What does Music mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
זְמָרָ֑א instrumental music 3
מְנַגֵּ֥ן to play or strike strings 2
συμφωνίας music. 1
מַשְׁמִעִ֕ים to hear 1
הַשִּֽׁיר song. 1
שִׁ֤יר song. 1
הַשִּׁ֗יר song. 1
שִֽׁיר song. 1
בַּשִּׁ֔יר song. 1
בַּשִּׁ֜יר song. 1
וְשִׂחַקְתִּ֖י to laugh 1
שִׁ֛יר song. 1
מְשַֽׂחֲקִים֙ to laugh 1
וּמְשַׂחֵ֔ק to laugh 1
מְשַׂחֲקִ֛ים to laugh 1
מִנְּגִינָתָֽם music 1
הַמַּשָּׂ֖א load 1
בַּמַּשָּׂ֔א load 1
זְמָרָ֗א instrumental music 1
מַשְׁמִֽיעַ to hear 1

Definitions Related to Music

H2170


   1 instrumental Music, Music.
   

H4853


   1 load, bearing, tribute, burden, lifting.
      1a load, burden.
      1b lifting, uplifting, that to which the soul lifts itself up.
      1c bearing, carrying.
      1d tribute, that which is carried or brought or borne.
   2 utterance, oracle, burden.
   3 a son of Ishmael.
   Additional Information: Massa = “burden”.
   

H5059


   1 to play or strike strings, play a stringed instrument.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 player (participle).
      1b (Piel).
         1b1 to play.
            1b1a player, minstrel (participle).
            

H7832


   1 to laugh, play, mock.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to laugh (usually in contempt or derision).
         1a2 to sport, play.
      1b (Piel).
         1b1 to make sport.
         1b2 to jest.
         1b3 to play (including instrumental Music, singing, dancing).
      1c (Hiphil) to laugh mockingly.
      

H7892


   1 song.
      1a lyric song.
      1b religious song.
      1c song of Levitical choirs.
   2 song.
      2a song, ode.
      

H5058


   1 Music, song, taunt song.
      1a Music (of stringed instrument).
      1b song.
         1b1 taunting or mocking song.
         

H8085


   1 to hear, listen to, obey.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to hear (perceive by ear).
         1a2 to hear of or concerning.
         1a3 to hear (have power to hear).
         1a4 to hear with attention or interest, listen to.
         1a5 to understand (language).
         1a6 to hear (of judicial cases).
         1a7 to listen, give heed.
            1a7a to consent, agree.
            1a7b to grant request.
         1a8 to listen to, yield to.
         1a9 to obey, be obedient.
      1b (Niphal).
         1b1 to be heard (of voice or sound).
         1b2 to be heard of.
         1b3 to be regarded, be obeyed.
      1c (Piel) to cause to hear, call to hear, summon.
      1d (Hiphil).
         1d1 to cause to hear, tell, proclaim, utter a sound.
         1d2 to sound aloud (musical term).
         1d3 to make proclamation, summon.
         1d4 to cause to be heard.
   2 sound.
   

G4858


   1 Music.
   

Frequency of Music (original languages)

Frequency of Music (English)

