatians 1:18 )
37 Caius (Caligula) emperor of Rome; reigns 4 years
Herod Agrippa succeeds Herod Antipas
Caiaphas deposed, and Jonathan made high priest
38 Paul, at Damascus and in Arabia. Galatians 1:15-18
39 Paul's first visit to Jerusalem; sent to Tarsus. Galatians 1:18 ; Acts 9:26-30
40 Conversion of Cornelius Acts 10 .
41 Claudius emperor of Rome; reigns 13 years
Judaea and Samaria united, under Herod Agrippa as king
Herod (brother of Agrippa) king of Chalcis
Gospel preached to the Gentiles at Antioch Acts 11:20
Barnabas goes to Antioch; fetches Paul Acts 11:26
42-3 They remain a year at Antioch
Herod Agrippa's persecution. James beheaded Acts 12:2
Peter's imprisonment and release Acts 12:3-19
44 Death of Herod Agrippa. Palestine again a Roman province Acts 12:23
Paul's second visit to Jerusalem, with the collection. Acts 11:30
45 Paul returns to Antioch Acts 12:25
46-8 First journey of Paul and Barnabas
to Cyprus and Asia Minor Acts 13 . & Acts 14 .
48 Ananias nominated high priest by Herod, king of Chalcis
49-50 Paul, after return, remains a long time at Antioch Acts 14:28
Dispute concerning circumcision, council at Jerusalem Acts 15:1
50 Paul's third visit to Jerusalem with Barnabas
(fourteen years from his conversion. Galatians 2 . 1 ) Acts 15:2
Returns and stays at Antioch. Acts 15:35
51 Second journey of Paul with Silas and Timothy
through Asia Minor to Macedonia and Greece Acts 16 . & Acts 17 .
Felix made procurator
52 Paul spends a year and a half at Corinth Acts 18:11
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chronology of the New Testament
Chronology of the New Testament
b.c.
Birth of Jesus.
4 (April)
Death of Herod.
[For Events in Life of Christ,
a.d.
see Jesus Christ, p. 124.]
Jesus among the doctors.
Baptism of Jesus.
Ministry in Judæa and Galilee. Sermon on the mount.
Baptist beheaded.
Five thousand fed.
Tour to borders of Tyre and Sidon.
The transfiguration.
Feast of dedication.
Part of Peræan ministry.
Lazarus raised to life. Peræan ministry.
April 1
Supper at Bethany.
" 2
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem.
" 6
Last supper and Gethsemane.
" 7
Crucifixion.
" 9
Resurrection of Jesus.
May 18
Ascension of Jesus.
Death of Stephen.
Conversion of Saul.
a.d.
Saul's escape from Jerusalem.
[1]
James of Zebedee beheaded.
Paul's first missionary tour.
Paul's second missionary tour.
Epistles to Thessalonians, from Corinth.
Paul's third missionary tour.
66-8
Epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans.
Paul before Felix.
Paul sent to Rome.
Paul arrives at Rome.
Epistle of James (?).
61-63
Epistles to Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians.
Paul supposed to be set free.
64-67
Epistles to Hebrews, 1st and 2d Peter, Jude, 1st and 2d Timothy, and Titus.
Paul's martyrdom (?).
Jerusalem destroyed by Titus.
80-95
John's Gospel.
65-95
Revelation of St. John.
98-100
Death of John.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - New Testament
It is proposed in this article to consider the text of the New Testament. The subject naturally divides itself into-- I. The history of the written text; II. The history of the printed text. I. THE HISTORY OF THE WRITTEN TEXT.--
The early history of the apostolic writings externally, as far as it can be traced, is the same as that of other contemporary books. St. Paul, like Cicero or Pliny often employed the services of an amanuensis, to whom he dictated his letters, affixing the salutation "with his own hand." (1 Corinthians 16:21 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:17 ; Colossians 4:18 ) The original copies seem to have soon perished.
In the natural course of things the apostolic autographs would be likely to perish soon. The material which was commonly used for letters the papyrus paper, to which St. John incidentally alludes. (2 John 1:12 ) comp. 3 John 1:13 Was singularly fragile, and even the stouter kinds, likely to be used for the historical books, were not fitted to bear constant use. The papyrus fragments which have come down to the present time have been preserved under peculiar circumstances as at Herculaneum or in the Egyptian tombs.
In the time of the Diocletian persecution, A.D. 303, copies of the Christian Scriptures were sufficiently numerous to furnish a special object for persecutors. Partly, perhaps, owing to the destruction thus caused, but still more from the natural effects of time. no MS. of the New Testament of the first three centuries remains but though no fragment of the New Testament of the first century still remains, the Italian and Egyptian papyri, which are of that date give a clear notion of the caligraphy of the period. In these the text is written in columns, rudely divided, in somewhat awkward capital letters (uncials ), without any punctuation or division of words; and there is no trace of accents or breathings.
In addition to the later MSS. the earliest versions and patristic quotations give very important testimony to the character and history of the ante-Nicene text; but till the last quarter of the second century this source of information fails us. Only are the remains of Christian literature up to that time extremely scanty, but the practice of verbal quotation from the New Testament was not yet prevalent. As soon as definite controversies arose among Christians, the text of the New Testament assumed its true importance.
Several very important conclusions follow from this earliest appearance of textual criticism. It is in the first place evident that various readings existed in the books of the New Testament at a time prior to all extant authorities. History affords a trace of the pure apostolic originals. Again, from the preservation of the first variations noticed, which are often extremely minute, in one or more of the primary documents still left, we may be certain that no important changes have been made in the sacred text which we cannot now detect.
Passing from these isolated quotations, we find the first great witnesses to the apostolic text in the early Syriac and Latin versions and in the rich quotations of Clement of Alexandria (cir. A.D. 220) and Origen (A.D. 1842-4). From the extant works of Origen alone no inconsiderable portion of the whole New Testament might be transcribed; and his writings are an almost inexhaustible store house for the history of the text. There can be no doubt that in Origen's time the variations in the New Testament MSS. were beginning to lead to the formation of specific groups of copies.
The most ancient MSS. and versions now extant exhibit the characteristic differences which have been found to exist in different parts of the works of Origen. These cannot have had their source later than the beginning of the third century, and probably were much earlier. Bengel was the first (1734) who pointed out the affinity of certain groups of MSS., which as he remarks, must have arisen before the first versions were made. The honor of carefully determining the relations of critical authorities for the New Testament text belongs to Griesbach. According to him two distinct recensions of the Gospels existed at the beginning of the third century-the Alexandrine and the Western .
From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of MSS. The quotations of Dionsius Alex. (A.D. 264), Petrus Alex. (cir. A.D. 312), Methodius (A.D. 311) and Eusebius (A.D. 340) confirm the prevalence of the ancient type of tent; but the public establishment of Christianity in the Roman empire necessarily led to important changes. The nominal or real adherence of the higher ranks to the Christian faith must have largely increased the demand for costly MSS. As a natural consequence the rude Hellenistic forms gave way before the current Greek, and at the same time it is reasonable to believe that smoother and fuller constructions were substituted for the rougher turns of the apostolic language. In this way the foundation of the Byzantine text was laid. Meanwhile the multiplication of copies in Africa and Syria was checked by Mohammedan conquests.
The appearance of the oldest MSS. have been already described. The MSS. of the fourth century, of which Codex Vaticanus may be taken as a type present a close resemblance to these. The writing is in elegant continuous uncials (capitals), in three columns, without initial letters or iota subscript or adscript . A small interval serves as a simple punctuation; and there are no accents or breathings by the hand of the first writer, though these have been added subsequently. Uncial writing continued in general use till the middle of the tenth century. From the eleventh century downward cursive writing prevailed. The earliest cursive biblical MS, is dated 964 A.D. The MSS. of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries abound in the contractions which afterward passed into the early printed books. The oldest MSS. are written on the thinnest and finest vellum; in later copies the parchment is thick and coarse. Papprus was very rarely used after the ninth century. In the tenth century cotton paper was generally employed in Europe; and one example at least occurs of its use in the ninth century. In the twelfth century the common linen or rag paper came into use. One other kind of material requires notice --re-dressed parchment, called palimpsests. Even at a very early period the original text of a parchment MS. was often erased, that the material might be used afresh. In lapse of time the original writing frequently reappeared in faint lines below the later text, and in this way many precious fragments of biblical MSS. which had been once obliterated for the transcription of other works, have been recovered.
The division of the Gospels into "chapters" must have come into general use some time before the fifth century. The division of the Acts and Epistles into chapters came into use at a later time. It is commonly referred to Euthalius, who, however, says that he borrowed the divisions of the Pauline Epistles from an earlier father and there is reason to believe that the division of the Acts and Catholic Epistles which he published was originally the work of Pamphilus the martyr. The Apocalypse was divided into sections by Andreas of Caesarea about A.D. 500. The titles of the sacred books are from their nature additions to the original text. The distinct names of the Gospels imply a collection, and the titles of the Epistles are notes by the possessors, and not addresses by the writers.
Very few MSS. certain the whole New Testament --twenty-seven in all out of the vast mass of extant documents. Besides the MSS. of the New Testament, or of parts of it, there are also lectionaries, which contain extracts arranged for the church services.
The number of uncial MSS. remaining. though great when compared with the ancient MSS. extent of other writings, is inconsiderable. Tischendorf reckons forty in the Gospels. In these must be added Cod. Sinait ., which is entire; a new MS. of Tischendorf, which is nearly entire; and Cod. Zacynth., Which contains considerable fragments of St. Luke. In the Acts there are nine: in the Catholic Epistles five; in the Pauline Epistles fourteen; in the Apocalypse three.
A complete description these MSS. is given In the great critical editions of the New Testament. Here those only can be briefly noticed which are of primary importance, the first place being given to the latest-discovered and most complete Codex Sinaiticus --the Cod. Frid. Aug. of LXX. at St. Petersburg, obtained by Tischendorf from the convent of St. Catherine, Mount Sinai, in 1859. The New Testament is entire, and the Epistle of Bamabas and parts of the Shepherd of Hermas are added. It is probably the oldest of the MSS. of the New Testament and of the fourth century. Codex Alexandrinus (Brit. Mus.), a MS. of the entire Greek Bible, with the Epistles of Clement added. It was given-by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I. in 1628, and is now in the British Museum. It contains the whole of the New Testament, with some chasms. It was probably written in the first half of the fifth century. Codex Vaticanus (1209) a MS. of the entire Greek Bible which seems to have been in the Vatican Library almost from its commencement (cir. A.D. 1450). It contains the New Testament entire to ( Hebrews 9:14 ) katha : the rest of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Pastoral Epistles and the Apocalypse were added in the fifteenth century. The MS. is assigned to the fourth century. Codex Ephraemi rescriptus (Paris, Bibl, Imp. 9), a palimpsest MS. which contains fragments of the LXX. and of every part of the New Testament. In the twelfth century the original writing was effaced and some Greek writings of Ephraem Syrus were written over it. The MS was brought to Florence from the East at the beginning of the sixteenth century, and came thence to Paris with Catherine Deuteronomy Medici. The only entire books which have perished are 2Thess. and 2John.
The number of the cursive MSS. (minuscules) in existence cannot be accurately calculated. Tischendorf catalogues about 500 of the Gospels, 200 of the Acts and Catholic Epistles, 250 of the Pauline Epistles, and a little less than 100 of the Apocalypse (exclusive of lectionaries); but this enumeration can only be accepted as a rough approximation,
Having surveyed in outline the history of the transmission of the written text and the chief characteristics of the MSS. in which it is preserved, we are in a position to consider the extent and nature of the variations which exist in different copies. It is impossible to estimate the number of these exactly, but they cannot be less than 120,000 in all, though of these a very large proportion consists of differences of spelling and isolated aberrations of scribes and of the remainder comparatively few alterations are sufficiently well supported to create reasonable doubt as to the final judgment. Probably there are not more than 1600-2000 places in which the true reading is a matter of uncertainty.
Various causes: readings are due to some arose from accidental, others from intentional alterations of the original text.
Other variations are due to errors of sight. Others may be described as errors of impression or memory . The copyist, after reading a sentence from the text before him, often failed to reproduce it exactly. Variations of order are the most frequent and very commonly the most puzzling questions of textual criticism. Examples occur in every page, almost in every verse, of the New Testament.
Of intentional changes some affect the expression, others the substance of the passage.
The number of readings which seem to have been altered for distinctly dogmatic reasons is extremely small. In spite of the great revolutions in thought, feeling and practice through which the Christian Church passed In fifteen centuries, the copyists of the New Testament faithfully preserved, according to their ability, the sacred trust committed to them. There is not any trace of intentional revision designed to give support to current opinions. (Matthew 17:21 ; Mark 9:29 ; 1 Corinthians 7:5 ) need scarcely be noticed.
The great mass of various readings are simply variations in form. There are, however, one or two greater variations of a different character. The most important of these are (Mark 16:9 ) and John 7:53 ... 8:12; Roma 16:25-27 The first stands quite by itself and there seems to be little doubt that it contains an authentic narrative but not by the hand of St. John. The two others taken in connection with the last chapter of St. John's Gospel, suggest the possibility that the apostolic writings may have undergone in some cases authoritative revision.
Manuscripts, it must be remembered, are but one of the three sources of textual criticism. The versions and patristic quotations are scarcely less important in doubtful cases. II. THE HISTORY OF THE PRINTED TEXT. --The history of the printed text of the New Testament may be these divided into three periods. The extends from the labors of the Complutensian errors to those of Mill; the second from Mill to Scholz; the third from Lachmann to the present time. The criticism of the first period was necessarily tentative and partial: the materials available for the construction of the text were few and imperfectly known. The second period made a great progress: the evidence of MSS. of versions, of the fathers, was collected with the greatest diligence and success; authorities were compared and classified; principles of observation and judgment were laid down. But the influence of the former period still lingered. The third period was introduced by the declaration of a new and sounder law. It was laid down that no right of possession could be pleaded against evidence, The "received" text, as such, was allowed no weight whatever. Its authority, on this view, must depend solely on critical worth. From first to last, in minute details of order and orthography, as well as in graver questions of substantial alteration, the text must be formed by a free and unfettered judgment. The following are the earliest editions:
The Complutensian Polyglot .-The glory of printing the first Greek Testament is due to the princely Cardinal Ximenes. This great prelate as early as 1502 engaged the services of a number of scholars to superintend an edition of the whole Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek, with the addition of the Chaldee Targum of Onkelos, the LXX. version and the Vulgate. The volume containing the New Testament was Printed first, and was completed on January 10,1524. The whole work was not finished till July 10,1517. (It was called Complutensian because it was printed at Complutum, in Spain. --ED.)
The edition of Erasmus . --The edition of Erasmus was the first published edition of the New Testament. Erasmus had paid considerable attention to the study of the New Testament, when he received an application from Froben, a Printer of Basle with whom he was acquainted, to prepare a Greek text for the press. The request was made on April 17,1515 and the whole work was finished in February, 1516.
The edition of Stephens . --The scene of our history now changes from Basle to Paris. In 1543, Simon Deuteronomy Colines: (Colinaeus) published a Greek text of the New Testament, corrected in about 150 places on fresh MS. authority. Not long after it appeared, R. Estienne (Stephanus) published his first edition (1546), which was based on a collation of MSS, in the Royal Library with the Complutensian text.
The editions of Beta and Elzevir . --The Greek text of Beta (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth) was printed by H. Stephens in 1565 and a second edition in 1576; but the chief edition was the third, printed in 1582, which contained readings from Codez Bezae and Codex Clarontontanus . The literal sense of the apostolic, writings must be gained in the same way as the literal sense of any other writings-by the fullest use of every appliance of scholarship, and the most complete confidence in the necessary and absolute connection of words and thoughts. No variation of phrase, no peculiarity of idiom, no change of tense, no change of order, can be neglected. The truth lies in the whole expression, and no one can presume to set aside any part as trivial or indifferent. The importance of investigating most patiently and most faithfully the literal meaning of the sacred text must be felt with tenfold force when it is remembered that the literal sense is the outward embodiment of a spiritual sense, which lies beneath and quickens every part of Holy Scripture, BIBLE ]
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - New Testament
NEW TESTAMENT.—The expression ‘New Testament’ (καινὴ διαθήκη) has a double meaning. (1) The New Covenant itself (Luke 22:20, 1 Corinthians 11:25, 2 Corinthians 3:6 etc.). See artt. Covenant and Testament. No other meaning is possible in the Bible. (2) The books that contain the New Covenant. The latter is the subject of this article.
1. The genesis of a NT literature.—This is to be assigned, humanly speaking, to the slowly developing needs of the Christian society. The Apostles were commissioned not to write but to preach. The OT, interpreted in the light of its fulfilment in Christ, contained both for them and for their earliest converts the whole deposit of Divine truth (2 Timothy 3:15 etc.). (a) Epistles, as a class, were needed first, in order to settle questions that soon arose on the conversion of Gentiles (Acts 15). Many of the Epistles plainly show their ‘occasional’ origin (1 Corinthians 7:1, 2 Corinthians 9:1, Galatians 1:6, 2 Thessalonians 2:1 f. etc.). Formal communications were evidently no new thing in Jewish communities (Acts 9:2; Acts 28:21). (b) Narratives of Christ’s words and works, such as the Gospels, were not at once so necessary. Men were looking for Christ’s speedy return (2 Thessalonians 2:2), and eye-witnesses of His ministry were at first plentiful (Acts 1:22, 1 Corinthians 15:6). The demand for written and authentic narratives was forcibly realized only when Apostles and eye-witnesses began to pass away (2 Peter 1:15 ff., 2 Timothy 4:6 ff.), and irresponsible persons took in hand to supply the want (Luke 1:1 f.). Yet even in the next generation there lingered a preference for traditional reminiscences, cf. Papias (c. [1] a.d. 140) ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 39. On the shortest reckoning no Gospel was committed to writing in its present shape within twenty-five years after Christ’s Ascension.
2. The canonical reception of NT writings.—This may be said to have passed through three stages, not wholly separable in point of time.
(1) The first stage is that of collective recognition (extending roughly to a.d. 170). Christian writers of this period exhibit—(a) Coincidences of language with NT expressions: e.g. Clem. Rom. [2] (c. [1] a.d. 95); Ign. (c. [1] a.d. 110); Polyc. (c. [1] a.d. 116); Barn. (c. [1] a.d. 70–130); Didache (c. [1] a.d. 90–165); Herm. (c. [1] a.d. 140–155); Heges. [9] (c. [1] a.d. 155).—(b) Anonymous references—which seem to have been the set rule for all writers of ‘Apologies,’ whatever their custom in other works: e.g. Just. M (c. [1] a.d. 150); ad Diogn. (c. [1] a.d. 170?); also 2 Ep. Clem. (c. [1] a.d. 140).—(c) Direct references: e.g. Clem., ad Cor. xlvii., alludes to 1 Co.; Polyc., ad Ph. iii., to Philippians; Papias (before a.d. 150), ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 39, mentions a record of Christ’s words and deeds by Mark, and ‘logia’ (originally in Hebrew) by Matthew; Just. M., Dial, ciii., speaks of ‘Memoirs by Apostles and those that followed them,’ and refers to the Apocalypse (Dial. lxxxi.) by name.—(d) Dogmatic recensions: Tatian, Diatessaron (c. [1] a.d. 150), harmonized the four Gospels; Marcion (c. [1] a.d. 140) mutilated Luke and (acknowledging ten Pauline Epistles) rejected the three Pastoral Epistles.—(c) Catalogues: e.g. the Muratorian fragment (composed c. [1] a.d. 160), which, according to Westcott, gives ‘a summary of the opinion of the Western Church on the Canon shortly after the middle of the 2nd century.’
(2) The second stage is that of unique authority.—(a) A succession of contrasts is drawn by Christian writers. (α) Apostles and themselves: cf. all the Apostolic Fathers—Clem. Rom. [2] viii, xlvii.; Polyc. ad Ph. iii; Ign. ad Rom. [2] iv. (‘not as Peter and Paul’); Barn, i, iv (‘not as a teacher’). (β) Apostolic records and traditions: Justin M., ap. i. 33, says the Memoirs of the Apostles relate ‘all things concerning Jesus Christ.’ ‘These words (Westcott observes) mark the presence of a new age.… Tradition was definitely cast aside as a new source of information.’ (γ) Canonical (ἐνδιάθηκοι) and un-canonical (ἀπόκρυφοι) books: generally, e.g. Dionysius of Corinth (c. [1] a.d. 176), ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica iv. 23, says, ‘the Scriptures of the Lord … and those that are not of the same character’; and in detail, e.g. Clem. Alex. [20] (c. [1] a.d. 165–200) ib. vi. 14; Origen (a.d. 286–353), ib. vi. 25; Dionys. Alex. [20] (c. [1] a.d. 248) ib. vii. 25—representing the opinion of Alexandria; Tertullian (c. [1] a.d. 160–240), de Pudic. 20, that of Latin Africa; Caius (c. [1] a.d. 213), ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica vi. 20, that of Rome; Irenaeus (c. [1] a.d. 135–200), ib. v. 8, cf. Iren. Haer. iii. 7, that of Asia Minor and Gaul; Serapion (c. [1] a.d. 190), ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica vi. 12, that of Syria. These exhibit substantial agreement, together with variety in detail. From Tertullian’s time the general estimate was much as it is to-day.
(b) Illustrations of this developing consciousness are seen in two matters arising from constant use of the books. (i.) The descriptive titles. Barnabas, Ep. iv., is the first to use the formula ‘as it is written’ in quoting words taken from the N.T. [28]. In Justin M., ap. i. 66, the term ‘Gospels’ is first applied to books. Melito of Sardis (c. [1] a.d. 170), ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica iv. 26, refers to ‘the books of the Old Testament,’ implying undoubtedly by contrast ‘the books of the New.’ The latter description is expressly used by Irenaeus, Haer. ii. 58, and the two Testaments are from that time on a level. Chrysostom is said to have been the first to adopt the expression ‘Bible’ (τὰ βιβλία) for the two Testaments as one whole. (ii.) Public reading. For some considerable time (varying much in different places) profitableness seems to have been the only absolute test required. Dionys. of Corinth (c. [1] a.d. 170–175), ap. Eus. Historia Ecclesiastica iv. 23, refers to the public reading of a letter from Soter, as well as to the better known instance of the Ep. of Clem. of Rome. Eusebius (ib. iii. 3) relates that Hermas had formerly been read in public on account of its usefulness for ‘elementary instruction.’ Apostolic nature (i.e. practically ‘inspiration’) was subsequently the regular test: cf. Eus. l.c. and Cyril of Jerus. [31] (c. [1] a.d. 340), Catech. iv. 33–36. Hence δημοσιεύεσθαι under the former conditions refers merely to the fact of public reading; under the latter it is a declaration of canonical authority.
(3) The third stage is that of formal definition.—Diocletian’s persecution (a.d. 303–311), directed against the Christian Scriptures, proves that their unique position and influence was a matter known to the heathen throughout the Roman Empire. It also made the identification of those Scriptures, as distinct from other Christian books, a vital matter (cf. the history of the Donatist schism on the question of ‘traditores’). Ensebius, writing a.d. 313–325, sums up the general consent of that time (Historia Ecclesiastica iii. 3, 24, 25), in three classes of books—‘acknowledged,’ i.e. of undisputed authenticity and Apostolic power; ‘disputed,’ i.e. defective in either of those qualities; and ‘heretical.’ The Emperor Constantine (a.d. 331) caused to be prepared, under the direction of Eusebius, fifty copies of the Divine Scriptures for use in the churches of Constantinople (cf. Eus. Vit. Const, iv. 36). These must have become a standard in the Greek Church. It may be added that the evidence of ancient versions, old Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian, is of great importance; but it is of too complicated a nature to be briefly discussed. Succeeding Councils dealt with the Canon, esp. that of Laodicea (c. [1] a.d. 363) and the third of Carthage (a.d. 397). The catalogue of canonical books which bears the name of the former is held to be spurious: to the catalogue of Carthage Christendom adheres to-day.
Literature.—The NT (as a whole or its separate portions) forms the subject of well-known ‘Introductions,’ Commentaries, etc. For special information see Sanday, Inspiration; Wright, Synopsis (oral theory); Westcott, Canon of NT and Bible in the Church; Moffatt, The Historical NT. A work on the ‘Canon and Text of the NT’ (Gregory) is to form part of the International Theol. Library series.
F. S. Ranken.

Sentence search

Tes'Tament, New, - [1] New Testament - 3186
n.t. - = New Testament ...
Vulgate - See New Testament
Gospel of Thomas - See Apocrypha, New Testament ; Gnosticism
Testament, New - See BIBLE and New Testament
Epistle - The majority of the canonical writings of the New Testament are epistolary in nature. The New Testament includes letters written by Paul, James, Peter, John, and Jude
Noe - (nuh' e) KJV New Testament form of Noah
Alleluia - KJV spelling of Hallelujah in New Testament
Esrom - (ehss' rahm) KJV New Testament spelling of Hezron
Booz - (boh' ahz) KJV New Testament spelling of Boaz
Melchisedec - (mehl kih' sseh dehc) KJV New Testament form of Melchizedek
New Testament - New Testament
Agar - KJV spelling of Hagar in the New Testament
Juda - (jyoo' duh) KJV spelling of Judah in New Testament
Jonas - (joh' nuhss) KJV spelling for Jonah in New Testament
Zabulon - (zab' yoo lahn) KJV spelling of Zebulun in New Testament
Drachma - It was a Greek unit of silver coinage that, during the time of the New Testament, was considered equivalent to the Roman denarius. a sheep cost one drachma, but apparently by New Testament times the drachma was worth much less
Barachias - (bahr uh chi' ass) KJV spelling of Berechiah in New Testament
Barachiah - (bahr' uh chi ah) NRSV spelling of Berechiah in New Testament
Aser - New Testament spelling of Asher in KJV (Luke 2:36 ; Revelation 7:6 )
Aminadab - (uh mihn' uh dab) KJV spelling in New Testament of Amminadab
Abia - In the New Testament the same as ABIJAH in the Old Testament, which see
Bosor - (boh' ssawr) KJV New Testament spelling of Beor (2 Peter 2:15 )
Testament - Occurs twelve times in the New Testament (Hebrews 9:15 , etc. The Vulgate translates incorrectly by testamentum, whence the names "Old" and "New Testament," by which we now designate the two sections into which the Bible is divided
Esaias - (ih ssay' uhss) KJV transliteration of Greek spelling of Isaiah in New Testament
Phares - (fay' reez) KJV, NAS New Testament form of Perez (Matthew 1:3 ; Luke 3:33 )
Elias - (ih li' uhss) KJV New Testament spelling of Elijah, transliterating the Greek spelling
Pharisees - The largest and most influential religious-political party during New Testament times
Berakiah - (bihr uh ki' uh) NIV New Testament spelling of Berechiah in Matthew 23:35
Revelation - or APOCALYPSIS, is the name given to a canonical book of the New Testament
Oni'as, - the name of five high priests in the period between the Old and the New Testament
Euthalius - (Greek: euthaleia, bloom) ...
Deacon of Alexandria, later Bishop of Sulca (flourished 5th century), author of the Euthalian Sections or division of the New Testament (exclusive of the Gospels, already so divided by Ammonius of Alexandria, and the Apocalypse) into chapter and verse. He also elaborated a uniform scheme of selections from the New Testament (exclusive of the Gospels and the Apocalypse) for reading in the public liturgical services of the Church
Mathusala - (muh thyoo' ssuh luh) KJV New Testament form of Methuselah, an ancestor of Christ (Luke 3:37 )
Cae'Sar, - always in the New Testament the Roman emperor, the sovereign of Judea
Calmet, Dom Augustine - In his "Commentary on all the Books of the Old and New Testament, he confines himself to the literal interpretation of the text. He also wrote a history of the Old and New Testament and of the Jews, and compiled a biblical dictionary and a number of historical works
Procurator - A Roman military office which developed into a powerful position by New Testament times. Three procurators are named in the New Testament: Pilate (Matthew 27:2 ; some question whether Pilate was a procurator), Felix (Acts 23:24 ), and Festus (Acts 24:27 )
Augustine Calmet - In his "Commentary on all the Books of the Old and New Testament, he confines himself to the literal interpretation of the text. He also wrote a history of the Old and New Testament and of the Jews, and compiled a biblical dictionary and a number of historical works
Ezekias - (ehz eh ki' uhss) KJV spelling of Ezekiel in the New Testament following the Greek spelling there
Hagiographa - In the New Testament (Luke 24:44 ) we find three corresponding divisions, viz
Homologoumena - ) Those books of the New Testament which were acknowledged as canonical by the early church; - distinguished from antilegomena
Peshitto - ) The earliest Syriac version of the Old Testament, translated from Hebrew; also, the incomplete Syriac version of the New Testament
Deuterocanonical - Pertaining to the disputed books and passages of the Old and the New Testament. ...
Of the Old Testament these are: ...
1,2Machabees
Baruch
Ecclesiasticus
Judith
Tobias
Wisdom
parts of Daniel (3,24-90; 13,14)
parts of Esther (10:4, to 16:14)
Of the New Testament these are: ...
2,3John
2Peter
Apocalypse
Hebrews
James
John (7,53, to 8,11)
Luke (22,43-44)
Mark (16,9-20)
Protestants commonly reject the deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament as apocryphal
Most High - Name for God, occurring frequently in the Old Testament and New Testament
Elias - ), which the Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament
Officer - In New Testament used to translated hufretes "minister" (Matthew 5:25), and practor "exacter" or "officer of the court," only in Luke 12:58
Boldness - Translation of four Greek words in the New Testament. Boldness denotes two things in the New Testament. In the New Testament it denotes the moral freedom to speak the truth publicly
Epistler - ) A writer of epistles, or of an epistle of the New Testament
Principality - In several passages of the New Testament the term "principalities and powers" appears to denote different orders of angels,good or bad
Lord - A title commonly used of God in the Old Testament, but commonly appropriated to Christ in the New Testament. The way Saint Paul and other New Testament writers use the title is one of the proofs that they regarded Christ as God
Caesar - In the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive proper names (John 19:15 ; Acts 17:7 ). The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1 ), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28 ), and Nero (Acts 25:8 ; Philippians 4:22 )
ac'Cho - (the PTOLEMAIS of the Maccabees and New Testament), Now called Acca , or more usually by Europeans St. The only notice of it in the New Testament is in ( Acts 21:7 ) where it is called Ptolemais
Gentiles - In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1,3 ; 18:17 ; Romans 1:14 ), generally denotes any non-Jewish nation
Esaias - The Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized Version of the New Testament (Matthew 3:3 ; 4:14 ), but in the Revised Version always "Isaiah
Rabboni - ) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51 , A
Faithful, the - The New Testament and Prayer Book name for all theBaptized, who, being admitted into the Household of Faith, are thepeople of the Faith—fideles, that is, believers
Closet - As used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse (Luke 12 :: 24 ), and hence a place of privacy and retirement (Matthew 6:6 ; Luke 12:3 )
Japho - ) in 2 Chronicles 2:16 ; Ezra 3:7 ; Jonah 1:3 ; and in New Testament
ca'Ria, - the southern part of the region which int he New Testament is called ASIA , and the southwestern part of the peninsula of Asia Minor
Elias - Matthew 11:14, and in New Testament elsewhere
Diatessaron - ) A continuous narrative arranged from the first four books of the New Testament
Denarius - ) A Roman silver coin of the value of about fourteen cents; the "penny" of the New Testament; - so called from being worth originally ten of the pieces called as
Purist - ) One who maintains that the New Testament was written in pure Greek
Canon, Muratorian - Muratori, which preserves an almost complete list of the writings of the New Testament
Muratorian Canon - Muratori, which preserves an almost complete list of the writings of the New Testament
Helmet - In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Ephesians 6:17 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:8 )
Sect - A group having established their own identity and teachings over against the larger group to which they belong, especially the different parties making up Judaism in New Testament times
Sion - The Greek or New Testament form of Zion, which see
Scripture - a term most commonly used to denote the writings of the Old and New Testament, which are sometimes called The Scriptures, sometimes the sacred or holy writings, and sometimes canonical scripture
Saints - (Latin: sanctus, holy) ...
Name applied in the New Testament to the members of the Christian community generally, as in Colossians 1 ...
To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ Jesus, who are at Colossa
Saint - (Latin: sanctus, holy) ...
Name applied in the New Testament to the members of the Christian community generally, as in Colossians 1 ...
To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ Jesus, who are at Colossa
Soldier - The New Testament soldier was usually the Roman soldier. On the other hand, the centurion (leader of 100 men) is held in esteem in the New Testament (see Acts 10:1 )
Acha'ia - (trouble ) signifies in the New Testament a Roman province which included the whole of the Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas proper, with the adjacent islands. This province, with that of Macedonia, comprehended the while of Greece; hence Achaia and Macedonia are frequently mentioned together in the New Testament to indicate all Greece
Lessons - (Latin: lectio, reading aloud) ...
Designated portions of the Scriptures read at Mass, from Old and New Testament, more frequently from the Epistles (letters) in the latter, and therefore called Epistle; also in the Ironic office
Alleluia - (Hebrew: All Hail to Him who is) Liturgical expression found in the Book of Tobias, Psalms, and New Testament
New Birth - The name which the New Testament Scriptures, and theChurch for nearly two thousand years have given to Holy Baptism,which is the Laver of Regeneration, the new and spiritual Birth
Lord - For the use of ‘Lord’ among the followers of Jesus in New Testament times see JESUS CHRIST, sub-heading ‘Jesus as Lord’
Mary - Mother of John Mark, mentioned in the New Testament only once (Acts 12), where we read that many were gathered together and praying in her house when Peter knocked at the door, after his escape from prison
Trachoni'Tis - (a rugged region ), ( Luke 3:1 ) is in all probability the Greek equivalent for the Aramaic Argob, one of the five Roman provinces into which the country northeast of the Jordan was divided in New Testament times
Nereus - The New Testament Nereus was a Roman Christian, possibly the son of Philogus and Julia (Romans 16:15 )
Parousia - ” In New Testament theology it encompasses the events surrounding the second coming of Christ
Celibacy - The practice of abstaining from marriage may be alluded to twice in the New Testament. One New Testament passage goes so far as to characterize the prohibition of marriage as demonic (1 Timothy 4:1-3 )
Law, New - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
New Law - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
Septuagint - Most New Testament quotations of the Old Testament are from the Septuagint
Elzevir - of the Greek New Testament and the classics) printed and published by the Elzevir family at Amsterdam, Leyden, etc
Codex - ) An ancient manuscript of the Sacred Scriptures, or any part of them, particularly the New Testament
Jewry - , and several times in the Apocryphal and New Testament books
Timothy - A name well known in the New Testament
Ebionite - They denied the divinity of Christ, regarding him as an inspired messenger, and rejected much of the New Testament
Asia - In the New Testament it always signifies the Roman Proconsular Asia, in which the seven Apocalyptic churches were situated
it'Aly - This word is used in the New Testament, (Acts 18:2 ; 27:1 ; Hebrews 13:24 ) in the usual sense of the period, i
Furlong - Put, in the New Testament, for the Greek, or rather, Roman stadium, which contained about 201 45-100 yards
Day, Lord's - Special name for the first day of the week in the New Testament
Judaism - See Proselytes ; Jewish Parties in the New Testament
Widows - In the New Testament the same tender regard for them is inculcated (Acts 6:1-6 ; 1 Timothy 5:3-16 ) and exhibited
Lord's Day - Special name for the first day of the week in the New Testament
Celsus - A Pagan philosopher of the second century, who composed a work against Christianity, in which he so expressly refers to the facts of the Gospels, and to the books of the New Testament, as to have furnished important undesigned testimony to their antiquity and truth
Farthing - Two Greek words are translated "farthing' in the New Testament: kodrantes; Roman, quadram—worth about three-eighths of a cent; Matthew 5:26; Mark 12:42; and assarion; Roman, æs or as—the tenth of a denarius, worth about a cent to 1½ cents
Peshitta - The New Testament translation dates from before A
Cinneroth - or CINNERETH, a city on the north-western side of the sea of Galilee; which, from it, is frequently called in the Old Testament the sea of Cinneroth: from which word, that of Genesaret, in the New Testament, is conjectured by Dr
Heli - ...
Another Heli is mentioned in the New Testament (Luke 3) as the father of Saint Joseph in accordance with the levirate law, though in reality he was his uncle
Ghost - This phrase occurs eight times in the New Testament (Matthew 27:50 ; Acts 5:5 ; Acts 12:23 ). The predominant New Testament use is for the Holy Spirit
Canon of the Holy Scriptures - The official catalog of inspired writings, known as the Old and New Testament. The formation of the New Testament canon also shows a gradual development. 170 AD) mentions all the New Testament books, except Hebrews, James, and probably 1,2Peter, but also includes vith reservations, the apocryphal Apocalypse of Peter and the Shepherd of Hermas. With an appeal to these earlier voices, the Fathers of the Council of Trent in their famous decree of April 8, 1546, definitely declared as "sacred and canonical" all the books of the Old and New Testament contained in the Vulgate, listing them as follows. Of the New Testament: the four Gospels; the Acts of the Apostles; 14Epistles of the Apostle Paul; two Epistles of Peter the Apostle; three Epistles of John the Apostle; one of James the Apostle; one of Jude the Apostle; and the Apocalypse of John the Apostle. The Protestant reformers of the 16th century adhered to the narrower canon of the Hebrew Bible, and in the New Testament rejected Hebrews, James, Jude, and the Apocalypse. Modern Protestant Bibles, however, usually contain all the New Testament books
Centurion - Centurions are mentioned five times in the New Testament: Matthew 8,27; Acts 10,21, and 27
Cananaean - In some other New Testament references this individual is called Simon the Zealot
Calvary - Calvary was known in the New Testament as Golgotha which means "Place of the Skull" (Matthew 27:33)
Alexander - (al ehx an' dehr) names five New Testament men including the son of Simon of Cyrene (Mark 15:21 ), a relative of Annas (Acts 4:6 ), a Jew of Ephesus (Acts 19:33 ), a false teacher (1 Timothy 1:19-20 ), and a coppersmith (2 Timothy 4:14 )
Scripture - ) The books of the Old and the New Testament, or of either of them; the Bible; - used by way of eminence or distinction, and chiefly in the plural
Abyss - (Greek: abyssos, bottomless) ...
Primarily an adjective signifying very deep (Wisdom of Solomon 10); as a substantive it means a great cavity, primeval waters, or primal chaos, and as used in the New Testament the abode of the dead, or limbo, and the abode of evil spirits, or hell
Evangelist - In the New Testament the term denotes a function rather than an office (Acts 21; Ephesians 4; 2 Timothy 4)
ju'Das, - the Greek form of the Hebrew name Judah, occurring in the LXX, and the New Testament
Paphos - (pay' fahss) A town on the southwest side of Cyprus, and capital of the island during New Testament times
Centurion - Several centurions are mentioned with honor in the New Testament, Mark 15:39 ; Luke 7:1-10 ; and the first fruits to Christ from the Gentiles was the generous and devout Cornelius, Acts 10:1-48
Pound - A weight and a sum of money, put, in the Old Testament, 1 Kings 10:17 Ezra 2:69 Nehemiah 7:71 , for the Hebrew MANEH, which see; and in the New Testament, for the Attic MINA, which was equivalent to one hundred drachmae, or about fourteen dollars
Jew'ry - It occurs several times in the Apocalypse and the New Testament, but once only in the Old Testament -- ( Daniel 5:13 ) Jewry comes to us through the Norman-French, and is of frequent occurrence in Old English
ju'Das, - the Greek form of the Hebrew name Judah, occurring in the LXX, and the New Testament
Deacon - The office described by this title appears in the New Testament as the correlative of bishop. " It may be questioned, however, whether the seven were not appointed to higher functions than those of the deacons of the New Testament. Special directions as to the qualifications for and the duties of deacons will be found in Acts 6 and ( 1 Timothy 3:8-12 ) From the analogy of the synagogue, and from the scanty notices in the New Testament, we may think of the deacons or "young men" at Jerusalem as preparing the rooms for meetings, distributing alms, maintaining order at the meetings, baptizing new converts, distributing the elements at the Lord's Supper
Holy One of Israel - In the New Testament Jesus is referred to as the Holy One
Manuscript - Large numbers of New Testament and some Old Testament manuscripts survive from the first few centuries B
Caesar - The history of the New Testament fell under the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
Lycia - Of its cities, only Patara and Myra are mentioned in the New Testament, Acts 21:1,2 ; 27:5
be'or - (Numbers 22:5 ; 24:3,15 ; 31:8 ; 23:4; Joshua 13:22 ; 24:9 ; Micah 6:5 ) He is called BOSOR in the New Testament
Septuagint - In New Testament times most of the Christians were Greek-speaking, even those of Jewish background, and the Septuagint provided them with a ready-made translation of the Old Testament in their own language. New Testament writers, in quoting from the Old Testament, usually used the Septuagint rather than translate from the Hebrew (see QUOTATIONS). ...
In matters concerning God and religion, the Septuagint was particularly helpful to preachers and writers of New Testament times. ...
This is important for present-day readers of the New Testament
Savior - In the New Testament, savior continues as a title of God; indeed, God is the savior in a full third of the New Testament cases (Luke 1:47 ; 1 Timothy 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 2:3 ; 1 Timothy 4:10 ; Titus 1:3 ; Titus 2:10 ; Titus 3:4 ; Jude 1:25 ). The New Testament, however, reveals God as savior primarily in the Christ event. The increased usage of savior as a Christological title in the later New Testament writings and especially in the postapostolic church perhaps results from the needs of apologetics and evangelism
Hell - In the New Testament "hell" is the translation of two words, Hades and Gehenna . Elsewhere in the New Testament Hades is used of a place of torment, (Matthew 11:23 ; Luke 16:23 ; 2 Peter 2:4 ) etc. It is used eleven times in the New Testament, and only once translated "grave. " ( 1 Corinthians 15:55 ) The word most frequently used (occurring twelve times) in the New Testament for the place of future punishment is Gehenna or Gehenna of fire
Pontus - It is three times mentioned in the New Testament, Acts 2:9; Acts 18:2; 1 Peter 1:1
Son - The word bar is often found in the New Testament in composition, as Bar-timaeus
Beelzebub - form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only in the New Testament (Matthew 10:25 ; 12:24,27 ; Mark 3:22 )
Behead - It is also mentioned in the New Testament (Matthew 14:8-12 ; Acts 12:2 )
Azevedo, Luiz de - He compiled an Ethiopian grammar and translated the New Testament and other works into that tongue
Bridegroom - In the Old Testament, the Bride is Israel and the Bridegroom is the Father, but in the New Testament, the Bride is the church, and the Bridegroom is the Lord JESUS
Angels - ) It is also to be noted that the term"Angels" is used in the New Testament for the Bishops of the Church,as in the Epistles to the seven Churches of Asia (Rev
Grecian - In the New Testament this refers to Jews who had adopted the Greek culture and language
Douay Bible - The New Testament portion was published at Rheims, A
Abba - With translation subjoined, it is used by Mark and Paul in the New Testament as a form of address to God
Barley - In the New Testament this picture is seen in the return of the prodigal
Hades - New Testament term for the Hebrew “sheol,” which is the abode of the conscious dead
Mennonite - They believe that the New Testament is the only rule of faith, that there is no original sin, that infants should not be baptized, and that Christians ought not to take oath, hold office, or render military service
Penny, Pennyworth - In the New Testament "penny," either alone or in the compound "pennyworth," occurs as the rendering of the Roman denarius
Farthing - Two names of coins in the New Testament are rendered in the Authorized Version by this word:
Quadrans , ( Matthew 5:26 ; Mark 12:42 ) a coin current in the time of our Lord, equivalent to three-eights of a cent; ...
