What does New Jerusalem mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - New Jerusalem Church
See SWEDENBORGIANS.
Holman Bible Dictionary - New Jerusalem
See Jerusalem ; Eschatology .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - New Jerusalem
The eternal climax of redemptive history is previewed in John's description of the new Jerusalem in Revelation 21-22 . The new Jerusalem is the focus for activity on the new earth. The new Jerusalem motif provides an elaboration of the nature of the new heavens and new earth introduced in Revelation 21:1 . The first explicit reference to the new Jerusalem is in the message to the Philadelphia church in Revelation 3:12 , where it is promised as a reward to those who overcome (a synonym for believers, cf. 1 John 5:4-5 ). Jerusalem provides an image of continuity that brings together earth and eschatological history in regard to where God and his people dwell together. The general image of a future Jerusalem symbolizes the fulfillment of many of God's promises to his people (cf. Isaiah 2:1-5 ; 49:14-18 ; 52 ; 54 ; 60-62 ; 65:17-25 ; Jeremiah 31:38-40 ; Micah 4:1-4 ; Zechariah 14 ). The idea of an idealized and/or eschatological Jerusalem is referred to in other ways than the phrase "new Jerusalem." Although the Old Testament contains no explicit reference to a new Jerusalem, Isaiah includes Jerusalem in his new heavens and new earth statements (65:17-19; 66:22). Paul's allegory of the "above Jerusalem" in Galatians 4:25-26 , provides an idealized imagery for Jerusalem. Hebrews 12:22 speaks of the "heavenly Jerusalem." Revelation 21:2,10 refer to the new Jerusalem as the "Holy City" (cf. Matthew 4:5 ; 27:53 ). Revelation 2:7 , "paradise of God, " may anticipate the new Jerusalem of Revelation 21-22 .
The concentration on a restored Jerusalem as a symbol of the fulfillment of God's promises to the Jewish people is also present in noncanonical literature. These occurrences highlight the Jewish hope for a new world where their ideals would be fulfilled. First Enoch 90:28-29 relates a vision of a transformation of the "old house" into a new one, representing a transformed Jerusalem. Sibylline Oracles 5:414-29 record God's provision of a new city (a temple is included in contrast to Revelation 21-22 , which may reflect a more earth-oriented perspective). Second Baruch 32:1-4 speaks of the new city that will be rebuilt after the old is shaken and uprooted as being "perfected into eternity" (cf. 2 Esdras 7:26 ; 10:25-28 ; 13:36 ; Tobit 13:8-18 ; T Daniel 5:12-13 ). Second Baruch 4 compares the new city to the original "paradise, " an interesting comparison in light of Revelation 2:7 . God's creative work begins and ends with paradise.
The contextual setting of the new Jerusalem in Revelation 21-22 is closely related to the evil city, Babylon, of the Great Harlot in Revelation 17-19 . The linguistic comparisons of the possible terminal points of each vision are most striking (cf. 17:1-3 with 21:9-10; 19:9b-10 with 22:6-9). Both cities are also viewed as women, the harlot and the bride. God's answer to the evil structures of this world is the paradise regained in the new Jerusalem.
The meaning of the imagery of Revelation 21:9-22:5 is reasonably well established in biblical and extrabiblical patterns. The use of the bride metaphor (21:2) does not restrict the reference to the church of the new Testament, but should be viewed in its wider biblical usage as a reference to the people of God who are married to the Lord (cf. Isaiah 61:10 ; Hosea 1-3 ; John 3:29 ; Ephesians 5:25-33 ). Revelation 21:9 equates the images of bride and wife. The inclusion of both Israel and the church is required by the description of the city (cf. Hebrews 11:10,16 ). Israel's twelve tribes and the church's twelve apostles are both included. The stones (21:19-21) solicit remembrance of the high priest's breastplate (Exodus 28:17-21 ; 39:10-14 ) and Ezekiel's garden of God (28:13), although the lists are not the same and John applies the stones to the twelve apostles. The fountain of life (Revelation 21:6 ) and the river (22:1-2) remind one of Ezekiel 47 , but in Ezekiel the river proceeds from the temple and in Revelation 22 from the throne. The new city, however, is essentially a new temple since it is God's dwelling place and the center of religious activity. The new Jerusalem is a cube of enormous proportions (12,000 furlongs is about 1,500 miles), although the use of the number 12 could be symbolic. The Holy of Holies in the temple of the Old Testament was also a cube (cf. 1 Kings 6:20 ). The tree of life (Revelation 22:2 ) hearkens back to the prefall Eden. It is noteworthy that the new Jerusalem has no sun or moon but is illuminated by the effulgence of God's glory.
How is the reality of the new Jerusalem on the new earth of Revelation 21-22 to be understood? Is it merely an allegorical description of the final state of the church with no real future new earth locality in view? Is it a literal city that may hover over the millennial earth and house the glorified church-age saints during that period and then be transferred for expanded purposes into the eternal state after the renovation of the earth (some dispensationalists; but, some nondispensationalists also apply it to the millennial period)? Is it a literal city distinctly designed as a center focus for all the redeemed in the eternal state? Is the vision of John, given in apocalyptic motifs, merely a statement in sophisticated symbolism that God will be victor in the climax of history? These and other proposals appear in the literature that addresses this interpretive aspect of the new Jerusalem. Many commentaries prefer to focus on an explanation of the larger meaning of the symbolism without addressing this question. Apocalyptic genre neither demands nor excludes a literal future city. It does, however, expect the interpreter to concentrate on the message of the symbolic motifs rather than endeavor to draw a blueprint of the structure.
Gary T. Meadors
See also New Heavens and a New Earth
Bibliography . R. Bauckham, The Climax of Prophecy ; G. R. Beasley-Murray, Revelation ; M. E. Boring, Revelation ; J. M. Ford, Revelation ; W. J. Harrington, Revelation ; G. E. Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John ; J. Walvoord, The Revelation of Jesus Christ .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Thou Heavenly, New Jerusalem
(Thou Heavenly, New Jerusalem) Hymn for Vespers and Matins on the feast of the dedication of a church. It is not known who the author was, but it was written in the 6th or 7th century. There are about 30 translations. The one given in Britt is by W. Irons; the fourth verse reads:
By many a salutary stroke,
By many a weary blow that broke,
Or polished with a workman's skill,
The stones that form that glorious pile,
They all are fitly framed to lie
In their appointed place on high.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - New Jerusalem
1. References
(a) In canonical writings.-In the NT the name ‘New Jerusalem’ occurs only twice, and these references are both in the Apocalypse of John, viz. Revelation 3:12 : ‘He that overcometh … I will write upon him … the name of the city of my God, the new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God’; Revelation 21:2 : ‘And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God’ (cf. Revelation 21:10). But other phrases with the same reference occur elsewhere in the NT, as Galatians 4:26 : ‘But the Jerusalem that is above is free’; and Hebrews 12:22 : ‘But ye are come … unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem.’ It is a city of heavenly origin and full of fresh life, the metropolis of the new earth (cf. Revelation 21:1). This hope of a new order of things (cf. Matthew 19:28, 2 Peter 3:13), with Jerusalem as the centre, is not confined to the NT; it occurs also in the OT, e.g. in Isaiah 65:17 : ‘For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former things shall not be remembered, nor come into mind,’ and in Isaiah 66:22 : ‘For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall remain before me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name remain.’ But the metropolis that appears in Isaiah is not the New Jerusalem; it is the old city as before, only purified and blessed by God in a special manner. The basis of the new conception within the OT is found in such passages as Ezekiel 40:2 : ‘In the visions of God brought he me into the land of Israel, and set me down upon a very high mountain, whereon was as it were the frame of a city on the south,’ with the whole description of the city in the following chapters (40-48); Isaiah 54:11 ff.: ‘O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours and lay thy foundations with sapphires’; Isaiah 60:10 ff.: ‘And strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee: for in my wrath I smote thee, but in my favour have I had mercy on thee’; Haggai 2:7-9 : ‘I will fill this house with glory.… The latter glory of this house shall be greater than the former, saith the Lord of hosts’; Zechariah 2:4 f. (English Version ): ‘Jerusalem shall be inhabited as villages without walls.… For I, saith the Lord, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and I will be the glory in the midst of her.’
