What does Messiah mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
μεσσίαν the Greek form of Messiah. 1
μεσσίας the Greek form of Messiah. 1
מָשִׁ֣יחַ anointed 1
מָשִׁ֖יחַ anointed 1

Definitions Related to Messiah

H4899


   1 anointed, anointed one.
      1a of the Messiah, Messianic prince.
      1b of the king of Israel.
      1c of the high priest of Israel.
      1d of Cyrus.
      1e of the patriarchs as anointed kings.
      

G3323


   1 the Greek form of Messiah.
   2 a name of Christ.
   Additional Information: Messias = “anointed”.
   

Frequency of Messiah (original languages)

Frequency of Messiah (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Messiah
(Heb. mashiah), in all the thirty-nine instances of its occurring in the Old Testament, is rendered by the LXX. "Christos." It means anointed. Thus priests (Exodus 28:41 ; 40:15 ; Numbers 3:3 ), prophets (1 Kings 19:16 ), and kings (1 Samuel 9:16 ; 16:3 ; 2 Samuel 12:7 ) were anointed with oil, and so consecrated to their respective offices. The great Messiah is anointed "above his fellows" (Psalm 45:7 ); i.e., he embraces in himself all the three offices. The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41,4:25 (RSV, "Messiah"), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice ( Daniel 9:25,26 ; RSV, "the anointed one"). The first great promise (Genesis 3:15 ) contains in it the germ of all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on earth. The prophecies became more definite and fuller as the ages rolled on; the light shone more and more unto the perfect day. Different periods of prophetic revelation have been pointed out, (1) the patriarchal; (2) the Mosaic; (3) the period of David; (4) the period of prophetism, i.e., of those prophets whose works form a part of the Old Testament canon. The expectations of the Jews were thus kept alive from generation to generation, till the "fulness of the times," when Messiah came, "made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law." In him all these ancient prophecies have their fulfilment. Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the great Deliverer who was to come. (Compare Matthew 26:54 ; Mark 9:12 ; Luke 18:31 ; 22:37 ; John 5:39 ; Acts 2 ; 16:31 ; 26:22,23 .)
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Christ Messiah
See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Messiah
("anointed" (Hebrew) equates to "Christ (Greek)). (See CHRIST.) In KJV only in Daniel 9:25-26 of Old Testament; John 1:41; John 4:25, of New Testament Having the immeasurable unction of the Holy Spirit as Prophet, Priest, and King at one and the same time. All others have but a measure, and that derived from Him (John 1:16; John 3:84). See the type (Exodus 28:41; Exodus 30:23-24; 1 Samuel 24:6); and the prophecies (Genesis 3:15; Genesis 9:26; Genesis 12:2-3; Genesis 12:22; compare John 8:56; Genesis 49:10; Numbers 24:17-19; Deuteronomy 18:18 with Acts 3:22-24; John 5:45-47; Psalms 2:2; Psalms 2:6 margin; Psalms 2:7-12; Psalms 2:16; Psalms 2:22; Psalms 2:40; Psalms 45:7 compare 1 Kings 1:39-40; Psalm 69; 72; 110).
His birthplace (Micah 5:2), His lineage (Isaiah 11:1), His time of coming (Daniel 9:25-26), while the second temple stood (Haggai 2:9), and His forerunner (Isaiah 40:3-5; Malachi 3:1) are foretold. From Psalm 2; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Zechariah 9:9, the Jews expected a triumphant king, but overlooked the prophecies of His sufferings first (Isaiah 53; Luke 24:21-26-27). A few looked for a more spiritual deliverance (Luke 2:30; Luke 2:38), and among them the despised Samaritans (John 4:25; John 4:42) and the thief on the cross (Luke 23:42). The rabbis got over the Messianic prophecies which prove Jesus to be Messiah by imagining a Messiah ben Joseph who should suffer, distinct from Messiah ben David who should reign; but the prophecies of the suffering and glory are so blended as to exclude the idea of any but one and the same Messiah (compare Isaiah 52:7; Isaiah 52:13-14; Isaiah 52:15; Isaiah 52:53).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Messiah
A. Nouns.
Mâshı̂yach (מָשִׁיחַ, Strong's #4899), “anointed one; Messiah.” Of the 39 occurrences of mâshı̂yach, none occurs in the wisdom literature. They are scattered throughout the rest of biblical literary types and periods.
First, mâshı̂yach refers to one who is anointed with oil, symbolizing the reception of the Holy Spirit, enabling him to do an assigned task. Kings (1 Sam. 24:6), high priests, and some prophets (1 Kings 19:16) were so anointed: “If the priest that is anointed do sin according to the sin of the people …” (Lev. 4:3—the first biblical appearance). In the case of Cyrus, he was anointed with God’s Spirit only and commissioned an “anointed deliverer” of Israel (Isa. 45:1). The patriarchs, too, are called “anointed ones”: “Touch not mine anointed, and do my prophets no harm” (Ps. 105:15).
Second, the word is sometimes transliterated “Messiah.” After the promise to David (2 Sam. 7:13) mâshı̂yach refers immediately to the Davidic dynasty, but ultimately it points to the “Mes-siah,” Jesus the Christ: “The kings of the earth [1], and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord, and against his Anointed …” (Ps. 2:2). In Dan. 9:25 the word is transliterated: “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince.…” The New Testament also attests the word in this latter meaning (John 1:41). Most frequently in the New Testament the word is translated (“Christ”) rather than transliterated (“Messiah”). See also ANOINT.
Mishchâh (מָשְׁחָה, Strong's #4888), “anointment.” This noun occurs 21 times and only in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. It always follows the Hebrew word for oil. The first occurrence is Exod. 25:6: “Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, and for sweet incense.”
B. Verb.
Mâshach (מָשַׁח, Strong's #4886), “to smear with oil or paint, anoint.” This verb, which appears 69 times in biblical Hebrew, has cognates in Ugaritic, Akkadian, Aramaic, and Arabic. The objects of this verb are people, sacrificial victims, and objects of worship. Aaron and his sons are the objects of this verb in Exod. 30:30: “And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and consecrate them, that they may minister unto me in the priest’s office.”
Holman Bible Dictionary - Messiah
(meh ssi' uh) Transliteration of Hebrew word meaning, “anointed one” that was translated into Greek as Christos . See Christ, Christology . Since apostolic times the name Christ has become the proper name of Jesus, the Person whom Christians recognize as the God-given Redeemer of Israel and the church's Lord. “Christ” or Messiah is therefore a name admirably suited to express both the church's link with Israel through the Old Testament and the faith that sees in Jesus Christ the worldwide scope of the salvation in Him.
The Old Testament and Early Jewish Background “Anointed” carries several senses in the Old Testament. All have to do with installing a person in an office in a way that the person will be regarded as accredited by Yahweh, Israel's God. Even a pagan king such as Cyrus was qualified as the Lord's anointed (Isaiah 45:1 ) to execute a divinely appointed task. The usual application of the term anointed was to God's representatives within the covenant people. Prophets such as Elisha were set apart in this way (1 Kings 19:16 ). Israel probably saw a close link between the anointed persons and God's spirit though the link is specifically mentioned only occasionally (2 Kings 2:9 ). Israelite kings were particularly hailed as Yahweh's anointed compare ( Judges 9:8 ), beginning with Saul (1 Samuel 9-10 NIV) and especially referring to David (Luke 24:45-4639 1 Samuel 16:13 ; see 2 Samuel 2:4 ; 2 Samuel 5:3 ) and Solomon (1 Kings 1:39 ). The royal family of David as being the line of Israelite kings are mentioned by the title of the “anointed ones” (2 Samuel 22:51 ; compare 2 Kings 11:12 ; 2 Kings 23:30 ; Psalm 2:2 ; Psalm 20:6 ; Psalm 28:8 ; Psalm 84:9 ). The king in Israel thus became a sacred person to whom loyalty and respect were to be accorded (1Samuel 24:6,1 Samuel 24:10 ; 1Samuel 26:9,1Samuel 26:11,1Samuel 26:16,1 Samuel 26:23 ; 2Samuel 1:14,2 Samuel 1:16 ). The oracle spoken by Nathan (2 Samuel 7:12-16 ) is important since it centers the hope of Israel on the dynasty of David for succeeding generations.
The king, especially in the Psalms, became idealized as a divine son (Psalm 2:2 ,Psalms 2:2,2:7 ; compare 2 Samuel 7:14 ) and enjoyed God's protecting favor (Acts 2:29-3601 ; Psalm 20:6 ; Psalm 28:8 ). His dynasty would not fail (Psalm 132:17 ), and the people were encouraged to pray to God on his behalf (Psalm 72:11-15 ; Psalm 84:9 ). The fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. led to great confusion especially when Yahweh's anointed was taken into Exile as a prisoner (Hebrews 9:14-15 ) and his authority as king rejected by the nations (Psalm 89:38 ,Psalms 89:38,89:51 ). This humiliation of the Davidic dynasty posed a set of problems to Israel's faith, even when the people were permitted to return to the land. No revival came for the Davidic kingship; yet that restoration became the pious longing of the Jews both in Babylonian Exile (Jeremiah 33:14-18 ) and in the later centuries. One of the clearest expressions of the continuing hope was in the Psalms of Solomon (17–18 (70-40 B.C.), a Jewish writing of the Messiah as the son of David. There Messiah was a warrior-prince who would expel the hated Romans from Israel and bring in a kingdom in which the Jews would be promoted to world dominion.
After the Exile the Israelite priesthood came into prominence. In the absence of a king, the high priest took on a central role in the community. The rite of anointing was the outward sign of his authority to function as God's representative. This authority was traced back to Aaron and his sons (Exodus 29:7-9 ; Exodus 30:22-33 ; compare Psalm 133:2 ). The high priest was the anointed-priest (Leviticus 4:3 ,Leviticus 4:3,4:5 ,Leviticus 4:5,4:16 ) and even, in one place, a “messiah” (Zechariah 4:14 ; compare Zechariah 6:13 ; Daniel 9:25 ).
In the exilic and postexilic ages, the expectation of a coming Messiah came into sharper focus, commencing with Jeremiah's and Ezekiel's vision of a Messiah who would combine the traits of royalty and priestly dignity (Jeremiah 33:14-18 ; Ezekiel 46:1-8 ; see, too, Zechariah 4:1-14 ; Zechariah 6:13 ). The people in the Dead Sea scrolls were evidently able to combine a dual hope of two Messiahs, one priestly and the second a royal figure. The alternation between a kingly Messiah and a priestly figure is characteristic of the two centuries of early Judaism prior to the coming of Jesus.
Messiahship in Jesus' Ministry A question posed in John 4:29 ; compare John 7:40-43 is: “Is not this the Christ (Messiah).” It is evident that the issue of the Messiah's identity and role was one much debated among the Jews in the first century. In the Synoptic Gospels the way Jesus acted and spoke led naturally to the dialogue at Caesarea Philippi ( Mark 8:29 ). Jesus asked His disciples, “Who do you say that I am?” a question to which Peter gave the reply, “Thou art the Christ (Messiah)” (Hebrews 2:2-45 ). Mark made clear that Jesus took an attitude of distinct reserve and caution to this title since it carried overtones of political power, especially in one strand of Jewish hope represented by the Psalms of Solomon. Jesus, therefore, accepted Peter's confession with great reluctance since with it went the disciple's objection that the Messiah cannot suffer (see Mark 9:32 ). For Peter, Messiah was a title of a glorious personage both nationalistic and victorious in battle. Jesus, on the other hand, saw His destiny in terms of a suffering Son of man and Servant of God (Mark 8:31-38 ; Mark 9:31 ; Mark 10:33-34 ). Hence He did not permit the demons to greet Him as Messiah (Luke 4:41 ) and downplayed all claims to privilege and overt majesty linked with the Jewish title.
The course of Jesus' ministry is one in which He sought to wean the disciples away from the traditional notion of a warrior Messiah. Instead, Jesus tried to instill in their minds the prospect that the road to His future glory was bound to run by way of the cross, with its experience of rejection, suffering, and humiliation. At the trial before His Jewish judges (Matthew 26:63-66 ) He once more reinterpreted the title Messiah (“Christ,” KJV) and gave it a content in terms of the Son of man figure, based on Daniel 7:13-14 . This confession secured His condemnation, and He went to the cross as a crucified Messiah because the Jewish leaders failed to perceive the nature of messiahship as Jesus understood it. Pilate sentenced Him as a messianic pretender who claimed (according to the false charges brought against Him) to be a rival to Caesar (Mark 15:9 ; Luke 23:2 ; John 19:14-15 ). It was only after the resurrection that the disciples were in a position to see how Jesus was truly a king Messiah and how Jesus then opened their minds to what true Messiahship meant (see 1618419556_8 ). The national title Messiah then took on a broader connotation, involving a kingly role which was to embrace all peoples ( Luke 24:46-47 ).
Messiah as a Title in the Early Church From the resurrection onward the first preachers announced that Jesus was the Messiah by divine appointment (Acts 2:36 ; Romans 1:3-4 ). Part of the reason for this forthright declaration is to be traced to apologetic reasons. In the mission to Israel the church had to show how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and came into the world as the “Son of David,” a title closely linked with the Messiah as a royal person. Matthew's Gospel is especially concerned to establish the identity (Matthew 1:1 ), but it is equally a theme common to Luke (Luke 1:32 ,Luke 1:32,1:69 ; Luke 2:4 ,Luke 2:4,2:11 ; 1618419556_5 ; Acts 13:22-23 ). Paul also saw in Jesus the fulfillment of the messianic hopes of the old covenant (1 Corinthians 5:7-8 ). Peter, too, sought to show how the sufferings of the Messiah were foretold (1Peter 1:11,1 Peter 1:20 ; 1 Peter 2:21 ; 1 Peter 3:18 ; 1Peter 4:1,1 Peter 4:13 ; 1 Peter 5:1 ). Luke stressed the link between Jesus as the One anointed by the Holy Spirit (Luke 4:16-22 ) in a way that looks back to Isaiah 61:1 , and he recorded Peter's statement (in Acts 10:38 NIV) that “God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and power” as a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy. The letter to the Hebrews is rich in this theme. See Hebrews 1:9 ; 1618419556_50 ; Lamentations 4:20 .
The final stage of development in regard to the title Messiah came in the way that Paul used the word more as a personal name than as an official designation (seen in Romans 9:5 , “Christ”). The reason for this shift lies in the intensely personal nature of Paul's faith which centered in Jesus Christ as the divine Lord (see Philippians 1:21 ; Colossians 3:4 ). Also, Paul taught his converts who were mainly converted to Christ from paganism that Jesus was the universal Lord whose mission was wider than any Jewish hope could embrace. In Pauline thought, “Christ” is a richer term than “Messiah” could ever be, and one pointer in this direction is the fact that the early followers of the Messiah called themselves not converted Jews but “Christians,” Christ's people (Acts 11:26 ; 1 Peter 4:16 ) as a sign of their universal faith in a sovereign Lord. See Christ; Jesus.
Ralph P. Martin
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Messiah
The word ‘messiah’ is a Hebrew word meaning ‘the anointed one’. Israelites of Old Testament times anointed kings, priests, and sometimes prophets to their positions by the ceremony of anointing. In this ceremony a special anointing oil was poured over the head of the person as a sign that he now had the right, and the responsibility, to perform the duties that his position required (Exodus 28:41; 1 Kings 1:39; Matthew 21:1-11; see ANOINTING). In the Greek speaking world of New Testament times the word ‘christ’, also meaning anointed, was used as a Greek translation of the Hebrew ‘messiah’.
Old Testament expectations
The most common Old Testament usage of the title ‘anointed’ was in relation to the Israelite king, who was frequently called ‘the Lord’s anointed’ (1 Samuel 24:10; Psalms 18:50; Psalms 20:6). In the early days of Israel’s existence, when it was little more than a large family, God signified that the leadership of the future Israelite nation would belong to the tribe of Judah. From this tribe would come a great leader who would rule the nations in a reign of peace, prosperity and enjoyment (Genesis 49:9-12).
Centuries later, God developed this plan by promising King David (who belonged to the tribe of Judah) a dynasty that would last for ever (2 Samuel 7:16). The people of Israel therefore lived in the expectation of a time when all enemies would be destroyed and the ideal king would reign in a worldwide kingdom of peace and righteousness. This coming saviour-king they called the Messiah.
In promising David a dynasty, God promised that he would treat David’s son and successor as if he were his own son (2 Samuel 7:14). From that time on, Israelites regarded every king in the royal line of David as, in a sense, God’s son; for he was the one through whom God exercised his rule. The Messiah, David’s greatest son, was in a special sense God’s son (Psalms 2:6-7; Mark 10:47; Mark 12:35; Mark 14:61).
Because of their expectation of a golden age, the Israelite people saw victories over enemies as foreshadowings of the victory of the Messiah and the establishment of his kingdom. They praised their kings in language that was too extravagant to be literally true of those kings. The language expressed the ideals that Israel looked for in its kings, but it could apply fully only to the perfect king, the Messiah (e.g. Psalms 2; Psalms 45; Psalms 72; Psalms 110).
Messianic interpretations
The idealism of the prophets was not fulfilled in any of the Davidic kings of the Old Testament, but this did not cause the people of Israel to lose hope. They constantly looked for the one who would be the great ‘David’ of the future, the great descendant of David the son of Jesse (Psalms 89:3-4; Isaiah 9:2-7; Isaiah 11:1-10; Jeremiah 23:5; Ezekiel 34:23-24; Micah 5:2). This king, this Messiah, was Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:1; Matthew 9:27; Matthew 12:22-23; Matthew 21:9; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 1:69-71; Revelation 5:5).
One of David’s best known psalms, Psalms 110, was interpreted by Jews of Jesus’ time as applying to the Messiah, though they consistently refused to acknowledge the messiahship of Jesus. Jesus agreed that they were correct in applying this psalm to the Messiah, but he went a step further by applying it to himself (Psalms 110:1; Matthew 22:41-45).
Since the king of Psalms 110 was also a priest, Jesus was not only the messianic king but also the messianic priest (Psalms 110:4; Hebrews 5:6; Hebrews 7; see PRIEST, sub-heading ‘The high priesthood of Jesus’). This joint rule of the priest-king Messiah had been foreshadowed in the book of the prophet Zechariah (Zechariah 6:12-13).
The Messiah was, in addition, to be a prophet, announcing God’s will to his people. As the Davidic kings in some way foreshadowed the king-messiah, so Israel’s prophets in some way foreshadowed the prophet-messiah. Again the ideal was fulfilled only in Jesus (Deuteronomy 18:15; Luke 24:19; John 6:14; John 7:40; Acts 3:22-23; Acts 7:37; Hebrews 1:1-2).
Jesus and the Jews
Although Jesus was the Messiah, he did not at the beginning of his ministry announce his messiahship openly. This was no doubt because the Jews of his time had a wrong understanding of the Messiah and his kingdom.
The Jews had little interest in the spiritual work of the Messiah. They were not looking for a spiritual leader who would deliver people from the enemy Satan and bring them under the rule and authority of God. They looked rather for a political leader who would deliver them from the power of Rome and bring in a new and independent Israelite kingdom, where there would be peace, contentment and prosperity. If Jesus had announced himself publicly as the Messiah before showing what his messiahship involved, he would have attracted a following of the wrong kind (see KINGDOM OF GOD; MIRACLES).
While not refusing the title ‘Messiah’, Jesus preferred to avoid it when speaking of himself. Instead he called himself the Son of man. This was a title that had little meaning to most people (they probably thought Jesus used it simply to mean ‘I’ or ‘me’), but it had a special meaning to those who understood the true nature of Jesus’ messiahship (see SON OF MAN).
Just as Jesus opposed Satan who tempted him with the prospect of an earthly kingdom, so he opposed those who wanted him to be king because they thought he could bring them political and material benefits (John 6:15; John 6:26; cf. Matthew 4:8-10). When other Jews, by contrast, recognized Jesus as the Messiah in the true sense of the word, Jesus told them not to broadcast the fact. He was familiar with the popular messianic ideas, and he did not want people to misunderstand the nature of his mission (Matthew 9:27-30; Matthew 16:13-20). He did not place the same restrictions on non-Jews, for non-Jews were not likely to use his messiahship for political purposes (Mark 5:19; John 4:25-26).
Later in his ministry, when he knew that his work was nearing completion and the time for his crucifixion was approaching, Jesus allowed people to speak openly of him as the Messiah (Matthew 21:14-16). He even entered Jerusalem as Israel’s Messiah-king and accepted people’s homage (1 Kings 19:16). But when he admitted before the high priest Caiaphas that he was the Messiah, adding a statement that placed him on equality with God, he was accused of blasphemy and condemned to death (Mark 14:61-64). When asked by the governor Pilate if he was a king, Jesus agreed that he was, though not the sort of king Pilate had in mind (Matthew 27:11; John 18:33-37; cf. Acts 17:7).
The Messiah’s death and resurrection
Even true believers of Jesus’ time still thought of the Messiah solely in relation to the establishment of God’s kingdom throughout the world at the end of the age. Because of this, many believers were puzzled when Jesus did not immediately set up a world-conquering kingdom (Matthew 11:2-3; Luke 24:21; Acts 1:6). Jesus pointed out that with his coming, God’s kingdom had come; the messianic age had begun. He was the Messiah, and his miracles of healing were proof of this (Isaiah 35:5-6; Isaiah 61:1; Matthew 11:4-5; Luke 4:18; Luke 18:35-43).
What the disciples could not understand was that the Messiah should die. Like most Jews they knew of the Old Testament prophecies concerning God’s suffering servant (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 52:13-15; Isaiah 53; see SERVANT OF THE LORD), just as they knew of the prophecies concerning God’s Messiah, but they did not connect the two. Jesus showed that he was both the suffering servant and the Messiah. In fact, it was in response to his disciples’ confession of him as the Messiah that he told them he must die (Matthew 16:13-23; Matthew 17:12; Mark 10:45; Acts 4:27).
Immediately after this, at the transfiguration, the Father confirmed that Jesus was both Davidic Messiah and suffering servant. He did this by an announcement that combined a statement from a messianic psalm with a statement from one of the servant songs of Isaiah (Matthew 17:5; Psalms 2:7; Isaiah 42:1; cf. also Matthew 3:17).
The idea of a crucified Messiah was contrary to common Jewish beliefs. The Jews considered the Messiah as blessed by God above all others, whereas a crucified person was cursed by God (Galatians 3:13). That is why the Christians’ belief in a crucified Jesus as the Saviour-Messiah was a stumbling block to the Jews (see STUMBLING BLOCK).
Jesus’ resurrection provided the solution to this apparent difficulty. Even the disciples did not understand when Jesus foretold his resurrection (Mark 8:29-33; Mark 9:31-32), but afterwards they looked back on the resurrection as God’s final great confirmation that Jesus was the Messiah (Luke 24:45-46; Acts 2:31-32; Acts 2:36). He was God’s anointed one (Acts 10:38; cf. Isaiah 61:1; Luke 4:18).
Title and name
So firmly was the Messiah identified with Jesus after his resurrection, that the Greek word for Messiah (Christ) became a personal name for Jesus. The two names were often joined as Jesus Christ or Christ Jesus, and frequently the name ‘Christ’ was used without any direct reference to messiahship at all (Philippians 1:15-16; Philippians 1:18; Philippians 1:21). In general the Gospels and the early part of Acts use ‘Christ’ mainly as a title (‘Messiah’), and Paul’s letters use it mainly as a name.
In the eyes of unbelieving Jews, Jesus was not the Messiah, and therefore they would not call him Jesus Christ. They called him Jesus of Nazareth, and his followers they called Nazarenes (Matthew 26:71; John 18:4-7; Acts 24:5). To unbelieving non-Jews, however, the Jewish notion of messiahship meant nothing. To them ‘Christ’ was merely the name of a person, and the followers of this person they called Christians (Acts 11:26). (See also JESUS CHRIST.)
