What does Middle Ages mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Middle Ages
Centuries between ancient and modern times, according to some from the downfall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, from the 5th to the 15th century, others preferring to call the first six centuries of this period Dark Ages, and limiting the Middle Ages proper to four. The Dark Ages then would be the time of the barbarian, Islam, and northern invasions, causing eventually the downfall of the Roman Empire and the destruction of the ancient civilizations, the time of the growing ascendancy of Christianity occasionally favored by those in power, though more often hindered and even persecuted because of the ambition of worldly rulers to subordinate religion to the state and of their alliance with heretical Christians, such as the Arians in the West, the Iconoclasts in the East; the time also of the conversion, by Apostolic men like Patrick, Martin, Augustine, Boniface, of the barbarous invaders and other more peaceful nations, bringing them gradually under the influence of Christian civilization. If we consider the centuries it took to do this as closing just prior to the year one thousand, and then study the achievement of the four following centuries, we find that it consisted in establishing law, developing cities, promoting culture, as W. E. Brown proves in "The Achievement of the Middle Ages"; or, as shown in "The Legacy of the Middle Ages," in preparing for the modern age a legacy of Christian life, art in all its forms, particularly architecture, literature, philosophy, education, law growing out of sacred customs, civiland Roman law also, the dignification of womanhood, economit activity and political thought, organization of government, peace, union of Christendom. To these precious heirlooms Godefroid Kurth would add the independence of the papacy, the celibacy of the clergy, the gradual extirpation of slavery, liberty generally and the rights of the individual citizen, the foundation of charitable institutions, of monasticism; in a word, all the most saving elements of civilization. Indeed, he styles his work on the MiddIe Ages: "The Origin of Modern Civilization."
Among the founders of these Ages, as Rand ranks them in his work on this subject, are men like,
Ambrose
Augustine of Hippo
Boethius
Cassiodorus
Gregory I, Saint
Jerome, Saint
Lactantius
Prudentius
There were great popes,
Adrian I
Agapetus I, Saint
Gregory I, Saint
Gregory II, Saint
Gregory V
Hormisdas, Saint
John VIII
John X
John XIII
Leo III, Saint
Leo IV, Saint
Sylvester II
Symmachus
Among the kings were
Alfred the Great
Charlemagne
Charles Martel
Edmund the Martyr, Saint
Edward the Confessor, Saint
Edward the Martyr, Saint
Heraclius
Justinian I
the Ottos
William the Conqueror
Among the churchmen were,
Alcuin, Saint
Aldhelm, Saint
Anschar, Saint
Becket
Bede
Columba, Saint
Gregory of Tours, Saint
Hugh of Cluny
Isidore of Seville, Saint
John Scotus
Peter Damian
Roger Bacon
Institutions owing to this period are feudalism in transition, guilds, markets, military orders, chivalry, Crusades, pilgrimages, bridge-and road-building brotherhoods, troubadours, wandering scholars, universities, inquisition, and the perfection of the liturgy. Fortunately the study of these ages is more and more occupying scholarly historians in England and America, and they are discovering that just because they were the ages of faith, their history had been perverted to throw discredit on the Catholic Church. Men like Charles Homer Haskins in his "Renaissance of the Twelfth Century" and "Studies in the History of Mediaeval Science" are doing eminent service in this respect and the medieval society has organized a body of scholars who are bent on uncovering the truth about ages from which moderns have so much to learn.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Christ in the Middle Ages
CHRIST IN THE MIDDLE AGES.—The Christology of the Middle Ages was, of course, the outgrowth of that of the earlier time, and each medileval type can readily be traced to its source. The main lines of influence are: that of Augustine, working directly through the continued use of his writings, and indirectly through the personality and writings of Gregory the Great [1] , Anselm of Canterbury, Bernard of Clairvaux, Abelard, Peter Lombard, Thomas Aquinas, etc.; that of the Neo-Platonie pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, working directly through the continued use of his writings, and indirectly through the propagation of his modes of thought by Maximus the Confessor, Scotus Erigena, the German Mystics, etc.; Adoptianism, which flourished in the immediately post-Apostolic (if not in the Apostolic) times, was vigorously propagated in Armenia, and perpetuated there by the Paulicians even down to the present time, had a vigorous development in Spain during the 8th and 9th cents., and affected much of the dissenting evangelical thought of the mediaeval time; and the Gnostic-Manichaean modes of thought, perpetuated from the early time, and reappearing in the Catharistic sects. For the Greek Church the Christology of John of Damascus, who in the 8th cent. reduced to system the net results of the Christological controversies of the three preceding centuries, continued to be normative during the Middle Ages, and little independent theorizing seems to have found place.
1. Beyond almost any other Christian thinker, Augustine magnified Christ. This name, drunk in piously and deeply, even with his mother’s milk (Conf. iii. 8), never lost its power over him even during his years of wandering. Having become emancipated from Manichaean dualism through the study of Neo-Platonic writings (Plotinus, Amelius, et al.) he found himself unable with satisfaction to fix his gaze upon the glories of the invisible and unchangeable God until he had embraced that ‘Mediator between God and man, himself man, Christ Jesus,’ ‘who is over all, God blessed for ever,’ ‘the way, the truth, and the life.’ Yet he did not at once grasp the mystery of the Incarnation, and he failed for a time to attain to anything higher than Adoptianism. He thought of Christ ‘as of a man of excellent wisdom,’ virginborn and surpassing other men, an example to us of ‘eontemning temporal things for the obtaining of immortality.’ Fully assured of the unchangeableness of the Divine Word, he was unable to believe that He ate, drank, slept, walked, rejoiced, was sad, and discoursed; and so felt compelled (against Arians and Apollinarians) to insist upon a complete humanity in Christ to which such actions and experiences would be appropriate (Conf. vii. 24, 25). Though strongly influenced by Neo-Platonism, which generally made for Monophysitism, Augustine was a Dyophysite of the most pronounced type. Yet one would search in vain in his writings for any accurate definition of the relations of the Divine and the human in the Person of Christ, or of the manner in which the Divine Logos and the man Jesus were united in a single personality. He guarded carefully against any admission of a blending of Deity and humanity, as well as against the supposition that Christ’s humanity is converted into Deity. He calls the humanity of Christ ‘garment,’ ‘temple,’ ‘vehicle,’ ‘instrument.’ By virtue of its association with Deity, the soul of Christ possessed perfect knowledge from the very beginning; and His disclaiming of knowledge about this or that was for the sake of His disciples. Yet Augustine denied freedom of choice to the humanity of Christ, which he made subject to predestination. He regarded the Incarnation of the Logos as necessary in order that our souls might become His members, and that the devil might be vanquished by the same nature that he had seduced. The Incarnation was the work of the entire Trinity, and the Word stood in no nearer relation to the Son than did the entire Trinity (cf. Harnack, Dogmengesch. iii. 116 [2]). The following sentence is highly significant:
‘God assumed (suscepit) our nature, i.e. the rational soul and flesh of the man Christ, by an assumption singularly wonderful and wonderfully singular, that, no merits of his own righteousness having preceded, he should thus become Son of God from the beginning in which he began to be man, that he himself (the man Christ) and the Word might be one person’ (de Correptione et Gratia, 30).
Augustine seems never to have reached a thoroughly wrought-out and self-consistent Christology. He was uncertain whether the Incarnation was necessary to man’s redemption, conceiving it possible that God might have chosen another way. The body of Christ he regarded as a part of the Adamic mass, which was constituted a body by the act of assumption, conceived by Mary not by carnal concupiscence, but by spiritual faith (Dorner, Pers. [3] of Christ, ii. i. 398). By the Incarnation our souls become Christ’s members, and the devil is vanquished by the same nature that he seduced. As in accordance with the Divine plan of redemption Christ must needs purchase sin-cursed men with His own death, He assumed a human body with all human affections and infirmities, including mortality, yet without concupiscence. In assuming human nature He cleansed it. ‘He became man in order that He might make us gods.’ Yet He did not renounce the ‘form of God,’ but continued with the Father in heaven, while Jesus was sojourning upon earth. His emptying was merely an occultation. Like St. Paul, Augustine laid the utmost stress on the humiliation involved in the Incarnation, the human life, and the obedience even unto death; and yet he insisted that the Divine nature as being absolutely immutable could only join sympathetically with the human in psychical and physical suffering. The atoning work of Christ he thought of as redemption from the power of the devil—who had taken up his abode in human souls deserted by God because of sin, and who was conceived of as having a sort of vested right in them—quite as much as reconciliation to God. By receiving the penalty of sin, and not taking upon Himself the fault (culpa), He blotted out both penalty and fault for us. Christ’s death possessed atoning power because of His virgin birth, spotless righteousness, and voluntary obedience to God. The temporal death of Christ frees believers from eternal death.
Side by side with Augustine’s magnifying of Christ went his disposition to exalt the Church and its sacraments. He supposed that the benefits wrought for man through the Incarnation and sufferings of Christ become available for man only through the medium of the sacraments of which, the Church is the sole dispenser.
2. Gregory the Great [1] was not an original thinker on Christological questions. He went far beyond Augustine in his ecclesiasticism and sacramentalism, and while professing to be a devout follower of Augustine, greatly enervated his doctrines in reproducing them. In his teaching regarding the atoning work of Christ he laid more stress than did Augustine on the rightful power of the devil over mankind, and the ransom paid him by Christ in His death. The God-man, virgin-born and without concupiscence, he regarded as both a mediator between God and man, and an example for us. The atoning work of Christ does not avail for human salvation unless man fills up by a life of humility and suffering that which remained of the sufferings of Christ. ‘He who strives to be redeemed and to rule with Him must be crucified.’
‘Without intermission the Redeemer offers up a burnt-offering for us, in that without ceasing He shows to the Father His incarnation on our behalf; since His incarnation is an oblation for our cleansing: and when He showed Himself as man, by intervening, He washed away the faults of man. And by the mystery of His humanity He perennially offers sacrifice, because these faults also which He cleanses away are eternal’ (Moral. i. 24).
