What does Nero mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Nero
Nero was the emperor before whom Paul was brought on his first imprisonment at Rome, and the apostle is supposed to have suffered martyrdom during this persecution. He is repeatedly alluded to in Scripture (Acts 25:11 ; Philippians 1:12,13 ; 4:22 ). He died A.D. 68.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Nero
Roman emperor (54-68), born Antium, December 15, 37; died Rome, June 9, 68. He was the son of Domitius and Agrippina. His beneficial rule under the direction of Burrus and Seneca ended in five years, when he gave way to his sensuality and moral perversity. He poisoned Brittanicus, assassinated his mother, divorced and executed his wife, Octavia, in order to marry Poppaea, burned Rome, caused a fierce persecution of Christians and the martyrdom of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, and put to death Seneca, Petronius, and Pretus. Confronted with revolt in the provinces, outlawed and forsaken, he committed suicide.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Nero
Nero (nç'ro). L. Domitius Nero succeeded Claudius as emperor of Rome, 54 a.d., and killed himself to avoid a public execution, 68. In his reign that war commenced between the Jews and Romans which terminated later in the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus and the overthrow of the Jewish polity. It was under Nero, too, that a fierce persecution of the Christians began, about 61 a.d., which lasted till his death. Paul suffered martyrdom in it at Rome. So great were this monarch's cruelties that his name has ever since served specially to distinguish a tyrant. He to frequently indicated as Caesar in the New Testament, Acts 25:18; Acts 25:10-12; Acts 25:21; Acts 26:32; Acts 28:19; Philippians 4:22, and as Augustus, Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25; but his name Nero does not occur. See Cæsar.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Nero
NERO is not mentioned by name in the NT, but his connexion with St. Paul’s trial ( Acts 25:1-27 ; Acts 26:1-32 ; Acts 27:1-44 ; Acts 28:1-31 , where ‘Cæsar’ is Nero), the mention of his household ( Philippians 4:22 ), and the general consensus of opinion that the number of the Beast 666 ( Revelation 13:18 ) is a cypher indicating Nero Kesar (the Gr. way of pronouncing the Emperor’s name), are sufficient reasons for including him here. Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, son of Gnaens Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 32 (died 40) a.d.) and Iulia Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus (the adopted son of the Emperor Tiberius), who became wife of the Emperor Claudius in 48 a.d., was born on 15 Dec. in the year 37 a.d. On adoption by his step-father on 25 Feb. 50 he received new names, by one of which, Nero, he has since been known. On the murder of Claudius his sole rule began in 54, and during it he was officially known as Imperator Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus. His death took place on 9 June, 68, in his thirty-first year.
Nero inherited evil qualities from his father and mother, which for the first five years of his reign, when he was a mere youth, were kept in check by his two tutors, Burrus an experienced soldier, and Seneca the distinguished philosopher. His mother, a woman of very strong will, who had successfully schemed for his advancement, had no good influence on him, and, when of age to throw off all restraints, he plunged into follies and excesses which suggest that madness had unhinged his mind. His defects, however, seem to have done little more than scandalize and amuse Rome: the prosperity of the provinces, thanks to the excellence of the bureaucratic machine, continued. Space permits only a reference to some important events in his reign.
The question of the Eastern frontier, which was a problem ever present to the Emperors, demanded settlement from Nero. The safety of this frontier could he secured only if Armenia were under the suzerainty of Rome. It was therefore the object of their perpetual rivals, the Parthians, to obtain this suzerainty. The Romans dared not annex Armenia, because it would inevitably become necessary to annex also the whole of the country on the west of the Tigris. At the opening of Nero’s reign, Tiridates, a Parthian, had established himself securely on the throne of Armenia, and the possession of Armenia by the Romans was thus seriously threatened. The ultimate intention of Rome was to offer Armenia to Tiridates as a gift, but as a necessary preliminary to this they made the most vigorous preparations for war. Cn. Domitius Corbulo, one of the ablest generals of the 1st cent., was appointed by Nero to conduct the campaign, and the governor of Syria and the other officials and client-princes in the neighbourhood of Armenia were instructed to co-operate with him. The condition of the Eastern troops caused a delay of two and a half years. After a terrible winter passed in tents in the uplying plain of Armenia, Corbulo was ready to strike in spring 58, and as the result of this first campaign Tiridates asked for terms. He was offered his kingdom as a gift from Rome, but refused to accept it, and in the second campaign (59) the Roman general marched upon Tiridates’ capital Artaxata, which surrendered, and proceeded thence by a long and difficult march to Tigranocerta, the second capital, in the extreme south, which in its turn surrendered. In the year 60, which was occupied in pacification, Tigranes, who was educated in Rome, was placed on the throne by Nero. The folly of this king and the cowardice and incompetence of the Roman general Pætus threatened to undo all that Corbulo had achieved; but Corbulo, as supreme commander-in-chief for the whole Eastern frontier, retrieved the loss in the year 63 and following on this successful campaign Tiridates received the crown as the gift of Rome. The long peace with Armenia which followed is to the credit of Corbulo’s consummate generalship and Nero’s skilful diplomacy. The Roman hold on Britain, which his predecessor Claudius had obtained, was further strengthened under Nero. It was in his reign that the justly aroused rebellion under Boudicca (better known by the incorrect form Boadicea) in East Anglia was crushed, after terrible massacres by the Britons, by the governor Suetonius Paulinus (60). There was henceforth, for a considerable time, peace in Britain. The Germany and Danube frontiers also engaged attention in Nero’s time.
In the city Nero exercised a wise care for the corn and water supplies. He also increased the power of the Senate, and may be said to have constituted an Imperial Cabinet. He was fond of the arts, especially music and poetry, but he never attained more than a respectable standard in either. On 19 July, 64, fire broke out in Rome, and raged for nine days in all, leaving great parts of the city in ashes. On the evidence Nero must be acquitted of all connexion with the fire, which was due to chance. The populace, however, suspected the Emperor, and were anxious to bring retribution on the originators of the fire. Nero selected the Christians as scapegoats, and he may have believed them guilty, as some of them were understood to have confessed their guilt. They were subjected to every imaginable variety of cruel death. These punishments did not remove suspicion from Nero, and, as the populace soon became sated, other charges had to be brought against them. Of these charges, hostility to civilized society was the chief. At a later stage in history we find evidence to justify the conclusion that the name ‘Christian’ was held to be a sufficient charge in Itself. A conspiracy against the Emperor’s life, in which some of the chief men in the State were implicated, failed of its purpose through treachery in 65; the effect on the Emperor’s mind issued in a reign of terror, and a number of the noblest persons, particularly Stoics, were put to death. The later days of Nero saw the rise of the Jewish insurrection against the Roman power, which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and the massacre of countless Jews in a.d. 70. Two years before that, however, the revolt of Gaul under Vindex had been the prelude to Nero’s death. His life of ease and luxury had weakened a nature never inured to hardship, and when the hour of danger came he sought a refuge in suicide. Not long after his death there arose a curious rumour in the East, that he had come to life again, or had not really died. The East had seen nothing but his best side, and this rumour, born of a desire to see him emperor again, seriously endangered the peace of the Empire, as more than one person came forward claiming to be Nero.
Of the trial or trials of St. Paul we know nothing certain. It is highly probable that his appeal was heard either before a committee of the Emperor’s privy council, or before the Emperor’s deputy, the prefect of the city.
A. Souter.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Nero
(nee' roh) Personal name meaning, “brave.” Roman emperor A.D. 54-68.
Nero became emperor in A.D. 57 at the age of thirteen. He succeeded his stepfather, Claudius, who was probably murdered at the behest of Agrippina, Nero's mother.
For the first years of his reign, Nero was content to be dominated by his mother and his two mentors, Burrus and Seneca. The latter was a leading Stoic philosopher who was able, for a time, to moderate Nero's more excessive tendencies.
As he grew older, Nero threw off these moderating influences and took control. To remove opposition, he probably was involved in the death of his half brother, Britannicus, and he had his mother murdered.
Nero was a complex personality. He could be extremely cruel, and his life was marked with debauchery and excess. Yet he was also a poet, an actor, a musician, and an athlete. He attempted to turn the crowds of Rome away from the brutal gladitorial contests to an appreciation of the Greek-style Olympic games and other forms of cultural competition.
During Nero's rule the Great Fire broke out in Rome (A.D. 64). Much of the city was destroyed including Nero's palace. The story, probably true in part, goes that Nero fiddled while Rome burned.
Nero took measures to provide relief for those affected by the fire. Still he could not dispell the rumor that he had the fire set. People knew that he planned to build a much larger palace for himself and they reasoned that he used the fire to clear off the land. Nero felt the need to divert suspicion to another group. He selected the Christians as his scapegoats. He claimed that they had set the fire. A systematic persecution of the Christians followed. Because of his life-style and the persecution, many Christians viewed him as the antichrist.
Nero neglected the army. This proved to be his downfall. He lost the loyalty of large segments of the army. Finally, several frontier armies revolted. Nero's support at home melted away. Realizing that the end was inevitable and near, he committed suicide by stabbing himself in A.D. 68. See Rome.
Gary Poulton
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Nero
The Emperor Nero is not named in Scripture; but he is indicated by his title of emperor, and by his surname Caesar. To him St. Paul appealed after his imprisonment by Felix, and his examination by Festus, who was swayed by the Jews. St. Paul was therefore carried to Rome, where he arrived A.D. 61. Here he continued two years, preaching the Gospel with freedom, till he became famous even in the emperor's court, in which were many Christians; for he salutes the Philippians in the name of the brethren who were of the household of Caesar, that is, of Nero's court, Php_1:12-13 ; Php_4:22 . We have no particular information how he cleared himself from the accusations of the Jews, whether by answering before Nero, or whether his enemies dropped their prosecutions, which seems probable, Acts 28:21 . However, it appears that he was liberated in the year 63. Nero is reckoned the first persecutor of the Christian church: his persecution was A.D. 64. Nero, the most cruel and savage of all men, and also the most wicked and depraved, began his persecution against the Christian church, A.D. 64, on pretence of the burning of Rome, of which some have thought himself to be the author. He endeavoured to throw all the odium on the Christians: those were seized first that were known publicly as such, and by their means many others were discovered. They were condemned to death, and were even insulted in their sufferings. Some were sewed up in skins of beasts, and then exposed to dogs to be torn in pieces; some were nailed to crosses; others perished by fire. The latter were sewed up in pitched coverings, which, being set on fire, served as torches to the people, and were lighted up in the night. Nero gave leave to use his own gardens, as the scene of all these cruelties. From this time edicts were published against the Christians, and many martyrs suffered, especially in Italy. St. Peter and St. Paul are thought to have suffered martyrdom, consequent on this persecution, A.D. 65. The revolt of the Jews from the Romans happened about A.D. 65 and 66, in the twelfth and thirteenth of Nero. The city of Jerusalem making an insurrection, A.D. 66, Florus there slew three thousand six hundred persons, and thus began the war. A little while afterward, those of Jerusalem killed the Roman garrison. Cestius on this came to Jerusalem to suppress the sedition; but he was forced to retire, after having besieged it about six weeks, and was routed in his retreat, A.D. 66. About the end of the same year, Nero gave Vespasian the command of his troops against the Jews. This general carried on the war in Galilee and Judea during A.D. 67 and 68, the thirteenth and fourteenth of Nero. But Nero killing himself in the fourteenth year of his reign, Jerusalem was not besieged till after his death, A.D. 70, the first and second of Vespasian.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Nero, Claudius Caesar
Nero (1), Claudius Caesar, emperor (Oct. 13, 54, to June 9, 68). For our purpose the interest of Nero's life centres in his persecution of the Christians. For his general history see Merivale, cc. lii.–lv. During his early reign Christianity was unmolested and seems to have spread rapidly at Rome. No doubt it received a great impetus from the preaching of St. Paul during the two years after his arrival, probably early in 61. But before long a terrible storm was to burst on the infant church. On the night of July 16, 64, a fire broke out in the valley between the Palatine and the Aventine. That part of the city was crowded with humble dwellings and shops full of inflammable contents. The lower parts of the city became a sea of flame. For six days the fire raged till it reached the foot of the Esquiline, where it was stopped by pulling down a number of houses. Soon after a second fire broke out in the gardens of Tigellinus near the Pincian, and raged for three days in the N. parts of the city. Though the loss of life was less in the second fire, the destruction of temples and public buildings was more serious. By the two fires three of the 14 regions were utterly destroyed, four escaped entirely, in the remaining seven but few houses were left standing. Nero was at Antium when the fire broke out, and did not return to Rome till it had almost reached the vast edifice he had constructed to connect his palace on the Palatine with the gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline.