(b) In non-canonical writings.-Jewish writings, mainly apocalyptic, fill up the gulf between the Old and New Testaments with regard to the new city and the conception underlying it. The new order of things appears in 1 En. xlv. 4, 5: ‘And I will transform the heaven and make it an eternal blessing and light: and I will transform the earth and make it a blessing’; lxxii. 1: ‘till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity’; xci. 16: ‘And the first heaven shall depart and pass away, and a new heaven shall appear, and all the powers of the heavens shall give sevenfold light.’ In the Book of Jubilees the new creation is mentioned; cf. i. 29: ‘And the angel of the presence who went before the camp of Israel took the tables of the divisions of the years … from the day of the [1] creation when the heavens and the earth shall be renewed and all their creation according to the powers of the heaven, … until the sanctuary of the Lord shall be made in Jerusalem on Mount Zion.’ There is the same implication in 2 En. (Slavonic Enoch) lxv. 6 ff.: ‘When all creation visible and invisible, as the Lord created it, shall end, then every man goes to the great judgement, and then all time shall perish, … they (i.e. the righteous) will live eternally.… And they shall have a great indestructible wall, and a paradise bright and incorruptible, for all corruptible things shall pass away, and there will be eternal life.’ Again the renewal of creation appears in 2 Bar. (Apoc. Bar.) xxxii. 6: ‘For there will be a greater trial than these two tribulations when the Mighty One will renew His creation’; and in 4 Ezr. 7:75: ‘Thou shalt renew the creation.’ The hope of an ideal city, too, finds frequent mention in Jewish literature, e.g. in Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Daniel 5:12): ‘And, in the New Jerusalem shall the righteous rejoice, and it shall be unto the glory of God for ever’; this is the earliest occurrence of the expression ‘New Jerusalem,’ but here it simply implies the rebuilding of the old city. The idea emerges fully for the first time in 1 En. xc. 28, 29, where the pre-existence of the New Jerusalem is implied though not specifically assigned to the new house brought and set up by God Himself: ‘They folded up that old house.… And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place of the first which had been folded up: all its pillars were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first, the old one which He had taken away, and all the sheep were within it’ (cf. liii. 6). The heavenly Jerusalem in 4 Ezra is described as ‘the city that now is invisible’ (7:26), ‘a City builded’ (8:52, 10:27), ‘the [2] pattern of her [3]’ (10:49); its descent from heaven is mentioned in 13:36: ‘And Zion shall come and shall be made manifest to all men, prepared and builded, even as thou didst see the mountain cut out without hands,’ while its preservation in heaven is referred to in 2 Bar. iv. 2-7: ‘This building now built in your midst is not that which is revealed with Me, that which was prepared beforehand here from the time when I took counsel to make Paradise, and showed it to Adam before he sinned, but when he transgressed the commandment it was removed from him, as also Paradise. And after these things I showed it to My servant Abraham by night among the portions of the victims. And again also I showed it to Moses on Mount Sinai when I showed to him the likeness of the tabernacle and all its vessels. And now, behold, it is preserved with Me, as also Paradise.’ The idea of the new city as simply a purification of the old appears in 1 En. x. 16-19: ‘Destroy all wrong from the face of the earth.… And then shall all the righteous escape, and shall live till they beget thousands of children, and all the days of their youth and their old age shall they complete in peace. And then shall the whole earth be tilled in righteousness, and shall all be planted with trees and be full of blessing’; also in xxv. 1-6: ‘This high mountain which thou hast seen, whose summit is like the throne of God, is His throne, where the Holy Great One, the Lord of Glory, the Eternal King, will sit, when He shall come down to visit the earth with goodness. And as for this fragrant tree … it shall be transplanted to the holy place, to the temple of the Lord, the Eternal King. Then shall they rejoice with joy and be glad, and into the holy place shall they enter; and its fragrance shall be in their bones, and they shall live a long life on earth, such as thy fathers lived’; and again in Pss.-Sol. 17:25, 33: ‘And that he may purge Jerusalem from nations that trample (her) down to destruction’; ‘and he shall purge Jerusalem, making it holy as of old.’ Tobit mentions the ideal city in Tobit 13:16-17 : ‘For Jerusalem shall be builded with sapphires and emeralds and precious stones; thy walls and towers and battlements with pure gold. And the streets of Jerusalem shall be paved with beryl and carbuncle and stones of Ophir.’
2. Rise and development of the conception.-The Jews at first had no thought of any change in the present order of things: ‘One generation goeth, and another generation cometh; and the earth abideth for ever’ (Ecclesiastes 1:4); ‘Who laid the foundations of the earth, that it should not be moved for ever’ (Psalms 104:5); ‘The world also is stablished, that it cannot be moved’ (Psalms 93:1, Psalms 96:10); ‘He hath also stablished them [4] for ever and ever’ (Psalms 148:6). The heavens and the earth formed an established order of things that would be eternal in duration. According to the prophetic teaching, the scene of the Messianic Kingdom was to be the present earth, and that Kingdom was to last for ever; cf. Isaiah 1:25 f.: ‘And I will … throughly purge away thy dross, and will take away all thy tin: and I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellors as at the beginning: afterward thou shalt be called The city of righteousness, the faithful city’; Zephaniah 3:12 f.: ‘But I will leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall trust in the name of the Lord. The remnant of Israel shall not do iniquity, nor speak lies … for they shall feed and lie down, and none shall make them afraid’; Zechariah 2:1-5 f.: ‘Behold … I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely.… In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely; Jeremiah 12:15 : ‘After that I have plucked them [5] up, I will return and have compassion on them; and I will bring them again, every man to his heritage, and every man to his land’; Ezekiel 37:26 f.: ‘I will place them [6], and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore. My tabernacle also shall be with them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.’ Isaiah 2:2 f. (= Micah 4:1 f.): ‘The mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it … for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.’ The advent of the Kingdom at first was to synchronize with the return from exile, but with that event the hopes of the people were not fulfilled. Haggai and Zechariah expected, however, that whenever the Temple was rebuilt, the Messianic Kingdom would be ushered in (cf. Haggai 2:7-9, Jeremiah 23:5). With Joel, who introduces us into the apocalyptic atmosphere, we find the same conception, as in the Prophets, of the eternity of the Messianic Kingdom with Jerusalem as its centre: ‘So shall ye know that I am the Lord your God, dwelling in Zion my holy mountain: then shall Jerusalem be holy, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more.… But Judah shall abide for ever, and Jerusalem from generation to generation’ (Joel 3:17-18; Joel 3:20). But this conception gradually underwent a change that can already be traced in two late passages of the OT, viz. Isaiah 65:17; Isaiah 66:22, where the scene of the Messianic Kingdom is no longer this present world but a new heaven and a new earth. Jerusalem will be transformed as the metropolis of the new earth, but not yet created a new as the New Jerusalem: ‘For, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy. And I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and joy in my people: and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying. There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days: for the child shall die an hundred years old, and the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed. And they shall build houses, and inhabit them; and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them.… The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like the ox: and dust shall be the serpent’s meat. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord’ (65:18b-25). The two late passages above imply a gradual transformation of the world-moral and physical-an idea which probably betrays Persian influence (cf. T. K. Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter [7] , 1889], London, 1891, p. 405). The same idea is perhaps present also in Isaiah 51:16 : ‘And I have put my words in thy mouth, and have covered thee in the shadow of mine hand, that I may plant the heavens, and lay the foundations of the earth, and say unto Zion, Thou art my people,’ but if so, it is a foreign element adopted in eclectic fashion from Zoroastrianism (cf. B. Duhm, Das Buch Jesaia [8] , iii.], Göttingen, 1892, p. 359). Nowhere else in the OT is the Messianic Kingdom conceived of otherwise than as eternal on this present earth. The change is, however, prepared for in certain post-Exilic passages, e.g. poetically in Isaiah 51:6 : ‘Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner: but my salvation shall be for ever, and my righteousness shall not be abolished’; also in 34:3f.: ‘Their slain also shall be cast out, and the mountains shall be melted with their blood. And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fade away, as the leaf fadeth from off the vine, and as a fading leaf from the fig tree’; and finally in Psalms 102:25 f., which, however, may simply be a reflexion of the new conception from the Maccabaean age (cf. C. A. Briggs, International Critical Commentary , ‘Psalms,’ Edinburgh, 1907, ad loc.): ‘Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed.’