He laid much stress upon the constant intercession of Christ; but this was supposed to be mediated by angels, saints, alms, masses, and by other forms of meritorious works. In fact, he was so overmastered by the efficacy of sacramental forms and the continuous sacrifice, that he regarded the death of Christ as not absolutely necessary for man’s, redemption. God who created us might have delivered us from the consequences of sin without the death of Christ. He thought of the death of Christ as an exhibition of the Divine love, and as an example wherewith to teach us not to fear the misfortunes and sufferings of this world, but rather to avoid earthly good fortune. His sacrificial view of the Lord’s Supper, with its sacerdotal accompaniments, greatly enervated his conception of the Person of Christ and its historical significance. In this rite the suffering of Christ is repeated continuously for our reconciliation, ‘the whole Christ being in each portion’ of the consecrated elements. In the words of Harnack:
‘Christ as a person is forgotten. He is a great title in dogmatics …; but the fundamental questions of salvation are not answered in relation to him, and in life the baptized person has to avail himself of “means” which exist partly side by side with him (Christ), partly without him, or only bear his badge’ (Dogmengesch. iii. 241 f. [5]).
Fear and hope take the place of faith and love; fear of punishment takes the place of repentance for sin. Thus the mediaeval type of ascetical piety was fully established (cf. Harnack, l.c.).
3. A vigorously led Adoptianist movement in Spain during the later years of the 8th century, probably influenced by Saracen thought, led Alcuin, supported by Charlemagne and the Council of Frankfurt (794), to set forth as the Christological teaching of the Frankish Church, in opposition to the Nestorian doctrine, alleged to be involved in the Adoptianism of bishops Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgel, a doctrine scarcely distinguishable from Eutychianism. Alcuin insisted that Christ is not ‘man,’ but the ‘God-man’; that He is not ‘in everything like us apart from sin,’ but ‘in many things.’ He taught that in the union of the Divine and the human the human personality was blotted out (deleri) or consumed (consumi) by the Divine, and that the Divine personality took the place of the destroyed human personality. ‘In the assumption of flesh by God the person of man perished, not the nature’ (adv. Felicem, 2. 12). Thus Adoptianism provoked a reaction in the Western Church against an extreme as well as against the natural and proper interpretation of the Chalcedonian Symbol; and while it did not lead to the general acceptance of pure Eutychianism, it came perilously near eliminating from Western Christology the conception of the real and complete humanity of Christ.
It has been pointed out by Dorner, with admirable insight (ii. i. 270 ff.), that while Christ continued to be regarded by the Greek Church as the revealed wisdom of God, and stress was laid upon His prophetic office employed in the diffusion of enlightenment as embodied in the ‘orthodox faith,’ in the Latin Church He was regarded during the mediaeval time as first and foremost a King, Christianity was regarded as a means of securing power, and the hierarchy was supposed to have been appointed by Christ to occupy His place, rule in His stead, virtually to supersede Him in personal government, and to abolish any direct intercourse between Him and believers. No longer was personal fellowship of the believer with Christ thought of as the supreme good or even as a possibility. Having founded the Church and endowed it with plenary powers, Christ was no longer needed as a personal presence, and was deistically regarded. If a personal and highly sympathetic supernatural was desiderated, this was to be found in the Virgin Mary, who had already been exalted to almost Divine proportions. The Church came to be regarded as the present living incarnation of Christ.
4. Next to that of Augustine, the most potent influence on mediaeval Christology in the West was that of the unknown writer (probably active during the later years of the 6th cent.) whose Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, Heavenly Hierarchy, Divine Names, and Mystical Theology were credited to Dionysius the Areopagite, converted by St. Paul on the occasion of his visit to Athens. The writer was thoroughly imbued with the Neo-Platonic thought of Plotinus, Proclus, Jamblicus, etc., and wrought out a magnificent and highly impressive scheme of Christian theosophy on a Neo-Platonic basis. The credit of these works was greatly enhanced by the supposition that they constituted the esoteric teachings of the Apostle Paul, which were too spiritual and exalted for the people of his time. In The Divine Names (ii. 10):
‘The Son is all in all and the head of all things …, for He is the fulness and cohesiveness of all things, and He conserves and firmly binds the parts by the wholeness, and He is neither part nor whole for He is above these, but both part and whole as having embraced all things; for He is exalted above nature, and is antecedent to causation; and He is the perfect among us imperfect, and imperfect among the perfect angels as being superperfect and anteperfect, and having no point of comparison with them as regards perfection; and He is the formative principle in things tacking form as the creator and originator of all form, and without form with respect to things that have received form as being above form.’
Much more is said by way of emphasizing the absolute transcendence and the relative immanence of the Son.
This view of Christ and the world would seem to preclude belief in a specific Incarnation; but the devotion of pseudo-Dionysius to the creed of the Church and his sense of the reality of historical Christianity held him back in some measure from sheer Docetism. He maintained, therefore, that the Deity of Jesus in its exceeding goodness came even to our nature and truly assumed the substance of our flesh, so that the Most High God could be called man, the super-essential essence thus shining forth out of humanity. He communicated Himself to us without mixture or change, suffering no harm from His unspeakable humiliation. He was supernatural in our natural, super-essential in what belongs to our essence, and He possessed in a unique manner all that is ours, of us, and above us. True to his pantheistic conception that God can be named with the names of all His creatures, pseudo-Dionysius asserts that He who is the author of man was truly man as to His entire nature. Yet He was not merely man, and not merely superessential in relation to man; but He is actually man above men and according to men, or, in other words, He is the archetypal man of whom all individual men are the unreal copies. In a superhuman manner He performed human acts. He was a man humanly born, but man above man; and inasmuch as in Him God had become man, He developed a Divine-human energy (Ep. ad Caium, iv.). The pseudo-Dionysius found it practically impossible to find any place in the Universe for the God-man Jesus Christ, thus vaguely and Docetically conceived (Dorner). To assign Him a place in the earthly sphere would be degrading; to place Him in the heavenly order would involve Docetism. Without being quite willing to do so, he virtually relinquished the historical Christ, retaining only the eternal. These writings figured largely in the Christological controversies in the East during the 7th and 8th centuries.
5. Maximus the Confessor (d. 662), though a staunch advocate of Dyothelitism, taught a form of mysticism derived largely from the pseudo-Dionysius. Banished by the Eastern Emperor because of his uncompromising opposition to Mono-thelitism, he made Carthage the scene of his later activities, and from this vantage ground diffused throughout the Western Church the pseudo-Dionysian mysticism. He regarded the pseudo-Dionysius as the holy revealer of Divine mysteries, as the ‘all-holy,’ the ‘great saint,’ the ‘God-revealer,’ and he had no doubt as to his identity with St. Paul’s Athenian convert. Almost equally with the Areopagite, Maximus falls into pantheistic and Docetic conceptions.
The fulness of the Godhead which was in Christ by nature Is in Christians by grace, as far as their nature is capable of receiving it. Man on account of his love to God becomes God for God; on account of his love to man he becomes man for man. Christ is continually and of His own will mystically born, for He is made flesh in and through the redeemed. The Logos became the Son of Man in order that He might make men gods, and sons of God.
The Incarnation can hardly be said to have been regarded by Maximus as more than a theophany, and it was by no means limited to Jesus. If the latter participates in the Divine more fully than other men, it is only because His nature laid hold of it more fully (cf. Dorner, ii. i. 228 ff.). The heterogeneous mixture of pseudo-Dionysian Neo-Platonic mysticism and mystagogy with Dyothelitism in Maximus opened wide the door in the West as well as in the East for the influence of the former.
6. That the influence of the Areopagite and of Maximus was brought mightily to bear upon the orthodoxy of the East is manifest in the Fountain of Knowledge of John of Damascus (d. about 754), who yet uncompromisingly maintained the persistence of two wills in the Person of Christ (Christ unitedly willing in correspondence with each of the two natures), and the freedom of His human will. The pseudo-Dionysian formula, ‘Divine-human energy,’ he understood to imply a Divine and a human activity each permanently differentiated from the other; yet he was at great pains to show the unity of the two natures (cf. Dorner, ii. i. 210). The permeation of the human nature by the Divine involved in his conception the deification of the human. He illustrates the relation of the Divine and the human in Christ by the permeation of iron by heat. The human intellect of Christ, by virtue of this permeation, participated in the all-comprehending Divine knowledge from the beginning. He takes a Docetic view of the NT representation that Jesus grew in wisdom and favour. So also he regards Docetically the prayers of Christ. God constituting the personality in Christ, there was no occasion for prayer except to furnish an example to us and to do honour to God. Yet he was very far from accepting the Eutychian idea that Divine attributes were communicated to the human nature. While the flesh became the flesh of the Word, and the soul of Jesus the soul of the Word, the human nature remained unaltered in essence. Solely on the ground of the fellowship of the Divine and the human was the flesh of the Lord enriched by the Divine activities. It is evident that this great thinker, whose Fountain of Knowledge is still normative in the Greek Church, failed to gain a perfectly consistent view of the relations of the Divine and the human in the Person of Christ.
7. The views of the pseudo-Dionysius and Maximus reappeared among the monks of Mount Athos about the middle of the 14th cent. (Hesychasts, Quietists), and occasioned the Hesychastic controversy, the chief opponents being the leaders of the party that was promoting union with the Latin Church. The cause of the Hesychasts was ably defended by Nicolaus Cabasilas, bishop of Thessalonica, and by Marcus Eugenicus, archbishop of Ephesus. The Christology of Cabasilas is highly transcendental. He regarded Christ as the resting-place of those human yearnings that are directed towards the highest good, as the luxuriant pasture of the thoughts, as the eternal good incorporated with time. Although he held fast to the Chalcedonian doctrine of two natures and two wills, he yet regarded the Word as super-essential even in the Incarnation, and the humanity of Christ as superhuman and deified though of like substance with us. The sacraments of the Church he regarded as the channels through which life streams forth from Christ to us. Baptism represents the generation in us of the new Christ-life. Everything pertaining to man’s salvation was accomplished by the death and resurrection of Christ. Baptism simply transfers the saving efficacy to the individual. The purification of human nature accomplished in the Incarnation in Christ is accomplished in the individual Christian by his partaking of the Divine-human nature present in the Eucharist. Appropriating Christ in this feast, we enter into a blood-relationship with God and Christ; and as Christ’s humanity became deified in the Incarnation, so do believers by partaking of Him.
