What does Monk mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - Black Monk
A Benedictine monk.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Monk
(Greek: monachos)
Term originally applied to hermits or anchorites but from an early period, by popular rather than scientific designation, a cenobite, or member of a community of men living apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, in accordance with the rule of a particular order. The word monk seldom occurs in the official language of the Church. By frequent use of the Latin equivalent, monachi (singular: monachus) , to describe the brethren in the Rule of Saint Benedict, whether they lived as hermits or in community, it came to be associated with those religious bodies which in some measure reproduce the old Benedictine rule, i.e.,Cluniacs, Cistercians, Trappists, as distinguished from the orders of mendicant friars, "clerks regular," and religious congregations of men. Other well-known orders of monks are the Carthusians, Premonstratensians, and Camaldolese. See also,
monasteries, double
monasteries, suppression of
monastery
monastery, canonical erection of
monasticism
patron saints index
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Monk
Anciently denoted, "a person who retired from the world to give himself wholly to God, and to live in solitude and abstinence." The word is derived from the Latin monachus, and that from the Greek "solitary;" of "alone." This original of monks seems to have been this: The persecutions which attended the first ages of the Gospel forced some Christians to retire from the world, and live in deserts and places most private and unfrequented, in hopes of finding that peace and comfort among beasts, which were denied them among men; and this being the case of some very extraordinary persons, their example gave such reputation to retirement, that the practice was continued when the reason of its commencement ceased. After the empire became Christian, instances of this kind were numerous: and those whose security had obliged them to live separately and apart, became afterwards, united into societies. We may also add, that the mystic theology, which gained ground towards the close of the third century, contributed to produce the same effect, and to drive men into solitude for the purposes of devotion. The monks, at least the ancient ones, were distinguished into solitaries, coenobites, and sarabites. The solitaries are those who live alone, in places remote from all towns and habitations of men, as do still some of the hermits. The coenobites are those who live in community with several others in the same house, and under the same superiors. The sarabites were strolling monks, having no fixed rule or residence.
The houses of monks, again, were of two kinds, viz. monasteries and laurae. Those who are now called monks, are coenobites, who live together in a convent or monastery, who make vows of living according to a certain rule established by the founder, and wear a habit which distinguishes their order. The first monks were those of St. Anthony, who, towards the close of the fourth century, formed them into a regular body, engaged them to live in society with each other, and prescribed to them fixed rules for the direction of their conduct. These regulations, which Anthony had made in Egypt, were soon introduced into Palestine and Syria by his disciple Hilarion. Almost about the same time, Aones, or Eugenius, with their companions Gaddanus and Azyzias, instituted the monastic order in Mesopotamia, and the adjacent countries; and their example was followed with such rapid success, that in a short time the whole east was filled with a lazy set of mortals, who abandoning all human connexions, advantages, pleasures, and concerns, wore out a languishing and miserable existence amidst the hardships of want and various kinds of suffering, in order to arrive at a more close and rapturous communication with God and angels.
From the East this gloomy disposition passed into the West, and first into Italy and its neighbouring islands; though it is uncertain who transplanted it thither. St. Martin, the celebrated bishop of Tours, erected the first monasteries in Gaul, and recommended this religious solitude with such power and efficacy both by his instructions and his example, that his funeral is said to have been attended by no less than two thousand monks. From hence the monastic discipline extended gradually its progress through the other provinces and countries of Europe. There were, besides the monks of St. Basil (called in the East Cologeri, from "a good old man, ") and those of St. Jerome, the hermits of St. Augustine, and afterwards those of St. Benedict and St. Bernard: at length came those of St. Francis and St. Cominic, with a legion of others; all which see under their proper heads. towards the close of the fifth century, the monks, who had formerly lived only for themselves in solitary retreats, and had never thought of assuming any rank among the sacerdotal order, were now gradually distinguished from the populace, and endowed with such oppulence and honourable privileges, that they found themselves in a condition to claim an eminent station among the pillars and supporters of the Christian community.
The fame of their piety and sanctity was so great, that bishops and presbyters were often chosen out of their order; and the passion of erecting edifices and convents, in which the monks and holy virgins might serve God in the most commodious manner, was at this time carried beyond all bounds. However, their licentiousness, even in this century, was become a proverb; and they are said to have excited the most dreadful tumults and seditions in various places. The monastic orders were at first under the immediate jurisdiction of the bishops, from which they were exempted by the Roman pontiff about the end of the seventh century; and the monks, in return, devoted themselves wholly to advance the interests and to maintain the dignity of the bishop of Rome. This immunity which they obtained was a fruitful source of licentiousness and disorder, and occasioned the greatest part of the vices with which they were afterwards so justly charged. In the eighth century the monastic discipline was extremely relaxed, both in the eastern and western provinces, and all efforts to restore it were ineffectual.
Nevertheless, this kind of institution was in the highest esteem; and nothing could equal the veneration that was paid about the close of the ninth century to such as devoted themselves to the sacred gloom and indolence of a convent. This veneration caused several kings and emperors to call them to their courts, and to employ them in civil affairs of the greatest moment. Their reformation was attempted by Louis the Meek, but the effect was of short duration. In the eleventh century they were exempted by the popes from the authority established; insomuch, that in the council of Lateran that was held in the year 1215, a decree was passed, by the advice of Innocent III. to prevent any new monastic institutions; and several were entirely suppressed. In the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, it appears, from the testimony of the best writers, that the monks were generally lazy, illiterate, profligate, and licentious epicures, whose views in lite were confined to opulence, idleness, and pleasure. However, the reformation had a manifest influence in restraining their excesses, and rendering them more circumspect and cautious in their external conduct.
Monks are distinguished by the colour of their habits into black, white, grey, &c. Among the monks, some are called monks of the choir, others professed monks, and others lay monks; which last are destined for the service of the convent, and have neither clericate nor literature. Cloistered monks are those who actually reside in the house: in opposition to extra monks, who have benefices depending on the monastery. Monks are also distinguished into reformed, whom the civil and ecclesiastical authority have made masters of ancient converts, and put in their power to retrieve the ancient discipline, which had been relaxed; and ancient, who remain in the convent, to live in it according to its establishment at the time when they made their vows, without obliging themselves to any new reform. Anciently the monks were all laymen, and were only distinguished from the rest of the people by a peculiar habit, and an extraordinary devotion. Not only the monks were prohibited the priesthood, but even priests were expressly prohibited from becoming monks, as appears from the letters of St. Gregory. Pope Siricius was the first who called them to the clericate, on occasion of some great scarcity of priests that the church was then supposed to labour under; and since that time the priesthood has been usually united to the monastical profession. Enc. Brit.; British Monochism, or Manners and Customs of Monks and Nuns of England; Mosheim's Ecc. Hist.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Monk
See Monk seal, under Monk.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Bachiarius, Monk.
Bachiarius , a monk, early in the 5th cent, author of two short treatises printed in the Biblioth. Vet. Patr. of Galland, vol. ix. and the Patrologia of Migne, vol. xx. He is commemorated by Gennadius (c. 24), who attributes to him several works, only one of which he acknowledges to have read—viz. the Libellus de Fide Apologeticus , to satisfy the bp. of Rome of his orthodoxy, who regarded him with suspicion on account of his being a native of a country tainted with heresy. What this country was there is nothing in his Libellus to determine. Bachiarius's profession of faith is thoroughly orthodox in all leading points. Its date is fixed approximately at about the middle of the 5th cent., by his denial of the tenets of Origen regarding the soul and the resurrection life, and those of Helvidius on the perpetual virginity of the Virgin (§ 3, 4), and by his omission of the Son when speaking of the procession of the Holy Ghost. This confession is an interesting document, and will repay perusal. It was first printed by Muratori ( Anecd. Latin. ii. 939). He also wrote ad Januarium Liber de Reparatione Lapsi in behalf of a monk whom Januarius had expelled from the monastery of which he was the head for immorality with a nun. He rebukes Januarius and his monks for refusing to receive the monk again on his penitence.
Bachiarius has been confused by Cave, Bale, and others with Mochta, a disciple of St. Patrick. Tillemont, xvi. 473-476; Cave, Hist. Lit. i. 429.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Gildas, Monk of Bangor
Gildas ( Gildasius, Gildus, Gillas ), commemorated Jan. 29. In medieval Lives Gildas appears in a well-defined individuality, but a more critical view detects so many anachronisms and historical defects that it has been questioned, first, whether he ever lived, and secondly, whether there were more Gildases than one. Though he is mentioned by name, and his writings quoted from by Bede, Alcuin, William of Newburgh, Geoffrey of Monmouth, and Giraldus Cambrensis, there is no memoir of him written within several centuries of his supposed date, and the two oldest, on which the others are based, are ordinary specimens of the unhistorical tone of mind of the 11th and 12th cents. To surmount the chronological and historical difficulties, Ussher, Ware, Bale, Pitseus, Golgan, and O'Conor have imagined at least two of the name, perhaps even four or six, about the 5th and 6th cents. These have received distinguishing designations, and thus have obtained a recognized position in history. But the more probable and more generally received opinion is that there is but one Gildas, who could not have lived earlier than about the end of the 5th cent. or later than that of the 6th. The oldest authority is Vita Gildae, auctore monacho Ruyensi anonymo , ed. by the Bollandists (Acts SS. Jan. 29, iii. 573 seq.), and attributed to the 11th cent. or earlier. The other was written by Caradoc of Llancarvan in the 12th cent. (Engl. Hist. Soc. 1838). (For pub. and MS. Lives see Hardy's Descript. Cat. i. pt. i. 151–156, pt. ii. 799.) With what seems more or less a common groundwork of fact, these Lives have much that is irreconcilable. "Nor need this seem so very strange," says O'Hanlon ( Irish Saints , i. 473–474) "when both accounts had been drawn up several centuries after the lifetime of Gildas, and when they had been written in different centuries and in separate countries. The diversities of chronological events, and of persons hardly contemporaneous, will only enable us to infer that the sources of information were occasionally doubtful, while the various coincidences of narrative seem to warrant a conclusion that both tracts were intended to chronicle the life of one and the same person. It deserves remark, however, that" (quoting from Mon. Hist. Brit. i. pt. i. 59, n.) "both are said to have been born in Scotland. One was the son of Nau, the other of Cau: the eldest son [1] of one was Huel, of the other Cuil. Both lives have stories of a bell, both Gildases go to Ireland, both go to Rome, and both build churches. The monk of Ruys quotes several passages from Gildas's de Excidio , and assigns it to him: and Caradoc calls him 'Historiographus Britonum,' and say that he wrote Historiae de Regibus Britonum. " Bp. Nicolson (Eng. Hist. Libr. 32, 3rd ed.) concludes that Gildas "was monk of Bangor about the middle of the 6th cent.; a sorrowful spectator of the miseries and almost utter ruin of his countrymen by a people under whose banner they had hoped for peace." Those who believe there was only one Gildas do not entirely agree as to his dates, one for his birth being sought between a.d. 484 and 520, and one for his death between a.d. 565 and 602. In his de Excidio Britanniae he says he was born in the year of "obsessionis Badonici montis" (c. 26). The Annales Cambriae place the "bellum Badonis" in 516, and the Annales Tigernachi Gildas's death in 570: these dues are probably nearest the truth. By those who suppose there were two or more bearing the same name, "Albanius" is placed in the 5th cent. (425–512, Ussher), and "Badonicus" in the 6th (520–570, Ussher).
The writing ascribed to Gildas was long regarded as one treatise, de Excidio Britanniae ; but is now usually divided into the Historia Gildae and Epistola Gildae . The former is a bare recital of the events of British history under the Romans, and between their withdrawal and his own time; the latter a querulous, confused, and lengthy series of bitter invectives in the form of a declamatory epistle addressed to the Britons, and relating specially to five kings, "reges sed tyrannos," named Constantinus, Aurelius, Conan, Vortiporus, Cuneglasus and Maglocunus. Many, though probably without quite sufficient reason, regard the latter as the work of a later writer, and as intended in the ecclesiastical differences of the 7th and 8th cents. for purely polemical purposes, while others would place it even later still. See useful notes on both sides in Notes and Queries , 4th ser. i. 171, 271, 511, and on the side of genuineness and authenticity, Hist. lit. de la France , t. iii. 280 seq. Bolland. Acta SS. Jan. 29, iii. 566–582; Colgan, Acta SS. 176–203, 226–228; Lanigan, Eccl. Hist. Ir. i. c. 9; Ussher, Brit. Eccl. Ant. cc. 13–17, and Ind. Chron. ; Wright, Biog. Brit. Lit. Ang.-Sax. per. 115–135. See Haddon and Stubbs, Councils , etc. vol. i. pp. 44–107; Th. Mommsen (Mon. Ger. ); Dict. of Nat. Biog. vol. xxi. An Eng. trans. of Gildas's work is in Bohn's Lib. ( O. E. Chronicles ).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dalmatius, Monk And Abbat
Dalmatius (4) , monk and abbat, near Constantinople at the time of the council of Ephesus (a.d. 431). His influence arose from his eminent piety, strength of character, and fiery zeal. Under Theodosius the Great he had served in the 2nd company of Guards, married, had children, and led a virtuous life. Feeling a call to a monastic life, he left his wife and children, except a son Faustus, and went to be instructed by abbat Isaac, who had dwelt in the desert since his infancy. Isaac at his death made him Hegumenus, superior of the monastery, under the patriarch Atticus. Consulted by councils, patriarchs, and emperors, he remained in his cell 48 years without quitting it. He is sometimes addressed as chief of the monasteries of Constantinople; but it is uncertain whether this was a complimentary or official title. He is not to be confounded with Dalmatius, monk at Constantinople, bp. of Cyzicus; because the latter was present at the council of Ephesus in that capacity.
During the supremacy of the Nestorian party at Ephesus, letters were conveyed by a beggar in the hollow of a cane from Cyril and the Athanasian or Catholic bishops to the emperor Theodosius II., the clergy and people at Constantinople complaining that they had been imprisoned three months, that the Nestorians had deposed Cyril and Memnon bp. of Ephesus, and that they were all in the greatest distress. A short memorial was added to the letter of the bishops, probably for Dalmatius. Dalmatius was greatly moved, and believed himself summoned to go forth at length from his retreat in the interests of truth. Accompanied by the monks of all the monasteries, led by their abbats, he went to the palace in a long procession, divided into two companies, and singing alternately; a vast crowd of sympathizers followed. The abbats were admitted to the emperor's presence; and the monks remained outside chanting. Returning to the people, the abbats asked them to go to the church of St. Mocius to hear the letter of the council and the emperor's reply. They went through the city, the monks chanting and carrying wax tapers. Great enthusiasm was excited against Nestorius. At the church the abbats read the letter of the bishops, which produced high excitement. Dalmatius, who was a presbyter, then mounted the pulpit, begged them to be patient, and in temperate and modest terms related his conversation with the emperor, and its satisfactory result. The emperor then wrote to Ephesus, ordering a deputation of each party to arrive at Constantinople. In a letter to Dalmatius the council acknowledged that to him only was owing the emperor's knowledge of the truth. Cyril, Ep. 23, etc., Patr. Gk. lxxvii.; Concil. Gen. i.; Dalmatii Apol. p. 477; St. Procl. CP. Episc. Ep. iii.; Patr. Gk. lxv. p. 876, lxxxv. col. 1797-1802; Ceillier, viii. 290, 395, 396, 407, 594; Fleury, bk. xxvi.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church
Dionysius (19) , surnamed Exiguus because of his humbleness of heart, was a Scythian by birth, and a monk in the Western church under the emperors Justin and Justinian. To him we owe the custom of dating events from the birth of our Saviour, though he is now acknowledged to have placed the era four years too late. His collection of canons laid the foundation of canon law. He knew Latin and Greek fairly; though it is obvious that neither was his vernacular. His Latin translations form the bulk of his extant works. Cassiodorus speaks of his moral and intellectual qualities with well-deserved praise. His performances were not original discoveries, but improvements on those of others.
