What does Moses mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
מֹשֶׁ֔ה the prophet and lawgiver 124
מֹשֶׁ֥ה the prophet and lawgiver 101
מֹשֶׁ֖ה the prophet and lawgiver 79
מֹשֶׁה֙ the prophet and lawgiver 71
מֹשֶֽׁה the prophet and lawgiver 69
מֹשֶׁ֗ה the prophet and lawgiver 53
מֹשֶׁ֑ה the prophet and lawgiver 47
μωϋσῆς the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. 43
מֹשֶׁ֣ה the prophet and lawgiver 41
מֹשֶׁ֜ה the prophet and lawgiver 38
מֹשֶׁ֛ה the prophet and lawgiver 31
μωϋσέως the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. 23
מֹשֶׁ֤ה the prophet and lawgiver 18
מֹשֶׁ֧ה the prophet and lawgiver 12
מֹשֶׁ֨ה the prophet and lawgiver 10
מֹשֶׁה֒ the prophet and lawgiver 8
μωϋσεῖ the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. 8
μωϋσῆν the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. 4
מֹשֶׁה֮ the prophet and lawgiver 4
מֹשֶׁה֩ the prophet and lawgiver 3
לְמֹשֶׁ֣ה the prophet and lawgiver 3
וּמֹשֶׁה֙ the prophet and lawgiver 3
וּמֹשֶׁ֑ה the prophet and lawgiver 3
לְמֹשֶׁ֖ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
וּמֹשֶׁ֗ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
לְמֹשֶׁ֔ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
וּמֹשֶׁ֣ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
וּמֹשֶׁ֖ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
וּמֹשֶׁ֥ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
לְמֹשֶֽׁה the prophet and lawgiver 2
מֹ֘שֶׁ֤ה the prophet and lawgiver 2
؟ בְמֹשֶֽׁה the prophet and lawgiver 1
וּמֹשֶׁ֔ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְמֹשֶׁה֙ the prophet and lawgiver 1
וּבְמֹשֶׁה֒ the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְמֹשֶׁ֪ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
מֹשֶׁ֣ה ׀ the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְמֹשֶׁ֑ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְ֝מֹשֶׁ֗ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
מֹשֶׁ֡ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְ֭מֹשֶׁה the prophet and lawgiver 1
בְּמֹשֶׁ֔ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
בְּמֹשֶׁה֙ the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְמֹשֶׁ֨ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְמֹשֶׁ֤ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
מֹשֶׁה the prophet and lawgiver 1
בְּמֹשֶׁ֗ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
וּמֹשֶׁה֩ the prophet and lawgiver 1
! מֹשֶׁ֥ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
לְמֹשֶׁ֛ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
וּבְמֹשֶׁ֖ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
כְּמֹשֶׁ֑ה the prophet and lawgiver 1
מֹ֠שֶׁה the prophet and lawgiver 1
וַיֹּ֕אמֶר to say 1
אֲדֹנִי֙ firm 1
μωϋσέα the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. 1
μωϋσῇ the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion. 1
הִקְרִ֣יב to come near 1

Definitions Related to Moses

H4872


   1 the prophet and lawgiver, leader of the exodus.
   Additional Information: Moses = “drawn”.
   

G3475


   1 the legislator of the Jewish people and in a certain sense the founder of the Jewish religion.
   He wrote the first five books of the Bible, commonly referred to as the Books of Moses.
   Additional Information: Moses = “drawing out”.
   

H113


   1 firm, strong, lord, master.
      1a lord, master.
         1a1 reference to men.
            1a1a superintendent of household,of affairs.
            1a1b master.
            1a1c king.
         1a2 reference to God.
            1a2a the Lord God.
            1a2b Lord of the whole earth.
      1b lords, kings.
         1b1 reference to men.
            1b1a proprietor of hill of Samaria.
            1b1b master.
            1b1c husband.
            1b1d prophet.
            1b1e governor.
            1b1f prince.
            1b1g king.
         1b2 reference to God.
            1b2a Lord of lords (probably = “thy husband, Yahweh”).
      1c my lord, my master.
         1c1 reference to men.
            1c1a master.
            1c1b husband.
            1c1c prophet.
            1c1d prince.
            1c1e king.
            1c1f father.
            1c1g Moses.
            1c1h priest.
            1c1i theophanic angel.
            1c1j captain.
            1c1k general recognition of superiority.
         1c2 reference to God.
            1c2a my Lord,my Lord and my God.
            1c2b Adonai (parallel with Yahweh).
            

H559


   1 to say, speak, utter.
      1a (Qal) to say, to answer, to say in one’s heart, to think, to command, to promise, to intend.
      1b (Niphal) to be told, to be said, to be called.
      1c (Hithpael) to boast, to act proudly.
      1d (Hiphil) to avow, to avouch.
      

H7126


   1 to come near, approach, enter into, draw near.
      1a (Qal) to approach, draw near.
      1b (Niphal) to be brought near.
      1c (Piel) to cause to approach, bring near, cause to draw near.
      1d (Hiphil) to bring near, bring, present.
      

Frequency of Moses (original languages)

Frequency of Moses (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Moses
(Hebrew: Mosheh, "saved from the waters")
Hebrew liberator, law giver, and prophet. He belonged to the tribe of Levi and was born in Egypt (10th century B.C.), at a time of grievous persecution, when Pharao had ordered the killing of all male Hebrew children (Exodus 1) Exposed on the waters of the Nile, he was rescued by Pharao's daughter and educated at court. Having killed an Egyptian to save one of his brethren from ill-treatment,he fled to Madian where he married Jethro's daughter (Exodus 2). God appeared to him in the burning bush and commanded him to go and deliver his brethren (3), with the help of his brother Aaron, but Pharao stubbornly refused to let the Israelites go, and the terrible chastisements known as the Ten Plagues of Egypt, only hardened his heart (7-10). However the last one, viz., the death of every first born, forced him to yield, and the Hebrews departed, after celebrating the first Pasch (11-13). Then began, under the leadership of Moses, a long and wearisome journey in the direction of the Promised Land, the dramatic episodes of which are related in the remaining chapter of Exodus and in Numbers. Only a few can be enumerated here: The Passage of the Red Sea and the Canticle of Moses (Exodus 14-15); the Manna (16); the promulgation of the Law on Mount Sinai (19-31); the many revolts of the people, who are saved each time by the intervention of their leader (Exodus 16; Numbers 13-14,21); the march from Mount Sinai to Cades, and the stay at Cades for 38 years during which the present generation is condemned never to enter the Promised Land (Numbers 10-20); Moses himself is excluded from it because of his lack of confidence at the "Waters of Contradiction" (ib., 20); Balaam's Prophecies (23-24). The Israelites finally reached the banks of the Jordan, after defeating the Amorrhites and Moabites, and Moses died on Mount Nebo after pronouncing the three memorable discourses preserved in Deuteronomy. He was buried in the valley of Moab, but "no man knows his sepulchre" (Deuteronomy 34), and "there arose no more a prophet in Israel like unto Moses" (ib., 10). See also, Exodus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Moses
(moh' ssihss) A personal name meaning, “drawn out of the water.” The Old Testament depicts Moses as the leader of the Israelites in their Exodus from Egyptian slavery and oppression, their journey through the wilderness with its threats in the form of hunger, thirst, and unpredictable enemies, and finally in their audience with God at Mount Sinai/Horeb where the distinctive covenant bonding Israel and God in a special treaty became a reality. Nothing is known about Moses from sources outside the Old Testament. To be sure, the name Moses doubtlessly appears in Egyptian dress in compound names such as Tuthmoses III, but none of these references gives information about the Moses of Israel.
The Old Testament describes Moses as a heroic leader of the people and as a man of God who brought the people into their special relationship with God. The story about Moses in the Old Testament, found in the extensive narratives from Exodus 1:1 through Deuteronomy 34:1 , can be described as a heroic saga. It is more than simply a biography of Moses, an historical document that records the events of his life. It is a special kind of ancient art form. To understand its content, the reader must appreciate its special brand of truth as beauty in the story itself.
The artistic narrative begins in Exodus 1:1 , not with data about Moses, but with an account of events in Egypt that affected Moses' people. Since the Israelites had grown to be a large people, the Egyptian Pharaoh feared their power. To control them, he launched an official policy of oppression against them. When the oppression failed to curb the population growth of the Israelites, the Pharoah announced a new policy for limiting that growth. “Every boy that is born to the Hebrews you shall throw into the Nile, but you shall let every girl live” (Exodus 1:22 , NRSV). The very next line announces the birth of Moses. Moses' life began under the Pharoah's judgment of death.
The mother, however, acted to protect the baby Moses from the Pharaoh's death decree. When the baby could no longer be hidden, the mother constructed an ark, a basket of bulrushes made waterproof with bitumen and pitch. She placed the child in the basket and the basket in the river. A sister stood watch over the basket to know what might happen. She witnessed an apparently terrible twist of fate, however, when the Pharaoh's own daughter came to the river. She found the ark, opened it, and recognized the child as a Hebrew. Rather than killing the child as her father had commanded, however, the woman showed compassion on the child, made the proper preparations, and, with the help of the baby's sister, established a procedure for adopting the baby as her own child. As a part of that process, the princess committed the child to a wet nurse suggested by the girl watching the ark. Of course, the wet nurse was the child's own mother.
After the baby had been weaned, the mother delivered the child to the princess. As a part of the adoption procedure, the princess named the child Moses. The young hero grew to maturity in the palace of the king who had sought to kill him. The mature Moses became concerned about the oppression of his people. The storyteller emphasized the identity between the oppressed people and Moses. “He went out to his people. . ., and he saw an Egyptian beating a Hebrew, one of his kinsfolk ” (Exodus 2:11 NRSV, author's italics). Moses responded to the particular act of oppression against his people by killing the Egyptian.
In the wake of his violent act against the Egyptian taskmaster, Moses fled from Egypt and from his own people to the land of Midian. Again he intervened in the face of oppression, inviting danger and risk. Sitting at a well, the typical meeting place for the culture (see also Genesis 29:2 ), Moses witnessed the violent aggression of male shepherds against female shepherds who had already drawn water for their sheep. Moses saved the oppressed shepherds, whose father, the priest of Midian, invited him to live and work under the protection of the Midianite's hospitality. Eventually one of the Midianite's daughters became—Moses' wife. In the idyllic peace of the Midianite's hospitality, Moses took care of Jethro's sheep, fathered a child, and lived at a distance from his own people.
The event at the burning bush while Moses worked as a shepherd introduced him to the critical character of his heroic work. The burning bush caught Moses' attention. There Moses met the God of the fathers who offered Moses a distinctive name as the essential key for Moses' authority—”I am who I am.” This strange formulation played on God's promise to Moses to be present with him in his special commission. God sent Moses back to the Pharaoh to secure the release of his people from their oppression. The divine speech of commission has a double character. (1) As the heroic leader of Israel, he would initiate events that would lead to Israel's Exodus from Egypt. (2) As the man of God, he would represent God in delivering the people from their Egyptian slavery. With the authority of that double commission, Moses returned to the Pharaoh to negotiate the freedom of his people.
The negotiation narratives depict Moses, the hero, in one scene of failure after the other. Moses posed his demands to the Pharaoh, announced a sign that undergirded the demand, secured some concession from the Pharaoh on the basis of the negotiations, but failed to win the release of the people. The final scene is hardly a new stage in the negotiations. To the contrary, God killed the firstborn of every Egyptian family, passing over the Israelite families. In the agony of this death scene, the Egyptians drove the Israelites out of Egypt (Exodus 12:30-36 ). Behind this dominant scene of violence and death lies a different interpretation of the Exodus event. The Pharaoh closed negotiations with Moses by refusing permission for the Israelites to leave in accordance with—Moses' proposition (Exodus 10:28 ). In the wake of this failure, Moses returned to the people with a plan for escaping Egypt without the knowledge of the Pharaoh. The people borrowed silver, gold, and clothing from the Egyptians in preparation for the event. When they escaped, they took the silver, gold, and clothing with them. They despoiled the Egyptians, a sign of victory over the Egyptians. Thus in leaving Egypt, Israel robbed the most powerful nation of their time of its firstborn sons and of it wealth.
Moses led the people into the wilderness, where the pursuing Egyptians trapped the Israelites at the Red Sea. God who had promised divine presence for the people defeated the enemy at the Sea. The God proved His presence with His people. He met their needs for food and water in the hostile wilderness. Even the fiery serpents and the Amalekites failed to thwart the wilderness journey of the Israelites under Moses' leadership.
Exodus 17:8-13 shows Moses to be faithful in the execution of his leadership responsibilities. Numbers 12:1-16 shows Moses to be meek, a leader of integrity who fulfilled the duties of his office despite opposition from members of his own family.
The center of the Moses traditions emerges with clarity in the events at Mount Sinai/Horeb. The law at Sinai/Horeb constitutes God's gift for Israel. The law showed Israel how to respond to God's saving act in the Exodus. The law at Sinai/Horeb showed each new generation how to follow Moses' teaching in a new setting in the life of the people. The laws carried the name of Moses as an affirmation of their authority. The law of Moses became a model for Israelite society. Indeed, Israel's historians told the entire story of Israel under the influence of the Moses model and suggested that the Davidic kings should have constructed their leadership for Israel under the influence of the Moses model (Joshua—Kings). Only the good king Josiah and, to a lesser extent, Hezekiah matched that model.
The death of Moses is marked by tragic loneliness, yet graced with God's presence. Because of Moses' sin (Numbers 20:1 ), God denied Moses the privilege of entering the Promised Land. Deuteronomy 34:1 reports the death scene. Central to the report is the presence of God with Moses at the time of his death. Moses left his people to climb another mountain. Atop that mountain, away from the people whom he served so long, Moses died. God attended this servant at his death. Indeed, God buried him. Only God knows where the burial place is.
The Moses saga serves as a model for subsequent leaders in Israel. Jeroboam I created a new kingdom, distinct from the Davidic kingdom centered in Jerusalem. The sign of his kingship included the golden calves of Aaron. Josiah modeled a reformation in Jerusalem on the basis of the Mosaic model. As the new Moses, he almost succeeded in uniting the people of the south with the people of the north. Perhaps the most important Old testament figure that must be interpreted as a new Moses is the servant of the Isaiah 40-66 , the model for understanding Jesus in the New Testament.
George W. Coats
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Moses
MOSES
1. Name The Hebrew narrator regards Môsheh as a participle from the vb. mâshâh , ‘to draw’ Ex ( Exodus 2:10 ). Jos. [1] and Philo derive it from the Copt, mo ‘water,’ and ushe ‘saved’; this is implied in their spelling Mouses , also found in LXX [2] and NT. It is more plausible to connect the name with the Egyptian mes, mesu , ‘son.’ Perhaps it was originally coupled with the name of an Egyp. deity cf. Ra-mesu, Thoth-mes , and others which was omitted under the influence of Israelite monotheism.
2. History
(i.) The narrative of J. [3] Moses killed an Egyptian, and rebuked one of two Israelites who were striving together, and then he fled to Midian. There he helped seven daughters of the priest of Midian to water their flocks, dwelt with him, married his daughter Zipporah, and had one son by her, named Gershom ( Exodus 2:11-22 ). The king of Egypt died ( Exodus 2:23 a), and at J″ [4] ’s bidding Moses returned. On the way, J″ [4] smote him because he had not been circumcised before marriage; but Zipporah saved him by circumcising the child, and thus circumcising Moses by proxy ( Exodus 9:25-3433 ; Exodus 4:24-26 . These verses must be put back to this point). J″ [4] appeared in the burning bush and spoke to Moses. Moses was to gather the elders, give them J″ [4] ’s message, and demand permission from Pharaoh to sacrifice in the wilderness. Moses was given two signs to persuade the Israelites, and yet a third if the two were insufficient ( Exodus 3:2-4 a, Exodus 3:6-8 a, Exodus 3:16-18 , Exodus 4:1-9 ). J″ [4] was angry at his continued diffidence. Moses spoke to the elders and they believed; and then they made their demand to Pharaoh, which led to his increased severity ( Exodus 4:10-12 ; Exodus 4:29-31 , Exodus 5:3 ; Exodus 5:6 ; Exodus 5:23 , Exodus 12:21-237 ). Plagues were sent, the death of the fish in the river ( Exodus 7:14 ; Exodus 7:16-17 a, Exodus 7:21 Exodus 7:21 a, Exodus 7:24 f.), frogs ( Exodus 8:1-4 ; Exodus 8:8-15 a), flies ( Exodus 8:20-32 ), murrain ( Exodus 9:1-7 ), hail ( Exodus 9:18 ; Exodus 9:17 f., Exodus 9:23 b, Exodus 9:24 b, 1618063920_5 ), locusts ( Exodus 10:1 a, Exodus 10:13 Exodus 10:13 b, Exodus 32:25-29 b, Exodus 10:16 a, c, Exodus 10:16-19 ). See Plagues of Egypt. Pharaoh bade Israel go with their families, but refused to allow them animals for sacrifice; so Moses announced the death of the firstborn ( Exodus 10:24-26 ; Exodus 10:28 f., Exodus 11:4-8 ). At a later time Israelite thought connected with the Exodus certain existing institutions. The ordinances relating to them were preserved by J [9] , but their present position is due to redaction, and the result is a tangled combination in chs. 12, 13 of ordinance and narrative: the ritual of the Passover ( 1618063920_49 ; Exodus 12:27 b), the death of the firstborn and the hurried flight of the Israelites ( Exodus 12:29-34 ; Exodus 12:37-39 ), commands concerning the Feast of Unleavened Cakes ( Exodus 13:3 a, Exodus 13:4 , Exodus 13:6 f., Exodus 13:10 ), and the offering of firstlings ( Exodus 13:11-13 ). J″ [4] went before the people in a pillar of cloud and fire ( Exodus 13:21 f.), the water was crossed ( Exodus 14:5 f., Exodus 14:7 b, Exodus 14:10 a, Exodus 14:18 Exodus 14:18 b, Exodus 14:21 b, Exodus 14:26 Exodus 14:26 b, Exodus 14:27 b, Exodus 14:28 b, Exodus 14:30 ), (and Moses sang praise ( Exodus 15:1 ). Moses made the water at Marah fresh ( Exodus 15:22-25 a), and thence they moved to Elim ( Exodus 15:27 ). Fragments of J [9] ’s story of Massah are preserved ( Exodus 17:3 ; Exodus 17:2 c, Exodus 17:7 a, c), and parts of the account of the visit of Moses’ father-in-law, which it is difficult to separate from E [5]9 ( Exodus 18:7-11 ). The narratives attached to the delivery of the laws of Sinai are in an extraordinarily confused state, but with a few exceptions the parts which are due to J [9] can be recognized with some confidence. The theophany occurred ( Exodus 19:18 ), and Moses was bidden to ascend the mountain, where J″ [4] gave him directions respecting precautions to be taken ( Exodus 19:20-22 ; Exodus 19:24 ; Exodus 19:11-13 ; Exodus 19:25 ) [15]. Moses stayed forty days and nights on the mountain ( Exodus 34:28 a); J″ [4] descended, and Moses ‘invoked the name of J″ [4] ’ (6). The laws given to him are fragmentarily preserved ( Exodus 34:10-26 ). J″ [4] commanded him to write them down ( Exodus 34:27 ), and he obeyed ( Exodus 34:28 b).
The reason for the insertion of the laws so late in the book was that the compiler of JE [19] , finding laws in both J [9] and E [5]9 , and noticing the strong similarity between them, considered the J [9] laws to be the renewal of the covenant broken by the people’s apostasy. Hence the editorial additions in Exodus 34:1 (from ‘like unto the first’) and in Exodus 34:4 (‘like unto the first’).
A solemn ceremony sealed the covenant (Exodus 24:1 f., Exodus 24:9-11 ). Something then occurred which roused the wrath of J″ [4] ; it is doubtful if the original narrative has been preserved; but J [9] has inserted a narrative which apparently explains the reason for the choice of Levites for Divine service ( Exodus 10:14 ). Moses interceded for the people (the vv. to he read in the following order, Exodus 33:1-4 a, Exodus 33:12 Exodus 33:12 f., Exodus 33:18-23 , Exodus 34:6-9 , Exodus 33:14-16 ). J″ [4] having been propitiated, Israel left the mountain, and Moses asked Hobah to accompany them ( Numbers 10:29-36 ). Being weary of manna, they were given quails, which caused a plague ( Numbers 11:4-15 ; Numbers 11:18-24 a, Numbers 11:31-35 ), Dathan and Ahiram rebelled (ascribed by different comm. to J [9] and to E [5]9 , Numbers 16:1 b, Numbers 16:2 a, Numbers 16:26 Numbers 16:26 f., Numbers 16:27-32 a, Numbers 16:33 f.). Fragments of the Meribah narrative at Kadesh appear to belong to J [9] ( Numbers 20:3 a, Numbers 20:5 , Numbers 20:8 b). Moses sent spies through the S. of Palestine as far as Hebron. Caleb alone encouraged the people, and he alone was allowed to enter Canaan ( Numbers 13:17 b, Numbers 13:18 b, Numbers 13:27 Numbers 13:27 a, Numbers 13:30-31 Numbers 13:30-31 , Numbers 14:1 b, Numbers 14:8-9 ; Numbers 14:11-24 ; Numbers 14:31 ). Moses promised that Hebron should be Caleb’s possession ( Joshua 14:8-14 ). The Canaanites were defeated at Hormah (perh. a later stratum of J [9] , Numbers 21:1-3 ). Israel marched by Edom to Moab, and conquered Heshbon and other cities ( Numbers 21:16-20 ; Numbers 21:24 b, Numbers 21:25 ; Numbers 21:31-32 ). The story of Balaam (parts of Numbers 21:22-24 ). Israel sinned with the Moabite women, and Moses hanged the chiefs ( Numbers 25:1 b, Numbers 25:2-3 b, Numbers 25:4 ). Moses viewed the land from the top of Pisgah, and was buried in Moab (parts of Deuteronomy 34:1-6 ).
(ii.) The narrative of E [5]9 . The mid wives rescued Israelite Infants ( Exodus 1:15-20 a, Exodus 1:21 ). Moses’ birth; his discovery and adoption by Pharaoh’s daughter ( Exodus 2:1-10 ). Moses was feeding Jethro’s sheep in Midian, when God called to him from a bush at Horeb, and told him to deliver Israel. He revealed His name ‘Ehyeh,’ and promised that Israel should triumphantly leave Egypt ( Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 3:4 b, Exodus 3:9-13 Exodus 3:9-13 f., Exodus 3:21 f.). Moses returned to Egypt, meeting Aaron on the way; they made their demand to Pharaoh, and were refused ( Exodus 4:17 f., Exodus 4:20 b, Exodus 4:27 f., Exodus 5:1 f., Exodus 5:4 ). Moses, by means of his Divinely given staff, brought plagues the turning of the river to blood ( Exodus 7:16-17 b, Exodus 7:20 b, Exodus 7:23 ), the hail ( Exodus 9:22-23 a, Moses, Books of
See Pentateuch ; Law.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Moses
Drawn (or Egypt. mesu, "son;" hence Rameses, royal son). On the invitation of Pharaoh (Genesis 45:17-25 ), Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt. This immigration took place probably about 350 years before the birth of Moses. Some centuries before Joseph, Egypt had been conquered by a pastoral Semitic race from Asia, the Hyksos, who brought into cruel subjection the native Egyptians, who were an African race. Jacob and his retinue were accustomed to a shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the "best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis). Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly" (Genesis 47:27 ), and extended to the west and south. At length the supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end. The descendants of Jacob were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed, but after the death of Joseph their position was not so favourable. The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period of their "affliction" (Genesis 15:13 ) commenced. They were sorely oppressed. They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and "the land was filled with them" (Exodus 1:7 ). The native Egyptians regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship of a struggle for existence.
In process of time "a king [1] arose who knew not Joseph" (Exodus 1:8 ). (See PHARAOH .) The circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them, and by degrees reducing their number. They were accordingly made public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples, and palaces. The children of Israel were made to serve with rigour. Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour" ( Exodus 1:13,14 ). But this cruel oppression had not the result expected of reducing their number. On the contrary, "the more the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew" (Exodus 1:12 ).
The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the Hebrew male children that might be born. But the king's wish was not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever. Thus baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting them into the river (Exodus 1:22 ). But neither by this edict was the king's purpose effected.
One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of the Kohathites (Exodus 6:16-20 ), who with his wife Jochebed and two children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the capital city of that time. In this quiet home a male child was born (B.C. 1571). His mother concealed him in the house for three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities. But when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe. Her plan was successful. The king's daughter "saw the child; and behold the child wept." The princess (see Exodus 2:10 ), was ultimately restored to her.
As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still for him. He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren." His education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body and his mind. He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22 ). Egypt had then two chief seats of learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of Heliopolis, his education was completed. Moses, being now about twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into prominence in Bible history. These twenty years were probably spent in military service. There is a tradition recorded by Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" (Acts 7:22 ).
After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth. But "beneath the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew." He now resolved to make himself acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" (Exodus 2:11 ). This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding them. The time had arrived for his making common cause with them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage. He made his choice accordingly (Hebrews 11:25-27 ), assured that God would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people. He now left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the Egyptians.
He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew. He rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his body in the sand. Next day he went out again and found two Hebrews striving together. He speedily found that the deed of the previous day was known. It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the "great Rameses," Rameses II.), who "sought to slay Moses" (Exodus 2:15 ). Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai. He was providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel, where he remained for forty years (Acts 7:30 ), under training unconsciously for his great life's work.
Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush (Exodus 3 ), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and "bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage. He was at first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian (4:18-26). On the way he was met by Aaron (q.v.) and the elders of Israel (27-31). He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with them (ch. 7-12), and the ransomed host went forth in triumph. (See EXODUS .) After an eventful journey to and fro in the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land. There Moses addressed the assembled elders ( Deuteronomy 1:1-4 ; 5:1-26:19 ;; 27:11-30:20 ),), and gives the people his last counsels, and then rehearses the great song (Deuteronomy 32 ), clothing in fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had acted so conspicious a part. Then, after blessing the tribes (33), he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo (q.v.), to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho" (34:1), and from thence he surveys the land. "Jehovah shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar" (Deuteronomy 34:2-3 ), the magnificient inheritance of the tribes of whom he had been so long the leader; and there he died, being one hundred and twenty years old, according to the word of the Lord, and was buried by the Lord "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor" (34:6). The people mourned for him during thirty days.
Thus died "Moses the man of God" (Deuteronomy 33:1 ; Joshua 14:6 ). He was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness, and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible." "There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel" (Deuteronomy 34:10-12 ).
The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets as the chief of the prophets.
In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative of the law and as a type of Christ (John 1:17 ; 2 co 3:13-18 ; Hebrews 3:5,6 ). Moses is the only character in the Old Testament to whom Christ likens himself (John 5:46 ; Compare Deuteronomy 18:15,18,19 ; Acts 7:37 ). In Hebrews 3:1-19 this likeness to Moses is set forth in various particulars.
In Jude 1:9 mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses. This dispute is supposed to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so as to prevent idolatry.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
Is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1 Kings 2:3 ; 2 Kings 23:25 ; Ezra 3:2 ). It is called by way of eminence simply "the Law" (Heb. Torah, Deuteronomy 1:5 ; 4:8,44 ; 17:18,19 ; 27:3,8 ). As a written code it is called the "book of the law of Moses" (2 Kings 14:6 ; Isaiah 8:20 ), the "book of the law of God" (Joshua 24:26 ). The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at once to the commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Eliezer (son of Moses)
Moses' and Zipporah's second son. Born in Midian immediately before Moses left to Egypt to liberate the Israelites.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Five books of Moses
The: The first five books of the Tanach, dictated by G-d and transcribed by Moses during the Israelites� journey through the desert. These books � Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy � chronicle events from Creation until Moses' passing and contain the 613 mitzvot.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Moses
(See AARON; EGYPT; EXODUS.) Hebrew Μosheh , from an Egyptian root, "son" or "brought forth," namely, out of the water. The name was also borne by an Egyptian prince, viceroy of Nubia under the 19th dynasty. In the part of the Exodus narrative which deals with Egypt, words are used purely Egyptian or common to Hebrew and Egyptian. Manetho in Josephus (contrast Apion 1:26, 28, 31) calls him Οsarsiph , i.e. "sword of Osiris or saved by Osiris". "The man of God" in the title Psalm 90, for as Moses gave in the Pentateuch the key note to all succeeding prophets so also to inspired psalmody in that the oldest psalm. "Jehovah's slave" (Numbers 12:7; Deuteronomy 34:5; Joshua 1:2; Psalms 105:26; Exodus 4:10-143). "Jehovah's chosen" (Psalms 106:23). "The man of God" (1 Chronicles 23:14). Besides the Pentateuch, the Prophets and Psalms and New Testament (Acts 7:9; Acts 7:20-38; 2 Timothy 3:8-9; Hebrews 11:20-28; Judges 1:9) give details concerning him. His Egyptian rearing and life occupy 40 years, his exile in the Arabian desert 40, and his leadership of Israel from Egypt to Moab 40 (Acts 7:23; Acts 7:30; Acts 7:36).
Son of Amram (a later one than Kohath's father) and Jochebed (whose name, derived from Jehovah, shows the family hereditary devotion); Miriam, married to Hur, was oldest; Aaron, married to Elisheba, three years older (Exodus 7:7, compare Exodus 2:7); next Moses, youngest. (See AMRAM; MIRIAM.) By Zipporah, Reuel's daughter, he had two sons: Gershom, father of Jonathan, and Eliezer (1 Chronicles 23:14-15); these took no prominent place in their tribe. A mark of genuineness; a forger would have made them prominent. Moses showed no self-seeking or nepotism. His tribe Levi was the priestly one, and naturally rallied round him in support of the truth with characteristic enthusiasm (Exodus 32:27-28). Born at Heliopolis (Josephus, Ap. 1:9, 6; 2:9), at the time of Israel's deepest depression, from whence the proverb, "when the tale of bricks is doubled then comes Moses." Magicians foretold to Pharaoh his birth as a destroyer; a dream announced to Amram his coming as the deliverer (Josephus, Ant. 2:9, section 2-3).
Some prophecies probably accompanied his birth. These explain the parents' "faith" which laid hold of God's promise contained in those prophecies; the parents took his good looks as a pledge of the fulfillment. Hebrews 11:23, "by faith Moses when he was born was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper (good-looking: Acts 7:20, Greek 'fair to God') child, and they were not afraid of the king's commandment" to slay all the males. For three months Jochebed hid him. Then she placed him in an ark of papyrus, secured with bitumen, and laid it in the "flags" (tufi , less in size than the other papyrus) by the river's brink, and went away unable to bear longer the sight. (H. F. Talbot Transact. Bibl. Archrael., i., pt. 9, translates a fragment of Assyrian mythology: "I am Sargina the great king, king of Agani. My mother gave birth to me in a secret place. She placed me in an ark of bulrushes and closed up the door with slime and pitch. She cast me into the river," etc. A curious parallel.) Miriam lingered to watch what would happen.
Pharaoh's daughter (holding an independent position and separate household under the ancient empire; childless herself, therefore ready to adopt Moses; Thermutis according to Josephus) coming down to bathe in the sacred and life giving Nile (as it was regarded) saw the ark and sent her maidens to fetch it. The babe's tears touched her womanly heart, and on Miriam's offer to fetch a Hebrew nurse she gave the order enabling his sister to call his mother. Tunis (now San), Zoan, or Avaris near the sea was the place, where crocodiles are never found; and so the infant would run no risk in that respect. Aahmes I, the expeller of the shepherd kings, had taken it. Here best the Pharaohs could repel the attacks of Asiatic nomads and crush the Israelite serfs. "The field of Zoan" was the scene of God's miracles in Israel's behalf (Psalms 78:43). She adopted Moses as "her son, and trained him "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," Providence thus qualifying him with the erudition needed for the predestined leader and instructor of Israel, and "he was mighty in words and in deeds."
This last may hint at what Josephus states, namely, that Moses led a successful campaign against Ethiopia, and named Saba the capital Meroe (Artapanus in Eusebius 9:27), from his adopted mother Merrhis, and brought away as his wife Tharbis daughter of the Ethiopian king, who falling in love with him had shown him the way to gain the swamp surrounding the city (Josephus Ant. 2:10, section 2; compare Numbers 12:1). However, his marriage to the Ethiopian must have been at a later period than Josephus states, namely, after Zipporah's death in the wilderness wanderings. An inscription by Thothmes I, who reigned in Moses' early life, commemorates the "conqueror of the nine bows," i.e. Libya. A statistical tablet of Karnak (Birch says) states that Chebron and Thothmes I overran Ethiopia. Moses may have continued the war and in it wrought the "mighty deeds" ascribed to him.
When Moses was 40 years old, in no fit of youthful enthusiasm but deliberately, Moses "chose" (Hebrews 11:23-28) what are the last things men choose, loss of social status as son of Pharaoh's daughter, "affliction," and "reproach." Faith made him prefer the "adoption" of the King of kings. He felt the worst of religion is better than the best of the world; if the world offers "pleasure" it is but "for a season." Contrast Esau (Hebrews 12:16-17). If religion brings "affliction" it too is but for a season, its pleasures are "forevermore at God's right hand" (Psalms 16:11). Israel's "reproach" "Christ" regards as His own (2 Corinthians 1:5; Colossians 1:24), it will soon be the true Israel's glory (Isaiah 25:8). "Moses had respect unto" (Greek apeblepen ), or turned his eyes from all worldly considerations to fix them on, the eternal "recompense." His "going out unto his brethren when he was grown and looking on their burdens" was his open declaration of his taking his portion with the oppressed serfs on the ground of their adoption by God and inheritance of the promises.
"It came into his heart (from God's Spirit, Proverbs 16:1) to visit his brethren, the children of Israel" (2 Corinthians 3:13-14). An Egyptian overseer, armed probably with one of the long heavy scourges of tough pliant Syrian wood (Chabas' "Voyage du Egyptien," 119, 136), was smiting an Hebrew, one of those with whom Moses identified himself as his "brethren." Giving way to impulsive hastiness under provocation, without regard to self when wrong was done to a brother, Moses took the law into his own hands, and slew and hid the Egyptian in the sand. Stephen (Acts 7:25; Acts 7:35) implies that Moses meant by the act to awaken in the Hebrew a thirst for the freedom and nationality which God had promised and to offer himself as their deliverer. But on his striving to reconcile two quarreling Hebrew the wrong doer, when reproved, replied: "who made thee a prince (with the power) and a judge (with the right of interfering) over us? (Luke 19:14, the Antitype.) Intendest thou to kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian?"
Slavery had debased them, and Moses dispirited gave up as hopeless the enterprise which he had undertaken in too hasty and self-relying a spirit. His impetuous violence retarded instead of expedited their deliverance. He still needed 40 more years of discipline, in meek self-control and humble dependence on Jehovah, in order to qualify him for his appointed work. A proof of the genuineness of the Pentateuch is the absence of personal details which later tradition would have been sure to give. Moses' object was not a personal biography but a history of God's dealings with Israel. Pharaoh, on hearing of his killing the Egyptian overseer, "sought to slay him," a phrase implying that Moses' high position made necessary special measures to bring him under the king's power. Moses fled, leaving his exalted prospects to wait God's time and God's way. Epistle to the Hebrew (Hebrews 11:27) writes, "by faith he forsook Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king." Moses "feared" (Exodus 2:14-15) lest by staying he should sacrifice his divinely intimated destiny to be Israel's deliverer, which was his great aim.
But he did "not fear" the king's wrath which would be aggravated by his fleeing without Pharaoh's leave. He did "not fear the king" so as to shrink from returning at all risks when God commanded. "Faith" God saw to be the ruling motive of his flight more than fear of personal safety; "he endured as seeing (through faith) Him who is invisible" (Luke 12:4-5). Despondency, when commissioned at last by God to arouse the people, was his first feeling on his return, from past disappointment in not having been able to inspire Israel with those high hopes for which he had sacrificed all earthly prospects (Exodus 3:15; Exodus 4:1; Exodus 4:10-12). He dwells not on Pharaoh's cruelty and power, but on the hopelessness of his appeals to Israel and on his want of the "eloquence" needed to move their stubborn hearts. He fled from Egypt to southern Midian because Reuel (his name "friend of God" implies he worshipped ΕL ) or Raguel there still maintained the worship of the true God as king-priest or imam (Arabic version) before Israel's call, even as Melchizedek did at Jerusalem before Abraham's call.
The northern people of Midian through contact with Canaan were already idolaters. Reuel's daughters, in telling of Moses' help to them in watering their flocks, called him "an Egyptian," judging from his costume and language, for he had not yet been long enough living with Israelites to be known as one; an undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness. Moses "was content to live with Reuel" as in a congenial home, marrying Zipporah his daughter. From him probably Moses learned the traditions of Abraham's family in connection with Keturah (Genesis 25:2). Zipporah bore him Gershom and Eliezer whose names ("stranger," "God is my help") intimate how keenly he felt his exile (Exodus 18:3-4). The alliance between Israel and the Kenite Midianites continued permanently. Horab, Moses' brother-in-law, was subsequently Israel's guide through the desert. (See HOBAB.) In the 40 years' retirement Moses learned that self discipline which was needed for leading a nation under such unparalleled circumstances.
An interval of solitude is needed especially by men of fervor and vehemence; so Paul in Arabia (Acts 24:27; Galatians 1:17). He who first attempted the great undertaking without God's call, expecting success from his own powers, in the end never undertook anything without God's guidance. His hasty impetuosity of spirit in a right cause, and his abandonment of that cause as hopeless on the first rebuff, gave place to a meekness, patience, tenderness, long suffering under wearing provocation and trials from the stiff-necked people, and persevering endurance, never surpassed (Numbers 12:3; Numbers 27:16). To appreciate this meekness, e.g. under Miriam's provocation, and apparent insensibility where his own honor alone was concerned, contrast his vigorous action, holy boldness for the Lord's honor, and passionate earnestness of intercession for his people, even to the verge of unlawful excess, in self sacrifice. (See MIRIAM; ANATHEMA.) He would not "let God alone," "standing before God in the breach to turn away His wrath" from Israel (Psalms 106:23).
His intercessions restored Miriam, stayed plagues and serpents, and procured water out of the rock (Exodus 32:10-11; Exodus 32:20-25, Exodus 32:31-32). His was the reverse of a phlegmatic temper, but divine grace subdued and sanctified the natural defects of a man of strong feelings and impetuous character. His entire freedom from Miriam's charge of unduly exalting his office appears beautifully in his gentle reproof of Joshua's zeal for his honor: "enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the Lord's people were prophets!" etc. (Numbers 11:29.) His recording his own praises (Numbers 12:3-7) is as much the part of the faithful servant of Jehovah, writing under His inspiration, as his recording his own demerits (Exodus 2:12; Exodus 3:11; 1618063920_57; Numbers 20:10-12). Instead of vindicating himself in the case of Korah (Numbers 16) and Miriam (Numbers 12) he leaves his cause with God, and tenderly intercedes for Miriam. He is linked with Samuel in after ages as an instance of the power of intercessory prayer (Jeremiah 15:1).
He might have established his dynasty over Israel, but he assumed no princely honor and sought no preeminence for his sons (Deuteronomy 9:13-19). The spiritual progress in Moses between his first appearance and his second is very marked. The same spirit prompted him to avenge his injured countryman, and to rescue the Midianite women from the shepherds' violence, as afterward led him to confront Pharaoh; but in the first instance he was an illustration of the truth that "the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God" (James 1:20). The traditional site of his call by the divine "Angel of Jehovah" (the uncreated Shekinah , "the Word" of John 1, "the form like the Son of God" with Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the furnace, Daniel 3:25) is in the valley of Shoayb or Hobab, on the northern side of jebel Musa. Moses led Jethro's flock to the W. ("the back side") of the desert or open pasture. The district of Sherim on the Red Sea, Jethro's abode, was barren; four days N.W. of it lies the Sinai region with good pasturage and water.
He came to "the mountain of God" (Sinai, called so by anticipation of God's giving the law there) on his way toward Horeb. The altar of Catherine's convent is said to occupy the site of the (the article is in the Hebrew,: the well known) burning bush. The vision is generally made to typify Israel afflicted yet not consumed (2 Corinthians 4:8-10); but the flame was in the bush, not the bush in the flame; rather, Israel was the lowly acacia, the thorn bush of the desert, yet God deigned to abide in the midst of her (Zechariah 2:5). So Israel's Antitype, Messiah, has "all the fullness of the Godhead dwelling in Him bodily" (John 1:14; Exodus 33:18-16). Jehovah gave Moses two signs as credentials to assure him of his mission: the transformation of his long "rod" of authority (as on Egyptian monuments) or pastoral rod into a "serpent," the basilisk or cobra, the symbol of royal and divine power on the Pharaoh's diadem; a pledge of victory over the king and gods of Egypt (compare Mark 16:18; Moses' humble but wonder working crook typifies Christ's despised but allpowerful cross). (On Zipporah's [1] CIRCUMCISION of her son.)
The hand made leprous, then restored, represents the nation of lepers (as Egyptian tradition made them, and as spiritually they had become in Egypt) with whom Moses linked himself, divinely healed through his instrumentality. No patriarch before wrought a miracle. Had the Pentateuch been mythical, it would have attributed supernatural wonders to the first fathers of the church and founders of the race. As it is, Moses first begins the new era in the history of the world with signs from God by man unknown before. To Moses' disinterested and humble pleadings of inability to speak, and desire that some other should be sent, Jehovah answers: "Aaron shall be thy spokesman ... even he shall be to thee a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God." Aaron, when he heard of Moses leaving Midian, of his own accord went to meet him; Jehovah further directed him what way to go in order to meet him, namely, by the desert (Exodus 4:14; Exodus 4:27). The two meeting and kissing on the mountain of God typify the law and the sacrificing priesthood meeting in Christ (Exodus 4:27; Psalms 85:10).
Nothing short of divine interposition could have enabled Moses to lead an unwarlike people of serfs out of a powerful nation like Egypt, to give them the law with their acceptance of it though so contrary to their corrupt inclinations, to keep them together for 40 years in the wilderness, and finally to lead them to their conquest of the eastern part of Canaan. Moses had neither eloquence nor military prowess (as appears Exodus 4:10; Exodus 17:8-12), qualities so needful for an ordinary popular leader. He had passed in rural life the 40 years constituting the prime of his vigor. He had seemingly long given up all hopes of being Israel's deliverer, and settled himself in Midian. Nothing but God's extraordinary call could have urged him, against his judgment, reluctantly at fourscore to resume the project of rousing a debased people which in the rigor of manhood he had been forced to give up as hopeless. Nothing but such plagues as Scripture records could have induced the most powerful monarchy then in the world to allow their unarmed serfs to pass away voluntarily.
His first efforts only aggravated Pharaoh's oppression and Israel's bondage (Exodus 5:2-9). Nor could magical feats derived from Egyptian education have enabled Moses to gain his point, for he was watched and opposed by the masters of this art, who had the king and the state on their side, while Moses had not a single associate save Aaron. Yet in a few months, without Israel's drawing sword, Pharaoh and the Egyptians urge their departure, and Israel "demands" (not "borrows," shaal ) as a right from their former masters, and receives, gold, silver, and jewels (Exodus 12:85-39). Not even does Moses lead them the way of Philistia which, as being near, wisdom would suggest, but knowing their unwarlike character avoids it; Moses guides them into a defile with mountains on either side and the Red Sea in front, from whence escape from the Egyptian disciplined pursuers, who repented of letting them go, seemed hopeless, especially as Israel consisted of spiritless men, encumbered with women and with children.
Nothing but the miracle recorded can account for the issue; Egypt's king and splendid host perish in the waters, Israel passes through in triumph (Exodus 13:17; Exodus 14:3; Exodus 14:5; Exodus 14:9; Exodus 14:11-12; Exodus 14:14). Again Moses with undoubting assurance of success on the borders of Canaan tells Israel "go up and possess the land" (Deuteronomy 1:20-21). By the people's desire spies searched the land; they reported the goodness of the land but yet more the strength and tallness of its inhabitants. The timid Israelites were daunted, and even proposed to stone the two faithful spies, to depose Moses, and choose a captain to lead them back to Egypt. Moses, instead of animating them to enter Canaan, now will neither suffer them to proceed, nor yet to return to Egypt; they must march and counter-march in the wilderness for 40 years until every adult but two shall have perished; but their little ones, who they said should be a prey, God will bring in. Only a divine direction, manifested with miracle, can account for such an unparalleled command and for its being obeyed by so disobedient a people.
Too late they repented of their unbelieving cowardice, when Moses announced God's sentence, and in spite of Moses' warning presumed to go, but were chased by the Amalekites to Hormah (Deuteronomy 1:45-46; Deuteronomy 2:14; Numbers 14:39). The sustenance of 600,000 men besides women and children, 40 years, in a comparative desert could only be by miracle; as the Pentateuch records, they were fed with manna from heaven until they ate the grain of Canaan, on the morrow after which the manna ceased (Exodus 16; Joshua 5:12). Graves, Pentateuch, 1:1, section 5. Aaron and Hur supported Moses in the battle with Amalek (Exodus 17:12); Joshua was his minister. The localities of the desert commemorate his name, "the wells of Moses," Ayun Moses on the Red Sea, jebel Musa, the mountain of Moses, and the ravine of Moses near the Catherine convent. At once the prophet (foremost and greatest, Deuteronomy 34:10-11), lawgiver, and leader of Israel, Moses typifies and resembles Messiah (Numbers 21:18; Deuteronomy 33:21; especially Deuteronomy 18:15-19, compare Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37; Acts 7:25; Acts 7:35; John 5:45-47).
Israel's rejection of Moses prefigures their rejection of Christ. His mediatorship in giving the law answers to Christ's; also Exodus 17:11; Exodus 32:10-14; Exodus 32:31-34; Colossians 2:9; Galatians 3:19, compare 1 Timothy 2:5. Moses was the only prophet to whom Jehovah spoke "face to face," "as a man speaketh unto his friend" (Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:8; Deuteronomy 34:10): so at Horeb (Exodus 33:18-23); compare as to Christ John 1:18. For the contrast between "Christ the Son over His own house" and "Moses the servant faithful in all God's house" see Hebrews 3:1-6. Pharaoh's murder of the innocents answers to Herod's; Christ like Moses sojourned in Egypt, His 40 days' fast answers to that of Moses. Moses stands at the head of the legal dispensation, so that Israel is said to have been "baptized unto Moses" (initiated into the Mosaic covenant) as Christians are into Christ.
Moses after the calf worship removed the temporary tabernacle (preparatory to the permanent one, subsequently described) outside the camp; and as he disappeared in this "tent of meeting" (rather than "tabernacle of congregation") the people wistfully gazed after him (Exodus 33:7-10). On his last descent from Sinai "his face shone"; and he put on a veil as the people "could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away," a type of the transitory dispensation which he represented, in contrast to the abiding Christian dispensation (Exodus 34:30; Exodus 34:38; Acts 7:23; 2 Corinthians 3:7; 2 Corinthians 3:11). "They were afraid to come nigh him": Alford's explanation based on the Septuagint is disproved by Exodus 34:30; 2 Corinthians 3:7, namely, that Moses not until he had done speaking to the people put on the veil "that they might not look on the end (the fading) of his transitory glory." Paul implies, "Moses put on the veil that (God's judicial giving them up to their willful blindness: John 1:176; Acts 28:26-27) they might not look steadfastly at (Christ, Romans 10:4; the Spirit, 2 Corinthians 3:17) the end of that (law in its mere letter) which (like Moses' glory) is done away."
The evangelical glory of Moses' law, like the shining of Moses' face, cannot be borne by a carnal people, and therefore remains veiled to them until the Spirit takes away the veil (2 Corinthians 14-17; 1618063920_45). There is a coincidence between the song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32; 33) and his Psalm 90; thus Deuteronomy 33:27 compare Psalms 90:1; Psalms 32:4; Psalms 32:36 with Psalms 90:13; Psalms 90:16. The time of the psalm was probably toward the close of the 40 years' wandering in the desert. The people after long chastisement beg mercy (Psalms 90:15-17). The limitation of life to 70 or 80 years harmonizes with the dying of all that generation at about that age; 20 to 40 at the Exodus, to which the 40 in the wilderness being added make 60 to 80. Kimchi says the older rabbis ascribed Psalm 91 also to Moses Israel's exemption from Egypt's plagues, especially the death stroke on the firstborn, which surrounded but did not touch God's people, in Exodus 8:22; Exodus 10:28; Exodus 11:7; Exodus 12:23, corresponds to Psalms 91:3-10.
His song in Exodus 15 abounds in incidents marked by the freshness and simplicity which we should expect from an eye-witness: he anticipates the dismay of the Philistines and Edomites through whose territories Israel's path lay to the promised land. The final song (Deuteronomy 32) and blessing (Deuteronomy 33) have the same characteristics. These songs gave atone to Israel's poetry in each succeeding age. They are the earnest of the church's final "song of Moses the servant of God and the song of the Lamb" (Revelation 15:3), the song which shall unite in triumph the Old Testament church and the New Testament church, after
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Ark of Moses
(See ARK.)
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Moses
Moses (mo'zez), from the water, i.e., drawn from the water. The prophet and legislator of the Hebrews and the son of Amram and Jochebed, and of the tribe of Levi, the son of Jacob. Exodus 2:1; Exodus 2:10; Exodus 6:16-20; Joshua 1:1-2; Joshua 1:15; 1 Kings 8:53; 1 Kings 8:56; 2 Chronicles 1:3; Daniel 9:11; Psalms 90:1-17; Deuteronomy 34:5 : title; Ezra 3:2. He was born in Egypt, about b.c. 1571. In his infancy, because of the cruel edict of Pharaoh, he was hid in a boat-cradle in the Nile; but was found and adopted by the daughter of Pharaoh. He was educated at the Egyptian court, and "was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was mighty in words and in deeds." Exodus 2:1-10; Acts 7:20-22. When Moses had grown up, he resolved to deliver his people. Having slain an Egyptian, however, he fled into the land of Midian, where he was a shepherd chief. Among the Midians, the Minni, who we now know were a cultured and literary people, God further prepared him to be the deliverer of his chosen people. By a succession of miracles, which God wrought by his hand, Moses brought the Hebrews out of Egypt, and through the wilderness, unto the borders of Canaan. See Sinai. He was only allowed to behold, not to enter the Promised Land. Having accomplished his mission and attained to the age of 120 years, with the faculties of mind and body unimpaired, the legislator transferred his authority to Joshua; and, ascending the summit of Pisgah, he gazed on the magnificent prospect of the "goodly Land." There he died, and "the Lord buried him in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor; but no man knoweth of Ms sepulchre unto this day." Deuteronomy 34:1-7. God buried Moses. It was fitting, therefore, that he too should write his epitaph. "And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty land, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel." Deuteronomy 34:10-12.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Moses
The life of Moses divides conveniently into three periods of forty years each. The first period ended with his flight from Egypt to Midian (Acts 7:23-29), the second with his return from Midian to liberate his people from Egyptian power (Acts 7:30-36; Exodus 7:7), and the third with his death just before Israel entered Canaan (Deuteronomy 34:7).
As the leader God chose to establish Israel as a nation, Moses had absolute rule over Israel. God spoke to the people through him (Exodus 3:10-12; Exodus 24:12; Exodus 25:22). Moses’ position was unique. No other person of his time, and no leader after him, had the face-to-face relationship with God that Moses had (Exodus 24:1-2; Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:6-8; Deuteronomy 34:10).
Relations with Egypt
Moses was the third child of Amram and Jochabed, and belonged to the tribe of Levi. His older sister was Miriam and his older brother Aaron (Exodus 6:20; 1 Chronicles 6:1-3). Through a series of remarkable events, the young child Moses was adopted into the Egyptian royal family but grew up under the influence of his godly Israelite mother (Exodus 2:8-10; Hebrews 11:23). From his mother he learnt about the true and living God who had chosen Israel as his people, and from the Egyptians he received the best secular education available (Acts 7:22).
By the time he was forty, Moses was convinced God had chosen him to rescue Israel from Egypt. But his rash killing of an Egyptian slave-driver showed he was not yet ready for the job. To save his life he fled from Egypt to live among the Midianites, a nomadic people who inhabited a barren region that spread from the Sinai Peninsular around the Gulf of Aqabah into the western part of the Arabian Desert. By such a decisive act, Moses demonstrated his total rejection of his Egyptian status (Exodus 2:11-15; Acts 7:23-29; Hebrews 11:24-25).
In Midian Moses lived with a local chief named Jethro (or Reuel), from whom he probably learnt much about desert life and tribal administration. He married one of Jethro’s daughters, and from her had two sons (Exodus 2:16-22; Exodus 18:1-3).
During Moses’ forty years in Midian, Israel’s sufferings in Egypt increased. God’s time to deliver Israel from bondage had now come, and the person he would use as the deliverer was Moses (Exodus 2:23-25; Exodus 3:1-12). Because the Israelites had only a vague understanding of God, Moses had to explain to them the character of this one who would be their redeemer. He, the Eternal One, would prove himself able to meet every need of his people, but they had to learn to trust in him (Exodus 3:13-15; Exodus 6:2-8; see YAHWEH).
In response to Moses’ complaint that the Israelites would not believe him, God gave him three signs (Exodus 4:1-9; Exodus 4:30). In response to his excuse that he was not a good speaker, God gave him Aaron as a spokesman (Exodus 4:10-16; Exodus 7:1-2). Moses then returned to Egypt, where the elders of Israel welcomed him (Exodus 4:20; Exodus 4:21-23; Exodus 4:31).
God warned Moses that his job would be difficult and that Pharaoh would not listen to his pleas for freedom for the Israelites (Exodus 4:29). Pharaoh’s response to Moses’ initial meeting was to increase the Israelites’ suffering, with the result that they turned bitterly against Moses (Exodus 5:1-21). God gave Moses further assurance that Pharaoh would be defeated, but when Moses told the people, they were too disheartened to listen (Exodus 6:1; Exodus 6:9).
Moses again put his request to Pharaoh, and again Pharaoh refused (Exodus 7:1-13). God therefore worked through Moses and Aaron to send a series of plagues upon Egypt, resulting in the overthrow of Egypt and the release of Israel (Exodus 7:14-25; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; Exodus 11; Exodus 12; Exodus 13; Exodus 14; Exodus 15:1-21; see PHARAOH; PLAGUE).
Israel’s lawgiver
Moses, Law of
See Law of Moses .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
See Law, Moses.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Moses
(a) (1393-1273 BCE) Greatest prophet to ever live. Son of Amram and Jochebed, younger brother of Miriam and Aaron. Born in Egypt and raised by Pharaoh’s daughter. Fled to Midian, where he married Zipporah. Deployed by G-d to Egypt to liberate the Israelites. Visited ten plagues upon Egypt, led the Israelites out, and transmitted to them the Torah at Mt. Sinai. Led the Israelites for forty years while they traveled in the desert, all the while performing astonishing miracles and wonders. Died in the Plains of Moab, and succeeded by his disciple Joshua. (b) A common Jewish name.
Chabad Knowledge Base - R. Moses cordovero
(Ramak): Rabbi Moshe Cordovero; 100:1522-1570, one of the foremost 16th century kabbalists in the Land of Israel, and an older colleague of the Arizal
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Moses
This godly man towers above all other persons in the Old Testament period because he was God's instrument for the introduction of covenant law in Israel. In his long life he also acted on behalf of God to bring into being an enduring nation, while functioning as a prophet, judge, recorder of God's pronouncements, intercessor, military leader, worker of miracles, and tireless shepherd of the unruly Israelite tribes. By the time of his death he had welded his people into a highly efficient military force that would occupy the land promised by God to Abraham (Genesis 12:7 ).
All that is known about Moses is found in the Bible. There are no surviving monuments to him, although some may have existed prior to his abrupt departure from Egypt (Exodus 2:15 ). It is therefore impossible to prove that he ever lived, as far as evidence from statues and inscriptions is concerned. But his existence cannot be disproved, either, since other prominent Old Testament figures have neither names nor monuments, as, for example, the Pharaoh with whom Moses contended, and the Egyptian princess who rescued the infant Moses from the Nile.
Moses is so strongly interwoven with the religious tradition involving God's plan for human salvation through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and ultimately the Davidic Messiah, and attested to as an authoritative figure for Hebrew culture even in the New Testament period, that he could not possibly have been an invention or a fictional character used as an object of religious or social propaganda. Unquestionably he stood head and shoulders above all other Hebrews, and was for the Old Testament period what Paul was for the New.
Perhaps out of deference to his stature there was nobody else in the Old Testament named Moses. There has been some debate about the meaning of his name, with some scholars relating it to a root "to bear, " and found in such Egyptian names as Ahmose and Thutmose. In Exodus 2:10 , the name given to him by the princess is connected with a Hebrew verb meaning "to draw out" (cf. 2 Samuel 22:17 ), but it could also have come from an Egyptian term meaning "son."
The Book of Exodus divides Moses' life into three periods of forty years each. The first of these deals with his birth in Egypt and his education as a prince of the royal harem (cf. Acts 7:21-22 ). The second phase occurs in Midian, where he fled for refuge after murdering an Egyptian (Exodus 2:15 ). The final stage involves him liberating the enslaved Hebrews, establishing God's covenant with them in the Sinai desert and leading them to the borders of the promised land. The Scriptures indicate that two-thirds of Moses' life served as a preparation for the crucial final third, which was so important for the divine plan of salvation. Accordingly we will focus on Moses' ministry as a mediator and teacher of God's revealed Word, since theology was henceforth to be the basis of Israelite life (Exodus 19:6 ).
While Moses may have learned about his ancestral God from Jethro, his father-in-law, the "priest of Midian" (Exodus 3:1 ), his first encounter with the Lord is at Mount Horeb, where he observes a bush burning with fire, and hears God's announcement that he is the God of Moses' ancestors. Moses is given a commission to return to Egypt and lead out the captive Hebrew people. God reveals to him the new name by which God will become known: "I am who I am." Moses is to say to the Hebrews that "I am" had sent him, and this name is to empower all subsequent pronouncements. Not surprisingly it has also been a matter of debate, and many explanations of its meaning have been advanced. It certainly points to God's eternal existence, self-sufficiency, and continued activity in human history. Intensely dynamic in nature, it transcends and fulfills all other forms of being.
This description of the divine name is supplemented by an additional revelation of his name as Yahweh (Exodus 6:3 ). So sacred is this designation that its pronunciation has not survived; the Hebrew consonants have been vocalized from another word, "lord, " to produce the classic "Jehovah." Modern attempts to vocalize the original consonants are uncertain at best. Nevertheless, this mysterious Name and its power sustain Moses as he struggles with Pharaoh for the liberation of the Hebrew slaves. The conflict ends with the first Passover celebration, which coincides with the death of Egypt's firstborn (Exodus 12:29 ).
Dramatic though the crossing of the Re(e)d Sea is for the destiny of the Hebrews, the peak of Moses' career is attained on Mount Sinai, when God appears to him and delivers the celebrated Ten Commandments as the basis of Israel's covenant law. In conjunction with this revelation, God enters into a binding agreement with the twelve tribes that in effect welds them into one nation. God promises to provide for all their needs and give them the land promised long ago to Abraham if they, for their part, worship him as their one and only true God.
God's purpose for his newly created nation is that the Israelites should be visible among their contemporaries as a priestly kingdom and a holy people (Exodus 19:6 ; Leviticus 11:44 ). Every man in Israel is to live as though he has been consecrated to the high and sacred office of a priest in God's service, and be holy and pure in all his doings. He is to abstain from the iniquitous ways of pagan neighboring nations, and be to them an example of what God himself is by nature (Exodus 34:6-7 ). Moses Acts on behalf of God at the covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:6-8 ) and thereafter is the recipient of instructions concerning the building of a sacred national shrine known as the tabernacle.
Of high theological significance for the Israelites, this structure was rectangular in shape and contained a tent where the cultic structure known as the covenant ark was housed. God's presence rested upon the ark, which was so sacred that the Israelites were prohibited from even seeing it. When the Israelite tribes were camped in order around the tabernacle, God's presence was indeed in their midst.
During the wilderness period Moses receives from God other laws dealing with sacrifices and offerings, rules governing social behavior, prohibitions against idolatry and immorality, and positive promises of God's blessings upon the Israelites, provided always that they keep the covenant obligations that they had assumed under oath.
From what has been said already it will be clear that Israelite life under Moses and his successors was grounded upon divine revelation and its accompanying theology. Distinctiveness in society as God's people, strictness of living in obedience to his laws, and unswerving trust in his power to save and keep were to be the hallmarks of Hebrew life. God's people were to be holy as he is holy (Leviticus 11:44 ), and any deviations from these requirements would result in severe punishment. In mediating this theology and setting an example of it in his own life of dedication to God and fellowship with him, Moses serves as the exemplar of spirituality for all Israel to observe.
In dealing with the chosen people, Moses periodically Acts as an intercessor with God, so as to avert divine displeasure with Israel (Exodus 33:12-16 ; Numbers 12:13 ). The call that he had received from God involves his acting in the capacity of prophet to the nation, wherein he serves as God's spokesperson to Israel. So effective is he in this function that God promises to raise up other prophets after his death who will also serve as spokespersons (Deuteronomy 18:15-18 ), thus indicating that God regards Moses as the standard by which his successors will be judged.
Yet despite his deeply spiritual life and his sense of commitment to covenantal ideals, Moses is still a human being. The task of organizing community living among people of a seminomadic disposition is formidable. In the wilderness he bears the brunt of complaints (Numbers 11:1-25 ) and feels the crushing weight of his responsibilities (Numbers 11:14 ). When he is overwhelmed by the numbers of people coming to him for legal decisions (Exodus 18:13 ), he willingly follows the advice of Jethro as to how he should conduct his judicial responsibilities (Exodus 18:24-26 ). Under obvious stress he goes beyond God's instructions in dealing with the complaining Israelites (Numbers 20:10-12 ), and is forbidden to lead the conquering Israelites into the promised land. Yet he is recognized as being "a very humble man, more humble than anyone else on the face of the earth" (Numbers 12:3 ), which has been urged commonly as a testimony to his humility in the service of Israel's most holy God. It is probable, however, that the term rendered "meek" actually means "more long-suffering than, " "more tolerant than, " which places a rather different construction upon the explanatory phrase.
In New Testament times the law of Moses constituted the standard of faith and conduct for the Christian church, which was commanded to observe Old Testament obligations of holiness (1 Peter 1:16 ). At the transfiguration of Christ, Moses appears with Elijah and converses with Jesus, signifying the harmony of law, prophecy, and the gospel (Mark 9:4 ). The sermon of Stephen before the Sanhedrin quotes Moses several times (Acts 7:20-44 ). Moses is referred to authoritatively in the Epistles, and is celebrated as a man who lived by faith (Hebrews 11:23-29 ). In Revelation, the victorious saints chant the song of Moses (Exodus 15:1-19 ).
R. K. Harrison
See also Exodus, Theology of ; Israel
Bibliography . O. T. Allis, God Spake by Moses ; M. Buber, Moses ; R. A. Cole, Exodus ; R. K. Harrison, Numbers ; F. B. Meyer, Moses the Servant of God .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Moses
Just as, in the Synagogue, the Law (the Torah), was accounted the most important division of the Canon, and as Holy Scripture in its entirety might thus a parte potiori be designated the ‘Law’ (ὁ νόμος, the tôrâh), so in the primitive Church Moses was regarded as the supreme figure of the OT.
