MSS of the Peshiṭta go back to the century of its origin. The earliest with an actual date (which is also the earliest dated Biblical MS in existence) is a copy of some books of the Pentateuch, written in 464 (now in the British Museum; and the two earliest NT MSS may be assigned to about the same date. Of the Gospels, 125 copies in this version are on record; of Acts and Cath. 58, and of Paul. 67; Apoc.  (with the four minor Catholic Epp.) was not included in the Syriac canon. The later MSS reproduce the earlier very faithfully, so that the latest edition (by G. H. Gwilliam, 1901) does not substantially differ from the first (A. Widmanstadt, 1555).
14 . The Philoxenian Syriac . Unlike the Latin Vulgate, the Peshiṭta was not entirely unchallenged in its supremacy. In 508, Philoxenus, Jacobite bishop of Mabug in eastern Syria, caused a new translation of the NT to be made by one Poly carp; but of this nothing has come down to us except the four minor Catholic Epp., which were incorporated into the Peshiṭta to fill the gap caused by their original omission there, and a single MS of the Apoc.  (at Trinity College, Dublin; identified by Dr. Gwynn, and published in 1897). The style of Philox. was free and idiomatic, and the Greek text on which it was based was that of the majority of late MSS.
15 . The Harklean Syriac . In 616 a complete revision of Philox. was made by Thomas of Harkel, who converted its idiomatic freedom into extreme literalness, and added various readings in critical notes, which show an acquaintance with a Greek MS or MSS having a text akin to that of Cod. Bezae and its allies. About 35 MSS of Harkl. are known, dating from the 7th and 8th cent. onwards. The Apoc.  which is now incorporated with the Peshiṭta is probably derived from this version.
16 . The Palestinian Syriac . Yet another Syriac version exists, but in a different dialect from those hitherto described; for, whereas they all belong to E. Syria, with its centre at Edessa, this is in the Western Aramaic characteristic of Palestine and its neighbourhood. The extant MSS of it (which are few and generally fragmentary, and mostly discovered within the last 15 years) are mainly lectionaries, and its textual importance is slight. Prof. Burkitt has argued, apparently with good reason, that it owes its origin to the efforts of Justinian and Heraclius to abolish Judaism in Palestine in the 6th cent., and that it came again into prominence in the 11th century. The three principal MSS of it are dated in 1030, 1104, and 1118.
On the Syriac versions see especially articles by Woods and Gwilliam in Studia Biblica , vols. i. and iii.; A. S. Lewis, The Four Gospels translated from the Sinaitic Palimpsest , 1894; Gwynn, Apocalypse of St. John in a Syriac Version , 1897; F. C. Burkitt, op. cit. and Evangelion da Mepharreshê , 1904, and art. on ‘Text and Versions’ in Encyc. Biblica .
17 . The Armenian Version . In connexion with the Syriac NT it will be convenient to mention also the Armenian, which was largely dependent upon it. The earliest translation of which we have definite knowledge seems to have been made by Sahak and Mesrop about a.d. 400, from a Syriac text of the Old Syriac family. After 431 this version was revised by the help of Greek MSS received from Constantinople, which were apparently akin to B א , and thereby the original features of the version were much obscured. The earliest extant MSS belong to the 9th and 10th cent. (from a.d. 887). These usually omit the last 12 verses of Mk.; but one, which has them, has a marginal note assigning them to ‘the Elder Ariston,’ i.e. , presumably Aristion, a disciple of our Lord known to us by a mention in Papias.
On the Armenian version see F. C. Conybeare, art. in Hastings’ DB  , and J. Armitage Robinson, Euthaliana , 1895.
B . Latin Versions.
18 . The Old Latin Version (OL). As Christianity spread westward, it inevitably came into contact with the Latin-speaking population of the Roman Empire; and a translation of the NT into Latin might naturally be looked for at an early date. Indeed, since the gospel was preached in Rome by St. Paul himself, it might seem reasonable to suppose that Latin versions of the Christian literature would have been required almost as soon as it came into being, But this would be to overlook the bilingual character of the Roman Empire, even in Italy. The educated classes spoke and wrote Greek freely; the uneducated classes were largely recruited from the East, and spoke Greek more naturally than Latin. The evidence of the predominantly Greek character of the primitive Roman Church is clear. St. Paul wrote to it in Greek. The names of those whom he salutes are mainly Greek. The first twelve bishops in the list of the Roman episcopate (down to a.d. 189) are Greek. Clement, the third in the list after St. Peter, writing in the name of the Roman Church to their brethren in Corinth, wrote in Greek. All the early literature of the Roman Church is Greek. The same may be said, so far as our knowledge goes, of the Church in Gaul. The report on the martyrdoms at Vienne, which the Christians of that province sent to their brethren in other countries, was written in Greek. Irenæus ( c  . 135 202), the most famous representative of the Gallican Church in the 2nd cent., came from Asia Minor, and wrote his works in Greek. All the traditions of Gallia Narbonensis were Greek, not Latin.
19 . The need for a Latin version of the Christian books was consequently not so pressing as might be supposed. Nevertheless there was one large and important province in which Greek had no place, and where Latin was alike the literary and the spoken language. This was Africa, where the Mediterranean coast, and especially the district which is now Tunis, was inhabited by a large Latin-speaking population. When Christianity was first introduced into the province is uncertain; but in the 2nd cent. it was strong and flourishing there, and had for its spokesman the most eloquent of early Christian writers, Tertullian ( c  . 150 220). Two lines of argument combine to show that the earliest Latin version of the NT known to us had its home in Africa. The first mention of the existence of a Latin version occurs in Tertullian; and that type of text which, of all those represented by our extant OL MSS, appears on internal grounds to be the earliest, is identical with the Biblical quotations in the writings of Tertullian’s junior contemporary and compatriot, Cyprian ( c  . 200 258). Whether the version was actually made in Africa cannot he determined with certainty. It is true that its Latinity agrees with that of certain African writers of the 2nd cent. (Apuleius, Arnobius, Lactantius, besides Tertullian and Cyprian); but it so happens that there is very little non-African Latin of that period in existence for comparison with it. The kinship which the text of the OL has with the Old Syriac bas caused Antioch to be suggested (by Sanday) as the original home of the version, that being a metropolis where Syrian and Latin elements met, and whence versions of the Scriptures in either tongue might radiate from a common centre. But with a strong general resemblance between the two versions, there is also a considerable amount of divergence in details, so that one cannot be certain that the connexion is not more remote. What is certain is that the earliest form of Latin version known to us was circulating in Africa in the first half of the 3rd century.
20 . The extant MSS of the OL are mainly fragments; for after the supersession of this version by the Vulgate its MSS naturally fell into neglect, and survived only fortuitously. The number of them is a little over 40, and they are habitually indicated by the small letters of the Latin alphabet. The following are the most Important:
a. Codex Vercellensis , at Vercelli, containing the Gospels (Mt., Jn., Lk., Mk., the usual Latin order), somewhat mutilated, assigned to the 4th century.
b. Codex Veronensis , at Verona, containing the Gospels on purple vellum; 5th century.
d. The Latin text of Codex Bezae in the Gospels and Acts, and of Cod. Claromontanus in the Pauline Epistles.
e. Codex Palatinus , at Vienna, containing the Gospels, considerably mutilated; 5th century. One leaf is at Dublin. In the Acts, e is the Latin text of Cod. Laudianus ; in Paul., that of Cod. Sangermanensis .
f. Codex Brixianus , at Brescia, of the Gospels, on purple vellum; 6th century.
ff 2 . Codex Corbeiensis , at Paris, containing the Gospels, but imperfect. Generally assigned to the 6th cent., but by its latest editor (E. S. Buchanan, Journ. of Theol. Studies , 1905 6) to the 6th.
g. Codex Gigas , at Stockholm; a complete Bible, of the 13th cent., with Acts and Apoc.  in an OL text. Written in Bohemia, and a remarkable example of a late survival of OL.
h. Palimpsestus Floriacensis , at Paris; palimpsest fragments, formerly at Fleury, of Acts, Cath. Epp., Apoc.  , in an African text.
k. Codex Bobiensis , at Turin, where it fortunately escaped from the recent fire with slight injury. Contains Mark 8:1-38 ; Mark 9:1-50 ; Mark 10:1-52 ; Mark 11:1-33 ; Mark 12:1-44 ; Mark 13:1-37 ; Mark 14:1-72 ; Mark 15:1-47 ; Mark 16:1-20 (ending at Mark 16:8 ), Matthew 1:1-25 ; Matthew 2:1-23 ; Matthew 3:1-17 ; Matthew 4:1-25 ; Matthew 5:1-48 ; Matthew 6:1-34 ; Matthew 7:1-29 ; Matthew 8:1-34 ; Matthew 9:1-38 ; Matthew 10:1-42 ; Matthew 11:1-30 ; Matthew 12:1-50 ; Matthew 13:1-58 ; Matthew 14:1-36 ; Matthew 15:1-39 ; probably 5th cent. (according to Burkitt, 4th cent.), Contains the OL version in its earliest form, closely akin to that found in the writings of Cyprian.
m. The Speculum of pseudo-Augustine, which contains copious quotations from the NT. It is probably of Spanish origin, and should be reckoned rather with the Fathers than with the MSS.
q. Codex Monacensis , at Munich, containing the Gospels; 6th or 7th century.
The remaining MSS are, for the moat part, only small fragments, of a few leaves each. The Apoc.  is also found, almost complete, in the commentary of Primasius, written in Africa in the 6th century.
21 . With these MSS must be reckoned the quotations of the early Latin Fathers , notably Tertullian (who, however, appears often to have made his own translations, and is also too inexact to be of much service in this respect), Cyprian, Hilary, Lucifer of Cagliari, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Tyconius, Priscillian, and (as just noted) Primasius. It is usual to classify all these authorities (MSS and Fathers) under the three heads of (1) African, (2) European, (3) Italian; the African type of text being the earliest and also the roughest in style and vocabulary, the European being so far modified in both these respects as to be supposed by some scholars to be due to a fresh translation, and the Italian being a revision of the European, and itself providing the basis for Jerome’s Vulgate.
The question is complicated by the fact that no two MSS represent quite the same type of text. All (except perhaps k ) have undergone modification in some respect, either by the corrections introduced by scribes in early times, or by contamination with the Vulgate. Cyprian and k , so far as they go, represent the African text of the Gospels in what appears to be a fairly pure form; e and m come next to them; h is a good African authority in Acts and Apoc.  , and Prisillian, Tyconius, and Primasius in the Epp. and Apoc.  a and b are the leading representatives of the European family in the Gospels, with the Latin version of Ireoæus; in Acts, g and Lucifer. Of the Italian group, f is the most pronounced, and has been taken by Wordsworth and White as the best representative of the OL text which Jerome had before him when he undertook his revision of the Latin NT; next to f in this character comes q . The Latin texts in the bilingual MSS have to be used with caution, as they show signs of assimilation to the Greek. The remaining MSS are either too fragmentary to be of much service, or too mixed in their text to be classified definitely with any family.
In general character, as already indicated, the OL version (especially in its earliest form) belongs to the same class of authorities as the Old Syriac and Codex Bezae, the class, namely, which is distinguished by rather striking divergences from both the TR  and the text represented by B א . The character and claims of this type of text will be considered later; here it will be sufficient to point out the high antiquity which can be established for it through the OL (and still more through the consensus, so far as it exists, between OL and OS), and the great amount of divergence which exists between the several MSS which contain it. It is not possible, even approximately, to reconstruct the original OL text; it is even a matter of dispute whether it had one original or more. What is certain is that it underwent constant revision and alteration, and that the few and fragmentary MSS which have come down to us, and of which no two agree even approximately with one another, do but reflect a state of textual confusion which was rampant in the Latin Bibles of the 4th century.
22 The Vulgale . This state of confusion is described in emphatic terms by the great Latin Fathers of the 4th cent., Jerome ( c  . 345 420) and Augustine (354 430), and it was to the former that the task fell of attempting to reduce the chaos to order. The credit of inspiring the work which was to become the Bible of the West for a thousand years is due to Pope Damasus (pope, 366 84). At his request, Jerome, the leading Biblical scholar of the day, who had devoted many years to the study of the Scriptures in the East in their original tongues, undertook, as he says in his preface to the NT, to ‘make a new work out of an old one’ by revising the existing Latin texts with reference to the original languages. He began with the Gospels, about the year 382; and at first his revision was on conservative lines. Where the existing text fairly represented the sense of the original, he let it stand, without enforcing complete accuracy; only where errors affected the sense did he feel bound to make alterations. The Greek manuscripts which he employed as his guides appear to have been similar in character to B א . The revision of the Gospels was completed in 383; that of the Epistles followed, but was conducted more superficially than the previous work, partly, no doubt, because the divergences in the extant texts were less pronounced in these books. At about the same time he was commencing his work on the OT by a revision of the Psalter; but for the history of this see Text of the OT, 15 (7).
23 . The later history of the Vulgate (as Jerome’s version eventually came to be called) is the subject of a separate article. Here it is only necessary to mention that the received text of it, which is found in all ordinary Latin Bibles, is that which was officially sanctioned by Pope Clement viii. in 1592; and that the one critical edition of it is that now being produced by Bishop Wordsworth of Salisbury and Prof. H. J. White, in which the Gospels and Acts have already been published (1889 1905). Their estimate of the principal MSS of the Vulgate is the necessary basis of the following description of a selection from among them:
A. Codex Amiatinus , in the Laurentian Library at Florence, containing the whole Bible. Its history (which was only established in 1887) is unusually well known. It was written in the north of England, at Wearmouth or Jarrow, by order of Ceolfrid, abbot of these monasteries, early in the 8th cent., and was taken by him in 716 as a present to Pope Gregory. Ceolfrid died on the way, but his companions completed the gift, and in Italy the MS has since remained; for some time it was at Monte Amiata, whence its name. Its text was probably derived from one or more MSS brought to England from Italy; and it is generally regarded as the best extant MS of the Vulgate.
C. Codex Cavensis , at La Cava, near Naples; 9th century. Contains the whole Bible, written in Spain, and is the best representative of the Spanish family of Vulgate MSS.
Δ Codex Dunelmensis , in Durham Cathedral Library; 7th or 8th century. Contains the Gospels, with a text akin to that of A.
F. Codex Fuldensis , at Fulda in Germany; between 541 and 546. Written by order of Bishop Victor of Capua. Contains the whole NT, the Gospels being arranged in the same manner as in Tatian’s Diatessaron , on the basis of a copy of a Latin version of that work accidentally found by Bishop Victor.
H. Codex Hubertianus , and Θ , Codex Theodulfianus , contain the edition of the Vulgate produced by Bishop Theodulf of Orleans, for which see art. Vulgate.