I. The period called after him was borrowed from Victorius of Aquitaine, who flourished 100 years earlier, and is said to have invented it. It is a revolution of 532 years, produced by multiplying the solar cycle of 28 by the lunar of 19 years. It is called sometimes "recapitulatio Dionysii." A note to § 13 of the preliminary dissertation to l’Art de vérif. les dates shews how he improved on his predecessor. His cycle was published in the last year of the emperor Justin, a.d. 527. It began with March 25, now kept as the festival of the Annunciation; and from this epoch all the dates of bulls and briefs of the court of Rome are supposed to run (Butler's Lives of the Saints, Oct. 15: note to the Life of St. Teresa). His first year had for its characters the solar cycle 10, the lunar 2, and the Roman indiction 4, thereby proclaiming its identity with the year 4714 of the Julian period, which again coincided with the 4th year of the 194th Olympiad, and the 753rd of the building of Rome. It was adopted in Italy soon after its publication; in France perhaps a century later. In England it was ordained a.d. 816, at the synod of Chelsea, that all bishops should date their acts from the Incarnation.
II. In his letter to bp. Stephen, to whom he dedicates his collection of Canons, he admits the existence of an earlier, but defective, Latin translation, of which copies have been printed and named, after his naming of it, Prisca Versio by Justellus and others. His own was a corrected edition of that earlier version, so far as regards the canons of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, and Constantinople—165 in all—together with 27 of Chalcedon: all originally published in Greek, and all, except the Laodicean, already translated in the Prisca Versio. The Laodicean, unlike the rest, are given in an abbreviated form, and the chronological order is interrupted to place the Nicene canons first. He specifies as having been translated by himself the 50 so-called canons of the Apostles, which stand at the head of his collection, which he admits were not then universally received: and, as having been appended by himself, the Sardican and African canons, which he says were published in Latin, and with which his collection ends. His collection speedily displaced that of the Prisca. Cassiodorus, his friend and patron, writes of it within a few years of his decease, "Quos hodie usu ecclesia Romana complectitur"; and adds, "Alia quoque multa ex Graeco transtulit in Latinam, quae utilitati possunt ecclesiasticae convenire" ( de Inst. Div. Litt. c. 23). It seems certain, from what Cassiodorus says, that Dionysius either translated or revised an earlier translation of the official documents of the 3rd and 4th councils, as well as the canons of the 1James , 2 nd.
III. He published all the decretal epistles of the popes he could discover from Siricius, who succeeded Damasus, a.d. 384, to Anastasius II., who succeeded Gelasius, a.d. 496. Gelasius, he says himself, he had never seen in life; in other words, he had never been at Rome up to Gelasius's death. By this publication a death-blow was given to the false decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore, centuries before their appearance. His attestation of the true text and consequent rendering of the 6th Nicene canon, his translating the 9th of Chalcedon into plain Latin, after suppressing the 28th, which, as it was not passed in full council he could omit with perfect honesty, and, most of all, the publicity which he first gave to the canons against transmarine appeals in the African code and to the stand made by the African bishops against the encroachments of pope Zosimus and his successors in the matter of Apiarius, are historical stumbling-blocks which are fatal to the papal claims. Misquotations of the Sardican canons, by which those claims were supported, are, moreover, exposed by his preservation of them in the language in which he avers they were published. Aloisius Vincenzi, writing on papal infallibility (de Sacrâ Monarchiâ, etc. 1875), is quite willing to abandon the Sardican canons in order to get rid also of the African code, which is a thorn in his side.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Dioscorus, the Monk
Dioscorus (4) , the eldest of four Nitrian monks, Dioscorus, Ammonius, Eusebius, and Euthymius, known from their stature as the "Tall Brethren," who became conspicuous in Chrysostom's early troubles. They were reluctantly induced by Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, to leave the desert and to submit to ordination. Eusebius and Euthymius became presbyters, and Dioscorus was consecrated bp. of Hermopolis. Weary of city life and uncongenial duties, and shocked by the avarice and other vices of Theophilus, Dioscorus and his brethren returned to their solitudes, though the indignant patriarch tried to deter them by violent menaces (Socr. H. E. viii. 12). As depositaries of dangerous secrets, they had become formidable to Theophilus, who resolved to wreak vengeance upon them. On the pretext of their adherence to the mystic views of Origen on the Person of the Deity, and their decided opposition to Anthropomorphism, which Theophilus had originally shared with them, Theophilus had them ejected from their monasteries and treated them with the utmost contumely and violence when they went to Alexandria to appeal (Pallad. p. 54). Having procured their condemnation at a packed synod at Alexandria, a.d. 401, Theophilus personally headed a night attack on their monastery, which was burnt and pillaged, and Dioscorus himself treated with violence and indignity ( ib. p. 57). Driven from Egypt, the "Tall Brethren" took refuge in Palestine, but later resolved to appeal for protection to the emperor and to Chrysostom in person. Chrysostom manifested much sympathy, but contented himself with writing to Theophilus, urging his reconciliation with them. Theophilus's only reply was an angry remonstrance against his harbouring heretics and interfering with another see. He sent emissaries to Constantinople to denounce the brethren as magicians, heretics, and rebels. The monks then announced their intention of appealing to the secular power for a judicial investigation of the charges against them, and demanded that Theophilus should be summoned to answer for his conduct before a council. The superstitious reverence of the empress Eudoxia, all-powerful with the feeble Arcadius, secured them their desire, and Theophilus was ordered to appear at Constantinople. This appeal to the civil authority displeased Chrysostom, who declined to interfere further in the controversy. For the manner in which Theophilus turned the tables on Chrysostom, becoming the accuser instead of the accused, and securing his deposition, see Chrysostom; Theophilus (8). His main object having been accomplished in the overthrow of his great rival, Theophilus now made no difficulty about reconciliation with the Nitrian monks, who he publicly restored to communion on their simple petition. Dioscorus and Ammonius had, however, died not long before. Socr. H. E. vi. 16; Soz. H. E. viii. 17; Pallad. p. 157.
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Webster's Dictionary - Monk
(1):
(n.) A piece of tinder made of agaric, used in firing the powder hose or train of a mine.
(2):
(n.) A man who retires from the ordinary temporal concerns of the world, and devotes himself to religion; one of a religious community of men inhabiting a monastery, and bound by vows to a life of chastity, obedience, and poverty.
(3):
(n.) A blotch or spot of ink on a printed page, caused by the ink not being properly distributed. It is distinguished from a friar, or white spot caused by a deficiency of ink.
(4):
(n.) A South American monkey (Pithecia monachus); also applied to other species, as Cebus xanthocephalus.
(5):
(n.) The European bullfinch.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Monk
anciently denoted a person who retired from the world to give himself up wholly to God, and to live in solitude and abstinence. The word is derived from the Latin monachus, and that from the Greek μοναχος , solitary. The original of monks seems to have been this: The persecutions which attended the first ages of the Gospel forced some Christians to retire from the world, and live in deserts and places more private and unfrequented, in hopes of finding that peace and comfort among beasts which were denied them among men; and this being the case of some very extraordinary persons, their example gave such reputation to retirement, that the practice was continued when the reason of its commencement ceased. After the empire became Christian, instances of this kind were numerous; and those whose security had obliged them to live separately and apart became afterward united into societies. We may also add, that the mystic theology, which gained ground toward the close of the third century, contributed to produce the same effect, and to drive men into solitude, for the purposes of devotion. The monks, at least the ancient ones, were distinguished into solitaries, coenobites, and sarabaites. The first were those who lived in places remote from all towns and habitations of men, as do still some of the hermits. The coenobites were those who lived in community with several others in the same house, and under the same superiors. The sarabaites were strolling monks, having no fixed rule of residence. Those who are now called monks are coenobites, who live together in a convent or monastery, who make vows of living according to a certain rule established by the founder, and wear a habit which distinguishes their order. Those that are endowed, or have a fixed revenue, are most properly called monks, monachi; as the Chartereux, Benedictines, Bernardines, &c. The Mendicants, or those that beg, as the Capuchins and Franciscans, are more properly called religious, and friars, though the names are frequently confounded.
The first monks were those of St. Anthony, who, toward the close of the fourth century, formed them into a regular body, engaged them to live in society with each other, and prescribed to them fixed rules for the direction of their conduct. These regulations, which Anthony had made in Egypt, were soon introduced into Palestine and Syria by his disciple Hilarion.
Almost about the same time, Aones, or Eugenius, with their companions, Gaddanus and Azyzas, instituted the monastic order in Mesopotamia, and the adjacent countries; and their example was followed with such rapid success, that in a short time the whole east was filled with a lazy set of mortals, who, abandoning all human connections, advantages, pleasures, and concerns, wore out a languishing and miserable existence amidst hardships of want, and various kinds of suffering, in order to arrive at a more close and rapturous communication with God and angels. From the east this gloomy institution passed into the west, and first into Italy and its neighbouring islands, though it is uncertain who transplanted it thither. St. Martin, the celebrated bishop of Tours, erected the first monasteries in Gaul, and recommended this religious solitude with such power and efficacy, both by his instruction and example, that his funeral is said to have been attended by no less than two thousand monks. From hence the monastic discipline extended its progress gradually through the other provinces and countries of Europe. There were beside, the monks of St. Basil, called in the east calogeri, from καλος γερων , a good old man, and those of St. Jerom, the hermits of St. Augustine, and afterward those of St. Benedict and St. Bernard: at length came those of St. Francis and St. Dominic, with a legion of others.
Toward the close of the fifth century, the monks who had formerly lived only for themselves in solitary retreats, and had never thought of assuming any rank among the sacerdotal order, were gradually distinguished from the populace, and endowed with such opulence and honourable privileges that they found themselves in a condition to claim an eminent station among the pillars and supporters of the Christian community. The fame of their piety and sanctity was so great, that bishops and presbyters were often chosen out of their order; and the passion of erecting edifices and convents, in which the monks and holy virgins might serve God in the most commodious manner, was at this time carried beyond all bounds. However, their licentiousness, even in this century, was become a proverb; and they are said to have excited the most dreadful tumults and seditions in various places. The monastic orders were at first under the immediate jurisdiction of the bishops, from which they were exempted by the Roman pontiff about the end of the seventh century; and the monks in return devoted themselves wholly to advance the interest and to maintain the dignity of the bishop of Rome. This immunity which they obtained was a fruitful source of licentiousness and disorder, and occasioned the greatest part of the vices with which they were afterward so justly charged.
In the eighth century the monastic discipline was extremely relaxed, both in the eastern and western provinces, and all efforts to restore it were ineffectual. Nevertheless, this kind of institution was in the highest esteem; and nothing could equal the veneration that was paid about the close of the ninth century to such as devoted themselves to the sacred gloom and indolence of a convent. This veneration caused several kings and emperors to call them to their courts, and to employ them in civil affairs of the greatest moment. Their reformation was attempted by Louis the meek, but the effect was of short duration. In the eleventh century, they were exempted by the popes from the authority of their sovereigns, and new orders of monks were continually established, insomuch that in the council of Lateran, that was held A.D. 1215, a decree was passed, by the advice of Innocent III, to prevent any new monastic institutions; and several were entirely suppressed. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, it appears, from the testimony of the best writers, that the monks were generally lazy, illiterate, profligate, and licentious epicures, whose views in life were confined to opulence, idleness, and pleasure. However, the reformation had a manifest influence in restraining their excesses, and rendering them more circumspect and cautious in their external conduct.
Monks are distinguished by the colour of their habits, into black, white, gray, &c. Among the monks, some are called monks of the choir, others, professed monks, and others, lay monks; which last are destined for the service of the convent, and have neither clericate nor literature. Cloistered monks, are those who actually reside in the house, in opposition to extra monks, who have benefices depending on the monastery. Monks are also distinguished into reformed, whom the civil and ecclesiastical authority have made masters of ancient convents, and empowered to retrieve the ancient discipline, which had been relaxed, and ancient, who remain in the convent, to live in it according to its establishment at the time when they made their vows, without obliging themselves to any new reform.
Anciently the monks were all laymen, and were only distinguished from the rest of the people by a peculiar habit and an extraordinary piety or devotion. Not only the monks were prohibited the priesthood, but even priests were expressly prohibited from becoming monks, as appears from the letters of St. Gregory. Pope Syricius was the first who called them to the clericate, on account of some great scarcity of priests that the church was supposed to labour under; and since that time the priesthood has been usually united to the monastical profession.
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Joannes (507) Saba, Orthodox Monk of Dilaita
Joannes (507) Saba, a native of Nineveh, fl. in 6th cent.; an orthodox monk of Dilaita or Daliatha, a small town on the W. bank of the Euphrates. His works are 30 discourses and 48 epistles, of which Syriac and Arabic MSS. exist in the Roman libraries. Though abounding in digressions, the style is marked by persuasive eloquence. They are headed "on the divine gifts and spiritual solaces vouchsafed to monks for their comfort and delight." Assem. Bib. Or. i. 433–444 iii. i. 103, 4; Bickell, Cons. Syr. p. 26.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Joannes (509), Monk
Joannes (509), called of Bêth-Rabbân or Bêthnarsi, disciple and successor in the 6th cent. of Jacobus the founder of the monastery of Bêth-Haba. Jesujab, bp. of Nineveh, stated that Joannes had been a monk 70 years before his departure from Bêth-Haba; 30 years he had lived as a solitary, 40 with Jacobus as a coenobite. Joannes was for some time in the monastery of Bêth-Rabbân, which was subject to the same abbat as Bêth-Haba. Ebedjesu (ap. Assem. Bibl. Or. III. i. 72) states that he wrote a commentary on Ex., Lev., Num., Job, Jer., Ezk., and Prov., also certain tracts against Magi, Jews, and heretics. He also wrote prayers for Rogation days, a prayer on the death of Chosroes I. (d. 579), and on a plague which befel Nisibis, besides paracletic addresses for each order in the church ( i.e. metrical discourses read in the office of the dead), a book of questions relating to O. and N. T., psalms, hymns, and chants. One of his hymns is in the Mosul Breviary, p. 61, and in a MS. in the Brit. Mus. (Wright, Cat. p. 135). Rosen and Forshall ( Cat. MSS. xii. 3 n.) mention another hymn of his. Cf. also Lelong, Bibl. Sacr. ii. 794.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Joannes (520), Monk And Author
Joannes (520), surnamed Moschus and Eucratas (also Everatas and Eviratus, corruptions of Eucratas as Fabricius remarks), a monk, author of Pratum Spirituale, c. 620. The materials of his Life are to be collected from his book (which exhibits no historical arrangement), a brief notice by Photius (Cod. 199) and a Greek Vatican MS. of which Migne has printed a Latin version entitled Elogium Auctoris. This document extends the chronological material, and purports to have been composed while the Laura of St. Sabas in Palestine was standing.
