What does Methodists mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Methodists, Protestant
Origin of. It is not generally known that the name of Methodist had been given long before to a religious sect in England, or at least, to a party in religion which was distinguished by some of the same marks as are now supposed to apply to the Methodists. John Spence, who was librarian of Zion College in 1657, in a book which he published, says, "Where are now our Anabaptists and plain pike staff Methodists, who esteem all flowers of rhetoric in sermons no better than stinking weeds?"
But the denomination to which we here refer, was founded, in the year 1729, by one Mr. Morgan and Mr. John Wesley. In the month of November that year, the latter being then fellow of Lincoln College, began to spend some evenings in reading the Greek Testament, with Charles Wesley, student, Mr. Morgan, commoner of Christ Church, and Mr. Kirkham, of Merton College. Not long afterwards, two or three of the pupils of Mr. John Wesley obtained leave to attend these meetings. They then began to visit the sick in different parts of the town, and the prisoners also, who were confined in the castle. Two years after they were joined by Mr. Ingham, of Queen's College, Mr. Broughton, and Mr. Hervey; and, in 1735, by the celebrated Mr. Whitfield, then in his eighteenth year. At this time their number in Oxford amounted to about fourteen. They obtained their name from the exact regularity of their lives, which gave occasion to a young gentleman of Christ Church to say, "Here is a new sect of Methodists sprung up;" alluding to a sect of ancient physicians who were called Methodists because they reduced the whole healing art to a few common principles, and brought it into some method and order. At the time that this society was formed, it was said that the whole kingdom of England was tending fast to infidelity.
"It is come, " says Bishop Butler, "I know not how, to be taken for granted by many persons, that Christianity is not so much as a subject of enquiry; but that it is now at length discovered to be fictitious; and accordingly they treat it as if, in the present age, this were an agreement among all people of discernment, and nothing remained but to set it up as a principal subject of mirth and ridicule, as it were, by way of reprisal for its having so long interrupted the pleasures of the world." There is every reason to believe that the Methodists were the instruments of stemming this torrent. The sick and the poor also tasted the fruits of their labours and benevolence: Mr. Wesley abridged himself of all his superfluities, and proposed a fund for the relief of the indigent; and so prosperous was the scheme, that they quickly increased their fund to eighty pounds per annum. This, which one should have thought would have been attended with praise instead of censure, quickly drew upon them a kind of persecution; some of the seniors of the university began to interfere, and it was reported "that the college censor was going to blow up the godly club." They found themselves, however, patronized and encouraged by some men eminent for their learning and virtue; so that the society still continued, though they had suffered a severe loss, in 1730, by the death of Mr. Morgan, who, it is said, was the founder of it. In October, 1735, John and Charles Wesley, Mr. Ingham, and Mr. Delamotte, son of a merchant in London, embarked for Georgia, in order to preach the Gospel to the Indians.
After their arrival they were at first favourably received, but in a short time lost the affection of the people; and, on account of some differences with the store-keeper, Mr. Wesley was obliged to return to England. Mr. Wesley, however, was soon succeeded by Mr. Whitfield, whose repeated labours in that part of the world are well known. II. Methodists, tenets of. After Mr. Whitfield returned from America in 1741, he declared his full assent to the doctrines of Calvin. Mr. Wesley, on the contrary, professed the Arminian doctrine, and had printed, in favour of perfection and universal redemption, and very strongly against election, a doctrine which Mr. Whitfield believed to be unscriptural. The difference, therefore, of sentiments between these two great men caused a separation. Mr. Wesley preached in a place called the Foundery, where Mr. Whitfield preached but once, and no more. Mr. Whitfield then preached to very large congregations out of doors; and soon after, in connection with Mr. Cennick, and one or two more, began a new house, in Kingswood, Gloucestershire, and established a school that favoured Calvinistical preachers. The Methodists, therefore, were now divided; one part following Mr. Wesley, and the other Mr. Whitfield. The doctrines of the Wesleyan Methodists, according to their own account, are the same as the church of England, as set forth in her liturgy, articles, and homilies. This, however, has been disputed. Mr. Wesley, in his appeal to men of reason and religion, thus declares his sentiments: "All I teach, " he observes, "respects either the nature and condition of salvation, the nature of justifying and saving faith, or the Author of faith and salvation.
That justification whereof our articles and homilies speak signifies present forgiveness, and consequently acceptance with God: I believe the condition of this faith: I mean not only that without faith we cannot be justified, but also that, as soon as any one has true faith, in that moment he is justified. Good works follow this faith, but cannot go before it; much less can sanctification, which implies continued course of good works, springing from holiness of heart. But it is allowed that sanctification goes before our justification at the last day, Hebrews 12:14 . Repentance, and fruits meet for repentance, go before faith. Repentance absolutely must go before faith; fruits meet for it, if there be opportunity. By repentance I mean conviction of sin, producing real desires and sincere resolutions of amendment; by salvation I mean not barely deliverance from hell, but a present deliverance from sin. Faith, in general, is a divine supernatural evidence, or conviction of things not seen, not discoverable by our bodily senses: justifying faith implies not only a divine evidence or conviction that God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, but a sure trust and confidence that Christ died for my sins, that he loved me, and gave himself for me. And the moment a penitent sinner believes this, God pardons and absolves him; and as soon as his pardon or justification is witnessed to him by the Holy Ghost, he is saved.
From that time (unless he make shipwreck of the faith) salvation gradually increases in his soul. "The Author of faith and salvation is God alone. There is no more of power than of merit in man; but as all merit is in the Son of God, in what he has done and suffered for us, so all power is in the Spirit of God. And, therefore, every man, in order to believe unto salvation, must receive the Holy Ghost." So far Mr. Wesley. Respecting original sin, free will, the justification of men, good works, and works done before justification, he refers us to what is said on these subjects in the former part of the ninth, and tenth, the eleventh, the twelfth, and thirteenth articles of the church of England. One of Mr. Wesley's preachers bears this testimony of him and his sentiments: "The Gospel, considered as a general plan of salvation, he viewed as a display of the divine perfections, in a way agreeable to the nature of God; in which all the divine attributes harmonize, and shine forth with peculiar lustre.
The Gospel, considered as a means to attain an end, appeared to him to discover as great fitness in the means to the end as can possibly be discovered in the structure of natural bodies, or in the various operations of nature, from a view of which we draw our arguments for the existence of God.