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Messiah
Messiah (mes-si'ah). This is a Hebrew word signifying "anointed," and corresponding exactly to the Greek Christos. As in ancient times not only the king, but also the priest and the prophet, was consecrated to his calling by being anointed, the word "Messiah" often occurs in the Old Testament in its literal sense, signifying one who has been anointed, 1 Samuel 24:6; Lamentations 4:1-22 :' 20; Ezekiel 28:14; Psalms 105:15; hut generally it has a more specific application, signifying the One who was anointed, the supreme Deliverer who was promised from the beginning, Genesis 3:15, and about whom a long series of prophecies runs through the whole history of Israel from Abram, Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18; Jacob, Genesis 49:10; Balaam, Numbers 24:17; Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:18; and Nathan, 2 Samuel 7:16; through the psalmists and prophets, Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 110:1-7; Isaiah 7:10-16; Isaiah 9:1-7; Isaiah 11:1-16; Isaiah 13:1-22; Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 61:1-11; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Micah 5:2; Malachi 3:1-4, to his immediate precursor, John the Baptist. The character of these prophecies is very definite. The lineage from which Messiah should descend was foretold, Genesis 49:10; Isaiah 11:1, the place in which he should be born, Micah 5:2, the time of his appearance, Daniel 9:20; Daniel 9:25; Haggai 2:7; Malachi 3:1, etc. Nevertheless, in the vanity of their hearts, the Jews mistook the true meaning of these prophecies. They expected a triumphant worldly king, according to Psalms 2:1-12; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Zechariah 9:9, and that his triumph was to be accomplished by sufferings and death they did not understand. See Jesus Christ.
King James Dictionary - Messiah
MESSI'AH, a. Heb. anointed. Christ, the anointed the Savior of the world.
I know that when Messiah cometh, who is called Christ, he will tell us all things. Jesus answered her, I that speak to thee am he. John 4 .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Messiah
MESSIAH. The ‘one anointed’ (Gr. Christos ), i.e . appointed and empowered by God through the impartation of His own spirit, to become the Saviour of His people. The conception of the Messiah is logically implicit in all the expectations of the Hebrew people that Jehovah would deliver Israel and turn it into a glorious empire to which all the heathen would be subjected. But it is not always explicit. The expectation of the coming Kingdom is more in evidence than the expectation of the coming King. But in the same proportion as the conception of the personal Messiah emerges from the general Messianic hope these elements appear within it: (1) the Deliverer; (2) the presence of God’s Spirit in His own personality as the source of His power; (3) His work as the salvation of God’s people, at first the Jewish nation, but ultimately all those who join themselves to Him.
1. The Messiah of the OT
In any historical study of the OT it is necessary to distinguish sharply between the Messianic interpretation given to certain passages by later writers, notably Christian and Rabbinic, and the expectation which, so far as it is recoverable, the writers of the OT actually possessed. A disregard of this distinction has been common from the point of view of theological statement, but is fatal to a proper understanding of that progress in the religious apprehension of God and the clarifying of religious expectations which constitutes so large a factor in the Biblical revelation of God. It is always easier to discover tendencies as one looks back over a historical course of events than as one looks forward into the future which these events determine. The proper method in the study of the Messianic hope is not to mass the sentences of the OT to which a Messianic interpretation is given by later Biblical or extra-Biblical writers, but to study them in their context both literary and historical. In such a tracing of the historical development it is necessary to recognize critical results as far as they are reasonably fixed, and thus avoid reading back into the original hopes of the Hebrews those interpretations and implications which were given to the early history by various redactors. These latter, however, constitute data for the understanding of the Messianic ideal in the age of the editors.
Unfortunately, in the present state of criticism it is not possible to arrange the material of the OT in strictly chronological order. This is particularly true in the case of that reflecting the Messianic hope. The following classification of OT references is, therefore, not to he taken as a chronological exposition of a developing hope so much as a grouping of material of similar character.
1. The national tendencies of Messianic prophecy . In the case of prophets like Elijah and Elisha the hope is hardly more distinct than a belief that the nation which worshipped Jehovah would he triumphant over its enemies. So far as the records of their teaching show, however, there was no expectation of any superhuman deliverer, or, in fact, any future contemplated other than one which presupposed a conquering Israel with an equally triumphant Jehovah. Eschatological conceptions were absent, and the new Kingdom was to be political in the truest sense. With the approach of the more tragic days of the fall of the Northern Kingdom, the threatened calamities served as a text for the foreboding of Amos. Hosea’s prophecies of prosperity which would come to the nation when it turned from idols and alliances with heathen nations to the forgiving Jehovah may, as current criticism insists, belong to a later period than that usually accorded them; but in them we find little or nothing of the noble universalism to be seen in the promised victory of the seed of the woman over the serpent ( Genesis 3:14-15 ). It is rather a hope of national glory, such as appears in the promise made to Shem ( Genesis 9:27 ), to Abraham ( Genesis 12:8 ), to Jacob ( Genesis 27:27-29 ), and, in particular, to Judah ( Genesis 49:8-12 ). The basis of this great expectation is the faith in Jehovah as interpreted by the prophets, whether earlier or later. It was inconceivable to them that the true God should be other than ultimately triumphant; cf. the prophecy of Balaam ( Numbers 24:17-19 ), Song of Moses ( Deuteronomy 32:6-10 ), the expectation of ‘the prophet’ ( Deuteronomy 18:16-19 ). This nationalism is to be seen throughout the Messianic hope of the OT, although occasional exceptions are to be found, as in Genesis 3:14-15 , and in some passages of Ezekiel.
2. The Messianic hope of the great prophets . With Isaiah began a new development of the Messianic hope, primarily through the preaching of deliverance from the inevitable catastrophe of the Assyrian conquest. Out of the sorrows of the time, born largely, as Isaiah believed, from the sins of Jehovah’s people, was to arise deliverance. This seems to be the central teaching of the great passage, Isaiah 7:10-17 . Deliverance was to come before the expected child could choose between good and evil, but by the time he reached maturity the greater misery of Assyrian invasion should break forth. But in the name of the child, Immanuel , was the pledge that Jehovah would ever he with His people and would ultimately save them; not impossibly through the child himself, although nothing is said of Immanuel’s share in the accomplishment of the deliverance. Whether or not the reference in Isaiah 9:6-7 is to Immanuel, it is unquestionable that it is to the coming of a descendant of David, who should deliver Israel and reign with Jehovah’s assistance for ever triumphantly. In that glorious time, which was to he inaugurated by the Messianic King, would be prosperity hitherto unknown ( Isaiah 11:1-9 ). The ‘eternity’ of his reign is undoubtedly to he interpreted dynastically rather than personally, but the king himself clearly is a person, and Jehovah’s Spirit, which is to be within him, is just as plainly the source of his great success (cf. Isaiah 33:14-24 ). In a similar spirit Micah localizes the new Kingdom established through Divine guidance in Zion ( Micah 4:1-5 ), and declares that the King is to come from Bethlehem, that is to say, shall be Davidic ( Micah 5:2-5 ).
Primarily national as these expectations are, the keynote is the deliverance wrought by Jehovah through a particular royal person, in whose days righteousness and peace are to he supreme in the world because of the Hebrew empire. This picture of the royal king became one controlling element in the later Messianic hope.
In this literature, whatever its date may be, there appears also the new note of universal peace to be wrought by Jehovah. In large measure this peace was conceived of as due to the completeness of Jehovah’s conquest of the nations in the interests of His people (cf. Isaiah 9:1-5 ). But beyond this there can also be seen the hope that the very nature of the reign of the new King would conduce to an end of war. In such a passage as Isaiah 11:1-10 there is struck the keynote of a nobler Messianic reign than that possible to the mere conqueror. The peace then promised was to come from a knowledge of Jehovah as well as from the glories of the Davidic ruler.
The reformation of Josiah finds an echo in the equally exultant expectation of Jeremiah that Jehovah would surely place a descendant of David upon the throne, a ‘righteous branch,’ and one who would deliver Israel (Jeremiah 33:14-16 ). The glory of the restored kingdom was to he enhanced by a New Covenant to replace the broken covenant of Sinai. This covenant would be spiritual, and the relations which it would establish between Israel and Jehovah would be profoundly religious. Israel would be a servant of Jehovah, who would, on His part, forgive His people’s sins ( Jeremiah 31:31-34 ; cf. Jeremiah 33:17-22 ). The restoration of Israel, which was thus to be accomplished by Jehovah, involved not only national honour, but also a new prosperity for the priesthood, and new immortality on the part of the individual and the nation. There is no reference, however, to a personal Messiah. Yet if such a passage as Deuteronomy 18:16-19 belongs to this period, it is evident that the hope included the expectation of some great person, who would he even more sublime than Moses himself.
3. The Messianic hope during the Exile . The great catastrophe which fell upon both the Northern and Southern Kingdoms forced the prophets to re-examine the relations of national misfortune to the persistent hope of the glorious Kingdom of Jehovah. It would seem as if at the outset the exiles had expected that they would soon return to Palestine, but this hope was opposed most vigorously by Ezekiel, and the fall of Jerusalem confirmed his teaching. From the despair that followed, the people were rescued by the appearance of Cyrus, who became the instrument of Jehovah in bringing about the return of the remnant to their own land. It was from these dark years that there appeared a new type of Messianic hope, national and economic, it is true, but also profoundly religious. Jehovah would care for His people as the shepherd cared for his sheep, and the land to which they would return would be renewed ( Ezekiel 34:11-31 ), while the nations would support Israel and fear Jehovah ( Isaiah 49:22-23 ). Jehovah would make an everlasting covenant with His people ( Isaiah 55:1-6 ), but the new nation would not he composed of all those who had been swept into exile and their descendants. It would rather be a righteous community, purified by suffering. Thus the hope rises to that recognition of the individual which Ezekiel was the first to emphasize strongly.
At this point we have to decide whether the suffering Servant of Jehovah is to be interpreted collectively as the purified and vicarious remnant of Israel; or as some individual who would stand for ever as a representative of Jehovah, and, through his sufferings, purify and recall Israel to that spiritual life which would he the guarantee of a glorious future; or as the suffering nation itself. The interpretation placed upon these ‘Servant’ passages ( Isaiah 43:1-13 ; Isaiah 49:5 ; Isaiah 61:1-3 ; Isaiah 52:13-15 ; Isaiah 53:1-12 ) in Rabbinic thought was ordinarily not personal, but national. It was a suffering Israel who was not only to be gloriously redeemed, but was also to bring the knowledge of Jehovah and salvation to the world at large. And this is becoming the current interpretation to-day. Yet the personification is so complete as to yield itself readily to the personal application to Jesus made by the early Church and subsequent Christian expositors. A vicarious element, which was to prove of lasting influence, is now introduced into Messianic expectation. The deliverance was to be through the sufferings of the Deliverer. See, further, Servant of the Lord.
4. ‘ Messianic’ Psalms . While it is not possible to date Psalms 2:1-12 with any precision, its picture of the coming King who shall reign over all the world because of the power of Jehovah, is fundamentally political. The same is true of Psalms 45:1-17 ; Psalms 72:1-20 . In these Psalms there are expressions which could subsequently be used very properly to express the expectation of a completed Messianic hope, but it would be unwise to read back into them a conscious expectation of a definite superhuman person. The hope at the time of the writing of these Psalms was national and political.
5. The attempt at a Messianic nation . With the return of the exiles from Babylon to Judah attempts were made to inaugurate an ideal commonwealth which should embody these anticipations. The one great pre-requisite of this new nation was to be the observance of the Law, which would insure the coming of the Spirit of Jehovah upon the new Israel ( Joel 2:28-29 , Haggai 1:13 , Zechariah 2:1-5 , etc., Isaiah 60:1-22 ). The coronation of Zerubbabel seemed to Haggai and Zechariah the fulfilment of the promise that the prince would come from the house of David ( Haggai 2:23 , Zechariah 3:8 ). But the new commonwealth was thoroughly inefficient, and the Messianic hope seems to have become dormant in the struggles of the weak State. The literary activity of the years between the re-building of the Temple and the Maccabæan outbreak was, however, if current critical views be correct, full of idealistic elements. These expressed themselves in a re-working of the older codes and prophecies of the Hebrews, under the influence of the faith in the coming triumph Jehovah would give His people. The personal Deliverer is not described, but the deliverance was assured. This genuinely Messianic hope was not killed even by other tendencies to replace prophecy by the philosophy of experience. Through all these years it is certain that the fundamental elements of the Messianic hope remained fixed; namely, the ineradicable belief that Jehovah would ( a ) make of the Jewish nation a world empire; ( b ) establish the house of David; ( c ) punish the enemies of His chosen people, whether Gentiles or Jews; and ( d ) that this glorious future would be established by the expression of the Divine power in the resurrection, not of the individual from Sheol, but of the nation from its miseries. These elements were subsequently to develop into the dominant characteristics of the later Messianic hope the Kingdom of God, the Davidic King, the Day of Judgment, and the Resurrection of the Righteous.
II. The Messiah of the Jewish literature
1. The rise of apocalypse . The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to crush out Judaism led to the appearance of a new type of religious literature the apocalypse. The origin of this literature is a matter of dispute. The influence of the Babylonian myth cycles is certainly apparent, but the apocalypses, as they stand, have no precise analogy in other literature of the period. For our present purpose, however, the importance of the apocalypse lies in the fact that it contributed to the development of a new Messianic conception. In the very nature of the case the misery of Syrian persecution forced ‘the Pious’ not only to renewed faith in Jehovah, but also to a new sense of the need of prophecy. In the absence of the genuine prophet, the triumph of Israel and the inevitable destruction of Jehovah’s foes were foretold by symbol. The pseudonymous literature, which thus arose in the course of time, however, came to be taken not simply as figures of speech, but as possessing an ill-defined literal character (see Apocalyptic Literature).
2. The Messiah of the later canonical books is not well defined. The apocalyptic sections of Daniel contain a pervasive Messianic element, and in the portrayal of this hope we find the first thoroughly elaborated apocalypse of Judaism. The international relations of Israel are traced, but the historical horizon is bounded by Antiochus Epiphanes. A most important element of the future as set forth by Daniel is to be seen in the triumph of the kingdom of the saints, whose symbol is a ‘son of man,’ over the oppressing kingdoms of Babylonia, Media, Persia, and Syria, symbolized by the four beasts. There is, however, no sharply distinct personal Messiah in these visions, and the expectation is primarily that of a genuinely political State established by Jehovah in Palestine. The ‘day of Jehovah’ (see Day of the Lord) is, however, now elaborately developed into a world-judgment, and the lines of future apocalyptic Messianism are clearly drawn. But it is now to some extent expanded by the belief that the righteous, both Hebrews and others, would be raised from the dead to join in the Kingdom ( Daniel 12:1 ff.). In this union of the idea of the resurrection of the nation with that of the individual we find material which was ready to grow into the pictures of the later apocalypse.
3. In the Sibylline Oracles the figure of the Messiah again is not distinct, but there is a picture (III. 652, 794) of a glorious time when under a Divinely supported king (doubtless a member of the Hasmonæan house) war was to cease and God was to bless the righteous and punish the wicked. The nations would then come under the law of Jehovah, and Jerusalem would be the capital of the world-wide empire to be established miraculously. The other literature of the inter-Biblical period is not so hopeful, although ben-Sira foresees an everlasting Jewish empire under a Davidic dynasty ( Sir 32:18-19 ; Sir 33:1 f., Sir 37:25 ; Sir 47:11 ; Sir 50:24 ).
4 . In the different strata of the Eth. Enoch literature the hope of a personal Messiah is presented in somewhat different degrees of distinctness. In the older sections (1 36) of the original groundwork (chs. 1 36, 72 104), the hope, though apocalyptic, is national. Here, however, as in the later literature, attention is centred rather on the punishment of the wicked than on the development of the new Kingdom. Very note worthy is the fact that both the punishment of the wicked and the rewards of the righteous were to be eschatological. But eschatology, though involving the resurrection, is still somewhat naïve. The righteous are to live 500 years, beget 1000 children, and die in peace (ch. 10). Still, the punishment of the wicked is to be in Sheol, which has been divided into four sections with varying conditions (ch. 22; see Sheol). It is obvious, however, that in this early Enoch literature the thought is poetic rather than precise, and in a way it marks the transition from the political religious hope of the prophets to the transcendental expectations of the later apocalypses.
In the dream visions (chs. 83 90) there is a more elaborate symbolical account of the sufferings of the Hebrew people under various oppressors. The new age, however, is about to be introduced by the Day of Judgment, when wicked persons whether men, rulers, or angels are to be cast into an abyss of fire. Then the New Jerusalem is to be established by God. The dead are to be raised, the Messiah is to appear, and all men are to he transformed into His likeness. These latter elements of the hope, however, are somewhat obscurely expressed. The Messiah seems to have no particular function either of judgment or of conquest. The new Kingdom is a direct gift of God.
In the later chapters of this early section (chs. 90 104) the thought becomes more eschatological. The resurrection comes at the end of the Messianic reign, which is to be one of struggle, in which the wicked are to be subdued. The Messiah is thus more distinct, and is at least once called by God ‘my Son.’
In the other group of Enoch visions (chs. 37 72) the transcendental has become to some extent literalized. The Messiah is now very prominent, being called ‘son of man,’ ‘elect,’ ‘righteous one.’ He is pre-existent, and co-judge with God over both the living and the dead. The punishment of the enemies of Israel is still as prominent as the establishment of the new Kingdom, and the latter is described in terms which make it evident that the Jews could not conceive of any Kingdom of God apart from Palestine. There men and angels are to dwell together and rule over a world freed from sin.
5. In the Book of Jubilees the Messianic hope is all but lacking. Angelology and demonology are well developed, but apparently the author of the visions conceived of the Messianic age as about to dawn, even if it had not already begun. Members of that age were to live 1000 years, and were to be free from the influence of Satan. The Judgment was to close this period, but there was to be no resurrection of the body. There is no reference to a Messiah, but rather to the conquest of the world by a nation that kept Jehovah’s law.
6. The best-drawn picture of the Messiah in the Pharisaic literature is that of the Psalms of Solomon . In the 17th and 18th of these the apocalyptic element is largely wanting, but there is nothing inconsistent with the view of apocalyptic Messianism. The Messiah, however, is given a position not accorded him elsewhere in pre-Christian Jewish literature. He is neither sufferer nor teacher, pre-existent nor miraculously born; he is a mighty king, vice-regent of God, strong through the Holy Spirit. He would conquer the world without weapons or armies, with the word of his mouth, i.e . miraculously. The capital would be at Jerusalem, which would be purged from all heathen, and his subjects would be righteous Jews, ‘sons of God.’
7. The literature of later Pharisaism became very strongly apocalyptic, but the figure of a personal Messiah is not always present. In the Assumption of Moses there is no personal Messiah mentioned, and God is said to be the sole punisher of the Gentiles. The sufferings of the faithful are treated as an incentive to faith in the Kingdom of God. The concrete king of the hostile kingdom should be overcome. The enemies of God were to be punished in Gehenna, and a glorious dispensation for united Israel was to dawn.
In Slavonic Enoch , likewise, there is no mention of the Messiah or of the resurrection, although the latter is doubtless involved in the doctrine of the millennium, which this book sets forth. It would appear that both in the Assumption of Moses and in Slavonic Enoch the central figure is God, the deliverer of His people and judge of His enemies, rather than the Messiah.
In the Apocalypse of Baruch and in Second Esdras , however, transcendentalism reaches its final form under the influence of the tragedy of the fall of Jerusalem. These two books are very probably the different forms of cycles of apocalyptic hopes that prevailed among the pious Jews. In one cycle a Messiah would slay those who had in any way injured the Jewish people, and make a Jerusalem already prepared in heaven his capital. In the other cycle there is no such glory in store for Israel, but there will be an end of corruptible things, and the establishment of a new world-age in which the dead shall be raised under the command of the Messiah. In Second Esdras the Christ is conceived of as pre-existent, raised from the sea in company with Enoch, Moses, and Elijah; and is addressed by God as ‘my Son.’ He destroys the enemies of Israel without war, with fire that proceeds from his mouth. The ten tribes of Israel return with their brethren to live in the New Jerusalem which had come down from heaven. Then the Messiah and all mankind die, remaining dead for an entire ‘week’; after that come a general resurrection and judgment, and the fixing of the destinies of eternity. God, however, rather than the Messiah, is to be judge.
In these later apocalypses the Christ plays a large rôle, but is manifestly to be subordinated to God.
III. The Messiah of popular expectation in NT times . Over against this Messiah of Pharisaic literature, so clearly increasingly superhuman in character, must be placed the Messianic hope of the people at large. It is difficult to discover this in detail, for the reason that it found its way into literature only as a hope that had been rejected by the writers. Yet it is possible in some passages of Josephus to trace its rise and its tragic outcome. The Messianic spirit is undoubtedly to be seen in the succession of so-called ‘robbers’ that disturbed the reigns of Herod I. and his successors; as well as in the conspiracies under ‘the ten men’ ( Ant . XV. viii. 3, 4) and the Rabbis Judas and Matthias (Ant. XVII. vi. 2, 4). With the death of Herod, however, the Messianic movement among the masses gathered headway, particularly after the erection of Judæa into a procuratorial province (a.d. 6). Judas of Gamala and a Pharisee named Zaduc organized a fourth sect coordinate with the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, and incited the people to revolt, because of the census then established. There is no evidence, however, that this new sect, which is clearly that of the Zealots , had any distinct hope of a superhuman Messiah. According to Josephus ( Ant . XVIII. i. 1, 6), they said God was to be their only ruler and lord. To this new party Josephus attributes in large degree the fall of the Jewish State. Messianic movements are also to be seen in the attempted revolt of the prophet Theudas, in robbers like Eleazar, in the Sicarii (or Assassins), and in ‘the Egyptian,’ with whom St. Paul was momentarily identified by the chief captain ( Acts 21:33 ). Besides these were bands of fanatics like those mysterious men mentioned by Josephus ( BJ II. i. 2, 3). All these movements co-operated to bring about the destruction of the Jewish State, for the revolt of 66 must be regarded as distinctly Messianic a fact perceived by Josephus in the important passage BJ VI. v. 4, where it is said: ‘What most stirred them up to war was the ambiguous oracle that was found also in their sacred writings [1] that about that time one from their country should become ruler of the world.’
It is greatly to be regretted that this Messianic hope of the people has not left larger traces of itself. It is, however, not difficult to see in it the more political and concrete hopes which the Pharisees expressed in terms of the apocalypse. The Zealots, like the Pharisees, expected the new Kingdom to be established by God or His representative the Messiah, but, unlike the Pharisees, they were not content to await the Divine action. They preferred rather to precipitate deliverance by political revolt. The fact that the Messiah is not prominent in such hopes does not imply that such a person was unexpected. A leader would certainly be involved in any revolt, but such a leader would not necessarily be superhuman. Yet it would be unsafe to say that the Messiah whom the people expected, any more than he whom the Pharisees awaited, would be without Divine appointment and inspiration. He might not be, strictly speaking, supernatural, but he would certainly be given the Divine Spirit and power to bring deliverance which, without the aid of God, would be clearly impossible. The chief difference between the Messianic hope of the Pharisees and that of the Zealots and people was probably the lack in the latter of the eschatological, transcendental element, such as the resurrection from the dead and the heavenly Jerusalem, which was so important in the hope of the Pharisees. How thoroughly social and political this folk-Messianism became is to be seen in the various abortive attempts to establish, during the revolt of 66, a peasant republic, as well as in the destruction of evidence of indebtedness and the massacre of the aristocrats. The Pharisaic expectation would never have led to violence, but rather involved the patient waiting of the faithful for the time set by Jehovah.
IV. The Messiah of the Samaritans . It would be exceedingly helpful, particularly for an understanding of John 4:1-42 , if we knew the Samaritan Messianic hope with some precision. Unfortunately, there is no literature dating from the time of Christ which sets this forth. So far, however, as it can be recovered from later sources, and particularly from the present high priest of the Samaritans, it would seem that the expectation did not include the Davidic King of Judaism, but centred rather about the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 of the prophet God was to raise up like unto Moses. This prophet, according to the Samaritan belief, was to be ‘the Converter,’ who would bring moral and religious truth to light. At the same time, they believed that the Gentiles would be subjected to him, would believe in him and the holy Law, and in the sanctuary of Mt. Gerizim. There seems to have been no expectation of miraculous powers to be exercised by the prophet; but concerning this, as in fact about other particulars of the Samaritan hope, no statement can be made with absolute certainty.