1. Moses as the author of the Pentateuch.-Moses was honoured as the author of the ‘Law,’ i.e. the Pentateuch: Romans 10:5 (‘Moses writeth’); cf. Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37. His name had become so closely identified with the books of the Torah that we even find it said, ‘Moses is read’ (Acts 15:21, 2 Corinthians 3:15 [1]). The Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch was an assumption of Jewish tradition and, as such, seems to have been taken over by Jesus and His apostles without criticism of any sort. It is to be noted, however, that they attached no special importance to the belief that Moses himself wrote the Pentateuch. This is in no sense the point of the above references, as the name ‘Moses’ is used either metonymically for the Law (‘the Old Covenant’) as in Acts 15:21 and 2 Corinthians 3:15 (cf. 2 Corinthians 3:14), or as a designation of the correlative, i.e. the first, portion of Holy Scripture or Divine revelation; cf. e.g. Romans 10:19 (where Moses is referred to only as the mouth-piece of God, exactly like ‘Isaiah’ in the next verse). Occasionally, however, special emphasis is laid upon the fact that Moses, as a prophet, gave utterance to certain sayings, since, as the recognized representative of Judaism, he forms in some sense a contrast to Jesus; cf. Acts 7:37; Acts 3:22 (‘Moses said’) with John 5:46 (Romans 10:5).
2. Moses as a prophet.-Among the early Christians generally Moses was honoured as preeminently a prophet. While the religion of the OT revolved around the two foci, Law and Promise, primitive Christianity-in contrast to later Judaism-laid the chief emphasis upon the Promise; and, if the Jews exploited Moses in their controversies with the Christians, the latter could always appeal to his Messianic prediction; cf. Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37; Acts 26:22; Acts 28:23, Luke 24:27; Luke 24:44, John 5:45-47 (Deuteronomy 18:15 : ‘The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me’). More especially in the speech of Stephen a strong emphasis is laid upon the prophetic character of Moses (Acts 7:37); here, moreover, Moses does not merely foretell the coming of Christ, but in his calling, and even in his experiences, he is also, as indicated in the passage cited from Dt., a prototype of Christ, having been first of all disowned by his people (Acts 7:23-29), then exalted by God to be their leader and deliverer (Acts 7:35), and at length once more rejected by them (Acts 7:39-41). St. Paul, too, uses the figure of Moses as a type of Christ: the Israelites in their exodus from Egypt ‘were all baptized unto Moses’ in the Red Sea (1 Corinthians 10:2); and in Hebrews 3:2 Moses is spoken of as typifying Christ’s faithfulness in the service of God’s house. That Christ is called the Mediator of the New Covenant (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 12:24) doubtless presupposes that Moses was the mediator of the Old (cf. Acts 7:38, Galatians 3:19). In the speech of Stephen the life of Moses is sketched at some length, and is furnished with certain particulars which were derived from the oral tradition of the Synagogue (the Haggâdâ), as e.g. in Acts 7:22 (‘instructed in all the wisdom of the Egyptians’)-just as the names of the Egyptian magicians, Jannes and Jambres, are given by St. Paul (Acts 15:19-21,). Further, among the heroes of the faith enumerated in Hebrews 11, Moses wins more than a passing reference as a pattern of faith (Hebrews 11:24-26).
High as Moses stands in the Old Covenant, however, his glory pales before that of Christ, as the transient and the material gives place to the permanent and the spiritual (2 Corinthians 3:7-18, Hebrews 3:3-5). Moses was but the servant of God, while Jesus Christ is God’s Son, who not merely superintends, but actually governs God’s house, and was in fact its builder (Hebrews 3:3-5). In the fading away of the dazzling glory on the face of Moses (Exodus 34:33-35) St. Paul finds a symbol of the transient glory of the Old Covenant mediated by Moses, while the glory of the Lord (i.e. Christ), and thus also of the New Covenant, is imperishable (2 Corinthians 3:12-18; cf. 2 Corinthians 3:7-11).
3. Moses as the law-giver.-This brings us to the function of Moses as the law-giver. As Judaism became more and more definitely legalistic, an ever higher position was assigned to the great intermediary of the Law. He towered above every other character in the OT, and Judaism became neither more nor less than Mosaism. To impugn the Law in any way was to speak blasphemy, not only against Moses, but even against God (cf. the charge against Stephen, Acts 6:11). The primitive Church, on the other hand-as was said above-laid great stress upon the prophetic and prototypic character of Moses, as also upon his subordinate position in relation to Christ. But as long as Moses remained the great canonical standard, the Church could not renounce his legislative authority. Even the Lord Jesus Himself had sanctioned the Law of Moses, and co-ordinated it with the Prophets (Matthew 5:17-20, Luke 16:17; cf. Luke 16:29-31), and the primitive community in Jerusalem could never have entertained the thought of disparaging the authority of Moses for Christians as well as Jews. Still, the relation of the disciples of Jesus to the Mosaic Law could not permanently remain the same as that of the unbelieving Jews; the differentiating factor of belief in Jesus was felt more and more to be paramount, and at length it was fully realized that salvation could be secured not by the Law but by faith, or grace, and that it came not from Moses, but from Jesus Christ.
Thus too had come the time when the believing Gentiles must be fully recognized as brethren, and received into the Church without circumcision.* [2] Yet this does not in any sense imply that the mother church in Jerusalem and the rest of the Jewish Christians believed themselves to be exempt from the obligation of the Law. On the contrary, we are told in Acts that the many thousands of Jewish Christians continued to be ‘zealous for the law’ (Acts 21:20), and in a continuation of the passage we are shown that the rumour of St. Paul’s having taught the Jewish Christians in his churches to forsake Moses was without foundation (Acts 21:21-26), while we learn from St. Paul’s own letters that within certain limits he desired the distinction made by Moses between Jew and Gentile to be maintained in his churches (cf. 1 Corinthians 7:18, Galatians 5:3; see also article Law, p. 690). Furthermore, even as regards a Gentile Christian community, the Apostle could appeal to particular regulations of the Mosaic Law as expressions of the Divine will in contrast to the dictates of human reason (1 Corinthians 9:8 f.; cf. 1 Timothy 5:18, where the same OT passage-Deuteronomy 25:4 -is placed side by side with a saying of Jesus)-just as elsewhere he frequently refers to special provisions of the Law, or to the Law as a whole. Yet this in no way detracts from the validity of the principle that all things are spiritually judged (1 Corinthians 2:14 f.), and that nothing is to be enforced according to the letter which killeth (2 Corinthians 3:5), the regulative canon being that the external statutes, ‘the commandments in ordinances’ (Ephesians 2:15), are merely the shadow of things to come, while the body is Christ’s (Colossians 2:17)-whence it follows that the outward regulations of the Law are to be applied in a typological (or allegorical) way. A further result was a certain relaxation of the Mosaic ordinances relating to practical life, enabling the Jewish Christians to live in brotherly intercourse with the believing Gentiles.
In this connexion, however, certain difficulties arose which seemed actually to necessitate some limitation of Gentile Christian liberty, and it was this state of things that led the primitive Church to promulgate the ‘Apostolic Decree.’ According to 2 Timothy 3:8 St. James, the brother of the Lord, justified his proposal regarding the Decree by the circumstance that ‘Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath.’ The point of this statement is much debated. Does St. James mean thereby that the apostles do not need to trouble regarding the dissemination of the Mosaic legislation, and that they should therefore lay upon the Gentile Christians nothing beyond the four prohibitions specified by him, since Moses had from of old been sufficiently represented throughout the Diaspora (so e.g. Zahn)? If this be the true interpretation, the statement of St. James fails to explain why these particular prohibitions were fixed upon. We must thus rather look for an interpretation according to which Acts 15:21 provides a reason why precisely these four injunctions were laid upon the Gentile churches. Such a reading of the passage would be as follows: Since, not only in the Holy Land, but also in heathen lands, the doctrines of Moses are every Sabbath inculcated upon those who attend the Synagogue, it is necessary that the believing Gentiles-like the so-called ‘God-fearing’ (οἱσεβόμενοιτὸν θεόν)-should give some consideration to the Mosaic Law, and should at least abstain from taking part in those heathen practices which were most revolting to the Jewish mind. The prohibitions of the Apostolic Decree, which resemble those imposed upon Jewish proselytes, were probably framed in conformity with Leviticus 17, 18, which contain, inter alia, laws to be observed by aliens resident in the land of Israel. They seem at first sight to be a strange mingling of moral and purely ritual laws, the prohibition of sexual immorality being conjoined with three interdicts about food (cf. Acts 15:29). But while this collocation has certainly an appearance of arbitrariness, a glance at Revelation 2:20-24 (where we undoubtedly hear an echo of the Apostolic Decree), as also a comparison with 1 Corinthians 10:7 f., shows us that abstinence from idolatrous sacrifices and abstinence from sexual immorality are closely related, and that πορνεία here refers not merely to the forbidden degrees of marriage but also to ceremonial prostitution; the Gentile Christians must abstain both from taking part in the sacrificial meals of the heathen world and from the immoralities connected therewith, i.e. from practices regarded among the heathen as adiaphora (cf. 1 Corinthians 6:12). As regards the other two restrictions, it is clear that they converge upon a single point-the supreme necessity of maintaining the sacredness of blood in every form, as already recognized in the so-called Noachian dispensation: the believing Gentiles must no longer partake of blood either in the flesh or by itself (e.g. mixed with wine, as drunk by the heathen in their sacrificial feasts); in other words, only the flesh of ritually slaughtered animals may be eaten.
The essential equivalence of these two prohibitions might also explain the uncertainty attaching to the reading πνικτοῦ in the textual tradition. Here, however, another consideration arises. In the Western text, which omits καὶ πνικτοῦ (πνικτῶν), we find an addition which points to an entirely different conception of the Apostolic Decree, viz. καὶ ὅσα μὴ θέλουσιν ἑαυτοῖς γίνεσθαι ἑτέροις μὴ ποιεῖν (1 Corinthians 15:20; so D, Iren., Tert., Cypr., some Minuscules, and the Sahidic). The ‘golden rule’ being thus added to the prohibitions of idolatrous sacrifices, fornication, and blood, the Decree is transformed into a short moral catechism, in which are forbidden the three cardinal vices-idolatry, fornication, and murder (αἶμα = ‘shedding of blood’). But although the genuineness of this form of the text is defended by able scholars, such as Blass and Harnack, it should in all probability be rejected as of secondary origin. For not only is the golden rule introduced most inaptly in a formal respect, but the purely ethical character of the decree as thus transformed presupposes the conditions of a later time-a time when the Church was no longer concerned with the specific problem that had called for the attention of the Apostolic Council; in the West, where the ‘ethical’ form of the Decree took its rise, Jewish Christianity was a relatively insignificant force, and what was wanted there was a brief compendium of the anti-heathen morality of Christianity. At the same time, however, the altered form of the Decree shows that the Church never regarded it as an inviolable law, but thought of it simply as a provisional arrangement which might be varied to suit local and temporary circumstances.
In Revelation 2 the prohibitions of idolatrous sacrifices and (ritual) immorality are once more brought to view, while in 1 Corinthians 6:8-10 St. Paul urges the same restrictions, though without appealing to the Apostolic Decree. Nor, strangely enough, does he mention the Decree in Galatians 2:1-10; this, however, would be sufficiently explained on the ground that the Apostle had emphasized its provisions (which, be it remembered, were not new, but had already found a regular place in the Jewish propaganda) in his missionary labours in the Galatian region (Acts 16:6). In that case it was not necessary that he should complicate the deliverance of the Council as to the recognition of his gospel and his apostolic status by mentioning the Decree, and all the less so because the account in Acts 15 does not imply that St. Paul himself was charged with the duty of enforcing its provisions in his missionary sphere.
We may sum up the whole by saying that while primitive Christianity originally set Moses and Jesus side by side, it came at length, in the process of development, to contrast them with each other, and St. John, in the Prologue to his Gospel, gives expression to this result in his great saying: ‘The law was given by Moses; grace and truth came by Jesus Christ’ (1:17).
Literature.-H. H. Wendt, Apostelgeschichte8, in Meyer’s Kommentar, 1899; G. Hoennicke, Apostelgeschichte, Leipzig, 1913; text-books of NT Theology, by B. Weiss (Eng. translation , 1882-83), H. J. Holtzmann (21911), P. Feine (1910), G. B. Stevens (1899); E. B. Reuss, Hist. of Christian Theology in the Apostolic Age, Eng. translation , 1872-74, i. 139, 205, etc.; J. R. Cohu, St. Paul, 1911, p. 40 ff.; A. E. Garvie, Studies of Paul and his Gospel, 1911, p. 192 ff.
Olaf Moe.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Moses
Exodus 2:10 (c) He is sometimes considered as a type of CHRIST in that he was the mediator between GOD and Israel. He was rejected and repudiated by Israel the same number of times that JESUS was rejected while on earth. He was somewhat clothed with glory on Mount Simi, as JESUS was clothed with glory on the Mount of Transfiguration. (See also Deuteronomy 18:15 which indicates this truth).
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Moses
Son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, brother of Aaron and Miriam. He was born after the mandate by the king that all male children of the Hebrews were to be killed, but his parents by faith hid him three months, and when he could no longer be hidden he was put in an ark of bulrushes and placed among the reeds in the river. Being found there by Pharaoh's daughter he was named by her MOSES, signifying 'drawn out,' and adopted as her son, being nursed for her by his own mother. He became learned in all the wisdom of Egypt, and was mighty in words and deeds.
When forty years of age he visited his brethren, and seeing one ill-used he defended him, and slew the Egyptian; but the next day, on seeing two of the Israelites contending, he reminded them that they were brethren, and would have judged between them; but the wrong-doer repulsed him, and asked whether he would kill him as he had killed the Egyptian. Moses, finding that his deed was known, feared the wrath of the king, and fled from Egypt. He had acted with zeal, but without divine direction, and had thereforeto become a fugitive for forty years (being the second period of forty years of his life, as the forty years in the wilderness was the third ). In the land of Midian he married Zipporah, daughter of Jethro, the priest of Midian, by whom he had two sons.
At the end of the forty years God spoke to him out of the burning bush, telling him to go and deliver Israel out of the hand of the Egyptians. He who had once used an arm of flesh is now conscious of his own nothingness, but learns that God would be with him. He is to make known to the people the name of Jehovah, and to attest his mission, as sent by the God of their fathers, by doing certain signs in their sight.
No trace of timidity is apparent in his dealings with Pharaoh, he boldly requests him to let the people go into the wilderness to sacrifice to Jehovah; but Pharaoh refused and made the burdens of the Israelites greater. Ten plagues followed, when the Egyptians themselves, on the death of all their firstborn, were anxious for them to depart.
God constantly spoke to Moses and gave him instructions in all things. Though Aaron was the elder brother, Moses had the place of leader and apostle. He conducted them out of Egypt, and through the Red Sea. He led the song of triumph when they saw their enemies dead on the sea shore. The N.T. declares that it was by faith he refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God. He forsook Egypt, not now fearing the wrath of the king, for he endured as seeing Him who is invisible. Hebrews 11:24-27 .
Moses needed such faith, for the murmurings and rebellion of the people were great, and they charged him with causing their trials: why had he brought them out to perish in the wilderness? When God's anger was kindled against them, he pleaded for them. When God spake of consuming all the people, and making a great nation of Moses, he besought God to turn from His anger, urging what a reproach it would be forthe Egyptians to say that He had led them out only to slay them; and he reminded God of what He had sworn to His servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He thus acted as intercessor with God for the people. Exodus 32:7-13 .
When Miriam and Aaron complained of Moses because he had married an Ethiopian woman, and said, "Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" it does not appear that Moses rebuked them; but on that very occasion it is recorded, "Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth." God had, however, heard them, and He defended Moses, and declared, He "is faithful in all mine house. With him will I speak mouth to mouth, even apparently, and not in dark speeches." Numbers 12:1-8 .
When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and their company rose against Moses and Aaron, 'he fell on his face,' and left the matter in God's hands. "Even to-morrow the Lord will show who are his and who is holy;" and they were all consumed. Numbers 16:1-35 . God also called Moses up into the mount, dictated to him the law, gave him the ten commandments written on stone by the finger of God, and showed him the pattern of the tabernacle. He was the mediator, that is, he received all communications from God for the people. He was also called 'King in Jeshurun' (or Israel), Deuteronomy 33:5 ; and was a prophet of a unique type. Deuteronomy 34:10 .
In one instance Moses failed. When without water, God told him to take the rod (namely, that of priesthood), and speak to the rock, and water would come forth. Moses took "the rod from before the Lord as he commanded him," and with Aaron said unto the people, "Hear now, ye rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock? And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice: and the water came out abundantly." Moses then had to hear the voice of God saying "Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them." It was called the water of Meribah, that is 'strife.' Numbers 20:7-13 . After this Moses besought the Lord saying "I pray thee, let me go over, and see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly mountain, and Lebanon." But the Lord told him to speak no more to Him of that matter. He was to go up to the top of Pisgah, and view the land. There the Lord showed him all the land: after which he died in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor; but no man knew where. He "was an hundred and twenty years old when he died: his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated." Deuteronomy 3:25-27 ; Deuteronomy 34:1-7 .
In the N.T. it is said respecting the body of Moses that Michael, the archangel, contended with the devil about it, the object of Satan probably being to make his tomb to be regarded as a holy place, to which the people would go for blessing, as people do still to the tombs of saints. Jude 9 .
The law having been given through Moses, his name is often used where the law is alluded to; and Moses is mentioned by the Apostle John when contrasting the dispensations of the law and the gospel: "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." John 1:17 . The fact of the two dispensations being entirely different furnishes the reason why Moses was not allowed to enter into Canaan. That being a type of the heavenly blessings of Christianity, it would not have agreed with Moses, as the dispenser of the law, leading the Israelites into the land: that must be done by JOSHUA, type of Christ risen. Moses had his proper line of service, and was greatly honoured of God. He was faithful in that service amid great discouragements and trials; he was faithful in all God's house. On the mount of transfiguration Moses still represented the law, as Elias did the prophets.
That Moses was the writer of the first five books of the O.T., called the Pentateuch, there are many proofs in scripture; such as "have ye not read in the book of Moses?" Mark 12:26 ; "If they hear not Moses and the prophets," Luke 16:31 ; Luke 24:27 ; "When Moses is read," 2 Corinthians 3:15 . Of course the section where his death is recorded was added by a later hand. When the inspiration of scripture is fully held, God is known as the author of His word, and it becomes a secondary question who was the instrument that God used to write down what He wished to be recorded. Respecting some of the books of scripture we know not who wrote them; but that in no way touches their inspiration. It is plain, however, from the above and other passages that Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch, which is often called "the law of Moses."
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Moses
Taken out; drawn forth
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Assumption of Moses
A curious state of affairs exists with regard to the so-called ‘Assumption of Moses.’ The title is incorrectly applied to what is really the ‘Testament of Moses,’ a work which is extant in a more or less complete form in a Latin fragment discovered by Ceriani in a 6th cent. manuscript in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, and published by him in 1861, The true ‘Assumption’ survives only in quotations and references in the NT and early Christian writers; but from certain facts it appears that it was at a very early date appended to the ‘Testament.’ For example, in Ceriani’s Latin manuscript in 10:12 we have the reading ‘From my death [1] until His advent.’ Here the duplicate reading ‘assumption’ would appear to be an attempt to prepare for the account of the Assumption appended to the Testament. Moreover, as early as St. Jude’s Epistle, we find quotations from both works in close juxtaposition. Under these circumstances, the present article includes an account of both works.
Both works alike must have been written in the 1st cent. a.d., and the former, if not the latter, in Hebrew, between the years 7 and 29. A Greek version of both, of the same century, is presupposed by the quotations and parallels in Acts 7:36, Judges 1:9; Judges 1:16; Judges 1:18; Judges 1:2 Baruch, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen. The author was a Pharisaic Quietist. His silence with regard to the Maccabaean rising and its leaders is most significant. There could be no severer censure on the political and bellicose Pharisees of his time. For him Eleazar and his seven sons had been the true heroes, and not Judas and his brethren. He expects the ultimate triumph of Israel, but this is to be brought about by Divine intervention and not by the sword, and the human conditions prerequisite are a stricter observance of the Law and a national repentance.
The work is of great value in the stress it lays on spiritual religion and quietism. In this and in its singular freedom from the Jewish doctrine of merit it affords a parallel to NT teaching. On the other hand, it is thoroughly Judaic in its exaltation of the person of Moses, which seems to be set up as a Jewish counterpart to that of our Lord, while the pre-existence of Moses and Jerusalem is expressly asserted in 1:14, 17.
1. Contents (historical and other allusions are explained in brackets).-i. In the 2500th year from the Creation, after the Exodus, Moses calls Joshua and appoints him his successor as minister of the people and of the tabernacle of the testimony, at the same time committing to his charge certain books which were to be preserved in the place which God had made from the beginning of the world (Jerusalem).-ii. After Joshua has secured to Israel their inheritance, the people are to be ruled for eighteen years (i.e. the fifteen judges, and the three kings, Saul, David, and Solomon) by chiefs and kings, and for nineteen years (the nineteen kings of Israel) the ten tribes shall break away. The two tribes maintain the Tern pie worship for twenty years (reigns), of which, however, four are evil and idolatrous.-iii. Then a king from the East (Nebuchadrezzar) shall come and burn their ‘colony’ (Jerusalem) and the Temple and remove the sacred vessels. The two tribes are carried into captivity, and confess their punishment to be just, as also do the ten tribes.-iv. At the end of the 77 years’ captivity, one who is over them (Daniel) will pray for them. A king (Cyrus) has compassion on them, and parts of the two tribes return, while the ten increase among the Gentiles in their captivity.-v. Even, the faithful two tribes sin, and are punished through the kings who share in their guilt (the Seleucids). They are divided as to the truth, and pollute the altar with their non-Aaronic priests, ‘not priests but slaves, sons of slaves’ (Jason and Menelaus).-viii. A ‘second visitation’ follows. The king of the kings of the earth (Antiochus Epiphanes) crucifies those who confess to circumcision, and compels them to blaspheme the law and beat idols, and persecutes them with tortures.-ix. Thereupon a man of the tribe of Levi, named Taxo (= Eleazar), exhorts his seven sons to fast for three days and on the fourth to go into a cave and die rather than transgress the commands of the Lord of lords.-vi. Next there are raised up kings bearing rule who call themselves priests of the Most High God (the Maccabees). They work iniquity in the Holy of Holies. They are succeeded by an insolent king not of the race of the priests (Herod), who will carry out secret massacres and rule for 34 years. His children are to reign for shorter periods. A powerful king of the West (Varus, governor of Syria) invades the land, burns part of the Temple, and crucifies some of the people.-vii. The times shall then be ended. Destructive and impious men (Sadducees) shall rule-treacherous, hypocritical, gluttons, oppressing the poor, and lawless. Though unclean in land and mind, they say, ‘Do not touch me, lest thou shouldest pollute me.’-x. Then God’s kingdom shall appear, and Satan shall be no more, and the angel who has been appointed chief (Michael) shall avenge them of their enemies. The earth is shaken, the sun and moon fail, and the sea and the waters dry up. The Gentiles are punished, and Israel is happy, and triumphs over the Eagle (Rome), is raised to the stars, and beholds his enemies in Gehenna and rejoices over them. Until this advent of God there shall he 250 times from Moses’ death.-xi. Joshua mourns that he is not able to take Moses’ place as guide and teacher, prophet and advocate. The Amorites will assail Israel when Moses is not among them.-xii. Moses replies by placing Joshua in his own seat, and assures him that all is foreseen and controlled by God.
At the end of ch. vii. and again at the end of ch. 12 the manuscript breaks off in the middle of a sentence. Chapters 8 and 9 are read between 5 and 6, as Charles suggests in his edition (pp. 28-30). They obviously refer to the Antiochian persecution, and are quite out of place after ch. 7, which describes the Sadducees who were contemporaries of the author. Burkitt argues (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) iii. 449) that ‘the Theophany in 10 comes in well after the story of the ideal saint Taxo in 9, but very badly after the description of the wicked priests and infers in vii.’ But ch. 7 is mutilated at the end, and we cannot argue from the last reference which happens to be preserved in it. He suggests that the author ‘filled up his picture of the final woes from the stories of the Antiochian martyrs.’ But surely he would not need to borrow his picture of the ideal saint of the last times (and his name) from the same period.
2. Date.-The date of composition is clearly fixed by the words in 6:7 ‘and he (Herod) shall beget children who succeeding him shall rule for shorter periods,’ As this is a prediction which was falsified by the event, for Antipas reigned forty-three years and Philip thirty-seven (while Herod reigned thirty-four), we must postulate a date earlier than thirty-four years from Herod’s death, i.e. a.d. 30. A date nearer to the deposition of Archelaus in a.d. 6, which would suggest the impending deposition of his brothers, would be still more suitable.
3. Author.-The author is generally supposed to have been a Zealot (so Ewald, Wieseler, Dillmann, Schürer, Deane, and Briggs). But, while well aware of the Maccabaean movement, he shows his aversion to Maccabaean methods by his silence in regard to the exploits of Judas and his brethren. His hero, Taxo, instead, of taking up arms, withdraws into a cave to die, with the words ‘Let us die rather than transgress.’ It is not militancy but God’s direct and personal intervention that will bring in the kingdom.
The same arguments prove that he was no Sadducee. His was no earthly ideal, but that of a heavenly theocratic kingdom (10:9f.). A Resurrection is not taught, it is true, but it is implied in the consummation of Israel’s happiness in these verses. The Sadducees are attacked, and in 7:3, 6 there is a play on their name and their claim to be just (צדיקים and צדוקים).
He was not an Essene. He is a strong patriot and keenly interested in the fortunes of the nation. The Law is of perpetual obligation and is itself sufficient. The Temple is built by God Himself (2:4) in the place He prepared from the creation (1:18). Its profanations are often mentioned (2:8, 9; 3:2; 5:3, 4; 6:1, 9). The sacrificial system is regarded as valid (2:6), and its cessation is a cause of lamentation (4:8). The altar is polluted only by injustice (5:4). The Essenes did not value the Temple sacrifices, and objected to animal sacrifice altogether. The future heavenly abode of the righteous, and the future punishment of Israel’s enemies in Gehenna, are distinctively Pharisaic ideas. The pre-existence of Moses in 1:14 is regarded as a unique distinction. The Essenes believed in the pre-existence of all souls alike.
We must conclude, therefore, that the author was a ‘Pharisee of a fast-disappearing type, recalling in all respects the Chasid of the early Maccabean times, and upholding the old traditions of quietude and resignation’ (Charles, 1897, p. liv).
4. The Latin text.-The Latin text presents a difficult task to the critical reconstructor of the original Hebrew text. To begin with, Ceriani’s manuscript is a palimpsest, in which whole verses are at times indecipherable. In the next place, it is not the original Latin translation but a copy, in which the Latin itself has been corrected and corrupted. Thus in 5:6 we have six lines of duplicate rendering, and there are dittographies also in 6:3; 8:5; 11:13. In 11:2 the copyist has misread ‘eum’ as ‘cum,’ and corrects ‘Monses’ into ‘Monse’ accordingly. The version, however, is very literal, and, in spite of corruptions and carelessness, its Greek source is occasionally evident; and the original Hebrew idiom is frequently preserved, Greek words like clibsis (= θλῖψις, 3:7) and heremus (= ἐρῆμος, 3:11), and even a reading like finem in 2:7, which presupposes ὅρον in Greek [2], suffice, to prove translation from the Greek; while corrupt passages like 4:9; 5:5; 10:4; 11:12 (see Charles’ text) require re-translation into the original Hebrew in order to explain the corruption. In 7:3 we have a play on the name Sadducees (צדוקים)
‘dicentes se esse justos (צדיקים)’
which is possible only in Hebrew. An Aramaic original postulated by Schmidt, Merx, and others is not necessitated by the order in 1:10; 3:2 (see Charles, 1897, pp. xxviii-xlv).
5. The original ‘Assumption of Moses.’-The subject-matter of the extant work (preserved largely in Ceriani’s Latin manuscript ) proves it to be a Testament of Moses, as it deals with the dying predictions and charges of Moses as related to Joshua, quite in the manner of the Testaments of The Twelve Patriarchs (q.v. [3] ). It nowhere describes his ‘Assumption,’ and only in an interpolation (10:12) refers to it. The opening words have been thus restored by Charles to fill the gap in the manuscript -‘Testamentum Moysi | Quae praecepit an̄o vi|tae eius Cmo et xxmo.’ Throughout the work Moses is to die an ordinary death (e.g. 1:15; 3:13; 10:12, 14). In a Catena quoted in Fabricius (Cod. Pseud. Vet. Test. ii. 121, 122), and again in Section xiii. of Vassiliev’s Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina (pp. 257-258), we find references to a natural death or Moses, which may be derived from the original ending of the ‘Testament.’ In Vassiliev’s work the words that follow seem to be derived from the true ‘Assumption,’ while Josephus (Ant. iv. viii. 48) seems to be aware of the new claims put forth for Moses’ Assumption, while explaining the Scripture statement of his death as a precaution against deification of the national hero: νέφους αἰφνίδιον ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ στάντος, ἀφανίζεται κατά τινος φάραγγος. Γέγραφε δʼ αὐτὸν ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις τεθνεῶτα, δείσας μὴ διʼ ὑπερβολὴν τῆς περὶ αὐτὸν ἀρετῆς πρὸς τὸ θεῖον αὐτὸν ἀναχωρῆσαι τολμήσωσιν εἰπεῖν.
The fragments of the true ‘Assumption of Moses’ preserved in various sources are as follows.-We read in Judges 1:9 : ‘But Michael the archangel, when, contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing judgment, but said, “The Lord rebuke thee.” ’ Clem. Alex. quotes this verse in Adumbrat. in Ep. Judae (Zahn’s Supplement. Clementin., 1884, p. 84), and adds: ‘Hic confirmat Assumptionem Moysi.’ Didymus Alex. in Epist. Judae Enarratio, and the Acta Synodi Nicaen. ii. 20 also refer to St. Jude’s words as a quotation from ‘Moyseos Assumptio’ or Ἀνάληψις Μωυσέως. The Devil’s claim which Michael thus rebutted was (1) that he was lord of matter (ὄτι ἐμὸν τὸ σῶμα ὡς τῆς ὕλης δεσπόζοντι [4]); (2) that Moses was a murderer.
The answer to the second claim is not given, but the answer to the first is in fuller form than in St. Jude, in Acta Synodi Nicaen. ii. 20: ἀπὸ γὰρ πνεύματος ἁγίου αὐτοῦ πάντες ἐκτίσθημεν, thus claiming all creation as the handiwork of God’s Holy Spirit. Origen (de Princip. iii. 2. 1) adds a reproach uttered by Michael to the serpent: ‘a diabolo inspiratum serpentem causam exstitisse praevaricationis Adae et Evae.’
The Assumption finally ‘takes place in the presence of Joshua and Caleb, and in a very peculiar way. A twofold presentation of Moses appears: one is Moses “living in the spirit,” which is carried up to heaven; the other is the dead body of Moses, which is buried in the recesses of the mountains’ (Charles, p. 106). So Clem. Alex., Strom. vi. 15 Origen. hom. in Joshua 2:1; Euodius, Epist. ad. Augustin. 253, vol. ii. p. 839 (Ben. ed. 1836). This ‘twofold presentation’ would appear to be due to an attempt to reconcile Deuteronomy 34:5 f. with the Jewish legend. Cf. Josephus, quoted above.
6. Value for New Testament study
i. Parallels in phraseology.-These are confined to five passages: (a) Stephen’s speech in Acts 7:36, where the words ‘in Egypt and in the Red Sea and in the wilderness forty years’ are the same as in Ass. Mos. 3:11. Cf. also Acts 7:38-39 with Ass. Mos. 3:12.-(b) Judges 1:16 : cf. Ass. Mos. 7:7 ‘complainers’; 7:9 ‘and their mouth will speak great things’; 5:5 ‘respecting the persons of the wealthy.’ Judges 1:18 ‘in the last time’ = Ass. Mos. 7:1 ‘the times shall be ended.’-(c) With Mark 13:24-25, cf. Ass. Mos. 7:4 ‘lovers of banquets at every hour of the day,’ and with 2:3 cf. 7:6 ‘devourers of the goods … saying that they do so on the ground of Justice (or mercy).’
The signs of the end in sun, moon, and stars in Ass. Mos. 10:5 resemble those in 2 Peter 2:13 while the phrase in 8:1 ‘there will come upon them a second visitation and wrath, such as has not befallen them from the beginning until that time,’ is nearer Matthew 24:21 than Daniel 12:1 and Revelation 16:18.
There is also the well-known reference to the lost ‘Assumption’ In Judges 1:9 generalized in 2 Peter 2:10-11)-‘Yet Michael the archangel,’ etc.
ii. Parallels in doctrine and ideas
(a) The parallels with the NT doctrine of Christ are remarkable. Moses appears to fill the place which would be taken by Christ in Christian belief, as a Divinely appointed mediator, bound by no limitations of time or space, interceding on behalf of God’s people. His pre-existence and mediatorship are asserted in 1:14. He was ‘prepared before the foundation of the world (cf. Matthew 25:34) to be the mediator of His (God’s) covenant’ (cf. Galatians 3:19). Christ, too, was ‘before all things’ (Colossians 1:17, John 1:1; John 8:58; John 17:5), and was the Mediator of a new and better covenant (Hebrews 8:6; Hebrews 9:15; Hebrews 12:24). Baldensperger sees in 11:17 a definite attack on Christian views. The body of Moses would know no local sepulchre, nor would any dare to move his ‘body from thence as a man from place to place.’ This seems to imply the Jewish view that not only was Christ buried, and His body moved from the cross to the grave, but that His disciples had removed it from the sepulchre (Matthew 28:13). In 11:9 Joshua says: ‘Thou art departing, and who will feed this people [5], or who is there who will have compassion on them, and … be their guide by the way (cf. Matthew 9:36), or who will pray for them, not omitting a single day?’ cf. 11:17 (Romans 8:34, Hebrews 7:25. But not only is Moses regarded as shepherd, compassionate guide, and intercessor; in 11:16 he is described as ‘the sacred spirit who was worthy of the Lord (cf. Wisdom of Solomon 3:5; Wisdom of Solomon 7:22), manifold and incomprehensible, the lord of the word, who was faithful in all things (Hebrews 3:5), God’s chief prophet throughout the earth, the most perfect teacher in the world.’ Cf., in regard to Christ, John 3:2 ‘Thou art a teacher come from God,’ 6:68 ‘Thou hast the words of eternal life.’ For the ‘manifold Spirit,’ cf. 1 Corinthians 12:11-13, and for Christ as Spirit, 2 Corinthians 3:17 ‘the Lord is that Spirit.’ In 12:6 Moses is ‘appointed to pray for their (Israel’s) sins and make intercession for them’ (cf. Hebrews 7:25). Moses also was the appointed revealer of God’s hidden purpose (1:12, 13). God had ‘created the world on behalf of his people’ (a common Jewish view; contrast Hebrews 1:2, Colossians 1:18, Romans 11:36, John 1:3 -where Christ is the final cause of creation). ‘But he was not pleased to manifest this purpose of creation from the foundation of the world in order that the Gentiles might thereby be convicted’ (by their own false theories). Cf. Romans 16:25-26 ‘… the preaching of Jesus Christ … the revelation of the mystery which hath been kept in silence through times eternal, but now is manifested … unto all the nations unto obedience of faith.’ In Ephesians 1:9-10 the mystery of God’s will, ‘according to his good pleasure, which he purposed in him,’ is not Israel but Christ as the goal of all creation. In Ephesians 3:4-11 it includes the bringing in of the Gentiles into the scheme of final restoration. In 1 Corinthians 2:7, Ephesians 3:9, Romans 16:25 the purpose precedes the creation of the world.
(b) Justification and good works.-The Rabbinic doctrine of man’s merit is entirely absent. Cf. 12:7 ‘Not for any virtue or strength of mine, but in His compassion and long-suffering, was He pleased to call me.’ Cf. Titus 3:5, 2 Timothy 1:9.
(c) Day of repentance.-Jerusalem is to be the place of worship till ‘the day of repentance in the visitation wherewith the Lord shall visit them in the consummation of the end of the days’ (1:18). This repentance in Malachi 4:6 and Luke 1:16-17 is to be brought about by Elijah. It is the theme of John the Baptist (Mark 1:4) and of Christ (1:15). It is to usher in the ‘visitation,’ or the establishment of the theocratic Kingdom by God Himself in person.
(d) Michael is regarded as the chief antagonist of Satan and of Israel’s foes. In 10:2 he is appointed chief, and ‘will forthwith avenge them of their enemies.’ Cf. Revelation 12:7.
(e) Gehenna is still the place, not where the wicked and immoral suffer, but into which Israel’s foes, the Gentiles, are cast. The dividing line between the future blessed and accursed is a national and not a moral one.
(f) Messianic Kingdom.-There is no Messiah. In 10:7 we are told ‘the Eternal God alone … will … punish the Gentiles.’ The Kingdom will come upon a general repentance (1:17) 1750 years (10:12) after Moses’ death, i.e. between a.d. 75 and 107. The ten tribes share in the promises (3:9) and in the final restoration (10:8) Israel is finally exalted to heaven (10:8f.) and beholds its foes in Gehenna (10:10).
Literature.-(a) Chief editions of the Latin text.-A. Ceriani, Monumenta sacra et profana, i. i. [6] 55-64; A. Hilgenfeld, NT extra Canonem receptum2, 1876, pp. 107-135; G. Volkmar, Mose Prophetie und Himmelfahrt, Leipzig, 1867; Schmidt-Merx, ‘Die Assumptio Mosis …’ (Archiv f. wissen. Erforsch. des AT [1] , ed. Merx, 1868, i. ii. 111-152); O. F. Fritzsche, Libri Apocryphi V.T., 1871, pp. 700-730; R. H. Charles, The Assumption of Moses … the unemended Text … together with the Text in its … critically emended Form, London, 1897; C. Clemen, The Assumption of Moses, Cambridge, 1904. (b) Chief critical inquiries.-Rönsch, Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Theologie , xi. [8] 76-108, 466-468, xii. [9] 213-228, xiv. [10] 89-92, xvii. [11] 542-562, xxviii. [6]00 102-104; F. Rosenthal, Vier apoc. Bücher, 1885, pp. 13-38; E. Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng. tr. of GJV).] ii. iii. 73-83; W. Baldensperger, Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu, 1888, pp. 25-31; W. J. Deane, Pseudepigrapha, 1891, pp. 95-130; E. de Faye, Les Apocalypses juives, 1892, pp. 67-75; R. H. Charles, op. cit. xiii-lxv; C. Clemen, in Kautzsch’s Apok. und Pseud., ii. [13] 311-331; F. C. Burkitt, in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) iii. 448-450; R. H. Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, Oxford, 1913, ii. 407-424.
A. LI. Davies.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Moses
The name (as the margin of our Bibles states) means drawn out The illustrious history of Moses forms so large a page in the sacred volume of the Old Testament, that it supersedes the necessity of saying much about him here. He was a faithful servant in the house of the Lord: this is the character given of him by the Holy Ghost. (Hebrews 3:2.) And a blessed testimony it is! But the same testimony gives him no higher a character than a servant of Christ; and Moses himself thought this an honour high enough. He was a type himself of the law which he was commissioned to deliver; for as he was not permitted to enter into the promised land, so he thereby represented that the law could not bring God's people into Canaan, and consequently not into heaven, of which Canaan was a type. It is Jesus alone that can do this; "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ." (John 1:17.)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
The law was like a straight edge given by God to make manifest the crookedness of man. "[1] law entered that the offence might abound " (Romans 5:20 ), that is, not to increase sin, but to show its offensiveness, and to bring it home to the soul. "By [2] law is the knowledge of sin." Romans 3:20 . The apostle said that he would not have known lust had not the law said, "Thou shalt not covet." Romans 7:7 . The object of the law therefore was to evince the heinousness of sin, while it was a test of the obedience of man to God. It was given to Israel only, the one nation which was under God's special dealings, and in which He was trying man in the flesh. The heading of the ten commandments is "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage," and this could apply only to the Israelites. Again, God says, "You only have I known of all the families of the earth: therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities." Amos 3:2 . The Gentiles are described as not having the law, Romans 2:14 , though they had the work of the law written in their hearts, and a conscience which bore witness when they did wrong. As the Gentiles became associated with Israel, and heard what God required morally of man, they doubtless became more or less responsible according to the light received. But greater light having come in, the Galatian Christians are sharply rebuked for putting themselves under law, where, as Gentiles, they never had been. Some things forbidden in the law were wrong intrinsically, such as theft, murder, etc.; but other things were wrong only because God had forbidden them, such as the command to abstain from eating certain creatures called 'unclean.'
The law in its enactment of sacrifices and feasts was essentially typical and foreshadowed what was to be fulfilled in Christ. In accordance with this, Paul, as a Jew, could say, "The law was our schoolmaster unto Christ;" and the Lord said, "Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me." John 5:46 . This is an important point, for the passage that speaks of the law as the schoolmaster goes on to say that it was in order that they "might be justified by faith." After that faith was come believers were no longer under a schoolmaster. Galatians 3:25 . A converted Jew was no longer under the law — how much less a Gentile believer whom God had never put under the law! See SCHOOLMASTER.
This is often construed to mean that while the Christian is not under the law for justification, he is under it for walk, as a rule of life. This theory is however opposed to scripture, which says, "sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace." Romans 6:14 . A Christian has died with Christ and lives unto God, beyond the jurisdiction of law, which applies to man in the flesh, man 'in Adam.' Christianity is not in its true power apart from death and resurrection. See also Galatians 5:18 .
Many contend that the ceremonial law is abrogated, but that the moral law is binding upon all. This distinction between the ceremonial and the moral law can only be true in so far as the law is the embodiment of moral principles, which must ever be the rule of conduct for an intelligent being as such. So the righteous requirements of the law are fulfilled now in those who walk after the Spirit — while they are said to have become dead to the law by the body of Christ. Scripture speaks only of 'the law.' The law engraven on stones (the ten commandments) is called "the ministration of death ," not the law of life to a Christian. 2 Corinthians 3:7 . Law gives no power over sin; indeed, no sooner does a law say that a particular thing must not be done, than a desire arises to do it. Scripture does not say a word about the Christian being ruled by law; but it says that grace teaches him how to walk (Titus 2:11,12 ), and because he is under grace sin will not have dominion over him. The law depicted what a righteous man should be for the earth. It was perfect for the purpose for which it was given, but as seen in the question of divorce (Mark 10:4 ) it permitted what God had not intended for man at the beginning, and to this Christ bore witness. In Matthew 5:21-48 the Lord mentions five particulars, which they had heard in old time, in contrast to which He legislates in accordance with the new order of things that He was bringing in. The law did not come up to the responsibilities of Christianity. The Christian has a higher standard, even Christ Himself. He is to walk 'worthy of the Lord' unto all pleasing. Having received Christ Jesus the Lord, he is to walk in Him , Colossians 1:10 ; Colossians 2:6 ; and to walk also 'worthy of God,' 1 Thessalonians 2:12 ; indeed his aim should be to say, with Paul, "To me to live is Christ." Philippians 1:21 .
Man naturally clings to law because it recognises him as alive in the flesh. And though the curse follows the not keeping it in all points, yet he is not willing to give up that ground. Christ glorified is the One whom God now recognises — He only suits God's glory. Hence every one that is not 'in Christ' is a sinner already condemned by the light that has come in.
Webster's Dictionary - Moses
(n.) A large flatboat, used in the West Indies for taking freight from shore to ship.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Moses
This illustrious legislator of the Israelites was of the tribe of Levi, in the line of Koath and of Amram, whose son he was, and therefore in the fourth generation after the settlement of the Israelites in Egypt. The time of his birth is ascertained by the exode of the Israelites, when Moses was eighty years old, Exodus 7:7 . By a singular providence, the infant Moses, when exposed on the river Nile, through fear of the royal decree, after his mother had hid him three months, because he was a goodly child, was taken up and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, and nursed by his own mother, whom she hired at the suggestion of his sister Miriam. Thus did he find an asylum in the very palace of his intended destroyer; while his intercourse with his own family and nation was still most naturally, though unexpectedly, maintained: so mysterious are the ways of heaven. And while he was instructed "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," and bred up in the midst of a luxurious court, he acquired at home the knowledge of the promised redemption of Israel; and, "by faith" in the Redeemer Christ, "refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter, choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; esteeming the reproach of Christ," or persecution for Christ's sake, "greater riches than the treasures of Egypt: for he had respect to the recompense of reward," Exodus 2:1-10 ; Acts 7:20-22 ; Hebrews 11:23-26 ; or looked forward to a future state.
When Moses was grown to manhood, and was full forty years old, he was moved by a divine intimation, as it seems, to undertake the deliverance of his countrymen; "for he supposed that his brethren would have understood how that God, by his hand, would give them deliverance; but they understood not." For when, in the excess of his zeal to redress their grievances, he had slain an Egyptian, who injured one of them, in which he probably went beyond his commission, and afterward endeavoured to reconcile two of them that were at variance, they rejected his mediation; and "the man who had done wrong said, Who made thee a judge and a ruler over us? Intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?" So Moses, finding it was known, and that Pharaoh sought to slay him, fled for his life to the land of Midian, in Arabia Petraea, where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, or Reuel, prince and priest of Midian; and, as a shepherd, kept his flocks in the vicinity of Mount Horeb, or Sinai, for forty years, Exodus 2:11-21 ; Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 18:5 ; Numbers 10:29 ; Acts 7:23-30 . During this long exile Moses was trained in the school of humble circumstances for that arduous mission which he had prematurely anticipated; and, instead of the unthinking zeal which at first actuated him, learned to distrust himself. His backwardness, afterward, to undertake that mission for which he was destined from the womb, was no less remarkable than his forwardness before, Exodus 4:10-13 .
At length, when the oppression of the Israelites was come to the full, and they cried to God for succour, and the king was dead, and all the men in Egypt that sought his life, "the God of glory" appeared to Moses in a flame of fire, from the midst of a bush, and announced himself as "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob," under the titles of Jahoh and AEhjeh, expressive of his unity and sameness; and commissioned him first to make known to the Israelites the divine will for their deliverance; and next to go with the elders of Israel to Pharaoh, requiring him, in the name of "the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, to suffer the people to go three, days' journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord their God," after such sacrifices had been long intermitted during their bondage; for the Egyptians had sunk into bestial polytheism, and would have stoned them, had they attempted to sacrifice to their principal divinities, the apis, or bull, &c, in the land itself: foretelling, also, the opposition they would meet with from the king, the mighty signs and wonders that would finally compel his assent, and their spoiling of the Egyptians, by asking or demanding of them (not borrowing) jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, (by way of wages or compensation for their services,) as originally declared to Abraham, that "they should go out from thence with great substance,"
Genesis 15:14 ; Exodus 2:23-25 ; Exodus 3:2-22 ; Exodus 8:25-26 .
To vouch his divine commission to the Israelites, God enabled Moses to work three signal miracles:
1. Turning his rod into a serpent, and restoring it again:
2. Making his hand leprous as snow, when he first drew it out of his bosom, and restoring it sound as before when he next drew it out: and,
3. Turning the water of the river into blood. And the people believed the signs, and the promised deliverance, and worshipped. To assist him, also, in his arduous mission, when Moses had represented that he was "not eloquent, but slow of speech," and of a slow or stammering tongue, God inspired Aaron, his elder brother, to go and meet Moses in the wilderness, to be his spokesman to the people, Exodus 4:1-31 , and his prophet to Pharaoh; while Moses was to be a god to both, as speaking to them in the name, or by the authority, of God himself, Exodus 7:1-2 . At their first interview with Pharaoh, they declared, "Thus saith the Lord, the God of Israel, Let my people go, that they may hold a feast unto me in the wilderness. And Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not," or regard not, "the Lord, neither will I let Israel go." In answer to this haughty tyrant, they styled the Lord by a more ancient title, which the Egyptians ought to have known and respected, from Abraham's days, when he plagued them in the matter of Sarah: "The God of the Hebrews hath met with us: Let us go, we pray thee, three days' journey into the desert, and sacrifice unto the Lord our God, lest he fall upon us with pestilence or with the sword:" plainly intimating to Pharaoh, also, not to incur his indignation, by refusing to comply with his desire. But the king not only refused, but increased the burdens of the people, Exodus 5:1-19 ; and the people murmured, and hearkened not unto Moses, when he repeated from the Lord his assurances of deliverance and protection, for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage, Exodus 5:20-23 ; Exodus 6:1-9 .
At their second interview with Pharaoh, in obedience to the divine command, again requiring him to let the children of Israel go out of his land; Pharaoh, as foretold, demanded of them to show a miracle for themselves, in proof of their commission, when Aaron cast down his rod, and it became a serpent before Pharaoh and before his servants, or officers of his court. The king then called upon his wise men and magicians, to know if they could do as much by the power of their gods, "and they did so with their enchantments; for they cast down every man his rod, and they became serpents; but Aaron's rod swallowed up their serpents." Here the original phrase, ויעשו כן , "and they did so," or "in like manner," may only indicate the attempt, and not the deed; as afterward, in the plague of lice, "when they did so with their enchantments, but could not," Exodus 8:18 . And, indeed, the original term, להטיהם , rendered "their enchantments," as derived from the root לאט , or לוט , to hide or cover, fitly expresses the secret deceptions of legerdemain, or sleight-of-hand, to impose on spectators: and the remark of the magicians, when unable to imitate the production of lice, which was beyond their skill and dexterity, on account of their minuteness,— "This is the finger of a God!"—seems to strengthen the supposition; especially as the Egyptians were famous for legerdemain and for charming serpents: and the magicians, having had notice of the miracle they were expected to imitate, might make provision accordingly, and bring live serpents, which they might have substituted for their rods. And though Aaron's serpent swallowed up their serpents, showing the superiority of the true miracle over the false, 2 Thessalonians 2:9 , it might only lead the king to conclude, that Moses and Aaron were more expert jugglers than Jannes and Jambres, who opposed them, 2 Timothy 3:8 . And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, so that he "hearkened not unto them, as the Lord had said," or foretold, Exodus 6:10-11 ; Exodus 7:8-13 . For the conduct of Moses as the deliverer and lawgiver of the Israelites, See PLAGUES OF EGYPT , See RED SEA , and See LAW .
At Mount Sinai the Lord was pleased to make Moses, the redeemer of Israel, an eminent type of the Redeemer of the world. "I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him: and it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him:" which Moses communicated to the people. "The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a prophet, from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me: unto him shall ye hearken," Deuteronomy 18:15-19 . This prophet like unto Moses was our Lord Jesus Christ, who was by birth a Jew, of the middle class of the people, and resembled his predecessor, in personal intercourse with God, miracles, and legislation, which no other prophet did, Deuteronomy 34:10-12 ; and to whom God, at his transfiguration, required the world to hearken, Matthew 17:5 . Whence our Lord's frequent admonition to the Jewish church, "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear," Matthew 13:9 , &c; which is addressed, also, by the Spirit to the Christian churches of Asia Minor, Revelation 3:22 .
In the affair of the Golden Calf, ( See CALF ,) the conduct of Moses showed the greatest zeal for God's honour, and a holy indignation against the sin of Aaron and the people. And when Moses drew nigh, and saw their proceedings, his anger waxed hot, and he cast away the tables of the covenant, or stone tablets on which were engraven the ten commandments by the finger of God himself, and brake them beneath the mount, in the presence of the people; in token that the covenant between God and them was now rescinded on his part, in consequence of their transgression. He then took the golden calf, and burned it in the fire, and ground it to powder, and mixed it with water, and made the children of Israel drink of it. After thus destroying their idol, he inflicted punishment on the idolaters themselves; for he summoned all that were on the Lord's side to attend him; and all the Levites having obeyed the call, he sent them, in the name of the Lord, to slay all the idolaters, from one end of the camp to the other, without favour or affection either to their neighbour or to their brother; and they slew about three thousand men. The Lord also sent a grievous plague among them for their idolatry, Exodus 32:2-35 , on which occasion Moses gave a signal proof of his love for his people, by interceding for them with the Lord; and of his own disinterestedness, in refusing the offer of the Almighty to adopt his family in their room, and make of them "a great nation." He prayed that God would blot him out of his book, that is, take away his life, if he would not forgive "the great sin of his people;" and prevailed with God to alter his determination of withdrawing his presence from them, and sending an inferior angel to conduct them to the land of promise. So wonderful was the condescension of God to the voice of a man, and so mighty the power of prayer.
When the Lord had pardoned the people, and taken them again into favour, he commanded Moses to hew two tablets of stone, like the former which were broken, and to present them to him on the top of the mount; and on these the Lord wrote again the ten commandments, for a renewal of the covenant between him and his people. To reward and strengthen the faith of Moses, God was pleased, at his request, to grant him a fuller view of the divine glory, or presence, than he had hitherto done. And, to confirm his authority with the people on his return, after the second conference of forty days, he imparted to him a portion of that glory or light by which his immediate presence was manifested: for the face of Moses shone so that Aaron and all the people were afraid to come nigh him, until he had put a veil on his face, to hide its brightness. This was an honour never vouchsafed to mortal before nor afterward till Christ, the Prophet like Moses, in his transfiguration also, appeared arrayed in a larger measure of the same lustre. Then Moses again beheld the glory of the Word made flesh, and ministered thereto in a glorified form himself, Exodus 34:1-35 ; Matthew 17:1-8 .
At Kibroth Hataavah, when the people loathed the manna, and longed for flesh, Moses betrayed great impatience, and wished for death. He was also reproved for unbelief. At Kadesh-barnea, Moses having encouraged the people to proceed, saying, "Behold, the Lord thy God hath set the land before thee, go up and possess it, as the Lord God of thy fathers hath said unto you: fear not," Deuteronomy 1:19-21 ; they betrayed great diffidence, and proposed to Moses to send spies to search out the land, and point out to them the way they should enter, and the course they should take. And the proposal "pleased him well," and with the consent of the Lord he sent twelve men, one out of each tribe, to spy out the land, Deuteronomy 1:22-23 ; Numbers 13:1-20 . All these, except Caleb and Joshua, having brought "an evil report," so discouraged the people, that they murmured against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, "Would God that we had died in the land of Egypt; or would God that we had died in the wilderness! And wherefore hath the Lord brought us unto this land to fall by the sword, that our wives and our children shall be a prey? Were it not better for us to return into Egypt? And they said one to another, let us make a captain, and return into Egypt." They even went so far as to propose to stone Joshua and Caleb, because they exhorted the people not to rebel against the Lord, nor to fear the people of the land, Numbers 14:1-10 ;. Deuteronomy 1:26-28 . Here again the noble patriotism of Moses was signally displayed. He again refused the divine offer to disinherit the Israelites, and make of him and his family a "greater and mightier nation than they." He urged the most persuasive motives with their offended God, not to destroy them with the threatened pestilence, lest the Heathen might say, "that the Lord was not able to bring them into the land which he sware unto them." He powerfully appealed to the long-tried mercies and forgivenesses they had experienced ever since their departure from Egypt; and his energetic supplication prevailed; for the Lord graciously said, "I have pardoned, according to thy word: but verily, as I live, all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord;" or shall adore him for his righteous judgments; "for all these men which, have seen my glory and my miracles which I did in Egypt, and in the wilderness, and have tempted me these ten times, and have not hearkened to my voice, surely shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers: neither shall any of them that provoked me see it. As ye have spoken in my ears, so will I do unto you," by a righteous retaliation: "your carcasses shall fall in this wilderness. But your little ones, which ye said should be a prey, them will I bring in; and they shall wander in the wilderness forty years, and bear your whoredoms, after the number of the days in which ye searched the land, each day for a year, until your carcasses be wasted in the wilderness." And immediately after this sentence, as the earnest of its full accomplishment, all the spies, except Caleb and Joshua, were cut off, and died by the plague before the Lord, Numbers 14:11-37 ; Deuteronomy 1:34-39 .
The people now, to repair their fault, contrary to the advice of Moses, presumptuously went to invade the Amalekites and Canaanites of Mount Seir, or Hor; who defeated them, and chased them as bees to Hormah, Numbers 14:39-45 ; Deuteronomy 1:41-44 . On the morrow they were ordered to turn away from the promised land, and to take their journey south-westward, toward the way of the Red Sea: and they abode in the wilderness of Kadesh many days, or years, Numbers 14:25 ; Deuteronomy 1:40-46 . The ill success of the expedition against the Amalekites, according to Josephus, occasioned the rebellion of Korah, which broke out shortly after, against Moses and Aaron, with greater violence than any of the foregoing, under Korah, the ringleader, who drew into it Dathan and Abiram, the heads of the senior tribe of Reuben, and two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, among whom were even several of the Levites. ( See KORAH. ) But although "all Israel round about had fled at the cry of the devoted families of Dathan and Abiram, for fear that the earth should swallow them up also;" yet, on the morrow, they returned to their rebellious spirit, and murmured against Moses and Aaron, saying, "Ye have killed the people of the Lord." On this occasion also, the Lord threatened to consume them as in a moment; but, on the intercession of Moses, only smote them with a plague, which was stayed by an atonement made by Aaron, after the destruction of fourteen thousand seven hundred souls, Numbers 16:41-50 .
On the return of the Israelites, after many years' wandering, to the same disastrous station of Kadesh-barnea, even Moses himself was guilty of an offence, in which his brother Aaron was involved, and for which both were excluded, as a punishment, from entering the promised land. At Meribah Kadesh the congregation murmured against Moses, for bringing them into a barren wilderness without water; when the Lord commanded Moses to take his rod, which had been laid up before the Lord, and with Aaron to assemble the congregation together, and to speak to the rock before their eyes; which should supply water for the congregation and their cattle. "But Moses said unto the congregation, when they were assembled, Hear now, ye rebels, must we fetch you water out of this rock? And he smote the rock twice with his rod, and the water came out abundantly; and the congregation drank, and their cattle also. And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel; therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them," Numbers 20:1-13 ; and afterward in stronger terms: "Because ye rebelled against my commandment," &c.
Numbers 27:14 .
The offence of Moses, as far as may be collected from so concise an account, seems to have been,
1. He distrusted or disbelieved that water could be produced from the rock only by speaking to it; which was a higher miracle than he had performed before at Rephidim, Exodus 17:6 .
2. He unnecessarily smote the rock twice; thereby betraying an unwarrantable impatience.
3. He did not, at least in the phrase he used, ascribe the glory of the miracle wholly to God, but rather to himself and his brother: "Must we fetch you water out of this rock?" And he denominated them "rebels" against his and his brother's authority, which although an implied act of rebellion against God, ought to have been stated, as on a former occasion, "Ye have been rebels against the Lord, from the day that I knew you," Deuteronomy 9:24 , which he spake without blame. For want of more caution on this occasion, "he spake unadvisedly with his lips, because they provoked his spirit," Psalms 106:33 . Thus "was God sanctified at the waters of Meribah," by his impartial justice, in punishing his greatest favourites when they did amiss, Numbers 20:13 . How severely Moses felt his deprivation, appears from his humble, and it should seem repeated, supplications to the Lord to reverse the sentence: "O Lord of gods, thou hast begun to show thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand; for what god is there in heaven or in earth that can do according to thy works, and according to thy might? I pray thee let me go over and see the good land beyond Jordan, even that goodly mountain Lebanon," or the whole breadth of the land. "But the Lord was wroth with me for your sakes, and would not hear me: and he said unto me, Let it suffice thee; speak no more unto me of this matter. Get thee up unto the top of Pisgah, and lift up thine eyes westward, and northward, and southward, and eastward, and behold it with thine eyes: for thou shalt not go over this Jordan," Deuteronomy 3:23-27 .
The faculties of this illustrious legislator, both of mind and body, were not impaired at the age of a hundred and twenty years, when he died. "His eye was not dim, nor his natural strength abated," Deuteronomy 34:7 : and the noblest of all his compositions was his Song, or the Divine Ode, which Bishop Lowth elegantly styles, Cycnea Oratio, "the Dying Swan's Oration." His death took place after the Lord had shown him, from the top of Pisgah, a distant view of the promised land, throughout its whole extent. "He then buried his body in a valley opposite Beth-peor, in the land of Moab; but no man knoweth his sepulchre unto this day," observes the sacred historian, who annexed the circumstances of his death to the book of Deuteronomy, Deuteronomy 34:6 . From an obscure passage in the New Testament, in which Michael the archangel is said to have contended with the devil about the body of Moses, Judges 1:9 , some have thought that he was buried by the ministry of angels, near the scene of the idolatry of the Israelites; but that the spot was purposely concealed, lest his tomb might also be converted into an object of idolatrous worship among the Israelites, like the brazen serpent. Beth-peor lay in the lot of the Reubenites, Joshua 13:20 . But on so obscure a passage nothing can be built. The "body of Moses," may figuratively mean the Jewish church; or the whole may be an allusion to a received tradition which, without affirming or denying its truth, might be made the basis of a moral lesson.
Josephus, who frequently attempts to embellish the simple narrative of Holy Writ, represents Moses as attended to the top of Pisgah by Joshua, his successor, Eleazar, the high priest, and the whole senate; and that, after he had dismissed the senate, while he was conversing with Joshua and Eleazar, and embracing them, a cloud suddenly came over and enveloped him; and he vanished from their sight, and he was taken away to a certain valley. "In the sacred books," says he, "it is written, that he died; fearing to say that on account of his transcendent virtue, he had departed to the Deity." The Jewish historian has here, perhaps, imitated the account of our Lord's ascension, furnished by the evangelist, Luke 24:50 ; Acts 1:9 ; wishing to raise Moses to a level with Christ. The preeminence of Moses's character is briefly described by the sacred historian, Samuel or Ezra: "And there arose not a prophet since, in Israel, like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face; in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all his land; and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel," Deuteronomy 34:10-12 .