Photius states that Moschus commenced the recluse life in the monastery of St. Theodosius, perhaps c. 575. In the Pratum Moschus is found at two monasteries named after two Theodosii, near Antioch and Jerusalem respectively. The one intended by Photius is a Laura founded c. 451 by the younger St. Theodosius a little E. of Jerusalem (Boll. Acta SS. Jan. i. 683). The Pratum (c. 92) shews Moschus at this spot, described as "in the desert of the holy city," Gregory being archimandrite. In the reign of Tiberius ( Prat. 112) John Moschus was sent by his superior on monastic business with a companion, Sophronius Sophista (said to have been afterwards patriarch of Jerusalem), to Egypt and Oasis. This circumstance, unnoticed by Photius, is assigned by the Elogium to the beginning of the reign of Tiberius ( i.e. 578). The absence was perhaps temporary, and Moschus's more protracted wanderings in Egypt may be assigned to a much later day. His Palestine life lasted more than 25 years, and Sophronius Sophista is frequently mentioned as his companion, once with a remark that it was "before he renounced the world." Photius states that he began monastic life at St. Theodosius, he afterwards resided with the monks of the Jordan desert and in the new laura of St. Sabas. The Pratum fills up this outline. The laura of Pharon ( Φαρών [1], Φαρῶν [2], Φαρᾶ , Pharan in the Latin version) was his residence for ten years (40). It was within burying distance of Jerusalem (42), and near the laura of Calamon and that of the Towers of Jordan (40). The laura of Calamon where Moschus visited was near Jordan (157, 163). Another ten years (67) he resided at the laura of Aeliotae. This also was near Jordan (134) and still under the rule of its founder Antonius (66). Moschus was at Jerusalem at the consecration of the patriarch Amos (149), probably therefore A.D. 594 (Le Quien, Or. Chr. iii. 246); he records having ascended from "holy Gethsemane" to the "holy mount of Olives" (187). He resided at the laura of St. Sabas, called New Laura (3,128) near the Dead Sea (53), and a few miles E. of St. Theodosius (Boll. u.s. ). He visited the μονή of the eunuchs near "holy Jordan" (135–137), the xenodochium of the fathers at Ascalon (189), and Scythopolis (50). That he held the office of a κανόναρχος is a mistake of Fabricius, citing Prat. 50, where it is a narrator, not Moschus, who thus describes himself. >From the wilderness of Jordan and the New Laura, says Photius, John went to Antioch and its neighbourhood, the Elogium adding that this occurred when the Persians attacked the Romans because of the murder (Nov. 27, 602) of the emperor Maurice and his children. In 603 Chosroes declared war against Phocas. The Pratum shews Moschus at Antioch or Theopolis (88, 89) and at Seleucia while Theodorus was bp. (79); but as this bp. is not otherwise known we get no date (Le Quien, Or. Chr. ii. 780). He visited the μοναστήριον (also μονή ) of the elder St. Theodosius, on the Rhosicus Scopulus, a mountain promontory between Rhosus in the gulf of Issus and Seleucia (80–86, 95, 99). At a village six miles from Rhosus, in the seventh indiction (i.e. between Sept. 1, 604, and Aug. 31, 605), he heard the story of Joannes Humilis. From those parts, says Photius, he went to Alexandria and Oasis and the neighbouring deserts. This was his principal visit to Egypt, the only one noticed by Photius and the most prominent one in the Elogium , which states his reason for leaving Syria to have been the invasion of the empire by the Persians, i.e. when Chosroes overran N. Syria in and after 605 (as detailed by Rawlinson, Seventh Monarchy , 501, 502). At Alexandria Moschus remained eight years (as the Latin version renders νρόνους ὁκτώ , Prat. 13 fin. ) in the μοναστήριον of Palladius (69–73). The names of monastic localities in and about Alexandria occur in Prat. 60, 105, 110, 111, 145, 146, 162, 177, 184, 195. There are recorded also visits to the Thebaid cities of Antinous and Lycus (44, 143, 161), to the laura of Raythu (115, 116, 119) on the Red Sea shore (120, 121), and to Mount Sinai (122, 123). Photius states that from Egypt Moschus went to Rome, touching at some islands en route, and at Rome composed his book. What drove him from Egypt appears in the Elogium . The holy places had fallen into the hands of the: enemy and the subjects of the empire were terror-stricken. This again assists the chronology; for as the Persians obtained possession of Jerusalem in 615 and in 616 advanced from Palestine and took Alexandria (Rawl. 503, 504), the rumour of their approach would cause the retirement of Moschus in one of those years. The Pratum (185) records a visit to Samos. The Elogium relates how on his deathbed at Rome he delivered his book to Sophronius, requesting to be buried if possible at Mount Sinai or at the laura of St. Theodosius. Sophronius and 12 fellow-disciples sailed with the body to Palestine, but, hearing at Ascalon that Sinai was beset by Arabs, took it up to Jerusalem (in the beginning of the eighth indiction, e.g. c. Sept. 1, 620) and buried it in the cemetery of St. Theodosius.
The work of Moschus consists of anecdotes and sayings collected in the various monasteries he visited, usually of eminent anchorets of his own time, as he states in his dedicatory address to Sophronius; but some whose stories were related belonged to an earlier period, e.g. John of Sapsas. The work is now distributed in 219 chapters, but was originally comprised, says Photius, in 304 narrations ( διηγήματα ). The discrepancy may be partly due to arrangement, as some chaps. (e.g. 5, 55, 92, 95, 105) contain 2 or even 3 distinct narrations, introduced by the very word διήγημα . Moschus (To Sophron. ) compares the character of his worthies to various flowers in a spring meadow, and names his work accordingly Λειμών ( Pratum ). In the time of Photius some called it Νέον Παραδείσιον ( Hortulus Novus ), and it has since been named Viridarium , Νέοσ Παράδεισος ( Novus Paradisus ) and Λειμωναριον . The title Pratum Spirituale apparently originated with the first Latin translator, said by Possevinus to have been Ambrosias Camaldulensis ( ob. 1439) who translated numerous works of the Greek Fathers (Oudin. iii. 2437). The Pratum in this version forms lib. x. of Rosweyd's Vitae Patrum (1615), which Migne reprinted in 1850 ( Pat. Lat. lxxiv.), prefixing to the Pratum the Elogium Auctoris already described. In 1624 an incomplete Greek text made its appearance, accompanying the Latin, furnished by Fronto Ducaeus in vol. ii. of the Auctarium to the 4th ed. of La Bigne's Magna Bibliotheca Patrum. In La Bigne's ed. of 1654 it stands in vol. xiii. p. 1057. In 1681 Cotelier ( Eccles. Gr. Mon. ii. 341) supplied more of the Greek and gave an independent Latin translation of some parts. In 1860 Migne ( Pat. Gk. lxxxvii. 2814) reprinted the thus augmented Greek, leaving a gap of only three chaps. (121, 122, 132), retaining the Latin of Ambrosias throughout. Other bibliographical particulars, including an account of the Italian and French versions, will be found in Fabricius ( Bibl. Gr. x. 124, ed. Harles). The authorship of the Pratum used sometimes to be attributed to Sophronius, in whose name it is cited by John of Damascus ( de Imagin. orat. i. 328, ii. 344, iii. 352 in Patr. Gk. xciv. 1279, 1315, 1335) and likewise in actio iv. of the seventh synod in 787 (Mansi, xiii. 59). John Moschus and his book are treated by Cave (i. 581) and more fully by Ceillier (xi. 700). Dupin gives an analysis of the Pratum for illustrations of church discipline (Eng. trans. 1722, t. ii. p. 11). Cf. S. Vailhé, St. Jean Mosch. in Echos d᾿orient , 1901.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Joshua (1) Stylites, a Syrian Monk
Joshua (1) Stylites, a Syrian monk; a native of Edessa, entered the monastery of Zuenin near Amida in Mesopotamia. After some years he determined to imitate St. Simeon and live the rest of his days on a column, from which he derives his distinguishing name. Before this he had written in 507 the history of his times from 495, entitled, History of the Calamities which befel Edessa, Amida, and all Mesopotamia . A full description, with quotations from the original Syriac, is given by Assemani (Bibl. Or. i. 260). It was published at Leipzig in 1878, in the Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes , in the original Syriac, with a French trans. by Abbé Paulin Martin. The translator describes it as the most ancient history extant in Syriac, and specially valuable because of Joshua's personal share in the events. His text corrects many omissions and mistakes in Assemani's abstract. He fixes its composition between 510–515, and classes Joshua as a Monophysite, while Assemani regarded him as orthodox.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Macarius, an Egyptian Hermit or Monk
Macarius (17). Two hermits or monks of this name both lived in Egypt in the 4th cent.; their characters and deeds are almost indistinguishable. The elder is called the Egyptian, the younger the Alexandrine. One of them was a disciple of Anthony and the master of EVAGRIUS, and one of them dwelt in the Thebaid. Jerome speaks of Rufinus ( Ep. iii. 2, ed. Vall. a.d. 374) as "being at Nitria, and having reached the abode of Macarius." Yet Rufinus, who lived 6 years in Alexandria and the adjoining monasteries, describes the residence of Macarius ( Hist. Mon. 29)—which he names Scithium and says was a day and a half's journey from the monasteries of Nitria—from the accounts of others rather than as an eye-witness. Rufinus, however, seems to have seen both hermits (Apol. Ruf. ii. 12). The stories about them are of a legendary character. Rufinus, Hist. Mon. 28, 29, and Hist. Eccl. ii. 4, 8; Palladius, 19, 20; Soz. iii. 13; Socr. iv. 18; Gennad. d. V. Ill. 11; Martyrolog. Rom. Jan. 5 and 15.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Severinus, Monk of Noricum
Severinus (4), monk and apostle of Noricum (Austria) in the 5th cent. He was assisted by EUGIPPIUS, who afterwards presided over a monastery dedicated to his memory, and there wrote his Life c. 511, describing Severinus as coming from the East to preach in Pannonia and Noricum, about the time that Attila's death was followed by contests among his sons, which wrought havoc and destruction in these provinces. Severinus lived a life of the sternest asceticism in a small cell where he could barely stand erect. His Life is full of the wonders wrought and predictions uttered by him, but is important as illustrating the social life of the outlying provinces of the empire when the foundations of the modern European system were beginning to be laid. Thus c. vi. tells of the influence he exercised in introducing the payment of tithes. He was a most devoted missionary, reverenced by Roman and barbarian alike. Odoacer sought him out and desired his blessing when about to invade Italy. "Pursue," said the saint, "your design; proceed to Italy; you will soon cast away this coarse garment of skins, and your wealth will be adequate to your liberality of mind" (Gibbon, c. xxxvi.). Severinus died a.d. 482, near Vienna. His Life is in AA. SS. Boll. (Jan. 1, 483) and Pez, Scriptt. Res Austr. I. 62. Herzog's Encyclop. has a very exhaustive article upon him.
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theodosius, a Monophysite Monk
Theodosius (21) , a fanatical Monophysite monk. Having been expelled from his monastery for some crime, he repaired to Alexandria, where he stirred up strife, was scourged, and paraded round the city on camelback as a seditious person (Evagr. H. E. ii. 5). He attended the council of Chalcedon in 451, apparently as one of the ruffianly followers of Barsumas. On the termination of the synod Theodosius hastened to Jerusalem, complaining that the council had betrayed the faith, and circulating a garbled translation of Leo's Tome (Leo Magn. Ep. 97 [1]). His protestations were credited by a large number of the monks and people, and having gained the ear of the empress dowager Eudocia, the former patroness of Eutyches, who had settled at Jerusalem, he so thoroughly poisoned the minds of the people of Jerusalem against JUVENAL as a traitor to the truth that they refused to receive him as their bishop on his return from Chalcedon, unless he would anathematize the doctrines he had so recently joined in declaring. On his refusal the malcontents attempted his assassination, and he barely escaped with his life to Constantinople. After Juvenal's flight Theodosius was ordained bp. of Jerusalem in the church of the Resurrection, and at once proceeded to ordain bishops for Palestine, chiefly for those cities whose bishops had not yet returned from Chalcedon. A reign of terror now began in Jerusalem. The public prisons were thrown open and the liberated criminals were employed to terrify by their violence those who refused communion with Theodosius. Those who refused to anathematize the council were pillaged and insulted in the most lawless manner. Finally, the emperor Marcian interposed, and issued orders to Dorotheus to apprehend Theodosius, who, however, managed to escape to the mountain fastnesses of Sinai (Labbe, iv. 879). What ultimately became of him is unknown. Evagr. H. E. ii. 5; Coteler. Mon. Graec. i. 415 seq.; Theophan. Chron. p. 92; Leo Magn. Ep. 126 [2]; Labbe, Concil. iv. 879 seq.; Niceph. H. E. xv. 9; Fleury, H. E. livre 38; Tillem. Mém. eccl. xv. 731 seq.; Le Quien, Or. Christ. iii. 164).