Outside the OT in the apocalyptic literature we have to look for the further progress of this conception. The gradual moral and physical transformation of the world that we have noticed as an adopted feature in Isaiah appears again, during the 2nd cent. b.c., in Jub. i. 29 (above); also in iv. 26: ‘and Mount Zion (which) will be sanctified in the new creation for a sanctification of the earth; through it will the earth be sanctified from all (its) guilt and its uncleanness throughout the generations of the world’; ‘And the days shall begin to grow many and increase amongst those children of men till their days draw nigh to one thousand years, and to a greater number of years than (before) was the number of the days’ (xxiii. 27); and once more in Test. Levi, xviii. 9: ‘In his [9] priesthood shall sin come to an end, and the lawless shall cease to do evil.’ It was during the stern days of the Maccabees that the change began to make itself felt with regard to the inappropriateness of the present world as the scene of the future Kingdom. The first trace of it meets us in 1 En. lxxxiii-xc., which Charles dates before 161 b.c. (cf. R. H. Charles, The Book of Enoch, Oxford, 1912, Introd., p. lii). Here the centre of the Kingdom is no longer the earthly Jerusalem, but the New Jerusalem brought down from heaven (cf. 1 En. xc. 28, 29, supra). A purified city is not enough; a new and heavenly city must take the place of the old and earthly city as the metropolis of the world-wide Messianic Kingdom. It is to be noted that this portion of the Book of Enoch is dated very shortly after the Book of Daniel and not long after 1 Enoch vi-xxxvi, in neither of which does the New Jerusalem yet appear. The implication in the new idea, however, was not logically carried out until during the 1st cent. b.c. There is mention in 1 En. xci. 16 of a new heaven but not of a new earth, but it is in 1 En. xxxvii-lxxi. (94-64 b.c.) that we have for the first time the conception of a new heaven and a new earth consistently set forth. In 1 En. xlv. 4, 5 the idea is accepted in its entire significance implying the immortal blessedness of man: ‘And I will cause Mine elect ones to dwell upon it: but the sinners and evil-doers shall not set foot thereon’ (cf. Isaiah 65:20, where rather illogically the wicked still live on the new earth). The author of the Parables (i.e. 1 En. xxxvii-lxxi) stands apart from his contemporaries in this new conception of the scene of the Messianic Kingdom and also apart from the writers of the 1st cent. a.d., with regard to the duration of the Kingdom; for while most other writers left behind the OT idea of an everlasting Kingdom and expected only a temporary one on the present earth, he holds to the eternal duration of the Kingdom, contributing the new and fruitful conception of a new heaven and a new earth as the scene of it. It is here, therefore, in the apocalyptic literature that we find the immediate source of the Christian hope of a new heaven and a new earth which meets us in the NT. During the first seven decades of the 1st cent. a.d., i.e. up to the time of the destruction of Jerusalem, the prevalent thought was that of a temporary Messianic Kingdom with the earth as its scene, described sometimes in a very materialistic fashion, as in 2 Bar. xxix. 5: ‘The earth also shall yield its fruit ten thousandfold and on each vine there shall be a thousand branches, and each branch will produce a thousand clusters, and each cluster will produce a thousand grapes, and each grape will produce a cor of wine.’ The spiritual change too in the members of the Kingdom seems to be wrought in a mechanical fashion, for sin disappears suddenly rather by Divine fiat than by any gradual process, in striking contrast to what we saw in Jubilees, Isaiah, and The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. The duration of the temporary Kingdom appears in 4 Ezr 7:28, 29 as 400 years, but in 2 En. xxxii., xxxiii. as 1,000 years, to which the Christian view of the Millennium owes its origin. Even the thought of a temporary Messianic Kingdom is at times given up, especially after the destruction of Jerusalem, for the present earth is wholly unfit for the advent of the Messiah; a renewal of the world is felt to be necessary-a renewal that will be everlasting and incorruptible (cf. 4 Ezr. 7:75). It is in these last decades of the 1st cent. a.d., after the earthly Jerusalem has gone, that the thought of the New Jerusalem reappears as the centre of the renewed world to which all hopes are turned, and here we encounter the writings of the NT, which contain that sublimest of descriptions of the New Jerusalem in the Christian Apocalypse. The conception of the Millennium, or the reign of Christ for a thousand years on the present earth, with Jerusalem as the metropolis of this temporary Kingdom, occurs only in the Apocalypse (cf. Revelation 20:4-6), no place being found for it elsewhere in the NT. It is a conception with an exclusively Jewish basis, but one that opens the way for the idea of a new era of blessedness, not on the present earth but in a renewed world; at the close of the Millennium the present order of things passes away-‘And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat upon it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them’ (Revelation 20:11); ‘And I saw a new heaven and a new earth: for the first heaven and the first earth are passed away’ (Revelation 21:1). This is the scene of the final consummation, and the centre of it is no more the earthly Jerusalem or a purified Jerusalem, but the New Jerusalem that comes down from heaven-from God Himself (Revelation 21:2). It is the same city that the author of Hebrews, writing some time before the author of the Apocalypse, has in mind when he refers to Abraham, who ‘looked for the city which hath the foundations, whose builder and maker is God’ (Hebrews 11:10); it is ‘the heavenly Jerusalem’ (Hebrews 12:22), the centre of that Kingdom ‘that cannot be shaken,’ for ‘yet once more will I make to tremble not the earth only, but also the heaven. And this word, Yet once more, signifieth the removing of those things that are shaken, as of things that have been made, that those things which are not shaken may remain’ (Hebrews 12:26-28). Even earlier in the century St. Paul has the same thought, not yet, however, developed, of the new city, ‘the Jerusalem that is above’ (Galatians 4:26), and the same idea is present when he says, ‘Our citizenship is in heaven’ (Philippians 3:20).