So marked and hallowed is the character of this, the most eminent of mere men, that it has often been successfully made the basis of an irresistible argument for the truth of his divine mission. Thus Cellerier observes, Every imposture has an object in view, and an aim more or less selfish. Men practice deceit for money, for pleasure, or for glory. If, by a strange combination, the love of mankind ever entered into the mind of an impostor, doubtless, even then, he has contrived to reconcile, at least, his own selfish interests with those of the human race. If men deceive others, for the sake of causing their own opinions or their own party to triumph, they may sometimes, perhaps, forget their own interests during the struggle, but they again remember them when the victory is achieved. It is a general rule, that no impostor forgets himself long. But Moses forgot himself, and forgot himself to the last. Yet there is no middle supposition. If Moses was not a divinely inspired messenger, he was an impostor in the strongest sense of the term. It is not, as in the case of Numa, a slight and single fraud, designed to secure some good end, that we have to charge him with, but a series of deceits, many of which were gross; a profound dishonest, perfidious, sanguinary dissimulation, continued for the space of forty years. If Moses was not a divinely commissioned prophet, he was not the saviour of the people, but their tyrant and their murderer. Still, we repeat, this barbarous impostor always forgot himself; and his disinterestedness, as regarded himself personally, his family, and his tribe, is one of the most extraordinary features in his administration. As to himself personally: He is destined to die in the wilderness; he is never to taste the tranquillity, the plenty, and the delight, the possession of which he promises to his countrymen; he shares with them only their fatigues and privations; he has more anxieties than they, on their account, in their acts of disobedience, and in their perpetual murmurings. As to his family: He does not nominate his sons as his successors; he places them, without any privileges or distinctions, among the obscure sons of Levi; they are not even admitted into the sacerdotal authority. Unlike all other fathers, Moses withdraws them from public view, and deprives them of the means of obtaining glory and favour. Samuel and Eli assign a part of their paternal authority to their sons, and permit them even to abuse it; but the sons of Moses, in the wilderness, are only the simple servants of the tabernacle; like all the other sons of Kohath, if they even dare to raise the veil which covers the sacred furniture, the burden, of which they carry, death is denounced against them. Where can we find more complete disinterestedness than in Moses? Is not his the character of an upright man, who has the general good, not his own interests, at heart; of a man who submissively acquiesces in the commands of God, without resistance and without demur? When we consider these several things; when we reflect on all the ministry of Moses, on his life, on his death, on his character, on his abilities, and his success; we are powerfully convinced that he was the messenger of God. If we consider him only as an able legislator, as a Lycurgus, as a Numa, his actions are inexplicable: we find not in him the affections, the interests, the views which usually belong to the human heart. The simplicity, the harmony, the verity of his natural character are gone; they give place to an incoherent union of ardour and imposture; of daring and of timidity, of incapacity and genius, of cruelty and sensibility. No! Moses was inspired by God: he received from God the law which he left his countrymen.
To Moses we owe that important portion of Holy Scripture, the Pentateuch, which brings us acquainted with the creation of the world, the entrance of sin and death, the first promises of redemption, the flood, the peopling of the postdiluvian earth, and the origin of nations, the call of Abraham, and the giving of the law. We have, indeed, in it the early history of religion, and a key to all the subsequent dispensations of God to man. The genuineness and authenticity of these most venerable and important books have been established by various writers; but the following remarks upon the veracity of the writings of Moses have the merit of compressing much argument into few words:—
1. There is a minuteness in the details of the Mosaic writings, which bespeaks their truth; for it often bespeaks the eye-witness, as in the adventures of the wilderness; and often seems intended to supply directions to the artificer, as in the construction of the tabernacle.
2. There are touches of nature in the narrative which bespeak its truth, for it is not easy to regard them otherwise than as strokes from
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Moses
The name of the illustrious prophet and legislator of the Hebrews, who led them from Egypt to the Promised Land. Having been originally imposed by a native Egyptian princess, the word is no doubt Egyptian in its origin, and Josephus gives its true derivationfrom the two Egyptian words, MO, water, and USE, saved. With this accords the Septuagint form, MOUSES. The Hebrews by a slight change accommodated it to their own language, as they did also in the case of some other foreign words; calling it MOSHIE, from the verb MASHA, to draw. See Exodus 2:10 . Moses was born about 15.71 B. C., the son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi, and the younger brother of Miriam and Aaron. His history is too extensive to permit insertion here, and in general too well known to need it. It is enough simply to remark, that it is divided into three periods, each of forty years. The first extends from his infancy, when he was exposed in the Nile, and found and adopted y the daughter of Pharaoh, to his flight to Midian.
During this time he lived at the Egyptian court, and "was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was nightly in words and in deeds," Acts 7:22 . This is no unmeaning praise; the "wisdom" of the Egyptians, and especially of their priests, was then the profoundest in the world. The second period was from his flight till his return to Egypt, Acts 7:30 , during the whole of which interval he appears to have lived in Midian, it may be much after the manner of the Bedaween sheikhs of the present day. Here he married Zipporah, daughter of the wise and pious Jethro, and became familiar with life in the desert. What a contrast between the former period, spent amid the splendors and learning of a court, and this lonely nomadic life. Still it was in this way that God prepared him to be the instrument of deliverance to His people during the third period of his life, which extends from the exodus out of Egypt to his death on mount Nebo. In this interval how much did he accomplish, as the immediate agent of the Most High.
The life and institutions of Moses present one of the finest subjects for the pen of a Christian historian, who is at the same time a competent biblical antiquary. His institutions breathe a spirit of freedom, purity, intelligence, justice, and humanity, elsewhere unknown; and above all, of supreme love, honor, and obedience to God.
They molded the character of the Hebrews, and transformed them from a nation of shepherds into a people of fixed residence and agricultural habits. Through that people, and through the Bible, the influence of these institutions has been extended over the world; and often where the letter has not been observed, the spirit of them has been adopted. Thus it was in the laws established by the pilgrim fathers of New England; and no small part of what is of most value in the institutions which they founded, is to be ascribed to the influence of the Hebrew legislator.
The name of this servant of God occurs repeatedly in Greek and Latin writings, and still more frequently in those of the Arabs and the rabbinical Jews. Many of their statements, however, are mere legends without foundation, or else distortions of the Scripture narrative. By the Jews he has always been especially honored, as the most illustrious personage in all their annals, and as the founder of their whole system of laws and institutions. Numerous passages both in the Old and New Testament show how exalted a position they gave him, Psalm 103:7 105:26 106:16 Isaiah 63:12 Jeremiah 15:1 Daniel 9:11 Matthew 8:4 John 5:45 9:28 Acts 7:20,37 Romans 10:5,19 Hebrews 3:1-19 11:23 .
In all that he wrought and taught, he was but the agent of the Most High; and yet in all his own character stands honorably revealed. Though naturally liable to anger and impatience, he so far subdued himself as to be termed the meekest of men, Numbers 12:3 ; and his piety, humility, and forbearance, the wisdom and vigor of his administration, his unfailing zeal and faith in God, and his disinterested patriotism are worthy of all imitation. Many features of his character and life furnish admirable illustrations of the work of Christas the deliver, ruler, and guide of his people, bearing them on his heart, interceding for them, rescuing, teaching, and nourishing them even to the promised land. All the religious institutions of Moses pointed to Christ; and he himself, on the mount, two thousand years after his death, paid his homage to the Prophet he had foretold, Deuteronomy 18:15-19 , beheld "that goodly mountain and Lebanon," Deuteronomy 3:25 , and was admitted to commune with the Savior on the most glorious of themes, the death He should accomplish at Jerusalem, Luke 9:31 .
Moses was the author of the Pentateuch, as it is called, or the first five books of the Bible. In the composition of them he was probably assisted by Aaron, who kept a register of public transactions, Exodus 17:14 24:4,7 34:27 Numbers 33:1,2 Deuteronomy 31:24 , etc. Some things were added by a later inspired hand; as for example, Deuteronomy 34:1-12 Psalm 90:1-17 also is ascribed to him; and its noble and devout sentiments acquire a new significance, if received as from his pen near the close of his pilgrimage.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Ark of Moses
A small boat or basket made of the papyrus, a reed which grows in the marshes of Egypt. It was covered with bitumen to make it water tight.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
It will be the object of this article to give a brief analysis of the substance of this law, to point out its main principles, and to explain the position which it occupies in the progress of divine revelation. In order to do this the more clearly, it seems best to speak of the law, 1st. In relation to the past; 2d. In its own intrinsic character.
(a) In reference to the past , it is all-important, for the proper understanding of the law, to remember its entire dependence on the Abrahamic covenant. See ( Galatians 3:17-24 ) That covenant had a twofold character. It contained the "spiritual promise" of the Messiah; but it contained also the temporal promises subsidiary to the former. (b) The nature of this relation of the law to the promise is clearly pointed out. The belief in God as the Redeemer of man, and the hope of his manifestation as such int he person of the Messiah, involved the belief that the Spiritual Power must be superior to all carnal obstructions, and that there was in man spiritual element which could rule his life by communion with a spirit from above. But it involved also the idea of an antagonistic power of evil, from which man was to be redeemed, existing in each individual, and existing also in the world at large. (c) Nor is it less essential to remark the period of the history at which it was given. It marked and determined the transition of Israel from the condition of a tribe to that of a nation, and its definite assumption of a distinct position and office in the history of the world. (d) Yet, though new in its general conception, it was probably not wholly new in its materials. There must necessarily have been, before the law, commandments and revelations of a fragmentary character, under which Israel had hitherto grown up. So far therefore as they were consistent with the objects of the Jewish law, the customs of Palestine and the laws of Egypt would doubtless be traceable in the Mosaic system. (e) In close connection with, and almost in consequence of, this reference to antiquity, we find an accommodation of the law to the temper and circumstances of the Israelites, to which our Lord refers int he case of divorce, ( Matthew 19:7,8 ) as necessarily interfering with its absolute perfection. In many cases it rather should be said to guide and modify existing usages than actually to sanction them; and the ignorance of their existence may lead to a conception of its ordinances not only erroneous, but actually the reverse of the truth. (f) In close connection with this subject we observe also the gradual process by which the law was revealed to the Israelites. In Exodus 20-23 , in direct connection with the revelation from Mount Sinai, that which may be called the rough outline of the Mosaic law is given by God, solemnly recorded by Moses, and accepted by the people. In Exodus 25-31 , there is a similar outline of the Mosaic ceremonial. On the basis of these it may be conceived that the fabric of the Mosaic system gradually grew up under the requirements of the time. The first revelation of the law in anything like a perfect form is found in the book of Deuteronomy. yet even then the revelation was not final; it was the duty of the prophets to amend and explain it in special points, (Ezekiel 18:1 ) ... and to bring out more clearly its great principles.
In giving an analysis of the substance of the law , it will probably be better to treat it, as any other system of laws is usually treated, by dividing it into-- I. Laws Civil; II. Laws Criminal: III. Laws Judicial and Constitutional; IV. Laws Ecclesiastical and Ceremonial. I. LAWS CIVIL.
LAW OF PERSON S. (a) FATHER AND SON . --the power of a father to be held sacred; cursing or smiting, ( Exodus 21:15,17 ; Leviticus 20:9 ) and stubborn and willful disobedience, to be considered capital crimes. But uncontrolled power of life and death was apparently refused to the father, and vested only in the congregation. (21:18-21) Right of the first-born to a double portion of the inheritance not to be set aside by partiality. (21:15-17) Inheritance by daughters to be allowed in default of sons, provided, ( Numbers 27:6-8 ) comp. Numb 36:1 ... that heiresses married in their own tribe. Daughters unmarried to be entirely dependent on their father. ( Numbers 30:3-5 ) (b) HUSBAND AND WIFE . --the power of a husband to be so great that a wife could never be sui juris , or enter independently into any engagement, even before God. ( Numbers 30:6-15 ) A widow or a divorced wife became independent, and did not against fall under her father's power. ver. (Numbers 30:9 ) Divorce (for uncleanness) allowed, but to be formal and irrevocable. (24:1-4) Marriage within certain degrees forbidden. ( Leviticus 18:1 ) ... etc. A slave wife, whether bought or captive, not to be actual property, nor to be sold; if illtreated, to be ipso facto free. ( Exodus 21:7-9 ; 21:10-14) Slander against a wife's virginity to be punished by fine,a nd by deprived of power of divorce; on the other hand, ante-connubial uncleanness in her to be punished by death. (22:13-21) the raising up of seed (Levirate law) a formal right to be claimed by the widow, under pain of infamy, with a view to preservation of families. (25:5-10) (c) MASTER AND SLAVE . --Power of master so far limited that death under actual chastisement was punishable, ( Exodus 21:20 ) and maiming was to give liberty ipso facto . vs. ( Exodus 21:26,27 ) The Hebrew slave to be freed at the sabbatical year, and provided with necessaries (his wife and children to go with only if they came to his master with him), unless by his own formal act he consented to be a perpetual slave. ( Exodus 21:1-6 ; 15:12-18) In any case, it would seem, to be freed at the jubilee, (Leviticus 25:10 ) with his children. If sold to a resident alien, to be always redeemable, at a price proportioned to the distance of the jubilee. (Leviticus 25:47-54 ) Foreign slaves to be held and inherited as property forever, ( Leviticus 25:45,46 ) and fugitive slaves from foreign nations not to be given up. (23:15) (d) STRANGERS. --These seem never to have been sui juris , or able to protect themselves, and accordingly protection and kindness toward them are enjoined as a sacred duty. ( Exodus 22:21 ; Leviticus 19:33,34 )
LAW OF THINGS. (a) LAWS OF LAND (AND PROPERTY).-- (1) All land to be the property of God alone , and its holders to be deemed his tenants. ( Leviticus 25:23 ) (2) All sold land therefore to return to its original owners at the jubilee, and the price of sale to be calculated accordingly; and redemption on equitable terms to be allowed at all times. ( Leviticus 25:25-27 ) A house sold to be redeemable within a year; and if not redeemed, to pass away altogether, ch. ( Leviticus 25:29,30 ) But the houses of the Levites , or those in unwalled villages, to be redeemable at all times, in the same way as land; and the Levitical suburbs to be inalienable. ch. ( Leviticus 25:31-34 ) (3) Land or houses sanctified , or tithes, or unclean firstlings, to be capable of being redeemed, at six-fifths value (calculated according to the distance from the jubilee year by the priest); if devoted by the owner and unredeemed, to be hallowed at the jubilee forever, and given to the priests; if only by a possessor, to return to the owner at the jubilee. ( Leviticus 27:14-34 ) (4) Inheritance . (b) LAWS OF DEBT. -- (1) All debts (to an Israelite) to be released at the seventh (sabbatical year; a blessing promised to obedience, and a curse on refusal to lend. (15:1-11) (2) Usury (from Israelites) not to be taken. ( Exodus 22:25-27 ; 23:19,20) (3) Pledges not to be insolently or ruinously exacted. (24:6,10-13,17,18) (c) TAXATION. -- (1) Census-money , a poll-tax (of a half shekel), to be paid for the service of the tabernacle. ( Exodus 30:12-16 ) All spoil in war to be halved; of the combatants' half, one five-hundreth, of the people's, one fiftieth, to be paid for a "heave offering" to Jehovah. (2) Tithes .-- (a) Tithes of all produce to be given for maintenance of the Levites. ( Numbers 18:20-24 ) (Of this one tenth to be paid as a heave offering for maintenance of the priests. vs. (Numbers 18:24-32 ) ) (b) Second tithe to be bestowed in religious feasting and charity, either at the holy place or (every third year) at home. (14:22-28) (c) First-fruits of corn, wine and oil (at least one sixtieth, generally one fortieth, for the priests) to be offered at Jerusalem, with a solemn declaration of dependence on God the King of Israel. ( Numbers 18:12,13 ; 26:1-15) Firstlings of clean beasts; the redemption money (five shekels) of man and (half shekel, or one shekel) of unclean beasts to be given to the priests after sacrifice. ( Numbers 18:15-18 ) (3) Poor laws. -- (a) Gleanings (in field or vineyard) to be a legal right of the poor. ( Leviticus 19:9,10 ; 24:19-22) (b) Slight trespass (eating on the spot) to be allowed as legal. (23:24,25) (c) Wages to be paid day by day. (24:15) (4) Maintenance of priests. ( Numbers 18:8-32 ) (a) Tenth of Levites' tithe . (See 2a.) (b) The heave and wave offerings (breast and right shoulder of all peace offerings). (c) The meat and sin offerings , to be eaten solemnly and only in the holy place. (c) First-fruits and redemption money. (See 2c.) (e) Price of all devoted things , unless specially given for a sacred service. A man's service, or that of his household, to be redeemed at 50 shekels for man, 30 for woman, 20 for boy and 10 for girl. II. LAWS CRIMINAL.
OFFENCES AGAINST GOD (of the nature of treason.) 1Command. Acknowledgment of false gods , ( Exodus 22:20 ) as e.g. Molech, (Leviticus 20:1-5 ) and generally all idolatry . (13; 17:2-5) 2Command. Witchcraft and false prophecy. ( Exodus 22:18 ; 18:9-22; 1 Chronicles 27:29-31 ) 3Command. Blasphemy . ( Leviticus 24:15,16 ) 4Th Command. Sabbath-breaking . ( Numbers 15:32,36 ) Punishment in all cases, death by stoning . Idolatrous cities to be utterly destroyed.
OFFENCES AGAINST MAN . 5Th Command. Disobedience to or cursing or smiting of parents , ( Exodus 21:15,17 ; Leviticus 20:9 ; 21:18-21) to be punished by death by stoning, publicly adjudged and inflicted; so also of disobedience to the priests (as judges) or the Supreme Judge. Comp. (1 Kings 21:10-14 ) (Naboth); (2 Chronicles 24:21 ) (Zechariah). 6Th Command. (1) Murder to be punished by death without sanctuary or reprieve, or satisfaction. ( Exodus 21:12,14 ; 19:11-13) Death of a slave, actually under the rod, to be punished. (Exodus 21:20,21 ) (2) Death by negligence to be punished by death. ( Exodus 21:28-30 ) (3) Accidental homicide : the avenger of blood to seek safety by flight to a city of refuge, there to remain till the death of the high priest. ( Numbers 35:9-28 ; 4:41-43; 19:4-10) (4) Uncertain murder to be expiated by formal disavowal and sacrifice by the elders of the nearest city. (21:1-9) (5) Assault to be punished by lex talionis , or damages. ( Exodus 21:18,19,22-25 ; Leviticus 24:19,20 ) 7Th Command. (1) Adultery to be punished by death of both offenders; the rape of a married or betrothed woman, by death of the offender. (22:13-27) (2) Rape or seduction of an unbetrothed virgin to be compensated by marriage, with dowry (50 shekels), and without power of divorce; or, if she be refused, by payment of full dowry. ( Exodus 22:16,17 ; 22:28,29) (3) Unlawful marriages (incestuous, etc.) to be punished, some by death, some by childlessness. ( Leviticus 20:1 ) ... 8Th command. (1) Theft to be punished by fourfold or double restitution; or nocturnal robber might be slain as an outlaw. ( Exodus 22:1-4 ) (2) Trespass and injury of things lent to be compensated. ( Exodus 23:5-15 ) (3) Perversion of justice (by bribes, threats, etc.), and especially oppression of strangers, strictly forbidden. ( Exodus 22:9 ) etc. (4) Kidnapping to be punished by death. (24:7) 9Th Command. False witness to be punished by lex talionis . ( Exodus 23:1-3 ; 19:16-21) Slander of a wife's chastity, by fine and loss of power of divorce. (22:18,19) A fuller consideration of the tables of the Ten Commandments is given elsewhere. [1] III. LAWS JUDICIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL.
JURISDICTION. (a) Local judges (generally Levites as more skilled in the law) appointed, for ordinary matters, probably by the people with approbation of the supreme authority (as of Moses in the wilderness), ( Exodus 18:25 ; 1:15-18) through all the land. (16:18) (b) Appeal to the priests (at the holy place), or to the judge ; their sentence final, and to be accepted under pain of death. See (17:8-13) comp. appeal to Moses, ( Exodus 18:26 ) (c) Two witnesses (at least) required in capital matters. ( Numbers 35:30 ; 17:6,7) (d) Punishment , except by special command, to be personal, and not to extend to the family. (24:16) Stripes allowed and limited, (25:1-3) so as to avoid outrage on the human frame. All this would be to a great extent set aside --1st. By the summary jurisdiction of the king, see ( 1 Samuel 22:11-19 ) (Saul); (2 Samuel 12:1-5 ; 14:4-11 ; 1 Kings 3:16-28 ) which extended even to the deposition of the high priest. (1 Samuel 22:17,18 ; 1 Kings 2:26,27 ) The practical difficulty of its being carried out is seen in (2 Samuel 15:2-6 ) and would lead of course to a certain delegation of his power. 2Nd. By the appointment of the Seventy, (Numbers 11:24-30 ) with a solemn religious sanction. In later times there was a local sanhedrin of twenty-three in each city, and two such in Jerusalem, as well as the Great Sanhedrin, consisting of seventy members, besides the president, who was to be the high priest if duly qualified, and controlling even the king and high priest. The members were priest, scribes (Levites), and elders (of other tribes). A court of exactly this nature is noticed as appointed to supreme power by Jehoshaphat. See (2 Chronicles 19:8-11 )
ROYAL POWER. The king's power limited by the law, as written and formally accepted by the king; and directly forbidden to be despotic. (Military conquest discouraged by the prohibition of the use of horses. See ( Joshua 11:6 ) For an example of obedience to this law see (2 Samuel 8:4 ) and of disobedience to it see (1 Kings 10:26-29 ) (17:14-20) comp. 1 Samuel 10:25 Yet he had power of taxation (to one tenth) and of compulsory service, ( 1 Samuel 8:10-18 ) the declaration of war, (Leviticus 25:1-7 ) ... etc. There are distinct traces of a "mutual contract," (2 Samuel 5:3 ) a "league," (2 Kings 11:17 ) the remonstrance with Rehoboam being clearly not extraordinary. (1 Kings 13:1-6 ) The princes of the congregation . --The heads of the tribes, see ( Joshua 9:15 ) seem to have had authority under Joshua to act for the people, comp. (1 Chronicles 27:16-22 ) and in the later times "the princes of Judah" seem to have had power to control both the king and the priests. See (Jeremiah 26:10-24 ; 38:4,5 ) etc.
ROYAL REVENUE. (1) Tenth of produce. (2) Domain land. ( 1 Chronicles 27:26-29 ) Note confiscation of criminal's land. (1 Kings 21:15 ) (3) Bond service , ( 1 Kings 5:17,18 ) chiefly on foreigners. (1 Kings 9:20-22 ; 2 Chronicles 2:16,17 ) (4) Flocks and herds. ( Leviticus 19:31 ) (5) Tributes (gifts) from foreign kings. (6) Commerce ; especially in Solomon's time. ( 1 Kings 10:22,29 ) etc. IV. ECCLESIASTICAL AND CEREMONIAL LAW.
LAW OF SACRIFICE (considered as the sign and the appointed means of the union with God, on which the holiness of the people depended). A. ORDINARY SACRIFICES. (a) The whole burnt offering, ( Leviticus 1:1 ) ... of the herd or the flock; to be offered continually, (Exodus 29:38-42 ) and the fire on the altar never to be extinguished. (Leviticus 6:8-13 ) (b) The meat offering, ( Leviticus 2 ; 6:14-23 ) of flour, oil and frankincense, unleavened and seasoned with salt. (c) The peace offering, ( Leviticus 3:1 ; Leviticus 7:11-21 ) of the herd or the flock; either a thank offering or a vow or free-will offering. (d) The sin offering or trespass offering . Leviticus 4,5,6 (A) For sins committed in ignorance. Leviticus 4 (B) For vows unwittingly made and broken, or uncleanness unwittingly contracted. Levi 5 (C) For sins wittingly committed. ( Leviticus 6:1-7 ) b. EXTRAORDINARY SACRIFICES. (a) At the consecration of priests. Leviticus 8,9 (b) At the purification of women. Leviticus 12 (c) At the cleansing of lepers. Leviticus 13,14 (d) On the great day of atonement. Leviticus 16 (e) On the great festivals. Leviticus 23
LAW OF HOLINESS (arising from the union with God through sacrifice). a. HOLINESS OF PERSONS. (1) Holiness of the whole people as "children of God," ( Exodus 19:5,6 ; Leviticus 11-15,17,18 ; 14:1-21) shown in (a) The dedication of the first-born, (Exodus 13:2,12,13 ; 22:29,30 ) etc.; and the offering of all firstlings and first-fruits. Deuteronomy 26 , etc. (b) Distinction of clean and unclean food. Levi 11; Deuteronomy 14 . (c) Provision for purification. Levi 12,13,14,15; (23:1-4) (d) Laws against disfigurement. (Leviticus 19:27 ; 14:1) comp. (25:3) against excessive scourging. (e) Laws against unnatural marriages and lusts. Leviticus 18,20 (2) Holiness of the priests (and Levites) . (a) Their consecration. Leviticus 8,9 ; Exodus 29 (b) Their special qualifications and restrictions. ( Leviticus 21:1 ; Leviticus 22:1-9 ) (c) Their rights, (18:1-6; Numbers 18:1 ) ... and authority. (17:8-13) b. HOLINESS OF PLACES AND THINGS. (a) The tabernacle with the ark, the vail, the altars, the laver, the priestly robes, etc. Exodus 25-28,30 . (b) The holy place chosen for the permanent erection of the tabernacle, (12:1; 14:22-29) where only all sacrifices were to be offered and all tithes, firstfruits, vows, etc., to be given or eaten. c. HOLINESS OF TIMES. (a) The Sabbath. ( Exodus 20:9-11 ; 23:12 ) etc. (b) The sabbatical year. ( Exodus 23:10,11 ; 1 Samuel 11:1 ) etc. (c) The year of jubilee. ( Leviticus 25:8-16 ) etc. (d) The passover. ( Exodus 12:3-27 ; Leviticus 23:4,5 ) (e) The feast of weeks (pentecost). ( Leviticus 23:15 ) etc. (f) The feast of tabernacles . ( Leviticus 23:33-43 ) (g) The feast of trumpets. ( Leviticus 23:23-25 ) (h) The day of atonement . ( Leviticus 23:26-32 ) etc. Such is the substance of the Mosaic law. The leading principle of the whole is its THEOCRATIC CHARACTER, its reference, that is, of all action and thoughts of men directly and immediately to the will of God. It follows from this that it is to be regarded not merely as a law, that is, a rule of conduct based on known truth and acknowledged authority, but also as a revelation of God's nature and his dispensations. But this theocratic character of the law depends necessarily on the belief in God , as not only the creator and sustainer of the world, but as, by special covenant, the head of the Jewish nation. This immediate reference to God as their king is clearly seen as the groundwork of their whole polity. From this theocratic nature of the law follow important deductions with regard to (a) the view which it takes of political society; (b) the extent of the scope of the law; (c) the penalties by which it is enforced; and (d) the character which it seeks to impress on the people. (a) The Mosaic law seeks the basis of its polity, first, in the absolute sovereignty of God; next, in the relationship of each individual to God, and through God to his countrymen. It is clear that such a doctrine, while it contradicts none of the common theories, yet lies beneath them all. (b) The law, as proceeding directly from God and referring directly to him, is necessarily absolute in its supremacy and unlimited in its scope. It is supreme over the governors, as being only the delegates of the Lord, and therefore it is incompatible with any despotic authority in them. On the other hand, it is supreme over the governed, recognizing no inherent rights in the individual as prevailing against or limiting the law. It regulated the whole life of an Israelite. His actions were rewarded and punished with great minuteness and strictness --and that according to the standard, not of their consequences but of their intrinsic morality. (c) The penalties and rewards by which the law is enforced are such as depend on the direct theocracy. With regard to individual actions, it may be noticed that, as generally some penalties are inflicted by the subordinate and some only the supreme authority, so among the Israelites some penalties came from the hand of man, some directly from the providence of God. (d) But perhaps the most important consequence of the theocratic nature of the law was the peculiar character of goodness which it sought to impress on the people. The Mosaic law, beginning with piety as its first object, enforces most emphatically the purity essential to those who, by their union with God, have recovered the hope of intrinsic goodness, while it views righteousness and love rather as deductions from these than as independent objects. The appeal is not to any dignity of human nature, but to the obligations of communion with a holy God. The subordination, therefore, of this idea also to the religious idea is enforced; and so long as the due supremacy of the latter was preserved, all other duties would find their places in proper harmony.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Moses
Moses (3) ( Moyses ), Roman presbyter (? of Jewish origin), a leading member of an influential group of confessors in the time of Cyprian, about the commencement of the Novatianist schism. The others were Maximus, Nicostratus, Rufinus, Urbanus, Sidonius, Macarius, and Celerinus. They wrote early in the persecution, urging the claims of discipline on the Carthaginian confessors (Ep. 27) (cf. Tillem. t. iii. Notes s. Moyse, t. iv., S. Cyp. a. xv., Lipsius, Chr. d. röm. Bisch. p. 200), and Moyses signed the second letter of the Roman clerus (viz. Ep. 30), drawn up by Novatian according to Cyprian ( Ep. 55, iv.), and he wrote with the other confessors Ep. 31 to Cyprian ( Ep. 32). When they had been a year in prison ( Ep. 37), or more accurately 11 months and days (Liberian Catalogue, Mommsen, Chronogr. v. Jahre 354, p. 635). i.e. c. Jan. 1, 251, Moyses died and was accounted a confessor and martyr ( Ep. 55). Shortly before his death he refused to communicate with Novatian and the five presbyters who sided with him ( ἀποσχίσασιν ) because he saw the tendency of his stern dogma (Cornelius to Fabius of Antioch, Eus. vi. 43, κατιδών ).
Moyses' severance was not because Novatian had already left the Catholics, which he did not do till June 4, after the election of Cornelius; and Novatus, who induced it, did not leave Carthage for Rome until April or May (Rettberg, p. 109). Moyses' great authority remained a strong point in Cornelius's favour, when the rest of the confessors (Ep. 51) after their release threw their influence on the side of Novatian as representing the stricter discipline against Cornelius. The headship of the party belonged after Moyses' death to MAXIMUS (3).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Moses of Khoren
Moses (5) , of Khoren (Moses Khorenensis )—-called by his countrymen the Father of History—the poet, grammarian, and most celebrated writer of Armenia, was the nephew and disciple of St. Mesrob, the founder of Armenian literature. [1] Born at Khoren or Khorni, a town of the province of Darou, he was one of a band of scholars sent by Mesrob to study at Edessa, Constantinople, Alexandria, Athens, and Rome. There he accumulated very wide historical knowledge (cf. Hist. Armen. iii. 61, 62). Returning to Armenia, he assisted St. Mesrob in translating the Bible into his native language, a work which was accomplished between 407 and 433. This fixes his birth in the early part of cent. v.; though some place it in the latter part of cent. iv. Beyond his literary activity we do not know much about his life. He succeeded Eznig as bp. of Pakrevant, where he displayed great spiritual activity. According to the medieval Armenian chronicler, Samuel of Ani, he died in 488, aged 120. The following works attributed to him are extant: (1) Hist. of Armenia , (2) Treatise on Rhetoric , (3) Treatise on Geography , (4) Letter on Assumption of B. V. M. , (5) Homily on Christ's Transfiguration , (6) Oration on Hripsinia, an Armenian Virgin Martyr , (7) Hymns used in Armenian Church Worship . He wrote also 2 works now lost, viz. Commentaries on the Armenian Grammarians , of which fragments are found in John Erzengatzi, an Armenian writer of cent. xiii., and Explanations of Armenian Church Offices , of which we have only some fragments in Thomas Ardzrouni (cent. vii.). The Hist. of Armenia is perhaps the work of a later writer, but it is in some respects one of the most important historical works of antiquity. It embodies almost our only remains of pre-Christian Armenian literature and preserves many songs and traditions retained at that time in popular memory. For special studies of it see Dulaurier in Journ. Asiat. Jan. 1852. It is also very valuable because it preserves extensive remains of Assyrian, Chaldean, Syrian, and Greek writers. Moses had studied long at Edessa, where the library was very rich in ancient Assyrian chroniclers. This work also throws much light on the history of the Roman empire in cents. iv. and v., and its struggles against the renewed Persian empire and the efforts of Zoroastrianism. It has been translated into Italian by the Mechitarite Fathers (Venice, 1841); into French by V. Langlois in Historiens anciens de l’Arménie (Paris, 1867). See also AE. Carriére, Moise de Khoren, etc. (Paris, 1891); Id., Nouvelles sources de Moise de Kh. (Vienna 1894); Id., La. legende d’Abgar, dans l'hist. de Moise de Kh. ; also F. C. Conybeare in Byzant. Zeitschr. (1901), x. 489 seq.
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Sentence search

un-Mosaic - ) Not according to Moses; unlike Moses or his works
Pentateuch - , which are also called 'the five books of Moses. ' The many references to and quotations from them in other parts of the scripture, and allusions to them by Christ under the name of Moses, show plainly that Moses was the inspired writer of them, except of course the small portion that records his death and burial. See Moses
Eliezer (son of moses) - Moses' and Zipporah's second son. Born in Midian immediately before Moses left to Egypt to liberate the Israelites
Jethro - Moses spent forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh" (Exodus 18:8 ). On the following day Jethro, observing the multiplicity of the duties devolving on Moses, advised him to appoint subordinate judges, rulers of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, to decide smaller matters, leaving only the weightier matters to be referred to Moses, to be laid before the Lord. This advice Moses adopted (Exodus 18 ). (See Moses
Deuteronomy - the Book of: The fifth of the Five Books of Moses, records Moses' final message to the Israelites, delivered during the last weeks of his life. The book concludes with Moses� death
Pentateuch - The five books the books of Moses; that is, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. See articles on those books, and also Moses
Pentateuch - ) The first five books of the Old Testament, collectively; - called also the Law of Moses, Book of the Law of Moses, etc
Gershom - Firstborn son of Moses and Zipporah (Exodus 2:22 ). ” His birth became a further sign for Moses that he had done right in escaping Egypt, the birth occurring in Midian. Apparently Gershom was the son circumcised in the unusual ritual of Exodus 4:24-26 in which Zipporah delivered Moses when God sought to kill him. Thus Gershom represented protection for Moses. Many manuscripts of Judges 18:30 list Jonathan, Gershom's son and Moses' grandson, as founder of the priesthood in the sanctuary at Dan (NIV, NRSV, REB), though the traditional printed Hebrew text reads Manasseh rather than Moses (KJV, NAS). 1 Chronicles 23:14 shows that Moses' sons had been incorporated into the line of Levites. See Gershon ; Levites ; Moses
Spies - According to Numbers 13:2, Moses sent the spies into Canaan at the command of God; but according to Deuteronomy 1:22 at the suggestion of the people. The seeming discrepancy disappears thus; the people begged that they should be sent; Moses laid their request before God, who thereupon gave the command. In the historical book, Numbers, God's command alone is mentioned; but in Deuteronomy, which treats of the people's conduct toward God, Moses reminds them that the request which eventuated in their fathers' rebellion and death in the wilderness, emanated from themselves. The generation whom Moses addressed in Deuteronomy needed to be warned by the fate of their fathers. Moses treats fathers and children as one people
Devarim - Deuteronomy, the fifth book of the Pentateuch ...
Devarim The fifth of the Five Books of Moses, records Moses' final message to the Israelites, delivered during the last weeks of his life. The book concludes with Moses' death
Jochebed - In Exodus 6:20 , the wife of Amram and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses. Her name includes the divine name Yahweh, evidence that the name Yahweh was known before the time of Moses. See Moses
Eldad - Whom God has loved, one of the seventy elders whom Moses appointed (Numbers 11:26,27 ) to administer justice among the people. He, with Medad, prophesied in the camp instead of going with the rest to the tabernacle, as Moses had commanded. This incident was announced to Moses by Joshua, who thought their conduct in this respect irregular. Moses replied, "Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the Lord's people were prophets" (Numbers 11:24-30 ; Compare Mark 9:38 ; Luke 9:49 )
Moses - ” The Old Testament depicts Moses as the leader of the Israelites in their Exodus from Egyptian slavery and oppression, their journey through the wilderness with its threats in the form of hunger, thirst, and unpredictable enemies, and finally in their audience with God at Mount Sinai/Horeb where the distinctive covenant bonding Israel and God in a special treaty became a reality. Nothing is known about Moses from sources outside the Old Testament. To be sure, the name Moses doubtlessly appears in Egyptian dress in compound names such as Tuthmoses III, but none of these references gives information about the Moses of Israel. ...
The Old Testament describes Moses as a heroic leader of the people and as a man of God who brought the people into their special relationship with God. The story about Moses in the Old Testament, found in the extensive narratives from Exodus 1:1 through Deuteronomy 34:1 , can be described as a heroic saga. It is more than simply a biography of Moses, an historical document that records the events of his life. ...
The artistic narrative begins in Exodus 1:1 , not with data about Moses, but with an account of events in Egypt that affected Moses' people. The very next line announces the birth of Moses. Moses' life began under the Pharoah's judgment of death. ...
The mother, however, acted to protect the baby Moses from the Pharaoh's death decree. As a part of the adoption procedure, the princess named the child Moses. The mature Moses became concerned about the oppression of his people. The storyteller emphasized the identity between the oppressed people and Moses. Moses responded to the particular act of oppression against his people by killing the Egyptian. ...
In the wake of his violent act against the Egyptian taskmaster, Moses fled from Egypt and from his own people to the land of Midian. Sitting at a well, the typical meeting place for the culture (see also Genesis 29:2 ), Moses witnessed the violent aggression of male shepherds against female shepherds who had already drawn water for their sheep. Moses saved the oppressed shepherds, whose father, the priest of Midian, invited him to live and work under the protection of the Midianite's hospitality. Eventually one of the Midianite's daughters became—Moses' wife. In the idyllic peace of the Midianite's hospitality, Moses took care of Jethro's sheep, fathered a child, and lived at a distance from his own people. ...
The event at the burning bush while Moses worked as a shepherd introduced him to the critical character of his heroic work. The burning bush caught Moses' attention. There Moses met the God of the fathers who offered Moses a distinctive name as the essential key for Moses' authority—”I am who I am. ” This strange formulation played on God's promise to Moses to be present with him in his special commission. God sent Moses back to the Pharaoh to secure the release of his people from their oppression. With the authority of that double commission, Moses returned to the Pharaoh to negotiate the freedom of his people. ...
The negotiation narratives depict Moses, the hero, in one scene of failure after the other. Moses posed his demands to the Pharaoh, announced a sign that undergirded the demand, secured some concession from the Pharaoh on the basis of the negotiations, but failed to win the release of the people. The Pharaoh closed negotiations with Moses by refusing permission for the Israelites to leave in accordance with—Moses' proposition (Exodus 10:28 ). In the wake of this failure, Moses returned to the people with a plan for escaping Egypt without the knowledge of the Pharaoh. ...
Moses led the people into the wilderness, where the pursuing Egyptians trapped the Israelites at the Red Sea. Even the fiery serpents and the Amalekites failed to thwart the wilderness journey of the Israelites under Moses' leadership. ...
Exodus 17:8-13 shows Moses to be faithful in the execution of his leadership responsibilities. Numbers 12:1-16 shows Moses to be meek, a leader of integrity who fulfilled the duties of his office despite opposition from members of his own family. ...
The center of the Moses traditions emerges with clarity in the events at Mount Sinai/Horeb. The law at Sinai/Horeb showed each new generation how to follow Moses' teaching in a new setting in the life of the people. The laws carried the name of Moses as an affirmation of their authority. The law of Moses became a model for Israelite society. Indeed, Israel's historians told the entire story of Israel under the influence of the Moses model and suggested that the Davidic kings should have constructed their leadership for Israel under the influence of the Moses model (Joshua—Kings). ...
The death of Moses is marked by tragic loneliness, yet graced with God's presence. Because of Moses' sin (Numbers 20:1 ), God denied Moses the privilege of entering the Promised Land. Central to the report is the presence of God with Moses at the time of his death. Moses left his people to climb another mountain. Atop that mountain, away from the people whom he served so long, Moses died. ...
The Moses saga serves as a model for subsequent leaders in Israel. As the new Moses, he almost succeeded in uniting the people of the south with the people of the north. Perhaps the most important Old testament figure that must be interpreted as a new Moses is the servant of the Isaiah 40-66 , the model for understanding Jesus in the New Testament
Hobab - ” Father-in-law of Moses (Numbers 10:29 ; Judges 4:11 ). Some uncertainty exists concerning the identity of Moses' father-in-law. Some say different groups within Israel handed down the story of Moses in oral tradition with different names for his father-in-law. Others say Reuel and Jethro were different names for the same person, while Hobab was the son of Reuel or Raguel (Numbers 10:29 ) and thus the brother-in-law of Moses. ” Moses urged Hobab to accompany the Israelites through the wilderness as a guide. See Moses ; Jethro ; Reuel
Seventy elders - Appointed by Moses, at G-d�s behest, to assist him in leading the Israelites. Moses conferred upon them from the divine spirit that he was blessed with
Zipporah - (a) Daughter of Jethro; Moses’ wife. Stayed behind in Midian with their two sons while Moses went to Egypt to liberate the Israelites. Moses separated from her after the Giving of the Torah, so to always be available and ready to communicate with G-d
Zipporah - Reuel's daughter, who became the wife of Moses (Exodus 2:21 ). In consequence of the event recorded in Exodus 4:24-26 , she and her two sons, Gershom and Eliezer, when so far on the way with Moses toward Egypt, were sent back by him to her own kinsfolk, the Midianites, with whom they sojourned till Moses afterwards joined them (18:2-6)
Halacha lemoshe misinai - "the law of Moses from Sinai"); a halachic tradition whose source is not from a verse or from an interpretation of a verse, but rather was transmitted orally by G-d to Moses...
Ethiopian Woman - The wife of Moses (Numbers 12:1 ). It is supposed that Zipporah, Moses' first wife (Exodus 2:21 ), was now dead
Korah - First cousin of Moses and Aaron. Led a revolt against Moses and Aaron, claiming that the priesthood should not belong exclusively to Aaron and his descendants
Joshua - (a) (1355-1245 BCE) Devoted student of Moses -- “didn’t budge from Moses’ tent. Succeeded Moses as leader of the Israelites and led the nation into Canaan
Mount Sinai - The "mountain of God" (Exodus 3) situated in the desert of Sinai between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah, on which the Law was given to Moses (Exodus 31). God appeared to Moses at Horeb, from a burning bush, and told him He wouid deliver the Israelites from the Egyptians (Exodus 3); after the Exodus, Moses smote water from a rock in Horeb (Exodus 17). Mount Sinai, however, is most famous as the places where Moses recieived the tablets of the Law and spent 40 days and 40 nights with God (Exodus 19)
Sinai, Mount - The "mountain of God" (Exodus 3) situated in the desert of Sinai between the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Akabah, on which the Law was given to Moses (Exodus 31). God appeared to Moses at Horeb, from a burning bush, and told him He wouid deliver the Israelites from the Egyptians (Exodus 3); after the Exodus, Moses smote water from a rock in Horeb (Exodus 17). Mount Sinai, however, is most famous as the places where Moses recieived the tablets of the Law and spent 40 days and 40 nights with God (Exodus 19)
Old Time - The Lord referred to what was said to 'the ancients' by Moses. ) Moses had been proclaimed 'from old time' in the synagogues
Gershom - A stranger there, one of the two sons of Moses and Zipporah, in the land of Midian, Exodus 2:22 ; 18:3 . Moses appears to have given them no rank or emoluments but those of simple Levites, 1 Chronicles 23:15
Law of Moses - See Law, Moses
Aaron - From the time Moses set out to free Israel from Egypt, Aaron his brother played an important part in the young nation’s development. ...
Early developments...
Although Aaron was three years older than Moses (Exodus 7:7), he willingly accepted Moses’ supreme leadership of the nation. He became Moses’ chief spokesman and personal assistant (Exodus 4:10-16; Exodus 4:29-30; Exodus 7:1-2; Exodus 7:10; Exodus 7:19; Exodus 8:5; Exodus 8:17; Exodus 8:25). As Moses grew in confidence, he became less dependent upon Aaron in his public activities (Exodus 9:13; Exodus 9:22; Exodus 9:33). Aaron, however, continued to support Moses, especially in prayer (Exodus 17:12). ...
Aaron was one of the privileged few who went with Moses up on to the mountain of God. He was also one of those to whom Moses entrusted the leadership of Israel during his absence (Exodus 24:1-2; Exodus 24:9; Exodus 24:14). When Moses challenged the faithful to fight against this idolatry, the men of the tribe of Levi responded. ...
Levi was the tribe to which Moses and Aaron belonged (Exodus 6:16-20). God had already told Moses that in the new religious order, Aaron and his sons were to be the priests, with Aaron the high priest (Exodus 28:1-4). On another occasion, he and his sister Miriam showed some jealousy against Moses because of Moses’ supreme position in Israel. ...
Just as Aaron had been jealous of Moses’ position as supreme leader, so other Levites grew jealous of Aaron’s position as high priest (Numbers 16:1-11). ...
Moses and Aaron were guilty of disobedience to God when, in anger at the people’s constant complaining, they struck the rock at Meribah
Zipporah - Daughter of Reuel, or Jethro, and wife of Moses. Apparently she circumcised her second son, and declared that Moses was 'a husband of blood' to her. She had been sent back during the tribulation and deliverance of Israel, and then was brought by Jethro with her two sons to Moses
Eldad - One of the seventy elders appointed to assist Moses in the government of the people. On one occasion he and another named Medad were not present with Moses and the rest of the elders at the door of the Tabernacle to hear God’s message and receive His spirit. Joshua regarded this as an irregularity, but Moses declined to interfere ( Numbers 11:26-29 )
Five books of moses - The: The first five books of the Tanach, dictated by G-d and transcribed by Moses during the Israelites� journey through the desert. These books � Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy � chronicle events from Creation until Moses' passing and contain the 613 mitzvot
Moses, Law of - See Law of Moses
Miriam - Sister of Moses and Aaron and the daughter of Jochebed and Amram. Miriam played a key role in the rescue of Moses (Exodus 2:4-8 ) and in the subsequent experience of the Exodus and the wilderness community. ...
At Hazeroth, Miriam sided with Aaron in an act of rebellion against Moses when he married an Ethiopian woman (Numbers 12:1-15 ). Beneath her disapproval of Moses' choice of a wife lay a deeper problem of ambition and insubordination. Consequently, God reminded her of Moses' divinely appointed leadership and chastened her with leprosy. She was healed following Moses' intercessory prayer and a seven-day quarantine (Numbers 12:15 )
Miriam - Sister of Aaron and Moses: she is emphatically called 'Miriam the prophetess. ' She was probably the sister who watched the ark in which her brother Moses was laid. In after years she headed the procession of women, when, with timbrels and dances, they answered the song of Moses, on their deliverance out of Egypt and through the Red Sea. With Aaron she took the lead in murmuring against Moses, on the plea that he had married an Ethiopian woman. Moses was very meek, but the Lord did not allow His servant, who was faithful in all God's house, and to whom He spake mouth to mouth, to be spoken against. Aaron humbled himself and confessed their sin, and Moses prayed for the restoration of Miriam
Deuteronomy - Deuteronomy (deû'ter-ŏn'o-my), or the Second Law (so called from its repeating the law), is the fifth book of the Bible, and, except the last chapter, was probably written by Moses. This book contains three addresses of Moses to the Israelites in the plain of Moab in the 11th month of the 40th year of their journeyings. The third part of Deuteronomy 27:1 to Deuteronomy 30:20, opens with the joint command of Moses and the elders to keep all the commandments, and, when they had crossed the Jordan, to write them upon the great plastered stones they were ordered to set up with appropriate ceremonies. " After these three addresses, in chapter 31 there follows the delivery of the law to Joshua and Moses' speech on the occasion, containing a command to read the law every seven years. In Deuteronomy 32:1-52 we have the song of Moses; in chapter 33 Moses' blessing of the twelve tribes. These were the last written words of Moses, and most beautifully do they set forth the majesty of God and the excellency of Israel. The final verses of the book give an account of the death of Moses, and were, of course, written by another hand
Miriam - sister of Moses and Aaron, and daughter of Amram and Jochebed, was born about A. She might be ten or twelve years old when her brother Moses was exposed on the banks of the Nile, since Miriam was watching there, and offered herself to Pharaoh's daughter to fetch her a nurse. The princess accepting the offer, Miriam fetched her own mother, to whom the young Moses was given to nurse, Exodus 2:4-5 , &c. Miriam had the gift of prophecy, as she intimates, Numbers 12:2 : "Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" After the passage of the Red Sea, Miriam led the choirs and dances of the women, and sung with them the canticle, "Sing ye to the Lord, for he hath triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the sea:" while Moses led the choir of men, Exodus 15:21 . When Zipporah, the wife of Moses, arrived in the camp of Israel, Miriam and Aaron disputed with her, speaking against Moses on her account, Numbers 12. Aaron interceded with Moses for her recovery, and besought the Lord, who ordered her to be shut out of the camp seven days
el'Dad - (favored of God ) and Me'dad ( love ), two of the seventy elders to whom was communicated the prophetic power of Moses. ) Although their names were upon the last which Moses had drawn up, (Numbers 11:26 ) they did not repair with the rest of their brethren to the tabernacle, but continued to prophesy in the camp. Moses, being requested by Joshua to forbid this, refused to do so, and expressed a wish that the gift of prophecy might be diffused throughout the people
Pentateuch - The five books of Moses
Daughters of zelophehad - These righteous women approached Moses, requesting to receive their father�s portion in the Land of Canaan. G-d instructed Moses to comply with said request
Ethio'Pian Woman - The wife of Moses is to described in (Numbers 12:1 ) She is elsewhere said to have been the daughter of a Midianite, and in consequence of this some have supposed that the allusion is to another wife whom Moses married after the death of Zipporah
Rephidim - Place near Horeb, where the Israelites encamped; water gushed from the rock when Moses had smitten it, and there Joshua fought with Amalek, while Moses lifted up his hands to heaven, assisted by Aaron and Hur
Miriam - The sister of Moses and Aaron, probably older than either. It was she who watched Moses in the ark of bulrushes ( Exodus 2:4 ff. In the course of the wilderness wanderings she combined with Aaron against Moses, and was punished by leprosy, which was healed in answer to the prayer of Moses ( Numbers 12:1-15 ). Her story is referred to in Deuteronomy 24:8-9 in connexion with the ceremonial law of leprosy, and in Micah 6:4 she is spoken of along with Moses and Aaron as a leader of the people
Miriam - Sister of Aaron and Moses, oldest child of Amram and Jochebed. At least 12 or 13 at Moses' birth, for she is called (Exodus 2:8) "the maid," halmah , implying one of marriageable age. Aaron being three years older than Moses was nine years younger than her. In Micah 6:4 God mentions among benefits conferred on Israel, "I sent before thee Moses, Aaron, and Miriam," Miriam as the leader of and pattern to Israel's women. ...
Her prophetic gift was perverted into a ground of jealousy of Moses, whose foreign Ethiopian wife, just espoused, to Miriam's disappointment had supplanted her from the influence which she had with Moses after Zipporah's death. "Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married (Numbers 12) . Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? Hath He not spoken also by us?" But the phrase "sister of Aaron" (a phrase not likely to have been applied to Miriam by a later writer than Moses) marks her as ranking, not with Moses but with Aaron, and like him subordinate to Moses, the mediator of the Old Testament, and standing to Aaron "instead of God" (Exodus 4:16). God's reply implies that, though receiving prophetical revelations, she did not receive them "mouth to mouth apparently" and immediately as Moses, who "beheld the similitude of the Lord," whereas she and others saw only in a "vision" or "dream. Aaron interceded with Moses piteously for her: "let her not be as one dead, of whom the flesh is half consumed when he cometh out of his mother's womb. " So Moses interceded with God: "heal her now, O God, I beseech Thee
Chaos - Moses, the earliest of all writers, derives the origin of this world from a confusion of matter, dark, void, deep, without form, which he calls TOHUBOHU; which is precisely the chaos of the Greek and barbarian philosophers. Moses goes no farther than the chaos, nor tells us whence its confused state; and where Moses stops, there precisely do all the rest
Zipporah - ” Moses' first wife (some believe the woman named in Numbers 12:1 may be a reference to Zipporah, too) and mother of his children, Gershom and Eliezer ( Exodus 2:21-22 ; Exodus 18:4 ). She saved Moses' life when the Lord sought to kill him by circumcising Gershom (Exodus 4:24-25 ). It appears that Zipporah stayed with her father until Moses had led the people out of Egypt (Exodus 18:2-6 )
Eldad - and Medad were appointed by Moses among the seventy elders of Israel who were to assist in the government. Joshua would have had Moses forbid them, but Moses replied, "Enviest thou for my sake? Would God that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that God would pour forth his Spirit upon them!"...
Numbers 11:24-29
Zipporah - ]'>[1] ), wife of Moses and mother of Gershom. see Moses, p
Chumash - The Pentateuch, the Five Books of Moses
Antemosaic - ) Being before the time of Moses
Deuteronomy - --which means "the repetition of the law" --consists chiefly of three discourses delivered by Moses shortly before his death. Subjoined to these discourses are the Song of Moses the Blessing of Moses, and the story of his death. ...
In the third discourse, (27:1-30) 20 The elders of Israel are associated with Moses. (28:1-14) ...
The delivery of the law as written by Moses (for its still further preservation) to the custody of the Levites, and a charge to the people to hear it read once every seven years, Deuteronomy 31 ; the Song of Moses spoken in the ears of the people, (31:30; 32:44) and the blessing of the twelve tribes. (33:5) The book closes, Deuteronomy 34 , with an account of the death of Moses, which is first announced to him ch. (32:48-52) The book bears witness to its own authorship, (31:19) and is expressly cited in the New Testament as the work of Moses. (Matthew 19:7,8 ; Mark 10:3 ; Acts 3:22 ; 7:37 ) The last chapter, containing an account of the death of Moses, was of course added by a later hand, and probably formed originally the beginning of the book of Joshua
Defend - 1: ἀμύνομαι (Strong's #292 — Verb — amuno — am-oo'-nom-ahee ) "to ward off," is used in the Middle Voice in Acts 7:24 , of the assistance given by Moses to his fellow Israelite against an Egyptian (translated, "defended"). The Middle Voice indicates the special personal interest Moses had in the act
Eldad - One of the 70 to whom the prophetical spirit of Moses was communicated. Joshua therefore begged Moses to forbid them
Joshua - He, not Moses, led the people into the Promised Land. He was a person of such stature that he could succeed the incomparable Moses and compile a record of notable success (Joshua 24:31 ). He was Moses' general, who led the troops in the actual fighting while Aaron and Hur held up Moses' hands (Exodus 17:8-13 ). ...
Joshua was Moses's servant (Exodus 24:13 ). He was on the mountain when Moses received the Law (Exodus 32:17 ). He was also one of the twelve spies Moses sent to investigate Canaan (Numbers 13:8 ). ...
The Lord selected Joshua to be Moses' successor long before Moses' death (Numbers 27:15-23 ; Deuteronomy 31:14-15 ,Deuteronomy 31:14-15,31:23 ; Deuteronomy 34:9 ). Though he did not receive the Law as Moses had, he communicated the Lord's will and the Lord's message much like Moses. See Joshua, The Book of ; Moses
Jannes And Jambres - (jan' neess uhnd jam' breess) Two opposers of Moses and Aaron (2 Timothy 3:8 ). Though the names do not appear in the Old Testament, rabbinic tradition identified Jannes and Jambres as being among those Egyptian magicians who sought to duplicate for Pharaoh the miracles performed by Moses (Exodus 7:11 ). The Jewish tradition makes several mentions of them, but in the end they could not match God's power displayed through Moses
Miriam - The sister of Moses and Aaron, probably the one who watched over Moses in the ark of bulrushes, Exodus 2:4,5 Numbers 26 59 Micah 6 4 . Her jealous murmurs against Moses and his Cushite wife were punished by a temporary leprosy, Numbers 12:1-16 Deuteronomy 24:9 ; but she was forgiven and restored, and near the close of the wandering of Israel, died at Kadwshbarnea, Numbers 20:1
Jochebed - But Jochebed could not be strictly daughter of Levi, for three centuries must have intervened between Levi's death and Moses' birth. In Moses' time the Kohathites, from Kohath Levi's son, were divided into four branches, Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel, amounting to 8,600 males, of whom the Amramites were 2,000. Amram Kohath's son is therefore not Amram Moses' father
Jethro - Father-in-law of Moses. When as a youth, Moses' life was in danger from Pharao, he took flight and went to Madian
Jochebed - A sister of Kohath, married to Amram her nephew, and mother of Aaron and Moses ( Exodus 6:20 ) and Miriam ( Numbers 26:59 ). ]'>[1] , in narrating the birth of Moses, speaks of his mother as a daughter of Levi, but does not give her name ( Exodus 2:1 )
Raguel - Father-in-law of Moses. When as a youth, Moses' life was in danger from Pharao, he took flight and went to Madian
Jethro - Father-in-law of Moses, and a priest of Midian, with whom Moses spent forty years of his life. He brought to Moses his wife and their two sons soon after Israel had left Egypt. He advised Moses to appoint judges for minor cases. This passage says that Raguel, the Midianite, was the father of HOBAB, the father-in-law of Moses (see also Judges 4:11 ), so that in Exodus 2:18 'father' may signify 'grandfather. In Judges 1:16 Moses' father-in-law is called a Kenite, but the exact signification of this term is not known
Premosaic - ) Relating to the time before Moses; as, premosaic history
Jannes - One of the Egyptians who "withstood Moses" (2 Timothy 3:8 )
Moses - Being found there by Pharaoh's daughter he was named by her Moses, signifying 'drawn out,' and adopted as her son, being nursed for her by his own mother. Moses, finding that his deed was known, feared the wrath of the king, and fled from Egypt. ...
God constantly spoke to Moses and gave him instructions in all things. Though Aaron was the elder brother, Moses had the place of leader and apostle. ...
Moses needed such faith, for the murmurings and rebellion of the people were great, and they charged him with causing their trials: why had he brought them out to perish in the wilderness? When God's anger was kindled against them, he pleaded for them. When God spake of consuming all the people, and making a great nation of Moses, he besought God to turn from His anger, urging what a reproach it would be forthe Egyptians to say that He had led them out only to slay them; and he reminded God of what He had sworn to His servants Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. ...
When Miriam and Aaron complained of Moses because he had married an Ethiopian woman, and said, "Hath the Lord indeed spoken only by Moses? hath he not spoken also by us?" it does not appear that Moses rebuked them; but on that very occasion it is recorded, "Now the man Moses was very meek, above all the men which were upon the face of the earth. " God had, however, heard them, and He defended Moses, and declared, He "is faithful in all mine house. ...
When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, and their company rose against Moses and Aaron, 'he fell on his face,' and left the matter in God's hands. God also called Moses up into the mount, dictated to him the law, gave him the ten commandments written on stone by the finger of God, and showed him the pattern of the tabernacle. ...
In one instance Moses failed. Moses took "the rod from before the Lord as he commanded him," and with Aaron said unto the people, "Hear now, ye rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock? And Moses lifted up his hand, and with his rod he smote the rock twice: and the water came out abundantly. " Moses then had to hear the voice of God saying "Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel, therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them. After this Moses besought the Lord saying "I pray thee, let me go over, and see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly mountain, and Lebanon. it is said respecting the body of Moses that Michael, the archangel, contended with the devil about it, the object of Satan probably being to make his tomb to be regarded as a holy place, to which the people would go for blessing, as people do still to the tombs of saints. ...
The law having been given through Moses, his name is often used where the law is alluded to; and Moses is mentioned by the Apostle John when contrasting the dispensations of the law and the gospel: "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ. The fact of the two dispensations being entirely different furnishes the reason why Moses was not allowed to enter into Canaan. That being a type of the heavenly blessings of Christianity, it would not have agreed with Moses, as the dispenser of the law, leading the Israelites into the land: that must be done by JOSHUA, type of Christ risen. Moses had his proper line of service, and was greatly honoured of God. On the mount of transfiguration Moses still represented the law, as Elias did the prophets. ...
That Moses was the writer of the first five books of the O. , called the Pentateuch, there are many proofs in scripture; such as "have ye not read in the book of Moses?" Mark 12:26 ; "If they hear not Moses and the prophets," Luke 16:31 ; Luke 24:27 ; "When Moses is read," 2 Corinthians 3:15 . It is plain, however, from the above and other passages that Moses was the writer of the Pentateuch, which is often called "the law of Moses
Zipporah - (See Moses. ) The Cushite wife mentioned in Numbers 12 as the object of Miriam's jealousy can hardly have been Zipporah who was then long before married to Moses, but probably a second wife taken after Zipporah's death. Zipporah as a Midianitess had delayed the circumcision of her son; her perversity well nigh brought divine vengeance on Moses
Aaron - Brother of Moses and high priest of the Old Law; chosen by Moses to be his spokesman before Pharoah (Exodus 4,7, 8). He caused the casting of the golden calf which the Israelites worshiped in the wilderness (Exodus 32), but at the prayer of Moses he was spared the fate of the three thousand worshipers (Deuteronomy 9)
Hazeroth - ), being displeased that Moses had married a Cushite wife (Numbers 12:1 ), induced Aaron to join with her in rebelling against Moses. God vindicated the authority of his "servant Moses," and Miriam was smitten with leprosy. Moses interceded for her, and she was healed (Numbers 12:4-16 )
Blains - The sixth Egyptian plague, which followed after Moses' sprinkling of the furnace ashes toward heaven; "the botch of Egypt" (Deuteronomy 28:27; Deuteronomy 28:35), black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcerous pustules on the skin. The magicians, whose scrupulous cleanliness is noticed by Herodotus, could not stand before Moses because of the boils (Exodus 9:9-11)
Jethro - Father of Zipporah, father-in-law of Moses. There he suggested the creation of a hierarchy of magistrates and judges to assist Moses in the task of administrating justice
Eldad - Moses' burden of responsibility. Though "they were of them that were written" in Moses' list (implying that the 70 were permanently appointed) they did not go with the rest to the tabernacle, but prophesied in the camp (Numbers 11:26). The context favors KJV When "the (so Hebrew for a) young man" reported it at the tabernacle, and Joshua begged Moses to forbid them, he refused saying, "enviest thou for my sake? Would God that all the Lord's people were prophets," etc. So, Jesus' disciples were jealous for His honor, but were reproved by Moses' Antitype (Mark 9:38-39), For "and did not cease," Numbers 11:25, trans. The Jews' tradition was that all prophetic inspiration emanated from Moses originally. In the sense only that Moses' Pentateuch is the basis of all subsequent prophecy, the psalms and the prophets, it is true. It was "of the Spirit that was upon Moses" that "God gave unto the 70 elders. " The diffusion of the spirit of prophecy, no longer limited to Moses, and its separation from the tabernacle service, led to the establishment of the "schools of the prophets. "...
Moses, like the true "servant" of God (Hebrew 3), not seeking his own but God's glory, and the extension of His kingdom, rejoiced at what provoked the jealousy of his followers. The 70 elders appointed by Jethro's advice at Sinai (Exodus 18) to help Moses in judging are distinct from the 70 here endowed with the Spirit to help hint as his executive court, to govern the rebellious people, and establish his authority, shaken by the people's murmurings against Jehovah and himself because of the want of flesh
Jambres - One of those who opposed Moses in Egypt (2 Timothy 3:8 )
Jethro - "Moses' father-in-law," a shepherd-prince or priest of Midian, 18 18:1-2787 4:1618063920_9 . When the Hebrews were at mount Sinai, he visited Moses, gave him some wise counsel as to the government of the tribes, and then returned to his own people
Aaron - (a) (1397-1273 BCE) Son of Amram and Jochebed, brother of Miriam and Moses. Moses’ partner and spokesman in his mission to free the Israelites from Egypt
Aaron - Aaron had the distinctive privilege of being Moses' close associate and also the one selected as the first high priest of God's people. ...
Aaron, the first priest of ancient Israel, was the older brother of Moses. Two aspects of Aaron's earlier years provided a matrix out of which he responded to God's call to help Moses when he returned to Egypt. Aaron agreed to help his brother Moses in the cause of seeking the release of his people from bondage. He and Moses were Yahweh's human instruments, carrying out Yahweh's mighty, unprecedented salvation-acts. ...