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Music, Instruments, Dancing
The expression of the full range of human emotions vocally or instrumentally through the art of music was as much a part of the lives of biblical people as it is of modern times. Workers bringing in the harvest might sing a vintage song (Isaiah 16:10 ; Jeremiah 48:33 ), while the working song of people digging a well (Numbers 21:17 ) is heard as well. Indeed all of life could be touched by song. The celebrations of a community, ritual practices of worship, even the act of warfare gave rise to song.
In such a musical climate, celebration through dance found a natural place in both the religious and secular life of ancient Israel. A variety of musical instruments was available to provide instrumental accompaniment to both song and dance.
Music Music as performed in early Near Eastern times has become better known through archaeological finds of descriptive texts and the remains of actual instruments. Heptatonic and diatonic musical scales reflective of ancient Mesopotamian practice have been discerned through the research of Assyrian culture which has, over the last few decades, brought to light much pertinent information on the subject. The discovery of four Akkadian cuneiform texts describing the Mesopotamian theory of music from about 1800 to about 500 B.C. offers evidence 1400 years earlier than previously known in Greek sources for the antiquity of Western music. Giving evidence of seven different heptatonic-diatonic scales, the musical system of ancient Mesopotamia shows one similar to the major scale known today.
Textual evidence from the end of the third millennium B.C. shows ancient Summer, the earliest center of civilization in the Fertile Crescent, to have enjoyed an expansive musical tradition. A variety of hymns offering divine praise or designed to or for kings and temples, many with musical terms, have survived and are joined by actual discoveries of instruments at the ancient site of Ur, in biblical tradition the ancestral home of Abraham (Genesis 11:31 ).
A cuneiform text found at ancient Ugarit in Syria dating from about 1400 B.C. is a complete piece of Hurrian cult music. As a hymn to the moon goddess Nikkal, the piece uses a notational system consisting of technical Akkadian terminology for interval names followed by numerals.
Going back to about 3000 B.C., the pictorial and written clues to Egyptian music tradition that have survived the centuries are particularly valuable in the appreciation of musical instruments, providing background information for instruments mentioned in the biblical text as well as comparative study with Mesopotamian data. Illustrations or references within the Egyptian sources include a variety of lyres, harps, and lutes. Flutes, double reed pipes, and a succession of percussion instruments (such as drums, bells, rattles, clappers) have been identified.
The secular and religious music of ancient Israel found its home against this background of Ancient Near Eastern music in which all of life could be brought under the spell of song. In reading the Old Testament, Genesis 4:21 stands as the first reference to music. As one of Lamech's sons, Jubal “was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe” (NAS). Jubal brought the advent of music to the portrayal of cultural advance. The name Jubal itself is related to the Hebrew word for “ram” (yobel), the horns of which served as a signaling instrument in ancient Israel.
The joy taken in music is evidenced by its prominent role in the celebrations of life. A farewell might be said “with joy and singing to the music of tambourines and harps” (Genesis 31:27 NIV); a homecoming welcomed “with timbrels and with dances” ( Judges 21:16-248 ; compare Luke 15:25 ). Work tasks of everyday living enjoyed the music evidenced by the songs or chants of the well diggers (Numbers 21:17-18 ), the treaders of grapes (Jeremiah 48:33 ), and possibly the watchman (Isaiah 21:12 ).
Under certain circumstances musical celebration brought condemnation. The account of—Moses' return from the mountain to be confronted by the singing and dancing of the people around the golden calf (Exodus 32:17-19 ) symbolized a condition of broken covenant. The prophet Isaiah's rebuke of the idle rich who have “lyre and harp, tambourine and flute and wine” at their feasts is cast against their failure to take notice of the deeds of Yahweh (Isaiah 5:12 NRSV). Both the scorn of mockers ( Job 30:9 ) and the acclamation of heroes (1 Samuel 18:6-7 ) were expressed in song.
Victory in warfare provided impetus for numerous songs. The song of Miriam, one of the oldest poetic verses in the Old Testament, celebrated the defeat of Pharoah at the Sea (Exodus 15:21 ). Judges 5:1 stands as musical witness to Israel's victory over Jabin, the king of Canaan. Known as the “Song of Deborah,” the verses are the musical celebration of a narrative event. Chants of victory on the lips of the victor (compare Samson following his slaying of the Philistines recorded in Judges 15:16 ) or those greeting the one successful in battle (compare 1 Samuel 18:7 ) establish music as a medium for uncontainable joy. Celebration erupted into song. Emotions that might be limited by the restriction of prose, expressed themselves through the poetry of music as seen in David's moving lament at the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Samuel 1:19-27 ).
In the early days of Old Testament history a special place seems to be accorded women in musical performance. The prophetess Miriam and Deborah, a prophetess and judge, were among Israel's earliest musicians. Judges 11:34 pictures Jephthah's daughter greeting his victorious return from battle against the Ammonites “with timbrels and with dances.” David's reputation for valor spread through the singing of women's voices: “Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands” ( 1 Samuel 18:7 ). The depiction of dancing women entertaining at festive occasions found on Egyptian tomb paintings provides early Near Eastern background for the role of women in musical celebration.
The establishment of the monarchy about 1025 B.C. brought a new dimension to the musical tradition of ancient Israel with the appearance of professional musicians. Egypt and Assyria, neighboring countries to Israel, had known the tradition of professional musicians much earlier. Such musicians took their place both at court (1Kings 1:34,1 Kings 1:39-40 ; 1 Kings 10:12 ; Ecclesiastes 2:8 ) and in religious ritual. An Assyrian inscription, praising the victory of the Assyrian king Sennacherib over King Hezekiah of Judah, lists male and female musicians as part of the tribute carried off to Nineveh.
Although much uncertainty remains concerning the specifics of Temple worship, biblical references offer clues to the role music played in cult observances. As a hymn proclaiming the future rule of God in all the earth, Psalm 98:1 calls for the employment of music in praise:
”Make a joyful noise to the Lord, all the earth; break forth into joyous song and sing praises! Sing praises to the Lord with the lyre, with the lyre and the sound of melody! With trumpets and the sound of the horn make a joyful noise before the King, the Lord!” (Psalm 98:4-6 RSV).
Worship featured trumpet calls (compare Numbers 10:10 ) and songs of thanksgiving, expressions of praise and petition sung after the offering of sacrifices (2 Chronicles 29:20-30 ).
The Psalms show not only the emotional range of music from lament to praise but also provides words for some of the songs used in Temple worship. Guilds of musicians, known through reference to their founders in some psalm headings (for example, “the sons of Korah”), were evidently devoted to the discipline of liturgical music.
During the Babylonian Exile the question, “How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange land?” (Psalm 137:4 ), arose. Psalm 137:1 further alludes to the demand of the Babylonians for the Hebrew captives to “sing us one of the songs of Zion” ( Psalm 137:3 ). The return from Exile and reestablishment of the Temple saw the descendants of the original Levitical musicians (compare
Ezra 2:40-41 ) reassume responsibility for liturgical music. Strabo's statement that the singing girls of Palestine were considered the most musical in the world shows that music continued in importance in Israel during Hellenistic times.
The structures of some psalms offer evidence for conjecturing the nature of vocal performance. Refrains (such as the “Lift up your heads, O ye gates; even lift them up, ye everlasting doors” of Psalm 24:1 ) and acclamations such as “Hallelujah” as well as divisions into strophes stand as performance clues. The common device of poetic parallelism, whereby a thought is balanced synonymously or antithetically with a second thought, provides further evidence for surmising the nature of musical performance, responsive and antiophonal performances being possibilities.
In light of the recognized obscurity in many of the headings, one can speak in general terms of five different types of information provided by the Psalm titles. Representatives of this classification are titles that identify psalms with persons or groups of persons (see Psalm 3:1 ; Psalm 72:1 ; Psalm 90:1 ); titles purporting to indicate historical information concerning the psalm, particularly with respect to David (see Psalm 18:1 ; Psalm 34:1 ); titles containing musical information (see Psalm 4:1 ; Psalm 5:1 ); titles with liturgical information (see Psalm 92:1 ; Psalm 100:1 ); and titles designating the “type” of psalm in question (see Psalm 120:1 , “a song of ascents”; Psalm 145:1 , “a song of praise”).
Nearly two thirds of the psalms contain terms indicating collections, compilers, or authors in their headings: David, portrayed in biblical tradition as a composer, instrumentalist, court musician, and dancer, being most often mentioned. Others mentioned include the sons of Korah, Asaph, Solomon, Heman the Ezrahite, Ethan the Ezrahite, Moses, and Jeduthun.
Deriving from the Greek translation of the Hebrew mizmor , the word psalm is applied to some fifty-seven songs. As a technical term appearing only in the Psalter, psalm refers to songs with instrumental accompaniment. Other terms indicating the type of psalm include “ shiggaion ” (Psalm 7:1 ), sometimes argued to indicate a lament; “miktam ” (Psalm 16:1 ; Psalm 56-60 ) connected to the Akkadian meaning “to cover”; “maskil ” (Psalm 78:1 ) whose meaning is still unknown. Some thirty Psalms include in their heading the word song (Hebrew shir ), with “song of praise,” “Prayer,” “a song of love,” and “a song of ascent” also occurring. Headings may include as well terms which indicate the liturgical aim and usage of the particular psalm (for instance, “for the thank offering,” “for the memorial offering,” “for the sabbath”).
Some fifty-five psalms contain the expression “to the choirmaster” in their headings. Other technical musical expressions consisting of remarks that concern types or kinds of performances include “with stringed instruments” (“neginoth ,” see Psalm 4:1 ; Psalm 6:1 ; Psalm 54:1 , perhaps meant to exclude percussion and wind instruments) and “for the flutes” (“nehiloth ”), though both meanings are dubious. The terms “higgaion ” (perhaps “musical flourish”), “sheminith ” (“on the eighth,” perhaps an octave higher), and “the gittith ” (Psalm 8:1 ; Psalm 81:1 ; Psalm 84:1 ) remain obscure as to meaning.
The singing of psalms to other tunes popular at the time is suggested by headings such as “Hind of the Dawn” in Psalm 22:1 (RSV) and “to Lillies” used in Psalm 45:1 ; Psalm 69:1 ; Psalm 80:1 (RSV).
Although found some seventy-one times in the Psalter, the interpretation of the term “Selah” remains uncertain. Suggestions range from understanding the term according to its earliest Greek translation, generally thought to indicate a type of musical interlude or change in singing, to a call for repetition of the verse, louder singing, or the kneeling and bowing down of worshipers.
Musical Instruments Pictorial representations as well as remains from instruments discovered through archaeology aid in our present knowledge of ancient musical instruments. A wide scope of literary remains gives further evidence. Descriptions and comment on musical instruments are to be found in both the Old and New Testament, their early translations, rabbinic and patristic literature, and the writings of Roman and Greek authors. Caution, however, must be applied in using the data available, leaving many identifications difficult and at best hypothetical.
The most frequently named musical instrument in the Bible is the “Shophar” (ram's horn). Limited to two or three nores, the “Shophar” often translated “trumpet”) served as a signaling instrument in times of peace and war (Judges 3:27 ; Judges 6:34 ; Nehemiah 4:18-20 ). Having as its chief function the making of noise, the Shophar announced the new moons and sabbaths, warned of approaching danger, and signaled the death of nobility. As the only ancient instrument still used in the synagogue today, the “Shophar” found a prominent place in the life of Israel, noted by its function in national celebration (1 Kings 1:34 ; 2 Kings 9:13 ).
Similar in function to the “shophar” was the trumpet, a straight metal instrument flared on the end and thought to have had a high, shrill tone. Sounded in pairs, the trumpet was known as the instrument of the priests (compare Numbers 10:2-10 for a description of usages; see also 2Chron.
Numbers 5:12-13 where some twenty trumpeters are mentioned. The sound of the trumpets introduced Temple ceremony and sacrifice, the trumpet itself being counted among the sacred Temple utensils ( 2 Kings 12:13 ; Numbers 31:6 ).
As the instrument of David and the Levites, the lyre (Hebrew, “kinnor ”; KJV, “harp”) was employed in both secular and sacred settings (compare Isaiah 23:16 ; 2 Samuel 6:5 ). A popular instrument throughout the Ancient Near East, the lyre was often used to accompany singing. The number of strings on the lyre could vary; its basic shape was rectangular or trapezoidal.
The harp was a favorite instrument of the Egyptians. In Hebrew the designation nebel , though admittedly uncertain, may imply a type of angular harp with a vertical resonator or represent another type of lyre. Mainly a religious instrument in biblical tradition, the “nebel ” is rarely mentioned in secular functions (compare Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 14:11 ). Like the lyre, the harp was often associated with aristocracy, thus being often made from precious woods and metals (see 1 Kings 10:12 ; 2 Chronicles 9:11 ).
Chief among “flutes” and “pipes,” woodwinds generally associated with secular usages, was the “khalil,” the most popular wind instrument in the Ancient Near East and principle among the biblical wind instruments. Perhaps better described as a primitive clarinet, the “khalil ” (NAS, “flute” or KJV,” pipe”) was an instrument consisting of two separate pipes made of reed, metal, or ivory; each pipe having a mouthpiece with single or double reeds. Used in the expression of joy (1 Kings 1:39-40 ) or mourning (Jeremiah 48:36 ; Matthew 9:23 ), the khalil was primarily a secular instrument that could be played at funerals or feasts.
Other musical instruments mentioned in the biblical texts include the timbrel or tambourine (Hebrew toph , often symbolic of gladness, Genesis 21:27 ), cymbals, bells (presumably metal jingles without clappers; see Exodus 28:33-34 ; Exodus 39:25-26 where they are attached to the high priest's robe), and a rattle-type noisemaker translated variously as castanets, rattles, sistrums, cymbols, or clappers ( 2 Samuel 6:5 ).
Mentioned in the New Testament are pipes (RSV, “flute”), the lyre (RSV, “harp”), cymbals, and the trumpet. The “sounding brass” of 1 Corinthians 13:1 is perhaps understood through rabbinic literature in which it is seen as a characteristic instrument for weddings and joyous celebrations.
Dancing As rhythmic movement often performed to music, dancing enjoyed a prominent place in the life and worship of Israel. Various Hebrew words in the Old Testament used to express the idea of dance seem to imply different types of movement: to skip about (raqadh , Job 21:11 ), whirling about (karar , 2Samuel 6:14,2 Samuel 6:16 ), and perhaps twisting or writhing (makhol , Psalm 30:11 ). Pictured in the homecoming welcome of victorious soldiers by women, dancing could be accompanied by song and instrument music (1 Samuel 18:6 ).
Exodus 15:20 celebrates Israel's deliverance at the Sea of Reeds by dancing with singing and musical accompaniment. 1618453114_47 accords dancing a role in the celebration of the yearly feast at Shiloh, and David is pictured as dancing before the Lord as the Ark was brought to Jerusalem ( 2 Samuel 6:14 ). Psalm 150:4 calls God's people to praise Him with the dance.
As in Israel, dancing was a part of the religious practices of other peoples in the ancient Near East. Male and female dancers are known to us from Egyptian reliefs, and cultic dancers are attested in Mesopotamian texts. As an idolatrous act, dancing is mentioned in the golden-calf story (Exodus 32:19 ) and in the worship of Baal at Carmel (1 Kings 18:26 ).
In the New Testament, the return of the prodigal son was celebrated with music and dancing (Luke 15:25 ). The practice of dancers entertaining at royal courts in Hellenistic and Roman times is attested by the dance of Herodias' daughter, Salome, (Matthew 14:6 ). See David ; Levites ; Psalms, The; Shiloh .
Kandy Queen-Sutherland
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Music, Instrumental
Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were,
The kinnor, the "harp."
The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery."
The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre.
The gittith, occurring in the title of Psalm 8 ; 8 ; 84 .
Minnim (Psalm 150:4 ), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Psalm 45:8 , in the form Minni , Probably the apocopated (i.e., shortened) plural, rendered, Authorized Version, "whereby," and in the Revised Version "stringed instruments."
Machalath, in the titles of Psalm 53,88 ; supposed to be a kind of lute or guitar. Of wind instruments mention is made of,
The 'ugab (Genesis 4:21 ; Job 21:12 ; 30:31 ), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or syrinx.
The qeren or "horn" (Joshua 6:5 ; 1 Chronicles 25:5 ).
The shophar, rendered "trumpet" (Joshua 6:4,6,8 ). The word means "bright," and may have been so called from the clear, shrill sound it emitted. It was often used (Exodus 19:13 ; Numbers 10:10 ; Judges 7:16,18 ; 1 Samuel 13:3 ).
The hatsotserah, or straight trumpet (Psalm 98:6 ; Numbers 10:1-10 ). This name is supposed by some to be an onomatopoetic word, intended to imitate the pulse-like sound of the trumpet, like the Latin taratantara. Some have identified it with the modern trombone.
The halil, i.e, "bored through," a flute or pipe (1 Samuel 10:5 ; 1 Kings 1:40 ; Isaiah 5:12 ; Jeremiah 48:36 ) which is still used in Palestine.
The sumponyah, rendered "dulcimer" (Daniel 3:5 ), probably a sort of bagpipe.
The maskrokith'a (Daniel 3:5 ), rendered "flute," but its precise nature is unknown. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of,
The toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Exodus 15:20 ; Job 21:12 ; Psalm 68:25 ); also "tabret" (Genesis 31:27 ; Isaiah 24:8 ; 1 Samuel 10:5 ).
The paamon, the "bells" on the robe of the high priest (Exodus 28:33 ; 39:25 ).
The tseltselim, "cymbals" (2 Samuel 6:5 ; Psalm 150:5 ), which are struck together and produce a loud, clanging sound. Metsilloth, "bells" on horses and camels for ornament, and metsiltayim, "cymbals" (1 Chronicles 13:8 ; Ezra 3:10 , etc.). These words are all derived from the same root, tsalal, meaning "to tinkle."
The menaan'im, used only in 2 Samuel 6:5 , rendered "cornets" (RSV, "castanets"); in the Vulgate, "sistra," an instrument of agitation.
The shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Samuel 18:6 , rendered "instruments of music" (marg. of RSV, "triangles or three-stringed instruments"). The words in Ecclesiastes 2:8 , "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many."
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Music
Jubal was the inventor of musical instruments (Genesis 4:21 ). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob (Genesis 31:27 ). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea, Moses and the children of Israel sang their song of deliverance (Exodus 15 ). But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of training in the schools of the prophets (1 Samuel 10:5 ; 19:19-24 ; 2 Kings 3:15 ; 1 Chronicles 25:6 ). There now arose also a class of professional singers (2 Samuel 19:35 ; Ecclesiastes 2:8 ). The temple, however, was the great school of music. In the conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players on instruments were constantly employed (2 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Chronicles 15 ; 16 ; 235;5 ; 25:1-6 ).
In private life also music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews (Ecclesiastes 2:8 ; Amos 6:4-6 ; Isaiah 5:11,12 ; 24:8,9 ; Psalm 137 ; Jeremiah 48:33 ; Luke 15:25 ).
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Music
Music. 1 Samuel 18:6; Isaiah 30:29. The practice of music was not restricted to any one class of persons. 1 Chronicles 13:8; 1 Chronicles 15:16. The sons of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun were set apart by David for the musical service. They were divided, like the priests, into 24 courses, which are enumerated. 1 Chronicles 25:1-31. Of the 38,000 Levites, "four thousand praised the Lord with the instruments." 1 Chronicles 23:5. Each of the courses or classes had 154 musicians and three leaders, and all were under the general direction of Asaph and his brethren. Each course served for a week, but upon the festivals all were required to be present, or four thousand musicians. Heman, with one of his leaders, directed the central choir, Asaph the right, and Jeduthun the left wing. These several choirs answered one another, as is generally supposed, in that kind of alternate singing which is called "antiphonal," or responsive. The priests, in the meantime, performed upon the silver trumpets. 2 Chronicles 5:11-14; Numbers 10:2.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Music, Ecclesiastical
Although music was often employed among the Jews to enhance religious ceremonies, the primitive Christians were restrained in their religious manifestations, and it is only in the 4th century that we find mention of psalm-singing, by Tertullian. In the monasteries of Syria and Egypt two forms of rendering the psalms and canticles of the Bible were developed: the antiphonal chant, which consisted in the alternation of two choirs; and the responsorial chant, which was solo singing in which the congregation joined in a refrain. The first was introduced into the Western Church in 386 by Saint Ambrose; and the Alleluia chant, a peculiar kind of responsorial singing in which the Alleluia formed the refrain, was also imported from the East about this time. There was a continuous development in this choral singing, known later as the plain-chant, reaching its climax in the reign of Pope Saint Gregory the Great. Tradition claims that this pope compiled and revised the numerous melodies already accepted, established a schola at Rome for training singers, and drafted an antiphonary for general use. This resulted in the spread of the Gregorian chant, written in neumatic notation and later in the modern staff notation, over the entire Church. Antiphony had been adopted for the Mass in the 5th century; and in the 9th, two new forms of Mass music were added, the Sequences and the Tropes, the famous "Dies Irae" being a product of this period. With the Renaissance and the Reformation came the rise of polyphony and the neglect of plain-song melodies, which were then used as themes or subjects for contrapuntal or many-part treatment and also supplied the basis of the psalms and hymns of Protestantism. Efforts were made by the popes to restore the traditional chant, because its style, which permitted the words of the text to predominate, was more suitable to the Liturgy than the colorful and florid polyphonic music. Palestrina (died 1594) endeavored successfully to fit the figured music to ecclesiastical needs. The Medicean Gradual was a revision of the Gregorian chant which appeared in 1615. A new interest in the plain-chant began to be aroused in the 19th century. The historic validity of the Medicean edition was attacked, a thorough examination of manuscripts was instituted in the Benedictine monastery of Solesmes, France, and after over 20 years of research, the "Liber Gradualis" was published. This was followed by a new epoch inaugurated by Pope Pius X who, in 1904 by his Motu Proprio, ordered that only the traditional plain-chant and the purer and stricter forms of choral music, sung by men and boys, were to be permitted in liturgical functions. Since then, a new Vatican edition has appeared and every effort is being made to revive this ancient chant which has grown up with the Liturgy itself and is an admirable combination of prayer and music.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Music And Musical Instruments
MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
1. Probable character of early Hebrew music . Since the Dispersion, the music of the Jews has always borne the impress of the peoples among whom they have settled. Synagogue ritual thus affords us no clue to the music of early times, and we must accordingly fall back on Scripture and tradition. From these we gather that Hebrew music was of a loud and piercing nature, far removed from the sweetness which modern taste demands. There is no real evidence that the players ever advanced beyond unison in their combinations of notes, apparently reproducing the air on successively rising or falling octaves of the scale. We may suppose, however, that they would hardly fail to discover that certain combinations were pleasing to the ear, and would thus learn to strike them either simultaneously or successively ( arpeggio ). How far, however, they grasped the nature of a chord or of harmony must remain obscure, in spite of the attempts to solve this question, some of them altogether baseless guesses. For example, even the Hebrew accents, though of comparatively late origin, and always confined in Jewish use to acting as guides in the proper recitation of the text, have been pressed into the service, as though employed for the purpose of a kind of’ figured bass,’ and thus indicating an acquaintance with musical harmony. Unfortunately, even those who have maintained this theory differ considerably as to the details of its application.
2. Rendering of Hebrew music . It seems clear at any rate that an antiphonal setting was in use for many of the Psalms ( e.g . 13, 20, 38, 68, 89); but the chanting must not be taken as resembling what we now understand by that term. The account we have in 1 Chronicles 15:16 ff. of the elaborate arrangements for conducting the musical services of the Temple, appears to indicate a somewhat complicated system, and to suggest that there entered a considerable element of flexibility into the composition. It is, for instance, quite possible that the long reciting note which with us may do duty on occasion for as many as twenty, thirty, or even more syllables, played no such monotonous part, but was broken up and varied to an extent suggested by the length of the verse as well as by the character of the sentiment to be conveyed.
3. Occasions on which music was used . Hebrew religious melody had a popular origin, and was thus closely connected with the religious life of the na on. Apart from such references to song as those in Genesis 31:27 and Job 21:12 , we find in the headings of certain Psalms ( e.g . 22, ’Ayyeleth hash-Shahar , ‘the hind of the morning’) traces of what are in all probability in some, if not in all, cases secular songs. So Al Tashheth , ‘Destroy not,’ prefixed to Psalms 57:1-11 ; Psalms 58:1-11 ; Psalms 59:1-17 ; Psalms 75:1-10 , may well be the first words of a vintage song (cf. Isaiah 65:9 ). A parallel may be found in directions prefixed to Gabirol’s hymns and those of other celebrated Jewish poets, when these compositions were adapted to music in the Spanish (Sephardic) ritual (see D. J. Sola, Ancient Melodies, etc ., London, 1857, Pref. p. 13). Amos ( Amos 6:5 ) speaks of music performed at feasts, and in 1 Samuel 18:6 we read of its use in Saul’s time in connexion with processions. As in this last case, so in general it may be supposed that music and dancing were closely connected and had a parallel development. David’s careful elaboration of the Levitical music, vocal and instrumental, was employed, according to 2 Chronicles 5:12 , with impressive effect at the dedication of Solomon’s Temple. The reformations under both Hezekiah and Josiah included the restoring of the musical ritual belonging to David’s time ( 2 Chronicles 29:25 ff; 2 Chronicles 35:15 ). Later, the descendants of Heman and other Levitical leaders of music were among the exiles of the Return from Babylon, and under them the services were reconstituted as of old ( Nehemiah 12:27 ; Nehemiah 12:45 ff.).
4. Hebrew musical instruments . Here our information is somewhat fuller, though involving a good deal of uncertainty in details. We may for clearness’ sake divide under three heads, viz. stringed, wind, and percussion instruments.
(1) Stringed instruments . Chief among these are the kinnôr and the nçbel (RV [1] ‘ harp ’ and ‘ psaltery ’), which were evidently favourites among the Jews. It is plain, in spite of doubts which have been expressed upon the point, that the two names were not used indifferently for the same instrument. The LXX [2] in nearly all cases is careful to distinguish them ( kithara or kinyra , and psaltçrion, nablç , or nabla respectively). Both, however, were used in the main, and perhaps exclusively, to accompany songs, and those of a joyous nature. (They were unsuitable for times of mourning; see Psalms 137:2 , a passage which further shows that the instrument must have been, unlike a modern harp, easily portable.) They were doubtless the chief, if not the sole, instruments employed in the Temple services. In Solomon’s time they were made from almug (algum) trees, doubtfully identified with sandal wood. The strings, originally of twisted grass or fibres of plants, were afterwards formed of gut, and subsequently from silk or metal.
( a ) The kinnôr (an onomatopoetic word, derived from the sound of the strings) is the only stringed instrument mentioned in the Hexateuch, where ( Genesis 4:21 ) its invention is attributed to Jubal, son of Lamech. The nebel is first mentioned in 1 Samuel 10:5 , as used by the prophets who went to meet Saul. The kinnôr ( kithara or lyre [3] renders ‘ cithern ,’ RV [1] ‘ harp ’]) consisted of a sound-box at the base, with wooden side-arms and a crossbar connected by the strings with the box below. It was originally an Asiatic instrument, and the earliest known representation is pre-historic, in the form of a rude model found at Telloh in southern Babylonia. There is also a very ancient one shown on a tomb in Egypt, dating from about the 30th cent. b.c. (12th dynasty). A tomb at Thebes in the same country (dating between the 12th and 18th dynasties) exhibits a similar form, which was sometimes modified later in the direction of more artistic construction and sloping of the crossbar downwards, so as to vary the pitch of the strings. Jewish coins of Maccabæan date furnish us with a close resemblance to the Greek kithara . Josephus ( Ant . VII. xii. 3) distinguishes the kinnôr as a ten-stringed instrument struck by a plectrum; the nabla , on the other hand, being, he says, played with the fingers. This need not necessarily conflict, as has been thought by some, with the statement ( 1 Samuel 16:23 ) that David played the kinnôr ‘with his hand’; and Josephus’s evidence in such a matter should carry much weight.
( b ) The nebel . It has been sought to identify this with various instruments; among them, the lute (so RV [1] in Isaiah 5:12 [6] viol]; ‘ lute ’ is also RV [1] tr. [8] of Gr. kinyra in 1Ma 4:54 ), guitar, and dulcimer . In support of the last it is urged that the Arabic name for that instrument, santir , is a corruption of the Greek psaltçrion , by which, as has been said, the LXX [2] sometimes render nebel . Having regard, however, to the testimony of Josephus (see above) that the nebel had twelve strings, and was played by the hand without a plectrum, we are safe in taking it to be a kind of harp , an instrument of larger size than the kinnôr , and used ( Amos 6:5 , Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 14:11 ) at the feasts of the rich. We find, on the other hand, that it was not too large to be played by one who was walking (see 1 Samuel 10:5 , 2 Samuel 6:5 ). The above argument from santir = psaltçrion is weakened by the fact that the Greek word was used generically for stringed instruments played with one or hoth hands without a plectrum. We may note further that the nabla (see above for this as a LXX [2] rendering of nebel ), known to the Greeks as of Sidonian origin, was played according to Ovid ( Ars Amat . iii. 327) with both hands.
Egyptian monuments show us portable harps, varying in form, bow-shaped, rectangular, or triangular, though all constructed on the same general principle, and having the sound-box above, not, as the kinnôr , below. Seven of these harps, of a triangular shape, and used by a Semitic people in Assyria, are to be seen on a bas-relief found at Kouyunjik. We may add that several early Church writers (Augustine on Psalms 42:1-11 : Jerome on Psalms 149:3 ; Isidore, Etym . iii. 22. 2) support the above identification of nebel with, a harp.
( c ) There is little that can be asserted with confidence as to the nature of other instruments of this class mentioned in the Bible. In Daniel 3:5 ff., besides the psantçrîn (Gr. psaltçrion ) and kitharis (Gr. kithara ) with which we have already dealt, we have the sabbĕkha (Ev sackbut). This is evidently the Greek sambykç , but the latter has been variously described as a large harp of many strings and rich tone, similar to the grand Egyptian harp, and as a very small one of high pitch. After all, both descriptions may be true, if referring to different periods of its existence.
Nĕgînôth has sometimes been taken as the name of an instrument, but is much more probably a general term for stringed music. So in Psalms 68:25 (Heb. 26), we have a contrast between the singers ( shârîm ) and the players on strings ( nôgĕnîm ).
Gittîth , the heading of Psalms 8:1-9 ; Psalms 81:1-16 ; Psalms 84:1-12 , has also, but somewhat doubtfully, been referred to instruments named after Gath: so the early Jewish paraphrase (Targum), ‘the harp which David brought from Gath.’
(2) Wind instruments . ( a ) The châlîl (EV [5] pipe) seems to have been the instrument of this class in most common use. It was played in coming from and going to the high place ( 1 Samuel 10:5 , 1 Kings 1:40 ). It accompanied festal processions of pilgrims ( Isaiah 30:29 ). It was used in mourning ( Jeremiah 48:36 , cf. Matthew 9:23 ), and in the ritual of twelve solemn annual occasions. According to Isaiah 5:12 , the feasts of the drunkards were enlivened by it. It may have been a simple flute , i.e . a mere tube with holes, played by blowing either into one end or into a hole in the side. It is possible, on the other hand, that it may have been a reed instrument, either, as the modern oboe, with a double and vibrating tongue, or, as the clarinet, with a single tongue. Neighbouring nations were, we know, familiar with reed pipes, as they also were with double flutes, which, for anything we know to the contrary, the châlîl may have been. On the other hand, the keyed flute is of decidedly later origin, and in the times with which we are dealing the Fingers must have done all the work.
( b ) The ‘ûgâb , rendered uniformly in the AV [12] as ‘ organ ,’ an instrument which was not known even in rudimentary form in OT days, seems to have become an obsolete word even in LXX [2] times, as shown by the variety of renderings which it has there received. The instrument known as ‘Pan’s pipes’ (Gr. syrinx , Lat. fistula ) is perhaps the best conjecture that can be offered. ( c ) The mashrôkîtha (EV [5] fluts) may have been similar; while ( d ) the sumpônya (cf. the Italian zampugna or sampogna for ‘bagpipes’) may well have corresponded to the modern bagpipes , as developed from the double flute. ( e ) The shôphâr ( 1 Chronicles 15:28 , 2 Chronicles 15:14 , Psalms 98:6 , Hosea 5:8 , EV [5] cornet; the ‘cornets’ of 2 Samuel 6:5 [6] ; RV [1] castanets’] are probably best represented by RVm [18] ‘sistra’; see (3) ( c ) below) was a curved horn of a cow or ram, used mainly, and till later OT times exclusively, for secdiar purposes, such as to give signals in war ( e.g . Judges 3:27 ) or to announce important events ( e.g . 1 Kings 1:34 ; 1 Kings 1:39 ). It is still employed by the Jews at solemn festivals. The hatsôtsĕrâh , on the other hand the one instrument of which we have an undoubtedly authentic representation, viz. on the Arch of Titus at Rome in front of the table of shewbread was a long, straight, metal trumpet , used mainly for religious purposes, especially in later times ( 2 Kings 12:13 , 1 Chronicles 13:8 ).
(3) Percussion instruments . ( a ) The tôph , ‘ tabret ’ or timbrel , was a small hand-drum, represented on Egyptian and Assyrian monuments. In these instruments, unlike the modern drum, the parchment was probably rigidly fixed, and thus incapable of being tightened or loosened so as to regulate the pitch. ( b ) mĕtsiltaim and tseltsĕlîm were cymbals . Two shapes are found in Egypt and Assyria, the one consisting of two flat plates, played by being clashed together sideways, the other of two cones with handles at the peak, one cone being brought down on top of the other. ( c ) mĕna‘anîm (RV [1] ‘ castanets ,’ marg. sistra , 2 Samuel 6:5 ) were formed of two thin metal plates with holes, through which were passed rods with loose metallic rings at their ends. ( d ) shâlïshîm in 1 Samuel 18:6 (RVm [18] ‘triangles, or three-stringed instruments’) has been thought, from the apparent connexion of the word with the third Heb. numeral, to be a triangle, but this is quite uncertain. It is more probable that it was a particular kind of sistrum .
A. W. Streane.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Music, Passion
Originated in the declamation of the Passion of Our Lord in front of the altar by the deacon and later by different persons, as the words of Our Lord by the priest, of the Evangelist by the deacon, and of the crowd (turba) and others by the sub-deacon. The interrelation of the alternating voices, their relative pitch and manner of interpreting the part still exist today. Obrecht (1430-1506) made it the subject of an extended motet. The work of Vittoria (1540-1613) formed for 300 years the repertory of the Sistine Chapel choir for Holy Week. The Reformers discarded the Latin text. Schiltz introduced stringed instruments. The Passion music reached its highest development under Bach (1685-1750) and Joseph Haydn.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Music