The horrible suspicion that Nero himself was the author of the fire gained strength. This is asserted as a positive fact by Suetonius (c. 38), Dion (lxii. 16), and Pliny the Elder (xvii. 1), the last being a contemporary, but Tacitus alludes to it only as a prevalent rumour. Whether well founded or not, and whether, supposing it true, the emperor's motive was to clear away the crooked, narrow streets of the old town in order to rebuild it on a new and regular plan, or whether it was a freak of madness, need not be discussed here. At any rate Nero found it necessary to divert from himself the rage of the people and put the blame upon the Christians.
The only author living near the time of the persecution who gives an account of it is Tacitus. After describing the origin of Christianity he proceeds: "First were arrested those who confessed, then on their information a vast multitude was convicted, not so much on the charge of arson as for their hatred of the human race. Their deaths were made more cruel by the mockery that accompanied them. Some were covered with the skins of wild beasts and torn to pieces by dogs; others perished on the cross or in the flames; and others again were burnt after sunset as torches to light up the darkness. Nero himself granted his gardens (on the Vatican) for the show, and gave an exhibition in the circus, and, dressed as a charioteer, mixed with the people or drove his chariot himself. Thus, guilty and deserving the severest punishment as they were, yet they were pitied, as they seemed to be put to death, not for the benefit of the state but to gratify the cruelty of an individual" (Ann. xv. 44). This narrative has been the subject of very various interpretations. Lightfoot ( Phil. 24–27) considers that the Christians were at this time sufficiently numerous and conspicuous to attract the fury of the populace. The ambiguity of Tacitus leaves it doubtful whether those first arrested " confessed Christianity" or "confessed they were guilty of the burning." Schiller ( Geschichte des röm. Kaiserreichs unter Nero , 435) argues that "fateri" in Tacitus is always used of the confession of a crime. According to his view, as many of the shops near the circus where the fire originated were occupied by Jews, suspicion would fall upon them, which would be strengthened by the fact that the Transtiberine, the Ghetto of that time, was one of the few quarters that had escaped the fire. At that time Jews and Christians lived in the same part of the town and in the same manner. Weiszäcker (Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie , xxi. 269, etc.) considers, with much probability, that Nero and his advisers having selected the Christians as the victims of the popular indignation, those first seized were conspicuous members and were charged as incendiaries, and from them the names of others were ascertained and these treated in the same way. Thus a vast number were arrested, so many that all could not have been guilty of arson. Why Nero selected the Christians must remain uncertain. The Jews, who at first sight would seem more likely scapegoats, as being more conspicuous and probably more unpopular, were strong enough to make Nero hesitate to attack them. A Jewish persecution in Rome might excite a dangerous revolt in Judea. The Christians, however, were conspicuous and numerous enough to furnish a plentiful supply of victims, but too few and weak to be formidable. From the allusions of St. Clement (Ep. to Cor. c. 6), a little more information can be obtained. Like Tacitus, he speaks of the vast multitude, and mentions that women underwent terrible and unholy tortures.
The persecution was probably confined to Rome. There is little evidence of it extending to the rest of the empire. The Acts of the saints mentioned by Tillemont (Mém. eccl. ii. 73–89) are all more or less fabulous, and even if authentic there seems little or no ground for placing them in the reign of Nero. The accounts in Acts of the journeys of St. Paul shew how easily an outbreak of popular fury might be excited by Jews or heathens, who, either on religious or private grounds, were hostile to the new doctrine, and how easily in such an outbreak a conspicuous Christian might be murdered without any state edict against Christianity, or without the public authorities interfering at all, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, when Nero set the example of persecution, many provincial magistrates would take a harsher view than previously of the case of any Christian brought before them.
The question of the connexion between Nero and Antichrist was brought into prominence by M. Renan. The significance of the Neronian persecution lies in the fact that it was the first. Hitherto the attitude of state officials to Christianity had on the whole been favourable; at worst they treated it with contemptuous indifference. All this was now suddenly changed. The head of the state had made a ferocious attack on the infant church. Henceforth the two powers were in more or less violent antagonism till the struggle of 250 years was closed by the conversion of Constantine. Whatever the date of the Apocalypse, it can hardly be doubted that the Neronian persecution with .all its horrors was vividly present to the mind of the author. To have perished obscurely by his own hand seemed both to pagans and Christians too commonplace an end for a monster who for 14 years had filled such a place in the eyes and the minds of men. Few had witnessed his death, so that the notion easily arose that he was still alive, had taken refuge with the Parthians, and would reappear. Tacitus mentions (Hist. i. 2; ii. 8, 9) the appearance of two false Neros, and Suetonius (c. 56) alludes to another. In the days of his prosperity diviners had predicted his fall and that he would gain a new dominion in the East and Jerusalem and at last regain the empire ( ib. c. 40).
According to the theory of M. Reuss (Hist. de la théol. chrétienne , i. 429–452), adopted by Renan, the Apocalypse was written during the reign of Galba, i.e. at the end of 68 or beginning of 69, when men's minds were agitated, especially in Asia Minor, by the appearance of a false Nero in the island of Cythnus (Tac. Hist. ii. 8). M. Reuss interprets the first six heads of the first beast as the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, Nero, and Galba, of whom the first five were dead, while the sixth, Galba, was then reigning. As he was 73 years old his reign must soon terminate; a seventh was to follow and reign for a short time, after which one of the emperors supposed to be dead was to reappear as Antichrist. The first four emperors had not been hostile to the Christians, and none of them, except Caius, had died a violent death. Nero therefore alone answers the description. Finally M. Reuss interprets the number of the beast as the numerical value of the letters of the words Νέρων Καῖσαρ when written in Hebrew, and explains the existence of the ancient variant reading 616 by supposing it due to a Latin reader who had found the solution, but pronounced the name Nero and not Neron. Whether this theory be well founded or not, the opinion that Nero would return as Antichrist certainly continued for centuries. Commodianus, who probably wrote c. 250, alludes to it (xli. in Migne, Patr. Lat. v. 231), and even in the 5th cent. St. Augustine ( de Civ. Dei , xx. 19, in ib. xli. 686) mentions that some then believed he would rise again and reappear as Antichrist, and that others thought he had never died, but would appear at the appointed time and recover his kingdom. Another view was that Nero would be the precursor of Antichrist (Lact. Mortes 2, Sulp. Sev. Dial. ii. 14 in Patr. Lat. vii. 197; xx. 211.)
[1]
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Nero
The future Emperor Nero received at birth, 15th December, 37, the names Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. His father was Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul, a.d. 32), on the mother’s side grandnephew of the Emperor Augustus, and his mother was Iulia Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus (died a.d. 59) and great-granddaughter of Augustus. Both were persons of ungovernable temper and immoral character, and from the first their son had little chance of leading a noble life. Gnaeus died in the year 40 when his son was barely three years old, and Agrippina, possessed by limitless ambition, schemed soon after for a second marriage, with no less a person than the reigning Claudius himself (Emperor a.d. 41-54; see under Claudius), in spite of the fact that he was her uncle. Agrippina became the fourth wife of Claudius in a.d. 49, such marriages having been legalized by the Senate (Tac. Ann. xii. 5-6). She procured the recall of the philosopher Lucius Annaeus Seneca and made him instructor of her son. At the same time he was betrothed to Claudius’ daughter Octavia. In the year 50 Claudius adopted Domitius, who thus became Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus Caesar (according to another view, Lucius Claudius Nero). Next year the young man assumed the dress of manhood and was given the consulship. At the same time Afranius Burrus, his military instructor, was made prefect of the praetorian guards. In a.d. 53 the marriage with Octavia took place. Claudius’ own son Britannicus (born 12th Feb. 41), who had been steadily pushed further and further into the background, happened to have to leave Rome through illness in the year 54. This gave Agrippina her opportunity, and with the help of two professional poisoners Claudius was put to death on 13th October. Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, or, as he is later called, Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, was saluted Imperator by the soldiers, and their acclamation was ratified by the Senate. Among his private relationships during his reign may be mentioned his passion for his Greek mistress Acte, his marriage in a.d. 62 with Poppaea Sabina, wife of M. Saluius Otho (one of his successors in the Empire), and the banishment and murder of his first wife Octavia at her instance. In a.d. 63 a daughter was born to Nero and Poppaea, but the child died shortly afterwards. His marriage with the male Pythagoras took place in a.d. 64, and in 65 the death of Poppaea. In 55 Nero had Britannicus poisoned and in 59 his mother was put to death by his order. She had committed every sin for his advancement, but had become intolerable. Nero died by his own hand or that of a slave on 9th June, 68, leaving no descendant behind him. With him the Caesarian race, weakened by intermarriage, debauchery, and madness, came to an end.
A brief summary of the chief events of Nero’s reign may now be given. It has become customary to repeat that his first five years were a model period of government. There was some difficulty in holding this view, considering what the historians have to tell us. But J. G. C. Anderson and F. Haverfield have recently pointed out (see under Literature) that this opinion, put into the mouth of the Emperor Trajan by the late compiler Aurelius Victor (Liber de Caesaribus, ch. 5), does not refer to the first five years, does not perhaps refer to any specific five years, but if it does, refers rather to the last five years, and in any case touches only Nero’s building operations. His reign is best divided into two periods-the first from 54 to 62, when the State was under the joint administration of Seneca and Burrus, and the second from 62 to 68, when it was under the Emperor’s sole rule. Neither period was undistinguished for good, and indeed the machinery of government was so perfected by Augustus that the mad behaviour of an Emperor scandalized only the inhabitants of Rome, and had no effect on the provinces, in which the real life of the Roman Empire lay. The administration of Seneca and Burrus led to the strengthening of the power of the Senate. It also led to the overthrow of Agrippina’s influence, which had been most powerful at the first. Nero’s policy seems at first to have been one of laissez faire. He was very young and fond of pleasure, and gratified his tastes to the full. The historians are occupied with details of his doings, and tell us little about Italian or Roman affairs.
In the year 58 the Emperor proposed to establish ‘free trade.’ The object of this proposal was to relieve the people and to get rid of a method of taxation attended with much injustice. The producers and capitalists, on whom extra burdens would thus have been imposed, were able to strangle the scheme at birth. The Imperial purse, depleted through extravagance, was replenished by confiscation. About 61 or 62 began the depreciation of the gold and silver coinage, from which Rome never completely recovered. Nero also deprived the Senate of the right to issue copper coinage. This was a serious blow, as the exchange value of the copper always exceeded the value of the metal, and the Senate could thus coin credit-money to any amount. On 19th July, a.d. 64, the great fire in Rome broke out; it lasted for a week, and destroyed an immense area of property. The occasion was used to build broader streets and finer buildings. The reign of Nero is conspicuous for the lives of prominent Stoics, particularly Paetus Thrasea, men of courage and virtue among the noblest the world has ever seen. They stood for the old republican regime, and were particularly in evidence in the Senate. These, as well as rich men in no way connected with them, were victims of a policy of wholesale murder associated with the last six years or so of Nero’s reign. It was not surprising that, while the generality of the Senate were paralyzed with terror, a powerful conspiracy should have arisen against the maniac on the throne. The leader chosen was C. Calpurnius Piso, and the plot had been brewing since 62. In 65 all the arrangements were complete, but at the eleventh hour the Emperor was informed, and Piso, Seneca the philosopher, Lucan, the author of the rhetorical epic De Bello Civili (often, but wrongly, called Pharsalia), and others, met their death. Nero’s own fall was the result of the revolt of C. Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugudunensis, with whom Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, allied himself. Vindex was defeated by Verginius Rufus, governor of Southern Germany, but Galba became Emperor.