The assarion , equal to one cent and a half, ( Matthew 10:29 ; Luke 12:6 )
Bible, Concordances of the - There are complete and abridged concordances of the Hebrew Old Testament, the Greek New Testament, as also of many versions. For the Catholic Bible (Douay Version), we have a "Concordance of the Proper Names in the Holy Scriptures," by Williams, Saint Louis, 1923, and a "Verbal Concordance to the New Testament" by Thompson, London, 1928. Such are Vaughan's "Divine Armory" and Williams's "Textual Concordance" (New Testament)
Oracles - " In the New Testament the Spirit-inspired Scriptures (Romans 3:2; Hebrews 5:12; 1 Peter 4:11) of the Old Testament are so called. Others translated, "let him speak as (becomes one speaking) oracles of God," which designates the New Testament words (afterward written) of inspired men by the same term as was applied to the Old Testament Scriptures; in the Greek there is no article
Sinaiticus Codex - of the Greek New Testament. The story of his finding the manuscript of the New Testament has all the interest of a romance. of 1844, which he had declared to be the most ancient of all Greek codices on vellum that are extant; but he found not only that, but a copy of the Greek New Testament attached, of the same age, and perfectly complete, not wanting a single page or paragraph. The books of the New Testament stand thus: the four Gospels, the epistles of Paul, the Acts of the Apostles, the Catholic Epistles, the Apocalypse of John. It is shown by Tischendorf that this codex was written in the fourth century, and is thus of about the same age as the Vatican codex; but while the latter wants the greater part of Matthew and sundry leaves here and there besides, the Sinaiticus is the only copy of the New Testament in uncial characters which is complete. copy of the New Testament
Emerald - The name given to this stone in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live coal
Proconsul - The New Testament refers to two proconsuls: Sergius Paulus in Cyprus (Acts 13:7 NRSV) and Gallio in Achaia ( Acts 18:12 NRSV)
Beelzebub - The Greek version of the New Testament has Beelzebul (prince of filth), perhaps an intentional change of the original word
Antilegomena - ) Certain books of the New Testament which were for a time not universally received, but which are now considered canonical
Epistle - ) One of the letters in the New Testament which were addressed to their Christian brethren by Apostles
High Priest - It is a title of Christ in the New Testament: "a merciful and faithful high priest before God" (Hebrews 2)
Hallelujah - In the New Testament, ALLELUIAH, Praise ye Jehovah
Gen'Tiles - In the New Testament it is used as equivalent to Greek
Greek Language - It was because of the wide diffusion of this language that the New Testament was written in Greek. The latter language constitutes the basis of the diction employed by the LXX, the writers of the Apocrypha, and of the New Testament. The style of the New Testament has a considerable affinity with that of the Septuagint version which was executed at Alexandria, although it approaches somewhat nearer to the idiom of the Greek language; but the peculiarities of the Hebrew phraseology are discernible throughout: the language of the New Testament being formed by a mixture of oriental idioms and expressions with those which are properly Greek. The dispute, however interesting to the philological antiquarian, is after all a mere "strife of words;" and as the appellation of Hellenistic or Hebraic Greek is sufficiently correct for the purpose of characterizing the language of the New Testament, it is now generally adopted. A large proportion, however, of the phrases and constructions of the New Testament is pure Greek; that is to say, of the same degree of purity as the Greek which was spoken in Macedonia, and that in which Polybius wrote his Roman history. It should farther be noticed, that there occur in the New Testament words that express both doctrines and practices which were utterly unknown to the Greeks; and also words bearing widely different interpretations from those which are ordinarily found in Greek writers. It contains examples of all the dialects occurring in the Greek language, as the AEolic, Boeotic, Doric, Ionic, and especially of the Attic; which, being most generally in use on account of its elegance, pervades every book of the New Testament. A variety of solutions has been given to the question, why the New Testament was written in Greek. To the universality of the Greek language, Cicero, Seneca, and Juvenal bear ample testimony: and the circumstances of the Jews having long had political, civil, and commercial relations with the Greeks, and being dispersed through various parts of the Roman empire, as well as their having cultivated the philosophy of the Greeks, of which we have evidence in the New Testament, all sufficiently account for their being acquainted with the Greek language. the Greek of the New Testament? This advantage none of the provincial dialects used in the Apostles' days could pretend to
Apocrypha - ...
They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from the LXX. The New Testament Apocrypha consists of a very extensive literature, which bears distinct evidences of its non-apostolic origin, and is utterly unworthy of regard
Soldier - )...
The soldiers mentioned in the New Testament are usually Romans. The Roman centurions, who feature in a number of New Testament stories, appear to have been men of quality
Perea - Running down the eastern side of the Jordan River and the Dead Sea was a narrow strip of territory that in New Testament times was known as Perea. ...
In New Testament times Perea was occupied mainly by Jews
Pentecost - In the New Testament it is called the Feast of Pentecost (Leviticus 23:5-6; Leviticus 23:15-16; Acts 2:1; Acts 20:16; 1 Corinthians 16:8; for details see FEASTS). ...
Pentecost is significant in the New Testament story because on that day the church was born
Baal-Zebub - The problem of identification is further complicated by references in the New Testament. However, the Greek text of the New Testament has Beelzebul
Achaia - Is used in the New Testament for the whole region of Greece south of Macedonia, including the Peloponnesus, or Morea, and some territory north of the gulf of Corinth, Acts 18:12 ; 19:21 ; 1 Corinthians 11:10
Chief Priest - It is more frequently used in the plural, especially in the New Testament, to designate the actual and the ex-high priests
Phrygia - It is the Greater Phrygia that is spoken of in the New Testament
Clement - Paul's fellow helper at Philippi, whom Origen (Commentary, John 1:29) identifies with the Clement, the apostolical father afterward bishop of Rome, whose epistle to the Corinthian church (part of the Alexandrius manuscript of Greek Old and New Testament) is extant
Salvation - In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Hebrews 2:3 )
Philippi - A city of Macedon, rendered memorable from Paul the apostle having preached the gospel to the people there by the direction of a vision, and having sent that blessed Epistle there which we have still preserved in the New Testament, and made so truly blessed to the church
Lecture Warburtonian - A lecture founded by bishop Warburton to prove the truth of revealed religion in general, and the Christian in particular, from the completion of the prophecies in the Old and New Testament which relate to the Christian church, especially to the apostacy of papal Rome
Sheol - (Hebrew: a cave) ...
In the Old Testament times it was the place where the souls of the dead abide: the land of oblivion (Psalms 87); called Hades in the Greek New Testament (Luke 16), and later used as a synonym for Gehenna, the hell of torments, the Latin infernus
Satan - The form Satanas is used throughout the New Testament in the Vulgate, while the form Satan occurs in the Old Testament only
Son of Man - It is applies to him more than eighty times in the New Testament
Scripture - The term is used some fifty times in the New Testament for some or all of the Old Testament. This is apparent in the way the New Testament speaks about the Old Testament. New Testament writers often used formulas like “God says” and “the Holy Spirit says” to introduce Old Testament passages. For the New Testament authors, Scripture was the record of God speaking and revealing Himself to His people. ...
Because of their belief in the Scriptures' divine origin and content, the New Testament writers described it as “sure” (2 Peter 1:19 ), trustworthy “of all acceptation” (1 Timothy 1:15 ), and “confirmed” (Hebrews 2:3 )
Demon Possession - Most of those described as demon-possessed in the New Testament are adult men, but certain women were also delivered from the influence of evil spirits (Luke 8:2 ; Luke 13:11 ,Luke 13:11,13:16 ). The signs of demon possession in the New Testament include: speechlessness (Matthew 9:33 ); deafness (Mark 9:25 ); blindness (Matthew 12:22 ); fierceness (Matthew 8:28 ); unusual strength (Mark 5:4 ); convulsions (Mark 1:26 ); and foaming at the mouth (Luke 9:39 ). Most of the New Testament references to demon possession appear in the Gospels and represent the outburst of satanic opposition to God's work in Christ. By way of contrast to this practice, the response of Jesus and the New Testament writers is very restrained. ...
The cure for demon possession in the New Testament is always faith in the power of Christ. The New Testament never shows Jesus or the apostles using magical rites to deliver the afflicted from demon possession
Redeem, Redemption - ...
The New Testament . It is possibly due to the nationalistic expectation that became attached to the concept of the coming Messiah-Redeemer that Jesus is never called "redeemer" (lytrotes [4]) in the New Testament. ...
Fundamental to the message of the New Testament is the announcement that Jesus of Nazareth is the fulfillment of Israel's messianic hope and that, in him, the long-awaited redemption has arrived. In the New Testament, redemption requires the payment of a price, but the plight that requires such a ransom is moral not material. ...
Although the concept of redemption is central to the New Testament, the occurrence of redemption terminology is relatively limited. When reflecting on the work of Jesus Christ, New Testament writers more frequently utilize different images (e. The concept of redemption is nevertheless conveyed in the New Testament by the agorazo and lyo word groups. In using these words, New Testament writers sought to represent Jesus' saving activity in terms that convey deliverance from bondage. Likewise, New Testament writers apply to him the Servant texts and terminology from the Old Testament (e. The New Testament makes clear that divine redemption includes God's identification with humanity in its plight, and the securing of liberation of humankind through the obedience, suffering, death, and resurrection of the incarnate Son. Taylor, The Atonement in New Testament Preaching ; W
Bibles, Polyglot - This work exhibits printed texts of the Old Testament in Hebrew, Greek and Latin, and of the New Testament in Greek and Latin
Baptism, John's - Till then the New Testament economy did not exist
Scriptures - The scriptures are, quite simply, the Bible which consists of 39 books in the Old Testament and 27 in the New Testament
Ehenna - In the New Testament the name is transferred, by an easy metaphor, to Hell
Abba - This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36 ; Romans 8:15 ; Galatians 4:6 ), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father
Latin - A number of words in the Greek of the New Testament are borrowed from the Latin
Unbelief - In the New Testament, disbelief of the truth of the gospel, rejection of Christ as the Savior of men, and of the doctrines he taught distrust of God's promises and faithfulness, &c
Hel'Lenist - (Grecian ), the term applied in the New Testament to Greek-speaking or "Grecian" Jews
Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament - The influence of the Old Testament is seen throughout the New Testament. The New Testament writers included approximately 250 express Old Testament quotations, and if one includes indirect or partial quotations, the number jumps to more than 1,000. It is clear that the writers of the New Testament were concerned with demonstrating the continuity between the Old Testament Scriptures and the faith they proclaimed. Unacknowledged quotations are often woven into the fabric of the New Testament text without acknowledgment or introduction. ...
Sources of Old Testament Quotations Since the New Testament was written in Greek for predominantly Greek readers, it is not surprising that a large majority of Old Testament quotes in the New Testament are drawn from the Greek translation of the Old Testament known as the Septuagint (LXX). How then are these quotes to be explained? The New Testament writers may have used a version of the Old Testament which is unknown to us, or they may have been quoting from memory. It is also possible that the New Testament writers were more concerned with meaning and interpretation. ...
The Uses of Old Testament Quotations The New Testament writers used Old Testament quotations for at least four reasons: (1) to demonstrate that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's purposes and of the prophetic witness of the Old Testament Scriptures ( Romans 1:2 ; Matthew 4:14 ; Matthew 12:17-21 ; Isaiah 28:16 ); (2) as a source for ethical instruction and edification of the church ( Romans 13:8-10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:1 ); (3) to interpret contemporary events (Romans 9-11 ; Romans 15:8-12 ); (4) to prove a point on the assumption that the Scripture is God's Word (1 Corinthians 10:26 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:55 ). Some Old Testament quotations are used in their literal historical sense and, therefore, have the same meaning in the New Testament as they had in the Old Testament. In this approach, the New Testament writer sees a correspondence between persons, events, or things in the Old Testament and persons, events, or things in their contemporary setting. ...
Despite similarities with contemporary Jewish use(s) of the Old Testament, the New Testament writers interpreted the Old Testament in a radically new way. New Testament writers did not deliberately use a different exegetical method. The writers of the New Testament were convinced that the true meaning of the Old Testament is Jesus Christ and that He alone provides the means of understanding it. While many of the Old Testament texts quoted in the New Testament had already been accepted as messianic (for example, Psalm 110:1 ) or could in light of Jesus' actual life claim to be messianic (Psalm 22:1 ; Isaiah 53:1 ), for the early Christians, all Scripture was to be interpreted by the fact of Christ because it is to Him that the Old Testament Scripture points (John 5:39 ). In summary, the New Testament writer quoted or alluded to the Old Testament in order to demonstrate how God's purposes have been fulfilled and are being fulfilled in Jesus
Nets - Mentioned in the Bible sometimes in connection with the hunting of wild animals (Ezechiel 19) and with the catching of birds (Proverbs 1), but most commonly with fishing, particularly in the New Testament. The New Testament references supply more definite information, since several of the Apostles were fishermen, and the Lake of Genesareth so often the scene of events related by the Evangelists
Measure - (g) In New Testament metron, the usual Greek word thus rendered (Matthew 7:2 ; 23:32 ; Mark 4:24 ). (f) In New Testament batos, Luke 16:6 , the Hebrew "bath;" and choinix, Revelation 6:6 , the choenix, equal in dry commodities to one-eighth of a modius
Interesting Facts About the Bible - ...
NEW TESTAMENT. ...
The word Jehovah occurs 6853 times in the Bible; the word and 35,543 times in the Old Testament, and 6853 times in the New Testament The shortest chapter in the Bible is Psalms 117:1-2
Elder - In New Testament times they also appear taking an active part in public affairs (Matthew 16:21 ; 21:23 ; 26:59 ). "The creation of the office of elder is nowhere recorded in the New Testament, as in the case of deacons and apostles, because the latter offices were created to meet new and special emergencies, while the former was transmitted from the earlies times. " ...
The "elders" of the New Testament church were the "pastors" (Ephesians 4:11 ), "bishops or overseers" (Acts 20:28 ), "leaders" and "rulers" (Hebrews 13:7 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:12 ) of the flock. Everywhere in the New Testament bishop and presbyter are titles given to one and the same officer of the Christian church
Essenes - They are not mentioned in the New Testament
Lazarus - It is to be supposed, that the Lazarus of the New Testament, is a corresponding name to the Eleazar of the Old
Hieronymus Emser - He made a German translation of the New Testament
Emser, Hieronymus - He made a German translation of the New Testament
Lyd'ia - Lydia is included in the "Asia" of the New Testament
Ashdod - The place is called Azotus in the New Testament
Bishop - The most common acceptation of the word in the New Testament, is that which occurs Acts 20:28 Philippians 1:1 , where it signifies Christ "the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls," 1 Peter 2:25
Lyd'ia - Lydia is included in the "Asia" of the New Testament
Her'Mas - It was never received into the canon, but yet was generally cited with respect only second to that which was paid to the authoritative books of the New Testament
Fowl - In the New Testament the word translated "fowls" is most frequently that which comprehends all kinds of birds (including ravens , ( Luke 12:24 ) [1]
Athens - In the time of the New Testament, Athens was the world’s great centre of learning
Saint - The New Testament name for all the Baptized, who aredeclared to be "an holy nation," by reason of their incorporationinto Christ's mystical Body
Offices in the New Testament - Positions of leadership in the New Testament church including deacons , elders , pastors , apostles , bishops , and evangelists . In the New Testament, the concept of “office” speaks to functions and tasks, rather than status and position. With very few exceptions, however, the New Testament writers chose the term diakonia , a Greek term which denoted serving at tables and which was not used for religious service in either the Greek Old Testament or in contemporary Greek writings. ...
Throughout the New Testament, humble, even menial service is expected of those who lead in the name of Christ. ...
The New Testament also clearly teaches that the call to follow Christ is a call to the responsibility of service, and the abilities for that service are gifts from God. ...
Some offices are given names or descriptive titles in the New Testament, but it gives very little discussion of the job descriptions of the various offices and no indication of a ranking of them. ...
Perhaps the most prominent New Testament office is that of apostle . The term evangelist is used only three times in the New Testament, with reference to Timothy ( 2 Timothy 4:5 ), to Philip (Acts 21:8 ), and to a kind of spiritual gift (Ephesians 4:11 ). ...
Two offices which apparently appeared in almost every church, at least by the end of the New Testament period, were elder and deacon . ...
The word for deacon is derived from diakonia , the basic term for Christian ministry in the New Testament. The New Testament apparently refers to female deacons (Romans 16:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:11 , Williams). ...
In addition to the offices mentioned earlier, the New Testament mentions other tasks and the gifts for performing them. ...
The New Testament clearly teaches that all followers of Christ share in the responsibility of service
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - The New Testament proclaims its indebtedness to the Old Testament on the very first page. Thus the New Testament signals at the start an engagement with the Old Testament that touches every page and makes great demands on its readers. The New Testament does not simply express its dependence on the Old Testament by quoting it. The fourth edition of the United Bible Societies' Greek Testament (1993) lists 343Old Testament quotations in the New Testament, as well as no fewer than 2,309 allusions and verbal parallels. ...
As far as the styles of quotation, sometimes the New Testament authors employed techniques current among first-century Jewish teachers. But generally the New Testament authors show considerable independence in forging wholly new ways of reading the Scriptures, based on their revolutionary experience of Jesus the Christ. ...
New Testament Interpretation of the Old Testament: Legitimate?New Testament "Awareness" of the Old Testament . Many New Testament scholars maintain that the New Testament use of the Old Testament works within a closed logical circle: it depends on Christian presuppositions and reads the Old Testament in a distinctly Christian way (even if employing Jewish methods of exegesis), often doing violence to the true meaning of the Old Testament texts employed. Thus, New Testament arguments based on the Old Testament, it is held, would generally be convincing to Christians but hardly to Jews. If this is true, it will be hard to vindicate the New Testament authors from the charge of misusing the Scriptures. ...
This approach, however, ignores several crucial features of the use of the Old Testament by the New Testament authors. Rabbinic Judaism in the post-New Testament period sought to "complete" the Scriptures by filling out the body of its case law, reinterpreting the sacrificial legislation ethically, and gently downplaying the significance of the messiah (in the main). The New Testament authors, by contrast, focus the whole "story" of the Old Testament onto Jesus, as summarized below, using even its tensions prophetically, to point toward the Christ who is Jesus. Undoubtedly, the New Testament authors believed that their Christian faith enabled them to make better sense of the Old Testament than they ever could as Jews. The New Testament authors both use the Old Testament to explain Jesus and use Jesus to explain the Old Testamenta circular process in which each is illuminated by the other. The authority of the Old Testament is nowhere questioned in the New Testament, even at the points wheredramaticallythe authority of Jesus is set alongside or even over it (e. ...
But the New Testament is no mere restatement of Old Testament themes, because of its vital focus on Jesus. All the New Testament authors (except James) pick up messianic and other prophecies from the Old Testament and locate their fulfillment in Jesus and in the church. One of the most surprising features of the New Testament use of the Old Testament is the way in which the exclusivism of the Old Testament covenant (Israel as the elect) gives way to a new understanding of the people of God in which racial identity plays no role, and Jews and Gentiles have equal membership based just on faith and common possession of the Spirit. The movement from one to the other is a special interest of Luke (see especially Acts 10-11 ) and of Paul (see especially Romans 9-11 ), one of the most sustained New Testament engagements with Old Testament texts). The New Testament understanding of the Spirit builds on that of the Old Testament, but is surprising nonetheless. New Testament worship focuses on its heavenly counterpart by the Spiritthe heavenly temple where God truly dwells and Christ has gone before. Chirichigno, Old Testament Quotations in the New Testament: A Complete Survey ; D. Baker, Two Testaments, One Bible: A Study of the Theological Relationship between the Old and New Testaments ; D. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments: Theological Reflection on the Christian Bible ; E
New Testament - It is proposed in this article to consider the text of the New Testament. of the New Testament of the first three centuries remains but though no fragment of the New Testament of the first century still remains, the Italian and Egyptian papyri, which are of that date give a clear notion of the caligraphy of the period. Only are the remains of Christian literature up to that time extremely scanty, but the practice of verbal quotation from the New Testament was not yet prevalent. As soon as definite controversies arose among Christians, the text of the New Testament assumed its true importance. It is in the first place evident that various readings existed in the books of the New Testament at a time prior to all extant authorities. From the extant works of Origen alone no inconsiderable portion of the whole New Testament might be transcribed; and his writings are an almost inexhaustible store house for the history of the text. There can be no doubt that in Origen's time the variations in the New Testament MSS. The honor of carefully determining the relations of critical authorities for the New Testament text belongs to Griesbach. ...
From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of MSS. certain the whole New Testament --twenty-seven in all out of the vast mass of extant documents. of the New Testament, or of parts of it, there are also lectionaries, which contain extracts arranged for the church services. is given In the great critical editions of the New Testament. The New Testament is entire, and the Epistle of Bamabas and parts of the Shepherd of Hermas are added. of the New Testament and of the fourth century. It contains the whole of the New Testament, with some chasms. It contains the New Testament entire to ( Hebrews 9:14 ) katha : the rest of the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Pastoral Epistles and the Apocalypse were added in the fifteenth century. and of every part of the New Testament. Examples occur in every page, almost in every verse, of the New Testament. In spite of the great revolutions in thought, feeling and practice through which the Christian Church passed In fifteen centuries, the copyists of the New Testament faithfully preserved, according to their ability, the sacred trust committed to them. --The history of the printed text of the New Testament may be these divided into three periods. The volume containing the New Testament was Printed first, and was completed on January 10,1524. --The edition of Erasmus was the first published edition of the New Testament. Erasmus had paid considerable attention to the study of the New Testament, when he received an application from Froben, a Printer of Basle with whom he was acquainted, to prepare a Greek text for the press. In 1543, Simon Deuteronomy Colines: (Colinaeus) published a Greek text of the New Testament, corrected in about 150 places on fresh MS
Honey - ...
New Testament Honey is mentioned in three New Testament passages (Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 ; Revelation 10:9-10 ). In New Testament times, honey was viewed as a food eaten by lowly people (Matthew 3:4 ; Mark 1:6 )
Congregation - Sunagoge in the New Testament is almost entirely restricted to the Jewish place of worship. In the New Testament the “called out ones” are the church, the assembly of God's people. There is a direct spiritual continuity between the congregation of the Old Testament and the New Testament church
Godhead - ...
New Testament New Testament concept of God's nature correlates with the Old Testament. The most important addition in the New Testament understanding of God is the concept of the Trinity
Perseverance - As a noun the term perseverance occurs in the New Testament only at Ephesians 6:18 ( proskarteresei ) and Hebrews 6:1-842 ( hupomones ). The idea is inherent throughout the New Testament in the great interplay of the themes of assurance and warning. The New Testament writers were forthright in advising believers to be consistent in prayer (Ephesians 6:18 ; Philippians 4:6 ), and they employed athletic imagery to remind Christians to be effectual as they trained in the ways of God (1 Corinthians 9:24-27 ; Romans 12:11-12 ; Hebrews 12:1-12 ). Israel's failure of faithfulness in the Exodus was also a haunting picture for Christians, and the inspired New Testament writers found it to be an important basis for warning (see 1 Corinthians 10:1-14 ; Hebrews 3:7-19 ). ...
While the warnings are very stern, especially in Hebrews (Hebrews 2:3 ; 1618100881_9 ; Hebrews 10:26-31 ), the New Testament writers were firmly convinced that those who truly committed themselves to Christ should persevere to the end because they had gained a new perspective and become a people who would not treat lightly the biblical admonitions (compare Hebrews 6:9-12 ; Hebrews 12:1 ). Others found such views of baptism and extreme unction to be foreign to New Testament perspectives
Apostles' Creed - In substance, however, it may be attributed to them, for all its elements are found in the New Testament
Sparrow - The Greek word of the New Testament is Strouthion ( Matthew 10:29-31 ), which is thus correctly rendered
Zarephath - It is called Sarepta in the New Testament (Luke 4:26 )
Diadem - In the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn between the diadem as a badge of royalty (Revelation 12:3 ; 13:1 ; 19:12 ) and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life
Kedron - John 18:1 , "Cedron," only here in New Testament
Talitha Cumi - The Aramaic reflects Mark's attempt to preserve the actual words of Jesus, who probably spoke Aramaic rather than Greek in which most of the New Testament is written
Blemish - In the New Testament, Christ is the perfect sacrifice (without blemish, Hebrews 9:14 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ) intended to sanctify the church and remove all its blemishes (Ephesians 5:27 )
Similitude - In the New Testament it is used to translate homoios or its derivative three times (Romans 5:14 ; Hebrews 7:15 ; James 3:9 , “likeness” NAS)
Schism - A rent or fissure; generally used in the New Testament to denote a division within the Christian church, by contentions and alienated affections, without an outward separation into distinct bodies, 1 Corinthians 1:10-12 12:25,26
Testament - Paul speaks of the New Testament, or covenant, in the blood of the Redeemer; and calls the law the old covenant, and the gospel the new covenant, 1 Corinthians 1:1-16:24 11:25 2 Corinthians 3:6,14 Hebrews 7:22 10:1-39 12:24
Bethab'Ara - (house of the ford ), a place beyond Jordan, in which according to the Received Text of the New Testament, John was baptizing
Cord - In the New Testament the term is applied to the whip which our Saviour made, (John 2:15 ) and to the ropes of a ship
Exhortation - The Hebrew Scriptures provided New Testament preachers with a source of exhortation (Romans 15:14 ; Hebrews 12:5-6 ). Two New Testament documents describe themselves as exhortations (1 Peter 5:12 ; Hebrews 13:22 )
Gentile - gentes, which in the Greek translation of the Old Testament is rendered in which sense it frequently occurs in the New Testament; as in Matthew 6:32 . " Whence the Latin church also used gentes in the same sense as our Gentiles, especially in the New Testament
John - Their histories and worth are graciously preserved in the New Testament by God the Holy Ghost, and their names are in the book of life. ...
There is another John surnamed Mark, spoken of with honourable testimony in the New Testament
Talent - In the New Testament, a talent is a denomination of money, which was anciently reckoned by weight. The talent spoken of in the New Testament is probably the Jewish, and is used only of an indefinitely large sum, Matthew 18:24 ; 25:14-30
Matthias, Feast of Saint - Matthias in the New Testament is that to be found inActs I:15-26 where it is recorded that he was chosen to be an Apostlein the place of the traitor Judas. We have here the New Testament witness to thefact that the number of the Apostles was to be increased and theApostleship perpetuated to the end of time by its being committedto others, as in the case of St
Old School Baptists - They hold strictly "to the full verbal inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scriptures," and believe that "every sane human being is accountable for all his thoughts, words, and actions
Caedmon - He put the history of the Old and New Testament into alliterative verses
Cedmon - He put the history of the Old and New Testament into alliterative verses
Scrip - " In the New Testament it is the rendering of Gr
Epaphras - Though Epaphras is mentioned in the New Testament only in the letters to the Colossians and to Philemon, Paul evidently held this man in high regard
Testament - The word has come to be used in describing the two main divisions of the Bible: The Old Testament and The New Testament
Caiaphas - Little is known about Caiaphas beyond what can be learned from the New Testament
Bar - ” Bar is often used in the New Testament as a prefix for names of men telling whose son they were: Barabbas (Matthew 27:16-26 ), Bar-Jesus (Acts 13:6 ), Bar-Jona (Matthew 16:17 ), Barnabas (Acts 4:36 ; Acts 9:27 ; etc
Hard-Shell Baptists - They hold strictly "to the full verbal inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scriptures," and believe that "every sane human being is accountable for all his thoughts, words, and actions
Baptists, Old School - They hold strictly "to the full verbal inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scriptures," and believe that "every sane human being is accountable for all his thoughts, words, and actions
Baptists, Primitive - They hold strictly "to the full verbal inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scriptures," and believe that "every sane human being is accountable for all his thoughts, words, and actions
Anti-Mission Baptists - They hold strictly "to the full verbal inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scriptures," and believe that "every sane human being is accountable for all his thoughts, words, and actions
Testament - ) One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; - often limited, in colloquial language, to the latter
Belial - (1 Samuel 25:25) In the language of the New Testament, Belial is another name for Satan
Gentiles - This meaning is carried over into the New Testament (Luke 2); at times, it is a synonym for "Greek" (Romans 2) and, in certain passages, it stands in contrast to "Christians" (1 Corinthians 5)
Lunatics - This word is used twice in the New TestamentMatthew 4:24; Matthew 17:15; but rendered epileptic in the R
Sabaoth - The phrase "Lord of Sabaoth" occurs twice in the New Testament, in Romans 9:29 and James 5:4 It should not be mistaken as referring to the Sabbath
Italy - In the New Testament, Acts 18:2 27:1,6 Hebrews 13:24 , it is chiefly of interest on account of ROME, ROMANS, which see
Disciple - In the New Testament it is applied principally to the followers of Christ; sometimes to those of John the Baptist, Matthew 22:16
Baptists, Hard Shell - They hold strictly "to the full verbal inspiration of the Old and New Testament Scriptures," and believe that "every sane human being is accountable for all his thoughts, words, and actions
Manger - It means a crib or feeding trough; but according to Schleusner its real signification in the New Testament is the open court-yard attached to the inn or khan, in which the cattle would be shut at night, and where the poorer travellers might unpack their animals and take up their lodging, when they mere either by want of means excluded from the house
Apocrypha, New Testament - is a collective term referring to a large body of religious writings dating back to the early Christian centuries that are similar in form to the New Testament (Gospels, acts, epistles, and apocalypses) but were never included as a part of the canon of Scripture. ...
New Testament Jesus used the term apokryphos in his parable of the lamp (Mark 4:22 : “For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested;” paralleled in Luke 8:17 : “For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest;”) to speak of the manifestation of that which has been hidden. ”...
Meaning of the Term “Apocrypha” When the term apokryphos occurs in the New Testament, it simply means “hidden things. In contrast to portions of the Old Testament Apocrypha which have been accepted by some branches of the Christian Church, none of the New Testament Apocrypha (with the possible exception of the Apocalypse of Peter and the Acts of Paul ) has ever been accepted as Scripture. Though some scholars allow the term to describe writings that are neither a part of the New Testament nor strictly apocryphal (e. ...
Purpose of the Apocrypha Three general reasons explain the existence of the New Testament Apocrypha. First, some groups accepted apocryphal writings because they built on the universal desire to preserve the memories of the lives and deaths of important New Testament figures. Apocryphal works were intended to supplement the information given in the New Testament about Jesus or the apostles. For the same reason, the apocryphal acts made certain to record the events surrounding the death of the apostles, a matter on which the New Testament is usually silent. After the death of the apostles and with an increase in persecution and false teaching, the written accounts of the teachings of the apostles (the New Testament) became the standard. ...
Classification of the New Testament Apocrypha These writings parallel, in a superficial way, the literary forms found in the New Testament: gospels, acts, epistles or letters, and apocalypses. A large number of legendary accounts of the journeys and heroics of New Testament apostles sought to parallel and supplement the Book of Acts. The Book of Revelation is the only apocalyptic book in the New Testament, though there are apocalyptic elements in other books (such as Mark 13:1 and parallels; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 ). While the New Testament apocalyptic material emphasizes the return of Christ, the later apocryphal apocalypses focus more on heaven and hell. ...
Relevance of the New Testament Apocrypha The New Testament Apocrypha is significant for those who study church history. The New Testament Apocrypha also serves as a point of comparison with the writings contained in the canon of the New Testament. By way of contrast the apocryphal writings demonstrate how the New Testament places a priority on historical fact rather than human fantasy. While the New Testament Apocrypha is often interesting and informative, it is usually unreliable historically and always unauthoritative for matters of faith and practice
Greek Language - ...
Biblical scholars have long known that the Greek of the New Testament is considerably different from the Greek of the Golden Age. The differences were explained by referring to the New Testament Greek as “Biblical Greek” or “Holy Ghost Greek. ” This implied that, although the roots of the New Testament were in the Greek language, its style and form differed sharply from the literary Attic Greek with which scholars were familiar. Adolph Deissmann, one of the important scholars of the day, realized that much of the Greek which he was finding in the papyri was similar to that found in the Greek New Testament. Scholars were able to demonstrate that the Greek found in the New Testament was the same as that found in other writings of the day. The New Testament was written in the universal language of the Empire. ...
The understanding of the New Testament has been enhanced by the discovery of secular texts which were written during the Hellenistic period. As should be expected, the literary style of the writers of the New Testament falls somewhere between these two extremes. Consequently, the average citizen who lived in Alexandria (Egypt), in Jerusalem, or in Rome could have easily understood the writings found in the Greek of the New Testament
Bible - It is divided into the Old Testament, containing thirty-nine books, and the New Testament, containing twenty-seven books. Between the Old and the New Testament no addition was made to the revelation God had already given. The period of New Testament revelation, extending over a century, began with the appearance of John the Baptist. ...
The New Testament consists of (1) the historical books, viz. The system of verses for the New Testament was introduced by Stephens in 1551, and generally adopted, although neither Tyndale's nor Coverdale's English translation of the Bible has verses
Antichrist - Both these figures reappear in the New Testament, particularly in Revelation. ...
The New Testament indicates the presence of cosmic opposition to God through reference primarily to forces, people, or a person who seek to deceive those who already know God's Messiah. In the Old Testament and New Testament the image of the beast is used to describe both the power and intensity of evil and to declare God's ultimate victory. The figure of the antichrist and the man of lawlessness do not occur in the Old Testament, although their New Testament use is replete with Old Testament allusions. In the New Testament these figures function in line with the Old Testament conviction that God will ultimately defeat the forces of evil
Scriptures - In the strict sense of the word, Scriptures no doubt mean writings, generally speaking, for all writings are Scriptures; but long use hath long fixed to the term the Holy Scriptures, and them only, including the two books of the Old and New Testament. But the blessed Book of God, comprized as it is in the two sacred canons of the Old and New Testament, form the Holy Scriptures, concerning which, as the Lord Jesus saith of the breasts of his spouse, they are like two young roes that are twins. Doth the Old Testament shadow forth by type and figure the person work, character, and relation of the Lord Jesus Christ? And what is the New Testament record but the sum and substance of the same? Doth the Old Testament relate the prophecies, hold forth the promises, and insist upon the doctrines, which were to be revealed openly, and completed in the person of Jesus? And is not Jesus, in the testimony given of him in the New Testament, the spirit of prophecy, the yea and amen of all the promises, and the pardon and remission of sins, the glorious doctrine in his blood and righteousness fully proclaimed and confirmed to his church and people? In short, the former prefigured, and the latter realized, the immense event of salvation, and all in Christ. Nothing do we find predicted of Jesus in the Old Testament but what the New brought forth the accomplishment of; and nothing that we hear of or meet with concerning the person and glory of Christ in the New Testament, but what the Old had foretold
Pastors - This word occurs but once in the New Testament
Cyrene - Located in northern Africa, it was the capital city of the Roman district of Cyrenaica during the New Testament era
Disciple - (Latin: discipulus, a student) ...
A term used in the New Testament to designate a Christian follower, either a personal adherent of Our Lord or the Apostles; the disciples, strictly so called, are to be distinguished from the Apostles
Frog - In the New Testament this word occurs only in Revelation 16:13 , where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness
Winefat - The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament
Barbarian - A Greek word used in the New Testament (Romans 1:14 ) to denote one of another nation
Silk - " ...
Silk was common in New Testament times ( Revelation 18:12 )
Onesimus - In New Testament times, households often included slaves, and many of these slaves became Christians
Porch, Solomon's - ) The word "porch" is in the New Testament the rendering of three different Greek words: ...
Stoa, meaning a portico or veranda (John 5:2 ; 10:23 ; Acts 3:11 ; 5:12 )
Beelzebub - (bee eel' zee buhb) (KJV, NIV) or BEELZEBUL (NAS, TEV, NRSV) Name for Satan in New Testament spelled differently in Greek manuscripts
Evil, Principalities of - Of the evil spirits three classes at least are expressly mentioned in the New Testament (1 Corinthians 15; Ephesians 6; Colossians 2)
Belial - In the New Testament, "Belial" is used as an appellation of Satan, the power or lord of evil: "What concord hath Christ with Belial," the prince of licentiousness and corruption? 2 Corinthians 6:15
Lycaonia - Of its cities, Iconium, Derbe, and Lystra and mentioned in the New Testament, Acts 14:6
ju'Piter - Jupiter or Zeus is mentioned in two passages of the New Testament, on the occasion of St
Blindness - Blind beggars figure repeatedly in the New Testament (Matthew 12:22 ) and "opening the eyes of the blind" is mentioned in prophecy as a peculiar attribute of the Messiah
Centurion - The favourable references to centurions in the New Testament suggest that they may have been carefully chosen because of their quality of character
Epistles - The New Testament contains twenty-one in all. These are not arranged in the New Testament in the order of time as to their composition, but rather according to the rank of the cities or places to which they were sent. It is an interesting and instructive fact that a large portion of the New Testament is taken up with epistles
Forerunner - The Greek term prodromos (one who runs ahead) occurs only once in the New Testament ( Hebrews 6:20 ) where it serves as a designation for Christ. In this sense John the Baptist is termed the forerunner of Jesus, though the New Testament does not use this term of John. The application of these texts to John by the New Testament writers (Matthew 11:10 ; Mark 1:2 ; Luke 1:76 ; Luke 7:27 ) affirm that the coming of Jesus is the coming of God
Testament, New - Campbell, is frequently denominated and almost always rendered the New Testament: yet the word by itself, is generally translated covenant. The proper Greek word for covenant is not found in the New Testament, and occurs only thrice in the Septuagint, where it is never employed for rendering the word Berith. These terms, from signifying the two dispensations, came soon to denote the books wherein they were written, the sacred writings of the Jews being called the Old Testament; and the writings superadded by the apostles and evangelists, the New Testament
Languages of the Bible - The New Testament was written in Greek, though Jesus and the early believers may have spoken Aramaic. The New Testament is written in a dialect called koine (meaning “common) which was the dialect of the common person. New Testament Greek is heavily infused with Semitic thought modes, and many Aramaic words are found rendered with Greek letters (for example, talitha cumi , Mark 5:41 ; ephphatha , Mark 7:34 ; Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani , Mark 15:34 ; marana-tha , 1 Corinthians 16:22 )
Testament - Every one knows what is meant by the New Testament; but perhaps the peculiar blessedness of the name, seen with an eye to Christ, is not so richly and so fully enjoyed as it ought even by real believers. There is indeed a most precious savour in the word, when we have respect to it, as Jesus had to the symbols of his supper, when he called the sacred service "the New Testament in his blood. ...
In respect to the term, New Testament, that was not added as if the contents of it differed from the Old; for in fact it became a fulfilment and confirmation of all that went before: every thing in the Old Testament was the shadow and type of the New. ...
I cannot dismiss the subject, after thus explaining the meaning of the term itself, without calling upon the reader to remark with me how very precious the very name of the New Testament ought to be to every lover of the Lord Jesus, who by the regenerating influence of the Holy Ghost is conscious that he is interested in the contents of it. Reader! pause over the name—"The New Testament in Christ's blood," Surely, I would say, Jesus by his death hath confirmed it, and made all the blessed legacies in it secure and payable. Hail thou glorious Testator of the New Testament in thy blood!...
Bible, Canon of the - "
The Old Testament Canon Although Christians include both Old and New Testaments in their canon, Jews do not accept a "New" Testament and repudiate the identification of their canon as the "Old" Testament. Extant Greek Old Testament manuscripts, whose text is quoted often in the New Testament, contain apocryphal books. Even though the New Testament was written in Greek, Protestant and evangelical Bibles do not embrace either the content or the arrangement of the Greek Old Testament. ...
The New Testament Canon The formation of the New Testament canon, like the Old, was a process rather than an event. Analysis of the process is more historical than biblical, since the church of the New Testament, like the Israel of the Old Testament, never had the complete canon during the time spanned by its canonical literature. However, an occasional indication of the attitude of first-century Christians about their literature is found in the New Testament. These discussions began as early as the second century and escalated in the christological controversies of the fourth century, when we have our first full lists of canonical New Testament books. ...
Eusebius distinguishes four groups of books: (1) accepted (most of our twenty-seven), (2) disputed (James, Jude, 2Peter, 2,3John), (3) rejected (various apocryphal New Testament books), and (4) heretical (primarily pseudepigraphical books). ...
There is no "proper" order of New Testament books; several different arrangements exist in early manuscripts. More than 284 different sequences of biblical books (Old and New Testament) have been found in Latin manuscripts alone, and more than twenty different arrangements of Paul's letters have been found in ancient authors and manuscripts. Stephen Langton introduced the chapters into the Latin Bible prior to his death in 1228, and Stephanus added the verses in the New Testament in 1551 and his publication of a Greek and Latin edition of the New Testament. Childs, The New Testament as Canon ; E. Goodspeed, The Formation of the New Testament ; R. Grant, The Formation of the New Testament ; B. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament ; H. Westcott, The Canon of the New Testament
Bible, Books of the - ...
There are 27 books of the New Testament: ...
the 4Gospels
Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
the Acts of the Apostles
14Epistles of Saint Paul
Romans
1,2Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1,2Thessalonians
1,2Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
7 Catholic Epistles
James
1,2Peter
1,2, and 3John
Jude and
the Apocalypse, the only prophetical book of the New Testament
Innocents, Slaughter of the - This incident is not mentioned elsewhere in the New Testament. See Apocrypha, New Testament ; Herod ; Josephus; Magi
Rabbi - During the New Testament period, the term rabbi came to be more narrowly applied to one learned in the law of Moses, without signifying an official office. ...
In the New Testament the title rabbi is used only in three of the gospels
Second Death - According to Bauer writers during the New Testament period used it only of temporal torture and conscious torment in the afterlife. It is used elsewhere in the New Testament only in 1 John 4:18 , which says fear has torment
Paper Reed - Ancient books were written on papyrus, and those of the New Testament among the rest. This was preferred for durability; and many decayed copies of the New Testament, belonging to libraries, were early transferred to parchment
Samaritans - In the New Testament the word denotes the mixed race which sprang from the remnant of Israel and the colonists brought from various parts of Assyria at the captivity. The bitter animosity between the two races must be understood in order to understand many facts in New Testament history
Dispersion - During the centuries immediately before the New Testament era, Jews had become widely scattered across western Asia, eastern Europe and northern Africa. ...
By New Testament times many of these Jews had lived in foreign countries so long that they had little or no knowledge of Palestinian languages such as Hebrew and Aramaic
Deacon - ” Only a few times in the New Testament (Philippians 1:1 ; 1Timothy 3:8,1 Timothy 3:12 , and, in some translations, Romans 16:1 ) is it translated “deacon” and used to denote one holding a church office. In the New Testament, the noun is used to refer to ministers of the gospel (Colossians 1:23 ), ministers of Christ (1 Timothy 4:6 ), servants of God (2 Corinthians 6:4 ), those who follow Jesus (1 Timothy 3:8-137 ), and in many other similar ways. ...
Although Philippians 1:1 and 1 Timothy 3:1 clearly indicate that the office of deacon existed in New Testament times, no explicit Bible reference describes the duties of deacons or refers to the origin of the office. In Philippians 1:1 and in numerous references in early Christian literature outside the New Testament, bishops and/or elders and deacons are mentioned together, with deacons mentioned last. ...
The nature of the qualifications of deacons outlined in 1618100881_64 perhaps indicates the function of deacons in the New Testament period. Other than this passage, which may or may not represent usual practice, the New Testament does not mention ordination of deacons. Williams New Testament translates this as deaconess
Letter Form And Function - 3 John 1:2 is the sole New Testament example. Most New Testament letters are of a mixed type. New Testament examples of letters of censure or blame are found in Galatians (See 2 Thessalonians 1:6 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:1 ) and five of the letters to the churches in Asia Minor in Revelation 2-3 (excluding Smyrna and Philadelphia). Philemon serves as the New Testament example of a letter of mediation. Most New Testament letters are best characterized under the broad heading “letters of advice or exhortation. More often New Testament letters have broader paraenetic goals. A better New Testament parallel to the secular practice is Paul's calling God as witness (Romans 1:9 ; Philippians 1:8 )
Demon - ...
 ...