V. The Messiah of Rabbinism . Subsequent to the destruction of Jerusalem, Pharisaism developed rapidly into its final stage of Rabbinism. The two tendencies which are so marked in Pharisaism one towards strict legalism, the other towards Messianicidealism were then codified and systematically elaborated. The development of the Messianic expectation, however, was to some extent shaped by the need of combating the Messianic interpretations of Christianity. Traces of this influence are undoubtedly to be found in the Targum on Isaiah 53 , and in 2 Esdras, but they are also to appear in literature that was clearly subjected to Christian redaction. The Messiah was generally regarded as a descendant of David. He was to free Israel from the power of the heathen world, kill its emperor of the kingdom of evil, and set up his own Kingdom. He was regarded also as pre-existent, not merely ideally, but actually. For a merely ideal pre-existence is not to be argued from the well-known saying including the seven things created before the world was made. The name here undoubtedly implies personality, and in some of the later Jewish writings this pre-existent state is somewhat minutely described. He is to be hidden until he appears, but the obvious inconsistencies of view were never fully systematized.

Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Messiah
The term "messiah" is the translation of the Hebrew term masiah [1], which is derived from the verb masah, meaning to smear or anoint. When objects such as wafers and shields were smeared with grease or oil they were said to be anointed; hence the commonly used term was "anoint" when grease or oil was applied to objects by Israelites and non-Israelites. The term "messiah" is not used to refer to "anointed" objects that were designated and consecrated for specific cultic purposes but to persons only. Persons who were anointed had been elected, designated, appointed, given authority, qualified, and equipped for specific offices and tasks related to these.
When the concept of messiah is considered from a specifically biblical-theological perspective, various questions come to the fore. The first concerns the origin of the concept. Various critically inclined scholars have searched Near Eastern documents for possible references or incipient thoughts that biblical writers borrowed and developed. A careful study of Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Canaanite texts reveals various factors that could be related indirectly to the biblical concept. The Egyptian texts, for example, speak of a divine king who would bring deliverance and prosperity but this god-king and his work were totally different from the biblical concept of the messiah. The Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Canaanite texts also exhibit a common literary and historical background with the Scriptures, but the views concerning kingship and priesthood, the interrelationships between these, and their relationship to gods are radically different from the biblical explanations. Thus, while some formal similarities are present the messianic concept presented in the Bible is radically different. There is no possibility of considering the Near Eastern views to be the sources from which the biblical concept is lineally developed.
The biblical idea of the messiah and his work is divinely revealed. It did not originate in human thought. While the act of anointing was not foreign to non-Israelites, the intent and consequences of the act are not found in nonbiblical documents. God made his intent and the consequences of the anointing act progressively known in the course of his self-revelation to humanity.
A second question concerns the specific objects that were anointed and therefore had messianic significance. Not all anointing Acts had direct messianic significance. For example, anointing a shield (smearing it with oil) (2 Samuel 1:21 ; Isaiah 21:5 ), while preparing and qualifying it for effective service, did not have messianic intentions; nor did men and women who anointed themselves for cleansing, beautifying, or preparing for participation in worship have messianic significance. Nor did the smearing or pouring of oil on wafers and cultic objects indicate a specific messianic purpose. What must be kept in mind, however, is that this anointing of shields, cultic objects, and men and women did convey ideas, such as qualification, beautification, and consecration, which are inherent in the anointing Acts and purposes that do have messianic significance. A further qualification to be kept in mind is that not all objects that had a messianic significance, for example, types of Jesus Christ the Messiah, his person and work, were anointed. Classic examples of this are the tabernacle, temple, and sacrifices.
A third question concerns the messianic concept as it is expressed most adequately and fully in an anointed person. The anointed person was chosen, designated, qualified, and consecrated to a position with correlated tasks. Some scholars have insisted that only an actual reigning king could be considered as the messiah. This view, however, is not consistent with the biblical revelation concerning the messiah. True, the messiah was to be considered as a royal person. This personal aspect has been referred to as the narrower view of the messianic idea. But the personal is not to be limited to royalty because the biblical messianic idea includes the priestly and the prophetic offices also.
The messianic concept also has a wider dimension than the royal, priestly, and/or prophetic person. Included in this wider view are the characteristics, tasks, goals, means, and consequences of the messianic person. Thus, a passage in Scripture should be considered to be referring to the messiah when reference is made, for example, to the character, task, and influences of the messiah even though there is no direct mention of the personal messiah himself.
The fourth question concerns the actual position and task of the messiah. The Near Eastern texts presented a divine-royal personage who would fight, kill, and plunder; this was especially true of the gods represented by the divine kings to gain advantage and thus set up their political organization, be it thought of in terms of a kingdom or empire. The biblical messiah, who was symbolized and typified, as explained below, was a divine-human being, ordained by God the Father to be the mediator of the covenant and as such to be the administrator of the kingdom of God.
What is the biblical portrait of the messiah?
Adam and Eve, created in God's image, were placed in a living, loving, lasting relationship, a covenant bond, with the Creator God. These human beings were given authority, ability, and responsibility to mirror, represent, and serve the sovereign Creator and King of the entire created cosmos. Adam and Eve were to believe, obey, and serve God in the living, loving, covenantal relationship. The account of Adam and Eve's deviation, under Satan's influence, from the will, purposes, and goals of God is well known.
God immediately intervened. He cursed the serpent/Satan and all his followers. He promised that the covenantal relationship would be restored through the victory that the seed of the woman would have over Satan. Yet, God did not remove or permit Adam and Eve to abdicate their creational covenantal position and responsibilities. Rather, God assured Adam and Eve that redemption and restoration would become realities in the lives and history of their seed (Genesis 3:14-20 ). The seed of the woman would restore, continue, and bring to full fruition God's kingdom plans and goals.
Satanic efforts to render the redemptive/restorative covenant ineffective are recorded throughout the Scriptures. The murder of Abel (Genesis 4:8 ) and the violence that saturated society before and during the first part of Noah's life, bear testimony to Satan's efforts (Genesis 4-5 ; 6:1-8 ). But God kept covenant with righteous, blameless, obedient, believing, and serving Noah. Noah stands as a prefigurement of the promised Messiah who, in the midst of judgment, would effect a complete and final redemption. Noah, late in life, prophesied that Shem would be the messianic seedline bearer (Genesis 9:25-27 ).
Abraham, descendant of Shem, was called and appointed to be the covenant agent. He was to leave country, clan, and family to become the channel of messianic blessings to all nations (Genesis 12:1-3 ). God covenanted in a special manner with Abraham, assuring him that via his seed God would carry out his redemptive/restorative work. That Abraham and his seed would be able to do this was confirmed by God's assuring covenantal affirmation: "I am God Almighty I will make you very fruitful be your God and of your descendants" (Genesis 17:1-7 ). Two important messianic factors stand out: (1) the covenant Lord would continue the seedline; and (2) Abraham was called to believe, obey, and serve as the father of all believers who would receive the benefits of the Messiah.
The messianic seedline continued through Isaac and Jacob; Jacob prophesied that that line would continue through Judah (Genesis 49:8-12 ); the line continued through Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:16-22 ); and David was told that his son's throne would be established forever (2 Samuel 7:11b-16 ). The royal descendants of David were not all believing, obeying, serving covenant messianic forbears of Jesus the Messiah/Christ. God, however, maintained the seedline from Abraham, through David, through Zerubbabel, through Mary and Joseph. This seedline referred especially to the royal dimension of the messianic office and task. Other dimensions were also included to reveal the inclusive position, tasks, and influence of the Messiah. The royal aspect was central, pervasive, and supportive of all the other dimensions. This dominating royal aspect led many in Old Testament, intertestamentary, and New Testament times to think of the Messiah strictly in terms of his kingship and his setting up and ruling an earthly political entity in which Hebrew/Jewish people would be the kingdom people.
Whereas the narrower view of the messianic idea is central, the wider dimension was clearly present at all times also. Adam and Eve had a wider task to perform than strictly royal. Noah, an ancestor of the Messiah personally, while not a royal person, performed a redemptive messianic function. The redemptive task pertained not only to the saving of eight people but also included the animal world.
The wider dimension of the messianic concept is evident in Abraham's life of faith, intercession on behalf of Sodom and Gomorrah (Genesis 18 ), and offering of the ram substituted for his son Isaac (Genesis 22 ). Abraham's grandson Joseph, serving as a type of the Messiah, performed in a royal capacity but before he was lifted to that capacity he suffered humiliation. Once in a royal position, he became the savior of the seedline by functioning in the creational covenantal setting, collecting, preserving, and distributing food during years of famine.
Moses, another type of the Messiah, functioned in a royal capacity as lawgiver but he also served as a prophet. He was the greatest of the Old Testament prophets and the model of all faithful prophets who spoke God's word. In addition, through Moses, God ordained the priesthood, ordered the building of the tabernacle, and prescribed the sacrifices. These were symbols and types of the messianic task, giving expression to the priestly mediatorial office, the God with you (Immanuel) principle, and the substitutionary death on behalf of sinners. Another messianic representation in the days of the patriarchs and Moses was the angel of the Lord, who appeared in theophanic form as the preincarnate Christ. The angel of the Lord phenomenon particularly gave emphasis to the divine character of the Messiah. Still more expressions of the messianic task were given in the time of Moses; consider the pillar of fire (Christ is the light), manna (Christ is the living bread), the water from the rock (Christ is living water and the rock), and the lifted-up bronze serpent (Christ is the lifted-up One who gives life).
The psalmists and prophets gave further explication of the Penteteuchal presentations of the Messiah. The psalms gave expression to the royal character of the Messiah. The suffering, priestly dimension is spoken of as well. This dimension includes references to death and resurrection. According to the psalmists, it is the royal One (the narrower view) who also carries out the priestly and prophetic tasks, that is, bringing in salvation and giving instruction in the truth.
The prophets especially brought together the wider and narrower views concerning the Messiah. Consider Isaiah's proclamation of the birth by a virgin (7:14), the wise, all-knowing ruling son of David (9:1-6), the fruitful branch who would bring redemption, restoration, and blessings in life (chap. 11). It was Isaiah who proclaimed that the Messiah was to be the light to the Gentiles (49:6), the suffering, exalted One (52:13-53:12). The Messiah was to be the great comforting preacher of freedom, the healer and bringer of joy (61:1-3). Micah prophesied that the Messiah was to come through the royal Davidic seedline to shepherd his people and bring them security (5:1-4). Amos likewise proclaimed that the Messiah of Davidic lineage would fulfill Yahweh's covenant promises to the nations (9:11-15). Jeremiah prophesied of the Messiah, the one of Davidic lineage who was to be the king of righteousness (23:5-6). Ezekiel called the exiles' attention to the Son of Man, the covenant mediator who would restore and shepherd his people (chaps. 34; 36). Postexilic prophets spoke of the Messiah as the royal, redeeming, restoring One to come (Haggai 2:20-22 ; Zechariah 4:1-14 ; 6:9-15 ; 9:9-10 ), Malachi spoke of the Messiah as a cleansing agent who, as messenger of the covenant, would bring healing in his wings (3:1-4; 4:1-3).
The New Testament writers, evangelists, and apostles give no reason to doubt that Jesus is the Messiah, or in New Testament language, the Christ. He came, born of Abrahamic and Davidic lineage (Matthew 1:2-16 ; Luke 2:4-15 ). John the Baptist identified Jesus as the Messiah by referring to the wider dimension: "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29 ). Jesus was the One who would bring judgment as well as life by the Spirit of God (Matthew 3:1-12 ). The evangelists record that Jesus was anointed by the Spirit when he was baptized. Jesus proclaimed himself as the Messiah in Nazareth (Luke 4:16-22 ) and at Jacob's well to the Samaritan woman (John 4:24-25 ).
Gerard Van Groningen
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of
Bibliography . C. A. Briggs, The Messiah of the Gospels ; N. L. Geisler, To Understand the Bible—Look for Jesus ; E. Hengstenberg, Christology of the Old Testament and a Commentary on the Messianic Predictions ; J. Jocz, The Jewish People and Jesus Christ ; H. Lockyer, All the Messianic Prophecies of the Bible ; W. Manson, Jesus the Messiah ; S. Mowinckel, He That Cometh ; E. Riehm, Messianic Prophecy: Its Origin, Historical Growth, and Relation to New Testament Fulfillment ; G. A. Riggan, Messianic Theology and Christian Faith ; O. P. Robertson, The Christ of the Covenants ; G. Stibitz, Messianic Prophecy ; G. Van Groningen, Messianic Revelation in the Old Testament ; M. Wyngaarden, The Future of the Kingdom in Prophecy and Fulfillment .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Messiah
See Christ, Christology.
MESSIAH is the English word based on the Greek representation of the original Hebrew or Aramaic. The Gr. reproduction assumes the varied forms ?es?a?, ?ess?a?, and ?ese?a?, corresponding to the Hebrew ???????? and the Aramaic ?????????. The Heb. is the normal katŒl form, meaning ‘anointed,ì which is translation  into Greek in the term which has become so familiar, ???st??, the agnomen of our Lord. The Heb. ???????? was a term applied pre-eminently to the king, who was designated to office by the ceremony of anointing (1Sa_9:16; 1Sa_10:1, 2Ki_9:2-3; 2Ki_9:6). Priests were consecrated to office in like manner (Lev_8:12; cf. Jeremiah 23:5-88; cf. Lev_4:16).
i. Anointing of Kings.—The custom of anointing the king, from which his designation as ‘messiah’ arose, is connected with magical usages of hoary antiquity, based on the conception that the smearing or pouring of the unguent on the body endows the human subject with certain qualities. Thus the Arabs of Eastern Africa believe that an unguent of lion’s fat inspires a man with boldness, and makes the wild beasts flee in terror from him. Other illustrations may be found in Frazer’s Golden Bough2 [1] , ii. 364 ff. The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions show that this custom of anointing the king with oil prevailed in Western Asia at least as far back as b.c. 1450. The passage to which we refer occurs in a letter from a certain Rammân-nirâri of Nuhašši in Northern Syria addressed to the king of Egypt, in which it is stated that a former king of Egypt [2] had ‘poured oil on the head’ of Rammân-nirâri’s grandfather and established him as king of Nuhašši.* [3] Frazer’s great work has rendered us familiar with the supernatural endowments of a king who was regarded as a quasi-deity.† [4] That ancient Israel also believed that the royal dignity involved supernatural Divine powers, and that the oil poured upon the king conveyed these powers (like the ‘laying on of hands’), can hardly admit of doubt. The oil, like the sprinkled blood in a covenant-rite‡ [5] (Exodus 24:6 ff.), possessed a magical virtue.§ [6]
Like the priest, the king was regarded as a Divine intermediary, and assumed the supreme ritual functions of a priest in his own person. Among the ancient Semites, especially the Babylonians and Assyrians, the earthly ruler or king was considered to be the supreme God’s representative or viceroy. Sometimes he declares himself the ‘son of the deity’ (e.g. in the opening line of Ashurbanipal’s cylinder-inscription he calls himself binutu Ashûr u Bêlit, ‘offspring of Ashur and Beltis’; cf. the language of Psalms 2:7), or ‘favourite of the deity’ (cf. the name of the Bab. [7] monarch Naram-Sin, ‘beloved of SIN. [8] ’ Sargon calls himself in the opening of his Nimrûd insc. ‘the favourite of Anu and Bel’). Further parallels in the case of Nebuchadrezzar may be found in Schrader, COT [9] ii. 105 ff. See also Tiele, Bab. [7] —Assyr. [11] Gesch. 491 ff. Tiglath-pileser i. (b.c. 1100) calls himself iššakku (PA-TE-SI) of the God Ashur (Prism-Insc. col. vii. 62. 63), i.e. Ashur’s plenipotentiary. That in this sacred function priestly office was involved may be readily inferred. Thus Ashurbanipal (like Sargon) calls himself not only the šaknu or vicegerent of Bêl, but also the šangu or priest of Ashur. Similarly the Homeric kings offer sacrifice on behalf of the people. As Robertson Smith remarks (‘Priest’ in EBr [12] 9 [1] ), the king in both Greece and Rome was the acting head of the State-religion. So also in ancient pre-exilian Israel, David and Solomon offered sacrifices (2 Samuel 6:17 ff., 1 Kings 8:63) in accordance with the tradition of the age.
ii. Unique position of David in Hebrew thought.—Among the Hebrew anointed kings or messiahs, David came in course of time to have a special significance. His importance was enhanced by the history of the three centuries that followed his reign. No Israelite or Jew living in the year b.c. 730 could have failed to note the striking contrast between the unbroken continuity of monarchs of the seed of David sitting on the throne of Jerusalem and the succession of brief dynasties and usurping kings who followed one another on the throne of Samaria. The swiftly passing series of short reigns terminated by violence which filled the space of 15 years in Northern Israel from the close of the dynasty of Jehu (which lasted nearly a century) to the accession of Hoshea, Assyria’s nominee, to the dismembered kingdom, deeply impressed the prophet of Ephraim, who exclaims:—
‘They have appointed kings, but not from me (i.e. Jahweh);
Have made princes, but I knew them not’ (Hosea 8:4).
It is not surprising, amid the rapid changes of rulers and the disasters wrought by foreign invasion, that Hosea should have prophesied the discipline of exile for his faithless countrymen, and as its final issue that they should return and seek Jahweh their God and ‘David their king.’* [2] For amid all the vicissitudes of the last three centuries the seed of David had survived every peril. The ‘sure mercies of David’ to which the Jews still clung, though with feeble hope, in the dark days of exile (Isaiah 55:3), began in the age of Isaiah to take root in the national imagination. Though Judah was destined to suffer terrible chastisements, yet as a result of the disciplinary trial ‘a remnant would return’ (i.e. be converted) to Jahweh, and Jerusalem would be preserved from the onslaughts of the Assyrian foe. The Immanuel prophecy, which contained the assurance of God’s presence among His people, delivered to the doubting Ahaz and his unbelieving court during the dark days of b.c. 735, became the germ of a great series of Messianic passages which are found in Isaiah 9:1-6 [15], which was probably composed soon after b.c. 701, in Isaiah 11:1-9, and, lastly, in Isaiah 32:1-3. In the first the Messiah is portrayed as a military conquering hero, ‘breaking in pieces the oppressor’s mace’; in the second, the sounds of discord cease, and He, sprung from Jesse’s stock, is the ruler of justice and peace in God’s ‘holy mountain’ of Zion, where even the powers of violence and injustice are turned into submission to a Divine authority. In the last He is again the King who shall reign in righteousness, ‘a hiding-place from the wind, a covert from the tempest.’
All these passages, as well as Is 2:2–4, are regarded by Duhm as Isaianic. On the other hand, Cheyne, Hackmann, and Marti hold that they are post-exilic,* [16] but on what the present writer considers to be insufficient grounds. The subject is discussed by Cheyne in his Introd. to Isaiah, pp. 44 ff., 57 ff., and 173–176; also by Hackmann, Die Zukunftserwartung des Jesaia, pp. 126–156, and by Marti in his Commentary on the above passages: cf. also his Gesch. der Isr. [17] Religion4 [1] , p. 191 footn., 255 ff. On the other side, see the Commentaries of Duhm and Dillmann-Kittel (1898) on these passages, and the Century Bible, Com. on ‘Isaiah’ by the present writer. Kautzsch, in his elaborate art. ‘Religion of Israel’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (Extra Vol. p. 696a), admits the reasonableness of the view here advocated.
After the gleams of hope awakened by Hezekiah and the deliverance of Jerusalem, and after the glowing anticipations of an ideal Messianic King clothed with Divine powers, to which Isaiah in the early years of the 7th cent. gave expression, there followed a time of reaction when these high hopes suffered temporary eclipse. Men’s hearts became sick of waiting. The long reign of Manasseh, followed by the brief reign of Amon, was a period of religious as well as political decline. On the other hand, the reign of Josiah reawakened the hopes of the faithful adherents of Jahweh, and it is significant that Messianic expectation revives in the oracles of Jeremiah. In 1618419556_3 (cf. Jeremiah 30:9) he foretells the coming days when a righteous branch or shoot shall be raised unto David, who shall reign prudently and execute judgment and justice. In his days Judah shall be saved and Israel dwell secure, and the name by which he shall be called is ‘Jahweh is our righteousness’ This fragment probably belongs to the earlier utterances of Jeremiah, and upon it Zechariah in the opening years of the post-exilic period bases his well-known prophecies (Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12), in which Joshua and his comrades are addressed as tokens of the coming of Jahweh’s servant ‘the branch’ (Zechariah 3:8). In Zechariah 6:12 it is made clear that Zerubbabel of the seed of David is meant, who is destined to complete the building of the Temple.† [Note: Duhm deals very arbitrarily with these passages. Jeremiah 23:5-8 was not the genuine utterance of Jeremiah, but a post-exilic addition. Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12 are badly corrupted, and later editors have sought to eliminate the name of Zerubbabel from the original oracle, because Zechariah’s prophecies with respect to him were not fulfilled.
Probably Micah 5:1-8, like Jeremiah 23:5-8, may be assigned to the earlier years of the reign of Josiah, when the religious and political outlook of Judah appeared more hopeful, and the overthrow of Assyria seemed as probable as it did to Isaiah after b.c. 701 (Isaiah 9:3-4 [19]). We may assign Nahum 2:2 to Nahum 3:19 to the same period.] With the passage in Jeremiah 23:5-8 cf. also Jeremiah 30:9, Jeremiah 33:15 as well as Ezekiel 21:32; Ezekiel 34:23-31; Ezekiel 37:24. In Jeremiah less stress is laid on the personal and material features, more emphasis placed on the ethical. Also it appears from several passages that Jeremiah thought rather of a succession of rulers of Davidic descent than of a single ruler. But in determining this question the utmost critical caution is required. Thus Jeremiah 33:14-24 is regarded by most critics as a later addition to the oracles of Jeremiah (see, e.g., Giesebrecht’s Com., and Cornill in SBOT [20] ). Certainly after the time of Jeremiah the personal features in Messianic prophecy became fainter. ‘There shall not be cut off from David one that sits upon the throne of the house of Israel’ (Jeremiah 33:17), points to a succession of rulers at a time when the hopes of Israel still clung to the ‘sure mercies of David.’ But this utterance, as we have already seen, belongs to a later time than that of Jeremiah. Zephaniah and Obadiah make no reference to the Messianic King. When we consider their historic environment, this is not surprising. For royalty in Judah was rapidly declining in power and prestige. The last kings of Judah became mere puppets in the hands of foreign princes, who pulled the strings from the banks of the Nile or of the Euphrates. Under these circumstances the ideal of a Davidic ruler ceased to appeal as powerfully as it did a century earlier, and ultimately gave place to another. It is marvellous that it continued to survive after the rude shocks of a hundred years.
Its survival is probably due to Ezekiel, the priest-prophet, herald of restoration, of hope and of reconstructive effort. This prophet was an earnest student of Israel’s past, and read its records and its oracles. The influence not only of his great elder contemporary Jeremiah, but also of the earlier prophets Hosea and Isaiah, is unmistakable. The influence of the first and the last is clear in Ezekiel 34:23-31 ‘And I will set over them a shepherd, and he shall feed them, even my servant David; … and I the Lord will be a God unto them, and my servant David a prince in their midst.’ Here, as in the case of Jeremiah 23:5-8, David represents a succession of Davidic descendants sitting on his throne. When we turn to Ezekiel’s ideal scheme of the restored Jewish theocracy (chs. 40–48), we find that the secular prince of Davidic lineage falls into the background, and his functions are subordinated to the ecclesiastical routine. The same fate in the early post-exilic period befalls the somewhat shadowy, if stately, figure of Zerubbabel in Zechariah 4, 6 (cf. Haggai 2:22), who was soon destined to subside into the background in the presence of Joshua the high priest, the natural and legitimate head of the newly constituted Church-nation. In truth, the Messianic King rapidly becomes a vanished ideal of prophecy. In the closing verses (14–20) of Zephaniah (obviously an addition belonging to the late-exilic or early post-exilic period) it is Jahweh who is Israel’s King in the midst of His people, their mighty Hero who wards off the nation’s foes (Haggai 2:15-19).
When we turn to the Deutero-Isaiah (40–55), we find that an entirely new ideal, to which reference has already been made, had displaced the earlier and older one created by Isaiah. In place of the national-Messianic King we have the national-prophetic ideal of the Suffering Servant of Jahweh, through whose humiliation and sorrow the sinning nation shall find peace. God’s anointed king, who is not of Davidic descent at all, but the Persian Cyrus, is the chosen instrument for accomplishing the Divine purposes with respect to His servant Jacob (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-4). We shall have to note how profoundly the Deutero-Isaianic portraiture of the Suffering Servant came in later times to modify the Hebrew ideal of the Messiah, and to constitute an entirely new conception which the Hebrew race only partially and very slowly assimilated, and whose leaven worked powerfully in the Messianic ideal of the ‘Son of Man’ in the consciousness of Christ and His immediate followers.