First, he accepted God's call to be Moses' mouthpiece before Pharaoh (Exodus 4:10-17 ; 5:1-13 ; 6:10-13 ; 6:28-7:7 ), a risky assignment. Both he and Moses were to be Yahweh's messengers in a hostile, polytheistic setting. ...
Second, as Moses' prophet (Exodus 7:1 ) he was an important proclaimer of God's word to Pharaoh and the other Egyptians. ...
Third, like Moses he was moved by the Spirit of God and was used to effect miracles a number of times on the way to Sinai. God graciously granted both Moses and Aaron new revelation during Israel's encampment at Sinai. Moses and Aaron were allowed to enter into God's holy presence on Sinai (Exodus 19:24 ; 24:9-10 ). ...
Second, Aaron and Moses were leader-participants in the covenant Yahweh made between himself and the people of Israel. ...
Third, Yahweh delivered specific instructions to Aaron and Moses at Sinai about how they were to lead Israel to become his holy nation and kingdom of priests. Aaron was directly responsible for a grave offense against God when Moses was on Mount Sinai receiving the written law of Israel (Exodus 32:1-10 )
mo'Ses - The immediate pedigree of Moses is as follows: Levi was the father of: Gershon -- Kohath -- Merari Kohath was the father of: Amram = Jochebed Amram = Jochebed was the father of: Hur = Miriam -- Aaron = Elisheba -- Moses = Zipporah Aaron = Elisheba was the father of: Nadab -- Abihu -- Eleazar -- Ithamar Eleazar was the father of: Phineas Moses = Zipporah was the father of: Gershom -- Eliezer Gershom was the father of: Jonathan The history of Moses naturally divides itself into three periods of 40 years each. Moses was born at Goshen, In Egypt, B. here was the first part of Moses' training, --a training at home in the true religion, in faith in God, in the promises to his nation, in the life of a saint, --a training which he never forgot, even amid the splendors and gilded sin of Pharaoh's court. From this time for many years Moses must be considered as an Egyptian. " ( Acts 7:22 ) this was the second part of Moses' training. The second period of Moses' life began when he was forty years old. Seeing the sufferings of his people, Moses determined to go to them as their helper, and made his great life-choice, "choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season; esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasures in Egypt. But the people soon showed themselves unfitted as yet to obtain their freedom, nor was Moses yet fitted to be their leader. Moses, who up to this time had been "an Egyptian," (Exodus 2:19 ) now became for a time an Arabian. (Exodus 2:21 ; 3:1 ) Here for forty years Moses communed with God and with nature, escaping from the false ideas taught him in Egypt, and sifting out the truths that were there. Now begins the third period of forty years in Moses' life. From this time the history of Moses is the history of Israel for the next forty years. Aaron spoke and acted for Moses, and was the permanent inheritor of the sacred staff of power. But Moses was the inspiring soul behind. By Moses the spies were sent to explore the country. The narrative is told so briefly that we are in danger of forgetting that at this last stage of his life Moses must have been as much a conqueror and victorious soldier as was Joshua. " ( Numbers 11:25-27 ) But Moses rose high above all these. There is another form of Moses' prophetic gift, viz. These poetical utterances are -- "The song which Moses and the children of Israel sung" (after the passage of the Red Sea). (Numbers 21:16,17,18 ) The song of Moses, (32:1-43) setting forth the greatness and the failings of Israel. The blessing of Moses on the tribes, (33:1-29) The 90th Psalm, "A prayer of Moses, the man of God. --The prophetic office of Moses can only be fully considered in connection with his whole character and appearance. (1:3,5) Moses is described as 120 years of age, but with his sight and his freshness of strength unabated. "So Moses the servant of Jehovah died there in the land of Moab, according to the word of Jehovah. And the children of Israel wept for Moses in the plains of Moab thirty days. (This burial was thus hidden probably -- (1) To preserve his grave from idolatrous worship or superstitious reverence; and (2) Because it may be that God did not intend to leave his body to corruption, but to prepare it, as he did the body of Elijah, so that Moses could in his spiritual body meet Christ, together with Elijah, on the mount of transfiguration. ) Moses is spoken of as a likeness of Christ; and as this is a point of view which has been almost lost in the Church, compared with the more familiar comparisons of Christ to Adam, David, Joshua, and yet has as firm a basis in fact as any of them, it may be well to draw it out in detail. (1) Moses is, as it would seem, the only character of the Old Testament to whom Christ expressly likens himself: "Moses wrote of me. " (John 5:46 ) It suggests three main points of likeness: (a) Christ was, like Moses, the great prophet of the people --the last, as Moses was the first. (b) Christ, like Moses, is a lawgiver: "Him shall ye hear. " (c) Christ, like Moses, was a prophet out of the midst of the nation, "from their brethren. " As Moses was the entire representative of his people, feeling for them more than for himself, absorbed in their interests, hopes and fears, so, with reverence be it said, was Christ. (2) In (Hebrews 3:1-19 ; 12:24-29 ; Acts 7:37 ) Christ is described, though more obscurely, as the Moses of the new dispensation --as the apostle or messenger or mediator of God to the people --as the controller and leader of the flock or household of God. (Acts 7:24-28 ; 35 ) In (Jude 1:9 ) is an allusion to an altercation between Michael and Satan over the body of Moses. It probably refers to a lost apocryphal book, mentioned by Origen, called the "Ascension" or "Assumption of Moses. " Respecting the books of Moses, see PENTATEUCH
Jannes And Jambres - "Withstood Moses" (2 Timothy 3:8-9). They could "proceed no further," though for a time they simulated Moses' miracles (Exodus 7:11). At last "their folly was manifested unto all," when not only could they no longer rival Moses and send boils but were themselves smitten with boils. 30:1) makes Moses, Jamnes, and Jotape, heads of magic factions
Pharaoh Pharaohis Daughter - In biblical history several Pharaohs are met with, especially in connexion with Abraham, Joseph, and Moses. Stephen proves God’s care for Joseph and Moses by the confidence Pharaoh placed in the former, and the protection given to the latter by the daughter of the reigning king. The writer of Hebrews (Hebrews 11:24) finds in the story of Moses who ‘refused to become the son of Pharaoh’s daughter’ an outstanding instance of faith refusing this world’s glory for the better part. ‘Just as the career of Moses exhibits the Divine mercy, so the career of Pharaoh exhibits the Divine severity, and in both cases the absolute sovereignty of God is vindicated’ (Sanday-Headlam, ICC_, ‘Romans’5, Edinburgh, 1902, on 9:17)
Deuteronomy - ) The fifth book of the Pentateuch, containing the second giving of the law by Moses
Raguel - Prince priest of Midian; father of Zipporah, Moses' wife, and of Jethro and Hobab. The older tradition, and the insecurity from Egyptian power which Moses would have been exposed to in the W
Miriam - The sister of Moses and Aaron, and daughter of Amram. She was older than Moses, for she watched over him when placed in the ark on the river, and it is probable that she was older than Aaron
Zipporah - Daughter of Jethro, wife of Moses, and mother of Eliezer and Gershom. When Moses fled from Egypt into Midian, and there stood up in defense of the daughters of Jethro, priest or prince of Midian, against shepherds who would have hindered them form watering their flocks, Jethro took him into his house, and gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage, Exodus 2:15-22 ; 4:25 ; 18:2-4
Burning Bush - In Exodus 3:2 , Moses' attention was arrested by the sight of a bush that burned without being consumed by the fire. It appears to have had significance primarily, perhaps solely, as a means of attracting Moses' interest and so enabling him to hear the divine word. See Moses ; Exodus
Reba - One of the five kinglets of Midian slain by Moses ( Numbers 31:8 , Joshua 13:21 )
Hobab - Son of Jethro, and brother-in-law to Moses, His name signifies, beloved, from Chabab, to love
Raaya mehemna - �the faithful shepherd,� alluding to Moses); the title of one of the parts of the Zohar...
Ziph'Ran - (fragrance ), appoint in the north boundary of the promised land as specified by Moses
Aaron - (awehr' uhn) Moses' brother; Israel's first high priest. We do not know what Aaron did during Moses' forty-year exile from Egypt, but he maintained the faith, kept contact with Israel's leaders, and did not forget his brother (Exodus 4:27-31 ). Ready of speech, he served nobly as Moses' spokesman before Pharaoh. More than once he stretched out Moses' staff to bring God's plagues on the land (Exodus 7:9 ,Exodus 7:9,7:19 ). In the wilderness Aaron and Hur helped Moses hold up the staff, the symbol of God's power, so that Israel would prevail over Amalek (Exodus 17:12 ). ...
At Sinai, Aaron and his two older sons, Nadab and Abihu, were called to go up the mountain with Moses and seventy elders (Exodus 24:9 ). As Moses and Joshua went farther up, Moses left Aaron and Hur in charge (Exodus 24:14 ). But as Moses delayed on the mountain, the people asked Aaron for action. The Levites, the tribe of Moses and Aaron, rallied to Moses and were blessed accordingly (Exodus 32:26-29 ). In Numbers 12:1 he and Miriam spoke against Moses' marriage to the Cushite (Ethiopian) woman. When Korah, Dathan, and Abiram opposed Moses and Aaron, Aaron's intercession stopped the plague (Numbers 16:1 ). When the people cried for water at Kadesh in the desert of Zin, Aaron joined in Moses' sin as they seized the power of the Lord for themselves (Numbers 20:7-13 ). In consequence, Aaron, like Moses, was not to enter the Promised Land. Nearby on the border of Edom after forty years of his priesthood, Moses took Aaron up mount Hor, transferred his garments to his son, Eleazar, and Aaron died there at the age of 123 years (Numbers 20:23-28 ). Israel mourned for their first high priest thirty days (Numbers 20:29 ), as they soon would mourn for Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8 )
Rehabiah - Enlargement of the Lord, the son of Eliezer, and grandson of Moses (1 Chronicles 23:17 ; 24:21 )
Rabbeinu - �our teacher�); the title appended to the name of Moses and subsequently other Jewish leaders in history...
Kite - A bird of prey, and therefore placed by Moses among the unclean birds, Leviticus 11:14
Gad'di - (fortunate ), son of Susi; the Manassite spy sent by Moses to explore Canaan
Jochebed - Wife and aunt of Amram, and mother of Aaron, Moses, and Miriam
Eldad - ” Along with Medad, he was one of seventy elders of Israel God selected to help Moses, but the two did not meet at the tabernacle with the others. Joshua attempted to stop them, but Moses prayed that all God's people might have the Spirit (Numbers 11:16-29 )
Tora - ) The Pentateuch or "Law of Moses
Mosaism - ) Attachment to the system or doctrines of Moses; that which is peculiar to the Mosaic system or doctrines
Numbers - The third Book of Moses, so called from containing the numbers of the Israelites after coming out of Egypt
Dathan - One of the rebels, in company with Korah, against the authority of Moses, and Aaron, Numbers 16:1-50
Rehabiah - Son of Eliezer, a son of Moses
Aaron - We first read of him when Moses was excusing himself from being sent to deliver Israel from Egypt because he was 'slow of speech. Aaron accompanied Moses in his interviews with Pharaoh, and with his rod some of the miraculous plagues were called forth. He with Hur held up the hands of Moses on the Mount when Israel fought with Amalek. Aaron with his two sons Nadab and Abihu with seventy of the elders, went with Moses into the mount where "they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness. When Moses retired higher into the mount, he left Israel in charge of Aaron and Hur. ...
* Moses was with God — Aaron with the people. The stability of Moses was dependent upon the fact, that he was sustained by sovereign grace in communion with the thoughts of God: while Aaron below fell in with the thoughts of the people. ...
He was thus engaged while God was directing Moses respecting the tabernacle and its offerings, and declaring that Aaron and his sons were to be the appointed priests. ...
Aaron with Miriam (priest and prophetess) spake against Moses, with whom as mediator God had established His covenant for Israel in sovereign mercy, Exodus 34:27 ; and to whom God spake 'mouth to mouth' at that time. Aaron also sinned with Moses at the waters of Meribah, and was not allowed to enter the promised land
Helon - ” Father of the leader of the tribe of Zebulun under Moses (Numbers 1:9 )
Ahram - The father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses
Amram - A Levite; father of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Exodus 6:18-20)
Tanach - , the Five Books of Moses), Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (the “Writings”; the Hagiographa)
Jochebed - The mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses
Batyah - Daughter of Pharaoh, saved Baby Moses when she saw him floating in the Nile and raised him as her own
Moses - ...
All that is known about Moses is found in the Bible. But his existence cannot be disproved, either, since other prominent Old Testament figures have neither names nor monuments, as, for example, the Pharaoh with whom Moses contended, and the Egyptian princess who rescued the infant Moses from the Nile. ...
Moses is so strongly interwoven with the religious tradition involving God's plan for human salvation through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and ultimately the Davidic Messiah, and attested to as an authoritative figure for Hebrew culture even in the New Testament period, that he could not possibly have been an invention or a fictional character used as an object of religious or social propaganda. ...
Perhaps out of deference to his stature there was nobody else in the Old Testament named Moses. "...
The Book of Exodus divides Moses' life into three periods of forty years each. The Scriptures indicate that two-thirds of Moses' life served as a preparation for the crucial final third, which was so important for the divine plan of salvation. Accordingly we will focus on Moses' ministry as a mediator and teacher of God's revealed Word, since theology was henceforth to be the basis of Israelite life (Exodus 19:6 ). ...
While Moses may have learned about his ancestral God from Jethro, his father-in-law, the "priest of Midian" (Exodus 3:1 ), his first encounter with the Lord is at Mount Horeb, where he observes a bush burning with fire, and hears God's announcement that he is the God of Moses' ancestors. Moses is given a commission to return to Egypt and lead out the captive Hebrew people. " Moses is to say to the Hebrews that "I am" had sent him, and this name is to empower all subsequent pronouncements. Nevertheless, this mysterious Name and its power sustain Moses as he struggles with Pharaoh for the liberation of the Hebrew slaves. ...
Dramatic though the crossing of the Re(e)d Sea is for the destiny of the Hebrews, the peak of Moses' career is attained on Mount Sinai, when God appears to him and delivers the celebrated Ten Commandments as the basis of Israel's covenant law. Moses Acts on behalf of God at the covenant ratification ceremony (Exodus 24:6-8 ) and thereafter is the recipient of instructions concerning the building of a sacred national shrine known as the tabernacle. ...
During the wilderness period Moses receives from God other laws dealing with sacrifices and offerings, rules governing social behavior, prohibitions against idolatry and immorality, and positive promises of God's blessings upon the Israelites, provided always that they keep the covenant obligations that they had assumed under oath. ...
From what has been said already it will be clear that Israelite life under Moses and his successors was grounded upon divine revelation and its accompanying theology. In mediating this theology and setting an example of it in his own life of dedication to God and fellowship with him, Moses serves as the exemplar of spirituality for all Israel to observe. ...
In dealing with the chosen people, Moses periodically Acts as an intercessor with God, so as to avert divine displeasure with Israel (Exodus 33:12-16 ; Numbers 12:13 ). So effective is he in this function that God promises to raise up other prophets after his death who will also serve as spokespersons (Deuteronomy 18:15-18 ), thus indicating that God regards Moses as the standard by which his successors will be judged. ...
Yet despite his deeply spiritual life and his sense of commitment to covenantal ideals, Moses is still a human being. ...
In New Testament times the law of Moses constituted the standard of faith and conduct for the Christian church, which was commanded to observe Old Testament obligations of holiness (1 Peter 1:16 ). At the transfiguration of Christ, Moses appears with Elijah and converses with Jesus, signifying the harmony of law, prophecy, and the gospel (Mark 9:4 ). The sermon of Stephen before the Sanhedrin quotes Moses several times (Acts 7:20-44 ). Moses is referred to authoritatively in the Epistles, and is celebrated as a man who lived by faith (Hebrews 11:23-29 ). In Revelation, the victorious saints chant the song of Moses (Exodus 15:1-19 ). Allis, God Spake by Moses ; M. Buber, Moses ; R. Meyer, Moses the Servant of God
Aaron - (a teacher, or lofty ), the son of Amram and Jochebed, and the older brother of Moses and Miriam. ) He was a Levite, and is first mentioned in (Exodus 4:14 ) He was appointed by Jehovah to be the interpreter, (Exodus 4:16 ) of his brother Moses, who was "slow of speech;" and accordingly he was not only the organ of communication with the Israelites and with Pharaoh, (Exodus 4:30 ; 7:2 ) but also the actual instrument of working most of the miracles of the Exodus. On the way to Mount Sinai, during the battle with Amalek, Aaron with Hur stayed up the weary hands of Moses when they were lifted up for the victory of Israel. Left, on Moses' departure into Sinai, to guide the people, Aaron is tried for a moment on his own responsibility, and he fails from a weak inability to withstand the demand of the people for visible "gods to go before them," by making an image of Jehovah, in the well-known form of Egyptian idolatry (Apis or Mnevis). He repented of his sin, and Moses gained forgiveness for him. (9:20) Aaron was not consecrated by Moses to the new office of the high priesthood. Leaning, as he seems to have done, wholly on Moses, it is not strange that he should have shared his sin at Meribah and its punishment. See Moses
Amramites - Branch of the Kohathite family, descended from Amram, father of Aaron, Moses and Miriam
Jan'Nes - and Jam'bres , the names of two Egyptian magicians who opposed Moses
Golden calf - The: the idol made by the Jews when it appeared to them that Moses would not be coming down from Mount Sinai ...
Gaddi - Fortunate, the representative of the tribe of Manasseh among the twelve "spies" sent by Moses to spy the land (Numbers 13:11 )
Ahiezer - Hereditary prince captain of Dan under Moses (Numbers 1:12; Numbers 2:25; Numbers 7:66)
Decalogue - ) The Ten Commandments or precepts given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, and originally written on two tables of stone
Bithiah - (Pharaoh's Daughter): Daughter of Pharaoh, saved Baby Moses when she saw him floating in the Nile and raised him as her own
Amram - Grandson of Levi; husband of Jochebed; father of Miriam, Aaron and Moses
Jethro - ” In Exodus 3:1 , a priest of Midian and the father-in-law of Moses. Some variation exists in the Bible regarding the name of Moses' father-in-law. See Moses ; Yahweh
Gershom - ...
...
The elder of the two sons of Moses born to him in Midian (Exodus 2:22 ; 18:3 ). On his way to Egypt with his family, in obedience to the command of the Lord, Moses was attacked by a sudden and dangerous illness (4:24-26), which Zipporah his wife believed to have been sent because he had neglected to circumcise his son. ...
...
The son of Manasseh (Judges 18:30 ), in RSV "of Moses
Hoglah - Partridge, one of the daughters of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to whom portions were assigned by Moses (Numbers 26:33 ; 27:1 ; 36:11 )
Raguel - ), Exodus 2:18 , the father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro (q
Pisgah - This place is rendered memorable from Moses
Isshiah - Son of Rehabiah, a grandson of Moses
Ferret - The Hebrew word means rather a species of lizard, the gecko, which Moses forbids as unclean
Rehabi'ah - (enlarged by Jehovah ), the only son of Eliezer the son of Moses
Moses - Moses...
1. ]'>[3] Moses killed an Egyptian, and rebuked one of two Israelites who were striving together, and then he fled to Midian. ]'>[4] ’s bidding Moses returned. ]'>[4] smote him because he had not been circumcised before marriage; but Zipporah saved him by circumcising the child, and thus circumcising Moses by proxy ( Exodus 4:19 ; Exodus 4:24-26 . ]'>[4] appeared in the burning bush and spoke to Moses. Moses was to gather the elders, give them J″ [2] ’s story of Massah are preserved ( Exodus 17:3 ; Exodus 17:2 c, Exodus 17:7 a, c), and parts of the account of the visit of Moses’ father-in-law, which it is difficult to separate from E [4] descended, and Moses ‘invoked the name of J″ [4] having been propitiated, Israel left the mountain, and Moses asked Hobah to accompany them ( Numbers 10:29-36 ). Moses sent spies through the S. Moses promised that Hebron should be Caleb’s possession ( Joshua 14:8-14 ). Israel sinned with the Moabite women, and Moses hanged the chiefs ( Numbers 25:1 b, Numbers 25:2-3 b, Numbers 25:4 ). Moses viewed the land from the top of Pisgah, and was buried in Moab (parts of Deuteronomy 34:1-6 ). Moses’ birth; his discovery and adoption by Pharaoh’s daughter ( Exodus 2:1-10 ). Moses was feeding Jethro’s sheep in Midian, when God called to him from a bush at Horeb, and told him to deliver Israel. Moses returned to Egypt, meeting Aaron on the way; they made their demand to Pharaoh, and were refused ( Exodus 4:17 f. Moses, by means of his Divinely given staff, brought plagues the turning of the river to blood ( Exodus 7:16-17 b, Exodus 7:20 b, Exodus 7:23 ), the hail ( Exodus 9:22-23 a, Zenas - A believer and a 'lawyer' (probably one skilled in the law of Moses), whom Titus was to help on his journey
Rehabiah - A grandson of Moses, and the only son of Eliezer; his numerous posterity are mentioned as betokening the divine favor, 1 Chronicles 23:17
ho'Bab - This name is found in two places only ( Numbers 10:29 ; Judges 4:11 ) Hobab was brother-in-law to Moses
Pen'Tateuch, the, - is the Greek name given to the five books commonly called the "five books of Moses. In the time of Ezra and Nehemiah it was called "the law of Moses," (Ezra 7:6 ) or "the book of the law of Moses," (Nehemiah 8:1 ) or simply "the book of Moses. The book which was discovered the temple in the reign of Josiah, and which is entitled, (2 Chronicles 34:14 ) "a book of the law of Jehovah by the hand of Moses," was substantially, it would seem the same volume, though it may afterward have undergone some revision by Ezra. "the Law," or Torath Mosheh "the Law of Moses. The work, beginning with the record of creation end the history of the primitive world, passes on to deal more especially with the early history of the Jewish family, and finally concludes with Moses' last discourses and his death. Till the middle of the last century it was the general opinion of both Jews and Christians that the whole of the Pentateuch was written by Moses, with the exception of a few manifestly later additions,--such as the, 34th chapter of Deuteronomy, which gives the account of Moses death. [1] Besides these two principal documents, he supposed Moses to have made use of ten others in the composition of the earlier part of his work. It is sufficient here to state that there is evidence satisfactory that the main bulk of the Pentateuch, at any rate, was written by Moses, though the probably availed himself of existing documents in the composition of the earlier part of the work. To briefly sum up the results of our inquiry --
The book of Genesis rests chiefly on documents much earlier than the time of Moses though it was probably brought to very nearly its, present shape either by Moses himself or by one of the elders who acted under him. ...
Deuteronomy, excepting the concluding part, is entirely the work of Moses as it professes to be
Joshua the Son of Nun - Like Moses, Joshua was born and brought up in Egypt. He became Moses’ chief assistant on the journey from Egypt to Canaan and, when Moses died, became Israel’s new leader and led the people into Canaan. ...
Assistant to Moses...
Joshua’s leadership qualities became evident soon after the Israelites left Egypt. When some raiding Amalekites attacked the Israelite procession, Moses hurriedly appointed Joshua to form and command a fighting force. ...
As Moses’ chief assistant, Joshua kept watch when Moses entered God’s presence on Mt Sinai (Exodus 24:13) and when Moses spoke face to face with God in his tent (Exodus 33:11). Joshua was so loyal to Moses that he wanted Moses to silence two men who prophesied, lest people listen to them and ignore Moses (Numbers 11:26-29). ...
When Moses sent representatives from the twelve tribes to spy out Canaan, Joshua was the representative from the tribe of Ephraim. ...
Conqueror of Canaan...
Forty years later, when the new generation was ready to enter Canaan, Moses appointed Joshua as his divinely chosen successor (Numbers 27:18-22; Deuteronomy 31:14; Deuteronomy 34:9). After Moses’ death, God gave Joshua special encouragement for the tasks ahead (Joshua 1:5-9)
Moses - Just as, in the Synagogue, the Law (the Torah), was accounted the most important division of the Canon, and as Holy Scripture in its entirety might thus a parte potiori be designated the ‘Law’ (ὁ νόμος, the tôrâh), so in the primitive Church Moses was regarded as the supreme figure of the OT. Moses as the author of the Pentateuch. -Moses was honoured as the author of the ‘Law,’ i. the Pentateuch: Romans 10:5 (‘Moses writeth’); cf. His name had become so closely identified with the books of the Torah that we even find it said, ‘Moses is read’ (Acts 15:21, 2 Corinthians 3:15
High as Moses stands in the Old Covenant, however, his glory pales before that of Christ, as the transient and the material gives place to the permanent and the spiritual (2 Corinthians 3:7-18, Hebrews 3:3-5). Moses was but the servant of God, while Jesus Christ is God’s Son, who not merely superintends, but actually governs God’s house, and was in fact its builder (Hebrews 3:3-5). In the fading away of the dazzling glory on the face of Moses (Exodus 34:33-35) St. Paul finds a symbol of the transient glory of the Old Covenant mediated by Moses, while the glory of the Lord (i. Moses as the law-giver. -This brings us to the function of Moses as the law-giver. To impugn the Law in any way was to speak blasphemy, not only against Moses, but even against God (cf. The primitive Church, on the other hand-as was said above-laid great stress upon the prophetic and prototypic character of Moses, as also upon his subordinate position in relation to Christ. But as long as Moses remained the great canonical standard, the Church could not renounce his legislative authority. Even the Lord Jesus Himself had sanctioned the Law of Moses, and co-ordinated it with the Prophets (Acts 7:37 Luke 16:17; cf. 2 Corinthians 3:15), and the primitive community in Jerusalem could never have entertained the thought of disparaging the authority of Moses for Christians as well as Jews. Still, the relation of the disciples of Jesus to the Mosaic Law could not permanently remain the same as that of the unbelieving Jews; the differentiating factor of belief in Jesus was felt more and more to be paramount, and at length it was fully realized that salvation could be secured not by the Law but by faith, or grace, and that it came not from Moses, but from Jesus Christ. Paul’s having taught the Jewish Christians in his churches to forsake Moses was without foundation (Acts 21:21-26), while we learn from St. Paul’s own letters that within certain limits he desired the distinction made by Moses between Jew and Gentile to be maintained in his churches (cf. James, the brother of the Lord, justified his proposal regarding the Decree by the circumstance that ‘Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath. James mean thereby that the apostles do not need to trouble regarding the dissemination of the Mosaic legislation, and that they should therefore lay upon the Gentile Christians nothing beyond the four prohibitions specified by him, since Moses had from of old been sufficiently represented throughout the Diaspora (so e. Such a reading of the passage would be as follows: Since, not only in the Holy Land, but also in heathen lands, the doctrines of Moses are every Sabbath inculcated upon those who attend the Synagogue, it is necessary that the believing Gentiles-like the so-called ‘God-fearing’ (οἱσεβόμενοιτὸν θεόν)-should give some consideration to the Mosaic Law, and should at least abstain from taking part in those heathen practices which were most revolting to the Jewish mind. ...
We may sum up the whole by saying that while primitive Christianity originally set Moses and Jesus side by side, it came at length, in the process of development, to contrast them with each other, and St. John, in the Prologue to his Gospel, gives expression to this result in his great saying: ‘The law was given by Moses; grace and truth came by Jesus Christ’ (1:17)
Jehovah Nissi - ) Name given by Moses to the altar commemorating Israel' s victory, under Jehovah, over Amalek. ) The rod of God in Moses' hand, when held up as a banner, brought victory; so it was the pledge of what the altar represented, that Jehovah is the ensurer of victory to His people when rallying round Him (Psalms 60:4; Isaiah 11:10; Proverbs 18:10)
Mount Horeb - This mountain will always be memorable in Scripture; because here it was the Lord appeared to Moses. ) Here the Lord seemed to stand, as if to intimate that the law was given by Moses, "but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ
Mish'Ael -
One of the sons of Uzziel, the uncle of Aaron and Moses. (Exodus 6:22 ) when Nadab and Abihu were struck dead for offering strange fire, Mishael and his brother Elzaphan, at the command of Moses, removed their bodies from the sanctuary, and buried them without the camp, their loose-fitting tunics serving for winding-sheets
Miriam - The daughter of Amram, and the sister of Moses and Aaron, 1 Chronicles 6:3, appointed to watch the ark of bulrushes in which her infant brother was laid among the flags of the river. After the passage of the Red Sea, she led the choir of the women of Israel in the sublime song of deliverance, Exodus 15:20, but afterward, having joined Aaron in murmuring against Moses, she was smitten with leprosy, and restored only in answer to the prayers of Moses
Tetragrammaton (Yhwh) - This is a term applied to the four Hebrew letters that make up the name of God as revealed to Moses in Exodus 3:14. God said to Moses, "And God said to Moses, “I AM WHO I AM”; and He said, “Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, ‘I AM has sent me to you
Abiram - , conspired to overthrow the authority of Moses and Aaron in the wilderness, Numbers 16:1-50
Song at the sea - The song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service ...
Enan - ” Father of Ahira, the leader of the tribe of Naphtali under Moses (Numbers 1:15 )
Sodi - ” Father of Gaddiel of Zebulun, one of the spies Moses sent to spy out Canaan (Numbers 13:10 )
Vayikra - The third of the Five Books of Moses, describes the inauguration of the Tabernacle, and contains many of the mitzvot, including the laws of sacrifices
Nun - An Ephraimite, father of Joshua, and referred to in scripture only to distinguish his son, who succeeded Moses
Aho'li-ab - a Danite of great skill as a weaver and embroiderer, whom Moses appointed with Bezaleel to erect the tabernacle
Jeho'Vah-Nis'si - (Jehovah my banner ), the name given by Moses to the altar which he built in commemoration of the discomfiture of the Amalekites
Medad - Love, one of the elders nominated to assist Moses in the government of the people
Geuel - ” Spy from tribe of Gad Moses sent to inspect the land before conquering it (Numbers 13:15 )
Judaism - ) The religious doctrines and rites of the Jews as enjoined in the laws of Moses
Divorce - Was tolerated by Moses for sufficient reasons, Deuteronomy 24:1-4 ; but our Lord has limited it to the single case of adultery, Matthew 5:31,32
am'Ramites - A branch of the great Kohathite family of the tribe of Levi, (Numbers 3:27 ; 1 Chronicles 26:23 ) descended from Amram, the father of Moses
Moses - "The man of God" in the title Psalm 90, for as Moses gave in the Pentateuch the key note to all succeeding prophets so also to inspired psalmody in that the oldest psalm. ...
Son of Amram (a later one than Kohath's father) and Jochebed (whose name, derived from Jehovah, shows the family hereditary devotion); Miriam, married to Hur, was oldest; Aaron, married to Elisheba, three years older (Exodus 7:7, compare Exodus 2:7); next Moses, youngest. Moses showed no self-seeking or nepotism. 1:9, 6; 2:9), at the time of Israel's deepest depression, from whence the proverb, "when the tale of bricks is doubled then comes Moses. Hebrews 11:23, "by faith Moses when he was born was hid three months of his parents, because they saw he was a proper (good-looking: Acts 7:20, Greek 'fair to God') child, and they were not afraid of the king's commandment" to slay all the males. ...
Pharaoh's daughter (holding an independent position and separate household under the ancient empire; childless herself, therefore ready to adopt Moses; Thermutis according to Josephus) coming down to bathe in the sacred and life giving Nile (as it was regarded) saw the ark and sent her maidens to fetch it. She adopted Moses as "her son, and trained him "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians," Providence thus qualifying him with the erudition needed for the predestined leader and instructor of Israel, and "he was mighty in words and in deeds. "...
This last may hint at what Josephus states, namely, that Moses led a successful campaign against Ethiopia, and named Saba the capital Meroe (Artapanus in Eusebius 9:27), from his adopted mother Merrhis, and brought away as his wife Tharbis daughter of the Ethiopian king, who falling in love with him had shown him the way to gain the swamp surrounding the city (Josephus Moses' early life, commemorates the "conqueror of the nine bows," i. Moses may have continued the war and in it wrought the "mighty deeds" ascribed to him. ...
When Moses was 40 years old, in no fit of youthful enthusiasm but deliberately, Moses "chose" (
Hebrews 11:23-28) what are the last things men choose, loss of social status as son of Pharaoh's daughter, "affliction," and "reproach. "Moses had respect unto" (Greek apeblepen ), or turned his eyes from all worldly considerations to fix them on, the eternal "recompense. An Egyptian overseer, armed probably with one of the long heavy scourges of tough pliant Syrian wood (Chabas' "Voyage du Egyptien," 119, 136), was smiting an Hebrew, one of those with whom Moses identified himself as his "brethren. " Giving way to impulsive hastiness under provocation, without regard to self when wrong was done to a brother, Moses took the law into his own hands, and slew and hid the Egyptian in the sand. Stephen (Acts 7:25; Acts 7:35) implies that Moses meant by the act to awaken in the Hebrew a thirst for the freedom and nationality which God had promised and to offer himself as their deliverer. ) Intendest thou to kill me as thou killedst the Egyptian?"...
Slavery had debased them, and Moses dispirited gave up as hopeless the enterprise which he had undertaken in too hasty and self-relying a spirit. Moses' object was not a personal biography but a history of God's dealings with Israel. Pharaoh, on hearing of his killing the Egyptian overseer, "sought to slay him," a phrase implying that Moses' high position made necessary special measures to bring him under the king's power. Moses fled, leaving his exalted prospects to wait God's time and God's way. " Moses "feared" (Exodus 2:14-15) lest by staying he should sacrifice his divinely intimated destiny to be Israel's deliverer, which was his great aim. Reuel's daughters, in telling of Moses' help to them in watering their flocks, called him "an Egyptian," judging from his costume and language, for he had not yet been long enough living with Israelites to be known as one; an undesigned coincidence and mark of genuineness. Moses "was content to live with Reuel" as in a congenial home, marrying Zipporah his daughter. From him probably Moses learned the traditions of Abraham's family in connection with Keturah (Genesis 25:2). Horab, Moses' brother-in-law, was subsequently Israel's guide through the desert. ) In the 40 years' retirement Moses learned that self discipline which was needed for leading a nation under such unparalleled circumstances. The spiritual progress in Moses between his first appearance and his second is very marked. Moses led Jethro's flock to the W. Jehovah gave Moses two signs as credentials to assure him of his mission: the transformation of his long "rod" of authority (as on Egyptian monuments) or pastoral rod into a "serpent," the basilisk or cobra, the symbol of royal and divine power on the Pharaoh's diadem; a pledge of victory over the king and gods of Egypt (compare Mark 16:18; Moses' humble but wonder working crook typifies Christ's despised but allpowerful cross). )...
The hand made leprous, then restored, represents the nation of lepers (as Egyptian tradition made them, and as spiritually they had become in Egypt) with whom Moses linked himself, divinely healed through his instrumentality. As it is, Moses first begins the new era in the history of the world with signs from God by man unknown before. To Moses' disinterested and humble pleadings of inability to speak, and desire that some other should be sent, Jehovah answers: "Aaron shall be thy spokesman . " Aaron, when he heard of Moses leaving Midian, of his own accord went to meet him; Jehovah further directed him what way to go in order to meet him, namely, by the desert (Exodus 4:14; Exodus 4:27). ...
Nothing short of divine interposition could have enabled Moses to lead an unwarlike people of serfs out of a powerful nation like Egypt, to give them the law with their acceptance of it though so contrary to their corrupt inclinations, to keep them together for 40 years in the wilderness, and finally to lead them to their conquest of the eastern part of Canaan. Moses had neither eloquence nor military prowess (as appears Exodus 4:10; Exodus 17:8-12), qualities so needful for an ordinary popular leader. Nor could magical feats derived from Egyptian education have enabled Moses to gain his point, for he was watched and opposed by the masters of this art, who had the king and the state on their side, while Moses had not a single associate save Aaron. Not even does Moses lead them the way of Philistia which, as being near, wisdom would suggest, but knowing their unwarlike character avoids it; Moses guides them into a defile with mountains on either side and the Red Sea in front, from whence escape from the Egyptian disciplined pursuers, who repented of letting them go, seemed hopeless, especially as Israel consisted of spiritless men, encumbered with women and with children. Again Moses with undoubting assurance of success on the borders of Canaan tells Israel "go up and possess the land" (Deuteronomy 1:20-21). The timid Israelites were daunted, and even proposed to stone the two faithful spies, to depose Moses, and choose a captain to lead them back to Egypt. Moses, instead of animating them to enter Canaan, now will neither suffer them to proceed, nor yet to return to Egypt; they must march and counter-march in the wilderness for 40 years until every adult but two shall have perished; but their little ones, who they said should be a prey, God will bring in. ...
Too late they repented of their unbelieving cowardice, when Moses announced God's sentence, and in spite of Moses' warning presumed to go, but were chased by the Amalekites to Hormah (Deuteronomy 1:45-46; Deuteronomy 2:14; Numbers 14:39). Aaron and Hur supported Moses in the battle with Amalek (Exodus 17:12); Joshua was his minister. The localities of the desert commemorate his name, "the wells of Moses," Ayun Moses on the Red Sea, jebel Musa, the mountain of Moses, and the ravine of Moses near the Catherine convent. At once the prophet (foremost and greatest, Deuteronomy 34:10-11), lawgiver, and leader of Israel, Moses typifies and resembles Messiah (Numbers 21:18; Deuteronomy 33:21; especially Deuteronomy 18:15-19, compare Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37; Acts 7:25; Acts 7:35; John 1:17). ...
Israel's rejection of Moses prefigures their rejection of Christ. Moses was the only prophet to whom Jehovah spoke "face to face," "as a man speaketh unto his friend" (Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:8; Deuteronomy 34:10): so at Horeb (Exodus 33:18-23); compare as to Christ John 1:18. For the contrast between "Christ the Son over His own house" and "Moses the servant faithful in all God's house" see Hebrews 3:1-6. Pharaoh's murder of the innocents answers to Herod's; Christ like Moses sojourned in Egypt, His 40 days' fast answers to that of Moses. Moses stands at the head of the legal dispensation, so that Israel is said to have been "baptized unto Moses" (initiated into the Mosaic covenant) as Christians are into Christ. ...
Moses after the calf worship removed the temporary tabernacle (preparatory to the permanent one, subsequently described) outside the camp; and as he disappeared in this "tent of meeting" (rather than "tabernacle of congregation") the people wistfully gazed after him (Exodus 33:7-10). On his last descent from Sinai "his face shone"; and he put on a veil as the people "could not steadfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away," a type of the transitory dispensation which he represented, in contrast to the abiding Christian dispensation (Exodus 34:30; Exodus 34:38; 2 Corinthians 3:13-14; 2 Corinthians 3:7; 2 Corinthians 3:11). "They were afraid to come nigh him": Alford's explanation based on the Septuagint is disproved by Exodus 34:30; 2 Corinthians 3:7, namely, that Moses not until he had done speaking to the people put on the veil "that they might not look on the end (the fading) of his transitory glory. " Paul implies, "Moses put on the veil that (God's judicial giving them up to their willful blindness: Isaiah 6:10; Acts 28:26-27) they might not look steadfastly at (Christ, Romans 10:4; the Spirit, 2 Corinthians 3:17) the end of that (law in its mere letter) which (like Moses' glory) is done away. "...
The evangelical glory of Moses' law, like the shining of Moses' face, cannot be borne by a carnal people, and therefore remains veiled to them until the Spirit takes away the veil (2 Corinthians 14-17; John 5:45-47). There is a coincidence between the song of Moses (Deuteronomy 32; 33) and his Psalm 90; thus Deuteronomy 33:27 compare Psalms 90:1; Psalms 32:4; Psalms 32:36 with Psalms 90:13; Psalms 90:16. Kimchi says the older rabbis ascribed Psalm 91 also to Moses Israel's exemption from Egypt's plagues, especially the death stroke on the firstborn, which surrounded but did not touch God's people, in Exodus 8:22; Exodus 10:28; Exodus 11:7; Exodus 12:23, corresponds to Psalms 91:3-10. They are the earnest of the church's final "song of Moses the servant of God and the song of the Lamb" (Revelation 15:3), the song which shall unite in triumph the Old Testament church and the New Testament church, after
Miriam -
The sister of Moses and Aaron (Exodus 2:4-10 ; 1 Chronicles 6:3 ). (See AARON; Moses
Rephidim - There the people complained of thirst, and God commanded Moses to strike the rock out of which would come water. Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, came to Rephidim and helped the leader delegate his authority over the people (Exodus 18:13-26 )
Ark of Bulrushes - The little boat or cradle in which Moses was placed by his mother. God answered the faith of the parents, and Moses was drawn out of the water to be the saviour of His people
Exodus - from εξ , out, and οδος , a way, the name of the second book of Moses, and is so called in the Greek version because it relates to the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt. It comprehends the history of about a hundred and forty-five years; and the principal events contained in it are, the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt, and their miraculous deliverance by the hand of Moses; their entrance into the wilderness of Sinai; the promulgation of the law, and the building of the tabernacle
Rephidim - There the people complained of thirst, and God commanded Moses to strike the rock out of which would come water. Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, came to Rephidim and helped the leader delegate his authority over the people (Exodus 18:13-26 )
Peleth -
A Reubenite whose son was one of the conspirators against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16:1 )
Az yashir - sang�); the song that Moses and the Israelites sang after the parting of the sea; recorded in Exodus 15 and recited during the Shacharit prayer service ...
Jethro - The father-in-law of Moses. This man is rendered memorable in Scripture history from his connection with Moses; but for this, it is more than probable he would never have been known even by name in the christian church. Some have thought, that he had a knowledge of the God of Israel, else Moses would not have been allied to him; and they that are of that opinion say, that he was descended from Midian, the son of Abraham, and Keturah. Exodus 3:1 he is called Jethro; Numbers 10:29 he is called Raguel; and some have thought, that Hobab was a third name by which he was known: but this, it should rather seem, was the brother of Moses's wife, Zipporah
Vophsi - Nahbi was one of the spies Moses sent into Canaan
Mishael ben uzziel - (14th century BCE) First cousin of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses
Torah - teaching) (a) The Five Books of Moses (The Bible); (b) the overall body of Jewish religious teachings encompassing the whole body of Jewish law, practice and tradition ...
Leviticus - the Book of: The third of the Five Books of Moses, describes the inauguration of the Tabernacle, and contains many of the mitzvot, including the laws of sacrifices
Ammishaddai - A Danite, father of Ahiezer, who was captain of the tribe in the time of Moses
Kenites - Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was of this people
Hobab - ) the father-in-law of Moses is uniformly named Jethro . ]'>[2] ) speaks of ‘Hobab the son of Reuel the Midianite Moses’ father-in-law’ ( hôthçn ). It is uncertain how this should be punctuated, and whether Hobab or Reuel was Moses’ father-in-law. ]'>[2] ) are the names of Moses’ father-in-law, and Reuel is Hobab’s father. A Mohammedan tradition identifies Sho’ aib (perhaps a corruption of Hobab), a prophet sent to the Midianites, with Moses’ father-in-law
Meribah - ) The designation which Moses gave the place at Rephidim where Israel, just before they reached Sinai in the second year after leaving Egypt, did chide with Moses, "give us water that we may drink," and tempted (from whence came the other name Massah) Jehovah, saying "is Jehovah among us or not?" (Exodus 17:7; compare as to the sin, Matthew 4:7. " Thirty-eight years afterward at Kadesh, bordering on the promised laud, again, untaught by the severe discipline of the wilderness (Isaiah 9:13), Israel in want of water cried, "would God we had died when our brethren died before the Lord!"...
God's glory appeared, and the Lord said to Moses and Aaron, "take the rod, and speak unto the rock before their eyes, and it shall give forth his water. " But here Moses' old hastiness of spirit, which he had showed in the beginning of his career (Exodus 2), returned; "they provoked his spirit so that he spoke unadvisedly with his lips" (Psalms 106:32-33): "ye rebels, must we (forgetting that the power was that of God alone) fetch you water out of this rock?" Then lifting up his hand he smote twice, whereas God had told him, "speak unto the rock. " So Jehovah excluded Moses and Aaron from entering Canaan, for not "sanctifying" Him (Numbers 20:1-13). Moses and Aaron typify ministers. If Moses was so severely chastised for smiting again in violation of the type, what peril ministers run who pretend to offer Christ the Antitype in the Eucharist again! Psalms 95:8, "provocation
Hobab - Not probably "father-in-law," but as the Hebrew Chathan often means, "brother in law," of Moses. Moses' entreaty, "Leave us not, I pray thee, forasmuch as thou knowest how we are to encamp in the wilderness, and thou mayest be to us instead of eyes," implies that Hobab was younger than Moses' father-in-law could now have been. Reuel had seven grown daughters when Moses first went into the wilderness at 40, and now Moses was 80. ...
Hobab and Jethro ("excellency") were probably brothers of Zipporah, Moses' wife, and sons of Reuel; Hobab the younger, and therefore not bound, as Jethro the elder, to his own tribe by the duties of an hereditary priesthood. As Jethro helped Moses in counsel as a judicious administrator, so Hobab helped him as the experienced Arab sheikh familiar with the tracks, passes, and suitable places of the wilderness for an encampment, quick eyed in descrying the far off shrubs which betoken the presence of water, and knowing well where there was danger of hostile attacks. ...
Moses' words to Hobab, "We are journeying unto the place of which the Lord said, I will give it you," imply Israel's assured faith in God's promise; as sure as if it were in their hands. " Moses replied: "Leave us not, I pray thee
Tabernacle - Second, the “Sinaitic” tabernacle was built in accordance with directions given to Moses by God (Exodus 25-40 ). Apparently, only Moses actually entered the tent to meet God. Joshua, Moses' “servant” (Exodus 33:11 ), protected and cared for the tent. Because of this situation and to symbolize it, Moses pitched this “tent of meeting” outside the camp (Exodus 33:7 ). Joshua guarded the tent in Moses' absence (Exodus 33:11 ). Since the earliest Greek translation, some would equate Moses' tent in Exodus 18:7 with the tent of meeting, but Scripture does not explicitly make this connection. Apparently, Moses acted as the prophet who took the people's questions to God and received an answer, since “to seek Yahweh” usually appears in prophetic contexts. Moses installed Joshua as his successor at the tent (Deuteronomy 31:14-15 ). ...
Moses called it the tent of meeting because it was the place of revelation. It may have borne its appropriate name from the first, or perhaps Moses used the name from the instructions which he received regarding the permanent tabernacle (Exodus 27:21 ). The cloud descended on this tent when Moses came to inquire of God, but the cloud stayed on the permanent tabernacle and the glory of the Lord filled it so Moses could not enter it (Exodus 40:34-35 ,Exodus 40:34-35,40:38 )
Gaddiel - ” Spy from tribe of Zebulun Moses sent to examine Canaan, the land to be conquered (Numbers 13:10 )
me'Red - Tradition identifies him with Caleb and Moses
Deuteronomy, the Book of - By longstanding tradition these books have been associated with Moses, the human instrument of God's deliverance of Israel from bondage in Egypt and the negotiator of the covenant between God and Israel. In the main the book consists of the words by which Moses addressed Israel prior to their entry into the Promised Land. It claims to be the words of Moses addressed to Israel on the eve of their entry into Canaan. ...
The historical background to the Book of Deuteronomy is found in Moses' opening address (Deuteronomy 1-4 ). Moses recounted the events of Israel's history from the time of their departure from Sinai to the time of their arrival in the land east of the Jordan. Behind that recitation lay the covenant-making procedures at Sinai, covered by Moses in Deuteronomy 5-11 . Moses used the events of the past to press home to Israel the importance of the present moment. Moses, knowing that Israel's future hung on their obedience and commitment to God, led the people in a covenant renewal ceremony. Moses' approaching death and resulting transfer of human leadership to Joshua, plus Israel's approaching battles in conquest of the land, formed the basis for renewal of the covenant. ...
Contents Deuteronomy contains not one, but three (or more) addresses from Moses to Israel. The present form of Deuteronomy emphasizes the words of Moses, not the details of the covenant renewal ceremony. ...
Deuteronomy 1:6-4:40 is Moses' first address in which he recounted Israel's journey from Horeb to Moab and urged Israel to be faithful to Yahweh. Moses used Israel's immediate past history to teach the present generation of Israelites the importance of trusting God. Moses set up cities of refuge on the east bank of the Jordan ( Deuteronomy 4:41-43 ). ...
Deuteronomy 4:44-28:68 contains Moses' second address to Israel. Then Moses proceeded to teach Israel lessons from the law. ...
Moses' third address is found in Deuteronomy 29:1-30:20 . ...
Deuteronomy 31:1-29 is Moses' farewell address. The song of Moses is given in Deuteronomy 31:30-32:52 . Moses' blessing is reported in Deuteronomy 33:1 , and his death is recounted in Deuteronomy 34:1 . The author makes third person references to Moses instead of first person statements about himself as one would expect Moses to do. ...
All the basic material in Deuteronomy seems to be quite ancient, but the book seems to have been edited after the death of Moses. No doubt Moses gave such addresses to Israel as the book reflects when it became known to him that God would not permit him to lead Israel into the Promised Land. Longstanding tradition among Christians and Jews favors Moses as the author, but third person references to Moses, the location of the writer in Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:1 ), and comparison of the laws in Deuteronomy with the laws in the Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:23-23:19 ) all indicate that the book was produced later than the Mosaic period. Whoever put it in its final form was inspired just as Moses was when he addressed the Israelites on the plains of Moab. Moses had led Israel to the borders of Canaan nearly forty years before, but in rebellion and unbelief the people turned back into the wilderness. Would they turn back in rebellion and unbelief?...
The approaching death of Moses put urgency into his appeal for covenant renewal. Moses was convinced that only through a renewed relationship with God could the new generation of Israelites hope to succeed under Joshua's leadership in possessing the land. Moses' First Sermon: Learn from God's Saving Acts (Deuteronomy 1:6-4:43 )...
A
Water of Jealousy - A phrase employed (not, however, in Scripture) to denote the water used in the solemn ordeal prescribed by the law of Moses (Numbers 5:11-31 ) in cases of "jealousy
Gaddi - ” Spy from the tribe of Manasseh sent by Moses to examine the land of Canaan prior to Israel's conquest (Numbers 13:11 )
Dizahab - Place in the wilderness near where Moses rehearsed the law
Joch'Ebed - (whose glory is Jehovah ), the wife and at the same time the aunt of Amram and the mother of Moses and Aaron
Hazeroth - There Aaron and Miriam challenged Moses' sole authority, using his Cushite wife as an excuse (Numbers 12:1 ). Deuteronomy 1:1 uses Hazeroth as one focal point to locate Moses' speech to Israel
Milcah - They pled their case before Moses for an inheritance as a son would receive. In a landmark ruling for Israel, God commanded Moses to give each of the daughters an inheritance from their father's estate (Numbers 27:1-8 ); Numbers 36:11 ; Joshua 17:3
Zelo'Phehad - (1 Chronicles 7:15 ) Zelophehad came out of Egypt with Moses, but died in the wilderness, as did the whole of that generation. (Numbers 14:35 ; 27:3 ) On his death without male heirs, his five daughters, just after the second numbering in the wilderness, came before Moses and Eleazar to claim the inheritance of their father in the tribe of Manasseh
Shelomoth - A descendant of Moses ( 1 Chronicles 26:25 )
Dathan - ) He and Abiram , sons of Reuben, conspired with Korah against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16:1-26; Numbers 16:9-11; Deuteronomy 11:6; Psalms 106:17)
Kibroth-Hattaavah - First, complaints broke out among the people, probably at the heat, the toil, and the privations of the march; and then God at once punished them by lightning, which fell on the hinder part of the camp, and killed many persons, but ceased at the intercession of Moses (Numbers 11:1,2 ). The people loathed the 'light food,' and cried out to Moses, 'Give us flesh, give us flesh, that we may eat. '" In this emergency Moses, in despair, cried unto God. , Rawlinson's Moses, p
Jethro - Father-in-law of Moses, by whose counsel Moses chose chief men from the tribes to be rulers of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, and to judge minor causes, reserving the weightier ones to himself (Exodus 18). ...
She circumcised the younger son only to save Moses from God's wrath, the elder was evidently already circumcised. Moses' delay in circumcising the younger was a sinful yielding to his wife
Haskalah - �the Enlightenment�); (a) the movement founded in the late 18th century by Moses Mendelssohn to restudy the Torah in the light of modern secular knowledge; (b) later offshoots of this movement...
Bush - literally, "out of the midst of the bush," namely, that bush of which Moses often spoke to Israel, "the thorny acacia," a pure Egyptian term, sen'eh , Coptic si heno
Elzaphan - Moses' cousin
Hobab - He was apparently the father-in-law of Moses, and if so he is the same as Jethro
Judaizer - ), those Jews who accepted Christianity but still adhered to the law of Moses and worshiped in the temple at Jerusalem
Eliezer - ...
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One of the two sons of Moses, born during his sojourn in Midian (Exodus 18:4 ; 1 Chronicles 23:15,17 ). He remained with his mother and brother Gershom with Jethro when Moses returned to Egypt. They were restored to Moses when Jethro heard of his departure out of Egypt
Fiery Serpent - Subsequently, God directed Moses to make a representation of a fiery serpent and place it on a pole. The brass serpent made by Moses became the means of healing for those who had been bitten by the fiery serpents but had not died. See Numbers; Moses
Miriam - Most likely the unnamed sister who looked after the baby Moses was Miriam (Exodus 2:1-8). ...
Later, Miriam and Aaron became jealous of Moses because of the supreme power he exercised in Israel (Numbers 12:1-2). Miriam was chiefly to blame, and God punished her with a sudden outbreak of leprosy; but when Moses prayed for her, she was healed
Moses - The name (as the margin of our Bibles states) means drawn out The illustrious history of Moses forms so large a page in the sacred volume of the Old Testament, that it supersedes the necessity of saying much about him here. ) And a blessed testimony it is! But the same testimony gives him no higher a character than a servant of Christ; and Moses himself thought this an honour high enough. It is Jesus alone that can do this; "The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ
Deuteronomy - from δευτερος , second, and νομος ; law; the last book of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses. As its name imports, it contains a repetition of the civil and moral law, which was a second time delivered by Moses, with some additions and explanations, as well to impress it more forcibly upon the Israelites in general, as in particular for the benefit of those who, being born in the wilderness, were not present at the first promulgation of the law. The book of Deuteronomy finishes with an account of the death of Moses, which is supposed to have been added by his successor, Joshua
Susi - ” The father of Gaddi, one of the spies Moses sent from the wilderness of Paran to spy out the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:11 )
Jeshurun, Jesurun - ' Jehovah was the 'God of Jeshurun;' and Moses, 'king in Jeshurun
Leviticus - The third book of Moses bears this name; and it appears to derive its name from the Septuagint, who called it the book of Leviticus, from containing the laws of the Levitical priesthood
Miriam - AARON AND Moses, AND MIRIAM THEIR SISTER...
WATCH well, Miriam, and never let thine eyes off that ark of bulrushes Watch that little ark with all thy wit, for no other maiden shall ever have such another watch till the fulness of time, when another Miriam shall watch over another child still more fair to God. O highly favoured Miriam, the sister of Moses. Only perform thy part well, and wherever this gospel shall be preached in the whole world, there shall this also that thou art doing be told for a memorial of thee!...
What a witty little woman did Moses sister prove herself to be that day! If it was all out of her own head, what a quick-witted little prophetess she was already! 'Shall I go and call to thee a nurse of the Hebrew women, that she may nurse the child for thee?' And then, ye mothers among us, what amazing self-control that was in God-my-glory, the mother of Miriam and Moses. Could you have so hardened your heart till you got him home? And could you have always been on your guard to hold him at arm's length when an Egyptian neighbour came near as Moses' Hebrew nurse did? A mother worthy of prophets, and priests, and prophetesses; and, best of all, God-her-glory!...
By the next time we see Miriam, Moses and Aaron and Miriam are at the head of the children of Israel. Some sharp-eyed scholars who are able to read between the lines assure us that they see tokens of Aaron and of his eloquence in the triumphant song that Miriam took down from Aaron's lips and taught to the devout and talented women, till Aaron and Miriam, with Moses so proudly looking on, made that day a day to be remembered for its songs and for its dances, as well as for its great deliverance, in the house of Israel. And we have the promise that if we flee from Egypt, and do not return to it, we ourselves also shall one day join Moses and Aaron and Miriam on the sea of glass, where, with the harps of God in our hands, we shall all sing together the song of Moses and the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are Thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints. But Moses' marriage was more than Miriam could bear. Miriam had been Moses' sister, and his mother, and his closest companion, and his most confidential friend now for forty years. Miriam had sat at the council-table with Moses and Aaron and the assembled elders of Israel. What Moses and Aaron were to the one half of the people, Miriam the sister of Moses was to the other half. And, but for Moses' marriage Miriam would have shone beside Moses till her eye also was not dim, nor her natural strength abated. But Moses' marriage made Miriam as weak and as evil and as wicked as any weak and evil and wicked woman in all the camp. Set me as a seal upon thine heart! Miriam cried to Moses, in a storm of tears, when she saw the Ethiopian woman coming to take her place. What a life of torment did Miriam live in those days because of Moses' marriage! Her heart was full of hell-fire at Moses' innocent wife and innocent children, and even at her meek and innocent brother himself. Till her wild jealousy kindled her wild pride, and her wild pride her wild, insane, and impious envy, and then her insane and impious envy soon led her into her fatal trespass against Moses and against God. 'Hath the Lord spoken only by Moses?' Miriam demanded of Aaron. And all the time Moses was not blind. Moses was not deaf. And Moses' wife was not a stock nor a stone, though she was not a prophetess. And no little shame and pain-great distress and great and sore sorrow-was seen of the Lord in Moses' tent because of Miriam's abominable injustice and cruelty. But, all the time, Moses her brother was as if he were a deaf man who heard not, and a dumb man who openeth not his mouth. And the Lord spake suddenly unto Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam-Come out, ye three, unto the tabernacle of the congregation. Moses the leader and lawgiver of Israel, and Aaron the high priest, and Miriam the prophetess, and all Israel looking after them in terror, and the anger of the Lord kindling round about them. What was it that ye two so sat and spake against your brother? In what had he hurt you? In what had he taken any word of Mine out of your mouth? In what had he failed in all his duty to Me? My servant Moses is not so, who is faithful in all Mine house. Look at her hiding her shame all day behind the sandhills of the wilderness, and coming out at night to look at the lights in Moses' tent and in Aaron's tabernacle. I would like much to know what Moses' wife's thoughts were all that week. If I knew her thoughts that week on that subject, I would know then to a certainty whether Moses had married well or no. I would know then whether the Lord God had made that Ethiopian woman an help meet for Moses. Only, I know that the thoughts of no woman's heart in all Israel were more revealed all that week than the thoughts of that Ethiopian woman, Moses much-injured wife. I can well believe that was the best week for the whole house of Israel till that week came when a Greater than Moses and Aaron and Miriam all put together suffered without the gate for their envy and for all their other trespasses. Where is Miriam all this week? Why is Aaron always so sad? Why is Moses always walking alone? Why is my mother always weeping so? And why, when the seventh day came to a close, was there such gladness again? Imagine for yourselves the questions and the answers in every tent in Israel that week. All the sprinklings, and all the bathings, and all the thanksgivings, and all the benedictions of Aaron her brother; and all the love, and honour, and trust, and confidence of Moses her other brother; and all the sisterly tenderness of Moses wife; and all the sports, and plays, and leaps, and laughters of Moses children-all could not heal Miriam's broken heart. That is Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Moses and Aaron, who is taking out meat and medicine and linen for the lips of the lepers. And Miriam sleeps at Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin till they shall awaken her with the song of Moses and the Lamb, saying, and she answering them with a timbrel, Just and true are Thy ways, Thou King of saints
Jochebed - The wife and at the same time the aunt of Amram and the mother of Moses and Aaron
Aaron - (according to Jerome means "mountain of strength"), the oldest son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi; brother of Moses and Miriam (Numbers 26:59; Ephesians 5:18-198) 1574 B. Jochebed, mother of Moses and Aaron, bore them three centuries after the death of Levi (Exodus 2:1); "daughter of Levi, whom her mother bore to Levi," means "a daughter of a Levite whom her mother bore to a Levite. " The point of Numbers 26:59 is, Moses and Aaron were Levites both on the father's side and mother's side, Hebrew of Hebrew. He was three years older than Moses (Numbers 12:1-210): born, doubtless, before Pharaoh's edict for the destruction of the Hebrew male infants (Exodus 1:22). Miriam was the oldest of the three, as appears from her being old enough, when Moses was only three months old and Aaron three years, to offer to go and call a Hebrew nurse for Pharaoh's daughter, to tend his infant brother. ...
The first mention of Aaron is in Exodus 4:14; where, in answer to Moses' objection that he did not have the eloquence needed for such a mission as that to Pharaoh, Jehovah answers: "Is not Aaron, the Levite, thy brother? I know that he can speak well: and thou shalt speak unto him, and put words in his mouth; and I will be with thy mouth, and with his mouth, and will teach you what ye shall do; and he shall be thy spokesman unto the people; and he shall be instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God. ...
The Lord directed him to "go into the wilderness to meet Moses" (Luke 22:31-3240). In obedience to that intimation, after the forty years' separation, he met Moses in the "mount of God," where the vision of the flaming bush had been vouchsafed to the latter, and conducted him back to Goshen. There Aaron, evidently a man of influence already among the Israelites, introduced Moses to their assembled elders; and, as his mouthpiece, declared to them the divine commission of Moses with such persuasive power, under the Spirit, that the people "believed, bowed their heads, and worshipped" (Exodus 4:29-31). During Moses' forty years' absence in Midian, Aaron had married Elisheba or Elizabeth, daughter of Amminadab, and sister of Naashon, a prince of the children of Judah (Exodus 6:23; 1 Chronicles 2:10). ...
On the way to Sinai, in the battle with Amalek, Aaron, in company with Hur, supported Moses' weary hands, which uplifted the miracle-working rod of God (Exodus 17:9-13); and so Israel prevailed. His high dignity as interpreter of Moses, and worker of the appointed "signs in the sight of the people," and his investiture with the hereditary high priesthood, a dignity which Moses did not share, account naturally for his having once harbored envy, and joined with Miriam in her jealousy of Moses' Ethiopian wife, when they said: "Hath the Lord spoken only by Moses? Hath He not spoken also by us?" (Compare 1618063920_7 with Exodus 15:20. ) But Moses is always made the principal, and Aaron subordinate. Whereas Moses ascended Sinai, and there received the tables of the law direct from God, as the mediator (Galatians 3:19), Aaron has only the privilege of a more distant approach with Nadab and Abihu and the seventy elders, near enough indeed to see Jehovah's glory, but not to have access to His immediate presence. ...
His character, as contrasted with Moses, comes out in what followed during Moses' forty days' absence on the mount. Left alone to guide the people, he betrayed his instability of character in his weak and guilty concession to the people's demand for visible gods to go before them in the absence of Moses, their recognized leader under Jehovah; and instead of the pillar of cloud and fire wherein the Lord heretofore had gone before them (Exodus 13:21; Exodus 32). ...