In the New Testament the word is synonymous with the evil spirit, and in English versions of the Bible is rendered "devil" and consequently designates a maleficent being, a meaning not necessarily implied in the original yord "demon
Benthamism - According to this test he found wanting the Established Churches, the New Testament, and religion generally
Gabriel - In the New Testament he appeared to announce the births of John the Baptist (Luke 1:8-20 ) and Jesus (Luke 1:26-38 )
Kanah - Not to be confused with Cana of the New Testament
Consecration - In the New Testament, Christians are regarded as consecrated to the Lord (1 Peter 2:9 )
Jupiter - He is two or three times mentioned in the New Testament
Arpachshad - In the New Testament the name Arphaxad appears in Luke's genealogy of Jesus (Luke 3:36 )
Aretas - ” The ruler of Damascus in New Testament times
Greece - It is named four times in the Old Testament as Greece or Grecia, Zechariah 9:13; Daniel 8:21; Daniel 10:20; Daniel 11:2, and once in the New Testament, Acts 20:2
Elders - " (Exodus 3:16) In the New Testament church, the term seems to be generally applied to fathers and governors of families
a'Sia - The passages in the New Testament where this word occurs are the following; ( Acts 2:9 ; 6:9 ; 16:6 ; 19:10,22,26,27 ; 20:4,16,18 ; 21:27 ; 27:2 ; Romans 16:5 ; 1 Corinthians 16:19 ; 2 Corinthians 1:8 ; 2 Timothy 1:15 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ; Revelation 1:4,11 ) In all these it may be confidently stated that the word is used for a Roman province which embraced the western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor and of which Ephesus was the capital
Silver - In the times of the New Testament there were coins
Earnest - In the New Testament it describes the gifts of God to his people here, as the assurance and commencement of the far superior blessings of the life to come, 2 Corinthians 1:22 5:5 Ephesians 1:13,14
Earnest - In the New Testament the word is used to signify the pledge or earnest of the superior blessings of the future life
Mule, - We do not read of mules at all in the New Testament; perhaps therefore they had ceased to be imported
Mile, - It is only once noticed in the Bible, (Matthew 5:41 ) the usual method of reckoning both in the New Testament and in Josephus being by the stadium
Harlot - The "harlots" are classed with "publicans," as those who lay under the ban of society, in the New Testament
Julia - As all the centurions in New Testament, so Julia was an estimable character
Africa - (For additional New Testament references to Africa see ALEXANDRIA; CYRENE
New Command - This fact is proven by the centrality of the concept of newness for New Testament theology: new teaching (Mark 1:27 ; Acts 17:19 ); new wine and new wineskins (Luke 5:37-39 ); new commandment (John 13:34 ; 1 John 2:7-8 ; 2 John 5 ); new covenant ( Luke 22:20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Hebrews 8:8,13 ; 9:15 ; 12:24 ); new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17 ; Galatians 6:15 ); new self (Ephesians 2:15 ; 4:24 ; Colossians 3:10 ); new heaven and new earth (2 Peter 3:13 ; Revelation 21:1 ); new name (Revelation 2:17 ; 3:12 ); new Jerusalem (Revelation 3:12 ; 21:2 ); new song (Revelation 5:9 ; 14:3 ); and all things new (Revelation 21:5 ). Furnish, The Love Command in the New Testament ; N. Harrisville, The Concept of Newness in the New Testament ; C. Hoch, All Things New: The Central Importance of Newness for New Testament Theology ; E. Perkins, Love Commands in the New Testament ; R. Schnackenburg, The Moral Teaching of the New Testament ; S. Spicq, Agape in the New Testament ; W. , The Love of Enemy and Nonretaliation in the New Testament
Inheritance - By the time of the New Testament, it was common for a person to ask a rabbi, "What must I do to inherit eternal life?" (Matthew 19:16 ). ...
The New Testament . However, as in the Old Testament, almost all occurrences of the terms for inheritance in the New Testament are theological (Luke 12:13 ; is the lone exception ). ...
Who Are the Heirs? Three major characters dominate the inheritance usage in the New Testament: Abraham, Christ, and the believer. The New Testament continues the focus on Abraham as a central figure of the inheritance metaphor. While the fact of Abraham's inheritance is significant, the New Testament concentrates on the means by which he received the inheritance: God's promise and Abraham's faith, not by works of the law (Romans 4:14 ; Galatians 3:18 ). ...
What Is the Inheritance? Throughout the New Testament, a striking promise for believers is simply "the inheritance" ( Acts 20:32 ; 26:18 ; Ephesians 1:14,18 ; Colossians 3:24 ). ...
The apostle Paul employs the inheritance metaphor more than any other New Testament writer. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament
Philadelphia - Philadelphia is mentioned in the New Testament as the seat of one of the seven churches
Philippi - From the New Testament history Philippi appears to have been the first city in Europe which heard the gospel
Iconium - In New Testament times it was considered to be a part of the Roman province of Galatia
Headstone - New Testament writers spoke of Christ as a stone rejected by the builders which has become the head of the corner (Acts 4:11 ; 1 Peter 2:7 )
Daysman - The New Testament points to “the man Christ Jesus” as the “one mediator between God and men” (1 Timothy 2:5 )
Pipe - " This instrument is mentioned also in the New Testament ( Matthew 11:17 ; 1 Corinthians 14:7 )
Lydda - A town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32,35,38 ) as the scene of Peter's miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas
Rock - tsur), employed as a symbol of God in the Old Testament (1 Samuel 2:2 ; 2 Samuel 22:3 ; Isaiah 17:10 ; Psalm 28:1 ; 31:2,3 ; 89:26 ; 95:1 ); also in the New Testament (Matthew 16:18 ; Romans 9:33 ; 1 Corinthians 10:4 )
Belial - In the New Testament it is found only in 2 Corinthians 6:15 , where it is used as a name of Satan, the personification of all that is evil
Thomas - See Apocrypha, New Testament ; Didymus ; Disciples
Jehohanan - ) The New Testament John, meaning the same as Theodore
Devil - In the New Testament, the word is frequently and erroneously used for demon
Catholic Epistles - The New Testament letters not attributed to Paul and written to a more general or unidentifiable audience: James; 1,2Peters; 1,2, and 3John; Jude
Apron - In the New Testament the girdle was wrapped around the waist of the outer garment
Thyatira - Dyeing was an important branch of its business from Homer's time, and the first New Testament mention of Thyatira, Acts 16:14, connects it with the purple-seller, Lydia
Ash'er, - Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser ( blessed ), the eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
Salome - She is not named in the New Testament, but is by Josephus
Onesiph'Orus - (bringing profit ) is named twice only in the New Testament, viz
Lunatics - This word is used twice in the New Testament-- ( Matthew 4:24 ; 17:15 ) Translated epileptic in the Revised Version
Frog, - , in which the plague of frogs is described, and to (Psalm 78:45 ; 105:30 ) In the New Testament the word occurs once only, in (Revelation 16:13 ) There is no question as to the animal meant
Ash'er, - Apocrypha and New Testament, A'ser ( blessed ), the eighth son of Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
Officer - The two words so rendered in the New Testament denote --
An inferior officer of a court of justice, a messenger or bailiff, like the Roman viator or lictor
Bible, Texts And Versions - New Testament Text and Versions. The term “Old Testament,” implying a “New Testament,” was first used by Christians in A. In 1976, only 88 separate fragments of papyrus New Testament manuscripts were known. The original papyrus manuscripts contained only portions of the New Testament, such as the Gospels and Acts or Paul's letters or the Revelation or some or all of the General Epistles. During that period the New Testament did not circulate as a single volume. Apparently all New Testament manuscripts so far discovered were made in the leaf form of books, not on rolls. ...
The New Testament circulated as a single volume in the time of the great parchment manuscripts. The earliest of these to contain the New Testament also contain the Old Testament (in the form of the Septuagint with the outside books) and other Christian writings such as 1,2Clement or The Shepherd of Hermas and the Letter of Barnabas. ...
Not only manuscripts written in Greek, the language of the New Testament, but also Christian writings which quote from the Greek New Testament furnish evidence for the text of the New Testament. ...
Another major source of information about the text of the New Testament is the versions. Thus during the long period from 400 to 1500, most New Testament Greek manuscripts used the official text of the Orthodox Church. Hence, today most Greek New Testament manuscripts are of the type designated as Byzantine, Ecclesiastical, Koine , Standard, or Eastern. When the printers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries looked for manuscripts from which to edit the earliest printed Greek New Testaments, all that they could find were those of the Byzantine type. Since then, the process of discovery and editing of manuscripts has brought to light over 5,300 handwritten copies of all or part of the New Testament. ...
Over twenty major editions of the English New Testament appeared before the Hampton Court Conference in which King James approved the project that produced the KJV. Estimates of the per cent of Tyndale's New Testament in the KJV New Testament run as high as nine-tenths of the actual wording. ” 2) The text of the Greek New Testament during the time of the KJV rested on less than a dozen manuscripts, the oldest of which was twelfth century
Bible, Editions of the - Since the Bible was written (the Old Testament in Hebrew, the New Testament in Greek) many centuries before the invention of printing, the only way to multiply copies was by hand. Among the best-known editions of the Greek New Testament are those by Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and Nestle
Scribes - ...
In the New Testament the word is used in the sense in which it is applied to Ezra, and scribes are classed with the chief priests and the elders. They did not form a separate sect in New Testament times, a person might be both scribe and Pharisee or Sadducee: cf
Abstinence - ...
New Testament Old Testament forms of abstinence continued in the New Testament period, but the forms themselves frequently were points of controversy between Jesus and the religious leaders (Mark 2:18-3:6 )
Editions of the Bible - Since the Bible was written (the Old Testament in Hebrew, the New Testament in Greek) many centuries before the invention of printing, the only way to multiply copies was by hand. Among the best-known editions of the Greek New Testament are those by Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and Nestle
Perdition - ...
New Testament Perdition is the fate of all who do not come to repentance. Perdition, as used in the New Testament, does not convey the idea of simple extinction or annihilation
Aging - ...
New Testament References to aging persons in the New Testament focus on the responsibility of children or the family of faith to care for dependent or disabled aging persons (Mark 7:1-13 ; Matthew 15:1-6 ; 1 Timothy 5:4 , 1 Timothy 5:8 ; James 1:27 ). ...
Many promises of the New Testament have special meaning for older persons (John 10:10 ; 1 Corinthians 15:55-58 )
Publican - The class designated by this word in the New Testament were employed as collectors of the Roman revenue. The name pubicani was used popularly, and in the New Testament exclusively, of the portitores . In addition to their other faults, accordingly, the publicans of the New Testament were regarded as traitors and apostates, defiled by their frequent intercourse with the heathen, willing tools of the oppressor
Humility - ...
New Testament Jesus Christ's life provides the best example of what it means to have humility (Matthew 11:29 ; 1 Corinthians 4:21 ; Philippians 2:1-11 ). Humility in the New Testament is closely connected with the quality of “meekness” (Matthew 5:5 ). Primary in the New Testament is the conviction that one who has humility will not be overly concerned about his or her prestige (Matthew 18:4 ; Matthew 23:12 ; Romans 12:16 ; 2 Corinthians 11:7 ). The New Testament affirms, as does the Old Testament, that God will exalt those who are humble and bring low those who are proud (Luke 1:52 ; James 4:10 ; 1 Peter 5:6 )
Alms - ...
New Testament The New Testament regards alms as an expression of a righteous life. The technical term for alms (Greek, eleemosune ) occurs thirteen times in the New Testament. ...
The principle of deeds of mercy performed in behalf of the needy receives emphatic significance in the New Testament, since such actions are ultimately performed in behalf of the Lord (Matthew 25:34-45 )
Hymn - ...
New Testament The Bible makes it clear that the singing of spiritual songs was a part of the early Christian church. Among the songs in the New Testament are several outstanding songs that have become a part of liturgical Christian worship: Luke 1:46-55 , Mary's song—”The Magnificat”; Luke 1:68-79 , Zacharias' prophetic song—”The Benedictus”; and Luke 2:29-32 , Simeon's blessing of the infant Jesus and farewell—”The Nunc Dimittis. Other passages in the New Testament give evidence of being quotations of hymns or fragments of hymns (Romans 8:31-39 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1 ; Ephesians 1:3-14 ; Ephesians 5:14 ; Philippians 2:5-11 ; 1 Timothy 3:16 ; 2 Timothy 2:11-13 ; Titus 3:4-7 ). As for references to the word itself, the New Testament states that Jesus and His disciples sang a hymn at the end of the Last Supper (Matthew 26:30 ; Mark 14:26 ). In another New Testament reference, Acts 16:25 , the mention of singing “praises” to God obviously means that Paul and Silas sang hymns in prison
Scriptures - Jews of New Testament times had a collection of sacred writings (now known as the Old Testament) which they referred to as the Scriptures. ) The Old and New Testaments are the books of the old and new covenants. The New Testament shows that this saviour, Jesus Christ, fulfilled the old covenant, then established a new covenant, by which people of all nations become God’s people through faith. Readers can understand the New Testament properly only if they understand the Old; and when they understand the New Testament, the Old will have more meaning. (Concerning the New Testament writers’ use of Old Testament passages see QUOTATIONS. )...
Although there were no fixed divisions in the New Testament, the books may be conveniently grouped into three categories: the narrative books (the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles), the letters (of Paul and of others), and the book of Revelation
Messias - " It was used in later Jewish writings; and the New Testament shows that it was in current use in Our Lord's time
Cummin - In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matthew 23:23 , where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they omitted the weightier matters of the law
Fable - Applied in the New Testament to the traditions and speculations, "cunningly devised fables", of the Jews on religious questions (1 Timothy 1:4 ; 4:7 ; 2 Timothy 4:4 ; Titus 1:14 ; 2 Peter 1:16 )
Greek - Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q
Zion - ...
In the New Testament (see Hebrews 12:22 ), and sometimes the heavenly city (Revelation 14:1 )
Dearth - In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts 11:28 ) in the fourth year of the reign of the emperor Claudius (A
Adjuration - We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matthew 26:63 ; Mark 5:7 ), where the high priest calls upon Christ to avow his true character
Asia - In the New Testament not the continent, nor Asia Minor, but the W
Sibylline Oracles - They abound with phrases, words, facts, and passages, taken from the LXX, and the New Testament
Roll - " In the New Testament the word "volume" ( Hebrews 10:7 ; RSV, "roll") occurs as the rendering of the Greek kephalis, meaning the head or top of the stick or cylinder on which the manuscript was rolled, and hence the manuscript itself
Golgotha - In the New Testament it appears only as a designation of the location of Christ's crucifixion
Apocalypse - John, in the isle of Patmos, near the close of the first century, forming the last book of the New Testament
Legion - (lee' giohn) In the New Testament a collection of demons (Mark 5:9 ,Mark 5:9,5:15 ; Luke 8:30 ) and the host of angels (Matthew 26:53 )
Evangelical - ) Belonging to, agreeable or consonant to, or contained in, the gospel, or the truth taught in the New Testament; as, evangelical religion
Albigenses - This error taught that there were two gods: the good god of light usually referred to as Jesus in the New Testament and the god of darkness and evil usually associated with Satan and the "God of the Old Testament
Zar'Ephath - In the New Testament Zarephath appears under the Greek form of SAREPTA
Meat - It does not appear that the word "meat" is used in any one instance in the Authorized Version of either the Old or New Testament in the sense which it now almost exclusively bears of animal food
Council - The existence of local courts, however constituted, is clearly implied in the passages quoted from the New Testament; and perhaps the "judgment," (Matthew 5:21 ) applies to them
Viper - In the New Testament the Greek word thus rendered was used for any poisonous snake
Caesar - The emperors alluded to by this title in the New Testament, are Augustus, Luke 2:1 ; Tiberius, Luke 3:1 20:22 ; Claudius, Acts 11:28 ; and Nero, Acts 25:8 Philippians 4:22
Christians, Names of - The New Testament contains over 175 names, descriptive titles, and figures of speech referring to Christians, applicable to both the individual and the group. Few of them appear as static proper names; instead, the New Testament contexts in which they occur largely determine their meaning. Comparable to the Old Testament's depiction of national Israel as Abraham's physical descendants, the New Testament depicts the church as his spiritual heirs. Jesus appears in the New Testament as the means through which God has fulfilled his promise to make Abraham "the father of many nations. ...
The New Testament posits a high degree of continuity between Old Testament Israel and the church. The New Testament spiritualizes this religious focal point with respect to believers. In the New Testament, this relation is applied to the church. The New Testament names, the called (Revelation 17:14 ), the chosen (Colossians 3:12 ; 1 Peter 2:9 ; Revelation 17:14 ), and the elect (Mark 13:20,22 , 27 ; Titus 1:1 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ), clearly indicate that believers are joined to God by his sovereign election to salvation. ...
In a more restricted sense, New Testament writers refer to believers as witnesses. The basic assumption here is the historicity of Jesus' life, ministry, and passion as reported by Luke and, more broadly, by the New Testament itself. New Testament writers use a number of different family-related concepts to describe, positionally, the believer's standing with God and Christ. ...
The New Testament reflects a strong family bond among believers. ...
New Testament names of Christians, such as believers (Acts 4:32 ; 2 Corinthians 6:15 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 ), followers of the Way (Acts 9:1-2 ), and slaves and servants of God and Christ (2 Corinthians 6:4 ; Ephesians 6:6 ), reflect a new Spirit-inspired and Spirit-guided allegiance to God and Christ. ...
The New Testament contains many names of Christians that explicitly identify believers with God and Christ. According to the New Testament, moral purity is a distinguishing feature of Christian life and conduct
Trinity - While the term trinity does not appear in Scripture, the trinitarian structure appears throughout the New Testament to affirm that God Himself is manifested through Jesus Christ by means of the Spirit. This does not mean that the Trinity was fully knowable from the Old Testament, but that a vocabulary was established through the events of God's nearness and creativity; both receive developed meaning from New Testament writers. ...
A distinguishing feature of the New Testament is the doctrine of the Trinity. It is remarkable that New Testament writers present the doctrine in such a manner that it does not violate the Old Testament concept of the oneness of God. ...
The New Testament does not present a systematic presentation of the Trinity. The scattered segments from various writers that appear throughout the New Testament reflect a seemingly accepted understanding that exists without a full-length discussion. The New Testament writers focus on statements drawn from the obvious existence of the trinitarian experience as opposed to a detailed exposition. ...
The New Testament evidence for the Trinity can be grouped into four types of passages. ...
A second type of New Testament passage is the triadic form. The New Testament is Christological in its approach, but it involves the fullness of God being made available to the individual believer through Jesus and by the Spirit. Discussion shifted from the New Testament emphasis on the function of the Trinity in redemptive history to an analysis of the unity of essence of the Godhead. The God of the Old Testament is the same God of the New Testament. His offer of salvation in the Old Testament receives a fuller revelation in the New Testament in a way that is not different, but more complete. The approach of the New Testament is not to discuss the essence of the Godhead, but the particular aspects of the revelatory event that includes the definitive presence of the Father in the person of Jesus Christ through the Holy Spirit
Polyglot - Elias Hutter, a German, about the end of the sixteenth century, published the New Testament in twelve languages, viz. It contains the Hebrew and Greek originals, with Montanus's interlineary version; the Chaldee paraphrases, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syrian and Arabic Bibles, the Persian Pentateuch and Gospels, the Ethiopian Psalms, Song of Solomon, and New Testament, with their respective Latin translations; together with the Latin Vulgate, and a large volume of various readings, to which is ordinarily joined Castel's Heptaglot Lexicon
Hour - The early Jews appear to have divided the day into four parts, ( Nehemiah 9:3 ) and the night into three watches, (Judges 7:19 ) and even in the New Testament we find a trace of this division in (Matthew 20:1-5 ) At what period the Jews first became acquainted with the division of the day into twelve hours is unknown, but it is generally supposed they learned it from the Babylonians during the captivity. These are the hours meant in the New Testament, (John 11:9 ) etc
Desire - ...
The New Testament . Matthew 9:13 (quoting Hosea 6:6 ) is the first instance of desire in the New Testament. This term is found 208 times in the New Testament. ...
The verb epithymeo [9] and its derivatives are found scattered seventy-three times throughout the New Testament. "...
Zeloute [8]0 is found multiple times in the New Testament and is used in reference to Jewish "holy zeal, " hostility occasioned by ill will, "jealousy, " and the desire to attain goals or to be devoted to someone. In the New Testament it represents desires that strive against the work of God and his Spirit. The word is found five times in the New Testament, and all five occurrences have a bad connotation. ...
Desire is treated in a similar manner in the New Testament
Scripture - "Law," "Law of Moses," occur 426 times, and "Gospel" in the New Testament only 101 times. Scripture is called in the New Testament "the word of God," "oracles of God," and "God's words. In the New Testament Paul's epistles are classed with the Old Testament as "Scripture. The Bible is divided into the Old and the New Testaments, a name based upon 2 Corinthians 3:14; testament referring there to the old covenant. Thus we read of the "book of the Covenant," Exodus 24:7; 2 Kings 23:2, a phrase which was transferred in time to the entire Hebrew Sacred Scriptures, and the New Testament or Covenant to the Christian. There are 39 separate books in the Old Testament, and 27 in the New Testament, making 66 books in the Bible. The New Testament was divided into chapters and verses by Stephens in 1551, and likewise first appeared in the Genevan English Bible in 1557-1560. The original text of the Old Testament is Hebrew (except a small portion in Chaldaic); the New Testament was written in Greek. The New Testament Greek text has received greater critical study than even the Old Testament text. The first printed New Testament text that was published was that of Erasmus in 1516. The books of the New Testament may Declassed as historical, doctrinal, and prophetical. It was in universal use among the Jews in Christ's day, and is continually quoted by the New Testament writers. German, by Luther, New Testament, in 1522, and Bible, 1534; revised version, 1892. The chief translations are: Wyckliffe's New Testament, from the Latin in 1380, and his followers also translated the Old Testament; these were written. Tyndale's, from the Greek, first English New Testament, printed 1526. The Genevan New Testament, 1557, and Genevan Bible, 1560, were made by English refugees at Geneva, during the persecution under the English queen, Mary, who was a Roman Catholic. The Rheims, New Testament, 1609, and Douai Bible, 1610, made by Roman Catholic scholars at Douai. The Anglo-American revised Bible, New Testament, 1881, Old Testament, 1885. The Old Testament was given specially at first to the Jews, and the New Testament to the disciples of Christ. There are not less than 265 direct quotations from the Old Testament in the New, and 350 further allusions in the New Testament to the Old Testament, which imply that the latter was the word of God. Again and again Christ and his apostles cited and approved of the Old Testament as the truth of God, and the New Testament expressly declares: "All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: that the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works. In the first 15 years of 18th century private publishers in America issued 131 editions of the Bible and 65 of the New Testament
Cornerstone - Architectural term used twice in the New Testament (Ephesians 2:20 ; 1 Peter 2:6 ) to speak of the exalted Jesus as the chief foundation stone of the church, the cornerstone on which all the building depends. The New Testament draws on two Old Testament passages about the coming Messiah (Isaiah 28:16 ; Zechariah 10:4 ). Kramer, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, pp
Simeon - Two New Testament men named Simeon are also significant. ...
In the New Testament...
At the time of Jesus’ birth, only a few Jews had a true understanding of the sort of Saviour that the Messiah would be. ...
The other Simeon mentioned in the New Testament was a prophet and teacher in the church at Antioch in Syria (Acts 13:1)
Scriptures - (See BIBLE; CANON; INSPIRATION; OLD TESTAMENT; New Testament. Grafee in New Testament is never used of a secular writing. 2 Timothy 3:15-16, "all Scripture (pasa grafee ; every portion of "the Holy Scripture") is God-inspired (not only the Old Testament, in which Timothy was taught when a child, compare Romans 16:26, but the New Testament according as its books were written by inspired men, and recognized by men having "discerning of spirits", 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 14:37), and (therefore) profitable," etc
Son of Man - ...
...
In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a distinctive title of the Saviour
Gnashing of Teeth - In the New Testament, gnashing of teeth is associated with the place of future punishment (for example, Matthew 8:12 ; Matthew 13:42 ,Matthew 13:42,13:50 )
Oracle - In the New Testament it is used only in the plural, and always denotes the Word of God ( Romans 3:2 ; Hebrews 5:12 , etc
Discerning of Spirits - " It is this which assures us of the inspiration of the New Testament The books were accepted as inspired, by churches having men possessing" the discerning of spirits" (1 John 4:1; 1 Timothy 4:1)
Viper - In the New Testament Echidne Is used ( Matthew 3:7 ; 12:34 ; 23:33 ) for any poisonous snake
Daemon - The Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of the New Testament
Elements, Elemental Spirits - The meaning of the term in other New Testament contexts is disputed
Targum - Therefore, the material is of interest to New Testament scholars who attempt to understand the Judaism of which Jesus was a part
District - In the New Testament district often refers to the area around a city (Matthew 15:21 ; Matthew 16:13 ; Mark 8:10 )
Belial - ...
In the New Testament the word occurs one time (2 Corinthians 6:15 )
Strong Drink - The New Testament says that the drunkard will have no place in the kingdom of God (1 Corinthians 6:9-10 )
Wine - In New Testament times, wine was kept in skin flasks and often diluted with water
Ashes - The use of ashes to express grief and repentance continued into the New Testament period
Scrip - In New Testament, the leather "wallet" (fra ) slung on the shoulder for carrying food for a journey; distinct from the "purse" (zone , literally, "girdle"; balantion , "small bag for money"): Matthew 10:9-10; Luke 10:4; Luke 12:33
Archangel - In the Bible, a Greek word found only in the New Testament in two places: 1 Thessalonians 4:16, "For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first"; and Jude 1:1:9, "But Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, 'The Lord rebuke you
Eucharist - The Catholic Church teaches that ...
"in the Eucharist, the Body and Blood of the God-man are really, truly, substantially, and abidingly present together with His Soul and Divinity for the nourishment of souls, by reason of the Transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, which takes place in the unbloody sacrifice of the New Testament, i,e
Apostle - This is a word well known in the New Testament, It is peculiarly applied to the twelve men, whom the Lord Jesus called and commissioned to be his more immediate disciples and followers, to preach the gospel
Sarah - She is referred to in the New Testament as a type of conjugal obedience in 1 Peter 3:6, and as one of the types of faith in Hebrews 11:11
Pamphylia - The New Testament records no other significant events for the early church in Pamphylia, perhaps because of the concentration of non-Hellenized peoples in the region
Purse, - (25:13; Micah 6:11 ) This bag is described in the New Testament by the terms balantion (bag) ( Luke 10:4 ; 12:33 ; 22:35,38 ) and glossokomon (originally the bag in which musicians carried the mouth-pieces of their Instruments)
James, the General Epistle of - James is the moral teacher of the New Testament
Brother - (Leviticus 19:17 ) ...
Metaphorically of any similarity, as in (Job 30:19 ) The word adelphos has a similar range of meanings in the New Testament
Gehenna - In the original Greek of the New Testament Scripturesthere are two words unfortunately translated by our one Englishword "Hell
Lycaonia - It is the Galatian part of Lycaonia that is referred to in the New Testament account of Paul’s first missionary journey
Caesar - By New Testament times the common practice was to refer to the Emperor simply as Caesar (Mark 12:14; Luke 20:22; John 19:15; Acts 17:7; Acts 25:11; Acts 25:25)
Bethany - There are two places called Bethany in the New Testament
Disciples - The conceptual background of the New Testament term apostolos has been variously represented. —constitutes the proper background for understanding the New Testament term “apostle. Moreover, even if it were in use by that time, the differences between the rabbinic of shaliach and that of the New Testament term apostolos are significant enough to urge caution in relating the two terms too closely. The New Testament apostle, on the other hand, emerges as a divinely appointed, lifetime witness to the saving acts of God, specifically, the death and resurrection of Jesus. ...
The Old Testament notion of a shaliach also differs from the rabbinic conceptions of that term and appears to be of more significance for understanding the New Testament term “apostle. ” The “sending” and commissioning of the great prophetic figures Moses and Isaiah ( Exodus 3:10 ; Isaiah 6:8 where the Hebrew verb for sending, shalach , is translated by apostello in the Septuagint , the Greek Old Testament, as divine spokesmen surely influenced the New Testament word, “apostle. As a reference to a divine spokesman, Old Testament ideas of a “sent one” are certainly in line with the New Testament term “apostle. ...
Apostle in the New Testament The term “apostle” in the New Testament is used primarily to designate that group of leaders within the early church(es) who were historical witnesses of the resurrected Lord and proclaimers of God's saving mercies enacted through the death and resurrection of Jesus. ...
The term “apostle” did not, however, have limitless application in the New Testament period. It was never so broad in New Testament use as to be an ancient equivalent to the modern term “missionary. ” Therefore, because it referred to a specific set of historical witnesses, the New Testament office of apostle, by definition, died with its first representatives. The New Testament certainly speaks of a succession of witnesses to the apostolic tradition ( 1 Timothy 6:20 ; 2 Timothy 1:14 ), so that the gospel they preached—the apostolic theology —has been handed on (the New Testament itself being the inspired, literary remains of that theology). No true personal or ecclesiastical succession of apostles continues in any New Testament sense of that term. ...
Jesus' Disciples In the New Testament 233 of the 261 instances of the word “disciple” occur in the Gospels, the other 28 being in Acts. The four lists of the twelve in the New Testament (Matthew 10:1-4 ; Mark 3:16-19 ; Luke 6:12-16 ; Acts 1:13 ,Acts 1:13,1:26 ) also imply from their contexts the synonymous use of the terms “disciples”/”apostles” when used to refer to the twelve
Matthew, Saint - The Matthew mentioned in the New Testament (Matthew 9), as called by Christ, is identical with Levi (Mark 2; Luke 5); hence it is concluded that he was known originally as Levi and that the name Matthew was given to him by Christ when he began his apostolate. His name occurs several times in the New Testament (Luke 6; Mark 3; Acts 1); he witnessed the Resurrection; was present at the Ascension, and in the upper chamber in Jerusalem with Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and his brethren (Acts 1)
Sons of God - ...
In the New Testament, “sons of God” always refers to human beings who do God's will (Matthew 5:9 ; Romans 8:14 ,Romans 8:14,8:19 ). The usual designation of the heavenly beings in the New Testament is “angels
Betrothal - ...
New Testament Mary and Joseph were betrothed but did not live together until their wedding
Pit - ...
The New Testament . In the New Testament "pit" is used literally of a place into which an animal (Matthew 12:11 ; Luke 14:5 ) or the blind (Matthew 15:14 ; Luke 6:39 ) might fall (the latter is also a figure for the spiritually blind Pharisees)
Abba - ...
New Testament The idea of God's intimate relationship to humanity is a distinct feature of Jesus' teaching. Even when “Father” in the New Testament translates the more formal Greek word pater, the idea of abba is certainly in the background
Heresy - Josephus, a Jewish historian of the first century from whom we learn much of what we know about the Judaism of New Testament times, used the word to refer to the various Jewish parties (or schools of thought) such as the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes. ...
The word has several usages in the New Testament, but never has the technical sense of “heresy” as we understand it today. ...
It is clear that in the New Testament, the concept of heresy had more to do with fellowship within the church than with doctrinal teachings. While the writers of the New Testament were certainly concerned about false teachings, they apparently were just as disturbed by improper attitudes
Darkness - The time of God's ultimate judgment, the day of the Lord, is portrayed in both the Old Testament and New Testament as a day of darkness (Joel 2:2 ; Amos 5:18,20 ; Zephaniah 1:15 ; Matthew 24:29 ; Revelation 6:12-17 ). The Old Testament and New Testament describe the future of the ungodly in terms of eschatological darkness, symbolizing perdition (1 Samuel 2:9 ; Matthew 22:13 ; Jude 12-13 ). Guthrie, New Testament Theology: H. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; G
Excommunication - ...
New Testament Expulsion from the synagogue was one form of New Testament excommunication. New Testament terms for excommunication include: being delivered to Satan (1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 1 Timothy 1:20 ); anathema or cursed and cut off from God (Romans 9:3 ; 1 Corinthians 16:22 ; Galatians 1:8 ). The New Testament churches apparently used excommunication as a means of redemptive discipline
Sheol - ...
The New Testament . ...
The fact that theology develops within the Old Testament and between the Old Testament and the New Testament does not mean that the Bible is contradictory or contains errors. That some Old Testament saints believed in Sheol, while the New Testament teaches clearly about heaven and hell, is nor more of a problem than that the Old Testament contains a system of atonement by animal sacrifice now made obsolete in Christ (Hebrews 10:4-10 ) or that the Old Testament teaches God is one (Deuteronomy 6:4 ) while the New Testament reveals a Trinity
Servant, Service - The suffering, death, and new life of the Servant become exemplified in the New Testament in Christ (Isaiah 52:13— ;Acts 52:13—3:13 ; Isaiah 61:1 Acts 61:14:27 ; Isaiah 53:7-8 Acts 53:7-88:32-33 ; Isaiah 53:4-5,7 , 91 Peter 2:22-24 ). ...
In the New Testament, doulos [1] is frequently used to designate a master's slave (one bound to him), but also a follower of Christ (a "bondslave" of Christ). ...
Another common New Testament term, diakonos [ Matthew 20:28 ; Mark 10:45 ). In the New Testament, the idea of "serving at table" is expanded to encompass "the service of the saints" (1 Corinthians 16:15 )
Adam And Eve - ...
New Testament In the New Testament, Adam is used as a proper name, clearly referring to our ancestral parents. However, the most important New Testament usage treats Jesus as a second Adam (1 Corinthians 15:45 ), where the word is used as a symbol. ...
Eve is referenced two times in the New Testament
Greece - This is not true of the New Testament, however, especially as regards Paul's ministry. The Thessalonians also would be the recipients of Pauline letters, two of which are in the New Testament (1,2Thessalonians). Two survived to become a part of the New Testament. ...
The Greek influence on the New Testament and Christianity is immeasurable. Koine, the Greek of the streets, is the language of the New Testament. At least five New Testament books are written to churches in Greek cities (Philippians, 1,2Thessalonians, 1,2Corinthians). All the other books in the New Testament are written in the Greek language
Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - ...
Old Testament Teaching A fully defined doctrine of Satan is not fund in the Bible until New Testament times. ...
New Testament Teaching By the time the New Testament book were written, God had led their authors to a clear-cut doctrine of Satan. The New Testament avoids identifying evil with the direct will of God and keeps it always and finally subordinate to God. ...
The general New Testament Epistles describe Satan's activities graphically. ...
It should be remembered that the New Testament teaches that Satan and his demonic allies are not coequal with God. The New Testament never allows complete pessimism
Demiurge - Valentinus regarded him as the offspring of a union of matter with lower wisdom, a distant emanation from the Supreme God; other Gnostics identified him with Jehovah, God of the Jews and the Old Testament from whose power, Christ of the New Testament, Son of the Good God, rescued us
Contentment - The New Testament expresses this with the Greek word arkew and its derivatives
John of Montecorvino - At the same time he familiarized himself with the Chinese language and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into that tongue
Montecorvino, John of - At the same time he familiarized himself with the Chinese language and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into that tongue
Captain - In the New Testament "captain", occurs but once: "for out of thee shall come forth the captain [1] that shall rule my people Israel" (Matthew 2)
Corban - A Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and left untranslated
Cherub/Cherubim - The word(s) occurs over 90 times in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament at Hebrews 9:5, "And above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat; but of these things we cannot now speak in detail
Census - A census or enrollment of the people is mentioned several times in the Old Testament and notably in the New Testament (Luke 2), the enrollment of "the whole world" which occasioned the journey of Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem wherc Christ was born
Bible of the Poor - Bible of the Poor Books popular especially in the 15th century, consisting of about 40 pages of pictures illustrating the New Testament, with appropriate prophetic scenes from the Old on either side of each page and explanatory texts in the corners
Biblia Pauperum - Bible of the Poor Books popular especially in the 15th century, consisting of about 40 pages of pictures illustrating the New Testament, with appropriate prophetic scenes from the Old on either side of each page and explanatory texts in the corners
Heresy - Elsewhere, however, in the New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it
Fear of the Lord the - A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testament as a preventive of carelessness in religion, and as an incentive to penitence (Matthew 10:28 ; 2 Corinthians 5:11 ; 7:1 ; Philippians 2:12 ; Ephesians 5:21 ; Hebrews 12:28,29 )
Earthquake - The most memorable earthquake taking place in New Testament times happened at the crucifixion of our Lord (Matthew 27:54 )
Belial - ) In the New Testament, "Beliar" is the form in some oldest manuscripts (2 Corinthians 6:15
Neapolis - Equates to Shechem in Old Testament, Sychar in New Testament Now Nablus, corrupted from Neapolis
Flask - The Greek term appears only here in the New Testament
Agony - It is only used in the New Testament by (Luke 22:44 ) to describe our Lord's fearful struggle in Gethsemane
Beam - In the New Testament the word occurs only in Matthew 7:3,4,5 , and Luke 6:41,42 , where it means (Gr
Beg - In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of beggars (Mark 10:46 ; Luke 16:20,21 ; Acts 3:2 ), yet there is no mention of such a class as vagrant beggars, so numerous in the East
Pisidia - The New Testament does not record any missionary activity in Pisidia itself, probably because there were few Jews there with which to start a congregation
Province - During New Testament times there were three types of provinces
Publican - In New Testament times these taxes were paid to the Romans, and hence were regarded by the Jews as a very heavy burden, and hence also the collectors of taxes, who were frequently Jews, were hated, and were usually spoken of in very opprobrious terms
Villages - So in the New Testament, Mark 8:27, "villages of Caesarea Philippi
Nabateans - Although not mentioned in the Bible, they greatly influenced Palestine during intertestamental and New Testament times
Worm - Both the Old Testament and the New Testament speak of the place of the ungodly and unbeliever as being that where the worm is always alive and working (Isaiah 66:24 : Mark 9:44 ,Mark 9:44,9:48 )
Centurion - These passages illustrate the generally favorable impression made by the centurions who appear in the New Testament
Phylactery - Phylacteries are often mentioned in the New Testament, and appear to have been very common among the Pharisees in our Lord's time
Gabriel - Thus, Gabriel explains to Daniel the appalling prophecy concerning the ram and he-goat, and cheers him with the prophecy of Messiah's advent within the "70 weeks," in answer to his prayer; and in New Testament announces to Zacharias the glad tidings of the birth of John the forerunner, and of Messiah Himself to the Virgin (Luke 1:19; Luke 1:26)
Achaia - In New Testament, a Roman province, including the whole Peloponnese, and most of Hellas proper, with the islands
Anti-Sabbatarians - That there is not a word of Sabbath-breaking in all the New Testament
Caesarea - The chief Roman city of Palestine in New Testament times
Trachonitis - One of the five Roman provinces into which the district northeast of the Jordan was divided in New Testament times
Cockcrowing - This word occurs in the New Testament to designate the third watch in the night, about equidistant from midnight and dawn
Perea - Although not referred to by name in the New Testament, it is mentioned as “Judea beyond the Jordan” in several texts (Matthew 19:1 ; Mark 10:1 RSV)
Colony - Only Philippi is described as a colony of Rome (Acts 16:12 ), though many cities mentioned in the New Testament were considered as such
Elect - The New Testament (excepting perhaps Acts 13) transfers the meaning of the term from its connection with the Israelites to the members of Christ's Church, either militant on earth or triumphant in heaven
Scripture - Appropriately, and by way of distinction, the books of the Old and New Testament the Bible
Revelation - The revelations of God are contained in the Old and New Testament
Pon'Tus, - It is three times mentioned in the New Testament -- (Acts 2:9 ; 18:2 ; 1 Peter 1:1 ) All these passages agree in showing that there were many Jewish residents in the district
Golgotha - (The name Calvary is not in the original New Testament, but has been taken from the Vulgate, a fourth century Latin translation
Apocrypha - This is the name given to certain books generally boundwith the Old and New Testament Scriptures which the Sixth Articleof Religion describes as "The other books (as Hierome saith) theChurch doth read for example of life and instruction of manners;but yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine
Proselyte - , a comer to Palestine; a sojourner in the land (Exodus 12:48 ; 20:10 ; 22:21 ), and in the New Testament for a convert to Judaism. Accordingly, in New Testament times, we read of proselytes in the synagogues, (Acts 10:2,7 ; 13:42,43,50 ; 17:4 ; 18:7 ; Luke 7:5 ). ...
The name "proselyte" occurs in the New Testament only in Matthew 23:15 ; Acts 2:10 ; 6:5 ; 13:43
Aramaic - Related New Testament Passages—Mark 5:41 ; Mark 14:36 ; Mark 15:34 . ...
New Testament The wide diffusion of Aramaic, along with its flexibility and adaptability, resulted in the emergence of various dialects. Jewish Palestinian Aramaic words and phrases occur in the New Testament, such as Abba (father) ( Mark 14:36 ), talitha, qumi (maiden, arise) ( Mark 5:41 ), lama sabachthani (why hast thou forsaken me?) ( Mark 15:34 )
Hades - The New Testament use of Hades (hades [1]) builds on its Hebrew parallel, Sheol (se'ol), which was the preferred translation in the Septuagint. ...
The New Testament . In the New Testament Christ's revelation and salvific work decisively shape this term. In the New Testament a descent to Hades may simply refer to someone's death and disembodied existence. ...
The New Testament does not explore Jesus' precise residence or activity while in Hades, unlike the later church traditions of the "harrowing of hell" or a "Hades Gospel. ...
This differentiation between the wicked and the righteous dead continues throughout the New Testament. The New Testament does significantly modify the Old Testament concept of Hades as a shadowy abode of all the dead. Like the Old Testament, the New Testament personifies Hades and associated terms, such as death, abyss, and Abaddon, as the demonic forces behind sin and ruin (Acts 2:24 ; Romans 5:14,17 ; 1 Corinthians 15:25-26 ; Revelation 6:8 ; 9:1-11 ; 20:14 ). ")...
In summary, the New Testament affirms that Christ has conquered Hades
Ignorance - ...
The New Testament speaks of past ignorance which God excuses. The New Testament speaks of deliberate ignorance as well as “excusable” ignorance
Poor - In the New Testament (Luke 3:11 ; 14:13 ; Acts 6:1 ; Galatians 2:10 ; James 2:15,16 ) we have similar injunctions given with reference to the poor. Begging was not common under the Old Testament, while it was so in the New Testament times (Luke 16:20,21 , etc
Cappadocia - (cap puh doh' cih uh) A Roman province in Asia Minor mentioned twice in the New Testament: Acts 2:9 ; 1 Peter 1:1 . While in New Testament times its mines were still producing some minerals, a large number of tablets written in cuneiform script discovered in 1907 at Tanish, now known as Kultepe, revealed that Assyrians were mining and exporting silver ore from Cappadocia about 1900 B
Alexandria - This is known as the Septuagint (referred to in writing as LXX) and was widely used in New Testament times along with the Hebrew Old Testament (see SEPTUAGINT). In the New Testament there is a record of one of them, Apollos, whose knowledge of Old Testament references to the Messiah was extraordinary
Canon of the New Testament - the New Testament Scriptures were put forth as they were successively written. By God's gracious providence most of the books of the New Testament were in the church's possession years before the death of leading apostles, all of them before the death of John. ...
The history of the New Testament canon in its collected form is not so clear as the evidence for the inspiration of its separate books. This view is confirmed by the doubts of some, churches at first concerning certain New Testament books, proving that each church claimed the right to judge for itself; while their mutual love led to the freest communication of the inspired writings to one another. 397) declared that agreement by ratifying the canon of the New Testament as it is now universally accepted. " The earliest uninspired notice is that of the anonymous fragment of "the canon of the New Testament" attributed to Caius, a Roman presbyter, published by Muratori (Ant. , 2:27) term the New Testament writings "the Holy Scriptures. Marc, 4:2) uses for the first time the term" New Testament," and calls the whole Bible "the whole instrument of both Testaments. The quotations by the fathers (of whom Origen quotes at least two thirds of New Testament), and the oldest versions, the Syriac, Latin, and Egyptian, prove that their Scriptures were the same as ours. 330) mentions (3:25) all the 27 books of the New Testament, dividing them into the universally acknowledged and the debated; the latter the epistles of James, Jude, 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John, and Apocalypse, "received by the majority," and at last received by all the churches when the evidence had been more fully tested. ...
Nothing but almighty Providence could have constrained both the Jews (in the case of the Old Testament) and the Roman and Greek apostate churches (in the case of the New Testament) to witness for the very Scriptures which condemn them. All four make some express references to New Testament Scripture. The New Testament is a complete organic whole, so that even one book could not be omitted without loss to the completeness of the Christian cycle of truth. As the Old Testament is made up of the law, and the doctrinal, historical, and prophetical books; so in the New Testament the four Gospels are the fundamental law, based, as in the Pentateuch, on the included history; the Acts unfold the continued history; the Epistles are the doctrinal, the Apocalyptic revelations the prophetical, elements
Family - The basic composition of a family changes from the Old Testament to the New Testament. Jesus Christ, along with the New Testament writers, used family images to describe the nature of faith and the church. However, the father was also to be loving, and the divine mercy of the New Testament was based on the compassionate Old Testament father (Psalm 103:1 ). ...
New Testament The New Testament introduced major changes in understanding the family, and it provided new and creative ways to appreciate the nature of family and the nature of faith. ...
The New Testament household or family, especially the Christian family, probably had one husband and one wife, children, relatives, slaves, servants, and others who lived there for various reasons. The household codes of the New Testament outlined duties for the members including husband/wife, father/child, and master/slave (Ephesians 5:21-6:4 ; Colossians 3:18-4:1 ). ...
The importance of lineage in the New Testament shifted from a focus on the lineage from an ancestor to lineage from God. ...
The primary relational dynamic Jesus and the New Testament taught was love (agape ). This New Testament love expanded the Old Testament understanding of steadfast love (hesed ) by developing an unconditional, accepting love known initially in the love of God (John 3:16 ; 1 Corinthians 13:1 ). ...
Marriage in the New Testament was founded on a love bond experienced by both male and female in contrast to the arranged marriage of the Old Testament. ...
The marriage relationship was important in the New Testament. The New Testament marriage union was based on an equal and mutual sharing guided by love (1 Corinthians 7:4 ). ...
Function The function of the family in the New Testament was secondary to the primary purpose of the family of God
Mercy - " In both the Greek translation of the Old Testament (the LXX) and the New Testament, the term behind "mercy" is most often eleos [2] in one form or another, but oiktirmos/oiktiro [3] (compassion, pity, to show mercy) and splanchna/splagchnizomai [4] (to show mercy, to feel sympathy for) also play roles. ...