K. Codex Karolinus , and V, Codex Vallicellianus , similarly represent the edition of Alcuin. (See ib. )
O. Codex Oxoniensis , in the Bodleian (formerly at St. Augustine’s, Canterbury); 7th century. Contains the Gospels, in a text affected by Irish influences.
Q. Codex Kenanensis , the Book of Kells, at Trinity College, Dublin; prob. 8th century. Contains the Gospels, lavishly decorated in the Celtic style. Its text, naturally, is of the Irish type.
S. Codex Stonyhurstensis , at Stonyhurst College; 7th century. Contains Jn. alone, in a text akin to that of A. Formerly at Durham, and probably written in that neighbourhood.
V. See K, above.
Y. Codex Lindisfarnensis , in the British Museum; contains the Gospels; written at the end of the 7th cent., in honour of St. Cuthbert (d. 687), with beautiful Anglo-Celtic ornamentation. Some liturgical directions inserted in it show that it was copied from a MS written in Naples, no doubt one brought to England by Hadrian, abbot of a monastery near Naples, who came to England with Archbishop Theodore in 669. Closely akin in text to A.
Z. Codex Harleianus , in the British Museum; 6th or 7th century. A well-written copy of a good text, but of a different family from A.
These are the principal MSS of the Vulgate in the Gospels. A, C, F, Θ , K, T, V are also used by Wordsworth and White in the Acts. To them may be added
G. Codex Sangermanensis , at Paris; 9th century. Contains the whole Bible, but is particularly good in Acts, so that Wordsworth and White state that their text agrees with it oftener than with any other MS.
O. Codex Oxoniensis , in the Bodleian Library; 8th century. Known as the ‘Selden Acts.’ The text is of the Irish type.
The MSS of the Pauline Epistles and Apocalypse have not yet been classified, but the MSS described above as containing the whole NT will no doubt re-appear among the principal authorities for these books also.
24 . As indicated above, the Codex Amiatinus (A) is regarded as the best MS of the Gospels, and with it go the other Northumbrian MSS, Δ SY, with F in attendance. A second group of MSS, which, generally speaking, is of inferior merit, is headed by Z, and includes several MSS not described above. CT  represent the Spanish type of text, which had an important influence on the history of the Vulgate, and Q the not less important Irish type. In Acts, Wordsworth and White give the first place to G, with CA and F in close attendance. These three last-named MSS represent different groups, the A group being generally preferable to the F group; but no one MS or group has a monopoly of merit. In general character, as stated above, the Vulgate tends to agree with the type of Greek text represented by B א . It is clear that the Greek authorities which Jerome regarded as the most trustworthy were of this type; but since (in the NT) his revision retained a considerable quantity of the OL version, which is largely of a different type, the result, as it now stands, is of a composite character. By reason of this composite character, and also of its relatively late date, the Vulgate is not of the same textual importance as OS or OL; nevertheless it is to be remembered that Jerome must have made use of Greek MSS at least as old as the oldest which we now possess. The historical importance of the Vulgate will be dealt with in a separate article.
Of the OL version the most comprehensive account is that given by H. A. A. Kennedy in Hastings’ DB  . See also Burkitt, The Old Latin and the Itala (Cambridge, 1896), the prefaces by Wordsworth, Sanday, and White to their editions of Old Latin Biblical Texts (parts i iv., Oxford, 1883 97), and articles by Gebhardt (in PRE  3 , 1897) and Corssen (in Bursian’s Jahresbericht über die Fortschritt der classischen Altertumswissenschaft , bd. 101, 1899). On the Vulgate see Westcott’s art. in Smith’s DB  , White’s chapter in Scrivener’s Introduction , Exodus 4 (which deals with both versions), and the prefaces to Wordsworth and White’s edition of the Vulgate, now in progress (Oxford, 1889 ff.).
C . Coptic Versions.
25 . Coptic is the literary form of the vernacular language of Egypt, the descendant of the ancient tongue which we know first in its hieroglyphic, and later in its demotic form, but differing from them in adopting the Greek alphabet, with the addition of certain letters to represent sounds not employed in Greek. Coptic is the outcome of the Greek settlement in Egypt, which took place under the empire of the Ptolemys and continued under that of Rome; and along with the Greek characters the native tongue adopted also a considerable number of Greek words. When this form of writing came into being is uncertain. It appears in a primitive form in a certain horoscope, now in the British Museum, the date of which is probably a.d. 95; and it is reasonable to suppose that it became established as a literary medium in the course of the 2nd century. It is quite possible that its growth was promoted by the need of its services in making the gospel known to native converts. Christianity was no doubt introduced into Egypt even in Apostolic times, but it would have come in the first instance to the Jews of Alexandria and the Greek-speaking population generally. Even when it penetrated farther, and addressed the native population in its own tongue, its message would at first have been oral, and the earliest Coptic versions of the NT may well have been merely oral paraphraaes, such as were the earliest Anglo-Saxon versions in our own country. The first mention of Coptic Scriptures occurs in the Life of St. Antony, who is said to have heard the Gospel read in church as a boy about a.d. 270; and since be was not acquainted with Greek, this must have been a Coptic version, whether oral or written. Early in the 4th cent. the monks of the order established by Pachomina were required by their rule to study the Scriptures; and this, at any rate, implies the existence of a written Coptic version. In the 3rd cent., therefore, at latest, and possibly by the end of the 2nd (since the Coptic versions unquestionably have some very early characteristics), a Coptic translation of the NT (except the Apocalypse) was in circulation.
26 . The Egyptian language was not uniform throughout the country, but possessed various local dialects. Two of these are well marked, and possess a respectable quantity of literature, almost wholly theological. These are the Bohairic, or dialect of Lower Egypt, and the Sahidic, or dialect of Upper Egypt. The former derives its title (first conferred on it by Athanasius, bishop of Cos in Upper Egypt in the 11th cent.) from the Arabic name of a district near Alexandria, the latter from the Arabic name for Upper Egypt. Between the two lie several dialects collectively known as Middle Egyptian, with local varieties in the Fayyum, at Akhmim, and elsewhere, which certainly possessed a translation (or translations) of the Bible, but of which very little is known at present, for lack of materials.
27. The Sahidic Version (Sah., formerly Thebaic). It was formerly held that the Bohairic version (Boh.) was the first in point of age, since it was the version of Lower Egypt, which would have been the first to receive Christianity; but Coptic scholars are now generally agreed that the order of precedence must be inverted. Lower Egypt was very largely Greek-speaking, and the language in which the Septuagint was already familiar would have been sufficient for a considerable time. In Upper Egypt, though there were considerable Greek communities there also, and in the principal towns Greek must have been generally understood, the population as a whole must have been more Egyptian, and an Egyptian version of the NT would have been required there sooner than in the neighbourhood of Alexandria. The characteristics of the Sahidic version also suit this hypothesis of an earlier date. It is rougher and less literary in style than the Bohairic, and its text is of a very early type, akin in many details (though not as a whole) to the OL and OS; in the OT its text is in some books pre-Origenian. Unfortunately it is known to us only in fragments. It was ultimately superseded by Boh. and dropped out of use; and, with the exception of some small but complete volumes recently acquired by the British Museum, all that we now have of it are isolated leaves of vellum or papyrus which have been rescued from the buried towns and monasteries of Egypt. The Apocalypse is the only book of the NT that exists complete in a single MS, though some books approach completeneas. But the number of extant fragments is large and increasing, and from these it will be possible soon to put together an almost continuous Sahidic NT. The earliest MSS appear to go back to the 5th cent., but none is of sufficient size and importance to merit individual description. Some are bilingual, containing Greek and Sahidic texts in parallel columns; the most important of these has been described above (§ 7 ) under the heading T.
28. The Bohairic Version . This, which ultimately became the accepted Bible of the Coptic Church, is much better known than Sah., and is preserved in a considerable number of MSS. The date of its origin, however, is quite uncertain. In favour of an early date is the fact that the Apocalypse was apparently not originally contained in it; this book seems to have been generally accepted after the end of the 3rd cent., but was regarded with some doubt before. In the OT,
Shachia - In the pointed Hebrew the name is 'Shabiah,' but several Hebrew Mss have CH instead of B
Boisterous - * Note: The AV "boisterous" in Matthew 14:30 is a rendering of the word ischuros, "strong" (see margin); it is not in the most authentic Mss
Kindle - 1: ἅπτω (Strong's #681 — Verb — hapto — hap'-to ) properly, "to fasten to," is used in Acts 28:2 (in the most authentic Mss. , some Mss. 1), is used of "lighting" a fire in the midst of a court in Luke 22:55 (some Mss
Kick - 1: λακτίζω (Strong's #2979 — Verb — laktizo — lak-tid'-zo ) "to kick" (from lax, an adverb signifying "with the foot"), is used in Acts 26:14 (some Mss
Meet, Meet With, Met - Some Mss. 18, in some Mss. ...
A — 3: ὑπαντάω (Strong's #5221 — Verb — hupantao — hoop-an-tah'-o ) "to go to meet, to meet," has the same meaning as No 1, and is used in Matthew 8:28 ; Luke 8:27 ; John 11:20,30 , and, in the most authentic Mss. 3), preceded by the preposition eis, "unto a meeting," translated "to meet," is found in John 12:13 , and in the most authentic Mss. 1), occurs in Matthew 25:6 (in some Mss. 1, and in 27:32, in some Mss. 2), is found in some Mss
Cry, Crying - A — 1: κραυγή (Strong's #2906 — Noun Feminine — krauge — krow-gay' ) an onomatopoeic word, is used in Matthew 25:6 ; Luke 1:42 (some Mss. " Some Mss. 2, signifies (a) "to raise a cry," whether of joy, Galatians 4:27 , or vexation, Acts 8:7 ; (b) "to speak with a strong voice," Matthew 3:3 ; Mark 1:3 ; 15:34 ; Luke 3:4 ; 9:38 (some Mss. 2); John 1:23 ; Acts 17:6 ; 25:24 (some Mss. 1, "to lift up the voice, cry out," is said of Christ at the moment of His death, a testimony to His supernatural power in giving up His life, Matthew 27:46 ; in some Mss. in Mark 15:8 , of the shouting of a multitude; in some Mss. 1, "to cry out, exclaim vehemently," is used in some Mss. 1, "to cry out," an onomatopoeic word, used especially of the "cry" of the raven; then, of any inarticulate cries, from fear, pain etc; of the "cry" of a Canaanitish woman, Matthew 15:22 (so the best Mss. 1), is used in Matthew 12:19 , in a prophecy from Isaiah of Christ; in Luke 4:41 (in the best Mss. , instead of krazo); John 11:43 ; 12:13 (in the best Mss. 7, with epi, "upon," or "against," signifies "to shout," either against, Luke 23:21 ; Acts 21:34 (in the best Mss
Marvel, Marvellous - A — 1: θαῦμα (Strong's #2295 — Noun Neuter — thauma — thou'-mah ) "a wonder" (akin to theaomai, "to gaze in wonder"), is found in the most authentic Mss. in 2 Corinthians 11:14 (some Mss. , Job 17:8 ; 18:20 ; in some Mss. 1 (ek, intensive), is found in the best Mss. in Mark 12:17 , RV, "wondered greatly" (some Mss
Foul - ...
Note: In Revelation 17:4 the best Mss. have this word in the plural, RV, "the unclean things" (akathartes, "filthiness," in some Mss
Hardly - ...
2: μόγις (Strong's #3425 — Adverb — mogis — mog'-is ) "with labor, pain, trouble" (akin to mogos, "toil"), is found in some Mss. 2, and occurs in the most authentic Mss
Glede, - In the parallel passage in Leviticus 11:14 the word is omitted, as it is by the LXX, the Samaritan, and four Hebrew Mss
Mill - 1: μύλων (Strong's #3459 — Noun Masculine — mulon — moo'-lone ) denotes "a mill house," where the millstone is, Matthew 24:41 ; some Mss
Host - 1: στρατιά (Strong's #4756 — Noun Feminine — stratia — strat-ee'-ah ) "an army," is used of angels, Luke 2:13 ; of stars, Acts 7:42 ; some Mss
Host - 1: στρατιά (Strong's #4756 — Noun Feminine — stratia — strat-ee'-ah ) "an army," is used of angels, Luke 2:13 ; of stars, Acts 7:42 ; some Mss
Crumb - 1: ψιχίον (Strong's #5589 — Noun Neuter — psichion — psikh-ee'-on ) "a small morsel," a diminutive of psix, "a bit, or crumb;" of bread or meat, it is used in Matthew 15:27 ; Mark 7:28 ; some Mss
Roar, Roaring - , "echo"), is used of the "roaring" of the sea in Luke 21:25 , in the best Mss. , "for the roaring (of the sea and the billows)," RV; some Mss
Palsy - A — 1: παραλυτικός (Strong's #3885 — Adjective — paralutikos — par-al-oo-tee-kos' ) "paralytic, sick of the palsy," is found in Matthew 4:24 (RV, "palsied"); 8:6; 9:2 (twice),6; Mark 2:3,4,5,9,10 ; in some Mss. , "to loose from the side," hence, "to set free," is used in the Passive Voice of "being enfeebled by a paralytic stroke, palsied," Luke 5:18 , RV, "palsied" (AV, "taken with a palsy"); Luke 5:24 (ditto), in the best Mss
Hardship - 1: κακοπαθέω (Strong's #2553 — Verb — kakopatheo — kak-op-ath-eh'-o ) "to suffer evil," is translated "suffer hardship" in three places in the RV, 2 Timothy 2:3 (in some Mss. ...
2: συγκακοπαθέω (Strong's #4777 — Verb — sunkakopatheo — soong-kak-op-ath-eh'-o ) "to suffer hardship with," is so rendered in 2 Timothy 1:8 , RV, AV, "be thou partaker of the afflictions" (of the Gospel), and, in the best Mss
Meditate - melei, "it is a care"), denotes (a) "to attend to, practice," 1 Timothy 4:15 , RV, "be diligent in" (AV, "meditate upon"); to practice is the prevalent sense of the word, and the context is not against this significance in the RV rendering; some Mss. ...