But, the so-called "feast of the Lord" sank into gross paganness; "the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play," "dancing" before the calf, "naked unto their shame among their enemies"; they aroused Moses' righteous anger when he descended from the mountain, so that he broke in pieces the tables out of his hand, as a symbol of their violation of the covenant. That it was a delegated priesthood, not inherent like the Messiah's priesthood, of the order of Melchizedek, appears from the fact that Moses, though not the legal priest but God's representative, officiates on the occasion, to inaugurate him into it. " Moses, in chronicling the disgrace and destruction of his brother's children, evinces his own candor and veracity as an impartial historian. ...
Miriam, in a fit of feminine jealousy, some time afterward acted on Aaron so as to induce him to join in murmuring against Moses: the former relying on her prophetic inspiration (Exodus 15:20), the latter on his priesthood, as though equal with Moses in the rank of their commission. Their pretext against Moses was his Ethiopian wife, a marriage abhorrent to Hebrew feelings. Aaron, with characteristic impressibleness, repented of his sin almost immediately after he had been seduced into it, upon Jehovah's sudden address to Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, declaring His admission of Moses to speak with Him "mouth to mouth, apparently," so that he should "behold the similitude of the Lord," a favor far above all "visions" vouchsafed to prophets. At Aaron's penitent intercession with Moses, and Moses' consequent prayer, Miriam was healed. ), in the wilderness of Paran, the rebellion took place of Korah and the Levites against Aaron's monopoly of the priesthood, and of Dathan, Abiram, and the Reubenites against Moses' authority as civil leader. As Aaron jealously murmured against Moses, so Korah murmured against him. His numbers were so reduced that Moses prays for his deliverance from extinction: "Let Reuben live, and not die, and let not his men be few. "...
A plague from the Lord had threatened to destroy utterly the people for murmuring against Moses and Aaron as the murderers of Korah, Dathan, Abiram, and their accomplices, when Aaron proved the efficacy of his priesthood by risking his own life for his ungrateful people, and "making atonement for the people" with incense in a censer, and "standing between the living and the dead," so that the plague was stopped (Numbers 16). ...
Inclined to lean on his superior brother, Aaron naturally fell into Moses' sin at Meribah, and shared its penalty in forfeiting entrance into the promised land (Numbers 20:1-13). As Moses' self-reliance was thereby corrected, so was Aaron's tendency to be led unduly by stronger natures than his own. There Moses stripped him of his pontifical robes, and put them upon Eleazar his son; and Aaron died, 123 years old, and was buried on the mountain (Numbers 20:28; Numbers 20:38; Deuteronomy 10:6; Deuteronomy 32:50)
Beth-Jeshimoth - ” A town in Moab where Israel camped just before Moses died and Joshua led them across the Jordan (Numbers 33:49 ). Moses gave it to the tribe of Reuben ( Joshua 13:20 )
Bush, Burning - The thorn-bush in which God was pleased to reveal Himself to Moses when He gave him his commission. Moses did not forget the bush: when he blessed the twelve tribes just before he died he spoke of the "good will of him who dwelt in the bush
Marah - And here their murmurings began against Moses; for they asked, "What shall we drink?" Moses prayed to the Lord, who instructed him to take a particular kind of wood, and cast it into the water, which he did; and immediately the water became palatable
Og - An Amoritish king of Bashan east of the Jordan, defeated and slain by the Israelites under Moses. It was assigned by Moses to the half-tribe of Manasseh, Numbers 21:33 32:33 Deuteronomy 1:4 3:1-13 4:47 31:4 Joshua 2:10 12:4 13:30
Kenites - The name Kenites usually refers to that tribal group within the Midianite people to which Moses’ in-laws belonged. The Israelites allowed the Kenite in-laws of Moses, and their descendants, to live among them in Canaan, and at times showed a special concern for them (Judges 1:16; 1 Samuel 15:6; 1 Samuel 30:26-29; 1 Chronicles 2:55; Nehemiah 3:14)
Hori - Father of the leader of tribe of Simeon under Moses in the wilderness (Numbers 13:5 )
Jehoshua, Jehoshuah - Name in its uncontracted form given to Joshua by 'Moses
Sharezer - Moses of Chorene mills him Sanasar, and says the Armenian king to whom he fled gave him a tract of land where his descendants became numerous
Pisgah - Here Moses climbed to view the land of Canaan; and here he died
Jochebed - Wife of Amram, and mother of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, Numbers 26:59
Moses - The life of Moses divides conveniently into three periods of forty years each. ...
As the leader God chose to establish Israel as a nation, Moses had absolute rule over Israel. Moses’ position was unique. No other person of his time, and no leader after him, had the face-to-face relationship with God that Moses had (Exodus 24:1-2; Exodus 33:11; Numbers 12:6-8; Exodus 7:1-1360). ...
Relations with Egypt...
Moses was the third child of Amram and Jochabed, and belonged to the tribe of Levi. Through a series of remarkable events, the young child Moses was adopted into the Egyptian royal family but grew up under the influence of his godly Israelite mother (Exodus 2:8-10; Hebrews 11:23). ...
By the time he was forty, Moses was convinced God had chosen him to rescue Israel from Egypt. By such a decisive act, Moses demonstrated his total rejection of his Egyptian status (Exodus 2:11-15; Acts 7:23-29; Hebrews 11:24-25). ...
In Midian Moses lived with a local chief named Jethro (or Reuel), from whom he probably learnt much about desert life and tribal administration. ...
During Moses’ forty years in Midian, Israel’s sufferings in Egypt increased. God’s time to deliver Israel from bondage had now come, and the person he would use as the deliverer was Moses (Exodus 2:23-25; Exodus 3:1-12). Because the Israelites had only a vague understanding of God, Moses had to explain to them the character of this one who would be their redeemer. ...
In response to Moses’ complaint that the Israelites would not believe him, God gave him three signs (Exodus 4:1-9; Exodus 4:30). Moses then returned to Egypt, where the elders of Israel welcomed him (Exodus 4:20; Exodus 4:29; Exodus 4:31). ...
God warned Moses that his job would be difficult and that Pharaoh would not listen to his pleas for freedom for the Israelites (Exodus 4:21-23). Pharaoh’s response to Moses’ initial meeting was to increase the Israelites’ suffering, with the result that they turned bitterly against Moses (Exodus 5:1-21). God gave Moses further assurance that Pharaoh would be defeated, but when Moses told the people, they were too disheartened to listen (Exodus 6:1; Exodus 6:9). ...
Moses again put his request to Pharaoh, and again Pharaoh refused (1618063920_4). God therefore worked through Moses and Aaron to send a series of plagues upon Egypt, resulting in the overthrow of Egypt and the release of Israel (Exodus 7:14-25; Exodus 8; Exodus 9; Exodus 10; Exodus 11; Exodus 12; Exodus 13; Exodus 14; Exodus 15:1-21; see PHARAOH; PLAGUE)
Prophet, Christ as - There God promised, through Moses, that he would raise up a prophet from among the Jewish people who would be like Moses. This declaration led many to inquire who this prophet like Moses would be. Joshua was indeed a man full of wisdom, but Deuteronomy 34:9-12 , almost as if it had anticipated this identification of Joshua with that prophet who was to arise and be like Moses, effectively closed the door on that equation by saying, "Now Joshua son of Nun was filled with the spirit of wisdom, because Moses had laid his hands on him But no prophet arose in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face For no one had ever known the mighty power or performed the awesome deeds that Moses did in the sight of all Israel" (author's translation). This identification is also in accord with what Jesus told the Pharisees in John 5:46-47 : "If you believed Moses, you would believe me, for he wrote about me. But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what I say?" Of all the places that Jesus could have been referring to in Moses' writings, none would be a more obvious candidate for a messianic reference than Deuteronomy 18:15-19 , where the Messiah would function as the prophetic teacher. ...
The characteristics of the prophet that Moses announced in Deuteronomy 18:15-19 are: (1) that he would be an Israelite; (2) that he would be like Moses; and (3) that he would be authorized to declare the word of God with authority. And the context definitely favors an individual prophet in that the prophet is not only represented as coming out of Israel, but is compared to the individual Moses. However, unlike the institution of the priesthood, which was transmitted to each successor through the Aaronic family within the tribe of Levi, the prophetic office of Moses was not transmitted to its successors. Thus, in accordance with the general prophetic principle, the divine instruction given to Moses was left incomplete by him until it could be completed by a prophet greater than himself in the messianic era. ...
Within the term "prophet, " three different functions are embraced, all of which were exercised by Moses. " Jesus, like Moses, gave the law once again as he proclaimed the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7 ). Christ's predictions bear a striking similarity to Moses' predictions, for both spoke of Israel's dispersion, her spiritual apostasy, and the dreadful calamities that were to come on her during the time that she became subservient to the Gentiles (cf. Just as Moses not only spoke of Israel's scattering, but their future blessing as well, so did Christ when he spoke of a time when the fig tree would blossom again (Matthew 24:32-33 ). Just as Moses judged Israel so Christ fulfills the same function in his prophetic role
Lawyer - Among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matthew 22:35 ; Luke 10:25 )
on (1) - , against Moses (Numbers 16:1)
Amram - Levite, fatherof Aaron, Moses and Miriam
Hur - A chief man among the Hebrews in the desert, associated with Aaron in upholding the hands of Moses at Rephidim, and in supplying his place while on the summit of Sinai, Exodus 17:10 ; 24:14
Zamzummim - A race of giants east of the Jordan, defeated by Chedorlaomer, Genesis 14:5 , and exterminated by the Ammonites, who possessed their territory until themselves subdued by Moses, Deuteronomy 2:20-21
Antitype - Adam, Noe, Moses, David are some of the Old Testament types of Christ
Jochebed - Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Numbers 26:59 )
Punon - A place were Israel pitched in the wilderness, between Petra and Segor, Some have thought that it was here Moses set up the brazen serpent, Numbers 21:9 and Numbers 33:42
Pedahel - ” Leader of the tribe of Naphtali whom Moses appointed to assist Joshua and Eliezer in the distribution of land to the tribes living west of the Jordan (Numbers 34:28 )
Jehovah-Nissi - Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites (Exodus 17:15 )
Aaron - He was born in Egypt three years before his brother Moses, and a number of years after his sister Miriam (2:1,4; 7:7). He was to be the "mouth" or "prophet" of Moses, i. He was faithful to his trust, and stood by Moses in all his interviews with Pharaoh. When the ransomed tribes fought their first battle with Amalek in Rephidim, Moses stood on a hill overlooking the scene of the conflict with the rod of God in his outstretched hand. ...
Afterwards, when encamped before Sinai, and when Moses at the command of God ascended the mount to receive the tables of the law, Aaron and his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, along with seventy of the elders of Israel, were permitted to accompany him part of the way, and to behold afar off the manifestation of the glory of Israel's God (Exodus 19:24 ; 24:9-11 ). While Moses remained on the mountain with God, Aaron returned unto the people; and yielding through fear, or ignorance, or instability of character, to their clamour, made unto them a golden calf, and set it up as an object of worship (Exodus 32:4 ; Psalm 106:19 ). On the return of Moses to the camp, Aaron was sternly rebuked by him for the part he had acted in this matter; but he interceded for him before God, who forgave his sin (Deuteronomy 9:20 ). ...
On the mount, Moses received instructions regarding the system of worship which was to be set up among the people; and in accordance therewith Aaron and his sons were consecrated to the priest's office (Leviticus 8 ; 9 ). ...
When Israel had reached Hazeroth, in "the wilderness of Paran," Aaron joined with his sister Miriam in murmuring against Moses, "because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married," probably after the death of Zipporah. But the Lord vindicated his servant Moses, and punished Miriam with leprosy (Numbers 12 ). Aaron acknowledged his own and his sister's guilt, and at the intercession of Moses they were forgiven. That there might be further evidence of the divine appointment of Aaron to the priestly office, the chiefs of the tribes were each required to bring to Moses a rod bearing on it the name of his tribe. When the tribes arrived at Mount Hor, "in the edge of the land of Edom," at the command of God Moses led Aaron and his son Eleazar to the top of that mountain, in the sight of all the people. (See Moses ) ...
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Jambres - JANNES and JAMBRES...
There is but onc mention made of these persons in holy writ, namely, (2 Timothy 3:8) and the apostle when recording their names gives this short but awful history of their characters—they withstood Moses. Some have supposed, that they were the magicians who for a while confronted Moses, when, at the command and in the name of the Lord, he wrought miracles before Pharaoh and his court. The most important circumstance to the believer to remark is, that the magicians were permitted to resemble somewhat of what Moses wrought to a certain point purposely, that when this permission was withdrawn, they might the more readily be compelled to see and acknowledge the finger of the Lord
Zelophehad - Having left no sons, his daughters, concerned lest their father's name should be "done away from among his family," made an appeal to Moses, who, by divine direction, appointed it as "a statute of judgment" in Israel that daughters should inherit their father's portion when no sons were left (Numbers 27:1-11 ). But that the possession of Zelophehad might not pass away in the year of jubilee from the tribe to which he belonged, it was ordained by Moses that his daughters should not marry any one out of their father's tribe; and this afterwards became a general law (Numbers 36 )
Amaurites - The reign of God had existed as long as the law of Moses. This reign Amauri thought would succeed to the Christian religion, as the Christian had succeeded to that of Moses
Dathan - Leaders of a revolt against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16) which took place probably at Cades, shortly after the Israelites left Sinai
Exodus - the Book of: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Elizaphan - Prince of Zebulun, appointed by Moses to take part in apportioning Canaan (Numbers 34:25)
Beth-Haran - ” Town east of the Jordan the tribe of Gad strengthened after Moses gave it to them (Numbers 32:36 )
Elizur - ” Leader of tribe of Reuben under Moses in the wilderness (Numbers 1:5 )
Zur - Father of Cozbi and a prince of Midian, slain with four other princes by Moses
Abiron - Leaders of a revolt against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16) which took place probably at Cades, shortly after the Israelites left Sinai
Kedemoth - A city in the border of Sihon king of Heshbon, whence Moses sent him an embassage of peace
Moses - Moses (mo'zez), from the water, i. When Moses had grown up, he resolved to deliver his people. By a succession of miracles, which God wrought by his hand, Moses brought the Hebrews out of Egypt, and through the wilderness, unto the borders of Canaan. God buried Moses. "And there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty land, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel
Veil - Moses' veil. Moses spoke to God with his face unveiled and then delivered God's message to the people with his face still unveiled. Afterwards, Moses veiled his face (Exodus 34:33-35 ). For Paul, Moses' practice illustrated the superiority of the new covenant: Christians see the abiding splendor of the era of the Spirit and God-given righteousness; Israel saw the fading splendor of the era of death reflected in Moses' face (2 Corinthians 3:7-11 ). Moses' veil further illustrated the mental barrier preventing Israel from recognizing Christ in the Old Testament (2 Corinthians 3:12-15 )
Exodus, Book of - Moses smote the rock and there came water out of the rock — type of the Holy Spirit — and this was followed by conflict: they fought with Amalek (type of Satan seeking to act upon the weak flesh of the believer: comp. Jethro brought to Moses his wife and his two sons: sacrifices were offered by Jethro, a Gentile, who ate with Israel. " The people were sprinkled with blood, then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders ascended the mount; "they saw God, and did eat and drink. During these chapters Moses was in the mount: he remained there forty days, and received from God the pattern of the tabernacle, and all its accompaniments. While Moses was in the mount the people, under the plea of not knowing what had become of Moses, requested Aaron to make them 'gods to go before' them, and the golden calf was made. God threatened to destroy the people, but Moses pleaded for them, and asked God to remember Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. When Moses saw the calf he broke the two tables of the law: the people had already broken the law. Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it outside the camp, and those that sought the Lord went there to it: cf. ) Moses continued to plead for Israel, and became their mediator. Moses was again in the mount for forty days, and when he came down his face shone. " Moses was unable to enter the tent of the congregation because of the cloud
Og - Killed in battle by the Israelites shortly before Moses� death
Taberah - Name given to a place in the wilderness of Paran, where the Israelites murmured and were consumed by the fire of the Lord until Moses prayed for them
Pentateuch - (See Moses; LAW; GENESIS; EXODUS; LEVITICUS; NUMBERS; DEUTERONOMY. "The book of the law" in Deuteronomy 48:61; Numbers 18:8-19; Exodus 19:5-6; Deuteronomy 31:26; "the book of the law of Moses," Joshua 23:6; Nehemiah 8:1; in Ezra 7:6, "the law of Moses," "the book of Moses" (Deuteronomy 29:21). The Jews now call it Torah "the law," literally, the directory in Luke 24:27 "Moses" stands for his book. ...
MOSES' AUTHORSHIP. After the battle with Amalek (Exodus 17:14) "Jehovah said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in the Book," implying there was a regular account kept in a well known book. Also Judges 20:26-281 "Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah"; (Exodus 34:27) "Jehovah said unto Moses, Write thou these words" distinguished from Exodus 34:28, "He (Jehovah) wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments" (Exodus 34:1). Numbers 33:2 "Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of Jehovah. " In Deuteronomy 17:18-19, the king is required to "write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests, the Levites"; and Deuteronomy 31:9-11, "Moses wrote this law and delivered it unto the priests, the son of Levi," who should "at the end of every seven years read this law before all Israel in their hearing"; and Deuteronomy 31:24," Moses made an end of writing the words of this law in a book," namely, the whole Pentateuch ("the law," Matthew 22:40; Galatians 4:21), "and commanded the Levites . The book of the law thus written by Moses and handed to the priests ends at Deuteronomy 31:23; the rest of the book of Deuteronomy is an appendix added after Moses' death by another hand, excepting the song and blessing, Moses' own composition. Moses speaks of "this law" and "the book of this law" as some definite volume which he had written for his people (Joshua 1:7-8; Deuteronomy 29:19-20; Deuteronomy 29:29). He uses the third person of himself, as John does in the New Testament He probably dictated much of it to Joshua or some scribe, who subsequently added the account of Moses' death and a few explanatory insertions. ...
Moses probably uses patriarchal documents, as e. That writing existed ages before Moses is proved by the tomb of Chnumhotep at Benihassan, of the twelfth dynasty, representing a scribe presenting to the governor a roll of papyrus covered with inscriptions dated the sixth year of Osirtasin II long before the Exodus. Moses, Israel's wise leader, would therefore be sure to commit to writing their laws, their wonderful antecedents and ancestry, and the Divine promises from the beginning connected with them, and their fulfillment in Egypt, in the Exodus, and in the wilderness, in order to evoke their national spirit. ...
Moreover, from Joshua downward the Old Testament books abound in references to the laws, history, and words of Moses, as such, universally accepted. They are ordered to be read continually (Deuteronomy 28:61); "all the law which Moses My servant commanded . Israel's constitution in church and state accords with that established by Moses. "Eleazar," Aaron's son, succeeds to his father's exalted position and with Joshua divides the land (Joshua 21:1), as Numbers 34:17 ordained; the Levites discharge their duties, scattered among the tribes and having 48 cities, as Jehovah by Moses commanded (Numbers 35:7). So the tabernacle made by Moses is set up at Shiloh (Joshua 18:1). ...
The altar built (Joshua 8:30-31; Exodus 20:25) is "as Moses commanded . in the book of the law of Moses. ...
So in Judges Moses' laws are referred to (Judges 2:1-3; Judges 2:11-12; Judges 2:20; Judges 6:8-10; Judges 20:2; Judges 20:6; Numbers 25:10-13; Deuteronomy 13:6; Deuteronomy 13:12-14; Deuteronomy 22:21). The judge's office is as Moses defined it (Deuteronomy 17:9). Gideon recognizes the theocracy, as Moses ordained (Judges 8:22-23; Deuteronomy 30:10; Deuteronomy 17:14; Deuteronomy 17:20; Deuteronomy 33:5). The historical facts of the Pentateuch are alluded to: Jacob's descent to Egypt, Israel's deliverance by Moses and Aaron (1 Samuel 12:8); the Egyptian plagues (1 Samuel 4:8; 1 Samuel 8:8); the Kenites' kindness (1 Samuel 15:6). The request for a king (1 Samuel 8:5-6) accords with Moses' words (Deuteronomy 17:14); also Deuteronomy 16:19 with 1 Samuel 8:3. ...
When dying, he [1] charges Solomon, "keep the charge, as it is written in the law of Moses" (1 Kings 2:3). Hezekiah kept the commandments which Jehovah commanded Moses (2 Kings 18:4; 2 Kings 18:6). He destroyed the relic, the brazen serpent which remained from Moses' time, because of its superstitious abuse
Aaron - IS NOT AARON THE LEVITE THY BROTHER? I KNOW THAT HE CAN SPEAK WELL...
WHAT a gifted house! What an honour to that man of the house of Levi who took to wife a daughter of Levi! What a rich slave-hut was that with Miriam and Aaron and Moses all born of God into it! What splendid wages to have three such children given to that son and daughter of Levi to nurse up for the Lord, and for Israel, and for all the world; three such goodly children as Miriam the prophetess, and Aaron the high priest, and Moses the deliverer and leader and lawgiver of Israel. For, by that sovereign division and distribution Moses was made the first and the greatest of all the prophets of Israel. And till all that Israel could ever need as a nation and as a church, as fathers and as mothers, as masters and as servants, as slaves and as redeemed from slavery, as sinners and as the chosen people of God-all Israel was complete in Moses and Aaron and Miriam, even as they also were complete in God and in one another. ...
And Moses said unto the Lord, O my Lord, I am not eloquent. It was the depth and the weight and the fulness of Moses' mind that made him a man of such slow speech and of such a slow tongue. Moses had lived so long alone in Horeb that he had well-nigh forgotten the every-day language of every-day men. I Am! was all that God had said to Moses, year after year, as Moses fed the flock of his father-in-law in the mount of God. And, who am I? was all that Moses answered God for forty years. Moses was a great philosopher, says Matthew Henry, and a great statesman, and a great divine, and yet he was no orator. But, better than all his great philosophy and great statesmanship, Moses was a great divine, the greatest of Old Testament divines; the greatest because the first of all divines. In this Moses was somewhat like certain of our own great divines. And yet we have sometimes heard of great divines and great preachers too who shrank back from the pulpit as much as Moses himself shrank. The call of Isaiah, and the call of Jeremiah, and the call of Calvin, and the call of Knox, and the call of Bruce all remind us of Moses' noble modesty, his fear of his office, his fear of himself, and of his fellow-men. And the Lord said to Moses, 'Who hath made man's voice? Is not Aaron the Levite thy brother? And he shall be thy spokesman unto the people; he shall be to thee instead of a mouth, and thou shalt be to him instead of God. At the same time, he felt sure that if there was a man on the face of the earth made of God on special purpose for such a service, it was just his own banished brother Moses. And thus it was that Aaron set out to Horeb to seek for Moses just at the moment when the bush began to burn on Horeb, and when the Lord began to speak to Moses out of the bush. ' And Aaron went and met Moses in the mount of God. And Aaron kissed Moses, and Moses told Aaron all that the Lord bad said concerning him, till Aaron answered, and shrank back, and said: Surely it is not so. Moses, my dear brother! While all the time Moses felt more than ever before how all this must be of God. For even as Aaron so spake, Moses saw to his delight that Aaron had always the right word ready. Moses felt beside Aaron that he would never open his mouth again. The right word always went away, somehow, when Moses opened his mouth to speak. Till, with Aaron beside him, Moses felt that he could face without fear of failure both all Israel and Pharaoh with all his priests and all his magicians. ...
Now, as we have already seen, we have always had men among ourselves more or less like Moses, and other men more or less like Aaron. Men like Moses-that is, men of great originality, and of great depth and grasp and strength of mind. On the other hand, what are those men to do, who, like Aaron, have no such depth, and grasp, and originality, and productivity of mind as Moses and the great thinkers and great scholars of our race have had? A common man and a man of no gifts may be set in a place, and may have a calling of God that he cannot escape-a place and a calling which demand constant speaking and constant teaching at his hands. Now, what is such a man to do? What, but just to take Moses instead of God. We are not all the men of Moses-like genius and originality we might like to be. We are what God has made us to be; and Moses himself is no more. And Moses may be as glad to meet me in my teachableness and in my love and in my reverence as I am to meet him in his magnificent supremacy and high solitariness of gift and of office. Yes; and who knows what our Master may graciously say to us after He has rewarded Moses for his magnificent talents and for his magnificent services? One thing is sure: we shall be satisfied with what He shall say to us, and we shall have no room left in our hearts wherewith any more to envy Moses for his god-like gifts and for his god-like services. ...
All went well with Aaron as long as he had Moses beside him to inspire him, and to support him, and to be to him instead of God. Aaron did splendid service through all that, and both his great name and his great service would have gone on growing in love and in honour to the end if only he had never let Moses out of his sight. But always when Moses was for any length of time out of sight, Aaron was a reed shaken with the wind; he was as weak and as evil as any other man. Those forty days that Moses was away on the Mount brought out, among other things, both Moses' strength and greatness and Aaron's littleness and weakness in a way that nothing else could have done. 'Up, make us gods, which shall go before us; for, as for this Moses, we wot not what is become of him. What would the people like me to say to them on that subject? Will they crowd to hear it? How will they take it? And what will be said about what I have said after I have said it and cannot unsay it? And, in my heart of hearts, can I let them go? Shall I not tune my pulpit just a touch or, two, so as to attract this man, and so as to keep that other man from going away? Moses had his own temptations and snares that even he did not always escape and overcome; but it was the good speaker's temptation, it was the popular preacher's temptation, that led Aaron into the terrible trespass of the golden calf. Moses in his anger had ground the golden calf to ashes, and had sprinkled the ashes on the waters of the brook that ran down out of the Mount of God, till all the people drank of the sin laden water
Moses - Then began, under the leadership of Moses, a long and wearisome journey in the direction of the Promised Land, the dramatic episodes of which are related in the remaining chapter of Exodus and in Numbers. Only a few can be enumerated here: The Passage of the Red Sea and the Canticle of Moses (Exodus 14-15); the Manna (16); the promulgation of the Law on Mount Sinai (19-31); the many revolts of the people, who are saved each time by the intervention of their leader (Exodus 16; Numbers 13-14,21); the march from Mount Sinai to Cades, and the stay at Cades for 38 years during which the present generation is condemned never to enter the Promised Land (Numbers 10-20); Moses himself is excluded from it because of his lack of confidence at the "Waters of Contradiction" (ib. The Israelites finally reached the banks of the Jordan, after defeating the Amorrhites and Moabites, and Moses died on Mount Nebo after pronouncing the three memorable discourses preserved in Deuteronomy. He was buried in the valley of Moab, but "no man knows his sepulchre" (Deuteronomy 34), and "there arose no more a prophet in Israel like unto Moses" (ib
Murmuring - Of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure of God, which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses (Numbers 11:33,34 ; 12 ; 14:27,30,31 ; 16:3 ; 21:4-6 ; Psalm 106:25 )
Jehovah-Nissi - ” Name Moses gave to the altar he built after defeating the Amalekites (Exodus 17:15 )
Shemot - �names�); the Book of Exodus ...
Shemot: The second of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' slavery in Egypt, their Exodus, the Giving of the Torah, the sin of the Golden Calf, and the construction of the Tabernacle
Tophel - (toh' fehl) Place near the site of Moses' farewell speech o Israel (Deuteronomy 1:1 ), identified with et-Tafileh about fifteen miles southeast of the Dead Sea between Kerak and Petra
Statute - Different statutes of God were given by Moses to God's people (Exodus 15:25-26 )
Prophet - ) One inspired or instructed by God to speak in his name, or announce future events, as, Moses, Elijah, etc
Ahira - ” Leader of tribe of Naphtali under Moses (Numbers 1:15 ), who presented the tribe's offerings at the dedication of the altar (Numbers 7:78-83 ) and led them in the wilderness marches
Pentateuch - All five were authored by Moses and are also known as "the Law"
Isshi'ab -
A descendant of Moses by his younger son Eliezer
Levitical - Belong to the Levites, or descendants of Levi as the levitical law, the law given by Moses, which prescribed the duties and rights of the priests and Levites, and regulated the and religious concerns of the Jews
Ethiopian Woman - ]'>[1] ), when the children of Israel were at Hazeroth, Miriam and Aaron ‘spake against’ Moses on account of his marriage with an Ethiopian (RV Sinai - Stephen (Acts 7:30) recalls how an angel of the Lord appeared to Moses ‘in the wilderness of mount Sinai, in a flame of fire in a bush. In the Jewish tradition it was sacred to Jahweh, and was memorable as the place where God gave to Moses the ‘lively oracles’ (Acts 7:38)
Amram - Father of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam and grandson of Levi (Exodus 6:18-20 ). Moses' father, Amram, was the father of the Levitical family, the Amramites (Numbers 3:27 ; 1 Chronicles 26:23 ), who served in the wilderness sanctuary and may have served in the Temple treasuries in later years
Numbers - a canonical book of the Old Testament, being the fourth of the Pentateuch, or five books of Moses; and receives its denomination from the numbering of the families of Israel by Moses and Aaron, who mustered the tribes, and marshalled the army, of the Hebrews in their passage through the wilderness
Elders of Israel - Moses and Aaron treated the elders as representatives of the nation, Exodus 3:16 4:29 12:21 . When the law was given, God directed Moses to take the seventy elders, as well as Aaron, and Nadab and Abihu his sons, that they might be witnesses, Exodus 24:1,9
Hobab - According to one supposition he was the same as Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, Zipporah being called the daughter of Reuel as one of his descendants. When the Hebrews were about leaving mount Sinai, Moses requested him to cast in his lot with the people of God, both for his own sake and because his knowledge of the desert its inhabitants might often be of service to the Jews
Mount Gerizim - And here it was that Moses commanded Israel, from this mountain, to pronounce blessings upon the people. (Deuteronomy 11:29-30) There should seem to have been a special design in this appointment of the Lord by Moses; for here it was, beside the plains of Moreh, that Abraham first came, at the call of God, when he left Haran. (See Genesis 12:1-6) So that though Moses himself had never been there, nor ever would, yet here blessings should immediately, on their arrival, be pronounced, to Israel's fidelity, in the very spot where, in ages before, the Lord had first revealed himself to their father Abraham
Blindness - Moses says, "Thou shalt not put a stumbling block before the blind," Leviticus 19:14 , which may be understood literally; or figuratively, as if Moses recommended that charity and instruction should be shown to them who want light and counsel, or to those who are in danger of going wrong through their ignorance. Moses says also, "Cursed be he who maketh the blind to wander out of his way," Deuteronomy 27:18 , which may also be taken in the same manner
Hup'Pim -
A man who is mentioned with Moses and Aaron on the occasion of the battle with Amalek at Raphidim, (Exodus 17:10 ) when with Aaron he stayed up the hands of Moses. (Exodus 24:14 ) as being, with Aaron, left in charge of the people by Moses during his ascent of Sinai
Sina, Sinai - Moses and the elders went up into the mountain, and Moses there received the Ten Commandments written on two stones. Adjoining this is a precipitous granite rock called Jebel Musa (Ras Sufsafeh) which is so formed that the elders who accompanied Moses part of the way up, could remain there while Moses proceeded to the summit, which cannot be seen from the plain
Genesis - the Book of: The first of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of creation and Noah's Flood, and describes the lives and deeds of the Patriarchs, Matriarchs, and the Twelve Tribes
Bethpeor - Here Moses was buried (Deuteronomy 34:6)
Sheb'Uel, -
A descendant of Moses, (1 Chronicles 23:16 ; 26:24 ) called also SHUBAEL
Genesis - The first book of Moses; so called because it contains the genealogy of the patriarchs
Og - Moses records the conquest of Og, and his destruction
Abiram - One of the sons of Eliab, the Reubenite, who were destroyed with Korah for a conspiracy against Moses
Michael - Deuteronomy 34:6), which is based on the apocryphal Assumption of Moses (see Orig. 1), he stands forward as the representative of Israel to dispute the Devil’s claim to possess the body of Moses, a claim made, according to the apocryphal book, on the two grounds that the Devil was the lord of matter and that Moses had been guilty of slaying the Egyptian (see Charles, Assumption of Moses, 1897, p. (1) In Acts 7:38 he is probably to be identified with the angel who spoke to Moses in Mount Sinai. 1, however, it is the angel of the presence who instructs Moses and delivers to him the tables of the Law, and in what was probably the original Assumption of Moses (preserved only in Greek fragments) ‘Michael the archangel’ is expressly said to have taught Moses at the giving of the Law
Rephidim - At this station, adjoining to Mount Horeb, the people again murmured for want of water; and they chid Moses, saying, "Give us water that we may drink. " And "they tempted the Lord, saying, Is the Lord among us or not?" Moses, therefore, to convince them that he was, by a more obvious miracle than at Marah, smote the rock with his rod, by the divine command, and brought water out of it for the people to drink: wherefore, he called the place Meribah, "chiding," and the rock Massah, "temptation. " On their way to Rephidim, the Amalekites, the original inhabitants of the country, who are noticed in Abraham's days, Genesis 14:7 , not having the fear of God before their eyes, nor regarding the judgments recently inflicted on the Egyptians, attacked the rear of the Israelites when they were faint and weary; but were defeated by a chosen party, under the command of Joshua, the faithful lieutenant of Moses, who is first noticed on this occasion, and even then pointed out by the Lord as his successor. This victory was miraculous; for while Moses held up his hand Israel prevailed, but when he let it down Amalek prevailed. While the Israelites were encamped at Rephidim, on the western side of Horeb, the mount of God, Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, who lived in that neighbourhood, and was priest and prince of Midian, came to visit him, with his wife Zipporah, and his two sons, Eleazar and Gershom, who had accompanied him part of the way to Egypt, but returned home again; and they rejoiced with him "for all the goodness which the Lord had done for Israel, whom he had delivered out of the hand of the Egyptians;" and upon this occasion, Jethro, as "a priest of the most high God," of the order of Melchizedek, "offered a burnt-offering and sacrifices of thanksgiving to God, at which Aaron and all the elders of Israel ate bread with Jethro before God," by a repetition of the eucharistic feast upon a sacrifice which Melchizedek formerly administered to Abraham, Genesis 14:18 ; Exodus 18:1-12 . Thus was fulfilled the prophetic sign which the Lord had given to Moses when he first appeared to him in the burning bush: "This shall be a token unto thee that I have sent thee: when thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain," Exodus 3:12 . By his advice, which also was approved by the Lord, Moses, to relieve himself from the fatigue of administering justice to the people, the whole day, from morning until evening, instituted inferior judges or magistrates over thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens, as his deputies, who were to relieve him from the burden of judging the smaller causes, but to refer the greater or more difficult to Moses, for his decision
Aaron - He, Nadah and Ahihu, along with 70 elders, accompanied Moses up Mt. In Exodus 4:13-16 Moses is allowed to nave Aaron as a spokesman. But ‘the Levite’ ( Exodus 4:14 ) is suspicious: for Moses was also of the tribe of Levi, and the description is superfluous. In the narratives of the plagues Aaron is a silent figure, merely summoned with Moses four times when Pharaoh entreats for the removal of the plagues ( Exodus 8:8 ; Exodus 8:25 , Exodus 9:27 , Exodus 10:16 ). In each case Moses alone answers, and in the last three he alone departs. In Exodus 10:3 Moses and Aaron went in to announce the plague, but Moses alone ‘turned and went out’ ( Exodus 10:6 ). He was sent to meet Moses in the wilderness, and together they performed signs before the people ( Exodus 4:27-31 ). In Exodus 17:10 ; Exodus 17:12 he and Hur held up Moses’ hands, in order that the staff might be lifted up, during the fight with Amalek. And while Moses was on the mountain, the same two were left in temporary authority over the people ( Exodus 24:13 f. In Numbers 12:1-16 Aaron and Miriam claimed that they, no less than Moses, received Divine revelations; only Miriam, however, was punished. ]'>[3] , the process by which the tradition grew up that Moses delegated his priesthood to Aaron is not known. He became Moses’ spokesman, not to the people but to Pharaoh (7:1), in whose presence he changed the staff into a ‘reptile’ (contrast ‘serpent’ in 4:3 J Dathan - They are also identified as the two quarreling Israelites whom Moses reprimanded in Egypt
Reuel - The father-in-law of Moses, Zipporah's father (Exodus 2:18)
Flag - suph , a weed that grows on the banks of the Nile, among which Moses in the ark was laid
Abiram - A Reubenite, who with Dathan conspired against Moses ( Numbers 16:1 etc
Beth-Peor - It was in a ravine over against Beth-peor that Moses was buried
Beth-Peor - In the adjacent valley Moses rehearsed the law to Israel, and was buried, Deuteronomy 4:44-46 34:6
Saying - Moses fled at this saying
Abiram - They are also identified as the two quarreling Israelites whom Moses reprimanded in Egypt
Zichri - Levite in Moses' time (Exodus 6:21 ). Descendant of Moses assisting with David's treasury (1 Chronicles 26:25 ); 5
Sabaoth - And when we call to mind that the whole creation of God are his armies, what a sense of greatness and glory do such ideas awaken in the mind! It may serve in some measure to teach us the reverence Moses, the man of God, endeavoured to impress the children of Israel with when he proclaimed JEHOVAH under these characters—"that thou mayest fear (said Moses) this glorious and fearful name, the Lord thy God
Ammihud - Father of Elishama, who represented the tribe of Ephraim to help Moses during the wilderness wandering (Numbers 1:10 ). Father of Shemuel of the tribe of Simeon, who helped Moses, Eleazar, and Joshua allot the land to the tribes (Numbers 34:20 )
Joshua - The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel. He became Moses' minister or servant, and accompanied him part of the way when he ascended Mount Sinai to receive the two tables (Exodus 32:17 ). He was also one of the twelve who were sent on by Moses to explore the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:16,17 ), and only he and Caleb gave an encouraging report. Under the direction of God, Moses, before his death, invested Joshua in a public and solemn manner with authority over the people as his successor (Deuteronomy 31:23 ). " ...
Joshua has been regarded as a type of Christ (Hebrews 4:8 ) in the following particulars: (1) In the name common to both; (2) Joshua brings the people into the possession of the Promised Land, as Jesus brings his people to the heavenly Canaan; and (3) as Joshua succeeded Moses, so the Gospel succeeds the Law. Attached to the person of Moses, he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Exodus 17:9,13 ), while Moses in the prayer of faith held up to heaven the God-given 'rod
Rephidim - of the defile is a hill and bore cliff such as Moses struck with his rod. At the foot of the hill whereon Moses sat (Exodus 17:12 or else Exodus 18:13) the Arabs call a rock "the seat of the prophet Moses. The Βir Μusa , "well of Moses," in the wide part of wady es Sheykh, is immediately outside or N. Wady es Sheykh , "the valley of the chiefs," may allude to the elders appointed at Jethro's suggestion to be rulers and judges under Moses (Exodus 18:21-26). Lift up, not an empty hand, but like Moses grasping the rod hold fast God's word of promise, filling the hand with this effectual plea (Exodus 17:9; Exodus 17:11-12; Job 23:4; Psalms 119:49; Isaiah 43:26; James 5:16). ) Moses struck the rock in Horeb at some point not in the people's sight, therefore not near the summit, but in the presence of selected witnesses, the elders (Exodus 17:5-6)
Pentateuch - From five, and an instrument or volume, signifies the collection of the five instruments or books of Moses, which are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Some modern writers, it seems, have asserted that Moses did not compose the Pentateuch, because the author always speaks in the third person; abridges his narration like a writer who collected from ancient memoirs; sometimes interrupts the thread of his discourse, for example, Genesis 4:23 ; and because of the account of the death of Moses at the end, &c. we see Moses speaking to Pharaoh, where the author omits the beginning of his discourse. Lastly, they think they observe certain strokes in the Pentateuch which can hardly agree with Moses, who was born and bred in Egypt; as what he says of the earthly paradise, of the rivers that watered it and ran through it; of the cities of Babylon, Erech, Resen, and Calmeh; of the gold of Pison; of the bdellium, of the stone of Sohem, or onyx stone, which was to be found in that country. But in answer to all these objections it is justly observed, that these books are by the most ancient writers ascribed to Moses, and it is confirmed by the authority of heathen writers themselves, that they are his writings; besides this, we have the unanimous testimony of the whole Jewish nation ever since Moses's time. It is probable, however, that Ezra published a new edition of the books of Moses, in which he might add those passages that many suppose Moses did not write. ...
Moses speaks only truth, though infidels charge him with imposture. 342, 345, 573, 575; Marsh's Authenticity of the Five Books of Moses considered; Warburton's Divine Legation; Dr
Eliasaph - The leader of the tribe of Gad under Moses (Numbers 1:14 )
Ahihud - Chief of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to superintend the division of Canaan among the tribe (Numbers 34:27 )
Suph - Place helping locate where Moses delivered the speech behind the Book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 1:1 )
Bulrush - In Exodus 2:3 , the material that was used to make the ark in which the infant Moses was placed to protect him from the edict of Pharaoh requiring that every male Hebrew child be drowned
Mount of the Beatitudes - The reference to Jesus' ascending the mountain is perhaps meant to recall the story of Moses at Sinai (Exodus 19:3 ,Exodus 19:3,19:20 )
Owl - Moses places the owl among the unclean birds; but whether all, or of what species, as there are several, is not said
Blains - Exodus 9:8-10 , burning ulcerous eruptions, miraculously caused by the ashes which Moses threw up among the Egyptians
Moses - The time of his birth is ascertained by the exode of the Israelites, when Moses was eighty years old, Exodus 8:25-2659 . By a singular providence, the infant Moses, when exposed on the river Nile, through fear of the royal decree, after his mother had hid him three months, because he was a goodly child, was taken up and adopted by Pharaoh's daughter, and nursed by his own mother, whom she hired at the suggestion of his sister Miriam. ...
When Moses was grown to manhood, and was full forty years old, he was moved by a divine intimation, as it seems, to undertake the deliverance of his countrymen; "for he supposed that his brethren would have understood how that God, by his hand, would give them deliverance; but they understood not. " For when, in the excess of his zeal to redress their grievances, he had slain an Egyptian, who injured one of them, in which he probably went beyond his commission, and afterward endeavoured to reconcile two of them that were at variance, they rejected his mediation; and "the man who had done wrong said, Who made thee a judge and a ruler over us? Intendest thou to kill me, as thou killedst the Egyptian yesterday?" So Moses, finding it was known, and that Pharaoh sought to slay him, fled for his life to the land of Midian, in Arabia Petraea, where he married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, or Reuel, prince and priest of Midian; and, as a shepherd, kept his flocks in the vicinity of Mount Horeb, or Sinai, for forty years, Exodus 2:11-21 ; Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 18:5 ; Numbers 10:29 ; Acts 7:23-30 . During this long exile Moses was trained in the school of humble circumstances for that arduous mission which he had prematurely anticipated; and, instead of the unthinking zeal which at first actuated him, learned to distrust himself. ...
At length, when the oppression of the Israelites was come to the full, and they cried to God for succour, and the king was dead, and all the men in Egypt that sought his life, "the God of glory" appeared to Moses in a flame of fire, from the midst of a bush, and announced himself as "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob," under the titles of Jahoh and AEhjeh, expressive of his unity and sameness; and commissioned him first to make known to the Israelites the divine will for their deliverance; and next to go with the elders of Israel to Pharaoh, requiring him, in the name of "the Lord, the God of the Hebrews, to suffer the people to go three, days' journey into the wilderness, to sacrifice unto the Lord their God," after such sacrifices had been long intermitted during their bondage; for the Egyptians had sunk into bestial polytheism, and would have stoned them, had they attempted to sacrifice to their principal divinities, the apis, or bull, &c, in the land itself: foretelling, also, the opposition they would meet with from the king, the mighty signs and wonders that would finally compel his assent, and their spoiling of the Egyptians, by asking or demanding of them (not borrowing) jewels of silver, and jewels of gold, and raiment, (by way of wages or compensation for their services,) as originally declared to Abraham, that "they should go out from thence with great substance,"...
Genesis 15:14 ; Exodus 2:23-25 ; Exodus 3:2-22 ; 1618063920_3 . ...
To vouch his divine commission to the Israelites, God enabled Moses to work three signal miracles:...
1. To assist him, also, in his arduous mission, when Moses had represented that he was "not eloquent, but slow of speech," and of a slow or stammering tongue, God inspired Aaron, his elder brother, to go and meet Moses in the wilderness, to be his spokesman to the people, Exodus 4:1-31 , and his prophet to Pharaoh; while Moses was to be a god to both, as speaking to them in the name, or by the authority, of God himself, Exodus 7:1-2 . But the king not only refused, but increased the burdens of the people, Exodus 5:1-19 ; and the people murmured, and hearkened not unto Moses, when he repeated from the Lord his assurances of deliverance and protection, for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage, Exodus 5:20-23 ; Exodus 6:1-9 . And though Aaron's serpent swallowed up their serpents, showing the superiority of the true miracle over the false, 2 Thessalonians 2:9 , it might only lead the king to conclude, that Moses and Aaron were more expert jugglers than Jannes and Jambres, who opposed them, 2 Timothy 3:8 . For the conduct of Moses as the deliverer and lawgiver of the Israelites, See PLAGUES OF EGYPT , See RED SEA , and See LAW . ...
At Mount Sinai the Lord was pleased to make Moses, the redeemer of Israel, an eminent type of the Redeemer of the world. "I will raise them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him: and it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words, which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him:" which Moses communicated to the people. This prophet like unto Moses was our Lord Jesus Christ, who was by birth a Jew, of the middle class of the people, and resembled his predecessor, in personal intercourse with God, miracles, and legislation, which no other prophet did, Deuteronomy 34:10-12 ; and to whom God, at his transfiguration, required the world to hearken, Matthew 17:5 . ...
In the affair of the Golden Calf, ( See CALF ,) the conduct of Moses showed the greatest zeal for God's honour, and a holy indignation against the sin of Aaron and the people. And when Moses drew nigh, and saw their proceedings, his anger waxed hot, and he cast away the tables of the covenant, or stone tablets on which were engraven the ten commandments by the finger of God himself, and brake them beneath the mount, in the presence of the people; in token that the covenant between God and them was now rescinded on his part, in consequence of their transgression. The Lord also sent a grievous plague among them for their idolatry, Exodus 32:2-35 , on which occasion Moses gave a signal proof of his love for his people, by interceding for them with the Lord; and of his own disinterestedness, in refusing the offer of the Almighty to adopt his family in their room, and make of them "a great nation. ...
When the Lord had pardoned the people, and taken them again into favour, he commanded Moses to hew two tablets of stone, like the former which were broken, and to present them to him on the top of the mount; and on these the Lord wrote again the ten commandments, for a renewal of the covenant between him and his people. To reward and strengthen the faith of Moses, God was pleased, at his request, to grant him a fuller view of the divine glory, or presence, than he had hitherto done. And, to confirm his authority with the people on his return, after the second conference of forty days, he imparted to him a portion of that glory or light by which his immediate presence was manifested: for the face of Moses shone so that Aaron and all the people were afraid to come nigh him, until he had put a veil on his face, to hide its brightness. This was an honour never vouchsafed to mortal before nor afterward till Christ, the Prophet like Moses, in his transfiguration also, appeared arrayed in a larger measure of the same lustre. Then Moses again beheld the glory of the Word made flesh, and ministered thereto in a glorified form himself, Exodus 34:1-35 ; Matthew 17:1-8 . ...
At Kibroth Hataavah, when the people loathed the manna, and longed for flesh, Moses betrayed great impatience, and wished for death. At Kadesh-barnea, Moses having encouraged the people to proceed, saying, "Behold, the Lord thy God hath set the land before thee, go up and possess it, as the Lord God of thy fathers hath said unto you: fear not," Deuteronomy 1:19-21 ; they betrayed great diffidence, and proposed to Moses to send spies to search out the land, and point out to them the way they should enter, and the course they should take. All these, except Caleb and Joshua, having brought "an evil report," so discouraged the people, that they murmured against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, "Would God that we had died in the land of Egypt; or would God that we had died in the wilderness! And wherefore hath the Lord brought us unto this land to fall by the sword, that our wives and our children shall be a prey? Were it not better for us to return into Egypt? And they said one to another, let us make a captain, and return into Egypt. Here again the noble patriotism of Moses was signally displayed. ...
The people now, to repair their fault, contrary to the advice of Moses, presumptuously went to invade the Amalekites and Canaanites of Mount Seir, or Hor; who defeated them, and chased them as bees to Hormah, Numbers 14:39-45 ; Deuteronomy 1:41-44 . The ill success of the expedition against the Amalekites, according to Josephus, occasioned the rebellion of Korah, which broke out shortly after, against Moses and Aaron, with greater violence than any of the foregoing, under Korah, the ringleader, who drew into it Dathan and Abiram, the heads of the senior tribe of Reuben, and two hundred and fifty princes of the assembly, among whom were even several of the Levites. ) But although "all Israel round about had fled at the cry of the devoted families of Dathan and Abiram, for fear that the earth should swallow them up also;" yet, on the morrow, they returned to their rebellious spirit, and murmured against Moses and Aaron, saying, "Ye have killed the people of the Lord. " On this occasion also, the Lord threatened to consume them as in a moment; but, on the intercession of Moses, only smote them with a plague, which was stayed by an atonement made by Aaron, after the destruction of fourteen thousand seven hundred souls, Numbers 16:41-50 . ...
On the return of the Israelites, after many years' wandering, to the same disastrous station of Kadesh-barnea, even Moses himself was guilty of an offence, in which his brother Aaron was involved, and for which both were excluded, as a punishment, from entering the promised land. At Meribah Kadesh the congregation murmured against Moses, for bringing them into a barren wilderness without water; when the Lord commanded Moses to take his rod, which had been laid up before the Lord, and with Aaron to assemble the congregation together, and to speak to the rock before their eyes; which should supply water for the congregation and their cattle. "But Moses said unto the congregation, when they were assembled, Hear now, ye rebels, must we fetch you water out of this rock? And he smote the rock twice with his rod, and the water came out abundantly; and the congregation drank, and their cattle also. And the Lord spake unto Moses and Aaron, Because ye believed me not, to sanctify me in the eyes of the children of Israel; therefore ye shall not bring this congregation into the land which I have given them," Numbers 20:1-13 ; and afterward in stronger terms: "Because ye rebelled against my commandment," &c. ...
The offence of Moses, as far as may be collected from so concise an account, seems to have been,...
1. How severely Moses felt his deprivation, appears from his humble, and it should seem repeated, supplications to the Lord to reverse the sentence: "O Lord of gods, thou hast begun to show thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand; for what god is there in heaven or in earth that can do according to thy works, and according to thy might? I pray thee let me go over and see the good land beyond Jordan, even that goodly mountain Lebanon," or the whole breadth of the land. From an obscure passage in the New Testament, in which Michael the archangel is said to have contended with the devil about the body of Moses, Judges 1:9 , some have thought that he was buried by the ministry of angels, near the scene of the idolatry of the Israelites; but that the spot was purposely concealed, lest his tomb might also be converted into an object of idolatrous worship among the Israelites, like the brazen serpent. The "body of Moses," may figuratively mean the Jewish church; or the whole may be an allusion to a received tradition which, without affirming or denying its truth, might be made the basis of a moral lesson. ...
Josephus, who frequently attempts to embellish the simple narrative of Holy Writ, represents Moses as attended to the top of Pisgah by Joshua, his successor, Eleazar, the high priest, and the whole senate; and that, after he had dismissed the senate, while he was conversing with Joshua and Eleazar, and embracing them, a cloud suddenly came over and enveloped him; and he vanished from their sight, and he was taken away to a certain valley. " The Jewish historian has here, perhaps, imitated the account of our Lord's ascension, furnished by the evangelist, Luke 24:50 ; Acts 1:9 ; wishing to raise Moses to a level with Christ. The preeminence of Moses's character is briefly described by the sacred historian, Samuel or Ezra: "And there arose not a prophet since, in Israel, like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face; in all the signs and the wonders which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt, to Pharaoh, and all his servants, and all his land; and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses showed in the sight of all Israel," Deuteronomy 34:10-12 . But Moses forgot himself, and forgot himself to the last. If Moses was not a divinely inspired messenger, he was an impostor in the strongest sense of the term. If Moses was not a divinely commissioned prophet, he was not the saviour of the people, but their tyrant and their murderer. Unlike all other fathers, Moses withdraws them from public view, and deprives them of the means of obtaining glory and favour. Samuel and Eli assign a part of their paternal authority to their sons, and permit them even to abuse it; but the sons of Moses, in the wilderness, are only the simple servants of the tabernacle; like all the other sons of Kohath, if they even dare to raise the veil which covers the sacred furniture, the burden, of which they carry, death is denounced against them. Where can we find more complete disinterestedness than in Moses? Is not his the character of an upright man, who has the general good, not his own interests, at heart; of a man who submissively acquiesces in the commands of God, without resistance and without demur? When we consider these several things; when we reflect on all the ministry of Moses, on his life, on his death, on his character, on his abilities, and his success; we are powerfully convinced that he was the messenger of God. No! Moses was inspired by God: he received from God the law which he left his countrymen. ...
To Moses we owe that important portion of Holy Scripture, the Pentateuch, which brings us acquainted with the creation of the world, the entrance of sin and death, the first promises of redemption, the flood, the peopling of the postdiluvian earth, and the origin of nations, the call of Abraham, and the giving of the law. The genuineness and authenticity of these most venerable and important books have been established by various writers; but the following remarks upon the veracity of the writings of Moses have the merit of compressing much argument into few words:—...
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Aaron - The son of Amram and Jochebed, of the tribe of Levi He was three years older than his brother Moses. Aaron was noted for his eloquence, and was appointed by Jehovah to speak for Moses in the court of Pharaoh. He aided Moses in leading the Hebrews out of Egypt; and was consecrated the first high priest of the Hebrew nation. While Moses was absent in Mount Sinai receiving the law, Aaron weakly yielded to the people's demand to have some image of a deity for them to worship. Aaron joined Miriam, his sister, in sedition against Moses, Numbers 12:1-12, and, with Moses, neglected to acknowledge the power of God at Kadesh
Beth-Peor - In the "ravine" or valley over against Beth-peor Moses was probably buried (Deuteronomy 34:6 )
Flesh Pot - The murmuring of the Israelites against Moses (Exodus 16:3 ) included the exaggerated claim that they customarily relaxed by the flesh pots in Egypt and had more than enough bread
Beth-Haram - A city Moses allotted the tribe of Gad (Joshua 13:27 )
Exodus - ) A going out; particularly (the Exodus), the going out or journey of the Israelites from Egypt under the conduct of Moses; and hence, any large migration from a place
Abidan - ” Representative of the tribe of Benjamin in helping Moses and Aaron number the people in the wilderness (Numbers 1:11 ) and captain of the tribe in the wilderness marches (Numbers 2:22 ; Numbers 7:60 ,Numbers 7:60,7:65 ; Numbers 10:24 )
Zur - Zur was later killed in a battle Moses led ( Numbers 31:7-8 )
Jahaz - JAHAZAH or JAHZAH, a city in the north of Moab, near which Moses defeated Sihon, Numbers 21:23
Meribah -
One of the names given by Moses to the fountain in the desert of Sin, near Rephidim, which issued from the rock in Horeb, which he smote by the divine command, "because of the chiding of the children of Israel" (Exodus 17:1-7 ). In smiting the rock at this place Moses showed the same impatience as the people (Numbers 20:10-12 )
Describe - 1: γράφω (Strong's #1125 — Verb — grapho — graf'-o ) "to write," is rendered "describeth" in Romans 10:5 , AV, "For Moses describeth the righteousness which is of the Law . ;" this the RV corrects to "For Moses writeth that the man that doeth the righteousness which is of the Law
Lud - Moses would not abruptly pass to the distant W. , under one of whom Moses lived (G
Beth-Peor - Town in whose valley Israel camped as Moses delivered the sermons of the Book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 3:29 ). Moses died and was buried near there (Deuteronomy 34:6 )
Footsteps - Read the special case about Moses in Psalm 103:7. Here we find that the people saw what He did, but Moses understood why He did it
Kohath, Kohathites - He was the grandfather of Moses and Aaron. Moses
Jannes And Jambres - In 2 Timothy 3:8 these names are given as those of Moses’ opponents; the Egyptian magicians of Exodus 7:11 ; Exodus 7:22 are doubtless referred to, though their names are not given in OT. 23 79) mentions ‘Moses, Jamnes (or Jannes), and Jotapes (or Lotapes)’ as Jewish magicians ( Hist. 130) in his Apology speaks of Moses and Jannes as magicians; the Pythagorean Numenius (2nd cent. 51), related ‘the account respecting Moses and Jannes and Jambres,’ and Eusebius gives the words of Numenius ( Prœp
Jannes - and JAMBRES, or, as Pliny calls them, Jamne and Jotape, two magicians, who resisted Moses in Egypt, 2 Timothy 3:8 . He speaks, likewise, of the faction or sect of magicians, of which, he says, Moses, Jannes, and Jocabel, or Jopata, were heads. Artapanus tells us, that Pharaoh sent for magicians from Upper Egypt to oppose Moses. Jerom translates their names Johannes and Mambres; and there is a tradition, they say, in the Talmud, that Juhanni and Mamre, chief of Pharaoh's physicians, said to Moses, "Thou bringest straw into Egypt, where abundance of corn grew;" that is, to bring your magical arts hither is to as much purpose as to bring water to the Nile
Kedemoth - A wilderness or uncultivated pasture adjoining was named from it; where Israel encamped when Moses asked leave of Sihon to pass through the Amorite country (Deuteronomy 2:26, etc
Rod - , Moses'; Numbers 17, Aaron's; Psalms 2:9, Christ's
Numbers - the Book of: The fourth of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' sojourn in the desert
Nebo, Mount - On the east of the Jordan, perhaps the highest point of Pisgah, from whence Moses viewed the promised land
Leviticus - a canonical book of Scripture, being the third book of the Pentateuch of Moses; thus called because it contains principally the laws and regulations relating to the Levites, priests, and sacrifices; for which reason the Hebrews call it the law of the priests, because it includes many ordinances concerning their services
Zip'Porah, - daughter of Reuel or Jethro, the priest of Midian, wife of Moses and mother of his two sons Gershom and Eliezer
Dathan - Son of Eliab the Reubenite: he joined with Korah and Abiram in rebellion against Moses and Aaron, and was with Abiram swallowed up by the earth
Esh'Col, the Valley - or The brook of, a wady in the neighborhood of Hebron (Mamre), explored by the spies who were sent by Moses from Kadesh-barnea
Sinai - a famous mountain of Arabia Petraea, on which God gave the law to Moses, Exodus 19:1 ; Exodus 24:16 ; Exodus 31:18 ; Exodus 34:2 ; Exodus 34:4 , &c; Leviticus 25:1 ; Leviticus 26:46 . The Arabs call Mount Sinai by the name of Tor, that is, the mountain, by way of excellence; or Gibel Mousa, "the mountain of Moses. The wilderness of Sinai, where the Israelites continued encamped almost a year, and where Moses erected the tabernacle of the covenant, is considerably elevated above the rest of the country; the ascent to it is very craggy, the greater part cut out of the rock; then one comes to a large space of ground, which is a plain surrounded on all sides by rocks and eminences, whose length is nearly twelve miles. Five or six paces from thence they show a stone, whose height is four or five feet, and breadth about three, which they say is the very stone from whence Moses caused the water to gush out. ...
"Sinai," says Sandys, "has three tops of a marvellous height; that on the west side, where God appeared to Moses in a bush, fruitful in pasturage, far lower than the middlemost, and shadowed when the sun riseth thereon; which is that whereon God gave the law to Moses, and which is now called the Mount of Moses, at the foot of which stands the monastery called St. Catherine's Mount, which certainly is not so high as that of Moses by a third part, from this circumstance, that Thevenot found much snow on both when he was there, which was in February
Aaron - The son of Amram and Jochabed, of the tribe of Levi, and brother of Moses and Miriam, Exodus 6:20 ; born about the year B. He was three years older than Moses, Exodus 7:7 and was the spokesman and assistant of the latter in bringing Israel out of Egypt, Exodus 4:16 . He was 83 years old when God summoned him to join Moses in the desert near Horeb. Yet he fell sometimes into grievous sins: he made the golden calf at Sinai, Exodus 32:1-22 ; he joined Miriam in sedition against Moses, Numbers 12:1-16 ; and with Moses disobeyed God at Kadesh, Numbers 20:8-12
Mountain - God called Moses to His work at Mount Horeb, sometimes called “the mountain of God. ...
After the Exodus, God commanded Moses to gather the people at Mount Sinai (probably identical to Horeb). There God gave the Law including the Ten Commandments to Moses. ...
Other Old Testament mountain episodes include Aaron's death on Mount Hor (Numbers 33:38 ), the death of Moses on Mount Nebo (Deuteronomy 34:1-8 ), and Elijah's defeat of the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:15-40 ). Jesus was declared to be preeminent over both Moses and Elijah, the representatives of the Law and Prophets
Joshua - His name was originally OSHEA, or HOSHEA, but it was changed by Moses into Jehoshua, and this was contracted into Joshua, which is the same as JESUS in the Greek, and signifies 'Jehovah the saviour. The first notice of Joshua is when he led the army against the Amalekites and overcame them while Moses' hands were held up. He is afterwards called the 'minister' of Moses, and as such he went up with him into the mount of God. Joshua was appointed the successor of Moses, not as law-giver, but as leader. He had 'the spirit,' and some of the honour of Moses was put upon him
Shebuel - Grandson of Moses and head of a clan of Levites (1 Chronicles 23:16 ; 1 Chronicles 26:24 ; sometimes equated with Shubael of 1 Chronicles 24:20 )
Nebo, Mount - A mountain of the Abarim range, east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, from which Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 32), and where he died (Deuteronomy 34)
Mount Nebo - A mountain of the Abarim range, east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, from which Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 32), and where he died (Deuteronomy 34)
Rite - 6th ed; Godwyn's Moses and Aaron; Edwards's Survey of all Religions, vol
Free Thinker - One of the most admirable and pointed addresses to free thinkers, any where to be met with may be found in the dedication to Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses
Songs - Of Moses (Exodus 15 ; Numbers 21:17 ; Deuteronomy 32 ; Revelation 15:3 ), Deborah (Judges 5 ), Hannah (1 Samuel 2 ), David (2 Samuel 22 , and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46-55 ), Zacharias (Luke 1:68-79 ), the angels (Luke 2:13 ), Simeon (Luke 2:29 ), the redeemed (Revelation 5:9 ; 19 ), Solomon (see SOLOMON , SONGS OF)
Rekem - One of five Midianite kings whom Israel defeated in Moses' time (Numbers 31:8 ; Joshua 13:21 )
Bethpeor - A city of Moab, east of the Jordan, near to which, in the valley, Israel made one of their last encampments, Deuteronomy 3:29 ; Deuteronomy 4:46 ; and near to which the Lord buried Moses
Servant - In our sense, "a free, voluntary attendant", as Joshua of Moses (Exodus 33:11; so 2 Kings 4:12; 2 Kings 4:43; 2 Kings 5:20; 2 Kings 6:15 margin "minister"; 2 Samuel 13:17-18; 1 Kings 20:14-15)
Migdol - Moses writes, that when the Israelites came out of Egypt, the Lord commanded them to encamp over against Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baal-Zephon, Exodus 14:2
Lapwing - Hoopoe, and in the parallel passage of Deuteronomy 14:18, amongst the list of those birds which were forbidden by the law of Moses to be eaten by the Israelites
Paltiel - Leader of Issachar whom Moses appointed to assist Joshua and Eliezer in distribution of land to the tribes west of the Jordan (Numbers 34:26 )
Heber - A Kenite descended from Hobab, Moses' father-in-law
Allegorical Sense - Thus, the serpent raised by Moses in the desert to heal the Israelites from their wounds represented, in an allegorical sense, Jesus Christ raised upon the Cross for the redemption of mankind
Mosiac Law - Or the law of Moses, is the most ancient that we know of in the world, and is of three kinds; the moral law, the ceremonial law, and the judicial law. The ceremonial was received by Moses in private in the tabernacle, as being of peculiar concern, belonging to the Jews only, and destined to cease when the tabernacle was down, and the veil of the temple rent. The five books of Moses called the Pentateuch, are frequently styled, by way of emphasis, the law
Mid'Ian - The "land of Midian," the place to which Moses fled after having killed the Egyptian, ( Exodus 2:15,21 ) or the portion of it specially referred to, was probably the peninsula of Sinai. The influence of the Midianties on the Israelites was clearly most evil, and directly tended to lead them from the injunctions of Moses. The spoil taken in the war of both Moses and of Gideon is remarkable
Serpent, Fiery - While traversing this region, the people began to murmur and utter loud complaints against Moses. Moses interceded on their behalf, and by divine direction he made a "brazen serpent," and raised it on a pole in the midst of the camp, and all the wounded Israelites who looked on it were at once healed
Nicolas Poussin - The Louvre has many of his canvases, among them The Finding of Moses; Eliezer and Rebecca, and The Blind Men of Jericho. Other works are The Rape of the Sabines; The Childhood of Jupiter; Moses Striking the Rock; Et in Arcadia Ego, and the set called The Seven Sacraments
Hur - One who with Aaron supported the hands of Moses during the battle of Israel with Amalek. He was also left with Aaron in charge of the camp when Moses ascended mount Sinai
Serpent, Brazen - This was a figure of a serpent, called above the seraph, which Moses caused to be put on the top of a pole, Numbers 21:9 , that all those bitten by the serpent, who should look upon this image, might be healed. John 3:14 , declares, that "as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up," alluding to his own death, which, through faith, was to give life to the world
Levi - The third son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia; and father of three sons, and of Jochebed the mother of Moses, Genesis 29:34 Exodus 6:16-20 . For his share in the treacherous massacre of the Shechemites, Genesis 34:1-31 , his father at death foreboded evil to his posterity, Genesis 49:5-7 ; but as they afterwards stood forth on the Lord's side, Moses was charged to bless them, Exodus 32:26-29 Deuteronomy 33:8-11
Exodus, Theology of - He is named Moses, for Pharaoh's daughter "drew him out of the water. ...