Man he viewed as blind, ignorant, wandering out of the way, with his mind estranged from God.
He considered the Gospel as a dispensation of mercy to men, holding forth pardon, a free pardon of sin to all who repent and believe in Christ Jesus. The Gospel, he believed, inculcates universal holiness, both in heart and in the conduct of life.
He showed a mind well instructed in the oracles of God, and well acquainted with human nature. He contended, that the first step to be a Christian is to repent; and that, till a man is convinced of the evil of sin, and is determined to depart from it; till he is convinced that there is a beauty in holiness, and something truly desirable in being reconciled to God, he is not prepared to receive Christ. The second important and necessary step, he believed to be faith, agreeable to the order of the apostle, 'Repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ, ' Acts 20:20-21 . In explaining sanctification, he accurately distinguished it from justification, or the pardon of sin. Justification admits us into a state of grace and favour with God, and lays the foundation of sanctification, or Christian holiness, in all its extent. There has been a great clamour raised against him because he called his view of sanctification by the word perfection; but he often explained what he meant by this term. He meant by the word perfection, such a degree of the love of God, and the love of man; such a degree of the love of justice, truth, holiness, and purity, as will remove from the heart every contrary disposition towards God or man; and that this should be our state of mind in every situation and in every circumstance of life.
He maintained that God is a God of love, not to a part of his creatures only, but to all; that He who is the Father of all, who made all, who stands in the same relation to all his creatures, loves them all; that he loved the world, and gave his Son a ransom for all without distinction of persons. It appeared to him, that to represent God as partial, as confining his love to a few, was unworthy our notions of the Deity. He maintained that Christ died for all men; and that he is to be offered to all; that all are to be invited to come to him: and that whosoever comes in the way which God has appointed may partake of his blessings. He supposed that sufficient grace is given to all, in that way and manner which is best adapted to influence the mind.
He did not believe salvation was by works. So far was he from putting works in the place of the blood of Christ, that he only gave them their just value: he considered them as the fruits of a living operative faith, and as the measure of our future reward: for every man will be rewarded not for his work, but according to the measure of them. He gave the whole glory of salvation to God, from first to last. he believed that man would never turn to God, if God did not begin the work: he often said that the first approaches of grace to the mind are irresistible; that is, that a man cannot avoid being convinced that he is a sinner; that God, by various means, awakens his conscience; and whether the man will or no, these convictions approach him." In order that we may form still clearer ideas respecting Mr. Wesley's opinions, we shall here quote a few questions and answers as laid down in the Minutes of Conference. Q. "In what sense is Adam's sin imputed to all mankind?" A. "In Adam all die, 1:e.
1.Our bodies then became mortal.
2.Our souls died, 1:e. were disunited from God. And hence,
3.We are all born with a sinful, devilish nature; and reason whereof,
4.We are children of wrath, liable to death eternal." Romans 5:18 . Ephesians 2:3 .
Q. "In what sense is the righteousness of Christ imputed to all mankind, or to believers?" A. "We do not find it expressly affirmed in Scripture that God imputes the righteousness of Christ to any, although we do find that faith is imputed for righteousness. That text, 'As by one man's disobedience all men were made sinners, so by the obedience of one all were made righteous' we conceive, means by the merits of Christ all men are cleared from the guilt of Adam's actual sin." Q. "Can faith be lost but through disobedience?" A. "It cannot. A believer first inwardly disobeys; inclines to sin with his heart; then his intercourse with God is cut off, 1:e. his faith is lost; and after this he may fall into outward sin, being now weak, and like another man."
Q. "What is implied in being a perfect Christian?"
A. "The loving the Lord our God with all our heart, and with all our mind, and soul, and strength." Q. "Does this imply that all inward sin is taken away?" A. :Without doubt; or how could we be said to be saved from all our uncleannesses?" Ezekiel 36:29 . Q. "How much is allowed by our brethren who differ from us with regard to entire sanctificatio?" A. "They grant,
1.That every one must be entirely sanctified in the article of death.
2.That till then a believer daily grows in grace, comes nearer and nearer to perfection.
3.That we ought to be continually pressing after this, and to exhort all others to do so."
Q. "What do we allow them?"
A. "We grant,
1.That many of those who have died in the faith, yea, the greater part of those we have known, were not sanctified throughout, not made perfect in love, till a little before death.
2.That the term sanctified is continually applied by St. Paul to all that were justified, that were true believers.
3.That by this term alone he rarely (if ever) means saved from all sin.
4.That consequently it is not proper to use it in this sense, without adding the word 'wholly, entirely, ' or the like.
5.That the inspired writers almost continually speak of or to those who were justified, but very rarely either of or to those who were sanctified.
6.That consequently it behoves us to speak in public almost continually of the state of justification; but more rarely in full and explicit terms concerning entire sanctification."
Q. "What then, is the point wherein we divide?"
A. "It is this: Whether we should expect to be saved from all sin before the article of death."
Q. "Is there any clear Scripture promise of this, that God will save us from all sin?"
A. "There is, Psalms 130:8 : 'He shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities.' This is more largely expressed in Ezekiel 36:26 ; Ezekiel 36:29 . 2 Corinthians 7:1 . Deuteronomy 30:6 . 1 John 4:17 ." Thus I have endeavoured to give a view of the tenets of the Wesleyan Methodists; and this I have chosen to do in their own words, in order to prevent misrepresentation. As to the doctrines of the Calvinistic Methodist, they need not be inserted here, as the reader will find the substance of them under the article CALVINISTS. III. Methodists, government and discipline of. A considerable number both of the Calvinists and Arminian Methodists approve of the discipline of the church of England, while many, it is said, are dissenters in principle. Mr. Wesley and Mr. Whitfield were both brought up in, and paid peculiar respect to that church. They did not, however, as it is well known, confine themselves to her laws in all respects as it related to discipline. Mr. Wesley having formed numerous societies in different parts, he, with his brother Charles, drew up certain rules, by which they were, and it seems in many respects still are governed.
They state the nature and design of a Methodist society in the following words: "Such a society is no other than a company of men having the form and seeking the power of godliness; united, in order to pray together, to receive the word of exhortation, and to watch over one another in love, that they may help each other to work out their salvation." "That it may the more easily be discerned whether they are indeed working out their own salvation, each society is divided into smaller companies, called classes, according to their respective places of abode. There are about twelve persons (sometimes fifteen, twenty, or even more) in each class; one of whom is styled the leader. It is his business,
1. To see each person in his class once a week, at least, in order to enquire how their souls prosper; to advise, reprove, comfort, or exhort, as occasion may require; to receive what they are willing to give to the poor, or toward the Gospel.