8. In the West, John Scotus Erigena (d. about 880) translated, under the patronage of Charles the Bald, the pseudo-Dionysian writings, by which, as well as by the writings of Maximus, he had been profoundly influenced. Through him the Neo-Platonic mysticism was transplanted to the West, and came to exert a marked influence on later Christological thought. His teachings were even more openly pantheistic than those of his Oriental masters, and his denial of the reality of derived existence and his thoroughgoing Docetism make it extremely difficult to interpret much of the language in which he strives to give a certain value to the historical facts of redemption. While asserting that Christ took upon Him the form of a servant and human nature in its entirety, he shows at once how little his language accords with common-sense usage by saying that the human nature that the Word assumed contains in itself the entire visible and invisible creation. Christ’s mission was to call back effects into causes, and thus to prevent causality itself from perishing. Thus in assuming and renovating human nature He renovated the whole of the creation visible and invisible. In assuming and renovating human nature thus with its universal contents, Christ raised it in Himself above all that is visible, and converted it into His Deity. He saved the entire human nature which He entirely assumed entirely in itself and entirely in the entire race. Entire humanity is exalted in Him and sits at the right hand of God, having become God in Him. It is manifest that such conceptions of incarnation leave no place for evangelical views of sin or redemption. By his seeming recognition of the historical life of Christ he can have meant only to set forth belief in a theophany which had the effect of furthering and facilitating the rise of men above theophanies to the archetypal (cf. Dorner, ii. ii. 294 ff.).
9. A far more evangelical type of mystical Christology is found in the writings of Hugo of St. Victor (d. 1114) and Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173). In them the theosophy of Erigena was transformed into ecstatic enjoyment of God Himself. They were unable to find satisfaction in the Church doctrine of the transubstantiation of the bread and the wine into the body and the blood of Christ as the form in which Christ may be enjoyed, but yearned for a spiritual union with Christ, the transubstantiation of the believer by an ecstatic exaltation into a mystical union with Christ. The Christology of Hugo and Richard was clearly that of the pseudo-Dionysius and of Erigena; but with them the Incarnation was conceived of more distinctly as a historical fact, and the ecstatic union of the believer with Christ did not so clearly involve loss of individual consciousness and virtual absorption.
10. The pantheistic features of the teaching of Erigena found their most extreme development in Amalric of Bena (d. 1204), who identified God with the world and with man. Yet he did not wholly ignore the historical, and maintained that God revealed Himself as Father in Abraham, as Son in Mary, and as Holy Spirit daily in us. He declared that we are the natural members of Christ, because the identical soul of Christ dwells in all good men. Spiritual exaltation from Christ dwelling in us emancipates us from all moral obligation, and makes sins of the flesh a matter of indifference.
11. More profoundly philosophical but scarcely less destructive to the Christology of the NT and to true religion was the mysticism of Master Eckhart (d. c. [6] 1327). He refused to recognize any distinction between man and God, in nature or in persons. All creatures he regarded as a ‘pure nothing.’ Every believer is God’s only-begotten son in the same sense in which this is true of Christ. ‘Whatever God the Father has given to His only-begotten Son in human nature, He has given wholly to me. Here I except nothing, neither union nor sanctity.’ ‘Whatever the Sacred Scripture says concerning Christ is also absolutely true of every good man.’ Eternal generation applies to every good man as fully as to Christ. In fact, man as well as God may be said to have created the heaven and the earth, and to have generated the eternal Word.
12. In John Tauler (d. 1361) we have a highly Neo-Platonic mode of thought combined with the most devout and heartfelt recognition of the Incarnation and the propitiatory sufferings of Christ as absolutely necessary for our salvation. Christ’s being is cause, essence, and beginning in relation to all things. He is the life of the living, the resurrection of the dead, the restorer of the deformed and disordered who have corrupted and spoiled themselves by sin, the beginning of all light, the illumination of all those who are illuminated, the revealer of obscurity according to what it is proper for us to know, and the beginning of all beginning. His being is inconceivable and unspeakable, and without names. In becoming flesh and making atonement for the guilt of humanity He is its Redeemer. The Holy Spirit took of the most pure blood of the virginal heart of Mary, which was glowing with the powerful flame of love, and created of it a perfectly pure little body with all its members, and a pure clean soul, and united these together. This soul and body, the Person of the Son of God, who is the eternal Word and the reflexion of the Father’s glory, from genuine love and mercy, for the sake of our blessedness, took upon Himself and united with Himself into the unity of the Person. Thus the Word became flesh and dwelt with us. The humanity of Christ he regarded as even in the humiliation permeated by the Divine, and sharing in the possession and use of the Divine attributes. The same was true even when He suffered and died on the cross. According to its lower powers Christ’s soul was subject to needs. From this point of view he could say that not a drop of His Deity came for one moment to the help of His poor agonizing humanity in all its needs and in its unspeakable sufferings. Tauler is never weary of emphasizing the importance of the death of Christ. He speaks of the whole human race as fallen into eternal death and the eternal wrath of God, with the loss of the Holy Spirit, the Comforter. Christ broke the bands of eternal death in His death on the cross, and made a complete peace and reconciliation between man and the Heavenly Father. This reconciliation is confirmed by the gift of the Holy Spirit. The sufferings and death of Christ he regarded as an equivalent for man’s guilt, as a fulfilling of the Law which we were under obligation to fulfil, in that He suffered in our place and on our behalf. Tauler dwelt with great persistence and with remarkable pathos on the details of the sufferings of Christ and His infinite love for the souls of men. It will not be practicable to give here any further phases of mystical Christological thought.
13. Scholastic Christology next demands attention. Anselm of Canterbury (d. 1109), in some respects the most important of the mediaeval theologians, wrought out no new theory of the Person of Christ; but his satisfaction theory of the Atonement, involving the abandonment of the supposition that the death of Christ was a ransom paid to the devil, and basing the necessity of the death of the God-man on the infinite weight of sin and its infinite offence to the honour of God, was an important contribution to soteriology. Satisfaction to the Divine majesty could not be made by man, seeing that he is finite, or by the Son of God alone, seeing that He owed no satisfaction; but it must be made by the God-man. While perpetuating the Augustinian modes of thought as they had been modified by Gregory the Great [1] , Alcuin, etc., Anselm was also greatly influenced by the Neo-Platonic semi-pantheism of Erigena. In opposition to the tritheism of Roscellinus, which seemed to him to require the Incarnation of Father, Son, and Spirit, and not of the Son alone, as the means of man’s redemption, he insisted that it was impossible for Father and Spirit to become man. The Incarnation merely accomplished the union of the Divine and human personalities, and not the union of the Divine and human natures. The Divine Person became man and formed one Person with the humanity assumed, but not the nature. There was no transformation of Deity into humanity or of humanity into Deity. Not the Divine nature but the Person of the Son became man. If the Divine Person alone and not the Divine nature took part in the Incarnation, it is plain that we cannot speak of the three Persons having become man in Christ, unless we hold that several persons could become one person (Dorner, ii. i. p. 442 ff.). Anselm as a Realist insisted that in the Incarnation the Logos united Himself not with an individual man, but with impersonal humanity, in this opposing the Nominalists, who insisted that the humanity of Christ was individual and personal.
14. Abelard (d. 1142) was essentially Sabellian in his doctrine of the Trinity, and insisted that, being unchangeable, God could not have become something which He was not eternally. He rejected such expressions as ‘God is man,’ ‘Man became God.’ He affirmed ‘God did not become anything in and through the Incarnation.’ He preferred to say in effect, ‘in the man Jesus, God worked’; that ‘in Jesus the wisdom of God revealed itself, in order to lead men to salvation by doctrine and example’ (Theologia Christiana, iv. 13). This thought he is never weary of iterating and enforcing, that whatever our Lord did in the flesh was for our instruction by way of example. This includes His walk, His death, and His resurrection. He regarded Incarnation in the proper sense of the term as unthinkable and impossible, because of his conception of the omnipresence and the unchangeableness of God.