A dramatic change takes place when God appears to Moses. The disclosure of God's will and plan revolves around the conversation with Moses. Then God speaks directly with Moses. God reveals that he is the same deity that the patriarchs knew (3:6), is concerned with the deliverance of Israel (3:7-9), and wants to use Moses in the task (3:10). The name Acts as a word of assurance to Moses and to the Israelites. Additional confirmation of this deity's ability surfaces in the signs given to Moses to answer his objections to God's call (4:1-9). ...
Further clarification of the name "Yahweh" occurs in God's speech of reassurance to Moses in 6:2-9. After Moses' initial attempts at deliverance from Pharaoh fail, Yahweh puts the scene into theological perspective. As a result, the people believe in Yahweh and in his servant, Moses (14:31). The people "fear" God as they prepare to meet him through the intermediary role of Moses. ...
While Moses and Joshua remain on the mountain to receive the tablets of Words, the people act in rebellion by making a golden calf for worship and leadership (32:1). Moses intercedes in behalf of his people (32:11-14; 33:12-16). ...
On this occasion, Moses receives a special revelation of Yahweh's character. But when Yahweh passes Moses on the mountain, six words or phrases are proclaimed that provide one of the fullest descriptions of the Lord's character, no matter whether glory or goodness. The God who met Moses at the burning bush (chap. Moses supposes that the people are going to ask God's name. Pharaoh, the Egyptians, Moses, and the people of Israel witness the quality of the name. When God passes by Moses on the mountain, the proclamation begins with a twofold repetition, "Yahweh, Yahweh" (34:6), and is followed by theological terms that explain God's character of glory or goodness, all part of the content of who this deity is. Moses participates as the messenger because he has witnessed some miracles to affirm God's call (4:1-9). Exodus 15:11 asks, "Who is like you, majestic in holiness?" At the burning bush, Moses is warned to take off his sandals because the area is "holy ground" (3:5). In this case, he sends a deliverer (Moses) who will lead Israel to the land promised the patriarchs (6:8; 15:17). ...
God's promises to Moses and to the people of Israel also come true. In chapter 3 the Lord speaks with Moses, revealing himself and his plans. He even dialogues with Moses, showing that he speaks in ways humans understand. ...
As the book unfolds, God's presence takes tangible directions with specific instructions to Moses in Egypt and at the mountain. As the people draw nearer to the deity who has been working in their behalf, they fear for themselves and ask Moses to continue to intercede for them (20:18-21). God continues to speak through Moses, but Israel is held responsible for the words from their leader. Yahweh meets with Moses there. ...
With Yahweh at their core, Moses as intermediary, and the people in covenant relationship, Israel may advance beyond the Book of Exodus to experience the Lord's will. Michael Hagan...
See also Covenant ; Egypt ; Moses ; Ten Commandments ...
Bibliography . Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt ; T
Plagues of Egypt - The presence of the frogs was so insufferable that Pharaoh called for Moses, and begged him to entreat Jehovah for their removal, and he would let the people go. The plague was felt so much that Pharaoh hastened to call Moses, and proposed that they should have their sacrifice, but have it in Egypt. To this Moses could not accede, for the Israelites would have to sacrifice the animals which the Egyptians worshipped. Moses threatened these, and Pharaoh's servants now begged him to let the people go. He called for Moses and Aaron, and said, "Go, serve the Lord your God: but who are they that shall go?" All must go, and the flocks and herds. The devastation of the locusts was such that Pharaoh sent for Moses and Aaron 'in haste,' confessed that he had sinned against Jehovah, and begged that 'this death' might be removed. " It was a darkness that might be felt, and Pharaoh called for Moses, and bade the Israelites to depart with their wives and their little ones; but they must leave their flocks and herds behind. Moses could not agree: all must go: not a hoof must be left behind, it was God's redemption. " Moses replied, "Thou hast spoken well, I will see thy face again no more. " This is in Exodus 10:29 ; but in Exodus 11:4-8 it is clear that Moses told Pharaoh of the death of the firstborn, which might have been on the same occasion by a message direct from God. We read that Moses, though the meekest of men, went out from Pharaoh in great anger. Moses and Aaron were called for, and told to depart with flocks and herds
the Angel of the Lord - " The same Jehovah was made visible to Moses, and gave him his commission; and God said, "I AM THAT I AM; thou shalt say to the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. " The Angel of the Lord appeared to Moses in a flame of fire; but this same Angel "called to him out of the bush, and said, I am the God of thy fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God. Stephen, in alluding to this part of the history of Moses, in his speech before the council, says, "There appeared to Moses in the wilderness of Mount Sinai, an Angel of the Lord in a flame of fire," showing that that phraseology was in use among the Jews in his day, and that this Angel and Jehovah were regarded as the same being; for he adds, "Moses was in the church in the wilderness with the Angel which spoke unto him in Mount Sinai. In Exodus 23:20 , God makes this promise to Moses and the Israelites: "Behold, I send an Angel before thee to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee into the place which I have prepared. " This name must be understood of God's own peculiar name, JEHOVAH, I AM, which he assumed as his distinctive appellation at his first appearing to Moses; and as the names of God are indicative of his nature, he who had a right to bear the peculiar name of God, must also have his essence. This view is put beyond all doubt by the fact, that Moses and the Jews so understood the matter; for afterward when their sins had provoked God to threaten not to go up with them himself, but to commit them to "an angel who should drive out the Canaanite," &c, the people mourned over this as a great calamity, and Moses betook himself to special intercession, and rested not until he obtained the repeal of the threat, and the renewed promise, "My presence shall go with thee, and I will give thee rest. " Nothing, therefore, can be more clear than that Moses and the Israelites considered the promise of the Angel, in whom was "the name of God," as a promise that God himself would go with them. With this uncreated Angel, this presence of the Lord, they were satisfied, but not with "an angel" indefinitely, who was by nature of that order of beings usually so called, and therefore a created being; for at the news of God's determination not to go up with them, Moses hastens to the tabernacle to make his intercessions, and refuses an inferior conductor:—"If thy presence go not with me, carry us not up hence
Joshua - JOSHUA, THE SON OF NUN, Moses' SERVANT...
WHERE were Gershom and Eliezer all this time? Were they both dead? Or, if living, had theyno heart for their father's God till it had been better for them and for their father that they had never been born? Can it be possible that even Moses had come so far short as this, in the supreme duty and fast-passing opportunity of bringing up his own sons? Had her husband been so cumbered with the exodus, and with the law, and with all the cares and labours of the leadership in Israel, that he had no leisure so much as to eat his meals beside Zipporah and her two sons? Had Moses been far too long in accepting a staff of elders to assist him in ruling and judging Israel? And were Gershom and Eliezer grown up and gone clean out of hand before their father had wakened up to that and was aware of it? But, when all is said, it is far less the father than the mother in this matter. Had Moses house, then, been so divided against itself that it fell upon his two sons? And had Miriam and Aaron been right after all in their hot opposition to their brother's marriage with the Ethiopian woman? We ask these questions at the text, but we get no answer. At the same time, though Moses had wholly lost hold of his own sons, there is this to be said for the father of Gershom and Eliezer: that he had an immense attraction for some other men's sons. There was nothing more remarkable about Moses than the openness of his heart and the freshness of his mind to double the age of ordinary men; as Isaac Walton says, God had blessed Moses with perfect intellectuals and a cheerful heart to old age; and the young men who were always about him had had a great deal to do with that. And that was always the case with Moses. There was quite a circle of young men continually around Moses, and Joshua, the son of Nun, was the choicest and the most capable of them all. We know nothing as yet about Joshua-nothing but this, that he was not the son of Moses and Zipporah, but of a certain unknown man named Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim. ...
It is stated again and again in the sacred history that Joshua stood before Moses and was his minister. Stood ready, that is, to run the great man's errands, and to set out with him on his hallowed expeditions, and, in short, to be more than a son to Moses in the absence of bis own sons. And Joshua, the son of Nun, was the first figure and far-off forerunner of all such young men as he stood before Moses, and was his minister, and went up with him to the mount, and never departed out of the tabernacle. And she had already her full wages paid her when she saw her son Joshua standing of his own accord before Moses and serving him as his minister. And thus it came about that through her, and through some other nameless mothers like her, what Moses missed so much at home he found so thankfully as often as he went abroad, when Joshua and his companions gathered round Moses to drink in his counsels and to execute his commands. But it was Joshua alone in all the camp who was all to Moses that John was to Jesus. Moses loved and trusted Joshua, and Joshua lay at Moses' feet. At the same time, the defect of Joshua's finest quality, as we are wont to call it, came out on an occasion, and was warmly and nobly rebuked by Moses, as we read in a very beautiful passage in the Book of Numbers. There was a day of Pentecost in Israel as Moses grew old, when the Spirit of the Lord fell on seventy of the elders of Israel in order to fit them to be Moses' assessors and assistants in ruling and in teaching the refractory people. 'Forbid them, my lord!' said Joshua, in his jealousy for Moses. To which speech of Joshua Moses made the golden answer: 'Enviest thou for my sake? Would God that all the Lord's people were prophets, and that the Lord would put His Spirit upon them!' see John 3:26, the margin steps in and says. ' It is beautiful to see Moses' best disciple so jealous of other gifted men, and all out of pure honour and love to his great master; and it is beautiful to see the same mistaken loyalty in John's disciples. But both Moses and John shine splendidly to all time in their rebukes to their disciples, and show themselves to be the true masters of such deserving disciples in their never-to-be-forgotten answers and lessons and reproofs. Moses, and John, and Paedaritus of Sparta, Moses' contemporary, who, when he was passed over and left out in the election of the Three Hundred, went home to his house beaming with happiness, it did him so much good to see that there were so many men in Sparta who were better men than himself. ...
For years and years, and all the time wholly unknown to anybody but himself, Moses had been schooling his own heart till the case of Eldad and Medad only called out into words what had for long been in his thoughts. Joshua had but put in rude and angry words the bitter jealousy that Moses had for years and years been battling with in secret. And Moses' magnificent answer to Joshua was but another proof of the incomparable meekness and sweetness of Moses' so subdued heart. And then, when long afterwards we find Moses suing for a successor who should take up his work and finish it, he does it in a way that proclaims Moses to have been a man after God's own heart long before David was born. The cross would, no doubt, have been somewhat less sharp had Gershom or Eliezer stood ready to take up the laid-down leadership, and it may well have been the last pang of that painful time to Moses that he had no son of his own to take his place, to finish his work, and to transmit his name. And the Lord said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua, the son of Nun, a man in whom is the Spirit, and lay thine hand upon him. And Moses did as the Lord commanded him. The Spirit of the Lord had begun in Joshua from a child, from his mother's milk, indeed; and to him that hath shall be given, till by the time that Moses died we are reassured and rewarded as we read that Joshua, the son of Nun, was full of the spirit of wisdom, and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the Lord commanded Moses. An old servant of God who had been a very Moses to multitudes in our land was about to die when he sent for the man who had been a very Joshua, a son and a servant to him, and from his death-bed addressed him in words of love and trust and prophetic assurance that must often come back to his heart, as they often come back to mine. Men like Moses and Joshua, and all who serve God and man, pass through extreme and painful experiences. Joshua had never forgotten that day of days in the great days of his youth, when Moses took his young servant up with him to the top of the mount, ay, and even into the cleft rock itself. And Moses and Joshua made haste in the cleft rock, and they bowed their heads to the earth, and they said, If now we have found grace in Thy sight, pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us for Thine inheritance
Elders - When Moses was sent into Egypt to deliver Israel, he assembled the elders of Israel, and told them that the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, had appeared to him, Exodus 3:15 ; Exodus 4:29 , &c. Moses and Aaron treat the elders of Israel as the representatives of the nation. When God gave the law to Moses, he said, "Take Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, his sons, and the seventy elders of Israel, and worship ye afar off,"...
Exodus 24:1 ; Exodus 24:9-10 . But it is credible, that as there were twelve tribes, there were seventy-two elders, six from each tribe, and that seventy is set down, instead of seventy-two; or rather, that Moses and Aaron should be added to the number seventy, and that, exclusive of them, there were but four elders from the tribe of Levi. After Jethro's arrival in the camp of Israel, Moses made a considerable change in the governors of the people. But this constitution did not continue long; for on the murmuring of the people at the encampment called the Graves of Lust, Numbers 11:24-35 , Moses appointed seventy elders of Israel, to whom God communicated part of that legislator's spirit; they began to prophesy, and ceased not afterward. It seems that the establishment of the seventy elders by Moses continued, not only during his life, but under Joshua likewise, and under the judges
Cushite - ...
...
Moses married a Cushite woman (Numbers 12:1 )
Beyond - When used with reference to Jordan, signifies in the writings of Moses the west side of the river, as he wrote on the east bank (Genesis 50:10,11 ; Deuteronomy 1:1,5 ; 3:8,20 ; 4:46 ); but in the writings of Joshua, after he had crossed the river, it means the east side (Joshua 5:1 ; 12:7 ; 22:7 )
Tradition - Thus the Jews pretended that, besides their written law contained in the Old Testament, Moses had delivered an oral law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by tradition
Glean - The corners of fields were not to be reaped, and the sheaf accidentally left behind was not to be fetched away, according to the law of Moses (Leviticus 19:9 ; 23:22 ; Deuteronomy 24:21 )
Chest - 'Αron , always, except twice (Joseph's coffin and Jehoiada's alms chest, Genesis 50:26; 2 Kings 12:9-10), used for the ark of the covenant; the "ark" (teebah ) of Noah, and that of bulrushes in which Moses was put, is quite distinct
Nebo - It was the place where the aged Moses went to view the promised land and where, a short time later, he died (Deuteronomy 32:49-50; Deuteronomy 34:1; Deuteronomy 34:5-6; see ABARIM)
Kedemoth - From the ‘wilderness of Kedemoth’ messengers were sent by Moses to Sihon ( Deuteronomy 2:26 )
Missing - For a time caught up to God, as once ...
Moses was in the mount, and missing long
Abiram - A Reubenite, son of Eliab; conspired with Dathan and On, Reubenites, and Korah, a Levite, against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16)
Abiram - Leader of rebellion against Moses and Aaron seeking priestly authority
Gershom - Eldest son of Moses and Zipporah, born in Midian
Abarim - Nebo became ever-memorable, as being the sacred spot where Moses the man of God died
iz'Har - (oil ), son of Kohath grandson of Levi, uncle of Aaron and Moses and father of Korah
Patriarchs - This name is given to the ancient fathers, chiefly those who lived before Moses, as Adam, Lamech, Noah, Shem, &c, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, the sons of Jacob, and heads of the tribes
Urim - When Aaron was arrayed, Moses himself put the Urim and Thummin into the breastplate
Necromancer - No good reason can be given for believing that such pretended communications with departed spirits are less offensive to God now than in the time of Moses
Ger'Shon - ) But, though the eldest born, the families of Gershon were outstripped in fame by their younger brethren of Kohath, from whom sprang Moses and the priestly line of Aaron
Bereishit - "in the beginning"); Genesis, the first book of the Pentateuch; the first word of the Torah...
Bereishit: The first of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of creation and Noah's Flood, and describes the lives and deeds of the Patriarchs, Matriarchs, and the Twelve Tribes
Jether -
Father-in-law of Moses (Exodus 4:18 marg
Pharaoh's Daughters - Three princesses are thus mentioned in Scripture:
The princess who adopted the infant Moses (q. It would seem that she was alive and in some position of influence about the court when Moses was compelled to flee from Egypt, and thus for forty years he had in some way been under her influence
Judaising Christians - Those who were strongly attached to the Mosaic rites, separated from their brethren, and founded at Pera, a country of Palestine, and in the neighbouring parts, particular assemblies, in which the law of Moses maintained its primitive dignity, authority, and lustre. The body of Judaising Christians, which set Moses and Christ upon an equal footing in point of authority, were afterwards divided into two sects, extremely different both in their rites and opinions, and distinguished by the names of Nazarenes and Ebionites; which see
Enos - Moses tells us that then "men began to call upon the name of the Lord," Genesis 4:26 ; that is, such as abhorred the impiety and immorality which prevailed among the progeny of Cain, began to worship God in public, and to assemble together at stated times for that purpose. Good men, to distinguish themselves from the wicked, began to take the name of sons or servants of God; for which reason Moses, Genesis 6:1-2 , says that "the sons of God," or the descendants of Enos, "seeing the daughters of men," &c
Egypt, Plagues of - Of the ten plagues seven were directly wrought through the agency of Moses and Aaron, or of Moses alone
Mir'Iam - (rebellion ), the sister of Moses, was the eldest of that sacred family; and she first appears, probably as a young girl, watching her infant brother's cradle in the Nile, ( Exodus 2:4 ) and suggesting her mother as a nurse. (Exodus 15:1-19 ) She took the lead, with Aaron, in the complaint against Moses for his marriage with a Cushite, (Numbers 12:1,2 ) and for this was attacked with leprosy
Kenites - Moses' father-in-law, Jethro, is called a “priest of Midian” (Exodus 3:1 ) and is described as a Kenite (Judges 1:16 ). Some scholars have suggested that Moses learned about the worship of Yahweh through Kenite influence, but this theory has not been accepted by all scholars. See Moses , Jethro ; Cain ; Amalekites; Midianites
Eleazar - Eleazar then assisted Moses as Aaron had previously (Numbers 26:63; Numbers 27:2; Numbers 31:12; Numbers 32:2). God directed that when Moses died, the new leader Joshua would not speak to God face to face as Moses had, but would receive God’s instructions through the high priest Eleazar (Numbers 27:18-23)
Bashan-Havoth-Jair - , occurred between the occupation of Bashan and Moses' parting address (Deuteronomy 3:4-5; Deuteronomy 3:13-14). The name still adhering to it "unto this day," saith Moses, proves Jair's occupation of it in the face of so mighty a nation as Moab, and is a pledge of further conquests. Jair being supreme, and Nobah a subordinate branch of the Jair family, Moses comprehends the whole 60 under the name Havoth Jair. The words "unto this day" do not imply a long interval between the naming and the time of Moses' address, but mark the wonderful change due to God's gift, that the giant Og's 60 fenced cities are now become Havoth Jair! In the time of the judges, 30 were in possession of the judge Jair (Judges 10:4), so that the old name, Havoth Jair, was revived
Dathan - ” The son of Eliab and brother from the tribe of a Reuben, Dathan and his brother Abiram were leaders of a revolt challenging Moses' authority over the Israelites
Zaccur -
Father of Shammua, who was one of the spies sent out by Moses (Numbers 13:4 )
Fear of Isaac - Evidently the patriarchs used various names to refer to God until He revealed His personal name to Moses (Exodus 6:3 )
Beer -
A place where a well was dug by the direction of Moses, at the forty-fourth station of the Hebrews in their wanderings (Numbers 21:16-18 ) in the wilderness of Moab
Beth-Nimrah - ” City east of the Jordan that tribe of Gad rebuilt after Moses allotted it to them (Numbers 32:36 )
Abarim - (abuh rihm) Mountain range including Mount Nebo from which Moses viewed the Promised Land (Numbers 27:12 ; Numbers 33:47-48 ; Deuteronomy 32:49 )
Jochebed - 1523 BCE) Daughter of Levi; wife of Amram; mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses
ze'Dad - (mountain side ), one of the landmarks on the north border of the land of Israel, as Promised by Moses, ( Numbers 34:8 ) and as restored by Ezekiel
Reuben - This tribe, having much cattle, solicited and obtained from Moses possessions east of the Jordan; by which river it was separated from the main body of Israel: it was, in consequence, exposed to various inroads and oppressions from which the western tribes were free; and it was among the first carried into captivity by Tiglath-pileser, 1 Chronicles 5:26
am'Ram -
A Levite of the family of the Kohathites, and father of Moses
Bamidbar - "in the desert"); Numbers; the fourth book of the Pentateuch ...
Bamidbar: ...
The fourth of the Five Books of Moses, relates the story of the Israelites' sojourn in the desert
Harp - Moses assigns its invention to Jubal during the antediluvian period
Bush - The Hebrew word seneh occurs only in those passages which refer to Jehovah's appearance to Moses "in the flame of fire in the bush
Transfiguration, the - The transformation of Jesus in His appearance with Moses and Elijah before Peter, James, and John (Matthew 17:1-13 ; Mark 9:1-13 ; Luke 9:28-36 ; compare 2 Peter 1:16-18 ). Moses and Elijah appeared and talked with Jesus. He alone indicated that Jesus and the disciples were praying, that Moses and Elijah conversed with Jesus about His coming death, that the disciples were sleepy, and that they saw Jesus' glory. ...
The Nature of the Event It has often been claimed that the story is a misplaced resurrection appearance; but it is Moses and Elijah, not Jesus, who appear, and there is no reference to them or a voice from heaven in any other resurrection account. Moses and Elijah represented the law and the prophets respectively, which testify to but must give way to Jesus. ) Moses and Elijah themselves were heralds of the Messiah (Deuteronomy 18:15 ; Malachi 4:5-6 )
Appoint - Four examples can be noted: (1) the consecration of Aaron and his sons ( Exodus 28-29 ); (2) the appointment of Levites as servants of God (Numbers 3-8 ); (3) the naming of seventy elders to assist Moses (Numbers 11,24-25 ); and (4) the commissioning of Moses' successor (Numbers 27 ). ...
The appointment of the seventy to assist Moses was at God's initiative. Their ordination involved standing with Moses to receive the Spirit that rested upon Moses (Numbers 11:17-25 ). Moses laid his hand on Joshua as a symbol of the transference of authority
Abelshittim - It was one of the last encampments of Israel before the death of Moses, Numbers 33:49 ; called also Shittim, Joshua 2:1
Ark - ) The term (teebah ) is applied to the infant Moses' ark
Reuel - ...
"The priest of Midian," Moses' father-in-law (Exodus 2:18 )=Raguel (Numbers 10:29 )
Amram - He married Jochebed, "his father's sister," and was the father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses (Exodus 6:18,20 ; Numbers 3:19 )
Avith - Hence Moses naturally records the fact
Dulcinists - He taught that the law of the Father, which had continued till Moses, was a law of grace and wisdom; but that the law of the Holy Ghost, which began with himself in 1307, was a law entirely of love, which would last to the end of the world
Elizaphan - A clan leader among the sons of Kohath among the Levites in the wilderness with Moses (Numbers 3:30 )
Bamoth-Baal - Joshua 13:17 lists it as a city Moses gave the tribe of Reuben
Atharim - It names a roadway the king of Arad took to attack Israel under Moses
Eshcol - It was in this place the spies sent by Moses to search the land cut down one bunch, which required two men to carry
je'Thro - Moses married his daughter Zipporah
Rekem - One of the five kinglets of Midian slain by Moses ( Numbers 31:8 , Joshua 13:21 )
Ger'Shom -
The first-born son of Moses and Zipporah
Kem'Uel - ) ...
The son of Shiptan, and prince of the tribe of Ephraim; one of the twelve men appointed by Moses to divide the land of Canaan
Palti - (See Numbers 13:9) He was one of those sent by Moses to spy the land of promise
Veil, Vail - ...
...
Masveh (Exodus 34:33,35 ), the veil on the face of Moses. This verse should be read, "And when Moses had done speaking with them, he put a veil on his face," as in the Revised Version. When Moses spoke to them he was without the veil; only when he ceased speaking he put on the veil (Compare 2 Corinthians 3:13 , etc
Swine - No other reason for the command to abstain from swine's flesh is given in the law of Moses beyond the general one which forbade any of the mammalia as food which did not literally fulfill the terms of the definition of a clean animal" viz,, that it was to be a cloven-footed ruminant. It is, however, probable that dietetical considerations may have influenced Moses in his prohibition of swine's flesh: it is generally believed that its use in hot countries is liable to induce cutaneous disorders; hence in a people liable to leprosy the necessity for the observance of a strict rule. At the time of our Lord's ministry it would appear that the Jews occasionally violated the law of Moses with regard to swine's flesh
Eliezer - Second son of Moses and Zipporah, so named by Moses because 'God' had been 'his help. ' He, with his mother and his brother were left in the care of Jethro until after the Exodus, when they joined Moses in the wilderness
Revenge - In the law of Moses, as in the teachings of Jesus, God’s people are taught not even to bear a grudge against their enemies. ...
When Jesus rebuked people for living according to this rule, he was not criticizing the law of Moses. Jesus supported the law of Moses (Matthew 5:17), but he opposed people who used the principle of civil justice (‘an eye for an eye’, etc
Gershom - The elder of the two sons borne to Moses by Zipporah ( Exodus 2:22 ; Exodus 18:2-6 ; the explanation of the name given in these two passages is folk-etymology). The son of Gershom, Jonathan , and his descendants were priests to the tribe of the Danites; but the fact that these latter set up for themselves a graven image, and that therefore the descendants of Gershom were connected with worship of this kind, was regarded as a grave evil by later generations, for which reason the word ‘Moses’ in Judges 18:30 was read ‘Manasseh’ by the insertion of an n above the text; it was thought derogatory to the memory of Moses that descendants of his should have been guilty of the worship of graven images
Candlestick - One of beaten gold was made by Moses, Exodus 25:31-32 , and put into the tabernacle in the holy place, over against the table of shew bread. When Solomon had built the temple, he was not satisfied with placing one golden candlestick there, but had ten put up, of the same form and metal with that described by Moses, five on the north, and five on the south side of the holy place, 1 Kings 7:49 . After the Jews returned from their captivity, the golden candlestick was again placed in the temple, as it had been before in the tabernacle by Moses
Joshua - 1 Chronicles 7:27, and minister of Moses. He is mentioned first in connection with the fight against Amalek at Rephidim, when he was chosen by Moses to lead the Israelites. Moses, shortly before his death, was directed, Numbers 27:18, to appoint Joshua leader over the people. The favored disciple of Moses, he learned to be faithful to the Lord God. Once, indeed, he was too jealous for what he conceived to be Moses' honor
Ammonites - Yet in the time of Moses they had been driven out of this region, towards the east, by the Amorites, Numbers 21:21-35 32:33 . Moses was forbidden to assail them, Deuteronomy 2:19
Nebo (1) - Also the Mount of Moab, from which Moses viewed Canaan (Deuteronomy 32:49; Deuteronomy 34:1). As Nebo "faced Jericho," and "the ravine of Moses' burying place in Moab faced Beth-Peor," Attarus suggested by Seetzen is too far S
Midian - One clan, the Kenites, dwelt near Mount Sinai, and to it Moses fled from Pharaoh (Exodus 2:15). Its chief was Jethro (or Reuel), whose daughter Moses married (v
Abel-Shittim - Josephus names it: "Abila, 60 stadia from Jordan, embosomed amidst palms, among which Moses delivered Deuteronomy. Near mount Peor, at Shittim, in the shade of the acacia groves, Israel was seduced to Baal Peor's licentious rites; and here also Israel's judges, by Moses' direction under God, slew all the men seduced by Midian and Moab under Balaam's Satanic counsel (24,000) into whoredom and the worship of Baal Peor (Numbers 25:1; Numbers 31:16)
Jethro - An Arab sheik and priest of the Sinaitic Peninsula, the father-in-law of Moses; referred to by this name in Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 4:18 ; Exodus 18:1-2 ff. He welcomed Moses and received him into his family ( Exodus 2:21 ), and many years later visited him at Sinai ( Exodus 18:1 ff
Scribes - (Hebrew: Sopherim, lawyers) ...
In Jewish polity, men of letters, versed in the law of Moses. The chief meaning of the term, however, is a man of letters whose office it was to explain the law of Moses
Pisgah - Its principal distinction, however, is its being the scene of Moses’ vision of the Promised Land ( Deuteronomy 3:27 ; Deuteronomy 34:1 ) and of his death. see), referred to in Deuteronomy 32:49 as the scene of the death of Moses
Parable - " (Matthew 13:34)...
There is another sense of the word parable, in which it is sometimes used in Scripture when spoken in a way of reproach; hence Moses, when charging Israel to faithfulness, declares that if the people of God apostatize from him, and set up idols in the land, the Lord would scatter them among all nations, "and thou shalt become (saith Moses) an astonishment, a proverb, (or parable) and a by-word, among all nations whither the Lord shall lead thee
Elder - Moses opened his commission to them (Exodus 3:16 ). They attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy also were selected from the whole number to bear with Moses the burden of the people (Numbers 11:16,17 ). The body of the "elders" of Israel were the representatives of the people from the very first, and were recognized as such by Moses
Priests - Jethro, the priest of Midian, brought sacrifices to God and worshiped with Moses, Aaron, and the elders of Israel (Exodus 18:12 ). ...
Later, when God purposed to establish the nation, He chose Moses to organize the army, to set up a system of judges, to build a house of worship, and to ordain priests to serve therein. On Mount Sinai, God gave Moses instructions to build the tabernacle. On the mount, God told Moses to appoint Aaron and his four sons to serve as priests, that is, to serve at the altar and in the sanctuary (Exodus 28:1 ,Exodus 28:1,28:41 )
Age, - From 'Adam to Moses' excluding both, is an epoch when men's sins could not be classed as transgressions, seeing there was no definite law such as was given to Adam, or such as was administered by Moses. Again, from Moses to Christ formed a definite period: "the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ," John 1:17 ; "the law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it
Mine - Moses speaks of the mineral wealth of Palestine (Deuteronomy 8:9 )
Igdaliah - a prophet, one not his own; having parted with all right in himself, to be wholly God's: Deuteronomy 33:1, Moses; Elisha, 2 Kings 4:7; Timothy, 2 Timothy 3:17)
Faith: the Summary of Virtue - The Jews in the Talmud have the saying, 'The whole law was given to Moses at Sinai, in six hundred and thirteen precepts
Marah - If the passage was in the neighbourhood of Suez, Wâdy Hawarah , about 15 to 16 hours’ camel-ride from ‘the Wells of Moses’ (nearly opposite Suez on the E
Shel'Omith - (1 Chronicles 23:18 ) ...
A descendant of Eliezer the son of Moses, in the reign of David
Nine - Mark 15:34 (a) This time was 3:00 o'clock in the afternoon, the time of the evening sacrifice, prescribed by Moses
Abihu - Second son of Aaron ( Exodus 6:23 , Numbers 3:2 ; Numbers 26:60 , 1 Chronicles 6:3 ; 1 Chronicles 24:1 ); accompanied Moses to the top of Sinai ( Exodus 24:1 ; Exodus 24:9 ); admitted to the priest’s office ( Exodus 28:1 ); slain along with his brother Nadab for offering strange fire ( Leviticus 10:1-2 , Numbers 3:4 ; Numbers 26:61 , 1 Chronicles 24:2 )
ab'Arim - Its most elevated spot was "the Mount Nebo, 'head' of 'the' Pisgah," from which Moses viewed the Promised Land before his death
Reuel - Priest of Midian and father or grandfather of Zipporah, Moses' wife
Deuteronomy, the Book of - ) Containing Moses' three last discourses before his death, addressed to all Israel in the Moabite plains E. of Jordan, in the eleventh month of the last year of their wanderings, the fortieth after their departure from Egypt; with the solemn appointment of his successor Joshua, Moses' song, blessing, and the account of his death subjoined by Joshua or some prophet (Deuteronomy 1:1 - 4:40; Deuteronomy 5:1 - 26:19; Deuteronomy 27:1 - 29:29). Thirty days before were spent in mourning for Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8); so that Moses' death would be on the seventh day of the twelfth month, and Moses began his address the first day of the eleventh month, fortieth year (Deuteronomy 1:3). Thus, Deuteronomy is not a mere summary recapitulation, for large parts of the previous code are unnoticed, but Moses' inspired elucidation of the spirit and end of the law. " In the ultimate and exhaustive sense Messiah fulfills the prophecy; Deuteronomy 34:10 expressly says "there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face. In a lower sense the whole order of prophets, the forerunners of THE PROPHET, is included; hardly Joshua, for he was already designated as Moses' successor (Numbers 27:18; Numbers 27:23), and the prophecy contemplates a future "prophet. "...
Our Lord Himself must have had this prophecy in view in Deuteronomy 14:28-295 "Moses wrote of Me. "...
Nay, more, Moses foresaw their disobedience: "I know that after my death ye will utterly corrupt yourselves, and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you, and evil will befall you in the latter days" (2 Kings 22:13-179). So also Deuteronomy 32, Moses song. ...
In Deuteronomy 32:8 Moses intimates that from the beginning the distribution of races and nations had a relation to God's final purpose that Israel should be the spiritual center of the kingdom of God; "when the Most High divided to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of Adam, He set the bound: of the people according to the number of the children of Israel," i. The coincidences of Moses' song with other parts of the Pentateuch and of Deuteronomy confirm its genuineness. Psalm 90, which is Moses' work, resembles it: Psalms 90:1; Psalms 90:13-16, with Deuteronomy 32:4; Deuteronomy 32:7; Deuteronomy 32:36; explain Deuteronomy 32:5 "they are not His children but their spot," i. Herein Deuteronomy, "the second law," is the preparation for the gospel law; and Moses, in the very act of founding the Sinaitic law, prepares for its giving place to the higher law which is its end and fulfillment. But if it was the whole Pentateuch put by the Levites, at Moses' command, in the sides of the ark (Deuteronomy 31:9; Deuteronomy 31:26; 2 Chronicles 34:14), still Deuteronomy was the part that mainly awakened the conscience of king and people (Deuteronomy 12:2-3; Deuteronomy 12:16; Deuteronomy 12:18; Deuteronomy 29:25-27; compare 1618063920_56; 2 Kings 22:23). The original writer, Moses, could alone treat his own work in such a free spirit. ), and not mentioned as "blessing" the people, the prerogative of the priests (Numbers 6:23-27, compare Deuteronomy 10:8-9); but in Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 18:7; Deuteronomy 11:6) the Levites and Aaronite priests not being mutually distinguished, and Korah not being mentioned with Dathan and Abiram in their rebellion) is accounted for by the consideration that Moses in Deuteronomy is addressing the people, and for the time takes no notice of the distinction of orders among ministers, and, similarly referring to the rebellions of the people against God, takes no notice of the minister Korah's share in the rebellion, as not suiting his present purpose. Moses lays down a law for distant generations, as the land was to be a lasting inheritance; the words "shalt inherit" prove that the occupation was still future. Moses tells us that all the words of this law he wrote and gave to the Levites to be put in the side of the ark at the one time (Deuteronomy 31:9; Deuteronomy 31:22-26. Paul's quotations, "Rejoice, O ye nations (Gentiles), with His people," and "I will move them to jealousy with those which are not a people," prove that Moses did not understand his own law as possessing that localized narrowness to which Judaism would restrict it. Many circumstances which would naturally be noticed on the eve of Israel's entrance into Canaan occur for the first time in Moses' last address. Jethro doubtless suggested the plan, and Moses, after consulting God, laid it before the people, assigning the choice to them. ) Moses reminds them of what was not noticed before, but was most to his point now, their share in sending them. A forger would magnify the miracles in referring to them; Moses alludes to them as notorious, and uses them only as an incentive to enforce obedience
New Testament, Divorce in the - God did not withdraw His will by permitting divorce in the Law of Moses, for divorce was merely tolerated. They say to him: Why then did Moses command to give a bill of divorce, and to put away? He saith to them: Because Moses by reason of the hardness of your heart permitted you to put away your wives
Divorce in the New Testament - God did not withdraw His will by permitting divorce in the Law of Moses, for divorce was merely tolerated. They say to him: Why then did Moses command to give a bill of divorce, and to put away? He saith to them: Because Moses by reason of the hardness of your heart permitted you to put away your wives
Korah - ...
...
A Levite, the son of Izhar, the brother of Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron (Exodus 6:21 ). This gave rise to murmurings and discontent, while the Israelites were encamped at Kadesh for the first time, which came to a head in a rebellion against Moses and Aaron, headed by Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. The whole company demanded of Moses and Aaron that the old state of things should be restored, alleging that "they took too much upon them" (Numbers 16:1-3 )
Spies - When the Israelites reached Kadesh for the first time, and were encamped there, Moses selected twelve spies from among the chiefs of the divisions of the tribes, and sent them forth to spy the land of Canaan (Numbers 13 ), and to bring back to him a report of its actual condition. Moses announced that as a punishment for their rebellion they must now wander in the wilderness till a new generation should arise which would go up and posses the land. , unknown to the people ( Joshua 2:1 ), "to view the land and Jericho" after the death of Moses, and just before the tribes under his leadership were about to cross the Jordan
Korah, Dathan, Abiram - The story of the rebellion of Korah, as contained in Numbers 16:17 , is now combined with what was originally an entirely different narrative that of the resistance of Dathan and Abiram , who were laymen , to the civil authority of Moses. Refusing to obey Moses’ summons to appear before him, Dathan and Abiram, along with their households, were swallowed up by the earth ( Numbers 16:1 b, Numbers 16:2-7 a, Numbers 16:25 Numbers 16:25 f. 17) describes a revolt of Korah, at the head of 250 princes of the congregation, against Moses and Aaron , in the interests of the people al large as against the tribe of Levi
Age of Man - " This is remarkable as being, according to the heading "A prayer of Moses the man of God," for of Moses we read that he lived 120 years, and "his eye was not dim, nor his natural force abated," Deuteronomy 34:7 ; but the Psalms were prophetic both for our, and future times, and Moses leads short-lived man to the eternity of God
Horeb - The memorable place where the visions of God began with Moses. Here it was, that Moses struck the rock at the foot of Horeb. (1 Corinthians 10:4) So that Horeb, which in its original sense signifies a desert and dryness, was admirably suited both to Moses and Israel, to teach them that from the dry and desert state of our fallen nature ariseth the very cause of finding springs in Christ
Tables of the Law - Those that were given to Moses upon Mount Sinai were written by the finger of God, and contained the decalogue or ten commandments of the law, as they are rehearsed in Exodus 20. Moses observes, Exodus 32:15 , that these tables were written on both sides. The words which intimate that the tables were written by the finger of God, some understand simply and literally; others, of the ministry of an angel; and others explain them merely to signify an order of God to Moses to write them
Exodus - Those who adopt the longer term reckon thus: ...
| Years | | From the descent of Jacob into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From the death of Joseph to the birth of | Moses 278 | | From the birth of Moses to his flight into | Midian 40 | | From the flight of Moses to his return into | Egypt 40 | | From the return of Moses to the Exodus 1 | | 430 ...
Others contend for the shorter period of two hundred and fifteen years, holding that the period of four hundred and thirty years comprehends the years from the entrance of Abraham into Canaan (see LXX. They reckon thus: ...
| Years | | From Abraham's arrival in Canaan to Isaac's | birth 25 | | From Isaac's birth to that of his twin sons | Esau and Jacob 60 | | From Jacob's birth to the going down into | Egypt 130 | | (215) | | From Jacob's going down into Egypt to the | death of Joseph 71 | | From death of Joseph to the birth of Moses 64 | | From birth of Moses to the Exodus 80 | | In all. 430 ...
During the forty years of Moses' sojourn in the land of Midian, the Hebrews in Egypt were being gradually prepared for the great national crisis which was approaching. " Pharaoh rose up in the night, and called for Moses and Aaron by night, and said, "Rise up, and get you forth from among my people, both ye and the children of Israel; and go, serve Jehovah, as ye have said. These words he spoke to Moses and Aaron "seem to gleam through the tears of the humbled king, as he lamented his son snatched from him by so sudden a death, and tremble with a sense of the helplessness which his proud soul at last felt when the avenging hand of God had visited even his palace. Three or four days perhaps elapsed before the whole body of the people were assembled at Rameses, and ready to set out under their leader Moses (Exodus 12:37 ; Numbers 33:3 ). This city was at that time the residence of the Egyptian court, and here the interviews between Moses and Pharaoh had taken place. ...
Having reached the eastern shore of the sea, perhaps a little way to the north of 'Ayun Musa ("the springs of Moses"), there they encamped and rested probably for a day. Moses directed that an omer of manna should be put aside and preserved as a perpetual memorial of God's goodness. Here they found no water, and again murmured against Moses. Directed by God, Moses procured a miraculous supply of water from the "rock in Horeb," one of the hills of the Sinai group (17:1-7); and shortly afterwards the children of Israel here fought their first battle with the Amalekites, whom they smote with the edge of the sword
Meekness - The cultivation of this spirit is enjoined (Colossians 3:12 ; 1 Timothy 6:11 ; Zephaniah 2:3 ), and is exemplified in Christ (Matthew 11:29 ), Abraham (Genesis 13 ; 16:5,6 ) Moses (Numbers 12:3 ), David (Zechariah 12:8 ; 2 Samuel 16:10,12 ), and Paul (1 Corinthians 9:19 )
Levirate Law - From Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Genesis 38:8 ; Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ; Compare Ruth 3 ; 4:10 )
Jehovah - Designating The Being, or, as God Himself expresses it, "I am who am" (Exodus 3), it was revealed to Moses on Mount Horeb as the incommunicable name of God
Freedom - The law of Moses pointed out the cases in which the servants of the Hebrews were to receive their freedom (Exodus 21:2-4,7,8 ; Leviticus 25:39-42,47-55 ; Deuteronomy 15:12-18 )
Nurse - ) Figuratively; Moses was "as a nursing father bearing the sucking child" (Numbers 11:12)
Marah - There was at Marah a spring of bitter water, sweetened subsequently by the casting in of a tree which "the Lord showed" to Moses
Marah - The people complained against Moses because of their discomfort
Mishael - Cousin of Moses and Aaron (Exodus 6:22 ) who helped bury Nadab and Abihu (Leviticus 10:4 )
Samaritan Pentateuch - The canon or “Bible” of the Samaritans, who revere the Torah as God's revelation to Moses on Mount Sinai and do not regard the rest of the Hebrew Bible as canon
Miriam - (a) (1400-1274 BCE) A prophetess, daughter of Amram and Jochebed, older sister of Aaron and Moses
Patriarch - ) The father and ruler of a family; one who governs his family or descendants by paternal right; - usually applied to heads of families in ancient history, especially in Biblical and Jewish history to those who lived before the time of Moses
Bulrush - It was of this that the ark was made in which the infant Moses was put, Exodus 2:3 , and the smaller boats on the Nile
Pisgah - Balaam offered sacrifices there, and it was the spot from which Moses viewed the promised land, and near to which he died
Abel-Shittim - Moses encamped at Abel-Shittim some time before the Hebrew army passed the Jordan
Emims - Moses tells us that they were beaten at Shaveh-Kirjathaim, which was in the country of Sihon, conquered from the Moabites, Joshua 13:19-21
Reu'el - )
One of the names of Moses' father-in-law
Joshua - Born about the time when Moses fled to Midian, he endured in youth the slave labour amidst Egyptian brick kilns. ) Moses discerned by the Spirit his sterling qualities, solid rather than brilliant. God commanded Moses to write in the book (Hebrew, namely, the history of God's dealings with Israel) and rehearse it in Joshua's ears. Next as Moses' "minister" Joshua accompanied him along with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and 70 elders up the mountain of God; but Moses went alone into the cloud (Exodus 24:9; Exodus 24:13-15). On the descent Joshua heard the noise of the people shouting, and with a warrior's thought he said to Moses, "there is a noise of war in the camp"; but it was the noise of singers in the calf worship. When Moses removed the tabernacle of meeting between God and His people from the camp, Joshua, then "a young man" (perhaps an official term for an attendant, Numbers 11:28; Deuteronomy 1:38 "Joshua who standeth before thee"), departed not out of the tabernacle; the Lord's house and communion is the best qualification for those who are afterward to fight the Lord's battles. Moses shortly before death, by Jehovah's direction, solemnly invested Joshua with authority as his successor. Moses by laying on hands added the formal and public sign, and instrumentally gave him thereby more of "the spirit of wisdom. ...
Moses put some of his own honour (dignity and authority) upon Joshua, making him vice leader, that Israel might obey him preparatory to his becoming chief after Moses' death. Joshua was inferior to Moses in standing before Eleazar the high priest to inquire through him and his Urim and Thummim, of Jehovah; Moses enjoyed direct communion with God. Moses gave Joshua a charge before the high priest and congregation. God Himself recognizes Joshua in it by summoning him into the tabernacle with Moses, while the divine pillar of cloud manifested Jehovah's presence (compare Numbers 11:25; Numbers 12:5). He commands Moses and Joshua to write Moses' song, and teach it to Israel as a witness against them of God's benefits, their duties, and the penalty of their apostasy. Jehovah's "charge" by Moses was: "be strong and of a good courage, for thou shalt bring the children of Israel into the land which I sware unto them, and I will be with thee. "...
Once only did Joshua show an envious spirit, but it was in behalf of his beloved master Moses, not for self. When Eldad and Medad prophesied in the camp separately from the rest of the 70 who received of the spirit that was upon Moses, in his presence, Joshua said, "my lord Moses, forbid them;" he replied, "enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the Lord's people were prophets," etc. The people honoured Joshua as they had Moses. On the people expressing still their resolution to serve Jehovah, Joshua made a covenant between God and them; and wrote the covenant and the words spoken on both sides in the law book of God, adding it to that written by Moses, and set up a stone as a memorial on the spot, under a terebinth tree by the sanctuary (or place hallowed to Jehovah by Abraham), and as a visible silent witness of their engagement. Moses representing the law could not bring Israel into Canaan; that was reserved for Joshua
Judaizers - In the preamble to the meeting of the Apostles and priests at Jerusalem to consider the matter, the Pharisees "that believed" expressed the formula of the Judaizers: "They must be circumcised and be commanded to observe the law of Moses" (Acts 15). The Judaeo-Christians who came to Antioch of Syria and declared: "except you be circumcised after the manner of Moses, you cannot be saved," persuaded Saint Peter to separate himself from the Ethnico-Christians (Acts 15; Galatians 2)
Abarim - It was from Pisgah that Moses took his view of the promised land just before he died. Tristram verified the observation of the landscape from Nebo, as seen by Moses according to the Scripture record
Holocaust - They appear to have been in use long before the institution of other Jewish sacrifices by the law of Moses, Job 1:5 . On this account, the Jews, who would not allow the Gentiles to offer on their altar any other sacrifices peculiarly enjoined by the law of Moses, admitted them by the Jewish priests to offer holocausts, because these were a sort of sacrifices prior to the law, and common to all nations
Red Sea - Stephen mentions it as manifesting the glory of Moses. Of several great benefits bestowed by God on His people Israel one was that they all passed through the Sea; while a second was that they were all baptized in the Sea as followers of Moses
Impurity - IMPURE, IMPURITY...
Under the law of Moses, we find many circumstances spoken of respecting legal impurity. But what blessed views ought all true believers in Christ to have of these things, when reading at any time the law of Moses, in beholding the whole done away in the person, work, and finished salvation of Jesus
Aaron - Son of Amram, and the elder brother of Moses. The history of Aaron, incorporated as it is with that of Moses, fills a large part in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers
Red Sea - The Israelites greatly feared, but Moses said, "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah. Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and God caused a strong east wind to blow all that night, and the waters were divided, and the Israelites went over on dry land. It was, however, too late to retreat, Moses stretched forth his hand over the sea, and it returned in its strength, and they were overwhelmed. ...
The faith of the Israelites was confirmed by the destruction of the Egyptians: they feared Jehovah, and believed Jehovah and His servant Moses
Hundreds - Moses appointed leaders of hundreds to assist him in rendering legal decisions (Exodus 18:21 ,Exodus 18:21,18:25 )
Vine of Sodom - ) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses as being utterly corrupt, bringing forth only bitter fruit
Atonement, Day of - The great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9 ), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses
Proselyte - Among the Hebrews, proselytes were distinguished into two sorts: the first called proselytes of the gate, because suffered to live among them, and were those who observed the moral law only, and the rules imposed on the children of Noah; the second were called proselytes of justice, who engaged to receive circumcision, and the whole law of Moses, and enjoyed all the privileges of a native Hebrew
Gad - They were a war-like race whose valor is highly praised in the parting blessing of Moses (Deuteronomy 33), and in the prophecy of Jacob (Genesis 49)
Rephaims - (Genesis 14:5) Those were probably the same as Moses takes notice of Deuteronomy 2:10-11, there called Emims, a people great and tall, which in times past, it is said, were called giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites called them Emims
Abihail - Father of Zuriel, a leading Levite under Moses (Numbers 3:35 )
Amram - He married Jochebed his father’s sister, by whom he begat Aaron and Moses ( Exodus 6:18-20 ) and Miriam ( Numbers 26:59 , 1 Chronicles 6:3 )
Belial - Moses, when charging Israel not to follow vain and ungodly men, calls them sons of Belial
Abiram - A Reubenite, son of Eliab, who rose in the conspiracy headed by Korah against Moses and Aaron, and who perished by the judgement of God, Numbers 16 : See KORAH...
2
Nisan - By Moses it is called Abib
Kehushtan - The serpent of brass—or copper—which Moses made by God's command in the wilderness, Numbers 21:8-9, was preserved for many ages
Raguel - These passages represent him as the father of Hobab and Zipporah, and he is generally supposed to be the same as Jethro, Moses' father-in-law
Zin - It formed part of the great wilderness of Paran, Numbers 13:26 ; and in its north-east corner was Kadesh-barnea, memorable for the death of Miriam, the mission of the twelve spies into Canaan, the murmuring of the Israelites, the rock flowing with water, and the unholy passion of Moses, Numbers 13:21 20:1-13 27:14
Nisan - By Moses it is called Abib, Exodus 13:4
Numbers, the Book of - It was written by Moses, B
Lapwing - duciphath ) occurs only in ( Leviticus 11:19 ) and in the parallel passage of (14:18) amongst the list of those birds which were forbidden by the law of Moses to be eaten by the Israelites
Avim, or Avites - Descendants of Canaan, Genesis 10:17 , who occupied a portion of the coast of Palestine from Gaza towards the river of Egypt, but were expelled and almost destroyed by invading Philistines or Caphtorim, before the time of Moses, Deuteronomy 2:23
Appeal - Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Exodus 18:13-26
Phinehas - Grandson of Aaron and high priest who, on several occasions, aided Moses and Joshua
Jabez (2) - A town where the scribes belonging to the families of the Kenites resided (1 Chronicles 2:55; a school said by the Targum to have been founded by Othniel, called also Jabez; Rechab is made Rechabiah son of Eliezer, Moses' son): the Tirathites, Shimeathites, and Sucathites; they came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab
Noetians - Christian heretics in the third century, followers of Noetius, a philosopher of Ephesus, who pretended that he was another Moses sent by God, and that his brother was a new Aaron
Mediator - Moses so interposed between God and Israel
Assir - A son of Korah (Exodus 6:24 ), the leader of the rebellion against Moses (Numbers 16:1-35 )
og - He came against Israel, but was smitten by Moses, and his land was possessed by the half-tribe of Manasseh
Abihu - With Aaron, Nadab, and the 70 elders, he accompanied Moses up Sinai to a limited distance (Exodus 24:1)
Zelophehad - His five daughters at the close of the second numbering came to Moses begging for their father's inheritance (Numbers 26:33; Numbers 26:27)
Ahiezer - An aide to Moses in the wilderness from the tribe of Dan (Numbers 1:12 ; Numbers 2:25 )
Abiram - "
One of the sons of Eliab, who joined Korah in the conspiracy against Moses and Aaron
Abarim - ), one of its summits, Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 3:27 ; 32:49 ), and there he died (34:1,5)
Bush - This word occurs in Exodus 3:2 ; Exodus 3:4 , and Deuteronomy 33:16 , as the name of the bush in which God appeared to Moses
Inheritance - The Law of Moses rendered wills unnecessary; they were introduced, however, at a later period, Galatians 3:15 Hebrews 9:17
Lapwing - Supposed to mean the hoopoe, a beautiful migratory bird of filthy habits and a loud, hoarse voice; pronounced unclean by Moses, Leviticus 11:19
Canon of Scripture - the Pentateuch or five books of Moses, is the groundwork of the whole. " Moses directed the Levites, "Take this book of the law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God" (Deuteronomy 31:25-26). ...
Hilkiah "found the book of the law in the house of the Lord," where it had lain neglected during the reigns that preceded godly Josiah's reign (2 Kings 22:8; 2 Chronicles 34:14), "the law of the Lord by (the hand of) Moses
Testament, New - the term New is added to distinguish it from the Old Covenant, that it, the dispensation of Moses. The two covenants are always in Scripture the two dispensations: that under Moses is the old, that under the Messiah is the new. In all such places, Moses and Jesus are contrasted
Massah And Meribah - ]'>[1] ) tells of a miraculous gift of water at a spot near Horeb, which was called Massah and Meribah (‘testing’ and ‘contention’) because the people tested Jahweh by doubting His providence and contended with Moses. Moses and Aaron also sin against Him. Meribah , on this interpretation, originally signified ‘the place of judgment,’ because Moses delivered there his oracular sentences; cf
Hor - ) His death resembled Moses' in being on a mountain, but differed from it in being in the presence of Moses and Eleazar on the mount to which they ascended "in the sight of all the congregation. " Moses' death was in solitude, but with Gilead's heights, and Benjamin's hills, and the rich Jordan valley in view; whereas Aaron's last looks rested on rugged Edom, and chalky mount Seir, and the red sandstone rocks round Petra, and the dreary Arabah
Fire - When Moses at Horeb approached the burningbush he was cautioned not to draw near, but to remove his shoes, for theground was holy. Moses declared to Israel, "The Lord thy Godis a consuming fire. Thus God manifested Himself in fire to Moses
Korah - He with Dathan and Abiram headed the rebellion against Moses and Aaron, saying that they took too much upon themselves, whereas all the people were holy. Their complaint against Moses is different from that of the Levites, and insinuated that Moses aimed at being a prince over them
Manasseh - And when Moses blessed the twelve tribes he spoke of the ten thousands of Ephraim, but the thousands of Manasseh. Jerome, the Vulgate, three Hebrew MSS, and two or three ancient copies of the LXX read Moses instead of Manasseh. In many Hebrew MSS the letter nun (N) is written over or between the letters mem (M) and shin (S), so as to alter the name of Moses to Manasseh. The reason alleged by the Rabbis for the supposed correction is that the copyists desired to clear the name of Moses from the obloquy of having a descendant among idolaters in Israel. We have no other trace of a Gershom being the son of Manasseh; but there was one well known as the son of Moses. Doubtless Moses should be read instead of Manasseh
Exodus, Book of - God delivered the baby Moses from danger, and he grew up in pharaoh's court as son of pharaoh's daughter. Thus Moses had to flee to the wilderness of Midian, where he helped seven endangered shepherd girls. When pharaoh made life harder for Israel, the Israelites griped about Moses. Moses' father-in-law Jethro brought Moses' wife and children back to him in the wilderness and praised God for all that He had done for Moses and the people. Jethro also advised Moses how to organize a more efficient judicial system, relieving Moses of stress (Exodus 18:1 ). Moses went to the top of the mountain to receive the remainder of God's instructions, especially instructions for building the sacred place of worship, the tabernacle (Exodus 24-31 ). This angered God, who sent Moses back down to the people. Moses prayed for the people despite their sin, but then saw the people's sinful actions and threw the tablets with the law to the ground, breaking them. Moses again went up and prayed for the people. God showed His continued presence in the Tent of Meeting and in letting His glory pass by Moses (Exodus 32-33 ). God then gave Moses the law on two new tablets of stone and renewed the covenant with the people, providing further basic laws for them. Such intense communication with God brought radiance to Moses' face (Exodus 10:1-2035 ). Moses then led Israel to celebrate the Sabbath and to build the tabernacle (Exodus 35-39 ). Moses set up the tabernacle and established worship in it. Thus Moses became the leader without parallel for Israel
Hur - held up Moses' hands in the battle with Amalek (Exodus 17:10-12). Again with Aaron had charge of the People in Moses' absence on mount Sinai, as his representative (Exodus 24:14)
Transfiguration - There are several reasons why this is unlikely: the title given to Jesus ("Rabbi") in Mark 9:5 and the equation of Jesus with Moses and Elijah ( Matthew 17:4 ; Mark 9:5 ; Luke 9:33 ) would be strange addressed to the resurrected Christ; the form of this account is quite different from resurrection accounts; the presence of Peter-James-John as an inner circle occurs in other accounts during the life of Jesus, but not in a resurrection account; and the temporal designations associated with the resurrection are "first day" or "after three days, " not "after six days" (Matthew 17:1 ; Mark 9:2 ) or "about eight days after" (Luke 9:28 ). The words, "This is my Son, whom I love" (Mark 9:7 ), are a rebuke of Peter's placement of Jesus on the same level as Moses and Elijah ("Let us put up three shelters — one for you, one for Moses and one for Elijah" [1]) as well as a divine confirmation of Jesus' identity given in Peter's confession (Mark 8:29 ). Unlike Moses, who radiated the divine glory that shone upon him (Exodus 34:29 ), Jesus' transfiguration comes from within. The presence of Moses and Elijah is probably best interpreted as indicating that Jesus is the fulfillment of the Law (Moses) and the Prophets (Elijah). Luke adds that Moses and Elijah spoke to Jesus of his "departure" or forthcoming death ( Luke 9:31 )
Brazen Serpent - By divine command "Moses made a serpent of brass," or copper, and "put it upon a pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived," Numbers 21:6-9 . When this superstition began, it is difficult to determine; but the best account is given by the Jewish rabbi, David Kimchi, in the following manner: From the time that the kings of Israel did evil, and the children of Israel followed idolatry, till the reign of Hezekiah, they offered incense to it; for it being written in the law of Moses, "Whoever looketh upon it shall live," they fancied they might obtain blessings by its mediation, and therefore thought it worthy to be worshipped. It had been kept from the days of Moses, in memory of a miracle, in the same manner as the pot of manna was: and Asa and Jehoshaphat did not extirpate it when they rooted out idolatry, because in their reign they did not observe that the people worshipped this serpent, or burnt incense to it; and therefore they left it as a memorial. To the circumstance of looking at the brazen serpent in order to be healed, our Lord refers, John 3:14-15 : "As Moses lifted up the (brazen) serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life
Francisco Herrera - In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine
Francisco the Elder - In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine
Og - Gigantic, the king of Bashan, who was defeated by Moses in a pitched battle at Edrei, and was slain along with his sons (Deuteronomy 1:4 ), and whose kingdom was given to the tribes of Reuben and Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh (Numbers 21:32-35 ; Deuteronomy 3:1-13 )
Ambrosian Basilica - 1001,under the supposition that it was the serpent erected by Moses in the desert
Basilica, Ambrosian - 1001,under the supposition that it was the serpent erected by Moses in the desert
Herrera, Francisco - In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine
Elders - Hence when the Lord appeared unto Moses at the bush, with a view to reveal himself in the deliverance of the people; he said, "Go and gather the elders of Israel together
Abarim - Deuteronomy 32:49,50 , shows that mount Nebo was connected with Abarim and that it was 'over against Jericho' and also that it was where Moses viewed the land and died
Elder, Francisco the - In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine
el Viejo - In the archiepiscopal palace in Madrid is his "Moses smiting the Rock," and in the Louvre "Saint Basil dictating his Doctrine
Assumption of Moses - A curious state of affairs exists with regard to the so-called ‘Assumption of Moses. ’ The title is incorrectly applied to what is really the ‘Testament of Moses,’ a work which is extant in a more or less complete form in a Latin fragment discovered by Ceriani in a 6th cent. On the other hand, it is thoroughly Judaic in its exaltation of the person of Moses, which seems to be set up as a Jewish counterpart to that of our Lord, while the pre-existence of Moses and Jerusalem is expressly asserted in 1:14, 17. In the 2500th year from the Creation, after the Exodus, Moses calls Joshua and appoints him his successor as minister of the people and of the tabernacle of the testimony, at the same time committing to his charge certain books which were to be preserved in the place which God had made from the beginning of the world (Jerusalem). Until this advent of God there shall he 250 times from Moses’ death. Joshua mourns that he is not able to take Moses’ place as guide and teacher, prophet and advocate. The Amorites will assail Israel when Moses is not among them. Moses replies by placing Joshua in his own seat, and assures him that all is foreseen and controlled by God. The pre-existence of Moses in 1:14 is regarded as a unique distinction. The original ‘Assumption of Moses. ’-The subject-matter of the extant work (preserved largely in Ceriani’s Latin manuscript ) proves it to be a Testament of Moses, as it deals with the dying predictions and charges of Moses as related to Joshua, quite in the manner of the Testaments of The Twelve Patriarchs (q. ’ Throughout the work Moses is to die an ordinary death (e. 257-258), we find references to a natural death or Moses, which may be derived from the original ending of the ‘Testament. 48) seems to be aware of the new claims put forth for Moses’ Assumption, while explaining the Scripture statement of his death as a precaution against deification of the national hero: νέφους αἰφνίδιον ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ στάντος, ἀφανίζεται κατά τινος φάραγγος. ...