3. The description of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-27; Revelation 22:1-5).-The details of this sublime description are typically Jewish, but the thought is pre-eminently Christian. The earthly Jerusalem had been in ruins for a quarter of a century, Hadrian’s new city was not yet in existence, and the Christian Seer had no thought of the possibility of rebuilding the old. The new city must come down from heaven to be a fitting abode for Christ and the saints. The Seer represents himself as being shown ‘the holy city’ from a high mountain by one of the seven angels (Revelation 21:9-10). ‘Her light was like unto a jasper stone, clear as crystal: having a wall great and high; having twelve gates, and at the gates twelve angels; and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel: on the east were three gates; and on the north three gates; and on the south three gates; and on the west three gates. And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and on them twelve names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb’ (Revelation 21:11-14). As in Ezekiel’s city, the twelve gates of the New Jerusalem bear the names of the twelve tribes-three names on each side of its foursquare order (cf. Ezekiel 48:30-35). But besides these, there appear twelve other names on the city wall; between each pair of gateways above the surface of the rock is a foundation stone, and each stone bears the name of an apostle. The same connexion of the twelve tribes and the twelve apostles appears in Matthew 19:28, where Jesus says of His disciples: ‘in the regeneration when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.’ St. Paul has a similar thought when speaking of the Ephesians: ‘Ye are fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God, being built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone’ (Ephesians 2:19-20). The heavenly city is measured by the angel with a golden measuring rod (Revelation 21:15). ‘And the city lieth foursquare, and the length thereof is as great as the breadth: and he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs: the length and the breadth and the height thereof are equal. And he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, according to the measure of a man, that is, of an angel’ (Revelation 21:16 f.). Moffatt translates: ‘he measured fifteen hundred miles with his rod for the City, for its breadth and length and height alike; he made the measure of the wall seventy-two yards, by human, that is, by angelic reckoning’ (The New Testament: A New Translation, London, 1913). It is a huge cube, as high as it is broad and long, like the Holy of Holies in Solomon’s Temple (cf. 1 Kings 6:20), only the measurements are hyperbolical. The wall is out of all proportion to the height of the city, but both heights, it ought to be noted, are multiples of twelve, the number of the tribes and of the apostles.
Revelation 21:18-21 : ‘And the building of the wall thereof was jasper: and the city was pure gold, like unto pure glass. The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls; each one of the several gates was of one pearl: and the street of the city was pure gold, as it were transparent glass’ (cf. also Isaiah 54:11 f. and Tobit 13:16 f.). Similar lists occur in Ezekiel 28:13 of the precious stones with which the king of Tyre was covered, and in Exodus 28:17-20; Exodus 39:10-13 of the gems set in the breastplate of the high priest; the latter are reproduced in the Apocalypse evidently from memory, as the lists do not completely coincide. What was exclusively for the high priest’s breastplate is now for the whole city of the New Jerusalem-the foundation stones with the names of the apostles are brilliant with all manner of sparkling gems, and each gate consists of a single monster pearl.
Revelation 21:22 f.: ‘And I saw no temple therein: for the Lord God the Almighty, and the Lamb, are the temple thereof. And the city hath no need of the sun, neither of the moon, to shine upon it: for the glory of God did lighten it, and the lamp thereof is the Lamb.’ The actual presence of God and the Christ in the City forms the sanctuary; similarly in 2 Corinthians 6:16 St. Paul says: ‘we are a temple of the living God; even as God said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people’; only what St. Paul says of individuals the Seer says of the ideal city as a whole. No need in such a place for any created light, since the Divine presence is there illuminating all; its sun is the glory of the Father, and its lamp the glorified Son. There is here a fulfilment of the ideal in Isaiah 60:19 f.: ‘The sun shall be no more thy light by day; neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory.…’
Revelation 21:24-27 : ‘And the nations shall walk amidst the light thereof; and the kings of the earth do bring their glory into it. And the gates thereof shall in no wise be shut by day (for there shall be no night there): and they shall bring the glory and the honour of the nations into it: and there shall in no wise enter into it anything unclean, or he that maketh an abomination and a lie: but only they which are written in the Lamb’s book of life.’ The traits are all found in Isaiah: ‘And nations shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising’ (Isaiah 60:3); ‘Thy gates also shall be open continually; they shall not be shut day nor night; that men may bring unto thee the wealth of the nations, and their kings led with them’ (Isaiah 60:11); ‘henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean’ (Isaiah 52:1).
The description closes in Revelation 22:1-5 : Revelation 22:1 f.: ‘And he shewed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb, in the midst of the street thereof. And on this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve manner of fruits, yielding its fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.’ The old Jerusalem had been in a waterless region, but already Ezekiel saw ‘waters’ issuing out ‘from under the threshold of the house eastward,’ and falling into the Kedron valley, and finally making their way to the Dead Sea (cf. Ezekiel 47:1-12); and in Zechariah 14:8 there is the expectation that, when the day of the Lord cometh, ‘living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea: in summer and in winter shall it be.’ In the New Jerusalem the source of the river is in the throne of God and the Lamb, and on its banks is the tree of life, the generic singular here going back to Genesis 2:9, though the representation has its origin in Ezekiel 47:12 : ‘And by the river upon the

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Chrysolite - ) The garniture of the seventh foundation of New Jerusalem
Chrysoprasus - The garniture of the tenth foundation of New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20)
New Jerusalem - The eternal climax of redemptive history is previewed in John's description of the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21-22 . The New Jerusalem is the focus for activity on the new earth. The New Jerusalem motif provides an elaboration of the nature of the new heavens and new earth introduced in Revelation 21:1 . The first explicit reference to the New Jerusalem is in the message to the Philadelphia church in Revelation 3:12 , where it is promised as a reward to those who overcome (a synonym for believers, cf. The idea of an idealized and/or eschatological Jerusalem is referred to in other ways than the phrase "new Jerusalem. " Although the Old Testament contains no explicit reference to a New Jerusalem, Isaiah includes Jerusalem in his new heavens and new earth statements (65:17-19; 66:22). " Revelation 21:2,10 refer to the New Jerusalem as the "Holy City" (cf. Revelation 2:7 , "paradise of God, " may anticipate the New Jerusalem of Revelation 21-22 . ...
The contextual setting of the New Jerusalem in Revelation 21-22 is closely related to the evil city, Babylon, of the Great Harlot in Revelation 17-19 . God's answer to the evil structures of this world is the paradise regained in the New Jerusalem. The New Jerusalem is a cube of enormous proportions (12,000 furlongs is about 1,500 miles), although the use of the number 12 could be symbolic. It is noteworthy that the New Jerusalem has no sun or moon but is illuminated by the effulgence of God's glory. ...
How is the reality of the New Jerusalem on the new earth of Revelation 21-22 to be understood? Is it merely an allegorical description of the final state of the church with no real future new earth locality in view? Is it a literal city that may hover over the millennial earth and house the glorified church-age saints during that period and then be transferred for expanded purposes into the eternal state after the renovation of the earth (some dispensationalists; but, some nondispensationalists also apply it to the millennial period)? Is it a literal city distinctly designed as a center focus for all the redeemed in the eternal state? Is the vision of John, given in apocalyptic motifs, merely a statement in sophisticated symbolism that God will be victor in the climax of history? These and other proposals appear in the literature that addresses this interpretive aspect of the New Jerusalem
Amethyst - Used in the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus 28:19 ; Exodus 39:12 ) and the twelfth stone in the foundation wall of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20 )
Chrysoprase - The mineral forming the tenth stone of the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20 )
Jasper - It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:18,19 )
Emerald - It is mentioned (Revelation 21:19 ) as one of the foundations of the New Jerusalem
Carnelian - It was used to decorate the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13 NRSV) and could be used to describe the one sitting on the heavenly throne ( Revelation 4:3 NIV, NRSV) and formed part of the wall of the New Jerusalem ( Revelation 21:20 NIV, NRSV)
Chrysolite - The mineral from which the seventh stone of the foundation of the New Jerusalem is made (Revelation 21:20 )
Jasper - The last stone in the breastplate of the high priest, and the first in the foundations of the New Jerusalem
Crystal - “Crystal” is the modern translation of several Hebrew and Greek words used to describe something valuable (Job 28:18 ), a clear sky (Ezekiel 1:22 ), a calm sea or river (Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 22:1 ), or the radiance of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:11 )
Jacinth - Some English translations give jacinth as a gem in the high priest's breastplate (Exodus 28:19 , NAS, NIV, NRSV), the color of one of the riders' breastplates (Revelation 9:17 KJV), and the eleventh foundation stone of the New Jerusalem ( Revelation 21:20 , KJV, NAS, NIV, NRSV)
Agate - Agate translates three words in the Bible: a stone in the breastpiece of judgment (Exodus 28:19 ; Exodus 39:12 ), the material in the pinnacles of Jerusalem (Isaiah 54:12 ; see Ezekiel 27:16 ), and the third jewel in the foundation wall of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19 )
Carbuncle - It was the third stone in the first row of the pectoral; and is mentioned among the glorious stones of which the New Jerusalem is figuratively said to be built. Tobit, in his prophecy of the final restoration of Israel, Tob_12:16-17 , describes the New Jerusalem in the same oriental manner
Gareb - Even the localities whose name implies they are now outside shall at last be taken within the New Jerusalem (Matthew 8:14; Luke 17:11-19)
Chalcedony - With it the third foundation of the wall of New Jerusalem is adorned
Beryl - The stones decorated the high priest's breastplate (Exodus 28:20 ), the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13 ), the man in Daniel's vision (Daniel 10:6 ), and the eighth foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20 )
Buchanites - They never increased much; and the death of their leader within a year or two afterwards, occasioned their dispersion, by putting an end to their hopes of reaching the New Jerusalem without death
Chalcedony - Mentioned only in Revelation 21:19 , as one of the precious stones in the foundation of the New Jerusalem
Jacinth, - a precious stone, forming one of the foundations of the walls of the New Jerusalem
Thou Heavenly, New Jerusalem - (Thou Heavenly, New Jerusalem) Hymn for Vespers and Matins on the feast of the dedication of a church
Chrysoprase - (χρυσόπρασος, from χρυσός, ‘gold,’ and πράσον, ‘a leek’)...