In the early days of the human race, music was one of the first expressions of artistic and cultural development (Genesis 4:21). It soon became widely used, along with singing and dancing, to celebrate special occasions, whether private or public, domestic or national, secular or sacred (Genesis 31:27; Exodus 15:20-21; 2 Samuel 6:14-15; 2 Chronicles 20:28-29; Psalms 92:1-3; Psalms 144:9; Isaiah 5:12; Amos 6:5; Daniel 3:4-5; see also DANCING; SINGING). At other times people played or listened to music purely for relaxation or enjoyment (1 Samuel 16:16-17; 1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; Job 21:11-12; Ezekiel 26:13; Ezekiel 33:31-32; Lamentations 5:14; Revelation 18:22). Music also accompanied mourning and singing at funerals (Matthew 9:23; Luke 7:32; see FUNERAL).
Music, Musicians, Musical Instruments
The harp and the organ, or pipe, were in use as early as Genesis 4:21 . Laban, when chiding with Jacob for secretly leaving him, said he would have sent him away "with songs, with tabret, and with harp." Genesis 31:27 . The monuments show that the Egyptians had various musical instruments, the Israelites, therefore, if they had not known their use before going into Egypt, could have learnt it there. When Moses sang the song of triumph at the Red Sea, Miriam answered with a tabret in her hand; and Samuel told Saul that he would meet a company of prophets with a psaltery, a tabret, a pipe, and a harp. 1 Samuel 10:5 .
There must have been with these prophets some knowledge of music, which doubtless under David was further cultivated and devoted to the service of God, their music being intimately connected with temple worship. He had several companies of singers, and players on instruments, which are often mentioned in the Psalms. As these were indited under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, we may conclude that this way of celebrating the praises of God was in accordance with the dispensation that then was. Such an exhortation as "Praise him with the psaltery and harp," is beautifully in place in the Psalms; but in the N.T. dispensation it is, "singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord;" and "I will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the understanding also." "They that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth."
In the headings of fifty-five of the Psalms the words occur, "To the chief musician;" the word is natsach, and simply means 'to the chief or the leader,' and may therefore apply as much to the singers as to the musicians. The musical instruments are considered under their various names.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Ecclesiastical Music
Although music was often employed among the Jews to enhance religious ceremonies, the primitive Christians were restrained in their religious manifestations, and it is only in the 4th century that we find mention of psalm-singing, by Tertullian. In the monasteries of Syria and Egypt two forms of rendering the psalms and canticles of the Bible were developed: the antiphonal chant, which consisted in the alternation of two choirs; and the responsorial chant, which was solo singing in which the congregation joined in a refrain. The first was introduced into the Western Church in 386 by Saint Ambrose; and the Alleluia chant, a peculiar kind of responsorial singing in which the Alleluia formed the refrain, was also imported from the East about this time. There was a continuous development in this choral singing, known later as the plain-chant, reaching its climax in the reign of Pope Saint Gregory the Great. Tradition claims that this pope compiled and revised the numerous melodies already accepted, established a schola at Rome for training singers, and drafted an antiphonary for general use. This resulted in the spread of the Gregorian chant, written in neumatic notation and later in the modern staff notation, over the entire Church. Antiphony had been adopted for the Mass in the 5th century; and in the 9th, two new forms of Mass music were added, the Sequences and the Tropes, the famous "Dies Irae" being a product of this period. With the Renaissance and the Reformation came the rise of polyphony and the neglect of plain-song melodies, which were then used as themes or subjects for contrapuntal or many-part treatment and also supplied the basis of the psalms and hymns of Protestantism. Efforts were made by the popes to restore the traditional chant, because its style, which permitted the words of the text to predominate, was more suitable to the Liturgy than the colorful and florid polyphonic music. Palestrina (died 1594) endeavored successfully to fit the figured music to ecclesiastical needs. The Medicean Gradual was a revision of the Gregorian chant which appeared in 1615. A new interest in the plain-chant began to be aroused in the 19th century. The historic validity of the Medicean edition was attacked, a thorough examination of manuscripts was instituted in the Benedictine monastery of Solesmes, France, and after over 20 years of research, the "Liber Gradualis" was published. This was followed by a new epoch inaugurated by Pope Pius X who, in 1904 by his Motu Proprio, ordered that only the traditional plain-chant and the purer and stricter forms of choral music, sung by men and boys, were to be permitted in liturgical functions. Since then, a new Vatican edition has appeared and every effort is being made to revive this ancient chant which has grown up with the Liturgy itself and is an admirable combination of prayer and music.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Music
is probably nearly coeval with our race, or, at least, with the first attempts to preserve the memory of transactions. Before the invention of writing, the history of remarkable events was committed to memory, and handed down by oral tradition. The knowledge of laws and of useful arts was preserved in the same way. Rhythm and song were probably soon found important helps to the memory; and thus the muses became the early instructers of mankind. Nor was it long, we may conjecture, before dancing and song united contributed to festivity, or to the solemnities of religion. The first instruments of music were probably of the pulsatile kind; and rhythm, it is likely, preceded the observation of those intervals of sound which are so pleasing to the ear. The first mention of stringed instruments, however, precedes the deluge. Tubal, the sixth descendant from Cain, was "the father of all such as handle the harp and the organ." About five hundred and fifty years after the deluge, or B.C. 1800, according to the common chronology, both vocal and instrumental music are spoken of as things in general use: "And Laban said, What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen away unawares to me, and carried away my daughters, as captives taken with the sword? Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me; and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth and with songs, with tabret and with harp?" Genesis 31:26-27 .
Egypt has been called the cradle of the arts and sciences, and there can be no doubt of the very early civilization of that country. To the Egyptian Mercury, or Thoth, who is called Trismegistos, or "thrice illustrious," is ascribed the invention of the lyre, which had at first only three strings. It would be idle to mention the various conjectures how these strings were tuned, or to try to settle the chronology of this invention. The single flute, which they called photinx, is also ascribed to the Egyptians. Its shape was that of a horn, of which, no doubt, it was originally made. Before the invention of these instruments, as Dr. Burney justly observes, "music could have been little more than metrical, as no other instruments except those of percussion were known. When the art was first discovered of refining and sustaining tones, the power of music over mankind was probably irresistible, from the agreeable surprise which soft and lengthened sounds must have occasioned." The same learned writer has given a drawing, made under his own eye, of an Egyptian musical instrument, represented on a very ancient obelisk at Rome, brought from Egypt by Augustus. This obelisk is supposed to have been erected at Heliopolis, by Sesostris, near four hundred years before the Trojan war. The most remarkable thing in this instrument is, that it is supplied with a neck, so that its two strings were capable of furnishing a great number of sounds. This is a contrivance which the Greeks, with all their ingenuity, never hit upon. "I have never been able," says the doctor, "to discover in any remains of Greek sculpture, an instrument furnished with a neck; and Father Montfaucon says that in examining the representations of near five hundred ancient lyres, harps, and citharas, he never met with one in which there was any contrivance for shortening the strings during the time of performance, as by a neck and finger board." From the long residence of the Hebrews in Egypt, it is no improbable conjecture that their music was derived from that source. However that may be, music, vocal and instrumental, made one important part of their religious service. If the excellence of the music was conformable to the sublimity of the poetry which it accompanied, there would be no injustice in supposing it unspeakably superior. to that of every other people; and the pains that were taken to render the tabernacle and temple music worthy of the subjects of their lofty odes, leaves little doubt that it was so. That the instruments were loud and sonorous, will appear from what follows; but as the public singing was performed in alternate responses, or the chorus of all succeeded to those parts of the psalm which were sung only by the appointed leaders, instruments of this kind were necessary to command and control the voices of so great a number as was usually assembled on high occasions.
The Hebrews insisted on having music at marriages, on anniversary birth days, on the days which reminded them of victories over their enemies, at the inauguration of their kings, in their public worship, and when they were coming from afar to attend the great festivals of their nation, Isaiah 30:29 . In the tabernacle and the temple, the Levites were the lawful musicians; but on other occasions any one might use musical instruments who chose. There was this exception, however: the holy silver trumpets were to be blown only by the priests, who, by the sounding of them, proclaimed the festival days, assembled the leaders of the people, and gave the signal for the battle and for the retreat, Numbers 10:1-10 . David, in order to give the best effect to the music of the tabernacle, divided the four thousand Levites into twenty-four classes, who sung psalms, and accompanied them with music. Each of these classes was superintended by a leader, placed over it; and they performed the duties which devolved upon them, each class a week at a time in succession, 1 Chronicles 16:5 ; 1 Chronicles 23:4-5 ; 1 Chronicles 25:1-31 ; 2 Chronicles 5:12-13 . The classes collectively, as a united body, were superintended by three directors. This arrangement was subsequently continued by Solomon after the erection of the temple, and was transmitted till the time of the overthrow of Jerusalem. It was indeed sometimes interrupted, during the reign of the idolatrous kings, but was restored by their successors, 2 Chronicles 5:12-14 ; 2 Chronicles 29:27 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15 . It was even continued after the captivity, Ezra 3:10 ; Nehemiah 12:45-47 ; 1Ma_4:54 ; 1Ma_13:51 . It should be remarked, however, that neither music nor poetry attained to the same excellence after the captivity as before that period.
There were women singers as well as men in the temple choir; for in the book of Ezra, among those who returned from the Babylonish captivity, there are said to have been two hundred, Ezra 2:65 ; and in Nehemiah 7:67 , we read of two hundred and forty-five singing men and women. The Jewish doctors will, indeed, by no means admit there were any female voices in the temple choir; and as for those משררית
meshoreroth, as they are called in the Hebrew, they suppose them to be the wives of those who sung. Nevertheless, the following passage makes it evident that women, likewise, were thus employed: "God gave to Heman fourteen sons and three daughters; and all these were under the hands of their father for song in the house of the Lord, with cymbals, psalteries, and harps, for the service of the house of God," 1 Chronicles 25:5-6 . Instrumental music was first introduced into the Jewish service by Moses; and afterward, by the express command of God, was very much improved with the addition of several instruments in the reign of David. When Hezekiah restored the temple service, which had been neglected in his predecessor's reign, "he set the Levites in the house of the Lord, with cymbals, with psalteries, and with harps, according to the commandment of David, and of Gad the king's seer, and Nathan the prophet; for so was the commandment of the Lord by his prophets," 2 Chronicles 29:25 .
The harp, כנור , kinnor, was the most ancient of the class of stringed instruments, Genesis 4:21 . It was sometimes called שמינית , or "eight stringed," 1 Chronicles 15:21 ; Psalms 6:1 ; Psalms 12:1 ; although, as we may gather from the coins or medals of the Maccabean age, there were some harps which were furnished with only three strings. The nablum or psaltery, ναβλιον , ναυλα , נבל , is first mentioned in the Psalms of David. In Psalms 33:2 ; Psalms 144:9 , it is called עשור "a ten-stringed instrument;"
but in Psalms 92:3 , it is distinguished from it. Josephus assigns to it twelve strings, which, taken in connection with the fact above stated, leaves us to conclude that it sometimes had ten and sometimes twelve strings. It was not played with a bow or fret, but with the fingers: the act of playing it is expressed in Hebrew by the word מזר . It resembled in form a right-angled triangle, or the Greek delta, Δ , inverted. The body of it was of wood and hollow, and was enclosed with a piece of leather tensely drawn. The chords were extended on the outside of the leather, and were fixed at one end into the transverse part of the triangular body of the instrument. Such is its form at the present day in the east; but it has only five strings in its modern shape, 2 Samuel 6:5 ; 1 Kings 10:12 . There was another instrument of this kind used in Babylonia: it was triangular in form. In Greek it is called σαμβυκη ; in Hebrew, סכבא and שבכא . It had originally only four, but subsequently twenty, strings, Daniel 3:5 ; Daniel 3:7 ; Daniel 3:10 ; Daniel 3:15 . Among their wind instruments was the organ, so called in the English version, in Hebrew, עוגב , Genesis 4:21 . It may be styled the ancient shepherd's pipe, corresponding most nearly to the συριγξ , or the pipe of Pan among the Greeks. It consisted at first of only one or two, but afterward of about seven, pipes made of reeds, and differing from each other in length. The instrument called משרוקיתא , used in Babylon, Daniel 3:5 , was of a similar construction. חלול , נחילות , and נקב , chalil, nechiloth, and nekeb, are wind instruments made of various materials, such as wood, reeds, horns, and bones. As far as we may be permitted to judge from the three kinds of pipes now used in the east, the Hebrew instrument called nechiloth is the one that is double in its structure; chalil is perhaps the one of simpler form, having a single stem with an orifice through it; while nekeb answers to the one without an orifice, Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 30:29 ; Jeremiah 48:36 ; Psalms 5:1 ; Ezekiel 28:13 . סומפוניה , or, according to the marginal reading, סיפניא , Daniel 3:5 ; Daniel 3:10 , was a wind instrument made of reeds, by the Syrians called sambonja, by the Greeks samponja, and by the Italians zampogna. According to Servius, it was of a crooked shape, קרן , the horn or crooked trumpet, was a very ancient instrument. It was made of the horns of oxen, which were cut off at the smaller extremity, and thus presented an orifice which extended through. In progress of time, rams' horns were hollowed and employed for the same purpose. It is probable that in some instances it was made of brass, fashioned so as to resemble a horn. It was greatly used in war, and its sound resembled thunder, חצוצרת , chatsoteroth, the silver trumpet, was straight, a cubit in length, hollow through out, and at the larger extremity shaped so as to resemble the mouth of a small bell. In times of peace, when the people or the rulers were to be assembled together, this trumpet was blown softly. When the camps were to move forward, or the people to march to war, it was sounded with a deeper note.
There were several sorts of drums. The תפים תפ , toph, rendered in the English version tabret and timbrel. Genesis 31:27 , consisted of a circular hoop, either of wood or brass, three inches and six-tenths wide, was covered with a skin tensely drawn, and hung round with small bells. It was held in the left hand, and beaten to notes of music with the right. The ladies through all the east, even to this day, dance to the sound of this instrument, Exodus 15:20 ; Job 17:6 ; Job 21:12 ; 2 Samuel 6:5 . The cymbals, צלצלים , tseltselim, מצלות , were of two kinds formerly, as there are to this day, in the east. The first consisted of two flat pieces of metal or plates: the musician held one of them in his right hand, the other in his left, and smote them together, as an accompaniment to other instruments. This cymbal and the mode of using it may be often seen in modern armies. The second kind of cymbals, consisted of four small plates attached, two to each hand, which the ladies, as they danced, smote together. But מצלות , Zechariah 14:20 , rendered in the English version bells, are not musical instruments, as some suppose, nor indeed bells, but concave pieces or plates of brass, which were sometimes attached to horses for the sake of ornament.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Music
Of the music of the Old Testament Scripture it is no easy matter to form a right apprehension. That the Hebrews were fond of music is readily admitted. And that they excelled in the art, can as readily be allowed; since we find upon record, strong testimonies of the power and effect upon the mind, both from the strength and charm of the melody, and the skill of the performer. David's harp quieted the disturbed state of Sauls mind. (1 Samuel 16:14-23) And in like manner, we find other testimonies of the influence of music. When Saul sent messengers to seize David, the melody of the prophets so affected their minds that they joined the chorus. And when other messengers were sent, the same effect followed. Yea, Saul himself felt the contagion, and for the moment his passion of anger subsided. (See 1 Samuel 19:19-24)
But, while all possible allowance is made to this view of the music of the Hebrews, we cannot conceive that all that is said of musical instruments in the Old Testament Scriptures means literally so to be received. The antiquity of music, no doubt, gave birth, very early, to the invention. Jubal, before the deluge, is said to have been "the father of all that play on the (kinnor) harp, and (hugab) organ." (Genesis 4:21) Indeed, the very sound of the human voice is musical, and must have given rise very early in the world to the invention. But after all, it is not to be supposed, that every instrument of flute, harp, sackbut, psaltry, and dulcimer, literally mean those things which we take them for. In numberless instances we may conclude, that they rather mean stringed instruments of the heart. See Psalms 150:1-6 and the like. Hence the great variety of the names we meet with at the head of numberless Psalms, can never be supposed to refer to such things. Whether we comprehend their meaning or not, common sense might suppose that somewhat higher is intended.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Music
The most ancient music. --The inventor of musical instruments, like the first poet and the first forger of metals, was a Cainite. We learn from ( Genesis 4:21 ) that Jubal the son of Lamech was "the father of all such as handle the harp and organ," that is, of all players upon stringed and wind instruments. The first mentioned of music in the times after the deluge is in the narrative of Laban's interview with Jacob, (Genesis 32:27 ) so that, whatever way it was preserved, the practice of music existed in the upland country of Syria, and of the three possible kinds of musical instruments two were known and employed to accompany the song. The three kinds are alluded to in (Job 21:12 ) On the banks of the Red Sea Moses and the children of Israel sang their triumphal song of deliverance from the hosts of Egypt; and Miriam, in celebration of the same event, exercised one of her functions as a prophetess by leading a procession of the women of the camp, chanting in chorus the burden of the song of Moses. The song of Deborah and Barak is cast in a distinctly metrical form, and was probably intended to be sung with a musical accompaniment as one of the people's songs. The simpler impromptu with which the women from the cities of Israel greeted David after the slaughter of the Philistines was apparently struck off on the spur of the moment, under the influence of the wild joy with which they welcomed their national champion. "the darling of the sons of Israel." (1 Samuel 18:6,7 ) Up to this time we meet with nothing like a systematic cultivation of music among the Hebrews, but the establishment of the schools of the prophets appears to have supplied this want. Whatever the students of these schools may have been taught, music was an essential part of their practice. Professional musicians soon became attached to the court.
The golden age of Hebrew music . David seems to have gathered round him "singing men and singing women." ( 2 Samuel 19:35 ) Solomon did the same, (Ecclesiastes 2:8 ) adding to the luxury of his court by his patronage of art, and obtaining a reputation himself as no mean composer. (1 Kings 4:32 ) But the temple was the great school of music, and it was consecrated to its highest service in the worship of Jehovah. Before, however the elaborate arrangements had been made by David for the temple choir, there must have been a considerable body of musicians throughout the country. (2 Samuel 6:5 ) (David chose 4000 musicians from the 38,000 Levies in his reign, or one in ten of the whole tribe. Of these musicians 288 were specially trained and skillful. (1 Chronicles 26:6,7 ) The whole number was divided into 24 courses, each of which would thus consist of a full band of 154 musicians, presided over by a body of 12 specially-trained leaders, under one of the twenty-four sons of Asaph, Heman or Jeduthun as conductor. The leaders appear to have played on the cymbals, perhaps to make the time. (1 Chronicles 15:19 ; 16:5 ) All these joined in a special chant which David taught them, and which went by his name. (1 Chronicles 23:5 ) Women also took part in the temple choir. (1 Chronicles 13:8 ; 25:5,6 ) These great choirs answered one to another in responsive singing; thus the temple music most have been grand and inspiring beyond anything known before that time.
Character of Hebrew music .--As in all Oriental nations, the music of the Hebrews was melody rather than harmony, which latter was then unknown. All old and young, men and maidens, singers and instruments, appear to have sung one part only in or in octaves. "The beauty of the music consisted altogether in the melody;" but this, with so many instruments and voices, was so charming that "the whole of antiquity is full of the praises of this music. By its means battles were won, cities conquered, mutinies quelled, diseases cured." --ED.)
Uses of music . --In the private as well as in the religions life of the Hebrews music held a prominent place. The kings had their court musicians, ( 2 Chronicles 35:25 ; Ecclesiastes 2:8 ) and in the luxurious times of the later monarchy the effeminate gallants of Israel amused themselves with devising musical instruments while their nation was perishing ("as Nero fiddled while Rome was burning"). But music was also the legitimate expression of mirth and gladness The bridal processions as they passed through the streets were accompanied with music and song. (Jeremiah 7:34 ) The music of the banquets was accompanied with song and dancing. (Luke 15:26 ) The triumphal processions which celebrated victory were enlivened by minstrels and singers. (Exodus 15:1,20 ; Judges 5:1 ; 11:34 ) There were also religious songs. (Isaiah 30:29 ; James 5:13 ) Love songs are alluded to; in (Psalm 45:1 ) title, and Isai 5:1 There were also the doleful songs of the funeral procession, and the wailing chant of the mourners. The grape-gatherers sang at their work, and the women sang as they toiled at the mill, and on every occasion the land of the Hebrews during their national prosperity was a land of music and melody.
Webster's Dictionary - Music Hall
A place for public musical entartainments; specif. (Eng.), esp. a public hall for vaudeville performances, in which smoking and drinking are usually allowed in the auditorium.
Webster's Dictionary - Music Drama
An opera in which the text and action are not interrupted by set arias, duets, etc., the music being determined throughout by dramatic appropriateness; musical drama of this character, in general. It involves the use of a kind of melodious declamation, the development of leitmotif, great orchestral elaboration, and a fusion of poetry, music, action, and scene into an organic whole. The term is applied esp. to the later works of Wagner: "Tristan und Isolde," "Die Meistersinger," "Rheingold," "Walkure," "Siegfried," "Gotterdammerung," and "Parsifal."
Webster's Dictionary - Music
(1):
(n.) The written and printed notation of a musical composition; the score.
(2):
(n.) The science and the art of tones, or musical sounds, i. e., sounds of higher or lower pitch, begotten of uniform and synchronous vibrations, as of a string at various degrees of tension; the science of harmonical tones which treats of the principles of harmony, or the properties, dependences, and relations of tones to each other; the art of combining tones in a manner to please the ear.
(3):
(n.) Melody; a rhythmical and otherwise agreeable succession of tones.
(4):
(n.) Harmony; an accordant combination of simultaneous tones.
(5):
(n.) A more or less musical sound made by many of the lower animals. See Stridulation.
(6):
(n.) Love of music; capacity of enjoying music.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Music
The ancient Hebrews had a great taste for music, which they used in their religious services, in their public and private rejoicing, at their weddings and feasts, and even in their mourning. We have in Scripture canticles of joy, of thanksgiving, of praise, of mourning; also mournful elegies or songs, as those of David on the death of Saul and Abner, and the Lamentations of Jeremiah on the destruction of Jerusalem; so, too, songs of victory, triumph, and gratulation, as that which Moses sung after passing the Red Sea, that of Deborah and Barak, and others. The people of God went up to Jerusalem thrice a year, cheered on their way with songs of joy, Psalm 84:12 Isaiah 30:29 . The book of Psalms comprises a wonderful variety of inspired pieces for music, and is an inexhaustible treasure for the devout in all ages.
Music is perhaps the most ancient of the fine arts. Jubal, who lived before the deluge, was the "father" of those who played on the harp and the organ, Genesis 4:21 31:26-27 . Laban complains that his sonin-law Jacob had left him, without giving him an opportunity of sending his family away "with mirth and with songs, with tabret and with harp." Moses, having passed through the Red Sea, composed a song, and sung it with the Israelitish men, while Miriam, his sister, sung it with dancing, and playing on instruments, at the head of the women, Exodus 15:20-21 . He caused silver trumpets to be made to be sounded at solemn sacrifices, and on religious festivals. David, who had great skill in music, soothed the perturbed spirit of Saul by playing on the harp, 1 Samuel 16:16,23 ; and when he was himself established on the throneseeing that the Levites were not employed, as formerly, in carrying the boards, veils, and vessels of the tabernacle, its abode being fixed at Jerusalem-appointed a great part of them to sing and to play on instruments in the temple, 1 Chronicles 25:1-31 . David brought the ark to Jerusalem with triumphant and joyful music, 1 Chronicles 13:8 15:16-28 ; and in the same manner Solomon was proclaimed king, 1 Kings 1:39-40 . The Old Testament prophets also sought the aid of music in their services, 1 Samuel 10:5 2 Kings 3:15 .
Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun were chiefs of the music of the tabernacle under David, and of the temple under Solomon. Asaph had four sons, Jeduthun six, and Heman fourteen. These twenty-four Levites, sons of the three great masters of the temple-music, were at the head of twenty-four bands of musicians, which served in the temple by turns. Their number there was always great, but especially at the chief solemnities. They were ranged in order about the altar of burnt-sacrifices. As the whole business of their lives was to learn and to practice music, it must be supposed that they understood it well, whether it were vocal or instrumental, 2 Chronicles 29:25 .
The kings also had their music. Asaph was chief master of music to David. In the temple, and in the ceremonies of religion, female musicians were admitted as well as male; they generally were daughters of the Levites. Ezra, in his enumeration of those whom he brought back with him from the captivity, reckons two hundred singing men and singing women, 2 Samuel 19:35 Ezra 2:65 Nehemiah 7:67 .
As to the nature of their music, we can judge of it only by conjecture, because it has been long lost. Probably it was a unison of several voices, of which all sung together the same melody, each according to his strength and skill; without musical counterpoint, or those different parts and combinations which constitute harmony in our music. Probably, also, the voices were generally accompanied by instrumental music. If we may draw any conclusions in favor of their music from its effects, its magnificence, its majesty, and the lofty sentiments contained in their songs, we must allow it great excellence. It is supposed that the temple musicians were sometimes divided into two or more separate choirs, which, with a general chorus, sung in turn responsive to each other, each a small portion of the Psalm. The structure of the Hebrew Psalms is eminently adapted to this mode of singing, and very delightful and solemn effects might thus be produced. Compare Psalm 24:10,10,10 .
Numerous musical instruments are mentioned in Scripture, but it has been found impossible to affix heir names with certainty to specific instruments now in use. By a comparison, however, of the instruments probably held in common by the Jews with the Greeks, Romans, and Egyptians, a degree of probability as to most of them has been secured. They were of three kinds:
A. Stringed instruments:
1. KINNOR, "the harp," Genesis 4:21 . Frequently mentioned in Scripture, and probably a kind of lyre.
2. NEBEL, "the psaltery," 1 Samuel 10:5 . It appears to have been the name of various large instruments of the harp kind.
3. ASOR, signifying ten-stringed. In Psalm 92:4 , it apparently denotes an instrument distinct from the NEBEL; but elsewhere it seems to be simply a description of the NEBEL as ten-stringed. See Psalm 33:2 144:9 .
4. Psalm 8:1 81:1 84:1 . From the name, it is supposed that David brought it from Gath. Others conclude that it is a general name for a string instrument.
5. MINNIM, strings, Psalm 150:4 . Probably another kind of stringed instrument.
6. SABECA, "sackbut," Daniel 3:5,7,10,15 . A kind of lyre.
7. PESANTERIN, "psaltery," occurs Daniel 3:7 , and is supposed to represent the NEBEL.
8. MACHALATH. Found in the titles of Psalm 53:1 88:1 ; supposed to be a lute or guitar.
B. Wind instruments:
9. KEREN, "horn," Joshua 6:5 . Cornet.
10. SHOPHAR, "trumpet," Numbers 10:10 . Used synonymously with KEREN.
11. CHATZOZERAH, the straight trumpet, Psalm 98:6 .
12. JOBEL, or KEREN JOBEL, horn of jubilee, or signal trumpet, Joshua 6:4 . Probably the same with 9,10.
13. CHAIL, "pipe" or "flute." The word means bored through, 1 Samuel 10:5 .
14. MISHROKITHA, Daniel 3:5 , etc. Probably the Chaldean name for the flute with two reeds.
15. UGAB, "organ" in our version Genesis 4:21 . It means a double or manifold pipe, and hence the shepherd's pipe; probably the same as the syrinx or Pan's pipe; or perhaps resembling the bagpipe.
C. Instruments which gave out sound on being struck:
17. TOPH, Genesis 31:27 , the tambourine and all instruments of the drum kind.
18. PHAAMON, "bells," Exodus 28:33 . Attached to the hem of the high priest's garment.
19. TZELITZELIM, "cymbals," Psalm 150:5 . A word frequently occurring. There were probably two kinds, hand-cymbals.
20. SHALISHIM, 1 Samuel 18:6 . In our version, "instruments of music." "Three-stringed instruments." Most writers identify it with the triangle.
21. MENAANEIM, "cymbals," 2 Samuel 6:5 . Probably the sistrum. The Hebrew word means to shake. The sistrum was generally about sixteen or eighteen inches long, occasionally inlaid with silver, and being held upright, was shaken, the rings moving to and fro on the bars.
Further particulars concerning some of these may be found under the names they severally bear in our English Bible.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Music, Church
(See HYMNS; GREGORIAN MUSIC, PLAIN SONG, andEVEN SONG, also INTONE.) Recognizing the fact that music alwayscharacterized the worship of God's Church both under the OldDispensation and under the New, the essential thing is the characterof the music in our churches to-day and the mode of rendering it.The organist, upon whom so much depends, should be a competentmusician, with a good knowledge of the music of the church, andthe music that he uses should be strictly sacred music. The choirshould consist of the best voices and most cultivated singersavailable. They should be trained with care, not only in the musicthey are to sing, but also in the Church service. The late BishopThorold remarked on this subject, "We are all coming to feel thatChurch Music is a great help to worship. . . .But I also feel thatif members of the choir accept from God and the minister theprivilege of taking part in the services, the one thing theyowe to Almighty God, to the congregation and to themselves, isREVERENCE. I know choirs where their singing is almost a means ofgrace; it is done so beautifully, so reverently and with so muchcare that it lifts up the whole service to a higher level. The onesecret of all good and acceptable rendering of the Church's musicis reverence."
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Music
1: συμφωνία (Strong's #4858 — Noun Feminine — sumphonia — soom-fo-nee'-ah ) lit., "a sounding together" (Eng., "symphony"), occurs in Luke 15:25 . In the Sept., Daniel 3:5,7,10,15 , for Aramaic sumponya (not in ver. 7), itself a loan word from the Greek; translated "dulcimer" (RV, marg., "bagpipe").
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Music (2)
MUSIC.—The Jews cultivated music from the earliest times, perhaps the more because sculpture and painting were practically forbidden (Exodus 20:4). It gave expression to all their emotions, and found a place in all the chief events of public and private life (cf. OT, passim).
1. References in the Gospels are few and indirect, (a) Song: Matthew 26:30 ||, Luke 15:25 (?) seem to be the only instances. (b) Instruments: Matthew 9:23; Matthew 11:17 || pipe (wh. see) or flute (see Flute-players); Matthew 24:31 trumpet (wh. see), probably the curved trumpet as in Exodus 19:16. In Daniel 3:5; Daniel 3:15 (LXX Septuagint ) συμφωνία is usually taken to mean a bagpipe; but such a meaning in Luke 15:25 is unlikely. It is in the OT that the various national instruments appear, of which the following are the principal types:—(1) Stringed: lyre (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘harp’), harp (Authorized and Revised Versions variously ‘psaltery,’ ‘viol,’ ‘lute’); (2) wind: pipe, of wood; curved trumpet, of horn or (in later times) of metal; straight trumpet, of silver; (3) percussion: hand-drum (Authorized and Revised Versions ‘tabret,’ ‘timbrel’) of skin; cymbals (Authorized and Revised Versions once [1] ‘bells’) of brass, used, especially the precentor as it appears from 1 Chronicles 16:5, no doubt for rhythmical purposes. Several others are mentioned, but some are foreign, and the nature of the rest is unknown.
2. The general character of Jewish music in the time of Christ is wholly a matter of inference. There were no theoretical writers, as among the Greeks; of their instruments sculpture portrays the silver trumpet alone; and, notation not having been invented, specimens of their music contemporaneously committed to writing do not exist. Yet within definable limits inference amounts to certainty, (a) As to rhythmical structure, all ancient music was of the free form, in contrast to the measured form of modern music: ‘time,’ in our sense, was then unknown. (b) The variety and combination of instruments employed, together with the musical arrangements generally (e.g. 1 Chronicles 15:16-22), imply at least some definite system whereby the intervals of melodic progression were regulated. The existence of scales or modes, of some sort, cannot therefore be questioned, (c) They seem to have been in accord with those in use at Babylon (Psalms 137:1-3). Moreover, habitual contact with Greek influences in Alexandria and elsewhere probably produced (or at least goes to prove) an affinity with the Greek modes. (d) The ‘traditional melodies’ now used in Jewish synagogues are, in some cases, similar in kind to the music that we may infer to have existed in the time of Christ. Tradition might preserve melodies down to the invention of notation, much as it preserved the vowel-system down to the invention of ‘points.’ But the Jews themselves seem to have discontinued the Temple melodies after its destruction; so that the synagogue melodies, whatever their origin, would not be those of the Temple. It may be supposed that Jewish Christians imported some of their Temple melodies into the Christian Church. Perhaps it was they who introduced antiphonal singing: and even Greek liturgies are held to have been largely ‘affected by Mosaic rites’ (Swainson, Gr. Liturgies). It is therefore not impossible that a Jewish element still survives in some of the ancient ecclesiastical plainsong. But no one can say for certain that this is so, or identify any particular instance.
Literature.—Chappell, History of Music; Stainer, The Music of the Bible; Edersheim, The Temple, etc.; art. ‘Music’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ; Helmore, Plainsong, etc. The traditional Jewish melodies can be seen in E. [2] Pauer’s Hebrew Melodies (Augener), and in the collection of music for the synagogue edited by Cohen and Davis.
F. S. Ranken.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Music
See Praise, and articles on various Musical Instruments.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Gregorian Music
The Gregorian tones are certain chants of peculiarbeauty and solemnity handed down to us from remote antiquity. Theyare said to have been set forth in their present form by Gregorythe Great in the Sixth Century, from whom they are named. They arenumbered from one to eight, with a few added supplementary tonesof great dignity and beauty. Each tone has various endings. Wherethe Psalter is sung, the Gregorian chants are usually employed,being sung antiphonally, but the Glorias in full, that is by bothsides of the choir together.