Note: In the corresponding passage in Mark 13:11 , the most authentic Mss
Flax - , "linen"); then, that which is made of it, "a wick of a lamp," Matthew 12:20 ; several ancient Mss
Lading - 1: φορτίον (Strong's #5413 — Noun Neuter — phortion — for-tee'-on ) "a burden, load" (a diminutive of phortos, "a load," from phero, "to bear"), is used of the cargo of a ship, Acts 27:10 , "lading," (some Mss
Vouchsafe - 1: ὁμολογέω (Strong's #3670 — Verb — homologeo — hom-ol-og-eh'-o ) "to agree," is found in the best texts in Acts 7:17 , and rendered "vouchsafed," RV, with reference to God's promise to Abraham; some Mss
Catholic Epistles - The word 'catholic' occurs in a few Greek Mss, but not in any of the most ancient ones
Gilead, Mount - Some suppose that 'Gilboa' should be read, but there is no Mss authority for the change
Millstone - , "a millstone turned by an ass"), indicating the immediate and overwhelming drowning of one who causes one young believer to stumble; Mark 9:42 (where some Mss. have lithos multikos, "a stone of a mill," as in Luke 17:2 ); Revelation 18:22 (some Mss. ...
B — 2: μύλος (Strong's #3458 — Noun Masculine — mulinos — moo'-los ) "made of millstone," is used with lithos, "a stone;" and with the adjective megas, "great," in the best Mss
Faint - 1: ἐκλύω (Strong's #1590 — Verb — ekluo — ek-loo'-o ) denotes (a) "to loose, release" (ek, "out," luo, "to loose"); (b) "to unloose," as a bow-string, "to relax," and so, "to enfeeble," and is used in the Passive Voice with the significance "to be faint, grow weary," (1) of the body, Matthew 15:32 ; (some Mss. Some Mss. 1), RV, "wax not weary;" in James 5:15 , of sickness; some Mss
Thaddaeus - ]'> ) and some Old Latin Mss have ‘LebbÃ¦us’; but all the best authorities, including syr sin (Syr cur is wanting here), have ‘ThaddÃ¦us,’ and this is doubtless right. In Matthew 10:3 the oldest Greek Mss ( × B), the Vulgate, the Coptic, and some Old Latin Mss have ‘ThaddÃ¦us,’ while D  , supported by the valuable Old Latin k and some other Mss, has ‘LebbÃ¦us. ’ Some other Old Latin Mss have ‘Judas Zelotes,’ and syr sin has ‘Judas son ( sic ) of James’ (syr cur is wanting here). Some inferior Mss and several Versions combine ‘LebbÃ¦us’ and ‘ThaddÃ¦us,’ as AV Proper - ...
2: ἴδιος (Strong's #2398 — Adjective — idios — id'-ee-os ) "one's own," is found in some Mss
Enter, Entering, Entrance - ...
A — 2: συνεισέρχομαι (Strong's #4897 — Verb — suneiserchomai — soon-ice-er'-khom-ahee ) "to enter together," is used in John 6:22 (in the best Mss. " ...
A — 4: εἰσπορεύομαι (Strong's #1531 — Verb — eisporeuomai — ice-por-yoo'-om-ahee ) "to go into," found only in the Synoptists and Acts, is translated "to enter," in the RV of Mark 1:21 ; 6:56 ; 11:2 ; Luke 8:16 ; 11:33 (AV, "come in"); 19:30 (AV, "at your entering"); 22:10; in the following the RV has the verb "to go," for the AV, "to enter," Matthew 15:17 ; Mark 5:40 ; 7:15,18,19 ; in Acts 28:30 , "went," AV, "came;" in Acts 9:28 , RV, "going," AV, "coming;" in the following both AV and RV have the verb "to enter," Mark 4:19 ; Luke 18:24 (in the best Mss. In John 21:3 , the best Mss. ...
A — 6: ἐμβαίνω (Strong's #1684 — Verb — embaino — em-ba'hee-no ) "to go in" (en, "in"), is used only in the Gospels, of "entering" a boat, Matthew 8:23 ; 9:1 ; 13:2 ; 14:22,32 ; 15:39 ; Mark 4:1 ; 5:18 ; 6:45 ; 8:10,13 ; Luke 5:3 ; 8:22,37 ; John 6:17 , (in some Mss. 22), 24, RV, "got into the boats," for AV, "took shipping;" John 21:3 (some Mss. 5 here); Acts 21:6 (in the best Mss. (2) In 2 John 1:7 , the most authentic Mss
Beloved - Whenever the AV has "dearly beloved," the RV has "beloved;" so, "well beloved" in 3 John 1:1 ; in 1 John 2:7 , AV, "brethren" (adelphos), the RV has "beloved," according to the Mss. ...
Note: In Luke 9:35 , the RV, translating from the most authentic Mss
Counsel - ...
B — 1: βουλεύω (Strong's #1011 — Verb — bouleuo — bool-yoo'-o ) "to take counsel, to resolve," is used in the Middle Voice in the NT, "took counsel" in Acts 5:33 , AV (RV translates boulomai); both in 27:39; in Luke 14:31 , RV "take counsel" (AV, "consulteth"); in John 11:53 , AV and RV (so the best Mss. ...
B — 2: συμβουλεύω (Strong's #4823 — Verb — sumbouleuo — soom-bool-yoo'-o ) in the Active Voice, "to advise, to counsel," John 18:14 , "gave counsel;" in Revelation 3:18 , "I counsel;" in the Middle Voice, "to take cousel, consult," Matthew 26:4 , RV, "took counsel together," for AV, "consulted;" Acts 9:23 , "took counsel" (RV adds "together"); in some Mss
Deep, Deepness, Deeply, Depth - A — 1: βάθος (Strong's #899 — Noun Neuter — bathos — bath'-os ) is used (a) naturally, in Matthew 13:5 , "deepness;" Mark 4:5 , AV, "depth," RV, "deepness;" Luke 5:4 , of "deep" water; Romans 8:39 (contrasted with hupsoma, "height"); (b) metaphorically, in Romans 11:33 , of God's wisdom and knowledge; in 1 Corinthians 2:10 , of God's counsels; in Ephesians 3:18 , of the dimensions of the sphere of the activities of God's counsels, and of the love of Christ which occupies that sphere; in 2 Corinthians 8:2 , of "deep" poverty; some Mss. ...
Notes: (1) In Luke 24:1 , some Mss. have batheos, the genitive case, with orthros, "dawn;" the most authentic Mss
Even, Evening, Eventide - Some Mss. 1), is found seven times in Matthew, five in Mark, two in John, and in these places only in the NT (some Mss. ...
Note: In Luke 12:38 some Mss
Morning - A — 1: πρωΐα (Strong's #4405 — Adjective — proios — pro-ee'-ah ) "early, at early morn" (from pro, "before"), is used as a noun in the feminine form proia, "morning" in Matthew 27:1 ; John 21:4 (in some Mss. 1, qualifies aster, "star," in Revelation 2:28 ; 22:16 (where some Mss. ...
A — 3: ὄρθριος (Strong's #3721 — Adjective — orthrinos | orthrios — or'-three-os ) "pertaining to dawn or morning," in some Mss
Grecians - The gospel was preached to them at Antioch, Acts 11:20 ; but in this last passage many Mss read 'Greeks
Arbite - In the parallel passage 1 Chronicles 11:37 we find ‘the son of Ezhai,’ a reading which is supported by several Mss of the LXX Worm - 1: σκώληξ (Strong's #4663 — Noun Masculine — skolex — sko'-lakes ) "a worm which preys upon dead bodies," is used metaphorically by the Lord in Mark 9:48 ; in some Mss
Talitha - 1: ταλιθά (Strong's #5008 — Noun Feminine — taleitha | talitha — tal-ee-thah' ) an Aramaic feminine meaning "maiden," Mark 5:41 , has been variously transliterated in the NT Greek Mss
Marriage, Marry - ...
B — 2: γαμίσκω (Strong's #1061 — Verb — gamizo — gam-is'-ko ) "to give in marriage," is used in the Passive Voice in Matthew 22:30 (2nd clause), some Mss. 3 in some Mss. 5 in some Mss. 3 and 4 in some Mss. 3 and 5 in some Mss. 2, Luke 20:34 (some Mss. 4); in some Mss
Gadara - The narrative of the healing of the demoniac, according to Matthew 8:28 , is located in the ‘country of the Gadarenes ,’ a reading repeated in some Mss of the corresponding passage of Lk. ( Luke 8:26 ), where other Mss read Gergesenes
Our, Ours - " (5) Hemeteros, a possessive pronoun, more emphatic than hemeis, is used in Luke 16:12 , in the best Mss. (some have humeteros, "your own"); Acts 2:11 ; 24:6 , in some Mss
Disciple - ...
Note: In Acts 1:15 , the RV translates the Mss. " ...
B — 1: μαθητεύω (Strong's #3100 — Verb — matheteuo — math-ayt-yoo'-o ) is used in the Active Voice, intransitively, in some Mss. , in Matthew 27:57 , in the sense of being the "disciple" of a person; here, however, the best Mss
no Man, no One, Neither Any Man - " The spelling outheis occurs occasionally in the Mss. " ...
Notes: (1) In some Mss. the negative me and the indefinite pronoun tis, "some one, anyone," appear as one word, metis (always separated in the best Mss
Overthrow - , "the overthrown (things) of it" (some Mss. ...
B — 2: ἀναστρέφω (Strong's #390 — Verb — anastrepho — an-as-tref'-o ) is found in some Mss. , "to turn up or over" (ana, "up," trepo, "to turn"), "to upset," is used (a) literally, in the most authentic Mss
Strip - 1: ἐκδύω (Strong's #1562 — Verb — ekduo — ek-doo'-o ) "to take off, strip off," is used especially of clothes, and rendered "to strip" in Matthew 27:28 (some Mss
Still - 1: ἔτι (Strong's #2089 — Adverb — eti — et'-ee ) "yet, as yet, still," is translated "still" in the RV in 1 Corinthians 12:31 ; 2 Corinthians 1:10 ; Galatians 1:10 ; 5:11 ; AV and RV in Revelation 22:11 (four times), where the word indicates the permanent character, condition and destiny of the unrighteous and the filthy, the righteous and the holy (for the verbs see the RV); in John 11:30 , the best Mss
Hypocrite - " It is found only in the Synoptists, and always used by the Lord, fifteen times in Matthew; elsewhere, Mark 7:6 ; Luke 6:42 ; 11:44 (in some Mss
New Testament - ...
In addition to the later Mss. There can be no doubt that in Origen's time the variations in the New Testament Mss. ...
The most ancient Mss. Bengel was the first (1734) who pointed out the affinity of certain groups of Mss. ...
From the consideration of the earliest history of the New Testament text we now pass to the era of Mss. The nominal or real adherence of the higher ranks to the Christian faith must have largely increased the demand for costly Mss. ...
The appearance of the oldest Mss. The Mss. The Mss. The oldest Mss. In lapse of time the original writing frequently reappeared in faint lines below the later text, and in this way many precious fragments of biblical Mss. ...
Very few Mss. Besides the Mss. ...
The number of uncial Mss. though great when compared with the ancient Mss. ...
A complete description these Mss. It is probably the oldest of the Mss. ...
The number of the cursive Mss. Tischendorf catalogues about 500 of the Gospels, 200 of the Acts and Catholic Epistles, 250 of the Pauline Epistles, and a little less than 100 of the Apocalypse (exclusive of lectionaries); but this enumeration can only be accepted as a rough approximation, ...
Having surveyed in outline the history of the transmission of the written text and the chief characteristics of the Mss. The second period made a great progress: the evidence of Mss. Estienne (Stephanus) published his first edition (1546), which was based on a collation of Mss, in the Royal Library with the Complutensian text
Left - the right and) the left;" (b) in the phrase "on the left," formed by ex (for ek), "from," and the genitive plural of this adjective, Mark 10:37 (some Mss. 37, in some Mss
Hebrew Bible - The examination of Mss goes to prove that the penmen must have exercised great care, some of the Hebrew letters being very similar. It is judged that the translation of the LXX must have been made from Mss without these points, and without any spaces between the words. Comparatively lately some Mss of the Karaite Jews in the East have shown that there was another system of vocalisation and accentuation very different from that found in the common Hebrew Bible
Midst - " ...
(2) The neuter, meson, is used adverbially in Matthew 14:24 , in some Mss. , "in the midst (of the waves);" in Philippians 2:15 in the best Mss. (where some Mss
Text of the New Testament - The edition of Stephanus was based upon the two earliest printed texts of the NT, that of Erasmus (published in 1516), and that of the Complutensian Polyglot (printed in 1514, but not published until 1522); and he also made use of 15 Mss, mostly at Paris. The principal editor of the Complutensian Polyglot, Lopez de Stunica, used Mss borrowed from the Vatican; they have not been identified, but appear to have been late, and ordinary in character. ]'> is consequently derived from (at most) some 20 or 25 Mss, dating from the last few centuries before the invention of printing, and not selected on any estimate of merit, but merely as being ready to the editor’s hands. Mss of the late Middle Ages, but no more. At the present time we have over 3000 Greek Mss of the NT, or of parts of it, and they range back in age to the 4th cent. The materials available for ascertaining the true text of the NT (and, in their measure, of all other ancient works of literature) fall into three classes: (1) Manuscripts, or copies of the NT in the original Greek; (2) Versions, or ancient translations of it into other languages, which were themselves, of course, originally derived from very early Greek Mss, now lost; (3) Quotations in ancient writers, which show what readings these writers found in the copies accessible to them. Papyrus is a material (made from the pith of the stem of the Egyptian water-plant of that name) which becomes brittle with age, and quite unable to resist damp; consequently papyrus Mss have almost wholly perished, from friction and use if they remained above ground, from moisture if they were buried beneath it. Besides the natural causes just mentioned for the disappearance of early Biblical Mss, it should be remembered that Christian books (especially the official copies in the possession of Churches) were liable to destruction in times of persecution. These conditions, which amply account for the disappearance of the earliest Mss of the NT, were fundamentally altered in the 4th century. that the earliest extant Biblical Mss of any substantial size belong. Vellum Mss are divided into two classes, according to the style of their writing. Uncial Mss being, as a class, considerably older than the minuscules, it is natural to expect that the purest and least corrupted texts will be found among them; though it is always necessary to reckon with the possibility that a minuscule MS may be a direct and faithful representative of a MS very much older than itself. Over 160 uncial Mss (including fragments) of the NT or of parts of it are known to exist, of which more than 110 contain the Gospels or some portion of them. Further, since comparatively few Mss contain the whole of the NT, it is found convenient to divide it into four groups: (1) Gospels, (2) Acts and Catholic Epistles, (3) Pauline Epistles, (4) Apocalypse; and each group has its own numeration of Mss. The uncial Mss which contain all of these groups, such as those known as A and C, retain these designations in each group; but when a MS does not contain them all, its letter is given to another MS in those groups which it does not contain. A selection of the most important uncial Mss will now be briefly described, so as to indicate their importance in the textual criticism of the NT:...