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Sentence search

Sea Monk - See Monk seal, under Monk
Black Monk - A Benedictine Monk
Convent - See ABBEY, MONASTERY, Monk
Frater - ) A Monk; also, a frater house
Monkly - ) Like, or suitable to, a Monk
Bonze - ) A Buddhist or Fohist priest, Monk, or nun
Cowled - ) Wearing a cowl; hooded; as, a cowled Monk
Monastic - ) A Monk
Molossine - ) A bat of the genus Molossus, as the Monk bat
Encowl - ) To make a Monk (or wearer of a cowl) of
Religieux - ) A person bound by monastic vows; a nun; a Monk
Fakir - ) An Oriental religious ascetic or begging Monk
Shaveling - ) A man shaved; hence, a Monk, or other religious; - used in contempt
Monkhood - ) The character or condition of a Monk. ) Monks, regarded collectively
Dionysian - ) Relating to Dionysius, a Monk of the 6th century; as, the Dionysian, or Christian, era
Monkish - ) Like a Monk, or pertaining to Monks; monastic; as, Monkish manners; Monkish dress; Monkish solitude
Dervis - ) A Turkish or Persian Monk, especially one who professes extreme poverty and leads an austere life
Fra - ) Brother; - a title of a Monk of friar; as, Fra Angelo
Celestinian - ) A Monk of the austere branch of the Franciscan Order founded by Celestine V
White Friar - A mendicant Monk of the Carmelite order, so called from the white cloaks worn by the order
Talapoin - ) A Buddhist Monk or priest. ) A small African Monkey (Cercopithecus, / Miopithecus, talapoin) - called also melarhine
Bernardine - Bernard of Clairvaux, or to the Cistercian Monks. ) A Cistercian Monk
Recluse - ) A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or Monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells, usually attached to monasteries. ) Shut up; sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a recluse Monk or hermit; a recluse life
Conventual - ) One who lives in a convent; a Monk or nun; a recluse
Cluniac - ) A Monk of the reformed branch of the Benedictine Order, founded in 912 at Cluny (or Clugny) in France
Abbeylubber - Term of reproach for a Monk after the Reformation, introduced in England to convey the impression that monasteries harbored lazy and good-for-nothing inmates
Jovinianist - ) An adherent to the doctrines of Jovinian, a Monk of the fourth century, who denied the virginity of Mary, and opposed the asceticism of his time
Alan of Walsingham - 1364)Monk and architect
Walsingham, Alan of - 1364)Monk and architect
Iona, Ronan of, Saint - Confessor of the faith; died c660 He was a Monk at lona, who engaged in controversy with Saint Finan, Bishop of Lindisfarne, concerning the celebration of Easter
Capoch - ) A hood; especially, the hood attached to the gown of a Monk
Reformado - ) A Monk of a reformed order
Ronan of Iona, Saint - Confessor of the faith; died c660 He was a Monk at lona, who engaged in controversy with Saint Finan, Bishop of Lindisfarne, concerning the celebration of Easter
Notker of Liege - Monk of Saint Gall
Redemptionist - ) A Monk of an order founded in 1197; - so called because the order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans
Padre - ) A Christian priest or Monk; - used in Italy, Spain, Portugal, and Spanish America
John Rochester, Blessed - He was a choir Monk in the Charterhouse of London
John Thorne, Blessed - He was a Monk at Glastonbury, and was tortured with the Abbot Whiting, being fastened to hurdles, dragged by horses to the top of Tor Hill, and hanged
Rochester, John, Blessed - He was a choir Monk in the Charterhouse of London
Thorne, John, Blessed - He was a Monk at Glastonbury, and was tortured with the Abbot Whiting, being fastened to hurdles, dragged by horses to the top of Tor Hill, and hanged
Mappa Mundi - A topographical work of the 12th century containing lists of bishoprics and ecclesiastical counties of England, Wales, part of Scotland, executed by Gervase, a Monk at Canterbury, now one of the relics of the Hereford Cathedral
Labeo, Notker - Monk of Saint Gall
Notker Labeo - Monk of Saint Gall
Malmesbury, England - Site of a Benedictine abbey founded about the middle of the 7th century by an Irish Monk, Maildubh (or Maildulf)
Mediocre - ) A young Monk who was excused from performing a portion of a Monk's duties
Andrew Gordon - Benedictine Monk, professor of natural philosophy at University of Erfurt, born Cofforach, Scotland, 1712; died Erfurt, Germany, 1751
Attala, Saint - He became a Monk and joined Columbanus, whom he followed into exile, and with him founded the Abbey of Bobbio near Genoa, of which he became abbot
Bere, Richard, Blessed - He was the nephew of Richard Bere, abbot of Glastonbury, and was a Monk in the London Charterhouse. With the other Charterhouse Monks he was arrested, imprisoned at Newgate, and starved to death
Mochonna, Saint - He was a Monk at Iona and tutor to the sons of King Eugene IV of Scotland
Secularize - ) To convert from regular or monastic into secular; as, to secularize a priest or a Monk
Aidan, Saint - He resigned the Bishopric of Clogher to become a Monk at Iona
Aedhan, Saint - He resigned the Bishopric of Clogher to become a Monk at Iona
Richard Bere, Blessed - He was the nephew of Richard Bere, abbot of Glastonbury, and was a Monk in the London Charterhouse. With the other Charterhouse Monks he was arrested, imprisoned at Newgate, and starved to death
Matthew of Westminster - " The misunderstanding regarding this imaginary personage originated with a copyist who, perceiving that part of the chronicle was written at Westminster, while another portion followed the history of Matthew Paris, concluded that Matthew was himself a Monk of Westminster
Adeodatus ii, Saint, Pope - A Monk of the Roman cloister of Saint Erasmus, he was active in promoting monastic discipline and in repressing the heresy of the Monothelites, who believed that there was but one will in Christ, i
Westminster, Matthew of - " The misunderstanding regarding this imaginary personage originated with a copyist who, perceiving that part of the chronicle was written at Westminster, while another portion followed the history of Matthew Paris, concluded that Matthew was himself a Monk of Westminster
Jean Besse - A Benedictine Monk, he was sent as master of novices to restore the ancient Abbey of Saint Wandrille de Fontenelle. " His literary works include: "The Monks of Ancient France," crowned by the French Academy, "The Benedictine Monk," "The Monks of the Orient," "The African Monarchy," "Ecclesiastical Studies after the Method of Mabillon," and "Saint Wandrille
Joannes de Sacrobosco - Died 1256 A Monk of English origin, professor of astronomy at Paris
John Holywood - Died 1256 A Monk of English origin, professor of astronomy at Paris
Holywood, John - Died 1256 A Monk of English origin, professor of astronomy at Paris
Cistercian - ) A Monk of the prolific branch of the Benedictine Order, established in 1098 at Citeaux, in France, by Robert, abbot of Molesme
Sacrobosco, Joannes de - Died 1256 A Monk of English origin, professor of astronomy at Paris
Trappist - ) A Monk belonging to a branch of the Cistercian Order, which was established by Armand de Rance in 1660 at the monastery of La Trappe in Normandy
Lebwin, Saint - Confessor, Apostle of the Frisians, born England; died Deventer, Holland c770 He was a Monk at Ripon, and after his ordination he resolved to devote himself to missionary labors in Germany
Amalberga, Saint (2) - Her husband became a Monk, and she a Benedictine nun at Maubeuge
Amalia, Saint (2) - Her husband became a Monk, and she a Benedictine nun at Maubeuge
Mass Priest - Anglo-Saxon term used prior to the 11th century, to distinguish a duly ordained priest from a simple cleric in minor orders; applied in medieval times to a secular priest as opposed to a Monk
Habit, Religious - The dress of a Monk or a nun
Franciscan - ) A Monk or friar of the Order of St. Francis, a large and zealous order of mendicant Monks founded in 1209 by St
Religious Habit - The dress of a Monk or a nun
Carthusian Martyrs - Memorial May 4, ...
Profile A group of Carthusian Monks who were hanged, drawn and quartered between June 19, 1535,September 20, 1537 for refusing to acknowledge the English royalty as head of the Church. ...
Blessed Humphrey Middlemore...
Blessed James Walworth...
Blessed John Davy...
Blessed John Rochester...
Blessed Richard Bere...
Blessed Robert Salt...
Blessed Sebastian Newdigate, choir Monk of the London Charterhouse, executed at Tyburn, London, on June 19,1535...
Blessed Thomas Green (perhaps alias Thomas Greenwood), choir Monk of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 10,1537...
Blessed Thomas Johnson, choir Monk of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on September 20,1537...
Blessed Thomas Redyng, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 16,1537...
Blessed Thomas Scryven, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 15,1537...
Blessed Walter Pierson, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 10,1537...
Blessed William Exmew, procurator of the London Charterhouse, executed at Tyburn, London, on June 19,1535...
Blessed William Greenwood, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 6,1537...
Blessed William Horne, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, hanged, disembowelled, and quartered at Tyburn, London on August 4,1540...
Saint Augustine Webster...
Saint John Houghton...
Saint Robert Lawrence...
Additional Information Carthusian Martyrs of London, by Barry Bossa...
Catholic Online...
Catholic Online...
Saints Alive, by Father Robert F McNamara...
Wikipedia...
The Book of Saints, by the Monks of Ramsgate...
Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints, by Matthew Brunson ...
Martyrs, Carthusian - Memorial May 4, ...
Profile A group of Carthusian Monks who were hanged, drawn and quartered between June 19, 1535,September 20, 1537 for refusing to acknowledge the English royalty as head of the Church. ...
Blessed Humphrey Middlemore...
Blessed James Walworth...
Blessed John Davy...
Blessed John Rochester...
Blessed Richard Bere...
Blessed Robert Salt...
Blessed Sebastian Newdigate, choir Monk of the London Charterhouse, executed at Tyburn, London, on June 19,1535...
Blessed Thomas Green (perhaps alias Thomas Greenwood), choir Monk of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 10,1537...
Blessed Thomas Johnson, choir Monk of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on September 20,1537...
Blessed Thomas Redyng, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 16,1537...
Blessed Thomas Scryven, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 15,1537...
Blessed Walter Pierson, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 10,1537...
Blessed William Exmew, procurator of the London Charterhouse, executed at Tyburn, London, on June 19,1535...
Blessed William Greenwood, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, died of starvation in Newgate Prison, London on June 6,1537...
Blessed William Horne, laybrother of the London Charterhouse, hanged, disembowelled, and quartered at Tyburn, London on August 4,1540...
Saint Augustine Webster...
Saint John Houghton...
Saint Robert Lawrence...
Additional Information Carthusian Martyrs of London, by Barry Bossa...
Catholic Online...
Catholic Online...
Saints Alive, by Father Robert F McNamara...
Wikipedia...
The Book of Saints, by the Monks of Ramsgate...
Our Sunday Visitor's Encyclopedia of Saints, by Matthew Brunson ...
Bachiarius, Monk. - Bachiarius , a Monk, early in the 5th cent, author of two short treatises printed in the Biblioth. He also wrote ad Januarium Liber de Reparatione Lapsi in behalf of a Monk whom Januarius had expelled from the monastery of which he was the head for immorality with a nun. He rebukes Januarius and his Monks for refusing to receive the Monk again on his penitence
Barnabas, Epistles of - It was first published in Greek, from a copy of father Hugh Menaed, a Monk
Lampetians - A denomination in the seventeenth century, the followers of Lampetius, a Syrian Monk
Pelagian - ) A follower of Pelagius, a British Monk, born in the later part of the 4th century, who denied the doctrines of hereditary sin, of the connection between sin and death, and of conversion through grace
Era - , the Christian era, introduced by a Scythian Monk (c
Kilian, Saint - He is said to have been a Monk and later a traveling bishop
Killena, Saint - He is said to have been a Monk and later a traveling bishop
Birinus, Saint - A Benedictine Monk at Rome, he was consecrated at Genoa by Archbishop Asterius of Milan and sent by Pope Honorius to spread the gospel in England
Hegumenos - He must be a priest-monk, elected by the members of the community, and confirmed by the bishop of the diocese. His assistants are two counselors, elected by the congregation from among the Monks who have been professed not less than six years
Leontius, a Scholasticus of Byzantium - Leontius (62), a scholasticus of Byzantium, and afterwards a Monk in Palestine, who wrote c
Cadoc, Saint - He was the son of Gundleus (Gwynllyn), Prince of South Wales, studied under the Irish saint, Tathai, at Gwent, Monmouthshire, became a Monk, and founded the Abbey of Llancarvan, near Cowbridge, Glamorganshire, c
Semi-Pelagian - ) A follower of John Cassianus, a French Monk (died about 448), who modified the doctrines of Pelagius, by denying human merit, and maintaining the necessity of the Spirit's influence, while, on the other hand, he rejected the Augustinian doctrines of election, the inability of man to do good, and the certain perseverance of the saints
Egbert, Saint - He was a Northumbrian Monk who received his habit at Lindisfarne and studied at Rathmelsigi (Melifont), Ireland. He went to Iona where he spent the last 13 years of his life, reforming the monasteries of Saint Columba, and persuading the Monks to relinquish their erroneous mode of computing Easter
Maurice Bourdin - (Gregory VIII) Antipope, 1118, born probably Limoges, France; died Salerno, Italy, c1137 A Cluniac Monk, he was made Archbishop of Braga, Portugal, 1111, but was suspended by Paschal II, 1114
Proprietary - ) A Monk who had reserved goods and effects to himself, notwithstanding his renunciation of all at the time of profession
Gregory Viii - Anti-Pope - (Gregory VIII) Antipope, 1118, born probably Limoges, France; died Salerno, Italy, c1137 A Cluniac Monk, he was made Archbishop of Braga, Portugal, 1111, but was suspended by Paschal II, 1114
Laura - These hermits did not live in community, but each Monk provided for himself in his distinct cell
Jesus Psalter, the - A devotional book, dear to the forefathers of the English Catholics in the days of persecution, written by Richard Whitford, the Brigittine Monk who called himself the "Wretch of Sion
Abbey of Saint Albans - Matthew Paris is probably the most famous Monk of the foundation
Gregorian Altar - It is related that Saint Gregory, by saying one Mass, liberated the soul of a Monk, named Justus, from Purgatory; so the faithful have confidently hoped that any Mass on this altar would free a soul from Purgatory
Altar, Gregorian - It is related that Saint Gregory, by saying one Mass, liberated the soul of a Monk, named Justus, from Purgatory; so the faithful have confidently hoped that any Mass on this altar would free a soul from Purgatory
Saint Albans, Abbey of - Matthew Paris is probably the most famous Monk of the foundation
Ball And the Cross, the - Chesterton (London 1910), in which Catholicism and atheism are opposed, first in the persons of an antiquated Monk and a "Professor Lucifer", and second, in those of a Highland Catholic and a London atheist
Martyrology - this was published about the year 830, and was followed by that of Waldenburtus, Monk of the diocese of Treves, written in verse about the year 848; and this by that of Usard, a French Monk, and written by the command of Charles the Bald, in 875, which last is the martyrology now ordinarily used in the Romish church. That of Rabanus Maurtus is an improvement on Beda and Florus, written about the year 845; that of Noker, Monk of St. The martyrology of Ado, Monk of Ferriers, in the diocese of Treves, afterwards archbishop of Vienne, is a descendant of the Roman, if we may so call it; for Du Sollier gives its genealogy thus:...
The martyrology of St. the martyrology of Nevelon Monk of Corbie, written about the year 1089, is little more than an abridgment of that of Ado: father Kircher also makes mention of a Coptic martyrology, preserved by the Maronites at Rome
Novellus, Augustine, Blessed - He then became an Augustinian Monk, and later general of the order, which post he resigned for a life of retirement and prayer
Leander of Seville, Saint - He became a Benedictine Monk, and, in 579, Bishop of Seville
Augustine Novellus, Blessed - He then became an Augustinian Monk, and later general of the order, which post he resigned for a life of retirement and prayer
Seville, Leander of, Saint - He became a Benedictine Monk, and, in 579, Bishop of Seville
Cartographers - ...
Domnus Nicolaus Germanus, a Benedictine Monk (1466) was the first scholar to modernize Ptolemy and make him generally accessible.
The most celebrated monument of medieval cartography, a map of the world, in the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice, was the work of a Camaldolese Monk, Fra Mauro (1459)
Cartography - ...
Domnus Nicolaus Germanus, a Benedictine Monk (1466) was the first scholar to modernize Ptolemy and make him generally accessible.
The most celebrated monument of medieval cartography, a map of the world, in the Biblioteca Marciana, Venice, was the work of a Camaldolese Monk, Fra Mauro (1459)
Cenobite - (Greek: koinos, common; bios, life) ...