Mercy in the New Testament . The pattern of God's dealings with people in the Old Testament, at the core of which is mercy, also provides the shape for understanding his dealings in the New Testament. Of course, the New Testament expounds the theme of God's mercy in the light of Christ, the supreme expression of love, mercy, and grace. Paul links this same divine commitment of mercy to undeserving people in the Old Testament with God's stubborn pursuit of Israel in and through Christ in the New Testament era and its extension to the Gentiles (Romans 9:15-16,23 ; 11:31-32 ; 15:9 ). ...
Similarly, the New Testament writers echo the Old Testament belief that mercy belongs to God (2 Corinthians 1:3 ; James 5:11 ) and that this resource of mercy is inexhaustible (Ephesians 2:4 ). Ultimately the mercy of God that Jesus demonstrated in individual salvific Acts becomes for the New Testament writers the illustration of the release from sin and death that God offers to the whole world through the sacrificial death and resurrection of Christ. The counterpart to the theme of the establishment of God's covenant with Israel in the Old Testament is the New Testament theme of God's gracious provision of salvation through the work of Christ. The one grounds and shapes the other, which receives clarity and development through the concept of salvation in the New Testament. ...
This theme is echoed elsewhere in the New Testament. Throughout the New Testament it is clear that God's mercy is displayed to the world in Christ. ...
In this awareness of God's past, present, and future (Jude 21 ) mercy toward us, an element of our response to God takes on a new force in the New Testament. Derrett, Law in the New Testament ; H. Kä emann, New Testament Questions of Today ; N
Blessing And Cursing - ...
In the New Testament, the word “bless” often translates makarios , meaning “blessed, fortunate, happy. ” The special characteristic of New Testament uses of “bless” and related words is close relationship to the religious joy people experience from being certain of salvation and thus of membership in the kingdom of God. “Bless” occurs in the New Testament only ten times, in contrast to 122Old Testament occurrences. The New Testament never uses “blesses” and uses “blessing” only 17 times. It is reasonable to conclude that the primary use of the blessing concept in the New Testament is that of “blessed” as opposed to the verbal emphasis on “bless. ”...
“Blessed” appears frequently in the New Testament (88). The New Testament uses “curse” only 8 times, “cursed” in 9 places, “curses” in a single verse, and “cursing” in one reference. Of the 199 biblical uses of the words, 180 are in the Old Testament and only 19 in the New Testament
Freedom - By the time of the New Testament, it was widely recognized that no persons are free to such an extent that they have control of their physical circumstances. ...
New Testament Teaching In contrast to the Stoics, the New Testament recognizes that no one has such absolute control. ...
Slaves during the New Testament era had much freedom of choice in daily affairs, and their decisions were not just trivial. Just as Roman slaves usually had much control over their daily affairs, every time the New Testament commands us to do something, it implicitly affirms that we have control over our daily decisions. In fact, before the New Testament era was over, a large percentage of the free population of the Roman Empire had either been slaves at one time or had parents who were slaves. The New Testament depicts all persons as being in slavery—the slavery of sin (John 8:34 ; Romans 3:9-12 ; 2 Peter 2:19 ). ...
The New Testament also affirms that we are not our own rulers
Chapters - The New Testament was early portioned out into certain divisions, which appear under various names. The law and the prophets were for this end already divided into parashim and haptaroth, and the New Testament could not long remain without being treated in the same way. Pericopes therefore were nothing else but αναγνωσματα , church lessons, or sections of the New Testament, which were read in the assemblies after Moses and the Prophets. Paul, not even these are his property; but they are derived "from one of the wisest of the fathers, and worshippers of Christ," as he himself says, and he only incorporated them into his stichometrical edition of the New Testament. Since then the whole New Testament was distributed into so few sections, these must necessarily have been great, and a pericope in Euthalius sometimes includes in it four, five, and even six chapters. The verses, however, are from Robert Stephens, who first introduced them in his edition of the New Testament, A. His son, Henry Stephens, was the first to record this for the reformation of posterity, in the preface to his Greek Concordance to the New Testament; in which he says, that two facts connected with it equally demand our admiration: "The first is that my father, while travelling from Paris to Lyons, finished this division of each chapter into verses, and indeed the greater part of it [2] when riding on his horse. But behold the result: in opposition to the opinion which condemned and discountenanced my father's undertaking, as soon as his invention was published, every edition of the New Testament, whether in the Greek, Latin, French, German, or in any other language, which did not adopt it, was immediately discarded
Apocrypha - " "The Apocrypha" refers to two collections of ancient Jewish and Christian writings that have certain affinities with the various books of the Old Testament and New Testament but were not canonized by Christians as a whole: the Old Testament Apocrypha, which are still viewed as canonical by some Christians, and the New Testament Apocrypha, which are not. The book contains numerous parallels to the ethical sections of the New Testament, especially the Book of James. It testifies to a developing demonology and angelology within Judaism, and emphasizes the importance of charitable deeds, containing some striking parallels to the ethical teaching in the New Testament, including a negative form of the Golden Rule (cf. ...
The New Testament Apocrypha is an amorphous collection of writings that are for the most part either about, or pseudonymously attributed to, New Testament figures. These books are generally modeled after the literary forms found in the New Testament: there are apocryphal gospels, acts, letters, and revelations. Unlike the Old Testament Apocrypha, the New Testament Apocrypha have never been viewed as canonical by any of the major branches of Christianity, nor is there any reason to believe that the traditions they record have any historical validity. Others fill in gaps in the New Testament Gospels, usually with a heightened sense of the miraculous. The latter present, in contrast to the relatively reserved statements in the New Testament, vivid descriptions of hell, where sinners are punished in accordance with their sins: blasphemers, for example, hang by their tongues over a blazing fire. The New Testament Apocrypha, though less influential, has contributed to the traditions about Jesus and the travels and fate of the apostles, not to mention the development of the Christian concept of hell, most notably through the Inferno of Dante. , The Apocryphal New Testament ; E. , New Testament Apocrypha ; B
Ascension of Jesus Christ - The New Testament authors theologically distinguish the event by connecting it to the atoning work of Jesus on the cross, the high priestly ministry of the exalted Christ, the regaining of Christ's glory with the Father, the sending of the Holy Spirit, the present power of Christ as ruler over all authorities and dominions in heaven and earth, and the fact that Jesus ascends for the benefit of his people. While the Old Testament contains stories of ascension that take place in dreams or visions ( Genesis 28:12 ), straightforward narratives like that of the angel of the Lord ascending in the flame of the altar while Manoah and his wife look on (Judges 13:20 ), and particularly of Elijah ascending to heaven in a whirlwind (2 Kings 2:11-12 ), although not related directly in the New Testament to the ascension of Jesus, are rightly seen as fundamental to the New Testament understanding that Jesus physically came down from heaven and returned there. ...
The New Testament There is very little reference to the ascension in the New Testament, although reference abounds to the exaltation of Christ. Ephesians 4:10,1 Timothy 3:16 contradict this opinion, and it can be safely said that, given the clear references to Christ's ascension in other New Testament documents and the plain and relatively uniform witness of the New Testament to a bodily resurrection of Christ, that Paul and indeed all the New Testament authors would agree with Luke that after forty days of appearances to his disciples, Jesus experienced a literal, physical ascension into heaven, albeit in his "spiritual body" as the firstfruits of the final resurrection that is envisioned for us all at the end of time (cf. ...
Clear references to the ascension are found scattered throughout the New Testament so that it cannot be claimed that only Luke believed it happened. Whatever theological conclusions are made by the New Testament authors about the ascension, they are made in the context of a belief in a historical event. ...
Other New Testament authors explore this connection. ...
Ascension and Power Clearly the greatest theological emphasis of the New Testament regarding the ascension is that Christ now regains the glory he had with the Father before the world began, is now able to send his powerful Spirit into the world, and reigns from heaven over every authority and power in heaven and earth. ...
Ascension and Love A little noticed aspect of the New Testament's theology of the ascension is the emphasis placed on Jesus' ascending for his people
Righteousness - ...
New Testament Greek philosophy understood righteousness to be one of the cardinal virtues, but New Testament authors show that they understood the word in terms of Old Testament thinking about covenantal relations. Human righteousness in the New Testament is absolute faith in and commitment to God (Matthew 3:15 ; Romans 4:5 ; 1 Peter 2:24 ). The human-to-human dimension of righteousness observed in the Old Testament is present in New Testament thought (Philippians 1:3-11 ), but it seems less prominent, perhaps because of the importance of the New Testament concept of love. ...
At the heart of New Testament thinking about righteousness is the notion of God's righteousness (Matthew 6:33 ; Acts 17:31 ; Romans 1:17 ; Ephesians 4:24 ; James 1:20 ). In the New Testament, especially in Paul's letters, “the righteousness of God” is the key to understanding the salvation of humanity
Dragon - In the New Testament the word "dragon" is found only in Revelation 12:3,4,7,9,16,17 , etc
Jesus - The New Testament; Saint Bernard, sermon 15 on the Canticle of Canticles (Office of the Feast)
Achaia - It is in this latter enlarged meaning that the name is always used in the New Testament (Acts 18:12,27 ; 19:21 ; Romans 15:26 ; 16:5 , etc
Magic - Also in the New Testament we find it mentioned
Market - ; in the New Testament oftener, Matthew 23:7; Mark 12:38; Luke 11:43; Luke 20:46; Acts 16:19, etc
Chamber - The New Testament speaks of inner rooms of a house (Matthew 6:6 ; Matthew 24:26 ; Luke 12:3 ) or of a storeroom (Luke 12:24 )
Scribe - A professional group of such scribes developed by New Testament times, most being Pharisees (Mark 2:16 )
Assassins - Perhaps this group should be associated with the Zealots of the New Testament (see Zealots)
Accho - Ptolemais in the New Testament, Jean d'Acre (named from the knights of John of Jerusalem); called "the key of Palestine
Apostolical Constitutions - There are so many things in them different from and even contrary to the genius and design of the New Testament writers, that no wise man would believe, without the most convincing and irresistible proof, that both could come from the same hand
Hosea (2) - " His prophecies are frequently referred to in the New Testament
Fruit - The Lord in the Old Testament Scripture gave exceeding great and precious promises of blessings, which were to be expected in the fruits and effects under the New Testament dispensation; and in the gospel the Lord Jesus confirmed the whole, when promising to send the Holy Ghost, and testified of his manifold gifts which should follow
Call - In both the Old and New Testament, to call upon the name of the Lord, imports invoking the true God in prayer, with a confession that he is Jehovah, that is, with an acknowledgment of his essential and incommunicable attributes
Amethyst - אחלמה , Exodus 28:19 ; and Exodus 29:12 ; and once in the New Testament, Revelation 21:20 , αμεθυστος
Rabbi - In the New Testament rabbi is the honorable title by which disciples addressed their Master
Paradise - All three New Testament occurrences (Luke 23:43 ; 2 Corinthians 12:4 ; Revelation 2:7 ) refer to the abode of the righteous dead (heaven)
Christian Festivals - The early New Testament church separated itself from Judaism
Colt - ” The New Testament uses the reference in Zechariah 9:9 as a prediction of Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem ( Matthew 21:1 ; Mark 11:1 ; Luke 19:1 ; John 12:15 )
Cilicia - In New Testament times, the Roman administration governed the province of Cilicia from the neighbouring province of Syria
Gaza - ) The sole New Testament reference to the town is in the story of Philip’s meeting with an African official whom he led to faith in Christ (Acts 8:26-38)
Hell - ...
...
...
The Greek word hades of the New Testament has the same scope of signification as sheol of the Old Testament. ...
...
...
Gehenna, in most of its occurrences in the Greek New Testament, designates the place of the lost (Matthew 23:33 )
Daemons - That daemon often bears the same meaning in the New Testament, and particularly in Acts 17:18 . ) That the word is applied always to human spirits in the New Testament, Mr
Son of God - In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the relation into which we are brought to God by adoption ( Romans 8:14,19 ; 2 co 6:18 ; Galatians 4:5,6 ; Philippians 2:15 ; 1 John 3:1,2 ). It occurs thirty-seven times in the New Testament as the distinctive title of our Saviour
Philemon - (fi leh' muhn) Personal name meaning, “affectionate” and eighteenth book of the New Testament. ...
Paul's only epistle of a private and personal nature that is included in the New Testament was written to Philemon in A
Gehenna - (geh hehn' na) English transliteration of the Greek word that is a transliteration of the Hebrew place name meaning, “valley of whining” or “valley of lamentation” and came to be used in New Testament times as a word for hell. In the period between the Old and New Testaments Jewish writing used the term to describe the hell of fire in the final judgment. ...
The New Testament uses Gehenna to speak of the place of final judgment
Doxology - The term “doxology” (“word of glory”) itself is not found in the Bible, but both the Old and New Testaments contain many doxological passages using this formula. Doxologies also occur at or near the end of several New Testament books ( Romans 16:27 ; Philippians 4:20 ; 1 Timothy 6:16 ; 2 Timothy 4:18 ; Hebrews 13:21 ; 1 Peter 5:11 ; 2 Peter 3:18 ; Jude 1:25 ) and figure prominently in the Revelation (Revelation 1:6 ; Revelation 4:8 ; Revelation 5:13 ; Revelation 7:12 ). ...
Doxologies continued to be written and sung in the Christian church after the close of the New Testament period
Proselytes - The New Testament attests to the zeal of the first century Pharisees in proselytizing Gentiles (Matthew 23:15 ). These terms appear in the New Testament where Cornelius (Acts 10:1-2 ), and Lydia (Acts 16:14 ) are so described (see also John 12:20 ; Acts 17:4 ; Acts 18:4 )
the Last Supper - The first three Gospels picture Christ's death in the symbols of the broken bread (“This is my body which is given for you” Luke 22:19 ) and the outpoured wine (“This is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins” Matthew 26:28 ). The tension in the timing of Christ's death should not detract from the united New Testament witness that “Christ our passover is sacrificed for us” (1 Corinthians 5:7 )
Armor - ...
In the New Testament, the imagery of armor is invoked less frequently. Whereas Old Testament symbolism emphasizes the personification of God as shield, the New Testament reveals various aspects of God's redemptive provision as the means by which the believer may lay hold of God's protection
Elder - ...
They retained their position under the judges (Judges 2:7), the kings (2 Samuel 17:4), in the captivity (Jeremiah 29:1), and on the return (Ezra 5:5); and in New Testament times as one of the classes from which the Sanhedrin members were chosen, and are associated with the chief priests and scribes (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 21:23; Matthew 26:59; Luke 22:66), "the presbytery of the people" (Greek). The four and twenty elders (Revelation 4) represent the combined heads of the Old and New Testament congregations, the twelve patriarchs and twelve apostles; answering to the typical 24 courses of priests, "governors of the sanctuary and governors of God" (1 Chronicles 24:5; 1 Chronicles 25:31)
Christian - In the New Testament it only occurs in 1 Peter 4:16; Acts 11:26; Acts 26:27-28. The rarity of its use in the New Testament marks its early date, when as yet it was a name of reproach and hardly much recognized among the disciples
Logia - In addition to New Testament evidence, two modern discoveries show that “logia” existed in early Christian communities. ...
The Gospels, as well as those New Testament sayings of Jesus found outside the Gospels (such as Acts 20:35 ), and the modern discoveries all demonstrate the early Church's concern for preserving Jesus' sayings
Abba - It occurs three times in the New Testament, and is always followed by 'father,' and translated Abba Father; that is, the 'abba' is transcribed and not translated: if it were translated it would be 'Father Father. , but it was reserved for New Testament times for Him to be made known to believers in the relationship of Father: cf
Covenant - In the New Testament the corresponding word is diathékç, which is frequently translated testament in the Authorized version. The Old Covenant, from which we name the first part of the Bible the Old Testament, is the covenant of works; the New Covenant, or New Testament, is that of grace
Covenant - ( Genesis 15 ; Jeremiah 34:18,19 ) In the New Testament the corresponding word is diathece (diatheke), which is frequently translated testament in the Authorized Version. The second is called the New Covenant, or New Testament
New - Word used in the New Testament to contrast and compare both the quantitative concept of the recent with the former and the qualitative idea of the better with the inferior. ...
Two words are employed in the Greek New Testament to convey these ideas. Thus, it is probable that the words are virtually synonymous in the New Testament unless contextually differentiated
World - The Hebrew terms have these literal meanings: "The earth," "rest," "the grave," Isaiah 38:11; "the world," corresponding to aion in the New Testament, or that which is finite, temporary, Job 11:17; "the veiled," unlimited time, whether past or future; used very frequently, and generally translated "forever;" and, finally, the poetical term for "world," which occurs some 37 times, but in various meanings which are easily understood. In the New Testament the Greek words are equally diverse: 1. The same phraseology is found in the New Testament, but the dividing-line is marked by the second instead of the first advent of the Messiah
Messi'ah - This word ( Mashiach ) answers to the word Christ ( Christos ) in the New Testament, and is applicable in its first sense to any one anointed with the holy oil. The word is twice used in the New Testament of Jesus. Passages in the Psalms are numerous which are applied to the Messiah in the New Testament; such as Psalm 2,16 , 22,40 , 110
Perfect - In the New Testament, God's relationship with His people is itself fulfilled, as the old covenant is replaced, and through Christ believers can be perfected for ever (Hebrews 10:14 ). The New Testament also stops short of deification (becoming God) as an option for believers, even if it allows for their perfect relationship with God ( 2 Peter 1:4 ). ...
How, then, may even this limited perfection be achieved? The New Testament locates the means of perfection in Christ
Convert, Conversion - However, the New Testament usage is more like the common theological meaning. Examples of conversion, outside the New Testament, emerge when one looks at the term "proselyte, " the convert from a Gentile way of life to Judaism. ...
The New Testament . In the New Testament conversion seems to summarize the call of the church in response to Jesus' commission to preach repentance for the forgiveness of sins to all the nations, as the Old Testament called for (Luke 24:43-47 )
Adoption - ...
New Testament The New Testament cultural environment was much different from that of the Old since elaborate laws and ceremonies for adoption were part of both Greek and Roman society. To people with this background, the adoption metaphor in the New Testament was particularly meaningful. The remaining four references describe how New Testament believers become children of God through his gracious choice
Word - ...
Jesus the Word...
In the New Testament Jesus is called the Word (Greek: logos) (1 John 1:1-3). The word logos as used in the New Testament may contain some reference to the Greek ideas, but it is better understood in relation to the Old Testament meaning of ‘word’. The New Testament shows that this Word is more than merely likened to a person, it is a person; no longer ‘it’, but ‘he’. Likewise the preaching of the gospel by the New Testament apostles was the proclamation of the Word of God (Acts 4:31; Acts 13:44; Ephesians 1:13; Jeremiah 23:22; 1 Peter 1:23; 1 Peter 1:25; see GOSPEL; PREACHING)
Brotherly Love - A concept which appears throughout the Bible, but the specific word for this type love appears only in the New Testament. ...
The word which is usually rendered “brotherly love” in the New Testament is the Greek philadelphia and is used only five times ( Romans 12:10 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:9 ; Hebrews 13:1 ; 1 Peter 1:22 ; 2 Peter 1:7 ). ...
New Testament Brotherly love in the ancient Christian literature means to treat others as if they were a part of one's family. ...
Jesus constantly taught His followers the principle of “brotherly love,” even though the New Testament never records Him using this very word
Hell - To denote this latter object, the New Testament writers always make use of the Greek word γεεννα , which is compounded of two Hebrew words, Ge Hinnom, that is, "The Valley of Hinnom," a place near Jerusalem, in which children were cruelly sacrificed by fire to Moloch, the idol of the Ammonites, 2 Chronicles 33:6 . In this sense, also, the word gehenna, a synonymous term, is always to be understood in the New Testament, where it occurs about a dozen times. The confusion that has arisen on this subject has been occasioned not only by our English translators having rendered the Hebrew word sheol and the Greek word gehenna frequently by the term hell; but the Greek word hades, which occurs eleven times in the New Testament, is, in every instance, except one, translated by the same English word, which it ought never to have been. In this respect it accords fully with the New Testament use of hades
Sanctification - In the Greek New Testament, the root hag - is the basis of hagiasmos , “holiness,” “consecration,” “sanctification”; hagiosyne , “holiness”; hagiotes , “holiness”; hagiazo “to sanctify,” “consecrate,” “treat as holy,” “purify”; and hagios , “holy,” “saint. The New Testament usage is greatly dependent upon the Greek translation of the Old Testament, the Septuagint, for meaning. The moral implications of this word came into focus with the prophets and became a major emphasis in the New Testament. ...
Sanctification in the New Testament The same range of meanings reflected by the Septuagint usage is preserved in the New Testament but with extension of meaning in certain cases. ...
The link of New Testament thought to Old Testament antecedents in the cultic aspect of sanctification is most clearly seen in Hebrews
Bibles, Picture - Many offered a comparative study of Old and New Testament incidents
Spikenard - " In the New Testament this word is the rendering of the Greek nardos pistike
Italy - Italy is named in the New Testament in Acts 18:2 ; Acts 27:1 ,Acts 27:1,27:6 and Hebrews 13:24
Decapolis - It included a portion of Bashan and Gilead, and is mentioned three times in the New Testament (Matthew 4:25 ; Mark 5:20 ; 7:31 )
Caesar - In the New Testament Augustus in Luke 2:1, Tiberius in Luke 3:1, Claudius in Acts 11:28, Nero in Acts 25:11, etc
Martyr - The word ‘martyr’ comes from the Greek word that is used in the New Testament for ‘witness’ and ‘testimony’
Bartholomew - It occurs in all four lists of the apostles in the New Testament (Matthew 10:2-4 ; Mark 3:16-19 ; Luke 6:14-16 ; Acts 1:13 ); in each of the Gospels it immediately follows the name of Philip
Caesar - Caesars mentioned or referred to in the New Testament include Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and probably Nero
Negeb - In New Testament times it was known as Nabatea
Liberty, Liberation - In the New Testament, God is the one who liberates people from bondage to sin through Jesus Christ
Anathema - In the New Testament Saint Paul used it to express exclusion from the society, or communion, of the faithful the same as minor excommunication (Galatians 1)
Sabaoth - We meet with this word twice in the New Testament
Eschatology - In the New Testament, eschatological chapters include Matthew 24:1-51; Mark 13:1-37; Luke 17:1-37, and 2 Thessalonians 2:1-17
Acts of the Apostles - One of the sacred books of the New Testament containing the history of the infant church during the space of twenty-nine or thirty years from the ascension of our Lord to the year of Christ 63
Gaza - Gaza was peopled by the descendants of Ham, Genesis 10:19; by the Anakim, Joshua 11:22; given to Judah, Joshua 15:47; the scene of Samson's exploits, Judges 16:1-31; under Solomon's rule and called Azzah, 1 Kings 4:24; smitten by Egypt, Jeremiah 47:1; Jeremiah 47:5; prophesied against, Amos 1:6-7; Zephaniah 2:4; Zechariah 9:5; noticed in New Testament only in Acts 8:26; a chief stronghold of paganism and the worship of the god Dagon
Acts of the Apostles - The name of the book in the New Testament which follows the Gospels
Paradise - The term paradise is obviously used in the New Testament, as another word for heaven; by our Lord, Luke 23:43 ; by the Apostle Paul, 2 Corinthians 12:4 ; and in the Apocalypse, Revelation 2:7
Achaia - This was the original name of a district in the northwest of the Peloponnesus: in New Testament times it had a wider signification; for the Roman provinces of Achaia and Macedonia comprehended the whole of Greece
Elders - In the New Testament the officers of the newly organized Church corresponded to the elders of the Jewish synagogues
Cup - The cups of the New Testament were often no doubt formed on Greek and Roman models
Christian - They were known to each other as, and were among themselves called, brethren, ( Acts 15:1,23 ; 1 Corinthians 7:12 ) disciples , ( Acts 9:26 ; 11:29 ) believers , ( Acts 5:14 ) saints , ( Romans 8:27 ; 15:25 ) The name "Christian," which, in the only other cases where it appears in the New Testament, (Acts 26:28 ; 1 Peter 4:16 ) is used contemptuously, could not have been applied by the early disciples to themselves, but was imposed upon them by the Gentile world
Immanuel - ...
The promise given to Ahaz was quoted in the New Testament by Matthew in relation to the birth of Jesus Christ
James (st.) the Great - Jameswas the first of the Apostles who suffered martyrdom and the onlyone whose death is recorded in the New Testament (Acts 12:1)
Faith - ...
Only the third verb form was rendered with the Greek word for faith in the New Testament and in the Septuagint, an early Greek version of the Old Testament originating in Alexandria. Thus, we find no Hebrew noun for “faith” in the Old Testament, only verbs that have been translated with “faith” because of New Testament influence. Faith is a New Testament concept that encompasses and enriches these Old Testament concepts. ” They do so in order to express the understanding of God's relation to humanity that has grown out of the New Testament. ...
New Testament Expressions The Greek noun, pistis (faith), is related to the verb pisteuo (I have faith, trust, believe). The noun and verb are found virtually everywhere in the New Testament, with the notable exception that the noun is absent altogether from John's Gospel and occurs only once in 1John. ...
In the New Testament “faith” is used in a number of ways, but primarily with the meaning “trust” or “confidence” in God. ...
The New Testament sometimes uses “faith” to designate Christianity itself or that which Christians believe (Acts 6:7 ; Ephesians 4:5 ; Colossians 1:23 ; Tim. ...
If Christianity itself may be called “the faith,” then it is a small step to the New Testament usage of the participle of the verb form of faith to designate Christians. ”...
The nearest the New Testament comes to presenting a definition of “faith” per se is in Hebrews 11:1 . In theological usage “the faith” may refer to many more doctrines and dogmas that have been developed since New Testament times, but in the New Testament “that which must be believed” was more limited as Romans 10:9-10 may demonstrate
Descent Into Hell (Hades) - Since the New Testament declares that Christ really died, it is to be assumed that he went to Sheol (Gk. This is affirmed by the many declarations in the New Testament (over eighty times) that Christ was raised from (among) the dead, and by apostolic allusions to this event. ...
In the New Testament only Christ is said to have made such a descent into Hades and return to the land of the living. ...
Yet the New Testament does not elaborate on this descent into Hades, unlike imaginative apocryphal writings. ...
The significance of this is that the New Testament does not identify Hades as the place where Christ was punished for our sins
Bishop - The English word “bishop” is the normal translation of the Green noun episkopos , which occurs five times in the New Testament (Acts 20:28 ; Philippians 1:1 ; 1 Timothy 3:2 ; Titus 1:7 ; 1 Peter 2:25 ). ...
One of the five usages of episkopos in the New Testament was as a title applied to Jesus: “the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls” ( 1 Peter 2:25 ). The verb episkopeo , meaning “to exercise oversight,” appears in some Greek New Testament manuscripts and hence some English translations (KJV, ASV) in 1 Peter 5:2
Judaizers - The Greek verb ioudaizo Letter - The content, purpose, and tone of this letter foreshadowed the letters that became books of the New Testament and sound very much like the letters Paul, Peter, James, and John wrote. ...
New Testament Letters are even more important in the New Testament. More than half of the books of the New Testament are letters. These archaeological finds also show that the form of letters in the New Testament reflected the letters of that time. ...
The New Testament contains other letters
Memorial - In the New Testament, the Lord's Supper serves as a reminder of Christ's sacrificial death and an encouragement of His future coming (Matthew 26:13 ; Mark 14:9 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25-26 )
Mule - Mules are not mentioned in the New Testament
Queen - In the New Testament we read of the "queen of the south", i
Ashdod - The only reference to it in the New Testament, where it is called Azotus, is in the account of Philip's return from Gaza (Acts 8:40 )
Taxing - Two distinct registrations, or taxings, are mentioned in the New Testament, both of them by St
Key - , the opener ( Judges 3:25 ); and in the Greek New Testament Kleis , From its use in shutting ( Matthew 16:19 ; Luke 11:52 ; Revelation 1:18 , etc
Nethaneel - METHANEEL or NATHANAEL in the New Testament ("God-given"
Troas - In New Testament times this region was part of the Roman province of Asia, and Troas was the main port in the province’s north-west
Nero - He to frequently indicated as Caesar in the New Testament, Acts 25:18; Acts 25:10-12; Acts 25:21; Acts 26:32; Acts 28:19; Philippians 4:22, and as Augustus, Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25; but his name Nero does not occur
Gerasa - Selecting among Gadara, Gergesa, and Gerasa as the scene of the healing of the demoniac is one of the more challenging tasks in New Testament studies
Publican - In New Testament times people bid for the job of chief tax collector and then exacted the tax plus a profit from the citizens
Lorenzo Ghiberti - Twenty small medallions were devoted to scenes from the New Testament, and eight to the Evangelists and four great doctors of the Church
sa'Rah - ) She is referred to in the New Testament as a type of conjugal obedience in (1 Peter 3:6 ) and as one of the types of faith in (Hebrews 11:11 ) ...
Sarah, the daughter of Asher
Joel (2) - The fulfillment of his Messianic prophecies is noticed in the New Testament
Asia - (ayshuh) in the New Testament refers to a Roman province on the west of Asia Minor whose capital was Ephesus
Epistles - The name given to the twenty-one 'Letters' (for this is the signification of the word επιστολή, and which is often thus translated) of the New Testament
Gilead - The mountains of Gilead were part of that ridge of mountains which extend from Mount Lebanon southward, on the east of the Holy land; they gave their name to the whole country which lies on the east of the sea of Galilee, and included the mountainous region called in the New Testament Trachonitis
Luke - The diction of these books in the New Testament, the gospel and the Acts, is such as to persuade some that he must have been a Jew
Son of Man - This title is given to our Saviour 80 times in the New Testament
Christian - The word is used three times in the New Testament
Ghiberti, Lorenzo di Cione - Twenty small medallions were devoted to scenes from the New Testament, and eight to the Evangelists and four great doctors of the Church
Apol'Los - He is mentioned but once more in the New Testament, in (Titus 3:13 ) After this nothing is known of him
Nazarene', - This appellative is applied to,Jesus in many passages in the New Testament
Clay - (Psalm 18:42 ; Isaiah 57:20 ; Jeremiah 38:6 ) and in the New Testament, (John 9:6 ) a mixture of sand or dust with spittle
Ashdod - In New Testament times it was a prosperous town known as Azotus (Acts 8:40)
Gaius - There are several people named Gaius in the New Testament, all except one of them connected with Paul
Abstain, Abstinence - The King James Version never uses this group in the Old Testament and only seven times in the New Testament. The New International Version has three occurrences in the Old Testament (Exodus 19:15 ; 31:17 ; Numbers 6:3 ) and a similar group in the New Testament. The semantic domain New Testament lexicon by Louw and Nida does not assign an "abstain" domain. There is a continuum of continuity and discontinuity between the Old Testament and New Testament in this regard. The New Testament upholds the normative moral codes of the Old Testament and exhorts believers to abstain from practices that would violate those codes (cf. The New Testament, however, abrogated the food law distinctions and did not perpetuate prohibitions concerning the Sabbath and rules of uncleanness. The relative frequency of the vocabulary for fasting is well balanced between the Old Testament and New Testament and indicates that it was a common religious practice
Apocrypha - Those which were written after the time of Christ, but were not admitted by the churches into the canon of the New Testament, as not being divinely inspired. New Testament
Phoenicia - New Testament Phoenicia reached south to Dor. ...
New Testament Jesus' ministry reached Tyre and Sidon (Matthew 15:21 )
Tibe'Rias, - a city in the time of Christ, on the Sea of Galilee; first mentioned in the New Testament, (John 6:1,23 ; 21:1 ) and then by Josephus, who states that it was built by Herod Antipas, and was named by him in honor of the emperor Tiberius. The place is only mentioned in the New Testament in (John 6:23 ) History
Keys - ...
New Testament In the New Testament, keys are used only figuratively as a symbol of authority, particularly the authority of Christ over the final destiny of persons
Advocate - ...
New Testament “Advocate” is the translation often given to the Greek parakletos in 1 John 2:1 , a word found elsewhere only in John's Gospel as a title referring to the Holy Spirit, and there translated “Helper,” “Comforter,” “Counselor,” or “Advocate” (John 14:16 ,John 14:16,14:26 ; John 15:26 ; John 16:7 ). 1 John 2:1 parallels other New Testament descriptions of Jesus' intercessory role ( Romans 8:34 ; Hebrews 7:25 )
Sadducees - One of the Jewish sects of which we read in the New Testament. The tenets of the Sadducees may be gathered from the notices we have of them in the New Testament, illustrated by the account given by Josephus, Antiq
Scribe - In the later times of the Old Testament, especially after the captivity, and in the New Testament, a scribe is a person skilled in the Jewish law, a teacher or interpreter of the law. The scribes of the New Testament were a class of men educated for the purpose of preserving and expounding the sacred books
Fasting - Fasting was a common practice among Israelites in both Old and New Testament times. ...
Both Old and New Testaments speak of those who fasted insincerely. Examples of fasting in the New Testament show that it accompanied prayer when people faced unusually difficult tasks or decisions, or met unusually strong opposition from Satan
Fool, Foolishness, And Folly - Translations of several uncomplimentary words which appear approximately 360 times throughout the Old and New Testaments to describe unwise and ungodly people. The various shades of meaning related to the Old Testament words, all translated “foolishness” in the English versions, provide a background picture for the New Testament usage of “fool” and “folly. ”...
New Testament Usage The contrasting elements of wisdom and folly evident in the Old Testament were clearly in the mind of Paul when he asked, “hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?” (1 Corinthians 1:20 ). However, in the New Testament, this polarity between wisdom and folly is not always stressed. ...
Foolishness is also described in paradoxical terms in the New Testament
Age, Ages - The Greek aion [1] in the Septuagint and New Testament corresponds to the Hebrew olam [2] of the Old Testament. In the New Testament the hidden wisdom of God is repeatedly connected with the gospel, a mystery that he has chosen to reveal after long ages (aion [1Col 2:7; Ephesians 3:9 ; Colossians 1:26 ; chronoi [ Romans 16:25 ; 2 Timothy 1:9 ; Titus 1:2 ). This two-age schema is echoed in Matthew 12:32 and Ephesians 1:21 , but the New Testament transforms the traditional pattern: with the coming of Christ, the blessings of the future are manifested among God's people in the present age (cf. According to the New Testament, the end of the age will bring the return of Christ and the judgment of the wicked (Matthew 13:39-40,49 )
Perfect, Perfection - Nearly all New Testament occurrences translate Greek words sharing the tel- stem, from which some half-dozen words are formed that bear the sense of completion or wholeness. In the New Testament James speaks similarly of "the perfect law that gives freedom" (1:25). The New Testament is aware that Jesus Christ was sinless (John 8:46 ; Hebrews 4:15 ; 7:26 ). The New Testament does not belabor the perfection of the Son of God, perhaps because the divine nature (and therefore perfection) of someone who forgave sins, raised the dead, and ascended to the right hand of God seemed to make the point obvious enough. ...
A key New Testament verse for understanding perfection in the Christian life is 2 Corinthians 12:9 : "But he said to me, My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness
Miracle Plays - The mysteries may be grouped under three cycles: ...
that of the Old Testament
that of the New Testament
that of the saints
Sometimes they represented matters which were not religious
Catechesis - (Greek: katechizo, to teach by word of mouth) ...
In the New Testament the term "catechesis" denotes oral religious instruction (Acts 18; Galatians 6)
Catechism - (Greek: katechizo, to teach by word of mouth) ...
In the New Testament the term "catechesis" denotes oral religious instruction (Acts 18; Galatians 6)
Veil - (Genesis 38:14 ) Among the Jews of the New Testament age it appears to have been customary for the women to cover their heads (not necessarily their faces) when engaged in public worship
Bed - In the New Testament it denotes sometimes a litter with a coverlet (Matthew 9:2,6 ; Luke 5:18 ; Acts 5:15 )
Glass - It is referred to in the New Testament in Revelation 4:6 ; 15:2 ; 21:18,21
Mystery Plays - The mysteries may be grouped under three cycles: ...
that of the Old Testament
that of the New Testament
that of the saints
Sometimes they represented matters which were not religious
Religion - The Old Testament cult or "religious service" (threeskeia ) was ceremony and ritual; the New Testament religious service consists in acts of mercy, love, and holiness
Vows - While vows do not appear often in the New Testament, Paul made one that involved shaving his head (Acts 18:18 )
Centurion - " "The centurions mentioned in the New Testament are uniformly spoken of in terms of praise, whether in the Gospels or in the Acts
Province - (See PROCURATOR; PROCONSUL, for the distinction of imperial and senatorial provinces under Rome, accurately observed in New Testament
Adam - In the New Testament Saint Paul alludes to Christ as the "last Adam," through whom all are saved, as in the first Adam all inherited the effect of his sin
Magdala - Migdol implies a tower, or fortress; and this place, from having this name particularly applied to it, was doubtless, like the Egyptian Migdol, one of considerable importance; and may be considered as the site of the Migdal of the Naphtalites, as well as the Magdala of the New Testament
Circumcision - The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles
Whale - Neither the Old Testament nor the New Testament, when correctly rendered, affirms that it was a whale which swallowed Jonah, but "a great fish
Sadducees - Their nature is made known to us solely by the New Testament, the Talmud, and Flavius Josephus
Common - By New Testament times, the concept of “common” also carried with it the connotation of “unclean
Flesh - In the New Testament, "flesh" is very often used to designate the bodily appetites, propensities, and passions, which draw men away from yielding themselves to the Lord and to the things of the Spirit
Testament - The name of each general division of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures as the Old Testament the New Testament
Regeneration - The word occurs but twice in the New Testament
Hypocrisy - ”...
Hypocrisy in the narrower sense of playing a role is highlighted in the New Testament, especially in the teaching of Jesus in the Synoptic Gospels. ...
Hypocrisy is a concern throughout the New Testament. ...
Six times New Testament writers stress that sincerity (without hypocrisy, anupokritos) should characterize the Christian
Fornication - ...
New Testament The New Testament also condemns prostitution. ...
As a whole, the New Testament uses porneia , most often translated fornication, in at least four ways:...
1
Obedience - In the New Testament, several words describe obedience. ” Another New Testament word often translated “obey” means “to trust. ...
The New Testament places special emphasis on Jesus' obedience
Stewardship - ...
New Testament Stewardship The call to absolute commitment to Christ is the central theme of the New Testament (Mark 8:34-36 ). ...
Thus, the New Testament concept of stewardship centers in our commitment to Jesus Christ
Guilt - ...
Liability and Forgiveness in the New Testament . The New Testament has no word equivalent to asam [ Luke 15:18-19 ). ...
The New Testament has no need for a word equivalent to asam [ Mark 10:45 ), paying our indebtedness for us
Atonement - (uh tohne' mehnt), meaning reconciliation, was associated with sacrificial offerings to remove the effects of sin and in the New Testament,] refers specifically to the reconciliation between God and humanity effected by the death, burial, and resurrection of Christ. ...
New Testament The New Testament rarely uses a word for atonement. ...
The primacy of the cross is emphasized throughout the New Testament. He explained His death in terms of the “blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many” (Mark 14:24 ). ...
Though atonement is focused in the cross, the New Testament makes clear that Christ's death is the climax of His perfect obedience. ...
Furthermore, the New Testament interprets the cross in light of the resurrection. The New Testament affirms that “God is love” (1 John 4:8 ); it also affirms that “our God is a consuming fire” (Hebrews 12:29 ). ...
Images of Atonement To describe the meaning of atonement New Testament writers used images drawn from different areas of experience. ...
The New Testament emphasizes both the fact of deliverance and the ransom price. In much of the New Testament the glorification of Jesus is associated with His resurrection and ascension
Coins - New Testament: Matthew 20:2 ; Matthew 22:21 ; Mark 12:42 . Many small copper coins from this early New Testament period have been discovered. ...
The coin most often mentioned in the Greek New Testament is the denarion , translated “penny” in the KJV and “denarius” in the RSV, NAS, NIV. Its value in New Testament times can be more accurately assessed by knowing the labor that the ancient coin could buy. ...
A third coin mentioned in the New Testament was the one the poor widow put into the Temple treasury as Jesus watched (Mark 12:42 ). ...
From two parables told by Jesus we get the impression that the word “talent” had come in New Testament times to represent a large sum of money instead of just a measure of weight
Scripture, Unity And Diversity of - ...
The interdependence of the Old Testament and New Testament requires a view of unity. The Old Testament is incomplete without the next chapter, the New Testament. The New Testament is not understandable without the Old Testament as a prolegomena. , the call narrative of Jeremiah 1 reflects Deuteronomy 18 ) and the Old Testament in the New Testament illustrates this interdependence. The naturalness of this relationship is noted in that the New Testament uses the Old Testament as proof texts, showing continuity with the Old Testament in theological assertions, analogies in redemptive history (e. The use of the Old Testament in the New Testament as direct predictive prophecy is much less frequent than the above categories, but the fact of prophetic fulfillment argues strongly for the unity of the Bible. The New Testament illustrates this dependence. The New Testament reflects the continuing presence of a covenant consciousness in Zechariah's hymn of praise (Luke 1:67-79 ) and the Epistle of Hebrews. The New Testament correlates with the Old Testament concerning Jesus' place of birth, family line, forerunner, suffering, death, and future kingdom. The New Testament's record of disagreements between Peter and Paul, Paul and Barnabas, and many other items, does not reflect irreconcilable differences but reveals the struggle of the christological transition. ...
The New Testament writers use a great variety of semantic domains to describe the same issues. The Acts of Yahweh in the Old Testament (Joshua 6:15-21 ), and the teaching of the God-Man (Luke 9:54-55 ) in the New Testament appear on opposite ends of a continuum to many. Meadors...
See also Bible, Authority of the ; Bible, Inspiration of the ; Old Testament in the New Testament, the ...
Bibliography . Dunn, Unity and Diversity in the New Testament ; W
Incarnation - ...
Jesus referred to Himself as a man (John 8:40 ), and the witnesses in the New Testament recognized Him as fully human. That the Word was made flesh is the crux of the central passage on incarnation in the New Testament (John 1:14 ). ...
The New Testament also attests to the sinless character of Jesus. The New Testament presents Jesus as a man, fully human, and as a unique man, the ideal human. The assertion of the New Testament is that Jesus was God (John 6:51 ; John 10:7 ,John 10:7,10:11 ; John 11:25 ; John 14:6 ; John 15:1 ; esp. The New Testament pictures Him as worthy of honor and worship due only to deity (John 5:23 ; Hebrews 1:6 ; Philippians 2:10-11 ; Revelation 5:12 ). ...
The titles ascribed to Jesus provide conclusive evidence for the New Testament's estimate of His person as God. In addition, the New Testament repeatedly couples the name “God” with Jesus (John 1:18 ; John 20:28 ; Acts 20:28 ; Romans 9:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:12 ; Titus 2:13 ; Hebrews 1:8 ; 2 Peter 1:1 ; 1 John 5:20 ). The unsystematized affirmations of the New Testament were refined through controversy, a process which culminated in the ecumenical councils of Nicaea (A
Fear - In the New Testament, the word used most often to express fear is phobos which means “fear,” “dread,” “terror” ( Matthew 28:4 ; Luke 21:26 ). The New Testament teaches that perfect love casts out fear (1 John 4:18 ). In the New Testament “God-fearers” became a technical term for uncircumcised Gentiles who worshiped in the Jewish synagogue. ...
Fear in the New Testament Some Christians tend to de-emphasize the fear of God in the New Testament by placing the love of God above the fear of God. There is indeed a greater emphasis on the love of God in the New Testament. The revelation of God to people in the New Testament contains the element of God's mysterious otherness calling for reverent obedience. The New Testament church stands in awe and fear in the presence of a holy God, for fear is “the whole duty of man” (Ecclesiastes 12:13 )
Trinity - ...
Our understanding of the Trinity comes largely from the New Testament. This does not mean that the God of Old Testament times differed from the God of New Testament times, or that a God who was previously ‘one’ branched out into three. What is new in the New Testament is the revelation of the Trinity, not the Trinity itself. ...
The reason why the revelation of the Trinity is new in the New Testament is that it was related to the great acts of God in bringing his plan of salvation to completion in Christ. ...
Nevertheless, with the fuller knowledge that Christians gain from the New Testament, they may see suggestions of the Trinity in the Old Testament. ...
Faith of the New Testament writers...
The early disciples reached a fuller understanding of the Trinity through the life, teaching, death and triumph of Jesus Christ. They then passed on their insights through the writings of the New Testament. The New Testament writings therefore assume the fact of the Trinity at all times (Ephesians 4:4-6; Ephesians 5:18-20; 1 Thessalonians 1:3-5; 1 Peter 1:2). ...
In keeping with the teachings of Jesus, the teachings of the New Testament writers show that the three persons of the Trinity are fully and equally God. ...