When we pass to the Trito-Isaiah (56–66), which probably arose in the years that immediately preceded the advent of Nehemiah, we find that the old ideal of the Davidic Messiah, which Ezekiel and Haggai attempted with poor success to revive, has altogether disappeared. Not even in the lyrical collection (60–62) is the faintest note to be heard of a Messianic Jewish King. The prophecies of Malachi are equally silent. We have to wait for centuries—perhaps as late as the declining days of the Hasmonaeans—before the Davidic Messianic King definitely and clearly reappears.
Before we pass to the Greek period (b.c. 300 and later), it is necessary to refer briefly to a series of OT passages of a Messianic or reputed Messianic character. (1) Genesis 3:15 (belonging to the earlier Jahwistic document, J 1) can only by a strained interpretation be regarded as Messianic at all. The seed of the woman and the serpent (representing the power of evil) are to be engaged in prolonged conflict, in which both suffer injury. In this struggle it is not expressly stated which side will triumph (so Dillmann). (2) Genesis 49:10 is exceedingly obscure. The rendering, ‘as long as one comes to Shiloh’ (Hitzig, Tuch), is doubtful in point of Hebrew usage, and difficult to sustain historically. The Greek versions attribute to the phrase an obscure Messianic reference, but interpret שלה as a late Hebrew compound form with a relative, which can be accepted only after making violent assumptions.* [21] Giesebrecht ingeniously proposed to read in place of שלה the form משְׁלֹה ‘his ruler.’ He rightly argues that to read שֶׁלּה as the LXX Septuagint presupposes, immediately followed by וְלוֹ, constitutes a very awkward and intolerable combination.† [22] If we accept this emendation, the passage may be regarded as Messianic. But it is most probably an insertion moulded on Ezekiel 21:32, for it stands in no immediate relation to the verses that precede or follow.‡ [7] (3) 2 Samuel 7:4-17. Here 2 Samuel 7:15-16 are the expression, placed in the mouth of the prophet Nathan, of the sentiment of reverence to the House of David, which took its rise in the latter part of the 8th century. Budde refers this speech of Nathan and the following prayer of David to a later period than the other more primitive sections of the historical narrative, and we may reasonably follow him in ascribing this passage to the 7th cent.—not improbably the same period as that in which Jeremiah 23:5-8; Jeremiah 30:9 arose.§ [24] (4) Numbers 24:17 ‘A star hath marched (? gleam
CARM Theological Dictionary - Messiah
Messiah is a Hebrew word. It means "anointed one." It is the equivalent of the N.T. word "Christ" which also means "anointed." Jesus, as the messiah, was anointed by God (Matthew 3:16) to carry out His three-fold ministry of Prophet, Priest, and King. As the messiah He has delivered the Christian from the bonds of sin and given to him eternal life. In that sense, messiah means deliverer, for He has delivered us. The Messiah was promised in the O.T. in the seed of the woman (Genesis 3:15).
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Messiah
Signifies anointed, the title given by way of eminence to our Savior; meaning the same in Hebrew as Christ in Greek, and alludes to the authority he had to assume the characters of prophet, priest, and king, and that of Savior of the world. The ancient Jews had just notions of the Messiah, which came gradually to be corrupted, by expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror; and finding Jesus Christ to be poor, humble, and of an unpromising appearance, they rejected him. Most of the modern rabbis, according to Buxtorf, believe that the Messiah is come, but that he lies concealed because of the sins of the Jews. Others believe he is not yet come, fixing different times for his appearance, many of which are elapsed; and, being thus baffled, have pronounced an anathema against those who shall pretend to calculate the time of his coming. To reconcile the prophecies concerning the Messiah that seemed to be contradictory, some have had recourse to a twofold Messiah; one in a state of poverty and suffering, the other of splendor and glory.
The first, they say, is to proceed from the tribe of Ephraim, who is to fight against Gog, and to be slain by Annillus, Zechariah 12:10 ; the second is to be of the tribe of Judah and lineage of David, who is to conquer and kill Annillus; to bring the first Messiah to life again, to assemble all Israel, and rule over the whole world. That Jesus Christ is the true Messiah, and actually come in the flesh is evident, if we consider (as Mr. Fuller observes) that it is intimated that whenever he should come, the sacrifices and ceremonies of the Mosaic law were to be superseded by him, Psalms 40:6-8 ; 1 Samuel 15:22 ; Daniel 9:27 ; Jeremiah 31:31 ; Jeremiah 31:34 ; Hebrews 8:13 . Now sacrifice and oblation have ceased. They virtually ceased when Jesus offered himself a sacrifice, and in a few years after, they actually ceased. A few of the ancient ceremonies are indeed adhered to, but as one of the Jewish writers acknowledges. "The sacrifices of the Holy Temple have ceased." Let every Jew therefore, ask himself this question. Should Messiah the Prince come at some future period, how are the sacrifice and oblation to cease on his appearance, when they have already ceased near 1800 years. Again, it is suggested in the Scripture, that the great body of sacred prophecy should be accomplished in him; Genesis 3:16 ; Genesis 22:18 ; Is. 49:10; 53:1-13
1.The time when he was to come is clearly marked out in prophecy: Is. 49: 10; Haggai 2:6-9 ; Daniel 9:24 . He actually came according to that time.
2.The place where Messiah should be born, and where he should principally impart his doctrine is determined; Micah 5:2 ; Is. 9: 2; and was literally fulfilled in Jesus.
3.The house or family from whom he should descend is clearly ascertained. So much is said of his descending from David, that we need not refer to particular proofs; and the rather as no Jew will deny it. The genealogies of Matthew and Luke, whatever varieties there are between them, agree in tracing his pedigree to David. And though, in both it is traced in the name of Joseph, yet this appears to be only in conformity to the Jewish custom of tracing no pedigree in the name of a female. The father of Joseph, as mentioned by Luke, seems to have been his father by marriage only; so that it was, in reality, Mary's pedigree that is traced by Luke, though under her husband's name; and this being the natural line of descent, and that of Matthew the legal one, by which, as a king he would have inherited the crown, there is no inconsistency between them.
4.The kind of miracles that Messiah should perform is specified; Is. 35: 5, 6. He actually performed the miracles there predicted, his enemies themselves being judges.
5.It was prophesied that he should as a King be distinguished by his lowliness; entering into Jerusalem, not in a chariot of state, but in a much humbler style; Zechariah 9:9 ; this was really the case, Matthew 21:1-46
6.It was predicted that he should suffer and die by the hands of wicked men; Is. 49: 7; 53: 9; Daniel 9:26 . Nothing could be a more striking fulfillment of prophecy than the treatment the Messiah met with in almost every particular circumstance.
7.It was foretold that he should rise from the dead; Is. 53: 11. Psalms 68:18 ; Psalms 16:10 , his resurrection is proved by indubitable evidence.
8.It was foretold that the great body of the Jewish nation would not believe in him, and that he would set up his kingdom among the Gentiles; Is. 53: 1. 49: 4-6. 6: 9-12. Never was a prophecy more completely fulfilled than this, as facts evidently prove.
9.it is declared that when the Messiah should come, the will of God would be perfectly fulfilled by him, Isa 42: 1, 49. Is. 3-5. And what was his whole life but perfect conformity to him? He finished the work the Father gave him to do: never was there such a character seen among men. Well therefore may we say, Truly this was the Son of God.
See article CHRISTIANITY, JESUS CHRIST.
There have been numerous false Messiahs which have arisen at different times. Of these the Savior predicted, Matthew 24:14 . Some have reckoned as many as twenty-four, of whom we shall here give an account.
1.Caziba was the first of any note who made a noise in the world. Being dissatisfied with the state of things under Adrian, he set himself up at the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed himself their long expected Messiah. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful, that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their Messiah. However, to facilitate the success of this bold enterprise, he changed his name from Caziba, which it was at first, to that of Barchocheba, alluding to the star foretold by Balaam; for he pretended to be the star sent from heaven to restore his nation to its ancient liberty and glory. He chose a forerunner, raised an army, was anointed king, coined money inscribed with his own name, and proclaimed himself Messiah and prince of the Jewish nation. Adrian raised an army, and sent it against him. He retired into a town called Bither, where he was besieged. Barchocheba was killed in the siege, the city was taken, and a dreadful havoc succeeded. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans, in defense of this false Messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. This was in the former part of the second century.
2.In the reign of Theodosius the younger, in the year of our Lord 434, another impostor arose, called Moses Cretensis. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it. Their delusion proved so strong and universal, that they neglected their lands, houses, and all other concerns, and took only so much with them as they could conveniently carry. And on the day appointed, this false Moses, having led them to the top of a rock, men, women, and children, threw themselves headlong down into the sea, without the least hesitation or reluctance, till so great a number of them were drowned, as opened the eyes of the rest, and made them sensible of the cheat. They then began to look out for their pretended leader, but he disappeared, and escaped out of their hand.
3.In the reign of Justin, about 520, another impostor appeared, who called himself the son of Moses. His name was Dunaan. He entered into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly oppressed the Christians; but he was taken prisoner, and put to death by Elesban, and AEthiopian general.
4.In the year 529 the Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the emperor Justinian, and set up one Julian for their king; and accounted him the Messiah. The emperor sent an army against them, killed great numbers of them, took their pretended Messiah prisoner, and immediately put him to death.
5.In the year 571 was born Mahomet, in Arabia. At first he professed himself to be the Messiah who was promised to the Jews. By this means he drew many of that unhappy people after him. In some sense, therefore, he may be considered in the number of false Messiahs.
6.See MAHOMETANISM.
7.About the year 721, in the time of Leo Isaurus, arose another false Messiah in Spain; his name was Serenus. He drew great numbers after him, to their no small loss and disappointment, but all his pretensions came to nothing.
8.The twelfth century was fruitful in false Messiahs: for about the year 1137, there appeared one in France, who was put to death, and many of those who followed him.
9.In the year 1138 the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the Messiah. He collected together a vast army. But he, too, was put to death, and his followers treated with great inhumanity. 9. In the year 1157, a false Messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba, in Spain. The wiser and better sort looked upon him as a madman, but the great body of the Jews in that nation believed in him. On this occasion almost all the Jews in Spain were destroyed.
10.In the year 1167, another false Messiah rose in the kingdom of Fez, which brought great trouble and persecution upon the Jews that were scattered through that country.
11.In the same year an Arabian set up there for the Messiah, and pretended to work miracles. When search was made for him, his followers fled, and he was brought before the Arabian king. Being questioned by him, he replied, that he was a prophet sent from God. The king then asked him what sign he could show to confirm his mission. Cut off my head, said he, and I will return to life again. The king took him at his word, promising to believe him if his prediction came to pass. The poor wretch, however, never returned to life again, and the cheat was sufficiently discovered. Those who had been deluded by him were grievously punished and the nation condemned to a very heavy fine.
12.Not long after this, a Jew who dwelt beyond Euphrates, called himself the Messiah, and drew vast multitudes of people after him. He gave this for a sign of it, that he had been leprous, and was cured in the course of one night. He, like the rest, perished in the attempt, and brought great persecution on his countrymen.
13.In the year 1174, a magician and false Christ arose in Persia, who was called David Almusser. He pretended that he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death, and a heavy fine laid upon his brethren the Jews.
14.In the year 1176, another of these impostors arose in Moravia, who was called David Almusser. He pretended that he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death and a heavy fine laid upon his brethren the Jews.
15.Int he year 1199, a famous cheat and rebel exerted himself in Persia, called David el David. He was a man of learning, a great magician, and pretended to be the Messiah. He raised an army against the king, but was taken and imprisoned; and, having made his escape, was afterwards seized again, and beheaded. Vast numbers of the Jews were butchered for taking part with this impostor.
16.We are told of another false Christ in this same century by Maimonides and Solomon: but they take no notice either of his name, country, or good or ill success. Here we may observe, that no less than ten false Christs arose in the twelfth century, and brought prodigious calamities and destruction upon the Jews in various quarters of the world.
17.In the year 1497, we find another false Christ, whose name was Ismael Sophus, who deluded the Jews in Spain. He also perished, and as many as believed in him were dispersed.
18.In the year 1500, Rabbi Lemlem, a German Jew of Austria, declared himself a forerunner of the Messiah, and pulled down his own oven, promising his brethren that they should bake their bread in the Holy Land next year.
19.In the year 1509, one whose name was Plefferkorn, a Jew of Cologne, pretended to be the Messiah. He afterwards affected, however, to turn Christian.
20.In the year 1534, Rabbi Salomo Malcho, giving out that he was the Messiah, was burnt to death by Charles the Fifth of Spain.
21.In the year 1615, a false Christ arose in the East Indies, and was greatly followed by the Portuguese Jews, who were scattered over that country.
22.In the year 1624, another in the Low Countries pretended to be the Messiah of the Family of David, and of the line of Nathan. He promised to destroy Rome, and to overthrow the kingdom of Antichrist, and the Turkish empire.
23.In the year 1666, appeared the false Messiah Sabatai Sevi, who made so great a noise, and gained such a number of proselytes. He was born at Aleppo, imposed on the Jews for a considerable time; but afterwards, with a view of saving his life, turned Mahometan, and was at last beheaded. As the history of this impostor is more entertaining than that of those we have already mentioned, I will give it at some length. The year 1666 was a year of great expectation, and some wonderful thing was looked for by many. This was a fit time for an impostor to set up; and, accordingly, lying reports were carried about. It was said, that great multitudes marched from unknown parts to the remote deserts of Arabia, and they were supposed to be the ten tribes of Israel, who had been dispersed for many ages; that a ship was arrived in the north part of Scotland with sails and cordage of silk: that the mariners spake nothing but Hebrew; that on the sails was this motto, The twelve tribes of Israel. Thus were credulous men possessed at that time.
Then it was that Sabatai Sevi appeared at Smyrna, and professed himself to be the Messias. He promised the Jews deliverance and a prosperous kingdom. This which he promised they firmly believed. The Jews now attended to no business, discoursed of nothing but their return, and believed Sabatai to be the Messias as firmly as we Christians believe any article of faith. A right reverend person, then in Turkey, meeting with a Jew of his acquaintance at Aleppo, he asked him what he thought of Sabatai. The Jew replied, that he believed him to be the Messias; and that he was so far of that belief, that, if he should prove an impostor, he would then turn Christian. It is fit we should be particular in this relation, because the history is so very surprising and remarkable; and we have the account of it from those who were in Turkey. Sabatai Sevi was the son of Moredecai Sevi, a mean Jew of Smyrna. Sabatai was very bookish, and arrived to great skill in the Hebrew learning. He was the author of a new doctrine, and for it was expelled the city. He went thence to Salonichi, of old called Thessalonica, where he married a very handsome woman, and was divorced from her. Then he travelled into the Morea, then to Tripoli, Gaza, and Jerusalem. By the way he picked up a third wife.
At Jerusalem he began to reform the Jews' constitutions, and abolish one of their solemn fasts, and communicated his designs of professing himself tha Messias to one Nathan. He was pleased with it, and set up for his Elias, or forerunner, and took upon him to abolish all the Jewish fasts, as not beseeming, when the bridegroom was not come. Nathan prophesied that the Messias should appear before the Grand Seignior in less than two years, and take from him his crown, and lead him in chains. At Gaza, Sabatai preached repentance, together with a faith in himself, so effectually, that the people gave themselves up to their devotions and alms. The noise of this Messias began to fill all places. Sabatai now resolves for Smyrna, and then for Constantinople, Nathan writes to him from Damascus, and thus he begins his letter; "To the king, our king, lord of lords, who gathers the dispersed of Israel, who redeems our captivity, the man elevated to the height of all sublimity the Messias of the God of Jacob, the true Messias, the celestial Lion, Sabatai Sevi." And now, throughout Turkey, the Jews were in great expectation of glorious times. They now were devout and penitent, that they might not obstruct the good which they hoped for. Some fasted so long that they were famished to death; others buried themselves in the earth till their limbs grew stiff; some would endure melting wax dropped on their flesh; some rolled in snow; others, in a cold season, would put themselves into cold water; and many buried themselves.
Business was laid aside; superfluities of household utensils were sold; the poor were provided for by immense contributions. Sabatai comes to Smyrna, where he was adored by the people, though the Chacham contradicted him, for which he was removed from his office. There he in writing styles himself the only and first-born Son of God, the Messias, the Saviour of Israel. And though he met with some opposition, yet he prevailed there at last to that degree, that some of his followers prophesied, and fell into strange ecstacies: four hundred men and women prophesied of his growing kingdom; and young infants, who could hardly speak, would plainly pronounce Sabatai, Messias, and Son of God. The people were for a time possessed, and voices heard from their bowels: some fell into trances, foamed at the mouth, recounted their future prosperity, their visions of the Lion of Judah, and the triumphs of Sabatai. All which, says the relator, were certainly true, being effects of diabolical delusions, as the Jews themselves have since confessed. Now the impostor swells and assumes. Whereas the Jews, in their synagogues, were wont to pray for the Grand Seignior, he orders those prayers to be forborne for the future, thinking it an indecent thing to pray for him who was shortly to be his captive; and, instead of praying for the Turkish emperor, he appoints prayers for himself. He also elected princes to govern the Jews in their march towards the Holy Land, and to minister justice to them when they should be possessed of it. These princes were men well known in the sity of Smyrna at that time. The people were now pressing to see some miracle to confirm their faith, and to convince the Gentiles.
Here the impostor was puzzled, though any juggling trick would have served their turn. But the credulous people supplied this defect. When Sabatai was before the Cadi (or justice of peace, ) some affirmed they saw a pillar of fire between him and the Cadi; and after some had affirmed it, others were ready to swear it, and did swear it also; and this was presently believed by the Jews of that city. He that did not now believe him to be the Messias was to be shunned as an excommunicated person. The inpostor now declares that he was called of God to see Constantinople, where he had much to do. He ships himself, to that end, in a Turkish saick, in January, 1666. He had a long and troublesome voyage; he had not power over the sea and winds. The Visier, upon the news, sends for him, and confines him in a loathsome prison. The Jews pay him their visits; and they of this city are as infatuated as those in Smyrna. They forbid traffic and refuse to pay their debts. Some of our English merchants not knowing how to recover their debts from the Jews, took this occasion to visit Sabatai, and make their complaints to him against his subjects; whereupon he wrote the following letter to the Jews. "To you of the nation of the Jews, who expect the appearance of the Messias, and the salvation of Israel, peace without end. Whereas we are informed that you are indebted to several of the English nation, it seemeth right unto us to order you to make satisfaction to these your just debts, which if you refuse to do, and not obey us herein, know you that then you are not to enter with us into our joys and dominions." Sabatai remained a prisoner in Constantinople for the space of two months.
The Grand Visier, designing for Candia, thought it not safe to leave him in the city during the Grand Seignior's absence and his own. He, therefore, removed him to the Dardanelli, a better air indeed, but yet out of the way, and consequently importing less danger to the city; which occasioned the Jews to conclude that the Turks could not, or durst not, take away his life; which had, they concluded, been the surest way to have removed all jealousy. The Jews flocked in great numbers to the castle where he was a prisoner; not only those that were near, but from Poland, Germany, Leghorn, Venice, and other places: they received Sabatai's blessing, and promises of advancement. The Turks made use of this confluence; they raised the price of their lodgings and provisions, and put their price upon those who desired to see Sabatai for their admittance. This profit stopped their mouths, and no complaints were for this cause sent to Adrianople. Sabatai, in his confinement, appoints the manner of his own nativity. He commands the Jews to keep it on the ninth day of the month Ab, and to make it a day of great joy, to celebrate it with pleasing meats and drinks, with illuminations and music. He obligeth them to acknowledge the love of God, in giving them that day of consolation for the birth of their king Messias, Sabatai Servi, his servant and first-born Son in love. We may observe, by the way, the insolence of this impostor. This day was a solemn day of fasting among the Jews, formerly in memory of the burning of the temple by the Chaldees: several other sad things happened in this month, as the Jews observe; that then, and upon the same day, the second temple was destroyed; and that in this month it was decreed in the wilderness that the Israelites should not enter into Canaan, &c.
Sabatai was born on this day; and, therefore, the fast must be turned to a feast; whereas, in truth, it had been well for the Jews had he not been born at all; and much better for himself, as will appear from what follows. The Jews of that city paid Sabatai Sevi great respect. They decked their synagogues with S.S. in letters of gold, and made for him in the wall a crown: they attributed the same titles and prophecies to him which we apply to our Saviour. He was also, during this imprisonment, visited by pilgrims from all parts, that had heard his story. Among whom Nehemiah Cohen, from Poland, was one, a man of great learning in the Kabbala and eastern tongues; who desired a conference with Sabatai, and at the conference maintained, that according to the Scripture, there ought to be a two-fold Messias; one the son of Ephraim, a poor and despised teacher of the law; the other the son of David, to be a conqueror. Nehemiah was content to be the former, the son of Ephraim, and to leave the glory and dignity of the latter to Sabatai. Sabatai, for what appears, did not dislike this. But here lay the ground of the quarrel: Nehemiah taught that the son of Ephraim ought to be the forerunner of the son of David, and to usher him in; and Nehemiah accused Sabatai of too great forwardness in appearing as the son of David, before the son of Ephraim had led him the way. Sabatai could not brook this doctrine; for he might fear that the son of Ephraim, who was to lead the way, might pretend to be the son of David, and so leave him in the lurch; and, therefore, he excluded him from any part or share in this matter; which was the occasion of the ruin of Sabatai, and all his glorious designs.
Nehemiah, being disappointed, goes to Adrianople, and informs the great ministers of state against Sabatai, as a lewd and dangerous person to the government, and that it was necessary to take him out of the way. The Grand Seignior, being informed of this, sends for Sabatai, who, much dejected, appears before him. The Grand Seignior requires a miracle, and chooses one himself; and it was this: that Sabatai should be stripped naked, and set as a mark for his archers to shoot at; and, if the arrows did not pierce his flesh, he would own him to be the Messias. Sabatai had not faith enough to bear up under so great a trial. The Grand Seignior let him know that he would forthwith impale him, and that the stake was prepared for him, unless he would turn Turk. Upon which he consented to turn Mahometan, to the great confusion of the Jews. And yet some of the Jews were so vain as to affirm that it was not Sabatai himself, but his shadow, that professed the religion, and was seen in the habit of a Turk; so great was their obstinacy and infidelity, as if it were a thing impossible to convince these deluded and infatuated wretches. After all this, several of the Jews continued to use the forms, in their public worship prescribed by this Mahometan Messias, which obliged the principal Jews of Constantinople to send to the synagogue of Smyrna to forbid this practice. During these things, the Jews, instead of minding their trade and traffic, filled their letters with news of Sabatai their Messias, and his wonderful works.
They reported, that, when the Grand Seignior sent to take him, he caused all the messengers that were sent to die; and when other Janizaries were sent, they all fell dead by a word from his mouth; and being requested to do it, he caused them to revive again. They added, that, though the prison where Sabatai lay was barred and fastened with strong iron locks, yet he was seen to walk through the streets with a numerous train; that the shackles which were upon his neck and feet did not fall off, but were turned into gold, with which Sabatai gratified his followers. Upon the fame of these things the Jews of Italy sent legates to Smyrna, to enquire into the truth of these matters. When the legates arrived at Smyrna, they heard of the news that Sabatai was turned Turk, to their very great confusion; but, going to visit the brother of Sabatai, he endeavoured to persuade them that Sabatai was still the true Messias; that it was not Sabatai that went about in the habit of a Turk, but his angel, or spirit; that his body was taken into heaven, and should be sent down again when God should think it a fit season. He added, that Nathan, his forerunner, who had wrought many miracles, would soon be at Smyrna; that he would reveal hidden things to them, and confirm them. But this Elias was not suffered to come into Smyrna, and though the legates saw him elsewhere, they received no satisfaction at all. 24. The last falst Christ that had made any considerable number of converts was one Rabbi Mordecai, a Jew of Germany: he appeared in the year 1632. It was not long before he was found out to be an impostor, and was obliged to fly from Italy to Poland to save his life. What became of him afterwards does not seem to be recorded. This may be considered as true and exact an account of the false Christs that have arisen since the crucifixion of our blessed Saviour, as can well be given.