A Monk who forms one of a religious community, as distinguished from a hermit or anchorite, one who leads a solitary or eremitical life
Dungal - 820)Irish Monk, teacher, astronomer and poet
Newdigate, Sebastian, Blessed - After the death of his wife in 1534 he became a Monk in the London Charterhouse
Cell - Cell also signifies the individual chamber or hut of a nun, Monk, or hermit
Macarians - The followers of Macarius, an Egyptian Monk, who was distinguished towards the close of the fourth century for his sanctity and virtue
Radbertus, Paschasius - Confessor, Benedictine theologian; born Soissons, France, 786; died Corbie, France, c860 He was a Monk at Corbie under Saint Adalard, whom he assisted in founding the monastery at Corbie, 822
Sebastian Newdigate, Blessed - After the death of his wife in 1534 he became a Monk in the London Charterhouse
Joannes (507) Saba, Orthodox Monk of Dilaita - ; an orthodox Monk of Dilaita or Daliatha, a small town on the W. They are headed "on the divine gifts and spiritual solaces vouchsafed to Monks for their comfort and delight
Dionysius Exiguus - 544)Monk and writer
Dionysius the Little - 544)Monk and writer
Little, Dionysius the - 544)Monk and writer
Oswald, Saint - Nephew of Saint Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, he became a Benedictine Monk at Fleury, France
Ceolfrid, Saint - Of Saxon nobility, he became a Monk and was ordained at Ripon
Callo, Saint - He was a Monk, one of the 12 disciples who followed Saint Columbanus to Luxeuil, and later to Bregenz, where he led a hermit's life, near the river Steinach
Chelleh, Saint - He was a Monk, one of the 12 disciples who followed Saint Columbanus to Luxeuil, and later to Bregenz, where he led a hermit's life, near the river Steinach
Sin: May be Committed by Proxy - This metal is as great an anathema to them as the wedge of gold to Achan, at the offer whereof they start back as Moses from the serpent; yet the Monk has a boy behind him who will receive and carry home any quantity, and neither complain of metal nor measure
Gilianus, Saint - He was a Monk, one of the 12 disciples who followed Saint Columbanus to Luxeuil, and later to Bregenz, where he led a hermit's life, near the river Steinach
Gall, Saint - He was a Monk, one of the 12 disciples who followed Saint Columbanus to Luxeuil, and later to Bregenz, where he led a hermit's life, near the river Steinach
Frock - ) A coarse gown worn by Monks or friars, and supposed to take the place of all, or nearly all, other garments. ) To make a Monk of
Exiguus, Dionysius - 544)Monk and writer
Pontitianus, a Soldier - The conversation then turned upon Anthony the Egyptian Monk, of whose history Pontitianus knew much more than they did. Anthony, which one read to the other until he was stirred to relinquish his military life and enlist in the service of God as a Monk, and prevailed on his companion to join him
Epternach, Abbey of - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English Monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Meinrad, Saint - He was educated at the abbey school of Reichenau, where he became a Monk and was ordained
Beatus, Saint - Another version states that he was an Irish Monk who accompanied Saint Columban to Switzerland, and lived in solitude in a cave above the Lake of Thun
Abbey of Echternach - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English Monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Abbey of Epternach - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English Monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Echternach, Abbey of - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English Monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
English Martyrs - ...
Abbot, Austin (alias John Rivers), priest
Abbot, Henry, Blessed
Abbot, John, layman, 1597
Abel, Thomas, Blessed
Ackridge, John, priest, 1585
Ackridge, Thomas, Franciscan, 1583
Adams, John, Venerable
Adams, Richard, priest
Ailworth (Aylword) William, layman, 1580
Aldham (Adelham), Placid, Benedictine, 1679
Alfield, Thomas, Blessed
Allen, John, priest, 1538
Allison, William, priest, 1681
Almond, John, Saint
Almond, John, Cistercian, 1585
Amias, John, Blessed
Anderton, Robert, Blessed
Andleby, William, Blessed
Arden, Edward, layman, 1584
Arrowsmith, Edmund, Saint
Arrowsmith, Thurstan, layman, 1583
Ash, Anthony, layman
Ashby (Asleby), George, Monk, 1537
Ashby, Thomas, Venerable
Ashley, Ralph, Blessed
Ashton, Roger, Venerable
Aske, Robert, layman, 1537
Atkins, William, Jesuit, 1681
Atkinson, James, layman, 1595
Atkinson, Nicholas, priest, 1610
Atkinson, Thomas, Blessed
Bailey, Lawrence, Venerable
Baldwin (Bawden), William, priest, 1588
Bales, Christopher, Blessed
Bales, Alexander, layman
Bamber, Edward, Blessed
Bannersley, William, priest
Barkworth, Mark, Blessed
Barlow, Ambrose Edward, Saint
Barnes, Ralph, Monk, 1537
Barrow, William
Barton, Elizabeth
Battie, Anthony
Bayle, Ralph, bishop, 1559
Beche, John, Blessed
Bedal, Thomas, priest, 1568-1590
Bedingfeld, Thomas, Venerable, Jesuit, 1678
Beesley, George, Blessed
Belohiam, Thomas, Venerable, O. , 1537-1538
Bell, Arthur, Blessed
Bell, James, Blessed
Belser, Thomas, priest
Belson, Thomas, Venerable, layman, 1589
Bentney (alias Bennet), William, Jesuit, 1692
Bere, Richard, Blessed
Berisford, Humphrey, layman, 1588
Bickerdyke, Robert, Venerable, layman, 1595
Bigod, Sir Francis, 1537
Bird, James, Blessed
Bird, Robert, priest, 1540
Bird, William, priest, 1540
Birkett, Richard, priest, 1680
Bishop, Thomas, layman, 1569-1570
Blackburne, William, priest, 1586
Blake, Alexander, Venerable, layman, 1590
Blenkinsop, Thomas, layman, 1593
Blonham, Laurence, Monk, 1537
Blount, Thomas, priest, 1647
Bocking, Edward, Benedictine, 1537
Bodey, John, Blessed
Bolbet, Richard, layman, 1589
Bonner, Edmund, bishop, 1569
Bosgrave, Thomas, Blessed
Boste, John, Saint
Bourne, Gilbert, bishop, 1569
Bowes, Marmaduke, Venerable, layman, 1585
Bowes, Richard, priest, 1590
Boxall, John, priest, 1571
Bradley, Richard, Jesuit, 1645
Branton, Stephen, layman, 1591
Brazier (Grimes), Matthew, Jesuit, 1650
Bredstock, William, layman, 1590
Briant, Alexander, Blessed
Brindholme, Edmund, Venerable, priest, 1540-1544
Britton, John, Venerable, layman, 1598
Brookby, Anthony, Venerable, O. , 1537-1538
Brown, James, Benedictine, 1640-1651
Brown, William, Venerable, layman, 1604
Browne, Humphrey, Jesuit
Brownel, Thomas, Brigittine laybrother
Brushford, James, priest, 1593
Buckley, John, Saint
Budge, Lucy, lay person, 1587-88
Bullaker, Thomas, Blessed
Burden, Edward, Venerable, priest, 1538
Burraby, William, priest, 1537
Buxton, Christopher, Venerable, priest, died Canterbury, 1588
Cadwallador, Roger, Blessed
Campion, Edmund, Blessed
Cannon, Edmund, priest, 1640-1651
Cansfield, Brian, Venerable, Jesuit, 1643
Carew, Sir Nicholas, 1538
Carey, John, Blessed
Carter, William, Blessed
Catheriok, Edmund, Venerable, priest, 1642
Chalmar, John
Chalmer, Isabel, lay person
Chaplain, William, layman, 1584
Chedsey, William, priest, 1561
Claxton (Clarkson), James, Venerable, priest, 1588
Clayton, James, priest, 1588
Clitherow, Margaret, Saint
Cockerell, James, prior of Guisborough, 1537
Coe, William, Monk, 1537
Cole, Henry, priest, 1579-1580
Coleman, Edward, Blessed
Coleman, Walter, Franciscan, 1645
Collier, Laurence, Franciscan, 1590
Collins, John, priest, 1584
Comberford, Henry, priest, 1584
Constable, Benedict, Benedictine, 1683
Constable, John, died York gaol, 1581
Constable, Robert, layman, 1537
Cook, Lawrence, O. prior of Doncaster, 1540
Cooper, John, layman, 1580
Coppinger, Richard, Benedictine, 1558
Corbie, Ralph, Venerable, Jesuit, 1644
Cornelius, John, Blessed
Cort, Thomas, Venerable, Franciscan, 1537-38
Cosen, Thomas, layman, 1589
Cotesmore, Thomas, priest, 1584
Cottam, Thomas, Blessed
Coudres, Martin, Augustinian, 1544
Courtney, Henry, Marquess of Exeter, 1538
Cowling (Collins), Ralph, layman, 1587
Cowper, William, Monk, 1537
Cox, Robert, Benedictine, 1650
Creagh
Martyrs, English - ...
Abbot, Austin (alias John Rivers), priest
Abbot, Henry, Blessed
Abbot, John, layman, 1597
Abel, Thomas, Blessed
Ackridge, John, priest, 1585
Ackridge, Thomas, Franciscan, 1583
Adams, John, Venerable
Adams, Richard, priest
Ailworth (Aylword) William, layman, 1580
Aldham (Adelham), Placid, Benedictine, 1679
Alfield, Thomas, Blessed
Allen, John, priest, 1538
Allison, William, priest, 1681
Almond, John, Saint
Almond, John, Cistercian, 1585
Amias, John, Blessed
Anderton, Robert, Blessed
Andleby, William, Blessed
Arden, Edward, layman, 1584
Arrowsmith, Edmund, Saint
Arrowsmith, Thurstan, layman, 1583
Ash, Anthony, layman
Ashby (Asleby), George, Monk, 1537
Ashby, Thomas, Venerable
Ashley, Ralph, Blessed
Ashton, Roger, Venerable
Aske, Robert, layman, 1537
Atkins, William, Jesuit, 1681
Atkinson, James, layman, 1595
Atkinson, Nicholas, priest, 1610
Atkinson, Thomas, Blessed
Bailey, Lawrence, Venerable
Baldwin (Bawden), William, priest, 1588
Bales, Christopher, Blessed
Bales, Alexander, layman
Bamber, Edward, Blessed
Bannersley, William, priest
Barkworth, Mark, Blessed
Barlow, Ambrose Edward, Saint
Barnes, Ralph, Monk, 1537
Barrow, William
Barton, Elizabeth
Battie, Anthony
Bayle, Ralph, bishop, 1559
Beche, John, Blessed
Bedal, Thomas, priest, 1568-1590
Bedingfeld, Thomas, Venerable, Jesuit, 1678
Beesley, George, Blessed
Belohiam, Thomas, Venerable, O. , 1537-1538
Bell, Arthur, Blessed
Bell, James, Blessed
Belser, Thomas, priest
Belson, Thomas, Venerable, layman, 1589
Bentney (alias Bennet), William, Jesuit, 1692
Bere, Richard, Blessed
Berisford, Humphrey, layman, 1588
Bickerdyke, Robert, Venerable, layman, 1595
Bigod, Sir Francis, 1537
Bird, James, Blessed
Bird, Robert, priest, 1540
Bird, William, priest, 1540
Birkett, Richard, priest, 1680
Bishop, Thomas, layman, 1569-1570
Blackburne, William, priest, 1586
Blake, Alexander, Venerable, layman, 1590
Blenkinsop, Thomas, layman, 1593
Blonham, Laurence, Monk, 1537
Blount, Thomas, priest, 1647
Bocking, Edward, Benedictine, 1537
Bodey, John, Blessed
Bolbet, Richard, layman, 1589
Bonner, Edmund, bishop, 1569
Bosgrave, Thomas, Blessed
Boste, John, Saint
Bourne, Gilbert, bishop, 1569
Bowes, Marmaduke, Venerable, layman, 1585
Bowes, Richard, priest, 1590
Boxall, John, priest, 1571
Bradley, Richard, Jesuit, 1645
Branton, Stephen, layman, 1591
Brazier (Grimes), Matthew, Jesuit, 1650
Bredstock, William, layman, 1590
Briant, Alexander, Blessed
Brindholme, Edmund, Venerable, priest, 1540-1544
Britton, John, Venerable, layman, 1598
Brookby, Anthony, Venerable, O. , 1537-1538
Brown, James, Benedictine, 1640-1651
Brown, William, Venerable, layman, 1604
Browne, Humphrey, Jesuit
Brownel, Thomas, Brigittine laybrother
Brushford, James, priest, 1593
Buckley, John, Saint
Budge, Lucy, lay person, 1587-88
Bullaker, Thomas, Blessed
Burden, Edward, Venerable, priest, 1538
Burraby, William, priest, 1537
Buxton, Christopher, Venerable, priest, died Canterbury, 1588
Cadwallador, Roger, Blessed
Campion, Edmund, Blessed
Cannon, Edmund, priest, 1640-1651
Cansfield, Brian, Venerable, Jesuit, 1643
Carew, Sir Nicholas, 1538
Carey, John, Blessed
Carter, William, Blessed
Catheriok, Edmund, Venerable, priest, 1642
Chalmar, John
Chalmer, Isabel, lay person
Chaplain, William, layman, 1584
Chedsey, William, priest, 1561
Claxton (Clarkson), James, Venerable, priest, 1588
Clayton, James, priest, 1588
Clitherow, Margaret, Saint
Cockerell, James, prior of Guisborough, 1537
Coe, William, Monk, 1537
Cole, Henry, priest, 1579-1580
Coleman, Edward, Blessed
Coleman, Walter, Franciscan, 1645
Collier, Laurence, Franciscan, 1590
Collins, John, priest, 1584
Comberford, Henry, priest, 1584
Constable, Benedict, Benedictine, 1683
Constable, John, died York gaol, 1581
Constable, Robert, layman, 1537
Cook, Lawrence, O. prior of Doncaster, 1540
Cooper, John, layman, 1580
Coppinger, Richard, Benedictine, 1558
Corbie, Ralph, Venerable, Jesuit, 1644
Cornelius, John, Blessed
Cort, Thomas, Venerable, Franciscan, 1537-38
Cosen, Thomas, layman, 1589
Cotesmore, Thomas, priest, 1584
Cottam, Thomas, Blessed
Coudres, Martin, Augustinian, 1544
Courtney, Henry, Marquess of Exeter, 1538
Cowling (Collins), Ralph, layman, 1587
Cowper, William, Monk, 1537
Cox, Robert, Benedictine, 1650
Creagh
Cassiodorus - 583) Roman writer, statesman, and Monk, born Scyllaceum, Bruttium; died there. His ecclesiastical writings include a treatise on the soul, some scriptural commentaries, a hastily composed ecclesiastical history, and the "Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum," the object of which was to furnish the Monks with outlines of study as the means of interpreting Holy Writ
Henricians - A sect so called from Henry, its founder, who, though a Monk and hermit, undertook to reform the superstition and vices of the clergy
Anschar, Saint - A Benedictine Monk at Corbie, he went as a missionary to Sweden and on his return was made first Archbishop of Hamburg and papal legate of the northern nations
Jacobites - A sect of Christians in Syria and Mesopotamia; so called, either from Jacob, a Syrian, who lived in the reign of the emperor Mauritius, or from one Jacob, a Monk, who flourished in the year 550
Jocelin, Bishop - Profile Cistercian Monk at Melrose abbey during the abbacy of Saint Waltheof of Melrose
Benno, Saint - He became a Monk and Abbot of Saint Michael's, Hildesheim, and was later made master of the canons of Goslar
John Cassian - 435) Monk and ascetic writer, born probably Provence; died probably near Marseilles. With his friend Germanus he visited the holy places in Palestine and they became Monks at Bethlehem
Damascene, John, Saint - John was educated by the Monk Cosmas; after his father's death he was made chief councilor of Damascus
John Damascene, Saint - John was educated by the Monk Cosmas; after his father's death he was made chief councilor of Damascus
Cassian, John - 435) Monk and ascetic writer, born probably Provence; died probably near Marseilles. With his friend Germanus he visited the holy places in Palestine and they became Monks at Bethlehem
Denmark - Christianity is said to have been introduced by the Frisian Bishop Willibrord (died 739), and in the 9th century became well established through the efforts of Saint Anschar, a Benedictine Monk of Corbie
Capuchin - ) A Franciscan Monk of the austere branch established in 1526 by Matteo di Baschi, distinguished by wearing the long pointed cowl or capoch of St. ) A long-tailed South American Monkey (Cabus capucinus), having the forehead naked and wrinkled, with the hair on the crown reflexed and resembling a Monk's cowl, the rest being of a grayish white; - called also capucine Monkey, weeper, sajou, sapajou, and sai. ) A garment for women, consisting of a cloak and hood, resembling, or supposed to resemble, that of capuchin Monks
Monothelites - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian Monk, later patriarch of Jerusalem
Monothelitism - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian Monk, later patriarch of Jerusalem
Mount Athos - Organized societies of Monks were there in the 9th century, and in the 10th the 58 communities were loosely united under an abbot general, the Anatolian Monk, Athanasius. In 1928 the population was 4858, all men, chiefly Monks of the Greek Orthodox Church, following the Rule of Saint Basil, in 20 principal monasteries and their dependencies
Athos, Mount - Organized societies of Monks were there in the 9th century, and in the 10th the 58 communities were loosely united under an abbot general, the Anatolian Monk, Athanasius. In 1928 the population was 4858, all men, chiefly Monks of the Greek Orthodox Church, following the Rule of Saint Basil, in 20 principal monasteries and their dependencies
Abyssinian Church - Next in importance to the Abuna, who must be an Egyptian Monk, is the Etsch'ege, a native Abyssinian who rules the monastic orders. Besides priests and Monks, there is a class called Deftaras whose duty is to study the written ordinances. The clergy are poorly, the Monks better, educated
Monothelites - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian Monk, later patriarch of Jerusalem
Monothelitism - This view was strongly urged by Sergius, patriarch of Constantinople, who had enlisted the sympathy of Pope Honorius in his cause, and combated by Sophronius, a Palestinian Monk, later patriarch of Jerusalem
Monk - The word Monk seldom occurs in the official language of the Church. Other well-known orders of Monks are the Carthusians, Premonstratensians, and Camaldolese
Dundee, Scotland - During the Civil War it was sacked several times, by Montrose, 1645, and by General Monk, 1651
Benedictines - An order of Monks who professed to follow the rules of St. ...