Sentence search

Musical - ) Of or pertaining to Music; having the qualities of Music; or the power of producing Music; devoted to Music; melodious; harmonious; as, Musical proportion; a Musical voice; Musical instruments; a Musical sentence; Musical persons. ) A social entertainment of which Music is the leading feature; a Musical party. ) Music
Viol - Isaiah 5:12 Amos 6:5 , a stringed instrument of Music, resembling the psaltery. See Music
Cornet - A wind instrument of Music, of a curved form, 1 Chronicles 15:28 Daniel 3:5,7 . See Music
Cantata - (Italian: story set to Music) ...
Musical term originally used for a vocal composition in the 17th century when instrumental Music was coming into use. It is now applied almost exclusively to choral Music in general. The church Music of Giacomo Carissimi (1604-1674) is an excellent example of the earlier type of cantata
Vocal - Vocal Music, Music made by the voice, in distinction from instrumental Music hence, Music or tunes set to words, to be performed by the human voice
Philharmonic - ) Loving harmony or Music. ) One who loves harmony or Music;...
Tuneless - ) Not expressed in Music or poetry; unsung. ) Not employed in making Music; as, tuneless harps. ) Without tune; inharmonious; unmusical
Musician - A person skilled in the science of Music, or one that sings or performs on instruments of Music according to the rules of the art
Bravura - ) A florid, brilliant style of Music, written for effect, to show the range and flexibility of a singer's voice, or the technical force and skill of a performer; virtuoso Music
Music, Church - (See HYMNS; GREGORIAN Music, PLAIN SONG, andEVEN SONG, also INTONE. ) Recognizing the fact that Music alwayscharacterized the worship of God's Church both under the OldDispensation and under the New, the essential thing is the characterof the Music in our churches to-day and the mode of rendering it. The organist, upon whom so much depends, should be a competentmusician, with a good knowledge of the Music of the church, andthe Music that he uses should be strictly sacred Music. They should be trained with care, not only in the Musicthey are to sing, but also in the Church service. The late BishopThorold remarked on this subject, "We are all coming to feel thatChurch Music is a great help to worship. The onesecret of all good and acceptable rendering of the Church's Musicis reverence
Musical - Belonging to Music as Musical proportion a Musical instrument. Producing Music or agreeable sounds as a Musical voice. Melodious harmonious pleasing to the ear as Musical sounds or numbers
Chant, Gregorian - Pius X, by his "Motu Proprio" of November 22, 1903, ordered the universal restoration of the authentic Gregorian is the sole chant of the Roman Church, describing it as the supreme type of sacred, Music (which is one and the same as liturgical Music) because it contains in the highest degree the qualities characteristic of sacred Music: true art, and holiness. Such is the relation between the liturgy of the Church and the Music it employs, as laid down by the papal code. The now flourishing Pius X Institute of Liturgical Music was established in New York City for the purpose of working out systematically the reform in church Music thus decreed
Gregorian Chant - Pius X, by his "Motu Proprio" of November 22, 1903, ordered the universal restoration of the authentic Gregorian is the sole chant of the Roman Church, describing it as the supreme type of sacred, Music (which is one and the same as liturgical Music) because it contains in the highest degree the qualities characteristic of sacred Music: true art, and holiness. Such is the relation between the liturgy of the Church and the Music it employs, as laid down by the papal code. The now flourishing Pius X Institute of Liturgical Music was established in New York City for the purpose of working out systematically the reform in church Music thus decreed
Instruments - See Music...
Timbrels - See Music
Psaltery - See Music
Sackbut - See Music
Singing (2) - —See Music
Bagpipe - See Music
Singing, Singers - See Hymns; Levites ; Music
Cymbal - See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Flute - See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Harp - See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Reed Pipe - See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Chant - See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Psaltery - See HARP, and Music
Pipe - See Music, Instruments, and Dancing
Trumpet - See Music, Instruments, Dancing ; Shophar
Tambourine - See Music, Instruments, Dancing ; Tabret
Philomusical - ) Loving Music
Cliff - CLIFF, in Music
Flute - A soft, sweet-toned wind instrument of Music. See Music , PIPE
Castanet - See Music and Musical Instruments
Trumpet - See Music, 4 (2) ( e )
Cornet - See Music and Musical Instruments
Cymbal - See Music and Musical Instruments
Flute - See Music and Musical Instruments
Harp - See Music and Musical Instruments
Psaltery - See Music, etc
Sackbut - See Music, etc
Viol - See Music, etc
Burletta - ) A comic operetta; a Music farce
Music - Jubal was the inventor of Musical instruments (Genesis 4:21 ). The Hebrews were much given to the cultivation of Music. After the Deluge, the first mention of Music is in the account of Laban's interview with Jacob (Genesis 31:27 ). But the period of Samuel, David, and Solomon was the golden age of Hebrew Music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the first time systematically cultivated. The temple, however, was the great school of Music. ...
In private life also Music seems to have held an important place among the Hebrews (Ecclesiastes 2:8 ; Amos 6:4-6 ; Isaiah 5:11,12 ; 24:8,9 ; Psalm 137 ; Jeremiah 48:33 ; Luke 15:25 )
High Celebration - A term commonly employed to describe the solemnmidday service of the Holy Eucharist with the full adjuncts ofritual and Music. The Music is often of an elaboratecharacter and the ceremonial more imposing
Dirge - See Music; Psalms
Organ - See Music, etc
Pipe - See Music, etc
Sackbut, - If this Music instrument be the same as the Greek and Latin sabbeca , the English translation is entirely wrong. The sackbut was a wind instrument [1]; the sambuca was a triangular instrument, with strings, and played with the hand
Timbrel - See Tabret, and Music, etc
Lute - See Music and Musical Instruments, 4 (1) ( b )
Lyre - See Music and Musical Instruments, 4 (1) ( a )
Drumbeat - ) The sound of a beaten drum; drum Music
Euterpean - ) Of or pertaining to Euterpe or to Music
Dulcimer - This term, which denotes a stringed instrument (? the mediæval ‘psaltery’; see Music, § 4 ( 1 ) ( b )), is given incorrectly by EV Neginah - The construct form; translated therefore "upon the instrumental Music of David. " As Habakkuk 3:19 "to the chief singer on my stringed instruments"; also Amos 6:5, "invent instruments of Music like David. " NEGINOTH (plural), the general name for all stringed instruments (1 Samuel 18:6; 1 Samuel 18:10; 1 Samuel 19:9; 1 Samuel 16:16-18; 1 Samuel 16:23; Psalms 33:2; Psalms 92:3; Psalms 68:25; Psalms 150:4), played with the hand or a plectrum or quill; from nigeen , "performed Music. ...
But Delitzsch: "Neginah denotes not a particular stringed instrument, but the Music on such instruments (often a taunting song in Hebrew, Psalms 69:12; Job 30:9); Neginoth is the Music formed by numerous notes running into one another, not various instruments. He had a stringed instrument of his own ("my") of a form adapted to accompany his subject; or rather (Hengstenberg) the "my" is Israel's sacred national temple Music
Cithern - See Music
Fipple - ) A stopper, as in a wind instrument of Music
Accompanist - ) The performer in Music who takes the accompanying part
Church Modes - The modes or scales used in ancient church Music
Sightsman - ) One who reads or performs Music readily at first sight
Orchestrion - ) A large Music box imitating a variety of orchestral instruments
Orlo - ) A wind instrument of Music in use among the Spaniards
Maestro - ) A master in any art, especially in Music; a composer
Alamire - ) The lowest note but one in Guido Aretino's scale of Music
Telharmonium - ) An instrument for producing Music (Tel*har"mo*ny [1]), at a distant point or points by means of alternating currents of electricity controlled by an operator who plays on a keyboard. The Music is produced by a receiving instrument similar or analogous to the telephone, but not held to the ear
Dulcimer - Daniel 3:5,10 , an instrument of Music, which the rabbins describe as a sort of bagpipe, composed of two pipes connected with a leathern sack, and of a harsh, screaming sound. See Music
Cornet - KJV translation for several different kinds of Musical instruments. See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Timbrel - See Tabret ; Music, Instruments, and Dancing
Colorature - ) Vocal Music colored, as it were, by florid ornaments, runs, or rapid passages
Choregraphy - ) The art of representing dancing by signs, as Music is represented by notes
Serenate - ) A piece of vocal Music, especially one on an amoreus subject; a serenade
Telelectric - ) Of or pertaining to transmission, as of Music, to a distance by electricity
Alessandro Scarlatti - He created the 18th century classical style in Music, influencing, outside of Italy, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. He was concerned chiefly with concerted instrumental Music and he is a brilliant exponent of classical lyric drama. In addition to some 60 operas, his chamber Music, of which over 500 cantatas, 10 masses, besides motets and oratorios, are extant, is of a high intellectual order. A member of the Arcadian Academy, he held also positions of choir master at Naples and Rome and as a teacher produced many celebrated Musicians
Scarlatti, Alessandro - He created the 18th century classical style in Music, influencing, outside of Italy, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. He was concerned chiefly with concerted instrumental Music and he is a brilliant exponent of classical lyric drama. In addition to some 60 operas, his chamber Music, of which over 500 cantatas, 10 masses, besides motets and oratorios, are extant, is of a high intellectual order. A member of the Arcadian Academy, he held also positions of choir master at Naples and Rome and as a teacher produced many celebrated Musicians
Chant - Is used for the vocal Music of churches. Chant Gregorian, introduced by pope Gregory the Great, who established schools of chanters, and corrected the church Music
Serenade - ) Music sung or performed in the open air at nights; - usually applied to Musical entertainments given in the open air at night, especially by gentlemen, in a spirit of gallantry, under the windows of ladies. ) A piece of Music suitable to be performed at such times
Music -
The most ancient Music. --The inventor of Musical instruments, like the first poet and the first forger of metals, was a Cainite. The first mentioned of Music in the times after the deluge is in the narrative of Laban's interview with Jacob, (Genesis 32:27 ) so that, whatever way it was preserved, the practice of Music existed in the upland country of Syria, and of the three possible kinds of Musical instruments two were known and employed to accompany the song. The song of Deborah and Barak is cast in a distinctly metrical form, and was probably intended to be sung with a Musical accompaniment as one of the people's songs. " (1 Samuel 18:6,7 ) Up to this time we meet with nothing like a systematic cultivation of Music among the Hebrews, but the establishment of the schools of the prophets appears to have supplied this want. Whatever the students of these schools may have been taught, Music was an essential part of their practice. Professional Musicians soon became attached to the court. ...
The golden age of Hebrew Music . (1 Kings 4:32 ) But the temple was the great school of Music, and it was consecrated to its highest service in the worship of Jehovah. Before, however the elaborate arrangements had been made by David for the temple choir, there must have been a considerable body of Musicians throughout the country. (2 Samuel 6:5 ) (David chose 4000 Musicians from the 38,000 Levies in his reign, or one in ten of the whole tribe. Of these Musicians 288 were specially trained and skillful. (1 Chronicles 26:6,7 ) The whole number was divided into 24 courses, each of which would thus consist of a full band of 154 Musicians, presided over by a body of 12 specially-trained leaders, under one of the twenty-four sons of Asaph, Heman or Jeduthun as conductor. (1 Chronicles 13:8 ; 25:5,6 ) These great choirs answered one to another in responsive singing; thus the temple Music most have been grand and inspiring beyond anything known before that time. ...
Character of Hebrew Music . --As in all Oriental nations, the Music of the Hebrews was melody rather than harmony, which latter was then unknown. "The beauty of the Music consisted altogether in the melody;" but this, with so many instruments and voices, was so charming that "the whole of antiquity is full of the praises of this Music. ) ...
Uses of Music . --In the private as well as in the religions life of the Hebrews Music held a prominent place. The kings had their court Musicians, ( 2 Chronicles 35:25 ; Ecclesiastes 2:8 ) and in the luxurious times of the later monarchy the effeminate gallants of Israel amused themselves with devising Musical instruments while their nation was perishing ("as Nero fiddled while Rome was burning"). But Music was also the legitimate expression of mirth and gladness The bridal processions as they passed through the streets were accompanied with Music and song. (Jeremiah 7:34 ) The Music of the banquets was accompanied with song and dancing. The grape-gatherers sang at their work, and the women sang as they toiled at the mill, and on every occasion the land of the Hebrews during their national prosperity was a land of Music and melody
Fairylike - ) Resembling a fairy, or what is made or done be fairies; as, fairylike Music
Counter Tenor - One of the middle parts in Music, between the tenor and the treble; high tenor
Saraswati - ) The sakti or wife of Brahma; the Hindoo goddess of learning, Music, and poetry
Precentor - The name given to the choirmaster; one who is directorof the Music in a choir
Alamoth - A Musical term, indicating probably Music for female voices, Psalm 46:1 ; 1 Chronicles 15:20
Dirge - ) A piece of Music of a mournful character, to accompany funeral rites; a funeral hymn
Alop - ) A kind of lively dance, in 2-4 time; also, the Music to the dance
Orchestration - ) The arrangement of Music for an orchestra; orchestral treatment of a composition; - called also instrumentation
Quadrivium - ) The four "liberal arts," arithmetic, Music, geometry, and astronomy; - so called by the schoolmen
Psaltery - ) A stringed instrument of Music used by the Hebrews, the form of which is not known
Althorn - ) An instrument of the saxhorn family, used exclusively in military Music, often replacing the French horn
Dulcimer - An instrument of Music played by striking brass wires with little sticks
Conservatoire - Music and the arts
Timbrel - (See Music
Anastasimatarion - A Greek Church book, containing the text with Music of the various compositions sung during the Sunday Offices
ju'Bal - (music ), a son of Lamech by Adah, and the inventor of the "harp and organ
Opera - ) A drama, either tragic or comic, of which Music forms an essential part; a drama wholly or mostly sung, consisting of recitative, arials, choruses, duets, trios, etc. ) The score of a Musical drama, either written or in print; a play set to Music
Quaver - A shake or rapid vibration of the voice, or a shake on an instrument of Music. A note and measure of time in Music, equal to half a crotchet or the eighth of a semibreve
Two-Step - ) A kind of round dance in march or polka time; also, a piece of Music for this dance
Pentachord - ) An ancient instrument of Music with five strings
Euterpe - ...
(2):...
The Muse who presided over Music
Maestoso - ) Majestic or majestically; - a direction to perform a passage or piece of Music in a dignified manner
Melodeon - ) A Music hall
Organ - , meaning a wind instrument of Music, like a flute or clarionet
Figured - In Music, free and florid
Kussier - ) A Turkish instrument of Music, with a hollow body covered with skin, over which five strings are stretched
Musicomania - ) A kind of monomania in which the passion for Music becomes so strong as to derange the intellectual faculties
Musician - ) One skilled in the art or science of Music; esp. , a skilled singer, or performer on a Musical instrument
Libretto - ) A book containing the words of an opera or extended piece of Music
Chant, Plain - Church Music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of polyphony, the idiomatic and most appropriate accompaniment of the liturgy
Chorister - ) One who leads a choir in church Music
Corybant - The rites of the Corybants were accompanied by wild Music, dancing, etc
Quintette - ) A composition for five voices or instruments; also, the set of five persons who sing or play five-part Music
Shawm - ) A wind instrument of Music, formerly in use, supposed to have resembled either the clarinet or the hautboy in form
Harmonicon - ) A small, flat, wind instrument of Music, in which the notes are produced by the vibration of free metallic reeds
Jubal - Music, son of Lamech and Adah, and a descendant of Cain
Montreal, University of - Connected with the University are schools of modern teaching, church Music, drawing, domestic science, public hygiene, and pedagogy, and a conservatory of Music
Tabret - Tambourine Music often accompanied festive occasions of drinking and merrymaking (Isaiah 5:12 ; Isaiah 24:8 ; Isaiah 30:32 ; Jeremiah 31:4 ). ...
Often women were the Musicians (1 Samuel 18:6 ; 2 Samuel 6:5 ; Psalm 68:25 ). See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Music Drama - , the Music being determined throughout by dramatic appropriateness; Musical drama of this character, in general. It involves the use of a kind of melodious declamation, the development of leitmotif, great orchestral elaboration, and a fusion of poetry, Music, action, and scene into an organic whole
University of Montreal - Connected with the University are schools of modern teaching, church Music, drawing, domestic science, public hygiene, and pedagogy, and a conservatory of Music
Music (2) - MUSIC. —The Jews cultivated Music from the earliest times, perhaps the more because sculpture and painting were practically forbidden (Exodus 20:4). The general character of Jewish Music in the time of Christ is wholly a matter of inference. There were no theoretical writers, as among the Greeks; of their instruments sculpture portrays the silver trumpet alone; and, notation not having been invented, specimens of their Music contemporaneously committed to writing do not exist. Yet within definable limits inference amounts to certainty, (a) As to rhythmical structure, all ancient Music was of the free form, in contrast to the measured form of modern Music: ‘time,’ in our sense, was then unknown. (b) The variety and combination of instruments employed, together with the Musical arrangements generally (e. (d) The ‘traditional melodies’ now used in Jewish synagogues are, in some cases, similar in kind to the Music that we may infer to have existed in the time of Christ. —Chappell, History of Music; Stainer, The Music of the Bible; Edersheim, The Temple, etc. ‘Music’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible ; Helmore, Plainsong, etc. ]'>[2] Pauer’s Hebrew Melodies (Augener), and in the collection of Music for the synagogue edited by Cohen and Davis
Bis - ) Twice; - a word showing that something is, or is to be, repeated; as a passage of Music, or an item in accounts
Bugle - ” See Music; Instruments; Dancing
Pricksong - ) Music written, or noted, with dots or points; - so called from the points or dots with which it is noted down
Melodiograph - ) A contrivance for preserving a record of Music, by recording the action of the keys of a Musical instrument when played upon
Bis - ) Twice; - a word showing that something is, or is to be, repeated; as a passage of Music, or an item in accounts
Sacrist - ) A sacristan; also, a person retained in a cathedral to copy out Music for the choir, and take care of the books
Mount Saint Mary's College, Los Angeles - College of arts and sciences, Music
Barcarolle - ) A piece of Music composed in imitation of such a song
Charming - Music is but an elegant and charming species of elocution
Counterpoint - ) Music in parts; part writing; harmony; polyphonic Music
Fingering - ) The manner of using the fingers in playing or striking the keys of an instrument of Music; movement or management of the fingers in playing on a Musical instrument, in typewriting, etc. ) The marking of the notes of a piece of Music to guide or regulate the action or use of the fingers
Sackbut - This was an instrument of Music known in the court of the Chaldeans; but we do not find mention of it elsewhere. See Music...
Daughter - (Numbers 21:25 ) "Daughters of Music," i. singing birds, (Ecclesiastes 12:4 ) refers to the power of making and enjoying Music
Ockenheim, Jean d' - Founder of the second Netherland school of Music, born probably Termonde, Flanders, c. In the annals of Music he is considered an excellent contrapuntist and originator of the art which, through his pupils, was diversified among schools of Music since his time; his innovation of allowing free voice entry on any interval was effective in developing the a capella style
Okeghem, Jean d' - Founder of the second Netherland school of Music, born probably Termonde, Flanders, c. In the annals of Music he is considered an excellent contrapuntist and originator of the art which, through his pupils, was diversified among schools of Music since his time; his innovation of allowing free voice entry on any interval was effective in developing the a capella style
Jean d'Ockenheim - Founder of the second Netherland school of Music, born probably Termonde, Flanders, c. In the annals of Music he is considered an excellent contrapuntist and originator of the art which, through his pupils, was diversified among schools of Music since his time; his innovation of allowing free voice entry on any interval was effective in developing the a capella style
Jean d'Okeghem - Founder of the second Netherland school of Music, born probably Termonde, Flanders, c. In the annals of Music he is considered an excellent contrapuntist and originator of the art which, through his pupils, was diversified among schools of Music since his time; his innovation of allowing free voice entry on any interval was effective in developing the a capella style
de Paul University - Founded, 1898; conducted by the Vincentian Fathers; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, Music, law, shorthand; graduate, special, and correspondence schools; summer school
University, de Paul - Founded, 1898; conducted by the Vincentian Fathers; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, Music, law, shorthand; graduate, special, and correspondence schools; summer school
Neginah - In the title of Psalm 61 , denotes the Music of stringed instruments (1 Samuel 16:16 ; Isaiah 38:20 )
Metronome - It is set in motion by clockwork, and serves to measure time in Music
Mazurka - ) A Polish dance, or the Music which accompanies it, usually in 3-4 or 3-8 measure, with a strong accent on the second beat
Dominant - In Music, the dominant or sensible chord is that which is practiced on the dominant of the tone, and which introduces a perfect cadence. In Music, of the three notes essential to the tone, the dominant is that which is a fifth from the tonic
Gittith - It probably denotes either a Musical instrument or a kind of Music derived from Gath, where David sojourned for a time during the persecution of Saul, 1 Samuel 27:1-7 . It is prefixed to Psalm 8:1-9 ; 81:1 - 16 ; 84:1-12 , all of which requires an animated strain of Music
Minstrel - Such Music was a usual accompaniment of funerals
Sestet - ) A piece of Music composed for six voices or six instruments; a sextet; - called also sestuor
Fife - ) A small shrill pipe, resembling the piccolo flute, used chiefly to accompany the drum in military Music
Bolero - ) A Spanish dance, or the lively Music which accompanies it
Varsovienne - ) Music for such a dance or having its slow triple time characteristic strong accent beginning every second measure
Timbrel - An instrument of Music, early and often mentioned in Scripture, Genesis 31:27 Job 21:12 . The timbrel is used as an accompaniment to lively Music, being shaken and beaten with the knuckles in time. The daughter of Jephthah came to meet her father with timbrels and other Musical instruments, Judges 11:34 . See Music
Our Lady of the Lake College - Preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, education, sociology; home economics, Music; graduate and special courses; summer school
Trenchmore - Also, Music in triple time appropriate to the dance
Siciliano - ) A Sicilian dance, resembling the pastorale, set to a rather slow and graceful melody in 12-8 or 6-8 measure; also, the Music to the dance
Acciaccatura - ) A short grace note, one semitone below the note to which it is prefixed; - used especially in organ Music
Krumhorn - ) A reed instrument of Music of the cornet kind, now obsolete (see Cornet, 1, a
Saint Mary's College, California - Consists of a preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, engineering, commerce, education, Music, law, medicine
Schottische - ) A Scotch round dance in 2-4 time, similar to the polka, only slower; also, the Music for such a dance; - not to be confounded with the Ecossaise
Proficiency - ) The quality of state of being proficient; advance in the acquisition of any art, science, or knowledge; progression in knowledge; improvement; adeptness; as, to acquire proficiency in Music
Manductor - ) A conductor; an officer in the ancient church who gave the signal for the choir to sing, and who beat time with the hand, and regulated the Music
Diazeutic - ) Disjoining two fourths; as, the diazeutic tone, which, like that from F to G in modern Music, lay between two fourths, and, being joined to either, made a fifth
Composer - Specifically, an author of a piece of Music
Lyre - ) A stringed instrument of Music; a kind of harp much used by the ancients, as an accompaniment to poetry
Saint Mary's College, Indiana - Consists of a preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, commerce, journalism, education, fine arts, Music
Mahol - ]'>[2] ‘dance’) amongst instruments of Music, so that the four wise men mentioned above may really be described as ‘sons of Music,’ in which case their wisdom may have consisted chiefly in their skill in the composition of hymns
Jeduthun - An unintelligible name having to do with the Music or the Musicians of the Temple. , it was the name of one of the three Musical guilds, and it appears in some passages to mask the name Ethan . But in our ignorance of Hebrew Music it is impossible to do more than guess what Jeduthun really meant
Rhythm - ) Movement in Musical time, with periodical recurrence of accent; the measured beat or pulse which marks the character and expression of the Music; symmetry of movement and accent. , producing an agreeable effect, as in Music poetry, the dance, or the like
Marygrove College - Detroit, Michigan, founded 1910; conducted by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, Music; normal school; summer school
Amateur - ) A person attached to a particular pursuit, study, or science as to Music or painting; esp
Canto - ) The highest vocal part; the air or melody in choral Music; anciently the tenor, now the soprano
Ninth - In Music, an interval containing an octave and a tone
Extravaganza - ) A composition, as in Music, or in the drama, designed to produce effect by its wild irregularity; esp. , a Musical caricature
Saint Francis College And Ecclesiastical Seminary - Comprises a preparatory school, colleges of arts and sciences, college of Music, and graduate, extension and summer schools
Sackbut - ...
A wind instrument of Music a kind of trumpet, so contrived that it can be lengthened or shortened according to the tone required
Catholic Sisters College of the Catholic Universit - Washington, DC, founded, 1911; conducted by the hierarchy of the United States; colleges of arts and sciences, education, Music; graduate, extension, correspondence and summer schools; professors, 48; students, 208; degrees conferred in 1929,59
Fourth - In Music, an interval composed of two tones and a semitone
Violoncello - ) A stringed instrument of Music; a bass viol of four strings, or a bass violin with long, large strings, giving sounds an octave lower than the viola, or tenor or alto violin
Contredanse - ) A piece of Music in the rhythm of such a dance
Entr'Acte - ) A dance, piece of Music, or interlude, performed between two acts of a drama
Uitar - ) A stringed instrument of Music resembling the lute or the violin, but larger, and having six strings, three of silk covered with silver wire, and three of catgut, - played upon with the fingers
Orpheus - He is reputed to have had power to entrance beasts and inanimate objects by the Music of his lyre
Music - Of the Music of the Old Testament Scripture it is no easy matter to form a right apprehension. That the Hebrews were fond of Music is readily admitted. (1 Samuel 16:14-23) And in like manner, we find other testimonies of the influence of Music. (See 1 Samuel 19:19-24)...
But, while all possible allowance is made to this view of the Music of the Hebrews, we cannot conceive that all that is said of Musical instruments in the Old Testament Scriptures means literally so to be received. The antiquity of Music, no doubt, gave birth, very early, to the invention. " (Genesis 4:21) Indeed, the very sound of the human voice is Musical, and must have given rise very early in the world to the invention
Hymns - Originallyall Music of the Christian Church was almost entirely vocal. For two centuries the Music of theChurch deteriorated. (See GREGORIAN Music. ) The connection of religion with Music is shown by the fact thatnearly every great revival of religion has been accompanied by agreat outburst of song. (See Music,also ORGANS
Daughter - "Daughters of Music," (Ecclesiastes 12:4): songs and instrumental performances sound low to the old (2 Samuel 19:35); otherwise the voice and ear, the organs which produce and enjoy Music
Asaph - Assembler, a celebrated Musician in David's time, and one of the leaders of the temple Music. See Music
Timbrel - The antiquity of this Musical instrument appears from the scriptural allusions to it (Genesis 31:27 ; Exodus 15:20 ; Judges 11:34 , etc. ) (See Music
Lee - ) Music; minstrelsy; entertainment
Lee - ) Music; minstrelsy; entertainment
Only - He is the only man for Music
Alamoth - , after the virgin manner; a soprano key in Music, like the voice of virgins
Psalmist - ) A clerk, precentor, singer, or leader of Music, in the church
Ridotto - ) A favorite Italian public entertainment, consisting of Music and dancing, - held generally on fast eves
Been - A fretted stringed instrument of Music of the guitar kind, having nineteen frets used in India
Waltz - ) A dance performed by two persons in circular figures with a whirling motion; also, a piece of Music composed in triple measure for this kind of dance
Maschil - Some interpreters think it means an instrument of Music; but it more probably signifies an instructive song
Labeo, Notker - Wrote treatises in German on Music and rhetoric
Jubal - Jubilee, Music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of Cain
Notker Labeo - Wrote treatises in German on Music and rhetoric
Marywood University - Scranton, Pennsylvania, conducted by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; colleges of arts and sciences, commerce, education, social service, home economics, fine arts, Music; graduate and extension courses; summer school
Adagio - ) A piece of Music in adagio time; a slow movement; as, an adagio of Haydn
Selah - This Hebrew Musical term, which occurs 73 times in the Psalms, and elsewhere only in Habakkuk 3:3; Habakkuk 3:9; Habakkuk 3:13, is supposed to be connected with the use of the temple Music
Neginoth - Habakkuk 3:19 , a general name for Hebrew stringed instruments, Psalm 4:1-8 6:1-10 54:1-55:23 76:1-12 , are addressed to the leader of the Music on that class of instruments
University, Marywood - Scranton, Pennsylvania, conducted by the Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; colleges of arts and sciences, commerce, education, social service, home economics, fine arts, Music; graduate and extension courses; summer school
Mount Saint Joseph on the Ohio - Preparatory school, colleges of arts and sciences, education, home economics, Music, extension courses, summer school
Mount Saint Joseph, College of - Preparatory school, colleges of arts and sciences, education, home economics, Music, extension courses, summer school
Quartette - ) The set of four person who perform a piece of Music in four parts
Sheminith - It means properly the eighth, and seems to have been not an instrument, but a part in Music, perhaps the lowest
Thirteenth - In Music, an interval forming the octave of the sixth, or sixth of the octave
Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da - Composer of sacred Music; born Palestrina, Italy, c. in liturgical Music were based on the Tridentine decrees, his great "Missa Papae Marcelli," 1565, being later presented by papal brief as a model. His works, all of which are sacred, excepting two volumes of madrigals, set a new standard for polyphonic Music; he has become inseparably associated with this school under the title Princeps Musicae, won by his work of twenty-nine motetti on the "Canticle of Canticles
Plain Song - The name given to the ancient Music with whichthe Church service was rendered. Thus Blunt in the AnnotatedPrayer-book, speaking of Church Music says, "In the remodeling ofour English services, the great aim was not to discard, but toutilize the ancient plain song, to adapt it to the translatedoffices, to restore it to something more of its primitive'plainness,' to rid it of its modern corruptions, its wearisomeornaments and flourishes so that the Priest's part, on the one hand,might be intelligible and distinct, not veiled in a dense cloudof unmeaning notes, and the people's part made so easy andstraightforward as to render their restored participation in thepublic worship of the Sanctuary at once practicable and pleasurable
Sackbut - (See Music
Enchant - ) To delight in a high degree; to charm; to enrapture; as, Music enchants the ear
Tarantism - It was supposed to be produced by the bite of the tarantula, and considered to be incapable of cure except by protracted dancing to appropriate Music
Courant - ) A piece of Music in triple time; also, a lively dance; a coranto
Allopade - ) A kind of dance; also, Music to the dance; a galop
Duquesne University - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, founded 1878; conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost; preparatory school; colleges of arts, sciences, education; schools of accounts, finance, and commerce, oratory, law, pharmacy, Music; graduate, special, pre-medical and pre-dental, extension, and summer schools
Apollo - He was the god of light and day (the "sun god"), of archery, prophecy, medicine, poetry, and Music, etc
Antiphonary - Liturgical book for use in the choir, containing Music and texts of all sung portions of the Roman Breviary
Lydian - ) Of or pertaining to Lydia, a country of Asia Minor, or to its inhabitants; hence, soft; effeminate; - said especially of one of the ancient Greek modes or keys, the Music in which was of a soft, pathetic, or voluptuous character
Monodical - ) Homophonic; - applied to Music in which the melody is confined to one part, instead of being shared by all the parts as in the style called polyphonic
Sisters of Saint Joseph -(Ogdensburg) - The congregation manages academies, grade and high schools, a conservatory of Music, an orphanage, and a hospital, in the Diocese of Ogdensburg