The fragments of the true ‘Assumption of Moses’ preserved in various sources are as follows. -We read in Judges 1:9 : ‘But Michael the archangel, when, contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing judgment, but said, “The Lord rebuke thee. 238, 239]'>[4]); (2) that Moses was a murderer. A twofold presentation of Moses appears: one is Moses “living in the spirit,” which is carried up to heaven; the other is the dead body of Moses, which is buried in the recesses of the mountains’ (Charles, p. Moses appears to fill the place which would be taken by Christ in Christian belief, as a Divinely appointed mediator, bound by no limitations of time or space, interceding on behalf of God’s people. The body of Moses would know no local sepulchre, nor would any dare to move his ‘body from thence as a man from place to place. But not only is Moses regarded as shepherd, compassionate guide, and intercessor; in 11:16 he is described as ‘the sacred spirit who was worthy of the Lord (cf. ’ In 12:6 Moses is ‘appointed to pray for their (Israel’s) sins and make intercession for them’ (cf. Moses also was the appointed revealer of God’s hidden purpose (1:12, 13). ’ The Kingdom will come upon a general repentance (1:17) 1750 years (10:12) after Moses’ death, i. Charles, The Assumption of Moses … the unemended Text … together with the Text in its … critically emended Form, London, 1897; C. Clemen, The Assumption of Moses, Cambridge, 1904
Shur, Wilderness of - ” Region on Egypt's northeastern border, perhaps named after wall Egyptians built to protect their border, where Moses made first stop after crossing the Red Sea (Exodus 15:22 )
Name of Mary - First mentioned in the Old Testament as the name of the sister of Moses
Eunuch - The law of Moses excluded them from the congregation (Deuteronomy 23:1 )
Isshiah - Descendant of Moses among the Levites (1 Chronicles 24:21 ; compare 1 Chronicles 23:13-17 )
Sabbatical Year - Every seventh year, during which the land, according to the law of Moses, had to remain uncultivated (Leviticus 25:2-7 ; Compare Exodus 23:10,11,12 ; Leviticus 26:34,35 )
Pisgah - This was the peak from which Moses viewed the land of Canaan before he died (Deuteronomy 3:27; Deuteronomy 32:49; Deuteronomy 34:1; see ABARIM)
Ammiel -
One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to search the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:12 )
Ark - In it Moses placed the two tables of stone containing the ten commandments
Free Will Offering - The people's desire to give was so great that Moses was compelled to ask that no more gifts be given (Exodus 36:3-7 )
Mary, Name of - First mentioned in the Old Testament as the name of the sister of Moses
Hazezon Tamar - ) Perhaps this was "the city of palm trees" (Judges 1:16) (though Jericho is generally called so: Deuteronomy 34:3), from which the Kenites, the tribe of Moses' father-in-law, went into the wilderness of Judah with the children of Judah
Distribute - Moses distributed lands to the tribes of Israel
Horeb - It was where God had intercourse with Moses, and where He made a covenant with Israel
Veracity of God - Moses says, "He is a God of truth
Jethro - A priest or prince of Midian, and father-in-law of Moses
Jether - Father-in-law of Moses (RVm Hebrews - The aim of this epistle is to prove from the Old Testament the divinity, humanity, atonement and intercession of Christ, and his preeminence over Moses and the angels of God; to demonstrate the superiority of the gospel to the law, and the real object and design of the Mosaic institution
Mosaic - ) Of or pertaining to Moses, the leader of the Israelites, or established through his agency; as, the Mosaic law, rites, or institutions
Looking Glass - Moses states that the women who waited all night at the door of the tabernacle, cheerfully offered their looking glasses, to be employed in making a brazen laver for the purification of the priests, Exodus 38:8
Braided - 1: πλέγμα (Strong's #4117 — Noun Neuter — plegma — pleg'-mah ) signifies "what is woven" (from pleko, "to weave, plait"), whether a net or basket (Josephus uses it of the ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid), or of a web, plait, braid
Legal - ) According to the old or Mosaic dispensation; in accordance with the law of Moses
Zoan - It was a royal city, Isaiah 19:11,13 ; 30:4 , and gave its name to the level country around it, in which were wrought the first mighty works of God by Moses, Psalm 78:12,43
Pattern - terms in OT and NT, some of which denote a model , as in Exodus 25:9 ; Exodus 25:40 of the building model of the Tabernacle shown to Moses on the mount (cf
ma'Rah - (bitterness ), a place which lay in the wilderness of Shur or Etham, three days journey distant, ( Exodus 15:23 ; Numbers 33:8 ) from the place at which the Israelites crossed the Red Sea, and where was a spring of bitter water, sweetened subsequently by the casting in of a tree which "the Lord showed" to Moses
Pharaoh's Daughter, - Three Egyptian princesses, daughters of Pharaohs, are mentioned in the Bible:--
The preserver of Moses, daughter of the Pharaoh who first oppressed the Israelites
Moses - This immigration took place probably about 350 years before the birth of Moses. Moses, being now about twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into prominence in Bible history. ...
After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth. Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew. ), who "sought to slay Moses" (Exodus 2:15 ). Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai. There Moses addressed the assembled elders ( Deuteronomy 1:1-4 ; 5:1-26:19 ;; 27:11-30:20 ),), and gives the people his last counsels, and then rehearses the great song (Deuteronomy 32 ), clothing in fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had acted so conspicious a part. ...
Thus died "Moses the man of God" (Deuteronomy 33:1 ; Joshua 14:6 ). " "There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel" (Deuteronomy 34:10-12 ). ...
The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets as the chief of the prophets. Moses is the only character in the Old Testament to whom Christ likens himself (John 5:46 ; Compare Deuteronomy 18:15,18,19 ; Acts 7:37 ). In Hebrews 3:1-19 this likeness to Moses is set forth in various particulars. ...
In Jude 1:9 mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses. This dispute is supposed to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so as to prevent idolatry
Joshua, Theology of - Moses gave Joshua his name, meaning, "the Lord has delivered. He fights on behalf of Moses and leads Israel to victory. When he reappears in Exodus 24:13 , Joshua climbs Mount Sinai alongside Moses. Later (32:17), Joshua warns Moses of the noise that comes from the camp below where Israel engages in idolatry. He joins Moses in the covenant-making process and in watching over its preservation. Finally, Joshua is designated as Moses' successor and is commissioned to succeed him. The first chapter of the Book of Joshua establishes Joshua's leadership as divinely appointed successor to Moses. With Moses' death, God addresses Joshua directly, promising both the land which he promised to Moses (Deuteronomy 34:4 ) and his divine presence, just as he had given it to Moses (Joshua 1:3-5 ). Joshua's allocation of the land in chapters 13-21 continues the process already begun by Moses in Transjordan. Although the land west of the Jordan had the unique role of divine promise to the patriarchs and to Moses, the allotments of Reuben, Gad, and part of Manasseh also formed part of what was to become the land of Israel. ...
The text that confirms God's covenant with his people includes a divine rehearsal of the words of the Lord through Moses (24:2). There follows a review of God's work among the patriarchs, as well as Moses and Aaron, in promising and bringing the people into the land. As a book that provides a transition from the Pentateuch and the lawgiving of Moses to the settled society and rule of the judges and the kings of Israel, this work presents a past ideal in which a leader like Moses brought the people into the promised land and proceeded on faith to lay claim to it
Congregation - "...
Moses selected 70 elders by God's appointment to share the burden of government with him (Numbers 11:16). In later times the Sanhedrin council (corresponding to Moses' seventy elders) represented the congregation
Michael - Jude 1:9 refers to a dispute between the devil and Michael over Moses' body. 185? to 254?), this account formed part of the extra-biblical work, The Assumption of Moses
Hur - With Aaron he held up Moses’ hands, in order that by the continual uplifting of the sacred staff Israel might prevail over Amalek ( Exodus 17:10 ; Exodus 17:12 E Appeal - It would appear from the arrangements made by Moses that some of the judges were accounted as judges of appeal, but that Moses himself, as having the mind of God, was the ultimate judge
Asher - " (Genesis 49:20) And Moses, when blessing the children of Israel, with his last prophetical benediction, followed up the same in allusion to his name as blessed; "thy shoes (said Moses) shall be iron and brass; and as thy days, so shall thy strength be
Transfiguration - Moses the lawgiver and Elijah tie chief of the prophets both appear talking with Christ the source of the gospel, to show that they are all one and agree in one. Moses and Elijah, the law and the promise, types and shadows, pass away; the gospel, the fulfilment, the substance, Christ remains—the only one who can relieve the misery of earth and glorify our nature, Christ all in all
Birds - Birds, like other animals, were divided by Moses into clean and unclean; the former might be eaten, the latter not. ...
Moses, to inculcate humanity on the Israelites, ordered them, if they found a bird's nest, not to take the dam with the young, but to suffer the old one to fly away, and to take the young only, Deuteronomy 22:6,7
Deuteronomy - Or the repetition of the law, the fifth book of the Pentateuch, so called by the Greeks, because in it Moses recapitulates what he had ordained in the preceding books, Deuteronomy 1:1-6 29:1 31:1 33:1-29 . That part which mentions the death of Moses was added afterwards, very probably by Joshua
ex'Odus - Its author was Moses. (Exodus 19:40 ; 38:1 ) ...
The first part contains an account of the following particulars: the great increase of Jacob's posterity in the land of Egypt, and their oppression under a new dynasty, which occupied the throne after the death of Joseph; the birth, education, flight and return of Moses; the ineffectual attempts to prevail upon Pharaoh to let the Israelites go; the successive signs and wonders, ending in the death of the first-born, by means of which the deliverance of Israel from the land of bondage is at length accomplished, and the institution of the Passover; finally the departure out of Egypt and the arrival of the Israelites at Mount Sinai
Eleazar - ...
With Moses he superintended the census (Numbers 26:3), inaugurated Joshua whom Moses set before him (for Joshua was in this inferior to Moses, who had direct intercourse with God; Joshua must ask divine counsel through the high priest), and divided the Midianite spoil (Numbers 27:22; Numbers 31:21)
Prince - Also Israel had her “princes” (“rulers”): “… On the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for one man: and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses” ( Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the rulers of the congregation returned unto him: and Moses talked with them” ( Incense - This restriction prompted Korah and other Levites to rebel against Moses and Aaron. Moses tested them by telling them to burn incense to see whether God approved. But the formula God gave to Moses was to be used only for the incense of the tabernacle (Exodus 30:34-38)
Divorce - Moses' law does not sanction this abnormal state of things which he found prevalent, but imposes a delay and cheek on its proceeding to extreme arbitrariness. Moses threw the responsibility of the violation of the original law on the man himself; tolerating it indeed (as a less evil than enforcing the original law which the people's "hardness of heart" rendered then unsuitable, and thus aggravating the evil) but throwing in the way what might serve as an obstacle to extreme caprice, an act requiring time and publicity and formal procedure. ...
The school of Shammai represented fornication or adultery as the "uncleanness" meant by Moses. But (Leviticus 20:10; John 8:5) stoning, not merely divorce, would have been the penalty of that, and our Lord (Matthew 19:3; Matthew 19:9, compare Matthew 5:31) recognizes a much lower ground of divorce tolerated by Moses for the hardness of their heart
Deluge - Its history is given by Moses, Genesis 6:7 : Its time is fixed by the best chronologers to the year from the creation 1656, answering to the year before Christ 2293. the waters, Moses assures us, covered the whole earth, buried all the mountains; every thing perished therein that had life, excepting Noah and those with him in the ark. Can an universal deluge be more clearly expressed? If the deluge had only been partial, there had been no necessity to spend an hundred years in the building of an ark, and shutting up all sorts of animals therein, in order to re-stock the world: they had been easily and readily brought from those parts of the world not overflowed into those that were; at least, all the birds never would have been destroyed, as Moses says they were, so long as they had wings to bear them to those parts where the flood did not reach. ...
If the waters had only overflowed the neighbourhood of the Euphrates and the Tigris, they could not be fifteen cubits above the highest mountains; there was no rising that height but they must spread themselves, by the laws of gravity, over the rest of the earth; unless perhaps they had been retained there by a miracle; in that case, Moses, no doubt, would have related the miracle, as he did that of the waters of the Red Sea, &c. In India, also, Sir William Jones has discovered, that in the oldest mythological books of that country, there is such an account of the deluge, as corresponds sufficiently with that of Moses. But are not most, if not all these hypotheses quite arbitrary, and without foundation from the words of Moses? It is, perhaps, in vain to attempt accounting for this event by natural causes, it being altogether miraculous and supernatural, as a punishment to men for the corruption then in the world. Let us be satisfied with the sources which Moses gives us, namely, the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the waters rushed out from the hidden abyss of the bowels of the earth, and the clouds poured down their rain incessantly
Torah - The Torah was given to Moses (Exodus 24:12 ) and commanded to be kept (Exodus 16:28 ; Deuteronomy 17:19 ; Ezekiel 44:24 ). Subsequent Old Testament writings continue to speak of Torah as “The Law” in this sense (Isaiah 5:24 ; Jeremiah 32:23 ; Jeremiah 44:10 ; Daniel 9:11 ), often as “the book of the law,” the “law of Moses,” or a combination (Joshua 1:8 ; Joshua 8:31-32 ,Joshua 8:31-32,8:34 ; 2 Kings 14:6 ). By the time of Ezra and Nehemiah “the book of the law of Moses” (Nehemiah 8:1 ) included more material than the Deuterohynomic code. Ezra cited the “law which the Lord had commanded by Moses” concerning the feast of booths, which is prescribed in Leviticus (Leviticus 23:33-43 ). Eventually the name Torah came to be applied to the entire Pentateuch, the five books traditionally ascribed to Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. The books of Moses were considered “law” despite the fact that a considerable amount of their material is not legalistic in nature. These traditions became for them the oral Torah, considered given to Moses at Mount Sinai to accompany the written law
Levi - (Numbers 35:1-34)...
I cannot close this article without desiring the reader to take notice with me of the blessing of Moses, the man of God, wherewith, amidst the blessings he pronounced in the Lord's name on the children of Israel before his death, he distinguished Levi. "...
Surely with an eye to Christ (though our Lord sprang out of Judah, and not Levi, Hebrews 7:14) did Moses here, by the spirit of prophecy, declare, that the Urim and the Thummim, that is, lights and perfections, should be with JEHOVAH'S Holy One. The waters of Meribah was that memorable spot where the people, soon after the children of Israel came out of Egypt, did chide with Moses and Aaron for want of water. (See Exodus 17:1-7) Here Moses and Aaron stemmed the torrent of the people's anger; and it should seem to have been in allusion to this, that the man of God, speaking of Levi, said, "whom thou didst prove, and didst find faithful," who did not acknowledge the feelings of nature when those calls of grace demanded faithfulness. See another instance, (Exodus 32:25-28) The other instance at Meribah, sets forth the frailty both of Moses and Aaron: (see Numbers 20:1-13) But by taking into one view both instances at Meribah, we are certainly constrained to look farther than to the Aarons, or to all the sons of Levi, under the Old Testament dispensation, for the accomplishment of Moses's dying prediction that the Urim and Thummim of JEHOVAH might be with the Lord's Holy One; and to none can we make the smallest application, but to the Almighty Aaron of "a better covenant, established upon better promises. Hence, therefore, in Christ alone could this be found, and him alone could Moses mean. O Lord! may we well say, in making our responses to the prayer of Moses, Bless, Lord, our Lord Jesus, the sum and substance of all salvation: accept the work of his hands the infinite merit of his whole redemption work! Let sin, Satan, death, and hell, be smitten all of them through the centre, the very loins of their rebellion, and let all that hate our Jesus flee before him! Amen
Pisgah - The summit from which Moses, before his death, gained his view of the promised land
Eshcol - The small and well-watered valley from which the Hebrew spies obtained the specimen of grapes, which they suspended from a staff borne by two men for safe carriage to Moses, Numbers 13:22-27 32:9 Deuteronomy 1:24
Cushi, Cushite - It was looked upon as a disgrace that Moses should have married a Cushite
Heshbon - It was taken by Moses (Numbers 21:23-26 ), and became afterwards a Levitical city (Joshua 21:39 ) in the tribe of Reuben (Numbers 32:37 )
Law of Moses - As a written code it is called the "book of the law of Moses" (2 Kings 14:6 ; Isaiah 8:20 ), the "book of the law of God" (Joshua 24:26 )
Ithamar - Moses became angry when Ithamar and his brother did not eat part of an offering as commanded (Leviticus 10:16 )
Nehushtan - Of copper; a brazen thing a name of contempt given to the serpent Moses had made in the wilderness (Numbers 21:8 ), and which Hezekiah destroyed because the children of Israel began to regard it as an idol and "burn incense to it
Pasaginians - That the observation of the law of Moses in every thing except the offering of sacrifices was obligatory upon Christians
Sin: May be Committed by Proxy - This metal is as great an anathema to them as the wedge of gold to Achan, at the offer whereof they start back as Moses from the serpent; yet the monk has a boy behind him who will receive and carry home any quantity, and neither complain of metal nor measure
Temptations: From Friends to be Watchfully Resisted - Moses must have loved Pharaoh's daughter for her kindness, but he refused to be called her son
Massah - Moses gave the name in response to the people's desire to put God to the test by demanding water (Exodus 17:7 )
Beth-Peor - Moses was buried in the valley ‘over against Beth-peor’ ( Deuteronomy 34:6 )
King's Highway - It is mentioned in Numbers 20:17 and Numbers 21:22 as the route Moses and the Israelites would take through Edom and the land of Sihon
Meek - Now the man Moses was very meek, above all men
Altaschith - The title of Psalm 57; 58; 59; 75: The maxim of David amidst persecutions, embodying the spirit of his psalm (Kimchi); drawn from Deuteronomy 9:26, Moses' prayer, "Destroy not Thy people and Thine inheritance, whom Thou hast redeemed
Anguish - ...
And they hearkened not to Moses, for anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage
Boat - The different kinds of boats have different names, as, long-boat,lanch, barge, pinnace,jolly-boat, cutter, yawl, ferry-boat, wherry, Moses-boat, punt, felucca, fishing-boat,perogue, &c
Buckler - ...
Psalm 91:4 (a) GOD's Word was Moses' buckler
Herod Agrippa i - He was an observer of the law of Moses, and added to the extent of Jerusalem by a wall on the north of the city
Samuel - He was one whom God answered when he called upon Him, Psalm 99:6 , and is classed with Moses as intercessor with God
Abihu - He saw God with Moses, Aaron, his brother, and 70 elders (Exodus 24:1 )
Silver - It does not appear to have been in use before the deluge; at least Moses says nothing of it; he speaks only of the metals brass and iron, Genesis 4:22
Cinnamon - This spice is now brought from the east Indies; but as there was no traffic with India in the days of Moses, it was then brought, probably, from Arabia, or some neighbouring country
Usury - The law of Moses prohibited the Jews from taking any interest of each other for the loan of money or of anything else, though they were allowed to take it of foreigners
Chide - The people did chide with Moses
Nehushtan - Brazen, a name given by Hezekiah king of Judah to the brazen serpent that Moses had set upon the wilderness, Numbers 21:8 , and which had been preserved by the Israelites to that time
Numbers, Book of - When Moses entered into the tabernacle he heard "one speaking unto him from off the mercy seat that was upon the ark of testimony, from between the two cherubim:" cf. Moses begged of Hobab his father-in-law to go with them to be 'instead of eyes;' but he refused. Moses' heart failed him; the burden was greater than he could bear, and he asked God to kill him. Then God bade him appoint seventy men, to be elders of the people, and officers over them, on whom He put of Moses' spirit. ...
Numbers 12 : Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses, the meekest of men; the Lord vindicated Moses and smote Miriam with leprosy, but at the intercession of Moses it was removed from her, though she was shut out of the camp seven days. At the intercession of Moses, God graciously said that He would pardon the people, but that all the earth should be filled with the glory of Jehovah. The people murmur against Moses because they have no water. See Moses. On the prayer of the people for the removal, of the serpents, Moses made by divine directions a SERPENT OF BRASS (q. After skirting the east of the land of Edom, the Israelites encountered the Amorites, who, refusing to let them pass, were smitten by Moses, and Heshbon was taken. Moses, being told of his approaching death, pleads with God to appoint a leader for the people, and Joshua is put in that place. ...
Numbers 32 : Moses accedes to the request of the Reubenites and Gadites to have their possession on the east of the Jordan, provided in the first instance they go armed before their brethren over Jordan: type of Christians stopping short of the purpose of God in regard to them through refusing to accept death with Christ. The book closes with instruction as to the inheritance of daughters, so that the position belonging to each tribe should remain as allotted; ending with the words, "These are the commandments and the judgements which the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses unto the children of Israel in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho. " Here, close to the land, Moses rehearsed to them all their evil ways, but spoke with certainty of their possessing the land, and named those who should aid in dividing it. The people are then numbered in view of possessing the land of promise, and Joshua succeeds Moses as leader. He is, what Moses was not, the type of a risen Christ
Mediator, Mediation - They also use mediators to argue a case or to negotiate terms of peace with a hostile party, as Moses did with Pharaoh on behalf of Israel (Exodus 6:28-12:32 ) and Joab did with David on behalf of Absalom (2 Samuel 14:1-24 ). Both kinds of mediation are sometimes intertwined in the Bible, as when Moses used Aaron to mediate between himself and Pharaoh (Exodus 7:1-2 ) and Joab used the wise woman of Tekoa to mediate his message about Absalom to David (2 Samuel 14:2-20 ). ...
The greatest of all mediators in the Old Testament, however, is Moses. Moses not only served as a mediator in the innocent sense when, at God's gracious initiative, he communicated the terms of the Sinaitic covenant with Israel (Exodus 19:9 ; 20:19 ; 24:1-2 ; 34:27-28 ; Leviticus 26:46 ; Deuteronomy 5:5 ); but he served as Israel's intercessor after they had broken the covenant and stood in danger of God's righteous wrath according to the covenant's terms (Exodus 32:7-14 ; 33:12-23 ; Numbers 14:13-19 ). After Moses' death, and in the face of continued violation of the covenant, other figures arose to urge Israel's compliance with the law and to intercede for Israel during times of disobedience. The covenant mediated through Moses was glorious, he says, but the new covenant is far more so, for unlike the old covenant that punished sin and therefore brought death, the new covenant brings life (2 Corinthians 3:4-18 ; John 1:17 ; cf. ...
The author observes that Moses' mediatory role not only involved communicating the terms of the covenant from God to Israel but also serving a priestly function in light of Israel's sinfulness. Moses both gave directions for building the earthly tabernacle (8:5) and sprinkled the people, the scroll, the tent, and the vessels with blood since "without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness" (9:22). Jesus, too, performed all these functions; but his work and what it effected were superior in every way to the mediatorial role of Moses, for he was the mediator of a better covenant (8:6; 9:15). Just as Moses, the priests, and the prophets continued to mediate between God and Israel after the covenant was established, so Jesus "always lives to intercede" on our behalf and therefore to bring complete salvation to us (7:25; cf. He does this most clearly in 12:18-29, where he reminds his readers of the magnificent display of God's power and holiness that accompanied Moses' mediation of the first covenant. In a way similar to Paul (2 Corinthians 3:9 ), the author argues that Moses' mediation of the old covenant was a magnificent event, accompanied by splendid displays of God's power which, appropriately, struck terror into the hearts of God's people (vv. Whereas Moses mediated a temporary covenant whose primary purpose was to pronounce the just penalty of death over those who sinned, they argue, Jesus mediated the new covenant predicted by the prophets
Brass - ...
The serpent of brass was made by Moses at the command of God (Numbers 21:4-9 ), and elevated on a pole, so that it might be seen by all the people when wounded by the bite of the serpents that were sent to them as a punishment for their murmurings against God and against Moses
Nebo - ...
...
A mountain in the land of Moab from which Moses looked for the first and the last time on the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 32:49 ; 34:1 ). Close below it are the plains of Moab, where Balaam, and afterwards Moses, saw the tents of Israel spread along
Numbers Book of - The fourth book of Moses, and so called on account of the two censuses to which it refers. 20 we have the description of Moses smiting the rock, and the notices of Miriam's and Aaron's deaths
Goliath - Now Moses records the spies' report (Numbers 13:32-33) of Canaan, "there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which came of the giants; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers. "...
Thus three independent witnesses, Moses, Joshua, and Samuel, in the most undesigned way confirm the fact that Goliath was a giant of Gath
Urim And Thummim - ' They were distinct from the gems on the breastplate, for Moses put the breastplate upon Aaron, "also he put in [1] the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim. The first mention of them is in Exodus 28:30 ; "Thou shalt put in [1] the breastplate of judgement the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord," as if God had given them to Moses, and had merely to tell him what to do with them — if indeed they were material things; but what they were, and how the answers were given, is not revealed
Lime - The use of it was for plaster or cement, the first mention of which is in Deuteronomy 27, where Moses directed the elders of the people, saying, "Keep all the commandments which I command you this day. But Moses did not account even this precaution sufficient for the due preservation of his law in its original purity; for he commanded that it should beside be engraven on stones, and these stones kept on a mountain near Sichem, in order that a genuine exemplar of it might be transmitted even to the latest generations
Korah - Ringleader of the rebellion against Moses and Aaron (Numbers 16; Numbers 26:9-11); the one solitary anecdote recorded of the 38 years' wandering, uncircumcision, and shame, Not content with his honourable post as a Levite "minister" to the sanctuary, Korah "sought the priesthood also. The punishment answered to the Reubenites' sin, their pride was punished by "Reuben's men being made few," so that Moses prayed "let Reuben live and not die," i. ...
Elizaphan of the youngest branch, descended from Uzziel (Numbers 3:27; Numbers 3:30), was preferred before Korah of the elder Izharite branch and made "chief of the house of the father of the families of the Kohathites"; hence probably arose his pique against Moses. Korah with "250 princes of the assembly, famous in the congregation, men of renown" (not restricted to the tribe of Reuben: Numbers 27:3), said to Moses and Aaron, "ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the Lord is among them" (compare Exodus 19:6). ...
Moses gave them a respite for repentance until the morrow: "take you censers, fire, and incense before the Lord tomorrow . Upon Moses' sending for Dathan and Abiram they would not come, they retorted his own words: "is it a small thing (Numbers 16:9; Numbers 16:13) that thou hast brought us up out of a land that floweth with milk and honey . ...
Dathan and Abiram, their wives and children, stood at the door of their tents as though defying Moses to do his worst, when Moses by Jehovah's command told the people to get up from about the tabernacle of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, i. speaking against Moses, a warning to all self sufficient despisers of authority
Bronze Serpent - Moses made a bronze serpent and set it on a pole in the middle of the Israelite camp (Numbers 21:1 ). God had told Moses to do this so the Israelites bitten by serpents could express their faith by looking at it and be healed. The need for the serpent came in one of the times Israel murmured against God and Moses. See Moses ; Wilderness ; Atonement ; Hezekiah
Joshua - He devoted himself to the service of Moses, and in Scripture he is commonly called the servant of Moses, Exodus 24:13 ; Exodus 33:11 ; Deuteronomy 1:38 , &c. When Moses ascended Mount Sinai to receive the law of the Lord, and remained there forty days and forty nights without eating or drinking, Joshua remained with him, though, in all probability, not in the same place, nor with the same abstinence, Exodus 24:13 ; Exodus 32:17 . ...
Joshua succeeded Moses in the government of Israel about the year of the world 2553, and died at Timnathserah in the hundred and tenth year of his age, A. ...
The book of Joshua continues the sacred history from the period of the death of Moses to that of the death of Joshua and of Eleazar; a space of about thirty years. " Though there is not a perfect agreement among the learned concerning the author of this book, yet by far the most general opinion is, that it was written by Joshua himself; and, indeed, in the last chapter it is said that "Joshua wrote these words in the book of the law of God;" which expression seems to imply that he subjoined this history to that written by Moses
Manasses - Moses assigned a part of territory east of the Jordan to one half of the tribe (Numbers 32), and Josue gave a section in Palestine proper to the remaining half, the boundaries of which are given in Josue 17
Issachar - In the time of Moses the tribe counted 54,400 men capable of going forth to battle (Numbers 2)
Igal - Spy representing tribe of Issachar whom Moses sent to investigate the land of Canaan (Numbers 13:7 )
Disposition - Angels are mentioned in connection with the giving of the Law of Moses in Deuteronomy 33:2
Dungeon - It is not mentioned, however, in the law of Moses as a mode of punishment
Heber (2) - They had accompanied Israel to Canaan at Moses' request (Numbers 10:29, etc
East Wind - While it lasts doors and windows are shut; but the fine dust penetrates everywhere, wooden vessels warp and crack, the thermometer suddenly rises, the grass withers (Ukert in Hengstenberg on Egypt and the Books of Moses)
Bashan - In the time of Moses it was ruled over by a king named Og, whom the Israelite army defeated (Numbers 21:33-35 )
Nehushtan - The object was believed to be the one Moses fashioned to relieve a plague in the Israelite camp during the Exodus (Numbers 21:8-9 )
Obeisance, do - Moses did obeisance before his father-in-law (Exodus 18:7 )
Marah - But if Christ be in our appointments, whatever they are, like the tree the Lord shewed to Moses, which when cast into the waters of Marah made them sweet, then will all be sanctified and sweetened to our use, and the divine glory
Basket - Deuteronomy 28:5 (c) Moses is telling us that GOD will give abundant increase for us to take home to ourselves and enjoy for ourselves if we let the Lord GOD command us, and if we give obedient service
Jannes And Jambres - These are mentioned by Paul as having withstood Moses; to whom he compares those who by imitation were resisting the truth in the church
Sandals - In the eastern part of the world the going barefoot was considered as a token of respect in the presence of a superior; hence, when the Lord called to Moses from the bush, he commanded him to put off his shoes from his feet, for the ground was holy on which he stood, being made so by the divine presence
Nadab - He was taken up into the mount by Moses, but lost his life for offering strange fire before the Lord
Accuser - ...
The law of Moses was sufficient to accuse people of sin (John 5:45 ), but one day accusations will cease (Revelation 12:10 )
Zoan - It was here that Moses and Aaron met with Pharaoh and here the 'plagues' were wrought; for it was in the 'field of Zoan' that God did marvellous things
Archangel - In the Bible, a Greek word found only in the New Testament in two places: 1 Thessalonians 4:16, "For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God; and the dead in Christ shall rise first"; and Jude 1:1:9, "But Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, 'The Lord rebuke you
Blains - We may conceive its intensity, when we find that it utterly disabled the magicians who were afflicted with it from meeting Moses
Embalming - Joseph gave orders for the embalming of the body of his father Jacob, Genesis 50:1-2 ; and Moses informs us that the process took up forty days
Nebo - (Ezra 2:29; Nehemiah 7:33) And the famous mountain on which Moses died was called Nebo
Zoar - It was one of the landmarks which Moses saw from Pisgah, Deuteronomy 34:3, and it appears to have been known in the time of Isaiah, Isaiah 15:5, and Jeremiah
Jonadab - A son of Rechab, a Kenite, descended from Hobab the brother of Moses
Kenites - Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was a Kenite, and his family accompanied the Israelites, and settled with other Kenites in various parts of the Holy Land, Judges 1:16 ; 4:11 ; 1 Samuel 30:29 ; 1 Chronicles 2:55
Serpent - "
Saint Benedict of Nursia
Saint Christina of Bolsena
Saint Hilary
Saint Hilda of Whitby
Saint Honorat
Saint James of the Marches
Saint John the Evangelist
Saint Julius of Novara
Saint Luis Beltran
Saint Patrick
On the other hand, a serpent twined around a cross is an emblem of Our Lord, recalling the brazen serpent which Moses erected to cure the Israelites in the desert
Nehush'Tan - (a thing of brass ), the name by which the brazen serpent made by Moses in the wilderness, ( Numbers 21:9 ) was worshipped in the time of Hezekiah
Immortality - It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Genesis 5:22,24 ; 25:8 ; 37:35 ; 47:9 ; 49:29 , Compare Hebrews 11:13-16 ; Exodus 3:6 , Compare Matthew 22:23 )
Aaron - Aaron was three years older than his brother Moses; and when God appeared in the burning bush, Moses having excused himself from the undertaking committed to him, by urging that he was slow of speech, Aaron, who was an eloquent man, was made his interpreter, and spokesman; and in effecting the deliverance of the Hebrews we therefore find them constantly associated. ...
Moses having ascended the mountain to receive the law from God, Aaron, his sons, and seventy elders, followed him, Exodus 24:1-2 ; Exodus 24:9-11 ; not indeed to the summit, but "afar off," "and they saw the God of Israel," that is, the glory in which he appeared, "as it were the paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven for clearness;"—a clear and dazzling, azure, a pure, unmingled splendour like that of the heavens. After this they departed, and Moses remained with God on the very summit of the mount forty days. ...
During this period, the people, grown impatient at the long absence of Moses, addressed themselves to Aaron in a tumultuous manner, saying, "Make us gods which shall go before us: for, as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. " Moses, having hastened from the mount by the command of God, testified to the people, by breaking the tables of the law in their presence, that the covenant between God and them was now rendered of none effect through their offence. He also indignantly reproved Aaron, whose sin indeed had kindled against him the anger of the Lord, so that he would "have destroyed him but that Moses prayed for him. "...
After the tabernacle was built, Moses consecrated Aaron to the high priesthood with the holy oil, and invested him with his priestly robes,—his garments "of glory and beauty;" but Aaron's weakness was again manifested in concurring with Miriam, his sister, to censure and oppose Moses, through envy. What the motive of Miriam might be does not appear; but she being struck with leprosy, this punishment, as being immediately from God, opened Aaron's eyes; he acknowledged his fault, and asked forgiveness of Moses both for himself and his sister. Moses having, at the command of God, taken twelve rods of an almond tree from the princes of the twelve tribes, and Aaron's separately, he placed them in the tabernacle before the sanctuary, after having written upon each the name of the tribe which it represented, and upon the rod of Aaron the name of Aaron. As he and Moses, in striking the rock at Meribah, Num. Soon after, the Lord commanded Moses, "Take Aaron, and Eleazar, his son, and bring them up to mount Hor; and strip Aaron of his garments,"—his splendid pontifical vestments,—"and put them upon Eleazar, his son; and Aaron shall be gathered unto his people, and shall die there. ...
Before the promulgation of the law by Moses, the fathers of every family, and the princes of every tribe, were priests
Genesis - The author of this book was Moses. Under divine guidance he may indeed have been led to make use of materials already existing in primeval documents, or even of traditions in a trustworthy form that had come down to his time, purifying them from all that was unworthy; but the hand of Moses is clearly seen throughout in its composition
Snake - When Moses prayed for the people, God replied by promising to heal those who stopped their complaining and demonstrated their trust in him by looking on a bronze snake that he had commanded Moses to make (Numbers 21:4-9; John 3:14-15; 1 Corinthians 10:9)
Dibon - Capital city of Moab captured by Moses (Numbers 21:21-31 ). Joshua reported that Moses gave Dibon to the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 13:9 ,Joshua 13:9,13:17 )
Urim And Thummim - Later, Moses gave the tribe of Levi special responsibility for their care (Deuteronomy 33:8 ). After Aaron's and Moses' death, Eleazar was to carry and to use the lots to inquire of the Lord (Numbers 27:18-23 )
Manna - And in the Encyclopedia, the translators are charged with making Moses fall into a plain contradiction. And we have other evidence, that the present version is correct for in the same chapter, Moses directed Aaron to "take a pot and put a homer full of manna therein
Abel-Mizraim - Moses, taking Canaan as the central standpoint of the whole history, uses the phrase "beyond Jordan" for east of it. of Jordan, which would make Moses' standpoint in saying "beyond" the E
Oracle - And it was from thence that Moses received many of the laws. the word thus translated is λόγιον; it is applied to the law given to Moses, and committed to Israel; and also to truths revealed in N
Sprinkling - Moses "sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry, and almost all things are by the law purged with blood. Moses "sprinkled both the book and all the people
Balaam - ]'>[1] ) were compelled to flee from Egypt to Ethiopia, where Balaam reigned as king till conquered by Moses. On this he and his sons returned to Egypt and became the master-magicians who opposed Moses
Abihu - Abihu and Nadab, sons of Aaron, with seventy of the elders of Israel, were invited to ascend with Moses, where they saw God and did eat and drink, Exodus 24:1,9-11 . We read elsewhere that everything was to be done 'as the Lord commanded Moses;' but of this which Nadab and Abihu did, it expressly says it was not commanded; therefore it was sin, and God was dishonoured
Beer-Elim - " (Isaiah 12:2-3) And hence, if, with an eye to the Lord Jesus Christ, who is himself, in the souls of all his redeemed, a well of water springing up unto everlasting life, (John 4:14) we accept those Beer-elim in the word, we then join the Lord's song, in the Lord's own words, as he directed Moses. This is the well whereof the Lord spake unto Moses, "Gather the people together, and I will give them water
Midian - Moses fled to the land of Midian (Exodus 2:15-16; Exodus 2:21; Exodus 3:1), in the pastures near Horeb, and married a daughter of the priest of Midian. )...
A considerable time must have elapsed to admit of their recovery from the blow inflicted by Moses. The "gold, silver, brass, iron, tin, and lead" (Numbers 31:22) taken by Moses, along with the vast number of cattle and flocks, accord with the picture of their wealth in Judges (Judges 6:4-5; Judges 8:21-26), partly pastoral, partly gold, and the metals obtained either by plunder or by traffic with Arabia. Moses' entreaty of Hobab illustrates their wandering habits
Council - Moses' tribunal of seventy seems to have been temporary (Numbers 11:16-17), for there are no traces of it in Deuteronomy 17:8-10, nor under Joshua, judges, and the kings. The number was probably derived from Moses' council. Seventy-one is the number, according to Jewish tradition, to correspond to the 70 and Moses (Numbers 11:16). They were connected with the several synagogues and possessed the right of scourging (2 Corinthians 11:24); but Josephus represents the local courts, as constituted by Moses, to have consisted of seven, with two Levitical assessors apiece
si'na-i, - This group rises abruptly from the Wady es-Sheikh at its north foot, first to the cliffs of the Ras Sufsafeh , behind which towers the pinnacle of Jebel Musa (the Mount of Moses), and farther back to the right of it the summit of Jebel Katerin (Mount St. the northwest and lower face of the Jebel Musa, crowned with a range of magnificent cliffs, the highest point called Ras Sufsafeh, as overlooking the plain er Rahah --is the scene of the giving of the law, and that peak the mountain into which Moses ascended. (But Jebel Musa and Ras Sufsafeh are really peaks of the Same mountain, and Moses may have received the law on Jebel Musa, but it must have been proclaimed from Ras Sufsafeh. Jebel Musa is the traditional mount where Moses received the law from God
Galatians, Letter to the - ...
Purpose of the letter...
Paul was disturbed when certain Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). In it Paul pointed out that there was only one gospel, the one he preached, and that the law of Moses has no authority over believers in Jesus Christ. Abraham was saved by believing the promise of God, not by keeping the law of Moses (3:6-14). After some reminders of Christian responsibilities to others (6:1-10), Paul concludes by emphasizing again that the cross of Christ, not the law of Moses, is the basis of the gospel (6:11-18)
Grace - ...
Crucial among the Old Testament passages on the unmerited favor of God is the conversation between Moses and God recorded in Exodus 33 . There, in the space of six verses, Moses is said to have found favor with God five times, hen [1] being translated either "find favor" or "be pleased with. " At the beginning of the chapter, Moses goes into the tent of meeting, while the pillar of cloud stands at the entrance to the tent, and the people of Israel stay outside, worshiping (v. The Lord speaks to Moses "face to face, s a man speaks with his friend. " In the passage, the conversation between Moses and the Lord has to do specifically with the favor that God shows to Moses, and Moses requests that God demonstrate that favor toward him. Moses begins by reminding God that he has called Moses to lead these people, but that God has not let him know whom he will send with Moses. The statement echoes the original conversation between Moses and God at the burning bush in chapter 3, where God promises to send Aaron with Moses to help him get the people out of Egypt. Here, the Lord promises only that his "Presence" will go with Moses, and that he will give him rest (v. Moses has just stated that he knows God's name (another echo of chap. Moses demonstrates his humble dependence upon the grace of God by affirming that if God's Presence does not go up with them, he does not want to be sent, because he knows they will fail (v. ...
Moses then makes one of the most remarkable requests of God ever made in Scripture, asking God to "show me your glory. He promised to "cause all my goodness to pass in front of you" and that he will proclaim his name "Yahweh" in Moses' presence. God holds very little back, only telling Moses that he "cannot see my face, for no one may see me and live. " Even this is an act of unconditional and full grace in that God has withheld from Moses what would destroy him. The passage closes with the strange instruction that God will cause his "glory" to pass by, Moses being hid in a cleft in a rock and covered with the hand of God until the glory has passed by. Then God will remove his hand and allow Moses to see the back of his glory, but not his face. ...
Moses again speaks of finding favor with the Lord in Numbers 11:4-17 . When the people of Israel complain at having only manna and not any meat, Moses cries out to the Lord in an apparently sincere state of vexation at the burden of judging this entire people by himself: "I cannot carry all these people by myself; the burden is too heavy for me. Without questioning his integrity or his strength of character, God immediately gives Moses a solution to his problem by appointing seventy of the elders of Israel to help him carry the burden of the people, "so that you will not have to carry it alone" (v. ...
At the same time, God even answers the question that Moses has not asked: What about meat for the complaining people? God instructs Moses that he will give them meat for the month, though he will give them more meat than they want, as the story makes clear. The fact that the Lord brings judgment upon the people, however, does not vitiate the point of God's favor toward Moses in this passage. As with Moses, the statement is in the context of the promise of the Lord to be "with you, and you will strike down all the Midianites together" (Judges 6:16 ). In one of the most important theological statements about grace in Scripture, John says that the Law, a good thing, was given through Moses; the better things of grace and truth came through Jesus Christ (John 1:17 )
Exodus - , Exodus 2:23-25 ), and describes the call of Moses, which takes place in Egypt, the revelation of the name Jahweh , and the appointment of Aaron ( Exodus 6:1 to Exodus 7:13 ). When Moses stretches out his hand, the waters are miraculously divided and restored ( Exodus 14:8 f, Exodus 14:15 a, Exodus 14:21-22 Exodus 14:21-22 f. As no priests have been consecrated, and the people must not draw near, Moses ascends alone to receive the tables of the testimony (Exodus 24:15-18 a) written by Jahweh on both sides. Moses, after receiving his revelation and commission in Midian ( Exodus 2:11-22 , Exodus 3:2-4 a, Exodus 3:7 Exodus 3:7 f. On Pharaoh’s refusal, the plagues, which are natural calamities brought by Jahweh, and which are limited to Egypt, follow Moses’ repeated announcement ( Exodus 7:14 ; Exodus 7:16-17 a, Exodus 7:21 Exodus 7:21 a, Exodus 7:24 f. ) Moses ( Exodus 2:1 ; Exodus 2:10 ), whose father-in-law is Jethro ( Exodus 3:1 ), receives his revelation ( Exodus 3:6 ; Exodus 3:21 Exodus 3:21 f) and commission ( Exodus 4:17 f. ]'>[7] ’s account of the plagues has survived merely in fragments, but from these it would appear that Moses speaks only once to Pharaoh, and that the plagues follow his mere gesture while the miraculous element is heightened ( Exodus 7:15 ; Exodus 7:17 b, Exodus 7:20 b, Exodus 7:23 , Exodus 9:22-25 , Exodus 10:12-13 a, Exodus 10:14 a, Exodus 10:15 b, Exodus 10:20-23 ; Exodus 10:27 ). ), and when the people are dismayed, Moses encourages them ( Exodus 14:10-14 ; Exodus 14:19 b, Exodus 14:20 b. but the people, protected by an angel, cross when Moses lifts his rod ( Exodus 14:15 b, Exodus 14:16 a, Exodus 14:19 a, Exodus 14:20 a, Exodus 14:25 a, Exodus 14:29 ). Water, for which they murmur, is brought by Moses striking the rock with his rod ( Exodus 17:1 b, Exodus 17:2 a, Exodus 17:4-7 b). Jethro visits and advises Moses (ch
Animal - But it is not to be forgotten that this division of animals into clean and unclean existed both before the law of Moses, and even prior to the flood. Some, it is true, have regarded this distinction of clean and unclean beasts as used by Moses by way of prolepsis, or anticipation,—a notion which, if it could not be refuted by the context, would be perfectly arbitrary. " This prohibition is repeated by Moses to the Israelites, with this explanation:—"I have given it upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls. " From this it has indeed been argued, that the doctrine of the atoning power of blood was new, and was then, for the first time, announced by Moses, or the same reason for the prohibition would have been given to Noah. That unless the same be supposed as the ground of the prohibition of blood to Noah, as that given by Moses to the Jews, no reason at all can be conceived for this restraint being put upon the appetite of mankind from Noah to Moses. That it is a mistake to suppose, that the declaration of Moses to the Jews, that God had "given them the blood for an atonement," is an additional reason for the interdict, not to be found in the original prohibition to Noah. " The reason, then, being the same, the question is, whether the exegesis added by Moses must not necessarily be understood in the general reason given for the restraint to Noah. Blood is prohibited for this cause, that it is the life; and Moses adds, that it is "the blood," or life, "which makes atonement. The manner, too, in which Moses introduces the subject is indicative that, although he was renewing a prohibition, he was not publishing a "new doctrine;" he does not teach his people that God had then given, or appointed, blood to make atonement; but he prohibits them from eating it, because he had made this appointment, without reference to time, and as a subject with which they were familiar. Nor was this confined to the Jews; it was customary with the Romans and Greeks, who, in like manner, poured out and sprinkled the blood of victims at their altars, a rite derived, probably, from the Egyptians, as they derived it, not from Moses, but from the sons of Noah
Shelomith - Cousin of Moses and head of a Levitical group (1 Chronicles 23:18 ); apparently the same as Shelomoth (1 Chronicles 24:22 )
Hexateuch - Joshua forms something of a bridge linking the promises to the Patriarchs and the story of Moses with the later history of Israel
Arabia Petraea - At Horeb, Moses saw the burning bush, and Elijah heard the "still small voice
Greece - Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan ( Genesis 10:2-5 ); and this name does not again occur in the Old Testament till the time of (Joel 3:6 )
Bellows - The Egyptian bellows, as represented in paintings of the time of Thothmes III, contemporary with Moses, were worked by the feet alternately pressing upon two inflated skins sending the air through reed tubes tipped with iron into the furnace; as each skin became exhausted the blower raised it by a cord in the hand to admit a fresh supply of air
Amariah - ...
...
A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1 Chronicles 23:19 ; 24:23 )
Nahshon - Son of Amminadab, prince of Judah; assisted Moses and Aaron at the first numbering in the wilderness (1 Chronicles 2:10; Exodus 6:23; Numbers 1:7)
Beg - The poor were provided for by the law of Moses (Leviticus 19:10 ; Deuteronomy 12:12 ; 14:29 )
Decalogue - The ten commandments given by God to Moses
Nephilim - In Numbers 13:33 the spies Moses sent to investigate Cannan, feared the Nephilim, who appear to have been of large stature; hence interpreters have labeled them as giants
Adah - Moses drew the genealogy from documents of Esau's tribe, without altering them
Ark - The vessel in which Moses was set afloat upon the Nile was an ark of bulrushes
Example - ...
Moses, model of faithfulness
Pitch - The ark in which the infant Moses was put, was likewise thus rendered waterproof
Man of od - ...
We shall see this in the list that follows:...
Moses, the Model of Intercession Jeremiah 15:1...
The Angel of the Lord, Model of Sufficiency Judges 13:6...
The Pre-existent CHRIST, Model of Justice1Sa2:27...
Samuel, Model of Understanding1Sa9:6...
Shemaiah, Model of Counsel1Ki12:22...
Elijah, Model of Faithfulness1Ki17:18...
Elisha, Model of Kindness2Ki4:7...
Ahijah, Model of Severity2Ki23:16...
David, Model of Praise2Ch8:14...
Isaiah, Model of Spirituality2Ch25:7...
Igdaliah, Model of Consecration Jeremiah 35:4...
Timothy, Model of Holiness1Ti6:11...
You, the Saint of GOD, Model of Godliness2Ti3:17...
Ablution - Moses enjoined them, the heathens adopted them, and Mahomet and his followers have continued them
Antiquities - Ritualibus; Godwyn's Moses and Aaron; Bingham's Antiquities of the Christian Church; Brown's Antiquities of the Jews; Potter's and Harwood's Greek and Kennett's and Adam's Roman Antiquities; Preface to the Prussian Testament, published by L'Enfant and Beausobre; Prideaux and Shuckford's Connections; Jones's Asiatic Researches; and Maurice's Indian Antiquities
Judaism - At present, the Jews have two sects; the Caraites, who admit no rule of religion but the law of Moses; and the Rabbinists, who add to the law the traditions of the Talmud
Gomorrah - One of the five cities in the vale of Siddim, Genesis 14:1-11; destroyed for its wickedness, Genesis 18:20; Genesis 19:24; Genesis 19:28; made a warning by Moses, Deuteronomy 29:23; Deuteronomy 32:32; referred to by Isaiah 1:9-10; by Jeremiah 23:14; Jeremiah 49:18; Jeremiah 50:40; by Amos 4:11; by Zephaniah 2:9 : by our Saviour, Matthew 10:15; Mark 6:11, A
Asp - Hence Moses describes it, (Deuteronomy 32:33) and Job, (Job 20:14) and Paul
Doctors - They had studied the law of Moses in its various branches, and the numerous interpretations which had been grafted upon it in later times; and, on various occasions, they gave their opinion on cases referred to them for advice
Nephilim - In Numbers 13:33 the spies Moses sent to investigate Cannan, feared the Nephilim, who appear to have been of large stature; hence interpreters have labeled them as giants
Marah - The well was sweetened for the use of the distressed Hebrews by the miraculous efficacy imparted to the branches of a certain tree which Moses threw in, Exodus 15:23-25
Issachar - The character of his posterity was foretold by Jacob and by Moses, Genesis 49:14,15 Deuteronomy 33:18,19
Mouth - God spoke with Moses "mouth to mouth," Numbers 12
Meribah - This was the scene of the transgression of Moses and Aaron, for which they were precluded from crossing the Jordan
Reph'Idim - Here the Israelites fought their first battle and gained their first victory after leaving Egypt, the Amalekites having attacked them; here also the people murmured from thirst, and Moses brought water for them out of the rock
Goshen - Goshen was largely protected from the plagues that fell on other parts of Egypt during the time of Moses’ conflict with Pharaoh (Exodus 8:22; Exodus 9:26)
Christianity - Nay, even Moses himself (Deuteronomy 18:15, etc. ) announces the coming of another Lawgiver like him, about to promulgate God's new law; for to be like Moses He must be a lawgiver, and to be so He must have a new law, a fuller development of God's will, than Moses' law, its germ
Olive (Tree) - Some think that these two trees represent Moses and Elijah, Moses the lawgiver, and Elijah the grace giver. Most Bible students think they are Moses and Elijah who return to this earth in person with a message from GOD, and are persecuted
Glory - The glory of God in the writings of Moses, denotes, generally, the divine presence; as when he appeared on Mount Sinai; or, the bright cloud which declared his presence, and descended on the tabernacle of the congregation, Exodus 24:9-10 ; Exodus 24:16-17 . Moses, with Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy elders of Israel, went up to Mount Sinai, and "saw the glory of the Lord. Moses having earnestly begged of God to show his glory to him, God said, "Thou canst not see my face, for there shall no man see me and live
Creation - Moses's is unquestionably the most ancient; and had it no other circumstance to recommend it, its superior antiquity alone would give it a just claim to our attention. It is evidently Moses's intention to give a history of man, and of religion, and an account of creation. These were jumbled together in one indigested mass, which the ancients called chaos, and which they conceived to be eternal; but which Moses affirms to have been created by the power of God. The account given by Moses is distinguished by its simplicity. Most of the writers who come nearest to Moses in point of antiquity have favoured the world with cosmogonies; and there is a wonderful coincidence in some leading particulars between their accounts and his. The early cosmogonies are chiefly interesting from their resemblance to that of Moses; which proves that they have either been derived from him, or from some ancient prevailing tradition respecting the true history of creation. The most ancient author next to Moses, of whose writings any fragments remain, is Sanchoniatho, the Phenician. " There is so striking a coincidence between his account and that of Moses that one would almost think that he was translating from the first chapter of Genesis; and there can be no doubt that the Mosaic writings were well known at that time, both among the Greeks and Romans. Juvenal talks of the writings of Moses as well known:—...
Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moses. [1] ...
We are therefore inclined to think that Ovid actually copied from the Bible; for he adopts the very order detailed by Moses. Moses mentions the works of creation in the following order: the separation of the sea from the dry land; the creation of the heavenly bodies; of marine animals; of fowls and land animals; of man. ...
Here we see all the principal objects of creation mentioned exactly in the same order which Moses had assigned to them in his writings; and when we consider what follows;—the war of the giants; the general corruption of the world; the universal deluge; the preservation of Deucalion and Pyrrha; their sacrifices to the gods on leaving the vessel in which they had been preserved;—there can scarcely remain a doubt that Ovid borrowed, either directly or at second hand, from Moses. With regard to the western mythologists, then, there can be little doubt that their cosmogonies, at least such of them as profess to be historical, and not theoretical, are derived from Moses; and the same may be affirmed with regard to the traditions of the east: as they were the same with those of Greece in the time of Megasthenes, whose testimony to this effect is quoted both by Clemens Alexandrinus and Strabo, we may naturally conclude that they had the same origin. In the more ancient Hindoo writings, however, many sublime sentiments occur; and in the "Institutes of Menu," many passages are found relating to the creation, which bear a strong resemblance to the account given by Moses. "...
In these passages we have evidently a philosophical comment on the account of creation given by Moses, or as transmitted from the same source of primitive tradition
Hilkiah - Hilkiah in the course of the repairs "found the book of the law of the Lord, given by the hand of Moses," and being not able to read it himself gave it to Shaphan to read (2 Kings 22:8, etc. Possibly Moses' own autograph copy, but "by the hand of Moses" may mean only that God gave it by means of him (2 Chronicles 35:6; John 1:17; Galatians 3:19; Exodus 9:35 margin, Exodus 35:29; Nehemiah 10:29). ...
Still the place where it was found, the temple, and its not having been found before but only brought to light during the repairs, and that by the high priest, identify it with the original temple copy deposited by Moses' command by the side of the ark within the veil (Deuteronomy 31:9; Deuteronomy 31:26). Hilkiah "found" it, not "forged" it under the name of Moses, as rationalists in despite of the text conjecture. ...
Shaphan the professional "scribe" read it to Josiah, who as well as Hilkiah probably could not read, for reading and writing were confined to the "scribes," excepting a few who like Moses had learned in Egypt (Acts 7:22)
Lazarus And the Rich Man - He is reminded they have ample warning in Moses and the prophets. He is told: "If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they believe, if one rise again from the dead
Kenites - Jethro, or Raguel, Moses' father-in-law, is called a Kenite, Judges 1:16 , and is also called a Midianite. The children of the Kenite, Moses' father-in-law, left Jericho, the city of palm trees, and went into the wilderness of Judah, which was to the south of Arad, and dwelt there
Samaritans - This being granted them, they were delivered from the plague of wild beasts, and embraced the law of Moses, with which they mixed a great part of their ancient idolatry. (...
See 2 Kings 17:1-41 : Ezra 4:5-6 :) The Samaritans at present are few in number, but pretend to great strictness in their observation of the law of Moses
Manna - Would not the prophet of Nazareth imitate the great lawgiver, who gave their fathers bread from heaven? Jesus turns their thoughts away from Moses to God: ‘It was not Moses that gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father giveth you the true bread out of heaven
Age, Old - The Egyptians followed the primeval law, which Moses embodies in Leviticus 19:32; "Thou shalt rise up before the hoary head, and honor the face of the old man, and fear thy God. The rulers under Moses required age as a qualification; hence they and those of the New Testament church are called elders (presbyters), until the word became a term of office, and not necessarily of age
Flag - An undesigned coincidence that so many Egyptian words should occur in Exodus, just what we should expect if it be, as it professes, Moses' record; but no Hebrew reared in Palestine long after the Exodus would have had the knowledge of the Egyptian tongue which the many plainly Hebraized Egyptian words in Exodus indicate that its author possessed; nor would the author have used these words with out explanation of their meaning, had he not known that his readers were equally familiar with them. This flag is a species of papyrus, distinct from and less than that commonly used in Egypt to construct light boats, namely, the "Bulrush papyrus (from whence comes our paper), of which Moses' ark was made
Galenus, Physician - Kühn) he writes: "It is easier to convince the disciples of Moses and Christ than physicians and philosophers who are addicted to particular sects"; and (lib. 579) he condemns the method of Archigenes, who requires his dicta to be received absolutely and without demonstration, "as though we were come to the school of Moses and of Christ
Antitype - Now the Greek signifies the pattern by which another thing is made; and as Moses was obliged to make the tabernacle, and all things in it, according to the pattern shown him in the Mount, the tabernacle so formed was the antitype of what was shown to Moses: any thing, therefore, formed according to a model or pattern, is an antitype
Midian, Midianites - Moses, when he fled from the king of Egypt, found shelter in Midian. Moses was told to make war with them, and we read that the Israelites slew all the males, burnt all their cities and goodly castles, and afterwards put the women to death; on which occasion Balaam also was slain
Pomegranate - The high estimation in which it was held by the people of Israel, may be inferred from its being one of the three kinds of fruit brought by the spies from Eshcol to Moses and the congregation in the wilderness, Numbers 13:23 ; Numbers 20:5 ; and from its being specified by that rebellious people as one of the greatest luxuries which they enjoyed in Egypt, the want of which they felt so severely in the sandy desert. The pomegranate, classed by Moses with wheat and barley, vines and figs, oil olive and honey, was, in his account, one principal recommendation of the promised land, Deuteronomy 8:8
Manna - Would not the prophet of Nazareth imitate the great lawgiver, who gave their fathers bread from heaven? Jesus turns their thoughts away from Moses to God: ‘It was not Moses that gave you the bread out of heaven, but my Father giveth you the true bread out of heaven
Levi - ...
Moses subsequently speaks in very different language of Levi (Deuteronomy 33:8 ff), as was appropriate after Levi's accession to the priestly honour: "let Thy Right (thummim) and Thy Light (urim) be with Thy holy one (Levi, representing the whole tribe. The Urim and Thummim worn on the high priest's breast-plate were the pledge that Jehovah would always give His people 'light' to defend His 'right'; they should be given to Levi because he had defended Jehovah's right), whom Thou didst prove at Massah (Exodus 17:1-7, by the people's murmuring against Moses, Levi's representative, for water at the outset of the 40 years' wanderings) and with whom Thou didst strive at . Jehovah "proved" Levi, and by the people's strivings "strove with" Levi (represented by Moses and Aaron. ) Levi proved himself in the main (for Moses' failure, Numbers 20, and the Levite Korah's rebellion, Numbers 16, are graciously ignored) to be Jehovah's holy one. ...
Moses and Aaron's faithfulness, the Levites' drawing their swords against their Israelite brethren as God's avengers of the idolatry of the golden calf (Exodus 32:26-29), "slaying every man his brother
Kadesh Barnea - Here wady el Ghuweir affords access northwestwards through mountainous Edom; from here accordingly Moses sent to ask a passage through Edom by "the king's highway. At the first encampment Israel stayed probably for months; they waited for the spies 40 days (Numbers 13:25); Moses and the tabernacle remained (Numbers 14:44), while the people vainly tried to reverse God's sentence and to occupy Canaan (Deuteronomy 1:34-46): "ye abode in Kadesh many days" (a long indefinite time). Here water failed, and Moses by impatient striking of the rock, attribution of the miracle to himself and Aaron ("must we fetch," etc. From hence Moses sent to the king of Edom (Numbers 20:14, etc. The cliffs at the mouth of wady el Ghuweir near Ain el Weibeh, and in front of the host in marching eastward through Mount Seir, may have been the scene of Moses' striking the rock (cela , not tsuwr ) (Numbers 20:7 ff)
Transfiguration, the - Moses and Elijah appeared from the heavenly world, as the representatives of the Old Testament, the one of the law the other of prophecy, to do homage to him who was the fulfillment of both. ' No man knew of the sepulchre of Moses, (34:6) and Elijah had passed away in the chariot and horses of fire. connects the coming of Moses with that of the Messiah. " Moses the law giver and Elijah the chief of the prophets both appear talking with Christ the source of the gospel, to show that they are all one and agree in one. Moses and Elijah, the law and the promise, types and shadows, pass away; the gospel, the fulfillment, the substance Christ remains--the only one who can relieve the misery of earth and glorify our nature, Christ all in all
Law - ...
The “instruction” given by God to Moses and the Israelites became known as “the law” or “the direction” (ha-tôrâh), and quite frequently as “the Law of the Lord”: “Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord” ( Moses”: “Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel …” ( Moses set before the children of Israel …” ( Moses in preparation for the coming Messiah ( Mesrobes - Mesrobes devoted himself to revive the ancient Armenian culture, some fragments of which can yet be traced in Moses Chorenensis. ; Moses Choren. , Moses Taronensis, Kioud of Arabeza, afterwards patriarch, Mamprus lector, Jonathan, Khatchig, Joseph of Baghin, Eznig, Knith bp. of Terchan, Jeremiah, Johannes of Egegheats, Moses Chorenensis, Lazarus of Barb, Gorium biographer of Mesrobes, Elisaeus (Langl. See Moses Choren
Dancing - (Old High German: dinsan, to draw out, as in forming a chain) ...