This stone is the tenth foundation of the wall of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20)
Amethyst - The amethyst is mentioned as one of the foundations of the New Jerusalem
Chalcedony - One of the stones described as forming the foundation of the New Jerusalem
Dog - 1: κύων (Strong's #2965 — Noun Masculine — kuon — koo'-ohn ) is used in two senses, (a) natural, Matthew 7:6 ; Luke 16:21 ; 2 Peter 2:22 ; (b) metaphorical, Philippians 3:2 ; Revelation 22:15 , of those whose moral impurity will exclude them from the New Jerusalem
Topaz, - one of the gems used in the high priest's breastplate, (Exodus 28:17 ; 39:10 ; Ezekiel 28:13 ) one of the foundations also of the New Jerusalem, in St
Amethyst - One of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest (Exodus 28:19 ; 39:12 ), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20 )
Heaven: Its Variety - We cannot stay to read the catalogue now, but heavenly joys shall be like the tree of life in the New Jerusalem, which, brings forth twelve manner of fruits, and yields her fruit ever month
Sabbath: Views of Heaven Then Enjoyed - ' Blessed is the Sabbath to us when the earth-smoke of care and turmoil no longer beclouds our view; then can our souls full often behold the goodly land, and the city of the New Jerusalem
Jasper, - It was the last of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breastplate, (Exodus 28:20 ; 39:13 ) and the first of the twelve used in the foundations of the New Jerusalem
Reed - The New Jerusalem was measured by an angel who had for a measure a golden reed (Revelation 21:15-16)
Jasper - The third term describes the face of the One seated on the throne (Revelation 4:3 ) and the glory of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:11 ,Revelation 21:11,21:18-19 )
Chalcedony - (χαλκηδών)...
Chalcedony is the precious stone with which the third foundation of the wall of the New Jerusalem is garnished (Revelation 21:19)
Amethyst - It was the ninth stone in the pectoral of the high priest, and is mentioned as the twelfth in the foundations of the New Jerusalem
Jacinth - ) A precious stone, a foundation of the New Jerusalem wall (Revelation 21:20)
Jasper - aspû)...
The king on the heavenly throne is like a jasper stone (Revelation 4:3); the luminary of the New Jerusalem is like a stone most precious, as it were a jasper stone, clear as crystal (21:11); and the first foundation stone of the wall is a jasper
Emerald - The fourth foundation of the wall of the New Jerusalem is emerald (Revelation 21:19)
Jacinth - giacinto)...
Jacinth, or hyacinth, is the colour of the eleventh foundation-stone of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20)
Topaz - Second in the first row of the high-priest's breast-plate (Exodus 28:17; Exodus 39:10), ninth foundation stone of the wall of New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20)
Sardonyx - (σαρδόνυξ)...
The sardonyx is the fifth foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20)
Sardius - The sixth foundation of the wall of the New Jerusalem is a sardius (21:20)
Leaf, Leaves - Ezekiel's vision of the New Jerusalem included trees whose leaves never wither and whose leaves have healing power (Ezekiel 47:12 ; compare Revelation 22:2 )
Minerals And Metals - The Bible has three main lists of precious stones: the twelve stones of Aaron's breastplate (Exodus 28:17-20 ; Exodus 39:10-13 ), the treasures of the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13 ), and the stones on the wall foundation of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:18-21 ). It served on Aaron's breastplate (Exodus 28:19 ) and by some translations as the third stone on the New Jerusalem foundation (Revelation 21:19 NRSV). NRSV reading for one of the stones of the king of Tyre (Ezekiel 28:13 ; NAS, TEV, NIV, “ruby”; REB, “sardin”) and the sixth stone on the foundation of the New Jerusalem wall (Revelation 21:20 ; compare Revelation 4:3 ). Chalcedony An alternate translation for agate as the third stone decorating the New Jerusalem foundation (Revelation 21:19 KJV, NAS, REB, NIV). Chrysoprase or Chrysoprasus (KJV) An apple-green variety of chalcedony, the tenth stone of the foundation for the New Jerusalem's wall (Revelation 21:20 ). ” The rainbow around the throne is compared to an emerald (Revelation 4:3 ), which also served as the fourth stone in the foundations of the New Jerusalem wall (Revelation 21:19 ). It appears in Aaron's breastplate (Exodus 28:19 ; Exodus 39:11 ; KJV, “ligure”; REB, TEV, “turquoise”) and the New Jerusalem wall foundation (Revelation 21:20 ). Pearl is also material for the gates of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:21 ). The ninth decorative stone of the New Jerusalem wall foundation is topaz (Revelation 21:20 )
Topaz - (τοπάζιον)...
Topaz is the ninth foundation-stone of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:20)
Sapphire - (σάπφειρος, from מַפיר)...