External affairs during Nero’s reign bulk more largely than internal. Two provinces were added to the Roman Empire-Pontus Polemoniacus in Northern Asia Minor, by the gift of Polemo, and the Alpes Cottiae, on the death of Cottius (Suet. Nero, 18). But it was in the extreme east on the one hand, and the extreme west on the other, that the most important events took place-in Armenia and in Britain. Britain had been made a province in 43, but pacification was impossible without hard and exhausting warfare. Real progress was made under the governorship of Suetonius Paulinus, who in 61 captured Mona (Anglesey). There followed a great rising of the Iceni (under Boudicca) and the Trinouantes. Camalodunum (Colchester), the Roman colonia, was burnt, and Londinium and Verulamium (St. Albans) were captured by the insurgents. A great slaughter of the Romans and their allies was followed by the victory of Paulinus and the suicide of Boudicca.
The Eastern campaigns of Nero’s reign are imperishably connected with Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, one of the greatest generals of the Roman Empire. There had been for some time a struggle between the Romans and the Parthians, their hereditary enemies, for the possession of Armenia. Rival pretenders to the throne of that country were supported, one by Rome, the other by Parthia. When Nero came to the throne, a Parthian prince, Tiridates, was ruling over Armenia. Corbulo’s troops at first were insufficient and many of them were unfit for service. Much time was lost in training them and in parleying with Tiridates. Artaxata was captured in 58. The surrender of Tigranocerta resulted in the defeat of Tiridates and the establishment of a new king in 60, but circumstances led to an arrangement with Parthia by which Tiridates was permitted to return in the next year. This arrangement was not ratified by the home government, and Armenia had to be conquered again. The new governor of Cappadocia, Lucius Caesennius Paetus, proved incompetent, and his army had to capitulate. Corbulo declined to interfere. Paetus was recalled, and Corbulo undertook the government of Cappadocia. The result was that Tiridates had to go to Rome and receive his crown from Nero as a suppliant (a.d. 66). Corbulo’s success throughout seems to have been due in part to his skilful subordinate, Vettius Bolanus (Statius, Siluae, v. ii. 31-47), but it did not prevent his suicide by Nero’s command in Greece (a.d. 67). The severe discipline and hardship of these Oriental campaigns provide a contrast to the Imperial excesses at Rome. The spread of Christianity to Western Europe presents another.
The latter part of St. Paul’s missionary activity coincides with Nero’s reign. It was to Nero’s tribunal that St. Paul appealed (Acts 25:11); it was also among the slaves and freedmen of his household that he found many of his fellow-Christians in Rome (Philippians 4:22; cf. Romans 16). It was on a capital charge that St. Paul had been arraigned, and in such cases a Roman citizen could appeal from the court of a procurator to the Emperor himself. There are inconsistencies in the Acts narrative (cf. Mommsen’s article mentioned below, pp. 92, 93 = p. 443) of the preliminaries, but we need have no doubt that St. Paul did as a matter of fact appear before the Emperor in Rome. Whether acquittal or condemnation was the result, and whether in the former case St. Paul had to stand a second trial, which resulted in condemnation, are questions which lie outside the scope of the present article. Whatever be the truth in this matter, there is a consensus of opinion that Nero was the first Emperor to persecute the Christians. The Church always believed this (cf. Ambrosiaster, writing in Rome about 375, in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 : ‘mysterium iniquitatis a Nerone cceptum est, qui zelo idolorum et apostolos interfecit,’ etc.), and, according to a very early interpretation of the number of the Best in the Apocalypse (13:18), Neron Ḳesar is there referred to (confirmed by a Western variant, 616, which means the Latin form Nero, as against the Greek form Neron, 666-616 being = 50, represented in Greek by v [1]). The narrative of Tacitus (Ann. xv. 44) connects the evil treatment of the Christians with the great fire of the year 64. The Emperor’s behaviour on that occasion was in many ways to be commended, but the story that he sat on the roof of his palace playing the harp during the conflagration (add Augustine, Sermons, ccxcvi. 7, to the authorities usually quoted) makes the narrative of the horrible death of the Christians, condemned for incendiarism, quite credible. The first Christians met their death in Rome as scapegoats, not because it was illegal to be a Christian. That stage is later; how much later is debated.
Some summing up of Nero’s character may be attempted, though it seems hardly fair to judge a man who was only thirty-one at his death, and was undoubtedly afflicted with madness. There is perhaps less good that can be said of him than of any other Roman Emperor. That he was prodigal and licentious to an astounding degree cannot be denied. All the savings of the Emperor Claudius were dispersed by his wastefulness, as were those of Tiberius by his successor Gains (Caligula). It may also be truly said that he had no conception of the Imperial dignity. He had much of the mountebank about him, and his musical and other performances on the public stage made him ridiculous. He was childish enough to enter into poetic rivalry with his subject Lucan. Though lazy by contrast with his class in governmental duty, he might have attained some eminence in the arts, and in these only, under other circumstances.
Literature.-The chief ancient authorities are Tacitus, Ab Excessu Diui Augusti, bks. xiii.-xvi.; Suetonius, Life of Nero. The best modern book is B. W. Henderson, The Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero, London, 1903 (particularly good on Corbulo’s campaigns); J. B. Bury, A History of the Roman Empire, do., 1893, chs. xvi., xvii., xviii. On the quinquennium Neronis, see the epoch-making article ‘Trajan on the Quinquennium Neronis,’ by J. G. C. Anderson (with note by F. Haverfield), in JRS [2] i. [3] 173-179. On the Neronian household, see J. B. Lightfoot’s excursus in the Epistle to the Philippians 4, London, 1878; on St. Paul’s legal position under Nero, see Mommsen’s article ‘Die Rechtsverhältnisse des Apostels Paulus,’ in ZNTW [4] ii. [5] 81-96=Gesammelte Schriften, iii. [6] 431-446; on Nero as persecutor of Christians, cf. C. F. Arnold, Die Neronische Christenverfolgung, Leipzig, 1888; W. M. Ramsay, The Church in the Roman Empire3, London, 1894, ch. xi.; E. G. Hardy, Studies in Roman History, do., 1906, ch. iv.; on Nero and Lucan, W. B. Anderson, in Queen’s Quarterly, xiv. [7] 196-214.
A. Souter.

Sentence search

Nero - Nero (nç'ro). Domitius Nero succeeded Claudius as emperor of Rome, 54 a. It was under Nero, too, that a fierce persecution of the Christians began, about 61 a. He to frequently indicated as Caesar in the New Testament, Acts 25:18; Acts 25:10-12; Acts 25:21; Acts 26:32; Acts 28:19; Philippians 4:22, and as Augustus, Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25; but his name Nero does not occur
Otho - From his earliest youth he was distinguished for effeminacy and profligacy, and became a boon-companion of the Emperor Nero. He married Poppaea Sabina, already the wife of Rufrius Crispinus, and mistress of Nero, in order, it is said, that Nero might find her easier of access. When Galba in 68 revolted against Nero, Otho joined him and attended him to Rome, hoping, vainly as it transpired, that Galba would adopt him. In spite of the treatment Nero had meted out to him, he liked to be called Nero, and it may be that he was the more welcome to the populace by contrast with the severity of his predecessor Galba
Nero - ...
Nero became emperor in A. He succeeded his stepfather, Claudius, who was probably murdered at the behest of Agrippina, Nero's mother. ...
For the first years of his reign, Nero was content to be dominated by his mother and his two mentors, Burrus and Seneca. The latter was a leading Stoic philosopher who was able, for a time, to moderate Nero's more excessive tendencies. ...
As he grew older, Nero threw off these moderating influences and took control. ...
Nero was a complex personality. ...
During Nero's rule the Great Fire broke out in Rome (A. Much of the city was destroyed including Nero's palace. The story, probably true in part, goes that Nero fiddled while Rome burned. ...
Nero took measures to provide relief for those affected by the fire. Nero felt the need to divert suspicion to another group. ...
Nero neglected the army. Nero's support at home melted away
Nero - The Emperor Nero is not named in Scripture; but he is indicated by his title of emperor, and by his surname Caesar. Here he continued two years, preaching the Gospel with freedom, till he became famous even in the emperor's court, in which were many Christians; for he salutes the Philippians in the name of the brethren who were of the household of Caesar, that is, of Nero's court, Php_1:12-13 ; Php_4:22 . We have no particular information how he cleared himself from the accusations of the Jews, whether by answering before Nero, or whether his enemies dropped their prosecutions, which seems probable, Acts 28:21 . Nero is reckoned the first persecutor of the Christian church: his persecution was A. Nero, the most cruel and savage of all men, and also the most wicked and depraved, began his persecution against the Christian church, A. Nero gave leave to use his own gardens, as the scene of all these cruelties. 65 and 66, in the twelfth and thirteenth of Nero. About the end of the same year, Nero gave Vespasian the command of his troops against the Jews. 67 and 68, the thirteenth and fourteenth of Nero. But Nero killing himself in the fourteenth year of his reign, Jerusalem was not besieged till after his death, A
Claudius - His full name was Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus. He was poisoned by his fourth wife Agrippina, the mother of Nero
Tiberius - Tiberius Claudius Nero, the second Roman emperor, from a. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and hence a stepson of Augustus
Sabina, Poppaea - Sabina (1), Poppaea , empress, 2nd wife of Nero. , and Vita , 3) she exerted her influence with Nero in favour of the Jews (see Lightfoot, Philipp. Ybars of a rivalry between the Jewish Poppaea and Acte the former mistress of Nero, who, on the strength of a passage in St. Kaiserreichs unter Nero , 436 n
c Sar - , and is applied to Augustus, Luke 2:1; Tiberius, Luke 3:1; Claudius, Acts 11:28; and Nero, Acts 25:8. For an account of these, see Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero
Caesar - The last of these was Nero, but the name was still retained by his successors as a sort of title belonging to the imperial dignity. The emperors alluded to by this title in the New Testament, are Augustus, Luke 2:1 ; Tiberius, Luke 3:1 20:22 ; Claudius, Acts 11:28 ; and Nero, Acts 25:8 Philippians 4:22
pu'Dens - and was martyred under Nero
Claudius (2) - Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus, the son of Nero Drusus, born at Lyons 9 or 10 b
Tiberius - Tiberias Claudius Nero, Augustus' step-son and successor as emperor. Son of Tiberias Claudius Nero and Livia. In speaking of Nero he says: "in order to remove the rumour of his having set fire to Rome, Nero shifted the charge on others, and inflicted the most refined punishments on those whom the populace called Christians, and who were hated for their scandalous doings
Gallio - He was put to death, in one of the persecutions of Nero
Nereus - Tradition makes him to have been beheaded at Terracina under Nero, and his ashes deposited in the church of Nereo and Archilleo at Rome
Colossus - The name was especially applied to certain famous statues in antiquity, as the Colossus of Nero in Rome, the Colossus of Apollo at Rhodes
Nero - Nero is not mentioned by name in the NT, but his connexion with St. Paul’s trial ( Acts 25:1-27 ; Acts 26:1-32 ; Acts 27:1-44 ; Acts 28:1-31 , where ‘Cæsar’ is Nero), the mention of his household ( Philippians 4:22 ), and the general consensus of opinion that the number of the Beast 666 ( Revelation 13:18 ) is a cypher indicating Nero Kesar (the Gr. 50 he received new names, by one of which, Nero, he has since been known. On the murder of Claudius his sole rule began in 54, and during it he was officially known as Imperator Nero Claudius Cæsar Augustus Germanicus. ...
Nero inherited evil qualities from his father and mother, which for the first five years of his reign, when he was a mere youth, were kept in check by his two tutors, Burrus an experienced soldier, and Seneca the distinguished philosopher. ...