15. Peter Lombard (d. 1160), in his Sentences, which became the text-book of mediaeval scholasticism and thus exerted a moulding influence upon later scholastic thought, asked and sought to answer nearly every conceivable question respecting Christ. His great master was John of Damascus; but he was well acquainted with Augustinian thought, and no doubt with the works of Anselm and Abelard. He was also somewhat familiar with Neo-Platonic modes of thought without being overmastered by them. He sees no reason why Father or Holy Spirit might not have become incarnate, but finds especial appropriateness in the fact that He who created the world should deliver it, that He who proceeded from another rather than He who is self-existent should be sent on the mission of redemption. It would have been less fitting for Him who is Father in heaven to become Son in the sphere of revelat

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Mediaevalism - ) The method or spirit of the Middle Ages; devotion to the institutions and practices of the Middle Ages; a survival from the Middle Ages
Mediaevalist - ) One who has a taste for, or is versed in, the history of the Middle Ages; one in sympathy with the spirit or forms of the Middle Ages
Middle-Age - Of or pertaining to the Middle Ages; mediaeval
Mediaevals - ) The people who lived in the Middle Ages
Mediaeval - ) Of or relating to the Middle Ages; as, mediaeval architecture
Mediaevally - ) In the manner of the Middle Ages; in accordance with mediaevalism
Hospitallers - Their most famous hospital during the Middle Ages was the Hótel-Dieu of Paris. Certain communities of women formed during the Middle Ages to aid the military orders in the care of the sick were also known as hospitallers
Crusader - ) One engaged in a crusade; as, the crusaders of the Middle Ages
Payndemain - ) The finest and whitest bread made in the Middle Ages; - called also paynemain, payman
Dromon - In the Middle Ages, a large, fast-sailing galley, or cutter; a large, swift war vessel
Ainpain - ) Bread-gainer; - a term applied in the Middle Ages to the sword of a hired soldier
Bestiary - , one of the moralizing or allegorical beast tales written in the Middle Ages
Chant, Plain - Church music of the early Middle Ages, before the advent of polyphony, the idiomatic and most appropriate accompaniment of the liturgy
Altar Stole - An ornament shaped as the ends of a stole and fastened to the front of the altar in the Middle Ages
Guilds - Voluntary associations for commercial, social, and religious purposes, established during the Middle Ages
Stole, Altar - An ornament shaped as the ends of a stole and fastened to the front of the altar in the Middle Ages
Scholasticism - The method of study in the Middle Ages which was used to support the doctrines of the church through reason and logic
Oliard - ) A buffoon in the Middle Ages, who attended rich men's tables to make sport for the guests by ribald stories and songs
Martel de Fer - A weapon resembling a hammer, often having one side of the head pointed; - used by horsemen in the Middle Ages to break armor
Mawmet - ) A puppet; a doll; originally, an idol, because in the Middle Ages it was generally believed that the Mohammedans worshiped images representing Mohammed
Saracen - ) Anciently, an Arab; later, a Mussulman; in the Middle Ages, the common term among Christians in Europe for a Mohammedan hostile to the crusaders
Cordwain - ) A term used in the Middle Ages for Spanish leather (goatskin tanned and dressed), and hence, any leather handsomely finished, colored, gilded, or the like
Baudekin - ) The richest kind of stuff used in garments in the Middle Ages, the web being gold, and the woof silk, with embroidery : - made originally at Bagdad
Pointal - ) A kind of pencil or style used with the tablets of the Middle Ages
Sirvente - ) A peculiar species of poetry, for the most part devoted to moral and religious topics, and commonly satirical, - often used by the troubadours of the Middle Ages
Podesta - ) One of the chief magistrates of the Italian republics in the Middle Ages
Baphomet - Form of name Mahomet used in Middle Ages, cabalistically formed
Miniver - ) A fur esteemed in the Middle Ages as a part of costume
Birrus - ) A coarse kind of thick woolen cloth, worn by the poor in the Middle Ages; also, a woolen cap or hood worn over the shoulders or over the head
Magister - ) Master; sir; - a title of the Middle Ages, given to a person in authority, or to one having a license from a university to teach philosophy and the liberal arts
Cyclas - ) A long gown or surcoat (cut off in front), worn in the Middle Ages
Our Lady's Dowry - A name for the Blessed Virgin as its patroness, England, on account of the great devotion to her among the people in the Middle Ages, and among those who remained steadfast after the Reformation
Brigandine - It was worn in the Middle Ages
Oblati - ) A class of persons, especially in the Middle Ages, who offered themselves and their property to a monastery
Jongler - ) In the Middle Ages, a court attendant or other person who, for hire, recited or sang verses, usually of his own composition
Hobbler - ) One who by his tenure was to maintain a horse for military service; a kind of light horseman in the Middle Ages who was mounted on a hobby
Pentacle - ) A figure composed of two equilateral triangles intersecting so as to form a six-pointed star, - used in early ornamental art, and also with superstitious import by the astrologers and mystics of the Middle Ages
Chausses - ) The garment for the legs and feet and for the body below the waist, worn in Europe throughout the Middle Ages; applied also to the armor for the same parts, when fixible, as of chain mail
Xenodochium - ) In the Middle Ages, a room in a monastery for the reception and entertainment of strangers and pilgrims, and for the relief of paupers
Constable - ) A high officer in the monarchical establishments of the Middle Ages
Seneschal - ) An officer in the houses of princes and dignitaries, in the Middle Ages, who had the superintendence of feasts and domestic ceremonies; a steward
Hauberk - ) A coat of mail; especially, the long coat of mail of the European Middle Ages, as contrasted with the habergeon, which is shorter and sometimes sleeveless
Falchion - ) A broad-bladed sword, slightly curved, shorter and lighter than the ordinary sword; - used in the Middle Ages
Paraph - In the Middle Ages, this formed a sort of rude safeguard against forgery
Headpiece - ) A cap of defense; especially, an open one, as distinguished from the closed helmet of the Middle Ages
Placitum - ) A public court or assembly in the Middle Ages, over which the sovereign president when a consultation was held upon affairs of state
Minstrel - ) In the Middle Ages, one of an order of men who subsisted by the arts of poetry and music, and sang verses to the accompaniment of a harp or other instrument; in modern times, a poet; a bard; a singer and harper; a musician
Misericordia - ) A thin-bladed dagger; so called, in the Middle Ages, because used to give the death wound or "mercy" stroke to a fallen adversary
Seven Liberal Arts - (Latin: artes liberales; from liber, free) ...
Name given in the Middle Ages to those branches of knowledge which train the free man, in contrast with the artes liberales, those pursued for economic purposes. This system, which was used by the Greeks, Romans, and ancient Orientals, was developed during the Middle Ages, and continues to the present time
Ribaudequin - ) An engine of war used in the Middle Ages, consisting of a protected elevated staging on wheels, and armed in front with pikes
Rationale - (1) An Episcopal humeral, counterpart of the pallium, worn by certain German bishops in the Middle Ages, somewhat like the ephod of the Jewish high-priest
Calligraphy - (Greek: kalligraphia, beautiful handwriting) ...
The art of fine handwriting, the greatest masterpieces of which are found in manuscripts of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Hotel-Dieu - Specifically, it refers to the hospitals established throughout the West during, the Middle Ages by religious who usually followed the Rule of Saint Augustine
Corset - ) In the Middle Ages, a gown or basque of which the body was close fitting, worn by both men and women
Crannoge - They may be regarded as the very latest class of prehistoric strongholds, reaching their greatest development in early historic times, and surviving through the Middle Ages
Herring Procession - A curious festival held in the Middle Ages by the chapter of Rheims, France, at the beginning of Lent
Itineraria - Books of travel and guide books of the Middle Ages. Itineraria were among the most popular readings of the Middle Ages
Lay Confession - A custom prevalent in the Middle Ages of confessing one's sins to a lay person, when danger of death was imminent and no priest could be obtained
Candelabrum - In the Middle Ages the term was used to denote seven-branch candlesticks, e
Hermandad - Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were formed by combining towns to protect the roads and were extended to political purposes
Bentley, John Francis - He upheld the architectural principles and methods of the Middle Ages and promoted the Gothic revival in England
John Bentley - He upheld the architectural principles and methods of the Middle Ages and promoted the Gothic revival in England
Fools, Feast of - Celebration of the later Middle Ages which took place in many parts of Europe, particularly in France, and occurred near the feast of the Circumcision, January 1,
Feast of Fools - Celebration of the later Middle Ages which took place in many parts of Europe, particularly in France, and occurred near the feast of the Circumcision, January 1,
Dispersion of the Apostles, Feast of the - It was first mentioned in the 11th century and was celebrated in the northern countries of Europe during the Middle Ages
Feast of the Dispersion of the Apostles - It was first mentioned in the 11th century and was celebrated in the northern countries of Europe during the Middle Ages
Epistolary - In the Middle Ages the book was called Apostolus (Ordo Romanus, I, iii,ed
Trebucket - ) A military engine used in the Middle Ages for throwing stones, etc
Ordines Romani - Commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for liturgical functions not including prayers; directions for a single function, or for several functions, e
Romanic - ) Of or pertaining to any or all of the various languages which, during the Middle Ages, sprung out of the old Roman, or popular form of Latin, as the Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Provencal, etc
Alcala de Henares - It was destroyed in 1000, rebuilt 1083 by the Moors, and became famous in the Middle Ages for its university (see Alcala, University of)
Roman Regulations - Commonly meant, in the Middle Ages, a ritual book containing directions for liturgical functions not including prayers; directions for a single function, or for several functions, e
God, Advocate of - Advocate of the Church, lay official, in the Middle Ages, charged with the defense of Church temporalities, both in civilcourts and, in later times, in the field; he received in return part of the Church revenues
Aureole - (Latin: aurum, gold) ...
Oval or elliptical rays of light such as are at times visible about sun or moon, adopted early in the Middle Ages as symbol of the heavenly honor of the saints, and varying in significance under the forms of halo, glory, nimbus
Advocate of God - Advocate of the Church, lay official, in the Middle Ages, charged with the defense of Church temporalities, both in civilcourts and, in later times, in the field; he received in return part of the Church revenues
Children's Crusade - A pious opinion was current in Europe in the Middle Ages that the Holy Land could not be captured except by the pure of heart
Scholastic - ) Of or pertaining to the schoolmen and divines of the Middle Ages (see Schoolman); as, scholastic divinity or theology; scholastic philosophy
Erasmus, Saint - His cult was widespread in the Middle Ages
Rue - In the Middle Ages the priests used bunches of rue wherewith to sprinkle holy water, from whence Shakespeare uses the term "herb of grace" (Rich
Middle - ...
Middle Ages, the ages or period of time about equally distant from the decline of the Roman empire and the revival of letters in Europe, or from the eighth to the fifteenth century of the christian era
Rota - ) A species of zither, played like a guitar, used in the Middle Ages in church music; - written also rotta
Beth-She'Mesh - (Jeremiah 43:13 ) In the Middle Ages Heliopolis was still called by the Arabs Ain Shems
Laz'Arus - The leper of the Middle Ages appears as a lazzaro . The use of lazaretto and lazarhouse for the leper hospitals then founded in all parts of western Christendom, no less than that of lazaroni for the mendicants of Italian towns, is an indication of the effect of the parable upon the mind of Europe in the Middle Ages, and thence upon its later speech
Hairshirt - In use from the early ages of Christianity, even among lay people, it was adopted by many religious orders in the Middle Ages and worn by penitents on Ash Wednesday
Zephaniah - 1:14, 15, "The great day of Jehovah is near" (in the Latin version Dies iræ, dies illa), has furnished the basis for the sublime hymn of the Middle Ages, the Dies Iræ ascribed to Thomas a Celano, and often translated
Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Originating in the Middle Ages, this devotion was popular in old Catholic England
Osculatorium - It was used in the Middle Ages to convey the kiss of peace to the faithful, and was first brought to the altar for the celebrant to kiss at the proper place in tke Mass, then brought to each of the congregation in turn at the altar rails
Odoric of Pordenone, Blessed - For a long time doubt was expressed regarding the veracity of his travels, for he accepted so many fabulous stories, but Mandeville's plagiarisms from them were extremely popular in the Middle Ages, and were used as a manual by the geographers of that period
Douai, France - It was strongly fortified in the Middle Ages and was the seat of Douai University
Cento - (Latin: rag, patchwork) ...