See Johannes a Lent's Hist. of False Messiahs; Jortin's Rem. on Eccl. Hist. vol. 3: p. 330; Kidder's Demonstration of the Messias; Harris's Sermons on the Messiah; The Eleventh Volume of the Modern Part of the Universal History; Simpson's Key to the Prophecies, sec. 9; Maclaurin on the Prophecies relating to the Messiah; Fuller's Jesus the true Messiah.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Messiah
The Anointed. This term is peculiarly, and by way of eminency, applied to the Lord Jesus Christ, the Mashah or Meshiah of the Father, full of grace and truth Hence, with pointed and personal distinction, God the Father is represented in the Scripture as saying: "I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people; I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him." (Psalms 89:19-20) And no less God the Holy Ghost, in his divine office and character, in the economy of human redemption, is represented as ordaining and anointing Christ, as Christ, to the great work of salvation; for both Christ and his church came under this 'Cilia-act of God the Spirit. For as Christ could not have been Christ without the unction of the Holy Ghost, so neither could the church have been the church, the spouse of Christ, the Lamb's wife, without sovereign agency. And it is very blessed to behold in the Scriptures of truth the testimony of JEHOVAH to this grand doctrine of Christ the Messiah, as the Christ of God. Hence we find Christ speaking as Glory-man Mediator."Come (Isaiah 48:16-17) ye near unto me, hear ye this: I have not spoken in secret; from the beginning, from the time that it was, thee am I; and now the Lord God and his Spirit hath sent me. Thus saith the Lord thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel. I am the Lord thy God, which teacheth thee, to profit, which leadeth thee by the way that thou shouldest go." In all these views, therefore, of Christ as Christ, we discover the work of the Father and the Holy Ghost. For one of the names of the Lord Jesus in the Old Testament is, the Messiah, that is the Anointed, as well as in the New; and as it is expressly said concerning him in the New Testament, when he appeared in the substance of our flesh, how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth: with the Holy Ghost, Acts 10:38 - so evidently was he called the Messiah, and consequently answer that name was, and is, from everlasting, the anointed of God by the Holy Ghost, before he openly manifested himself under that character in our flesh. Such then was and is the glorious Messiah, the Christ of God; and such we accept and receive him to his body the church.
I might detain the reader were it not for enlarging this work beyond the limits I must observe, with offering several most interesting reflections, which arise out of this view of our now risen and exalted Messiah as the Messiah, the Christ of God; but for brevity's sake, I shall only beg to offer this one observation, namely, how sweet and strengthening a testimony such views of Jesus give to the faith of the church, when receiving Christ as the anointed of the Father and the Holy Ghost, Recollect in that blessed portion, just now quoted what the Mediator saith as Mediator—"Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret; from the beginning, from the time that it was, there am I; and now the Lord God and his Spirit hath sent me." Was there ever anything more full in point and in proof of this blessed doctrine concerning the Messiah? What could the Lord Jesus by the spirit of prophecy mean, but that he would have his church, when receiving him, read his credentials, and mark well his high warrant and authority. There should be no shyness, but his people should come near unto him; for this was not a new thing, a new doctrine, it was from the beginning, yea, before all worlds Jesus was spoken of, in his mediatorial character, as set up from everlasting; neither was it whispered in secret, but openly, in the first revelations, the man-nature of the seed of the woman, the anointed of the Father and the Holy Ghost, was all along declared, that it was, and that I am, saith Christ. Blessed view of Jesus this, and precious to the strengthening of the faith of God's people. Methinks I would cherish it with all the warmth of affection; I would carry it about with me wherever 50go: and beg that God the Holy Ghost would cause it to be my complete unceasing encouragement in all approaches to the throne of grace, and in all ordinances of worship. This is the warrant of a poor sinner's hope and confidence. Christ, as Christ, as the anointed, as the Messiah, is the sure appointment and ordinance of heaven. In him we draw nigh by divine authority. Christ is not only suited to carry on all the purposes of our great High Priest, but acts in that blessed office by divine authority, and by the validity of an oath. "The Lord sware and will not repent, thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchizedec." (Psalms 110:4) Hence, therefore, the Lord Jesus, in effect, speaks to every poor sinner as he did to the woman of Samaria—"If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is, and by what authority he saith to thee, Give me to drink, thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water." (John 4:10) Such is the blessedness of receiving Christ, and living upon Christ, as the Christ, the Messiah, of God.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Messiah, Messias
See CHRIST.
Webster's Dictionary - Messiah
(n.) The expected king and deliverer of the Hebrews; the Savior; Christ.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Messiah
The Greek word Χριστος , from whence comes Christ and Christian, exactly answers to the Hebrew Messiah, which signifies him that hath received unction, a prophet, a king, or a priest. See JESUS CHRIST .
Our Lord warned his disciples that false messiahs should arise, Matthew 24:24 ; and the event has verified the prediction. No less than twenty-four false Christs have arisen in different places and at different times: Caziba was the first of any note who made a noise in the world. Being dissatisfied with the state of things under Adrian, he set himself up as the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed himself their long expected messiah. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their messiah. However, to facilitate the success of this bold enterprise, he changed his name from Caziba, which it was at first, to that of Barchocheba, alluding to the star foretold by Balaam; for he pretended to be the star sent from heaven to restore his nation to its ancient liberty and glory. He chose a forerunner, raised an army, was anointed king, coined money inscribed with his own name, and proclaimed himself messiah and prince of the Jewish nation. Adrian raised an army, and sent it against him; he retired into a town called Bither, where he was besieged. Barchocheba was killed in the siege, the city was taken, and a dreadful havoc succeeded. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans in defence of this false messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. This was in the former part of the second century. In the reign of Theodosius the younger, A.D. 434, another impostor arose, called Moses Cretensis. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it. Their delusion proved so strong and universal, that they neglected their lands, houses, and other concerns, and took only so much with them as they could conveniently carry. And on the day appointed, this false Moses, having led them to the top of a rock, men, women, and children threw themselves headlong down into the sea, without the least hesitation or reluctance, till so great a number of them were drowned as opened the eyes of the rest, and made them sensible of the cheat. They then began to look for their pretended leader; but he had disappeared, and escaped out of their hands. In the reign of Justin, about A.D. 520, another impostor appeared, who called himself the son of Moses. His name was Dunaan. He entered into a city of Arabia Felix, and there he greatly oppressed the Christians; but he was taken prisoner, and put to death by Elesban, an Ethiopian general. The Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the Emperor Justinian, A.D. 529, and set up one Julian for their king, and accounted him the messiah. The emperor sent an army against them, killed great numbers of them, took their pretended messiah prisoner, and immediately put him to death. In the time of Leo Isaurus, about A.D. 721, arose another false messiah in Spain; his name was Serenus. He drew great numbers after him, to their no small loss and disappointment; but all his pretensions came to nothing. The twelfth century was fruitful in messiahs. About A.D. 1137, there appeared one in France, who was put to death, and numbers of those who followed him. In A.D. 1138, the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the messiah. He collected a vast army; but he too was put to death, and his followers treated with great inhumanity. A false messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba in Spain, A.D. 1157. The wiser and better sort looked upon him as a madman, but the great body of the Jews in the nation believed in him. On this occasion nearly all the Jews in Spain were destroyed. Another false messiah arose in the kingdom of Fez, A.D. 1167, which brought great troubles and persecutions upon the Jews that were scattered throughout that country. In the same year, an Arabian professed to be the messiah, and pretended to work miracles. When search was made for him, his followers fled, and he was brought before the Arabian king. Being questioned by him, he replied, that he was a prophet sent from God. The king then asked him what sign he could show to confirm his mission. "Cut off my head," said he, "and I will return to life again." The king took him at his word, promising to believe him if his prediction was accomplished. The poor wretch, however, never came to life again, and the cheat was sufficiently discovered. Those who had been deluded by him were grievously punished, and the nation condemned to a very heavy fine. Not long after this, a Jew who dwelt beyond the Euphrates, called himself the messiah, and drew vast multitudes of people after him. He gave this for a sign of it, that he had been leprous, and had been cured in the course of one night. He, like the rest, perished, and brought great persecution on his countrymen. A magician and false christ arose in Persia, A.D. 1174, who seduced many of the common people, and brought the Jews into great tribulation. Another of these impostors arose, A.D. 1176, in Moravia, who was called David Almusser. He pretended he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death, and a heavy fine laid upon the Jews. A famous cheat and rebel exerted himself in Persia, A.D. 1199, called David el David. He was a man of learning, a great magician, and pretended to be the messiah. He raised an army against the king, but was taken and imprisoned; and, having made his escape, was afterward retaken and beheaded. Vast numbers of the Jews were butchered for taking part with this impostor. Rabbi Lemlem, a German Jew of Austria, declared himself a forerunner of the messiah, A.D. 1500, and pulled down his own oven, promising, his brethren that they should bake their bread in the holy land next year. A false christ arose in the East Indies, A.D. 1615, and was greatly followed by the Portuguese Jews who are scattered over that country. Another in the Low Countries declared himself to be the messiah of the family of David, and of the line of Nathan, A.D. 1624. He promised to destroy Rome, and to overthrow the kingdom of antichrist, and the Turkish empire. In A.D. 1666, appeared the false messiah Sabatai Tzevi, who made a great noise, and gained a great number of proselytes. He was born at Aleppo, and imposed on the Jews for a considerable time; but afterward, with a view of saving his life, he turned Mohammedan, and was at last beheaded. The last false christ that made any considerable number of converts was one rabbi Mordecai, a Jew of Germany: he appeared, A.D. 1682. It was not long before he was found out to be an impostor, and was obliged to flee from Italy to Poland to save his life: what became of him afterward does not seem to be recorded.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Messiah or Messias
Anointed, a title given principally, or by way of eminence, to that sovereign Deliverer promised to the Jews. They were accustomed to anoint their kings, high priests, and sometimes prophets, when they were set apart to their office; and hence the phrase, "to anoint" for an employment, sometimes signifies merely a particular designation or choice for such an employment. Cyrus, who founded the empire of the Persians, and who set the Jews at liberty, is called, Isaiah 45:1 , "the anointed of the Lord;" and in Ezekiel 28:14 , the epithet "anointed" is given to the king of Tyre.
But, as we have already observed, MESSIAH is the designation given by the Hebrews, eminently, to that Savior and Deliverer whom they expected, and who was promised to them by all the prophets. As the holy unction was given to kings, priests, and prophets, by describing the promised Savior of the world under the name of Christ, Anointed, or Messiah, it was sufficiently evidenced that the qualities of king, prophet, and highpriest would eminently center in him, and that he should exercise them not only over the Jews but over all mankind, and particularly over those who should receive him as their Savior. See CHRIST .
That Jesus Christ was the true MESSIAH of the Old Testament, the "Shiloh" of Jacob, the "Redeemer" of Job, the "Angel of the Covenant," is abundantly clear. The time of his appearance was predicted in Genesis 49:10 Daniel 9:20,25 Haggai 2:7 Malachi 3:1 . At the time when the Savior actually came, and then only, could these predictions meet: then the seventy weeks of years were ended; and soon after, the scepter was torn forever from the hands of Judah, the only tribe that could then claim the headship of the Jews; and the temple in which the Messiah was to appear was annihilated. Then also the genealogical lists were extant, which proved the descent of Christ from the line predicted. Numerous and clear detached predictions respecting the birth, character, life, sufferings, and death of Christ, his resurrection, ascension, and kingdom, were all in him perfectly fulfilled, John 1:41 4:25 .

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Messiah - Messiah is a Hebrew word. " Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God (Matthew 3:16) to carry out His three-fold ministry of Prophet, Priest, and King. As the Messiah He has delivered the Christian from the bonds of sin and given to him eternal life. In that sense, Messiah means deliverer, for He has delivered us. The Messiah was promised in the O
Branch - One of the names that Israelites of Old Testament times gave to the expected Messiah was ‘the Branch’. This arose from the Israelite expectation that the Messiah was to come from the ‘tree’ of David’s dynasty (Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15; cf. Isaiah 4:2; Isaiah 11:1; see Messiah). Zerubbabel was a descendant of David in the royal line that eventually produced Jesus the Messiah (Haggai 2:21-23; Zechariah 3:8-10; Zechariah 6:11-13; Matthew 1:12-16; see ZERUBBABEL)
False Christs - See Messiah
Messias - ) The Messiah
Moshiach - �the anointed one�) the Messiah. One of the 13 principles of the Jewish faith is that G-d will send the Messiah to return the Jews to the land of Israel, rebuild the Holy Temple and usher in the utopian Messianic Era
Christ - See Jesus Christ, and Messiah
Christ Messiah - See Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
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Messiahship - ) The state or office of the Messiah
Zealot - See Cananæan, Messiah (p
Messiad - ) A German epic poem on the Messiah, by Klopstock
Christ - Anointed, a Greek word, answering to the Hebrew Messiah, the consecrated or anointed one, and given preeminently to our blessed Lord and Savior. See Messiah and JESUS. ...
The ancient Hebrews, being instructed by the prophets, had clear notions of the Messiah; but these became gradually depraved, so that when Jesus appeared in Judea, the Jews entertained a false conception of the Messiah, expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror, who should remove the Roman yoke and subject the whole world. The modern Jews, including still greater mistakes, form to themselves ideas of the Messiah utterly unknown to their forefathers. ...
The ancient prophets had foretold that the Messiah should be God, and man; exalted, and abased; master, and servant; priest, and victim; prince, and subject; involved in death, yet victor over death; rich, and poor; a king, a conqueror, glorious-and a man of grief, exposed to infirmities, unknown, in a state of abjection and humiliation. All these contrarieties were to be reconciled in the person of the Messiah; as they really were in the person of Jesus. ...
The name Matthew 2:4 , Herod "demanded of them," the priests and scribes, "where Christ should be born," that is, the Old Testament Messiah. Peter confessed, "thou art the Messiah," Matthew 16:16
Messi'as - (anointed ), the Greek form of Messiah
Messiah - The word ‘messiah’ is a Hebrew word meaning ‘the anointed one’. In the Greek speaking world of New Testament times the word ‘christ’, also meaning anointed, was used as a Greek translation of the Hebrew ‘messiah’. This coming saviour-king they called the Messiah. The Messiah, David’s greatest son, was in a special sense God’s son (Psalms 2:6-7; Isaiah 9:2-70; Mark 12:35; Mark 14:61). ...
Because of their expectation of a golden age, the Israelite people saw victories over enemies as foreshadowings of the victory of the Messiah and the establishment of his kingdom. The language expressed the ideals that Israel looked for in its kings, but it could apply fully only to the perfect king, the Messiah (e. This king, this Messiah, was Jesus Christ (Matthew 1:1; Matthew 9:27; Matthew 12:22-23; Matthew 21:9; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 1:69-71; Revelation 5:5). ...
One of David’s best known psalms, Psalms 110, was interpreted by Jews of Jesus’ time as applying to the Messiah, though they consistently refused to acknowledge the Messiahship of Jesus. Jesus agreed that they were correct in applying this psalm to the Messiah, but he went a step further by applying it to himself (Psalms 110:1; Matthew 22:41-45). This joint rule of the priest-king Messiah had been foreshadowed in the book of the prophet Zechariah (Zechariah 6:12-13). ...
The Messiah was, in addition, to be a prophet, announcing God’s will to his people. As the Davidic kings in some way foreshadowed the king-messiah, so Israel’s prophets in some way foreshadowed the prophet-messiah. ...
Jesus and the Jews...
Although Jesus was the Messiah, he did not at the beginning of his ministry announce his Messiahship openly. This was no doubt because the Jews of his time had a wrong understanding of the Messiah and his kingdom. ...
The Jews had little interest in the spiritual work of the Messiah. If Jesus had announced himself publicly as the Messiah before showing what his Messiahship involved, he would have attracted a following of the wrong kind (see KINGDOM OF GOD; MIRACLES). ...
While not refusing the title ‘Messiah’, Jesus preferred to avoid it when speaking of himself. This was a title that had little meaning to most people (they probably thought Jesus used it simply to mean ‘I’ or ‘me’), but it had a special meaning to those who understood the true nature of Jesus’ Messiahship (see SON OF MAN). When other Jews, by contrast, recognized Jesus as the Messiah in the true sense of the word, Jesus told them not to broadcast the fact. He did not place the same restrictions on non-Jews, for non-Jews were not likely to use his Messiahship for political purposes (Mark 5:19; John 4:25-26). ...
Later in his ministry, when he knew that his work was nearing completion and the time for his crucifixion was approaching, Jesus allowed people to speak openly of him as the Messiah (1618419556_69). He even entered Jerusalem as Israel’s Messiah-king and accepted people’s homage (Matthew 21:1-11). But when he admitted before the high priest Caiaphas that he was the Messiah, adding a statement that placed him on equality with God, he was accused of blasphemy and condemned to death (Mark 14:61-64). ...
The Messiah’s death and resurrection...
Even true believers of Jesus’ time still thought of the Messiah solely in relation to the establishment of God’s kingdom throughout the world at the end of the age. He was the Messiah, and his miracles of healing were proof of this (Isaiah 35:5-6; Isaiah 61:1; Matthew 11:4-5; Luke 4:18; Luke 18:35-43). ...
What the disciples could not understand was that the Messiah should die. Like most Jews they knew of the Old Testament prophecies concerning God’s suffering servant (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 50:6; Isaiah 52:13-15; Isaiah 53; see SERVANT OF THE LORD), just as they knew of the prophecies concerning God’s Messiah, but they did not connect the two. Jesus showed that he was both the suffering servant and the Messiah. In fact, it was in response to his disciples’ confession of him as the Messiah that he told them he must die (Matthew 16:13-23; Matthew 17:12; Mark 10:45; Acts 4:27). ...
Immediately after this, at the transfiguration, the Father confirmed that Jesus was both Davidic Messiah and suffering servant. ...
The idea of a crucified Messiah was contrary to common Jewish beliefs. The Jews considered the Messiah as blessed by God above all others, whereas a crucified person was cursed by God (Galatians 3:13). That is why the Christians’ belief in a crucified Jesus as the Saviour-Messiah was a stumbling block to the Jews (see STUMBLING BLOCK). Even the disciples did not understand when Jesus foretold his resurrection (Mark 8:29-33; Mark 9:31-32), but afterwards they looked back on the resurrection as God’s final great confirmation that Jesus was the Messiah (Luke 24:45-46; Acts 2:31-32; Acts 2:36). ...
Title and name...
So firmly was the Messiah identified with Jesus after his resurrection, that the Greek word for Messiah (Christ) became a personal name for Jesus. The two names were often joined as Jesus Christ or Christ Jesus, and frequently the name ‘Christ’ was used without any direct reference to Messiahship at all (Philippians 1:15-16; Philippians 1:18; Philippians 1:21). In general the Gospels and the early part of Acts use ‘Christ’ mainly as a title (‘Messiah’), and Paul’s letters use it mainly as a name. ...
In the eyes of unbelieving Jews, Jesus was not the Messiah, and therefore they would not call him Jesus Christ. To unbelieving non-Jews, however, the Jewish notion of Messiahship meant nothing
Messianic - ) Of or relating to the Messiah; as, the Messianic office or character
Messias - (mehss ssi'uhss) The Greek form of Messiah (John 1:41 ; John 4:25 ; KJV)
Christ - It is synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah
Shiloh - Title of the Messiah as 'Prince of Peace
Messiah - The great Messiah is anointed "above his fellows" (Psalm 45:7 ); i. The Greek form "Messias" is only twice used in the New Testament, in John 1:41,4:25 (RSV, "Messiah"), and in the Old Testament the word Messiah, as the rendering of the Hebrew, occurs only twice ( Daniel 9:25,26 ; RSV, "the anointed one"). The first great promise (Genesis 3:15 ) contains in it the germ of all the prophecies recorded in the Old Testament regarding the coming of the Messiah and the great work he was to accomplish on earth. The expectations of the Jews were thus kept alive from generation to generation, till the "fulness of the times," when Messiah came, "made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law. Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah, the great Deliverer who was to come
Anna - (an' nuh) An aged prophetess who recognized the Messiah when He was brought to the Temple for dedication (Luke 2:36 ). She was eighty-four when she recognized the Messiah, thanked God for Him, and proclaimed to all hope for the redemption of Jerusalem
Messiah - The term "messiah" is the translation of the Hebrew term masiah [1], which is derived from the verb masah, meaning to smear or anoint. The term "messiah" is not used to refer to "anointed" objects that were designated and consecrated for specific cultic purposes but to persons only. ...
When the concept of Messiah is considered from a specifically biblical-theological perspective, various questions come to the fore. The Egyptian texts, for example, speak of a divine king who would bring deliverance and prosperity but this god-king and his work were totally different from the biblical concept of the Messiah. ...
The biblical idea of the Messiah and his work is divinely revealed. A further qualification to be kept in mind is that not all objects that had a messianic significance, for example, types of Jesus Christ the Messiah, his person and work, were anointed. Some scholars have insisted that only an actual reigning king could be considered as the Messiah. This view, however, is not consistent with the biblical revelation concerning the Messiah. True, the Messiah was to be considered as a royal person. Thus, a passage in Scripture should be considered to be referring to the Messiah when reference is made, for example, to the character, task, and influences of the Messiah even though there is no direct mention of the personal Messiah himself. ...
The fourth question concerns the actual position and task of the Messiah. The biblical Messiah, who was symbolized and typified, as explained below, was a divine-human being, ordained by God the Father to be the mediator of the covenant and as such to be the administrator of the kingdom of God. ...
What is the biblical portrait of the Messiah?...
Adam and Eve, created in God's image, were placed in a living, loving, lasting relationship, a covenant bond, with the Creator God. Noah stands as a prefigurement of the promised Messiah who, in the midst of judgment, would effect a complete and final redemption. Two important messianic factors stand out: (1) the covenant Lord would continue the seedline; and (2) Abraham was called to believe, obey, and serve as the father of all believers who would receive the benefits of the Messiah. The royal descendants of David were not all believing, obeying, serving covenant messianic forbears of Jesus the Messiah/Christ. Other dimensions were also included to reveal the inclusive position, tasks, and influence of the Messiah. This dominating royal aspect led many in Old Testament, intertestamentary, and New Testament times to think of the Messiah strictly in terms of his kingship and his setting up and ruling an earthly political entity in which Hebrew/Jewish people would be the kingdom people. Noah, an ancestor of the Messiah personally, while not a royal person, performed a redemptive messianic function. Abraham's grandson Joseph, serving as a type of the Messiah, performed in a royal capacity but before he was lifted to that capacity he suffered humiliation. ...
Moses, another type of the Messiah, functioned in a royal capacity as lawgiver but he also served as a prophet. The angel of the Lord phenomenon particularly gave emphasis to the divine character of the Messiah. ...
The psalmists and prophets gave further explication of the Penteteuchal presentations of the Messiah. The psalms gave expression to the royal character of the Messiah. ...
The prophets especially brought together the wider and narrower views concerning the Messiah. It was Isaiah who proclaimed that the Messiah was to be the light to the Gentiles (49:6), the suffering, exalted One (52:13-53:12). The Messiah was to be the great comforting preacher of freedom, the healer and bringer of joy (61:1-3). Micah prophesied that the Messiah was to come through the royal Davidic seedline to shepherd his people and bring them security (5:1-4). Amos likewise proclaimed that the Messiah of Davidic lineage would fulfill Yahweh's covenant promises to the nations (9:11-15). Jeremiah prophesied of the Messiah, the one of Davidic lineage who was to be the king of righteousness (23:5-6). Postexilic prophets spoke of the Messiah as the royal, redeeming, restoring One to come (Haggai 2:20-22 ; Zechariah 4:1-14 ; 6:9-15 ; 9:9-10 ), Malachi spoke of the Messiah as a cleansing agent who, as messenger of the covenant, would bring healing in his wings (3:1-4; 4:1-3). ...