2. To meet the minister and the stewards of the society once a week, in order to inform the minister of any that are sick, or of any that walk disorderly, and will not be reproved; to pay to the stewards what they have received of their several classes in the week preceding; and to show their account of what each person has contributed. "There is only one condition previously required of those who desire admission into these societies, namely, A desire to flee from the wrath to come; to be saved from their sins: but wherever this is really fixed in the soul, it will be shown by its fruits. It is, therefore, expected of all who continue therein, that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation.
"First, by doing no harm; by avoiding evil in every kind; especially that which is most generally practised, such as the taking the name of God in vain; the profaning the day of the Lord, either by doing ordinary work thereon, or by buying or selling; drunkenness; buying or selling spirituous liquors, or drinking them, unless in cases of extreme necessity; fighting, quarrelling, brawling; brother going to law with brother; returning evil for evil, or railing for railing; the using many words in buying or selling; the buying or selling uncustomed goods; the giving or taking things on usury, 1:e. the unlawful interest. "Uncharitable, or unprofitable conversation; particularly speaking evil of magistrates, or of ministers. "Doing to others as we would not they should do unto us. "Doing what we know is not for the glory of God; as the putting on gold or costly apparel: the taking such diversions as cannot be used in the name of the Lord Jesus. "The singing those songs, or reading those books, which do not tend to the knowledge or love of God; softness and needless self-indulgence; laying up treasure upon earth; borrowing without a probability of paying; or taking up goods without a probability of paying for them. "It is expected of all who continue in these societies that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation. "
Secondly, By doing good; by being in every kind merciful after their power, as they have opportunity; doing good of every possible sort, and as far as possible to all men; to their bodies, of the ability which God giveth; by giving food to the hungry, by clothing the naked, by visiting or helping them that are sick, or in prison; to their souls, by instructing, reproving, or exhorting all we have any intercourse with; trampling under foot that enthusiastic doctrine of devils, that, 'We are not to do good, unless our hearts be free to it.' "By doing good, especially to them that are of the household of faith, or groaning so to be; employing them preferably to others; buying one of another; helping each other in business; and so much the more, because the world will love its own, and them only; by all possible diligence and frugality, that the gospel be not blamed; by running with patience the race set before them, denying themselves, and taking up their cross daily; submitting to bear the reproach of Christ; to be as the filth and offscouring of the world, and looking that men should say all manner of evil of them falsely for the Lord's sake. "It is expected of all who desire to continue in these societies, that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation, "Thirdly, By attending on all the ordinances of God: such are,
The public worship of God; the ministry or the word, either read or expounded; the supper of the Lord; family and private prayer; searching the Scriptures; and fasting and abstinence. "These are the general rules of our societies, all which we are taught of God to observe, even in his written word; the only rule, and the sufficient rule, both of our faith and practice; and all these we know his Spirit writes on every truly awakened heart. If there be any among us who observe them not, who habitually break any of them, let it be made known unto them who watch over that soul, as they who must give an account. We will admonish him of the error of his ways; we will bear with him for a season; but then, if he repent not, he hath no more place among us: we have delivered our own souls. May 1, 1743 John Wesley Charles Wesley."
In Mr. Wesley's connexion, they have circuits and conferences, which we find were thus formed:
When the preachers at first went out to exhort and preach, it was by Mr. Wesley's permission and direction; some from one mission and direction; some from one part of the kingdom, and some from another; and though frequently strangers to each other, and those to whom they were sent, yet on his credit and sanction alone they were received and provided for as friends by the societies wherever they came. But, having little or no communication or intercourse with one another, nor any subordination among themselves, they must have been under the necessity of recurring to Mr. Wesley for directions how and where they were to labour. To remedy this inconvenience, he conceived the design of calling them together to an annual conference: by this means he brought them into closer union with each other, and made them sensible of the utility of acting in concert and harmony. He soon found it necessary, also to bring their itinerancy under certain regulations, and reduce it to some fixed order, both to prevent confusion, and for his own ease: he therefore took fifteen or twenty societies, more or less, which lay round some principal society in those parts, and which were so situated, that the greatest distance from one to the other was not much more than twenty miles, and united them into what was called a circuit.
At the yearly conference he appointed two, three, or four preachers, to one of these circuits, according to its extent, which at first was often very considerable, sometimes taking in a part of three or four counties. Here, and here only, were they to labour for one year, that is until the next conference. One of the preachers on every circuit was called the assistant, because he assisted Mr. Wesley in superintending the societies and other preachers; he took charge of the societies within the limits assigned him; he enforced the rules every where, and directed the labours of the preachers associated with him. Having received a list of the societies forming his circuit, he took his own station in it, gave to the other preachers a plan of it, and pointed out the day when each should be at the place fixed for him, to begin a progressive motion round it, in such order as the plan directed. They now followed one another through all the societies belonging to that circuit, at stated distances of time, all being governed by the same rules, and undergoing the same labour. By this plan, every preacher's daily work was appointed beforehand; each knew, every day, where the others were, and each society when to expect the preacher, and how long he would stay with them.
It may be observed, however, that Mr. Wesley's design in calling the preachers together annually, was not merely for the regulation of the circuits, but also for the review of their doctrines and discipline, and for the examination of their moral conduct; that those who were to administer with him in holy things might be thoroughly furnished for every good work. The first conference was held in June 1744, at which Mr. Wesley met his brother, two or three other clergymen, and a few of the preachers whom he had appointed to come from various parts, to confer with them on the affairs of the societies. "Monday, June 25, " observes Mr. Wesley, "and the five following days, we spent in conference with our preachers, seriously considering by what means we might the most effectually save our own souls, and them that heard us; and the result of our consultations we set down to be the rule of our future practice." Since that time a conference has been held annually, Mr. Wesley himself having presided at forty- seven.