The question of the Eastern frontier, which was a problem ever present to the Emperors, demanded settlement from Nero. At the opening of Nero’s reign, Tiridates, a Parthian, had established himself securely on the throne of Armenia, and the possession of Armenia by the Romans was thus seriously threatened. , was appointed by Nero to conduct the campaign, and the governor of Syria and the other officials and client-princes in the neighbourhood of Armenia were instructed to co-operate with him. In the year 60, which was occupied in pacification, Tigranes, who was educated in Rome, was placed on the throne by Nero. The long peace with Armenia which followed is to the credit of Corbulo’s consummate generalship and Nero’s skilful diplomacy. The Roman hold on Britain, which his predecessor Claudius had obtained, was further strengthened under Nero. The Germany and Danube frontiers also engaged attention in Nero’s time. ...
In the city Nero exercised a wise care for the corn and water supplies. On the evidence Nero must be acquitted of all connexion with the fire, which was due to chance. Nero selected the Christians as scapegoats, and he may have believed them guilty, as some of them were understood to have confessed their guilt. These punishments did not remove suspicion from Nero, and, as the populace soon became sated, other charges had to be brought against them. The later days of Nero saw the rise of the Jewish insurrection against the Roman power, which culminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and the massacre of countless Jews in a. Two years before that, however, the revolt of Gaul under Vindex had been the prelude to Nero’s death. The East had seen nothing but his best side, and this rumour, born of a desire to see him emperor again, seriously endangered the peace of the Empire, as more than one person came forward claiming to be Nero
Caesar - The Caesar of Luke 2, is Augustus; of Matthew 22, Tiberius; of Acts 25, Nero
Nero - Nero was the emperor before whom Paul was brought on his first imprisonment at Rome, and the apostle is supposed to have suffered martyrdom during this persecution
Caesar - In the New Testament Augustus in Luke 2:1, Tiberius in Luke 3:1, Claudius in Acts 11:28, Nero in Acts 25:11, etc. Roman citizens as Paul had the right of "appeal to Caesar," and in criminal cases were sent for judgment to Rome, where was the emperor's court (Philippians 4:22; compare Philippians 1:13); Nero is the emperor meant
Narcissus - Two men of this name are mentioned in Roman histories of that time; one, executed three or four years before Paul wrote, was a favorite of the emperor Claudius; the other, of Nero his successor
Gallio - ...
Gallio was the son of Marcus Annaeus Seneca, a Spanish orator and financier, and the elder brother of Seneca, the philosopher and tutor of Nero. ...
Finding the climate at Corinth unhealthy, Gallio apparently welcomed the opportunity to return to Rome, where he counseled Nero until he and Seneca joined a conspiracy against the emperor. First Seneca died; then Nero forced Gallio to commit suicide about A
Caesar - The history of the New Testament fell under the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero
Nero, Claudius Caesar - Nero (1), Claudius Caesar, emperor (Oct. For our purpose the interest of Nero's life centres in his persecution of the Christians. Nero was at Antium when the fire broke out, and did not return to Rome till it had almost reached the vast edifice he had constructed to connect his palace on the Palatine with the gardens of Maecenas on the Esquiline. ...
The horrible suspicion that Nero himself was the author of the fire gained strength. At any rate Nero found it necessary to divert from himself the rage of the people and put the blame upon the Christians. Nero himself granted his gardens (on the Vatican) for the show, and gave an exhibition in the circus, and, dressed as a charioteer, mixed with the people or drove his chariot himself. Kaiserreichs unter Nero , 435) argues that "fateri" in Tacitus is always used of the confession of a crime. ) considers, with much probability, that Nero and his advisers having selected the Christians as the victims of the popular indignation, those first seized were conspicuous members and were charged as incendiaries, and from them the names of others were ascertained and these treated in the same way. Why Nero selected the Christians must remain uncertain. The Jews, who at first sight would seem more likely scapegoats, as being more conspicuous and probably more unpopular, were strong enough to make Nero hesitate to attack them. 73–89) are all more or less fabulous, and even if authentic there seems little or no ground for placing them in the reign of Nero. Paul shew how easily an outbreak of popular fury might be excited by Jews or heathens, who, either on religious or private grounds, were hostile to the new doctrine, and how easily in such an outbreak a conspicuous Christian might be murdered without any state edict against Christianity, or without the public authorities interfering at all, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that, when Nero set the example of persecution, many provincial magistrates would take a harsher view than previously of the case of any Christian brought before them. ...
The question of the connexion between Nero and Antichrist was brought into prominence by M. The significance of the Neronian persecution lies in the fact that it was the first. Whatever the date of the Apocalypse, it can hardly be doubted that the Neronian persecution with . 8, 9) the appearance of two false Neros, and Suetonius (c. at the end of 68 or beginning of 69, when men's minds were agitated, especially in Asia Minor, by the appearance of a false Nero in the island of Cythnus (Tac. Reuss interprets the first six heads of the first beast as the emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, Nero, and Galba, of whom the first five were dead, while the sixth, Galba, was then reigning. Nero therefore alone answers the description. Reuss interprets the number of the beast as the numerical value of the letters of the words Νέρων Καῖσαρ when written in Hebrew, and explains the existence of the ancient variant reading 616 by supposing it due to a Latin reader who had found the solution, but pronounced the name Nero and not Neron. Whether this theory be well founded or not, the opinion that Nero would return as Antichrist certainly continued for centuries. Another view was that Nero would be the precursor of Antichrist (Lact
Nazarius, Saint - Nothing is known of them except that their bodies were discovered at Milan by Saint Ambrose, c396 Their apocryphal legend relates that Nazarius was born at Rome, fled to Upper Italy during the persecution of Nero, and traveled through Gaul with Celsus, a young convert of Cimiez
Celsus, Saint - Nothing is known of them except that their bodies were discovered at Milan by Saint Ambrose, c396 Their apocryphal legend relates that Nazarius was born at Rome, fled to Upper Italy during the persecution of Nero, and traveled through Gaul with Celsus, a young convert of Cimiez
Gal'Lio - Winer thinks he was put to death by Nero
Festus - Porcius Festus was appointed by Nero to succeed Felix as procurator of Judea, about 60 or 61 a
Claudius - Tiberius Nero Drusus Germanicus; fourth Roman emperor; reigned from A. 41 to 54; successor of Caligula; son of Nero Drusus; born 9 B. Claudius was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina Nero's mother (A
Caesar - There were several Caesars: Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius I, and Nero
Worshipper, - The first occurrence of the term in connection with Ephesus is on coins of the age of Nero, A
Tibe'Rius - (in full, Tiberius Claudius Nero), the second Roman emperor, successor of Augustus, who began to reign A. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, and hence a stepson of Augustus
Herod Arippa ii. - He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero
Nero - The future Emperor Nero received at birth, 15th December, 37, the names Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. In the year 50 Claudius adopted Domitius, who thus became Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus Caesar (according to another view, Lucius Claudius Nero). Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, or, as he is later called, Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, was saluted Imperator by the soldiers, and their acclamation was ratified by the Senate. 63 a daughter was born to Nero and Poppaea, but the child died shortly afterwards. In 55 Nero had Britannicus poisoned and in 59 his mother was put to death by his order. Nero died by his own hand or that of a slave on 9th June, 68, leaving no descendant behind him. ...
A brief summary of the chief events of Nero’s reign may now be given. 5), does not refer to the first five years, does not perhaps refer to any specific five years, but if it does, refers rather to the last five years, and in any case touches only Nero’s building operations. Nero’s policy seems at first to have been one of laissez faire. Nero also deprived the Senate of the right to issue copper coinage. The reign of Nero is conspicuous for the lives of prominent Stoics, particularly Paetus Thrasea, men of courage and virtue among the noblest the world has ever seen. These, as well as rich men in no way connected with them, were victims of a policy of wholesale murder associated with the last six years or so of Nero’s reign. Nero’s own fall was the result of the revolt of C. ...
External affairs during Nero’s reign bulk more largely than internal. Nero, 18). ...
The Eastern campaigns of Nero’s reign are imperishably connected with Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, one of the greatest generals of the Roman Empire. When Nero came to the throne, a Parthian prince, Tiridates, was ruling over Armenia. The result was that Tiridates had to go to Rome and receive his crown from Nero as a suppliant (a. 31-47), but it did not prevent his suicide by Nero’s command in Greece (a. Paul’s missionary activity coincides with Nero’s reign. It was to Nero’s tribunal that St. Whatever be the truth in this matter, there is a consensus of opinion that Nero was the first Emperor to persecute the Christians. Ambrosiaster, writing in Rome about 375, in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 : ‘mysterium iniquitatis a Nerone cceptum est, qui zelo idolorum et apostolos interfecit,’ etc. ), and, according to a very early interpretation of the number of the Best in the Apocalypse (13:18), Neron Ḳesar is there referred to (confirmed by a Western variant, 616, which means the Latin form Nero, as against the Greek form Neron, 666-616 being = 50, represented in Greek by v [1]). ...
Some summing up of Nero’s character may be attempted, though it seems hardly fair to judge a man who was only thirty-one at his death, and was undoubtedly afflicted with madness. ; Suetonius, Life of Nero. Henderson, The Life and Principate of the Emperor Nero, London, 1903 (particularly good on Corbulo’s campaigns); J. On the quinquennium Neronis, see the epoch-making article ‘Trajan on the Quinquennium Neronis,’ by J. On the Neronian household, see J. Paul’s legal position under Nero, see Mommsen’s article ‘Die Rechtsverhältnisse des Apostels Paulus,’ in ZNTW [6] 431-446; on Nero as persecutor of Christians, cf. Arnold, Die Neronische Christenverfolgung, Leipzig, 1888; W. ; on Nero and Lucan, W
Caesar - (See Matthew 22:21) And Paul the apostle, when compelled to appeal against the injustice of Festus, said, I appeal unto Caesar; whereas, Nero was at that time the Emperor
Domine Quo Vadis - At the urgent request of the Christians, Peter was fleeing the persecution of Nero, when, seeing Christ, he fell at His feet crying "Lord, whither goest Thou?" Christ's reply that He was going to Rome to be crucified anew was interpreted by Peter as a sign to return to Rome, and he therefore retraced his steps to the city
Gallio - He was involved in the ruin of Seneca under Nero, and though he at first escaped, he afterwards perished
Pontus - Under Nero all Pontus became a Roman province
Caesar - In Scripture, the reigning emperor is generally mentioned by the name of Caesar, without expressing any other distinction:...
so in Matthew 22:21 ," Render unto Caesar," &c, Tiberius is meant; and in Acts 25:10 , "I appeal unto Caesar," Nero is intended
Tiberius Caesar - , as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only mentioned in Luke 3:1
Aristarchus - Later church tradition said Nero put Aristarchus to death in Rome
Caesar - The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luke 2:1 ), Tiberius (3:1; 20:22), Claudius (Acts 11:28 ), and Nero (Acts 25:8 ; Philippians 4:22 )
Claudius - 54 and took charge of the empire for her son Nero
Colosse - With these cities it was destroyed by an earthquake in the tenth year of Nero, about A
Handkerchief Napkin - Nero, 51) or carried upon the arm or over the shoulder. Nero, 48; Quintil
Vespasianus, Titus Flavius - 26), knows of no imperial persecutors except Nero and Domitian. Lactantius ( Mortes 2, 3) knows of no persecution between Nero and Domitian. 611), contrary to all previous Christian testimony, he couples Vespasian with Nero and Decius
Claudius Caesar - 41, and was followed by Nero, after a reign of thirteen years
Irony - ...