The New Testament writers, evangelists, and apostles give no reason to doubt that Jesus is the Messiah, or in New Testament language, the Christ. John the Baptist identified Jesus as the Messiah by referring to the wider dimension: "Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!" (John 1:29 ). Jesus proclaimed himself as the Messiah in Nazareth (Luke 4:16-22 ) and at Jacob's well to the Samaritan woman (John 4:24-25 ). Briggs, The Messiah of the Gospels ; N. Manson, Jesus the Messiah ; S
Christ - —See Atonement, Authority of Christ, Birth of Christ, Dates, Death of Christ, Messiah, Person of Christ, Preaching Christ, etc
Shiloh - ) A word used by Jacob on his deathbed, and interpreted variously, as "the Messiah," or as the city "Shiloh," or as "Rest
Hosanna - ‘Hosanna’ later became an expression of praise in expectation of the great Saviour-Messiah. When people in Jerusalem welcomed Jesus as their Saviour-Messiah, they shouted praises of ‘Hosanna’ and waved palm branches. By going direct to the temple, Jesus showed that his Messiahship was concerned chiefly with spiritual issues, not political. He was indeed the promised Messiah (Matthew 21:1-17; John 12:12-15; see Messiah)
Christ - He is called Christ, or Messiah, because he is anointed, sent, and furnished by God to execute his mediatorial office
Jehovah-Tsidkenu - Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version, "The LORD our righteousness," a title given to the Messiah (Jeremiah 23:6 , marg
Messiah - “Christ” or Messiah is therefore a name admirably suited to express both the church's link with Israel through the Old Testament and the faith that sees in Jesus Christ the worldwide scope of the salvation in Him. ), a Jewish writing of the Messiah as the son of David. There Messiah was a warrior-prince who would expel the hated Romans from Israel and bring in a kingdom in which the Jews would be promoted to world dominion. The high priest was the anointed-priest (Leviticus 4:3 ,Leviticus 4:3,4:5 ,Leviticus 4:5,4:16 ) and even, in one place, a “messiah” (Zechariah 4:14 ; compare Zechariah 6:13 ; Daniel 9:25 ). ...
In the exilic and postexilic ages, the expectation of a coming Messiah came into sharper focus, commencing with Jeremiah's and Ezekiel's vision of a Messiah who would combine the traits of royalty and priestly dignity (Jeremiah 33:14-18 ; Ezekiel 46:1-8 ; see, too, Zechariah 4:1-14 ; Zechariah 6:13 ). The people in the Dead Sea scrolls were evidently able to combine a dual hope of two Messiahs, one priestly and the second a royal figure. The alternation between a kingly Messiah and a priestly figure is characteristic of the two centuries of early Judaism prior to the coming of Jesus. ...
Messiahship in Jesus' Ministry A question posed in John 4:29 ; compare John 7:40-43 is: “Is not this the Christ (Messiah). ” It is evident that the issue of the Messiah's identity and role was one much debated among the Jews in the first century. Jesus asked His disciples, “Who do you say that I am?” a question to which Peter gave the reply, “Thou art the Christ (Messiah)” (Mark 8:29 ). Jesus, therefore, accepted Peter's confession with great reluctance since with it went the disciple's objection that the Messiah cannot suffer (see Mark 9:32 ). For Peter, Messiah was a title of a glorious personage both nationalistic and victorious in battle. Hence He did not permit the demons to greet Him as Messiah (Luke 4:41 ) and downplayed all claims to privilege and overt majesty linked with the Jewish title. ...
The course of Jesus' ministry is one in which He sought to wean the disciples away from the traditional notion of a warrior Messiah. At the trial before His Jewish judges (Matthew 26:63-66 ) He once more reinterpreted the title Messiah (“Christ,” KJV) and gave it a content in terms of the Son of man figure, based on Daniel 7:13-14 . This confession secured His condemnation, and He went to the cross as a crucified Messiah because the Jewish leaders failed to perceive the nature of Messiahship as Jesus understood it. It was only after the resurrection that the disciples were in a position to see how Jesus was truly a king Messiah and how Jesus then opened their minds to what true Messiahship meant (see Luke 24:45-46 ). The national title Messiah then took on a broader connotation, involving a kingly role which was to embrace all peoples ( Luke 24:46-47 ). ...
Messiah as a Title in the Early Church From the resurrection onward the first preachers announced that Jesus was the Messiah by divine appointment (Acts 2:36 ; Romans 1:3-4 ). In the mission to Israel the church had to show how Jesus fulfilled the Old Testament prophecies and came into the world as the “Son of David,” a title closely linked with the Messiah as a royal person. Peter, too, sought to show how the sufferings of the Messiah were foretold (1Peter 1:11,1 Peter 1:20 ; 1 Peter 2:21 ; 1 Peter 3:18 ; 1Peter 4:1,1 Peter 4:13 ; 1 Peter 5:1 ). ...
The final stage of development in regard to the title Messiah came in the way that Paul used the word more as a personal name than as an official designation (seen in Romans 9:5 , “Christ”). In Pauline thought, “Christ” is a richer term than “Messiah” could ever be, and one pointer in this direction is the fact that the early followers of the Messiah called themselves not converted Jews but “Christians,” Christ's people (Acts 11:26 ; 1 Peter 4:16 ) as a sign of their universal faith in a sovereign Lord
Christ, the Christ, - In John 1:41 ; John 4:25 this title is linked with the Messiah of the O. The Jews and Samaritans were expecting THE Messiah, "which is called Christ. " We find the title 'Messiah' in Daniel 9:25,26 in the prophecy of the Seventy Weeks. ...
In Daniel we read that Messiah the Prince would be cut off and have nothing (margin), which was fulfilled when, instead of being hailed as Messiah by the Jews, He was rejected, cut off, and had, at the time, nothing of His Messianic honours, though, in His death, He laid the foundation of His future glory on earth, as well as effecting eternal redemption for the saved. ...
Being rejected as Messiah on earth, He is made as risen from the dead both Lord and Christ, Acts 2:36 , and thus the counsels of God with regard to Him, and man in Him, are effectuated
Christs - 1: ψευδόχριστος (Strong's #5580 — Noun Masculine — pseudochristos — psyoo-dokh'-ris-tos ) denotes "one who falsely lays claim to the name and office of the Messiah," Matthew 24:24 ; Mark 13:22
Messiah - The Greek word Χριστος , from whence comes Christ and Christian, exactly answers to the Hebrew Messiah, which signifies him that hath received unction, a prophet, a king, or a priest. ...
Our Lord warned his disciples that false Messiahs should arise, Matthew 24:24 ; and the event has verified the prediction. Being dissatisfied with the state of things under Adrian, he set himself up as the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed himself their long expected Messiah. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their Messiah. He chose a forerunner, raised an army, was anointed king, coined money inscribed with his own name, and proclaimed himself Messiah and prince of the Jewish nation. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans in defence of this false Messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. 529, and set up one Julian for their king, and accounted him the Messiah. The emperor sent an army against them, killed great numbers of them, took their pretended Messiah prisoner, and immediately put him to death. 721, arose another false Messiah in Spain; his name was Serenus. The twelfth century was fruitful in Messiahs. 1138, the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the Messiah. A false Messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba in Spain, A. Another false Messiah arose in the kingdom of Fez, A. In the same year, an Arabian professed to be the Messiah, and pretended to work miracles. Not long after this, a Jew who dwelt beyond the Euphrates, called himself the Messiah, and drew vast multitudes of people after him. He was a man of learning, a great magician, and pretended to be the Messiah. Rabbi Lemlem, a German Jew of Austria, declared himself a forerunner of the Messiah, A. Another in the Low Countries declared himself to be the Messiah of the family of David, and of the line of Nathan, A. 1666, appeared the false Messiah Sabatai Tzevi, who made a great noise, and gained a great number of proselytes
Desire of All Nations - (Haggai 2:7 ), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah
Christ - THE ANOINTED an appellation given to the Savior of the World, and synonymous with the Hebrew Messiah
Consolation of Israel - A name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isaiah 12:1 ; 49:13
Counsellor - Used once of the Messiah (Isaiah 9:6 )
Messiah - ...
I know that when Messiah cometh, who is called Christ, he will tell us all things
Anointed - The Messiah, or Son of God, consecrated to the great office of Redeemer called the Lord's anointed
Imman'Uel, - that is, God with us , the title applied by the apostle Matthew to the Messiah, born of the Virgin, ( Matthew 1:23 ; Isaiah 7:14 ) because Jesus was God united with man, and showed that God was dwelling with men
Messi'ah - He was the Messiah, the Anointed, i. Passages in the Psalms are numerous which are applied to the Messiah in the New Testament; such as Psalm 2,16 , 22,40 , 110 . King, comes in, and the Messiah is to come of the Lineage of David. Later on the prophets show the Messiah as a king and ruler of David's house, who should come to reform and restore the Jewish nation and purify the Church, as in Isaiah 11,40-66 The blessings of the restoration, however, will not be confined to Jews; the heathen are made to share them fully. Matthew 2:6 ) left no doubt in the mind of the Sanhedrin as to the birthplace of the Messiah. The lineage of David is again alluded to in ( Zechariah 12:1-14 ) The coming of the Forerunner and of the Anointed is clearly revealed in (Malachi 3:1 ; 4:5,6 ) The Pharisees and those of the Jews who expected Messiah at all looked for a temporal prince only
Elijah (2) - ...
The dominant note in the belief is that the prophet was to appear as the forerunner of the Messiah. This notion appears in its simplest form in the accounts of the avowal of the Messiahship of Jesus at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:13 ff. The period of Elijah the forerunner is past, and the Messiah is here. ...
The relation between the prophet Elijah, the lawgiver Moses, and the Messiah Jesus, is dramatically presented in the narrative of the Transfiguration (Matthew 17, Mark 9:2 ff. When once Jesus has been accepted as the Messiah, the work of John cannot fail to be known as the great preparatory work of Elijah. ) is the natural expression of his lofty idea of the work of preparation for the Messiah contrasted with the insufficiency of the work he had actually been able to perform. Baptism was then one of the preliminaries of the salvation which the Messiah was to bring. Bearing in mind that Elijah is the forerunner of the Messiah, their curiosity seems not simply whether Jesus would have supernatural relief, as a man might, but whether Elijah would, by coming to His aid, prove that Jesus was after all the Messiah. The passage clearly assumes the developed doctrine of the Messiahship of Jesus, and the career of John the Baptist is analyzed from this point of view. John comes in the spirit and power of the great prophet, reconciling families, reducing the disobedient to obedience, preparing Israel for the coming of the Messiah. These Jewish traditions know Elijah as zealous in the service of God, and as a helper in distress, as well as the forerunner of the Messiah. ...
As the Jews elaborated the earlier doctrine of the Messiah, and as in their thought He became more and more exalted in holiness and majesty, the impossibility of His appearance in the midst of all the sin and shame of Israel was increasingly felt; and the character of Elijah, the holy prophet, zealous in his earthly life for the political and religious integrity of the nation, and already enshrined in tradition as having been spared death, was a fitting one to be chosen to carry on the great work of preparing Israel for the blessings of the Messianic era. Indeed, in some passages the doctrine of Elijah has developed to such an extent as well nigh to usurp the functions of the Messiah
Emmanuel - It is applied to the Messiah, our Savior, who, as having united the divine with the human nature, and having come to dwell with men, is God with us, Isaiah 7:14 ; 8:8 ; Matthew 1:23
Malachi - His prophecies are at once denunciatory of prevailing vices, and close with a prophecy of the coming of Messiah, and foretells that Elijah will return as a forerunner of Messiah—a prediction which found its striking fulfilment by the mission of John the Baptist Malachi 4:5; Luke 1:17; Matthew 11:14; Matthew 17:12
Augustus - Augustus was the emperor who appointed the enrolment, Luke 2:1 , which obliged Joseph and the Virgin to go to Bethlehem, the place where the Messiah was to be born
Crispus - Paul that Jesus was the Messiah, he believed with all his house
Messiah - The rabbis got over the Messianic prophecies which prove Jesus to be Messiah by imagining a Messiah ben Joseph who should suffer, distinct from Messiah ben David who should reign; but the prophecies of the suffering and glory are so blended as to exclude the idea of any but one and the same Messiah (compare Isaiah 52:7; Isaiah 52:13-14; Isaiah 52:15; Isaiah 52:53)
Son of David - —The phrase is used in the NT as a title of the Messiah, except in Matthew 1:1; Matthew 1:20 (cf. For the general discussion of the Messiahship of Jesus, and of the Messiah as king, see Messiah; the present article concerns only the use of this particular title. Paul (Romans 1:3, 2 Timothy 2:8), seemingly as of some importance, and it is assumed of the Messiah in the Apocalypse (Revelation 5:5; Revelation 22:16). The passage is a repudiation of the notion of the Jews—implied in their use of the title—that it fully expresses the functions of the Messiah. The Messiah does not owe His dignity to His Davidic descent. The proper answer to Jesus’ question would have involved an entire reconstruction of the ideas of the Jews concerning the Messiah, of which they were, of course, utterly incapable. The connexion of the Messiah with the royal house and city was deemed so essential, that Jesus, of Galilaean extraction, was declared by some to be ineligible to the high office. The particular phase of Messiahship which the title properly expresses is, of course, the royal estate and function. There is, however, no reason to suppose that, as used in NT times, the title alluded to military prowess, or to a career of conquest on the part of the Messiah. Likewise the works of healing which He had wrought called forth—so characteristic were they of the Messiah who was expected—the query whether this might not be the Son of David (Matthew 12:23). These NT applications of the title are in close harmony with the OT description of the Messiah
Elisabeth - Elisabeth was of a priestly family, ‘the kinswoman’ of Mary ( Luke 1:36 ), whom she greeted as the mother of the Messiah ( Luke 1:43 )
Nathanael - At first he had difficulty believing that the Messiah should come from the small Galilean town of Nazareth, but he was quickly convinced when he learnt first-hand of Jesus’ supernatural knowledge (John 1:48-49). Jesus assured Nathanael that the Messiah was more than just a person with superhuman knowledge
Dayspring - original which was a well-understood personal designation of the Messiah (combining the ideas of ‘light’ and ‘sprout’); it would then be a poetical equivalent for ‘Messiah from heaven
Hosanna - The people cried Hosanna as Jesus entered in triumph into Jerusalem; that is, they thus invoked the blessings of heaven on him as the Messiah, Matthew 21:9
John the Baptist - God’s purpose for John the Baptist was that he be the forerunner of the Messiah. They would be ready to welcome the Messiah and so enter his kingdom (Luke 1:13-17; Luke 1:57-66; Luke 1:76-79; Matthew 3:2). ...
Forerunner of the Messiah...
People in Israel had long expected that Elijah the prophet would return before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 4:5). That power could come only through a greater baptism, the gift of the Holy Spirit; and that was a gift that only the Messiah could give. John was not the Messiah, but he was clearly preparing the way for the Messiah (Luke 3:3-6; Luke 3:15-17; 1618419556_31; John 1:19-28). ...
Introducing the Messiah...
John and Jesus were about the same age and were related (Luke 1:36), but their backgrounds and upbringing were different. As a result of that baptism, John knew for certain (through the visible descent of the Spirit upon Jesus) that this one was the promised Messiah (Matthew 3:13-17; John 1:33-34). They spread into regions so far from Jerusalem that many years passed before some of them heard the full message concerning the Messiah of whom John had spoken (1618419556_8; Acts 19:1-5). This made him wonder whether Jesus really was the Messiah he had foretold, so he sent messengers to ask Jesus directly (Luke 7:18-20). The blessings of the Messiah’s kingdom are such that the humblest believer of this new era is more blessed than the greatest believer of the old (Luke 7:28)
Gabriel - He assured Daniel that God would now restore the Jews to their land and bring his age-long purposes to fulfilment with the coming of the Messiah (Daniel 9:20-27). He announced to Zechariah the coming birth of the Messiah’s forerunner (Luke 1:11-20), and then to Mary the coming birth of the Messiah himself (Luke 1:26-38)
Christian - The language spoken in Antioch was Greek, and therefore the believers in that town spoke of Jesus not by the Hebrew word ‘Messiah’, but by the equivalent Greek word ‘Christ’. (Both words meant ‘the anointed one’; see Messiah
Triumphal Entry - Prior to this moment, Jesus had refused to allow any public acknowledgement of His being the Messiah. The riding upon the colt, the garments and palm branches in the road, and the shouts of the multitude—all of this pointed to Jesus as the Messiah. ...
Ironically, though the triumphal entry was a public acceptance of being the Messiah and presented a direct challenge to His enemies, it must have been a disappointment to many of His followers. See Jesus, Life and Ministry; Messiah
Messiah or Messias - ...
But, as we have already observed, Messiah is the designation given by the Hebrews, eminently, to that Savior and Deliverer whom they expected, and who was promised to them by all the prophets. As the holy unction was given to kings, priests, and prophets, by describing the promised Savior of the world under the name of Christ, Anointed, or Messiah, it was sufficiently evidenced that the qualities of king, prophet, and highpriest would eminently center in him, and that he should exercise them not only over the Jews but over all mankind, and particularly over those who should receive him as their Savior. ...
That Jesus Christ was the true Messiah of the Old Testament, the "Shiloh" of Jacob, the "Redeemer" of Job, the "Angel of the Covenant," is abundantly clear. At the time when the Savior actually came, and then only, could these predictions meet: then the seventy weeks of years were ended; and soon after, the scepter was torn forever from the hands of Judah, the only tribe that could then claim the headship of the Jews; and the temple in which the Messiah was to appear was annihilated
Son of Man - ...
It was understood as a designation of the Messiah, according to Old Testament predictions, Psalm 80:17 Daniel 7:13,14 ; but appears to indicate especially his true humanity or oneness with the human race
Ark - It is a type of the manger which disclosed to the shepherds Messiah, who, beginning with the manger, at last ascended to His Father's throne; also of the paper ark to which God has committed His revelation
Boot - God's Messiah promised full victory even over the more-impressively dressed army
Lord - Jesus Christ, as the Messiah, the Son of God, and equal with the Father, is often called Lord in Scripture, especially in the writing of Paul
Stone - This word is also used figuratively of believers (1 Peter 2:4,5 ), and of the Messiah (Psalm 118:22 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Matthew 21:42 ; Acts 4:11 , etc. In Daniel 2:45 it refers also to the Messiah
Elizabeth - ...
When Elizabeth was six months pregnant, Mary visited her, bringing news that she (Mary) was to be the mother of the promised Messiah (Luke 1:35-36; Luke 1:39-40). Elizabeth and Zechariah knew that their child was to become the forerunner of the Messiah (Luke 1:13-17)
Jesse - ) His own name is immortalized, probably because of his faith in the coming Messiah, "the rod out of the stem (stump) of Jesse" even long after David had eclipsed him (Isaiah 11:1; Isaiah 11:10), expressing the depressed state of David's royal line when Messiah was to be born of it (Luke 2)
Messiah - ...
Mâshı̂yach (מָשִׁיחַ, Strong's #4899), “anointed one; Messiah. ...
Second, the word is sometimes transliterated “Messiah. 9:25 the word is transliterated: “Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince. Most frequently in the New Testament the word is translated (“Christ”) rather than transliterated (“Messiah”)
Joshua the Son of Jehozadak - ...
The rebuilding of the temple was a preparation for the coming of the Messiah. When, in anticipation of this Messiah, the Jews conducted a coronation ceremony, the person they should have crowned was Zerubbabel, for he was not only governor but also a Davidic prince in the line of the Messiah (Matthew 1:6; Matthew 1:12; Matthew 1:16). The ceremony emphasized that the joint rule of Joshua and Zerubbabel, the priest and the prince, foreshadowed the rule of the priest-king Messiah (Zechariah 6:9-14)
Star (2) - ’]'>[5] A contrast may also be intended to be suggested between the spiritual Kingship of the Messiah, and the earthly kingship of secular rulers (like Herod) who are instinctively hostile to the new force that has entered the world. But it is to be observed that in Numbers the star is identified with the Messiah, and would hardly be applicable in this story. regards the episode of the visit of the Magi to render homage to the newborn King not so much in the light of a fulfilment of ancient prophecy, as a new prophecy ‘which indicates that the Messiah Jesus, who has been born to save His own people from their sins (Matthew 1:21), will be sought out and honoured by heathen, while the leading representatives of the religious thought and worship of Israel ask no questions concerning Him, and leave it to the tyrant, who enslaves them, to concern himself about the true King of the Jews, and then only with the object of compassing His destruction. See Edersheim, LT [8]. ) also cites some late Midrashic passages which connect the coming of Messiah with the appearance of a star. The star of the Messiah. —Sometimes the Messiah Himself is metaphorically referred to as a Star,† [5]6 a description which is based, apparently, on Numbers 24:17 :...
‘There shall come forth a star out of Jacob,...
And a sceptre shall rise out of Israel’;...
In the Targum Onkelos this is rendered:...
‘When a king shall arise out of Jacob,...
And the Messiah shall be anointed from Israel’;...
And in pseudo-Jonathan:...
‘When the mighty King of Jacob’s House shall reign,...
And the Messiah, the Power sceptre of Israel, shall be anointed. ...
In the first part of the 3rd Messiah-Apocalypse embodied in The Apocalypse of Baruch (ch. 53), the seer beholds the Messiah appear like lightning ‘on the summit of the cloud’; and this lightning ‘shone exceedingly so as to illuminate the whole earth’ (cf. ...
It was apparently from Numbers 24:17, Messianically interpreted, that the false Messiah Simeon derived his designation Bar Cochba (i. When Rabbi Akiba acknowledged him as the Messiah, he expressly cited this Scripture passage (Bab. After the disastrous issue of his revolt it became necessary to apologize for Akiba’s mistake, and one such explanation seems to be reflected in some of the minor Midrashim which make the reference apply to Messiah ben Joseph, who was destined to be killed in battle before Messiah ben David could appear. A similar conception meets us in 2 Peter 1:19 (‘Take heed unto the lamp of prophecy until the day dawn, and the day-star [1] arise in your hearts’), and, in fact, the essential idea is present in all those passages of the NT which speak of the spiritual illumination that accompanies the revelation of the Messiah (cf. There is also the remarkable description of the Messiah as the ‘Day-spring from on high’ (ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους) in the Song of Zacharias (Luke 1:78), which may possibly have been associated in thought with the Messianic Star. ]'>[15] ...
The association of the idea of light with the Messiah and the Messianic age was well established in Jewish Literature. It comments thus:...
‘What is asserted by the words of the Psalm, “In thy light shall we see light” (Psalms 36:10)? It is the light of the Messiah that is meant. For when it is said, “God saw the light that it was good” (Genesis 1:4), it is thereby taught that the Holy One (Blessed be He) contemplated the generation of the Messiah and his works, before the world had been created, and that He concealed the light for the Messiah and his generation beneath His throne of glory. ” ’...
The Midrash then goes on to relate that at his request Satan was allowed to see the Messiah, and at the sight of him trembled and sank to the ground, crying out; ‘Truly this is the Messiah, who will deliver me and all heathen kings over to Gehenna
Seventy Weeks - This is regarded as the period which would elapse till the time of the coming of the Messiah, dating "from the going forth of the commandment to restore and rebuild Jerusalem" i
Gittith - There may be an enigmatical reference to Messiah treading the winepress (Isaiah 63:3; Revelation 19:15):...
Signs - ...
Jesus’ miracles of raising the dead, healing the sick and casting out demons were clear evidence that the kingdom of God had come (Matthew 11:2-6; Matthew 12:28; see KINGDOM OF GOD), and that Jesus was the Messiah, the Son of God (John 2:11; John 4:54; John 20:30-31). They wanted Jesus to perform some special sign as added proof that he was the Messiah who had come from God. The only sign to be given them would be the sign of Jesus’ resurrection, by which the Father would show clearly that Jesus was his Son (Matthew 12:38-40; Matthew 16:1-4; John 2:18-25; see Messiah; MIRACLES)
Transfiguration - Their conversation with Jesus about his coming death confirmed what Jesus had told his disciples a few days earlier, namely, that though he was the Messiah, he was also the suffering servant. ...