Relationship with the triune God...
In making statements about the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, the New Testament writers were not attempting a theoretical analysis of God
Earth - In the New Testament "the earth" denotes the land of Judea (Matthew 23:35 ); also things carnal in contrast with things heavenly (John 3:31 ; Colossians 3:1,2 )
Christ, Disciples of - Their doctrine teaches belief in the New Testament, emphasizes "the Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scriptures, the essential creed of Christianity, and the one article of faith in order to baptism and church membership
Disciples of Christ - Their doctrine teaches belief in the New Testament, emphasizes "the Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental fact of Holy Scriptures, the essential creed of Christianity, and the one article of faith in order to baptism and church membership
Hour - " It is used in the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season (Matthew 8:13 ; Luke 12:39 )
Macedonia - In New Testament times, was a Roman province lying north of Greece
Malachi, Prophecies of - This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament (Matthew 11:10 ; 17:12 ; Mark 1:2 ; 9:11,12 ; Luke 1:17 ; Romans 9:13 )
Pharaoh's Daughters - She is twice mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 7:21 : Hebrews 11:24 )
Scripture - Invariably in the New Testament denotes that definite collection of sacred books, regarded as given by inspiration of God, which we usually call the Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:15,16 ; John 20:9 ; Galatians 3:22 ; 2 Peter 1:20 ). We have now a completed "Scripture," consisting of the Old and New Testaments
Wife - The duties of husbands and wives in their relations to each other are distinctly set forth in the New Testament (1 Corinthians 7:2-5 ; Ephesians 5:22-33 ; Colossians 3:18,19 ; 1 Peter 3:1-7 )
Hymn - The noun occurs in two passages in the New Testament (Ephesians 5; Colossians 3)
Gates of Jerusalem And the Temple - On the east, entrance from the Kidron Valley was signed principally through the Sheep Gate (modern Stephen or Lion Gate) in New Testament times and by a recently found gate (Spring, 1986) south of the modern city walls in Old Testament times
Frontlets - ...
By New Testament times, the frontlets were known as phylacteries ( Matthew 23:5 )
Theophilus - The idea of Theophilus being an imaginary person (the name meaning "friend of God") is at variance with the simplicity of the New Testament writers and especially the evangelists
Zebulun - ...
In New Testament times the territory that formerly belonged to Zebulun was part of Galilee and included within it the town of Nazareth
Manna - ...
New Testament Jesus assured the Jews that He, and not the wilderness food, was the true Bread from heaven which conferred eternal life on those who partook of it (John 6:30-58 )
Needle - The needles of New Testament times were similar in size to modern needles with the exception of our smallest needles
Chaldee Language - Some isolated words in this language are preserved in the New Testament (Matthew 5:22 ; 6:24 ; 16:17 ; 27:46 ; Mark 3:17 ; 5:41 ; 7:34 ; 14:36 ; Acts 1:19 ; 1 Corinthians 16:22 )
Calvary - This word occurs but once in the New Testament, Luke 23:33, A
Trinity - In the New Testament clear evidence is given
Schism - Schism, is properly a division among those who stand in one connection or fellowship; but when the difference is carried so far that the parties concerned entirely break off all communion and intercourse one with another, and form distinct connections for obtaining the general ends of that religious fellowship which they once cultivated; it is undeniable there is something different from the schism spoken of in the New Testament
lu'Cius - ...
Lucius of Cyrene is first mentioned in the New Testament in company with Barnabas, Simeon called Niger, Manaen and Saul, who are described as prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch
Asia - In the Old Testament it is not found; in the New Testament it means a small Roman province, in Asia Minor, in the northwest corner of Asia
Law - This term is applied in the New Testament to the old covenant and revelation, in distinction from the new; the dispensation under the law in distinction from the dispensation under the gospel; that by Moses and the prophets in distinction from the dispensation by Christ
Revelation Book of - It is for the New Testament what Daniel is for the Old Testament
Satan - The proper name appears five times in the Old Testament, 1 Chronicles 21:1; Job 1:6; Job 1:12; Job 2:1; Zechariah 3:1; in the New Testament 25 times; the word "devil" occurs 25 times; "the prince of this world," three times; "the wicked one," six times; "the tempter," twice
Haran - An ancient city called in the New Testament Charran, in the northwest part of Mesopotamia
Cyprus - Of the cities in the island, Paphos on the western coast, and Salmis at the opposite end, are mentioned in the New Testament
Sect - " As used in the New Testament, it implies neither approbation nor censure of the persons to whom it is applied, or of their opinions, Acts 5:17 15:5
Tribute - " ...
In other New Testament passages, tribute means the tax levied by the Romans
Church - In the New Testament it usually means a congregation of religious worshippers, either Jewish, as Acts 7:38 , or Christians, as Matthew 16:18 1 Corinthians 6:4
Septuagint - This ancient version contains many errors, and yet as a whole is a faithful one, particularly in the books of Moses; it is of great value in the interpretation of the Old Testament, and is very often quoted by the New Testament writers, who wrote in the same dialect
Inspiration - To the New Testament writers inspiration was promised, Matthew 10:19,20 John 14:26 16:13 ; and they wrote and prophesied under its direction, 1 Corinthians 2:10-13 14:37 Galatians 1:12 2 Peter 1:21 3:15 Revelation 1:1,10-19
Divorce, - , (22:19,29) The ground of divorce is appoint on which the Jewish doctors of the period of the New Testament differed widely; the school of Shammai seeming to limit it to a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst that the Hillel extended it to trifling causes, e
Palsy - The infirmities included under this name in the New Testament were various:--
The paralytic shock affecting the whole body, or apoplexy
Gala'Tia - The Galatia of the New Testament has really the "Gaul" of the East
Beelzebul - Jews of New Testament times used ‘Beelzebul’ as a name for Satan, the prince of demons (Matthew 10:25; Matthew 12:24-27)
Hades - ...
In general, however, the word that the New Testament usually used for the place of eternal punishment was not hades but gehenna
Testimony - In the Old Testament, the truth claims have to do mainly with God and the revelation of himself to Israel; in the New Testament, this picture is greatly deepened with the additional revelation of Jesus Christ, and now to all the world. ...
Testimony in the New Testament . The New Testament takes up the Old Testament concept of testimony and greatly expands it in light of God's special revelation in Jesus Christ. The association of Christian witness with suffering and martyrdom, on the other hand, is mostly a post-New Testament Christian development. But the New Testament explicitly and implicitly testifies that the earthly Jesus considered himself as God incarnate. The legal sense of testimony as the presentation of evidence plays a decisive role in the New Testament church's propagation of the gospel. In the New Testament, reliable historical evidence is a handmaiden to the theological significance of the gospel message. The New Testament church's confidence in the gospel as saving is directly proportional to its confidence in the historical reliability of the gospel events themselves. ...
The New Testament two types of witness as legal testimony. In the New Testament, the Book of Acts especially attests to the fulfillment of this promise. ...
Furthermore, in the New Testament the historical reliability of Jesus' life, death, and resurrection is intrinsic to the preaching of the gospel. The interrelation between testifying and preaching in the New Testament closely resembles the Old Testament example in Isaiah 43-44 . Proclamation in the New Testament means bearing witness to the historical reliability of God's saving work in Jesus. ...
Another New Testament form of testifying to Jesus and the gospel is through proper Christian conduct
Prayer - An examination of the Old and New Testaments and of the early Church Fathers reveals certain "minimal" beliefs or assumptions that underlie the practice of Christian praying. This is not to deny that there was a development in the conception of prayer, though this development is more pronounced in the Old Testament than it is in the New Testament and early church. The consistency in the latter case is seen in the close correspondence between Jesus' prayer life and the prayer life of the New Testament church. Indeed, the simple and almost naive petitioning that marks New Testament prayer is reflected in all its humanness in the psalms—the liturgical inheritance of the early Christiansas well as in the rest of the early church's Scriptures. In fact, a notable characteristic of New Testament prayer (and its predecessor) was its spontaneity. Accordingly, petitions were to cover the entire gamut of one's life, including material and spiritual needs, though by the time we reach the New Testament period the former has been subordinated to the latter, as the pattern of the Lord's Prayer suggested. The view of prayer found in the Old Testament, the soil for that in the New Testament, was founded on the Hebraic conception of God as both immanent and transcendent. This understanding of prayer as personal confrontation with a responsive objective referent continues into the New Testament and makes Christian prayer distinctive from merely reverencing an impersonal sacred object that can never be prayed to, petitioned, or thanked. ) It is the last relationship that is most important as we move from the Old Testament's conception of God to the New Testament's. But while this belief is presupposed by those who pray and teach about prayer in the Gospels and the New Testament church, in two prominent cases God's will is precisely not changed by human petitioning: in Jesus' Gethsemane prayer and in Paul's thrice-prayed request to have his "thorn in the flesh" removed. ) In fact, the New Testament emphasis seems not to be on changing God's will through prayer, but on changing the human's will. ...
This Old Testament emphasis is not as clearly set forth in the New Testament, which may account, for example, for some disagreements about the intention of the first three petitions in the Lord's Prayerwhether they are a call for God to act alone (Lohmeyer, for example) or a call to God for help (Augustine, Luther). ...
These twin virtues of service and prayer were also inseparably linked in the New Testament. The grounding of prayer in the recollection of God's nature and deeds contains the seeds of New Testament liturgical practice and teaching (e. In the New Testament, this understanding of prayer as God's work focuses on the roles of Christ and the Holy Spirit. By so praying, we also guard against the self-centered request for personal gain, away from which biblical prayer seems to move, at least in the New Testament. But Christ is pictured in the New Testament as the ultimate intercessor, and, because of this, all Christian prayer becomes intercession since it is presented through and by Christ to God. In the New Testament the Spirit is that which makes possible even the address of God as "abba" (Romans 8:15-16 ; Galatians 4:6 ). Somewhat paralleling these prophets, especially with regard to the subsequent submission of the suppliant, the exemplary New Testament models of the engagement of two wills in prayer are Jesus' Gethsemane prayer (Matthew 26:36-46 , ; par. ...
The New Testament passages that are more difficult to explain include those that seem to teach importunity in prayer (e
Acts of the Apostles - A canonical book of the New Testament, written by Luke as a sequel to his gospel, and a history in part of the early church. His Greek is the most classical in the New Testament; and the view he gives of the spirit of the early church so many of whose members had "been with the Lord," is invaluable
Names in New Testament - Of the 173 names of persons given in the New Testament, 62 are of unknown meaning. In the Old Testament the majority of proper names are derived from the Hebrew; in the New Testament, from the Greek
New Testament, Names in - Of the 173 names of persons given in the New Testament, 62 are of unknown meaning. In the Old Testament the majority of proper names are derived from the Hebrew; in the New Testament, from the Greek
Consecration - ...
New Testament This ethical understanding of God's holiness is found throughout the New Testament
Christ, Genealogy of - The New Testament has preserved two different genealogies of Our Lord, in Matthew 1; and Luke 3. Our Lord was considered to belong to the family of David; this seems to be taken for granted in the New Testament, where we find no difficulty raised against Him on the ground of His descent
Isaac - ...
New Testament In the New Testament Isaac appears in the genealogies of Jesus (Matthew 1:2 ; Luke 3:34 ), as one of the three great patriarchs (Matthew 8:11 ; Luke 13:28 ; Acts 3:13 ), and an example of faith (Hebrews 11:20 )
Anathema - In this sense the form of the word is Anath(ee)ma , Once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in Luke 21:5 , where it is rendered "gifts. In the New Testament this word always implies execration
Faithful - In the New Testament the adjective “faithful” is a derivative of the Greek noun meaning “faith. This sort of fidelity, or faithfulness, is used in both the Old Testament and the New Testament to describe God's relation to the world and to describe the quality of relationship that Israel and Christians are called upon to have with God and with one another
Dwelling - The Old Testament idea of God's dwelling with His people (Ezekiel 37:27 ) is developed in a variety of ways in the New Testament. The New Testament closes with an echo of Ezekiel's hope of God's dwelling with His people in Revelation 21:3
Disabilities And Deformities - ...
New Testament Among the disabilities and deformities mentioned in the New Testament are:...
Deafness or dumbness resulting in the inability to speak or hear (Mark 7:32 )
Faithfulness - ...
In the New Testament, God also Acts in faithfulness: He provides for both good and evil people (Matthew 5:45 ); he rewards those who do his good will (Matthew 6:4,6,18 ); he provides a way out for believers in the midst of temptation (1 Corinthians 10:13 ); he remains faithful as he fulfills his promises (2 Corinthians 1:18-19 ). God remains faithful to New Testament believers, both fulfilling and promising to fulfill the promises of the Old Testament
Adultery - ...
New Testament Jesus' teachings expanded the Old Testament law to address matters of the heart. ...
The New Testament associates remarriage after divorce and adultery
Genealogy of Christ - The New Testament has preserved two different genealogies of Our Lord, in Matthew 1; and Luke 3. Our Lord was considered to belong to the family of David; this seems to be taken for granted in the New Testament, where we find no difficulty raised against Him on the ground of His descent
Bishop - It is not improbable that the overseers of Christ's church are in the New Testament called επισκοποι , from the following passage in Isaiah: "I will also make thy officers peace, and thine overseers" ( επισκοπους ), "righteousness," Isaiah 60:17 . The word, as used by the Apostolic writers, when referring to the pastors of Christian churches, is evidently of the same import as presbyter or elder; for the terms, as they occur in the New Testament, appear to be synonymous, and are used indifferently
Paper, Papyrus - ...
New Testament manuscripts produced before the fourth century were written exclusively on papyrus; after the fourth century almost all New Testament documents were preserved on parchment
Macedonia - ...
In the New Testament the name is probably to be taken in this latter sense. Of the cities of Macedonia proper, there are mentioned in the New Testament, Amphipolis, Apollonia, Berea, Neapolis, Philippi, and Thessalonica
Phil'ip the Evangelist - The History that follows is interesting as one of the few records in the New Testament of the process of individual conversion. The last glimpse of him in the New Testament is in the account of St
Ishmael - ...
In New Testament times, Paul saw this as a picture of those who try to achieve salvation through law-keeping instead of through faith in Jesus Christ. In New Testament times, Paul saw the expulsion of Hagar and Ishmael as an illustration that slaves of the law have no place in a family (the church) where people have the freedom of sons and through faith inherit God’s promises (Galatians 4:28-31)
Inheritance - ” The Greek word in the New Testament does refer to the disposition of property after death, but its use in the New Testament often reflects the Old Testament background more than normal Greek usage. ...
In the New Testament “inheritance” can refer to property (Luke 12:13 ), but it most often refers to the rewards of discipleship: eternal life (Matthew 5:5 ; Matthew 19:29 ; Mark 10:29-30 and parallels; Titus 3:7 ), the kingdom (Matthew 25:34 ; James 2:5 ; negatively 1 Corinthians 6:9-10 ; 1 Corinthians 15:50 ), generally (Acts 20:32 ; Ephesians 1:14 ,Ephesians 1:14,1:18 ; Revelation 21:7 )
Gift, Giving - In the New Testament God's special providence is especially evident in the gift of God's Son (John 3:16 ) and of God's Holy Spirit (Luke 11:13 ). The New Testament expresses these gifts as the power to become children of God (John 1:12 ), justification from sin (Romans 3:24 ; Romans 5:15-17 ); and eternal life (John 10:28 ; Romans 6:23 ). The New Testament also stresses God's gift of spiritual abilities to every believer (Romans 12:6 ; 1 Corinthians 12:4 ; 1 Peter 4:10 )
Glory - ...
The New Testament uses doxa to express glory and limits the meaning to God's glory. New Testament carries forward the Old Testament meaning of divine power and majesty ( Acts 7:2 ; Ephesians 1:17 ; 2 Peter 1:17 ). The New Testament extends this to Christ as having divine glory (Luke 9:32 ; John 1:14 ; 1 Corinthians 2:8 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:14 )
Oaths - ...
The New Testament and Oaths The New Testament raised the oath to a new level of understanding. ...
Other New Testament passages reveal the gravity of oath taking
Love Feast - While the only explicit New Testament reference to the agape meal is found (agapai in Greek) in Jude 1:12 , allusions to the practice may be seen in other New Testament texts. By the second century the word agapai had become a technical term for such a common meal which seems to have been separated from the ceremonial observance of the Lord's Supper sometime after the New Testament period
Publican - In the New Testament are meant not the "publicani " (never mentioned in the New Testament) who were generally wealthy Roman knights, capitalists at Rome, that bought for a fixed sum to be paid into the treasury (in publicum ) the taxes and customs of particular provinces. Under them were "chiefs of publicans," having supervision of a district, as Zacchaeus (Luke 19), in the provinces; and under these again the ordinary "publicans" (in the New Testament sense) who, like Levi or Matthew, gathered the customs on exports and imports and taxes (Matthew 9:9-11; Mark 2:14, etc
Arabia - ...
New Testament The New Testament references to Arabia are fewer and less complex
Antichrist - Quite surprisingly, the word, “antichrist” appears only four times in the New Testament and there only in the Johannine Epistles (1John 2:18,1 John 2:22 ; 1 John 4:3 ; 2 John 1:7 ). ...
New Testament In the New Testament, the only use of the term “antichrist,” is in the Johannine epistles
Love Feast - While the only explicit New Testament reference to the agape meal is found (agapai in Greek) in Jude 1:12 , allusions to the practice may be seen in other New Testament texts. By the second century the word agapai had become a technical term for such a common meal which seems to have been separated from the ceremonial observance of the Lord's Supper sometime after the New Testament period
Adultery - ...
New Testament teachings...
Like the Old Testament, the New Testament looks upon marriage as a permanent union. ...
Although the New Testament announces God’s judgment on those who are immoral and adulterous (Hebrews 13:4; 2 Peter 2:14), it also shows that God is ready to forgive those who, in sorrow for their sin, turn to him for mercy (1 Corinthians 6:9-11)
Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer - ...
New Testament The New Testament centers redemption in Jesus Christ. New Testament redemption thus speaks of substitutionary sacrifice demonstrating divine love and righteousness. ...
In other ways and language the centrality of redemption through the death of Jesus Christ is expressed throughout the New Testament from the Lamb of God who lifts up and carries away the sin of the world (John 1:29 ) to the redeeming Lamb praised by a multitude because He was slain and by His blood redeemed unto God's people of every kindred, tongue, and nation (John 6:51 )
Call, Calling - ...
New Testament All the senses found in the Old Testament appear again in the New Testament. ...
The New Testament refers to the Christian life as a calling (Ephesians 1:18 ; Ephesians 4:1 ; 2 Timothy 1:9 ; Hebrews 3:1 ; 2 Peter 1:10 ). ...
The noun “calling” takes on great significance in the New Testament, especially in the writings of Paul
Deacon, Deaconess - The word group consists of diakoneo [1] (occurring thirty-six times in the New Testament) meaning to serve or support; diakonia [2] (occurring thirty-three times in the New Testament) meaning service, support, or ministry; and diakonos [2] (occurring twenty-nine times in the New Testament), meaning server, servant, or deacon. The word has both a general and technical sense in the New Testament. Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; K
Age, Old (the Aged) - "...
As in the Old Testament, the New Testament term "elder" (presbytes [ Luke 1:18 ). ...
Later in the New Testament period, the "elders" became the official religious leadership in the early church. ...
The New Testament term geras [ Luke 1:36 ). The Old Testament custom of honoring the aged with positions of favor politically and socially was continued in the New Testament practice of conferring leadership roles on the "elders. Zechariah, in the New Testament period, considered himself old, but he continued his service in the temple (Luke 1:18-25 )
Miracles, Signs, Wonders - ...
New Testament The phrase “signs and wonders” is often used in the New Testament in the same sense as it is found in the Old Testament and also in Hellenistic literature. ...
“Sign” (semeion ) in the New Testament is used of miracles taken as evidence of divine authority. ...
New Testament writers also used dunamis , power or inherent ability, to refer to activity of supernatural origin or character (Mark 6:2 ; Acts 8:13 ; Acts 19:11 ; Romans 15:19 ; 1Corinthians 12:10,1 Corinthians 12:28-29 ; Galatians 3:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:9 ; Hebrews 2:4 ). ...
“Work” (ergon ) is also employed in the New Testament in the sense of “miracle
Teach, Teacher - " In the New Testament Greek words more frequently used are didasko [3], "to teach, " katecheo [4], "to instruct systematically, " matheteuo [5], "to train disciples, " paideuo [6], "to train, instruct, " noutheteo [7], "to correct, counsel, " parangello [2], "to command, order, " and paradido [9], "to hand down tradition. The New Testament confirms Old Testament teaching that heterosexual monogamy is the ideal family setting for the teaching of children (Matthew 19:4-6,19 ; 1 Corinthians 5:1 ; 6:16 ; Ephesians 5:31 ; 6:1-3 ; 1 Peter 3:7 ). The New Testament also stresses the teaching role of parents, especially the father (Luke 2:39-52 ; Romans 1:30 ; Ephesians 6:1-4 ; Colossians 3:20-21 ; 1 Timothy 3:4-5,12 ; 5:4,10 , 14 ; 2 Timothy 1:5 ; 3:2,15 ; Titus 1:6 ; 2:4 ). The repeated stress of both Old Testament and New Testament on care for widows and orphans indicates that the covenant community is to strengthen the family and, if necessary, serve as a sort of surrogate family setting. ...
In the New Testament Jesus is the Servant of God who inaugurates the new covenant (Matthew 12:17-21 ; 26:28 ). ...
The New Testament teaches that those who aspire to leadership in the community have to be competent teachers (1 Timothy 3:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:13 ; 2:1,15 ; Titus 1:9 ). , Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains, J
Canon - It consists of the Old Testament canon, which had become established during the centuries before the time of Christ, and the New Testament canon, which became established during the early centuries of the Christian era. For the authority of the Old Testament canon that Jesus and New Testament writers acknowledged see INSPIRATION. The writings of the New Testament are part of the fulfilment of that promise. In time Christians in general acknowledged that these writings were not inspired Scripture, with the result that they were excluded from the developing New Testament canon. ...
On the other hand people in some regions took longer to accept all the writings that are now part of the New Testament. No doubt there were many letters which, though having apostolic authority, were not preserved (1 Corinthians 5:9...
Completion of the canon...
By the middle of the second century, churches in some places had a collection of books approximately equal to the present New Testament. Church Councils met to discuss the matter at length, and by the end of the fourth century there was general agreement that the New Testament canon consists of the twenty-seven books that we recognize today
Confess, Confession - ...
It is in the New Testament that confession in the sense of acknowledging allegiance to the faith becomes prominent. In what is perhaps the most characteristic New Testament use of the language, the writers stress that Christian confession includes adherence to certain truths about Christ. Central to New Testament doctrine, of course, is the truth about Jesus Christ, and this is the point continually stressed by the New Testament writers. This New Testament use of the language of confession led to the later church's use of the word "confession" to denote a summary of what Christians believe (e. If confession of faith is more prominent in the New Testament, confession of sins is found more often in the Old Testmaent. "...
Confession of sins in the New Testament (usually expressed with the compound word exomologeo ) is mentioned in only five passages. Moreover, public confession of sin does not seem to be a standard feature of New Testament church life. Certainly there is no New Testament warrant for the later Roman Catholic insistence on auricular confession to a priest
New Testament - There was really only one Testament - latent in the Old Testament, patent in the New Testament. The disciples were witnesses of the New Testament, and the Lord's Supper was its seal. The Old and New Testament Scriptures are the written documents containing the terms of the will. ) said truly, "after the Complutenses and Erasmus, who had very ordinary manuscripts, the New Testament became the property of booksellers. Lopez de Stunica was chief of its New Testament editors. Owing to the Complutensian Greek New Testament not being published, though printed, until the Polyglot was complete, Erasmus' Greek New Testament was the first published, namely, by Froben a printer of Basle, March 1516, six years before the Complutensian. Beza next edited the Greek New Testament, generally following Stephens' text, with a few changes on manuscript authority. More materials exist for restoring the genuine text of New Testament than for that of any ancient work. ) with the oldest Greek manuscripts The citations of the New Testament by fathers are then especially valuable as evidences, when a father cites words expressly, or a special word which agrees with ancient manuscripts and versions, for such could hardly come from transcribers. Only in 1859 did he obtain the whole - the Septuagint, the whole New Testament, the whole Epistle ascribed to Barnabas, and a large part of the Shepherd of Hermas (on vellum). In 1863 the popular edition was published, containing the New Testament, Barnabas, and Hermas; Scrivener has published a cheap collation of it. Also those which accord with New Testament Greek and with the writer's particular style. It retains the Alexandrian forms of Greek words, though seeming barbarous, for this style of Greek was common in the New Testament era to Palestine, Egypt, and Libya, and appears in the Septuagint. ...
THE ORDER OF THE New Testament BOOKS. The Codex Alexandrinus (A) given by Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, to Charles I, 1628; now in the British Museum; it contains the Old Testament, the Septuagint, and begins the New Testament with Matthew 25:6, and lacks John 6:50 - 8:52; the New Testament part was published in facsimile by Woide in 1786. Codex Vaticanus (B) contains the Old Testament and the New Testament (down to Hebrews 9:14; the remainder, to end of Revelation, was added in the 15th century. Peter Allix, a French pastor, 17th century, detected the Old and New Testament uncials underneath. ...
(3) The Old Latin appears more accordant with the Alexandrian old Greek manuscripts in Bobbiensis, k, containing a fragment of the New Testament. Fuldensis manuscript of whole New Testament, the four Gospels harmonized, with preface by Victor of Capua. Ford, edited it in the New Testament from Codex Alexandrinus, 1799. Origen quotes almost two thirds of New Testament except James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, and Revelation. The internal evidence of the authority of the New Testament, and its public reading in church, and its universal acceptance by Christians and heretics alike as the standard for deciding controversies, indicate the reverence felt for it from the first
Discipline - Furthermore, because Israel does not yet perceive itself in the modern (or even New Testament) sense as a religious community within a larger society, it is difficult to detect religious discipline as distinct from the Old Testament legal code. ...
The New Testament and Personal Discipline . The notion of discipline as familial chastisement remains in the New Testament (Ephesians 6:4 ; 2 Timothy 2:25 ; Hebrews 12:5-11 ). Community discipline was characteristic of Christian groups in the New Testament period. Rabbinic sources are not clear with respect to complete expulsion from Pharisaic communities in the New Testament era, but it is reasonable to assume that unrepentant banned persons and heretics like Christians would incur more severe judgment. This deceptively simple formula combines redemptive purpose and caution with firm resolve in the process of community accountability, and it appears to be the basis of later New Testament practice. ...
Community Discipline in New Testament Churches . There is insufficient material to establish a "program" or "system" of community discipline for the New Testament period or even for the Pauline churches. ...
A survey of the key passages does not strongly support the view that disciplinary action becomes increasingly centralized and formalized through the New Testament period. The expressions used in the New Testament to convey this idea do not specify what is meant. For the individual offender, the New Testament practice is clearly intended to produce repentance in an atmosphere of support and forgiveness. The unique and potentially potent aspect of the New Testament concept of discipline is the infusion of Christ-like love into disciplinary practice
Sin - ...
The New Testament Perspective of Sin The New Testament picture is much like that of the Old Testament. Several of the words used for sin in the New Testament have almost the same meaning as some of the Hebrew words used in the Old Testament. The most notable advancement in the New Testament view of sin is the fact that sin is defined against the backdrop of Jesus as the standard for righteousness. ...
In the New Testament, sin also is viewed as a lack of fellowship with God. ...
The New Testament view of sin is somewhat more subjective than objective. ...
The New Testament interprets sin as unbelief. ...
The New Testament further pictures sin as being revealed by the law of Moses. ...
The most common New Testament word for sin is hamartia . In forensic contexts outside the New Testament, it described one who was on the wrong side of the law
Heaven - ...
New Testament In the New Testament, the primary Greek word translated “heaven” describes heaven as being above the earth, although no New Testament passage gives complete instructions regarding the location or geography of heaven. Other than Paul's reference to the three heavens (2 Corinthians 12:2-4 ), the New Testament writers spoke of only one heaven. ...
The New Testament affirms that God created heaven (Acts 4:24 ), that heaven and earth stand under God's lordship (Matthew 11:25 ), and that heaven is the dwelling place of God (Matthew 6:9 ). ...
The word “heaven” occurs more frequently in Revelation than in any other New Testament book
Predestination - The New Testament bears witness also to this purpose and foreknowledge of God concerning Israel (Romans 11:2 ). It is also planned and foreordained that through Israel the knowledge of God should go out to the nations that they might be drawn to the worship of the Lord, a purpose to which the New Testament in turn bears witness (Galatians 3:8 ; Colossians 1:27 ). In the New Testament it is stressed repeatedly that the divine plan to be fulfilled in Christ was predestined. ...
The people of God in the New Testament, like Israel in the Old Testament, have a destiny to fulfill. In terms similar to those applied to Israel, the people of God in the New Testament are chosen to be holy, to be obedient, to live to God's praise (Ephesians 1:6,11 , 12,14 ; 2 Timothy 1:9 ; 1 Peter 1:2 ), and, going beyond anything in the Old Testament, "predestined to be conformed to the likeness" of God's Son (Romans 8:29 ). "...
Both Old and New Testaments also speak of individuals being predestined to fulfill a divine purpose. In the New Testament Paul speaks of himself as set apart from birth to know God's Son and to make him known ( Galatians 1:15-16 )
Games - (A) Reference in the New Testament is made to gladiatorial shows and fights with wild beasts (1 Corinthians 15:32 )
Pentecost - The name in the New Testament for the second great festival of the Jews, called by them "the feast of weeks," or "the day of first-fruits
Koran - It is written in rhymed Arabic prose with matter mostly borrowed from Old and New Testament and apocryphal writings, from later Judaism and Rabbinism, from Christian heresies, and from Arabian, Babylonian, and Persian heathenism
Devil - In both the Old and the New Testament he is represented as a personal being cast off by God and hostile to men, going about like "a roaring lion seeking whom he may devour" (1 Peter 5)
Annas - In the passages of the New Testament above cited, therefore, it is apparent that Caiaphas was the only actual and proper high priest; but Annas being his father-in-law, and having been formerly himself high priest, and being also perhaps his substitute, had great influence and authority, and could with propriety be still termed high priest along with Caiaphas
Marcion - He prepared a mutilated edition of the New Testament (consisting of a large part of the Gospel of Saint Luke and ten Epistles of Saint Paul) and organized his church along hierarchical lines
Marcionites - He prepared a mutilated edition of the New Testament (consisting of a large part of the Gospel of Saint Luke and ten Epistles of Saint Paul) and organized his church along hierarchical lines
Douay Bible - The college was subsequently moved to Rheims, where the translation of the New Testament was completed and published; hence it is called the "Rheims Testament
Asia - Many Jews were scattered over these regions, as appears from the history in Acts, and from Josephus, the writers of the New Testament comprehend, under the name of Asia, either (1) the whole of Asia Minor, Acts 19:26,27 ; 20:4,16,18 ; or (2) only proconsular Asia, that is, the region of Ionia, of which Ephesus was the capital, and which Strabo also calls Asia, Acts 2:9 ; 6:9 ; 16:6 ; 19:10,22
Deafness - ...
The New Testament interprets Jesus' healing of the deaf as evidence of Jesus's Messiahship (Matthew 11:5 ; Luke 7:22 )
Daughter-in-Law - In the New Testament, differing responses to the gospel created the same breakdown of relationship (Matthew 10:35 ; Luke 12:53 )
Challoner, Richard - " He also prepared a revised edition of the Douay Bible and Rheims New Testament, which is, practically speaking, the version of the Bible used by all English-speaking Catholics today
Magistrate - " In the New Testament the Greek word Archon , Rendered "magistrate" ( Luke 12:58 ; Titus 3:1 ), means one first in power, and hence a prince, as in Matt Matthew 2:6,8
Bible, Douay - The college was subsequently moved to Rheims, where the translation of the New Testament was completed and published; hence it is called the "Rheims Testament
Flesh - In the New Testament, besides these it is also used to denote the sinful element of human nature as opposed to the "Spirit" (Romans 6:19 ; Matthew 16:17 )
Samaritan Pentateuch - The New Testament also, when quoting from the Old Testament, agrees as a rule with the Samaritan text, where that differs from the Jewish
Nethinim - No reference to them appears in the New Testament, because it is probable that they became merged in the general body of the Jewish people
Corn - With this corresponds the use of the word in the New Testament ( Matthew 3:12 ; Luke 3:17 ; Acts 7:12 )
Taxes - ...
In the New Testament the payment of taxes, imposed by lawful rulers, is enjoined as a duty (Romans 13:1-7 ; 1 Peter 2:13,14 )
Steward - In New Testament times the word ‘steward’ was usually used of the person appointed to look after a master’s household or business
Decalogue - The decalogue is alluded to in the New Testament five times (Matthew 5:17,18,19 ; Mark 10:19 ; Luke 18:20 ; Romans 7:7,8 ; 13:9 ; 1 Timothy 1:9,10 )
Watches - But in the New Testament we read of four watches, a division probably introduced by the Romans (Matthew 14:25 ; Mark 6:48 ; Luke 12:38 )
Integrity - In the New Testament, integrity occurs only at Titus 2:7 (NRSV, NIV, REB) in reference to teaching
Ramathaim-Zophim - Some have supposed that it may be identical with Arimathea of the New Testament
Bethesda - The third edition of the United Bible Societies Greek New Testament places Bethzatha in the text and the other readings in footnotes
Shechi'Nah - The allusions in the New Testament to the shechinah are not unfrequent
Macedonia - In New Testament history Macedonia holds an important place because of the labors of the apostles
Lame, Lameness - In the New Testament, the healing of the lame forms an important part of Jesus' messianic work (Matthew 11:2-6 ; Matthew 15:29-31 )
Valley - One Greek term, pharanx , is used in the New Testament for each of these
Old Testament - Christians see its complement in the New Testament, which reveals Jesus Christ as the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy
Mammon - In the New Testament it is used only by Jesus (Matthew 6:24 ; Luke 16:9 ,Luke 16:9,16:11 ,Luke 16:11,16:13 )
Loins - In the New Testament, to gird up one's loins is used in the figurative sense of preparedness (Luke 12:35 ; Ephesians 6:14 ; 1 Peter 1:13 )
Ambassador - Once in New Testament, "we are ambassadors for Christ" (2 Corinthians 5:20); treating with men "in Christ's stead": God "beseeching," and His ambassadors "praying" men to be reconciled to God
Judaea - "Judah"); in the Apocrypha the word "province" is dropped, and throughout it and in the New Testament the expressions are the "land of Judæa" and "Judæa
Administration - The Greek word kubernesis occurs only here in the Greek New Testament
Sanctuary - It is a picture of the Church in the New Testament whereby GOD is able to dwell among us in the Person of the Holy Spirit and feel at home with His children on earth
Procurator - "governor"; Greek heegemoon in New Testament, more strictly epitropos
Book - In the New Testament, we read of "the book of life
Divorce - The ground of divorce is a point on which the Jewish doctors of the New Testament era differed widely; the school of Shammai seeming to limit it to a moral delinquency in the woman, whilst that of Hillel extended it to trifling causes, e
Nazarenes - They rejected those additions that were made to the Mosaic institutions by the Pharisees and doctors of the law, and admitted the Scriptures both of the Old and New Testament
Disciple - The proper signification of this word is a learner; but it signifies in the New Testament, a believer, a Christian, a follower of Jesus Christ
Roman Empire - These divisions are recognized in the New Testament
Richard Challoner - " He also prepared a revised edition of the Douay Bible and Rheims New Testament, which is, practically speaking, the version of the Bible used by all English-speaking Catholics today
Coner-Stone - ...
Our Lord is compared in the New Testament to a corner stone in three different points of view
Tetrarch - Is strictly the ruler of the fourth part of a state or province; but in the New Testament it is a general title applied to those who governed any part of a kingdom or province, with an authority subject only to that of the Roman emperor
Martyr - The term "martyr" occurs only thrice in the New Testament, Acts 22:20 Revelation 2:13 17:6
Hosea - He shows a joyful faith in the coming Redeemer, and is several times quoted in the New Testament, Matthew 9:13 Romans 9:25,26 1 Peter 2:10
Phryg'ia - Perhaps there is no geographical term in the New Testament which is less capable of an exact definition
Fable - (2 Kings 14:9 ) The fables of false teachers claiming to belong to the Christian Church, alluded to by writers of the New Testament, (1 Timothy 1:4 ; 4:7 ; Titus 1:14 ; 2 Peter 1:16 ) do not appear to have had the character of fables, properly so called
Marcionites - He prepared a mutilated edition of the New Testament (consisting of a large part of the Gospel of Saint Luke and ten Epistles of Saint Paul) and organized his church along hierarchical lines
Dragon - ( Exodus 7:9,10,12 ; 32:33; Psalm 91:13 ) In the New Testament it is found only in the Apocalypse, (Revelation 12:3,4,7,9,16,17 ) etc
Judgment Hall - The word praetorium is so translated five times in the Authorized Version of the New Testament, and in those five passages it denotes two different places
Epicureans - Greek philosophers of the New Testament period belonged mainly to two schools, the Epicureans and the Stoics
Oracle - Selwyn holds that these were the Messianic prophecies of the OT which Matthew collected (The Oracles in the New Testament, London, 1912, p
Corinth - He also wrote the church a number of letters, two of which have been preserved in the New Testament
Walk - However, this same verb is more often used throughout the Old Testament and the epistles of the New Testament in a metaphorical way. Many times the verb translated "walk" is present tense in the Greek of the New Testament, which means that the writer is referring to a continued mode of conduct or behavior. ...
Throughout the New Testament, the verb "walk" is qualified in various ways to ensure that the reader understands what correct Christian living or conduct is and what it is not. "...
In addition to writing the instruction given above, the New Testament writers do not leave maturing Christians in the dark as to the manner of walking that is expected from them. ...
From both the Old and New Testament references, it is clear that the metaphorical or figurative use of the English verb, "walk, " refers to conduct or behavior which, it is insisted, should support one's verbal testimony
Hair - In the New Testament era, men wore their hair much shorter than women did (1 Corinthians 11:14-15 ). New Testament writers cautioned against ostentation in women's hairstyles (1 Timothy 2:9 ; 1 Peter 3:3 )
Collection - ...
The right of the New Testament minister to donated material support is affirmed by Jesus (Luke 10:7 ) and the early church (1 Corinthians 9:1-14 ; 1 Timothy 5:18 ), but how this support is to be collected is not discussed anywhere in detail. ...
The key New Testament passages on collection are Romans 15:25-26,1 Corinthians 16:1-4 , and 2 Corinthians 8-9
Messiah - …” The New Testament also attests the word in this latter meaning (John 1:41). Most frequently in the New Testament the word is translated (“Christ”) rather than transliterated (“Messiah”)
Promise - In the New Testament, although the idea of the covenant is present, there is little concerning oaths and vows. ...
The New Testament therefore refers to the entire gospel and its blessings as being based on promise
Restitution - There is no legal or ritual application of this command in the New Testament; however, the principle of restitution is clearly pictured in the story of Zacchaeus (Luke 19:1-10 ). ...
Divine Restitution The New Testament word is found only once (Acts 3:21 ) and can be translated “restoration
Daniel (2) - The New Testament incidentally acknowledges each of the characteristic elements of the book, its miracles, Hebrews 11:33-34, its predictions, Matthew 24:15, and its appearance of the angel Gabriel, Luke 1:19; Luke 1:26. Statements in the book itself imply that it was written by Daniel, and this is confirmed by references to it in the New Testament and in first book of Maccabees 1:54; 2:59, 60
Concupiscence - The New Testament knows desire can be good (Matthew 13:17 ; Luke 22:15 ; Philippians 1:23 ; 1 Thessalonians 2:17 ). In fact, the New Testament uses the verb form more often in a good sense than in a bad
Atonement - The word does not occur in most versions of the New Testament, but it is used broadly in the language of theology in relation to the sacrificial death of Christ. Whether in Old or New Testament times, forgiveness is solely by God’s grace and sinners receive it by faith (Psalms 32:5; Psalms 51:17; Micah 7:18; Ephesians 2:8)
Execution - Even under the Roman system of law that operated in New Testament times, Paul accepted that the government had the right to carry out the death sentence in certain cases (Acts 25:11; cf. ...
Under the Roman administration of the New Testament era, prisoners were executed by either crucifixion or beheading (Matthew 27:22; Mark 6:24-28; Acts 12:2; see CRUCIFIXION)
Jericho - The present town of Jericho, the Old Testament town destroyed by Joshua, and the New Testament town visited by Jesus all occupied different sites, though these sites are within a kilometre or so of each other. The town was still in existence in New Testament times, having been rebuilt by Herod the Great
Unity, Church - Again, in the New Testament the Church is calledthe Body of Christ, the kingdom of heaven, the Bride, and its peopleare declared to be branches of the one Vine Jesus Christ Himself. "The great thought running through all the New Testament descriptionsof the Church is that of the Church's unity in itself through itsunion with Christ the Head
Gnosticism - ...
Importance of Gnosticism The significance of gnosticism for students of Christianity has two dimensions: the first is its prominence in the history of the church, and the second is its importance for interpreting certain features of the New Testament. ...
Gnosticism is also important for interpreting certain features of the New Testament. Other interpreters of the New Testament understand gnosticism to be crucial at many other points in interpreting the New Testament as will be discussed to follow. The secret knowledge was superior to the revelation recorded in the New Testament and was an essential supplement to it because only this secret knowledge could awaken or bring to life the divine spark or seed within the elect. ...
This classic view of the heretical gnostic sects as distortions of Christianity by Hellenistic thought has much strength because it is easily demonstrated how the Gnostics could use New Testament texts, bending them to their purposes. In this and many other instances, terms or expressions in the New Testament, especially in the writings of Paul and John, could be lifted out of context and used in ways not originally intended by the authors to support gnostic doctrines. The value of the study of gnosticism for interpreting the New Testament is greatest from the point of view that there was a pre-Christian gnosticism which was not an organized religion but was more a general attitude among thoughtful persons that although ignorance abounded, one could through knowledge come to understand one's true identity and find union or relationship with the absolute deity. This view also offers an explanation of why the New Testament could so easily be exploited by gnostic sects
Apostle - ...
The noun apostolos [1] appears seventy-nine times in the New Testament (ten in the Gospels; twenty-eight in Acts; thirty-eight in the Epistles; and three in Revelation). ...
In the New Testament apostolos [ Hebrews 3:1 ), to those sent by God to preach to Israel (Luke 11:49 ), to those sent by churches (2Col 8:23; Philippians 2:25 ), and most often, to the individuals who had been appointed by Christ to preach the gospel of the kingdom. This latter category, however, is understood differently by New Testament writers. ...
Christ the Apostle Although there is only one explicit reference to Jesus as an apostle ( Hebrews 3:1 ), implicit references to his having been "sent" by the Father are found throughout the New Testament. There are four lists of the Twelve in the New Testament, one in each of the three Synoptic Gospels ( Matthew 10:1-4 ; Mark 3:13-19 ; Luke 6:12-16 ) and one in Acts (1:13). The deposit of revelation transmitted by the apostles and preserved in its written form in the New Testament thus forms the basis of postapostolic preaching and teaching in the church. The New Testament highlights their function as apostles, without delineating in detail the authoritative nature of their office in relation to the church. Baur, New Testament Apocrypha 2 (1965): 35-74; O. Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha 2 (1965): 25-34; R
Bible, Translations - The Old Testament was written in Hebrew and Aramaic and the New Testament in Greek, the languages both of the writers and of those who were expected to read the books in the first instance. The complete Bible has been translated into 293 languages and dialects, the New Testament into 618 additional ones, and individual books into 918 more languages. ...
Erasmus printed the Greek New Testament for the first time in 1516. Luther made his German translation in 1522-1524; and William Tyndale in 1525 brought out his English New Testament—the first printed one to circulate in England. Roman Catholics brought out their Rheims New Testament in 1582 and then the Old Testament in 1610. A motion made by Bishop Wilberforce in the Convocation of Canterbury carried, setting in operation the making of the Revised Version whose New Testament appeared in 1881 and its complete Bible in 1885. ...
English Bible Translations in the Twentieth Century At the turn of the century Adolf Deissmann, using study of the papyri from Egypt, persuaded scholars that the New Testament was in the common language (the Koine) of the first century, giving impetus to an effort to present the Bible in the language of the twentieth century. Accompanying this development was the rise of archaeological discovery which gave new manuscripts of both the Old and New Testaments. Perhaps twenty-five Greek manuscripts of the New Testament could have been used in 1611. ...
The Revised Standard Version, with its New Testament ready in 1946 and the complete Bible in 1952 bore the brunt of criticism of modern translations because it was the first serious challenge after 1901 to the long dominance of the KJV
Delight - Less than fifteen occurrences are found in the New Testament. The related concept of "please" occurs about 350 times, about seventy-five of these occurrences in the New Testament. ...