The subjects of their deliberations were proposed in the form of questions, which were amply discussed; and the questions, with the answers agreed upon, were afterwards printed under the title of "Minutes of several Conversations between the Rev. Mr. Wesley and others, " commonly called Minutes of Conference. As to their preachers, the following extract from the above-mentioned Minutes of Conference will show us in what manner they are chosen and designated:
Q. "How shall we try those who think they are moved by the Holy Ghost to preach?"
A. "Inquire
1. Do they know God as a pardoning God? Have they the love of God abiding in them? Do they desire and seek nothing but God? And are they holy in all manner of conversation?
2. Have they gifts, as well as grace, for the work? Have they, in some tolerable degree, a clear, sound understanding? Have they a right judgment in the things of God? Have they a just conception of salvation by faith? And has God given them any degree of utterance? Do they speak justly, readily, clearly?
3. Have they fruit? Are any truly convinced of sin, and converted to God, by their preaching? "As long as these three marks concur in any one, we believe he is called of God to preach. These we receive as sufficient proof that he is moved thereto by the Holy Ghost.
Q. "What method may we use in receiving a new helper?"
A. "A proper time for doing this is at a conference, after solemn fasting and prayer; every person proposed is then to be present, and each of them may be asked. "Have you faith in Christ? Are you going on to perfection? Do you expect to be perfected in love in this life? Are you groaning after it? Are you resolved to devote yourself wholly to God and to his work? Have you considered the rules of a helper? Will you keep them for conscience' sake? Are you determined to employ all your time in the work of God? Will you preach every morning and evening? Will you diligently instruct the children in every place? Will you visit from house to house? Will you recommend fasting both by precept and example? "We then man receive him as a probationer, by giving him the Minutes of the Conference, inscribed thus:
'To A.B. You think it your duty to call sinners to repentance. Make full proof hereof, and we shall rejoice to receive you as a fellow-labourer.' Let him then read and carefully weigh what is contained therein, that if he has any doubt it may be removed." "To the above it may be useful to add, " says Mr. Benson, "a few remarks on the method pursued in the choice of the itinerant preachers, as many have formed the most erroneous ideas on the subject, imagining they are employed with hardly any prior preparation.
1. They are received as private members of the society on trial.
2. After a quarter of a year, if they are found deserving, they are admitted as proper members.
3. When their grace and abilities are sufficiently manifest, they are appointed leaders of classes.
4. If they then discover talents for more important services, they are employed to exhort occasionally in the smaller congregations, when the preachers cannot attend.
5. If approved in this line of duty, they are allowed to preach.
6. Out of these men who are called local preachers, are selected the itinerant preachers, who are first proposed at a quarterly meeting of the stewards and local preachers of the circuit; then at a meeting of the travelling preachers of the district; and, lastly, in the conference; and, if accepted, are nominated for a circuit.
7. Their characters and conduct are examined annually in the conference; and, if they continue faithful for four years of trial, they are received into full connection. At these conferences, also, strict enquiry is made into the conduct and success of every preacher, and those who are found deficient in abilities are no longer employed as itinerants; while those whose conduct has not been agreeable to the Gospel are expelled, and thereby deprived of all the privileges even of private members of the society." IV. Methodists, new connection of. Since Mr. Wesley's death, his people have been divided; but this division, it seems, respects discipline more than sentiment.
Mr. Wesley professed a strong attachment to the established church of England, and exhorted the societies under his care to attend her service, and receive the Lord's supper from the regular clergy. But in the latter part of his time he thought proper to ordain some bishops and priests for America and Scotland; but as one or two of the bishops have never been out of England since their appointment to the office, it is probable that he intended a regular ordination should take place when the state of the connection might render it necessary. During his life, some of the societies petitioned to have preaching in their own chapels in church hours, and the Lord's supper administered by the travelling preachers. This request he generally refused, and, where it could be conveniently done, sent some of the clergymen who officiated at the New Chapel in London to perform these solemn services. At the first conference after his death, which was held at Manchester, the preachers published a declaration, in which they said that they would "take up the Plan as Mr. Wesley had left it." This was by no means satisfactory to many of the preachers and people, who thought that religious liberty ought to be extended to all the societies which desired it. In order to favour this cause, so agreeable to the spirit of Christianity and the rights of Englishmen, several respectable preachers came forward; and by the writings which they circulated through the connection, paved the way for a plan of pacification; by which it was stipulated, that in every society where a threefold majority of class- leaders, stewards, and trustees desired it, the people should have preaching in church hours, and the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's supper administered to them.
The spirit of inquiry being roused did not stop here; for it appeared agreeable both to reason and the customs of the primitive church, that the people should have a voice in the temporal concerns of the societies, vote in the election of church officers, and
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Methodists
a name given in derision at different times to religious persons and parties which have appeared in this country; but which now principally designates the followers of the Rev. John Wesley. The societies raised up by the instrumentality of the Rev. George Whitefield were also called Methodists, and in Wales especially are still known by that appellation. For distinction's sake, therefore, and also because a number of smaller sects have broken off from the Methodist societies since Mr. Wesley's death, the religious body which he raised up and left organized under his rules, have of late been generally denominated the WESLEYAN
METHODISTS. In the year 1729, Mr. John Wesley, being then fellow of Lincoln College, began to spend some evenings in reading the Greek Testament with Charles Wesley, student, and Mr. Morgan, commoner of Christ Church, and Mr. Kirkham, of Merton College. Not long after, two or three of the pupils of Mr. John Wesley, and one pupil of Mr. Charles Wesley, obtained leave to attend these meetings. They then began to visit the sick in different parts of the town, and the prisoners also, who were confined in the castle. Two years after, they were joined by Mr. Ingham, of Queen's College, Mr. Broughton, and Mr. Hervey; and in 1735, by the celebrated Mr. George Whitefield, then in his eighteenth year. At this time their number in Oxford amounted to about fourteen. They obtained the name of Methodists, from the exact regularity of their lives, and the manner of spending their time. In October, 1735, John and Charles Wesley, Mr. Ingham, and Mr. Delamotte, son of a merchant in London, embarked for Georgia, having been engaged by the trustees of that colony as chaplains; but their ultimate design was to preach the gospel to the Indians. No favourable opportunity offering itself for this pious work, and the strict and faithful preaching of the Wesleys having involved them in much persecution, and many disputes with the colonists, they returned to England, Mr. Charles Wesley in 1737, Mr. John Wesley in 1738. On the passage to America, and while in Georgia, Mr. John had met with several pious Moravians; whose doctrines of justification by faith alone, conscious pardon of sin, and peace with God, confirmed by their own calmness in danger and freedom from the fear of death, greatly impressed him. On his return to England, he was more fully instructed in these views by Bohler, a Moravian minister; and having proved their truth in his own experience, he began to preach in the churches of the metropolis, and other places, and then in rooms, fields, and streets, the doctrine of salvation by faith. In this his brother Charles was his zealous coadjutor; and the effect was the awakening of great multitudes to a religious concern, and the commencement of a great revival of religion throughout the land, which has in its effects extended itself to the most distant parts of the world. At the time of Mr. Wesley's death, the societies in connection with him in Europe, America, and the West Indies, amounted to eighty thousand members; they are now [1] upward of three hundred thousand, beside about half a million in the United States of America, who since the acquisition of independence by that country have formed a separate church. The rules of this religious society were drawn up by Messrs. John and Charles Wesley in 1743, and continue to be in force. They state the nature and design of a Methodist society in the following words: "Such a society is no other than a company of men, having the form and seeking the power of godliness: united, in order to pray together, to receive the word of exhortation, and to watch over one another in love, that they may help each other to work out their own salvation. That it may the more easily be discerned whether they are indeed working out their own salvation, each society is divided into smaller companies, called classes, according to their respective places of abode. There are about twelve persons, sometimes fifteen, twenty, or even more, in each class; one of whom is styled the leader. It is his business,
1. To see each person in his class once a week, at least, in order to inquire how their souls prosper; to advise, reprove, comfort, or exhort, as occasion may require; to receive what they are willing to give to the poor, or toward the support of the Gospel.