University, Duquesne - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, founded 1878; conducted by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost; preparatory school; colleges of arts, sciences, education; schools of accounts, finance, and commerce, oratory, law, pharmacy, Music; graduate, special, pre-medical and pre-dental, extension, and summer schools
Music - The ancient Hebrews had a great taste for Music, which they used in their religious services, in their public and private rejoicing, at their weddings and feasts, and even in their mourning. The book of Psalms comprises a wonderful variety of inspired pieces for Music, and is an inexhaustible treasure for the devout in all ages. ...
Music is perhaps the most ancient of the fine arts. David, who had great skill in Music, soothed the perturbed spirit of Saul by playing on the harp, 1 Samuel 16:16,23 ; and when he was himself established on the throneseeing that the Levites were not employed, as formerly, in carrying the boards, veils, and vessels of the tabernacle, its abode being fixed at Jerusalem-appointed a great part of them to sing and to play on instruments in the temple, 1 Chronicles 25:1-31 . David brought the ark to Jerusalem with triumphant and joyful Music, 1 Chronicles 13:8 15:16-28 ; and in the same manner Solomon was proclaimed king, 1 Kings 1:39-40 . The Old Testament prophets also sought the aid of Music in their services, 1 Samuel 10:5 2 Kings 3:15 . ...
Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun were chiefs of the Music of the tabernacle under David, and of the temple under Solomon. These twenty-four Levites, sons of the three great masters of the temple-music, were at the head of twenty-four bands of Musicians, which served in the temple by turns. As the whole business of their lives was to learn and to practice Music, it must be supposed that they understood it well, whether it were vocal or instrumental, 2 Chronicles 29:25 . ...
The kings also had their Music. Asaph was chief master of Music to David. In the temple, and in the ceremonies of religion, female Musicians were admitted as well as male; they generally were daughters of the Levites. ...
As to the nature of their Music, we can judge of it only by conjecture, because it has been long lost. Probably it was a unison of several voices, of which all sung together the same melody, each according to his strength and skill; without Musical counterpoint, or those different parts and combinations which constitute harmony in our Music. Probably, also, the voices were generally accompanied by instrumental Music. If we may draw any conclusions in favor of their Music from its effects, its magnificence, its majesty, and the lofty sentiments contained in their songs, we must allow it great excellence. It is supposed that the temple Musicians were sometimes divided into two or more separate choirs, which, with a general chorus, sung in turn responsive to each other, each a small portion of the Psalm. ...
Numerous Musical instruments are mentioned in Scripture, but it has been found impossible to affix heir names with certainty to specific instruments now in use. In our version, "instruments of Music
Singspiel - It was often comic, had modern characters, and patterned its Music on folk song with strictly subordinated accompaniment
Alto - In instrumental Music it now signifies the tenor
Colorless - ; as, colorless Music; a colorless style; definitions should be colorless
Organ - " (See Music
Tonality - ) The principle of key in Music; the character which a composition has by virtue of the key in which it is written, or through the family relationship of all its tones and chords to the keynote, or tonic, of the whole
Roman Processional - It prints in full the text of the hymns, litanies, and other prayers together with the Music which accompanies them
Cassiodorus - His work on the liberal arts includes a treatise on Music, particularly valuable for the study of Music
Asaph - An inspired seer, as well as a composer of Music (2 Chronicles 29:30; Nehemiah 12:46). "The sons of Asaph" were poets and Musical composers of the school founded by him; as Heman and Jeduthun also were heads of schools of sacred inspired Music
Schola Cantorum - A place for the teaching and practise of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded together for the purpose of rendering the Music in church. In monasteries at the present day the name schola cantorum is often applied to certain selected monks who chant the more elaborate portions of the liturgical Music
Higgaion - The Selah (a pause in the Music) follows to give time for meditation
Harpsichord - ) A harp-shaped instrument of Music set horizontally on legs, like the grand piano, with strings of wire, played by the fingers, by means of keys provided with quills, instead of hammers, for striking the strings
Player - ) One who plays on an instrument of Music
Minstrel - ) In the Middle Ages, one of an order of men who subsisted by the arts of poetry and Music, and sang verses to the accompaniment of a harp or other instrument; in modern times, a poet; a bard; a singer and harper; a Musician
Catchy - ) Apt or tending to catch the fancy or attention; catching; taking; as, catchy Music
Marquette University - Founded 1881; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, dentistry, business administration, applied science and engineering, journalism, hospital administration; schools of law, medicine, speech, Music, nursing; graduate, extension, special, and summer schools; athletic department; evening courses
University, Marquette - Founded 1881; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; colleges of arts and sciences, dentistry, business administration, applied science and engineering, journalism, hospital administration; schools of law, medicine, speech, Music, nursing; graduate, extension, special, and summer schools; athletic department; evening courses
Timbrel - An instrument of Music a kind of drum, tabor or tabret,which has been in use from the highest antiquity
Dance - ) The leaping, tripping, or measured stepping of one who dances; an amusement, in which the movements of the persons are regulated by art, in figures and in accord with Music. ) To move with measured steps, or to a Musical accompaniment; to go through, either alone or in company with others, with a regulated succession of movements, (commonly) to the sound of Music; to trip or leap rhythmically
Music - ) The written and printed notation of a Musical composition; the score. ) The science and the art of tones, or Musical sounds, i. ) A more or less Musical sound made by many of the lower animals. ) Love of Music; capacity of enjoying Music
Shiggaion - The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable Music; a dithyrambic ode
Fifth - In Music, an interval consisting of three tones and a semitone
Instrument - For Musical instruments see Music
Clef - A character in Music placed at the beginning of a stave, to determine the degree of elevation occupied by that stave in the general claviary or system, and to point out the names of all the notes which it contains in the line of that clef
Jew's-Harp - ) An instrument of Music, which, when placed between the teeth, gives, by means of a bent metal tongue struck by the finger, a sound which is modulated by the breath; - called also Jew's-trump
Motif - (Music), a motive
Thinking - ...
I heard a bird so sing, ...
Whose Music, to my thinking, pleas'd the king
Music, Ecclesiastical - Although Music was often employed among the Jews to enhance religious ceremonies, the primitive Christians were restrained in their religious manifestations, and it is only in the 4th century that we find mention of psalm-singing, by Tertullian. Antiphony had been adopted for the Mass in the 5th century; and in the 9th, two new forms of Mass Music were added, the Sequences and the Tropes, the famous "Dies Irae" being a product of this period. Efforts were made by the popes to restore the traditional chant, because its style, which permitted the words of the text to predominate, was more suitable to the Liturgy than the colorful and florid polyphonic Music. Palestrina (died 1594) endeavored successfully to fit the figured Music to ecclesiastical needs. This was followed by a new epoch inaugurated by Pope Pius X who, in 1904 by his Motu Proprio, ordered that only the traditional plain-chant and the purer and stricter forms of choral Music, sung by men and boys, were to be permitted in liturgical functions. Since then, a new Vatican edition has appeared and every effort is being made to revive this ancient chant which has grown up with the Liturgy itself and is an admirable combination of prayer and Music
Ecclesiastical Music - Although Music was often employed among the Jews to enhance religious ceremonies, the primitive Christians were restrained in their religious manifestations, and it is only in the 4th century that we find mention of psalm-singing, by Tertullian. Antiphony had been adopted for the Mass in the 5th century; and in the 9th, two new forms of Mass Music were added, the Sequences and the Tropes, the famous "Dies Irae" being a product of this period. Efforts were made by the popes to restore the traditional chant, because its style, which permitted the words of the text to predominate, was more suitable to the Liturgy than the colorful and florid polyphonic Music. Palestrina (died 1594) endeavored successfully to fit the figured Music to ecclesiastical needs. This was followed by a new epoch inaugurated by Pope Pius X who, in 1904 by his Motu Proprio, ordered that only the traditional plain-chant and the purer and stricter forms of choral Music, sung by men and boys, were to be permitted in liturgical functions. Since then, a new Vatican edition has appeared and every effort is being made to revive this ancient chant which has grown up with the Liturgy itself and is an admirable combination of prayer and Music
Proficient - ) One who has made considerable advances in any business, art, science, or branch of learning; an expert; an adept; as, proficient in a trade; a proficient in mathematics, Music, etc
La - ) A syllable applied to the sixth tone of the scale in Music in solmization
Gittith - A stringed instrument of Music
Canterbury - ) A stand with divisions in it for holding Music, loose papers, etc
Angelot - ) An instrument of Music, of the lute kind, now disused
Lute - See Music, Instruments, Dancing
Harmonium - ) A Musical instrument, resembling a small organ and especially designed for church Music, in which the tones are produced by forcing air by means of a bellows so as to cause the vibration of free metallic reeds
Zither - ) An instrument of Music used in Austria and Germany
Recitative - ) Of or pertaining to recitation; intended for Musical recitation or declamation; in the style or manner of recitative. ) A species of Musical recitation in which the words are delivered in a manner resembling that of ordinary declamation; also, a piece of Music intended for such recitation; - opposed to melisma
Tarantella - ) Music suited to such a dance
Laud - ) Music or singing in honor of any one
Jeduthun - A Levite, one of the directors of Music at the temple, 1 Chronicles 16:38-42
Aijeleth Shahar - Some, however, understand by the name some instrument of Music, or an allegorical allusion to the subject of the psalm
Choir - The term is also used to designatethe body of singers appointed to render the Music of the Churchservices
Enliven - ) To give spirit or vivacity to; to make sprightly, gay, or cheerful; to animate; as, mirth and good humor enliven a company; enlivening strains of Music
Heavenly - ) Pertaining to, resembling, or inhabiting heaven; celestial; not earthly; as, heavenly regions; heavenly Music
Authentic - (Greek: authentes, real author) ...
Terms applied to: ...
the Scriptures, because its books have been written by the persons whose names they bear, because they are genuine and trustworthy, officially acknowledged, and express faithfully all those things which belong to the substance of the Divine writings; ...
the document authenticating a relic; ...
four modes in Gregorian Music
Authenticity - (Greek: authentes, real author) ...
Terms applied to: ...
the Scriptures, because its books have been written by the persons whose names they bear, because they are genuine and trustworthy, officially acknowledged, and express faithfully all those things which belong to the substance of the Divine writings; ...
the document authenticating a relic; ...
four modes in Gregorian Music
Laud - Music or singing in honor of any one
Science - One of the seven liberal branches of knowledge, viz grammar, logic, rhetoric, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and Music. Music is an art as well as a science. The theory of Music is a science the practice of it an art
Contralto - ) Of or pertaining to a contralto, or to the part in Music called contralto; as, a contralto voice
Skimmington - ) A word employed in the phrase, To ride Skimmington; that is to ride on a horse with a woman, but behind her, facing backward, carrying a distaff, and accompanied by a procession of jeering neighbors making mock Music; a cavalcade in ridicule of a henpecked man
Chant - The cheerful birds do chant sweet Music
Leader - a performer who leads a band or choir in Music
Orlandus de Lassus - He finally settled in Munich as director of chamber-music, 1556-1567, and chapel master, 1560, to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. Ranking next to Palestrina among the composers of the 16th century, he is noted chiefiy for his church Music based on the diatonic Gregorian modes, but the character of his genius is universal for he traveled extensively and was versed in all forms. The total number of his works, published and in manuscript, is estimated at 2400, a prodoctivity unequaled in Musical history
Lassus, Orlandus de - He finally settled in Munich as director of chamber-music, 1556-1567, and chapel master, 1560, to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. Ranking next to Palestrina among the composers of the 16th century, he is noted chiefiy for his church Music based on the diatonic Gregorian modes, but the character of his genius is universal for he traveled extensively and was versed in all forms. The total number of his works, published and in manuscript, is estimated at 2400, a prodoctivity unequaled in Musical history
Lattre, Roland de - He finally settled in Munich as director of chamber-music, 1556-1567, and chapel master, 1560, to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. Ranking next to Palestrina among the composers of the 16th century, he is noted chiefiy for his church Music based on the diatonic Gregorian modes, but the character of his genius is universal for he traveled extensively and was versed in all forms. The total number of his works, published and in manuscript, is estimated at 2400, a prodoctivity unequaled in Musical history
Hymn - The term song must not be limited to songs actually set to Music and sung, but may be given to any religious lyrical poem capable of being sung and set to Music
Roland de Lattre - He finally settled in Munich as director of chamber-music, 1556-1567, and chapel master, 1560, to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria. Ranking next to Palestrina among the composers of the 16th century, he is noted chiefiy for his church Music based on the diatonic Gregorian modes, but the character of his genius is universal for he traveled extensively and was versed in all forms. The total number of his works, published and in manuscript, is estimated at 2400, a prodoctivity unequaled in Musical history
Play - ) To perform on an instrument of Music; as, to play on a flute. ) To perform Music upon; as, to play the flute or the organ. ) To perform, as a piece of Music, on an instrument; as, to play a waltz on the violin. ) To act or perform (a play); to represent in Music action; as, to play a comedy; also, to act in the character of; to represent by acting; to simulate; to behave like; as, to play King Lear; to play the woman. ) Performance on an instrument of Music
Odington, Walter - 1330,author of a treatise on the theory of Music, flourished in England. His most valued contribution, however, preserved in manuscript copy at Cambridge, is "De Speculatione Musices," written at an earlier period, in which is assembled practically all the 13th-century knowledge of Musical subjects
Jeshaiah - Priest who used Music to prophesy under David (1 Chronicles 25:3 )
Shophar - See Music
Univocal - ) Having unison of sound, as the octave in Music
Evesham, Walter of - 1330,author of a treatise on the theory of Music, flourished in England. His most valued contribution, however, preserved in manuscript copy at Cambridge, is "De Speculatione Musices," written at an earlier period, in which is assembled practically all the 13th-century knowledge of Musical subjects
Lituus - ) An instrument of martial Music; a kind of trumpet of a somewhat curved form and shrill note
Conservatory - Music
Thomas Burke - His first notable sermon was on "Church Music," preached in 1859, and thereafter his preaching attracted throngs
Walter Odington - 1330,author of a treatise on the theory of Music, flourished in England. His most valued contribution, however, preserved in manuscript copy at Cambridge, is "De Speculatione Musices," written at an earlier period, in which is assembled practically all the 13th-century knowledge of Musical subjects
Walter of Evesham - 1330,author of a treatise on the theory of Music, flourished in England. His most valued contribution, however, preserved in manuscript copy at Cambridge, is "De Speculatione Musices," written at an earlier period, in which is assembled practically all the 13th-century knowledge of Musical subjects
Setter - One that adapts words to Music in composition
Tenth - In Music, the octave of the third an interval comprehending nine conjoint degrees, or ten sounds, diatonically divided
Franz Haydn - " He composed masses and oratorios, notably the "Creation," his masterpiece, and other sacred Music. Chamber-music he also enriched by his contributions in quartet form and he wrote twenty operatic scores
Carlovingian Schools - " In 782Alcuin was placed at the head of the court school of military tactics and good manners, established under the Merovingian kings, and taught there grammar, arithmetic, astronomy, and Music. The course of studies, in the town and village schools, comprised Christian doctrine, plain-song, and grammar; in the monastic and cathedral schools, grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, geometry, arithmetic, Music, and astronomy
Music - Music. The practice of Music was not restricted to any one class of persons. The sons of Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun were set apart by David for the Musical service. Each of the courses or classes had 154 Musicians and three leaders, and all were under the general direction of Asaph and his brethren. Each course served for a week, but upon the festivals all were required to be present, or four thousand Musicians
Man: Natural State of - A Musical amateur of eminence, who had often observed Mr. Cadogan's inattention to his performances, said to him one day, 'Come, I am determined to make you feel the power of Music, pay particular attention to this piece. Cadogan, 'since I too have had my surprise; I have from the pulpit set before you the most striking and affecting truths; I have found notes that might have awaked the dead; I have said, Surely he will feel now; but you never seemed charmed with my Music, though infinitely more interesting than yours
Asaph - a celebrated Musician in the time of David, was the son of Barachias of the tribe of Levi. Asaph, and also his descendants, presided over the Musical band in the service of the temple. Several of the psalms, as the fiftieth, the seventy-third to the eighty-third, have the name of Asaph prefixed; but it is not certain whether the words or the Music were composed by him. Perhaps they were written or set to Music by his descendants, who bore his name, or by some of that class of Musicians of which the family of Asaph was the head, 1 Chronicles 6:39 ; 2 Chronicles 29:30 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15 ; Nehemiah 12:46
Haydn, Franz Joseph - " He composed masses and oratorios, notably the "Creation," his masterpiece, and other sacred Music. Chamber-music he also enriched by his contributions in quartet form and he wrote twenty operatic scores
Crescendo - ) With a constantly increasing volume of voice; with gradually increasing strength and fullness of tone; - a direction for the performance of Music, indicated by the mark, or by writing the word on the score
John Shepherd - The Music School, Oxford, has preserved in manuscripts many of his religious compositions
Laval University - Schools of surveying and forestry, agriculture, chemistry, pharmacy, nursing, and Music
Neum - Term in medieval Music theory denoting a kind of melody, or a notational sign
Ethan - ...
...
A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the leaders of the temple Music (1 Chronicles 6:44 ; 15:17,19 )
Potpourri - ) A piece of Music made up of different airs strung together; a medley
Maschil - Some have thought, therefore, that it hath reference to instruct in the Music of the Psalm. ...
See Musician
Oratorio - ) A more or less dramatic text or poem, founded on some Scripture nerrative, or great divine event, elaborately set to Music, in recitative, arias, grand choruses, etc
Martial - ) Of, pertaining to, or suited for, war; military; as, martial Music; a martial appearance
Jed'Uthun - ( 1 Chronicles 15:17,19 ) with 1 Chronicles 16:41,42 ; 25:1,3,6 ; 2 Chronicles 35:15 His office was generally to preside over the Music of the temple service, Jeduthun's name stands at the head of the 39th, 62d and 77th Psalms, indicating probably that they were to be sung by his choir
Organ - See Music
University, Laval - Schools of surveying and forestry, agriculture, chemistry, pharmacy, nursing, and Music
Shepherd, John - The Music School, Oxford, has preserved in manuscripts many of his religious compositions
Tierce - In Music, a third
Jubal - The connection herein is implied between nomadic life and Music, which can be practiced in the leisure afforded by such a life
Singing - " ...
We leave those who are wilfully dumb in God's house to consider this pointed remark! Much has been said as to the use of instrumental Music in the house of God. On the one side it is observed, that we ought not to object to it, because it assists devotion; that it was used in the worship of God under the Old Testament; and that the worship of heaven is represented by a delightful union of vocal and instrumental Music. But on the other side, it is remarked, that nothing should be done in or about God's worship without example or precept from the New Testament; that, instead of aiding devotion, it often tends to draw off the mind from the right object; that it does not accord with the simplicity of Christian worship; that the practice of those who lived under the ceremonial dispensation can be no rule for us; that not one text in the New Testament requires or authorises it by precept or example, by express words or fair inference; and that the representation of the Musical harmony in heaven is merely figurative language, denoting the happiness of the saints. Horne's Sermons on Church Music; No. 403; Williams's Historical Essay on Church Music, prefixed to Psalmodia Evangelica, vol. 56; Bedford's Temple Music; Lyra Evangelica; Practical Discourses on Singing in the Worship of God, preached at the Friday Evening Lectures in Eastcheap, 1708; Dodwell's Treatise on the Lawfulness of Instrumental Music in Holy Duties
Mount Saint Vincent, College of - Includes colleges of arts and sciences, journalism, education, social service, Music; graduate and extension courses
Carol - ) Joyful Music, as of a song
Quadrille - ) The appropriate Music for a quadrille
Harp - When Israel was captive in a foreign land, their song ceased, and the Musical instruments were laid aside. In this passage the Musical instruments are mentioned to describe the hilarity and riotous Music that comes from those who follow wine and strong drink
Bar Convent - This, the oldest convent now existing in England, is still one of the most noted English schools for young ladies; the course comprises all the branches of a higher education, and prepares students for the Higher Certificate London Matriculation, Oxford Local Examinations, and the Royal Academy of Music
Levite - , one subordinate to the priests (who were of the same tribe) and employed in various duties connected with the tabernacle first, and afterward the temple, such as the care of the building, bringing of wood and other necessaries for the sacrifices, the Music of the services, etc
Levite - The Levites also sung and played on instruments of Music
Saint Mary's Convent - This, the oldest convent now existing in England, is still one of the most noted English schools for young ladies; the course comprises all the branches of a higher education, and prepares students for the Higher Certificate London Matriculation, Oxford Local Examinations, and the Royal Academy of Music
he'Man - He is called "the singer," rather the Musician, (1 Chronicles 6:33 ) and was the first of the three Levites to whom was committed the vocal and instrumental Music of the temple service in the reign of David
Third - ...
Third sound, in Music. In Music, an interval containing three diatonic sounds the major composed to two tones, called by the Greeks ditone, and the minor called hemiditone, consisting of a tone and a half
Cantor - Chief singer of an ecclesiastical choir, who selects the Music and leads the singing
Cantoris - Chief singer of an ecclesiastical choir, who selects the Music and leads the singing
Mattithiah - Levite whom David appointed a Tabernacle Musician with special responsibility for leading lyre Music (1Chronicles 15:18,1 Chronicles 15:21 ; 1Chronicles 25:3,1 Chronicles 25:21 )
Preacher: Must Feed the People - They came to feed, and needed no Music
Jeduthun - His office was generally to preside over the Music of the temple service
Theory - ) An exposition of the general or abstract principles of any science; as, the theory of Music
Succentor - Chief singer of an ecclesiastical choir, who selects the Music and leads the singing
Polonaise - ) A stately Polish dance tune, in 3-4 measure, beginning always on the beat with a quaver followed by a crotchet, and closing on the beat after a strong accent on the second beat; also, a dance adapted to such Music; a polacca
Christianìs Life: the Power of - There is a spot on the Lago Lugano, where the song of the nightingale swells sweetly from the thickets on the shore in matchless rush of Music, so that the oar lies motionless and the listeners hushed into silent enhancement; yet we did not see a single bird, the orchestra was as hidden as the notes were clear
Harp - An instrument of Music of the stringed kind, of a triangular figure, held upright and commonly touched with the fingers
Rota - ) A species of zither, played like a guitar, used in the Middle Ages in church Music; - written also rotta
Reed - A Musical pipe reeds being anciently used for instruments of Music
Organ - KJV term for a Musical instrument which modern translations identify as a pipe or shrill flute (Genesis 4:21 ; Job 21:12 ; Job 30:31 ; Psalm 150:4 ). and provided Music for Roman games and combats
Music, Instruments, Dancing - The expression of the full range of human emotions vocally or instrumentally through the art of Music was as much a part of the lives of biblical people as it is of modern times. ...
In such a Musical climate, celebration through dance found a natural place in both the religious and secular life of ancient Israel. A variety of Musical instruments was available to provide instrumental accompaniment to both song and dance. ...
Music Music as performed in early Near Eastern times has become better known through archaeological finds of descriptive texts and the remains of actual instruments. Heptatonic and diatonic Musical scales reflective of ancient Mesopotamian practice have been discerned through the research of Assyrian culture which has, over the last few decades, brought to light much pertinent information on the subject. The discovery of four Akkadian cuneiform texts describing the Mesopotamian theory of Music from about 1800 to about 500 B. offers evidence 1400 years earlier than previously known in Greek sources for the antiquity of Western Music. Giving evidence of seven different heptatonic-diatonic scales, the Musical system of ancient Mesopotamia shows one similar to the major scale known today. shows ancient Summer, the earliest center of civilization in the Fertile Crescent, to have enjoyed an expansive Musical tradition. A variety of hymns offering divine praise or designed to or for kings and temples, many with Musical terms, have survived and are joined by actual discoveries of instruments at the ancient site of Ur, in biblical tradition the ancestral home of Abraham (Genesis 11:31 ). is a complete piece of Hurrian cult Music. , the pictorial and written clues to Egyptian Music tradition that have survived the centuries are particularly valuable in the appreciation of Musical instruments, providing background information for instruments mentioned in the biblical text as well as comparative study with Mesopotamian data. ...
The secular and religious Music of ancient Israel found its home against this background of Ancient Near Eastern Music in which all of life could be brought under the spell of song. In reading the Old Testament, Genesis 4:21 stands as the first reference to Music. Jubal brought the advent of Music to the portrayal of cultural advance. ...
The joy taken in Music is evidenced by its prominent role in the celebrations of life. A farewell might be said “with joy and singing to the Music of tambourines and harps” (Genesis 31:27 NIV); a homecoming welcomed “with timbrels and with dances” ( Judges 11:34 ; compare Luke 15:25 ). Work tasks of everyday living enjoyed the Music evidenced by the songs or chants of the well diggers (Numbers 21:17-18 ), the treaders of grapes (Jeremiah 48:33 ), and possibly the watchman (Isaiah 21:12 ). ...
Under certain circumstances Musical celebration brought condemnation. Judges 5:1 stands as Musical witness to Israel's victory over Jabin, the king of Canaan. Known as the “Song of Deborah,” the verses are the Musical celebration of a narrative event. Chants of victory on the lips of the victor (compare Samson following his slaying of the Philistines recorded in Judges 15:16 ) or those greeting the one successful in battle (compare 1 Samuel 18:7 ) establish Music as a medium for uncontainable joy. Emotions that might be limited by the restriction of prose, expressed themselves through the poetry of Music as seen in David's moving lament at the death of Saul and Jonathan (2 Samuel 1:19-27 ). ...
In the early days of Old Testament history a special place seems to be accorded women in Musical performance. The prophetess Miriam and Deborah, a prophetess and judge, were among Israel's earliest Musicians. The depiction of dancing women entertaining at festive occasions found on Egyptian tomb paintings provides early Near Eastern background for the role of women in Musical celebration. brought a new dimension to the Musical tradition of ancient Israel with the appearance of professional Musicians. Egypt and Assyria, neighboring countries to Israel, had known the tradition of professional Musicians much earlier. Such Musicians took their place both at court (1Kings 1:34,1 Kings 1:39-40 ; 1 Kings 10:12 ; Ecclesiastes 2:8 ) and in religious ritual. An Assyrian inscription, praising the victory of the Assyrian king Sennacherib over King Hezekiah of Judah, lists male and female Musicians as part of the tribute carried off to Nineveh. ...
Although much uncertainty remains concerning the specifics of Temple worship, biblical references offer clues to the role Music played in cult observances. As a hymn proclaiming the future rule of God in all the earth, Psalm 98:1 calls for the employment of Music in praise:...
”Make a joyful noise to the Lord, all the earth; break forth into joyous song and sing praises! Sing praises to the Lord with the lyre, with the lyre and the sound of melody! With trumpets and the sound of the horn make a joyful noise before the King, the Lord!” (Psalm 98:4-6 RSV). ...
The Psalms show not only the emotional range of Music from lament to praise but also provides words for some of the songs used in Temple worship. Guilds of Musicians, known through reference to their founders in some psalm headings (for example, “the sons of Korah”), were evidently devoted to the discipline of liturgical Music. The return from Exile and reestablishment of the Temple saw the descendants of the original Levitical Musicians (compare...
Ezra 2:40-41 ) reassume responsibility for liturgical Music. Strabo's statement that the singing girls of Palestine were considered the most Musical in the world shows that Music continued in importance in Israel during Hellenistic times. The common device of poetic parallelism, whereby a thought is balanced synonymously or antithetically with a second thought, provides further evidence for surmising the nature of Musical performance, responsive and antiophonal performances being possibilities. Representatives of this classification are titles that identify psalms with persons or groups of persons (see Psalm 3:1 ; Psalm 72:1 ; Psalm 90:1 ); titles purporting to indicate historical information concerning the psalm, particularly with respect to David (see Psalm 18:1 ; Psalm 34:1 ); titles containing Musical information (see Psalm 4:1 ; Psalm 5:1 ); titles with liturgical information (see Psalm 92:1 ; Psalm 100:1 ); and titles designating the “type” of psalm in question (see Psalm 120:1 , “a song of ascents”; Psalm 145:1 , “a song of praise”). ...
Nearly two thirds of the psalms contain terms indicating collections, compilers, or authors in their headings: David, portrayed in biblical tradition as a composer, instrumentalist, court Musician, and dancer, being most often mentioned. Other technical Musical expressions consisting of remarks that concern types or kinds of performances include “with stringed instruments” (“neginoth ,” see Psalm 4:1 ; Psalm 6:1 ; Psalm 54:1 , perhaps meant to exclude percussion and wind instruments) and “for the flutes” (“nehiloth ”), though both meanings are dubious. The terms “higgaion ” (perhaps “musical flourish”), “sheminith ” (“on the eighth,” perhaps an octave higher), and “the gittith ” (Psalm 8:1 ; Psalm 81:1 ; Psalm 84:1 ) remain obscure as to meaning. Suggestions range from understanding the term according to its earliest Greek translation, generally thought to indicate a type of Musical interlude or change in singing, to a call for repetition of the verse, louder singing, or the kneeling and bowing down of worshipers. ...
Musical Instruments Pictorial representations as well as remains from instruments discovered through archaeology aid in our present knowledge of ancient Musical instruments. Descriptions and comment on Musical instruments are to be found in both the Old and New Testament, their early translations, rabbinic and patristic literature, and the writings of Roman and Greek authors. ...
The most frequently named Musical instrument in the Bible is the “Shophar” (ram's horn). ...
Other Musical instruments mentioned in the biblical texts include the timbrel or tambourine (Hebrew toph , often symbolic of gladness, Genesis 21:27 ), cymbals, bells (presumably metal jingles without clappers; see Exodus 28:33-34 ; Isaiah 14:11 where they are attached to the high priest's robe), and a rattle-type noisemaker translated variously as castanets, rattles, sistrums, cymbols, or clappers ( 2 Samuel 6:5 ). ...
Dancing As rhythmic movement often performed to Music, dancing enjoyed a prominent place in the life and worship of Israel. Pictured in the homecoming welcome of victorious soldiers by women, dancing could be accompanied by song and instrument Music (1 Samuel 18:6 ). ...