א . , so that it is one of the two oldest Mss of the Bible in existence. Other Græco-Latin Mss of the Pauline Epistles are E3 F2 G3 , which all go back to the same archetype as D2. The rest was used as material for binding Mss, which became scattered in various quarters; 22 leaves are at Paris; 3 each at St. The MS forms part of a group with three other purple Mss, Σ , Σ b , and Φ , all probably having been originally produced at Constantinople, and descended from a single not remote ancestor. ’ Similar subscriptions are found in about 12 minuscule Mss. Codex Beratinus , at Belgrade in Albania: the fourth of the purple Mss, and belonging to the same school as the others, and probably of the same date. The last inventory of NT Mss (that of von Soden) contains 1716 copies of the Gospels, 531 of Acts, 628 of Pauline Epp. The minuscule Mss are usually indicated by Arabic numerals,* 3 is akin to the text found in B א ; so, to a lesser extent, is the group of the four related Mss, 1 118 131 209; also 59, 157, 431, 496, 892; while the type of text found in D  and in the Old Latin and Old Syriac versions has left its mark notably upon 473, and more or less on 235, 431, 700, 1071, and on a group of related Mss (known from the scholar who first called attention to it as the ‘Ferrar group’) consisting of 13, 69, 124, 346, 348, 543, 713, 788, 826, 828. No doubt, as the minuscule Mss are more fully examined, more will be discovered which possess individual characteristics of interest; but with the large number of uncials of earlier date on the one hand, and the general uniformity of the great mass of minuscules on the other, it is not very likely that much important textual material will be derived from them. It may be possible to establish relationships between certain Mss (as in the case of the Ferrar group), and to connect them with certain localities (as the Ferrar group appears to be connected with Calabria); but not much progress has yet been made in this direction. One other class of Mss remains to be mentioned, namely the Service-Books or Lectionaries , in which the Gospels, Acts, and Epistles were divided into portions to be read on each day throughout the ecclesiastical year. Nearly 1100 Mss of the former class are known, and 300 of the latter. They might be expected, therefore, to be of great value in localizing the various types of text which appear in the Mss, and in preserving early variants from a period before the establishment of a general uniformity. ...
The standard lists of NT Mss are those of C. Both Mss are assigned to the 5th cent
Disbelieve - , in the AV (except in 1 Peter 2:7 , "be disobedient"); "disbelieve" (or "disbelieved") in the RV, in Mark 16:11,16 ; Luke 24:11,41 ; Acts 28:24 ; "disbelieve" is the best rendering, implying that the unbeliever has had a full opportunity of believing and has rejected it; some Mss
Quake - 1: ἔντρομος (Strong's #1790 — Adjective — entromos — en'-trom-os ) an adjective signifying "trembling with fear" (en, "in," tremo, "to tremble"), is used with eimi, "to be," in Hebrews 12:21 (some Mss
Maccabees - Also applied to three books, two of which are found in some Mss
Wave - 1: κῦμα (Strong's #2949 — Noun Neuter — kuma — koo'-mah ) from kuo, "to be pregnant, to swell," is used (a) literally in the plural, Matthew 8:24 ; 14:24 ; Mark 4:37 ( Acts 27:41 , in some Mss
Mss - Mss of the Peshiṭta go back to the century of its origin. The earliest with an actual date (which is also the earliest dated Biblical MS in existence) is a copy of some books of the Pentateuch, written in 464 (now in the British Museum; and the two earliest NT Mss may be assigned to about the same date. The later Mss reproduce the earlier very faithfully, so that the latest edition (by G. was free and idiomatic, and the Greek text on which it was based was that of the majority of late Mss. was made by Thomas of Harkel, who converted its idiomatic freedom into extreme literalness, and added various readings in critical notes, which show an acquaintance with a Greek MS or Mss having a text akin to that of Cod. About 35 Mss of Harkl. The extant Mss of it (which are few and generally fragmentary, and mostly discovered within the last 15 years) are mainly lectionaries, and its textual importance is slight. The three principal Mss of it are dated in 1030, 1104, and 1118. After 431 this version was revised by the help of Greek Mss received from Constantinople, which were apparently akin to B א , and thereby the original features of the version were much obscured. The earliest extant Mss belong to the 9th and 10th cent. The first mention of the existence of a Latin version occurs in Tertullian; and that type of text which, of all those represented by our extant OL Mss, appears on internal grounds to be the earliest, is identical with the Biblical quotations in the writings of Tertullian’s junior contemporary and compatriot, Cyprian ( c
The remaining Mss are, for the moat part, only small fragments, of a few leaves each. With these Mss must be reckoned the quotations of the early Latin Fathers , notably Tertullian (who, however, appears often to have made his own translations, and is also too inexact to be of much service in this respect), Cyprian, Hilary, Lucifer of Cagliari, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Tyconius, Priscillian, and (as just noted) Primasius. It is usual to classify all these authorities (MSS and Fathers) under the three heads of (1) African, (2) European, (3) Italian; the African type of text being the earliest and also the roughest in style and vocabulary, the European being so far modified in both these respects as to be supposed by some scholars to be due to a fresh translation, and the Italian being a revision of the European, and itself providing the basis for Jerome’s Vulgate. ...
The question is complicated by the fact that no two Mss represent quite the same type of text. The Latin texts in the bilingual Mss have to be used with caution, as they show signs of assimilation to the Greek. The remaining Mss are either too fragmentary to be of much service, or too mixed in their text to be classified definitely with any family. The character and claims of this type of text will be considered later; here it will be sufficient to point out the high antiquity which can be established for it through the OL (and still more through the consensus, so far as it exists, between OL and OS), and the great amount of divergence which exists between the several Mss which contain it. What is certain is that it underwent constant revision and alteration, and that the few and fragmentary Mss which have come down to us, and of which no two agree even approximately with one another, do but reflect a state of textual confusion which was rampant in the Latin Bibles of the 4th century. Their estimate of the principal Mss of the Vulgate is the necessary basis of the following description of a selection from among them:...
A. Its text was probably derived from one or more Mss brought to England from Italy; and it is generally regarded as the best extant MS of the Vulgate. Contains the whole Bible, written in Spain, and is the best representative of the Spanish family of Vulgate Mss. ...
These are the principal Mss of the Vulgate in the Gospels. ...
The Mss of the Pauline Epistles and Apocalypse have not yet been classified, but the Mss described above as containing the whole NT will no doubt re-appear among the principal authorities for these books also. As indicated above, the Codex Amiatinus (A) is regarded as the best MS of the Gospels, and with it go the other Northumbrian Mss, Δ SY, with F in attendance. A second group of Mss, which, generally speaking, is of inferior merit, is headed by Z, and includes several Mss not described above. These three last-named Mss represent different groups, the A group being generally preferable to the F group; but no one MS or group has a monopoly of merit. By reason of this composite character, and also of its relatively late date, the Vulgate is not of the same textual importance as OS or OL; nevertheless it is to be remembered that Jerome must have made use of Greek Mss at least as old as the oldest which we now possess. The earliest Mss appear to go back to the 5th cent. , and is preserved in a considerable number of Mss
Saint, Saints - (2) In Revelation 18:20 , the best texts have hagioi and apostoloi, each with the article, each being preceeded by kai, "and," RV, "and ye saints, and ye apostles;" the AV, "and ye holy apostles" follows those Mss. (3) In Revelation 22:21 , the RV follows those Mss
Cleave, Clave - In the NT it is used only in the Passive Voice, with reflexive force, in the sense of "cleaving unto," as of cleaving to one's wife, Matthew 19:5 ; some Mss. " In the corresponding passage in Mark 10:7 , the most authentic Mss
Latter - 1: ὄψιμος (Strong's #3797 — Adjective — opsimos — op'-sim-os ) akin to opse and opsios (see LATE), denotes "late," or "latter," and is used of "the latter rain" in James 5:7 (the most authentic Mss
Fervent, Fervently - Some Mss. ...
B — 1: ἐκτενῶς (Strong's #1619 — Adverb — ektenos — ek-ten-oce' ) "fervently" (akin to A), is said of love, in 1 Peter 1:22 ; of prayer, in some Mss
Hinder, Hindrance - , "to cut into" (en, "in," kopto, "to cut"), was used of "impeding" persons by breaking up the road, or by placing an obstacle sharply in the path; hence, metaphorically, of "detaining" a person unnecessarily, Acts 24:4 ; of "hindrances" in the way of reaching others, Romans 15:22 ; or returning to them, 1 Thessalonians 2:18 ; of "hindering" progress in the Christian life, Galatians 5:7 (anakopto in some Mss. ), where the significance virtually is "who broke up the road along which you were travelling so well?;" of "hindrances" to the prayers of husband and wife, through low standards of marital conduct, 1 Peter 3:7 (ekkopto, "to cut out, repulse," in some Mss
Publican - 1: τελώνης (Strong's #5057 — Noun Masculine — telones — tel-o'-nace ) primarily denoted "a farmer of the tax" (from telos, "toll, custom, tax"), then, as in the NT, a subsequent subordinate of such, who collected taxes in some district, "a tax gatherer;" such were naturally hated intensely by the people; they are classed with "sinners," Matthew 9:10,11 ; 11:9 ; Mark 2:15,16 ; Luke 5:30 ; 7:34 ; 15:1 ; with harlots, Matthew 21:31,32 ; with "the Gentile," Matthew 18:17 ; some Mss
Old Testament - From the end of the Masoretic period onward, the Masorah became the great authority by which the text given in all the Jewish Mss. --The Old Testament Mss. known to us fall into two main classes: synagogue rolls and Mss. Private Mss. No satisfactory criteria have been yet established by which the ages of Mss. Few existing Mss. Since the days of Kennicott and Deuteronomy Rossi modern research has discovered various Mss. It is different with the Mss. One of these Mss. His text Was based on a comparison of the previous editions with two Mss. Our Old Testament textus receptus is a far more faithful representation of the genuine Scripture; but, on the other hand, the means of detecting and correcting the errors contained in it are more precarious, the results are more uncertain, and the ratio borne by the value of the diplomatic evidence of Mss. It is indeed to the direct testimony of the Mss
Bethesda - A reservoir at Jerusalem, remarkable (according to a gloss inserted in the text in some authoritative Mss) for a periodic disturbance of the water which was supposed to give it healing properties
Necessity - 1: ἀνάγκη (Strong's #318 — Noun Feminine — ananke — an-ang-kay' ) signifies (a) "a necessity," what must needs be (see NEEDS), translated "necessity" (in some Mss
Lie in Wait - ...
B — 1: ἐνέδρα (Strong's #1747 | 1749 — Noun Feminine — enedra | enedron — en-ed'-rah ) akin to A, "a lying in wait, an ambush," occurs in Acts 23:16 (where some Mss
Toil - A — 1: κοπιάω (Strong's #2872 — Verb — kopiao — kop-ee-ah'-o ) "to be weary, to labor," is rendered "to toil" in Matthew 6:28 ; Luke 5:5 ( Luke 12:27 , in some Mss
Complete, Completion, Completely - ...
A — 3: συντελέω (Strong's #4931 — Verb — sunteleo — soon-tel-eh'-o ) "to end together, bring quite to an end" (sun, "together," intensive, telos, "an end"), is said (a) of the "completion" of a period of days, Luke 4:2 ; Acts 21:27 ; (b) of "completing" something; some Mss. have it in Matthew 7:28 , of the Lord, in ending His discourse (the best Mss
Shamefastness - 1: αἰδώς (Strong's #127 — Noun Feminine — aidos — ahee-doce' ) "a sense of shame, modesty," is used regarding the demeanor of women in the church, 1 Timothy 2:9 (some Mss
Possible - A — 1: δυνατός (Strong's #1415 — Adjective — dunatos — doo-nat-os' ) "strong, mighty, powerful, able (to do)," in its neuter form signifies "possible," Matthew 19:26 ; 24:24 ; 26:39 ; Mark 9:23 ; 10:27 ; 13:22 ; 14:35,36 ; Luke 18:27 ; Acts 2:24 ; 20:16 (27:39, in some Mss
Reverence - ...
B — 1: εὐλάβεια (Strong's #2124 — Noun Feminine — eulabeia — yoo-lab'-i-ah ) "caution, reverence," is translated "reverence" in Hebrews 12:28 (1st part in the best Mss; some have aidos)
e'Noch, the Book of - The first trance of the existence of this work is found in the Epistle of (Jude 1:14,15 ) An apocryphal book called Enoch was known at a very early date, but was lost sight of until 1773, when Bruce brought with him on his return from Egypt three Mss
Hence - 1: ἐντεῦθεν (Strong's #1782 — Adverb — enthen — ent-yoo'-then ) is found in the best Mss
Bethany - ...