Sapphire is the second foundation stone of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19), an idea probably suggested by Isaiah 54:11
Swedenborgians - He professed himself to be the founder of the New Jerusalem Church, alluding to the New Jerusalem spoken of in the book of the Revelation. That all those passages in the Scripture generally supposed to signify the destruction of the world by fire, and commonly called the last judgment, must be understood according to the above-mentioned science of correspondences, which teaches, that by the end of the world, or consummation of the age, is not signified the destruction of the world, but the destruction or end of the present Christian church, both among Roman Catholics and Protestants, of every description or denomination; and that this last judgment actually took place in the spiritual world in the year 1757; from which aera is dated the second advent of the Lord, and the commencement of a new Christian church, which, they say, is meant by the new heaven and new earth in the Revelation, and the New Jerusalem thence descending
West - The same truth is suggested in the vision of the New Jerusalem as the city with an equal number of open gates on its four sides (Revelation 21:13)
Allelujah - The beloved apostle John tells us, that in those visions he was favoured with, in seeing heaven opened, and beholding the glorified inhabitants of the New Jerusalem, he heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Hallelujah
Pearl - Hence the description of the New Jerusalem
New Jerusalem - -In the NT the name ‘New Jerusalem’ occurs only twice, and these references are both in the Apocalypse of John, viz. Revelation 3:12 : ‘He that overcometh … I will write upon him … the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God’; Revelation 21:2 : ‘And I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God’ (cf. ’ But the metropolis that appears in Isaiah is not the New Jerusalem; it is the old city as before, only purified and blessed by God in a special manner. in Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (Daniel 5:12): ‘And, in the New Jerusalem shall the righteous rejoice, and it shall be unto the glory of God for ever’; this is the earliest occurrence of the expression ‘New Jerusalem,’ but here it simply implies the rebuilding of the old city. 28, 29, where the pre-existence of the New Jerusalem is implied though not specifically assigned to the new house brought and set up by God Himself: ‘They folded up that old house. Jerusalem will be transformed as the metropolis of the new earth, but not yet created a new as the New Jerusalem: ‘For, behold, I create Jerusalem a rejoicing, and her people a joy. Here the centre of the Kingdom is no longer the earthly Jerusalem, but the New Jerusalem brought down from heaven (cf. It is to be noted that this portion of the Book of Enoch is dated very shortly after the Book of Daniel and not long after 1 Enoch vi-xxxvi, in neither of which does the New Jerusalem yet appear. , after the earthly Jerusalem has gone, that the thought of the New Jerusalem reappears as the centre of the renewed world to which all hopes are turned, and here we encounter the writings of the NT, which contain that sublimest of descriptions of the New Jerusalem in the Christian Apocalypse. This is the scene of the final consummation, and the centre of it is no more the earthly Jerusalem or a purified Jerusalem, but the New Jerusalem that comes down from heaven-from God Himself (Revelation 21:2). The description of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:9-27; Revelation 22:1-5). As in Ezekiel’s city, the twelve gates of the New Jerusalem bear the names of the twelve tribes-three names on each side of its foursquare order (cf. What was exclusively for the high priest’s breastplate is now for the whole city of the New Jerusalem-the foundation stones with the names of the apostles are brilliant with all manner of sparkling gems, and each gate consists of a single monster pearl. ’ In the New Jerusalem the source of the river is in the throne of God and the Lamb, and on its banks is the tree of life, the generic singular here going back to Genesis 2:9, though the representation has its origin in Ezekiel 47:12 : ‘And by the river upon the
Lamb - He who suffered is vindicated there, and finally possesses His bride, the New Jerusalem, in which the throne of God and of the Lamb is established
Husband - In Revelation 21 the New Jerusalem is seen coming down from heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband: that husband must be the Lord Jesus, for she is the bride, the Lamb's wife
Foundation - The Apostles themselves are the foundation of the New Jerusalem, formed of all manner of precious stones ( Revelation 21:14 ; Revelation 21:19 )
Keys - The risen Christ holds the key of David and controls access to the New Jerusalem (Revelation 3:7 )
New Life - He will create a new heaven and new earth (21:1), a New Jerusalem (3:12), where the saints enjoy a new name (2:17) and sing a new song (5:9)
Glass - He described the walls and streets of the New Jerusalem being made of pure gold
Apocalypse - ...
In chapters 19:11 to 22:5, are related the final triumph of the Word of God and the glory of the New Jerusalem
Gate - The gates of the New Jerusalem are described as pearls: "every several gate was of one pearl," Revelation 21:12-25 : the entrances must be in keeping with the rest of the city
Sapphire - " Tob_13:16-17 , in his prophecy of the final restoration of Israel, describes the New Jerusalem in the same oriental manner: "For Jerusalem shall be built up with sapphires, and emeralds, and precious stones; thy walls, and towers, and battlements, with pure gold
Gate - To open it wide and high was significant of joy and welcome, as when the Savior ascended to heaven, Psalm 24:7,9 ; and the open gates of the New Jerusalem in contrast with those of earthly cities carefully closed and guarded at nightfall, indicate the happy security of that world of light, Revelation 21:25
Foundation - The splendor of the New Jerusalem is pictured in its foundation of precious stones (Isaiah 54:11 ; Revelation 21:19 )
Golgotha - Golgotha's mount opened the perspective of the New Jerusalem, and gave to the eye of faith not only clear and distinct prospects of the certainty of the place, but also as clear and distinct assurances of the believer's right and interest by Jesus to the possession of it
Hymn - The free introduction of hymns of praise in the Apocalypse, in description of the worship of the New Jerusalem, points to their use by the early Church
Mountain - The “New Jerusalem” is also known as Mount Zion (Revelation 14:1 )
Stones - They were used in the breastplate of the high priest, Solomon garnished the temple with them, and they also abound in the description of the New Jerusalem in the Revelation
Philadelphia - But the message contains no reproach against the Christians, although they are bidden to hold fast that which they have, and the promise to him that overcometh is that ‘I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusalem, … and mine own new name
Jewels, Jewelry - ...
In Revelation 21:2 , which echoes the imagery of Ezekiel 16:8-31 , God is pictured as a Bridegroom whose bride, the New Jerusalem, is adorned with jewels. The walls of the New Jerusalem are pictured as built of jasper, adorned with twelve kinds of jewels. Unlike the old Jerusalem, the New Jerusalem—associated with the completion of the kingdom of God-will not be unfaithful
Heavens, New - See Angel ; Creation ; Eschatology ; Heaven ; Hell ; Kingdom; New Jerusalem
Dispensations - ) the final ages of ages, when there shall be the new heavens and earth and the holy New Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven (Revelation 21; 22)
Precious Stones - The light (φωστήρ) within the New Jerusalem is like a very precious stone, a jasper, crystal-clear (Revelation 21:11); and the foundations of the city are adorned with all manner of precious stones (Revelation 21:19). ...
The idea of a New Jerusalem built of precious stones (Revelation 21:19-21) was not original, for it occurs in the prayer of Tobit (Tobit 13:16-17)
Lamb - The Lamb is pictured as the central figure in a marriage feast-the Bridegroom whose bride is the New Jerusalem (Revelation 19:7; Revelation 19:9, Revelation 21:9), hidden with God until the fullness of time. Again the scene changes to the New Jerusalem, whose foundations are the twelve apostles of the Lamb (Revelation 21:14), whose temple is the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb (Revelation 21:22), and whose lamp is the Lamb (Revelation 21:23)
Street - This principle is carried further in the description of the Holy City, New Jerusalem, in correspondence with the number of gates (twelve)
Honest - Liars cannot enter the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:27; Revelation 22:15): their part is in the fiery lake (Revelation 21:8)
Gate (2) - In the prophetic picture of Zion restored and comforted, the gates were to be called ‘Praise,’ and those which John saw in the New Jerusalem bore on their fronts the names of the ‘twelve tribes of the children of Israel’ (Revelation 21:12)
Numbers as Symbols - The New Jerusalem will have twelve foundations for its walls with the names of the twelve apostles; it will have twelve gates, consisting of twelve pearls, with the names of the twelve tribes inscribed, the gates will be attended by twelve angels. ...
Four- threes: Three gates on each of the four sides of the New Jerusalem
French Prophets - Their message was (and they were to proclaim it as heralds to the Jews, and every nation under heaven, beginning at England, ) that the grand jubilee, the acceptable year of the Lord, the accomplishment of those numerous Scriptures concerning the new heaven and the new earth, the kingdom of the Messiah, the marriage of the Lamb, the first resurrection, or the New Jerusalem descending from above, were now even at the door; that this great operation was to be wrought on the part of man by spiritual arms only, proceeding from the mouths of those who should by inspiration, or the mighty gift of the Spirit, be sent forth in great numbers to labour in the vineyard; that this mission of his servants should be witnessed to by signs and wonders from heaven, by a deluge of judgments on the wicked universally throughout the world, as famine, pestilence, earthquakes, &c
Tribes, the Twelve - In the New Jerusalem the names of the twelve tribes will be written on the twelve gates
New - ...