Literary composition constructed by choosing passages of prose or poetry from one or more authors so as to form a whole having no connection with the original subjects, especially popular during the Middle Ages
Benedictbeurn Abbey - It became famous for scholarship and piety during the Middle Ages; was ravaged during the Thirty Years War; suppressed by the government, 1803, and used as barracks, hospitals, and stud-house
Accho - During the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and subsequently, on account of its being occupied by the Knights Hospitallers of Jerusalem, it was called St
Abbey, Benedictbeurn - It became famous for scholarship and piety during the Middle Ages; was ravaged during the Thirty Years War; suppressed by the government, 1803, and used as barracks, hospitals, and stud-house
Tablet, Peace - It was used in the Middle Ages to convey the kiss of peace to the faithful, and was first brought to the altar for the celebrant to kiss at the proper place in tke Mass, then brought to each of the congregation in turn at the altar rails
Schoolmen - It is ordinarily applied to writers on theology and philosophy who taught in the schools and universities of Western Christendom in the Middle Ages
Ludwig Von Pastor - Besides his other works he completed Monsignor Janssen's "The History of the German People to the End of the Middle Ages. The English edition, "History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages", was edited by Ralph E
Mann, Horace k - He wrote the "Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages" from Saint Gregory I (590-604) to Innocent IV (1243-1254) in fourteen volumes
Horace Mann - He wrote the "Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages" from Saint Gregory I (590-604) to Innocent IV (1243-1254) in fourteen volumes
Apothecary - In the Middle Ages, an apothecary was the keeper of any shop or warehouse and an officer appointed to take charge of a magazine
Blasphemy - ...
In the Middle Ages, blasphemy was used to denote simply the blaming or condemning of a person or thing
Albigenses - A heresy during the Middle Ages that developed in the town Albi in Southern France
Harp - , Genesis 4; 2Paralipomenon, 9; Psalms 70; Apocalypse 5; and was used by the minstrels of the Middle Ages
Epternach, Abbey of - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Liripippium - Under the Roman Empire it was separate but both styles were used during the Middle Ages
Divine Comedy, the - The poem, 100 cantos in length, written in the measure known as terza rima, is the greatest classic of the Middle Ages and gives a comprehensive picture of Catholic Italy in the 13th century
Divina Commedia, la - The poem, 100 cantos in length, written in the measure known as terza rima, is the greatest classic of the Middle Ages and gives a comprehensive picture of Catholic Italy in the 13th century
Hood - Under the Roman Empire it was separate but both styles were used during the Middle Ages
Abbey of Echternach - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Abbey of Epternach - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Romantic - ) Of or pertaining to the style of the Christian and popular literature of the Middle Ages, as opposed to the classical antique; of the nature of, or appropriate to, that style; as, the romantic school of poets
Echternach, Abbey of - Founded in 698 by Saint Willibrord, an English monk, it had many benefactors, including Pepin and Charlemagne, and during the Middle Ages it was one of the most important monasteries in northern Europe
Kyriale - At first the Kyriale formed a part of the Graduale which contains the Propers of the Mass, but after the Middle Ages we find it in a separate book called the Kyriale
Diplomatics, Papal - (Greek: diploma, an ancient writing; literally, paper twice folded) ...
The science of ancient official documents; it arose during the Middle Ages in the necessity for safeguarding from forgery papal Bulls and other instruments
Obedientiaries - A term in the Middle Ages denoting the lesser monastic officials appointed by the superior more or less permanently, and possessing extensive powers in their own departments
Guilds, Religious - These existed in Europe before the rising merchant guilds secured their liberation from the feudal lords, and continued throughout the Middle Ages
Harrowing of Hell - , Bede, and translated into English in the Middle Ages
Hell, Harrowing of - , Bede, and translated into English in the Middle Ages
Eginhard - His Life of Charlemagne is the best biography of the Middle Ages
Einhard - His Life of Charlemagne is the best biography of the Middle Ages
Religious Guilds - These existed in Europe before the rising merchant guilds secured their liberation from the feudal lords, and continued throughout the Middle Ages
Atrium - The name was extended in the Middle Ages to the open churchyard or cemetery
Patmos - In the Middle Ages called Palmosa from its palms; now there is but one, and the island has resumed its old name Patmo or Patino
Mace - ) A heavy staff or club of metal; a spiked club; - used as weapon in war before the general use of firearms, especially in the Middle Ages, for breaking metal armor
Patmos - In the Middle Ages its palms gained for it the title of Palmosa, but it is no longer fertile
Palms, Blessed - Their use originated in the "miracle plays" of the early Middle Ages, and they are mentioned by the Venerable Bede, c700 The most suitable palm is the Oriental date-palm, when procurable
Dark Ages - Name once commonly but erroneously applied to the Middle Ages, chiefly by writers and others who sought to create the impression that during those ages, from about 500 to 1500, the Ages of Faith, as they were also called, there was little or no progress in any field of life, government, social organization, craftsmanship, art, learning, or even in religion
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - Her cult was very popular in the Middle Ages and she is numbered among the Fourteen Holy Helpers
Memento Rerum Conditor - Name once commonly but erroneously applied to the Middle Ages, chiefly by writers and others who sought to create the impression that during those ages, from about 500 to 1500, the Ages of Faith, as they were also called, there was little or no progress in any field of life, government, social organization, craftsmanship, art, learning, or even in religion
Alexandria, Catherine of, Saint - Her cult was very popular in the Middle Ages and she is numbered among the Fourteen Holy Helpers
Aceldama - It was believed in the Middle Ages that the soil of this place had the power of rapidly consuming bodies buried in it, and in consequence of this, or of the sanctity of the spot, great quantities of the earth were taken away
Necromancy - During the Middle Ages it was condemned by the Church; theologians held that necromancy is due to the agency of evil spirits, because the means taken are inadequate to produce the expected results
Lauds - From the early Middle Ages the word Laudes (Lauds) was used in its present sense
Hubert, Saint - He wall widely venerated in the Middle Ages and many military orders were named after him
Miracle Plays - Terms designating the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages
Gath - Its site has been identified with the hill called Tell esSafieh, the Alba Specula of the Middle Ages, which rises 695 feet above the plain on its east edge
Mystery Plays - Terms designating the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages
Dragon - A kind of winged serpent, much celebrated in the romances of the Middle Ages
Hours, Book of - Name of a liturgical book, used during the Middle Ages, containing prayers, psalms, antiphons, responsories, hymns, lessons, versicles, and little chapters to be recited at the canonical hours
Pall - ) A kind of rich stuff used for garments in the Middle Ages
Giles, Saint - The cult of Saint Giles spread throughout Europe in the Middle Ages, and numberless churches and monasteries have been dedicated to him
Herald - ) In the Middle Ages, the officer charged with the above duties, and also with the care of genealogies, of the rights and privileges of noble families, and especially of armorial bearings
Simony - It was common during the Middle Ages, but especially in the 9th and 10th centuries, and was one of the remote but powerful causes of the Protestant revolt in the 10th century
Bestiaries - Widely popular in the Middle Ages, they were important rather for their symbolism than for their negligible zoological interest
Bestiary - Widely popular in the Middle Ages, they were important rather for their symbolism than for their negligible zoological interest
Flavian Amphitheater - During the Middle Ages the Coliseum was used for a time as a stronghold by the Frangipani, and later came into the possession of the municipality of Rome
John, Prester - The fabulous wealth of this head of a supposed Christian kingdom in the Far East furnished abundant material for writers of the Middle Ages, e
Dante Alighieri - It is the last book of the Middle Ages, epitomizes the knowledge and attainments of the preceding centuries, and gives a picture of Catholicism in 13th-century Italy
Onycha - The operculum or "cover" of the strombus or "wing shell", which abounds in the Red Sea, is employed in compounding perfume, and was the medicine named blatta Βyzantina or unguis odoratus in the Middle Ages
Amphitheater, Flavian - During the Middle Ages the Coliseum was used for a time as a stronghold by the Frangipani, and later came into the possession of the municipality of Rome
Alighieri, Dante - It is the last book of the Middle Ages, epitomizes the knowledge and attainments of the preceding centuries, and gives a picture of Catholicism in 13th-century Italy
Ecclesiastical Embroidery - At the close of the Middle Ages raised embroidery was substituted for the flat stitch and the art degenerated
Embroidery, Ecclesiastical - At the close of the Middle Ages raised embroidery was substituted for the flat stitch and the art degenerated
University of Paris - The University took an active part in public affairs during the Middle Ages and was the champion of orthodox Catholicity
Middle Ages - Centuries between ancient and modern times, according to some from the downfall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, from the 5th to the 15th century, others preferring to call the first six centuries of this period Dark Ages, and limiting the Middle Ages proper to four. Brown proves in "The Achievement of the Middle Ages"; or, as shown in "The Legacy of the Middle Ages," in preparing for the modern age a legacy of Christian life, art in all its forms, particularly architecture, literature, philosophy, education, law growing out of sacred customs, civiland Roman law also, the dignification of womanhood, economit activity and political thought, organization of government, peace, union of Christendom
Ages, Middle - Centuries between ancient and modern times, according to some from the downfall of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance, from the 5th to the 15th century, others preferring to call the first six centuries of this period Dark Ages, and limiting the Middle Ages proper to four. Brown proves in "The Achievement of the Middle Ages"; or, as shown in "The Legacy of the Middle Ages," in preparing for the modern age a legacy of Christian life, art in all its forms, particularly architecture, literature, philosophy, education, law growing out of sacred customs, civiland Roman law also, the dignification of womanhood, economit activity and political thought, organization of government, peace, union of Christendom
Nicopolis, - It was destroyed by the Goths, and, though restored by Justinian, it was supplanted in the Middle Ages by Prevesa, which grew up a little farther south
Unicorn - Probably it was the now extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), a long-horned and powerful ox, which existed in the forests of Europe nearly, or quite, until the Middle Ages
Santa, Scala - They are supposed to have been brought from Jerusalem to Rome by Saint Helena, c326 In the Middle Ages they were known as Scala Pilati, the Stairs of Pilate
Scala Santa - They are supposed to have been brought from Jerusalem to Rome by Saint Helena, c326 In the Middle Ages they were known as Scala Pilati, the Stairs of Pilate
Lydda - The ruins of a stately church of the Middle Ages, called the church of St
Droit de Regale - (French: law of royal prerogative) ...