Some of the Greek Mss read BETHANY in John 1:28 where John was baptizing on the east of the Jordan
Lean - , "to fall back" (ana, "back," pipto, "to fall"), is used of reclining at a repast and translated "leaning back, (as he was, on Jesus' breast)" in John 13:25 , RV (the AV follows the Mss
Ed - For this they have the authority of a few Mss
he That - , Matthew 10:38 ; with the particle an, expressing possibility, uncertainty or a condition, signifying "whosoever," Mark 3:29 , AV (RV, "whosoever"); Mark 4:25 ; 9:40 (with an, in the best Mss
Vulgate - On the other hand, Primasius is evidence of the continued use of the OL in Africa; and a considerable number of the extant fragments of OL Mss are of the 6th cent. Even where OL elements do not enter to a sufficient extent to be noteworthy, Mss of the Vulg. Outside Italy, only Visigothic Spain (Arian, but still Christian, until about 596) and Celtic Ireland were freely open at first to the access of the Scriptures; and in these two countries (cut off, as they subsequently were, from central Christendom by the Moorish invasion of Spain and the English conquest of Britain) the two principal types of text came into being, which, in various combinations with purer texts from Italy, are found in the different Mss which have come down to the present day. Irish missionaries carried the Bible first into southern Scotland, then into Northumbria, then into northern France and up the Rhine into Germany, penetrating even into Switzerland and Italy, and leaving traces of their handiwork in Mss produced in all these countries. ]'> Mss still extant, which can be connected with the various churches. There is clear evidence to show that the celebrated Lindisfarne Gospels (Y in Wordsworth’s numeration) was copied from one of these Mss, and the same was probably the case with another Northern copy of the Gospels now in the British Museum (Royal 1 B vii. Amiatinus (A) itself, the best single MS of the Latin Bible in existence, was written in Northumbria before 716, and must have been copied from Mss brought from Italy either by Theodore or by Ceolfrid of Jarrow, by whose order it was made. Other Mss (notably ∆ and S), written in the north, are closely akin to these, and must he derived from the same source; and this whole group of Mss furnishes the best text of the Vulg. They are obviously modelled on the Anglo-Celtic Mss, of which the Lindisfarne Gospels is the most eminent example. The English Mss excel their French successors in elaboration and skill of workmanship; but the French books have an added gorgeousness from the lavish use of gold, the whole of the text being written in gold letters, sometimes upon purple vellum. The importance of the ‘Golden Gospels’ group of Mss is artistic rather than textual, and although their dependence upon Anglo-Celtic models is obvious, their connexion with Alcuin personally is only hypothetical. It is otherwise in both respects with another great group of Mss, which are directly due to the commission given by Charlemagne to Alcuin to reform the current text of the Vulgate. About the end of 796, Alcuin established the school of Tours, and sent to York for Mss to enable him to carry out his work. MS 10546  In the British Museum), and there are some 8 or 10 other Mss (written mostly at Tours), besides several others containing the Gospels only, which in varying degrees belong to the same group. In text these Mss naturally show a great affinity to the Northumbrian Mss headed by the Cod. Alcuin’s had, no doubt, much greater authority and effect; yet its influence was only transient, and even at Tours itself the Mss produced within the next two generations show a progressive departure from his standard. After Alcuin and Theodulf no important effort was made to recover the original text of the Vulgate, though some attempt in this direction was made by Lanfranc, of which no traces seem to survive; but the history of its diffusion can to some extent be followed by the help of the extant Mss, which now begin to increase greatly in number. ), lent itself readily to expansion or contraction, so that different Mss differ not inconsiderably in their contents. The various books of the Bible generally form separate Mss, or small groups of them are combined. These are of the nature of éditions de luxe , while the copies with commentaries testify to the extent to which the Bible was at this time studied, at any rate in the larger monasteries; and the catalogues of monastic libraries which still exist confirm this impression by showing what a large number of such annotated Mss were preserved in them, no doubt for the study of the monks. Louis) witnessed a remarkable output of Vulgate Mss of the complete Bible. The texts of these Mss seem to embody the results of a revision at the hands of the Paris doctors. In type this Bible resembles the contemporary large German Bible Mss; in text it is the ordinary Vulgate of the 15th century. Some Mss were consulted in the preparation of the Complutensian Polyglot; but the only editions before the middle of the 16th cent. Amiatinus and a few other selected Mss. of NT : 4 , with description of 181 of the principal Mss, and art. Specimens of the principal classes of Mss mentioned in the present article may be seen in Facsimiles from Biblical Mss in the British Museum (1900)
Fail - A — 1: ἐκλείπω (Strong's #1587 — Verb — ekleipo — ek-li'-po ) "to leave out" (ek, "out," leipo, "to leave"), used intransitively, means "to leave off, cease, fail;" it is said of the cessation of earthly life, Luke 16:9 ; of faith, Luke 22:32 ; of the light of the sun, Luke 23:45 (in the best Mss. In 1 Corinthians 13:8 it is used of love (some Mss
Desolate, Desolation - " ...
B — 1: ἔρημος (Strong's #2048 — — eremos — er'-ay-mos ) is translated "desolate" in the Lord's words against Jerusalem, Matthew 23:38 ; some Mss. " Some Mss
Quench, Unquenchable - , "are being quenched;" of the retributive doom hereafter of sin unrepented of and unremitted in this life, Mark 9:48 (in some Mss. ...
B — 1: ἄσβεστος (Strong's #762 — Adjective — asbestos — as'-bes-tos ) "not quenched" (a, negative, and A), is used of the doom of persons described figuratively as "chaff," Matthew 3:12 ; Luke 3:17 , "unquenchable;" of the fire of Gehenna (see HELL), Mark 9:43 , RV , "unquenchable fire" (in some Mss
Many - , Matthew 8:30 ; 9:10 ; 13:17 ; so the RV of Matthew 12:15 , where some Mss. ...
Notes: (1) In Luke 23:8 some Mss. (2) In Mark 6:20 the RV, following the Mss. which have aporeo, "to be perplexed," translates polla by "much;" some Mss
Rabbi - In the latter verse it is again explained as didaskalos, "master" (some Mss
Shekel, Half Shekel - 1: στατήρ (Strong's #4715 — Noun Masculine — stater — stat-air' ) a teradrachmon or four drachmae, originally 224 grains, in Tyrian currency, but reduced in weight somewhat by the time recorded in Matthew 17:24 ; the value was about three shillings, and would pay the Temple tax for two persons, Matthew 17:27 , RV, "shekel" (AV, "a piece of money"); in some Mss
Side - , "pleurisy"), is used of the "side" of Christ, into which the spear was thrust, John 19:34 ; 20:20,25,27 (some Mss
Fleshly - In most of these passages some Mss read σάρκινος, 'fleshy
Inward, Inwardly - 1: ἔσω (Strong's #2080 — Adverb — eso — es'-o ) "within, inward," is used adjectivally in Romans 7:22 , "(the) inward (man);" 2 Corinthians 4:16 , with "man" expressed in the preceding clause, but not repeated in the original, "(our) inward (man)" (some Mss
Blow - 1: ῥάπισμα (Strong's #4475 — Noun Neuter — rhapisma — hrap'-is-mah ) (a) "a blow with a rod or staff," (b) "a blow with the hand, a slap or cuff," is found in three places; of the maltreatment of Christ by the officials or attendants of the high priest, Mark 14:65 , RV, "received (according to the most authentic Mss
Blow - 1: ῥάπισμα (Strong's #4475 — Noun Neuter — rhapisma — hrap'-is-mah ) (a) "a blow with a rod or staff," (b) "a blow with the hand, a slap or cuff," is found in three places; of the maltreatment of Christ by the officials or attendants of the high priest, Mark 14:65 , RV, "received (according to the most authentic Mss
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - ...
Though in the oldest Hebrew Mss of the Bible the consonants of the original text are accompanied by the vowels which express at once the traditional pronunciation and the traditional interpretation of the text, it is now as generally accepted that the vowels formed no part of the original text as that the earth revolves round the sun. , for the fully developed system is employed in the earliest Hebrew Biblical Mss, which date from the beginning of the 10th cent. Quotations play a much less immediate and conspicuous part in the criticism of the OT than in the criticism of the NT; and here we may confine our attention to the nature of the evidence for the text of the OT furnished by (1) Hebrew Mss, (2) ancient Versions. (1) Hebrew Mss . One well-established result of the examination of Hebrew Mss is that all existing Mss are derived from a single edition prepared by Jewish scholars in accordance with a textual tradition which goes back substantially to the 2nd cent. This is proved by the existence in all Mss of the same peculiarities, such as the occurrence at certain places of letters smaller or larger than the normal, of dots over certain letters, or broken or inverted letters. For example, the H in the word BhBR א M ( Genesis 2:4 ) is written small in all Hebrew Mss; it was doubtless written originally so by accident or owing to pressure of room; but under the influence of a school of Jewish scholars, of whom R. In order to secure the perpetuation of the text exactly as it existed, a mass of elaborate rules and calculations was gradually established; for example, the number of occurrences of cases of peculiar orthography, the number of words in the several books, the middle word in each book, and so forth, were calculated and ultimately embodied in notes on the margins of the Mss containing the Scriptures. ...
In spite of the Massorah, certain minute variations have crept into the Hebrew Mss and even into the consonantal text. The vowels, it must be repeated, are merely an interpretation of the original text of Scripture, and not part of it, and different Hebrew Mss show as a matter of fact two distinct systems of vocalization, with different symbols. The earliest Mss . Among the earliest Hebrew Biblical Mss are the Prophetarum posteriorum codex Babylonicus Petropolitanus , dated a. Before passing from the evidence of Hebrew Mss we have to note that for the Pentateuch, though unfortunately for the Pentateuch only, we have the invaluable assistance of a Hebrew text representing an entirely different recension. It is written in the Samaritan character, which far more closely resembles the ancient Hebrew characters than the square Hebrew characters in which the Massoretic Mss are written, and is without vowels . The available Mss of the Samaritan Pentateuch are considerably later than the earliest Massoretic Mss; nor is it probable that the copy at Nâblus, though perhaps the earliest Samaritan MS in existence, is earlier than the 12th or 13th cent. in a different circle, and under different circumstances, from those which have influenced the Massoretic Mss. An instance is Genesis 4:8 ; here in the ordinary Hebrew Mss some words spoken by Cain have certainly dropped out; the fact is obscured in the RV Reproof, Reprove - A — 1: ἔλεγχος (Strong's #1650 — Noun Masculine — elegmos — el'-eng-khos ) "a reproof" (akin to B), is found in the best texts in 2 Timothy 3:16 (some Mss
Sentence - ...
A — 2: καταδικάζω (Strong's #2613 — Verb — katadike — kat-ad-ik-ad'-zo ) "a judicial sentence, condemnation," is translated "sentence" in Acts 25:15 , RV (AV, "judgment"); some Mss
Aceldama - The word Ἀκελδαμα, 'field of blood,' is Aramaic expressed in Greek letters, the word being differently spelt in different Mss
Nobleman - 1: βασιλικός (Strong's #937 — Adjective — basilikos — bas-il-ee-kos' ) an adjective, "royal, belonging to a king" (basileus), is used of the command, "thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself," "the royal law," James 2:8 ; this may mean a law which covers or governs other laws and therefore has a specially regal character (as Hort suggests), or because it is made by a King (a meaning which Deissmann assigns) with whom there is no respect of persons; it is used with the pronoun tis, "a certain one," in John 4:46,49 , of a courtier, one in the service of a king, "a nobleman" (some Mss
Hundred, Hundredfold - ...
2: ἑκατονταπλασίων (Strong's #1542 — Adjective — hekatontaplasion — hek-at-on-ta-plah-see'-own ) an adjective, denotes "a hundredfold," Mark 10:30 ; Luke 8:8 ; the best Mss
Needle - ...
2: βέλος (Strong's #956 — Noun Neuter — belone — bel'-os ) akin to belos, "a dart," denotes a sharp point, hence, "a needle," Luke 18:25 (some Mss
Barren - ...
2: ἀργός (Strong's #692 — Adjective — argos — ar-gos' ) denoting "idle, barren, yielding no return, because of inactivity," is found in the best Mss
Fast, Fasting - A — 1: νηστεία (Strong's #3521 — Noun Feminine — nesteia — nace-ti'-ah ) "a fasting, fast" (from ne, a negative prefix, and esthio, "to eat"), is used (a) of voluntary abstinence from food, Luke 2:37 ; Acts 14:23 (some Mss. Some Mss
Honorable, Without Honor - ...
The comparative degree, entimoteros, is used (in the best Mss. ...
The comparative degree atimoteros is used in the best Mss
Continue, Continuance - ...
5: ἐμμένω (Strong's #1696 — Verb — emmeno — em-men'-o ) "to remain in" (en, "in"), is used of "abiding in a house," Acts 28:30 (in the best Mss. 3), hence, "to continue or persevere in anything," is used of the inability of Levitical priests to "continue," Hebrews 7:23 ; of persevering in the law of liberty, James 1:25 ; it is translated "abide" in Philippians 1:25 (2nd clause, in the best Mss. ...
Notes: (1) The following are translated by the verb "to continue," in the AV, in the places mentioned: diatribo, "to tarry," (according to inferior Mss. ) John 11:54 ; Acts 15:35 (RV, "tarried"); histemi, "to stand," Acts 26:22 (RV, "stand"): kathizo, "to sit down," Acts 18:11 (RV, "dwelt"): parateino, "to extend, stretch," Acts 20:7 (RV, "prolonged"); parameno, "to abide together with," Philippians 1:25 , RV, "abide with;" the AV, "continue," translating sumparameno (in some Mss
Measure - The Holy Spirit is imparted neither by degrees, nor in portions, as if He were merely an influence, He is bestowed personally upon each believer, at the time of the New Birth; (b) of "a graduated rod or rule for measuring," figuratively, Matthew 7:2 ; Mark 4:24 ; literally, Revelation 21:15 (in the best Mss. (4) In Mark 6:51 , some Mss. , Revelation 11:1,2 ; 21:15,16,17 ; metaphorically, 2 Corinthians 10:12 ; (b) in the sense of "measuring" out, giving by "measure," Matthew 7:2 , "ye mete" (some Mss. 2); Mark 4:24 ; in some Mss. 1), is used in the Passive Voice, and found in some Mss
Pierce - ...
4: νύσσω (Strong's #3572 — Verb — nusso — noos'-so ) "to pierce" or "pierce through," often of inflicting severe or deadly wounds, is used of the piercing of the side of Christ, John 19:34 (in some Mss
Privily - 1: λάθρᾳ (Strong's #2977 — Adverb — lathra — lath'-rah ) "secretly, covertly" (from a root lath---, indicating "unnoticed, unknown," seen in lanthano, "to escape notice," lethe, "forgetfulness"), is translated "privily" in Matthew 1:19 ; 2:7 ; Acts 16:37 ; "secretly" in John 11:28 (in some Mss
Region - ...
2: περίχωρος (Strong's #4066 — Adjective — perichoros — per-ikh'-o-ros ) "a country or region round about" (peri), is translated "region round about" in Matthew 3:5 ; 14:35 , RV; Mark 1:28 (in some Mss
Basket, Basketful - 1: κόφινος (Strong's #2894 — Noun Masculine — kophinos — kof'-ee-nos ) was "a wicker basket," originally containing a certain measure of capacity, Matthew 14:20 ; 16:9 ; Mark 6:43 (RV, "basketfuls"); 8:19; Luke 9:17 ; 13:8 in some Mss
Cloud - ...
2: νεφέλη (Strong's #3507 — Noun Feminine — nephele — nef-el'-ay ) "a definitely shaped cloud, or masses of clouds possessing definite form," is used, besides the physical element, (a) of the "cloud" on the mount of transfiguration, Matthew 17:5 ; (b) of the "cloud" which covered Israel in the Red Sea, 1 Corinthians 10:1,2 ; (c), of "clouds" seen in the Apocalyptic visions, Revelation 1:7 ; 10:1 ; 11:12 ; 14:14-16 ; (d) metaphorically in 2 Peter 2:17 , of the evil workers there mentioned; but RV, "and mists" (homichle), according to the most authentic Mss
Disobedience, Disobedient - 1, and B, "to refuse to be persuaded, to refuse belief, to be disobedient," is translated "disobedient," or by the verb "to be disobedient," in the RV of Acts 14:2 (AV, "unbelieving"), and Acts 19:9 (AV, "believed not"); it is absent from the most authentic Mss. " In 1 Peter 2:7 the best Mss
Might, Mighty, Mightily, Mightier - 1, RV, "might and power," which better expresses the distinction than the AV, "power and might;" in some Mss. in Revelation 18:2 it is said of the voice of an angle ; the most authentic Mss. 1), is found in the most authentic Mss. 1), RV "(the Lord) hath power," AV, "(God) is able;" similarly, as regard Mss. 1); (b) kata kratos, Acts 19:20 , of the increase of the word of the Lord in a place, lit, "according to might;" (c) in Revelation 18:2 some Mss
Julius - In Acts 28:16 some Mss (not the best) say that the prisoners were delivered to the captain of the guard in Rome
Euraquilo - The Greek Mss which are esteemed to be the best read Euraklyon ; so do the Bohairic Version, which was made in Egypt in the 6th or 7th cent
Mary, Wife of Cleophas - That the Lord's mother should have a sister also called Mary may appear improbable, but the Mss vary, and there may have been a slight difference, as in the two modern names of Mary and Maria
Curse, Cursing, Cursed, Accursed - ...