2. To meet the minister and the stewards of the society once a week, to inform the minister of any that are sick, or of any that walk disorderly and will not be reproved; to pay to the stewards what they have received of their several classes in the week preceding; and to show their account of what each person has contributed. There is only one condition previously required of those who desire admission into these societies, namely, a desire to flee from the wrath to come; to be saved from their sins: but wherever this is really fixed in the soul, it will be shown by its fruits.
It is therefore expected of all who continue therein, that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation,
1. By doing no harm; by avoiding evil in every kind, especially that which is most generally practised, such as taking the name of God in vain; profaning the day of the Lord, either by doing ordinary work thereon, or by buying or selling; drunkenness; buying and selling spirituous liquors, or drinking them, unless in cases of extreme necessity; fighting, quarrelling, brawling; brother going to law with brother: returning evil for evil, or railing for railing; the using many words in buying or selling; the buying or selling uncustomed goods; the giving or taking things on usury, that is, unlawful interest; uncharitable or unprofitable conversation, particularly speaking evil of magistrates or of ministers; doing to others as we would not they should do unto us; doing what we know is not for the glory of God, as the putting on of gold or costly apparel; the taking such diversions as cannot be used in the name of the Lord Jesus; singing those songs, or reading those books, which do not term to the knowledge or love of God; softness, or needless self-indulgence; laying up treasure upon earth; borrowing without a probability of paying; or taking up goods, without a probability of paying for them. It is expected of all who continue in these societies, that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation,
2. By doing good; by being in every kind merciful after their power, as they have opportunity; doing good of every possible sort, and, as far as possible, to all men; to their bodies, of the ability which God giveth, by giving food to the hungry, by clothing the naked, by visiting or helping them that are sick or in prison; to their souls, by instructing, reproving, or exhorting all we have any intercourse with; trampling under foot that enthusiastic doctrine of devils,—that we are not to do good unless our hearts be free to it: by doing good, especially to them that are of the household of faith, or groaning so to be; employing them preferably to others; buying one of another; helping each other in business, and so much the more as the world will love its own, and them only; by all possible diligence and frugality, that the Gospel be not blamed; by running with patience the race set before them, denying themselves, and taking up their cross daily; submitting to bear the reproach of Christ; to be as the filth and offscouring of the world, and looking that men should say all manner of evil of them falsely for the Lord's sake. It is expected of all who continue in these societies, that they should continue to evidence their desire of salvation,
3. By attending on all the ordinances of God: such are, the public worship of God; the ministry of the word, either read or expounded; the supper of the Lord; family and private prayer; searching the Scriptures, and fasting and abstinence. These are the general rules of our societies, all which we are taught of God to observe, even in his written word, the only rule, and the sufficient rule, both of our faith and practice; and all these, we know, his Spirit writes on every truly awakened heart. If there be any among us who observe them not, who habitually breaks any of them, let it be made known to them who watch over that soul, as they that must give an account. We will admonish him of the error of his ways; we will bear with him for a season; but then, if he repent not, he hath no more place among us: we have delivered our own souls."
The effect produced by the preaching of the two brothers in various parts of the kingdom, and those frequently the most populous and rude, rendered it necessary to call out preachers to their assistance, and especially since the clergy generally remained negligent, and rather opposed and persecuted, than encouraged, the Wesleys in their endeavours to effect a national reformation. The association of preachers with themselves in the work led to an annual meeting of the ministers, then and since called the conference. The first conference was held in June 1744, at which Mr. Wesley met his brother, two or three other clergymen, and a few of the preachers, whom he had appointed to come from various parts, to confer with them on the affairs of the societies. "Monday, June 25," observes Mr. Wesley, "and the five following days, we spent in conference with our preachers, seriously considering by what means we might the most effectually save our own souls, and them that heard us; and the result of our consultations we set down to be the rule of our future practice." Since that time a conference has been annually held; Mr. Wesley himself having presided at forty-seven. The subjects of their deliberations were proposed in the form of questions, which were amply discussed; and the questions, with the answers agreed upon, were afterward printed under the title of "Minutes of several Conversations between the Rev. Mr. Wesley and others," commonly called Minutes of Conference.
As the kingdom had been divided into circuits, to each of which several preachers were appointed for one or two years, a part of the work of every conference was to arrange these appointments and changes. In the early conferences various points of doctrine were discussed with reference to the agreement of all in a common standard; and when this was settled, and the doctrinal discussions discontinued, new regulations continued to be adopted, as the state of the societies, and the enlarging opportunities of doing good, required. The character of all those who were engaged in the ministry was also annually examined; and those who had passed the appointed term of probation, were solemnly received into the ministry. All the preachers were itinerants, and, animated by the example of Mr. Wesley, went through great labours, and endured many privations and persecutions, but with such success that societies and congregations were in a few years raised up in almost every part of England, and in a very considerable number of places in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. The doctrines held by the Methodists, Mr. Wesley declared repeatedly in his writings to be those contained in the Articles of the church of England; for he understood the article on predestination, as many others have done, in a sense not contrary to the doctrine of the redemption and the possible salvation of the whole human race. It will, therefore, be merely necessary to state those views of certain doctrines which it has been thought the Wesleyan Methodists hold in a somewhat peculiar way, or on which they have been most liable to misrepresentation.