A right claimed, during the Middle Ages, by many sovereigns in France, England, and Germany, to collect the revenues of vacant episcopal sees (Temporal Regale), and to appoint nominees to the benefices, even, at least in France, to those to which the care of souls was attached (Spiritual Regale)
Montes Pietatis - The institution was founded to combat the usurious exactions of the Jewish money lenders and Lombard travelling bankers of the Middle Ages, and the first mons pietatis was established in Perugia, 1462, through the instrumentality of the Franciscans, Michele Carcano of Milan, and Barnabò da Terni and Fortunato Coppoli of Perugia
Chancery, Apostolic - The chancery was of considerable importance during the Middle Ages but after the Reformation as the era of congregatipns or permanent commissions began it became in fact what Pius X made it in law, a standing committee on drafting and engrossing papal Bulls and constitutions
Muratori, Luigi Antonio - Antiquitates italicae medii revi (Italian antiquities of the Middle Ages), Milan, 1738-1742, contained, in its third volume, the Muratori an Canon
Luigi Muratori - Antiquitates italicae medii revi (Italian antiquities of the Middle Ages), Milan, 1738-1742, contained, in its third volume, the Muratori an Canon
Lod, Lydda - In the Middle Ages it was the seat of a bishopric
Apostolic Chancery - The chancery was of considerable importance during the Middle Ages but after the Reformation as the era of congregatipns or permanent commissions began it became in fact what Pius X made it in law, a standing committee on drafting and engrossing papal Bulls and constitutions
Walter Scott, Sir - Newman said that Scott turned men's minds in the direction of the Middle Ages, and Keble paid tribute to his genius in influencing men's minds to nobler ideals, and wished he had become the poet of the Church
Scott, Sir Walter - Newman said that Scott turned men's minds in the direction of the Middle Ages, and Keble paid tribute to his genius in influencing men's minds to nobler ideals, and wished he had become the poet of the Church
Pestilence - It may point to the glandular or bubonic plague, well known and universally dreaded by the ancients, and the great scourge of the world in the Middle Ages
Medals, Religious - In the Middle Ages, when pilgrimages were made to famous shrines, medals or "tokens" were often given to the pilgrims; and c
Ashkelon - It became a noted place in the Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a bloody battle between the Saracens and the Crusaders
Tirzah (2) - In the Middle Ages Brocardus mentions a Thersa on a height three leagues E
Homines, Boni - Name of several religious orders of the Middle Ages
Scholasticism - The word Scholastic was inherited from ancient Greece and Rome, and in the Middle Ages was used to designate anyone belonging to the schools, i
Religious Medals - In the Middle Ages, when pilgrimages were made to famous shrines, medals or "tokens" were often given to the pilgrims; and c
Flagellants - These, however, were under ecclesiastical authority and are not to be confused with the heretical outbursts of the Middle Ages
Oblates, Orders of - During the Middle Ages the title oblate was granted to anyone who, for his generosity or special service to the monastery, received the privilege of lay membership with a share in the prayers and good works of the brethren
Orders of Oblates - During the Middle Ages the title oblate was granted to anyone who, for his generosity or special service to the monastery, received the privilege of lay membership with a share in the prayers and good works of the brethren
Francis Gasquet - He is the chief Catholic historian of the English Reformation, of English monastic life, and of the ecclesiastical history of the Middle Ages in England
Truce of God - A scheme set on foot for the purpose of quelling the violence and preventing the frequency of private wars, occasioned by the fierce spirit of the barbarians in the Middle Ages
Gasquet, Francis Aidan - He is the chief Catholic historian of the English Reformation, of English monastic life, and of the ecclesiastical history of the Middle Ages in England
Orders of Knighthood - Certain regular and secular confraternities which arose during the Middle Ages
Myra - Myra retained its importance into the Middle Ages
Yhwh - In the Middle Ages Jewish scholars developed a system of symbols placed under and beside the onsonants to indicate the vowels
Robert Grosseteste - 1175-1253) Bishop of Lincoln, 1235, one of the greatest scholars of the Middle Ages
Seal - During the early Middle Ages lead seals, or "bulls" were used, but except in the case of the papal chancery, it became the universal practise to take the impressions in wax
Deposing Power, Papal - The peculiar conditions reigning in the Middle Ages explain why the popes at times deposed civilrulers. In the Middle Ages all Christians constituted one family with the pope as tile common spiritual head, who was likewise recognized as the common father of Christendom by the political constitutions of the time
Ostensorium - Ostensoria of remarkable beauty and value were wrought by the goldsmiths of the Middle Ages, and numerous fine examples have been made in our time
Monstrance - Ostensoria of remarkable beauty and value were wrought by the goldsmiths of the Middle Ages, and numerous fine examples have been made in our time
Cathari - (Greek: katharos, pure) ...
A name specifically applied to, or used by, several sects at various periods; the Novatians and the Manichaeans were frequently known as Cathari, but in its more usual sense Cathari was a general designation for the dualistic sects of the later Middle Ages
Kenites - ” Some scholars think the traveling blacksmiths of the Middle Ages resembled the Kenites
Aachen, Germany, City of - These were occasions of pilgrimages in the Middle Ages
Aix-la-Chapelle - These were occasions of pilgrimages in the Middle Ages
Guelphs And Ghibellines - Two political factions which kept Italy divided during the later Middle Ages
School - ) One of the seminaries for teaching logic, metaphysics, and theology, which were formed in the Middle Ages, and which were characterized by academical disputations and subtilties of reasoning
School - ) One of the seminaries for teaching logic, metaphysics, and theology, which were formed in the Middle Ages, and which were characterized by academical disputations and subtilties of reasoning
Revive - Learning revived in Europe after the Middle Ages
Ghibellines, Guelphs And - Two political factions which kept Italy divided during the later Middle Ages
Maurus, Saint, Founder of Glanfeuil Monastery - , was in the Middle Ages one of great influence, and the "Congregation of St
Olive Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Flower Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Fig Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Palm Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Magog - ) The Syrians in the Middle Ages applied Magog as a geographical term to Asiatic Turkey; the Arabians applied it to the region between the Caspian and Euxine
Diet - In the Middle Ages, this word was used to denote the provision or food for one day, and for a journey of one day
Sunday, Blossom - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Branch - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Fig - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Flower - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Olive - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Palm - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Sallow - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Willow - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sunday, Yew - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Sallow Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Yew Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Willow Sunday - However, in the Middle Ages it was quite common everywhere
Letter, Papal - The early popes insisted that rescripts issued for individual cases should be observed in analogous ones, an example followed by the popes of the Middle Ages, a period during which the number of papal letters increased enormously
Christendom - The subsequent ideal of the Middle Ages was influenced by the "De Civitate Dei" (The City of God) of Saint Augustine
Cardinal - Until the Middle Ages the title of cardinal was granted to the prominent clergy of important churches, e
Crete - In the Middle Ages the cathedral of Megalocastron was dedicated to Titus
Chrysippus, Guardian of the Holy Cross - This is a very early example of the dreams indicating the position of valuable relics which we meet with so frequently in the Middle Ages, by which the failing fortunes of a religious house were revived, or the rival attractions of another establishment emulated (Cyrill
Epiphanius Scholasticus - He apparently bore the name Scholasticus, not so much because of any devotion to literature or theology, but in the sense that word frequently had in the Middle Ages, meaning a chaplain, amanuensis, or general assistant of any dignitary of the church (Du Cange, Glossarium , s
Nicolaus, Bishop of Myra - His relics were translated in the Middle Ages to Barri in Italy, whence he is often styled Nicolaus of Barri
History, Church - ...
The Middle Ages (692-1517), from the Council in Trullo to the beginning of the Protestant Revolt. The historians of the Middle Ages paid little heed to general church history. With them church history served the purpose of edification rather than of truth, and it was only with the appearance of humanism in the later Middle Ages that historical criticism came into honor
Of - ) Denoting relation to place or time; belonging to, or connected with; as, men of Athens; the people of the Middle Ages; in the days of Herod
Christmas - The name, a contraction of the term “Christ's mass,” did not come into use until the Middle Ages
Sign of the Cross - The triple sign of the cross was common in the Middle Ages, but is not now generally used except at the beginning of the Gospels at Mass
Doctors of the Church - Unlike the titles of Doctor subtilis; Doctor resolutissimus; Doctor irrefragabilis, which enthusiastic scholars of the Middle Ages bestowed on renowned professors, this title is official
Schoolmen - ...
The nature of particular and universal ideas, time, space, infinity, together with the mode of existence to be ascribed to the Supreme Being, chiefly engaged the attention of the mightiest minds in the Middle Ages
Alsace-Lorraine - In the Middle Ages the country was divided into many principalities, which formed part of the Holy Roman Empire
Fret - ) The reticulated headdress or net, made of gold or silver wire, in which ladies in the Middle Ages confined their hair
Scapular - In the Middle Ages, lay persons were often permitted to become "oblates" of these orders, that is, they assisted frequently at the monastic services and had a share in the merits of the order; they were allowed to wear the scapular, which, after a time, was made smaller and was worn under the clothing
Merlinus - The prophecies of Merlin, which had great influence in the Middle Ages, represented the enduring hate of the Welsh for the English conquerors, and were probably the composition of Merddin, son of Morvryn, whose patron, Gwenddolew, a prince in Strathclyde, and an upholder of the ancient faith, perished a
Astrology - During the Middle Ages, owing to Jewish scholars, astrology became important again and numbered emperors and popes among its votaries, including the Emperors Charles IV and V and Popes Sixtus IV, Julius II, Leo X, and Paul III
Roman Rite - During the Middle Ages the Roman Rite branched out into a great number of other rites, differing only in unimportant details
Rite, Roman - During the Middle Ages the Roman Rite branched out into a great number of other rites, differing only in unimportant details
Church Year - By the fifth century, the basic elements of the church calendar were firmly established, although modifications continued to be made throughout the Middle Ages and the Reformation
Myra - Myra was still an important city in the Middle Ages, being known as the portus Adriatici maris when ‘the Adriatic’ included the whole Levant
Economics - ...
From the time of the Apostles this application has been a subject of thought and of regulation among the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, the great Schoolmen of the Middle Ages, popes, bishops, and lay as well as clerical leaders in social reform and advancement. ...