"The new things that are to be received and enjoyed hereafter are: a new name, the believer's, Revelation 2:17 ; a new name, the Lord's, Revelation 3:12 ; a new song, Revelation 5:9 ; a new Heaven and a new Earth, Revelation 21:1 ; the New Jerusalem, Revelation 3:12 ; 21:2 ; 'And He that sitteth on the Throne said, Behold, I make all things new,' Revelation 21:5 " * Nehemiah - But the walls and the gates and the towers and the battlements of the New Jerusalem still lie in ruins all round the city; and while that is the case, the whole city stands open to the inroads and the ravages of their enemies round about. Speaking of the preachers of Jerusalem and their support, just as we get our Presbytery, and our Kirk-Session, and our Expository Pulpit, and our Puritan Sabbath from the New Jerusalem of that day, so we get our Deacons' Court and our Sustentation Fund from Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra was an old preacher, full of years, full of learning, and full of an experienced piety, giving himself continually to prayer and to the ministry of the Word, while young Nehemiah, like Stephen in the Acts, served tables in the New Jerusalem. And neither in the New Jerusalem of Nehemiah's day, nor in the same Jerusalem in Peter's day, was the prophetic and apostolic and diaconate compact better observed, on the deacons' side at any rate, than it is in our own congregations at the present moment
Canaan; Canaanite - ...
This prophecy speaks of the last days and will be fulfilled in the New Jerusalem, according to Jerusalem - At the same time, the Dead Sea Scroll community who deemed the Jerusalem temple despised by God, contemplated a New Jerusalem, completely rebuilt as a Holy City and with a new temple as its centerpiece (Temple Scroll). Isaiah 60:14 ), looked forward to the fulfillment of the promise of the kingdom in the establishment of a New Jerusalem that would come "down out of heaven from God" (Revelation 21:2 ). ...
The Bible begins with a bucolic setting in the Garden of Eden; it closes on an urban scene, and that city is the New Jerusalem. Schoville...
See also New Jerusalem ...
Bibliography
Glory - In the New Jerusalem the glory of God lightens it, "and the Lamb is the light thereof
Gold - (Exodus 28:20) And John tells the church, that the beryl was among the foundation-stones of the New Jerusalem
Philadelphia - Every victor in the spiritual conflict will be as a pillar, not in a crumbling earthly shrine, but in the enduring temple of God, and have graven on the tablets of his own memory-monumentum CEre perennius-the mystic names of God and His New Jerusalem
New Command - This fact is proven by the centrality of the concept of newness for New Testament theology: new teaching (Mark 1:27 ; Acts 17:19 ); new wine and new wineskins (Luke 5:37-39 ); new commandment (John 13:34 ; 1 John 2:7-8 ; 2 John 5 ); new covenant ( Luke 22:20 ; 1 Corinthians 11:25 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Hebrews 8:8,13 ; 9:15 ; 12:24 ); new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17 ; Galatians 6:15 ); new self (Ephesians 2:15 ; 4:24 ; Colossians 3:10 ); new heaven and new earth (2 Peter 3:13 ; Revelation 21:1 ); new name (Revelation 2:17 ; 3:12 ); New Jerusalem (Revelation 3:12 ; 21:2 ); new song (Revelation 5:9 ; 14:3 ); and all things new (Revelation 21:5 )
Jerusalem - (Isaiah 62:1; Psalms 137:5-6) And hence the church in heaven is called the New Jerusalem
New Heavens And a New Earth - Revelation 2:17 ; 3:12 ), a new song (Isaiah 42:10 ; Revelation 5:9 ; 14:3 ), a new spirit/heart (Ezekiel 11:19 ; 18:31 ; 36:26 ), new wine (Matthew 9:17 ; Mark 2:22 ; Luke 5:37-38 ), and the New Jerusalem (Revelation 3:12 ; 21:2 )
Jerusalem - The New Jerusalem/Zion will be a place of great beauty (Tobit 13:16-17 ), ruled over by God Himself (Sibylline Oracles 3:787). Finally, John saw the New Jerusalem descending from heaven to the new earth
Glory - Paul’s sufferings are a ‘glory’ to his converts; 2 Corinthians 8:23 : worthy Christians are the ‘glory’ of Christ; Revelation 21:24-25 : the kings of the earth and the nations bring their ‘glory’ into the New Jerusalem. To this the term δόξα is frequently applied-at Bethlehem (Luke 2:9), and at the Transfiguration (2 Peter 1:17); the ‘glory’ of God is the light of the New Jerusalem; Stephen looking up saw the ‘glory of God’ (Acts 7:55); and the redeemed are at last presented faultless before the presence of His glory (Judges 1:24; Jude cf
Victory - " The Lord will grant to the one who overcomes the following: eating of the tree of life, in the paradise of God (2:7); immunity to the second death (2:11); receipt of the "hidden manna, " a white stone with a new name inscribed on it, known only to the person himself (2:17); power over the nations, to rule over them with a rod of iron (2:26-27); being clad in white garments, name not being blotted out of the book of life, and the confession of his name before the Father and the angels (3:5); made a pillar in the temple of God; and three new names: the name of God, the name of the city of God, the New Jerusalem, and the Lord's own new name (3:12); and sitting on the Lord's throne with him (3:21)
Tree of Life - 4-6)-those not yet belonging to the New Jerusalem-is problematic
Mourning Customs - One of the features to which the New Jerusalem owes its title is the absence of mourning and tears ( Revelation 7:17 )
River - ’ To the Seer of Patmos, the New Jerusalem would not be complete without the river of water of life
Colours - ...
The brilliant hues of the foundations, walls, gates, and streets of the New Jerusalem, and those of the robes of the inhabitants, suggest that ‘the beauty of colour … will contribute its part to the blessedness of vision in the future world’ (Delitzsch, Iris, 61)
Light - In the New Jerusalem there will be no more night (Revelation 22:5 ), and the city will not need the sun, moon, or created light to shine on it, "for the glory of God gives it light, and the Lamb is its lamp
Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies - Also, the "new Jerusalem" that John saw "coming down out of heaven from God" (21:2,10) is a new characteristic of heaven, perfectly suited to extend God's glory (21:11). The essential feature of the New Jerusalem is the intimate presence of God among his people (21:3; 22:4)
Lie, Lying - Since "no lie comes from the truth" (1 John 2:21 ) and because lying is obviously hateful to the God of truth and is in fact attributed to the devil ("for there is no truth in him, " John 8:44 ), there will be no place for any form of deception, pretense, or hypocrisy in the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:27 ; 22:15 )
Israel - On the other hand, the symbolic or metaphorical use of the term applied to the spiritual Israel is found in connexion with the sealing of the servants of God which takes place according to the tribes of the children of Israel (Revelation 7:4), and also in the description of the New Jerusalem, where the names of the twelve tribes are engraven on the twelve gates (Revelation 21:12)
Praise - It is the song of those who are healed of their sicknesses, or forgiven their sins; of Apostles who mediate on the gospel message and salvation through Christ; of those who rehearse the glories of the New Jerusalem as seen in apocalyptic vision
Isaiah - Beyond the judgment, moreover, he looked forward to a New Jerusalem, righteous and faithful ( Isaiah 1:26 )
John - Whereas, when we once become men of meditation, Jesus Christ, and the whole New Testament concerning Him, and the whole New Jerusalem where He is preparing a place for us, will become more to us than our nearest friend: more to us than this city with all its most pressing affairs
Revelation, Theology of - Cubical New Jerusalem (21:16), obviously not a literal city, is an antitype of the inner sanctuary in the temple (1 Kings 6:20 ), the place of God's very presence. The people of the New Jerusalem keep themselves pure to become the bride of the Lamb (14:1-5; 19:7-9; 21:9-22:5)
David - in His Services - And when I think also of the multitudes that no man can number to whom David's Psalms have been their constant song in the house of their pilgrimage; in the tabernacle as they fell for the first time hot from David's heart and harp; in the temple of Solomon his son with all the companies of singers and all their instruments of music; in the synagogues of the captivity; in the wilderness as the captives returned to the New Jerusalem; in the New Jerusalem every Sabbath-day and every feast-day; in the upper room, both before and after supper; in Paul's prison at Philippi; in the catacombs; in Christian churches past number; in religious houses all over Christendom at all hours of the day and the night; in deserts, in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth; in our churches; in our Sabbath-schools; in our families morning and evening; in our sickrooms; on our death-beds; and in the night-watches when the disciples of Christ watch and pray lest they enter into temptation