The Father’s final words, ‘Hear him’, indicated that this one, besides being the kingly Messiah and the suffering servant, was the great prophet who announced God’s message to the world (Matthew 17:5; cf. (See also Messiah; SERVANT OF THE LORD
Messiah - And it is very blessed to behold in the Scriptures of truth the testimony of JEHOVAH to this grand doctrine of Christ the Messiah, as the Christ of God. For one of the names of the Lord Jesus in the Old Testament is, the Messiah, that is the Anointed, as well as in the New; and as it is expressly said concerning him in the New Testament, when he appeared in the substance of our flesh, how God anointed Jesus of Nazareth: with the Holy Ghost, Acts 10:38 - so evidently was he called the Messiah, and consequently answer that name was, and is, from everlasting, the anointed of God by the Holy Ghost, before he openly manifested himself under that character in our flesh. Such then was and is the glorious Messiah, the Christ of God; and such we accept and receive him to his body the church. ...
I might detain the reader were it not for enlarging this work beyond the limits I must observe, with offering several most interesting reflections, which arise out of this view of our now risen and exalted Messiah as the Messiah, the Christ of God; but for brevity's sake, I shall only beg to offer this one observation, namely, how sweet and strengthening a testimony such views of Jesus give to the faith of the church, when receiving Christ as the anointed of the Father and the Holy Ghost, Recollect in that blessed portion, just now quoted what the Mediator saith as Mediator—"Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret; from the beginning, from the time that it was, there am I; and now the Lord God and his Spirit hath sent me. " Was there ever anything more full in point and in proof of this blessed doctrine concerning the Messiah? What could the Lord Jesus by the spirit of prophecy mean, but that he would have his church, when receiving him, read his credentials, and mark well his high warrant and authority. Christ, as Christ, as the anointed, as the Messiah, is the sure appointment and ordinance of heaven. " (John 4:10) Such is the blessedness of receiving Christ, and living upon Christ, as the Christ, the Messiah, of God
Fulness -
Of time (Galatians 4:4 ), the time appointed by God, and foretold by the prophets, when Messiah should appear
Archangel - So exalted are the position and offices ascribed to Michael, that many think the Messiah is meant
Highway - Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:16 ; 35:8 ; 40:3 ; 62:10 ) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march
Shi'Loh - " Supposing that the translation is correct, the meaning of the word is peaceable or pacific , and the allusion is either to Solomon, whose name has a similar signification, or to the expected Messiah, who in ( Isaiah 9:6 ) is expressly called the Prince of Peace. [1] Other interpretations, however, of the passage are given, one of which makes it refer to the city of this name
Anoint - In the New Testament, Christ is portrayed as the Messiah. ...
Louis Goldberg...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
Bibliography
Shi'Loh - " Supposing that the translation is correct, the meaning of the word is peaceable or pacific , and the allusion is either to Solomon, whose name has a similar signification, or to the expected Messiah, who in ( Isaiah 9:6 ) is expressly called the Prince of Peace. [1] Other interpretations, however, of the passage are given, one of which makes it refer to the city of this name
Micah - The birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem is also expressly foretold; and the Jews are directed to look to the establishment and extent of his kingdom, as an unfailing source of comfort amidst general distress. ...
The prophecy of Micah, contained in the fifth chapter, is, perhaps, the most important single prophecy in all the Old Testament, and the most comprehensive respecting the personal character of the Messiah, and his successive manifestations to the world. " It carefully distinguishes his human nativity from his divine nature and eternal existence; foretels the casting off of the Israelites and Jews for a season; their ultimate restoration; and the universal peace which should prevail in the kingdom and under the government of the Messiah. This prophecy, therefore, forms the basis of the New Testament revelation which commences with the birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem, the miraculous circumstances of which are recorded by St
Anna - She was constant in attendance at the morning and evening sacrifices at the temple; and there, at the age of eighty- four years, was blessed with a sight of the infant Savior, and inspired to announce the coming of the promised Messiah to many who longed to see him, Luke 2:36-38
Gabriel - He announced also the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:11 ), and of the Messiah (26)
Nebaioth - whence the beautiful figure of the prophet above cited respecting the gathering of the Gentile nations to the sceptre of the Messiah
Heracleonites - John the Baptist was the only true voice that directed to the Messiah
Devout - Simeon is described as righteous and devout person who welcomed the coming of the Messiah and on whom the Holy Spirit rested (Luke 2:25 )
Desire of All Nations - Some translations (KJV, NIV) interpret the underlying Hebrew as a prophecy of the coming Messiah
Heldai - A Jew from Babylon, from whom and Tobijah and Jedaiah the gold and silver which they presented toward building the temple were to be taken, and crowns made for Joshua's head, afterward to be deposited in the temple as a memorial of the donors (as Cornelius' prayers and ahns of faith "came up for a memorial before God," Acts 10:4), until Messiah should come
Nazarene - It was foretold in prophecy, Psalm 22:7,8 Isaiah 53:2 , that the Messiah should be despised and rejected of men; and this epithet, which came to be used as a term of reproach, showed the truth of these predictions, Matthew 2:23 Acts 24:5
Blindness - Blind beggars figure repeatedly in the New Testament (Matthew 12:22 ) and "opening the eyes of the blind" is mentioned in prophecy as a peculiar attribute of the Messiah
Messiah - Messiah (mes-si'ah). As in ancient times not only the king, but also the priest and the prophet, was consecrated to his calling by being anointed, the word "Messiah" often occurs in the Old Testament in its literal sense, signifying one who has been anointed, 1 Samuel 24:6; Lamentations 4:1-22 :' 20; Ezekiel 28:14; Psalms 105:15; hut generally it has a more specific application, signifying the One who was anointed, the supreme Deliverer who was promised from the beginning, Genesis 3:15, and about whom a long series of prophecies runs through the whole history of Israel from Abram, Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:18; Jacob, Genesis 49:10; Balaam, Numbers 24:17; Moses, Deuteronomy 18:15; Deuteronomy 18:18; and Nathan, 2 Samuel 7:16; through the psalmists and prophets, Psalms 2:1-12; Psalms 16:1-11; Psalms 22:1-31; Psalms 40:1-17; Psalms 45:1-17; Psalms 110:1-7; Isaiah 7:10-16; Isaiah 9:1-7; Isaiah 11:1-16; Isaiah 13:1-22; Isaiah 53:1-12; Isaiah 61:1-11; Jeremiah 23:5-6; Micah 5:2; Malachi 3:1-4, to his immediate precursor, John the Baptist. The lineage from which Messiah should descend was foretold, Genesis 49:10; Isaiah 11:1, the place in which he should be born, Micah 5:2, the time of his appearance, Daniel 9:20; Daniel 9:25; Haggai 2:7; Malachi 3:1, etc
Unction - It is not to be wondered at that the Israelites had such frequent use of anointings, when we consider that the very order of their institution as a church and people, was to be looking for the coming of the Messiah, that is, the anointed One. Now, as Christ the Messiah could not have been Christ, that is, anointed, but by the Holy Ghost's anointing, so neither could the church have been his church, his spouse, his beloved, and the only one, of her mother, (Song of Song of Solomon 6:9) but by the anointing also of God the Holy Ghost. Hence then it should be considered, (and I beg the pious reader to consider it, and keep it in remembrance proportioned to its infinite importance) as Christ is called Messiah, that is Christ, as the anointed of God, before he openly appeared at his incarnation, so the church of Christ is called his church; and for which, in salvation-work, Christ was made Christ, before he was made flesh, and dwelt among us; nor, as the Son of God, had it not been for his church's sake, ever would have been sent by the Father, neither would have taken our nature into the GODHEAD, neither have been anointed by the Holy Ghost
Shiloh - " All Christian commentators agree, that this word ought to be understood of the Messiah, that is, of Jesus Christ. However, this much is clear, that the ancient Jews are in this matter agreed with the Christians, in acknowledging that the word stands for Messiah, the King. If Jesus Christ and his Apostles did not make use of this passage to prove the coming of the Messiah, it was because then the completion of this prophecy was not sufficiently manifest
Ear - The Psalmist says, in the person of the Messiah, "Sacrifice and offering thou didst not desire; mine ears hast thou opened. " This either means, Thou hast opened them, removed impediments, and made them attentive; or, thou hast pierced them, as those of such servants were pierced, who chose to remain with their masters; and therefore imports the absolute and voluntary submission of Messiah to the will of the Father
Son of Man - Because of the Jews’ selfish nationalistic ideas of the Messiah and his kingdom, Jesus rarely spoke of himself specifically as the Messiah (see Messiah). By using the title ‘Son of man’, he was claiming to be the Messiah without actually using the title ‘Messiah’. ...
When the Jewish leaders finally understood Jesus’ usage of the title (namely, that he claimed to be both the Davidic Messiah and the supernatural heavenly Messiah of Daniel 7:13-14), they accused him of blasphemy and had him crucified (Mark 14:61-64)
Cornelius - His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him
Edar, Tower of - Jewish tradition made it the destined birthplace of Messiah
Rahab - ...
‘These names [1] are probably introduced as those of women in whose case circumstances were overruled by the Divine providence which, as it might have seemed, should have excluded them from a place in the ancestral line of the Messiah
Ittai - He illustrates how Gentiles will be associated with the remnant of Israel, both in the sufferings and reign of their Messiah, and serve Him in a future day
Hadadrimmon - It is quoted as an illustration of the great mourning there will be at Jerusalem when the sin of Judah is brought home to their conscience for having demanded the death of their Messiah
Rahab - ...
‘These names [1] are probably introduced as those of women in whose case circumstances were overruled by the Divine providence which, as it might have seemed, should have excluded them from a place in the ancestral line of the Messiah
Shiloh - Generally understood as denoting the Messiah, "the peaceful one," as the word signifies (Genesis 49:10 ). The Vulgate Version translates the word, "he who is to be sent," in allusion to the Messiah; the Revised Version, margin, "till he come to Shiloh;" and the LXX
Septuagint Chronology - The following is the reason which is given by Oriental writers; It being a very ancient tradition that Messiah was to come in the sixth chiliad, because he was to come in the last days, (founded on a mystical application of the six days creation, ) the contrivance was to shorten the age of the world from about 5500 to 3760; and thence to prove that Jesus could not be the Messiah
Septuagint Chronology - The following is the reason which is given by the oriental writers: It being a very ancient tradition that Messiah was to come in the sixth chiliad, because he was to come in the last days, founded on a mystical application of the six days of the creation, the contrivance was to shorten the age of the world from about 5500 to 3760; and thence to prove that Jesus could not be the Messiah
Caraites - They believe that Messiah is not yet come, and reject all calculations of the time of his appearance:...
yet they say, it is proper that even every day they should receive their salvation by Messiah, the Son of David
Gentile - God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, has fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is now composed principally of Gentile converts; and the Jews, too proud of their particular privileges, and abandoned to their reprobate sense of things, have disowned Jesus Christ, their Messiah and Redeemer, for whom, during so many ages, they had looked so impatiently. Jacob foretold that the Messiah, he who was to be sent, the Shiloh, should gather the Gentiles to himself. The Psalmist says, that the Lord would give the Gentiles to the Messiah for his inheritance; that Egypt and Babylon shall know him; that Ethiopia shall hasten to bring him presents; that the kings of Tarshish, and of the isles, the kings of Arabia and Sheba, shall be tributary to him, Psalms 2:8 ; Psalms 67:4 ; Psalms 72:9-10
Zechariah - ...
Zechariah's prophecies concerning the Messiah are more particular and express than those of most other prophets, and many of them, like those of Daniel, are couched in symbols. The book opens with a brief introduction; after which six chapters contain a series of visions, setting forth the fitness of that time for the promised restoration of Israel, the destruction of the enemies of God's people, the conversion of heathen nations, the advent of Messiah the Branch, the outpouring and blessed influences of the Holy Spirit, and the importance and safety of faithfully adhering to the service of their covenant God. The remaining three chapters describe the future destiny of the Jews, the siege of Jerusalem, the triumphs of Messiah, and the glories of the latter day when "Holiness to the Lord" shall be inscribed on all things
Chosen One - see), seems to have been a pre-Christian designation of the Messiah, ὁ ἐκλεκτός μου occurs in the LXX Septuagint of Isaiah 42:1, and is there defined as Ἰσραήλ. But in the Book of Enoch ‘the Elect one’ is a common title of the Messiah (Luke 23:35 we have ‘the Messiah of God, the Elect. ...
Connected with the use of this title of the Messiah in the Gospels is the question as to the meaning of the aorist εὐδόκησα in Mark 1:11 = Matthew 3:17 = Luke 3:22. To these should be added the citation in Matthew 12:18 ‘Behold my son (servant?) whom I adopted, my beloved in whom my soul was well pleased,’ where the aorists are most easily explained as expressing the Divine selection and appointment of the Messiah in a pre-temporal period. In the thought of the Evangelist, Jesus, born of the Virgin by the Holy Spirit, was the pre-existent Messiah (= Beloved) or Son (Matthew 11:27) who had been forechosen by God (Matthew 3:17, Matthew 17:5), and who, when born into the world as Jesus, was ‘God-with-us’ (Matthew 1:23)
Messias - The Hebrew is more closely transliterated as "Messiah
Awl - So Messiah, volunteering to become God's servant by taking man's nature; "Mine ears hast Thou opened" (Psalms 40:6); Isaiah 1:5, "the Lord God hath opened Mine ear," i
Prince - The promised Saviour is called by (Daniel 9:25 ) "Messiah the Prince" (Heb
Nazarene - , but the thought conveyed by them is in the prophets generally, that the Messiah would be despised and reproached: cf
Jesse - In Isaiah 11:1 the ‘stock of Jesse’ is mentioned as that from which the Messiah is to issue; the thought probably being that of the humble descent of the Messiah as contrasted with His glorious Kingdom which is to be
Zerubbabel - Zechariah 3:8-10 ) we learn that Zerubbabel was looked upon as the coming Messiah; in this night-vision it is pointed out that Joshua and his fellows are a pledge and an earnest of the near approach of the Messiah the ‘Branch,’ as he is here called; the stone which is to adorn his crown is ready, and Jahweh Himself is about to engrave thereon a fitting inscription; when the Messiah comes, God will obliterate all guilt from the people, and peace shall rest upon the land (see Branch)
Remnant - From this remnant the Messiah eventually came (Micah 5:2-3; Micah 5:7-8; Zechariah 8:11-12; Malachi 3:16-18; Matthew 1:18-21; Luke 1:5-7; Luke 2:25-38). ...
Still the majority of Israel rebelled against God, this time rejecting the Messiah. Within it, however, were the believing Jews, the faithful remnant, the spiritual Israelites who believed in Jesus the Messiah and became part of his church (Acts 13:43; Acts 16:1; Acts 17:2-4; Acts 18:8; Romans 2:28-29; Romans 9:6-8; Romans 11:1-5)
Messiah - Messiah. The conception of the Messiah is logically implicit in all the expectations of the Hebrew people that Jehovah would deliver Israel and turn it into a glorious empire to which all the heathen would be subjected. But in the same proportion as the conception of the personal Messiah emerges from the general Messianic hope these elements appear within it: (1) the Deliverer; (2) the presence of God’s Spirit in His own personality as the source of His power; (3) His work as the salvation of God’s people, at first the Jewish nation, but ultimately all those who join themselves to Him. The Messiah of the OT ...
In any historical study of the OT it is necessary to distinguish sharply between the Messianic interpretation given to certain passages by later writers, notably Christian and Rabbinic, and the expectation which, so far as it is recoverable, the writers of the OT actually possessed. There is no reference, however, to a personal Messiah. The Messiah of the Jewish literature...
1. The Messiah of the later canonical books is not well defined. There is, however, no sharply distinct personal Messiah in these visions, and the expectation is primarily that of a genuinely political State established by Jehovah in Palestine. In the Sibylline Oracles the figure of the Messiah again is not distinct, but there is a picture (III. Enoch literature the hope of a personal Messiah is presented in somewhat different degrees of distinctness. The dead are to be raised, the Messiah is to appear, and all men are to he transformed into His likeness. The Messiah seems to have no particular function either of judgment or of conquest. The Messiah is thus more distinct, and is at least once called by God ‘my Son. The Messiah is now very prominent, being called ‘son of man,’ ‘elect,’ ‘righteous one. There is no reference to a Messiah, but rather to the conquest of the world by a nation that kept Jehovah’s law. The best-drawn picture of the Messiah in the Pharisaic literature is that of the Psalms of Solomon . The Messiah, however, is given a position not accorded him elsewhere in pre-Christian Jewish literature. The literature of later Pharisaism became very strongly apocalyptic, but the figure of a personal Messiah is not always present. In the Assumption of Moses there is no personal Messiah mentioned, and God is said to be the sole punisher of the Gentiles. ...
In Slavonic Enoch , likewise, there is no mention of the Messiah or of the resurrection, although the latter is doubtless involved in the doctrine of the millennium, which this book sets forth. It would appear that both in the Assumption of Moses and in Slavonic Enoch the central figure is God, the deliverer of His people and judge of His enemies, rather than the Messiah. In one cycle a Messiah would slay those who had in any way injured the Jewish people, and make a Jerusalem already prepared in heaven his capital. In the other cycle there is no such glory in store for Israel, but there will be an end of corruptible things, and the establishment of a new world-age in which the dead shall be raised under the command of the Messiah. Then the Messiah and all mankind die, remaining dead for an entire ‘week’; after that come a general resurrection and judgment, and the fixing of the destinies of eternity. God, however, rather than the Messiah, is to be judge. The Messiah of popular expectation in NT times . Over against this Messiah of Pharisaic literature, so clearly increasingly superhuman in character, must be placed the Messianic hope of the people at large. There is no evidence, however, that this new sect, which is clearly that of the Zealots , had any distinct hope of a superhuman Messiah. The Zealots, like the Pharisees, expected the new Kingdom to be established by God or His representative the Messiah, but, unlike the Pharisees, they were not content to await the Divine action. The fact that the Messiah is not prominent in such hopes does not imply that such a person was unexpected. Yet it would be unsafe to say that the Messiah whom the people expected, any more than he whom the Pharisees awaited, would be without Divine appointment and inspiration. The Messiah of the Samaritans . The Messiah of Rabbinism . The Messiah was generally regarded as a descendant of David
Temptation of Jesus - The Rabbis taught that there was a specific pinnacle of the Temple where the Messiah would suddenly appear and jump off, floating down to earth sustained by angels. ...
The force of the temptation experiences in Matthew is to be a bread Messiah, a spectacular Messiah, and a compromising Messiah. When Jesus refused to continue to be a bread Messiah, the crowds left Him (John 6:25-68 ). The evil one sought to have Jesus be a Messiah some other way than the way of suffering God had appointed
Counselor - God is often regarded as a counselor (Psalm 16:7 ; Psalm 32:8 ; Psalm 33:11 ; Psalm 73:24 ) as is His Messiah (Isaiah 9:6 ; Isaiah 11:2 ) and the Holy Spirit (John 14:16 ,John 14:16,14:26 ; John 15:26 ; John 16:7 )
Flint - In Isaiah 50:7 and Ezekiel 3:9 the expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish the great work in which he was engaged
Edification: the Aim of Christian Speech - When Handel's oratorio of the 'Messiah' had won the admiration of many of the great, Lord Kinnoul took occasion to pay him some compliments on the noble entertainment which he had lately given the town
Wolf - The peaceful reign of the Messiah is spoken of under the metaphor of the wolf dwelling with the lamb
Nathanael - A disciple of Christ, probably the same as John 21:2 , and was one of the first to recognize the Messiah, who at their first interview manifested his perfect acquaintance with Nathanael's secret heart and life, John 1:45-51
Barrenness - An affliction peculiarly lamented throughout the East, Genesis 16:1 30:1-23 1 Samuel 1:6,19 Isaiah 47:9 49:21 Luke 1:25 , especially by the Jewish women, who remembered the promised Messiah, Genesis 3:15 , and hoped for the honor of his parentage
Jesse - The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isaiah 11:1 ), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isaiah 11:10 ; Revelation 5:5 )
Melchizedek - Melchizedek, or Melchisedec (mel-kĭz'-e-dĕk), the Greek form in the New Testament (king of righteousness), is mentioned in Genesis 14:18-20 as king of Salem and priest of the Most High God, meeting Abram in the valley of Shaveh, bringing out bread and wine to him, blessing him, and receiving tithes from him; in Psalms 110:4, where Messiah is described as a priest "after the order of Melchizedek;" and finally, in Hebrews 5:6-7, where the typical relations between Melchizedek and Christ are defined, both being priests without belonging to the Levitical tribe, superior to Abram, of unknown beginning and end, and kings of righteousness and peace. Another tradition, equally old, but not so widely accepted, considers him to be an angel, the Son of God in human form, the Messiah
Messiah - The ancient Jews had just notions of the Messiah, which came gradually to be corrupted, by expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror; and finding Jesus Christ to be poor, humble, and of an unpromising appearance, they rejected him. Most of the modern rabbis, according to Buxtorf, believe that the Messiah is come, but that he lies concealed because of the sins of the Jews. To reconcile the prophecies concerning the Messiah that seemed to be contradictory, some have had recourse to a twofold Messiah; one in a state of poverty and suffering, the other of splendor and glory. ...
The first, they say, is to proceed from the tribe of Ephraim, who is to fight against Gog, and to be slain by Annillus, Zechariah 12:10 ; the second is to be of the tribe of Judah and lineage of David, who is to conquer and kill Annillus; to bring the first Messiah to life again, to assemble all Israel, and rule over the whole world. That Jesus Christ is the true Messiah, and actually come in the flesh is evident, if we consider (as Mr. Should Messiah the Prince come at some future period, how are the sacrifice and oblation to cease on his appearance, when they have already ceased near 1800 years. The place where Messiah should be born, and where he should principally impart his doctrine is determined; Micah 5:2 ; Is. The kind of miracles that Messiah should perform is specified; Is. Nothing could be a more striking fulfillment of prophecy than the treatment the Messiah met with in almost every particular circumstance. it is declared that when the Messiah should come, the will of God would be perfectly fulfilled by him, Isa 42: 1, 49. ...
There have been numerous false Messiahs which have arisen at different times. Being dissatisfied with the state of things under Adrian, he set himself up at the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed himself their long expected Messiah. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful, that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their Messiah. He chose a forerunner, raised an army, was anointed king, coined money inscribed with his own name, and proclaimed himself Messiah and prince of the Jewish nation. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans, in defense of this false Messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. In the year 529 the Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the emperor Justinian, and set up one Julian for their king; and accounted him the Messiah. The emperor sent an army against them, killed great numbers of them, took their pretended Messiah prisoner, and immediately put him to death. At first he professed himself to be the Messiah who was promised to the Jews. In some sense, therefore, he may be considered in the number of false Messiahs. About the year 721, in the time of Leo Isaurus, arose another false Messiah in Spain; his name was Serenus. The twelfth century was fruitful in false Messiahs: for about the year 1137, there appeared one in France, who was put to death, and many of those who followed him. In the year 1138 the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the Messiah. In the year 1157, a false Messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba, in Spain. In the year 1167, another false Messiah rose in the kingdom of Fez, which brought great trouble and persecution upon the Jews that were scattered through that country. In the same year an Arabian set up there for the Messiah, and pretended to work miracles. Not long after this, a Jew who dwelt beyond Euphrates, called himself the Messiah, and drew vast multitudes of people after him. He was a man of learning, a great magician, and pretended to be the Messiah. In the year 1500, Rabbi Lemlem, a German Jew of Austria, declared himself a forerunner of the Messiah, and pulled down his own oven, promising his brethren that they should bake their bread in the Holy Land next year. In the year 1509, one whose name was Plefferkorn, a Jew of Cologne, pretended to be the Messiah. In the year 1534, Rabbi Salomo Malcho, giving out that he was the Messiah, was burnt to death by Charles the Fifth of Spain. In the year 1624, another in the Low Countries pretended to be the Messiah of the Family of David, and of the line of Nathan. In the year 1666, appeared the false Messiah Sabatai Sevi, who made so great a noise, and gained such a number of proselytes. of False Messiahs; Jortin's Rem. 330; Kidder's Demonstration of the Messias; Harris's Sermons on the Messiah; The Eleventh Volume of the Modern Part of the Universal History; Simpson's Key to the Prophecies, sec. 9; Maclaurin on the Prophecies relating to the Messiah; Fuller's Jesus the true Messiah
Lion - In 2 (4) Esdras 11:37; 12:1,31 the Messiah is pictured as a lion, but not specifically of Judah. In the Testament of Judah 24:5 the Messiah is from Judah but not specifically as a lion. Given the imprecision in the alleged parallels, the cautious interpreter would not make much of the tradition that combines "lion" and "of the Tribe of Judah" into one idea, but rather would understand Jesus the Lamb to be called Messiah under two images derived from separate traditions. Huttar...