Expression of feeling by rhythmical movement of the body, mentioned in Scripture as expressing joy on the part of the women of Israel, led by Mary, the sister of Moses (Exodus 15), and of David before the Ark (2Kings)
Benjamin, Tribe of - Moses pronounced a special blessing upon this tribe (Deuteronomy 33), which at the division of the territory of Chanaan under Josue, obtained its share between the frontiers of Ephraim, Dan, and Juda (Joshua 18)
Hare - Moses speaks of it according to appearance
Bashemath - Ishmael's daughter; the last of Esau's three wives according to the Edomite genealogy inserted by Moses (Genesis 36:3-4; Genesis 36:13)
Ships - Moses (Deuteronomy 28:68 ) and (Job 9:26 ) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Numbers 24:24 )
Pisgah - God allowed Moses to view the Promised Land from the heights of Pisgah (Deuteronomy 34:1 ) but would not let him cross into Canaan
Magic - , magic formed an essential element, and of the Egyptian magicians, in their conflict with Moses and Aaron, Exodus gives a vivid Meribali - The fountain near Rephidim which Moses smote by the divine command; also called "Massah" ("temptation, trial")
Scribe - They interpreted the law, taught it to disciples, and were experts in cases where people were accused of breaking the law of Moses
Argob - Moses gave this land of giants to Manasseh (Deuteronomy 3:13 )
Admonish - Moses was admonished of God, when he was about to make the tabernacle
Decay - Hebrews 8:13 (b) The Lord uses this strange word to describe the condition of the Old Testament plan and method of dealing with men according to "the law of Moses
Slime - Moses' mother made the ark watertight with pitch and "slime" (asphalt; Speaker's Commentary Exodus 2:3, makes it mud to bind the papyrus stalks together, and to make the surface smooth for the infant)
Gog And Magog - Moses speaks of Magog, son of Japheth, but says nothing of Gog, Genesis 10:2
Bezer - or Bozra, or Bostra, a city beyond Jordan, given by Moses to Reuben: this town was designed by Joshua to be a city of refuge; it was given to the Levites of Gershom's family, Deuteronomy 4:43
Booty - According to the law of Moses, the booty was to be divided equally between those who were in the battle and those who were in the camp, whatever disparity there might be in the number of each party
Pitch - The ark of Noah and that of Moses were rendered waterproof by it; and the bricks of the tower of Babel were cemented with it
Tribe of Benjamin - Moses pronounced a special blessing upon this tribe (Deuteronomy 33), which at the division of the territory of Chanaan under Josue, obtained its share between the frontiers of Ephraim, Dan, and Juda (Joshua 18)
Mouse - Moses, Leviticus 11:29 , declared it to be unclean, yet it was sometimes eaten; and Isaiah 66:17 , reproaches the Jews with this practice
Brazen Serpent - An image in brass prepared by Moses, resembling the fiery serpents so destructive to Israel in the desert, and set up in the midst of the camp in the view of all, that whosoever would evince penitence, faith, and obedience by looking to it, might live, Numbers 21:6-9
Shittah And Shittim - A valuable kind of wood, of which Moses made the greater part of the tables, altars, and planks belonging to the tabernacle
Perfumes - Moses also speaks of the art of the perfumer, in the English Bible "apothecary;" and gives the composition of two perfumes, of which one was to be offered to the Lord on the golden altar, Exodus 30:34-38
an'Akim - Though the war-like appearance of the Anakim had struck the Israelites with terror in the time of Moses, (Numbers 13:28 ; 9:2) they were nevertheless dispossessed by Joshua, (Joshua 11:21,22 ) and their chief city, Hebron, became the possession of Caleb
la'Mech - His two wives, Adah and Zillah, and his daughter Naamah, are, with Eve, the only antediluvian women whose names are mentioned by Moses
Darkness - " ...
On Mount Sinai, Moses (Exodus 20:21 ) "drew near unto the thick darkness where God was. " This was the "thick cloud upon the mount" in which Jehovah was when he spake unto Moses there
Midian, Midianites - When Moses fled from Pharaoh, he went east to Midian (Exodus 2:15 ). For this reason God commanded Moses to execute a war of vengeance against them (Numbers 31:3 ; compare Joshua 13:21 )
Eliezer - A son of Moses by Zipporah; so named to commemorate the deliverance of Moses from Pharaoh ( Exodus 18:4 , 1 Chronicles 23:15 ; 1 Chronicles 23:17 )
Avenger, Avenger of Blood - God has invested man with governmental authority to carry out this universal command, which was given long before the law by Moses, and which has never been repealed or relaxed. ...
Under the law of Moses it was enacted 'an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth
Queen of Heaven - "...
There had been always in Israel from their intercourse with other nations, a proneness to idolatry; and hence Moses cautioned them against being infected therewith. While we behold such things, what cause of thankfulness ought it to call forth towards God, who by the coming of the Lord Jesus Christ, hath opened to us the knowledge of himself, that "we might turn from idols to serve the living and true God!" Beautifully hath Moses pointed out to us, in his dying benediction to Israel, the blessedness of the Israel of God beyond the precious fruits brought forth by the sun, and the precious things put forth by the moon, "in the good will of him that dwelt in the bush
Apostasy - Paul of teaching all the Jews who are among the Gentiles ‘to forsake Moses’ (lit. ]'>[1] ‘apostasy from Moses’)
Altar - ...
Moses was told that in all places where God recorded His name they should build an altar of wood or of stone and offer thereon sheep and oxen for burnt offerings and peace offerings; but such altars if made of stone were not to be made of hewn stone; for had they lifted up a tool upon it, it would have been defiled. When the tabernacle was made, minute instructions were given to Moses, and he was to make everything as had been shownhim in the mount
Ark - (Genesis 6:14) And Moses in the wilderness was commanded to make an ark. For the same apostle elsewhere saith, that he "saw no temple in heaven? (Revelation 11:19 with Revelation 21:22) The ark of Noah, as well as that of Moses, were types of the Lord Jesus Christ
Testimony - In particular, it represents those commandments as written on the tablets and existing as a reminder and “testimony” of Israel’s relationship and responsibility to God: “And he gave unto Moses, when he had made an end of communing with him upon Mount Sinai, two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with the finger of God” ( Moses, so Aaron laid it up before the Testimony, to be kept” ( Nakedness - Moses put off his shoes to approach the burning bush. In the enumeration that Moses makes of the habit and ornaments of the priests, he no where mentions any dress for the feet
Kenites - people who dwelt westward of the Dead Sea, and extended themselves pretty far into Arabia Petraea: for Jethro, the priest of Midian, and father-in-law to Moses, was a Kenite, Judges 1:16 ; 1 Chronicles 2:55 ; 1 Samuel 15:6 . Which, according to the margin of our Bible, is to be understood of the father-in- law of Moses and his family
New Moon - ...
The Hebrews had a particular veneration of the first day of every month, for which Moses appointed peculiar sacrifices, Numbers 28:11-15 ; but he gave no orders that it should be kept as a holy day, nor can it be proved that the ancients observed it as such: it was a festival of merely voluntary devotion. Moses implies that, besides the national sacrifices then regularly offered, every private person had his particular sacrifices of devotion, Numbers 10:10
Jeho'Vah - When Moses received his commission to be the deliverer of Israel, the Almighty, who appeared in the burning bush, communicated to him the name which he should give as the credentials of his mission: "And God said unto Moses, "I AM THAT I AM (ehyea asher ehyeh ); and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you
Adoption - in Moses being an adopted son of the daughter of Pharaoh, Exodus 2:10 , and Esther being adopted by her cousin Mordecai, Esther 2:7 . Moses was instructed to say to Pharaoh, "Thus saith Jehovah, Israel is my son, even my firstborn
Stranger - Moses inculcated and enforced by numerous and by powerful considerations, as well as by various examples of benevolent hospitality, mentioned in the book of Genesis, the exhibition of kindness and humanity to strangers. Both of these classes, according to the civil code of Moses, were to be treated with kindness, and were to enjoy the same rights with other citizens, Leviticus 19:33-34 ; Leviticus 24:16 ; Leviticus 24:22 ; Numbers 9:14 ; Numbers 15:14 ; Deuteronomy 10:18 ; Deuteronomy 23:7 ; Deuteronomy 24:17 ; Deuteronomy 27:19 . In the time of Christ, the degenerate Jews did not find it convenient to render to the strangers from a foreign country those deeds of kindness and humanity which were not only their due, but which were demanded in their behalf by the laws of Moses
Judaism - The laws of the Jews, religious and moral, civil, political, and ritual, that is, a complete system of pure Judaism, are contained in the books of the Old Testament, and chiefly in the five books of Moses . ...
The religion of the ancestors of the Jews, before the time of Moses, consisted in the worship of the one living and true God, under whose immediate direction they were; in the hope of a Redeemer; in a firm reliance on his promises under all difficulties and dangers; and in a thankful acknowledgment for all his blessings and deliverances. As to the mode and circumstances of divine worship, they were much at liberty till the time of Moses; but that legislator, by the direction and appointment of God himself, prescribed an instituted form of religion, and regulated ceremonies, feasts, days, priests, and sacrifices, with the utmost exactness
Moses of Khoren - Moses (5) , of Khoren (Moses Khorenensis )—-called by his countrymen the Father of History—the poet, grammarian, and most celebrated writer of Armenia, was the nephew and disciple of St. Moses had studied long at Edessa, where the library was very rich in ancient Assyrian chroniclers
Jannes And Jambres - These two men are referred to in 2 Timothy 3:8 as having withstood Moses; they are traditionally identified with two leading men among the magicians (Exodus 7:11; Exodus 7:22; cf. 5) in the warning given to Pilate by Nicodemus that he should not act towards Jesus as Jannes and Jambres did to Moses. Lauth (Moses der Ebräer, 1869, p. ...
We can only conclude, therefore, that all that is certain about Jannes and Jambres is that they were the names of two men who were believed in the Apostolic Age to have been the leaders of the magicians who withstood Moses, and that they have been made the centre of pious legends and the cause of much critical ingenuity
James the Brother of Jesus - ...
After Paul’s first missionary journey, a group of Jews from the Jerusalem church came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). He asserted, moreover, that Gentile converts were not to be forced to obey Moses’ law. ...
Opposition from fellow Jews...
In spite of James’ efforts, many in the Jerusalem church still refused to accept Gentile Christians as equals unless the Gentiles kept the law of Moses. He soon learnt from them that many in Jerusalem were hostile to him because of his refusal to force the law of Moses upon his converts
Pharaoh - And indeed, he was no sooner sat down on his throne, we no sooner begin to hear his royal voice, than he at once exhibits all the ignorance and all the arrogance of his ancestors in the answer he gives to Moses and Aaron: Who is the Lord that I should obey Him? I know not the Lord, neither will I let Israel go. Go, therefore, for there shall no straw be given you, and yet you shall deliver your tale of bricks! The father had not known Joseph, and the son knew neither Joseph, nor Moses, nor Aaron, nor God. Moses! Moses is my slave, he shouted. Moses should be baking his tale of bricks all this time. What! Moses! of all men in the world, to come into my presence with a demand like that! Had Moses been some great ambassador who had come in a ship from some far country; had Moses and Aaron come with great gifts and in a great name to negotiate a royal league with Egypt, Pharaoh would have done them honour. A banquet would have been spread for Moses and Aaron, and the great council of the kingdom would have been called together to receive them, and to hear what they had to say. But Moses and Aaron! Why, they should have been at their tasks! Who are they, to come like ambassadors to me? No; to your bricks and to your burdens, you Moses and Aaron! And if only your minister were some great one, it would go so much better with him and with you. Moses had blood upon his hands in his youth, as Pharaoh's counsellors kept him well in mind. Moses! Who, I would like to know, is Moses? Pharaoh was still shouting out that to his captains when the Red Sea rolled in and cut short his scorn. ...
What sign showest Thou, said the unbelieving Jews to our Lord, that we may see, and believe Thee? What dost Thou work? Let me see a miracle, said Pharaoh to Moses and Aaron, and then I will let Israel go. We would have said that it was a very promising and a very hopeful state of mind in Pharaoh to ask for some proof of the divine embassy of Moses and Aaron, and then he would obey. For, innocent as it looked, and hopeful as it sounded, Pharaoh's demand put upon God, and upon Moses and Aaron, the first step of Pharaoh's repentance and obedience. That was all that was asked of Pharaoh for the time; and, had he not been filled full from his cradle with the ignorance and arrogance of his ancestors, Moses and he would soon have come to terms, and Egypt and Israel would have been friends and allies to this day. Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the Lord and I will let the people go. And Moses cried unto the Lord, and the Lord did according to the word of Moses
Jonathan - ...
A Levite, son of Gersam the son of Moses, who started an idolatrous worship in the house of Michas and then in the tribe of Dan when it migrated northward (Judges 17; 18)
Farm - By the enactment of Moses, the Hebrews paid a tithe of the produce to Jehovah, which was assigned to the priesthood
Divorce - Moses had suffered a man to put away his wife for any cause, as we see in Deuteronomy 24:1,3 ; but the Lord maintained God's original ordinance that what God had joined together, man had no right to put asunder, therefore a man must not put away his wife except for fornication, when she herself had broken the bond
Song - 3, and 2nd part); in Revelation 15:3 (twice), "the song of Moses
Essenes - They looked upon the law of Moses as mysterious truths; and renounced, in its explication, all regard to the outward letter
Kid - " A kid cooked in its mother's milk is "a gross, unwholesome dish, and calculated to kindle animal and ferocious passions, and on this account Moses may have forbidden it
Michael - In Judges 1:9 Michael is represented "as contending with Satan about the body of Moses
Blessing - This is the blessing wherewith Moses--blessed the children of Israel
on - Son of Peleth, a Reubenite: he joined with Korah in murmuring against Moses and Aaron
Sapphire, - When Moses, and the elders, etc
Espy - Moses sent me to espy out the land, and I brought him word again
Almighty - God gave Moses the name Yahweh, which to an extent replaced El Shaddai (Exodus 6:3 )
Amyraldism - A name given by some writers to the doctrine of universal grace, as explained and asserted by Amyraldus or Moses
Faithful - That sweet passage delivered to the church by Moses, is a most decided proof of it: "Know, therefore, that the Lord thy God, he is God; the faithful God, which keepeth covenant and mercy with the that love him and keep his commandments to a thousand generations
Japheth - The son of Noah; not, as some have supposed, the younger of his sons, because placed last, (see Genesis 9:18-19) for Moses expressly calls Ham the younger
je'Ther -
Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses
Build - Moses, speaking of the formation of the first woman, says, God built her with the rib of Adam, Genesis 2:22
Kenite - Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, was a Kenite
Organs - Musical instruments have been used in the worship of Godfrom the time when, after the passage of the Red Sea, Moses andMiriam sang their song of praise accompanied by timbrels
Pentateuch - ...
Authorship...
Age-old Hebrew and Christian tradition recognizes Moses as the author of the Pentateuch, though the Pentateuch itself nowhere names its author (2 Chronicles 35:12; Nehemiah 13:1; Mark 12:26; John 5:46). The Bible speaks frequently of Moses’ literary activity. ...
Moses would certainly have been familiar with the family records, ancient songs and traditional stories that people had preserved and handed down from one generation to the next (cf. ...
In different eras, critics who reject Moses’ authorship of the Pentateuch have suggested various theories for a much later composition. The book of Exodus shows that God, faithful to his promise, gave them a leader (Moses) through whom he brought them out of Egypt, gave them his law, and established them in a special covenant relationship with himself
Pillar - Jacob at Bethel, and Moses at the bush, had real views of JEHOVAH'S glory and fulness in Christ. We are told that "when Moses went out unto the tabernacle, all the people rose up, and stood every man at, his tent door, and looked after Moses, until he was gone into the tabernacle. And it came to pass, as Moses entered into the tabernacle, the cloudy pillar descended, and stood at the door of the tabernacle, and the Lord talked with Moses
Aloe - ...
The wood which God showed Moses, that with it he might sweeten the waters of Marah, is called alvah, Exodus 15:25 . The word has some relation to aloe; and some interpreters are of opinion that Moses used a bitter sort of wood that so the power of God might be the more remarkable. "It was this,"...
say they, "with which Moses sweetened the waters of Marah; and with this, too, did Kalib Ibn el Walid sweeten those of Elvah, once bitter, and give the place the name of this circumstance. " It may be that God directed Moses to the very wood proper for the purpose. It will not, however, from hence follow that Moses really used a bitter wood; but, as Providence usually works by the proper and fit means to accomplish its ends, it seems likely that the wood he made use of was, in some degree at least, corrective of that quality which abounded in the water, and so rendered it potable
Deuteronomy - Moses’ repetition of the law for this new generation is recorded in the book called Deuteronomy (from two Greek words, deuteros, meaning ‘second’, and nomos, meaning ‘law’). This is what God did with his people Israel, using Moses as his mediator. Moses’ repetition of the law therefore included adjustments to fit in with the people’s new way of life (e. Having stated the conditions under which the covenant operated, Moses then formally renewed it (29:1-30:20). ...
Moses summarized the covenant’s contents in a song that the people were to memorize and sing (31:30-32:47)
Scribes - Baruch was an amanuensis or scribe to Jeremiah; and Ezra is called "a ready scribe in the law of Moses, having prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments," Ezra 7:6 ; Ezra 7:10 ; but there is no mention of the scribes being formed into a distinct body of men till after the cessation of prophecy. Hence arose those numberless glosses, and interpretations, and opinions, which so much perplexed and perverted the text instead of explaining it; and hence arose that unauthorized maxim, which was the principal source of all the Jewish sects, that the oral or traditionary law was of Divine origin, as well as the written law of Moses. The scribes, therefore, who lived after the time of Simon the Just, in order to give weight to their various interpretations of the law, at first pretended that they also were founded upon tradition, and added them to the opinions which Ezra had established as authentic; and in process of time it came to be asserted, that when Moses was forty days on Mount Sinai, he received from God two laws, the one in writing, the other oral; that this oral law was communicated by Moses to Aaron and Joshua, and that it passed unimpaired and uncorrupted from generation to generation, by the tradition of the elders, or great national council, established in the time of Moses; and that this oral law was to be considered as supplemental and explanatory of the written law, which was represented as being in many places obscure, scanty, and defective. During our Saviour's ministry, the scribes were those who made the law of Moses their particular study, and who were employed in instructing the people. And our Saviour speaks of them as sitting in Moses's seat, Matthew 23:2 , which implies that they taught the law; and he foretold that he should be betrayed unto the chief priests and unto the scribes, Matthew 16:21 , and that they should put him to death, which shows that they were men of great power and authority among the Jews. Thus, when our Saviour asserts his divine nature, and appeals to "Moses and the prophets who spake of him, the people sought to slay him," John 5; and he expresses no surprise at their intention. But when he converses with Nicodemus, John 3, who appears to have been convinced by his miracles that he was "a teacher sent from God," when he came to Jesus by night," anxious to obtain farther information concerning his nature and his doctrine, our Lord, after intimating the necessity of laying aside all prejudices against the spiritual nature of his kingdom, asks, "Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things?" that is, knowest not that Moses and the prophets describe the Messiah as the Son of God? and he then proceeds to explain in very clear language the dignity of his person and office, and the purpose for which he came into the world, referring to the predictions of the ancient Scriptures
Numbers, the Book of - The tabernacle and Moses remained at Kadesh on the first occasion, while Israel attempted to occupy Canaan too late (Numbers 14:44). ...
The people mustering all together exhausted the natural water supply; the smiting of the rock, and the sentence on Moses and Aaron followed (Numbers 20:2 ff; Numbers 20:12; Numbers 20:13); from Kadesh Israel sent the message to Edom (Numbers 20:14, etc. Moses recapitulated the law after Sihon's and Og's defeat in the beginning of the eleventh month of the 40th year (Deuteronomy 1:3-4). The war with Arad precedes in time Numbers 20, Aaron's burial at Mount Hor, and is the first of the series of victories under Moses narrated from this point. So Moses' death is foreannounced as to follow the vengeance upon Midian (Numbers 31:2). The catalog of stages from Egypt to Moab (Numbers 33:2) is expressly attributed to Moses. , Numbers 10:1-28), and Moses' invocation (Numbers 10:35-36). The tabernacle is presupposed near, which is true only while Israel was in the wilderness; "Arnon is the border of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites" (Genesis 17:12-135), could only be written in Moses' time; the Amorites were not yet supplanted by the two and a half tribes: Numbers 32. Hardly anyone but Moses could have written the pleadings and God's communications in Numbers 14:11-16, presuming they are historical, and they are inseparably connected with the history and legislation. Moses made his memoranda at intervals during the 38 years of wandering; hence arises the variety of style in different parts. In Numbers 12:3 "Moses was very meek above all the men upon the face of the earth," he writes not by his own but the Spirit's prompting (Numbers 11:17). Moses' "meekness" is mentioned to show why he did not vindicate himself; therefore God vindicated him. ...
"Prophet" applied to Moses (Numbers 11:29; Numbers 12:6) was a usual term then (Genesis 20:7; Exodus 7:1), but fell into disuse in the time of the judges when there were strictly no "prophets," directly inspired (1 Samuel 3:1); hence, "seer" was the term for those consulted in difficult eases (1 Samuel 9:9). The organic connection of Numbers with the Pentateuch, of which it forms part, involves the Mosaic authorship of the former if Moses was author of the rest of the Pentateuch
Isaacus i, Catholicos of the Church of Greater Armenia, Saint - Moses of Khorene states that he belonged to the house of the founder of the Armenian church, Gregory the Illuminator. This he refused to do, but appointed one administrator in his stead, according to some Mastentzes, according to Moses of Khorene Samuel, nominated by the Persian king. Moses of Khorene, bk
Transfiguration of Christ - The substance of what we learn from their accounts is, that upon a certain occasion Jesus took Peter, James, and John, into a high mountain apart from all other society, and that he was there transfigured before them; his face shining as the sun, and his raiment white as the light; that moreover there appeared unto them Moses and Elias, conversing with him; and that while they spake together on the subject of his death, which was soon afterward to take place at Jerusalem, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice out of the cloud proclaimed, "This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. As declaring Christ to be superior to Moses and Elias, the giver and the restorer of the law. As exhibiting the sympathy which exists between the church in heaven and the church on earth, and the instruction which the former receives from the events which take place in the latter:—Moses and Elias conversed with our Lord on his approaching death, doubtless to receive, not to convey information
Mercy Seat - The propitiatory was the most sacred object of the Hebrew worship; it was looked upon as the throne of Jehovah who, from above the propitiatory, from between the cherubim, spoke to Moses and issued His commands to the children of Israel
Bernardino di Betto di Biagio Pinturicchio - The pupil of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo, he assisted Perugino, 1482, in the decoration of the Sistine Chapel; the "Baptism of Christ" and the "Journey of Moses into Egypt" being generally attributed to him
Jeshimon - Wilderness site east of the Jordan near Pisgah and Peor used to mark the places Israel passed under Moses on the way to conquer the Promised Land (Numbers 21:20 ; Numbers 23:28 )
Kenaz - "The Kenizzites" of Genesis 15:19 either had ceased to exist before Joshua, or probably Moses added their name subsequently, as those descendants of Kenaz were adopted into Israel subsequently, to whom Caleb belonged
Hassideans - For, after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, there were two sorts of men in their church; those who contented themselves with that obedience only which was prescribed by the law of Moses, and who were called Zadikin, 1:e
Simeon, the Tribe of - Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe
Ramoth-Gilead - ” One of the cities of refuge Moses appointed for unintentional killers (Deuteronomy 4:43 ; compare Joshua 20:8 ) and Levitical cities (Joshua 21:38 )
Ithamar - ); forbidden to mourn for Nadab and Abihu ( Leviticus 10:6 ), or to leave the Tent of Meeting ( Leviticus 10:7 ); afterwards entrusted by Moses with priestly duties ( Leviticus 10:12 ff
Mother - A mother has naturally great influence over her children, whether for good or evil, as Jochebed the mother of Moses, and Jezebel the mother of Athaliah
Mediation, Mediator - God gave the Law to the people through a mediator, Moses (Galatians 3:19), who was a type of the true mediator, Jesus
Cities of Refuge - Six cities that were designated by Moses at the command of God as locations to which Israelites could flee in order to be safe from retribution of other Israelites for offenses committed against others
Abelmizraim - But some hold that Moses by 'beyond Jordan' signifies the west because of his standpoint being on the east
Minister - ' Joshua was Moses' minister
Cloud, Pillar of - Coming to the tabernacle in the cloud, God spoke to Moses face to face (Exodus 33:11 ; Numbers 14:14 )
Goats' Hair - Was used by Moses in making the curtains of the tabernacle, Exodus 25:4 ; 26:7 ; 35:6
Haggadah, Halakah - ...
Halakah according to the early rabbis goes back to oral law given to Moses at Sinai along with the written law (Torah ) embodied in the Bible primarily found in the Pentateuch. Halakah extends the Torah of Moses into every aspect of Jewish life including personal, social, national, and international relations
Kadesh - From this place, in compliance with the desire of the people, Moses sent forth "twelve spies" to spy the land. Here the people murmured for want of water, as their forefathers had done formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their chidings, "with his rod smote the rock twice," instead of "speaking to the rock before their eyes," as the Lord had commanded him (Compare Numbers 27:14 ; Deuteronomy 9:23 ; Psalm 106:32,33 )
Reuben - ...
In the time of Moses, certain Reubenites were jealous that a man from the tribe of Levi (Moses), rather than one from the tribe of Reuben, was overall leader in Israel (Numbers 16:1-3; Numbers 16:12-14)
Kadesh - From this place, in compliance with the desire of the people, Moses sent forth "twelve spies" to spy the land. Here the people murmured for want of water, as their forefathers had done formerly at Rephidim; and Moses, irritated by their chidings, "with his rod smote the rock twice," instead of "speaking to the rock before their eyes," as the Lord had commanded him (Compare Numbers 27:14 ; Deuteronomy 9:23 ; Psalm 106:32,33 )
Sanhedrim - ) to denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews, which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of seventy men (Numbers 11:16,17 ). But that seems to have been only a temporary arrangement which Moses made
Pharaoh - 1635), he oppressed the Israelites, and ordered the male children to be killed, under whom Moses was born; and whose daughter adopted him as her son. The Pharaoh from whom Moses fled when he was grown up (about B
Token - ...
Exodus 3:12 (b) Moses received this token on Mt. They were now gathered around Moses on the mount
Inchantments - לטים , secrets, whence Moses speaks of the inchantments wrought by Pharaoh's magicians. Respecting the inchantments practised by Pharaoh's magicians, (see Exodus 8:18-19 ,) in order to imitate the miracles which were wrought by Moses, it must be said either that they were mere illusions, whereby they imposed on the spectators; or that, if they performed such miracles, and produced real changes of their rods, and the other things said to be performed by them, it must have been by a supernatural power which God had permitted Satan to give them, but the farther operation of which he afterward thought proper to prevent
Gad - Jacob, blessing Gad, said, "A troop shall overcome him, but he shall overcome at the last,"...
Genesis 49:19 ; and Moses, in his last song, mentions Gad as "a lion which teareth the arm with the crown of the head," &c, Deuteronomy 33:20-21 . Moses granted their request, on condition that they would accompany their brethren, and assist in the conquest of the land beyond Jordan
Scribe - So Ezra was "a ready scribe in the laws of Moses," Ezra 7:6 1 Chronicles 27:32 . Like the Pharisees, they were bitterly opposed to Christ, and joined with the priests and counselors in persecuting him and his followers, having little knowledge of Him concerning whom Moses and the prophets did write
Genesis - Moses is generally admitted to have been the writer of this book; and it is supposed that he penned it after the promulgation of the law. " Yet many of the facts it records must have been of the facts it records must have been well known among the Jews; the account given by Adam himself may have been verbally transmitted through seven of the patriarchs to Moses, and he may also have had ancient historical writings to consult
Porter - Others apply the figure to John the Baptist (so Godet) or to Moses. ” The figure is not to be explained exclusively of the Holy Spirit, or of the Father, or of Moses, or of John the Baptist, but of the Spirit acting through His appointed ministers in each case
Theophany - Yet the record is unmistakable that people did see God, such as Moses and others at Sinai (Exodus 24:9-10 ); the Lord's rebuke of Aaron and Miriam (Numbers 12:4-8 ); and the majestic vision to Isaiah (Isaiah 6:1 ,Isaiah 6:1,6:5 ). On Mount Horeb it was the experience of Moses to speak to God “face to face, just as a man speaks to his friend” (Exodus 33:11 NAS). In the same passage when Moses begged God to show him His glory ( Exodus 33:18 ), the Lord graciously granted Moses a vision of Himself, saying, “I will take My hand away and you shall see My back, but My face shall not be seen” (Exodus 33:23 NAS)
Strife - This may involve “contention” between two unequal parties (an individual and a group), as when all Israel quarreled with Moses, asserting that he had not kept his end of the bargain by adequately providing for them. Moses appealed to the Judge, who vindicated him by sending water from a rock (cliff?) smitten by Moses: “And he called the name of the place Massah, and Meribah, because of the chiding [1] of the children of Israel …” ( Moses or Israel
Michael - He disputed with Satan (Jude 1:9 ) about the body of Moses
Parents - ...
3: πατήρ (Strong's #3962 — Noun Masculine — pater — pat-ayr' ) "a father," is used in Hebrews 11:23 , in the plural, of both father and mother, the "parents" of Moses
Rabbah - Capital of Ammon that Moses apparently did not conquer (Deuteronomy 3:11 ; Joshua 13:25 ), located about twenty-three miles east of the Jordan River
Nadab - The eldest son of Aaron ( Exodus 6:23 , Numbers 3:2 ; Numbers 26:60 , 1 Chronicles 6:3 ; 1 Chronicles 24:1 ); accompanied Moses to Sinai ( Exodus 24:1 ; Exodus 24:9 f
Shittim - While at Shittim, they were blessed by Balaam (whom Balak had hired to curse Israel; Numbers 22-24 ; compare Micah 6:5 ), committed sin with the Moabite and Midianite women (Numbers 25:1 ), and Joshua was announced as Moses' successor (Deuteronomy 34:9 )
Atonement - And Moses said to Aaron, go to the altar, and offer thy sin-offering, and thy burnt-offering, and make an atonement for thyself and for the people
Earth - Exodus 15:12 (a) This statement probably refers to the incident in the life of Moses when the earth opened up a cavity and Korah, Dothan and Abiram went down alive into hell
Zichri - Descended from Moses' son Eliezer (1 Chronicles 26:25)
Sadducees - Though strict in regard to the written law of Moses, they repudiated the traditions of the elders, or what is called the oral law
Tradition - ) An unwritten code of law represented to have been given by God to Moses on Sinai
Cast Down - ”The word is used to describe the “throwing” or “casting” of anything tangible: Moses “threw” a tree into water to sweeten it ( Finger - Pharaoh's magicians discovered the finger of God in the miracle which Moses wrought, Exodus 8:19
Hare - The difficulty as to this animal is, that Moses says the arnabeth chews the cud, which our hares do not: but Aristotle takes notice of the same circumstance, and affirms that the structure of its stomach is similar to that of ruminating animals
Testament - The name is equivalent to covenant, and in our use of it, we apply it to the books which contain the old and new dispensations that of Moses, and that of Jesus Christ
Murder - The law of Moses, while it protected the accidental homicide, defined with additional strictness the crime of murder
Congregation - The number of these representatives being inconveniently large for ordinary business, a further selection was made by Moses of 70, who formed a species of standing committee
Frontlets - This they do in obedience to these words of Moses: "These commandments shall be for a sign unto thee upon thine hand, and for a memorial between thine eyes. ...
It is a question, whether the use of frontlets, and other phylacteries, was literally ordained by Moses. They who believe their use to be binding, observe, that the text of Moses speaks as positively of this as of other precepts; he requires the commandments of God to be written on the doors of houses, as a sign on their hands, and as an ornament on their foreheads, Exodus 13:16
Kings - Not aware of this lower sense of the word king, or unwilling to adopt it, many persons have been embarrassed by the following passage: "Moses commanded us a law,—he was king in Jeshurun," Deuteronomy 33:4-5 , or king among the Israelites; that is, he was the principal among the assembly of the superiors of the Israelites. Moses was the chief, the leader, the guide of his people, fulfilling the duties of a king; but he was not king in the same sense as David or Solomon was afterward. This remark reconciles the following observation: "These kings reigned in Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel," Genesis 36:31 ; for Moses, though he was king in an inferior sense, did not reign, in the stronger sense, over the children of Israel, their constitution not being monarchical under him
Caleb - ...
On the journey to Canaan...
When Moses chose twelve representatives (one from each tribe) to go to Canaan and spy out the land, Caleb was the person chosen from the tribe of Judah (Numbers 13:2; Numbers 13:6; Numbers 13:17-20). They refused to trust God, and rebelled against the leadership of Moses (Numbers 13:31-33; Numbers 14:1-4). ...
When, forty years later, a new generation had grown up and the people were about to enter Canaan, Moses appointed one leader from each of the twelve tribes to assist the new leader Joshua and the high priest Eleazar in the division of the land
Exodus, the - The new Pharaoh that knew not Moses was Aahmes I, 1706 B. The persecution that followed on their foretold multiplication, shortly before Moses' birth (no such difficulty attended Aaron's preservation just three years previously, Exodus 7:7), was divinely overruled toward weaning them from Egypt and binding them together as one people. Even Moses, who had been so marvelously trained to be their leader, failed at first to awaken them; both he and they needed a further severe discipline of 40 years. But the Pharaoh of that day rejected with scorn Moses and Aaron's application for leave to depart; "Who is Jehovah, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, neither will I let Israel go" (Exodus 5:2). Moses' first proposal to Pharaoh had been for a journey into the wilderness adjoining Goshen, not beyond the frontier, three days in all going and, returning, in order to sacrifice. ...
Pharaoh's refusal of this reasonable request (Exodus 3:18) ended in Moses' demand for their absolute manumission and departure (Exodus 11; Exodus 12:31-33). Natural causes alone will not explain the facts of the case, especially if they are taken in connection with God's prophecy of them through Moses. As Moses' 40 years sojourn in the wilderness trained him for being their leader there, so their 40 years in it trained them for the conflicts in Canaan. The route passes Sarabit el Khadim, where are ruins and inscriptions proving its occupation by an Egyptian colony before Moses' time, so that the road would be sure to be kept in order and the watersprings kept open. Their reasons are coincidence with Scripture notices of topography, superior facilities for travel, the unlikelihood that Moses would have brought Israel down to the coast and then taken them back to pursue a more difficult road than that lying open before him. field was such a rock as Moses may have struck with his rod. Joshua in descending with Moses, hears the shout of the feasters without seeing the cause. The sight breaks on Moses suddenly only when near the camp, and he breaks the tables "beneath the mount
Blood - " From this "additional reason," as it has been called, it has been argued, that the doctrine of the atoning power of blood was new, and was, then, for the first time, announced by Moses, or the same cause for the prohibition would have been assigned to Noah. That unless the same reason be supposed as the ground of the prohibition of blood to Noah, as that given by Moses to the Jews, no reason at all can be conceived for this restraint being put upon the appetite of mankind from Noah to Moses; and yet we have a prohibition of a most solemn kind, which in itself could have no reason, enjoined without any external reason being either given or conceivable. That it is a mistake to suppose that the declaration of Moses to the Jews, that God had "given them the blood for an atonement," is an "additional reason" for the interdict, not to be found in the original prohibition to Noah. " The reason, then, being the same, the question is, whether the exegesis added by Moses must not necessarily be understood in the general reason given for the restraint to Noah. Blood is prohibited because it is the life; and Moses adds, that it is "the blood," or life, "which makes atonement. The manner, too, in which Moses introduces the subject, is indicative that, though he was renewing a prohibition, he was not publishing a new doctrine; he does not teach his people that God had then given, or appointed, blood to make atonement; but he prohibits them from eating it, because he had already made this appointment, without reference to time, and as a subject with which they were familiar. Nor was this confined to the Jews; it was customary with the Romans and Greeks, who, in like manner, poured out and sprinkled the blood of victims at their altars; a rite derived, probably, from the Egyptians, who deduced it, not from Moses, but from the sons of Noah
On - ” Member of tribe of Reuben who was one of leaders challenging authority of Moses (Numbers 16:1 )
Amorites - Moses took this country from their king, Sihon
Exodus, Book of - ...
The authorship of this book, as well as of that of the other books of the Pentateuch, is to be ascribed to Moses
Blessing - Jacob and Moses gave dying blessings prophetical of the character and history of the several tribes (Genesis 49; Deuteronomy 33)
Knock - Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to stand without and call to the owner to come forth (Deuteronomy 24:10 )
Atad - of Jordan, where Moses the writer was (Genesis 50:10-11)
Washing - Moses had commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause; but the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a large body of precepts
Rameses (ra'Amses) - One reason why the Israelites of Moses’ time were slaves in Egypt was that the Pharaoh wanted a cheap work-force to carry out his spectacular building programs
Wife - The law of Moses regulated but did not prohibit polygamy
Ebal - Mountain near Shechem on which Moses set up the curse for the covenant ceremony (Deuteronomy 11:29 ; Deuteronomy 27:13 )
Eliezer - The second son of Moses and Zipporah (Exodus 18:4 )
Eliab - Leader of tribe of Zebulun under Moses (Numbers 1:9 )
Riddle - The Lord spoke with Moses directly, not in “riddles” (Numbers 12:8 NIV, REB, NRSV) or “dark speech” (KJV, NAS)
Murmur - ...
The people murmured against Moses
Usury, - The Jews were forbidden by the law of Moses to take interest from their brethren, but were permitted to take it from foreigners
Caleb - ” Caleb the son of Jephunneh, was one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to reconnoiter the territory of Canaan (Numbers 13:6 )
Joshua - (יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, later יֵשׁוּעַ, ‘Jahweh is deliverance or salvation’)...
Joshua, the successor of Moses in the leadership of Israel, was named Ἰησοῦς in the Septuagint and NT, and therefore ‘Jesus’ in the English Authorized Version ; but the Revisers, in accordance with their rule of reproducing OT names in the Hebrew rather than the Greek form, have changed this into ‘Joshua
Spies - Twelve were sent by Moses to search out the land of Palestine, the adoption of this means being first desired by the people, and afterwards ordered by God
Job - The opinions of Job and his Mends are thus interesting as showing a phase of patriarchal religion outside of the family of Abraham, and not controlled by the legislation of Moses
Decision - Moses ( Exodus 18:13 ), the judges ( 1 Samuel 7:16 ), and the kings ( 1 Kings 3:16 ff
Treasure - JEHOVAH promised the church by Moses, that he would command the blessing upon Israel in his storehouses, and in all that he would set his hand unto
Argob - ' Og was conquered by Moses, and Jair of Manasseh took the fortified cities, and it became a part of Manasseh's lot
Jair - A chief warrior under Moses, descended from the most powerful family of Judah and Manasseh
Abihu - With his father and elder brother he accompanied the seventy elders part of the way up the mount with Moses (Exodus 24:1,9 )
Tent - It was also 'a tent' that Moses pitched outside the camp, in Exodus 33:7
Washing - They were at their consecration once 'washed' by Moses, but were thenceforward required continually, when executing their service, to wash only their hands and feet in the laver
Ammiel - The spy representing the tribe of Dan whom Moses sent to spy out the Promised Land
Jesus Christ - Joshua the successor of Moses, and Joshua the high priest in the church, after the church was brought back from Babylon
Levi - For the blessings on Levi's descendants by Moses, see Genesis 29:34
Pillar - Matstsêbâh is used in connection with the altar built by Moses in Bulrush - The stalks are pliable, and capable of being interwoven very closely, as is evident from its being used in the construction of the "ark" or boat-cradle in which Moses was hid by his mother
Captivity - The first captivity is that of Egypt, from which they were delivered by Moses, and which should be considered rather as a permission of providence, than as a punishment for sin
Adultery - According to the law of God, given by Moses, the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death
Law - This term is applied in the New Testament to the old covenant and revelation, in distinction from the new; the dispensation under the law in distinction from the dispensation under the gospel; that by Moses and the prophets in distinction from the dispensation by Christ
Transfiguration - The Law and the Prophets, in the persons of Moses and Elijah, did homage to the Gospel
Gentiles - A name given by the Hebrews to all those that had not received the Law of Moses
Rephidim - Moses might have surveyed the conflict from the height of Jebel Tahûneh, on the N
Timbrel - After the passage of the Red sea, Miriam, sister of Moses, took a timbrel, and began to play and dance with the women, Exodus 15:20
Weights - The weight "of sanctuary," or weight of the temple, Exodus 30:13,24 ; Leviticus 5:5 ; Numbers 3:50 ; 7:19 ; 18:16 , was perhaps the standard weight, preserved in some apartment of the temple, and not a different weight from the common shekel; for though Moses appointed that all things valued by their price in silver should be rated by the weight of the sanctuary, Leviticus 27:25 , he made no difference between this shekel of twenty gerahs and the common shekel
Septuagint - This ancient version contains many errors, and yet as a whole is a faithful one, particularly in the books of Moses; it is of great value in the interpretation of the Old Testament, and is very often quoted by the New Testament writers, who wrote in the same dialect
Clean And Unclean - Terms often used in the Bible in a ceremonial sense; assigned to certain animals, and to men in certain cases, by the law of Moses, Leviticus 11:1-15:33 Numbers 19:1-22 Deuteronomy 14:1-29
Iron - Moses often alludes to it
Divorce, - The Pharisees wished perhaps to embroil our Saviour with these rival schools by their question, ( Matthew 19:3 ) by his answer to which, as well as by his previous maxim, (Matthew 5:31 ) he declares that he regarded all the lesser causes than "fornication" as standing on too weak ground, and declined the question of how to interpret the words of Moses
Levi - Jacob announced that because of his son’s violence, the descendants of Levi would be scattered in Israel (Genesis 49:5-7); but because of their zeal against idolatry in the time of Moses, God made their scattering honourable
Josiah - The Five Books of Moses were as completely lost out of the whole land long before Josiah's day as much so as if Moses had never lifted a pen. For it was in the progress of that reformation and revival of religion which his own tender heart had alone dictated to him that the long-lost law of Moses was recovered. We all profess to believe in special providences and in divine interpositions; but, surely, the extraordinary providence that brought to the light of day and put into Josiah's hands the long-lost law of Moses concerning the worship and morals of Israel was an incomparable miracle of the Divine grace and goodness. Humanly speaking, we should never have heard of the Five Books of Moses, as we have heard of them, but for Josiah's tender heart. Had Josiah's heart not been tender toward the house of God, the temple would have been let lie in its utter ruin, till the buried Books of Moses would have been to this day the possession and the prey of the moles and the bats. Moses, says Matthew Henry, had a narrow turn for his life in Josiah's day. You do well to tremble at the thought of how near you were to the total loss of Moses and his law. But try your own hand on Moses and Josiah, and explain to me how you think you could have had Moses in your Bible but for Josiah; and, again, but for Josiah's tender heart. At any rate,-this is far more to your purpose-be sure of this, that both Moses, and David, and Paul, and John, and Jesus Christ Himself, are all as good as never written; they are as good as completely lost to you; till you take to them a tender heart, and out of that, a reformed and a repaired life. It will only be after your heart is tender and your life repaired that Hilkiah and Shaphan and Huldah the prophetess will be able to discover and to read to you either the law of Moses, or the grace and truth that has come by Jesus Christ. ...
When the law of the Lord, as it was written in the newly disinterred Books of Moses, was read for the first time to Josiah, and while Shaphan the scribe was still reading it, Josiah rose up and rent to pieces his royal robe. It was Moses speaking to them: but it was God Himself speaking to Josiah
Heshbon - ” City in Moab ruled by Sihon and captured by Moses (Numbers 21:21-30 ). The Israelites laid claim to it on the grounds that Moses had taken all of the territory as far south as the Arnon from Sihon, an Amorite king who ruled from Heshbon (Numbers 21:21-31 )
Numbers, Book of - ...
This, like the other books of the Pentateuch, bears evidence of having been written by Moses. But, after all, "what this book was is uncertain, whether some writing of Israel not now extant, or some writing of the Amorites which contained songs and triumphs of their king Sihon's victories, out of which Moses may cite this testimony, as Paul sometimes does out of heathen poets (Acts 17:28 ; Titus 1:12 )
Tal'Mud - It was an article of faith that in the Pentateuch there was no precept, and no regulation, ceremonial, doctrinal or legal, of which God had not given to Moses all explanations necessary for their application, with the order to transmit them by word of mouth. The classical subject is the following in the Mishna on this wing: "Moses received the (oral) law from Sinai, and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets and the prophets to the men of the Great Synagogue
Mourn - Abraham mourned for Sarah (Genesis 23:2 ); Jacob for Joseph (37:34,35); the Egyptians for Jacob (50:3-10); Israel for Aaron (Numbers 20:29 ), for Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8 ), and for Samuel (1 Samuel 25:1 ); David for Abner (2 Samuel 3:31,35 ); Mary and Martha for Lazarus (John 11 ); devout men for Stephen (Acts 8:2 ), etc. For Jacob it was seventy days (Genesis 50:3 ); for Aaron (Numbers 20:29 ) and Moses (Deuteronomy 34:8 ) thirty days; and for Saul only seven days (1 Samuel 31:13 )
Plagues - They showed the God of Moses was sovereign over the gods of Egypt, including Pharaoh who was considered a god by the Egyptians. Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as well as Moses and the Israelites, would come to know the Lord through the events of the plagues (Exodus 7:17 ; Exodus 8:10 ,Exodus 8:10,8:22 ; Exodus 9:14 ,Exodus 9:14,9:16 ,Exodus 9:16,9:29 )
Korah - A leader of rebellion against Moses and Aaron while Israel was camped in the wilderness of Paran (Numbers 16:1 ). Korah, Dathan, and Abiram led a confederacy of 250 princes of the people against Aaron's claim to the priesthood and Moses' claim to authority in general
Michael - He is connected with many incidents in the history of Moses, especially his burial (cf. In the passage in Jude ( Judges 1:9 ) a definite reference is made to the tradition already mentioned, ‘Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee’ (cf
Preadamite - But this being expressly contrary to the first words of Genesis, Pereyra had recourse to the fabulous antiquities of the Egyptians and Chaldeans, and to some idle rabbins, who imagined there had been another world before that described by Moses. The sacred history of Moses assures us that Adam and Eve were the first persons that were created on the earth, Genesis 1:26
Benjamin - Moses gives a very affecting account of it, Genesis 35:15-20. Moses, the man of God, viewing, most probably, Benjamin typically in relation to the Lord Jesus Christ, makes a beautiful observation in his dying blessing, which he gave to the tribes of Israel; "And of Benjamin he said, the beloved of the Lord shall dwell in safety by him; and the Lord shall cover him all the day long, and he shall dwell between his shoulders
Rock - ” This is probably what Moses struck in Moses in a cleft of the “rocky cliff” ( Face - Moses begs of God to show him his face, or to manifest his glory; he replies, "I will make all my goodness pass before thee," and I will proclaim my name; "but my face thou canst not see; for there shall no man see it and live!" The persuasion was very prevalent in the world, that no man could support the sight of Deity, Genesis 16:13 ; Genesis 32:30 ; Exodus 20:19 ; Exodus 24:11 ; Judges 6:22-23 . We read that God spake mouth to mouth with Moses, even apparently, and not in dark speeches, Numbers 12:8 ; "The Canaanites have heard that thou art among thy people, and seen face to face," Numbers 14:14
Purple - Purple, however, is much more ancient than this, since we find it mentioned by Moses in several places. Moses used much wool dyed of a crimson and used much wool dyed of a crimson and purple color in the work of the tabernacle, and in the ornaments of the high priest, Exodus 25:4 26:1,31,36 39:1 2 Chronicles 3:14
Magic, Magicians - (Even the magicians of Egypt could imitate the plagues sent through Moses only so long as they had previous notice and time to prepare. The time Moses sent the plague unannounced the magicians failed; they "did so with their enchantments," but in vain
Mediator - In Galatians 3:20 the argument is, the law had angels and Moses (Deuteronomy 5:5) as its mediators; now "a mediator" in its essential idea (ho mesitees , the article is generic) must be of two parties, and cannot be "of one" only; "but God is one," not two. He acts singly and directly; He would bring man into immediate communion, and not have man separated from Him by a mediator as Israel was by Moses and the legal priesthood (Exodus 19:12-24; Hebrews 12:19-24). ...
It is no objection to this explanation that the gospel too has a Mediator, for Jesus is not a mediator separating the two parties as Moses did, but at once God having "in Him dwelling all the fullness of the Godhead," and man representing the universal manhood (1 Timothy 2:5-6; 1 Corinthians 15:22; 1 Corinthians 15:28; 1 Corinthians 15:45; 1 Corinthians 15:47; 1 Corinthians 15:24; 2 Corinthians 5:19; Colossians 2:14); even this mediatorial office shall cease, when its purpose of reconciling all things to God shall have been accomplished, and God's ONENESS as "all in all" shall be manifested (Zechariah 14:9)
Favor - In Moses' blessing on the twelve tribes he speaks of Joseph's prosperity and fruitfulness as the one who enjoyed God's favor (Deuteronomy 33:16 ). Moses pleaded that God would spare Israel in spite of their sinful worship of the golden calf (Exodus 32:11 ). Moses prayed that he might know God and learn his ways so that his favor might continue (Exodus 33:12-13 )
Fast, Fasting - The first fasting we read of is when Moses went up into the mount to receive the tables of the covenant, and was there apart from nature with the Lord for forty days and nights. Here, as in other places, it is connected with humbling; but in the case of Elijah, as with Moses, it signifies being apart from the ordinary life of flesh, to be with the Lord. It is a contrast to Moses and Elijah, they were apart from man's natural condition to be with God; and He who as man was ever with God was so apart to be in conflict with the devil
Law - The subject of 'law' is not restricted in scripture to the law given by Moses. Where there is no law there is no transgression (Romans 4:15 ), though there may be sin, as there was from Adam to Moses: "until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed [1] when there is no law. , the word 'law' being often without the article (though the law of Moses may at times be alluded to in the same way)
Cloud - The Lord appeared at Sinai in the midst of a cloud, Exodus 19:9 ; Exodus 24:5 ; and after Moses had built and consecrated the tabernacle, the cloud filled the court around it, so that neither Moses nor the priests could enter, Exodus 40:34-35 . The angel descended in the cloud, and thence spoke to Moses, without being seen by the people, Exodus 16:10 ; Numbers 11:25 ; Numbers 16:5
Sadducees - Hume observes, it is not easy to comprehend how they could at the same time admit the authority of the law of Moses. The Sadducees rejected all tradition, and some authors have contended that they admitted only the books of Moses; but there seems no ground for that opinion, either in the Scriptures or in any ancient writer. Even Josephus, who was himself a Pharisee, and took every opportunity of reproaching the Sadducees, does not mention that they rejected any part of the Scriptures; he only says that "The Pharisees have delivered to the people many institutions as received from the fathers, which are not written in the law of Moses
Caleb - the son of Jephunneh, of the tribe of Judah, was one of those who accompanied Joshua, when he was deputed by Moses to view the land of Canaan, which the Lord had promised them for an inheritance, Numbers 13. Moses and Aaron no sooner heard this than they fell upon their faces before the whole congregation, and Joshua and Caleb rent their clothes, imploring them to take courage and march boldly on; since, if God were with them, they might easily make a conquest of the whole land. Moses, having fervently interceded for them, the Lord graciously heard his prayer; but though he was pleased not to destroy them immediately, he protested with an oath, that none of those who had murmured against him should see the land of Canaan, but that they should all die in the wilderness
Pharaoh - Pharaoh, who knew not Joseph, and under whom Moses was born, B. ...
Very probably there was another Pharaoh reigning at the time when Moses fled into Midian, and who died before Moses at the age of eighty returned from Midian into Egypt, Exodus 2:11-23 4:19 Acts 7:23
ka'Desh, ka'Desh-Bar'ne-a - Clay Trumbull of Philadelphia, visiting the spot in 1881, succeeded in rendering almost certain that the site of Kadesh is Ain Kadis (spelled also Gadis and Quadis ); "the very same name, letter for letter in Arabic and Hebrew, with the scriptural fountain of Kadesh --the 'holy fountain,' as the name means-- which gushed forth when Moses smote the rock. The plain or wadi, also called Quadis, is shut in by surrounding hills so as to make it a most desirable position for such a people as the Israelites on the borders of hostile territory --such a position as leaders like Moses and Joshua would have been likely to select. Standing out from the mountain range at the northward of the beautiful oasis amphitheater was the 'large single mass or small hill of solid rock' which Rowlands looked at as the cliff (sela) smitten by Moses to cause it to 'give forth its water' when its flowing had ceased
Ten Commandments - In the midst of the cloud and the darkness and the flashing lightning and the fiery smoke and the thunder like the voice of a trumpet, Moses was called to Mount Sinai to receive the law without which the people would cease to be a holy nation. " (Exodus 31:18 ; 32:16 ) The number Ten was, we can hardly doubt, itself significant to Moses and the Israelites. (Luke 18:20 ) Their division into two tables is not only expressly mentioned but the stress is upon the two leaves no doubt that the distinction was important, and that answered to that summary of the law which was made both by Moses and by Christ into two precepts; so that the first table contained Duties to God , and the second, Duties to our Neighbor . "The Decalogue differs from all the other legislation of Moses: (1) It was proclaimed by God himself in a most public and solemn manner
Wanderings in the Wilderness - Israel's movements from Egypt to the Promised Land under Moses, including the place names along the routes. This route cannot be associated with the Moses/Joshua-led Exodus because of the specific statements in Numbers 20-21 . Many scholars therefore conclude that Numbers 33:1 is a combined compilation of place names that are related to pre-Mosaic infiltration from Egypt to Canaan by way of the King's Highway, the place along the second route around Edomite-Moabite territory followed by the Moses/Joshua-led contingent and all those places visited by the Israelites during those 38 punitive years of desert wanderings when like the nomads of every generation they sought water and pasturage for their flocks within that hostile arid environment of the Sinai. See Exodus ; Kadesh ; Moses ; Sinai
Levirate Law - ]'>[4] and suggested the problem set forth by the Sadducees, who evidently sought by the authority of Moses to discredit a doctrine held by the Pharisees and taught by Jesus. ...
In each of the Synoptics the setting forth of the problem is prefaced by a statement of the Levirate law as spoken or written by Moses (Mt. ...
The problem propounded by the Sadducees may be thus stated:—The Levirate law was enacted by Moses, and there was a case of seven brothers who in obedience to it married, one after the other, the same woman, who herself died after the death of the last of the seven. In the resurrection, since they all had her, whose wife shall she be of the seven? Jesus in His answer to the Sadducees did not discuss the justice or injustice of the Levirate law, or examine the purpose of Moses in decreeing it; but, asserting that they had erred, not knowing the Scriptures or the power of God, He showed them that in the resurrection men neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven; and then He proceeded to declare that belief in immortality is involved in our consciousness of the being of God
Camp - | T | 62,700 DAN, | T ...
H | 151,450 | T | | E | 157,600 | H...
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| | S Moses, AARON, | |...
| SIMEON, | AND THE PRIESTS. As we might have expected, Moses, Aaron, and the priests were nearest to the door of the Tabernacle, and the Levites surrounded the three other sides. When the camp itself had become defiled by the golden calf, Moses "took the tabernacle and pitched it without the camp . The word used signifies 'the tent,' and it was doubtless a tent anticipatory of the tabernacle significantly pitched by Moses outside the camp, to show that God's dwelling could not be where there was an idol, for it is added, "Every one which sought the Lord went out unto the tabernacle of the congregation, which was without the camp
Elder - Moses was desired to convey the divine message to "the elders of Israel," Exodus 3:16; and they were both to accompany him when he demanded freedom from Pharaoh, and also to be the means of communication between Moses and the mass of the people. We find them after the departure from Egypt, Exodus 17:6; Exodus 19:7; and from these, 70 were selected for special worship with Moses, Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu. Moses had, at the suggestion of Jethro, appointed officers to administer justice, Exodus 18:26, but he seems to have required, further, a body of (if they may be so called) political advisers
Israel in Egypt - ...
Amram's son Moses. ...
Or, if we start with Levi, who entered with Jacob, there was ample time for Moses to have had a son, as he was eighty years old at the Exodus. Further, the mother of Moses (Jochebed) was Levi's daughter, (Numbers 26:59 ), Amram having married his own aunt. If Moses was born when she was forty-seven years of age, and Moses was eighty years old at the Exodus, these sums (88 + 47 + 80 = 215 years) show that Israel may have been in Egypt about two hundred and fifteen years, and this is the period now generally supposed
Judges - They had no authority to make any laws, but were only to take care of the observance of those of Moses. ...
Godwin, in his "Moses and Aaron," compares them to the Roman dictators, who were appointed only on extraordinary emergencies, as in case of war abroad, or conspiracies at home, and whose power, while they continued in office, was great, and even absolute. Sigonius supposes that these elders and judges of cities were the original constitution settled in the wilderness by Moses, upon the advice given him by Jethro, Exodus 18:21-22 , and continued by divine appointment after the settlement in the land of Canaan; whereas others imagine that the Jethronian prefectures were a peculiar constitution, suited to their condition while encamped in the wilderness, but laid aside after they came into Canaan. It is certain, however, that there was a court of judges and officers, appointed in every city, by the law of Moses, Deuteronomy 16:18 . Some have supposed that it was the same that afterward became famous under the appellation of sanhedrim; but others conceive the institution of the seventy elders to have been only temporary, for the assistance of Moses in the government, before the settlement in the land of Canaan; and that the sanhedrim was first set up in the time of the Maccabees
Sanhedrim - Many of the learned agree, that it was instituted by Moses, Numbers 11; and consisted at first of seventy elders, who judged finally of all causes and affairs; and that they subsisted, without intermission, from Moses to Ezra, Deuteronomy 27:1 ; Deuteronomy 31:9 ; Joshua 24:1 ; Joshua 24:31 ; Judges 2:7 ; 2 Chronicles 19:8 ; Ezekiel 8:11 . Others will have it, that the council of seventy elders, established by Moses, was temporary, and did not hold after his death; adding, that we find no sign of any such perpetual and infallible tribunal throughout the whole Old Testament; and that the sanhedrim was first set up in the time when the Maccabees, or Asmoneans, took upon themselves the administration of the government under the title of high priests, and afterward of kings, that is, after the persecution of Antiochus. The rabbins pretend, that the sanhedrim has always subsisted in their nation from the time of Moses to the destruction of the temple by the Romans; and they maintain that it consisted of seventy counsellors, six out of each tribe, and Moses as president; and thus the number was seventy-one: but six senators out of each tribe make the number seventy-two, which, with the president, constitute a council of seventy-three persons, and therefore it has been the opinion of some authors that this was the number of the members of the sanhedrim. In the time of Moses, this council was held at the door of the tabernacle of the testimony. Upon the whole, it may be observed, that the origin of the sanhedrim has not been satisfactorily ascertained; and that the council of the seventy elders, established by Moses, was not what the Hebrews understood by the name of sanhedrim
Numbers, Book of - Departure from the mountain; Moses asked Hobab to accompany them. Words which Moses used to address to the ark. Aaron and Miriam attacked Moses; Miriam’s leprosy. ]'>[15] ); the sin of Moses and Aaron at Meribah (P [15] a rebellion was raised by some Reubenites Dathan, Abiram, and On against the civil authority of Moses. Moses warned the people to depart from the tents of the conspirators, who were then swallowed up in the earth. Moses told the mass of the people to depart from the Tabernacle, and the fire of J″ Hor - Moses installed Aaron's son Eleazar as high priest on the mountain
Miracle - It is above the natural law, as when one dead is restored to life; contrary to this law, as when Moses caused water to gush from a rock; independent of the law, as when something that might be done by natural causes, e
Jude, Epistle of Saint - ,The Assumption of Moses (verse 9) and the Book of Enoch (verse 14)
Breach - ...
Psalm 106:23 (a) Israel by their sins had opened the way for GOD to come in and punish them; then Moses prayed and prevailed for them
Hilkiah - Some have supposed that this "book" was nothing else than the original autograph copy of the Pentateuch written by Moses (Deuteronomy 31:9-26 )
Merarites - In the distribution of the oxen and waggons offered by the princes (Numbers 7 ), Moses gave twice as many to the Merarites (four waggons and eight oxen) as he gave to the Gershonites, because the latter had to carry only the lighter furniture of the tabernacle, such as the curtains, hangings, etc
Zoan - Here Pharaoh was holding his court at the time of his various interviews with Moses and Aaron
Cornet - This usage, however, cannot be proved so early as Moses' time, when the beginning of the (religious) year was fixed at the spring equinox, the period of the institution of the Passover, the month Abib (Exodus 12:2)
Decalogue - These commandments were at first written on two stone slabs (31:18), which were broken by Moses throwing them down on the ground (32:19)
Bulrush - It used to be platted into rope; Job 41:2," canst thou put an hook (rather a rope of rushes) into his nose?" Moses' ark was woven of it (gomeh ): Exodus 2:3; Isaiah 18:2
Gamaliel - The son of Pedahzur; a leader of the tribe of Manasseh, who helped Moses take the census in the wilderness (Numbers 1:10 )
Insignificant Subjects: Not Fit For the Pulpit - When trivial subjects are descanted upon from the pulpit, while souls are perishing for lack of knowledge, the same comparison may be used; as for instance, when a congregation is collected, and the preacher talks about the drying up of the Euphrates, or ventilates his pet theory for reconciling Moses and geology
Nazarenes - They were very zealous observers of the law of Moses, but held the traditions of the Pharisees in very great contempt
Neighbour - Moses’ law laid down the principle that people were to love their neighbour as themselves (Leviticus 19:17-18; see also Exodus 20:13-17; Exodus 22:10-14; Deuteronomy 15:2; Deuteronomy 27:24)
Levi - After the people of Israel sinned in the wilderness by making the molten calf, Moses commanded the people of Levi to slaughter those who had participated in the debacle (Exodus 32:28 )
Calves, Golden - As Moses was on Mount Sinai, Aaron formed a golden calf to use in a “feast to Yahweh” (Exodus 32:4-5 )
Arnon - Sihon, the Amorite king, ruled from the Arnon to the Jabbok (Numbers 21:24 ), land which Israel took under Moses
Epistle of Saint Jude - ,The Assumption of Moses (verse 9) and the Book of Enoch (verse 14)
Targum - They are said to be but short; the former chiefly on the prophecies, and the latter on the five books of Moses
Samaritan Pentateuch - An ancient recension of the five books of Moses
Canaan - But in the time of Moses and Joshua it denoted the whole country to the west of the Jordan and the Dead Sea (Deuteronomy 11:30 )
Anathoth - A chief that is a family or clan leader, who along with 84 other priests, Levites, and leaders signed a covenant that the Israelites would obey the law of God given through Moses (Nehemiah 10:19 )
Urim - Hence when Moses in his dying prediction of the children of Israel, declared that JEHOVAH'S Urim and Thummim should be with his Holy One, none could be alluded to but the Lord Jesus Christ, and in him, the whole tendency of both, had their accomplishment
Kadesh-Barnea - Oh! that our journeyings might be ever to Kadesh, and always as Kadesh; for surely Moses said, so in Jesus it may be said of the church now, "ye are an holy people unto the Lord thy God
Dismayed, To Be - 1:21 as Moses challenged Israel: “Do not fear or be dismayed” (RSV, NEB, “afraid”; KJV, JB, “discouraged”)
Michael the Archangel - It is also said of Michael that when he contended with Satan about the body of Moses, he durst not bring a railing accusation against him, but said, "The Lord rebuke thee
Zich'ri - (1 Chronicles 9:15 ) ...
A descendant of Eliezer the son of Moses
Cubit - Moses assigns to the Levites a thousand sacred cubits of land round about their cities, Numbers 35:4 ; and in the next verse he gives them two thousand common ones
Amyraldism - a name given by some writers to the doctrine of universal grace, as explained and asserted by Amyraldus, or Moses Amyraut, and his followers, among the reformed in France, toward the middle of the seventeenth century
Nod - But, be it on the higher or lower Euphrates, ( see EDEN, ) the land of Nod which stood before it with respect to the place where Moses wrote, may still preserve the curse of barrenness passed on it for Cain's sake, namely, in the deserts of Syria or Arabia
Nazarenes - They refused to abandon the ceremonies prescribed by the law of Moses; but were far from attempting to impose the observance of these ceremonies upon Gentile Christians
Nehemiah - 3595, at which time the Scripture history closes; and, consequently, the historical books, from Joshua to Nehemiah inclusive, contain the history of the Jewish people from the death of Moses, A
Inn - Such was undoubtedly the "inn" at which occurred the Incident in the life of Moses narrated in ( Exodus 4:24 ) comp
Rephaim - There were also some of them in the country in the days of Moses
Mount Seir - Moses relates that the children of Esau destroyed the Horims, and took possession of