The New Testament . Vine, Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words ; W
Soul - In the Greek of the New Testament the word is psyche. ...
New Testament usage...
Similarly in the New Testament psyche can be used to mean no more than ‘person’ (Acts 2:41; Acts 2:43; Acts 7:14; Romans 2:9; Romans 13:1). ...
Human uniqueness...
Both Old and New Testaments teach that when people die they do not cease to exist. ...
The New Testament also is unclear on the subject of a person’s existence after death
Blessing - ...
The New Testament The parallels between the Old and New Testament usages of blessing are striking. In the New Testament, however, the emphasis is more on spiritual rather than on material blessings. ...
In a general sense, the terms for blessing in the New Testament are used to designate that one is favored by God
Church - In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew Kahal of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found. ...
We find the word ecclesia used in the following senses in the New Testament: ...
It is translated "assembly" in the ordinary classical sense ( Acts 19:32,39,41 ). Peter, on the day of Pentecost, at the beginning of the New Testament dispensation, announces the same great principle. We sometimes speak of the Old Testament Church and of the New Testament church, but they are one and the same
Mind - ...
The New Testament has a similar situation because of the large number of terms which are used to describe mankind's “faculty of cognition. Dianoia occurs twelve times in the New Testament. The word heart fills this void, and the New Testament follows the practice of the Old Testament very closely. ...
The mind is portrayed oftentimes, especially in the New Testament, as the center of a person's ethnical nature
Adoption - ...
New Testament The New Testament frequently speaks of believers as God's children (Luke 20:36 ; Ephesians 1:4-5 ; Galatians 3:26 ). ...
At the same time, the New Testament emphasizes Jesus' unique relationship to God as the “only begotten Son” (John 1:18 ; John 3:16 ). ...
Paul is the only New Testament writer to employ the word adoption
Church, the - The New Testament word for "church" is ekklesia [ John 2:19-22 ). ...
When we come to the New Testament, we discover that ekklesia [ Matthew 16:18 ; 18:17 ), it is of special importance in Acts (23 times) and the Pauline writings (46 times). To capture its significance the New Testament authors utilize a rich array of metaphorical descriptions. Thus, the people of God are those in both the Old and New Testament eras who responded to God by faith, and whose spiritual origin rests exclusively in God's grace. ...
To speak of the one people of God transcending the eras of the Old and New Testaments necessarily raises the question of the relationship between the church and Israel. ...
Second, Israel in some sense is present in the church in the New Testament. The church, according to the New Testament, is the eschatological Israel incorporated in Jesus Messiah and, as such, is a progression beyond historical Israel (1 Corinthians 10:11 ; 2 Corinthians 5:14-21 ; etc. Not until after his resurrection does the New Testament speak with regularity about the church. As intimately related as the church and the kingdom of God are, the New Testament does not equate the two, as is evident in the fact that the early Christians preached the kingdom, not the church (Acts 8:12 ; 19:8 ; 20:25 ; 28:23,31 ). The New Testament identifies the church as the people of the kingdom (Romans 12:4-5 ; etc. Other New Testament writers also perceived that the presence of the Spirit in the Christian community constituted the new temple of God (see 1 Corinthians 3:16-17 ; 2 Corinthians 6:14-7:1 ; Ephesians 2:19-22 ; cf. Similar imagery is applied to Christ and the church in the New Testament. A twofold meaning is attached to the Lord's Supper by the New Testament authors. Two aspects of this reality are touched upon in the New Testament, one positive, the other negative. Five aspects of the New Testament church's worship can be delineated: the meaning of worship; the time and place of worship; the nature of worship; the order of worship; the expressions of worship. In the New Testament, there are three main expressions connected with the worship of the early church, each of which is based on sacrifice: the sacrifice of one's body to God (Romans 12:1-2 ; cf
Baptism, Christian - The word has a wide latitude of meaning, not only in the New Testament, but also in the LXX. In the New Testament there cannot be found a single well-authenticated instance of the occurrence of the word where it necessarily means immersion. ...
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are the two symbolical ordinances of the New Testament. " Every instance of adult baptism, or of "believers' baptism," recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:41 ; 8:37 ; 9:17,18 ; 10:47 ; 16:15 ; 19:5 , etc. The New Testament church is not a new and different church, but one with that of the Old Testament. The New Testament does not exclude the children of believers from the church. There is no command or statement of any kind, that can be interpreted as giving any countenance to such an idea, anywhere to be found in the New Testament
Fellowship - To appreciate the full meaning of the word-group in the New Testament that conveys the nature and reality of Christian fellowship (i. , the noun koinonia [1], the verb, koinonein [2], and the noun koinonos [3]) as used in the New Testament, it is necessary to be aware of two fundamental points. In the colloquial Greek of the New Testament period, koinonia [1] was used in several ways. ...
Much of the use of the word group— koinonia [1], koinonein [2], and koinonos [3] in the New Testament corresponds to general Greek usage. The emphasis of the New Testament is also on participation in something that is an objective reality rather than on an association with someone. Campbell, Three New Testament Studies ; G. Panikulam, Koinonia in the New Testament
Ministry, Minister - ...
The New Testament . It is their testimony that is the basis of the books of the New Testament. Apparently the elder was set in office by an act of ordination, but there are only minimal details of this in the New Testament (e. In the New Testament period the real distinction was among the itinerant apostles, evangelists, and prophets and the settled presbyters and deacons. Whether in the Old or New Testaments, ministry finds its meaning and expression in Jesus Christ. The Old Testament looks forward to him while the New Testament looks both back, up, and forward to him. Dunn, Unity and Diversity in the New Testament ; R. Schweizer, Church Order in the New Testament
Magic - ...
The New Testament . Magical practices were also prevalent in the New Testament world. Although the New Testament writers did not explicitly condemn magic, none who practiced magic arts were described in a flattering way. ...
New Testament Christians viewed magical practices like their Old Testament counterparts. ...
Many of the accepted practices in the New Testament (exorcisms, faith healing, and the use of lots Acts 1:26 ) could have been construed by the Gentiles as similar to their own rituals. In fact, there were some linguistic similarities between words used for exorcism and healing in the New Testament and pagan magical rites. But the New Testament writers regarded Jesus and the apostles' miraculous Acts as of divine origin
Food Offered to Idols - The Greek-speaking pagans of the New Testament era would be more likely to use terms that would mean “food (things) offered to a deity or divinity. ...
“Food offered to idols” is specifically mentioned in three New Testament writings, although the issue is suggested by a variety of texts. It is significant that these problems are regularly connected in the New Testament
Fish, Fishing - ...
New Testament During New Testament times commercial fishing businesses were conducted on the Sea of Galilee by fishermen organized in guilds (Luke 5:7 ,Luke 5:7,5:11 ). The most famous New Testament fish was the one used to pay the Temple tax for Jesus and Peter (Matthew 17:27 )
Midrash - Many Bible students believe numerous examples of midrash in most, if not all, of its various forms appear in the New Testament. Midrashic elements are also present in Paul (Galatians 3:4 ; Romans 4:9-11 ; 2 Corinthians 3:1 ) and other areas of the New Testament. It is important, therefore, for the interpretation of the New Testament to understand the characteristic methods and approach of midrash
Blasphemy - ...
New Testament The New Testament broadens the concept of blasphemy to include actions against Christ and the church as the body of Christ. However, according to the New Testament perspective, the real blasphemers were those who denied the messianic claims of Jesus and rejected His unity with the Father (Mark 15:29 ; Luke 22:65 ; Luke 23:39 )
Endurance - Born in a context of hostility, persecution, and the death of their Lord and his disciples, the endurance of Christians in the face of persecution and temptation underlies most the New Testament. The repeated failures of Israel to maintain faithfulness to God in the exodus and at later times provided the New Testament writers with forceful models of the nature of tragedy and unrealized hopes among God's people. ...
Most evangelical theologians consider such views to be foreign to the New Testament perspective
Blameless - ...
The New Testament The concept of moral blamelessness is heightened in the New Testament and employed almost exclusively as a characteristic of Christ and his followers. Earle, Word Meanings in the New Testament ; W
Ablutions - The practice of ablutions is one background for New Testament baptism. ...
New Testament In Hebrews 6:2 the writer bid Christians to progress beyond discussion of basic matters, among which he lists “instruction about washings” (NAS). ...
For the New Testament the only washing commanded was that of baptism (Acts 22:16 ; 1 Corinthians 6:11 )
Allegory - ...
New Testament New Testament writers have more in common with the approaches of Palestinian Jewish interpreters of the Old Testament than with Hellenistic interpreters like Philo. Allegory is not widely used in the New Testament; and when it is employed, it does not depart far from the literal meaning
Reconcilation - In 1525 William Tyndale, in his translation of the New Testament from the Greek text, attempted to discover an English word that would express the true meaning of the Greek katallage as well as the Latin reconciliation. ...
New Testament While the concept of reconciliation is prevalent throughout the New Testament, the term is found only in Paul's Epistles (Romans 5:10-21 ; 2 Corinthians 5:18-20 ; Ephesians 2:16 ; Colossians 1:20-21 ; Romans 11:15 ; 1 Corinthians 7:11 ) and in Matthew 5:23-24 . The New Testament reverses the action. ...
The New Testament not only reveals God's act of reconciliation in Christ, but it also exhorts us to be reconciled to fellow human beings
Colors - ...
When coming to the New Testament one discovers even less of an interest in color as such. This is all the more remarkable in that the writers of the New Testament had access to the extensive color vocabulary of the Greek language. The Greek word occasionally rendered “color” in some English translations of the New Testament is prophasis. In the New Testament the robe put on Christ and Lydia's occupation are associated with the color purple as well (Mark 15:17 ; Acts 16:14 ). White is used in the New Testament of the garments of Jesus and angels to indicate the glory of the wearer (Matthew 17:2 ; Matthew 28:3 ; Acts 1:10 )
Ezra, Book of - ...
There is no quotation from this book in the New Testament, but there never has been any doubt about its being canonical
Dedicate, Dedication - The idea of dedication is embodied in the New Testament word “saints
Fish - No fish is mentioned by name either in the Old or in the New Testament
Fishing, the Art of - " Two kinds of fishing-nets are mentioned in the New Testament: ...
...
The casting-net (Matthew 4:18 ; Mark 1:16 )
Double-Minded - Jesus' teaching on the impossibility of serving two masters ( Matthew 6:24 ; Luke 16:13 ) forms the New Testament background
Proverbs, Book of - In the New Testament there are thirty-five direct quotations from this book or allusions to it
Anoint - In the New Testament, Christ is portrayed as the Messiah
Deacon - In the New Testament the word is used for any one that ministers in the service of God: bishops and presbyters are also styled deacons; but more particularly and generally it is understood of the lowest order of ministering servants in the church, 1 Corinthians 3:5
Centurion - It is a propriety in the New Testament that centurions are so often favorably noticed
Lightning - The New Testament both continues Old Testament associations and adds new uses
Judgment Hall - of the New Testament, and in those five passages it denotes two different places
Scripture - In the New Testament the various parts of the Old Testament are referred to as 'the scriptures'; they are the 'holy scriptures,' 2 Timothy 3:15 ; they must needs be fulfilled; they cannot be broken
Canon - The Old Testament Canon is witnessed to by the New Testament writers
Alexandrian Manuscript - It contains the whole bible in Greek, including the Old and New Testament, with the Apocrypha, and some smaller pieces, but not quite complete
Gilgal - Gilgal is not named in the New Testament
Governor - In the New Testament the Roman procurator of Judea is called the "governor," e
Hinnom - Isaiah 30:33; Isaiah 66:24, if not from the supposed everburning funeral fires, the later Jews applied the name of the valley (in the Septuagint Geënna), to the place of eternal suffering for lost angels and men; and in this sense it is used in the New Testament
Hour - And, when the word "hour" first occurs, it is used loosely and indefinitely, Daniel 3:6; Daniel 3:15; Daniel 4:33; Daniel 5:5; as it is frequently in the New Testament, Mark 13:32; John 2:4; and as very commonly among ourselves
Bishop - In the New Testament the term is synonymous with presbyter or elder, with this difference—that bishop is borrowed from the Greek and signifies the function; presbyter is derived from an office in the synagogue and signifies the dignity of the same office
Tabor - Tabor makes a prominent figure in the Old, but is not named in the New Testament
Damn - These terms, however, sometimes occur in the New Testament in what may be termed a less strict, or secondary sense
Idumaea - But the Idumaea of the New Testament applies only to a small part adjoining Judea on the south, and including even a portion of that country; which was taken possession of by the Edomites, or Idumaeans, while the land lay unoccupied during the Babylonish captivity
Comforter - one of the titles by which the Holy Spirit is designated in the New Testament, John 14:16 ; John 14:26 ; John 15:26
Bartholomew - But all the particulars respecting the life and labours of the Apostles, not mentioned in the New Testament, are exceedingly uncertain
Alms - The word is not found in the Authorized Version of the Old Testament, but is frequent in the New Testament
Bethel - , "house of idols," Hosea 10:5 (in verse 8 simply Aven); taken by Judah, 2 Chronicles 13:19; home of prophets, 2 Kings 2:2-3; of a priest, 2 Kings 17:28; 2 Kings 23:15; 2 Kings 23:19; was desolate, Amos 3:14; Amos 5:5-6; settled by Benjamites after the captivity, Nehemiah 11:31; named about seventy times in the Old Testament; not noticed in the New Testament; now called Beitin (nine miles south of Shiloh), a village of about 25 Moslem hovels, standing amid ruins which cover about four acres
Lamentations of Jeremiah - The author is not named anywhere in the Bible, and the book is not quoted in the New Testament; but general tradition assigns the composition to Jeremiah, and this is the prevailing opinion
Samson - But we must, of course, not judge him from the standpoint of the New Testament
Fulfilled - There are in the New Testament many instances of such an accomplishment, where the purposes of men were very different, and those who figured in the transaction did not dream of any thing but some evil project of their own
ko'Rah - ) In the New Testament (Jude 1:11 ) Korah is coupled with Cain and Balaam
Judae'a, - In the apocryphal books the word "province" is dropped, and throughout them and the New Testament the expressions are "the land of Judea," "Judea
Evangelist - In the New Testament the "evangelists" appear on the one hand after the "apostles" and "prophets;" on the other before the "pastors" and "teachers
mo'Din, - a place not mentioned in either the Old or the New Testament, though rendered immortal by its connection with the history of the Jews in the interval between the two
Banquets - (Genesis 43:33 ; 1 Samuel 9:22 Words which imply the recumbent posture belong to the New Testament
Peter, Festival of Saint - He has left two Epistles whichappear in the New Testament as the "First and Second EpistlesGeneral of St
Enoch - During the last centuries of the era before Christ, people wrote books in his name, and the New Testament quotes one of these as containing a prophecy from Enoch (Judges 1:14-15)
Exile - ...
In the New Testament ‘the exile’ refers to the life of Christians in the present world
Ashkelon - In spite of this interference, Ashkelon was still standing in New Testament times
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - ...
Though Christianity entered into the British Isles at a very early date, it was not till the year 1380 that the English New Testament was issued, in spite of Rome, only however to be collected and burnt by the clergy so far as they could. ...
Under the article VARIOUS READINGS it is shown that early translations of the New Testament are used as evidence of what was in the primitive Greek text, and we now proceed to name the principal of these versions. ...
The AEthiopic New Testament was printed at Rome in the years 1548-9, but it was incorrect, the printers being altogether ignorant of the language. There have been five printed Editions of the Arabic New Testament. The Old Testament was translated from the LXX, and the New Testament from the Greek. ...
There are now accounted to be three other dialects of ancient Egyptian, of which fragments of the New Testament have been found. It is generally admitted that as early as the second century a Syriac New Testament was in existence. This embraces the whole New Testament except the Revelation. ...
All these versions, as they became available, were consulted by the various Editors of the Greek New Testament: some Editors attaching more importance to certain of them than was done by others
Shepherd - ...
The New Testament mentions shepherds 16 times. Some New Testament references used a shepherd and the sheep to illustrate Christ's relationship to His followers who referred to Him as “our Lord Jesus, that great shepherd of the sheep” (Hebrews 13:20 )
Syria, Syrian - The only reference to the name in the New Testament is in Luke 4:27 , where it is stated that there were many lepers in Israel in the days of Elisha, but none were cured but Naaman the Syrian. ...
The only governor of Syria mentioned in the New Testament is Cyrenius, q
Israel, Spiritual - This is in contrast to most references in the Old Testament to religious or secular assemblies or to those in the New Testament that designate a local congregation of Christians, but never in any way mean a building. Throughout the New Testament the church is spoken of as the kingdom of God or the kingdom of heaven
Irrigation - ...
New Testament During Intertestamental and New Testament times massive Roman aqueducts were built to provide fresh water for the growing cities
Friend, Friendship - ” Instead, both the Old and New Testaments present friendship in its different facets. ...
In the New Testament, the predominant word for friend is philos . The New Testament highlights the connection between friends and joy (Luke 15:6 ,Luke 15:6,15:9 ,Luke 15:9,15:29 ), as well as warning of the possibility of friends proving false (Luke 21:16 )
Emperor Worship - ...
New Testament Emperor worship was firmly in place in the Roman Empire in the early days of Christianity. ...
A specific New Testament example of emperor worship is the worship of the beast in the Book of Revelation
Nazareth - It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and is mentioned in the New Testament only in connection with the story of Jesus. ...
In New Testament times the unbelieving Jews refused to call Jesus by his messianic name ‘Christ’, and refused to call his followers ‘Christians’
Neighbor - ...
New Testament The remainder of New Testament thought, of course, concurs with Jesus's teachings
Brothers - )...
The New Testament also reflects the use of the word brother to designate a physical relationship. In fact, in most of the New Testament passages where brethren is used to designate the entire Christian community (male and female), the word may be better translated as “fellow Christians” ( Philippians 4:1-9 )
Epistle - A letter; but the term is applied particularly to the inspired letters in the New Testament, written by the apostles on various occasions, to approve, condemn, or direct the conduct of Christian churches. ...
Of the books of the New Testament, twenty-one are epistles; fourteen of them by Paul, one by James, two by Peter, three by John, and one by Jude
Resurrection of the Dead - It is the peculiar glory of the New Testament that it makes a full revelation of this great doctrine, which was questioned or derided by the wisest of the heathen, Acts 17:32 . ...
The resurrection of Christ is everywhere represented in the New Testament as a pledge and an earnest of the resurrection of all the just, who are united to him by faith, 1 Corinthians 15:49 1 Thessalonians 3:13 , in virtue of their union with him as their Head
Hell - The word appears in the New Testament as a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew ‘Valley of Hinnom’. ...
According to the New Testament, the punishment of hell (gehenna) is one of eternal torment
Condemnation - In the New Testament the church's leaders are accountable for administering his justice to the people of God. "...
In New Testament theology the rebellion of the first Adam with its disastrous consequences of death and condemnation for all humankind is more than offset by the obedience of the second Adam, the Lord Messiah Jesus (Romans 5:12-21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:22 ). Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; J. Nida, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains ; L
Security of the Believer - ...
These warnings appear in the New Testament within clear statements reminding believers that temptation is accompanied by God's presence. The writers of the New Testament were convinced that Christians would heed these warnings and resist the devil (James 4:7 ; 1 Peter 5:8-9 ). The New Testament writers are convinced that a Christian will take very seriously the warnings in this life because this life is related to the life with Christ in heaven. ...
The confidence or secure sense of the believer with respect to the life hereafter is rooted in the united witness of the New Testament writers that the resurrection of Jesus Christ is the hinge point of the Christian faith
Justice - ...
The justice of God is reaffirmed in the New Testament (Romans 3:5-6 ; 9:14 ; 1 John 1:9 ; Revelation 16:5-7 ; 19:11 ). ...
In the New Testament, the love of justice is a virtue (2Col 7:11; Philippians 4:8 ), yet Christians may not take justice into their own hands (1 Thessalonians 4:6 ). The New Testament emphasizes the approach of final judgment, when all people will be evaluated according to their works (Romans 2:5 ; 3:5-6 ; Revelation 20:13 ). In the New Testament, Jesus already begins to carry out the Father's justice while on earth (Matthew 12:18-21 ; John 5:28-30 ), but it is in the future that he will execute God's will over all (Acts 17:31 ; Revelation 19:11 )
Soul - ...
The New Testament . The counterpart to nepes [1] in the New Testament is psyche [9] (nepes [1] is translated as psyche [9] six hundred times in the Septaugint). Compared to nepes [1] in the Old Testament, psyche [9] appears relatively infrequently in the New Testament. This may be due to the fact that nepes [1] is used extensively in poetic literature, which is more prevalent in the Old Testament than the New Testament
Grecians - ...
Orally, it was generally used by the apostles in preaching, being then widely spoken; and it is the sole medium of the New Testament written word. The Greek of the New Testament and of the Grecians or Hellenist Jews was not Classical Greek, but Hebrew modes of thought and idiom clothed with Greek words. The Septuagint and the Hebrew are a necessary key to this New Testament Hellenistic Greek. In New Testament "Greek" (Helleen is distinguished from "Grecian" (Hellenist))
Ancestors - ...
Old Testament While the word, ancestor , is only found in one Old Testament verse (Leviticus 26:45 ), the number of genealogies tracing family lines in the Old and New Testament indicates that ancestors were significant to the Israelites. ...
New Testament As in the Old Testament, ancestors are honored in the New Testament. ...
The New Testament includes two genealogies both of which trace the lineage of Jesus Christ
Body of Christ - It surfaces in only four New Testament epistles, but in a bewildering array of associations. ...
Related Themes and Possible Influences Attempts to identify the background and antecedents of New Testament body imagery have not been totally successful. ) Clearly, the New Testament ties the destiny of God's people to the faithful and selfless act of Messiah, and identification with Christ in his death is indispensable for Paul (Romans 6:8 ; Galatians 2:20 ; 5:24 ; and his "in Christ" formula ). Gundry, Somain the New Testament ; A. Minear, Images of the Church in the New Testament ; S. Schnackenburg, The Church in the New Testament ; E
Son of Man - New Testament designation for Jesus as God incarnate in flesh and agent of divine judgment. ...
The New Testament The “Son of man” sayings of Jesus fall into three distinct types. The Rest of the New Testament “Son of man” occurs only four times in the New Testament outside the Gospels. ...
Conclusion Why are there so few references to Son of man outside the Gospels? Perhaps it was not a familiar term in the Gentile churches to which most of the New Testament writings were addressed. In any event, the significance of the term was not lost, for the New Testament writers all attest to the profound teachings which this term embodies—the true humanity of the Word made flesh, the necessity of His suffering and death for salvation, the glory of His reign over an everlasting kingdom, and His final coming to judge the just and the unjust
Bible - Clement of Alexandria speaks of the New Testament making up with the Old Testament "one knowledge. " The Syrian version (Peshitto) at the close of the 2nd century contains the New Testament with the Old Testament. The elder Stephens, in a riding journey from Paris to Lyons, subdivided the New Testament chapters into verses, and the first edition with this division appeared in 1551. The Four Gospels stand first in the New Testament, setting forth the Lord Jesus' ministry in the flesh; the Acts, His ministry in the Spirit, His church's (the temple of the Holy Spirit) foundation and extension, internally and externally. ...
The New Testament 27 books, emanating from nine different persons, and the Old Testament 39 books, separated from each other by distances of time, space, and character, yet form a marvelously intertwined unity, tending all to the one end. ...
The credibility of the Old Testament is established by establishing that of the New Testament, for the Lord quotes the Old Testament in its threefold parts, "the law, the prophets, and the psalms," as the word of God. The tongue of the New Testament is the Greek, best adapted of all languages for expressing most accurately the nicest and most delicate shades of thought and doctrine. A very remarkable proof of the Divinity of the New Testament is the marked difference between it and the writings of even the apostolic fathers that immediately succeeded: Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and Polycarp. Also for 14 centuries the church, though in various sections of it falling into various unscriptural heresies, has never added to, nor taken from, the New Testament canon. ...
But in the New Testament, where she might have done mischief, she has been divinely constrained to maintain, without addition or subtraction, the canon which testifies against herself. ...
There is a break in revelation now, just as there was for 400 years between the Old Testament and the New Testament, after the outburst of them in connection with the rearing of the second temple. This period of New Testament revelations lasted for one century. Finally, the miracles wrought in connection with the Bible, and attested on infallible proofs, and the prophecies of the Old Testament (proved to have been given when they profess to be, by the fact that the Jews who oppose Christianity attest their age, and fulfilled minutely in the New Testament) establish the inspired truth of the Bible. ...
The national prejudices of all the New Testament writers, as Jews, were in behalf of an immediate temporal kingdom and an outwardly reigning Messiah, the very reverse of what His actual manifestation was
Biblical Theology - The New Testament writers follow Jesus in this conviction. While biblical theology can err in overstating the ways the Old Testament foreshadows and predicts the Messiah, and the ways in which the New Testament finds its meaning in Jesus Christ, it may likewise err in denying him his central place in the grand drama of both biblical and world history. The early chapters of Genesis, corroborated by subsequent statements in both Old Testament and New Testament, affirm that God created the world by fiat decree ("And God said cf. While parts of this law appear to have their fulfillment primarily in their own day and time, others are restated in the New Testament, and all retain value and relevance (Romans 15:4 ; 1 Corinthians 10:11 ). The basic dynamic of God's people honoring their Lord through fidelity to his revealed written word is basic to the faith that both Old Testament and New Testament model and prescribe. During these decades the religious forms and theological idioms of the Old Testament, diverse in themselves, are transformed into patterns that give Judaism as seen in New Testament times its distinctive faces. Not clearly foreseen, apparently, by either Old Testament prophets or the earliest New Testament disciples, was the already-not yet complexion of the messianic age. While all the New Testament writings play a role in testifying to this, Acts describes how it was lived out in the first three decades following Christ, while the New Testament Epistles instruct and steer the postresurrection people of God in those same generationsand beyond. Eschatologically oriented portions of both Old Testament and New Testament, in particular the Book of Revelation, furnish rich resources for reflection and guidance. For much of the twentieth century Bultmann's existentialist reading of the New Testament has dominated. Yet both Old Testament and New Testament theology, like mainline theological thought generally, are currently in disarray. Many Old Testament and New Testament scholars openly reject classic Christian understanding of the Bible, finding neither unity nor a saving message in itand certainly not definitive truth. Some even reject the possibility of Old Testament or New Testament theology, let alone biblical theology as a combination of the two, convinced that critical analysis of the Bible can result in nothing more than what ephemeral and disputed literary or social science methods yield. Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; G. Hasel, Old Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate and New Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate ; B. Rä sä en, Beyond New Testament Theology ; A. Schlatter, The Nature of New Testament Theology ; K
Crown - ...
In the New Testament the image changes, since the major term for crown is stephanos [1], which referred in secular contexts either to the victory garland at a race of the sovereign crown that the Roman conqueror wore. This term is used eighteen times in the New Testament. ...
A second New Testament use looks back at the crown as honoring rule or sovereignty
Sanctification - Both Old and New Testament writers emphasized that formal sanctification was of value only when it was accompanied by practical sanctification (2 Chronicles 29:15-16; 2 Chronicles 29:34; 2 Chronicles 30:15; 2 Chronicles 30:17; Romans 6:19; Romans 6:22). )...
In the New Testament...
The New Testament speaks about the relationship aspect of sanctification (setting a person or thing apart for God) and the moral aspect (living an upright life)
Peter - ” Four names are used in the New Testament to refer to Peter: the Hebrew name Simeon ( Acts 15:14 ); the Greek equivalent Simon (nearly fifty times in the Gospels and Acts); Cephas , most frequently used by Paul (Mark 14:66-72 ; 1 Corinthians 3:22 ; 1 Corinthians 9:5 ; 1 Corinthians 15:5 ; Galatians 1:18 ; Galatians 2:9 ,Galatians 2:9,2:11 ,Galatians 2:11,2:14 ) and occurring only once outside his writings (John 1:42 ). The name Peter dominates the New Testament usage. Both 1,2Peter in the New Testament are traditionally attributed to the apostle Peter
Intermediate State - ...
In the New Testament, Jesus affirms the certainty of the coming resurrection (Matthew 22:23-30 ; Luke 14:14 ; John 5:28-29 ) which, of course, requires the existence of an intermediate state. Hahnhart, The Intermediate State in the New Testament ; A. Le—n-Dufour, Life and Death in the New Testament ; H
Ark - ...
New Testament The gospel references to the ark are in connection with Jesus' teachings regarding the second coming. The last New Testament reference to the ark points to the evil of humanity and God's patient salvation (1 Peter 3:20 )
Apostasy - ...
New Testament The English word “apostasy” is derived from a Greek word (apostasia ) that means, “to stand away from. ” The Greek noun occurs twice in the New Testament (Acts 21:21 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:3 ), though it is not translated as “apostasy” in the King James Version. ...
Associated New Testament concepts include the parable of the soils, in which Jesus spoke of those who believe for a while but “fall away” in time of temptation (Luke 8:13 )
Roman Empire - Such were the relations of the Jewish people to the Roman government at the time when the New Testament history begins. The New Testament writers invariably designate the governors of senatorial provinces by the correct title anthupatoi , proconsuls. ( Acts 13:7 ; 18:12 ; 19:38 ) For the governor of an imperial province, properly styled "legatus Caesaris," the word hegemon (governor) is used in the New Testament
Peace, Spiritual - ...
New Testament The Greek word eirene corresponds to the Hebrew shalom expressing the idea of peace, well-being, restoration, reconciliation with God, and salvation in the fullest sense. Thus, the New Testament gives more attention to the understanding of spiritual peace as an inner experience of the individual believer than does the Old Testament. In both the Old and the New Testament, spiritual peace is realized in being rightly related—rightly related to God and rightly related to one another
Hinnom, Valley of - The reputation of the valley was understood by the writers of the New Testament who transliterated the word into Greek as gehenna
Levirate Marriage - Both the ordinance and the mode of being dispensed from the law are described in the New Testament (Deuteronomy 25)
Accho - In the New Testament, Accho is called Ptolemais, Acts 21:7 ; from one of the Ptolemais, who enlarged and beautified it
Deaconess - New Testament references may or may not imply official status
Methodist Episcopal Church - Church body organized in the United States, c1785 It was Arminian in theology, its doctrines set forth in the "Articles of Religion," Wesley's published sermons, and his "Notes on the New Testament
Lessons of the Roman Breviary - The scriptural lessons from the Old Testament and New Testament, recited in the first nocturn of Matins, are usually three in number; the three historical lessons, recited in the second nocturn, contain a brief biography of the saint or an account of the feast that is celebrated; the third group of three lessons, recited in the third nocturn, is a homily from one of the Doctors or Fathers of the Church on the Gospel proper to the feast of the day
Idle - In the New Testament, Paul called attention to his own example as a bi-vocational minister to encourage the Thessalonian Christians to be hard workers (2 Thessalonians 3:7-8 )
Canon - ...
In biblical usage, the official catalog of inspired writings known as the Old and New Testament See also: Canon of the Holy Scriptures
Pentecost - , "fiftieth", found only in the New Testament (Acts 2:1 ; 20:16 ; 1 Corinthians 16:8 )
Hades - This term is of comparatively rare occurrence in the Greek New Testament
Eternal Life - It occurs frequently in the New Testament ( Matthew 7:14 ; 18:8,9 ; Luke 10:28 ; comp 18:18)
Footstool - This text is quoted six times in the New Testament
Alabaster - Occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of "ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Matthew 26:7 ; Mark 14:3 ; Luke 7:37 )
Innocence, Innocency - In the New Testament four terms are used for innocent
Day - In the New Testament the division of the Greeks and Romans into four watches was adopted (Mark 13:35 )
Beersheba - The name is not found in the New Testament
Gadarene - In the New Testament, it is mentioned only in the Gospel accounts of the healing of the Gadarene man who was afflicted by demons
Marriage, Levirate - Both the ordinance and the mode of being dispensed from the law are described in the New Testament (Deuteronomy 25)
Melchizedek - ...
New Testament The writer of Hebrews made several references in Hebrews 5-7 to Jesus' priesthood being of the “order of Melchizedek” as opposed to Levitical in nature
the Lord's Supper - Of the New Testament writers only Paul used the phrase “Lord's Supper” (1 Corinthians 11:20 )
Tithe - The rabbis of the New Testament period, however, understood the laws as referring to three separate tithes: a Levitical tithe, a tithe spent celebrating in Jerusalem, and a charity tithe
Regeneration - Only twice in the New Testament: Titus 3:5 of the regeneration of the soul by the Holy Spirit, and Matthew 19:28 the regeneration of the body and of the material world
Benjamin - ...
In the New Testament, the apostle Paul proudly proclaimed his heritage in the tribe of Benjamin (Romans 11:1 ; Philippians 3:5 )
Simon - ” Used in New Testament as Greek alternative for Hebrew, “Simeon
New Age - Another group of New Testament texts focuses on the present reality of God's new age
Streets - During the New Testament era, Roman engineers designed cities throughout the empire with wide, straight, and well-constructed streets, usually leading to a central plaza or temple
Mill - ...
In the New Testament, our Lord prophesied that at His coming, “two women shall be grinding at the mill, one shall be taken and one other is left” (Matthew 24:41 )
Chapter - The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an early time divided into chapters. The New Testament books were also divided into portions of various lengths under different names, such as titles and heads or chapters
Greek Language - Not only was the New Testament written in Greek, but the O
Ministry, Gospel - That the Gospel ministry is of divine origin, and intended to be kept up in the church, will evidently appear, if we consider the promises, that in the last and best times of the New Testament dispensation there would be an instituted and regular ministry in her, Ephesians 4:8 ; Ephesians 4:11
Promise - The word in the New Testament is usually taken for the promises that God heretofore made to Abraham, and the other patriarchs, of sending the Messiah, and conferring his Holy Spirit and eternal life on those that should believe on him
Chronology of the New Testament - Chronology of the New Testament...
b
Famine - We read in the New Testament, Acts 11:28, of a famine predicted by a Christian prophet named Agabus
Proverb, the Book of - The New Testament contains frequent quotations and allusions to it, Romans 12:20 1 Thessalonians 5:15 Hebrews 12:5-6 James 4:6 1 Peter 4:8 2 Peter 2:22
Paradise - ...
In the New Testament, "paradise" is put, in allusion to the paradise of Eden, for the place where the souls of the blessed enjoy happiness
Roman Breviary, Lessons of the - The scriptural lessons from the Old Testament and New Testament, recited in the first nocturn of Matins, are usually three in number; the three historical lessons, recited in the second nocturn, contain a brief biography of the saint or an account of the feast that is celebrated; the third group of three lessons, recited in the third nocturn, is a homily from one of the Doctors or Fathers of the Church on the Gospel proper to the feast of the day
Club - ”...
In the New Testament xulon is wood (1 Corinthians 3:12 ) and objects made of wood such as fetters (Acts 16:24 )
Shekel - It is the coin mentioned in the New Testament, Matthew 26:15 , etc
Writ - In this sense, writ is particularly applied to the Scriptures, or books of the Old Testament and New Testament as holy writ sacred writ
Augus'Tus - The first link binding him to New Testament history is his treatment of Herod after the battle of Actium
Poor - (Leviticus 19:13 ) Principles similar to those laid down by Moses are inculcated in the New Testament, as (Luke 3:11 ; 14:13 ; Acts 6:1 ; Galatians 2:10 ; James 2:15 )
Circumcision - The biblical notice of the rite describes it as distinctively Jewish; so that in the New Testament "the circumcision" and "the uncircumcision" are frequently used as synonyms for the Jews and the Gentiles
Heresy - ...
However, the word is used in this sense only once in the New Testament
Bowing - ...
Breaking of the Bread—One of the New Testament Names for the HOLYCOMMUNION (which see) and one of the four marks of the Church'sunbroken continuity
Lectionary - The New Testament is readthree times, while the Book of Psalms is read twelve times or oncea month
Last Day(s), Latter Days, Last Times - ...
There is another problem in that in modern times we find it difficult to think that the New Testament writers were living in "the last times. ...
In the New Testament it is not so much a question of what will happen to nations, as of the way God will work out his purpose in the affairs of the church and of individual believers. ...
The New Testament makes it clear that the coming of Jesus Christ was the critical event. ...
Sometimes the New Testament speaks of the end of all things as though it were very near and sometimes there seems to be a long interval. John is the only New Testament writer to use the expression "the last day, " an expression that points to Jesus' activity right to the end of time. But the New Testament writers were clear that this was but the prelude to God's final state of affairs and that, in the perspective of eternity, that final state was not far off. Again and again the New Testament brings out the truth that when Jesus returns all evil will be defeated and the redeemed will know the fullness of everlasting life. ...
For the New Testament writers the coming of Jesus Christ into the world to bring about our salvation was the decisive happening in the entire history of the world. This did not mean that all evil would immediately disappear; both the New Testament writings and Christian experience make it plain that evil continues. However long or short a time it will be before the end of this world as we measure time, we are living in the last times as the New Testament writers understand it
Church - Church is the term used in the New Testament most frequently to describe a group of persons professing trust in Jesus Christ, meeting together to worship Him, and seeking to enlist others to become His followers. A basic understanding of the church in the New Testament requires answers to the following four basic questions: What does the word “church” mean? What were the characteristics of the early church's life? How was the church organized? How did the early church grow and expand?...
The meaning of the term “church” Church is the English translation of the Greek word ekklesia . The use of the Greek term prior to the emergence of the Christian church is important as two streams of meaning flow from the history of its usage into the New Testament understanding of church. The use of the term in the Old Testament in referring to the people of God is important for understanding the term “church” in the New Testament. For them to use a self-designation that was common in the Old Testament for the people of God reveals their understanding of the continuity that links the Old and New Testaments. As a consequence of this broad background of meaning in the Greek and Old Testament worlds, the term “church” is used in the New Testament of a local congregation of called-out Christians, such as the “church of God which is at Corinth”(1 Corinthians 1:2 ), and also of the entire people of God, such as in the affirmation that Christ is “the head over all things to the church, Which is his body” (Ephesians 1:22-23 ). ...
What church means in the New Testament is further defined by a host of over one hundred other descriptive expressions occurring in relationship to passages where the church is being addressed. ...
Major characteristics of the life of the church The preeminent characteristic of the church in the New Testament is devotion to Jesus Christ as Lord. ...
Organization of the New Testament churches A striking feature of the organization of the early churches is that every member of the church was seen as having a gift for service which was to be used cooperatively for the benefit of all (Romans 12:1-8 ; 1 Peter 4:10 ). ...
“Apostle” usually designated one appointed as the authorized representative of Jesus Christ, and the term in the New Testament is most frequently applied to one of the Twelve (Acts 1:15-26 ) or to Paul (Galatians 1:1-24 ). The term was occasionally used in a wider sense to indicate the validity and importance of one of the early church's leaders, such as James (Galatians 1:19 ) or Barnabas (Acts 14:4 ; compare Romans 16:7 ); but there is no hint in the New Testament that an apostle could appoint a person to succeed himself and establish a continuing line
Infant Baptism - ...
Baptists and other adherents of believer's baptism raise the following arguments and counter-arguments: (1) The New Testament prerequisite of baptism is faith (Acts 18:8 ) which is evidenced by confession (Romans 10:9-10 ) and repentance (Acts 2:38 ); (2) infant baptism rests ultimately on the fear that infants are held accountable for organic sin; Baptists counter with a doctrine of an age of accountability at which conscious sin occurs (Genesis 8:21 ; Psalm 25:7 ; Jeremiah 3:25 ) and at which a conscious response to God is possible (1 Kings 18:12 ; Psalm 71:5 ,Psalms 71:5,71:17 ); (3) household baptisms need not have included children; baptism is prefigured in the salvation of Noah and his exclusively adult household in the ark (1 Peter 3:20-21 ); (4) Jesus' blessing of the children demonstrates Christ's love for children; children are presented as an example to disciples rather than as disciples themselves (Matthew 18:2-4 ); (5) circumcision is an imperfect analogy to baptism; only males participated in circumcision, whereas in baptism there is “neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28 ); the witness of the New Testament is that “what is born of the flesh is flesh” and that a spiritual birth is necessary to enter God's kingdom (John 3:5-6 ); it is not the Israel of the flesh that inherits the promises of God but those who are spiritual Israel by a faith commitment (Romans 6-8 ; Galatians 6:16 ); (6) the responsibility of the faith community to its children is instruction in the way of the Lord (Deuteronomy 4:9-10 ; Deuteronomy 11:19 ; Proverbs 22:6 ); participation in covenant renewal is educational for children
Spirits in Prison - This passage has often been identified as one of the most obscure in the entire New Testament. ...
That these spirits are the evil angels of Genesis 6:1-4 (or their offspring) is indicated by their being in prison, their disobedience in the time of Noah, their mention in 2 Peter 2:4 and Jude 6 , and the New Testament use of the plural noun ("spirits, " pneumasin ) as a reference to evil spirits unless otherwise qualified
Anoint - ” A word that is important both to Old Testament and New Testament understandings is the noun mâshı̂yach, which gives us the term messiah. The New Testament title of Christ is derived from the Greek Christos which is exactly equivalent to the Hebrew mâshı̂yach for it is also rooted in the idea of “to smear with oil
Affliction - ...
New Testament Three Greek words may be used for “affliction,” including words meaning oppression, mistreatment, and misfortune. ...
In the New Testament the source of affliction is (1) the natural conditions of humanity (James 1:27 ); (2) persecution because of faithfulness to Christ (2 Corinthians 6:4 ; 1 Thessalonians 1:6 ); (3) discipline for the purpose of maturing the Christian faith; and (4) the result of personal sin (Galatians 6:7 )
Grecia - The first, which was that of Macedonia, included also Thessaly and Epirus; and the other, that of Achaia, all the rest of Greece, which is, properly speaking, the Greece of the New Testament. In fact, in the two books of the Maccabees, and in those of the New Testament, the word Greek commonly implies a Gentile
Zidon - "Sidon," the Greek form, is found in Genesis 10:15; Genesis 10:19, in the Apocrypha generally, and in the New Testament. In New Testament times Zidon (called "Sidon") was visited by Jesus, Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24; Luke 4:26, although the "coasts" of Tyre and Sidon denoted the adjacent region as well as the cities themselves, and some think that the Saviour did not enter the cities
Hell - Hell is an Anglo-Saxon word used to translate one Hebrew word and three Greek words in the King James Version of the Old and New Testaments. Whereas in the Old Testament, the distinction in the fates of the righteous and the wicked was not always clear, in the New Testament hades refers to a place of torment opposed to heaven as the place of Abraham's bosom ( Luke 16:23 ; Acts 2:27 ,Acts 2:27,2:31 ). ”...
One time the Greek word tartaroo “cast into hell” appears in the New Testament ( 2 Peter 2:4 ). In the sole use of the word in the New Testament it refers to the place of punishment for rebellious angels. The New Testament teaches the idea of punishment for sin before and after death
Prison, Prisoners - ...
New Testament In New Testament times, persons could be imprisoned for nonpayment of debt (Matthew 5:25-26 ; Luke 12:58-59 ), political insurrection and criminal acts (Luke 23:19 ,Luke 23:19,23:25 ), as well as for certain religious practices (Luke 21:12 ; Acts 8:3 ). His experiences provides the most detail on prisons in the New Testament world. ...
The situation for prisoners remained dismal in New Testament times, and concern for such persons is a virtue expected by Christ of every disciple (Matthew 25:36 ,Matthew 25:36,25:39 ,Matthew 25:39,25:43-44 )
Resurrection - So pointed is the prophetic expression of national hope that the New Testament writers sometimes used the language of the prophets to expound the doctrine of resurrection (compare Hosea 13:14 ; 1 Corinthians 15:55 ). In New Testament times the Saduccees still did not believe in resurrection. ...
New Testament Jesus' preaching presupposed a doctrine of resurrection. ...
The New Testament unquestionably affirms a doctrine of resurrection of all persons from the dead
How the Prophetic Gift Was Received - Its culminating point is found in the prophecy contained in ( Isaiah 52:13-15 ) and Isai 52:53 Prophets of the New Testament . --So far as their predictive powers are concerned, the Old Testament prophets find their New Testament counterpart in the writer of the Apocalypse; but in their general character, as specially illumined revealers of God's will, their counterpart will rather be found, first in the great Prophet of the Church and his forerunner, John the Baptist, and next in all those persons who were endowed with the extraordinary gifts of the Spirit in the apostolic age, the speakers with tongues and the interpreters of tongues, the prophets and the discerners of spirits, the teachers and workers of miracles. ( 1 Corinthians 12:10,28 ) That Predictive powers did occasionally exist in the New Testament prophets is proved by the case of Agabus, (Acts 11:23 ) but this was not their characteristic. The prophets of the New Testament were supernaturally illuminated expounders and preachers
Gospel - Although “gospel” translates a Greek word from the New Testament, the concept of good news itself finds its roots in the Hebrew language of the Old Testament. ...