Exodus 15:20 celebrates Israel's deliverance at the Sea of Reeds by dancing with singing and Musical accompaniment. ...
In the New Testament, the return of the prodigal son was celebrated with Music and dancing (Luke 15:25 )
Concord - In Music, consent of sounds harmony the relation between tow or more sounds which are agreeable to the ear. The man who hath not Music in himself, nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, is fit for treasons
Surpliced Choir - "...
Thus as early as the end of the Eighteenth Century the Music of theChurch was rendered by a surpliced choir in a Southern parish. This demand became so generalthat to-day there are very few parishes in which the Music is notthus rendered. This is not to be wondered at, for it is found byactual experience that the surpliced choir of men and boys,numbering from twenty to sixty voices according to the size ofthe parish, is better suited to render the Church's Music, morein keeping with the Church's devotions and more inspiring andhelpful to the congregation. Many a parish has thus been liftedup, strengthened, the services made more attractive and theattendance at them increased, because the Music rendered in thismanner becomes thoroughly congregational, such as the peoplethemselves can join in and make it their own
Treble - ) The highest of the four principal parts in Music; the part usually sung by boys or women; soprano
Pantomime - ) A dramatic and spectacular entertainment of which dumb acting as well as burlesque dialogue, Music, and dancing by Clown, Harlequin, etc
Ethan - He was a principal master of the temple Music, 1 Chronicles 15:17 , &c
Organ - In (Job 21:12 ) are enumerated three kinds of Musical instruments which are possible under the general terms of the timbrel harp and oryan. [1]
Antiphonal - This mode ofrendering the Music of the Church is of very ancient origin; itprevailed in the ancient Jewish worship as the antiphonal structureof the Psalms indicates
Chord - The string of a Musical instrument. In Music, the union of two or more sounds uttered at the same time, forming an entire harmony as a third, fifth and eighth, which are perfect chords, or consonancies
Pipe - In Amos 6:5 this word is rendered "instrument of Music
Musical - Musical Instruments, Ecclesiastes 2:8, A. The instruments of Music mentioned in 1 Samuel 18:6, as used by women, are supposed to have been metallic triangles, as the name indicates
Louis Braille - Blind from the age of three, he was educated at the Institute for the Blind in Paris, became a teacher in the institute, 1828, and in 1829 invented a system of point writing for the blind, based on the sound system of Charles Barbier, but representing alphabetical letters, signs of punctuation, and of Music
Accessory - ) Accompanying as a subordinate; aiding in a secondary way; additional; connected as an incident or subordinate to a principal; contributing or contributory; said of persons and things, and, when of persons, usually in a bad sense; as, he was accessory to the riot; accessory sounds in Music
Modulation - ) A change of key, whether transient, or until the Music becomes established in the new key; a shifting of the tonality of a piece, so that the harmonies all center upon a new keynote or tonic; the art of transition out of the original key into one nearly related, and so on, it may be, by successive changes, into a key quite remote
Mangle - ) To mutilate or injure, in making, doing, or pertaining; as, to mangle a piece of Music or a recitation
Ethan - A Levite, son of Kishi, and one of the three masters of the temple Music, 1 Chronicles 6:44 15:17-19
Finger - In Music, ability skill in playing on a keyed instrument. To touch an instrument of Music to play on an instrument
Finger - ) Skill in the use of the fingers, as in playing upon a Musical instrument. ) To mark the notes of (a piece of Music) so as to guide the fingers in playing. ) To perform on an instrument of Music
Score - In Music, the original and entire draught of any composition, or its transcript. ...
A song in score, the words with the Musical notes of a song annexed. To form a score in Music
Singing - Singing has often been associated with Music and dancing (Genesis 31:27; Exodus 15:20-21; Isaiah 5:12; see DANCING; Music). ...
In the temple worship that David organized, there were groups of singers who sang under a conductor to the accompaniment of Music (1 Chronicles 15:16; 1 Chronicles 15:22)
Praise - However, praise is almost invariably linked to Music, both instrumental (1618453114_1 ) and, especially, vocal. See Music; Psalms; Worship . Music...
...
Dies Irre, Dies Ilia - Among the notable modern Musicians to set it to Music were: Colonna, Bassaui, Mozart (probably), Cherubini, Berlioz, Verdi, Bruneau, and Gbunod
Hearing - Too often men hear the Word sounding its drums and trumpets outside their walls, and they are filled with admiration of the martial Music, but their city gates are fast closed and vigilantly guarded, so that the truth has no admittance, but only the sound of it
Bede, the Venerable - His works comprise all branches of knowledge, history, rhetoric, mathematics, Music, astronomy, poetry, grammar, philosophy, hagiography, homiletics, and commentaries on Holy Writ
Lamech - He had two wives, Adah and Zillah, whose sons are credited with the rise of the nomadic way of life, Music, and metalworking
Descant - ) A discourse formed on its theme, like variations on a Musical air; a comment or comments. ) The upper voice in part Music
According - Th' according Music of a well mixt state
Fiddle - ) A stringed instrument of Music played with a bow; a violin; a kit
Harp - (Latin: harpa) ...
A Musical instrument, roughly triangular in form, whose strings of various lengths are plucked by the fingers in order to produce sound. As an emblem in art it is associated with Saint Cecilia as a Musician and patroness of Music, and of Saint Patrick due to his association with Ireland
Occupation - Painting, statuary, Music, are agreeable occupations
Saint Gregory, Society of - Composed of persons interested in ecclesiastical Music
Society of Saint Gregory - Composed of persons interested in ecclesiastical Music
That Day of Wrath, That Dreadful Day - Among the notable modern Musicians to set it to Music were: Colonna, Bassaui, Mozart (probably), Cherubini, Berlioz, Verdi, Bruneau, and Gbunod
Seventh - In Music, a dissonat interval or heptachord
Jeduthun - Lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of Music appointed by David (1 Chronicles 16:41,42 ; 25:1-6 ). In the superscriptions to Psalm 3962,62 , and 77, the words "upon Jeduthun" probably denote a Musical instrument; or they may denote the style or tune invented or introduced by Jeduthun, or that the psalm was to be sung by his choir
Harp - " The brotherhood accords with the fact that the leisure of a nomad life was well suited to the production and appreciation of Music (Genesis 4:20-21). The harp was the earliest of all Musical instruments, and the national instrument of the Hebrew. Its Music, as that of other instruments, was raised to its highest perfection under David (Amos 6:5)
March - ) A piece of Music designed or fitted to accompany and guide the movement of troops; a piece of Music in the march form
Cantus - A liturgical chant differs from sacred Music, since the latter adorns an office without absolutely belonging to it. Liturgical chants are monodic, usually diatonic, and, in form, they vary from the simplest Musical recitation of a text to the most elaborate and expressive melodies
Chant - A liturgical chant differs from sacred Music, since the latter adorns an office without absolutely belonging to it. Liturgical chants are monodic, usually diatonic, and, in form, they vary from the simplest Musical recitation of a text to the most elaborate and expressive melodies
Minstrel - Music was often so used to prepare the frame for spiritual influences (1 Samuel 10:5-11) and to soothe an evil spirit of excitement, as when David played to calm Saul
Dies Irae - The Music to which it is usually sung was written by the Rev
Cymbals - And "high sounding cymbals," two larger plates, one held in each hand, and struck together as an accompaniment to other Music, like the Italian piatti , marking the rhythm
Onion - It may consist of pleasures, business, sports, education, Music, religion or evil practices
Prophet - Some of the Prophets, an appellation given to young men who were educated in the schools or colleges under a proper master, who was commonly, if not always, an inspired prophet in the knowledge of religion, and in sacred Music, and thus were qualified to be public preachers, 1 Samuel 10:1-27 : 1 Samuel 11:1-15 : 2 Samuel 19:1-43 : 2 Kings 2:1-25 :...
Quirk - ) An irregular air; as, light quirks of Music
Parquet - ) A body of seats on the floor of a Music hall or theater nearest the orchestra; but commonly applied to the whole lower floor of a theater, from the orchestra to the dress circle; the pit
Piping - ) Peaceful; favorable to, or characterized by, the Music of the pipe rather than of the drum and fife. ) Playing on a Musical pipe
Accidental - ) A sharp, flat, or natural, occurring not at the commencement of a piece of Music as the signature, but before a particular note
University - , empowered to confer degrees in the several arts and faculties, as in theology, law, medicine, Music, etc
Teach - ) To impart the knowledge of; to give intelligence concerning; to impart, as knowledge before unknown, or rules for practice; to inculcate as true or important; to exhibit impressively; as, to teach arithmetic, dancing, Music, or the like; to teach morals
Wrest - ) A key to tune a stringed instrument of Music
Harp - a stringed Musical instrument. It is probable, that the harp was nearly the earliest, if not the earliest instrument of Music
Loco - ) A direction in written or printed Music to return to the proper pitch after having played an octave higher
Cymbal - A Musical instrument consisting of two broad plates of brass, of a convex form, which being struck together, produce a shrill, piercing sound. See Music
Invent - To find out something new to devise something not before known to contrive and produce something that did not before exist as, to invent a new instrument of Music to invent a machine for spinning to invent gunpowder
Indians, Moxos - They excelled in boat making, pottery and Music and had a method of picture writing
Moxos Indians - They excelled in boat making, pottery and Music and had a method of picture writing
Moyos - They excelled in boat making, pottery and Music and had a method of picture writing
Asaph - He is mentioned along with David as skilled in Music, and a "seer" ( 2 Chronicles 29:30 )
Charles Gordon - He introduced Music into the church in Aberdeen, 1814, and perhaps the most important work of his ministry was the erection of a parochial school, 1833, and the opening of the College of Saint Mary for the education of young men destined for the Church
Chant - It is the most ancient form of choral Music
Airy - ) Relating to the spirit or soul; delicate; graceful; as, airy Music
Gordon, Charles - He introduced Music into the church in Aberdeen, 1814, and perhaps the most important work of his ministry was the erection of a parochial school, 1833, and the opening of the College of Saint Mary for the education of young men destined for the Church
Academies, Roman - Those founded by, or under the protection of, the popes are: "Pontificia Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei" (1847; scientific); "Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi" (1690; literary); "Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia" (1816; archeology); "Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici" (1710; diplomacy); "Accademia Romana di San Luca" (1577; fine arts) and "Accademia di Santa Cecilia" (1583; Music), now royal academies; and others
Roman Academies - Those founded by, or under the protection of, the popes are: "Pontificia Accademia dei Nuovi Lincei" (1847; scientific); "Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi" (1690; literary); "Pontificia Accademia Romana di Archeologia" (1816; archeology); "Pontificia Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici" (1710; diplomacy); "Accademia Romana di San Luca" (1577; fine arts) and "Accademia di Santa Cecilia" (1583; Music), now royal academies; and others
Music - The first instruments of Music were probably of the pulsatile kind; and rhythm, it is likely, preceded the observation of those intervals of sound which are so pleasing to the ear. 1800, according to the common chronology, both vocal and instrumental Music are spoken of as things in general use: "And Laban said, What hast thou done, that thou hast stolen away unawares to me, and carried away my daughters, as captives taken with the sword? Wherefore didst thou flee away secretly, and steal away from me; and didst not tell me, that I might have sent thee away with mirth and with songs, with tabret and with harp?" Genesis 31:26-27 . Burney justly observes, "music could have been little more than metrical, as no other instruments except those of percussion were known. When the art was first discovered of refining and sustaining tones, the power of Music over mankind was probably irresistible, from the agreeable surprise which soft and lengthened sounds must have occasioned. " The same learned writer has given a drawing, made under his own eye, of an Egyptian Musical instrument, represented on a very ancient obelisk at Rome, brought from Egypt by Augustus. " From the long residence of the Hebrews in Egypt, it is no improbable conjecture that their Music was derived from that source. However that may be, Music, vocal and instrumental, made one important part of their religious service. If the excellence of the Music was conformable to the sublimity of the poetry which it accompanied, there would be no injustice in supposing it unspeakably superior. to that of every other people; and the pains that were taken to render the tabernacle and temple Music worthy of the subjects of their lofty odes, leaves little doubt that it was so. ...
The Hebrews insisted on having Music at marriages, on anniversary birth days, on the days which reminded them of victories over their enemies, at the inauguration of their kings, in their public worship, and when they were coming from afar to attend the great festivals of their nation, Isaiah 30:29 . In the tabernacle and the temple, the Levites were the lawful Musicians; but on other occasions any one might use Musical instruments who chose. David, in order to give the best effect to the Music of the tabernacle, divided the four thousand Levites into twenty-four classes, who sung psalms, and accompanied them with Music. It should be remarked, however, that neither Music nor poetry attained to the same excellence after the captivity as before that period. Instrumental Music was first introduced into the Jewish service by Moses; and afterward, by the express command of God, was very much improved with the addition of several instruments in the reign of David. It was held in the left hand, and beaten to notes of Music with the right. The first consisted of two flat pieces of metal or plates: the Musician held one of them in his right hand, the other in his left, and smote them together, as an accompaniment to other instruments. But מצלות , Zechariah 14:20 , rendered in the English version bells, are not Musical instruments, as some suppose, nor indeed bells, but concave pieces or plates of brass, which were sometimes attached to horses for the sake of ornament
Charles Gounod - Returning from a five years sojourn in London, 1870-1875, he devoted his last years to religious Music, composing several masses and "'The Redemption" oratorio, which he considered the great work of his life
Heart: Hardness of - Lightfoot says:: 'I have heard it more than once and again, from the sheriffs who took all the gunpowder plotters, and brought them up to London, that every night when they came to their lodging by the way, they had their Music and dancing a good part of the night
Daughter - ...
The "daughters of Music" (Ecclesiastes 12:4 ) are singing women
Music, Passion - The Passion Music reached its highest development under Bach (1685-1750) and Joseph Haydn
Infinite - Infinite canon, in Music, a perpetual fugue
Gounod, Charles Francois - Returning from a five years sojourn in London, 1870-1875, he devoted his last years to religious Music, composing several masses and "'The Redemption" oratorio, which he considered the great work of his life
Transport - ; to ravish with pleasure or ecstasy; as, Music transports the soul
Pipe - A Musical wind instrument, consisting of a tube with holes, like a flute or clarinet, 1 Samuel 10:5 1 Kings 1:40 Isaiah 5:12 30:29 Jeremiah 48:36 Matthew 9:23 . See Music
Organ - The largest and most harmonious of wind instruments of Music, consisting of pipes which are filled with wind, and stops touched by the fingers
Music, Musicians, Musical Instruments - The monuments show that the Egyptians had various Musical instruments, the Israelites, therefore, if they had not known their use before going into Egypt, could have learnt it there. ...
There must have been with these prophets some knowledge of Music, which doubtless under David was further cultivated and devoted to the service of God, their Music being intimately connected with temple worship. "...
In the headings of fifty-five of the Psalms the words occur, "To the chief Musician;" the word is natsach, and simply means 'to the chief or the leader,' and may therefore apply as much to the singers as to the Musicians. The Musical instruments are considered under their various names
Read - ) To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of Music, or to read Music; to read a book
Mattaniah - As leader of the temple choir he took part in the Music at the dedication of the wall
Preacher: Must Feed the People (2) - Mark: believe me, it is not the Music of the bell which attracts them, they can hear that every hour
Crotchet - ) To play Music in measured time
Leek - The Music played today is not acceptable tomorrow
Rag - ) To dance to ragtime Music, esp
Trump - ) A wind instrument of Music; a trumpet, or sound of a trumpet; - used chiefly in Scripture and poetry
Kind - ) Nature; style; character; sort; fashion; manner; variety; description; class; as, there are several kinds of eloquence, of style, and of Music; many kinds of government; various kinds of soil, etc
Seven Liberal Arts - Forming two groups, the liberal arts embrace: ...
the tridium: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, or the sciences of language, oratory, and logic
the quadridium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and Music
The language branches are considered as the lower, the mathematical branches as the intermediate, and science properly so called as the uppermost grade of studies
Oberammergau, Passion Play of - The Music is by Rochus Dedler
Harp - " The soothing effect of the Music of the harp is referred to 1 Samuel 16:16,23 ; 18:10 ; 19:9
Even Song - Yet in some placesif a choral Even Song is attempted, at once the cry of "Romanism"is raised, and yet from Holy Scripture we learn that Music is adivinely ordained element in the public worship of God and theservice thus rendered is an approach to the worship of Heaven
Cadence - ) To regulate by Musical measure. ) A rhythmical modulation of the voice or of any sound; as, Music of bells in cadence sweet
Discord - In Music, disagreement of sounds dissonance a union of sounds which is inharmonious, grating and disagreeable to the ear or an interval whose extremes do not coalesce
Selah - " A Music mark denoting a pause, during which the singers ceased to sing and only the instruments were heard. " Delitsseh takes it from saalal "to lift up," a Musical forte, the piano singing then ceasing, and the instruments alone playing with execution an interlude after sentences of peculiar importance, so as to emphasize them
Dump - ) A melancholy strain or tune in Music; any tune
Academy - ) A school or place of training in which some special art is taught; as, the military academy at West Point; a riding academy; the Academy of Music
Devise - The word refers to craftsmen “inventing” instruments of Music, artistic objects, and weapons of war ( Trumpet - A wind instrument of Music, used chiefly in war and military exercises
Jehiel - ...
...
One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to conduct the Music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to Jerusalem (1 Chronicles 15:18,20 )
Pipe - ) A wind instrument of Music, consisting of a tube or tubes of straw, reed, wood, or metal; any tube which produces Musical sounds; as, a shepherd's pipe; the pipe of an organ. ) To play on a pipe, fife, flute, or other tubular wind instrument of Music
Direct - In Music, a direct interval is that which forms any kind of harmony on the fundamental sound which produces it as the fifth, major third and octave. In Music, a character placed at the end of a stave to direct the performer to the first note of the next stave
Art - Among the Hebrews the fine arts, with the possible exception of Music, were not seriously cultivated (cf. See, further, Jewels, Music, Seals, Temple, Spinning and Weaving
Dancing - It is still the custom in the east to testify their respect for persons of distinction by Music and dancing. When Baron Du Tott, who was sent by the French government to respect their factories in the Levant, approached an encampment of Turcomans, between Aleppo and Alexandretta, the Musicians of the different hordes turned out, playing and dancing before him all the time he and his escort were passing by their camp. Thus, it will be recollected, "the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of Music," when he returned in triumph from the slaughter of the Philistines
Beat - To strike an instrument of Music to play on, as a drum. ...
To beat time, to measure or regulate time in Music by the motion of the hand or foot. The rise or fall of the hand or foot, in regulating the divisions of time in Music. A transient grace-note in Music, struck immediately before the note it is intended to ornament
Ascend - In Music, to rise in vocal utterance to pass from any note to one more acute
Cornet - An instrument of Music, in the nature of a trumpet, sounded by blowing with the mouth
Harp - See Music
Trump - A trumpet a wind instrument of Music a poetical word used for trumpet
Music And Musical Instruments - Music AND MusicAL INSTRUMENTS...
1. Probable character of early Hebrew Music . Since the Dispersion, the Music of the Jews has always borne the impress of the peoples among whom they have settled. Synagogue ritual thus affords us no clue to the Music of early times, and we must accordingly fall back on Scripture and tradition. From these we gather that Hebrew Music was of a loud and piercing nature, far removed from the sweetness which modern taste demands. For example, even the Hebrew accents, though of comparatively late origin, and always confined in Jewish use to acting as guides in the proper recitation of the text, have been pressed into the service, as though employed for the purpose of a kind of’ figured bass,’ and thus indicating an acquaintance with Musical harmony. Rendering of Hebrew Music . of the elaborate arrangements for conducting the Musical services of the Temple, appears to indicate a somewhat complicated system, and to suggest that there entered a considerable element of flexibility into the composition. Occasions on which Music was used . A parallel may be found in directions prefixed to Gabirol’s hymns and those of other celebrated Jewish poets, when these compositions were adapted to Music in the Spanish (Sephardic) ritual (see D. Amos ( Amos 6:5 ) speaks of Music performed at feasts, and in 1 Samuel 18:6 we read of its use in Saul’s time in connexion with processions. As in this last case, so in general it may be supposed that Music and dancing were closely connected and had a parallel development. David’s careful elaboration of the Levitical Music, vocal and instrumental, was employed, according to 2 Chronicles 5:12 , with impressive effect at the dedication of Solomon’s Temple. The reformations under both Hezekiah and Josiah included the restoring of the Musical ritual belonging to David’s time ( 2 Chronicles 29:25 ff; 2 Chronicles 35:15 ). Later, the descendants of Heman and other Levitical leaders of Music were among the exiles of the Return from Babylon, and under them the services were reconstituted as of old ( Nehemiah 12:27 ; Nehemiah 12:45 ff. Hebrew Musical instruments . ...
Nĕgînôth has sometimes been taken as the name of an instrument, but is much more probably a general term for stringed Music
Chime - ) A set of bells Musically tuned to each other; specif. , the Music performed on such a set of bells by hand, or produced by mechanism to accompany the striking of the hours or their divisions. ) The harmonious sound of bells, or of Musical instruments
Degrees, Song of - Others have suggested that “ascents” is a reference to the rising melody of the psalms, the step-like poetic form of some of the psalms, or to the steps upon which the Levites performed Music in the Temple
Christianity - Christianity is the inspiration to which our art, architecture, painting, Music, and literatures owe what is most beautiful and elevating in them
Cathedral Schools - In the higher school, to the trivium, including grammar, rhetoric, and dialectics, might be added the quadrivium, or arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and Music, with Scripture and theology
Benedictines - ...
Their Alcuinus formed the university of Paris; their Dionysius Exiguus perfected the ecclesiastical computation; their Guido invented the scale of Music; and their Sylvester the organ
Diversion - The most rational diversions are conversation, reading, singing, Music, riding, &c
Pause - ) To be intermitted; to cease; as, the Music pauses
Execution - ; as, the execution of a statue, painting, or piece of Music
Mode - , of ancient Greek Music
Jeduthun - a Levite of Merari's family, and one of the four great masters of Music belonging to the temple, 1 Chronicles 16:38 ; 1 Chronicles 16:41-42 ; 1 Chronicles 15:17 ; Psalms 89, title
Selah - " Some moderns pretend that selah has no signification, and that it is only a note of the ancient Music, whose use is no longer known; and, indeed, selah may be taken away from all the places where it is found without interrupting the sense of the psalm. Calmet says it intimates the end, or a pause, and that is its proper signification; but as it is not always found at the conclusion of the sense, or of the psalm or song, so it is highly probable the ancient Musicians put selah in the margin of their psalters, to show where a Musical pause was to be made, or where the tune ended
Jeduthun - ” Prophetic Musician and Levite in the service of King David (1 Chronicles 25:1 ). The names Asaph and Heman appear along with that of Jeduthun as original ancestors of Temple Musicians. In 1Chronicles 25:1,1 Chronicles 25:3 he is said to have prophesied using Musical instruments; and in 2 Chronicles 35:15 he is referred to as the king's seer, apparently working with Zadok at Gibeon ( 1 Chronicles 16:37-42 ). See Priests and Levites; Music; Psalms
Serpent - An instrument of Music, serving as a base to the cornet or small shawm, to sustain a chorus of singers in a large edifice
Mir'Iam - (Exodus 15:20 ) The prophetic power showed itself in her under the same form as that which it assumed in the days of Samuel and David, --poetry, accompanied with Music and processions
Pipe - Its range was naturally limited, its Music monotonous
Set - To fit to Music to adapt with notes as, to set the words of a psalm to Music
Downside Abbey - Publications include the Downside Review, concerning monastic and liturgical interests, and Downside Masses and Downside Motets, devoted to polyphonic Music
Chastity - Does the free use of some meats and drinks make the body ungovernable? Does reading certain books debauch the imagination and inflame the passions? Do temptations often enter by the sight? Have public plays, dancings, effeminate Music, idle songs, loose habits, and the like, the same effect? He who resolves upon chastity cannot be ignorant what his duty is in all these and such like cases
Allegory - ...
Stop the currents, young men, the meadows have drank sufficiently that is let your Music cease, our ears have been sufficiently delighted
Abbey, Downside - Publications include the Downside Review, concerning monastic and liturgical interests, and Downside Masses and Downside Motets, devoted to polyphonic Music
Execute - ) To perform, as a piece of Music, either on an instrument or with the voice; as, to execute a difficult part brilliantly. ) To perform Musically
Crowd - ) An ancient instrument of Music with six strings; a kind of violin, being the oldest known stringed instrument played with a bow
Reel - ) A lively dance of the Highlanders of Scotland; also, the Music to the dance; - often called Scotch reel
Ear - ) The sense of hearing; the perception of sounds; the power of discriminating between different tones; as, a nice ear for Music; - in the singular only
Mass - ) The portions of the Mass usually set to Music, considered as a Musical composition; - namely, the Kyrie, the Gloria, the Credo, the Sanctus, and the Agnus Dei, besides sometimes an Offertory and the Benedictus
Ear - ) The sense of hearing; the perception of sounds; the power of discriminating between different tones; as, a nice ear for Music; - in the singular only
Trumpet - See Music
Hope - These went forth to their labor, and they took with them, to cheer their toils, their well-beloved sister Hope; and well it was they did, for they needed the Music of her consolation ere the work was done, for the forest trees were huge and demanded many sturdy blows of the axe ere they would fall prone upon the ground. ' They felled the lofty trees to the Music of that strain; they cleared the acres one by one, they tore from their sockets the hug' roots, they delved the soil, they sowed the corn, and waited for the harvest, often much discouraged, but still held to their work as by silver chains and golden fetters by the sweet sound of the voice which chanted so constantly, 'God, ever our own God, will bless us
Practice - ) To exercise one's self in, for instruction or improvement, or to acquire discipline or dexterity; as, to practice gunnery; to practice Music. ) Systematic exercise for instruction or discipline; as, the troops are called out for practice; she neglected practice in Music
Read - To utter or pronounce written or printed words, letters or characters in the proper order to repeat the names or utter the sounds customarily annexed to words, letters or characters as, to read a written or printed discourse to read the letters of an alphabet to read figures to read the notes of Music, or to read Music
Franz Schubert - His Music is in itself a complete memoir of his life
Cecilia, Saint - From her zeal in singing the praises of God, Cecilia has been associated with Music; many Musical societies and academies are named in her honor. Patroness of Musicians, organ-builders, singers, and poets. Emblem: Musical instruments
Bone - ) Two or four pieces of bone held between the fingers and struck together to make a kind of Music
Addition - In Music, a dot at the side of a note, to lengthen its sound one half
Beating - ...
Beatings, in Music, the regular pulsative swellings of sound, produced in an organ by pipes of the same key, when not in unison, and their vibrations not simultaneous or coincident
Romance - ) A short lyric tale set to Music; a song or short instrumental piece in ballad style; a romanza
Lamech - Genesis 4:18-24 , a descendant of Cain, in the fifth generation, and ancestor of numerous posterity distinguished for a skill in agriculture, Music, and several mechanic arts
Schubert, Franz Peter - His Music is in itself a complete memoir of his life
Kind - Sort, in a sense more loose than genus as, there are several kinds of eloquence and of style, many kinds of Music, many kinds of government, various kinds of architecture or of painting, various kinds of soil, &c
Send - Cherubic songs by night from neighb'ring hills ...
Aerial Music send
Tenor - In Music, the natural pitch of a man's voice in singing hence, the part of a tune adapted to a man's voice, the second of the four parts, reckoning from the base and originally the air, to which the other parts were auxiliary
Banquets - (Ecclesiastes 10:16 ; Isaiah 5:11 ) The most essential materials of the banqueting room, next to the viands and wine, which last was often drugged with spices, (Proverbs 9:2 ) were perfumed unguents, garlands or loose flowers, white or brilliant robes; after these, exhibitions of Music singers and dancers, riddles, jesting and merriment
Dancing - (See also Music; SINGING
Jeduthun - He wasa Merarite Levite, along with the Kohathite Heman and the Gershonite Asaph directing the Music of the sanctuary; 4,000 in all, divided into courses, "praising the Lord with the instruments which I made, said David, to praise therewith" (1 Chronicles 23:5-6). Identical with Ethan the Merarite (1 Chronicles 6:44; 1 Chronicles 15:17; 1 Chronicles 15:19); for as there was one Kohathite and one Gershonite, head of Musicians, so there would be only one Merarite head. In Hezekiah's reign (2 Chronicles 29:13-14), again in Josiah's (2 Chronicles 35:15), lastly under Nehemiah (Nehemiah 11:17), Jeduthun's choir or descendants officiated in the sanctuary Music
Measure - In Music, that division by which the motion of Music is regulated or the interval or space of time between the rising and falling of the hand or foot of him who beats time. In dancing, the interval between steps, corresponding to the interval between notes in the Music
Canon - ...
In Music, a composition consisting of the imitation or repetition of the same melody by one or more voices in turn, in such a manner as to produce harmony
Absence From Week-Night Services - On Thursday evening it was raining very hard, and the same brother hired a Carriage, and took his whole family to the Academy of Music, to hear M
Heman - , 1 Chronicles 2:42-43 with 1 Chronicles 6:2 ), and as the wise men of 1 Kings 4:31 are legendary, it is probable that the three Hemans are the same legendary ancestor of a clan celebrated for its Music and wisdom
Horn - Of rams’ horns a kind of trumpet was made Joshua 6:4 ); see Music, 4 (2) ( e )
Charm - ) To make a Musical sound. ) To make Music upon; to tune
Regular - ) Conformed to a rule; agreeable to an established rule, law, principle, or type, or to established customary forms; normal; symmetrical; as, a regular verse in poetry; a regular piece of Music; a regular verb; regular practice of law or medicine; a regular building
Rich - ) Full of sweet and harmonius sounds; as, a rich voice; rich Music
Accord - Her hands accorded the lute's Music to the voice
Instrument - , which are called Musical instruments, or instruments of Music
Doctor - Hence: One who has taken the highest degree conferred by a university or college, or has received a diploma of the highest degree; as, a doctor of divinity, of law, of medicine, of Music, or of philosophy
Execution - Performance, as in Music or other art
Burden - A chord which is to be divided, to perform the intervals of Music,when open and undivided, is also called the burden
Music, Instrumental - Among instruments of Music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. ...
The shalishim, mentioned only in 1 Samuel 18:6 , rendered "instruments of Music" (marg. The words in Ecclesiastes 2:8 , "musical instruments, and that of all sorts," Authorized Version, are in the Revised Version "concubines very many
Dwell - To continue long as, to dwell on a subject, in speaking, debate or writing to dwell on a note in Music
Tune - ) To give tone to; to attune; to adapt in style of Music; to make harmonious. ) To form one sound to another; to form accordant Musical sounds