They maintain the total fall of man in Adam, and his utter inability to recover himself, or take one step towards his recovery, "without the grace of God preventing him, that he may have a good will, and working with him when he has that good will." They assert that "Christ, by the grace of God, tasted death for every man." This grace they call free, as extending itself freely to all. They say that "Christ is the Saviour of all men, especially of them that believe;" and that, consequently, they are authorized to offer salvation to all, and to "preach the Gospel to every creature." They hold justification by faith. "Justification," says Mr Wesley, "sometimes means our acquittal at the last day, Matthew 12:37 : but this is altogether out of the present question; for that justification whereof our Articles and Homilies speak, signifies present forgiveness, pardon of sins, and consequently acceptance with God, who therein declares his righteousness, or justice, and mercy, by or for the remission of sins that are past, Romans 3:25 , saying: ‘I will be merciful to thy unrighteousness, and thine iniquities I will remember no more.' I believe the condition of this is faith, Romans 4:5 , &c; I mean, not only that without faith we cannot be justified, but also that as soon as any one has true faith, in that moment he is justified. Faith, in general, is a divine supernatural evidence, or conviction, of things not seen, not discoverable by our bodily senses, as being either past, future, or spiritual. Justifying faith implies, not only a divine evidence, or conviction, that ‘God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself,' but a full reliance on the merits of his death, a sure confidence that Christ died for my sins; that he loved me, and gave himself for me: and the moment a penitent sinner believes this, God pardons and absolves him." This faith, Mr. Wesley affirms, "is the gift of God. No man is able to work it in himself. It is a work of Omnipotence. It requires no less power thus to quicken a dead soul, than to raise a body that lies in the grave. It is a new creation; and none can create a soul anew but He who at first created the heavens and the earth. It is the free gift of God, which he bestows not on those who are worthy of his favour, not on such as are previously holy, and so fit to be crowned with all the blessings of his goodness; but on the ungodly and unholy, on those who till that hour were fit only for everlasting destruction; those in whom is no good thing, and whose only plea was, ‘God be merciful to me, a sinner!' No merit, no goodness, in man, precedes the forgiving love of God. His pardoning mercy supposes nothing in us but a sense of mere sin and misery; and to all who see and feel and own their wants, and their utter inability to remove them, God freely gives faith, for the sake of Him in whom he is always well pleased. Good works follow this faith, Luke 6:43 , but cannot go before it; much less can sanctification, which implies a continued course of good works springing from holiness of heart." As to repentance, he insisted that it is conviction of sin, and that repentance, and works meet for repentance, go before justifying faith; but he held, with the church of England, that all works, before justification, had "the nature of sin:" and that, as they had no root in the love of God, which can only arise from a persuasion of his being reconciled to us, they could not constitute a moral worthiness preparatory to pardon. That true repentance springs from the grace of God, is most certain; but, whatever fruits it may bring forth, it changes not man's relation to God. He is a sinner, and is justified as such; "for it is not a saint, but a sinner, that is forgiven, and under the notion of a sinner." God justifieth the ungodly, not the godly. Repentance, according to his statement, is necessary to true faith; but faith alone is the direct and immediate instrument of pardon. They hold also the direct internal testimony of the Holy Spirit to the believer's adoption: for an exposition of which See HOLY SPIRIT .
They maintain also that, by virtue of the blood of Jesus Christ, and the operations of the Holy Spirit, it is their privilege to arrive at that maturity in grace, and participation of the divine nature, which excludes sin from the heart, and fills it with perfect love to God and man. This they denominate Christian perfection. On this doctrine Mr. Wesley observes, "Christian perfection does not imply an exemption from ignorance or mistake, infirmities or temptations; but it implies the being so crucified with Christ, as to be able to testify, ‘I live not, but Christ liveth in me,' Galatians 2:23, and ‘hath purified their hearts by faith,' Acts 15:9 ." Again: "To explain myself a little farther on this head:
1. Not only sin, properly so called, that is, a voluntary transgression of a known law; but sin, improperly so called, that is, an involuntary transgression of a divine law known or unknown, needs the atoning blood.
2. I believe there is no such perfection in this life as excludes these involuntary transgressions, which I apprehend to be naturally consequent on the ignorance and mistakes inseparable from mortality.
3. Therefore, sinless perfection is a phrase I never use, lest I should seem to contradict myself.
4. I believe a person filled with the love of God is still liable to these involuntary transgressions.
5. Such transgressions you may call sins, if you please; I do not, for the reasons above mentioned."
The rules of the Methodist societies have been already given; but, in order to have a general view of their ecclesiastical economy, it must be remarked, that a number of these societies united together form what is called a circuit. A circuit generally includes a large market town, and the circumjacent villages to the extent often or fifteen miles. To one circuit two or three, and sometimes four, preachers are appointed, one of whom is styled the superintendent; and this is the sphere of their labour for at least one year, or not more than three years. Once a quarter the preachers meet all the classes, and speak personally to each member. Those who have walked orderly the preceding quarter then receive a ticket. These tickets are in some respects analogous to the tesserae of the ancients, and answer all the purposes of the commendatory letters spoken of by the Apostle. Their chief use is to prevent imposture. After the visitation of the classes a meeting is held, consisting of all the preachers, leaders, and stewards in the circuit. At this meeting the stewards deliver their collections to a circuit steward, and every thing relating to temporal matters is publicly settled. At this meeting the candidates for the ministry are proposed, and the stewards, after officiating a definite period, are changed. A number of circuits, from five to ten, more or fewer, according to their extent, form a district, the preachers of which meet annually. Every district has a chairman, who fixes the time of meeting. These assemblies have authority,
1. To examine candidates for the ministry, and probationers, and to try and suspend preachers who are found immoral, erroneous in doctrine, or deficient in abilities.
2. To decide concerning the building of chapels.
3. To examine the demands from the poorer circuits respecting the support of the preachers and of their families, from the public funds.