A mode of speech expressing a sense contrary to that which the speaker intends to convey as, Nero was a very virtuous prince Pope Hildebrand was remarkable for his meekness and humility
Fes'Tus, Por'Cius - (Festus means festival ), successor of Felix as procurator of Judea, ( Acts 24:27 ) sent by Nero probably in the autumn of A
Clau'Dius - After a weak and foolish reign he was poisoned by his fourth wife, Agrippina, the mother of Nero, October 13, A
Augustus - ) refers to Nero
Gallio - Like his brother Seneca, he suffered death by order of the tyrant Nero
Pon'Tus, - Under Nero the whole region was made of Roman province, bearing the name of Pontus
Felix - 60, when the emperor Nero recalled him
Narcissus - ’ The name was not uncommon, but many have identified the person mentioned here with the secretary of the Emperor Claudius, who was put to death by Agrippina in the first year of Nero’s reign, about three years before this Epistle was written. According to the custom of those times, the household of the freedman of Claudius would pass into the possession of Nero, retaining the name of their deceased owner
Gallio - The elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero
Caesar - Caesars mentioned or referred to in the New Testament include Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and probably Nero
Caesar's Household - Paul wrote from Rome, where he was in semi-captivity, and some of the Christians in Rome belonged to the efficient and talented body of slaves and freedmen who worked in the Imperial palace and performed varied service for the emperor Nero
Felix - At the end of that time Porcius Festus superseded Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Cæsarea, and would have suffered for his crimes had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him
Tiberius - Claudius Drusus Nero, the second emperor of Rome, was the son of Livia, and stepson of Augustus; and being adopted by that emperor, he succeeded to his throne, A
Euphrates - We have here an allusion to the Nero-legend which told that Nero had fled to the East, to the Medes and Persians, beyond the river Euphrates, and would again cross the river accompanied by myriads of soldiers and make war on Rome (Sib. In accordance with this legend, a second pseudo-Nero appeared on the Euphrates under Titus in a
Penny - During the reign of Nero the denarius suffered depreciation, and its value was as above stated
fe'Lix - ( Acts 24:26,27 ) At the end of that time Porcius Festus [1] was appointed to supersede Felix, who, on his return to Rome, was accused by the Jews in Caesarea, and would have suffered the penalty due to his atrocities had not his brother Pallas prevailed with the emperor Nero to spare him
Felix - The accusation was rendered nugatory by the influence of his brother Pallas with Nero
Felix - Eventually he was accused before Nero by the Jews, and only escaped punishment by the intercession of his brother Pallas
Tiberius Caesar - Son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia, his name in full being the same as his father's
Lion - 1: λέων (Strong's #3023 — Noun Masculine — leon — leh-ohn' ) occurs in 2 Timothy 4:17 , probably figurative of the imminent peril of death, the figure being represented by the whole phrase, not by the word "lion" alone; some suppose the reference to be to the lions of the amphitheater; the Greek commentators regarded the "lion" as Nero; others understand it to be Satan
Rome - 64, eight or ten years after a church was established there and addressed by Paul, Romans 1:8; Romans 16:19, the emperor Nero commenced a furious persecution against its members, which the emperor Domitian renewed a. Within the gardens of Nero in the Neronian persecution, a
Insignificant Subjects: Not Fit For the Pulpit - Why cannot these things be kept for other assemblies? What can the man be at? Nero fiddling over burning Rome is nothing to it! Even the women knitting in front of the guillotine were not more coolly cruel
Trophimus - Tradition makes him beheaded by Nero
Festus, Porcius - Procurator of Judaea, appointed by Nero to succeed Felix, A
Roman Empire - The references to the Roman dominion in the Bible chiefly allude to the empire in its earlier history, including the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and Nero
Palace, Lateran - Papal edifice in Rome which takes its name from Plautius Lateranus, a Roman senator who suffered death under Nero in 66
Lateran Palace - Papal edifice in Rome which takes its name from Plautius Lateranus, a Roman senator who suffered death under Nero in 66
Tiberius - TIBERIUS , whose designation as Emperor was Tiberius Cæsar Augustus, was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero (a Roman noble) and Livia, whose second husband was the Emperor Augustus
Augustus - Thus it is applied to Nero in Acts 25:21 ,Acts 25:21,25:25 , when Paul appealed to Caesar
Demas - Luke, while in 2 Timothy 4:10 his conduct is contrasted with that of the beloved physician, In the last-named passage we are informed that Demas left the Apostle when he was awaiting his trial before Nero. ’ Probably Demas realized that it was dangerous to be connected with one who was certain to be condemned by Nero, and he saved his life by returning to his home in Thessalonica
Mark of the Beast - One of the most prominent candidates has been the first-century Roman emperor Nero. A rare rendering of his name into Neron Caesar, transliterated into Hebrew as nrwn qsr, renders the number 666 (nun/50, resh/200, waw/6, nun/50, qof/100, samech/60, and resh/200 = 666). This rare form of Nero's name was actually found in an Aramaic document from Qumran (cf. " The transliteration of the normal Nero Caesar into the Hebrew nrw qsr, renders the number 616. There was also a belief in a revived Nero as the antichrist from the first century (cf. ...
Irenaeus, however, wrote within a century of the apostle John and did not mention Nero
Titus, Caesar - He and his father before him (the so-called Flavian emperors) struggled after the excesses of Nero to reestablish stability in the empire and in the government
Felix, Antonius - Felix was brother of Pallas, Claudius’ powerful freedman, whose influence continued him in office under Nero, and on his disgrace (due to a riot at Cæsarea) procured him his life
Gallio - 65; it is also said that he as well as Seneca was put to death by Nero; but these reports are unsubstantiated
Apphia - ...
The ancient Greek Martyrology represents Apphia (along with Philemon) as suffering martyrdom under Nero on Nov
Phile'Mon, - (Philippians 1:1,2 ) It is related that Philemon became bishop of Colosse, and died as a martyr under Nero
Narcissus - 329), whose influence was very great in the intrigues of the reign of Claudius, and who had been put to death by Agrippina shortly after the accession of Nero (Tac. If so, some three years had elapsed since it had passed into the hands of Nero
Caesar - see), Nero (wh
Agrippa ii - Nero afterwards gave him various cities
Pretorium - Some think that by this he means the palace of the emperor Nero; and others, that he intends the place where the roman Praetor sat to administer justice, that is, his tribunal
Paul, Conversion of Saint - Paul suffered martyrdom, having been beheaded, in the sixty-eighthyear of his age, at Rome, under Nero, in the general persecutionof Christians upon the pretense that they set fire to the city
Felix - Pallas' influence continuing, Felix remained procurator under Nero. After two years Porcius Festus succeeded, and Felix was accused by the Jews of Caesarea, at Rome, but escaped through Pallas' influence with the emperor Nero, A
Caesar, Caesar's Household - The name was kept by all the early Emperors except Vitellius (and even he used it sometimes), in spite of the fact that after Nero no Emperor had a drop of Caesarian blood in his veins. 37-41), Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (see Claudius), Imperator Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (see Nero), Imperator Servius Sulpicius Galba Caesar Augustus (9 June 68-15 Jan. Mark 12:14-17 and parallels), in Acts and Philippians (4:22) to Nero. The date shows that the ‘Caesar’ is Nero, and the word οἰκία, translated ‘household,’ is doubtless a translation of the Latin familia
Claudius - He was a son of Nero Claudius Drusus (the brother of the emperor Tiberius) and Antonia minor (a daughter of the triumvir Mark Antony and Octavia, sister of the emperor Augustus), and was born on 1st August 10 b
John the Apostle - He was afterwards banished to the Isle of Patmos, probably under the emperor Nero or Domitian; it is not known with certainty which, nor at what date
Revelation, Book of - 68 or 69, in the reign of Nero
Gallio - At length, Nero put him, as well as them, to death
Pute'Oli - Scipio sailed from this place to Spain; Cicero had a villa in the neighborhood; here Nero planned the murder of his mother; Vespasian gave to this city peculiar privileges; and here Adrian was buried
Christian - The words of Tacitus, when speaking of the Christians persecuted by Nero, are remarkable, "vulgus Christianos appellabat," "the vulgar called them Christians
Acts of the Apostles, - The history given in the Acts occupies about 33 years, and the reigns of the Roman emperors Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero
Tiberius (2) - ...
Tiberius Claudius Nero, named after his adoption Tiberius Julius Caesar, on the monuments bears the name Tiberius Caesar Augustus. He was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero (a Roman noble) and Livia (whom Augustus took to wife while her husband was still alive), and was born in b
Festus - Festus supported Agrippa in demanding the removal of this wall, but yielded to the request of the Jews that the whole matter might be referred to Nero, who upheld the appeal and reversed the judgment of his procurator. Paul preferred to take his chance with Nero to leaving his cause to be disposed of by this fussy, plausible official
Aretas - Damascus had been a city of the Roman province, Syria; and we have Damascene coins of Augustus and Tiberius, and afterward of Nero, etc
Caesarea Philippi - ...
When Herod Agrippa II (grandson of Herod the Great) inherited the city, he renamed it Neronias in honor of the emperor Nero. But, after Nero's death the name was dropped. See Agrippa II; Augustus ; Baal ; Herod the Great; Herod Philip; Nero
Apocalypse - It was written either during the persecution of Nero (54-68) or of Domitian (90-94), during Saint John's exile at Patmos, to encourage the persecuted Christians by foretelling the fall of Rome as an anti-Christian power and the trials but complete victory of the Church
Purple - Purple robes were worn by the kings and first magistrates of ancient Rome, and Nero forbade their use by his subjects under pain of death
Galba - In the latter year, as the result of long dissatisfaction with the Neronian government, C. Iulius Vindex, legatus pro praetore prouinciœ Galliœ Lugudunensis, revolted from Nero, and Galba gave him his support. When the news of the death of Nero reached him, he accepted the title of Caesar from his soldiers, and marched to Rome
Revelation, Book of - The conditions of such interpretation are most naturally fulfilled in the persecution under Domitian (81 96), although there may be references to that under the dead Nero. A point of departure for the identification of the historical figures who are to be subjected to the Messianic punishment might be thought to be the number of the Beast 666 that is to say, the Emperor Nero, who was expected to return from the dead (see Beast Claudius - 40]'>[1] are sometimes added), the son of Nero Claudius Drusus (38-9 b. He now changed his name from Tiberius Claudius Nero Drusus Germanicus to that given above. Domitius Ahenobarbus, the future Emperor Nero, had the way thus paved for his accession. In 53 Nero advanced, and Britannicus kept in the background
Roman Empire - Nero is alluded to as "Augustus" and "Caesar" (Acts 25:10-11-21-25-26; Philippians 4:22), and "my lord" (compare also 1 Peter 2:17; Romans 13:1). "My lord" (ho kurios , "dominus," in Acts 25:26) marks the downward tendency in Nero's time as contrasted with Augustus', for the latter and Nero refused the title. So long as the army and mob were not touched, Caligula, Nero, and Domitian could shed the noblest blood with impunity
Rome - 28), and that by Nero after its conflagration. ...
Real sites are the Colosseum and Nero's gardens in the Vatican near to Peter's; in them Christians wrapped in beasts' skins were torn by dogs, or clothed in inflammable stuffs were burnt as torches during the midnight games! Others were crucified (Tacitus, Annals xv
Dates - Nero followed Claudius in 54, and was supplanted in 68 by Galba. ...
Tiberius...
14-37...
Caligula...
37-41...
Claudius...
41-54...
Nero...
54-68...
Galba...
68-69...
Otho...
69-70...
Vespasian...
70-79...
Titus...
79-81...
Domitian...
81-96...
Nerva...
96-98...
Trajan...
98-117...
III. This is made clear from the extant Syrian coins of these years, which bear the heads of the Roman Emperors Tiberius and Nero and do not allude to subject rulers. -The appointment of Felix was one of the later acts of the Emperor Claudius; and Nero on his accession confirmed it (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. But Tacitus informs us that Pallas had already fallen from his place as Nero’s favourite in 55 (Ann. ), who places the accession of Festus in the second year of Nero, Harnack (Gesch. But Josephus informs us that it took place during the reign of Nero, or after 54 (Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) II. Paul must have been made in 53 or at the latest in 54, and the uprising of ‘the Egyptian’ still earlier, or from two to four years before the accession of Nero. It this be the case, the effectiveness of the later accusations of the Jews could be all the more easily understood, since at that time Poppaea had acquired her influence over Nero and an appeal of the Jewish leaders would enlist her strong endorsement. (c) It may be, however, that Pallas, after being charged with high treason and found innocent, was re-instated into favour by Nero, and no continued until the year 60
Emperor Worship - During the reigns of Nero, Domitian, and other Roman emperors, persecution of Christians was severe because of gross misconceptions regarding the practice of the Christian faith
Cenchreae - 67, Nero, impressed by an idea which had previously commended itself to greater minds-notably to that of Julius Caesar-made an abortive attempt to cut a canal across the Isthmus, a piece of engineering which was not accomplished till the end of the 19th century (1881-1893)
Aristarchus - According to tradition he suffered martyrdom under Nero
Paul - It should seem, from calculating the periods of Paul's life and ministry, that he was born about two years before Christ's incarnation, and suffered martyrdom under, the emperor Nero in the year 66
Lycaonia - ...