Topheth - Tophet was probably the king's "music-grove" or garden, denoting originally nothing evil or hateful
Sacred - Relating to religion or the worship of God used for religious purposes as sacred songs sacred Music sacred history
Shake - To trill as, to shake a note in Music
Air - A tune a short song or piece of Music adapted to words also, the peculiar modulation of the notes, which gives Music its character as, a soft air
Trump Trumpet - Paul continues his illustration from Music to criticize an unedifying speaking with tongues. Paul had in his thought the Jewish tradition of archangelic Music (cf. The imagery of the Apocalypse is in keeping with Jewish tradition, which saw in the trumpet-call the Music appropriate to angels
Heman - Colleague of Asaph and Ethan or Jeduthun ("the praise man") in arranging the vocal and instrumental Music of the temple service, under David "after that the ark had rest" (1 Chronicles 15:16-22; 1 Chronicles 25:1-3)
Composition - ) A literary, Musical, or artistic production, especially one showing study and care in arrangement; - often used of an elementary essay or translation done as an educational exercise. ) The invention or combination of the parts of any literary work or discourse, or of a work of art; as, the composition of a poem or a piece of Music
Descent - In Music, a passing from a note or sound to one more grave or less acute
Division - Space between the notes of Music, or the dividing of the tones
Piece - ) A literary or artistic composition; as, a piece of poetry, Music, or statuary
Shake - ) To give a tremulous tone to; to trill; as, to shake a note in Music
at the Cross Her Station Keeping - As it was not introduced into the Missal as a Sequence until 1121, its history in Music dates largely from modern times
Render - ) To interpret; to set forth, represent, or exhibit; as, an actor renders his part poorly; a singer renders a passage of Music with great effect; a painter renders a scene in a felicitous manner
Tabernacles Feast of - In later times, the priests went every morning during the festival, and drew water from the fountain of Siloam, and poured it out to the southwest of the altar, the Levites, in the meanwhile, playing on instruments of Music, and singing the Psalms 113:1-9; Psalms 114:1-8; Psalms 115:1-18; Psalms 116:1-19; Psalms 117:1-2; Psalms 118:1-29
Child Birth - It was the custom at a very ancient period, for the father, while Music in the mean while was heard to sound, to clasp the new born child to his bosom, and by this ceremony was understood to declare it to be his own, Genesis 50:23 ; Job 3:12 ; Psalms 22:11
Delicate - ) Nicely discriminating or perceptive; refinedly critical; sensitive; exquisite; as, a delicate taste; a delicate ear for Music
Leader - ) A performer who leads a band or choir in Music; also, in an orchestra, the principal violinist; the one who plays at the head of the first violins
Quick - Moving with rapidity or celerity as quick time in Music
Liberal - Such are grammar, rhetoric, painting, sculpture, architecture, Music
Sharpen - In Music, to raise a sound by means of a sharp
Volume - In Music, the compass of a voice from grave to acute the tone or power of voice
Touch - To strike, as an instrument of Music to play on. Act of the hand on a Musical instrument. In Music, the resistance of the keys of an instrument to the fingers as a heavy touch, or light touch. In Music, an organ is said to have a good touch or stop,when the keys close well
Organ - (Greek: organon, an instrument) ...
A Musical instrument used and approved by the Church as an aid to public worship. There is no authority for the story that the organ was invented or used by Saint Cecilia, the patroness of Music, with whom it is associated as an emblem of art. Other Musical instruments are allowed in church under certain restrictions, with the sanction of the bishop
Harlot - Flattering with words (Proverbs 2:16 ) and making sweet Music (Isaiah 23:16 ) might be used to lure or soothe a client
Ecstasy - The ecstatic state was often accompanied by Music (1 Samuel 10:5 ; 2 Kings 3:15-16 ) and rhythmic dance, though the “prophetic frenzy” was brought on by the onrush of the Spirit of God (1Samuel 10:6,1 Samuel 10:10 ; 1Samuel 19:20,1 Samuel 19:23 ) or hand of the Lord (2 Kings 3:15 )
to'Pheth, - (Isaiah 30:32,37 ) The Hebrew words are nearly identical; and Tophet was probably the king's "music-grove" or garden, denoting originally nothing evil or hateful
Fir Tree - The wood was anciently used for spears, Musical instruments, furniture for houses, rafters in building, and for ships. Burney, in his "History of Music," observes, "This species of wood, so soft in its nature, and sonorous in its effects, seems to have been preferred by the ancients, as well as moderns, to every other kind for the construction of Musical instruments, particularly the bellies of them, on which the tone of them chiefly depends
Gershon, Gershonites - Asaphites led the Music at the foundation of the Temple ( Ezra 3:10 ); and certain of them blew trumpets in the procession at the dedication of the city walls ( Nehemiah 12:25 ). (3) In David’s reign the Chronicler relates that the Temple Music was managed partly by Asaph, a Gershonite, and his family ( 1 Chronicles 6:39-43 ; 1 Chronicles 25:1 f
Time - Measure of sounds in Music as common time, and treble time. To measure as in Music or harmony
Adder - ...
In Psalms 58:5 , reference is made to the effect of Musical sounds upon serpents. That they might be rendered tame and harmless by certain charms, or soft and sweet sounds, and trained to delight in Music, was an opinion which prevailed very early and universally. They, hearing his Music, came all crawling to his feet, and began to climb up him, till he gave over playing, then away they ran. "...
The wonderful effect which Music produces on the serpent tribes, is confirmed by the testimony of several respectable moderns. The tame serpents, many of which the orientals keep in their houses, are known to leave their holes in hot weather, at the sound of a Musical instrument, and run upon the performer. The rattlesnake acknowledges the power of Music as much as any of his family; of which the following instance is a decisive proof: When Chateaubriand was in Canada, a snake of that species entered their encampment; a young Canadian, one of the party, who could play on the flute, to divert his associates, advanced against the serpent with his new species of weapon: on the approach of his enemy, the haughty reptile curled himself into a spiral line, flattened his head, inflated his cheeks, contracted his lips, displayed his envenomed fangs, and his bloody throat; his double tongue glowed like two flames of fire; his eyes were burning coals; his body, swollen with rage, rose and fell like the bellows of a forge; his dilated skin assumed a dull and scaly appearance; and his tail, which sounded the denunciation of death, vibrated with so great rapidity as to resemble a light vapour. The reptile, inclining his variegated neck, opened a passage with his head through the high grass, and began to creep after the Musician, stopping when he stopped, and beginning to follow him again, as soon as he moved forward. Many of them are carried in baskets through Hindostan, and procure a maintenance for a set of people who play a few simple notes on the flute, with which the snakes seem much delighted, and keep time by a graceful motion of the head, erecting about half their length from the ground, and following the Music with gentle curves, like the undulating lines of a swan's neck
Happiness - Moralists justly observe, that happiness does not consist in the pleasures of sense; as eating, drinking, Music, painting, theatric exhibitions, &c
Sin: Its Encroaching Nature - First, the custom creeps humbly to the door of the heart, and says, 'Let me in; what am I but putting one foot before another? certainly you do not object to Music, and I would not for the world have a full band
Ear - She has a delicate ear for Music, or a good ear
Banquet - συμπόσιον, ‘drinking together’), Music, dancing, joyous conversation, merriment, usually characterized such a festivity
Pipe - It is one of the simplest, and therefore probably one of the oldest, of Musical Instruments. The pipe and tabret were used at the banquets of the Hebrews, (Isaiah 5:12 ) and accompanied the simpler religious services when the young prophets, returning from the high place, caught their inspiration from the harmony, (1 Samuel 10:5 ) or the pilgrims, on their way to the great festivals of their ritual, beguiled the weariness of the march with psalms sung to the simple Music of the pipe
Psaltery - This was a stringed instrument of Music to accompany the voice. It is impossible to say positively with what instrument the nebel of the Hebrew exactly corresponded, From the fact that nebel in Hebrew also signifies a wine-bottle or skin it has been conjectured that the term when applied to a Musical instrument denotes a kind of bagpipe
Praise - Praise is an expression of homage, adoration and thanksgiving to God either in prayer or in song, and may be accompanied by various expressions of joy (Exodus 15:1-2; Exodus 15:20-21; Psalms 35:18; Psalms 63:5; Psalms 71:8; Psalms 150; Isaiah 12:2-6; Luke 2:13-14; Acts 2:47; Acts 3:8; Colossians 3:16; Revelation 5:9-14; see DANCING; Music; SINGING)
Doxology - Music...
...
Brook - For the most part the brooks, fed only by the rain, dry up in the summertime, and the mills along their banks fall silent, waking to fresh activity again only with the Music of the rushing storm
Descend - In Music, to fall in sound to pass from any note to another less acute or shrill, or from sharp to flat
Flow - ) Any gentle, gradual movement or procedure of thought, diction, Music, or the like, resembling the quiet, steady movement of a river; a stream
Key - In Music, the key, or key note, is the fundamental note or tone, to which the whole piece is accommodated, and with which it usually begins and always ends
Voluntary - In Music, a piece played by a Musician extemporarily, according to his fancy. In the Philosophical Transactions, we have a method of writing voluntaries, as fast as the Musician plays the notes
Base - The lowest or gravest part in Music improperly written bass. Thorough base, in Music, is the part performed with base viols or theorbos, while the voices sing and other instruments perform their parts, or during the intervals when the other parts stop
Music - In the early days of the human race, Music was one of the first expressions of artistic and cultural development (Genesis 4:21). At other times people played or listened to Music purely for relaxation or enjoyment (1 Samuel 16:16-17; 1 Samuel 16:23; 1 Samuel 18:10; Job 21:11-12; Ezekiel 26:13; Ezekiel 33:31-32; Lamentations 5:14; Revelation 18:22). Music also accompanied mourning and singing at funerals (Matthew 9:23; Luke 7:32; see FUNERAL)
Praise - Music. -Our study of the ideal of praise in the Apostolic Church would be incomplete without some reference to the Music both vocal and instrumental in which pious hearts desired to express it. Edersheim, however, thinks that some of the Music still used in the Synagogue must date back to the time when the Temple was still standing, and traces ‘in the so-called Gregorian tones … a close approximation to the ancient hymnody of the Temple’ (The Temple, p. References to Musical instruments are few in number. They are symbolic of a character which makes professions in words but is lacking in love, or, as Edersheim puts it, ‘he compares the gift of “tongues” to the sign or signal by which the real Music of the Temple was introduced’ (op. 75) also draws an ‘analogy between the time when these “harpers” are introduced’ in the heavenly services (Revelation 5:8; Revelation 14:2-3) ‘and the period in the Temple-service when the Music began-just as the joyous drink-offering was poured out. There was a certain prejudice against the Music of flutes, but they seem to have been used at Alexandria to accompany the hymns at the Agape until Clement of Alexandria substituted harps about a. Stainer, The Music of the Bible, new ed
Black People And Biblical Perspectives - ” Music not only reinforced the telling of the story but put it in a medium to be easily remembered. Memorization through Music is an experience common to humanity. Black people have maximized Music as a communicative medium
Topheth - Music grove, as Chinneroth is "the harp sea"; or tuph "to spit," less probably; or from a root "burning" (Persian, Gesenins); or "filth" (Roediger)
Flourish - ) To execute an irregular or fanciful strain of Music, by way of ornament or prelude. ) A fantastic or decorative Musical passage; a strain of triumph or bravado, not forming part of a regular Musical composition; a cal; a fanfare
Exercise - ; that which is assigned or prescribed for such ends; hence, a disquisition; a lesson; a task; as, military or naval exercises; Musical exercises; an exercise in composition. ) To exert for the sake of training or improvement; to practice in order to develop; hence, also, to improve by practice; to discipline, and to use or to for the purpose of training; as, to exercise arms; to exercise one's self in Music; to exercise troops
Alexandria - The Mouseion (Museum) complimented the library as the center of worship for the Muses, goddesses of “music,” dancing, and letters
Trumpet - See Music
Ascension Day - The services are usually brightened withspecial Music; the Altar is decked with flowers and white hangingsas symbolical of the joy which characterizes the Celebration
Psalms - He first introduced into the ritual of the tabernacle Music and song. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to Music; a sacred song accompanied with a Musical instrument
Dancing - At times also a line of men and women, with hands joined, confronted another similar line, and the dance consisted in their alternate advance and retreat, accompanied by the hand-clapping of the onlookers beating time to the Music, by the scarf-waving and occasional shout, and, at regulated intervals, the resounding tread of the dancers. The accompaniment of song, hand-clapping, and Musical instruments served to control the energy and secure unity of movement. Hence among a people marked by mobility of temperament and prone to extremes of feeling, the children in the market-place might well reproach their companions who heard the wedding Music without rising to the dance, and the wail of bereavement without being moved to pity (Matthew 11:17, Luke 7:32)
Exorcism - An anticipation of the later methods occurs in David’s attempt to expel Saul’s melancholia by means of Music ( 1 Samuel 16:16 ; 1 Samuel 16:23 ); and in the perception of the benefit of Music may possibly be found the origin of the incantations that became a marked feature of the process
Horn - See Music
Selah - liturgical-musical term of uncertain meaning. Or it may have been a direction to the orchestra ‘Lift up! loud!’ to strike in with loud Music (after the soft accompaniment to the singers’ voices) during a pause in the singing
Note - In Music, a character which marks a sound, or the sound itself as a semibreve, a minim, &c
Foot - ) To tread to measure or Music; to dance; to trip; to skip
Artemis - They conducted the daily ceremonies caring for the deity and for the gifts brought by worshipers, as well as an annual festival on May 25, when numerous statues of the goddess were carried in procession to the amphitheater in Ephesus for a celebration of Music, dancing, and drama
Brace - ) A vertical curved line connecting two or more words or lines, which are to be taken together; thus, boll, bowl; or, in Music, used to connect staves
Fret - ) To furnish with frets, as an instrument of Music
Art And Aesthetics - However, many things such as architecture, sculpture, painting, Music, dance, and literature are generally accepted as works of art. By the time of David, Music and dance had become a popularly accepted media for artistic presentation (1 Samuel 18:6 ; 2 Samuel 6:14 ). When God began to reveal the nature of the new kingdom, He did so not only with the accompaniment of Music (Revelation 5:9 ), but also with great strokes of artistic beauty (Haggai 1:4 )
Province - So in Music, a canon is a composition in which a given melody is the model for the formation of all the parts
Natural - A natural note, in Music, is that which is according to the usual order of the scale opposed to flat and sharp notes, which are called artificial
Bow - ) To play (music) with a bow
Flat - In Music, a mark of depression in sound
Drum - ) An instrument of percussion, consisting either of a hollow cylinder, over each end of which is stretched a piece of skin or vellum, to be beaten with a stick; or of a metallic hemisphere (kettledrum) with a single piece of skin to be so beaten; the common instrument for marking time in martial Music; one of the pair of tympani in an orchestra, or cavalry band
Degree - In Music, an interval of sound, marked by a line on the scale
Fret - FRET, To furnish with frets, as an instrument of Music
Garden - ’ The cool shade of the trees, the Music of the stream, and the delightful variety of fruits in their season, make the gardens a favourite place of resort ( Esther 7:7 , Song of Solomon 4:16 etc
Rest - ) Silence in Music or in one of its parts; the name of the character that stands for such silence
Taste - ) Manner, with respect to what is pleasing, refined, or in accordance with good usage; style; as, Music composed in good taste; an epitaph in bad taste
Catch - In Music, a fugue in the unison, wherein to humor some conceit in the words, the melody is broken, and the sense is interrupted in one part, and caught and supported by another, or a different sense is given to the words or a piece for three or more voices, one of which leads and the others follow in the same notes
Long - ) A note formerly used in Music, one half the length of a large, twice that of a breve
Quantity - In Music, the relative duration of a note or syllable
Tail - In Music, the part of a note running upwards or downwards
Unity - In Music, such a combination of parts as to constitute a whole, or a kind of symmetry of style and character
Agree, Agreement - , "to be in accord, primarily of Musical instruments," is used in the NT of the "agreement" (a) of persons concerning a matter, Matthew 18:19 ; 20:2,13 ; Acts 5:9 ; (b) of the writers of Scripture, Acts 15:15 ; (c) of things that are said to be congruous in their nature, Luke 5:36 . sumphonesis, "concord," 2 Corinthians 6:15 , and sumphonia, "music," Luke 15:25
Caecilia, Saint, Roman Lady - Caecilia is seldom depicted with her Musical instruments. When she came to be regarded as the patron saint of Musicians is unknown, nor have we any record of her use of instruments of Music. , an academy of Music was founded at Rome, and placed under the tutelage of St. Caecilia became regarded as the patron of Music. Caecilia was hence represented in early pictures with the organ prominent in her Acts; and that she was thence imagined to be a Musician by those who did not understand that she was only represented with an organ as other saints are depicted with the instrument of torture by which they suffered. Caecilia, and there is no ground for the idea that the angel came down to listen to her Music
Hymn - HYMN (in NT; for OT, see Music, Poetry, Psalms)
Gibeon - David put the brazen altar before the tabernacle (2 Chronicles 1:5) probably at the same time lie removed the ark to Zion and appointed the priests under Zadok to offer the daily sacrifices, and Heman and Jeduthun to direct the Music (2 Chronicles 1:3)
Adder - Music charms the naja (cobra di capello, hooded snake) and the cerastes (horned viper)
Exercise - To exert one's powers or strength to practice habitually as, to exercise one's self in speaking or Music
Flourish - In Music, to play with bold and irregular notes, or without settled form as, to flourish on an organ or violin
Flute-Players - These funeral Musicians seem to have been generally, if not always, professionals, and to have been held in very low esteem. ‘Music’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible iii
Ring - ) To practice making Music with bells
Rousseau, Jean Jacques - Having spent a year in Vellice as secretary to the French ambassador, he came back to Paris, wrote Music, and began his liaison with Therese le Vasseur, a barmaid, by whom he had five children, consigning all of them to a foundling asylum
Theology, Pastoral - How to attend the sick and dying, the use of sacramentals, vespers, church Music, processions, and relics are usually treated under sacramental discipline
Rich - In Music, full of sweet or harmonious sounds
Peraea - Rough mountain heights rise from the midst of wooded slopes, while rich fields stretch between; anon romantic vales break down into mighty gorges, where the sound of running water makes Music all the year
Mourn, Mourning - (2) Among the well-to-do it was common to hire professional mourners (men and women), who accompanied the dead body to the grave with formal Music and the singing of dirges
Dancing - Women sang and danced, accompanied by Musical instruments. Marriage processions involved dancing with timbrels and other Musical instruments (Psalm 45:14-15 ). Children played games of “dance” (Job 21:11 ), often with the accompaniment of a Musical instrument (Matthew 11:17 ; Luke 7:32 ). The psalmist exhorted others to praise God with Music and dancing (Psalm 149:3 ; Psalm 150:4 )
Element - ) The simplest or fundamental principles of any system in philosophy, science, or art; rudiments; as, the elements of geometry, or of Music
Lift - ...
1 Chronicles 25:5 The sounding forth of the Music
Temper - In Music, to modify or amend a false or imperfect concord by transferring to it a part of the beauty of a perfect one, that is, by dividing the tones
Language in Liturgy - Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead language, is not subject to change as are modern tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of language would destroy the sacred Music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past
Liturgy, Language in - Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead language, is not subject to change as are modern tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of language would destroy the sacred Music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past
Close - ) The conclusion of a strain of Music; cadence
Trance - The ecstatic condition which frequently accompanies unusual religious excitement has often been deliberately cultivated by means of suggestion, fasting, Music, and bodily contortions
Part - ) One of the different melodies of a concerted composition, which heard in union compose its harmony; also, the Music for each voice or instrument; as, the treble, tenor, or bass part; the violin part, etc
Bow - A small machine, formed with a stick and hairs, which being drawn over the strings of an instrument of Music, causes it to sound
House - This house must have a right foundation, JESUS CHRIST:...
...
a heating plant to keep the heart and soul on fire for GOD;...
a kitchen so that the food may be prepared for the soul;...
a library for the education and instruction of the mind;...
a Music room to keep the heart singing;...
a parlor for hospitality;...
a bedroom for rest;...
a bath room for cleansing;...
an attic for storage;...
and also the light of the Word and the water of the Spirit
Full - A full band, in Music, is when all the voices and instruments are employed
Shell - ) An instrument of Music, as a lyre, - the first lyre having been made, it is said, by drawing strings over a tortoise shell
To - ) Accompaniment; as, she sang to his guitar; they danced to the Music of a piano
Antediluvians - The three sons of Lamech are attributed with the origins of cattle raising (Jabal), Music (Jubal), and metallurgy (Tubal-cain)
To - ) Accompaniment; as, she sang to his guitar; they danced to the Music of a piano
Burial - It is also a custom still prevailing in the East to hire wailing women, Jeremiah 9:17 Amos 5:16 , who praised the deceased, Acts 9:39 , and by doleful cries and frantic gestures, aided at times by melancholy tones of Music, Matthew 9:23 , strove to express the deepest grief, Ezekiel 24:17,18
Philippus, of Side - Socrates describes it as a medley of theorems in geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and Music, with descriptions of islands, mountains, and trees, and other matters of little moment
Triumphs - The Hebrews, under the direction of inspired prophets, celebrated their victories by triumphal processions, the women and children dancing, and praying upon Musical instruments, and singing hymns and songs of triumph to the living and true God. But the song which the women of Israel chanted when they went out to meet Saul and his victorious army, after the death of Goliath, and the discomfiture of the Philistines, possesses somewhat of a different character, turning chiefly on the valorous exploits of Saul and the youthful champion of Israel: "And it came to pass, as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all the cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet King Saul with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of Music: and the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands," 1 Samuel 18:6-7 . When that religious prince led forth his army to battle against a powerful confederacy of his neighbours, he appointed a band of sacred Music to march in front, praising the beauty of holiness as they went. First went a numerous band of Music, singing and playing triumphal songs; next were led the oxen to be sacrificed, having their horns gilt, and their heads adorned with fillets and garlands; then, in carriages, were brought the spoils taken from the enemy; also golden crowns sent by the allied and tributary states. The captive leaders followed in chains, with their children and attendants; after the captives came the lictors, having their faces wreathed with laurel, followed by a great company of Musicians and dancers, dressed like satyrs, and wearing crowns of gold; in the midst of whom was a pantomime, clothed in a female garb, whose business it was, with his looks and gestures, to insult the vanquished; a long train of persons followed, carrying perfumes; after them came the general, dressed in purple, embroidered with gold, with a crown of laurel on his head, a branch of laurel in his right hand, and in his left an ivory sceptre, with an eagle on the top, his face painted with vermilion, and a golden ball hanging from his neck on his breast; he stood upright in a gilded chariot, adorned with ivory, and drawn by four white horses, attended by his relations, and a great crowd of citizens, all in white
Figure - In Music, to pass several notes for one to form runnings or variations
Charlemagne - He improved and propagated church Music, laying the foundations of modern Musical culture
Charles the Great - He improved and propagated church Music, laying the foundations of modern Musical culture
Version, the Revised English - ...
The Revisers in their Preface speak enthusiastically of the Authorised Version, stating how they admired "its simplicity, its dignity, its power, its happy turns of expression, its general accuracy," and did not fail to add, "the Music of its cadences, and the felicities of its rhythm
Urim And Thummim - Music then, instead of visions, became the help to the state of prayer and praise in which prophets revealed God's will (1 Samuel 9:9)
Merari, Merarites - (3) In David’s reign the Chronicler relates that the Temple Music was superintended partly by Ethan, or Jeduthun, a Merarite, and his family ( 1 Chronicles 6:44-47 ; 1Ch 16:41 f
Selah - But this opinion is liable to great objection; for in this case David and Habakkuk are the only writers that thus impress consideration on their Readers, and they that always, neither at what we should consider the most striking parts of their writings: and if this were indeed the sense of Selah, how comes it that not one of the Lord's servants have ever used?...
Others, and that a great majority of writers on Scripture, have concluded that the word Selah had reference to the Music in the temple-service, and was a note of the ancient psalmody, but which now and for a long time, hath lost its use. If the reader wishes to look at these other words, let him turn to the word Musician
Pray - In these uses tephillâh means a prayer set to Music and sung in the formal worship service
Burial - The loud and shrill lamentations referred to in Mark 5:38, John 11:19, were by hired mourners, see also Jeremiah 9:17-18; Amos 5:16, who praised the deceased, Acts 9:39, and by doleful cries and frantic gestures, aided at times by melancholy tones of Music, Matthew 9:23, strove to express the deepest grief, Ezekiel 24:17-18
Measure - ) A regulated movement corresponding to the time in which the accompanying Music is performed; but, especially, a slow and stately dance, like the minuet
Poetry of the Hebrews - From the earliest times Music and poetry were cultivated among the Hebrews. But in the days of King David Music and poetry were carried to the greatest height. In 1 Chronicles 25, an account is given of David's institutions relating to the sacred Music and poetry, which were certainly more costly, more splendid and magnificent, than ever obtained in the public service of any other nation. They were accompanied with Music, and they were performed by choirs or bands of singers and Musicians, who answered alternately to each other. " And in this manner their poetry, when set to Music, naturally divided itself into a succession of strophes and antistrophes correspondent to each other; whence it is probable the antiphon, or responsory, in the public religious service of so many Christian churches, derived its origin. The Levites and singers, divided into their several courses, and accompanied with all their Musical instruments, led the way. "...
The method of composition which has been explained, by correspondent versicles being universally introduced into the hymns or Musical poetry of the Jews, easily spread itself through their other poetical writings, which were not designed to be sung in alternate portions, and which, therefore, did not so much require this mode of composition. Of lyric poetry, or that which is intended to be accompanied with Music, the Old Testament is full
Therapeutae - On great festivals, the meeting was closed with a vigil, in which sacred Music was performed, accompanied with solemn dancing; and these vigils were continued till morning, when the assembly, after a morning prayer, in which their faces were directed towards the rising sun, was broken up
Schoolmaster - His office in the old Greek system of education was to accompany the children of the family to and from their schools, the school of the Music-master and the school of the physical trainer
Master - We say, a man is master of his business a great master of Music, of the flute or violin a master of his subject, &c
Peace: of a Believer - With bum of pleasant Music the brook turns the village mill
Wind - A meeting is advertised largely, the speaker is extolled for his ability, the proper Music is arranged, the crowd has arrived, and then the whole meeting falls "flat
Build - ...
a Music room should be built, so that the heart will keep singing
Grace - In Music, graces signifies turns, trills and shakes introduced for embellishment
Moloch - To stifle the cries of the unhappy sufferer from being heard, instruments of Music were made use of, which continued playing until the poor victim had expired
Taste - Style manner, with respect to what is pleasing as a poem or Music composed in good taste
Set - ) To fit with Music; to adapt, as words to notes; to prepare for singing. ) To fit Music to words
David - He became skilled in speech, writing and Music, and grew into a brave fighter through having to defend his flocks against wild animals and raiding Philistines (1 Samuel 16:18; 1 Samuel 17:34-36; cf. ...
David’s introduction to Saul’s court was as one whose Music relaxed the king’s troubled nerves (1 Samuel 16:16). After his victory over the Philistines’ champion fighter, he became Saul’s armour-bearer and full-time court Musician (1 Samuel 16:21; 1 Samuel 17:50; 1 Samuel 18:2)
David - He was introduced to court as a man expert in Music, a singularly valiant man, a man of war, prudent in matters, of a comely person, and one favoured of the Lord. By his skill in Music, he relieved Saul under a melancholy indisposition that had seized him, was highly beloved by his royal master, and made one of his guards. Having rescued Jerusalem out of the hands of the Jebusites, he made it the capital of his kingdom, and the place of his residence; and being willing to honour it with the presence of the ark of God, he brought it to Jerusalem in triumph, and divesting himself of his royal robes, out of reverence to God, he clothed himself in the habit of his ministers, and with them expressed his joy by dancing and Music; contemned only by one haughty woman; whom, as a just punishment of her insolence, he seems ever after to have separated from his bed
Athens - At the foot of the Acropolis, on one side was the Odeum, or Music hall, and the theatre of Bacchus: on the other side was the Prytaneum, where the chief magistrates and most meritorious citizens were entertained at a table furnished at the public expense
Hymn - The division of Christian song into psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs (Ephesians 5:19 ; Colossians 3:16 ) should not to be taken to mean that there were three distinct types or styles of vocal Music in use in those days
Catholic And Protestant Countries Compared - The achievement of the highest art in architecture, sculpture, painting, Music, and literature is, of course, the work of genius; and genius is not produced by nor limited to any religious or national group
Thanksgiving - In Ephesians 5:20 he teaches that thanksgiving is the inspiration of Christian poetry and Music, in which it found its most characteristic expression
Beat - In the rhythm of Music the beat is the unit
Fine - ...
Fine Arts or polite arts, are the arts which depend chiefly on the labors of the mind or imagination, and whose object is pleasure as poetry, Music, painting and sculpture
Composition - In Music, the act or art of forming tunes or a tune, song, anthem, air, or other Musical piece
Ground - In Music, the name given to a composition in which the base, consisting of a few bars of independent notes, is continually repeated to a continually varying melody
High - In Music, acute sharp as a high note a high voice opposed to low or grave
Musical Instruments of the Hebrews - (There has been great obscurity as to the instruments of Music in use among the Hebrews, but the discoveries on the monuments of Egypt and Assyria have thrown much light upon the form and nature of these instruments. ...
The triangle (shalishim ), ( 1 Samuel 18:6 ) a Musical instrument (machol ) used for accompanying the dance, and several times translated dancing
Pipe Flute - ’ αὐλός and αὐλούμενον occur in 1 Corinthians 14:7 : ‘… whether pipe or harp, except they give a distinction in the sounds, how shall it be known what is piped or harped?’ By this Musical illustration St. αὐλέω occurs in Matthew 11:17 and its parallel in Luke 7:32 : ‘we have piped unto you, and ye have not danced …’...
The three traditional wind instruments of Hebrew Music (which must guide us in a discussion of the instruments of the Apostolic Age) were the flute, horn, and trumpet; and of these the flute was most often used. On the more domestic occasions of rejoicing, such as marriages and dances, the flute-player was also considered necessary for their proper celebration; and Matthew 11:17 shows that the Musical accompaniment of festivity was continued in NT times. Amongst the Romans the designator and his lictores made the tibicines and other Musicians take the forefront of the funeral processions
Thanksgiving - In Ephesians 5:20 he teaches that thanksgiving is the inspiration of Christian poetry and Music, in which it found its most characteristic expression