Number Systems And Number Symbolism - New Jerusalem had twelve gates; its walls had twelve foundations (Revelation 21:12-14 )
Marriage (i.) - In Revelation 21:2 the comparison of the New Jerusalem to an Oriental bride adorned for her husband, appropriately sets forth the protracted development and perfected beauty of the Kingdom of God
Temple of Jerusalem - Ezekiel's vision of the New Jerusalem Temple after the Exile (Ezekiel 40-43 ) is idealistic and was perhaps never realized in Zerubbabel's rebuilding of the Temple, but many of its details would have reflected Solomon's Temple in which Ezekiel probably ministered as a priest before being deported to Babylon in 597 B. For John, the ideal which the temple represented will ultimately be realized in a “new Jerusalem” (Revelation 21:2 )
God, Name of - John reports Jesus' promise to the one who overcomes, "I will write on him the name of my God and the name of the city of my God, the New Jerusalem, which is coming down out of heaven from my God; and I will also write on him my new name" (Revelation 3:12 ; 22:4 )
Temple - But the temple at Babylon is alluded to, 2 Chronicles 36:7; Ezra 5:14; the temple of Diana at Ephesus, Acts 19:27; the temple of God, 2 Corinthians 6:16, meaning the saints, and the temple in the Holy City—the New Jerusalem
Apostles - The names of the twelve apostles will be engraved on the twelve foundations of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:14 )
City - Its ultimate goal is the ‘holy city, New Jerusalem, descending from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband’ (Revelation 21:2)
Twelve - It is interesting to note that in Revelation 21:19 these stones are found in the foundation of the New Jerusalem, while the names of the twelve patriarchs are found upon the pearls which constitute the gates (see verses Revelation 21:12 and Revelation 21:21)
Christians, Names of - John, in the Book of Revelation, depicts the church as the bride of the Lamb, descending from heaven as the city of God (3:12), the Holy City (21:2,10; 22:19), and the New Jerusalem (3:12; 21:2,10)
the Woman With the Issue of Blood - And I set free from myself for ever, and admitted to the New Jerusalem to walk with Christ and with His saints, in all the holiness and all the beauty of the Divine Nature! "Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God
Messiah - Then the New Jerusalem is to be established by God. The ten tribes of Israel return with their brethren to live in the New Jerusalem which had come down from heaven
Revelation, Book of - More particularly the Letters to the Churches are of value as criticism and Inspiration for various classes of Christians, while its pictures of the New Jerusalem and its insistence upon the moral qualifications for the citizens of the Messianic Kingdom are in themselves notable incentives to right living: Stript of its apocalyptic figures, the book presents a noble ideal of Christian character, an assurance of the unfailing justice of God, and a prophecy of the victory of Christianity over a brutal social order
Children of God, Sons of God - In the Apocalypse it occurs only in Revelation 21:7, where it is to be the privilege of those who inherit the New Jerusalem that they will be sons of God
Thousand Years - The millennial heaven and earth, connected but separate, are but a foretaste of the everlasting state, when the upper and lower congregations shall be no longer separate and New Jerusalem shall descend from God out of heaven
the Samaritan Who Shewed Mercy - But that immortal picture of that midnight street in London, and that immortal picture of that bloody pass of Adummim, will be sister portraits for ever among the arttreasures of the New Jerusalem
the Angel of the Church in Philadelphia - And now he is set in the very midst of the city of God which is New Jerusalem
Sanballat - And thus it is that such a large part of Nehemiah's autobiography is taken up with Sanballat's diabolical plots and conspiracies both to murder Nehemiah and to destroy the New Jerusalem
Fig-Tree - ...
This phenomenon of successive fruitage in the fig-tree is doubtless the source of the description of the fruit-trees of the New Jerusalem (Ezekiel 47:12, Revelation 22:2 ‘the tree of life’) as ‘bearing fruit every month
Joseph - If ever Almighty God has wrought that salvation in Dan, or in any of Dan's brothers on this side the New Jerusalem, ask Him, for Christ's sake, to do it a little to you
Bride - John's language, in his magnificent description of the Christian church in her millennial state: "And I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband," Revelation 21:2
Jerusalem - ...
THE New Jerusalem, is a name given to the church of Christ, and signifying is firm foundations in the love, choice, an covenant of God; its strong bulwarks, living fountains, and beautiful palaces; its thronging thousands, its indwelling God, and its consummated glory in heaven, Galatians 4:26 Hebrews 12:22 Revelation 3:12 21:1-27
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - by applying it to a woman on the point of death; that the empress erected "new Jerusalem" on the site (a phrase evidently taken from Eusebius); and that the emperor put one of the nails on his statue at Constantinople, as many inhabitants testified ( H
Christianity - , Ephesians 5:23 ), there will come the realization of that perfect Society which is variously shadowed forth in the NT under the figures of a Kingdom from which there have been cast forth all things that cause stumbling ( Matthew 13:41 ), a glorious Church without spot or wrinkle or any such thing ( Ephesians 5:27 ), a Holy City, the New Jerusalem, ‘descending out of heaven from God’ ( Revelation 21:10 f
Heaven - (3) The heavenly city, the New Jerusalem, the dwelling of God, of Christ, and of the saved, comes down from heaven, after the earthly kingdom is over
Type - The triumph song of Moses and the children of Israel (Exodus 15:1, Deuteronomy 31:30; Deuteronomy 32:4) becomes ‘the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb’ (Revelation 15:3); the manna by which Israel was fed in the wilderness tells of a hidden manna given to him that over-cometh (Revelation 2:17); the twelve tribes reappear in the twelve companies of the sealed servants of God (Revelation 7:4-8); Jerusalem itself is transfigured into the New Jerusalem, the city of God (Revelation 3:12, Revelation 21:2; Revelation 21:10); Mount Zion, to which the tribes went up, becomes the gathering place of the hosts of the redeemed (Revelation 14:1-3)
High Priest - On it were the 12 stones in four rows, with the 12 tribes engraven in the order of the encampment; just as the names of the 12 tribes were on the 12 pearl gates, and in the 12 foundations (of precious stones) of the New Jerusalem wall the names of the 12 apostles of the Lamb
Sexuality, Human - As can be demonstrated by the overt parallels between Eden and the New Jerusalem portrayed in Revelation 21-22 , the world to come (the eschaton) will be established as a postfallen order with the effects of the fall fully negated
Heaven - (3) The heavenly city, the New Jerusalem, the dwelling of God, of Christ, and of the saved, comes down from heaven, after the earthly kingdom is over
Revelation, the - The holy city, New Jerusalem, comes down from heaven as a bride adorned for her husband
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - 6, 7)]'>[14]; he foretells their captivity and return; salvation will arise from Judah and Levi; Beliar will be overthrown; ‘the saints shall rest in Eden, and in the New Jerusalem shall the righteous rejoice’ (v
Montanus - There probably Montanus had taught; there the prophetesses Priscilla and Maximilla resided; there Priscilla had seen in a vision Christ come in the form of a woman in a bright garment, who inspired her with wisdom and informed her that Pepuza was the holy place and that there the New Jerusalem was to descend from heaven
Palestine - No doubt some such conception was in the minds of many who looked in early Christian times for new heaven and a new earth and a New Jerusalem