4. To elect a representative to attend and form a committee to sit previously to the meeting of the conference, in order to prepare a draught of the stations of all the preachers for the ensuing year. The judgment of this meeting is conclusive until conference, to which an appeal is allowed in all cases.
The conference, strictly speaking, consists only of a hundred of the senior preachers, according to the arrangements prescribed in a deed of declaration, executed by Mr. Wesley, and enrolled in chancery. But the preachers elected at the preceding district meetings as representatives, the superintendents of the circuits, and such preachers as the districts allow to attend, sit and vote usually as one body. At the conference, every preacher's character undergoes the strictest scrutiny; and if any charge be proved against him, he is dealt with accordingly. The preachers, are also stationed, the proceedings of the subordinate meetings reviewed, and the state of the connection at large is considered. The conference is commonly held in London, Leeds, Bristol, Manchester, Liverpool, and Sheffield, in rotation, at the latter end of July.
By the minutes of the last conference, 1831, it appears that this religious body had three hundred and sixty-three circuits in England, Wales, and Scotland; forty-five in Ireland; and a hundred and fifty-six mission stations, most of them being also circuits, in Sweden, France, the Mediterranean, Continental India, Ceylon, the South Seas, Africa, the West Indies, and British America. The number of members in the societies were, in Great Britain, two hundred, and forty-nine thousand one hundred and nineteen; in Ireland, twenty-two thousand four hundred and seventy; in the foreign stations, forty-two thousand seven hundred and forty-three. Their regular preachers were eight hundred and forty-six in Great Britain; in Ireland, a hundred and forty-six; in foreign stations, exclusive of catechists, a hundred and eighty-seven.
[The preceding account, so far as it respects the original history, the doctrines, and the moral discipline of Wesleyan Methodists, is equally applicable to those in America and in Europe. The Methodist Episcopal church in the United States, however, which became a distinct and independent church in the year 1784, differs considerably in its organization, and in the details of its ecclesiastical economy, from the British Wesleyan connection. The circuits, into which the whole field of labour occupied by the itinerant ministry is divided, are in general much larger, nor is any preacher allowed to remain on them more than two years successively. Of these circuits, from five or six to fifteen or more, according to circumstances, constitute a district. Of the districts, from four or five to six or eight, usually, comprise the tract of country embraced within the boundaries of an annual conference; and of annual conferences, the whole of the United States and Territories, agreeably to the minutes of the last year, (1831,) were divided into nineteen. From all these annual conferences, delegates, in a certain prescribed ratio, are sent once in four years to constitute a general conference, the highest ecclesiastical assemblage among American Wesleyan Methodists. The minister or preacher first named of those appointed to each circuit or station, is thereby invested with the pastoral charge thereof, and is usually denominated the preacher in charge. Each district is committed to the care of an elder, denominated the presiding elder, who is appointed, annually, and may remain four years successively on a district, but not longer; and all the districts comprising the whole extent of the church, are under the general superintendence of the bishops. These at present, (April, 1832,) are four in number, and like all others of our stated ministry, are required to be itinerant. If they cease to travel at large, without the consent of the general conference, they forfeit the exercise of their episcopal functions. Their visitations are annual and alternate, on a preconcerted plan, through the bounds of the entire work. They preside in the annual and general conferences, station the preachers, with (by established usage) the counsel of the presiding elders, and are jointly and severally responsible to the general conference for their administration and conduct. (See also the articles " See EPISCOPALIANS ," and " See IMPOSITION OF HANDS .")
For a more minute detail of the ecclesiastical economy, spiritual and temporal, of American Wesleyan Methodists, (which would lead us too far for a work of this sort,) reference may be had to the small volume published at the Conference Office, entitled ‘The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church.' By the minutes of the annual conferences for the last year, (1831,) there were in the communion of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States, five hundred and thirteen thousand one hundred and twenty-four members; of whom four hundred and thirty-seven thousand and twenty- four were whites, seventy-one thousand five hundred and eighty-nine coloured, and four thousand five hundred and one Indians. The number of itinerant ministers was two thousand and ten, of whom one hundred and thirty-four were superannuated, or worn out. In addition to these, there are also several thousand local ministers and preachers, many of whom were once itinerant; and who, though not statedly devoted to the work of the ministerial office, as the itinerant ministers are, yet, by their valuable services on the Sabbath, or at other times occasionally in their respective vicinities, constitute an important auxiliary branch of the system, and contribute much to its compactness and efficiency.
Beside the above, there are in the United States several smaller associations of persons bearing the name of Methodists, who hold and teach, in general, the doctrines of Wesleyan Methodists, but are not in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church, and differ from it in various points of ecclesiastical economy and discipline.
The Wesleyan Methodists in Upper Canada, who were formerly in connection with the church, in the United States, have recently, with the consent of the general conference of the latter body, been constituted a distinct church, under an episcopal form. Its organization, however, has not yet been completed by the consecration of a bishop, though we understand that a reverend individual has been selected, who will probably shortly be set apart for that holy office. This branch of the American Wesleyan Methodists, agreeably to their minutes for the year 1831, consisted of sixty-five itinerant ministers, and twelve thousand five hundred and sixty-three members; of whom one thousand two hundred and thirty- three were Indians.]

Sentence search

Methodistical - ) Of or pertaining to Methodists, or to the Methodists
Methodism - ) The system of doctrines, polity, and worship, of the sect called Methodists
Dissenters - They are divided into several parties; the chief of which are the Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, Quakers, and Methodists
Methodical - ) Of or pertaining to the ancient school of physicians called Methodists
Methodist - The popish Methodists were those polemical doctors who arose in France about the middle of the seventeenth century, in opposition to the Huguenots, or Protestants. These Methodists, from their different manner of treating the controversy with their opponents, may be divided into two classes. The Methodists of the second class were of opinion, that the most expedient manner of reducing the Protestants to silence, was not to attack them by piecemeal, but to overwhelm them at once by the weight of some general principle, or presumption, or some universal argument, which comprehended or might be applied to all the points contested between the two churches; thus imitating the conduct of those military leaders, who, instead of spending their time and strength in sieges and skirmishes, endeavoured to put an end to the war by a general and decisive action
Salvation Army - Religious organization which originated in England under William Booth, minister of the "New Connexion Methodists," and was introduced into the United States in 1881
Indians, Songish - Two-thirds are Catholics and the rest Methodists
Songish Indians - Two-thirds are Catholics and the rest Methodists
Methodist - ) Of or pertaining to the sect of Methodists; as, Methodist hymns; a Methodist elder
Methodist Bodies - The Methodists rejected the "stricter doctrines of Calvinism, predestination, and reprobation," and accepted "the milder emphasis of Arminianism on repentance, faith, and holiness
Jumper - ) A name applied in the 18th century to certain Calvinistic Methodists in Wales whose worship was characterized by violent convulsions
Jeanne Marie Bouvier de la Motte Guyon - Her ideas have found great favor among Protestants, especially the Methodists
Chapel - The places of worship belonging to the Calvinistic and Arminian Methodists are also generally called chapels, though they are licensed in no other way than the meetings of the Protestant Dissenters
Anglican Communion, the -     Episcopalians 29,200,000    Methodists of all descriptions 18,650,000    Roman Catholics 15,500,000    Presbyterians of all descriptions 12,250,000    Baptists of all descriptions 9,230,000    Congregationalists 6,150,000    Free Thinkers 5,250,000    Lutherans, etc 2,800,000    Unitarians 2,600,000    Minor religious sects 5,500,000    Of no particular religion 17,000,000                                        —————-    English-speaking population 124,130,000...