David - He had poetic genius, too; and Music was his delight. When Saul, afflicted now with that black spirit of melancholy which his sins had justly brought upon him, might, it was thought, be soothed by a minstrel's Music, David took his harp to the palace; and his Music calmed Saul's distemper; and Saul was gratified and became attached to his skilful attendant. He is now fully recognize! found both a skilful Musician and a valiant soldier, and attains the position mentioned before
Psalms, the Book of - This word is rendered in the Septuagint by psalmos, that is, a song sung to Music, a lyric poem. These are mostly very obscure, because the Music and Musical instruments of the Hebrews are almost unknown to us
Banquets - Music, vocal and instrumental (Isaiah 5:12), and dancing (Luke 15:25)
Swedenborgians - They use a liturgy, and instrumental as well as vocal Music, in their public worship
Touch - ) The act of the hand on a Musical instrument; bence, in the plural, Musical notes. ) To strike; to manipulate; to play on; as, to touch an instrument of Music
Throne - " And Stewart observes, "We marched toward the emperor with our Music playing, till we came within about eighty yards of him, when the old monarch, alighting from his horse, prostrated himself on the earth to pray, and continued some minutes with his face so close to the earth, that, when we came up to him, the dust remained upon his nose
Bouddhists - There are other commands for superior classes, or devotees, which forbid dancing, songs, Music, festivals, perfumes, elegant dresses, elevated seats, &c
Poetry - A sacred choir was formed, himself at its head; then followed the three chief Musicians, Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun; then Asaph's four sons, Jeduthun's six, and Heman's 14. ...
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. Stringed instruments predominated in the sacred Music, psalteries and harps; cymbals were only for occasions of special joy (Psalms 150:5). Even the Music was put in charge of spiritually gifted men, and Heman was "the king's seer in the words of God" (1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Chronicles 25:5)
Cain - the beginnings of city-life ( Genesis 4:17 ), polygamy ( Genesis 4:19 ), nomad life ( Genesis 4:20 ), Music ( Genesis 4:21 ), metallurgy ( Genesis 4:22 )
Kohath, Kohathites - (3) In David’s reign the Chronicler relates that the Temple Music was managed partly by Heman, a Kohathite, and his family ( 1 Chronicles 6:31-38 ; 1Ch 16:41 f
Spiritual Gifts - This seems unlikely, as we today can recognize some gifts which Paul did not mention, such as the gifts of Music, of working with youth, and of counseling
Bar - In Music, bars are lines drawn perpendicularly across the lines of the staff, including between each two, a certain quantity of time, or number of beats
Meals - The meal was enlivened with Music, singing and dancing, (2 Samuel 19:35 ) or with riddles, (Judges 14:12 ) and amid these entertainments the festival was prolonged for several days
Levites - After the building of the temple they took charge of the gates, of the sacred vessels, of the preparation of the showbread and other offerings, and of the singing and instrumental Music, 1 Chronicles 9:1-44 23:1-32 2 Chronicles 29:1-36
Rest - In Music, a pause an interval during which the voice is intermitted also, the mark of such intermission
A - ...
Music, A is the nominal of the sixth note in the natural diatonic scale - called by Guido la
Vessel - 71:22) “musical instruments” are called Kelı̂m “That chant to the sound of the viol, and invent to themselves instruments of Music
Feasts - During the repast and after it various entertainments were provided; enigmas were proposed, Judges 14:12 ; eastern tales were told; Music and hired dancers, and often excessive drinking, etc
Rome - In literature they depended mainly on the Greeks, as in sculpture, Music, painting, and medicine
Passion - They gave birth to poetry, science, painting, Music, and all the polite arts, which minister to pleasure; nor are they less serviceable in the cause of religion and truth
Voice - Luke 1:44, ‘the voice of thy salutation,’ or the sound of thunder, wind, water, and Musical instruments. Even the sound of inanimate instruments such as the flute or the harp is useless, if there are no intervals in the Music; for no air can be made out by the listener if the laws of harmony are ignored. Paul includes both the speech of the human voice in its many languages and the notes of Musical instruments
Harp - Paul by this Musical illustration criticizes a prevalent and unedifying speaking with tongues, though, in the light of the phrase eandem cantilenam recinere, his figure of ‘harping’ has come in colloquial use to represent rather monotonous persistency. ...
When we attempt to describe exactly the design and manipulation of Musical instruments in use throughout the Apostolic Age, we are met with almost insuperable difficulties. The apocalyptic character of the book, which, as we have seen, contains, with but one exception, the references to harps, turns one to Jewish Music; but, though there is much relevant information in Chronicles and other OT writings, it is lacking in precision
Lily - The title of some of the Psalms "upon Shushan," or "Shoshanim," Psalms 45; Psalms 60; Psalms 69; Psalms 80, probably means no more than that the Music of these sacred compositions was to be regulated by that of some odes, which were known by those names or appellations
Theodotus, Martyr at Ancyra - They were delighted to see their deliverer, and invited him to a meal, of which we have a graphic picture: the fugitives reclining on the abundant grass, surrounded with trees, wild fruit, and flowers, while grasshoppers, nightingales, and birds of every kind made Music around
Oracles - Prophets did sometimes use Music as a means of receiving a decision oracle as did Elisha (2 Kings 3:15 ). However, the exact way Music was used is unclear to us
da'Vid - (Psalm 18:33,34 ) After the anointing David resumes his accustomed duties, and the next we know of him he is summoned to the court to chase away the king's madness by Music, (1 Samuel 16:14-19 ) and in the successful effort of David's harp we have the first glimpse into that genius for Music and poetry which was afterwards consecrated in the Psalms
Common - ...
Common time, in Music, duple or double time, when the semibreve is equal to two minims
Jephthah - His daughter, an only child, welcomed his return with Music and dancing
Think, Devise - The prophet Amos cites people who “invent” instruments of Music and enjoy it (Amos 6:5)
Michal, Saul's Daughter - The deaf do not hear the Music. And, on the other hand, those who do hear the Music, they cannot understand those who can sit still. But Michal's ear had never been opened to the Music of the ark
Psalms - The titles prefixed to them are of very questionable authority; and in many cases they are not intended to denote the writer but refer only to the person who was appointed to set them to Music. King David gave a regular and noble form to the Musical part of the Jewish service. He was himself a great composer, both in poetry and Music, and a munificent patron, no doubt, of arts in which he himself so much delighted and excelled. ...
The Psalms are all poems of the lyric kind, that is, adapted to Music, but with great variety in the style of composition
Poetry - We have no knowledge of Hebrew Music of a character that would aid in determining the rhythm of the poems that were sung to its accompaniment. They had special names for ‘proverb’ and ‘song’ ; they provided the Psalms with headings, some of which must have been Musical directions; they made alphabetical poems, the several lines or stanzas of which begin with the letters of the alphabet in regular order. It is commonly of a length to be uttered with a single breath, and, if sung, a brief strain of Music suffices to accompany it. What is desirable in prose, and often used there, becomes the rule in poetry, as one may easily understand when one considers the necessity of a uniform line for the sake of easy utterance with Musical accompaniment. Marriage occasions furnished the very best opportunity for the composition of songs, and for their execution to the accompaniment of Music
Song of Solomon - Like Music, it tends to joy rather than learning
Saul - Saul is advised to employ Music as a relief from a deep-seated mental trouble, called ‘an evil spirit from the Lord
Tabernacles, the Feast of - The huts and the lulabs must have made a gay end striking spectacle over the city by day, and the lamps, the flambeaux, the Music and the joyous gatherings in the court of the temple must have given a still more festive character to the night
Mourning Customs - At times one of the chief mourners leans over the body, wringing her hands or wiping away the fast falling tears, and asking why he has left them, and who will discharge the duties that belonged to him alone, pleading for love’s sake to hear only once more the Music of the voice now silent, or begging forgiveness on account of selfishness and imperfect service in the days that will never return
Water - The prophet of the Revelation (recalling Ezekiel 1:24; Ezekiel 43:2) once compares the voice of Christ (Revelation 1:15), and twice that of the great multitude of the redeemed (Revelation 14:2, Revelation 19:6), to the voice of many waters, in the one case thinking perhaps of the Music of waves quietly breaking, in the other of the thunder of great billows crashing, around the aegean island which was his place of exile
Worship - Organized forms of worship were established firstly for the tabernacle (see FEASTS; SACRIFICE; TABERNACLE), then for the temple (see Music; SINGING; TEMPLE), and later for the synagogue (see SYNAGOGUE)
Cities - In the Indies, the parts of the night are made known, as well by instruments of Music, in great cities, as by the rounds of the watchmen, who, with cries and small drums, give them notice that a fourth part of the night is past
David - In his early pastoral life he distinguished himself by his boldness, fidelity, and faith in God; and while yet a youth was summoned to court, as one expert in Music, valiant, prudent in behavior, and comely in person
Prophet - Subsidiary subjects of instruction were Music and sacred poetry, both of which had been connected with prophecy from the time of Moses (Exodus 15:20 ) and the judges
Prophesy - Music is sometimes spoken of as a means of prophesying, as in 1618453114_9
Incense - " On coming forth he pronounced the blessing (Numbers 6:24-26); the Levites broke forth into sacred song, accompanied by the temple Music (Mishna); compare Revelation 8:5
Nero - He was fond of the arts, especially Music and poetry, but he never attained more than a respectable standard in either
Levite - ...
During the temple period, with the ark permanently in Jerusalem and in view of their numbers, the Levites were given additional responsibilities as officials, judges, gatekeepers, and Musicians, all of which assisted the priests (1 Chronicles 23:4-5 ). They were "set apart, " handled the sacred articles of the tabernacle, served as substitutes for the firstborn who belonged to God, taught the law of God, served as judges, enhanced the worship at the temple in Music, and guarded the treasures and moneys associated with the temple, but did not serve as mediators of the covenant
Cassiodorus (or Rather, Cassiodorius) Magnus Aurelius - Cassiodorus was brought up under circumstances highly favourable to his education, which included the study of grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, Music, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, mechanics, anatomy, Greek, and the sacred Scriptures
Psalmody - As to the voice or pronunciation, used in singing, it was of two sorts, the plain song, and the more artificial; the plain song was only a gentle inflexion, or turn of the voice, not very different from the chanting in our cathedrals; the artificial song seems to have been a regular Musical composition, like our anthems. The first was, the introducing secular Music, or an imitation of the light airs of the theatre, in the devotions of the church. ...
The use of Musical instruments in singing of psalms, seems to be as ancient as psalmody itself. The first psalm we read of was sung to a timbrel, namely, that which Moses and Miriam sung after the deliverance of the children of Israel from Egypt; and afterward, at Jerusalem, when the temple was built, Musical instruments were constantly used at their public services. The Presbyterians, it seems, were not quite so unmusical; for the Directory of the Westminster divines distinctly stated, that "it is the duty of Christians to praise God publicly by singing of Psalms together in the congregation
Priest - (Numbers 10:1-8 ) Other instruments of Music might be used by the more highly-trained Levites and the schools of the prophets, but the trumpets belonged only to the priests, The presence of the priests on the held of battle, (1 Chronicles 12:23,27 ; 2 Chronicles 20:21,22 ) led, in the later periods of Jewish history, to the special appointment at such times of a war priest
Chronicles, Books of - Having been made king, David brought the ark to Jerusalem and began organizing the singing and Music that were to characterize public worship in Israel (13:1-16:36)
the Sower Who Went Forth to Sow - They love Music, and they are here because the Music is good
Josiah - And till Jesus Christ from the great white throne condemns and sentences Josiah for his too tender heart, I shall continue to read this to myself on his tombstone in the valley of Megiddo:...
-This,...
the remembrance of josiah is like the perfume of the apothecary, and his name is like Music at a banquet of wine. the remembrance of josiah in judah and in jerusalem is like the perfume of the apothecary, and like Music at a banquet of wine
Sabbath - (Leviticus 23:3 ) In later times the worship of the sanctuary was enlivened by sacred Music
Elisha - The Music induces the ecstatic state, and then he prophesies (2 Kings 3:15 )
Games - Herod erected a theater and amphitheater, with quinquennial contests in gymnastics, chariot races, Music, and wild beasts, at Jerusalem and Caesarea, to the annoyance of the faithful Jews (Josephus, Ant 15:8, sec
Diana - She was a goddess of war, of the sea, of roads, of markets and trade, of government, of healing, protectress from danger, guardian of oaths (by her women were accustomed to swear), goddess of maidenhood, of beauty, of dancing and Music
Manes, Called Also Mani - He was well educated in Greek, Music, mathematics, geography, astronomy, painting, medicine, and the Scriptures
David - The first glimpse we have of David's taste in Music and sacred poetry, which afterward appears so preeminent in his psalms, is in his having been chosen as the best minstrel to charm away the evil spirit when it came upon Saul (1 Samuel 16:15-23). David doubtless received further training in the schools of the prophets, who connected their prophesying with the soothing and elevating Music of psaltery, tabret, pipe, and harp (1 Samuel 10:5); for he and Samuel (who also feared Saul's wrath for his having anointed David: 1 Samuel 16:2) dwelt together in Naioth near Ramah, i. ) Thus, he became "the sweet singer of Israel" (2 Samuel 23:1), "the inventor of instruments of Music" (Amos 6:5)
Psalms - 5), extending from Moses to the times of Malachi "the Hebrew history set to Music an oratorio in five parts, with Messiah for its subject" (Wordsworth). ...
So also "to the chief Musician," (committing the psalm to the Music conductor to prepare for Musical performance in the public service: 1 Chronicles 15:21 Hebrew and margin, compare 1 Chronicles 15:22,) is limited to David's and their psalms. Habakkuk 3:1, "Shiggaion," compare title Psalms 7:1, "Son of David"; Habakkuk 3:19, "to the chief Musician on my stringed instruments" is derived from the titles Psalm 4; 6. The very Musicians who founded the sacred Music were inspired (1 Chronicles 25:1, "prophesy with harps"), much more the psalmists themselves. Of Asaph's psalms, four are composed by David's chief Musician: Psalm 50; Psalm 73; Psalm 78 (warning Ephraim not to rebel against God's transfer of their prerogative to Zion and Judah), Psalm 82; a didactic and prophetic character marks them all. ...
Neither Heman nor the sons of Heman are named in the superscriptions, but the sons of Korah; perhaps because Heman, though Musical and head of the Korahitic singers, was not also poetically gifted as was Asaph; Psalm 88, is gloom throughout, yet the title calls it (shir ) a "song" of joy; this can only refer to Psalm 89 which follows being paired with it; it was when the "anointed" of David's throne (Josiah) had his "crown profaned on the ground," being not able to" stand in the battle" (Psalms 89:43), and his son Jehoahaz after a three months' reign was carried to Egypt by Pharaoh Necho (2 Chronicles 35:20-25; 2 Chronicles 36:1-4; Psalms 89:45); the title, "to the chief Musician," shows the temple was standing, Josiah had just before caused a religious revival
Worship - See Music; Psalms
Learning - The people were skilled in Music and in works of architecture
Manifestation - Such manifestations as these, then, are secret, personal realizations of Christ’s presence, according more nearly with the revelations of a friend’s character that we have in his letters, or in his pictures if he is an artist, in his Music if he is a Musician
Samuel - Samuel founded "the schools of the prophets," to which belonged "the sons of the prophets," whose education, beside the law, was in sacred, vocal, and instrumental Music and processions (1 Samuel 10:5; 1 Samuel 10:10; 1 Samuel 19:19-20; 1 Chronicles 25:1; 1 Chronicles 25:6)
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - Having appointed a day for the dedication of this statue, he assembled the principal officers of his kingdom, and published by a herald, that all should adore this image, at the sound of Music, on penalty of being cast into a burning fiery furnace
Education - Riddles and guesses seem to have been common, and story-telling, Music, and song were not wanting. Gymnastic, for the training of the body, and Music in the larger sense, including letters, for the training of the mind, were the subjects of instruction. These-athletics, literature, Music-were regulated by a body of guardians of public instruction (παιδονόμοι
Inspiration of Scripture - Both its quotations and its motifs are found in our literature, oratory, art, Music, politics, law, and ethics
Amphilochius, Archbishop of Iconium - He mentions the many letters which he has received from Amphilochius (μυριάκις γράφων ), and which have called forth harmonies from his soul, as the plectrum strikes Music out of the lyre (Ep
Hold - In Music, a mark directing the performer to rest on the note over which it is placed
Burial - Music was afterward introduced to aid the voices of the mourners: the trumpet was used at the funerals of the great, and the small pipe or flute for those of meaner condition. ...
"A melancholy choir attend around, ...
With plaintive sighs and Music's solemn sound; Alternately they sing, alternate flow ...
The obedient tears, melodious in their wo
Titus (Emperor) - He was early distinguished for bodily strength and manly beauty, and was accomplished not only in boxing and riding, but also in oratory; Music, and verse composition
Feasting - Paul exhorts Christians to use psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, he is contrasting the grand reverent Music of Christian meetings with the ribald songs of pagan feasts
Appreciation (of Christ) - His quick perception of the good in all, His tender response to the least wave of the world’s infinite Music, show Him as destined to be the desired of men
Dead - Mourners withdrew as much as possible from the world; they abstained from banquets and entertainments; they banished from their houses as unsuitable to their circumstances, and even painful to their feelings, Musical instruments of every kind, and whatever was calculated to excite pleasure, or that wore an air of mirth and gaiety. Thus did the king of Persia testify his sorrow for the decree, into which his wily courtiers had betrayed him, and which, without the miraculous interposition of Heaven, had proved fatal to his favourite minister; "Then the king went to his palace, and spent the night, fasting; neither were instruments of Music brought before him," Daniel 6:18
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - His son Honorius had set these hymns to Music and so sweet were both the words and tunes that they were known by heart even by children and sung to the guitar. Their poetry consists in their elevated sentiments and richness of metaphor but their regular form was an aid to the memory and rendered them capable of being set to Music
Education in Bible Times - 1 Samuel 19:20 ), the wisdom tradition of the Book of Proverbs, the Jerusalem temple conservatory of Music (cf. This instruction for vocational, technical, and professional service to society (and especially palace and temple) included military training, arts and crafts (smiths, artisans, weavers, potters), Music, royal officials (scribes, historians, overseers), temple personnel (priests, levites, gatekeepers, treasurers, judges), and domestic servants (midwives, cooks, bakers, perfumers)
Games - Music , again was especially associated with sacred song
Prophets - The title of prophets is given also to the sacred Musicians, who sung the praises of God, or who accompanied the song with Musical instruments. In these schools young men were educated under a proper master, who was commonly, if not always, an inspired prophet, in the knowledge of religion, and in sacred Music, 1 Samuel 10:5 ; 1 Samuel 19:20 , and were thereby qualified to be public preachers, which seems to have been part of the business of the prophets on the Sabbath days and festivals, 2 Kings 4:23
Personality - It has Music of its own to beat out, by appreciating and appropriating objects in its own environment. ...
‘Love took up the harp of Life, and smote on all the chords with might,...
Smote the chord of Self, that, trembling, passed in Music out of sight
David - The historical books recall David's skill as a Musician and his concern with Music in worship (1 Samuel 16:14-21 ; 1 Chronicles 25 ; 2 Chronicles 23:18 ; 29:25-30 ; 35:15 )
Levites - The Levites numbered 38,000 under David (1 Chronicles 23:3), of whom 4,000 formed the full choir; 288 in 24 divisions of 12 each were the skilled Musicians (1618453114_32). Their temple psalmody was the forerunner of our church Music; and to them we probably owe the preservation of some of the Scriptures
Illustrations - And Jesus’ illustrations are mostly pictures painted for that inward eye, Music played that the ear of faith there may hear
Poet - It is one kind of criticism of life—one which utilizes emotion and imagination in a peculiar way, and often affects the style of utterance in the direction of Music, through rhymed or rhythmical utterance more or less deliberate and formal. The infancy of Jesus is cradled among songs of women and of men, in which the narrative breaks forth into the Music of the earliest Christian hymns
Thousand Years - ...
Art and Music will be the handmaids to spiritual worship, instead of drawing off the soul to sensuousness
Boethius, Anicus Manlius Severinus - In the words of his friend Cassiodorus, "The geometry of Euclid, the Music of Pythagoras, the arithmetic of Nicomachus, the mechanics of Archimedes, the astronomy of Ptolemy, the theology of Plato, and the logic of Aristotle," were translated and illustrated for the benefit of the Romans by his indefatigable pen ( Var. ; de Musicâ libri v
Parable - THE PRODIGAL SON was joyfully received by the father, a feast was prepared, and the recovery of the lost one was celebrated by Music and dancing
Exorcism - David by Music expelled the evil spirit from Saul (1 Samuel 16:14-23), though, when the spirit came mightily, he failed (1 Samuel 19:9; Jos
Barzillai - For, how he anticipated all David's possible wants! How he put himself into all David's distressed place! How he did to David as David would have done to him! How he came down from his high seat, with all his years on his head, in order with his own hand to conduct the king over Jordan! And, then, with what sweetness of manner and Music of speech he excused himself out of all the royal rewards and honours and promotions David had designed and decreed to put upon him!...
The service and the loyalty I owe,In doing, pays itself
Daniel - ...
The Chaldean Schools: their literature, their true science and their pseudo-science, their architecture, their Music, their political and military methods, their religion and the sacred arts connected with their religion-nothing of all that was at all foreign, or alien, or despicable to Daniel
Psalms - psalmos in classical Greek signified the twanging of strings, and especially the Musical sound produced by plucking the strings of a stringed instrument; as used here it means poems played to the Music of (stringed) instruments. The Jewish title for the whole book was ‘Book of Praises’: this referred directly to the subject-matter of the poems, and less directly than the Greek title to their Musical character. Both titles take into account the majority of the poems rather than the whole; not all the Psalms were sung to Musical accompaniment, and not all of them consist of praise
Take - My friend has left his Music and taken to books
Paul Apprehended of Christ Jesus - While his companions will be able to tell when they go home who preached, and on what, the fulness of the Church, the excellence of the Music, and the state of the weather on the way home-and that will be all
Meals - ‘Music and dancing’ ( Luke 15:25 ) and other forms of entertainment, such as the guessing of riddles ( Judges 14:12 ff
Occupations And Professions in the Bible - Prominent, throughout the Bible, are various occupations related to Musical talents. Descriptive names include: Singers and players ( Psalm 68:25 ) in the Old Testament, and Musicians , harpers , pipers , and trumpeters ( Revelation 18:22 ) in the New Testament. In both Testaments, Music played a significant part in the religious life and worship of the nation
Paul's Great Heaviness And Continual Sorrow of Heart - At any rate, there is no alleviation or relief for him in the colour of the morning or evening sky, or in the shape of the hills, or in the Music of the woods and the waters
Greece, Religion And Society of - He often continued in instruction in philosophy, Music, and poetry, attended religious festivals, observed the assembly of the people, practiced physical exercise, and served in some military office such as a policeman or fortress guard. The festival included contests between athletes, singers, and other Musical performers such as harpists and flutists. The festival of games began with a re-enactment of Apollo's slaying of Python, including large-scale sacrifices, dramatic presentations, Musical and athletic contests
Rome, Romans - So with sculpture, Music, painting, and medicine
God, Names of - Sometimes the compound is construed as a name: "It is good to make Music to your name, O Most High" (Psalm 9:1 )
Saul - David then first was called in to soothe away with the harp the evil spirit; but Music did not bring the good Spirit: to fill his soul, so the evil spirit returned worse than ever (Matthew 12:43-45; 1 Samuel 28:4-20)
Apocalyptic Literature - Because of their religion, literature was the only form of aesthetic expression (except Music) which was open to the art impulses of the Jews
Mission - God had often been represented as the Father of the Chosen People, and here and there individuals had thought themselves to be sons of God; but in the teachings of Jesus the Divine Fatherhood is asserted and illustrated so copiously, that some chapters of the Gospels consist almost solely of variations to the Music of these good tidings (Matthew 5, 6, 7)
Diseases - King Saul became mentally unstable, and it is of interest that he gained some help from Music (1 Samuel 16:23 ), a form of therapy that has proved to be beneficial in some cases of mental illness
Ethics - God hates the feasts, assemblies, offerings, and Music
Sorrow, Man of Sorrows - The title ‘Man of Sorrows’ expresses, more perhaps than any other, His attractive power; it has been the inspiration of Christian art and Music
Prophet - Music and poetry were cultivated as subordinate helps (compare Exodus 15:20; Judges 4:4; Judges 5:1)
Achan - For the Music we will not listen to we shall join in the song of the redeemed
Jonath - For, as he came nigh to the house, he heard Music and dancing
David - in His Services - And when I think also of the multitudes that no man can number to whom David's Psalms have been their constant song in the house of their pilgrimage; in the tabernacle as they fell for the first time hot from David's heart and harp; in the temple of Solomon his son with all the companies of singers and all their instruments of Music; in the synagogues of the captivity; in the wilderness as the captives returned to the New Jerusalem; in the New Jerusalem every Sabbath-day and every feast-day; in the upper room, both before and after supper; in Paul's prison at Philippi; in the catacombs; in Christian churches past number; in religious houses all over Christendom at all hours of the day and the night; in deserts, in mountains, in dens and caves of the earth; in our churches; in our Sabbath-schools; in our families morning and evening; in our sickrooms; on our death-beds; and in the night-watches when the disciples of Christ watch and pray lest they enter into temptation
David - In this second account, the servants of Saul recommend that the king should send for someone who is a ‘cunning player on the harp,’ in order that by means of Music the mental disorder from which he is suffering may be allayed. ...
While it is impossible to deny that the rôle of Musician in which we are accustomed to picture David is largely the product of later ages, there can be no doubt that this rôle assigned to him is based on fact (cf. 1 Samuel 1:17-27 , 2 Samuel 22:2-51 = Psalms 18:1-50 , Amos 6:5 ), and he must evidently be regarded as one of the main sources of inspiration which guided the nation’s Musicians of succeeding generations (see art
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - arithmetic, 9 chapters; geometry, 5 chapters; Music, 9 chapters; and astronomy, 48 chapters; algebra not being yet invented
Aaron - And, then, Miriam, in sacred drama, in sacred dance, in sacred song, and in sacred instruments of Music, was quite worthy to stand out beside her two unapproachable brothers
Parable - Christ’s most solemn utterances were directed towards the insensibility that took its Music without dancing, and sat silent where the wail for the dead was raised ( Matthew 16:1-46 )
Philo - Philo had had the usual training of a Greek boy of good family: he had studied grammar, mathematics, Music, and rhetoric; he had acquired a good knowledge of Greek literature and obtained a fairly profound philosophical education
Synagogue - Music and song likewise occupy a prominent place in the Chronicles and the Psalms, while they are ignored in the Priestly Code
Wisdom of Solomon - 530) grammar, geometry, and Music, those claimed for Solomon (7:17-20) are ‘to know how the world was made and the operation of the elements, the beginning, ending, and midst of the tunes (i
Holiness - It is ‘a faint prelusive note,’ and in 1 John 3:24 ‘the full distinct mention of the Holy Spirit comes like a burst of the Music of the “Veni Creator,” carrying on the fainter prelude’ (Expos
Physician - None could get the benefit of them without preliminary rites-shampooing, baths, friction, fasting, abstinence from food and wine; nor were religious rites of an impressive character, including Music, overlooked
Persecution - For this tragical spectacle Nero lent his own gardens; and exhibited at the same time the public diversions of the circus; sometimes driving a chariot in person, and sometimes standing as a spectator, while the shrieks of women burning to ashes supplied Music for his ears
Galatia - ’ If the Phrygian religion, with its frenzy of devotion, its weird Music, its orgiastic dances, its sensuous rites, made a profound impression even upon the cultured Greeks, one need not wonder that the simple Gallic barbarians were fascinated by the cult of Cybele, and that their chiefs were soon found by the side of the native rulers in the great temple of Pessinus
Sirach - He places the home of Wisdom in Jerusalem (Sirach 24:11), and ignores all celebrities save biblical heroes in his list of statesmen, authors, and Musical composers (Sirach 44:1-6). Quite in Hellenic style he dilates on the delights of a symposium, where there is good wine and choice Music (Sirach 34:25 to Sirach 35:6), and, parodying the words of Mimnermus, who declared that life would not be worth having without love (T
Complacency - The artist, or the composer in prose, poetry, or Music, regards his work with complacency when he has succeeded in giving adequate expression to his ideas, the workman when he is successful in his workmanship, the merchant or tradesman when his enterprise accomplishes the end at which he aims, the philanthropist when his efforts for the material or moral or spiritual well-being of the objects of his interest are rewarded, and he sees the fruits of his labours in the happiness and the gratitude of his fellows
Work - Furthermore, the descendants of Cain may be known for their accomplishments in the field of human endeavoragriculture, metallurgy, Music, and artbut that is all they are known for
Sanctification - Judge your art with your own eyes, and judge your Music with your ears’ (When I was a Child, London, 1912, p
Messiah - He commands the Jews to keep it on the ninth day of the month Ab, and to make it a day of great joy, to celebrate it with pleasing meats and drinks, with illuminations and Music
Augustinus, Aurelius - The church Music which Milan first of all the Western churches had recently adopted from the East struck deep into his soul: "The tide of devotion swelled high within me and the tears ran down and there was gladness in those tears. Manichaeos, de Musica, de Magistro, de Vera Religione, and parts of the Liber de Diversis Quaestionibus LXXXIII. The de Musica was a portion of the above-named unfinished work on the "liberal arts": he wrote it at the request of an African bishop
Gregorius (14) Nazianzenus, Bishop of Sasima And of Constantinople - 635), but denying himself even the pleasure of Music ( ib
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - ...
He was also influential as a preacher, and no less famous for his influence on the Music and liturgy of the church; whence he is called "magister caeremoniarum
Art - The Jews were not an inartistic nation, though they had not the genius for art of some other races: they had Music, poetry, sculpture, architecture, and the usual minor arts of their time; and, though in sculpture they were under strict regulations for the prevention of idolatry, this did not prevent them from using graven images within the sanctuary itself, while in the ornaments of their worship they had been guided by elaborate regulations as to form and colour and symbolism. After pertinently referring to the craftsman Bezalel the son of Uri (Exodus 31:2-6), whose ‘understanding’ was from God, he proceeds—...
‘For those who practise the common arts are in what pertains to the senses highly gifted: in hearing, he who is commonly called a Musician; in touch, he who moulds clay; in voice, the singer; in smell, the perfumer; in sight, the engraver of devices on seals
Lutherans - The Lutherans are partial to the use of instrumental Music in their churches, and admit statues and paintings, as the church of England does, without allowing them any religious veneration; but the rigid Calvinists reject these, and allow only the simplest forms of psalmody