Development in the New Testament From approximately 300 B. However, by the time the New Testament was written the usage of euangelizesthai had changed slightly. However, because the Greek language now allowed the content of their proclamation to be separated from the idea of proclamation itself, writers of the New Testament could also say the good news was confessed, taught, spoken, told, announced, and witnessed. ...
Usage in the New Testament In the New Testament “gospel” has two shades of meaning: it is both the actual message on the lips of Jesus about the reign of God (Mark 1:14 ), and it is the story told about Jesus after His death and resurrection (Galatians 1:11-12 ). Those readers who live several centuries after the writing of the New Testament must glean the message from careful study of all its books. ”...
Development of Written Gospels Within the New Testament, the word euanggelion always refers to oral communication, never to a document or piece of literature. The gospels of the New Testament developed along a pattern similar to other ancient writings. The persecution begun by Nero continued in varying degrees of intensity during the reign of other emperors throughout the New Testament period. Preaching recorded in the New Testament has a distinct sense of urgency about it. ...
While the teaching of the New Testament affirms that there is only one, true gospel, the books contained therein stand as testimony to the fact that the gospel is influenced by each personality which proclaims it. All of the known rejected gospels were written much later than the four included in the New Testament, most commonly between A
Christ, Christology - The scarcity of allusions to the Messiah before the New Testament period is probably to be explained by the fact that Israel's hope took on various shapes. ...
In the apostolic church this understanding of Jesus' life and ministry was given clearer definition (Acts 2:22-36 ; Acts 8:26-40 ), and in the hands of the New Testament theologians such as Paul (Romans 3:24-26 ) and the author of Hebrews (Romans 8-10 ) the conviction regarding the person, work, and glory of Jesus Christ is clearly articulated. Specifically, this means that a choice has to be considered whether the interpreter will begin with creedal formulations that confess that Jesus Christ is “true God” and “true man,” and then work backward to the way this teaching arose in the early church and the New Testament. ” The alternative approach, called by modern scholars a Christology “from below,” begins with the factual data of the historical and theological records of the New Testament Scriptures, and from there it proceeds to trace the way the church's understanding of the Lord developed until the creeds were framed. Another way of putting this choice—which we shall stress is not so momentous as it appears, since both methods add up to the same conclusion—is to ask whether New Testament Christology is ontological (that is, concerned with Christ's transcendent role in relation to God, the world, and the church) or primarily functional. The latter term means that the New Testament writers were concerned mainly to relate the person of Jesus Christ to His achievement as Savior and Lord and to set this in the context of His earthly ministry. In what follows we adopt the approach of “Christology from below” on the ground that this method more adequately respects the way the New Testament teaching has come to us and so can be seen in the pages of the New Testament. ...
The Course of New Testament Christology In accordance with our chosen approach, it becomes possible to plot the path that the New Testament writers took as they formulated their understanding of the person and work of Christ in response to situations that arose among the first Christian congregations. Both areas proved fertile ground for the application to Jesus of the commonest New Testament Christological title, Lord. )...
The final step in New Testament Christology was taken in the churches whose life we see reflected in the Letter to the Hebrews and the Johannine writings. How to relate the two sides to Jesus' person—the human and the divine—is not explained in the New Testament; and the writers there bequeath a rich legacy to the later church which formed the substance of the Christological debates leading to the Council of Chalcedon in A
Anthropology - Specific New Testament references to the concept include 1 Corinthians 11:7 ; Colossians 3:1 ; and James 3:9 . ...
New Testament The place of people in God's activity of creation is paralleled by their place in God's activity of redemption. The New Testament insists that people have failed to accept the responsibility given in Genesis 1:29-30 . New Testament writers stress human sin throughout (Romans 3:9-20 ; Romans 6:23 ); still, the broader theme of God's love for all humanity is echoed at every turn. The New Testament teachings about humanity, God, and salvation are clear: despite humanity's unworthiness, God loves with an everlasting love. ...
The Old Testament truth that people exist as a totality remained firm in New Testament writings. In the New Testament scheme, four dimensions of life are designated in place of the Hebraic flesh, spirit, and nephesh . Like its Old Testament counterpart, the New Testament root meaning of spirit refers to “wind,” “breath,” or “force. Similar to its Old Testament counterpart, flesh (Greek, sarx ) in the New Testament suggests physical failing and the inability to transcend the physical dimension. ...
The New Testament illustrates four specific and distinct dimensions of human existence, but the writers of the New Testament affirm with the Old Testament writers that a human being is a totality, a complete whole. New Testament writers, in general, note the existence of the image even in “natural man” but, more significantly, see the proper restoration of the image of God in people through redemption in Jesus Christ (Romans 8:29 ; 1 Corinthians 11:7 ; James 3:9 ). Unique to the New Testament view is the idea that ultimately the true image of God can be seen in Christ (John 12:45 ; John 14:9 ; Colossians 1:15 ; Hebrews 1:3 ). Several key themes which are introduced in Old Testament writings and later enriched by the New Testament witness have been noted
Building - Both these themes, of God dwelling among his people and God building up his people, are taken up in the New Testament as images for the new covenant community. As a celebration of Jew-Gentile unity and equality in Christ, Ephesians 2:20-22 portrays the church as building ( oikodome [ Psalm 118:22 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Matthew 21:42 ; Acts 4:11 ; 1 Peter 2:7 ) and provides the whole with life and growth (Ephesians 2:21 ), while the apostles and New Testament prophets provide a solid foundation (2:20; cf. Harris, From Grave to Glory: Resurrection in the New Testament ; A. McKelvey, The New Temple: The Church in the New Testament ; P. Minear, Images of the Church in the New Testament ; H
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - In 1548-9 the AEthiopic New Testament was also printed at Rome, edited by three Abyssinians. --
Arabic versions of the Old Testament were made from the Hebrew (tenth century), from the Syriac and from the LXX ...
Arabic versions of the New Testament . The first printed edition of the Old and New Testaments in Armenian appeared at Amsterdam in 1666, under the care of a person commonly termed Oscan or Uscan, and described as being an Armenian bishop. ...
The Syriac New Testament Versions . (a) The Peshito Syriac New Testament. It may stand as an admitted fact that a version of the New Testament in Syriac existed in the second century
Satan - ...
"Satan" occurs thirty-six times in the New Testament, eighteen of that number in the Gospels and Acts. ...
Satan is regarded in the New Testament as "master of death and destruction, " who carries out God's wrath against sinners. ...
The other common appellation for Satan in the New Testament is "the devil" (diabolos [1]), not found in the Old Testament, but thirty-four times here, meaning one who is traducer, a slanderer. In the New Testament the "devil" becomes "an evil principle/being standing against God. "...
In the New Testament the word appears to be used interchangeably with "Satan
World - ...
The people of the world are called simply the "world" or the "earth" occasionally in the Old Testament and frequently in the New Testament. Similar New Testament references to the Christ's or his apostles' authority appear. ...
In the New Testament the world also appears as a hostile environment. Although the Old Testament presents the idea that the present world is temporary (Psalm 102:25-27 ), the distinction between this world/age and the world/age to come does not appear clearly until the late intertestamental and New Testament periods. By the time of the New Testament, the distinction is clear and frequent
bi'Ble - But the application of the word BIBLE to the collected books of the Old and New Testaments is not to be traced farther back than the fifth century of our era. --The Bible consists of two great parts, called the Old and New Testaments, separated by an interval of nearly four hundred years. The New Testament is written wholly in Greek. 0F the Greek of the New Testament there are a number of ancient manuscripts They are divided into two kinds, the Uncials , written wholly in capitals , and the Cursives , written in a running hand . [1] A REVISED VERSION of this authorized edition was made by a group of American and English scholars, and in 1881 the Revised New Testament was published simultaneously in the United States and England. Among these were Moulton's Modern Reader's Bible, the Twentieth century New Testament, Weymouth's, Moffatt's, and the American translation. As a result of the modern-speech translations that have appeared and been widely received, the American Revision Committee set to work again, and in 1946 the Revised Standard Version of the New Testament was published
Elder - In both the Old and New Testaments, the term "elder" indicates one of advanced age (Heb. This is the situation encountered in the New Testament, where the triad of chief priests, scribes, and elders is often referred to as the Sanhedrin (Mark 11:27 ; 14:43 ; also cf. ...
The New Testament . The office of elder in the New Testament church cannot be fully understood without the background of the Old Testament local elder, an office still functioning in New Testament Judaism with duties pertaining to discipline and leadership (cf. ...
New Testament elders (presbyteroi [ Titus 1:5-9 ; and 1618100881_61 ). ...
In Revelation 4:4 the twenty-four elders sitting on twenty-four thrones surrounding the throne of God probably represent the entire church (twenty-four for the twelve patriarchs of the Old Testament and the twelve apostles of the New Testament cf. Knight, III, The New Testament Teaching on the Role Relationship of Men and Women ; J
Vessels And Utensils - Thus, a sizable industry existed in Jerusalem of New Testament times for making a variety of stone vessels. By New Testament times, glass was becoming widely used for juglets and bottles. Plates did not become common until New Testament times. New Testament cups (Luke 11:39 ) remained bowl-like and varied in size. By New Testament times, lamps (Matthew 25:1 ; Mark 4:21 ) were molded in two parts forming a covered bowl with central opening to which a handmade spout was added. New Testament cooking pots were similar, but smaller and more delicate with thin straplike handles. New Testament versions (variously translated) are mentioned as containers for oil ( Matthew 25:4 ) and, in alabaster, for perfume (Matthew 26:7 )
Mercy, Merciful - ...
Mercy in the New Testament Three word families express the idea of mercy in the New Testament. Eleos The most common words in the New Testament for mercy belong to the eleos family. The New Testament does not share in this assessment, having more in common with the Old Testament perspective on God's mercy. The total New Testament picture is much brighter. This is why mercy is often an element in New Testament greetings and benedictions (1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 ; Galatians 6:16 ; 2 John 1:3 ; Jude 1:2 ). Conclusion As with the Old Testament, the New Testament treatment of God's mercy cannot be separated from His love, His grace, and His faithfulness. The difference, of course, is that the New Testament writers had come to see the mercy of God in a much brighter light in the face of Jesus Christ
King, Christ as - ...
The New Testament In the time of Herod king of Judea ( Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 1:5 ) and Caesar Augustus who reigned over the Roman world (Luke 2:1 ), Jesus was born. Throughout the balance of the New Testament Jesus is described as the Son of David, a king. ...
The motif of Christ as King and the kingdom is less common outside the Gospels in the New Testament, except in Revelation. Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament ; C. Cullmann, The Christology of the New Testament ; idem, The Early Church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology ; R. Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology ; F. Marshall, Jesus the Saviour: Studies in the New Testament Theology ; N. Perrin, Jesus and the Language of the Kingdom: Symbol and Metaphor in New Testament Interpretation ; R
Malachias - " Thus Old Testament prophecy ends as New Testament prophecy begins; compare the message of Gabriel to Zacharias (Luke 1)
Lollards - These were all enunciated by Wyclif and were spread abroad by his "poor priests," men, who though many of them were not in Orders, went throughout the country preaching and exhorting the people, and appealing for confirmation of their teaching to Wyclif's translation of the New Testament (a family one)
Basket - The New Testament uses two words for basket
Sandals, Shoes - During New Testament times, Jewish practice forbade the wearing of sandals with multilayered leather soles nailed together, as this was the shoe worn by Roman soldiers
Serpent - ...
In the New Testament it is both directly asserted and in various forms assumed that Satan seduced our first parents into sin (John 8:44 ; Romans 16:20 ; 2 co 11:3,14 ; Revelation 12:9 ; 20:2 )
Hebrew - In the New Testament there is the same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners (Acts 6:1 ; Philippians 3:5 )
Cyprus - It is first mentioned in the New Testament (Acts 4:36 ) as the native place of Barnabas
Red Sea - In the New Testament (Acts 7:36 ; Hebrews 11:29 ) this name is given to the Gulf of Suez
Deacon - The name "deacon" is nowhere applied to them in the New Testament; they are simply called "the seven" (21:8)
Minister - In New Testament leitourgos is a "public administrator", civil as the magistrate (Romans 13:4; Romans 13:6), or sacerdotal as the Aaronic priests were (Hebrews 10:11) and as Christ was (Hebrews 8:2), and as Paul figuratively was, presenting as a sacrifice before God the Gentiles converted by his ministry of the gospel (Romans 15:16) and their faith (Philippians 2:17), and as Christians minister their alms (Romans 15:27; 2 Corinthians 9:12)
Washing the Hands And Feet - The former of these usages was transformed by the Pharisees of the New Testament age into a matter of ritual observance, (Mark 7:3 ) and special rules were laid down as to the time and manner of its performance
Prison - Prisons seem to have been common in New Testament times (Matthew 11:2 ; 25:36,43 )
Master - ...
The New Testament further emphasizes the responsibility of masters towards their servants
Barbarian - ” In the New Testament, barbarian occurs six times
Apparel - In the New Testament this same truth is presented in mt22, in the case of the man who wore his own garment when he should have worn the king's garment
Aloes - ...
It probably was one of the constituents of the perfume which was placed in the alabaster boxes mentioned in the New Testament
Apron - Potwin, Here and There in the Greek New Testament, New York, 1898, p
Thessalonica - " This is a peculiar term, not elsewhere found in the New Testament, but this very word appears in the inscription on a triumphal arch believed to have been erected after the battle of Philippi
Province - In the New Testament we are brought into contact with the administration of the provinces of the Roman empire
Captain - The officer in the New Testament, called a captain in Acts 28:16, was probably the commander of the prætorian troops at Rome, but the R
Malachi - Thus the Old Testament closes with Predictions of the Messiah, and the New Testament opens with the record of their fulfillment
Sacred - Proceeding from God and containing religious precepts as the sacred books of the Old and New Testament
Verse - The New Testament was divided into verses by Robert Stephens
Pearl - " Pearls, however are frequently mentioned in the New Testament, (Matthew 13:45 ; 1 Timothy 2:9 ; Revelation 17:4 ; 21:21 ) and were considered by the ancients among the most precious of gems, and were highly esteemed as ornaments
Minister - (Ezra 8:17 ; Nehemiah 10:36 ; Isaiah 61:6 ; Ezekiel 44:11 ; Joel 1:9,13 ) One term in the New Testament betokens a subordinate public administrator, (Romans 13:6 ; 15:16 ; Hebrews 8:2 ) one who performs certain gratuitous public services
Hagar - ...
In the New Testament Paul uses the story of Sarah and Hagar to illustrate the conflict that exists between those who are God’s children through faith in his promises and those who are slaves to the law of Moses
Hosanna - ...
In the New Testament the word is used in a setting similar to that of Psalms 118
Idol - ...
Many scholars believe that the threat of idolatry was much less in the Jewish community after the Babylonian Exile and that it continued to be diminished though still present throughout New Testament times. The most noted problem in the New Testament concerns the propriety of eating meat which has previously been offered to an idol (1 Corinthians 8-10 )
Divine Retribution - ...
The New Testament also affirms that humans are rewarded and punished by God in this life (Galatians 6:7-8 ). The remarkable development in the New Testament is that reward/punishment in this life is a foretaste of that which will be experienced at the end of time
Conscience - The New Testament also uses this Hebraic reference to conscience: “if our heart condemn us” (1 John 3:20-21 . )...
“Conscience” in the New Testament is the translation of a Greek word derived from a verb that means “to know with
Fig Tree - The fig-tree figures in the New Testament in the symbolic action of Our Lord (Matthew 21; Mark 11), which is a reminder of the symbolic actions of the prophets of the Old Testament. Other references in the New Testament to the fig-tree and figs are in Matthew 7,24; John 1; James 3; Apocalypse 6
Esdraelon - ...
New Testament Esdraelon is mentioned in the New Testament as Armageddon or har-Megiddon, meaning hill or city of Megiddo
Symbol - While the word symbol does not appear in the Bible, both the Old and New Testaments are rich in symbolism and symbolic language. Symbols in the Old Testament are related to symbols of the New Testament in important ways. Many of the events of the Old Testament foreshadow events of the New Testament
Enemy - ” One Greek term, echthros, is used for each of the Hebrew words in the New Testament. ...
In the New Testament enemy most often refers to one's personal enemies, for the nation of Israel was no longer a force on the political scene
Presence of God - ...
New Testament Usage The primary New Testament manifestation of the presence of God is in Jesus Christ, Emmanuel, “God with us” (Matthew 1:23 ; John 1:14 ; Hebrews 1:1-3 )
Trance - In the New Testament we meet with the word three times -- (Acts 10:10 ; 11:6 ; 22:17 ) The ekstasis (i. (Ezekiel 3:15 ) As other elements and forms of the prophetic work were revived in "the apostles and prophets" of the New Testament, so also was this
Concordance - The Greek concordances are only for the New Testament, except one by Conrad Kircher on the Old, containing all the Hebrew words in alphabetical order; and underneath, all the interpretations of them in the LXX, and in each interpretation all the places where they occur in that version. Stephen, has given an excellent Greek concordance for the New Testament the best edition of which is that of Lepsic, anno 1717
Kindness - ...
New Testament Although both love of humankind (Acts 28:2 ) and brotherly love (2 Peter 1:7 ) are translated as kindness in the New Testament, the Greek word bearing the richest connotation is chrestotes ( kras to tas )
Offense - "...
The key Old Testament verse that is quoted several times in the New Testament and formulates the significant function of Christ as the "rock of offense" is Isaiah 8:14 : "He will become a sanctuary, a stone one strikes against; for both houses of Israel he will become a rock one stumbles over—a trap and a snare for the inhabitants of Jerusalem" (NRSV). ...
The concept of "offense" is used elsewhere in the New Testament as well
Coins - ...
Money of various kinds was in use in Palestine during the New Testament era. ...
It is not possible to give accurate present-day equivalents of the values of ancient coins, but New Testament references give an indication of the values of some coins in the first century
Gilead - ...
In New Testament times the former land of Gilead fell partly within the Decapolis and partly within Perea. Towns of the region that feature in the New Testament story are Gadara, Gerasa and Bethany-beyond-Jordan (Matthew 4:25; Matthew 8:28; Mark 5:1; Mark 7:31; John 1:28; see DECAPOLIS; PEREA)
Evangelism - While many think of evangelism as a New Testament phenomena, profound concern for all people is also obvious in the Old Testament (1 Kings 8:41-45 ; Psalm 22:27-28 ; Isaiah 2:2-4 ). ...
It is, however, the New Testament which manifests the dynamic thrust of evangelism. First, many insist on defining evangelism only in the strictest sense of the above New Testament words
Suffering - ...
New Testament Into an evil world God sent His only Son. Christian writers in the New Testament incorporated the trials of Christ into their existing Old Testament understanding of suffering. ...
New Testament writers realized there were other types of suffering than that incurred as they lived on Christian mission
Sleep - In Isaiah 29:10 and frequently in the New Testament ( Mark 13:36 ; Romans 13:11 ; Ephesians 5:14 ; 1 Thessalonians 5:6-9 ) it is used to describe a spiritual heaviness that must be shaken off in order to remain awake in this evil time. This expression does not continue into New Testament times, although the metaphorical use of sleep for death does. Six observations can be made about this expression in the New Testament
Septuagint - Its general use is proved by the manner of its quotation in New Testament. ...
Of 350 quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament only 50 differ materially from Septuagint Its language molded the conceptions of the New Testament writers and preachers
Clouds - ...
New Testament 1. Clouds are not used in the New Testament to point to the power of God as Creator except for indirect references ( Matthew 5:45 ; Acts 14:17 ). All other references to clouds in the New Testament have a relationship to God
Jewish Parties in the New Testament - Judaism in New Testament times was diverse. ...
Zealots The Zealots receive only brief mention in the New Testament. ...
Herodians The Herodians are mentioned in only three places in the New Testament (Matthew 22:16 ; Mark 3:6 ; Mark 12:13 ). They are not mentioned in the New Testament
Hell - Scripture progressively develops this destiny of the wicked: the Old Testament outlines the framework, while the New Testament elaborates on it. ...
The New Testament . In the New Testament hell is where the reprobate exist after the resurrection from Hades and the final judgment. ...
The New Testament conception of hell does not exceed Jesus' description. According to the New Testament, the objects of God's wrath range from the pious hypocrites (Matthew 23:33 ) and those failing to help the poor (Matthew 25:31-46 ; Luke 16:19-31 ) to the vile and murderers (Revelation 21:8 ). ...
Since hell is not a natural fixture of creation but results from the fall and is destiny of the wicked, the New Testament occasionally personifies hell as the demonic forces behind sin. The New Testament describes hell as a place: a furnace (Matthew 13:42,50 ), a lake of fire (Revelation 19:20 ; 20:14-15 ; 21:8 ), and a prison (Revelation 20:7 ). Other passages in the New Testament reiterate Jesus' dreadful warning, by describing hell as "everlasting torment
Tradition - A study of the New Testament helps us to realize that it was at least ten to twenty years after the death of Jesus before any of the Gospels were written. In the New Testament, this was done among the many scattered congregations. The New Testament experience was different in that the Christians' worship did not shrink inward to one place but spread outward to many. It was the New Testament itself which became the focal point of New Testament traditions rather than any specific worship center. ...
It appears that the New Testament traditions were written under the impetus of historical crises, but these were of a different nature. Other New Testament materials were written to meet the crises of missions and evangelism
Flesh - It is safe to say that all of the New Testament uses of flesh are made from these Old Testament building blocks. ...
The New Testament. The Greek word used most commonly in the New Testament to render the Hebrew word for flesh (basar [1]) is sarx [2], which occurs 147 times. While the New Testament appropriates the Old Testament foundation, it also builds on it, some writers giving the term their own distinctive twist. From this perspective it is possible to group the New Testament writings into three categories. The uniqueness of these in this regard is sufficiently indicated in that approximately two-thirds of the New Testament occurrences of flesh are found in them, almost half of these in Romans and Galatians. Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament ; R
Typology - ...
Typology as a Method of Interpreting the Old Testament Sometimes the New Testament explicitly refers to its method of interpreting the Old Testament as “type,” or “typically. ” Usually, however, the New Testament uses typology as a method of interpreting the Old Testament without explicitly saying so. Typology involves a correspondence , usually in one particular matter between a person, event, or thing in the Old Testament with a person, event, or thing, in the New Testament. Paul stressed one point of correspondence between the Old Testament events and the New Testament message: All the people participated in these experiences, but God was not pleased with most of them; the majority died in the desert and could not enter the Promised Land ( 1 Corinthians 10:5 ). ...
One point of correspondence between an Old Testament event and a New Testament event shows the same God at work in both covenants. Typology, a comparison stressing one point of similarity, helps us see the New Testament person, event, or institution as the fulfillment of that which was only hinted at in the Old Testament
Devil - ...
New Testament God led New Testament authors to a much more clear-cut teaching about Satan. The New Testament recognizes Satan as a personal reality distinct from human wills. The New Testament avoids identifying evil with the direct will of God, but evil is always subordinate to God. ...
The New Testament, as the Old, avoids talking of the absolute origin of Satan. ...
In summary, the New Testament teaches that Satan and his demonic allies are not coequal with God
Guard - In the New Testament (Mark 6:27 ) the Authorized Version renders the Greek Spekulator By "executioner," earlier English versions by "hangman," the Revised Version by "soldier of his guard
Cyrenius - Some translations of the New Testament use the name Cyrenius, an Anglicized form of his Greek name, while others use the Latin form Quirinius
Antioch - The name of two cities mentioned in the New Testament
Parable - In the New Testament, (1) a proverb (Mark 7:17 ; Luke 4:23 ), (2) a typical emblem (Hebrews 9:9 ; 11:19 ), (3) a similitude or allegory (Matthew 15:15 ; 24:32 ; Mark 3:23 ; Luke 5:36 ; 14:7 ); (4) ordinarily, in a more restricted sense, a comparison of earthly with heavenly things, "an earthly story with a heavenly meaning," as in the parables of our Lord
Patriarch - A name employed in the New Testament with reference to Abraham (Hebrews 7:4 ), the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8,9 ), and to David (2:29)
Temple - In the New Testament the word is used figuratively of Christ's human body (John 2:19,21 )
Argob - It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New Testament (Luke 3:1 )
Magic - ...
It is not much referred to in the New Testament
Tradition - First, they must keep the teaching passed down from Jesus through the apostles and recorded in the New Testament (Acts 2:42; 1 Corinthians 11:23; 1 Corinthians 15:3; 2 Timothy 1:13-14; Judges 1:3; see GOSPEL)
Basket - In the New Testament mention is made of the basket (Gr
Repentance - There are three Greek words used in the New Testament to denote repentance
Door - ...
In the New Testament Jesus calls Himself “the door” (John 10:7 ,John 10:7,10:9 )
Fullness of Time - While the sending of God's Son encompasses the whole of Christ's incarnate ministry, the New Testament specifically relates the sending to Christ's death as a saving event (John 3:17 ; Romans 8:3 ; 1 John 4:9-10 )
Leaven - ...
In the New Testament, leaven is a symbol of any evil influence which, if allowed to remain, can corrupt the body of believers
Nazirite - In the New Testament, Paul took the Nazirite vow for a specific period of time (Acts 18:18 ; Acts 21:22-26 )
Silver - In the New Testament period, the drachma, a silver coin, was required for the Temple tax
Vinegar - In the New Testament it is mentioned only in connection with the crucifixion
Muteness - ...
In the New Testament muteness is either not explained (Mark 7:32 ,Mark 7:32,7:37 ) or else attributed to demons (Matthew 9:32 ; Matthew 12:22 ; Mark 9:17 ,Mark 9:17,9:25 ; Luke 11:14 )
Chariots - ...
New Testament Chariots were used in prophetic imagery (Revelation 9:9 ; Revelation 18:13 ) and for transportation of the Ethiopian eunuch (Acts 8:26-38 )
Sabbatical Year - These "years" were observed under the New Testament; and Judaizers even sought to force their observance on Gentile Christians (Galatians 4:10)
Abba - It is used to express a vocative case, and therefore is found in all the passags in which it occurs in the New Testament (being in all, an invocation): Mark 14:36; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:6
Aphek - Aphek became known as Antipatris in the New Testament era
Evangelists - It is, however, to be remarked, that the office in which the evangelists chiefly present themselves to our notice in the New Testament, is that of assistants to the Apostles; or, as they might be termed, vice apostles, who acted under their authority and direction
Scribe - Scribes in the New Testament were the copyists of the law, and were popularly regarded as the teachers or expounders of the law
Aphek - Aphek became known as Antipatris in the New Testament era
Syria - In the New Testament, Syria may be considered as bounded west and north-west by the Mediterranean and by Mount Taurus, which separates it from Cilicia and Cataonia in Asia Minor, east by the Euphrates, and south by Arabia Deserta and Palestine, or rather Judea, for the name Syria included also the northern part of Palestine
Censer - ...
In the New Testament, where the twenty-four elders are said to have golden "vials" full of odors, Revelation 5:8 , the meaning is vessels of incense, censers, not vials in the present sense of the word
Apoc'Rypha - ...
New Testament Apocrypha -- (A collection of legendary and spurious Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and Epistles
Chronology - By this term we understand the technical and historical chronology of the Jews and their ancestors from the earliest time to the close of the New Testament Canon
Procurator - The Greek agemon , rendered "governor" in the Authorized Version, is applied in the New Testament to the officer who presided over the imperial province of Judea
Greece, Greeks, Gre'Cians - (Isaiah 66:19 ) The name of the country, Greece occurs once in the New Testament, (Acts 20:2 ) as opposed to Macedonia
Barnabas, Feast of Saint - ) He stands out in the New Testament Scriptures as onewho is ever helpful, which may have suggested his new name; thushe sold his land, giving the money to the Apostles in order thatthe necessities of the infant Church might be met
Crete - ...
The New Testament mentions Crete in the account of Paul’s eventful voyage to Rome
Gospel - In the New Testament the word "Gospel" is appliedexclusively to the announcement of certain events, certain outwardfacts connected with the Second Person in the Blessed Trinity,namely, the Incarnation, Birth, Life, Death, Burial, Resurrectionand Ascension of the Son of God
World, the - The development of the biblical concept and the varieties of ways in which the term is used become evident when the Old Testament uses, Greek concept, and New Testament uses are considered in sequence. ...
In the New Testament Three words are translated as “world” in the New Testament: oikoumene (15 times, “the inhabited earth”), aion (over 30 times, similar to the Hebrew olam meaning “long duration,” “age,” or “world”), and kosmos (188 times). The doctrine of creation was still fundamental to the New Testament writers. ...
In the New Testament, therefore, world is influenced by both Hebrew and Greek thought and may be considered primarily in its natural order, its human order, its fallenness, or its place in God's redemptive order
Cross, Crucifixion - The importance of the cross as a theological motif in the New Testament is impossible to overestimate. It stands as the center of the New Testament theology of salvation and is the starting point for not only soteriology, but all of Christian theology. While the larger notion of the death of Christ may carry a broader and even deeper significance in New Testament theology, the cross as a symbol of God's action in Christ and a motivator for us to follow is worthy of discussion. Hengel, The Atonement: The Origins of the Doctrine in the New Testament ; M. Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross ; idem, The Cross in the New Testament
Perseverance - In the NIV the term "perseverance" occurs thirteen times, all in the New Testament. ...
In the New Testament, the main sense of hypomone [ 2 Corinthians 12:12 ); others, more passive, show perseverance under suffering (2 Thessalonians 1:4 ). ...
There are two main strands of teaching about perseverance in the New Testament: (1) the indicative or doctrinal-type statements, which basically describe the nature and the presence of this virtue in the lives of believers; and (2) the imperative or hortatory statements, stressing the need for or the results of perseverance. Such understanding accords well with the frequent New Testament references to Christ as the example for his followers (1 Peter 2:21 ; 1 John 2:6 ). This literary form, sometimes called climax or gradatio, was common in Stoicism and Greek popular philosophy, and occurs also in early Christian writings, although it is found otherwise only in Romans 5:3-5 among the New Testament lists of virtues
Version, the Revised English - The New Testament was published in May, 1881. "...
The Revisers had an avowed Unitarian amongst them, and how could God bless such dishonour on His beloved Son?...
All the above remarks refer to the New Testament
Saints - ...
New Testament One word, hagios , is used for saints in the New Testament
Glorification - The word "glorification" is not used in the Hebrew Old Testament or the Greek New Testament, but the idea of glorification is conveyed by the Greek verb doxazo [ Psalm 73:24 ; Daniel 12:3 ), the New Testament is considerably fuller and richer in its development, making it explicit that believers will be glorified (Romans 8:17,30 ; 2 Thessalonians 1:12 )
Gentleness - ...
The New Testament . Barclay, New Testament Words, pp
Peter - We have a very circumstantial account of this man in the New Testament, so that it supersedes the necessity of any observations here. " (Revelation 3:12) Reader, is not this done now as much as in the instance of Old Testament saints, and New Testament believers in the ages past? Let us cherish the thought
Excommunication - The examples of the Old and New Testament, and the practise of the Apostles furnish proof of this. In the New Testament the Apostle delivers "such a one to Satan for the destruction of the flesh" (1 Corinthians 5)
Elder - ” In the New Testament, the Greek word is presbuteros , which is transliterated in English as “presbyter” and from which the word “priest” was derived. In the New Testament, frequent reference is made to the elders of the Jews, usually in conjunction with the chief priests or scribes (for example, Matthew 21:23 ; Mark 14:43 ). ...
Elders in the New Testament In the earliest Jewish Christian churches, at least the church in Jerusalem, the position of “elder” was almost certainly modeled after the synagogue pattern. ...
After the New Testament period, the structure of the ministry became more formalized
Fire - The usual word for fire in the New Testament is pur [ πῦρ ]'>[1], the regular Greek translation of Hebrew es [2] in the Septuagint. In the New Testament Paul describes the second coming of Christ as "in blazing fire" (2 Thessalonians 1:7 ), an appearance that carries overtones of judgment as well as mere presence. In visions of God in his glory in both Old and New Testaments, fire is a regular phenomenon. ...
A special use of fire imagery in the New Testament is that connected with baptism with fire. ...
The same imagery of fire as a sign of God's anger and judgment continues in the New Testament
Temptation, Test - But by far the most common term in the New Testament is peirazo [ Acts 9:26 ; 26:21 ), but the overwhelming majority of uses denote the testing of persons (Galatians 6:1 ; Hebrews 11:17 ). The picture in the New Testament is no different. The language of the "evil inclination" is not prominent in the New Testament in connection with temptation, although the idea is not absent (1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 1 Timothy 1:20 ; James 1:14-15 ). Other terms such as "flesh" carry that sense, but in speaking of temptation the New Testament writers appear to prefer apocalyptic over anthropological language
Bible - It comprises the Old and New Testaments, or more properly, Covenants, Exodus 24:7 ; Matthew 26:28 . The entire Bible is the rule of faith to all Christians, and not the New Testament alone; though this is of especial value as unfolding the history and doctrines of our divine Redeemer and of his holy institutions. The New Testament writings were received each one by itself from the hands of the apostles, and were, as their inspired works, gradually collected into one volume to the exclusion of all others. The arrangement of the verses of the New Testament as we now have them was perfected in the Latin Vulgate, an edition of which with verses was published by Robert Stephens, a learned French printer, in 1551. ...
The first well-know English translation of the New Testament was that of Wicliffe, made about 1370, before the invention of printing; though others had been made, one as early as king Alfred, of parts of the Bible into Saxon
Bible - The name applied by Christians by way of eminence, to the collection of sacred writings, or the holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. The apocryphal books of the New Testament are the epistle of St. Paul to Senecca, and several other pieces of the like nature; as may be seen in the collection of the apocryphal writings of the New Testament made by Fabricius. ) Both Old and New Testaments were afterwards translated into Latin by the primitive Christians; and while the Roman empire subsisted in Europe, the reading of the Scriptures in the Latin tongue, which was the universal language of that empire, prevailed every where; but since the face of affairs in Europe has been changed and so many different monarchies erected upon the ruins of the Roman empire, the Latin tongue has be degrees grown into disuse; whence has arisen a necessity of translating the Bible into the respective languages of each people; and this has produced as many different versions of the Scriptures in the modern languages as there are different nations professing the Christian religion. This was first printed entire, 1664, by one of their bishops at Amsterdam, in quarto, with the New Testament in octavo. A translation of the New Testament into the Croatian language was published by Faber Creim, and others, in 1562 and 1563. About the middle of the sixteenth century, Bedell, bishop of Kilmore, set on foot a translation of the Old Testament into the Irish language, the New Testament and the Liturgy having been before translated into that language: the bishop appointed one King to execute this work, who, not understanding the oriental languages, was obliged to translate it from the English. Ziegenbald and Grindler, two Danish missionaries, published a translation of the New Testament in the Malabrian language, after which they proceeded to translate the Old Testament. About 1670, Sir Robert Boyle procured a translation of the New Testament into the Malayan language, which he printed, and sent the whole impression to the East Indies. Expenius published an Arabic New Testament entire, as he found it in his manuscript copy, at Leyden, 1616. Wilkins published the Coptic New Testament, in quarto, in 1716; and the Pentateuch also in quarto, in 1731, with Latin translations. There are two other versions, the one by John Paul Resenius, bishop of Zealand, in 1605; the other of the New Testament only, by John Michel, in 1524. A translation, however, of the New Testament by Wickliffe was printed by Mr. It only contained the New Testament, and was revised and republished by the same person in 1530. Coverdale, Goodman, Gilbie, Sampson, Cole, Wittingham, and Knox, made a new translation, printed there in 1560, the New Testament having been printed in 1557; hence called the Geneva Bible, containing the variations of readings, marginal annotations, &c. After the translation of the Bible by the bishops, two of the New Testament; the first by Laurence Thompson, from Beza's Latin edition, with the notes of Beza, published in 1582, in quarto, and afterwards in 1589, varying very little from the Geneva Bible; the second by the Papists at Rheims, in 1584, called the Rhemish Bible, or Rhemish translation. About thirty years after their New Testament, the Roman Catholics published a translation of the Old at Douay, 1609, and 1610, from the Vulgate, with annotations, so that the English Roman Catholics have now the whole Bible in their mother tongue; though, it is to be observed, they are forbidden to read it without a license from their superiors. There have been printed separately the Psalms, Canticles, some chapters of Genesis, Ruth, Joel, Jonah, Zephaniah, Malachi, and the New Testament, all which have been since reprinted in the Polyglot of London. As to the Ethiopic New Testament, which was first printed at Rome in 1548, it is a very inaccurate work, and is reprinted in the English Polyglot with all its faults
New Birth - In the central passage in the New Testament about the new birth (John 3 ), Jesus tells Nicodemus, a member of the Jewish ruling council, that he will not enter the kingdom of God unless he is born anew. The Old Testament saints were born again when they responded in faith to God's revealed message; New Testament saints, when they respond in faith to Jesus Christ. Kretzer, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 1:243-44; W
Powers - ...
The New Testament references to miraculous works occur in relation to Jesus' miracles and the presence of such works in the life of the early church. ...
The related word "authorities" is also used in two basic ways in the New Testament: of earthly rulers (Luke 12:11 ; John 7:26 ; Acts 16:19 ; Romans 13:1 ; Titus 3:1 ); and of supernatural or supraterrestrial beings (Ephesians 3:10 ; 6:12 ; Colossians 1:16 ; 2:15 ; 1 Peter 3:22 ). Trench, Synonyms of the New Testament
New Testament - For the general contents of the New Testament see BIBLE. The chronology of the principal events recorded in the New Testament is given in the following tables, with approximate dates. ...
CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE New Testament
Proverbs Book of - The book of Proverbs is frequently cited or alluded to in the New Testament
Covet, Covetous - ...
In the New Testament the same Greek word is translated “covet” in the King James Version and “earnestly desire” in the Revised Standard Version (1 Corinthians 12:39 )
Cup - The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold (Revelation 17:4 )
Cross - In the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Ephesians 2:16 ; Hebrews 12:2 ; 1 Corinthians 1:17,18 ; Galatians 5:11 ; 6:12,14 ; Philippians 3:18 )
Birds in Symbolism - In the Old Testament and the New Testament symbolic references to birds occur, and these were multiplied in medieval literature and art
Pharisees - On the first notice of them in the New Testament (Matthew 3:7 ), they are ranked by our Lord with the Sadducees as a "generation of vipers
Micah, Book of - ...
There are the following references to this book in the New Testament: ...
5:2, with Matthew 2:6 ; John 7:42
Satan - In the New Testament it is used as interchangeable with Diabolos, or the devil, and is so used more than thirty times
Forehead - ...
In the apocalyptic literature of the New Testament the foreheads of the righteous were marked (Revelation 7:3 ; Revelation 9:4 ; Revelation 14:1 ; Revelation 22:4 )
Salome - ...
...
"The daughter of Herodias," not named in the New Testament
Jew - By the time of the New Testament, the names ‘Hebrew’, ‘Israelite’ and ‘Jew’ were used interchangeably (Matthew 2:2; John 1:19; Acts 2:5; Romans 1:16; Romans 2:28-29; Romans 11:1; 1 Corinthians 9:20; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Galatians 2:14; Philippians 3:5; see also HEBREW; ISRAEL; JUDAH, TRIBE AND KINGDOM)
Beast - In the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property (Revelation 18:13 ); as used for food (1 Corinthians 15:39 ), for service (Luke 10:34 ; Acts 23:24 ), and for sacrifice (Acts 7:42 )
Robbery - ...
During the New Testament period, robbery was the jurisdiction of Roman law
Ecstasy - ...
In the New Testament Paul's experience of being caught up into the third heaven or paradise (2 Corinthians 12:2-4 ) is an example of an ecstatic experience
Abaddon - ...
The word only occurs once in the New Testament (Revelation 9:11 ) and five times in the Old Testament (Job 26:6 ; 28:22 ; 31:12 ; Psalm 88:11 ; Proverbs 15:11 )
Melchizedek - Melchizedek, or Melchisedec (mel-kĭz'-e-dĕk), the Greek form in the New Testament (king of righteousness), is mentioned in Genesis 14:18-20 as king of Salem and priest of the Most High God, meeting Abram in the valley of Shaveh, bringing out bread and wine to him, blessing him, and receiving tithes from him; in Psalms 110:4, where Messiah is described as a priest "after the order of Melchizedek;" and finally, in Hebrews 5:6-7, where the typical relations between Melchizedek and Christ are defined, both being priests without belonging to the Levitical tribe, superior to Abram, of unknown beginning and end, and kings of righteousness and peace
Access - The New Testament teaches that every person can now have access to God because Jesus' death on the cross has opened the way
Epistle to the Colossians - It has always been accepted as part of the New Testament, and it is only in recent times that rationalistic scholars have wrongly claimed that it was not a genuine work of Paul
Jael - And I cannot but conclude, that she is one of those worthies, of whom the Holy Ghost hath again spoken so hononrably in the New Testament, "who through faith subdued kingdoms
Libya - But Libya Proper, or the Libya of the New Testament, the country of the Lubims of the Old, was a large country lying along the Mediterranean, on the west of Egypt
Censer - A golden censer is mentioned in the New Testament
Symbolism, Birds in - In the Old Testament and the New Testament symbolic references to birds occur, and these were multiplied in medieval literature and art
Elder - In the New Testament Church the elders or presbyters were the same as the bishops
Jude, Saint - He is sometimes called the Jeremiah of the New Testament, as hewrote to the Church in "solemn and rugged language of present perilsand coming storms
Areopagus - The name came from the hill in Athens where the council originally met (commonly known as Mars Hill), though in New Testament times the council met in the commercial area of the town itself
Kingdom of God - The New Testament name for the Church
Denial - The New Testament speaks of two forms of denial, one bad, the other good
Word - ...
The New Testament . The New Testament reiterates the Old Testament depiction of the word of God as the divine means of creating and sustaining all things (Hebrews 11:3 ; 2 Peter 3:5-7 ), as divine revelation (Romans 3:2 ; 1 Peter 4:11 ), and as prophetic speech (Luke 3:2 ; Deuteronomy 5:5 ). ...
But the New Testament significantly deepens the Old Testament in light of the incarnation. ...
Accordingly, the New Testament richly describes the gospel as "the word" (Acts 8:4 ; 16:6 ; 1 Corinthians 15:2 ), "word of God" (Acts 6:7 ; 12:24 ; Hebrews 13:7 ; 1 Peter 1:23 ), "word of the Lord" (James 3:1-12 ; 13:48-49 ), "word of his [4] grace" (Acts 20:32 ), "word of Christ" (Romans 10:17 ; Colossians 3:16 ), "word of truth" (Ephesians 1:13 ; Colossians 1:5 ; James 1:18 ), "word of faith" (Romans 10:8 ), and "word of life" (Philippians 2:16 ). Although the Old Testament never uses the concept of word to describe the expected coming of the messiah, the New Testament significantly develops its theological meaning by equating the Old Testament concept of word of God with the person and work of Jesus Christ. Whereas extrabiblical concepts may have influenced, to a limited degree, the New Testament formulation of Jesus as the Word, the main influence comes from the Old Testament itself. ...
The New Testament views the incarnate Jesus as none other than the Old Testament word of God personified (John 1:14 a). ...
Thus in connection to the Old Testament picture of the word of God, the New Testament understands Jesus as the ultimate means through which God created, revealed, and personified himself to creation. ...
By the New Testament era, the word of God as Scripture referred to the entire Old Testament, to the Law of Moses, the Prophets, and the Psalms (cf. At what point the early church began to view some of the New Testament writings in this way is uncertain. But given the church's proclamation of Jesus and of the gospel as the "Word of God" and the early recognized authority of apostolic teaching, many of the New Testament books were probably seen in this way well before the close of the first century
Greeting - James is the only New Testament book to begin with the normal Greek greeting charein . 3 John 1:2 provides the best New Testament example: “Beloved, I pray that all may go well with you and that you may be in good health, just as it is well with your soul” (NRSV)
Vengeance - Vengeance is approached differently in the New Testament. This apparent dissimilarity lead Marcion in the second century, Schleiermacher in the eighteenth century, and some scholars since then to conclude that the Old Testament religion was inferior to that of the New Testament
Compassion - ...
The New Testament . The intertestamental literature and the New Testament continue to speak about God as the compassionate one
Appoint - ...
The Synoptic Gospels Foundational to the understanding of "appoint" in the New Testament is Jesus' statement about the kingdom that he has appointed to his followers ( Luke 9-10 ). The New Testament practice is often associated with the laying on of hands
False Prophet - ...