Under Claudius and Nero, when St
Vitellius - His addiction to chariot-racing made him a friend of Gaius (Caligula), and his fondness for dice-playing brought him the favour of Claudius; nor was he less acceptable to Nero
Festus, Porcius - Sent by Nero to succeed Felix as procurator of Judaea, probably in the autumn A
Simon Peter - He died a martyr's death at Rome during the persecution of Nero by being crucified head downwards, according to legend
Rome, - In illustration of that history it may be useful to give some account of Rome in the time of Nero, the "Caesar" to whom St. Paul lies between two famous epochs in the history of the city, viz, its restoration by Augustus and its restoration by Nero. St, Paul's first visit to Rome took place before the Neronian conflagration but even after the restoration of the city which followed upon that event, many of the old evils continued. We may add, as sites unquestionably connected with the Roman Christians of the apostolic age-- (10) The gardens of Nero in the Vatican
Persecution - ...
During the reign of Nero the persecution of Christians became government policy throughout the Empire
Master - The use of κύριος for Nero makes ‘a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar’ (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, Eng
Gallio - Seneca's execution by Nero made Gallio trembling suppliant for his own life (Tacitus Ann
Cloke - Nero, 48), and was also in common use throughout the East, being well known to Greeks, Jews, and Syrians
Cloke - Nero, 48), and was also in common use throughout the East, being well known to Greeks, Jews, and Syrians
Master - The use of κύριος for Nero makes ‘a polemical parallelism between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar’ (Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, Eng
Mammaea or Mamaea, Julia - Possibly, as in the time of Nero, there may have been disciples of the new faith among the slaves of Caesar's household, whom she learnt to respect and imitate
Philippians, the Epistle to the - the barrack of the Proetorian bodyguard attached to "the palace" of Nero). Nero, having divorced Octavia and married Poppaea a Jewish proselytess (who then caused Octavia to be murdered), promoted Tigellinus, the promoter of the marriage, a wicked monster, to the Praetorian prefecture. Nero's favorite, Pallas, brother of Felix, died, and so another source of danger passed away
Claudius, the Emperor - Many indications in Acts and Romans imply a considerable growth of the Christian community before the accession of Nero
Antichrist - ...
( d ) Belief in the return from death of the persecuting Emperor Nero . Just which historical persons were in the mind of the writers it is now impossible to say with accuracy, but Nero and Domitian are not unlikely. The figure of Antichrist, Satanic, Neronic, falsely prophetic, the enemy of God and His Kingdom, moves out into theological history, to be identified by successive ages with nearly every great opponent of the Church and its doctrines, whether persecutor or heretic
Agrippa - Agrippa, being one day in conversation with Caius, was overheard by one Eutychus, a slave whom Agrippa had emancipated, to say that he should be glad to see the old emperor take his departure for the other world and leave Caius master of this, without meeting with any obstacle from the emperor's grandson, Tiberius Nero. After the death of Claudius, his successor, Nero, who had a great affection for Agrippa, to his other dominions added Julias in Persia, and that part of Galilee to which Tarichaea and Tiberias belonged
Antichrist - There John may have looked for a return of the emperor Nero
Crown - Tiridates did homage to Nero by laying the ensigns of royalty at the foot of his statue
Puteoli - All this was changed by the construction at Ostia of the Portus Augusti, begun in the reign of Claudius and finished in that of Nero, close to the time (a
Titus (Emperor) - In the troublous period following the death of Nero, Titus played an important part. In the same year in the East a false Nero appeared, and obtained considerable support for a time. The impostor was in reality a certain Terentius Maximus, a native of the province Asia, who was like Nero in appearance
Antichrist - ...
The first of these is found in the application to Christian ideas of the Antichrist of the contemporary Nero-saga, with its dream of a Nero Redivivus who should come back to the world from the realms of the dead (cf. ; Suetonius, Nero, 47; Augustine, de Civ. That Nero is referred to in Revelation 13:18 is most probable, the number 666 being the equivalent of Nero Caesar (ΝΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ) when written in Heb. To the Apocalyptist, writing to a Church which had known Nero’s cruelty and now under Domitian was passing through the flames once more, Antichrist was the Roman Empire represented by a ruler who was hostile to Christianity because it refused to worship him as a god
Rome And the Roman Empire - 54 to speed up the succession of Nero, her son by a previous marriage. ...
Nero (A. Both Paul and Peter seem to have been martyred during Nero's reign, perhaps in connection with the burning of Rome by Nero in A. Nero's hedonism and utter irresponsibility led inevitably to his death. The revolt of Galba, one of his generals, led to Nero's suicide. 68-69) that followed Nero's death. ...
The aristocratic Julio-Claudian dynasties that had reigned until the death of Nero were happily replaced by the Flavian dynasty, which issued from the rural middle class of Italy and reflected a more modest and responsible approach to the use of power
Linus (1) - The apostles' deaths are immediately brought about, not by Nero himself, but by his prefect Agrippa, a name, we may well believe, transferred by a chronological blunder from the reign of Augustus. Linus tells of the arrest of Peter and lays the scene of the crucifixion at the Naumachia near Nero's obelisk on the mountain. Nero orders St
Gallio - He seems to have shared the fortunes of his more famous brother, and was put to death by Nero
Jannes And Jambres - [1] 268) makes the two apostles warn Nero against Simon Magus by the example of Pharaoh, who was drowned in the Red Sea through listening to Jannes and Jambres
Damascus - At this period the city was so much thronged by the Jews, that, according to Josephus, ten thousand of them, by command of Nero, were put to death at once
Peter - According to the testimony of Christian antiquity, Peter suffered martyrdom in Rome under Nero, but his residence in Rome is disputed, and the year of his martyrdom is uncertain
Evil-Speaking - Nero, 16), accused of ‘odium generis humani’ (Tac
Throne - ) Tiridates, in this manner, did homage to Nero, laying the ensigns of his royalty at the statue of Caesar, to receive them again from his hand
Hebrews - The author then warned of greater tests ahead, probably referring to the persecutions underway during the reign of Nero in A. ...
Others see Hebrews 10:32-34 as a reference to the persecution of Nero and place the writing during a persecution assumed to have taken place during the reign of Domitian (A. This seems less likely, as the severity of Nero's persecutions does not seem to be reflected in Hebrews. This confirms the experience of a milder form of persecution in the past (such as the one of Claudius in 49) but suggests the intensity of the persecution to come (such as the one of Nero in 64)
Tiberius - The Emperor Tiberius belonged to the family of the Claudii Nerones, a branch of the patrician gens Claudia which separated from the original family about the middle of the 3rd cent. His father, Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of another Tiberius, appears in history in 54 b. Soon afterwards Octavian made Livia’s acquaintance and prevailed upon Nero to give her up to him (38), though at the time she was expecting the birth of her second son, Drusus, which took place in Octavian’s house. The Senate was servile to both: Agrippina († 33), the widow of Germanicus, and her son Nero were exiled; another son, Drusus, was imprisoned (and executed in 33)
Martyr - But under Nero the Imperial policy changed. 44) speaks of a multitudo ingens of victims in the Neronian outbreak, and to this answers the πολὺ πλῆθος of Clem. At nightfall they were smeared with pitch to stand as living torches in the gardens of Nero. ...
In Rome the first shadow of the Neronian persecution fell upon Pomponia Graecina. Seven years later Rome was burnt, and Nero turned the popular rage against the Christians. Peter’s death may be dated in the early days of the Neronian persecution (a
Games - Nero himself lent patronage, but not lustre, to the Grecian games, and took a personal part in them (a. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, 1904, pp. Tucker, Life in the Roman World of Nero and St
Vespasian - His patron Narcissus, the powerful freedman of Claudius, died in 54, and Agrippina, widow of Claudius and mother of Nero, pursued his former friends with hatred. In the year 66 he accompanied Nero on his theatrical and musical tour to Greece, but incurred the Emperor’s disfavour through his lack of interest in the performances. Nero felt compelled to recall Vespasian to Court as the only suitable man to inflict the deserved punishment on the Jews. Sending his son Titus very early in 67 to bring a legion from Alexandria, he himself went from Nero’s quarters in Achaia over the Hellespont by land to Syria, and collected the Roman forces there. ...
On returning to Caesarea he learned of Nero’s murder. When the further news of Galba’s accession came, it was necessary for him to await Galba’s orders, because Nero’s arrangements had by his death become null and void. Vespasian took away the liberty Nero had restored to Greece, and made it again a province Achaia, on the perfectly good ground that the Greeks had ceased to understand how to use liberty. In the same year a colossal statue of Nero (100-120 ft. After the folly and waste of the Neronian period, such a rule as his was at once a necessity and a blessing to Italy. ...
Of his attitude to Christianity nothing is known for certain, but it has been plausibly conjectured that, since in Nero’s time Christians were condemned only for crimes punishable in any case, while in Trajan’s time it is clearly established that confession of Christianity was in itself a crime, the changed attitude is due to an administrative principle settled under Vespasian (W
Peter, Letters of - ...
Purpose in writing 1 Peter...
It was the era of the Roman Emperor Nero (who ruled from AD 54 to 68) and persecution against Christians was increasing everywhere
Caesarea - On the recall of Felix, Nero sent Porcius Festus, who tried Paul ( Acts 25:9 ) and also allowed him to state his case before Herod Agrippa II
Lion - Nero, Napoleon, Stalin and Hitler have lost their power
Felix - The investigation proved so damaging to Felix that ‘he had certainly been brought to punishment, unless Nero had yielded to the importunate solicitations of his brother Pallas’ (Jos
Achaia - Nero, as ‘a born ‘Philhellene,’ wished to make Greece absolutely free
Romans - 58, being the fourth year of the Emperor Nero, just before St
Population - Over two and a half million orthodox worshippers were reckoned at one census under Nero
Gospel - The Emperor Nero initiated the first official persecution so he could use Christians as scapegoats for his own insane actions. 64 as a way to clear a portion of the city for a construction project, Nero arrested Christians and accused them of committing the crime. On the basis of this supposed admission of guilt, Nero began a systematic persecution of Christians which included arrest, imprisonment, torture, and execution. The persecution begun by Nero continued in varying degrees of intensity during the reign of other emperors throughout the New Testament period
Persecution - Though the absurdities of polytheism were openly derided and exposed by the Apostles and their successors, yet it does not appear that any public laws were enacted against Christianity till the reign of Nero, A. —Nero selected the Christians as a grateful sacrifice to the Roman people, and endeavoured to transfer to this hated sect the guilt of which he was strongly suspected; that of having caused and enjoined the fire which had nearly desolated the city. ( See Nero. —From the death of Nero to the reign of Domitian, the Christians remained unmolested and daily increasing; but toward the close of the first century, they were again involved in all the horrors of persecution
Number Systems And Number Symbolism - Likewise, the number 666 in Revelation is often taken as a reverse gematria for the emperor Nero. The name Nero Caesar, put in Hebrew characters and added up following gematria, total 666
Paul - It is quite probable, as Christians believed in the earlier centuries, that the apostle was acquitted and discharged from his first imprisonment in Rome at the end of two years, and that he afterwards returned to Rome, where be was again imprisoned and put to death by Nero. Testimony before Felix, Festus, and Agrippa (the Gospel of Luke and the Acts commenced at Cæsarea, and concluded at Rome)...
58-60...