A — 4: κατανάθεμα (Strong's #2652 — Noun Neuter — katathema — kat-an-ath'-em-ah ) or, as in some Mss. Some Mss. ...
C — 2: ἐπάνω (Strong's #1883 — Adverb — eparatos — ep-an'-o ) "accursed," is found, in the best Mss
Titus - It is only the later Mss of the Epistle to Titus that in the subscription say he was 'bishop of Crete
Footstool - In Matthew 22:44 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, on the authority of some of the most ancient MssLascivious, Lasciviousness - 1: ἀσέλγεια (Strong's #766 — Noun Feminine — aselgeia — as-elg'-i-a ) denotes "excess, licentiousness, absence of restraint, indecency, wantonness;" "lasciviousness" in Mark 7:22 , one of the evils that proceed from the heart; in 2 Corinthians 12:21 , one of the evils of which some in the church at Corinth had been guilty; in Galatians 5:19 , classed among the works of the flesh; in Ephesians 4:19 , among the sins of the unregenerate who are "past feeling;" so in 1 Peter 4:3 ; in Jude 1:4 , of that into which the grace of God had been turned by ungodly men; it is translated "wantonness" in Romans 13:13 , one of the sins against which believers are warned; in 2 Peter 2:2 , according to the best Mss
Fight - 1; in regard to the meaning there, the evidence of Koine inscriptions is against the idea of games-contests); to strive as in a contest for a prize, straining every nerve to attain to the object, Luke 13:24 ; to put forth every effort, involving toil, Colossians 1:29 ; 1 Timothy 4:10 (some Mss. " (2) In Acts 23:9 some Mss
Gain - 3, signifies (I), literally, (a) "to gain something," Matthew 16:26 ; 25:16 (in the best Mss. ...
B — 3: περιποιέω (Strong's #4046 — Verb — peripoieo — per-ee-poy-eh'-om-ahee ) "to save for oneself, gain," is in the Middle Voice in the best Mss
Polycarpus, Moyses of Aghel - " The same facts are stated in a note purporting to be written by THOMAS OF HARKEL in 616, appended in slightly varying forms to many Mss. These four Epistles in the version in question are found also in a few Paris Mss. 1, 2), and in several Mss. But we have conclusive evidence that a Philoxenian Isaiah also existed; for a rendering of Is 9:6, differing from the Hexapla and from the Hebrew, but closely agreeing with a reading found in several Mss
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - of Callinicus, being published by Assemani (MSS. Three letters from Julian to Severus, also translated by Paulus, and several fragments are among the Syrian Mss. Mss. Assemani also gives three letters of his to Severus from the Syriac Mss. Mss
Seraphim - Symbolical celestial beings seen by Isaiah standing above the Lord on His throne (Adonai, but many Mss read Jehovah )
Net - , "something thrown around" (amphi, "around," ballo, "to throw"), denotes "a casting net," a somewhat small "net," cast over the shoulder, spreading out in a circle and made to sink by weights, Matthew 4:18 (in some Mss
Compass - 1: κυκλόω (Strong's #2944 — Verb — kukleuo — koo-klo'-o ) denotes "to encircle, surround," and is found in the best texts in John 10:24 , "came round about," and Revelation 20:9 , of a camp surrounded by foes; some Mss
Mock, Mocker, Mocking - 3, "to scoff at," whether by gesture or word, is said of those who jeered at the testimony given on the Day of Penticost, Acts 2:13 (some Mss. ...
B — 3: ἐμπαίζω (Strong's #1702 — Verb — empaigmone — emp-aheed'-zo ) an abstract noun, "mockery," is used in 2 Peter 3:3 (some Mss
Fear, Fearful, Fearfulness - ...
A — 3: εὐλάβεια (Strong's #2124 — Noun Feminine — eulabeia — yoo-lab'-i-ah ) signifies, firstly, "caution;" then, "reverence, godly fear," Hebrews 5:7 ; 12:28 , in best Mss. ), is used with ginomai, "to become," in Acts 7:32 , "trembled;" Acts 16:29 , RV, "trembling for fear;" with eimi, "to be," in Hebrews 12:21 , "quake" (some Mss. , Acts 23:10 , according to the best Mss. " ...
Notes: (1) In Acts 23:10 some Mss
Greek Versions of ot - In Judges the two principal Mss (Codd. The details of the order of the books differ in different Mss and authoritative lists, but substantially the principle is as here stated; and the divergence has had considerable historical importance. ), it would still have presented to the critic problems more than enough, by reason of its differences from the Hebrew in contents and arrangement, and the doubt attaching to its fidelity as a translation; but these difficulties are multiplied tenfold by the modifications which it underwent between this time and the date to which our earliest Mss belong (4th cent. leaf discovered at Cairo in a genizah (or receptacle for damaged and disused synagogue Mss), and now at Cambridge. The great Mss of the Hexapla and Tetrapla were preserved for a long time in the library established by Origen’s disciple, Pamphilus, at Cæsarea, and references are made to them in the scholia and subscriptions of some of the extant Mss of the LXX
The principal vellum uncial Mss, which are of course the main foundation of our textual knowledge, are as follows. In Judges it has a text wholly different from that of B, and in general the two Mss represent different types of text; the quotations from the LXX Various Readings - It is easy to see that the same Greek words may be translated differently by different persons; but the 'readings' refer to different Greek words being substituted; or words may be added by copyists in various Mss, or words or sentences may be omitted as in the above instance from John 5:3,4 . The first in 1546, and his most renowned one in 1550 (the one generally reprinted in England as the commonly received text), it was the first to give readings of the Mss in the margin; a fourth edition was issued in 1551, in which he had divided the text into verses. He laboured to classify the Greek Mss and arranged them in families to indicate where they had apparently been copied from one another, or had followed one recension. He confined his attention to early Greek Mss — not later than the fourth century, though he did not keep rigidly to this rule. In some instances the line became invisible in old Mss and then the reading became doubtful. Matthew to Hebrews 9:14 , including the Catholic Epistles,...
which are inserted, as in other early Mss, after the Acts. Also in the two Mss shown as B, though bound in the same volume, one is some 400 years earlier than the other. Some of the Mss, as C above, are Palimpsests, that is, the old writing had been partly erased, and other works written over it, as shown under WRITING. Other Greek Mss are called Cursives , because written in the common running hand and not all in capitals
Lay - 1: τίθημι (Strong's #5087 — Verb — tithemi — tith'-ay-mee ) "to put, place, set," frequently signifies "to lay," and is used of (a) "laying" a corpse in a tomb, Matthew 27:60 ; Mark 6:29 ; 15:47 ; 16:6 ; Luke 23:53,55 ; John 11:34 ; 19:41,42 ; 20:2,13,15 ; Acts 7:16 ; 13:29 ; Revelation 11:9 , RV, "to be laid" (AV, "to be put"); in an upper chamber, Acts 9:37 ; (b) "laying" the sick in a place, Mark 6:56 ; Luke 5:18 ; Acts 3:2 ; 5:15 ; (c) "laying" money at the Apostles' feet, Acts 4:35,37 ; 5:2 ; (d) Christ's "laying" His hands upon children Mark 10:16 , RV, "laying" (AV, "put"); upon John, Revelation 1:17 (in the best Mss. ...
2: κατατίθημι (Strong's #2698 — Verb — katatithemi — kat-at-ith'-ay-mee ) "to lay down" (kata), is used in Mark 15:46 of the act of Joseph of Arimathaea in "laying" Christ's body in the tomb (some Mss. , is used of "laying" hands on the sick, for healing, Matthew 9:18 ; 19:13 , RV, "lay" (AV, "put"); 19:15; Mark 5:23 ; 6:5 ; 7:32 ; 8:23 RV, "laid" (AV, "put"); so in Mark 8:25 ; 16:18 ; Luke 4:40 ; 13:13 ; Acts 6:6 ; 8:17,19 ; 9:12,17 , RV, "laying" (AV, "putting"); Acts 13:3 ; 19:6 ; 28:8 ; in some Mss. " (2) In Luke 24:12 , some Mss. have the verb, with reference to the linen cloths (the clause is absent in the best Mss. " (3) In John 11:41 , the verb is not found in the best Mss
Olives, Olive Tree - ...
2: ἐλαιών (Strong's #1638 — Noun Masculine — elaion — el-ah-yone' ) "an olive grove" or "olive garden," the ending -- on, as in this class of noun, here indicates "a place set with trees of the kind designated by the primitive" (Thayer); hence it is applied to the Mount of Olives, Luke 19:29 ; 21:37 ; Acts 1:12 ("Olivet"): in the first two of these and in Mark 11:1 , some Mss
Next - 1: ἑξῆς (Strong's #1836 — Adverb — hexes — hex-ace' ) an adverb (akin to echo, "to have") denoting "in order, successively, next," is used adjectivally, qualifying the noun "day" in Luke 9:37 ; Acts 21:1 , RV, "next" (AV, "following"), Acts 25:17 , RV, "next" (AV, "on the morrow"); in Acts 27:18 , with hemera, "day," understood; in Luke 7:11 , in the best Mss
Sinaiticus Codex - Usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one of the most valuable of ancient Mss. In the year referred to (1859) the emperor of Russia sent him to prosecute his search for Mss
Country - ...
A — 3: χώρα (Strong's #5561 — Noun Feminine — chora — kho'-rah ) properly denotes "the space lying between two limits or places;" accordingly it has a variety of meanings: "country," Matthew 2:12 ; 8:28 ; Mark 1:5 , RV (AV, "land"); Mark 5:1,10 ; Luke 2:8 ; 8:26 ; 15:13,14 , RV (AV, "land"), Luke 15:15 ; 19:12 ; 21:21 ; Acts 10:39 , RV (AV, "land"); Acts 12:20 ; 26:20 , RV (AV, "coasts"); Acts 27:27 ; in Mark 6:55 (in the best Mss. ...
Note: Some inferior Mss
Manner - " ...
B — 3: οἷος (Strong's #3634 — pronoun — hoios — hoy'-os ) a relative pronoun, signifying "what sort of or manner of," is translated by the latter phrase in 1 Thessalonians 1:5 ; some Mss. " (4) In Acts 15:23 some Mss. The RV, adhering to the Mss. rendered "(as to) the inquiry concerning these things" (or according to some Mss
Part - (4) In Acts 1:25 , where the best Mss. " (6) In 1 Peter 4:14 , AV, "on (their) part," "on (your) part," represents the preposition kata, "according to," followed by the personal pronouns; the statements are not found in the most authentic Mss. ...
B — 3: παραγίνομαι (Strong's #3854 — Verb — paraginomai — par-ag-in'-om-ahee ) "to be beside, support" (para, "beside," ginomai, "to become"), is rendered "took (my) part" in 2 Timothy 4:16 (AV, "stood with"); some Mss
Far - A — 1: μακρός (Strong's #3117 — Adjective — makros — mak-ros' ) is used (a) of space and time, "long," said of prayers (in some Mss. " (7) In the following, heos, used as a preposition, is translated "as far as" in the RV, for different words in the AV; Acts 17:14 , in the best Mss
Ephphatha - ’ In Greek MssAccount - ...
A — 5: καταξιόω (Strong's #2661 — Verb — kataxioo — kat-ax-ee-o'-o ) denotes "to account worthy" (kata, "intensive," axios, "worthy"), "to judge worthy," Luke 20:35 ; some Mss. have it in Luke 21:36 (so the AV); the most authentic Mss
Dear - 1: τίμιος (Strong's #5093 — Adjective — timios — tim'-ee-os ) from time, "honor, price," signifies (a), primarily, "accounted as of great price, precious, costly," 1 Corinthians 3:12 ; Revelation 17:4 ; 18:12,16 ; 21:19 , and in the superlative degree, Revelation 18:12 ; 21:11 ; the comparative degree is found in 1 Peter 1:7 (polutimoteros, in the most authentic Mss
Dawn - orthrios, "early," in some texts in Luke 24:22 ; orthrinos, a later form of orthros, in some Mss
Fellow - ...
2: ἑταῖρος (Strong's #2083 — Noun Masculine — hetairos — het-ah'ee-ros ) "a companion, comrade," is translated "fellows" in Matthew 11:16Pour - shed forth"); Titus 3:6 , RV, "poured out" (AV, "shed"); (c) of the emptying of the contents of the bowls (AV, "vials") of Divine wrath, Revelation 16:1-4,8,10,12,17 ; (d) of the shedding of the blood of saints by the foes of God, Revelation 16:6 , RV, "poured out" (AV, "shed"); some Mss
Secret, Secretly - ...
A — 3: κρύπτω (Strong's #2928 — Verb — kruphaios — kroop'-to ) occurs in the best Mss
Kind - 1: γένος (Strong's #1085 — Noun Neuter — genos — ghen'-os ) akin to ginomai, "to become," denotes (a) "a family," Acts 4:6 , "kindred;" Acts 7:13 , RV, "race" (AV, "kindred"); Acts 13:26 , "stock;" (b) "an offspring," Acts 17:28 ; Revelation 22:16 ; (c) "a nation, a race," Mark 7:26 , RV, "race" (AV, "nation"); Acts 4:36 , RV "(a man of Cyprus) by race," AV, "of the country (of Cyprus);" genos does not mean "a country;" the word here signifies "parentage" (Jews had settled in Cyprus from, or even before, the reign of Alexander the Great); Acts 7:19 , RV, "race" (AV, "kindred"); Acts 18:2,24 , RV, "by race" (AV, "born"); 2 Corinthians 11:26 , "countrymen;" Galatians 1:14 , RV, "countrymen" (AV, "nation"); Philippians 3:5 , "stock;" 1 Peter 2:9 , RV, "race" (AV, "generation"); (d) "a kind, sort, class," Matthew 13:47 , "kind;" in some Mss
Only - (3) The conjunction ei, "if," with the negative me, "not," is translated "but only" in Luke 4:26 , RV (AV, "save"); Luke 4:27 (AV, "saving"); "only" in 1 Corinthians 7:17 (AV, "but"); in some Mss
Moreover - ...