Every Monk had two coats, two cowls, a table-book, a knife, a needle, and a handkerchief; and the furniture of his bed was a mat, a blanket, a rug, and a pillow
Guido d' Arezzo - Educated by the Benedictines at Paris, he became a Monk there, removing later to the monastery of Pomposa, near Ferrara, and thence to Arezzo, where he probably died as prior of the neighboring monastery of Santa Croce
Annals of the Four Masters - 1657),the hagiographer and historian, mainly by Michael O'Clery, afterward a Franciscan Monk
Pelagianism - The teaching of a Monk named Pelagius in the fifth Century
Jainism - Twelve years as a Monk and eight rebirths are necessary. It enforces a strict regard for the preservation of all sensitive life; but permits self-destruction to a Monk after long efforts at self-control prove vain
Laura - (Greek: a passage, alley, avenue, or street; later a set of shops along a street, hence a bazaar) ...
In the ecclesiastical sense, a series of streets of hermitages clustered around a monastery and the type of life lived by the Monks in a laura. The Monk lived in his own cell and reported at the monastery at stated times for certain community duties. While the laura, and the type of life led there is little in evidence after the 10th century, still as late as 1927, Monsignor d'Herbigny saw several lauras of Oriental Monks on the O Holy Mount of Athos
Chemarim - Others take the root to mean, ‘to be sad,’ the chumra being a sad, ascetic person, a Monk or priest
Friar - The friar's exercise of the sacred ministry outside the monastery distinguished him essentially from the Monk, undisturbed in his cloistered retirement
Eustathians - A sect in the fourth century, so denominated from their founder, Eustathius, a Monk so foolishly fond of his own profession, that he condemned all other conditions of life
Gratian, Decree of - A collection of canonical decrees and excerpts from the Fathers and from Roman Law, published on his private authority by John Gratian, a Monk and professor at the University of Bologna, c1150 Before his time there were many decrees of particular councils in the East, in Africa, Spain, and Gaul
Joshua (1) Stylites, a Syrian Monk - Joshua (1) Stylites, a Syrian Monk; a native of Edessa, entered the monastery of Zuenin near Amida in Mesopotamia
Aphraat (Aphrahat, Farhad - , and was certainly a Monk, and probably a bishop of his church. —These consist of a collection of 22 Homilies , written at the request of a friend (a Monk) to give an exposition of the Christian faith. Oriental Monk
Arsenius - Arsenius , called "the Great," one of the most famous of the Monks of Egypt. "...
Arsenius, arriving at the monastic wilderness of Scetis, begged the clergy there to put him in the way of salvation by making him a Monk. "He will make a Monk," said John; and Arsenius stayed with him until he had learned enough of the monastic life from John's teaching, and then established himself as a hermit in Scetis, where he continued forty years. " The Exhortation to Monks , ascribed to him (Combefis, Gr. It warns the Monk not to forget that his great work is not the cleansing of the outer life, but of the inner man: spiritual sins, not carnal only, have to be conquered; many a good action has, through the tempter's sublety, become the door to unexpected evil; many who have thought their battle with sin accomplished have relapsed through the perilous hearing of other men's sin: "we must keep guard all round
Monophysites - The Monophysites, however, properly so called, are the followers of Severus, a learned Monk of Palestine, who was created patriarch of Antioch, in 513, and Petrus Fullenis. However, this sect was restored by Jacob Baradxus, an obscure Monk, insomuch that when he died bishop of Edessa, A
Joannes (509), Monk - of Nineveh, stated that Joannes had been a Monk 70 years before his departure from Bêth-Haba; 30 years he had lived as a solitary, 40 with Jacobus as a coenobite
Sylvia, Sister of Flavius Rufinus - Fératin that the pilgrim author is Etheria, a Spanish nun, mentioned by the Monk Valerius (Migne, Patr
Theodorus Askidas, Archbaptist of Caesarea - He was a Monk of the convent of Nova Laura in Palestine, and made, c
Elias i, Bishop of Jerusalem - Moschus records that Elias practised total abstinence from wine both as Monk and bishop (Prat. 511, and Timotheus, an unscrupulous Monophysite Monk, appointed to the see of Constantinople, Elias, whose principle appears to have been to accept the inevitable and to go the utmost possible length in obedience to the ruling powers, seized on the fact that he had abstained at first from anathematizing the council of Chalcedon, as a warrant for joining communion with him and receiving his synodical letter
Mennas - On May 2, 536, he presided at a council assembled by Justinian at Constantinople at the request of 11 bishops of the East and of Palestine, and of 33 other ecclesiastics, to finish the case of Anthimus, and to decide those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the Eutychian Monk Zoara. 10, 680, this document was proved to be the composition of the Monk George, who confessed himself its author
Barsumas, Syrian Archimandrite - He was the first Monk allowed to act as a judge at a general council. Barsumas brought with him a turbulent band of 1000 Monks to coerce the assembly, and took a prominent part in the disorderly proceedings, vociferously expressing his joy on the acquittal of Eutyches and joining in the assault on the aged Flavian by the Monks and soldiers
Cyrillus (13), Hagiologist - Euthymius, who admitted him as a Monk in 522. Saba, deriving his information from the elder Monks who had known those saints
Dalmatius, Monk And Abbat - Dalmatius (4) , Monk and abbat, near Constantinople at the time of the council of Ephesus (a. He is not to be confounded with Dalmatius, Monk at Constantinople, bp. Accompanied by the Monks of all the monasteries, led by their abbats, he went to the palace in a long procession, divided into two companies, and singing alternately; a vast crowd of sympathizers followed. The abbats were admitted to the emperor's presence; and the Monks remained outside chanting. They went through the city, the Monks chanting and carrying wax tapers
Pachomius, Saint - Athanasius, during his visit to Rome, made the name Pachomius familiar to the church there through Marcella and others, to whom he held up Pachomius and his Tabennensian Monks as a bright example (Hieron. , of a biography said to be written by a contemporary Monk of Tabenna (Vit. He and Palaemon supported themselves by weaving the shaggy tunics ( cilicia ), the favourite dress of Egyptian Monks. He became a Monk, and many prodigies are related of his power over demons, and in resisting the craving for sleep and food (Vit. The bishop of a neighbouring diocese sent for him to regulate the Monks there. Athanasius, visiting Tabenna, was eagerly welcomed by Pachomius, who, in that zeal for orthodoxy which was a characteristic of Monks generally, is said to have flung one of Origen's writings into the water, exclaiming that he would have cast it into the fire, but that it contained the name of God
Men of Understanding - they owed their origin to an illiterate man, whose name was Egidius Cantor, and to William of Hildenison, a Carmelite Monk
Severinus, Monk of Noricum - Severinus (4), Monk and apostle of Noricum (Austria) in the 5th cent
Aerians - a sect which arose about the middle of the fourth century, being the followers of Aerius, (who must be distinguished from Arius and Aetius,) a Monk and a presbyter of Sebastia, in Pontus
Petrus, Abbat of Saint Augustine's Monastery - He was probably one of the Monks who accompanied Augustine on his first journey, and therefore probably a Monk of the monastery of St
Serapion, Surnamed Sindonites - Serapion (11), surnamed Sindonites from the linen or cotton clothing he always wore; an Egyptian Monk in the time of Palladius
Stagirus, Friend of Chrysostom - The self-indulgent life Stagirus had led was a door preparation for the austerities of monasticism, and he proved a very unsatisfactory Monk
Monachism - , while the life of the Monk is lived primarily for its own sake, and its effect on the subject, though indirectly for the good of others also. No rule governed the Monks, who were characterized by a spirit of individualism. Work as an essential of the daily life of the Monks also distinguished the Pachomian followers from those of Saint Anthony. The extreme austerities and rivalry in asceticism of the earlier Monks were dropped in the new regime. The vow of stability which he introduced bound a Monk for life to a particular monastery, a development of great importance which furthered the family life of the individual monastery, which Benedict sought. Agriculture, the copying of manuscripts, education; the fine arts, historical and patristic writings, and missionary work have engaged the Monks at various periods throughout their history. The monastic life was embraced by women at an early date; their history follows the same course as that of the Monks
Monasticism - , while the life of the Monk is lived primarily for its own sake, and its effect on the subject, though indirectly for the good of others also. No rule governed the Monks, who were characterized by a spirit of individualism. Work as an essential of the daily life of the Monks also distinguished the Pachomian followers from those of Saint Anthony. The extreme austerities and rivalry in asceticism of the earlier Monks were dropped in the new regime. The vow of stability which he introduced bound a Monk for life to a particular monastery, a development of great importance which furthered the family life of the individual monastery, which Benedict sought. Agriculture, the copying of manuscripts, education; the fine arts, historical and patristic writings, and missionary work have engaged the Monks at various periods throughout their history. The monastic life was embraced by women at an early date; their history follows the same course as that of the Monks
Monastic - Something belonging to Monks, or the Monkish life. Basil carried the Monkish humour into the East, where he composed a rule which afterwards obtained through a great part of the West. Oddo first began to retrieve it in the monastery of Cluny: that monastery, by the conditions of its erection, was put under the immediate protection of the holy see; with a prohibition to all powers, both secular and ecclesiastical, to disturb the Monks in the possession of their effects or the election of their abbot. ...
See Monk
Comgall - Comgall , one of the most prominent leaders of monasticism in Ireland, said to have had as many as 3,000 Monks under him at one time in Bangor and affiliated houses. His most noted disciples at Bangor were Cormac, son of Diarmaid and king of South Leinster, who in his old age abdicated and became a Monk, as is related in the Life of St
Dorothea, Virgin Martyr - Some doubt is entertained about these names, as they occur in no Greek menology or martyrology; but they are found in ancient Roman accounts; and details are given by the Monk Usuard, bp
League, the - Then began "the War of the Three Henrys," the principal episodes of which were: the battle of Coutras (1587), won by Henry de Navarre; Barricades day (May 12, 1588), which witnessed the triumphal entry of Henry de Guise in Paris; assassination of Guise by order of Henry III (December 23, 1588); the joint campaign of Henry III and Henry of Navarre against Paris, and the former's murder by a fanatical Monk (1589); the nomination of Cardinal de Bourbon as King of France under the name of Charles X; the abjuration of Henry of Navarre in 1593, and his coronation at Chartres in 1594
Aragon - His son, Alfonso the Fighter (1104-1134), took Saragossa and willed his lands to the military orders of Jerusalem, but his subjects obliged his brother Ramiro, a Monk, to accept the crown, and the pope dispensed him from his vows
Heraclides Cyprius, Bishop of Ephesus - of Magnesia, a bishop named Isaac, and a Monk named John Among these charges was one of holding Origenizing views
Pelagia, Surnamed Margarita - She finally left Antioch for a cell on the Mount of Olives, where she lived as a Monk in male attire, and died some three years afterwards from excessive austerities
Albanus - Albans Monk Unwona in the 10th cent
Marcus, Surnamed Eremita - 200) gives an account of 8 works of Marcus the Monk, all of which are extant with one doubtful exception
Anglo-Saxon Church - " On the first opportunity he sent the Roman Monk Saint Augustine to convert Kent, and Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Northumbria was evangelized by the Irish Saint Aidan, a Monk of Iona, Scotland, who followed the Celtic traditions regarding the keeping of Easter, which differed from the Roman custom. Saint Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, 960-988, aided by Saint Ethelwold of Winchester and Saint Oswala of York, sought to replace the secular clergy by Monks to remedy the custom of married clergy, and to establish a more intimate communication with Rome; henceforward the archbishops went to Rome to receive the pallium
Joachimites - Joachim was a Cistercian Monk, and a great pretender to inspiration. The first ternary was that of men; of whom, the first class was that of married men, which had lasted during the whole period of the Father; the second was that of clerks, which lasted during the time of the Son; and the last was that of Monks, wherein was to be an uncommon effusion of grace by the Holy Spirit
Coelestius, Heretic of Hibernian Scots - Coelestius had for some time studied law, and then become a Monk, when his speculations upon the conditions of grace and nature attracted attention, as he affirmed the leading points of what were afterwards known as the Pelagian heresy upon the fall of man and the need of supernatural assistance, in effect denying both
Theodosius, a Monophysite Monk - Theodosius (21) , a fanatical Monophysite Monk. His protestations were credited by a large number of the Monks and people, and having gained the ear of the empress dowager Eudocia, the former patroness of Eutyches, who had settled at Jerusalem, he so thoroughly poisoned the minds of the people of Jerusalem against JUVENAL as a traitor to the truth that they refused to receive him as their bishop on his return from Chalcedon, unless he would anathematize the doctrines he had so recently joined in declaring
Zoaras - Zoaras (2) , a turbulent Monophysite Syrian Monk, a zealous adherent of Severus, associated with him and Peter of Apamea in the petitions of the orthodox clergy of Syria to the council of Constantinople under Mennas, a. On being driven after several years from his pillar by the orthodox party (the "Synodites"), he started for Constantinople with ten of his Monks to complain to Justinian, who hastily summoned a synod to give him audience
Navarre - Garcia's son, Fortun Garcia, after a reign of 22 years became a Monk at Leyra, the oldest convent in Navarre
Dead - ) Cut off from the rights of a citizen; deprived of the power of enjoying the rights of property; as, one banished or becoming a Monk is civilly dead
Senuti, an Anchorite - Nestorius demanded who he was, and what brought him to the council, being "neither a bishop, nor an archimandrite, nor a provost, but merely a simple Monk
University of Bologna - It was a "jurist" university in origin, owing to the organization by Imerius of a school of law, distinct from the arts school in the early 12th century and the adoption of the "Decretum Gratiani" of the Camaldolese (or Benedictine) Monk, Gratian, as the recognized text-book of canon law (c
Sigismundus, Saint - Maurice, where he was betrayed by his own subjects to Clodomir and carried prisoner in the garb of a Monk to Orleans
Gildas, Monk of Bangor - The Monk of Ruys quotes several passages from Gildas's de Excidio , and assigns it to him: and Caradoc calls him 'Historiographus Britonum,' and say that he wrote Historiae de Regibus Britonum. ) concludes that Gildas "was Monk of Bangor about the middle of the 6th cent
General Chronology - 527by Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian Monk resident at Rome
Petrus, Bishop of Apamea - Peter was accused of having taken forcible possession of his see, in violation of all ecclesiastical order, not having received canonical ordination either as Monk or presbyter (Labbe, v
Joannes, the Faster, Bishop of Constantinople - ...