Paul's voyage to Rome (autumn); shipwreck at Malta; arrival at...
60,61...
Paul's first captivity at Rome, Epistles to the Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, Philemon...
61-63...
Conflagration at Rome (July); Neronian persecution of the Christians; martyrdom of Paul (?)...
Hypothesis of a second Roman captivity and preceding missionary journeys to the East, and possibly to Spain
Lion - ‘Lion’ has been interpreted as Nero (Chrysostom); calamity, which would result from cowardice and humiliation (N
Gervasius - Martyr with Protasius at Milan, under Nero
Colosse - These three cities, says Eusebius, were destroyed by an earthquake, in the tenth of Nero, or about two years after the date of St
Babylon - Assyrian Babylon in the second half of the 1st elm was in decay, and 1Peter would be particularly appropriate if sent out from the seat of a persecution, such as that of Nero, or possibly of Domitian
Ascension of Isaiah - The fusion of the three originally distinct conceptions of the Antichrist, of Beliar, and of Nero Redivivus cannot well be put earlier than a. it has quite another meaning, the Beliar Antichrist appearing in the form of a man-Nero (4:2, 14, 16, 18). Luke 18:8),...
(d) The Antichrist and Nero Redivivus. Nero; cf. Nero; cf. Nero Redivivus is only an embodiment of Beliar (4:2). The Neronic Antichrist is regarded ad destroying one of the Twelve Apostles (4:3), and deceiving many of the faithful (4:9)
Peter Epistles of - _ According to one hypothesis, these events took place in the latter part of the reign of Nero (54-68), a second view locates them under Domitian (81-96), while still another refers them to the time of Trajan (98-117). ...
Those who adopt a Neronian date-a view which has been widely accepted_-have even greater difficulties in obtaining substantial evidence for a persecution of the desired type in northern Asia Minor in the sixties. There is, however, very explicit evidence for a severe persecution in Rome during Nero’s reign. 115, says that Nero, in order to free himself from the charge of incendiarism, alleged that the Christians were responsible for the great fire of the year 64. While Tacitus does not think they were guilty, he does regard them as malefactors deserving the severest of the punishments which they received at Nero’s hands. Likewise Suetonius (Nero, 16), writing about five years later, says that Nero severely punished the new and mischievous superstition, though he does not make the great fire the occasion for this action. 5-7), about the year 95, speaks less explicitly, but in the light of the statements of Tacitus and Suetonius it seems altogether probable that Clement has in mind the Neronian persecution. Whether Tacitus is right in connecting the fire with Nero’s action against the Christians is sometimes disputed,_ but the evidence for a Neronian persecution some time after the conflagration of the year 64 is overwhelming. ...
This situation might be said to correspond fairly well with that of 1 Peter, but we have no certain knowledge that the Neronian persecution reached to the East, and particularly to the peoples addressed in 1 Peter 1:1. Advocates of the Neronian date quite plausibly remark that members of the new cult, because of their hostility to contemporary customs, would everywhere become objects of hatred, a hatred which might break out in fiery persecution at any time when the magistrates could be induced to act. Some such hypothetical situation may have existed in northern Asia Minor during the reign of Nero, but this is only a possibility and not a certainty
Timotheus - 63, Nero had not begun to persecute the Christians; that none of the Roman magistrates and officers who heard the accusations against St. Paul during his first imprisonment, which was attended with little or no danger; but deserted him in the second, when Nero was persecuting the Christians, and St
Damascus, Damascenes - During a tumult in the reign of Nero 10,000 Jews were massacred
Music - The kings had their court musicians, ( 2 Chronicles 35:25 ; Ecclesiastes 2:8 ) and in the luxurious times of the later monarchy the effeminate gallants of Israel amused themselves with devising musical instruments while their nation was perishing ("as Nero fiddled while Rome was burning")
Nation - Dill (Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, London, 1904, p
Nerva - He gained favour with the Emperor Nero by his interest in poetry and his help in the detection of the Pisonian conspiracy
Roman Law in the nt - Many writers, especially in Germany, treat Trajan as the first real persecutor, maintaining that before his time Christianity was confused with Judaism, and that Nero and Domitian were merely capricious persecutors of individuals. But it seems highly probable, if not certain, that at least from the time of Nero Christianity was looked upon as a distinct sect, and therefore as illegal. 44) clearly treats it as having been a distinct religion in the time of Nero; he mentions its followers as ‘those whom the common people used to call Christians’-the use of the imperfect ‘appellabat’ shows that he is not, as has been alleged, projecting the ideas of his own time into that of the middle of the 1st cent. Suetonius, who was a few years younger than Tacitus, calls Christianity ‘a novel and malignant superstition’ (Nero, 16). Even had there been confusion between the two religions in Nero’s time, by the time of Domitian, when Emperor-worship was enthusiastically pressed, and the Imperial policy thus became directly antagonistic to Christianity, there could be no possibility of confusing the two
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - Hence the alleged reference to the legend of ‘Nero redivivus’ (Tac. ‘the beast’ (symbol of the Roman Empire rather than exclusively of Nero), and it is not necessary to regard ‘the man of sin’ and equivalent expressions as more personal than these
Aretas - 34, and the fact that none has been found with the image of Caius or Claudius is significant of a change of régime; but the image of Nero appears from 62 onwards
Rome - The systematic and continued persecutions began under Nero (c
Woman - Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius2, p. Clement of Rome, at the end of the century, refers to the sufferings endured by women under the Neronian persecution (Ep. Paul speaks of Phœbe as a ‘deaconess’ of the Church at Cenchreae (Romans 16:1), in terms that suggest her ability and will to give generous help to poorer Christians. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius2, do. Tucker, Life in the Roman World of Nero and St
Manasseh - Manasseh has been called the "Nero of Palestine
Slave, Slavery - Inscriptions, again, often reveal a better side of slave life, testifying to mutual love between master and servant, and also to faithful love between slave-husband and wife, even though de iure slaves could not occupy the status of matrimony (Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, p. Thus, the Lex Petronia (in the time of Augustus or Nero) prohibited masters from condemning slaves to fight with wild beasts unless with judicial sanction. Under Nero, a special judge was appointed to hear complaints of slaves, and now masters could be punished for ill-treating them. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, do
Magi - The visit of the Magi is represented as a Christian transformation of the story related by Dio and Pliny about the visit of Tiridates and his Magians to Nero (see the passages quoted by Soltau, op. 66 the Parthian king Tiridates, the Magus, bringing other Magi with him, journeyed to Rome, worshipped Nero as the sun-god Mithra, and afterwards travelled home by another way through the cities of Asia. Now to the Christians of the East Nero was Antichrist: hence it is argued that just as, in the early legends, the miraculous events of Christ’s life were transferred to Antichrist, so the story of being worshipped by Magi may have been transferred from the Antichrist Nero to the Christ
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - On one occasion, while he was preaching, Patroclus, a servant of Nero, fell from a window and was killed. When Nero heard of this miracle, Patroclus acknowledged that he was the soldier of the βασιλεὺς Ιησοῦς Χριστός. Nero caused him and other Christians to be arrested, condemned Paul to be beheaded, and the other Christians to be burnt. At his execution milk spurted from his neck instead of blood, and afterwards he appeared to Nero, who was so impressed that he ended the persecution
Woman (2) - There was always a halo over the old Roman matron, and though time dissipated this, and divorce was so common that Seneca tells us that ladies reckoned their ages not by the consuls, but by the number of their husbands,* Greece - Nero, who posed as a Philhellene, was accorded so flattering a reception during a progress through Greece that he bestowed freedom and exemption from tribute upon all the Greeks; but Vespasian found it necessary to restore the provincial government in order to avoid civil war. Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, 1904, p
Simon Magus - The later forms, however, make Rome, in the days of Nero, the ultimate goal of the journeyings
Tim'Othy - Paul's imprisonment, and was released from it by the death of Nero
River - For the Roman armies under Nero threatened to sweep away Christianity in the wreck of the Jewish nation
Hatred - In the time of Nero the Christians of Rome ‘were accused, net so much on the charge of burning the city, as of hating the human race’ (‘haud proinde in crimine incendii quam odio humani generis convicti sunt’ Aurelius, Marcus, Roman Emperor - It is, therefore, startling to find that he takes his place in the list of persecutors along with Nero and Domitian and Decius
Antichrist - Some writers have maintained, that Caligula was antichrist; and others have asserted the same of Nero
Hebrews, Letter to the - ...
Historical setting...
With the increasing persecution of Christians during the reign of Nero (AD 54-68), tensions and fears arose in the church
Mark, Gospel of - ...
During the decade of the sixties, the Roman persecution of Christians increased, particularly after Nero blamed Christians for the great fire of Rome in AD 64
Severus Sulpicius, an Historian - 14, where a strange theory as to the imminent appearance among men of Nero and Antichrist is put into the mouth of St
the Man Who Found Treasure Hid in a Field - Perhaps the most famous of all those stories is that which Tacitus tells us about Nero. And Nero believed the wild tale till he became the laughing-stock of the whole world
Revelation, Book of - The two main periods of persecution from the Roman Emperors came in the sixties under Nero and in the nineties under Domitian
Timothy - he is said to have been made bishop of Ephesus by Paul in the reign of Nero, to have become an intimate friend of the apostle John, and to have suffered martyrdom under Nerva on 22nd January, when Peregrinus was proconsul of Asia
Games - Nero used to clothe the Christians in beast skins when he exposed them to wild beasts; compare 2 Timothy 4:17, "I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion" (namely, from Satan's snare, 1 Peter 5:8)
Caesar - Augustus) was quite familiar to them as applied to the reigning emperor (Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25, Nero)
Pilate - So far did the Jews' scruples influence the Roman authorities that no coin is stamped with a god or emperor before Nero (DeSaulcy, Numism
Paul - Still it was a very generally received opinion in the earlier centuries, that the apostle was acquitted and discharged from his imprisonment at the end of two years; and that he afterwards returned to Rome, where he was again imprisoned and put to death by Nero
Persecution - Historians usually reckon ten general persecutions, the first of which was under the emperor Nero, thirty-one years after our Lord's ascension, when that emperor, having set fire to the city of Rome, threw the odium of that execrable action on the Christians. For this tragical spectacle Nero lent his own gardens; and exhibited at the same time the public diversions of the circus; sometimes driving a chariot in person, and sometimes standing as a spectator, while the shrieks of women burning to ashes supplied music for his ears. If any, to escape these barbarities, endeavoured to save themselves by flight, they pursued them into the fields and woods, where they shot at them, like wild beasts, and prohibited them from departing the kingdom (a cruelty never practised by Nero or Dioclesian, ) upon pain of confiscation of effects, the galleys, the lash, and perpetual imprisonment
Roman Empire - A fresh advance was made under Nero (54-68), when Suetonius Paulinus was appointed governor (59). For the Armenian wars of Nero see under Nero
Paul the Apostle - Thereafter he was shipped to Rome on appeal to the imperial court of Nero. 67 under the deranged oversight of Nero
Existence of God - "Lastly, the existence of God may be argued from the terror and dread which wound the consciences of men, when guilty of crimes which other men do not know, or are not able to punish or restrain: as in the case of Caligula, Nero, and Domitian, the Roman emperors; and this while they earnestly labour to persuade themselves or others that there is no God
Paul - The Scriptures do not inform us whether he was ever tried before Nero, who was at this time emperor of Rome; and the learned are much divided in their opinion upon that point. Paul returned to Rome, that he underwent a second imprisonment there, and at last was put to death by the Emperor Nero. Tacitus and Suetonius have mentioned a dreadful fire which happened at Rome in the time of Nero
Paul - The year of his release was signalized by the burning of Rome, which Nero saw fit to attribute to the Christians. "There can be little doubt that he appered again at Nero's bar, and this time the charge did not break down. In all history there is not a more startling illustration of the irony of human life than this scene of Paul at the bar of Nero
Number - The two favourite explanations are Lateinos = Latinus (the Roman Empire or Emperor), and Nero Cœsar . The latter has the special advantage that it accounts not only for 666, but also for the various reading 616 mentioned above; as Neron Cœsar it gives 666, and as Nero Cœsar , 616
Revelation, Theology of - The beast came (probably in Nero, who was the first Roman emperor to persecute Christians), went to the abyss (a lull in persecution for several decades) and will soon come out again (probably in Domitian as Nero redivivus: 11:7; 17:8,11)
Peter - He showed his increasing generosity of spirit by preaching in Samaritan villages and in the towns of Lydda and Joppa on the coastal plain (Acts 8:25; Acts 9:32; Acts 9:36). ...