Anglo Catholic—The Historic or Catholic Church exists to-day inthree main branches or Communions, viz
Methodists - George Whitefield were also called Methodists, and in Wales especially are still known by that appellation. Wesley's death, the religious body which he raised up and left organized under his rules, have of late been generally denominated the WESLEYAN...
Methodists. They obtained the name of Methodists, from the exact regularity of their lives, and the manner of spending their time. The doctrines held by the Methodists, Mr. It will, therefore, be merely necessary to state those views of certain doctrines which it has been thought the Wesleyan Methodists hold in a somewhat peculiar way, or on which they have been most liable to misrepresentation. ...
[The preceding account, so far as it respects the original history, the doctrines, and the moral discipline of Wesleyan Methodists, is equally applicable to those in America and in Europe. From all these annual conferences, delegates, in a certain prescribed ratio, are sent once in four years to constitute a general conference, the highest ecclesiastical assemblage among American Wesleyan Methodists. ")...
For a more minute detail of the ecclesiastical economy, spiritual and temporal, of American Wesleyan Methodists, (which would lead us too far for a work of this sort,) reference may be had to the small volume published at the Conference Office, entitled ‘The Doctrines and Discipline of the Methodist Episcopal Church. ...
Beside the above, there are in the United States several smaller associations of persons bearing the name of Methodists, who hold and teach, in general, the doctrines of Wesleyan Methodists, but are not in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church, and differ from it in various points of ecclesiastical economy and discipline. ...
The Wesleyan Methodists in Upper Canada, who were formerly in connection with the church, in the United States, have recently, with the consent of the general conference of the latter body, been constituted a distinct church, under an episcopal form. This branch of the American Wesleyan Methodists, agreeably to their minutes for the year 1831, consisted of sixty-five itinerant ministers, and twelve thousand five hundred and sixty-three members; of whom one thousand two hundred and thirty- three were Indians
Christian Church, General Convention - In 1792Reverend James O'Kelley withdrew, with many others, from the Methodist Episcopal Church, and they organized under the name of "Republican Methodists
Inghamites - We do not know the cause of his separation from these eminent men; but it seems in a few years afterwards he became the leader of many numerous societies, distinct from the Methodists
Methodists, Protestant - It is not generally known that the name of Methodist had been given long before to a religious sect in England, or at least, to a party in religion which was distinguished by some of the same marks as are now supposed to apply to the Methodists. John Spence, who was librarian of Zion College in 1657, in a book which he published, says, "Where are now our Anabaptists and plain pike staff Methodists, who esteem all flowers of rhetoric in sermons no better than stinking weeds?"...
But the denomination to which we here refer, was founded, in the year 1729, by one Mr. They obtained their name from the exact regularity of their lives, which gave occasion to a young gentleman of Christ Church to say, "Here is a new sect of Methodists sprung up;" alluding to a sect of ancient physicians who were called Methodists because they reduced the whole healing art to a few common principles, and brought it into some method and order. " There is every reason to believe that the Methodists were the instruments of stemming this torrent. Methodists, tenets of. The Methodists, therefore, were now divided; one part following Mr. The doctrines of the Wesleyan Methodists, according to their own account, are the same as the church of England, as set forth in her liturgy, articles, and homilies. " Thus I have endeavoured to give a view of the tenets of the Wesleyan Methodists; and this I have chosen to do in their own words, in order to prevent misrepresentation. Methodists, government and discipline of. A considerable number both of the Calvinists and Arminian Methodists approve of the discipline of the church of England, while many, it is said, are dissenters in principle. Methodists, new connection of
Growth of the Church - ; for the Lutherans, 14; Baptists, 12; Methodists,11; and Presbyterians, 8 per cent
Schism - Those of the church of England apply the term schism to the separation of the Presbyterians, Independents, Anabaptists, and Methodists
Arminians - ...
See Methodists
Love-Feasts - This primitive practice, though under a simpler form, and more expressly religious, is retained in modern times, only by the Moravians, and by the Wesleyan Methodists
Ordination - Among the Wesleyan Methodists, the ordination of their ministers is in the annual conference, with a president at its head, and is by prayer without imposition of hands
Bible, Theology of - For instance, Baptist theology or Methodist theology is the Christian doctrines presented as Baptists or Methodists understand them. Such a doctrinal statement of belief may be strongly influenced by biblical teaching, but insight is also drawn from the history of Baptists (or Methodists, etc
Pelagians - This is also the case with the whole body of Wesleyan Methodists, and of the cognate societies to which they have given rise, both in Great Britain and America
Ordination - Among the Calvinistic Methodists, ordination is performed by the sanction and assistance of their own ministers
the Blind Leaders of the Blind - For Wesley was wont to preach this high doctrine of Moses, and of Nature herself, to the people called Methodists, this high doctrine of his, that cleanliness is next to Godliness
Episcopalians - The Methodists in America, also, form an episcopal church; but founded upon the primitive principle that bishops and presbyters are of the same order, although the oversight of presbyters may be committed to those who are, by virtue of their office, also called bishops
Physician - The strict Methodists conceded neither specific disease nor specific remedies, and disallowed such medicines as purgatives, emetics, diuretics, and emmenagogues