(5) A set of Precepts to a Monk , in a MS
Maximinus, Saint, Bishop of Treves - The legends that collected round his name are embodied in two biographies, one by an anonymous Monk of St
Salvianus, Priest of Marseilles - Salvianus was in extreme old age when Gennadius wrote, and was held in the highest honour, being expressly termed "Episcoporum Magister," and regarded as the very type of a Monk and a scholar
Valens, Emperor - Numerous acts of persecution at Edessa, Antioch, Alexandria, and Constantinople are attributed to Valens, in all of which Modestus, the pretorian prefect, was his most active agent, save in Egypt, where Lucius, the Arian successor of Athanasius, endeavoured in vain to terrify the Monks into conformity. The last year of Valens's life was marked by a striking manifestation of Monkish courage. The emperor ordered his imprisonment till his return, when he would punish him—a threat at which the Monk laughed
Impostors - ...
Returning to religious impostures, there is the case of the pseudo-nun, Marilll Monk, whose anti-Catholic accusations were refuted by Protestant testimony; and that of Dr. Various "ex-monks" and "escaped nuns," such as Edith O'Gorman, may be referred to, as well as the case of the infamous Pastor Chiniquy (1809-1899), among whose fraudulent publications may be particularly mentioned "The Priest, the Woman, and the Confessional," illustrating alleged abuses. Lastly, in our own day, we have Rasputin, "the mad Monk"; Dowie, of "Elijah" fame; Mary Baker G
Sinaiticus Codex - Returning from their promenade, Tischendorf accompanied the Monk to his room, and there had displayed to him what his companion called a copy of the LXX
Jovinianus, Heretic - From these we learn that he had been a Monk, living austerely, but adopted certain views which led him to substitute luxury in dress and personal habits and food for the asceticism of the convent, the opinions ascribed to him by Jerome being: (1) A virgin is no better as such than a wife in the sight of God
Marcella, Friend of Jerome - Her ascetic tendency was confirmed by the coming to Rome of the Egyptian Monk Peter in 374
Pammachius, a Roman Senator - He, however, still appeared among the senators in their purple in the dark dress of a Monk ( ib
Gregorius (51) i, (the Great), Bishop of Rome - Here he himself became a Monk. A Monk, Julius, who had been a physician and had attended Gregory himself, night and day, during a long illness, being himself dangerously ill, confided to a brother that, in violation of monastic rule, he had three pieces of gold concealed in his cell. Gregory forbade all to approach the offender, even in the agonies of death, and after death caused his body to be thrown on a dunghill with the pieces of gold, the Monks crying aloud, "Thy money perish with thee" (Greg Dial. ...
After his accession he continued in heart a Monk, surrounding himself with ecclesiastics instead of laymen, and living with them according to monastic rule. In accordance with this plan a synodal decree was made under him in 595, substituting clergy or Monks for the boys and secular persons who had formerly waited on the pope in his chamber (Ep. Great laxity was prevalent among the Monks, of which the life of Benedict, the founder of the Benedictine order, affords ample evidence. Several of Gregory's letters are addressed to Monks who had left their monasteries for the world and marriage. He issued the following regulations for the restoration of monastic discipline: no Monk should be received under 18 years of age, nor any husband without his wife's consent (in one case he orders a husband who had entered a monastery to be restored to his wife [2]); two years of probation should always be required, and three in the case of soldiers; a professed Monk leaving his order should be immured for life; no Monk, though an abbat, should leave the precincts of his monastery, except on urgent occasions; under no pretext should any Monk leave his monastery alone, on the ground that "Qui sine teste ambulat non rectè vivit. " He provided for the more complete separation of the monastic and clerical orders, forbidding any Monk to remain in his monastery after ordination, and any priest to enter a monastery except to exercise clerical functions, or to become a Monk without giving up his clerical office; and further exempting some monasteries from the jurisdiction of bishops
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - Shortly afterwards a Monk appealed to Severus as to whether the body of our Lord should be called corruptible. In 560, immediately after his decease, seven of his presbyters, who were also Julianists, are said to have placed the hands of his corpse on the head of a Monk named Eutropius, and then to have recited the consecration prayer over him
Aceldama - An old Monk, called Drutmar, relates, that in his days, there was an hospital built in this charnel house for strangers, where the pilgrims, going to, and from, the Holy Land, used to lodge
Pelagians - He was educated in the monastery of Banchor, in Wales, of which he became a Monk, and afterwards an abbot. This was followed by a train of evils, which pursued these two Monks without interruption
Lollards - The Monk of Canterbury derives the origin of the word lollard among us from lolium, "a tare, " as if the Lollards were the tares sown in Christ's vineyard. Many injurious aspersions were therefore propagated against those who assumed this name by the priests and Monks; so that, by degrees, any persons who covered heresies or crimes under the appearance of piety was called a Lollard
Isaacus Ninivita, Anchorite And Bishop - 1407, by a Monk who freely abridged and altered the order of his original
Euthymius (4), Abbat in Palestine - Finding this too great an interruption to his meditations, in his 29th year he escaped to Jerusalem to visit the holy places, and found a home with a community of separate Monks at Pharan, 6 miles from Jerusalem. The report of his approval spread through the desert, and all the recluses would have shared it but for the influence of the Monk Theodosius, whose life and doctrine appear to have been equally unsatisfactory, who even tried hard to persuade Euthymius to reject Chalcedon, but without success. The empress obeyed, and her example was followed by a multitude of Monks and laymen
Church of England - Popery, however, was established in England by Austin the Monk; and the errors of it we find every where prevalent, until Wichliffe was raised up by Divine Providence to refute them
Flavianus (16), Bishop of Antioch - of Antioch, 458-512, previously a Monk in the monastery of Tilmognon, in Coelesyria (Evagr. Flavian's perplexities were increased by the inroad of a tumultuous body of Monks from Syria Prima, clamouring for the anathematization of Nestorius and all supposed favourers of his doctrines. A rival body of Monks poured down from the mountain ranges of Coelesyria, eager to do battle in defence of their metropolitan and former associate
Caesarius, Bishop of Chrysostom - If it is genuine, Caesarius had embraced a religious life from his childhood and become a Monk; his piety had secured Chrysostom's affection, and at one time he had lived with him
Prosper, Saint, a Native of Aquitaine - About 426–429 he removed to Marseilles, where he lived as a Monk until 440. This doctrine was taken up warmly by many Monks at Marseilles, and both Prosper and Hilary (as to whom see further on), afraid lest a doctrine they believed erroneous should become prevalent among the Monks, were thinking of writing to Augustine to request him to explain some of his statements. of Arles mentioned by Prosper; (2) that he was a lay Monk of Gaul; (3) that he was the Hilary who wrote to Augustine from Syracuse, a. That he was a lay Monk appears tolerably clear
Church of England - According to Archbishop Usher, the British churches had a school of learning in the year 182, to provide them with proper teachers; and it would appear that they flourished, without dependence on any foreign church, till the arrival of Austin the Monk, in the latter part of the sixth century. Popery, however, was at length introduced into England, and, as some say, by Austin, the Monk; and we find its errors every where prevalent during several ages preceding the reformation, till they were refuted by Wickliffe
Archaeology, Christian - ...
Onofrio Panvinio (1530-1568) Augustinian Monk, inaugurated the scientific study of Christian antiquity
Christian Archaeology - ...
Onofrio Panvinio (1530-1568) Augustinian Monk, inaugurated the scientific study of Christian antiquity
Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church - Dionysius (19) , surnamed Exiguus because of his humbleness of heart, was a Scythian by birth, and a Monk in the Western church under the emperors Justin and Justinian
Marcianus, Flavius, Emperor of the East - The emperor wrote to the Monks of Alexandria by Joannes the Decurio ( ib. Some of the Monks of the defeated side, who had attended the council, on their return, headed by Theodosius, a violent Monk who had been their leader in the council, stirred up an insurrection of the whole body of desert Monks (ib. of Scythopolis, was killed by an assassin sent in pursuit of Juvenalis; Jerusalem was seized by the infuriated Monks; houses were burnt, murders were perpetrated, the prisons broken open and criminals released, and finally Theodosius was elected bishop. Marcian, hearing of the outrages, wrote to the archimandrites, Monks, and inhabitants of Jerusalem, rebuked them sharply, ordered the punishment of the guilty, and placed a garrison in Jerusalem (Mansi, vii
Petrus, Patriarch of Jerusalem - of Old Rome, and, together with the errors of Anthimus, stating and denouncing those of Severus of Antioch, Peter of Apamea, and the Monk Zoaras. This document he forwarded to Justinian, with a letter describing the disturbances created by the Origenistic Monks and beseeching him to take measures to quell them. Theodore maintained his position at court and threatened Peter with deposition if he continued to refuse to receive back the expelled Origenistic Monks ( Vit. On the first publication of the edict he solemnly declared, before a vast crowd of turbulent Monks clamouring against its impiety, that whoever signed it would violate the decrees of Chalcedon
Prochorus, a Deacon - Of his personal circumstances we can only say that he certainly was not a Monk; perhaps he was a married cleric, possibly a layman
Joannes ii, Bishop of Jerusalem - ), he passed as a young man some time among the Monks of Nitria in Egypt. There he, no doubt, imbibed his affection for Origen's teaching, and probably became acquainted with two persons who had much to do with his own subsequent history and with that of the Origenistic controversy—the Monk Isidore (one of the Long Monks) and Rufinus. 12); but this may be only the common animus of Monk against bishop, embittered by momentary resentment. The reconciliation of John with the Monks of Bethlehem is further attested by Sulpicius Severus ( Dial
Germanus, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre - A metrical Life and a prose account of his "miracles," both by a Monk named Hereric, are in Acta Sanctorum , July 31
Maronites - None (he says) of the ancient writers give any account of the first person who instructed these mountaineers in the doctrine of the Monothelites: it is probable, however, from several circumstances, that it was John Maro, whose name they adopted; and that this ecclesiastic received the name of Maro from his having lived in the character of a Monk in the famous convent of St. Their Monks are of the order of St
Beda, Historian - Intercourse between Wearmouth and Rome was nearly continuous at this time, and there is no more likely Monk under Ceolfrith's rule than Bede. Some Monks of the monastery went to Rome in 701 (Bede, de Temporum Ratione , c. He is a Monk and politician of the school of Benedict Biscop, not of that of Wilfrid. The soundness and farsightedness of his ecclesiastical views would be remarkable in any age, and especially in a Monk. Daniel, the patron of Boniface, supplied the West Saxon; the Monks of Lastingham, the depositories of the traditions of Cedd and Chad, reported how Mercia was converted; Esi wrote from East Anglia, and Cynibert from Lindsey
Grape - " Forster, in his Hebrew Dictionary, (under the word Eshcol,) says, that he knew at Nurnburg, a Monk of the name of Acacius, who had resided eight years in Palestine, and had also preached at Hebron, where he had seen bunches of grapes which were as much as two men could conveniently carry
Faustus (11), Sometimes Called the Breton - Faustus continued as bishop the stern self-discipline which he had practised as Monk and abbat. It is sad to see Monks go back to the world, especially if, after doing so, they retain their monastic dress
Acacius (7), Patriarch of Constantinople - In conjunction with a Stylite Monk, Daniel, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to the emperor Basiliscus, who, after usurping the empire of the East, had issued an encyclic letter in condemnation of the council of Chalcedon, and taken Timotheus Aelurus, the Monophysite patriarch of Alexandria, under his protection, A
Timotheus, Called Aelurus - He had been at first a Monk, then a presbyter under Dioscorus, and soon after the deposition of the latter at the council of Chalcedon had come into collision with his successor PROTERIUS. " "Creeping" at night to the cells of certain ignorant Monks, he called to each by name, and on being asked who he was, replied, "I am an angel, sent to warn you to break off communion with Proterius, and to choose Timotheus as bishop" (Theod. 524), but yet deemed it expedient to send copies of both memorials to the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and to 55 other prelates and three leading Monks (one of them being Symeon Stylites), requesting their opinion as to the case of Timotheus and as to the authority of the council (Evagr
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - At Lérins he became a model Monk in the very best and highest sense; but after a period probably not exceeding two years his friend Honoratus, being chosen (a. As bishop, he lived in many respects like a Monk, though by no means as a recluse
Habakkuk - Through Paul, this passage came alive for an Augustinian Monk named Martin Luther, setting off the Protestant Reformation, one of history's greatest religious upheavals
Alaric - 7) mentions as a current story that a certain Monk, on urging the king, then on his march through Italy, to spare the city, received the reply that he was not acting of his own accord, but that some one was persistently forcing him on and urging him to sack Rome
Maronites - None, he says, of the ancient writers, give any certain account of the first person who instructed these mountaineers in the doctrine of the Monothelites; it is probable, however, from several circumstances, that it was John Maro, whose name they have adopted; and that this ecclesiastic received the name of Maro from his having lived in the character of a Monk, in the famous convent of St
Severus Sulpicius, an Historian - Later authors have believed him a Monk, some of Marmoûtiers, Martin's foundation at Tours, others of Marseilles, whither he may have been driven by the Vandal invasion. Theophilus and the Monks concerning Origen, St. Jerome at his church in Bethlehem, and the Monks and hermits of the Thebaid
Dionysius, Pseudo-Areopagita - The fourth addressed like the three previous ones to the Monk Caius treats briefly of the Incarnation and the nature of that human body with which Christ could walk upon the waters (cf. The eighth letter to a Monk Demophilus is on gentleness and forbearance and the topic is illustrated by a dream which St
Melita - The case for another Melita on the Dalmatian coast-the modern Meleda-was presented by Padre Georgi, a Dalmatian Monk who was a native of the island (1730), and by W
England - Felix, a Burgundian Monk, converted East Anglia; and Birinus began in 634 the evangelization of Wessex. Org Bishops Conference of England and Wales World Fact Book patron saints index Place-names of Catholic interest in England include ...