At this time Nero was Emperor and his great persecution was about to break upon the Christians
Herod - 56 Nero, who had meanwhile succeeded to the throne and expected his aid against the Parthians, added to his kingdom the regions of Tiberias and Taricheae, with Julias, a city of Peraea, and fourteen villages in its vicinity. Agrippa showed his gratitude by changing the name of his capital from Caesarea Philippi to Neronias, in honour of the Emperor, on whose birthday also he had Greek plays annually performed in a theatre which he erected at Berytus
Augustus - Immediately after the second divorce he robbed Tiberius Claudius Nero of his wife, Livia Drusilla (38 b
Domitian - Twenty years after Nero’s death (9 June 68) a false Nero appeared, and caused an uprising among the Parthians which it was extremely difficult to quell
Clemens Romanus of Rome - 53 ad Generosum ) and by Optatus of Milevis (de Schism. Now no one dates the death of Peter later than the persecution of Nero, a. It is generally agreed that this must refer to the persecution under either Nero or Domitian. All the other notes of time are difficult to reconcile with a date so close to the apostles as the reign of Nero
Revelation, the Book of - 81-96) as the time of John's writing, but there is no historical consensus supporting a persecution of Christians under Domitian while hard evidence does exist for a persecution under Nero (A. 95), though there has been a resurgence of opinion (including this author's) arguing for a setting just following the reign of Nero (about A
Money (2) - 379–383) and others for dating these coins rather in the time of the revolt under Nero; and the opinion seems to he making headway that at the time of our Lord, and previously, the Jews were dependent for their silver money upon foreign sources. Under Nero (c. This appears from the parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1-15), where a denarius is evidently looked upon as liberal pay for a day’s work; for we may be quite sure that the employer who dealt so generously with the labourers engaged late in the day had struck no niggardly bargain with those hired in the morning
Christian - Peter writes to ‘the elect who are sojourners of the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia’ ( 1 Peter 1:1 ); and, without suggesting that ‘Christian’ was a name which the Church had yet adopted as its own, he assumes that it was perfectly familiar to the ‘elect’ themselves over a vast region of the Dispersion; and further implies that by this time, the time probably of Nero’s persecution (a. ...
Outside of the NT we find Tacitus and Suetonius testifying that the designation Christian (or ‘Chrestian’) was popularly used in Rome at the time of the Neronian persecution; while from Pliny, early in the 2nd cent. Nero has made it criminal to be a Christian, and the word is now one not of scorn merely, but of hatred and fear
Episcopacy - ...
And if there were that degree of degeneracy in the church, and defection from the purity and vigour of religion, which the learned Vitringa supposes to have happened between the time of Nero and Trajan, it would be less surprising that those evil principles, which occasioned episcopal, and at length the papal usurpation, should before that time exert some considerable influence
Head - The head smitten to death, but healed (13:3), appears to be Nero, who was widely believed not to have died in a
Head - The head smitten to death, but healed (13:3), appears to be Nero, who was widely believed not to have died in a
Timothy, Epistles to - Paul had made his first defence before Nero, and all had forsaken him (he prays for them), but the Lord stood by and strengthened him
Trajanus, m. Ulpius - ...
Besides the interesting information thus afforded on the belief and practice of the early Christians (hints are apparently given of the existence of some formula of prayer, of the Eucharist and Agape), what light does it throw on the legal position of the Christians? That trials of Christians had to Pliny's knowledge already taken place appears by it, and the allusion cannot be to the Neronian persecution when he was scarcely three years old, and hardly can be to that which was commenced and almost immediately discontinued by Domitian, assuming that the objects of it were Christians and not Jews. Nero does not appear to have issued any edicts against Christians in general, and if Christianity, either apart from or along with Judaism, suffered under Domitian (Dion, lxvii
Revelation, the - 41-54), others Nero (A. Historically this church represents the period of persecution that set in under Nero
Liberty - Tucker, Life in the Roman World of Nero and St
Salutations - It can easily be proved by inscriptions in the time of Claudius and Nero that all the names in Romans 16 were Roman names
Weights And Measures - ), and a drachm-denarius was fixed by Nero at 52
Antioch - With the buffoonery of a Caligula and the vice of a Nero, he united the genius for architecture and Greek culture which he inherited from his race
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - The first was that of Nero (circa, about a. Nero’s persecution was a savage onslaught on all Christians indiscriminately; that of Domitian took the form of sharp intermittent attacks aimed at individuals. It seems, therefore, a safe conclusion that the references of the Epistle are to the persecutions of Nero and Domitian, and that the Epistle was written either just before or just after the termination of the latter of the two, i
Augustus (2) - Of these one only (Acts 27:1) can be held as possibly pointing to him, the other two (Acts 25:21; Acts 25:25) mean the reigning Caesar ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘Emperor’), in both cases Nero. He had put away Scribonia in order to marry Livia, whom he took from her husband Tiberius Nero
Paul - According to the general opinion the apostle was liberated from imprisonment at the end of two years, having been acquitted by Nero A. For what remains we have the concurrent testimony of ecclesiastical antiquity that he was beheaded at Rome, by Nero in the great persecutions of the Christians by that emperor, A
Rufus - Paul when he wrote, under Nero (but in the earlier and better part of his reign), his weighty exposition of the ethics of citizenship (Romans 13:1-7)
Stoics - Paul, was the tutor and later the counsellor of Nero
Alexander the Coppersmith - One of our latest and best authorities thinks that Alexander even followed Paul to Rome, and did his best to poison Nero and his court still more against Paul
Rufus - Paul when he wrote, under Nero (but in the earlier and better part of his reign), his weighty exposition of the ethics of citizenship (Romans 13:1-7)
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - Paul at least, ends, he says, in the time of Nero; whereas "the authors of the sects arose later, about the times of the emperor Hadrian (κάτω δὲ περὶ τοὺς κ . Paul respectively, by pointing out that about half a century lay between the death of Nero and the accession of Hadrian
Jews - Fadus was soon succeeded by Tiberius, and he was followed by Alexander Cumanus, Felix, and Festus; but Claudius afterward gave Trachonitis and Abilene to Agrippa, and Nero added a part of Galilee and some other cities. Several of the Roman governors severely oppressed and persecuted the Jews; and at length, in the reign of Nero, and in the government of Florus, who had treated them with greater cruelty than any of his predecessors, they openly revolted from the Romans
Originality - Augustus was the prince of peace who healed the wounds of the Civil War; Tiberius, the servant of the community; Caligula, the god-man and world-judge; Nero, the philanthropist who dedicated himself to the service of humanity; Vespasian caused the Jewish oracle, which had called him to be ruler of the world, to be carried before his legions; Nerva and his successors gave to the Roman world an example of mildness and tranquillity. A theory which represents Nero in the character of philanthropist, and finds in his reign an anticipation of the Messianic blessedness, makes the strongest demands on our credulity-Bauer’s views as to the date of the NT writings are wild in the extreme
Judgments of God - Nero, in the year sixty-four, turned his rage upon the Christians, and put to death Peter and Paul, with many others
Apostle - Paul, who fully preached the Gospel of Christ, from Jerusalem to Illyricum, and at last died a martyr at Rome, in the time of Nero?" From this passage we may conclude, that at the beginning, of the fourth century, there were not any certain and well attested accounts of the places out of Judea, in which several of the Apostles of Christ preached; for if there had, Eusebius must have been acquainted with them
Hating, Hatred - 44, ‘quos per flagitia invisos vulgus Christianos appellabat’; Suetonius, Nero, xvi
Gregorius (32) Turonensis, Bishop of Tours - Chilperic, according to Gregory, was even more cruel and regardless of human life than the other Merovingian princes; he was the "Nero and Herod of his age" (vi
Apocalyptic Literature - These in turn are identified with the expectation that Nero would return after death
Heresy - Nero caused a great number of them to be brought over from Asia, not unfrequently at the expense of the provinces
Priscillianus And Priscillianism, Priscillian - Their "appeal unto Caesar" was truly an appeal to a pitiless Nero
Collection - Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, 1904, bk. It is instructive, too, to note how he stimulates each community by mentioning the others in terms of generous praise (cf
Revelation of John, the - The characteristic Pauline benediction (Revelation 1:4) John would scarcely have used in Paul's life; his adopting it must have been after Paul's death under Nero
Emperor-Worship - Dill, Roman Society from Nero to Marcus Aurelius, London, 1904, bk
John the Baptist - Sir Isaac Newton was of opinion that John was banished to Patmos in the time of Nero; but even the authority of this great man is not of sufficient weight against the unanimous voice of antiquity
Trade And Commerce - Under Nero both were reduced in weight, the aureus to 1/45 of a pound, and the denarius to 1/96 of a pound; the quality of the denarius was also debased
Peter, First Epistle of - This might have happened whenever the Christians began to realize the awakening hatred of the wicked city, mistress of an empire ruled by a deified Nero, even before the persecution of 64 a. Paul, and died perhaps in the Neronian persecution of 64, or possibly later
Herod - Nero added several cities of Galilee and Persea to his kingdom (A
Mark, Gospel According to - 24) that Annianus succeeded him as bishop there in the eighth year of Nero, a statement which Jerome improves upon by saying that St
Acts of the Apostles - the view of the Roman officials, and the optimistic tone, would be impossible after the persecution of Domitian or even (we may add) after that of Nero. 62, or to the Neronian persecution in a
Fire - Nero Redivivus and his Parthian allies, to whom the burning of the city is attributed, are only the human instruments in God’s hand for executing His judgment upon her (Revelation 18:20; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2)
Oracle - Lucan, who wrote his "Pharsalia" in the reign of Nero, scarcely thirty years after our Lord's crucifixion, laments it as one of the greatest misfortunes of that age, that the Delphian oracle, which he represents as one of the choicest gifts of the gods, was become silent
Physician - He dedicated to Nero his writings, in which he treated of diet, chronic disease, and surgery
Fire - Nero Redivivus and his Parthian allies, to whom the burning of the city is attributed, are only the human instruments in God’s hand for executing His judgment upon her (Revelation 18:20; Revelation 18:24; Revelation 19:2)
Money - Similarly the denarius from Augustus to Nero weighed 60 grs
Trade And Commerce - Under Nero both were reduced in weight, the aureus to 1/45 of a pound, and the denarius to 1/96 of a pound; the quality of the denarius was also debased
Education - Roman Emperors like Claudius and Nero had done much to encourage Greek culture and to introduce it into Rome itself, where the Athenaeum was a great centre of learning
Josephus - 62 the wife, of Nero-and so securing the liberation of some Jewish priests who had been put in bonds by Felix. But he exaggerates in his numerical data, and he over-praises the generosity of the Romans
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - He sees clearly the evils of his own day, but hardly realizes what must have been the trials of the times of Nero, Decius, and Galerius
Jesus Christ - 44; Suetonius, Lives of Claudius and Nero ; the younger Pliny, Epp
Rome - The writer has not rigidly excluded those that belong to a period somewhat later than Nero, but he has as far as possible confined his attention throughout to buildings of which actual remains exist
Simon Magus - He convinced Nero of his claims, and Peter and Paul were summoned to appear before the Emperor
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - Nero and Domitian. "that the wicked should be freed from their error, and that faith destined for so glorious a reward should be established upon difficulty"; his own opinion that Caesars (such as Tiberius) would have believed in Christ, if they could have been Caesars and Christians at the same time; the sufferings of the disciples at the hands of the Jews; and at last, through Nero's cruelty, the sowing the seed of Christianity at Rome in their blood (cf