New Testament Jesus and the apostles spoke many times about false prophets. The tests of a prophet are: 1) Do their predictions come true (Jeremiah 28:9 )? 2 ) Does the prophet have a divine commission (Jeremiah 29:9 )? 3 ) Are the prophecies consistent with Scripture (2 Peter 1:20-21 ; Revelation 22:18-19 )? 4 ) Do the people benefit spiritually from the prophet's ministry (Jeremiah 23:13-14 ,Jeremiah 23:13-14,23:32 ; 1 Peter 4:11 )?...
Punishments for false prophets were just as severe in the New Testament as they were in the Old
Septuagint - ...
It has also been with great propriety observed, "that there are many words and forms of speech in the New Testament, the true import of which cannot be known but by their use in the Septuagint. Textibus; Prideaux's Connections; Owen's Inquiry into the Septuagint Version; Blair's Lectures on the Canon; and Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament; Clarke's Bibliotheca
Pilate, Pontius - The New Testament refers to him as “governor,” while other sources call him “procurator” or “prefect” (an inscription found in Caesarea in 1961). ...
Pilate seems to have had no personal inclination to put Jesus to death, and the New Testament writers are eager to show that he did not (Luke 23:4 ,Luke 23:4,23:14 ,Luke 23:14,23:22 ; John 18:38 ; John 19:4 ,John 19:4,19:6 ; compare Matthew 17:19 )
Build up - ...
In the New Testament we find several compound Greek verbs that are based on the root verb domeo, meaning "to build. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament
Saul - ...
New Testament Though the king Saul is mentioned in passing, most occurrences of the name in the New Testament refer to the Hebrew name of the apostle Paul
Antioch - (an' ti ahch) names two New Testament cities one of which was home to many Diaspora Jews (Jews living outside of Palestine and maintaining their religious faith among the Gentiles) and the place where believers, many of whom were Gentiles, were first called Christians. ”...
In the New Testament only Jerusalem is more closely related to the spread of early Christianity
Condemn - ...
New Testament Several Greek words are translated “condemn” and “condemnation” with a progression of meaning from just making a distinction to making an unfavorable judgment. ...
New Testament usage of “condemn” is unique in its reference to the final judgment, especially in John 3:17-19
Inheritance - ...
The New Testament shows that Christians also have an inheritance. ...
The Christian’s inheritance...
The New Testament uses the picture of an heir firstly of Christ, and then of the Christian
Roman Law - The broad category of Roman law stands behind an adequate understanding of the New Testament and its world. The points of major relevance of Roman law for interpreting the New Testament cluster around several categories, particularly Roman citizenship, the influence of Roman law upon family life and roles, and Roman criminal jurisprudence. The New Testament is silent as to how Paul's family had acquired citizenship. ...
Roman Law and Family Life The New Testament “House Codes” (Ephesians 5:21-6:9 ; Colossians 3:18-4:1 ; and 1 Peter 2:18-3:7 ) should be interpreted against the background of the status of the family and the power of the head of the household in Roman society. That such power flourished in the New Testament era is born out by the fact that one father had his son executed for his part in the Catiline Conspiracy of 62 B. ...
Roman Jurisprudence While Roman civil law relates to the New Testament only in incidental ways, Roman criminal law casts much light upon the trial of Jesus
Hospitality - There appears to have been some decline in hospitality from the period of the Old Testament to that of the New Testament, since hospitality is omitted from later Greco-Roman virtue lists. ...
The New Testament. As in the Old Testament, righteous behavior in the New Testament includes the practice of hospitality. Koenig, New Testament Hospitality: Partnership with Strangers as Promise and Mission ; A. Malina, Social-Scientific Criticism of the New Testament and Its Social World, pp. Mathews, "Hospitality and the New Testament Church: An Historical and Exegetical Study"; P
Bible, Theology of - Such study seeks to show the development of thought from early times to the close of the New Testament. These theologians recognize a development of teaching, a progressive revelation, as God has worked with His people leading them from a point of beginning to the climax of New Testament Christianity. Many New Testament teachings are not found, or even hinted at, in the Old Testament. These New Testament advances are the completion or fulfillment of what was started in the Old Testament, not a contradiction. A distinct difference separates the Old Testament and the New Testament, but a fundamental unity joins the two Testaments. The New Testament is the fulfillment of the Old. Theological themes begun in the Old Testament are often carried to completion in the New Testament. This shows the remarkable unity of the Old and New Testaments as anticipation and fulfillment. The New Testament completes the doctrine of God by sharpening the focus on God as Father and the primacy of God's love. In the New Testament, His life unfolded as a revelation from God of what God Himself is like. New Testament writers saw His death variously, not only as the ultimate sacrifice, but also the ultimate expression of God's forgiving love
Hope - ...
The New Testament . The New Testament consistently uses the verb elpizo [ 1 Timothy 4:10 ) and on Christ (Ephesians 1:12 ). ...
As hope is connected with patient endurance in the Old Testament, so in the New Testament trials lead to hope (Romans 5:3-4 ) and hope is steadfast (1 Thessalonians 1:3 ). ...
From the above list it is apparent that, in contrast to the Old Testament, New Testament hope is primarily eschatological. Hoffman, Dictionary of New Testament Theology, 2:238-46; P
Authors of Articles - , Professor of New Testament Interpretation in the University of Chicago. Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Berlin. , Professor of New Testament Exegesis in Garrett Biblical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. , Professor of New Testament Literature in Westminster College, Cambridge. , Professor of New Testament Exegesis in Mansfield College, Oxford
Proselytes - In New Testament converts to Judaism, "comers to a new and God-loving polity" (Philo). ) Hezekiah's triumph over Sennacherib was followed by many bringing gifts: unto Jehovah to Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 32:23); this suggested the prophecy in Psalm 87 that Rahab (Egypt) and Babylon (whose king Merodach Baladan had sent a friendly embassy to Hezekiah), Philistia, Tyre, and Ethiopia should be spiritually born (Psalms 51:5; Psalms 51:10; Psalms 22:31; Isaiah 66:8; John 3:3; John 3:5; both Old and New Testament teach the need of the new birth) in Jerusalem as proselytes. " In New Testament times these appear in the synagogues (Acts 13:42-43; Acts 13:50; Acts 17:4; Acts 18:7), come up to the feasts at Jerusalem (Acts 2:10). ...
But all this is rabbinical systematizing theory; in fact, the New Testament only in a general way recognizes two degrees of converts to Judaism. "Proselyte" occurs in New Testament only Matthew 23:15; Acts 2:10; Acts 6:5; Acts 13:43
Inspiration - This is seen in some of the New Testament writers’ quotations from the Old Testament. Therefore, the New Testament writers may at times quote Old Testament portions without a word-for-word exactness. ...
The New Testament writers likewise upheld the absolute authority of the Scriptures (Acts 17:2-3; Acts 17:11; Romans 1:17; Romans 12:19; Galatians 3:10; Galatians 3:13; 1618100881_5; 1 Peter 1:16). Yet both of them speak of New Testament writings as having the same authority as the Old Testament. As a result a new collection of writings began to take shape, known to us as the New Testament (see CANON)
Contribution - They were designed in the Old Testament to support the poor and, in the New Testament, the needy saints of the church. ...
The New Testament . As one turns to the New Testament, the discussion of alms continues
Joseph - ...
New Testament 6. Several Josephs are mentioned in the New Testament, the most important being the husband of Mary, mother of Jesus. Also important in the New Testament is Joseph of Arimathea, a rich member of the Sanhedrin and a righteous man who sought the kingdom of God (Matthew 27:57 ; Mark 15:43 ; Luke 23:50 )
Torah - ...
New Testament During New Testament times the limits on the Old Testament canon were being finalized. ...
In the New Testament period, Torah was more than merely a section of the Scriptures; it became central to Judaism
Authority - In the English New Testament it translates the Greek exousia , a word for which there is no exact correspondence in Hebrew or Aramaic. ...
New Testament “Exousia” is found in the New Testament in a variety of usages, although always consistent with the belief that “there is no authority except from God” (Romans 13:1 RSV; see John 19:11 )
Thorn - In the New Testament this word Akantha Is also rendered "thorns" ( Matthew 7:16 ; 13:7 ; Hebrews 6:8 )
Name - In the New Testament it usually means the character, faith, or doctrine of Christ
Oath - The New Testament has prohibitions against swearing
Health - The adjective is frequently translated sound in the New Testament (1 Timothy 1:10 ; 1 Timothy 6:3 ; 2 Timothy 1:13 ; 2 Timothy 4:3 ; Titus 1:9 ; Titus 2:1 ,Titus 2:1,2:8 )
Mediator - " This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of communication between two contracting parties
Revelation, Book of - The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon
Michael - ...
Among Jewish writings of the period between the Old and New Testaments, there are a number that mention Michael. One New Testament writer, Jude, refers to an incident from one of these books to illustrate a point in his message
Victory - ...
The New Testament uses the illustration of warfare in giving teaching about the Christian’s conflict with evil, a conflict in which God again is the one who brings victory (2 Corinthians 10:3-4; Ephesians 6:10-18; see also ARMOUR; WEAPONS)
Scapegoat - ...
Although the scapegoat is not mentioned by name in the New Testament, Hebrews 10:3-17 contrasts sanctification through the sacrifice of Christ with the blood of bulls and goats which can never take away sins
Luke - Author of the Third Gospel and the Book of Acts in the New Testament, and a close friend and traveling companion of Paul
Money Changers - In New Testament times regions and cities issued their own money
Bathing - It is probably safe to say that the masses of people in both the Old Testament and New Testament had neither the privacy nor the desire for bathing as we know it today
Maid, Maiden - In the New Testament, korasion refers to a child or young girl ( Matthew 9:24-25 )
Congregation - ) ...
In Acts 13:43 , where alone it occurs in the New Testament, it is the same word as that rendered "synagogue" (q
Age, Old - The rulers under Moses required age as a qualification; hence they and those of the New Testament church are called elders (presbyters), until the word became a term of office, and not necessarily of age
Babylon - This is particularly true of Jeremiah 51:6 and Jeremiah 51:8 which evidently refer to the same situation that we find in the New Testament
Sparrow - ...
But let the reader pause over the thought of the sparrow making a nest for herself, and where in safety she might lay her young, high on the altar of the Lord's house, far out of the reach of the malice of all robbers of her nest, or murderers of herself and her young; and then let him contemplate the beauty of the similitude, when a child of God flies to the New Testament altar of his security, even to Jesus, and finds a rest in him, far above the reach of all disturbers of his repose, by resting in him, and resting to him, yea, making Jesus himself his rest, and his portion for ever! (See Psalms 84:1-4)...
Antitype - The word antitype occurs twice in the New Testament, viz
Consecration - The New Testament furnishes us with instances of consecration
Ezekiel - There are no direct quotations from Ezekiel in the New Testament, but in the Apocalypse there are many parallels and obvious allusions to the later chapters
Zion - In the New Testament it occurs seven times as "Sion," making the total number of times the name occurs 161
Codex - It contains all the New Testament and most of the Old
Citizen, Citizenship - In New Testament times the definition came in the Julian Law passed near 23 B
Type - ...
However striking the points of resemblance which an Old Testament event or object may present to something in the New Testament, it is not properly a type unless it was so appointed by God, and thus has something of a prophetic character
Synagogue - --The word synagogue ( sunagoge ), which means a "congregation," is used in the New Testament to signify a recognized place of worship. --It will be enough, in this place, to notice in what way the ritual, no less than the organization, was connected with the facts of the New Testament history, and with the life and order of the Christian Church. The third, sixth and ninth hours were in the times of the New Testament, (Acts 3:1 ; 10:3,9 ) and had been probably for some time before, (Psalm 55:17 ; Daniel 6:10 ) the fixed times of devotion. --The language of the New Testament shows that the officers of the synagogue exercised in certain cases a judicial power
Version - "This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest interest, (a) as preserving evidence for the text far more ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts; (b) as the means by which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought; (c) as the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament. ...
...
...
The New Testament manuscripts fall into two divisions, Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all between the different words, and very little even between the different lines; and Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with divisions of words and lines. Only five manuscripts of the New Testament approaching to completeness are more ancient than this dividing date. " Next in order was the Geneva version (1557-1560); the Bishops' Bible (1568); the Rheims and Douai versions, under Roman Catholic auspices (1582,1609); the Authorized Version (1611); and the Revised Version of the New Testament in 1880 and of the Old Testament in 1884
Purity-Purification - ...
New Testament Usage Most New Testament uses of words for purity relate to cleanness of some type. ...
Ethical purity dominates in the New Testament. ...
Purification through sacrifice is also mentioned in the New Testament and applied to the death of Christ, a purification which does not need repeating and thus is on a higher level than Old Testament sacrifices (Hebrews 9:13-14 )
Bible, Formation And Canon of - Second, you find that Jesus and the apostles in the New Testament had a very high view of the divine authority of the Hebrew Scriptures which they believed God gave by inspiration (2 Timothy 3:16 ). In the case of the New Testament, it is clear that four writers undertook the task of presenting the life of Jesus, each of them with some special emphases and with a particular audience in view. As for the New Testament, the books involved are many fewer and were composed over a mere half century. An extraneous factor which speeded the process toward developing a canon was the work of second century reformer Marcion, who proposed dropping the Old Testament and much of the New Testament as well, forcing orthodox Christians to make up their minds on the question of the canonical list
Light - The contrast of light and darkness is common to all of the words for "light" in both Old and New Testaments (esp. The New Testament resonates with these themes, so that the holiness of God is presented in such a way that it is said that God "lives in unapproachable light" (1 Timothy 6:16 ). While both the Old Testament and New Testament describe the future of the ungodly in terms of eschatological darkness, symbolizing perdition, they equally describe the future glory for believers in terms of light. Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; H. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; G
Peter, Second, Theology of - ...
The author identifies himself as "Simon Peter, " a combination of names that occurs only here in the New Testament and early Christian literature. Guthrie, New Testament Theology: A Thematic Study ; G. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; L. Morris, New Testament Theology
Know, Knowledge - ...
The New Testament . ...
The New Testament emphasizes that knowing God is not simply an intellectual apprehension, but a response of faith and an acceptance of Christ. ...
Affirmations about God's knowledge are more limited in the New Testament than in the Old Testament. ...
The limits of human knowledge are recognized in the New Testament
Kill, Killing - ...
The New Testament The New Testament also uses a variety of words for the concept of killing. The New Testament term for committing murder (phoneuo [ Romans 13:9 ; see James 2:11 ). The New Testament term for immolation (thuo [ Luke 15:23,27,30 )
Elder - This is the word that the Old Testament uses for those in Israel who exercised leadership in the community (Exodus 24:1; Deuteronomy 21:1-6; Ruth 4:2-11; 1 Samuel 8:4; see RULER), and that the New Testament uses for Jewish officials who administered Jewish affairs through the synagogue councils and the Sanhedrin (Mark 15:1; Luke 7:3; Acts 4:5; see SANHEDRIN; SYNAGOGUE). It is also the word that the New Testament uses for leaders in God’s new community, the church (Acts 14:23; Acts 15:4). ...
The New Testament speaks consistently of leaders in the churches, though it does not always give them an official title (1 Corinthians 16:16; Galatians 2:9; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; 2 John 1:7-11; Hebrews 13:17). These names are translations of only two words in the Greek of the original New Testament, presbuteroi and episkopoi, and both words seem to apply to the same office and person
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - In the New Testament, names that were applied to Jesus often had special meanings that went back into Old Testament and intertestamental times. The expression the "Name" of Jesus is frequent and highly significant in New Testament usage in that it parallels the use of the name of God in the Old Testament. New Testament believers are to live their lives in Jesus' name just as the Old Testament believers were to live in the name of God the Lord. Just as in the Old Testament where the name of God represents the person of God and all that he is, so in the New Testament "the Name" represents all who Jesus is as Lord and Savior. In addition to the comprehensive idea that is found in the idea of Jesus' name there are also a number of significant titles that are ascribed to Jesus in the New Testament. "Messiah" appears only twice in the New Testament (John 1:41 ; 4:25 ) as an explanation of the Greek word "Christ. ...
Elsewhere in the New Testament, the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews picks up on the Old Testament anoiting of priests and applies the same in relation to Jesus (1:9; 5:8-10; 7:1-28). Luke 3:29 ; Hebrews 4:8 , ; where Jesus in the Greek text is translated Joshua ) and is borne by other people in the New Testament including Barabbas (Matthew 27:17 ) and Justus (Colossians 4:11 ). The New Testament rarely calls Jesus "God" as such (Gk. ...
At the same time New Testament writers are not indiscriminate in speaking of Jesus as "God. The New Testament applies this name to Jesus on two occasions in the Gospels (Mark 1:24 ; = Luke 4:34 ; John 6:69 ), once in Acts (3:14) and possibly on two other occasions (1 John 2:20 ; Revelation 3:7 ). kyrios [ Exodus 3:14 ), a name held in such high esteem that by New Testament times it was rarely spoken out loud
Faith - In the fulfillment of this promise lies the challenge of the New Testament to redefine faith. ...
The New Testament . The transition from the Old Testament to the New Testament understanding of faith involves an appreciation of the continuity between them and that which is unique in the New Testament. The concepts of covenant, people of God, revelation, and the activity of God in history continue from the Old Testament to the New Testament. The unique understanding in the New Testament is defined by a new covenant, and the people of God being identified by their response to God's Son, Jesus. In the language of the New Testament, the common Greek of Jesus' day, we are told how God enters history as the Christ in the person of his Son Jesus, and remains active in the world through his Holy Spirit and the church. ...
The Septuagint, as a transitional text between the Hebrew of the Old Testament and the Greek of the New Testament, fixes the theological vocabulary that the church uses to define what God has done, is doing, and will do. The meaning of faith in the New Testament is then both a reflection of its continuity with the Old Testament and an expression of its uniqueness in a different historical and cultural setting. It is this concept that the Synoptic Gospels, Acts, the Epistles, and the Johannine writings use to examine and illustrate the meaning of faith in the New Testament. ...
The later letters in the New Testament to Timothy and Titus, in addition to their continuing use of these dynamic definitions of faith, distinguish true faith from false faith by making the content of faith confessional (2 Timothy 4:3 ; Titus 1:9 )
Versions - (See OLD TESTAMENT; New Testament; SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH; and SEPTUAGINT. 1349, the Psalms and other canticles of the Old Testament and New Testament with a devotional exposition. Wycliffe next brought out the complete English New Testament Nicholas de Hereford proceeded with the Old Testament and Apocrypha as far as the middle of Baruch, then was interrupted by Arundel. in 1522 Tyndale in vain tried to persuade Tonstal, bishop of London, to sanction his translating the New Testament into English. ...
But the New Testament was his chief care, and in 1525 he published it all in 4to at Cologne, and in 8vo at Worms. It is a reproduction of Tyndale's New Testament and of the parts of the Old Testament by Tyndale, the rest being taken with modifications from Coverdale. " The New Testament translated by Whittingham was printed by Conrad Badius in 1557, the whole Bible in 1560; Goodman, Pallain, Sampson, and Coverdale laboured with him. Beza's Latin version was the basis of its New Testament according to later reprints, and the notes are said to be from Joac. Martin, Allen (afterwards cardinal), and Bristow, English refugees of the church of Rome, settled at Rheims, feeling the need of counteracting the Protestant versions, published a version of the New Testament at Rheims, based on the Vulgate, in 1582, with dogmatic and controversial notes. Tischendorf's Authorized English Version of the New Testament (Tauchnitz edition) with the various readings of the three most celebrated manuscripts has done much to familiarize the ordinary English reader with the materials from which he must form his own opinion. The new revision it is to be hoped will do the same in both the Old Testament and New Testament
Holy Spirit, Gifts of - Four New Testament passages delineate specific gifts that God's Spirit gives to his people (Romans 12:3-8 ; 1 Corinthians 12-14 ; Ephesians 4:7-13 ; 1 Peter 4:10-11 ). " Thirteen of the other fourteen New Testament uses of pauo [13:10). But no text betrays any awareness that New Testament writers suspected the close of an age with the death of the apostles or the completion of the canon. In the New Testament, Agabus exemplifies a prophet who can predict the future (Peter 4:11 ; 21:10-11 ; cf. Quoting Joel's prediction (2:28-32) as fulfilled at Pentecost, Peter points out that prophecy will characterize "the last days, " the entire New Testament age. ...
Unlike the Old Testament, in which divinely accredited prophets were not subject to constant reassessment, New Testament prophecy seems less immediate or infallible (apart from the exceptional instances that created the New Testament canon). In the New Testament a distinction is often made between evangelistic preaching (proclamation or kerygma [ Acts 13:1 ), because both can expound God's Word, but teaching focuses more on the mastery of content. They are God's characteristic endowments for Christian service in the New Testament age, arguably the most fundamental way ministry occurs (Acts 2:17-21 ; 1 Corinthians 1:7 ). The twentieth century resurgence of the gifts cannot be attributed to the arrival of the last days, since for the New Testament "the last days" refers to the entire church age. Hill, New Testament Prophecy ; R
Harlot - " In the New Testament the Greek pornai, plural, "harlots," occurs in Matthew 21:31,32 , where they are classed with publicans; Luke 15:30 ; 1 Corinthians 6:15,16 ; Hebrews 11:31 ; James 2:25
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - The first book of the New Testament
Desiderius Erasmus - He has been called the intellectual father of the Reformation, a title justified by such works as his "Praise of Folly" (1509), his notes for his edition of the Greek New Testament (1516), and his "Colloquia' Familiaria" (1518)
Cornerstone - ...
In the New Testament Psalm 118:22 and Isaiah 28:16 are quoted (or alluded to) and applied to Christ
Messiah - The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41,4:25 (RSV, "Messiah"), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice ( Daniel 9:25,26 ; RSV, "the anointed one")
Corinth - 146), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome
Capstone - " This term has made its way into the New Testament five times (Matthew 21:42 ; Mark 12:10 ; Luke 20:17 ; Acts 4:11 ; 1 Peter 2:7 )
Altar - Now then, as Christ is our New Testament altar, let us see to it, that we bring nothing to offer upon this altar of our own
Jude, Epistle of - ...
The doxology with which the epistle concludes is regarded as the finest in the New Testament
John, Gospel of Saint - The fourth Book of the New Testament and last of the Sacred Books written
Eternal Death - The same Greek words in the New Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the eternal existence of God (1 Timothy 1:17 ; Romans 1:20 ; 16:26 ); (2) of Christ (Revelation 1:18 ); (3) of the Holy Ghost (Hebrews 9:14 ); and (4) the eternal duration of the sufferings of the lost (Matthew 25:46 ; Jude 1:6 )
Hellenists - A term occurring in the Greek text of the New Testament, and which in the English version is rendered Grecians, Acts 6:1
Caiaphas, Joseph - shrewdness, characterizes him in the New Testament, as it also kept him in office longer than any of his predecessors
Dance - In the New Testament it is in like manner the translation of different Greek words, circular motion (Luke 15:25 ); leaping up and down in concert (Matthew 11:17 ), and by a single person (Matthew 14:6 )
Eden - ...
“Eden” appears twenty times in the Old Testament but never in the New Testament
Envy - In the New Testament envy is a common member of vice lists as that which comes out of the person and defiles (Mark 7:22 ), as a characteristic of humanity in rebellion to God (Romans 1:29 ), as a fruit of the flesh (Galatians 5:21 ), as a characteristic of unregenerate life (Titus 3:3 ) and as a trait of false teachers (1 Timothy 6:4 )
Diaspora - ...
The result of the diaspora was that by New Testament times as many Jews lived outside of Palestine as lived within the land
Dragon - ...
In the New Testament Revelation develops sense 4, describing the dragon as a great, red monster with seven heads and ten horns
Luke, Gospel of Saint - The third book of the New Testament, whose author is Saint Luke, a disciple and companion of Saint Paul
Sama'Ria, Country of - In New Testament times Sa maria was bounded northward by the range of hills which commences at Mount Carmel on the west, and, after making a bend to the southwest, runs almost due east to the valley of the Jordan, forming the southern border of the plain of Esdraelon
Regem Melech - But the congregation, headed by their priests, was "the house of God," paving the way for the spiritual New Testament "house of God" (Hebrews 3:6; Zechariah 3:7; Hosea 8:1)
Person - The term person, when applied to Deity, is certainly used in a sense somewhat different from that in which we apply to one another; but when it is considered that the Greek words to which it answers, are, in the New Testament, applied to the Father and Son, Hebrews 1:3
Zealot - In the opening years of the New Testament era, the Romans exercised their rule over Judea firstly through Herod the Great and then through Herod’s son, Archelaus
Dream - The revelation of God's will in dreams is characteristic of the early and less perfect patriarchal times (Genesis 28:12; Genesis 31:24; Genesis 37:5-10); to Solomon, 1 Kings 3:5, in commencing his reign; the beginnings of the New Testament dispensation (Matthew 1:20; Matthew 2:13; Matthew 2:19; Matthew 2:22); and the communications from God to the rulers of the pagan world powers, Philistia, Egypt, Babylon (Genesis 20:3; Genesis 40:5; Genesis 41:1); Elihu, Job 33:15; Daniel 2; Daniel 4:5, etc
Babel - The city of Babylon became to the Old Testament writers the symbol of utter rebellion against God and remained so even into the New Testament (Revelation 17:1-5 )
Kerygma - ...
The content of preaching in the New Testament centers on Jesus
Violence - ...
Matthew 11:12 is one of the most difficult texts in the New Testament
Service - ...
The New Testament similarly speaks of forced service (Matthew 27:32 ), sacrificial living (Romans 12:1 ; Philippians 2:17 with a play on words also indicating an offering), slave labor done for Christ's sake ( Ephesians 6:7 ; Colossians 3:22 ; compare Philippians 2:30 ), worship (Romans 9:4 ; Hebrews 12:28 ), offerings (Romans 15:31 ; 2 Corinthians 9:12 ), and personal ministry (Romans 12:7 ; 1 Timothy 1:12 ; 2 Timothy 4:11 )
Lamb of God - ...
Revelation often refers to the exalted Christ as a Lamb, but never as “the Lamb of God,” nor with the same Greek word for “lamb” as used elsewhere in the New Testament
Gospel of Saint Luke - The third book of the New Testament, whose author is Saint Luke, a disciple and companion of Saint Paul
Siloah, Siloam - In the New Testament the man born blind, after being anointed with clay, was sent to wash at Siloam, which signifies 'sent
Saviour - The temporal saviour is the predominant idea in the Old Testament; the spiritual and eternal saviour of the whole man in the New Testament Israel' s saviour, national and spiritual, finally (Isaiah 62:11; Romans 11:25-26)
Gospel of Saint Matthew - The first book of the New Testament
Gospel of Saint John - The fourth Book of the New Testament and last of the Sacred Books written
Apochrypha - None of the writers of the New Testament mention them; neither Philo nor Josephus speak of them
Genealogy - This is the only genealogy given us in the New Testament We have two lists of the human ancestors of Christ: Matthew, writing for Jewish Christians, begins with Abraham; Luke, writing for Gentile Christians, goes back to Adam, the father of all men
Hades - The New Testament Hades does not differ essentially from the Hebrew Sheol, but Christ has broken the power of death, dispelled the darkness of Hades, and revealed to believers the idea of heaven as the state and abode of bliss in immediate prospect after a holy life
Anoint - ...
In the New Testament anoint is used to speak of daily grooming for hair (Matthew 6:17 ), for treating injury or illness (Luke 10:34 ), and for preparing a body for burial (Mark 16:1 )
Erasmus, Desiderius - He has been called the intellectual father of the Reformation, a title justified by such works as his "Praise of Folly" (1509), his notes for his edition of the Greek New Testament (1516), and his "Colloquia' Familiaria" (1518)
Agrippa - He was in these possessions when we read of him in the New Testament as 'Herod the king,' Acts 12
Dog - In the New Testament it is used to designate vile persons who are shut out of heaven, Revelation 22:15, and foolish persons devoted to their folly
i'Saac - In the New Testament reference is made to the offering of Isaac (Hebrews 11:17 ; James 2:21 ) and to his blessing his sons
Christian - Some have indeed thought that this name was given by the disciples to themselves; others, that it was imposed on them by divine authority; in either of which cases surely we should have met with it in the subsequent history of the Acts, and in the Apostolic Epistles, all of which were written some years after; whereas it is found in but two more places in the New Testament, Acts 26:28 , where a Jew is the speaker, and in 1 Peter 4:16 , where reference appears to be made to the name as imposed upon them by their enemies
Catholic - Hug, in his "Introduction to the New Testament," takes another view of the import of this term, which was certainly used at an early period, as by Origen and others:—"When the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles constituted one peculiar division, the works of Paul also another, there still remained writings of different authors, which might likewise form a collection of themselves, to which a name must be given
Acts of the Apostles, - the fifth book in the New Testament and the second treatise by the author of the third Gospel, traditionally known as Luke
Antioch - The name of two cities in New Testament times
Day - In New Testament times it was a well understood distribution of time
Joshua - His name at first was Oshea, Numbers 13:8,16 ; and in the New Testament he is called Jesus, Acts 7:45 Hebrews 4:8
Jealousy - In the New Testament Paul speaks of his divine jealousy for the Christians at Corinth (2 Corinthians 11:2 )
Names - The New Testament names are chiefly ancient and family names perpetuated, Luke 1:61
Fire - In the New Testament it illustrates the enlightening, cheering, and purifying agency of the Holy Spirit, Matthew 3:11 Acts 2:3
Hell - ...
The term hell is most commonly applied to the place of punishment in the unseen world, and is usually represented in the Greek New Testament by the word Gehenna, valley of Hinnom
Burial, Sepulchres - It was the office of the next of kin to perform and preside over the whole funeral office; though public buriers were not unknown in New Testament times
Piece of Silver - In the New Testament two words are rendered by the phrase "piece of silver:"
Drachma , ( Luke 15:8,9 ) which was a Greek silver coin, equivalent, at the time of St
Jehovah - , the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Apocrypha, or in the New Testament
Day - (Exodus 14:24 ) In the New Testament we have allusions to four watches, a division borrowed from the Greeks and Romans
Bashan - In New Testament times the regions of Iturea and Trachonitis fell within the territory of ancient Bashan (Luke 3:1)
Day of the Lord - ...
New Testament writers took up the Old Testament expression to point to Christ's final victory and the final judgment of sinners. ...
Many Bible students who do not take a dispensational viewpoint interpret the several expressions in the New Testament to refer to one major event: the end time when Christ returns for the final judgment and establishes His eternal kingdom
Care - ...
The connotation of caring about something to the point of "worrying" about it is picked up in the New Testament. In the New Testament, the principal utilization is negative
James - (jaymess) English form of Jacob, and the name of three men of the New Testament. 66), are not confirmed in the New Testament
Jericho - New Testament Jericho, founded by Herod the Great, was about one and one half miles southward in the magnificent wadi Qelt. ...
In New Testament times Jericho was famous for its balm (an aromatic gum known for its medicinal qualities)
Canon (1) - ...
Their canon of the New Testament, however, perfectly agrees with ours. The four Gospels, and most of the other books of the New Testament, were collected either by one of the apostles, or some of their disciples and successors, before the end of the first century
Singing - But on the other side, it is remarked, that nothing should be done in or about God's worship without example or precept from the New Testament; that, instead of aiding devotion, it often tends to draw off the mind from the right object; that it does not accord with the simplicity of Christian worship; that the practice of those who lived under the ceremonial dispensation can be no rule for us; that not one text in the New Testament requires or authorises it by precept or example, by express words or fair inference; and that the representation of the musical harmony in heaven is merely figurative language, denoting the happiness of the saints
Ark - In Revelation 11:19 (the only New Testament mention) the ark has returned to the direct care of God, sacred, but no longer functional. In the New Testament, Christ himself is the bearer of the new covenant and the focus of God's presence
Capernaum - (cuh puhr' nay um; village of Nahum ) On the northwest shore of the Sea of Galilee about 2 1/2 miles west of the entrance of the Jordan is located the New Testament town of Capernaum. ...
In the New Testament Capernaum was chosen as the base of operations by Jesus when He began His ministry
Poor - ...
In the New Testament, Christ lays down the same love to the poor (Luke 3:11; Luke 14:13; Acts 6:1; Galatians 2:10; James 2:15; Romans 15:26), the motive being "Christ, who was rich, for our sake became poor that we through His poverty might be rich" (2 Corinthians 8:9). Begging was common in New Testament times, not under Old Testament (Luke 16:20-21; Luke 18:35; Mark 10:46; John 9:8; Acts 3:2
Christ - As to the use of the term in the New Testament, were we to judge by the common version, or even by most versions into modern tongues, we should receive it rather as a proper name, than an appellative, or name of office, and should think of it only as our Lord's surname. Should it be asked, Is the word Christ never to be understood in the New Testament as a proper name, but always as having a direct reference to the office or dignity? it may be replied, that this word came at length, from the frequency of application to one individual, and only to one, to supply the place of a proper name
Kingdom - And as it was set up by the God of heaven, it is, in the New Testament, termed "the kingdom of God," or "the kingdom of heaven. " It was typified by the Jewish theocracy, and declared to be at hand by John the Baptist, and by Christ and his Apostles also in the days of his flesh; but it did not come with power till Jesus rose from the dead and sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, Acts 2:32-37 : Then was he most solemnly inaugurated, and proclaimed King of the New Testament church, amidst adoring myriads of attendant angels, and "the spirits of just men made perfect
Acts of the Apostles - Luke is prefixed to this book in several ancient Greek manuscripts of the New Testament, and also in the old Syriac version. This latter opinion rests upon the subscriptions at the end of some Greek manuscripts, and of the copies of the Syriac version; but the best critics think, that these subscriptions, which are also affixed to other books of the New Testament, deserve but little weight; and in this case they are not supported by any ancient authority
Greece - ...
In the New Testament, Greece is called Hellas, a name supposed to have belonged first to a single city, but at length applied to the whole country south of Macedonia. The Jews extended the name of Greeks to include the people conquered and ruled by Greeks; and the word is thus nearly synonymous in the New Testament with Gentiles, Mark 7:26 Acts 20:21 Romans 1:16
Parable - As used in the New Testament it had a very wide application, being applied sometimes to the shortest proverbs, ( 1 Samuel 10:12 ; 24:13 ; 2 Chronicles 7:20 ) sometimes to dark prophetic utterances, (Numbers 23:7,18 ; 24:3 ; Ezekiel 20:49 ) sometimes to enigmatic maxims, (Psalm 78:2 ; Proverbs 1:6 ) or metaphors expanded into a narrative. (Ezekiel 12:22 ) In the New Testament itself the word is used with a like latitude in (Matthew 24:32 ; Luke 4:23 ; Hebrews 9:9 ) It was often used in a more restricted sense to denote a short narrative under which some important truth is veiled
Deliver - ...
The New Testament . As in the Old Testament, both meanings of deliverance are found in the New Testament. ...
The dominant idea in the New Testament is God's deliverance from humankind's greatest fears: sin, evil, death, and judgment
Soul - In the New Testament, the term psyche retreats behind the ideas of body, flesh, spirit to characterize human existence. ...
Such a holistic image of a person is maintained also in the New Testament even over against the Greek culture which, since Plato, sharply separated body and soul with an analytic exactness and which saw the soul as the valuable, immortal, undying part of human beings. In the Old Testament, the use and variety of the word is much greater while in the New Testament its theological meaning appears much stronger
Leaven - In the New Testament the noun for "leaven" is zume [1] and the verb for "to leaven" is zumoo [2]. There are, however, really only three distinct uses of "leaven" in the New Testament. ...
The third occurrence of "leaven" in the New Testament is found in Paul's letters
Sanctuary - ...
In the New Testament hagios [ Matthew 24:15 ; Acts 6:13 ; 21:28 ). Other Old Testament and New Testament words may sometimes refer to or can even be translated "sanctuary" in some English versions, but none of them actually mean "sanctuary, " strictly speaking. ...
Of course, the New Testament writers were, by and large, fully familiar with the Jerusalem sanctuary complex, but it was the writer of Hebrews who developed the theology of the "sanctuary" motif
Sadducees - " The latter is probably from their connection with the house of Boethus, from which came several high priests during the New Testament period. Like the New Testament, Josephus mentions the Sadducean rejection of the resurrection (War 2. By the time of the New Testament they appear to be the majority in the Sanhedrin, over which the high priest presided
Mary - In the New Testament Mary is presented as the true Israelite, the model disciple, the woman of faith/faithfulness, and a type of the church. , Mary in the New Testament ; J. McHugh, The Mother of Jesus in the New Testament ; A
Call, Calling - To "call on" God or the Lord is a frequent biblical expression: it occurs fifty-six times in total (Old Testament, 45; New Testament, 11); on four occasions it is applied to other gods. ...
The New Testament use of this expression is remarkable for the way in which it is applied to Jesus. ...
This theme is developed particularly in Isaiah 40-55 , which forms an important background to the New Testament use of the term. ...
The New Testament picks up all these ideas and takes them further. The notion of appointment to office, which we observed in Isaiah, is also taken up in the New Testament
Virgin Birth - ...
Four views exist concerning the origin of the New Testament virgin birth stories: (1) a fact of history (traditional Christian view); (2) an error; Christians got it wrong for whatever reason (antagonist view traced to the early second century); (3) a natural phenomenon reexplained supernaturally (modern rationalist view); (4) a myth/legend, a religious idea put into historical form (modern mythical view). But the issue of historicity is, nonetheless, indispensable to it, for history in the New Testament is the handmaiden of theology. The New Testament accounts, in contrast, mention no father figure. Comparative religions offer no precursor that remotely parallels the special theological features of the New Testament virgin birth stories; it suggests nothing that could have logically and naturally given rise to them. One would expect an exaggerated emphasis on the miraculous as the New Testament apocryphal versions of Jesus' birth and childhood in fact do (cf. ...
The supernatural nature of Jesus' birth is compatible with the broader New Testament picture of him—in particular, his resurrection. But the christological significance of the virgin birth is clear from the broader context of the New Testament. ...
In summary, the New Testament includes belief in the virgin birth as part of the saving gospel message
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - In New Testament times, the Roman government used a deputy ( Acts 13:7 ), also called a proconsul , to oversee the administrative responsibilities of its provinces. The New Testament names only three men employed as governors in Palestine, although there were more: Pontius Pilate, Felix, and Festus. The jailer ( Acts 16:23 ) is prominent in several New Testament passages. The despised publican ( Matthew 9:10 ) is well known from the New Testament. This trade carried over into the New Testament period. In the New Testament, these bankers were the infamous “money changers” of the Temple. Descriptive names include: Singers and players ( Psalm 68:25 ) in the Old Testament, and musicians , harpers , pipers , and trumpeters ( Revelation 18:22 ) in the New Testament. See Offices in the New Testament
Holy Spirit - Some have argued that Old Testament believers were saved and sanctified by the Spirit just as New Testament believers. All of these uses recur throughout the Old Testament, but one other remains unique to these earliest daysequipping Bezalel and Oholiab with the skills of craftsmanship for constructing the tabernacle (Exodus 31:3 ; 35:31 ), although the provision of gifts of the Spirit in the New Testament will become a close analogue. The first of these texts demonstrates a characteristic fear in Old Testament times; even David in his unique situation did not have the assurance of God's abiding presence that would later characterize the New Testament age. The fulfillment of these promises in the New Testament conforms to the prophecy of the Old Testament. ...
New Testament . Although relatively infrequent in his Old Testament appearances, the Spirit now emerges to dominate the theology and experience of the major New Testament witnesses. Five distinct functions can be discerned in these passages: The Spirit will help Jesus' followers, remaining with them forever (14:15-21); he will enable them to interpret Jesus' words (14:15-17); he will testify to the world who Jesus is (15:26-16:4); he will prosecute sinners, convicting them of their offenses (16:5-11); and he will reveal further truth (16:12-15), doubtless including though not explicitly specified as the New Testament canon. The four elements of this "Pentecostal package" (repentance, baptism, the coming of the Spirit, and forgiveness) nevertheless provide a paradigm for much subsequent New Testament theology (cf. ...
No other New Testament writer gives the Spirit nearly so prominent a role. Ewert, The Holy Spirit in the New Testament ; M. Guthrie, New Testament Theology ; G
Jesus Christ - The language of the New Testament, and compare it with the state of the Pagan world at the time of its publication. If Jesus Christ were not God, the writers of the New Testament discovered great injudiciousness in the choice of their words, and adopted a very incautions and dangerous style. Hence Paul and Barnabas rent their clothes at the very idea of the multitude's confounding the creature with the Creator, Acts 14:1-28 : The writers of the New Testament knew that in speaking of Jesus Christ, extraordinary caution was necessary; yet, when we take up the New Testament, we find such expressions as these: "The word was God, John 1:1 . " These are a few of many propositions, which the New Testament writers lay down relative to Jesus Christ. Compare the style of the New Testament with the state of the Jews at the time of its publication. Jesus Christ and his apostles professed the highest regard for the Jewish Scriptures; yet the writers of the New Testament described Jesus Christ by the very names and titles by which the writers of the Old Testament had described the Supreme God. Twenty times, in the New Testament, grace, mercy, and peace, are implored of Christ, together with the Father. Observe the application of Old Testament passages which belong to Jehovah, to Jesus in the New Testament, and try whether you can acquit the writers of the New Testament of misrepresentation, on supposition that Jesus is not God. If we deny it, the New Testament, we must own is one of the most unaccountable compositions in the world, calculated to make easy things hard to be understood
Cloud, Cloud of the Lord - ...
The New Testament. The only New Testament reference to literal cloud phenomena is Jesus' graphic contrast between his hearers' ability to interpret the meaning of a cloud rising in the west-that a shower is coming-and their inability to interpret the present time (Luke 12:54 ). Metaphorical cloud references in the New Testament include Jude's depiction of the unstable, deceptive, false teachers as waterless clouds, carried along by winds (v. The remaining twenty-two New Testament occurrences of the word "cloud" appear in the context of theophany, and encompass six theologically crucial, eschatologically related events or visionary scenes in salvation history: (1) the pillar of cloud at the exodus, viewed as a type of Christian baptism in the time of eschatological fulfillment (1 Corinthians 10:1-2 ); (2) Jesus' transfiguration, as a foretaste of the kingdom of God, during which the Father appears and speaks in a cloud (Matthew 17:5 ; Mark 9:7 ; Luke 9:34 ); (3) Jesus' ascension, explained by the angels as a paradigm for his return (Acts 1:9 ); (4) the "mighty angel" descending from heaven wrapped in a cloud, announcing (against the eschatological backdrop of Daniel 12:7 ) that time should be no longer (Revelation 10:1 ); (5) the two resurrected witnesses ascending to heaven in a cloud, described in the context of the eschatological measuring of the temple of God (Revelation 11:12 ); and (6) Jesus' parousia, against the backdrop of Daniel 7:13 , as the Son of Man coming with/on/in a cloud/the clouds/the clouds of heaven (Matthew 24:30 ; 26:64 ; Mark 13:26 ; 14:62 ; Luke 12:54 ; 21:27 ; 1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; Revelation 1:7 ; 14:14-16 )
Canon of the Old Testament - " The warnings: "add thou not to His words, lest He reprove thee and thou be found a liar" (Proverbs 30:6), "neither shall ye diminish ought from it" (Deuteronomy 4:2; Deuteronomy 12:32), fenced in the Old Testament canon as Revelation 22:18-19 fences in the New Testament The Lord and His apostles quote all the books of the Old Testament except Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, the Song of Solomon, Lamentations, and Ezekiel. Just so the persecution of Diocletian in New Testament times was especially directed against those possessing the Christian Scriptures. The New Testament writers have not one authoritative quotation from the Apocrypha. ...
Some quotations in the New Testament are not directly found in the canonical books; thus Judges 1:17 takes a portion of the uninspired book of Enoch, and by inspiration stamps that portion as true; Paul also refers to facts unrecorded in Old Testament (2 Timothy 3:8; Ephesians 5:14; Hebrews 11:24); see also John 7:38; James 4:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:8
Education in Bible Times - ...
Education in New Testament Times. ...
No formal educational approach is described in the New Testament. ...
The New Testament places importance on the teaching function of the church. ...
In New Testament times churches met in the homes of members and Christian teaching was done there (Romans 16:3-5 )
Love - ...
The New Testament concept closely parallels that of the Old Testament. Furnish, The Love Command in the New Testament ; N. Moffatt, Love in the New Testament ; L. Perkins, Love Commands in the New Testament ; G
Lie, Lying - ...
In the New Testament, Christ as the Son of God is spoken of as absolutely true (John 1:17 ; 14:6 ). The New Testament uses a number of Greek words to deal with the concept of lying, though the primary words used are hypokrinomai [1] and pseudomai [2]. ...
As expected, there is no change of standards in the New Testament in regard to lying. The paramount lie in the New Testament is the denial that Jesus is the Christ (1 John 2:22 )