7: λοιπόν (Strong's #3063 — Adverb Neuter — loipon — loy-pon' ) the neuter of the adjective loipos, "the rest," used adverbially, most usually rendered "finally," is translated "moreover" in 1 Corinthians 4:2 (some Mss
Doubt, Doubtful, Doubting - means "to be without a way" (a, negative, poros, "a way, transit"), "to be without resources, embarrassed, in doubt, perplexity, at a loss," as was Herod regarding John the Baptist, Mark 6:20 (RV, following the most authentic Mss. " See also Luke 9:7 (some Mss
Feast - ...
A — 5: ἀγάπη (Strong's #26 — Noun Feminine — agape — ag-ah'-pay ) "love," is used in the plural in Jude 1:12 , signifying "love feasts," RV (AV, "feasts of charity"); in the corresponding passage, 2 Peter 2:13 , the most authentic Mss. " ...
Notes: (1) In 1 Corinthians 10:27 the verb kaleo, "to call," in the sense of inviting to one's house, is translated "biddeth you (to a feast);" in the most authentic texts there is no separate phrase representing "to a feast," as in some Mss
Labor - A — 1: κόπος (Strong's #2873 — Noun Masculine — kopos — kop'-os ) primarily denotes "a striking, beating" (akin to kopto, "to strike, cut"); then, "toil resulting in weariness, laborious toil, trouble;" it is translated "labor" or "labors" in John 4:38 ; 1 Corinthians 3:8 ; 15:58 ; 2 Corinthians 6:5 ; 10:15 ; 11:23,27 , RV, "labor" (AV, "weariness"); 1 Thessalonians 1:3 ; 2:9 ; 3:5 ; 2 Thessalonians 3:8 ; (in some Mss. ...
A — 2: πόνος (Strong's #4192 — Noun Masculine — ponos — pon'-os ) denotes (a) "labors, toil," Colossians 4:13 , in the best Mss
Liturgy - Of these there are many still extant in Mss. some ofthem fully as old as the oldest Mss
Carpenter - The passage of Sirach quoted is from the chapter describing the honour of a physician, with which may be compared the proverb, ‘Physician, heal thyself,’ quoted by Christ in similar circumstances at Nazareth, when they said, ‘Is not this Joseph’s son?’...
An attempt to make Mark 6:3 conform to Matthew 13:55 is seen in some old Mss is supported by all the chief MssAbide, Abode - In Philippians 1:25 , the Apostle uses both the simple verb meno and the compound parameno (some Mss. In 1 Corinthians 16:6 some Mss. ...
A — 8: ἀναστρέφω (Strong's #390 — Verb — anastrepho — an-as-tref'-o ) used once in the sense of "abiding," Matthew 17:22 , frequently denotes "to behave oneself, to live a certain manner of life;" here the most reliable Mss
Barabbas - In his exposition of the passage, Origen refers to this reading, which is favoured by some cursive MssNow - , Acts 22:1 (in the best Mss. In the following it is absent from the best Mss. Some Mss
Devout - In the NT it is used of a pious attitude towards God, Acts 10:2,7 ; (in some Mss
Fare, Farewell - ...
2: ῥώννυμι (Strong's #4517 — Verb — rhonnumi — hrone'-noo-mee ) "to strengthen, to be strong," is used in the imperative mood as a formula at the end of letters, signifying "Farewell," Acts 15:29 ; some Mss
Ethiopian Eunuch - 37 is not found in the oldest Mss, but cannot be later than the 2nd cent
Jerahmeel - How indistinct the recollection of them was appears from the various forms assumed by their name in Mss of the LXX Arrive - In Mark 4:30 , some Mss
Never - ...
3: οὐδέπω (Strong's #3764 — Adverb — oudepo — oo-dep'-o ) "not yet," is translated "never (man) yet" in John 19:41 ("man" representing the idiomatically used negative pronoun oudeis, "no one"); some Mss
Blood - " ...
(2) In Acts 17:26 (RV, "of one;" AV, "of one blood"), the most authentic Mss
Manasseh - Jerome, the Vulgate, three Hebrew Mss, and two or three ancient copies of the LXX read Moses instead of Manasseh. In many Hebrew Mss the letter nun (N) is written over or between the letters mem (M) and shin (S), so as to alter the name of Moses to Manasseh
Eye - trema, "a hole, perforation," Matthew 19:24 (some texts have trupema, "a hole," from trupao, "to bore a hole"); Luke 18:25 , as in the most authentic Mss
Exercise - ...
Notes: The following verbs contain in translation the word "exercise" but belong to other headings: exousiazo, "to exercise authority over," Luke 22:25 (exousia, "authority"); in the first part of this verse, the verb kurieuo, "to be lord," is translated "exercise lordship," AV (RV, "have lordship"); katexousiazo, a strengthened form of the preceding (kata, "down," intensive), Matthew 20:25 ; Mark 10:42 , "exercise authority" (in the first part of these verses the synonymous (in the first part of these verses the synonymous verb katakurieuo, is rendered "Lord it," RV, for AV, "exercise dominion," and "exercise lordship," respectively); episkopeo, "to look over or upon" (epi, "over," skopeo, "to look"), "to care for," 1 Peter 5:2 (absent in some Mss
Need, Needs, Needful - ...
A — 2: ἀνάγκη (Strong's #318 — Noun Feminine — ananke — an-ang-kay' ) "a necessity, need," is translated "it must needs be" in Matthew 18:7 , with the verb "to be" understood (according to the best Mss. ...
B — 2: δεῖ (Strong's #1163 — Verb — dei — die, deh-on' ) an impersonal verb, signifying "it is necessary," is rendered "must needs" in Mark 13:7 ; John 4:4 ; Acts 1:16 , AV (RV, "it was needful"); Acts 17:3 , AV (RV, "it behoved"); (in some Mss
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - ) The fact of the Mss being of different recensions lessens their critical value. The translation is assigned to the second century: though there are no Mss of so early a date. ...
The first printed edition appeared, in 1716, at Oxford, but badly collated from various Mss by Wilkins, with a Latin interpretation. It is assigned to the second century, some Mss being judged to be of the fifth century and others of the sixth century. Cureton, who observed, bound up with other Syriac Mss in the British Museum, some leaves containing a large part of the four Gospels in a recension different from the Peshito
Right, Rightly - ...
B — 1: δίκαιος (Strong's #1342 — Adjective — dikaios — dik'-ah-yos ) "just, righteous, that which is in accordance with" dike, "rule, right, justice," is translated "right" in Matthew 20:4 ; Matthew 20:7 , AV only (RV omits, according to the most authentic Mss
Draw - " ...
(2) In Acts 19:33 , where the most authentic Mss. " Some Mss
Raise - 34, where stress is laid upon His being "raised" from the dead, the same verb being used: (d) of "raising" up seed, Matthew 22:24 ; (e) of being "raised" from natural sleep, Matthew 1:24 , AV, "being raised" (RV, "arose"); here some Mss. , 'making a collection (of a crowd)'; some Mss
Judge - 1), is used (a) of God, Hebrews 12:23 , where the order in the original is "to a Judge who is God of all;" this is really the significance; it suggests that He who is the Judge of His people is at the same time their God; that is the order in Hebrews 10:30 ; the word is also used of God in James 4:12 , RV; (b) of Christ, Acts 10:42 ; 2 Timothy 4:8 ; James 5:9 ; (c) of a ruler in Israel in the times of the Judges, Acts 13:20 ; (d) of a Roman procurator, Acts 24:10 ; (e) of those whose conduct provides a standard of "judging," Matthew 12:27 ; Luke 11:19 ; (f) in the forensic sense, of one who tries and decides a case, Matthew 5:25 (twice); Luke 12:14 (some Mss. ...
A — 2: δικαστής (Strong's #1348 — Noun Masculine — dikastes — dik-as-tace' ) denotes "a judge" (from dike, "right, a judicial hearing, justice;" akin to dikazo, "to judge"), Acts 7:27,35 ; some Mss
Name - ...
Note: In Mark 9:41 , the use of the phrase en with the dative case of onoma (as in the best Mss. ...
B — 1: ὀνομάζω (Strong's #3687 — Verb — onomazo — on-om-ad'-zo ) denotes (a) "to name," "mention," or "address by name," Acts 19:13 , RV, "to name" (AV, "to call"); in the Passive Voice, Romans 15:20 ; Ephesians 1:21 ; 5:3 ; to make mention of the "Name" of the Lord in praise and worship, 2 Timothy 2:19 ; (b) "to name, call, give a name to," Luke 6:13,14 ; Passive Voice, 1 Corinthians 5:11 , RV, "is named" (AV, "is called"); Ephesians 3:15 (some Mss
English Versions - The version in question is a translation of the Gospels in the dialect of Wessex, of which six Mss (with a fragment of a seventh) are now extant. Skeat, The Holy Gospels in Anglo-Saxon (1871 1877); two Mss are in the British Museum, two at Cambridge, and two (with a fragment of another) at Oxford. The earliest Mss are assigned to the beginning of the 11th cent. Nearly 90 Mss of this version are known, ranging from the first half of the 12th cent. This English version (which at one time was attributed to Wyclif) is known in no less than 16 Mss, which fall into at least two classes Lord's Prayer - The Doxology is found only in Mss of Mt. ) the article before ‘earth’ is omitted in some Mss; but as, by a well-known rule, the article in Greek is often implied, but not expressed, after a preposition, the omission does not demand a change in the translation. is attested by the majority of the Mss. ’...
The Doxology, which is not found in the oldest Mss, is contained in the majority of copies
Long - A — 1: μακρός (Strong's #3117 — Adjective — makros — mak-ros' ) is used of "long prayers" (Matthew 23:14 , in some Mss
Order - A — 1: τάξις (Strong's #5010 — Noun Feminine — taxis — tax'-is ) "an arranging, arrangement, order" (akin to tasso, "to arrange, draw up in order"), is used in Luke 1:8 of the fixed succession of the course of the priests; of due "order," in contrast to confusion, in the gatherings of a local church, 1 Corinthians 14:40 ; of the general condition of such, Colossians 2:5 (some give it a military significance here); of the Divinely appointed character or nature of a priesthood, of Melchizedek, as foreshadowing that of Christ, Hebrews 5:6,10 ; 6:20 ; 7:11 (where also the character of the Aaronic priesthood is set in contrast); 7:17 (in some Mss
Sit - , "reclined"); 26:7; 26:20, RV, "He was sitting at meat" (AV, "He sat down"); Mark 16:14 ; in some Mss. ...
9: παρακαθίζω (Strong's #3869 — Verb — parakathezomai — par-ak-ath-id'-zo ) "to sit down beside" (para), in a Passive Voice form, occurs in the best Mss
Vulgate, the - May there not have been one made in each place?...
The principal Mss quoted by the Editors as dating before the time of Jerome (called Old Latin as well as Italic, though the distinction is not clearly marked) are...
The passage in John 7:53 — John 8:11 , "the woman taken in adultery" (which is omitted in many Greek Mss. ...
This passage gives an illustration of how the Old Latin, preserved in the Vulgate, may be the means of authenticating true readings that would otherwise be condemned because of the supposed preponderance (of weight, not number ) of Greek Mss against it
Ready - ...
B — 1: μέλλω (Strong's #3195 — Verb — mello — mel'-lo ) "to be about to," is translated "to be ready" in 2 Peter 1:12 , RV, where the future indicates that the Apostle will be prepared, as in the past and the present, to remind his readers of the truths they know (some Mss
Barnabas - His name was JOSES (or Joseph as in some Mss); but by the apostles he was surnamed Barnabas, 'son of consolation' (rather 'exhortation')
Assemble - The verb is not found in the most authentic Mss
Pass, Come to Pass - " For the meaning "to come forth or come," see Luke 12:37 ; 17:7 , RV (Acts 24:7 in some Mss. ...
10: παραπορεύομαι (Strong's #3899 — Verb — paraporeuomai — par-ap-or-yoo'-om-ahee ) primarily, "to go beside, accompany" (para, "beside," poreuomai, "to proceed"), denotes "to go past, pass by," Matthew 27:39 ; Mark 9:30 , "passed through" (some Mss
Gerasenes, Gergesenes - According to Origen, the majority of the MssPurpose - A — 1: βούλημα (Strong's #1013 — Noun Neuter — boulema — boo'-lay-mah ) "a purpose or will" (akin to boulomai, "to will, wish, purpose"), "a deliberate intention," occurs in Acts 27:43 , "purpose;" Romans 9:19 , "will;" 1 Peter 4:3 , in the best Mss
Set - 1), "to appoint, constitute," is translated "to set" in Matthew 24:45,47 ; 25:21,23 , RV (AV, "made"); so Luke 12:42,44 ; it is found in some Mss. So epikathizo in Matthew 21:7 (last part), RV, "He sat" Acts 7:26 (the imperfect tense being conative, expressing an attempt); some Mss
Strong, Stronger - 1); 19:18, "mighty;" metaphorically, (4) the church at Corinth, 1 Corinthians 4:10 , where the Apostle reproaches them ironically with their unspiritual and self-complacent condition; (5) of young men in Christ spiritually strong, through the Word of God, to overcome the evil one, 1 John 2:14 ; of (b) things: (1) wind, Matthew 14:30 (in some Mss
Kenites - of the Sinaitic Peninsula ( Judges 1:16 ; read in this verse, with Mss of LXX Canon of Scripture - With the Greek Mss apocryphal books are found, parts of which were read in the churches in early days
Trespass - , "a fall beside," used ethically, denotes "a trespass," a deviation, from uprightness and truth, Matthew 6:14,15 (twice); 18:35, in some Mss
Evil, Evil-Doer - ...
A — 3: φαῦλος (Strong's #5337 — Adjective — phaulos — fow'-los ) primarily denotes "slight, trivial, blown about by every wind;" then, "mean, common, bad," in the sense of being worthless, paltry or contemptible, belonging to a low order of things; in John 5:29 , those who have practiced "evil" things, RV, "ill" (phaula), are set in contrast to those who have done good things (agatha); the same contrast is presented in Romans 9:11 ; 2 Corinthians 5:10 , in each of which the most authentic Mss. ...