Abbey Hulton, Staffordshire Abbey Town, Cumberland Abbey Village, Lancashire Abbeydore, Herefordshire Abbeystead, Lancashire Abbots Bromley, Staffordshire Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire Abbots Leigh, Gloucestershire Abbots Ripton, Huntingdonshire Abbotsbury, Dorsetshire Abbotsham, Devonshire Abbotskerswell, Devonshire Abbotsley, Huntingdonshire Abbotts Ann, Hampshire Ampney-Crucis, Gloucestershire Bishop Auckland, Durham Bishop Burton, Yorkshire Bishop Middleham, Durham Bishop Monkton, Yorkshire Bishop Norton, Lincolnshire Bishop Sutton, Gloucestershire Bishop Wilton, Yorkshire Bishop's Cannings
Cassianus (11) Johannes, Founder of Western Monachism - More exactly, he was the first to transplant the rules of the Eastern Monks into Europe, and the most eminent of the writers who steered a course between Pelagianism and the tenets of St. ); but this may be merely a corruption from Scetis or Scyathis, where Cassian resided for some time among the Monks of Nitria. The fame of the Egyptian Monks and hermits reached Cassian and his friend in their cells. Besides other voluntary hardships, he speaks of the Monks having to fetch water on their shoulders a distance of three or four miles ( Coll. i) that Cassian visited the Monks of Mesopotamia; some say that he returned for a time to Egypt or Palestine; and by some he is identified with Cassianus Presbyter. The Collationes Patrum in Scithico Eremo Commorantium, in which Cassian records his Egyptian experiences, were evidently intended to complete his previous work; his purpose being to describe in the de Institutis the regulations and observances of monachism; in the Collationes its interior scope and spirit: in the former he writes of Monks, in the latter of hermits. to the Monks and anchorets of the Stoechades (Hyères). The life of a Monk, as he portrays it, is no formal and mechanical routine; but a daily and hourly act of self-renunciation (xxiv
Joannes (520), Monk And Author - Joannes (520), surnamed Moschus and Eucratas (also Everatas and Eviratus, corruptions of Eucratas as Fabricius remarks), a Monk, author of Pratum Spirituale, c. Theodosius, he afterwards resided with the Monks of the Jordan desert and in the new laura of St
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - Socrates refers to Palladius as a leading authority on the lives of the solitaries, but is wrong in calling him a Monk and stating that he lived soon after the death of Valens (H
Incarnation - It met in debate over the teaching of Eutyches, a Monk from Constantinople
je'Sus Christ - The calculations were made by a learned Monk, Dionysius Exiguus, in the sixth century, who made an error of four years; so that to get the exact date from the birth of Christ we must add four years to our usual dates; i
Pelagians - Pelagius was a British Monk, of some rank, and very exalted reputation
Severus, Patriarch of Antioch - of Gaza by Theodosius, the Monophysite Monk, during his usurpation of the see of Jerusalem (Evagr. Nephalius with his Monks expelled Severus and his partizans (Evagr. To escape the punishment of his turbulence he fled to Constantinople, supported by a band of 200 Monophysite Monks (ib. His advent was an unhappy one for the peace of Constantinople, where a sanguinary tumult was stirred up by rival bands of Monks, orthodox and Monophysite, chanting in their respective churches the opposing forms of the "Trisagion
English Versions - The earliest form, so far as is known, in which this demand was met was the poem of Caedmon , the work of a Monk of Whitby in the third quarter of the 7th cent. Since Ælfric had been a Monk at Winchester and abbot of Cerne, in Dorset, it is difficult to understand how he could have failed to know of the Wessex version of the Gospels, if it had been produced and circulated much before 1000; and it seems probable that it only came into existence early in the 11th century. The prologue narrates that the translation was made at the request of a Monk and a nun by their superior, who defers to their earnest desire, although, as he says, it is at the risk of his life
Augustinus, Archbaptist of Canterbury - ...
His mission to England was due to the circumstance of Gregory the Great, a Monk in the monastery of St. of Canterbury are Montalambert, Monks of the West, iii
Monastery - Monastery is only properly applied to the houses of Monks, mendicant friars, and nuns: the rest are more properly called religious houses. For the origin of monasteries, see MONASTIC, and Monk. About the same time a bull was granted by the same pope to cardinal Wolsey to suppress monasteries, where there were not above six Monks, to the value of eight thousand ducats a year, for endowing. Windsor and King's College in Cambridge; and two other bulls were granted to cardinals Wolsey and Campeins, where there were less than twelve Monks, and to annex them to the greater monasteries; and another bull to the same cardinals to inquire about abbeys to be suppressed in order to be made cathedrals. There were other causes that concurred to bring on their ruin: many of the religious were loose and vicious; the Monks were generally thought to be in their hearts attached to the pope's supremacy; their revenues were not employed according to the intent of the donors; many cheats in images, feigned miracles, and counterfeit relics, had been discovered, which brought the Monks into disgrace; the observant friars had opposed the king's divorce from queen Catharine; and these circumstances operated, in concurrence with the king's want of a supply and the people's desire to save their money, to forward a motion in parliament, that, in order to support the king's state, and supply his wants, all the religious houses might be conferred upon the crown, which were not able to spend above 200 50: a year; and an act was passed for that purpose, 27 Hen. And in eight other sees he founded deaneries and chapters, by converting the priors and Monks into deans and prebendaries, viz. "Its fraternity, " says he, "is said to have consisted of five hundred established Monks, besides nearly as many retainers on the abbey
Columbanus, Abbat of Luxeuil And Bobbio - His life, written with great care and minuteness by Jonas, of Susa in Piedmont, a Monk of his monastery at Bobbio, in the time of Attala and Eustace, his immediate successors, is now pub. But soon he had to erect another monastic establishment at Fontaines, or Fontenay, and divide his Monks among these houses. Lyons, 1677; and on it see Montalembert, Monks of the West , ii. Columbanus laboured with his Monks, and all classes of men gathered round him, notwithstanding the severe discipline. With his Irish Monks he eventually arrived at the Lake of Constance. Gall and his other Monks, and spent three years preaching to the people, and contending with privation and difficulty. 59, 614; Montalembert, Monks of the West , ii. Colonies of pious Monks journeyed forth under the leadership of able abbats, carrying the light of Christianity through the dangerous wilds of continental heathendom
Leander (2) - Before 579, the date of the outbreak of the Hermenigild rebellion, he had been a Monk, and then raised to the metropolitan see of Seville, perhaps at that time the most important ecclesiastical post in Spain
Genseric, King of the Vandals - Felix of Adrumetum was banished for receiving a foreign Monk
Imitation - Ordinary lay Christianity was seen to involve a ‘more perfect’ obedience than the will-worship of the Monk
Martinus, Saint, Bishop of Tours - of Tours continued to be the Monk. His funeral is said to have been attended by 2,000 Monks
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - 518-527), when the king of the people of Axum, being about to war against the Homeritae, sent to ask the governor of Adulis for a copy of a certain inscription; which copy Cosmas and another Monk were charged to make (Migne, Patr
Euchites - They professed to give themselves entirely to prayer refusing to work and living by begging; thus differing from the Christian Monks who supported themselves by their labour. of Antioch sent Monks to bring the Messalian teachers at Edessa to Antioch. With Adelphius there were condemned two persons named Sabas, one of them a Monk and a eunuch, Eustathius of Edessa, Dadoes, Hermas, Symeon, and others. 363) Cyril rebukes certain Monks who made piety a cloak for laziness, but there is no evidence that they were Euchites. He was accused to Alypius by the presbyter Gerontius, superior of the Monks at Glitis, of undue familiarity with women, unseemly language, scoffing at those who took part in the musical services of the church as being still under the law when they ought to make melody only in their hearts, and of other Euchite doctrines and practices
Presence - There are collective experiences to which the recluse is a stranger, and the Monk, whether he live in a cell or walk the fields instead of joining with those who assemble themselves together, shuts himself off from some of the highest possibilities
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - of Altinum), the Monk Chrysogonus, the subdeacon Niceas, and Hylas the freedman of the wealthy Roman lady Melania; all of whom are met with later in Jerome's history. I say nothing of my meat and drink, since the Monks even when sick use cold water, and it is thought a luxury if they ever partake of cooked food. He was driven away by the ill-will of his brother-monks. Finding his position more and more difficult, he wrote to Marcus, the chief presbyter of the Monks of Chalcis (xvii. Nearly fifty years before, Athanasius and the Monk Peter (334) had sown the seeds of asceticism at Rome by their accounts of the monasteries of Nitria and the Thebaid. Jerome's own experience in the desert, his anti-Ciceronian dream at Antioch, his knowledge of the desert Monks, of whom he gives a valuable description, were here used in favour of the virgin and ascetic life; the extreme fear of impurity contrasts strangely with the gross suggestions in every page; it contains such a depreciation of the married state, the vexations of which ("uteri tumentes, infantium vagitus") are only relieved by vulgar and selfish luxury, that almost the only advantage allowed it is that by it virgins are brought into the world; and the vivid descriptions of Roman life—the pretended virgins, the avaricious and self-indulgent matrons, the dainty, luxurious, and rapacious clergy—forcible as they are, lose some of their value by their appearance of caricature. 4) the rumour was spread that she had been killed by the excessive austerities enjoined upon her; the violent grief of her mother was taken as a reproach to the ascetic system, and the cry was heard, "The Monks to the Tiber!" Jerome, though cautioned by his friends to moderate his language (xxvii. ) of the monastery and by the crowds of Monks and pilgrims who flocked to the hospice (lxvi. He was disturbed also by the controversy or schism between the Monks of Bethlehem and the bp
Virgin Virginity - Paul that unless a man could exercise continence of desires-as so many of the so-called Monkish celibates could not-he had better marry. ]'>[4] In later times unmarried women and widows resided with the clergy in their homes-a Monk in the desert might have his ‘uxor spiritualis
Jesuits - In the solitude and silence of the cloister, the Monk is called to work out his salvation by extraordinary acts of mortification and piety. That they may have full leisure for this active service, they are totally exempted from those functions, the performance of which is the chief business of other Monks. There has not been, perhaps, in the annals of mankind, any example of such a perfect despotism exercised, not over Monks shut up in the cells of a convent, but over men dispersed among all the nations of the earth
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - It was believed, however, in the West that she was buried at Rome, and there is a tradition that in 480 her body was stolen thence by a Monk Theogisus and brought to Hautvilliers in the diocese of Rheims
Transubstantiation - Pascasius Radbert, a Monk, and afterward abbot of Corbey in Picardy, published a treatise concerning the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, in which he did not hesitate to maintain the following most extraordinary positions: "That after the consecration of the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper, nothing remained of these symbols but the outward form or figure, under which the body and blood of Christ were really and locally present; and that this body so present was the identical body that had been born of the Virgin Mary, had suffered on the cross, and had been raised from the dead
Isidorus, Archbaptist of Seville - ...
(11) De Ecclesiasticis Officiis treats of the services of the church, and of clerics, their rules and orders, the tonsure, the episcopal office, vicars episcopal, presbyters, deacons, sacristans and subdeacons, readers, psalmists, exorcists, acolytes, porters, Monks, penitents, virgins, widows, the married, catechumens, exorcism, salt, candidates for baptism, the creed, the rule of faith, baptism, chrism, imposition of hands, and confirmation. —This treatise led some to suppose Isidore a Benedictine Monk, the only order then established in the West; but Gams thinks the proof not sufficient
Jesuits - The Monk was a retired devotee of heaven; the Jesuit a chosen soldier of the pope. That the members of the near order might have full leisure for this active service, they were exempted from the usual functions of other Monks
Barnabas, Epistle of - The second that Barnabas had died before the destruction of Jerusalem while the epistle bears clear marks of not having been written until after that date; for this idea is no just inference from the texts referred to Col_4:10 1Pe_5:13 2 Timothy 3 (4 ?) 11 and the authority of a Monk of the 6th or 9th cent
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - While so engaged one day his words were overheard by an aged Monk who had descended from his hermitage into the city, and being rebuked by him for still mingling with the world, Ephrem withdrew into a cavern among the mountains, adopted the monastic dress, and commenced a life of extreme asceticism, giving himself up to study and to writing. 225-359) to be used at the burial of bishops, presbyters, deacons, Monks, princes, rich men, strangers, matrons, women, youths, children, in time of plague, and for general use
Honorius, Flavius Augustus, Emperor - Bishops were to punish the offences of Monks. " No cleric or Monk was to assert sanctuary by forcible defence for condemned criminals (XI
Isidorus Pelusiota, an Eminent Ascetic - 278), Isidore became a thorough Monk in his ascetic self-devotion. 298) of Monks; their neglect of manual labour (i. 31) remonstrates with a soldier for invading the cells of Monks and teaching them false doctrine (i. ...
Two thousand letters of his, we are told, were collected by the zealously anti-Monophysite community of Acoemetae, or "sleepless" Monks, at Constantinople, and arranged in 4 vols
Novatianus And Novatianism - The Monk Eutychian, one of their number, was a celebrated miracle-worker, reverenced by Constantine himself, who also endeavoured to lead one of their bishops, ACESIUS, to unite with the Catholics (Socr
Proverbs - If they see a Monk wearing a superfluous garment, they cast up to him the Lord’s law, though themselves practising boundless extortion and covetousness every day
Religion (2) - The Indian fakir or Buddhist Monk is moved strongly by this sense of obligation, and observes conditions of consecration even to the crippling of his life
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - A full account of her last hours, with a detailed biography, is given by hire in a letter to the Monk Olympius ( de Vit
Innocentius, Bishop of Rome - (11) Monks, taking minor orders, may not marry. ), and Cassianus, famous afterwards as a Monk and a writer
Gospels (Apocryphal) - ), and was highly esteemed by that Father himself; while the vitality of the Gospel of Peter is evidenced by the fact that a large portion of it was placed in the grave of a Monk in the early Middle Ages (8th–12th cent
Koran - It is the common opinion, that Mahomet, assisted by one Sergius, a Monk, composed this book; but the Mussulmans believe it as an article of their faith, that the prophet, who, they say, was an illiterate man, had no concern in inditing it; but that it was given him by God, who, to that end, made use of the ministry of the angel Gabriel; that, however, it was communicated to him by little and little, a verse at a time, and in different places, during the course of 23 years. had been condemned by aecumenical councils, many bishops, priests, Monks, &c
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - He tells us, in his Life of Anthony , that he often saw him; and although that reading of the conclusion of the preface, which makes him say that "he himself for some time attended on him, and poured water on his hands," may be considered doubtful, yet we know that he was afterwards spoken of as "the ascetic," and that when, years later, he took shelter in the cells of the Monks of Egypt, he found himself perfectly at home. He had with him two Egyptian Monks. Their presence in the city, and Athanasius's enthusiasm for Anthony and other types of monastic saintliness, made a strong impression on the Roman church society, and abated the prejudices there existing against the very name of Monk, and the disgust at a rude and strange exterior
Christ in Reformation Theology - Not till Staupitz, on his visit to Luther’s convent, recommended the old German theology of Tauler to the youthful scholar-monk, did the secret of Christian piety once more find lodgment in the soul of a religious genius, who saw how to make the thoughts of faith supreme throughout the whole sphere of religion—in church life, in ritual and theology, as well as in the lonely heart
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - —The latest ancient writer who cites only the Eusebian epistles in the uninterpolated text is the Monk Antonius in the early part of the 7th cent