The principle of private ownership is a concept of the Middle Ages, derived from a study of the Law of Nations, which gradually came to be re- garded as the Law of Nature
Gallicanism - Political Gallicanism is traceable to the Byzantine emperors who interfered constantly in ecclesiastical affairs, to the German emperors of the Middle Ages and their neo-Cresarism, and to Philip the Fair of France and his struggle with Boniface VIII
Martinus, Bishop of Dumium - ), or de Quatuor Virtutibus Cardinalibus — a little tract extremely popular in the Middle Ages, and frequently printed during the 15th and 16th cents. 468, where he describes the Formula as more frequently read and quoted in the Middle Ages than any of the genuine works of Seneca, to whom it was ascribed in early editions. The chief are (a ) the Capitula Martini , a collection of 84 canons, which had great vogue and influence in the Middle Ages
Libraries - The Benedictine monks especially were the collectors, translators, and book-makers of the early Middle Ages
Chiliasm - Augustine may be said to have given the death-blow to the chiliastic expectation in the early Church by his identification of the Church with the Kingdom of God on earth; and throughout the Middle Ages his view obtained
Gallus (11), Abbat, the Apostle of Switzerland - Gall gave rise to one of the most celebrated monasteries of the Middle Ages, and its library to this day stands unrivalled in the wealth and variety of its ancient manuscripts
Language in Liturgy - The universality of Latin in the West is due to the fact that Latin was the only language of culture until far into the Middle Ages
Liturgy, Language in - The universality of Latin in the West is due to the fact that Latin was the only language of culture until far into the Middle Ages
Bibles, Chained - The myth, that Bibles in the Middle Ages were chained in order to prevent people from reading them, arose in Germany in the 18th century, and was given its present currency principally through M
Chained Bibles - The myth, that Bibles in the Middle Ages were chained in order to prevent people from reading them, arose in Germany in the 18th century, and was given its present currency principally through M
Architecture, Gothic - The word "Gothic," implying the extreme of barbarism, was a contemptuous and inaccurate term used by the Italians of the Renaissance to describe the architecture, Frankish-Norman in origin, of the Middle Ages
Gothic Architecture - The word "Gothic," implying the extreme of barbarism, was a contemptuous and inaccurate term used by the Italians of the Renaissance to describe the architecture, Frankish-Norman in origin, of the Middle Ages
Plague - deadly disease; so "the black death" of the Middle Ages
Joannes, the Faster, Bishop of Constantinople - The Greeks of the Middle Ages always attributed this and (2) to John the Faster
Charlemagne - Charlemagne is the hero of a cycle of romance in the Middle Ages
Charles the Great - Charlemagne is the hero of a cycle of romance in the Middle Ages
School - The seminaries for teaching logic, metaphysics and theology, which were formed in the Middle Ages, and which were characterized by academical disputations and subtilties of reasoning or the learned men who were engaged in discussing nice points in metaphysics or theology
Nazareth - The 'brow of the hill', site of the attempted precipitation, is probably the northern cliff: the traditional site has been shown since the Middle Ages at some distance to the south
Excommunication - ...
In Church History During the Middle Ages, when church and state became intertwined, excommunication was often used as a political tool
Rhodes - Rhodes acquired a new fame in the Middle Ages as the home, for two centuries, of the Knights of St
Tree (2) - ...
Literature—Reference may be made to ‘The Legend of the Cross’ in Baring-Gould’s Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, and to Farrar’s Christ in Art, p
Bethlehem - That structure forms the basic unit that is still in use today although many modifications have occurred, especially during the Middle Ages
Renaissance - (Latin: re-, again; nasci, to be born) ...
A comprehensive term used to designate a movement to revive the art and learning of classical antiquity, which became identified with the period of transition from the Middle Ages to modern times
Torch - The use of the former is attested for Arabs in the Middle Ages by a statement to which Lightfoot called attention (Works, ed
Melita - As it is scarcely likely that the spot was identified by special investigations in the Middle Ages, this is a remarkable instance of the permanence and correctness of some early traditions
Ashtaroth - , on the Bashan plateau, stands Tell (‘hill’) ‘Ashtarâ , whose strategical value, as shown by the ruins, was recognized in the Middle Ages
Romania - Several Catholic dioceses were erected in the Middle Ages
Rumania - Several Catholic dioceses were erected in the Middle Ages
Bible, History of Interpretation - ...
In the Middle Ages (500-1500), Origen's allegorical approach to the interpretation of Scripture was the accepted pattern. Indeed, Middle Ages interpreters expanded on Origen's two meanings and found anywhere from four to seven different levels or types of meanings
Order of Saint Benedict - England, Germany, and other parts of the continent saw the rise of many convents, rivaling in number the abbeys of the monks in the Middle Ages
Benedictine Order - England, Germany, and other parts of the continent saw the rise of many convents, rivaling in number the abbeys of the monks in the Middle Ages
Benedictines - England, Germany, and other parts of the continent saw the rise of many convents, rivaling in number the abbeys of the monks in the Middle Ages
Alpha And Omega - 300-500, they decline in number and importance during the early Middle Ages, and are rare, at least in the West, after the 7th and 8th centuries
Nicopolis - After falling into decay, the city was restored by Julian; and Justinian repaired the havoc wrought by the Goths; but in the Middle Ages it was supplanted by Prevesa, three miles to the south
Patmos - , are found the remains of an ancient Hellenic town, which prove that the island was once populous; and the name of ‘Palmosa,’ which it bore in the Middle Ages, points to another time of prosperity; but Turkish rule has had its usual blighting effect
Ninian, British Missionary Bsp - 4) says he was buried in his church at Candida Casa, which in the Middle Ages became much frequented by pilgrims
Archaeology, Christian - ...
Franz Xaver Kraus (1840-1901) Priest and professor, began his literary career with small works on the history of early Christian literature in the first centuries and in the Middle Ages and was led on to the study of Christian archreology in general and then to Christian art in all its aspects; in this field of research he accomplished valuable work, and published meritorious volumes of description and criticism
Christian Archaeology - ...
Franz Xaver Kraus (1840-1901) Priest and professor, began his literary career with small works on the history of early Christian literature in the first centuries and in the Middle Ages and was led on to the study of Christian archreology in general and then to Christian art in all its aspects; in this field of research he accomplished valuable work, and published meritorious volumes of description and criticism
Catharine, Martyr of Alexandria - In Europe during the Middle Ages her name was held in great reverence
Education - It was the chief educational agency during the Middle Ages, and the home and the State cooperated with it in this function
Olives, Mount of - " The presence of a number of churches and other edifices must have rendered the Mount of Olives, during the early and Middle Ages of Christianity, entirely unlike what it was in the time of the Jewish kingdom or of our Lord
Christ in Art - The Dove, at first used as an emblem of peace, sometimes with an olive branch in its mouth (though it occurs in pictures of the Baptism of Christ in the Catacombs), was the recognized symbol of the Holy Spirit in the apsidal mosaics of the 4th and 5th centuries, and thus has continued ever since: the Lamb, the Hand of God, and the Cross (see below), found in connexion with the Dove in these mosaics, also continued as common symbols in the Middle Ages, when interlaced triangles and circles further represented the Trinity. In the Middle Ages, when great emphasis was laid upon the Eucharistic sacrifice, symbols of the Passion were much in vogue, in addition to the Vine and Corn, the Chalice and the Host. ...
The contraction IHC, as subsequently Latinized, into IHS, is now called the Sacred Monogram par excellence, and is as popular as it was in the Middle Ages and in the 17th and 18th centuries, when it was almost the only symbol of the kind; this was owing mainly to its being misunderstood as the initials of ‘Jesus Hominum Salvator’ (or even of ‘In Hoc Signo’); in mediaeval times the confusion may not have arisen, in spite of the ambiguity of the Greek H Ambrosiaster, or Pseudo-Ambrosius - ...
It was the generally received opinion in the Middle Ages that our author was Ambrose bp
France - The French royal house remained in closest union with the papacy throughout the Middle Ages, and devotion to the Church earned for the rulers of France, of whom the most illustrious was Saint Louis, the title of Most Christian Majesty, retained until the Revolution in the 18th century
Zidon - While the oldest existing buildings date from the Middle Ages, there are many remains of great antiquity, traces of walls, hewn stones, pillars, coins, and the reservoirs cut out of the rock
Treasure - It was this interpretation that formed the chief justification for the monkish asceticism of the Middle Ages
Sermon on the Mount - During the Roman Catholic church's history in the Middle Ages, only those living within the monastery were held responsible for keeping the ethics of the sermon; everyone else was bound only to keep the Ten Commandments
Boethius, Anicus Manlius Severinus - ) That although the tradition was current in the Middle Ages, from Paulus Diaconus (8th cent. It remains for us briefly to notice the most authentic facts of the philosopher's life, and to inquire how far his thoughts were coloured by the contemporaneous influence of Christianity, or exercised an influence in their turn upon the religious thought of the Middle Ages
Sedulius, 5th-Cent. Poet - ), and frequently quoted and imitated by the writers of the Middle Ages
Magi - ); and this was the common opinion even in the Middle Ages (Abelard, in Epiph. 3); and it prevailed universally during the Middle Ages (cf. In the Middle Ages the Magi were considered the patron saints of travellers, and inns were called after them
Ordination - (we need not stop to inquire whether these words were addressed to the Ten or to a larger number of disciples) our Lord is said to have ‘breathed’ on those present, whereas the apostles and those who came after them used, without any known exception, laying on of hands as an outward sign, and to have pronounced a declaratory and imperative formula, whereas the disciples always (till the Middle Ages) used by way of ‘form’ a prayer only. In the Middle Ages, in the West, this kind of outward sign almost overshadowed the imposition of hands, especially in the case of the chalice and paten given to one ordained to the presbyterate. The introduction in the West, in the Middle Ages, of the declaratory form, in addition to (not instead of) the ordination prayer, was very probably due to a desire to follow our Lord’s example exactly
Phylacteries, Frontlets - In the Middle Ages they seem to have fallen from the absurdly exaggerated esteem in which they were held in Talmudic times
Parents (2) - 27; Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, which goes back to earlier days; Joseph, Judaism as Creed and Life; Maurice, Social Morality; J
Joram - Thus at Damieh, of which we shall speak below, and where we find the half-ruined arches of a bridge of the Middle Ages, the Jordan actually no longer passes under the bridge, but at some distance from it. The lion, which abounded in ancient times, and continued to be encountered even in the Middle Ages, has completely disappeared. A little to the north of Beisan there is a bridge, which dates from the Middle Ages, the Jisr el-Mujamieh, on the way—an ancient Roman road—leading from the plain of Jezreel to Gadara and Damascus