B — 5: κακοποιός (Strong's #2555 — Adjective — kakopois — kak-op-oy-os' ) properly the masculine gender of the adjective, denotes an "evil-doer" (kakon, "evil," poieo, "to do"), 1 Peter 2:12,14 ; 4:15 ; in some Mss
Elect, Elected, Election - signifies "picked out, chosen" (ek, "from," lego, "to gather, pick out"), and is used of (a) Christ, the "chosen" of God, as the Messiah, Luke 23:35 (for the verb in Luke 9:35 see Note below), and metaphorically as a "living Stone," "a chief corner Stone," 1 Peter 2:4,6 ; some Mss
Number - But though, on the one hand, it is certain that in all existing Mss of the Hebrew text of the Old Testament the numerical expressions are written at length, yet, on the other, the variations in the several versions between themselves and from the Hebrew text, added to the evident inconsistencies in numerical statement between certain passages of that text itself seems to prove that some shorter mode of writing was originally in vogue, liable to be misunderstood, and in fact misunderstood by copyists and translators
Clementine Literature - the Mss. τὰ Κλημέντια ), first printed by Cotelier in his edition of the Apostolic Fathers 1672, from one of the Colbertine Mss. The two Mss. The Recognitions ( ἀναγνώσεις, ἀναγνωρισμοί ) bears in the Mss. The original is lost, but the work is preserved in a translation by Rufinus, of which many Mss. , founded on a better collation of Mss. by de Lagarde, 1861, is preserved in two Mss. The Epitome is given in forms of varying fulness in different Mss. The letter itself is preserved in the Mss
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - As an ancient monument of the Gothic language the version of Ulphilas possesses great interest; as a version the use of which was once extended widely through Europe, it is a monument of the Christianization of the Goths; and as a version known to have been made in the fourth century, and transmitted to us in ancient Mss. Among the Mss
Merciful, Mercy - From this it follows that in each of the Apostolic salutations where these words occur, grace precedes mercy, 1 Timothy 1:2 ; 2 Timothy 1:2 ; Titus 1:4 (in some Mss. , "the holy things, the faithful things (of David)" is translated, "the holy and sure blessings," RV; the AV, following the Mss
Holiness, Holy, Holily - ]'> ...
A — 3: ἁγιότης (Strong's #41 — Noun Feminine — hagiotes — hag-ee-ot'-ace ) "sanctity," the abstract quality of "holiness," is used (a) of God, Hebrews 12:10 ; (b) of the manifestation of it in the conduct of the Apostle Paul and his fellow-laborers, 2 Corinthians 1:12 (in the best Mss. ; the RV in Revelation 16:5 , "Thou Holy One," translates the most authentic Mss
Maximus, Bishop of Turin - Augustine, are published by Migne with the works of Maximus, on the strength of three ancient Mss
Bible, - For a long time it was thought that their great care and exactitude in copying had preserved the manuscripts from error; but it has been abundantly proved that those copyists erred, as all others have erred in this respect, and numerous errors have been discovered in the Mss, though many of them are seen at once to be mistakes of the pen, some doubtless caused through the similarity of the Hebrew letters, and are easily corrected. Other differences can be set right by the preponderance of evidence in the Mss themselves now that many of these have been collated
Priest - The characteristics of the Aaronic "high priests" are enumerated in Hebrews 5:1-4 ; 8:3 ; 9:7,25 ; in some Mss
Honor - 1); (9) as an advantage to be given by believers one to another instead of claiming it for self, Romans 12:10 ; (10) to be given to elders that rule well ("double honor"), 1 Timothy 5:17 (here the meaning may be an honorarium); (11) to be given by servants to their master, 1 Timothy 6:1 ; (12) to be given to wives by husbands, 1 Peter 3:7 ; (13) said of the husband's use of the wife, in contrast to the exercise of the passion of lust, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 (some regard the "vessel" here as the believer's body); (14) of that bestowed upon; parts of the body, 1 Corinthians 12:23,24 ; (15) of that which belongs to the builder of a house in contrast to the house itself, Hebrews 3:3 ; (16) of that which is not enjoyed by a prophet in his own country, John 4:44 ; (17) of that bestowed by the inhabitants of Melita upon Paul and his fellow-passengers, in gratitude for his benefits of healing, Acts 28:10 ; (18) of the festive honor to be possessed by nations, and brought into the Holy City, the heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:26 (in some Mss
Papyri And Ostraca - They comprise not only very ancient Mss of well-known authors, but also a large number of lost authors; and lost writings by known authors have been partially recovered. In the first place, they increase our stock of Biblical Mss in a most gratifying manner; and secondly, they place new sources at the disposal of the philological student of the Greek Bible. ...
Beginning then with Biblical Mss, and first of all Mss of the Hebrew Bible, we have in the Nash Papyrus a very ancient copy of the Ten Commandments
Gospel - ) It is observed in the oldest Latin translations and in the Gothic; sometimes also in the works of Latin teachers; but among all the Greek Mss. But the other, namely, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, is, in all the old translations of Asia and Africa, in all catalogues of the canonical books, and in Greek Mss
Rejoice - " ...
3: ἀγαλλιάω (Strong's #21 — Verb — agalliao — ag-al-lee-ah'-o ) "to rejoice greatly, to exult," is used, (I) in the Active Voice, of "rejoicing" in God, Luke 1:47 ; in faith in Christ, 1 Peter 1:8 , RV (Middle Voice in some Mss
ir-ha-Heres - Mss), being the original reading, which was altered afterwards by the Jews of Palestine into heres , ‘destruction,’ in order to obtain a condemnation of the Egyptian temple, and by the Jews of Egypt into tsedek , ‘righteousness’ (LXX Jairus - א) are also to be met with in the MssJames, Epistle of - In some Greek Mss this epistle follows the Acts, preceding Paul's writings
Master - ...
A — 6: καθηγητής (Strong's #2519 — Noun Masculine — kathegetes — kath-ayg-ay-tace' ) properly "a guide" (akin to kathegeomai, "to go before, guide;" kata, "down," hegeomai, "to guide"), denotes "a master, a teacher," Matthew 23:10 (twice); some Mss
Chronology - of Acts 13:19,20 , presents a difficulty, but most of the Editors (with Mss A B C) read "he gave them their land for an inheritance for the space of  450 years; and after that he gave them judges," and this rendering removes all difficulty
Old - ), is used (a) of persons belonging to a former age, "(to) them of old time," Matthew 5:21,33 , RV; in some Mss
Theodotion, Otherwise Theodotus - He seems, moreover, to have found the task of bringing its text to conform to the original by the aid of Theodotion's a hopeless one, as we may judge by his asterisks, obeli, and marginalia in the two Mss
Number - text in Jewish Mss, the Hebrew text in Samaritan Mss, and the Greek translation, the Septuagint. Paul was shipwrecked is given in some Mss as 276, and in others as 76 ( Acts 27:37 ); and similarly the number of the Beast is variously given as 666 and as 616 ( Revelation 13:18 )
Unwritten Sayings - ( a ) Those which are found in some Mss of the Gospels , but whose authenticity textual criticism renders doubtful
Galatians, Epistle to the - ‘the Phrygian and Galatic region’ . Attempts to translate this passage, even as read by the best Mss, as if it were ‘Phrygia and the Galatic region,’ as the AV  text (following inferior Mss) has it, have been made by a citation of Luke 3:1 , but this appears to be a mistake; the word translated there ‘Ituræa’ is really an adjective ‘Ituræan,’ and the meaning probably is ‘the Ituræan region which is also called Trachonitis
Psalms - The order of the Writings was much less fixed than the order of the Law and the Prophets, the other two groups of Scriptures; but the Psalms in all cases come near the beginning of this group, and in the modern Hebrew printed Bibles, which follow the great majority of German Mss, they stand first. ...
The title of this collection of poems is derived from the Greek version, in which the book is entitled in some Mss Psalmoi , in others Psalterion (in NT ‘Psalms,’ and ‘Book of Psalms,’ Luke 20:42 ; Psalms 77:1-200 , Psalms 32:1-11 )
Fill, Fill up - ...
A — 5: πίμπλημι (Strong's #4130 — Verb — pimplemi | pletho — ) lengthened forms of pleo, "to fill" (pletho supplies certain tenses of pimplemi), is used (1) of things; boats, with fish, Luke 5:7 ; a sponge, with vinegar, Matthew 27:48 (some Mss
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - from two related Mss. The interpolator found it in his copy, for it stands in all his epistles except that to Polycarp and in all the Mss. ...
Cureton in 1839 transcribed from Syriac Mss. In 1847 he discovered, among Syriac Mss
Acts of the Apostles - ]'> , now at Cambridge), supported by some Mss of the Old Latin Version, presents a strikingly different text from that of the other great Greek Mss, and has also many additions, especially in Acts. Many scholars, however, think that it preserves a large number of true and authentic readings which have been lost in the other great Mss; but this seems doubtful
Hallel - The LXX Septuagint and many Hebrew MssAbomination of Desolation - Matthew characteristically adds the words (absent from the best MssCome, Came - ...
17: ἑκατοντάρχης (Strong's #1543 — Noun Masculine — ekabaino — hek-at-on-tar'-khace, hek-at-on-tar'-khos ) "to come or go out," appears in the best Mss
Ephesians, Epistle to - To whom was it addressed? That it was specifically written to the Ephesian Church is improbable, for two reasons (1) The words ‘at Ephesus’ in Ephesians 1:1 are absent from two of the earliest Mss, and apparently from the Epistle as known to Marcion (a
Song of Songs - OT follow the arrangement of the German and French Mss in placing it at the head of the five Megillôth or Rolls the short books which are read at the great annual solemnities of Passover, Pentecost, the 9th Ab, Feast of Booths, Purim. had been an exception to the rule, how is it that there is not a single stage-direction, not a note of any kind to identify the speaker or regulate the action?...
Certain important Mss of the LXX Manuscripts - These copies are known as manuscripts (abbreviated MS in the singular, Mss in the plural). ...
Criticism - Biblical criticism is divided into two branches: (1) Lower Criticism , which is concerned with the original text of Scripture the Hebrew of the OT and the Greek of the NT, by reference to ( a ) the external evidence of Mss, versions, and citations in ancient literature, and ( b ) the intrinsic evidence of the inherent probability of one reading as compared with a rival reading, judged by such rules as that preference should be given to the more difficult reading, the shorter reading, the most characteristic reading, and the reading which accounts for the alternative readings (see Text of the NT); (2) Higher Criticism , which is concerned with the authorship, dates, and circumstances of origin, doctrinal character and tendency, historicity, and other such questions concerning the books of Scripture, as far as these matters can be determined by a careful examination of their contents, comparing the various sections of each one with another, or comparing the books in their entirety with one another, and bringing all possible light to bear upon them from history, literature, antiquities, monuments, etc
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - 608) one entitled Definition against the Samaritans the argument of which is that the people of Samaria being divided in opinion as to whether the "prophet like unto Moses" was Joshua or Dositheus Eulogius held a synod there (in the 7th year of Marcianus according to the Mss
Samuel, Books of - , and that the style, tone, point of view, and purpose are the same throughput, but also by their appearance as one book bearing the simple title ‘Samuel’ in the oldest known Hebrew Mss
Bethesda - ...
The last clause of John 5:3 and the whole of John 5:4, containing the account of the troubling of the water by an angel and the miraculous healing that followed, are relegated to the margin in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, on the ground of their omission by the ancient manuscripts א BD, and the exceptional number of variants in the other MssNazarene (2) - Schechter among the Cairo Genîzâh Mss, and published by him in the JQR, vol
Clement of Alexandria - The first is said to be "Saint Clement's" (τοῦ ἁγίου Κλήμεντος ) in those Mss. Perhaps the simplest solution is to suppose that at a very early date the logical introduction to the Outlines was separated from the remainder of the work, and added to Mss. or Mss
Alexandria - His successors increased the number of volumes till the collection embraced upwards of 700,000 Mss, in which were inscribed the intellectual efforts of Greece, Rome, Asia Minor, Palestine, and even India
Genesis - ]'> , in one or two Mss of which the book is entitled Genesis kosmou (‘origin of the world’)
Benedictus - It may be mentioned here that the text of the Benedictus varies little either in MssSon - ...
"The Lord Jesus Himself used the full title on occasion, John 5:25 ; 9:35 Sayings (Unwritten) - ’* Aristion (Aristo) - Four Greek MssGod - In reading ‘Adonai’ was substituted for it; hence the vowels of that name were in Mss attached to the consonants of ‘Jahweh’ for a guide to the reader, and the result, when the Mss are read as written (as they were never meant by Jewish scribes to be read), is ‘Jehovah
Judges (1) - ]'> the Book of Ruth is sometimes, in some Mss, included in that of Judges , other Mss treat the Pentateuch and Jos
Book - " As this want of materials for writing will serve to account for the loss of many of the works of the ancients, and for the small number of Mss. But when, in the eleventh century, the art of making paper was invented, and more especially after the manufacture became general, the number of Mss
Hymn - ...
The ecclesiastical canticles under the title of ᾠδαί immediately follow the Psalter in certain of the Greek uncials and in a large number of the Greek cursive MssSeventy (2) - —The mission of the Seventy,* Emmaus - If it is asked how this conclusion could be formed, seeing that Emmaus-Nicopolis is situated at a distance from Jerusalem which is estimated (according to the particular route adopted) at 180, 175, 170, or 166 furlongs, almost thrice the 60 furlongs mentioned above, the reply is promptly given: א and some other MssMacarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - Macarius again sank into obscurity, only some very few extracts from his writings being found in Mss
Monnica - The name of this most celebrated of Christian mothers is spelt thus (not Monica ) in the oldest Mss
Canon of the New Testament - It is given in the Mss variously as a 60th canon and as part of the 59th appended in red ink. Half the Latin versions are without it; so are the Syriac versions, which are much older than our oldest Mss of the canons
Prosper, Saint, a Native of Aquitaine - Besides the Chronicle just described, another much shorter and relating to the latest period only, bearing the name of Prosper, was edited by Pierre Pithou in 1588 from Mss
Amen (2) - This use has a further curious illustration in the practice of copyists of MssEucharist - In spite, therefore, of the fact that the majority of Mss and Versions favour its inclusion, Westcott and Hort are probably right in regarding the passage inclosed in brackets above as an interpolation
Kings, Books of - Mss and early printed editions they appear as one book, and even to the present day the Massoretic note appears at the end of the second book only
Hermas Shepherd of - * John, Epistles of - The words are wanting in all Greek Mss except a few of exceedingly late date; nor are they found in the majority of the Greek Fathers, or in any ancient version except the Latin
Confession - It consists of fourteen articles, of which the following is a copy, taken from the Cambridge Mss, and bearing date A
Bible - Kennicott, with better reason, supposes, that long before this time there were several copies of the law in Israel, during the separation of the ten tribes, and that there were some copies of it also among the tribes of Judah and Benjamin, particularly in the hands of the prophets, priests, and Levites; and that by the instruction and authority of these Mss, the various services in the temple were regulated, during the reigns of the good kings of Judah