Bible, Methods of Study - The “historical and literal sense” became predominant, not only since the time of the Protestant Reformation, but even before, despite the many attempts in the Middle Ages to detect “deeper” meanings in the text (about doctrine, ethics, and eschatology)
Surname - In Europe surnames became common in the Middle Ages, first of all among the land-owning nobles. 2 [19] Philip ἀπὸ Βηθσαιδά,20 [21] Mary the mother of Mark , 9 Essenes - This is a sufficient proof that although the Essenes might possess a certain inward religious life, and a certain practical piety, yet that these qualities with them, as well as with many other mystical sects, as for example, those of the Middle Ages, were connected with a theosophy, which desired to know things hidden from human reason, εμβατευειν εις α τις μη εωρακεν , and therefore lost itself in idle imaginations and dreams, and were also mixed up with an outward asceticism, a proud spirit of separation from the rest of mankind, and superstitious observances and demeanours totally at variance with the true spirit of inward religion
Christ in the Middle Ages - CHRIST IN THE Middle Ages. —The Christology of the Middle Ages was, of course, the outgrowth of that of the earlier time, and each medileval type can readily be traced to its source. reduced to system the net results of the Christological controversies of the three preceding centuries, continued to be normative during the Middle Ages, and little independent theorizing seems to have found place
Art - ]'>[4] of books of the Bible; it was not decorative like that of the Middle Ages; the miniatures were separated from the text, and were devoted to giving pictures of the Scripture events described, much as in present-day book illustration. Passages like this are beside the mark; the art of the Middle Ages was full-blooded enough, and was admirable even in its rude beginnings, when it had not learnt the most difficult of lessons—the representation of the human form. In architecture and the kindred arts the Middle Ages brought a new revelation of beauty into the world,—an art that stands alone, not only for its lofty spirituality and technical excellence, but also for its homely democratic humanity
Christ in the Seventeenth Century - Its theologians held fast to the principle of the Middle Ages, that finite human nature is not capax infiniti; but they applied it, as the Middle Ages had failed to do, to set in stronger relief the reality of Christ’s human life
Imitation - Of course, historical knowledge and Christian insight—but the Middle Ages were weak in both—see differences as well as similarities
Clovis, King of Salian Franks - Hallam, Middle Ages , vol
Apocrypha - Nonetheless, some of these books were widely used by Christians throughout the Middle Ages and have left their mark on the church
Samaria - In the Middle Ages there were colonies of them in Nâblus, Caesarea, Damascus, and Cairo
Ransom (2) - This theory, connected in the early Church with Origen and Gregory of Nyssa (though Origen, at least, frequently expresses himself in a quite contrary sense), prevailed extensively in the Middle Ages, but never really stood alone, or gained ascendency over the abler minds
Pilgrimage - Pilgrimages began to be made about the Middle Ages of the church, but they were most in vogue after the end of the eleventh century, when every one was for visiting places of devotion, not excepting kings and princes; and even bishops made no difficulty of being absent from their churches on the same account
Plagues, the Ten, - (Exodus 7:16-25 ) Those who have endeavored to explain this plague by natural causes have referred to the changes of color to which the Nile is subject, the appearance of the Red Sea, and the so called rain and dew of blood of the Middle Ages; the last two occasioned by small fungi of very rapid growth
Hospitality - ‘Whoever,’ says the Prophet, ‘believes in God and the day of resurrection must respect his guest; and the time of being kind to him is one day and one night; and the period of entertaining him is three days; and if after that he does it longer, he benefits him more: but it is not right for the guest to stay in the house of his host so long as to incommode him’ (Lane, Arabian Society in the Middle Ages , 143)
Lord - Rather in the Middle Ages readers of the Hebrew Bible began pronouncing precisely what was written, the mixture of consonants from Yahweh and vowels from adonai , producing the pronunciation of Jehovah, a word that never existed for speakers of classic Hebrew
Emmaus - Luke became so strong, so irresistible, that it led to a curious result: in the Middle Ages, at the time of the Crusaders and afterwards, the memory of Emmaus-Nicopolis having been lost, the Emmaus of St
Adam - Passages adduced to support it belong to the Middle Ages, and are influenced by the Kabbala
Adam - Passages adduced to support it belong to the Middle Ages, and are influenced by the Kabbala
Galilee (2) - Especially was this the case on the great high-road, the ‘Way of the Sea,’ as it was called in the Middle Ages (from an interpretation of Isaiah 9:1), which crossed the middle of Lower Galilee
Hilarius Arelatensis, Saint, Bishop of Arles - Practically the acts of Leo do not appear to have affected his position (see Hallam, Middle Ages , vol
Prudentius, Marcus (?) Aurelius Clemens Prudentius - In the Middle Ages the Psychomachia and the Cathemerinon were special favourites, and the MSS
Vulgate - ]'>[9] in the Middle Ages is principally concerned. Gall before 842, the original form of the Glossa Ordinaria , the standard commentary on the Bible in the Middle Ages
Christ in Jewish Literature - Instances are to be found in which leaders of Jewish thought in the Middle Ages have made reference to Christ in the language of civil courtesy, or even of appreciation. —There are to be distinguished a popular and a serious treatment of the subject by Jewish writers in the Middle Ages
Christ in Reformation Theology - —It is commonly said that the whole Christian Church has taken its doctrine of the Person of Christ from the Eastern Church, and simply adopted the definitions formulated at the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Chalcedon; and further, that at the Reformation the Reformers contented themselves with brushing away the meaningless refinements of the Scholastic divines of the Middle Ages, and accepted without change the conclusions come to in the Councils of the undivided Church. Even the ‘Brethren’ who, all through the Middle Ages, pointedly ignored the ecclesiastical system and obstinately put to all who tried to force doctrines upon them the question, ‘Where did Christ teach that?’ were strangely without any impulse to state a theology of their own
Galilee - Six miles north of the lake, the river is crossed by the ‘Bridge of the daughters of Jacob,’ on the famous Via Maris of the Middle Ages, the principal thoroughfare between Damascus and the Mediterranean ports
Temple - Throughout the Middle Ages it influenced to a considerable degree the forms of Christian churches, and its peculiarities were the watchwords and rallying-points of all associations of builders
Presence (2) - ...
The Docetic views of Christ’s Person, however, which throughout the Middle Ages invested Him with apocalyptic splendours at the cost of all human sympathies, called for still other means of allaying the hunger of the religious imagination
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - 403) and other popes; and in the Middle Ages was accepted without doubt as his
Dress (2) - In the Middle Ages, in consequence of the persecution which the Jews then underwent on account of their religious customs, the habit of wearing the tallîth in public had to be given up; but as the Jews view the wearing of the fringes as a religious duty (Deuteronomy 22:12, Numbers 15:38), they made a special under-garment to carry them
Leprosy - In the Middle Ages many persons affected with syphilis were put in the lazar hospitals of Northern Europe through the mistaken idea that they were lepers
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - It was most complete in Asia Minor, which in the Middle Ages became the home of Byzantine-Greek culture
Bethlehem - 72), ‘the Jew is even more a stranger than in any other spot of his own land; and during the Middle Ages neither Crusader nor Saracen suffered him to settle there
Fall (2) - But the other view with regard to the Incarnation, maintained by the Scotists in the Middle Ages and by other distinguished thinkers, has of late gained fresh currency, especially in connexion with modern evolutionary philosophy
Absolution - ...
In the Middle Ages there were many discussions as to whether the priest had power simply to declare the forgiveness of sins, God alone having power to forgive, or whether the priest truly himself exercises a power to forgive as representative of God
Perseverance - ...
The Augustinian positions continued throughout the Middle Ages to agitate, in the way of action and reaction, the thought of theologians
Lust - ...
During the Middle Ages and in Aquinas concupiscence was identified with man’s sensuous nature
Lunatic - The conception has vitiated human thought from early Semitic times, in the NT age, through the Middle Ages down to the present, when it is even yet strangely persistent
Novatianus And Novatianism - 119) may be a point of contact between the Novatianists of primitive times and the Waldenses and Albigenses of the Middle Ages
Judges (1) - So ingrained is this custom, that even as late as the Middle Ages we find it still in vogue in Europe, the ‘Troubadours’ being the counterpart of the singers of far earlier ages
Manuscripts - The archetype appears to have been in Calabria or Sicily in the Middle Ages
Colossians, Epistle to the - ) mentions this work, ‘legunt quidam et ad Laodicenses, sed ab omnibus exploditur,’ and, despite his condemnation, it was widely read throughout the Middle Ages
Boyhood - * Apocalyptic Literature - It appears to have been neglected, however, through the Middle Ages, and lost until 1773, when two MS copies of an Ethiopic version of it were brought from Abyssinia by J
Palesti'na - ...
The name most frequently used throughout the Middle Ages, and down to our own time, is Terra Sancta --the Holy Land
Ignatius - These Epistles are usually regarded as forgeries of Latin provenance and of the Middle Ages
Samaria, Samaritans - It is to be remarked, however, that Arabic writers in the Middle Ages tell us of Samaritan sects professing the distinctive beliefs of both Pharisees and Sadducees, so that the opinions of both parties must have been held by individuals at an earlier date
Education - Arithmetic, geometry, astronomy belonged to the programme of secondary education, and from Plato and Aristotle there have come down to us the seven liberal arts-the trivium and the quadrivium of the Middle Ages
Josephus - 13), and honoured as such throughout the Middle Ages
Gospels (Apocryphal) - ), and was highly esteemed by that Father himself; while the vitality of the Gospel of Peter is evidenced by the fact that a large portion of it was placed in the grave of a monk in the early Middle Ages (8th–12th cent
Socialism - Here again the modern social-democrat touches hands with Christian principles that were practiced throughout the Middle Ages and summed up by St
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - Its influence declined in the next century and throughout the earlier and later Middle Ages
Augustine - or, as he is sometimes called in the court style of the Middle Ages, ST
Possession - _ They were more or less connected with the priests and prophets, and were probably more akin to the ‘leech’ of the Middle Ages than to the scientifically trained physician of to-day
Text of the New Testament - MSS of the late Middle Ages, but no more
Rome - Piers at the sides, having been seriously injured in the course of repeated misuse of the building in the Middle Ages, were skilfully renewed in 1821
Archaeology And Biblical Study - This moved knowledge of Hebrew manuscripts back from the Middle Ages to the period 250 B
Palestine - The cosmography of the Middle Ages took this as serious science, Jerusalem being the antipodes of the island of Purgatory at the other pole
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Ambrose, the work of Theodore passed from Africa into the monastic libraries of the West, was copied into the compilations of Rabanus Maurus and others, and in its fuller and its abridged form supplied the Middle Ages with an accepted interpretation of an important part of Holy Scripture