See also God ; Messiah ; Satan ...
Bibliography
Blind - The opening of the eyes of the blind is peculiar to the Messiah (Isaiah 29:18 )
Gabbatha - Before announcing the decision, however, Pilate introduced Jesus as King of the Jews, giving the Jewish leaders one last chance to confess their Messiah
Aijeleth Shahar - The morning dawn represents joy bursting forth after affliction; Messiah is alluded to, His deep sorrow (Psalms 22:1-21) passes to triumphant joy (Psalms 22:21-31)
Gabriel - Thus, Gabriel explains to Daniel the appalling prophecy concerning the ram and he-goat, and cheers him with the prophecy of Messiah's advent within the "70 weeks," in answer to his prayer; and in New Testament announces to Zacharias the glad tidings of the birth of John the forerunner, and of Messiah Himself to the Virgin (Luke 1:19; Luke 1:26)
Suretiship - " Christ is the "surety (enguos ) of a better testament" (Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 9:11-15); Jeremiah 30:21, "who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto Me?" literally, pledged his life, a thing unique: Messiah alone made His life responsible for ours
Star in the East - prophecies as to Messiah; but whether this be so or not, God, who provided the star, sent the Magi to find out the King of the Jews, and instructed them not to return to Herod
Didymus - John 4:25 (‘Messiah … which is called Christ’) shows that Thomas was not called Didymus as an additional name
Judaism - Judaism was but a temporary dispensation, and was to give way, at least the ceremonial part of it, at the coming of the Messiah
Branch - a title of Messiah: "And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a BRANCH shall grow out of his roots," Isaiah 11:1
Diseases - On the ground of obedience they failed to attain freedom from diseases, but their Messiah healed them all in grace
Mat'Thew, Gospel of - It is an historical proof that Jesus is the Messiah. It is the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the prophets. This Gospel takes the life of Jesus as it was lived on earth, and his character as it actually appeared, and places them alongside the life and character of the Messiah as sketched in the prophets, the historic by the side of the Prophetic, that the two may appear in their marvellous unity and in their perfect identity
Seed, Seedtime - ‘seeds’ in Genesis 13:15 ; Genesis 17:8 , that the Messiah in person is denoted and not Abraham’s progeny in general. Paul’s meaning is that the Messiah was clearly in view in the promises made to Abraham
Nathanael - ...
Philip announced to Nathanael that Jesus was the promised Messiah (John 1:45 )
Chicken - However, toward the end of His ministry, as we find it in Matthew, He called individual Israelites to come to Him for protection, for in the meanwhile, the nation had rejected Him as their Lord, their King, and their Messiah
Barabbas - Why they petitioned for this particularprisoner is not known; but it manifests in the most decided manner their ungodliness that they could choose such a notoriously wicked man in preference to the Lord of life and glory, their Messiah
Branch - Beside the more general symbolical meaning, the term "branch" is sometimes specifically applied to the Messiah, as in Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15, where the promise runs that, from David's royal stock, a branch of righteousness, a righteous descendant, shall spring
Shem - He received a blessing from his dying father, Genesis 9:26 , and of his line the Messiah was born
Bands - ...
(V) "Bands" means, in Zechariah 11:7, the bond of brotherhood which originally hound together Judah and Jerusalem, severed because of their unfaithfulness to the covenant, but to be restored everlastingly when they shall turn to Messiah (Ezekiel 37:15-28), and when Messiah "shall make them one nation upon the mountains of Israel
False Christs - Imposters claiming to be the Messiah (Christ in Greek). Jesus also urged disbelief of those claiming the Messiah was waiting in the wilderness or was in “the inner rooms” (perhaps a reference to the inner chambers of the Temple complex)
Anoint - ...
...
The promised Deliverer is twice called the "Anointed" or Messiah (Psalm 2:2 ; Daniel 9:25,26 ), because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost (Isaiah 61:1 ), figuratively styled the "oil of gladness" (Psalm 45:7 ; Hebrews 1:9 ). Jesus of Nazareth is this anointed One (John 1:41 ; Acts 9:22 ; 17:2,3 ; 18:5,28 ), the Messiah of the Old Testament
Branch - We have the same English term at Jeremiah 23:5 ; Jeremiah 33:15 , where another word, tsemach , is a title of the Messiah, intimating that this ‘shoot’ should arise out of ‘the low estate’ of the restored remnant. unhesitatingly substitutes for it ‘the Messiah
Anoint - ...
The Hebrew verb mashach (noun, Messiah ) and the Greek verb chrio (noun, christos ) are translated “to anoint. Israel came to see each succeeding king as God's anointed one, the Messiah who would deliver them from their enemies and establish the nation as God's presence on the earth
World - " 2 Corinthians 4:4 Aion is also put for endless duration, eternity, 1 Timothy 6:16, to signify the material world as created by the deity, Hebrews 11:3; also the world to come, the kingdom of the Messiah. The Jews distinguished two worlds, or sons, the present aeon to the appearance of the Messiah, and the future aeon, or the Messianic era, which is to last forever. The same phraseology is found in the New Testament, but the dividing-line is marked by the second instead of the first advent of the Messiah
Christ - an appellation synonymous with Messiah. The names of Messiah and Christ were originally derived from the ceremony of anointing, by which the kings and the high priests of God's people, and sometimes the prophets, 1 Kings 19:16 , were consecrated and admitted to the exercise of their functions; for all these functions were accounted holy among the Israelites. But the most eminent application of the word is to that illustrious personage, typified and predicted from the beginning, who is described by the prophets, under the character of God's Anointed, the Messiah, or the Christ. It should therefore be, "Paul testified to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ," or the Messiah, &c
Nathanael - He was led by Philip to Jesus, He went doubting, with the words on bis lips, "Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Jesus, however, at once convinces him that he is the Messiah by the exhibition of his knowledge, declaring that he had seen Nathanael under the fig tree before ever Philip had called him
Branch - A symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors (Ezekiel 17:3,10 ; Daniel 11:7 ); of prosperity (Job 8:16 ); of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isaiah 11:1 ), the "beautiful branch" (4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jeremiah 23:5 ), "the Branch" (Zechariah 3:8 ; 6:12 )
Last Time or Days - The 'last days' of Hebrews 1:2 and 'last times' of 1 Peter 1:20 are changed by Editors of the Greek Testament to the 'end of these days;' these passages refer to the end of the period of the law when the Messiah appeared
Nathanael - He appears to have been a pious Jew who waited for the Messiah: and upon Jesus saying to him, "Before Philip called thee, I saw thee under the fig tree," Nathanael, convinced, by some circumstance not explained, of his omniscience, exclaimed, "Master, thou art the Son of God, and the King of Israel
Malachi - He reproves the people for their wickedness, and the priests for their negligence in the discharge of their office; he threatens the disobedient with the judgments of God, and promises great rewards to the penitent and pious; he predicts the coming of Christ, and the preaching of John the Baptist; and with a solemnity becoming the last of the prophets, he closes the sacred canon with enjoining the strict observance of the Mosaic law, till the forerunner, already promised, should appear in the spirit of Elias, to introduce the Messiah, who was to establish a new and everlasting covenant
Christians - A name given at Antioch to those who believed Jesus to be the Messiah, A
Bethsaida - The people of Bethsaida, however, like the people of nearby Capernaum and Chorazin, stubbornly refused to accept the evidence that this Jesus was God’s promised Messiah
Immanuel - "Behold (arresting attention to the extraordinary prophecy) a (Hebrew: the) virgin (primarily the woman (the foreappointed mother of the Messiah is ultimately meant by the Spirit); then a virgin, soon to become the prophet's second wife) shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel . Like many typical prophecies, having a primary and an ulterior fulfillment (the one mainly aimed at), this has only a partial realization in the circumstances of Isaiah's age; these are only suggestive of those which form the consummation of all prophecy (Revelation 19:10), Messiah's advent. in Israel from the Lord of hosts," which Hebrews 2:13 quotes to prove the manhood of Messiah. Jehovah's salvation) typically represents Messiah as "the mighty (Hero) God," "the everlasting Father"; Isaiah's children represent Him as "Child" and "Son. The promised birth of Messiah involved the preservation of Judah and of David's line, from which God said He should be sprung. Others explain Isaiah 7:14 to refer to the Messiah Immanuel, strictly born of the virgin
Zerubbabel - ...
Ancestor of the Messiah...
Zerubbabel was a direct descendant of David in the line of kings that had reigned in Jerusalem before its destruction by Babylon (Matthew 1:6-12). ...
‘The Branch’ was a name that Israelites used of the great descendant of David who would come as their Messiah (Isaiah 4:2; Isaiah 11:1; Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15). Through him the Messiah would come (Haggai 2:21-23; Zechariah 3:8-10; Matthew 1:6; Matthew 1:12; Matthew 1:16; cf
Entry Into Jerusalem - Here He devises the entry on the lines of Jewish prophecy, which, though free from any hostile intention, was equivalent to a declaration that He was the Messiah, and implied that He was more. This and the cleansing were His two first and last actions as Messiah. And His question, ‘What think ye of Christ?’ (Matthew 22:42), shows that He did not consider Davidic origin sufficient status in itself for the Messiah. The Messiah was not to come from Galilee but from Bethlehem (Matthew 2:5), was king of the Jews (Matthew 2:2), was to perform miracles (John 7:31), to be a prophet (John 4:29), to appear mysteriously (John 7:27), to be a descendant of David (Matthew 9:27), and to restore again the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:6). ’—The Messiah is first designated υἱὸς Δαυίδ in Ps-Sol 17:23—a title founded on Scripture expressions such as ‘son’ (Isaiah 9:6), ‘seed’ (Targ. ]'>[6] paraphrase for ‘branch’ is ‘Messiah’). ]'>[4] Himself is generally represented as Saviour, while the Messiah was the prince of the redeemed people; the idea that the Messiah was the Redeemer being more recent. , may have been due to reminiscences of the preceding Feast of Tabernacles, when Jesus was pronounced the prophet and the Messiah (John 7:41), and that the whole passage was sung, that which used to be supplication now passing into greeting. The harmony between the two offices of the Messiah as king and priest is well described in Zechariah 6:13 ‘and the counsel of peace shall be between the two’ (so Rosenm. The growing predominance of the priestly office of the Messiah is also expressed in the choice of the colt ‘whereon never man sat’ (Mk. ’ (3) The prophetic character of the Messiah as the ‘messenger of the covenant’ (Malachi 3:1), coming to His temple, J"
Andrew - Being a disciple of John the Baptists, he understood the imitations of his master as to the Lamb of God, and was the first of the apostles to follow him, John 1:35-40 , and come to the knowledge of the Messiah
Offense - What was especially offensive was the claim that an accursed one was the Messiah and that faith in this crucified one and not works was necessary for salvation
Joel (2) - 2:18-3:21 contains the blessings which Jehovah will confer upon the chosen people, and announces when the Messiah has come, the outpouring of the Spirit and the complete conquest of Judah over her foes, resulting in absolute and unbreakable peace
Flagon - Νobel is the Hebrew in Isaiah 22:24, "I will hang upon Eliakim (a type of the Messiah) all the glory of his father's house
Pearl - In the parable of the one Pearl of Great Price the Lord is represented as selling all that He had (as man and Messiah) in order to become its possessor
Son of Man - The Jews perfectly understood it to denote the Messiah
Star in the East - It is a fact of great interest, that when the Savior appeared, not only were the Jews eagerly expecting the Messiah, but many in various heathen lands were cherishing similar hopes: in part through the diffusion of the Hebrew prophecies; in part through the felt need of a Savior; and in part perhaps through direct divine intimations
Nazarene', - Its application to Jesus, in consequence of the providential arrangements by which his Parents were led to take up their abode in Nazareth, was the filling out of the predictions in which the promised Messiah is described as a netser i
Andrew - Andrew quickly went and told his brother Peter that the Messiah of whom John had spoken had arrived, with the result that Peter soon met Jesus and believed (John 1:35-42)
Judah, Son of Jacob - Out of it came the great king David and finally the Messiah Jesus (Matthew 1:3; Matthew 1:6; Matthew 1:16)
Bethlehem - Ruth 4:11-17), and the birthplace of the great ‘son of David’, the promised Messiah, Jesus (Micah 5:2; Matthew 2:1-6; Luke 2:4; Luke 2:11; Luke 2:15; John 7:42)
Three - It must be confessed, (for it maybe be very safely allowed without the smallest injury to the true faith,) that there are numbers among the Jews of modern times, who from the ignorance of their mind and blinded understanding, are looking for the Messiah in the simple humanity of the man, and know nothing of JEHOVAH in his threefold personality of character. They know what the prophet said to be true concerning the Messiah, and expected him in that character
Kingdom of Heaven - The ancient prophets, when describing the character of the Messiah, Daniel 2:44 7:13,14 Micah 4:1-7 , and even when speaking of his humiliation and sufferings, were wont to intersperse hint of his power, his reign, and his divinity. The Jews, overlooking the spiritual import of this language, expected the Messiah to appear as a temporal king, exercising power over his enemies, restoring the throne of David to all its splendor, subduing the nations, and rewarding his friends and faithful servants in proportion to their fidelity and services
Caiaphas - They feared that, if the Jews accepted Jesus as their Messiah and rebelled against Rome, the Romans would respond by crushing the Jews (John 11:47-48). ...
In reply to a question from Caiaphas, Jesus said that he truly was the Messiah from heaven and he was about to receive his eternal kingdom
Anoint - "Anointing with the oiler gladness" (Psalms 45:7; Hebrews 1:9) expresses spiritual joy, such as Messiah felt and shall feel in seeing the blessed fruit of His sufferings (Isaiah 61:3). Isaiah 61:1; Messiah, twice so designated in the Old Testament (Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:25-26), at once Prophet, Priest, and King, the Center of all prophecy, the Antitype of all priesthood, and the Source and End of all kingship (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38). ...
Hereby the New Testament marks Him as the Messiah of the Old Testament (Acts 9:22; Acts 17:2-3; Acts 18:5; Acts 18:28. ) What He is His people are, Messiahs or "anointed ones" by union with Him (Zechariah 4:14), having the unction of the Holy Spirit (2 Corinthians 1:21; 1 John 2:20). , the Assyrian oppression shall be taken away from Judah, because of the consecration that is upon the elect nation, its prophets, priests, kings, and holy place (Psalms 105:15); the Antitype to all which is Messiah, "the Anointed" (Daniel 9:24). It is for Messiah's sake that all their deliverances are vouchsafed to His people
Consolation - ...
Israel's ultimate hope was the consolation only the Messiah could bring
Branch - See Messiah
Finger - Our Saviour says he cast out devils by the finger and Spirit of God, which he intimates was a sign that the kingdom of God was come; that God's spiritual government of his church was begun to be exercised among the Jews, by the Messiah, Luke 11:20
Birthright - Connected with the "birthright" was the progenitorship of the Messiah
Circumcision - A Jewish rite which Jehovah enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the Israelites, as the token of the covenant, which assured to him the promise of the Messiah
Magi or Wise Men - The captivity of the Jews beyond the Euphrates had dispersed throughout the East much knowledge of the true God; and these philosophers and astronomers, in their search after wisdom, had found and believed the prophecies respecting the Messiah, and were divinely guided to his presence at Bethlehem
Prophetess - The only mention of a prophetess in the Gospels is that of Anna, who recognized the infant Messiah when His parents presented Him in the Temple (Luke 2:36)
Nathanael - ’ It looks as if Nathanael and Philip had at times discussed the OT descriptions of the Messiah. , does not imply that Nazareth had a bad reputation, but that the insignificant village, so close to his own home, was not a likely birthplace for the Messiah. John was so full of the doctrine that Jesus as the Messiah was the Son of God, that he may have made those who accepted Him as the Messiah express their belief in a form which was not used until somewhat later. In the fulness of his conviction Nathanael quite naturally uses the fullest Scriptural designation of the Messiah with which he was acquainted. Hence he uses this title of the Messiah (John 11:27, Matthew 26:63, Mark 3:11 || Mark 5:7 || Mark 15:39 ||, Luke 4:41) rather than the common ‘Son of David’ (Matthew 9:27; Matthew 12:23; Matthew 15:22; Matthew 20:30-31; Matthew 21:9-15; Matthew 22:42 etc. Although ‘Son of God’ and ‘King of Israel’ both indicate the Messiah, the titles are not quite synonymous, as is shown by the repetition of ‘Thou art. Fresh from the teaching of the Baptist, Nathanael may have been meditating on the coming of the Messiah as near at hand. And here it is to be noted that, while the ‘Israelite indeed’ enters upon a new life in recognizing his King by the sign granted to him, the Messiah Himself enters upon a new career in granting the sign. ...
The change in the designation of the Messiah is significant. ’ Without rejecting it, He substitutes for it a title which seems to have been adopted by Him to veil, rather than to reveal, the fact that He was the Messiah
Jesus Christ - the son of God, the Messiah, and Saviour of the world, the first and principal object of the prophecies, prefigured and promised in the Old Testament, expected and desired by the patriarchs; the hope of the Gentiles; the glory, salvation, and consolation of Christians. Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ or Messiah promised under the Old Testament. That he professed himself to be that Messiah to whom all the prophets gave witness, and who was, in fact, at the time of his appearing, expected by the Jews; and that he was received under that character by his disciples, and by all Christians ever since, is certain. From the books of the Old Testament we learn that the Messiah was to authenticate his claim by miracles; and in those predictions respecting him, so many circumstances are recorded, that they could meet only in one person; and so, if they are accomplished in him, they leave no room for doubt, as far as the evidence of prophecy is deemed conclusive. As to MIRACLES, we refer to that article; here only observing, that if the miraculous works wrought by Christ were really done, they prove his mission, because, from their nature, and having been wrought to confirm his claim to be the Messiah, they necessarily imply a divine attestation. With respect to PROPHECY, the principles under which its evidence must be regarded as conclusive will be given under that head; and here therefore it will only be necessary to show the completion of the prophecies of the sacred books of the Jews relative to the Messiah in one person, and that person the founder of the Christian religion. ...
The time of the Messiah's appearance in the world, as predicted in the Old Testament, is defined, says Keith, by a number of concurring circumstances, which fix it to the very date of the advent of Christ. No words can be more expressive of the coming of the promised Messiah; and they as clearly imply his appearance in the second temple before it should be destroyed. In regard to the advent of the Messiah before the destruction of the second temple, the words of Haggai are remarkably explicit: "The desire of all nations shall come, and I will fill this house with glory, saith the Lord of Hosts. In the prophecies of Daniel, the kingdom of the Messiah is not only foretold as commencing in the time of the fourth monarchy, or Roman empire, but the express number of years that were to precede his coming are plainly intimated: "Seventy weeks are determined upon thy people, and upon thy holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sin, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the Most Holy. Know, therefore, and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem, unto Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks and threescore and two weeks,"...
Daniel 9:24-25 . In these words the prophet marks the very time, and uses the very name of Messiah, the Prince; so entirety is all ambiguity done away. But in a short space, all these concurring testimonies to the time of the advent of the Messiah passed away. After the lapse of nearly four hundred years posterior to the time of Malachi, another prophet appeared who was the herald of the Messiah. Every mark that denoted the time of the coming of the Messiah was erased soon after the crucifixion of Christ, and could never afterward be renewed. ...
The predictions contained in the Old Testament respecting both the family out of which the Messiah was to arise, and the place of his birth, are almost as circumstantial, and are equally applicable to Christ, as those which refer to the time of his appearance. Thus, the time at which the predicted Messiah was to appear; the nation, the tribe, and the family from which he was to be descended; and the place of his birth,—no populous city, but of itself an inconsiderable place,—were all clearly foretold; and as clearly refer to Jesus Christ; and all meet their completion in him. And the Jews, looking in the pride of their hearts for an earthly king, disregarded these prophecies concerning him, were deceived by their traditions, and found only a stone of stumbling, where, if they had searched their Scriptures aright, they would have discovered an evidence of the Messiah. The whole of this prophecy thus refers to the Messiah. But if Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah, in that character his Deity also is necessarily involved, because the Messiah is surrounded with attributes of divinity in the Old Testament; and our Lord himself as certainly lays claim to those attributes as to the office of "the Christ. " Without referring here to the Scriptural doctrine of a Trinity of divine Persons in the unity of the Godhead, (see Trinity, ) it is sufficient now to show that both in the Old and New Testament Scriptures, the Messiah is contemplated as a divine Person. In the very first promise of redemption, his superiority to that great and malignant spirit who destroyed the innocence of man, and blighted the fair creation of God, is unquestionably implied; while the Angel of the Divine Presence, the Angel of the Covenant, who appears so prominent in the patriarchal times, and the early periods of Jewish history, and was understood by the early Jews as the future Messiah, is seen at once as a being distinct from Jehovah and yet Jehovah himself; bearing that incommunicable name; and performing acts, and possessing qualities of unquestionable divinity. Of the second Psalm, so manifestly appropriated to the Messiah, it has been justly said, that the high titles and honours ascribed in this Psalm to the extraordinary person who is the chief subject of it, far transcend any thing that is ascribed in Scripture to any mere creature. Pye Smith justly observes, "if there be any dependence on words, the Messiah is here drawn in the opposite characters of humanity and Deity,—the nativity and frailty of a mortal child, and the incommunicable attributes of the omnipresent and eternal God. " Daniel terms him the "Ancient of Days," or "The Immortal;" and Micah declares, in a passage which the council of the Jews, assembled by Herod, applied to the Messiah, that he who was to be born in Bethlehem was "even he whose comings forth are from eternity, from the days of the everlasting period. The whole force of the argument by which he silenced the Pharisees when he asked how the Messiah, who was to be the Son of David, could be David's Lord, in reference to the passage in the Psalms before quoted, arose out of the doctrine of the Messiah's divinity; and when he claims that all men should honour him as they honour the Father, and asserts that as the Father hath life in himself, so he has given to the Son to have life in himself, that he "quickeneth whom he will," that "where two or three meet in his name he is in the midst of them," and would be with his disciples "to the end of the world;" who does not see that the Jews concluded right, when they said that he made himself "equal with God,"—an impression which he took no pains to remove, although his own moral character bound him to do so, had he not intended to confirm that conclusion. The whole argument is this: If the Old Testament Scriptures represent the Messiah as a divine Person; the proofs which demonstrate Jesus to be the Messiah, demonstrate him also by farther and necessary consequence to be divine
Malachi, Prophecies of - In the third ((2:17-4:6)) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the advent of the Messiah
Apollos - 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue (18:26), although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah
Nazarene - It is so applied to the Messiah ( Isaiah 11:1 ), i
Zebulun - The glory of Zebulun was that from its territory came the Messiah, who brought God’s light into a dark world (Isaiah 9:1; Matthew 4:12-16; see NAZARETH)
Micah - In his prophecies concerning Messiah he is very precise
Hosea - Before the coming of the Messiah there was probably no more Christ-like teacher than the prophet of Mount Ephraim, who provided our Lord with His favourite quotation, ‘I will have mercy [1] and not sacrifice’; and it is evident that his prevision of a new covenant, linking Divine and human love in everlasting bonds, was scarcely less precious to the Apostle of the Gentiles than to the Saviour of the world
Star of the Wise Men - The star was probably a meteoric body employed by the God of nature to be His instrument in the world of revelation, to guide the wise men to the divine Messiah
Andrew - He brought his brother Simon to the newly found Messiah ( John 1:41 ), thus earning the distinction of being the first missionary of the Kingdom of heaven; and it seems that, like the favoured three, he enjoyed a special intimacy with the Master ( Mark 13:3 )
Agnoet ae - " The meaning of which, most probably, is, that this was not known to the Messiah himself in his human nature, or by virtue of his unction, as any part of the mysteries he was to reveal; for, considering him as God, he could not be ignorant of anything
Gentiles - Since the promulgation of the gospel, the true religion has been extended to all nations; God, who had promised by his prophets to call the Gentiles to the faith, with a superabundance of grace, having fulfilled his promise; so that the Christian church is composed principally of Gentile converts, the Jews being too proud of their privileges to acknowledge Jesus Christ as their Messiah and Redeemer
Eschatology - This scheme is as follows: (1) the signs foreshadowing the end, (2) the Coming of the Messiah, (3) the resurrection of the dead, (4) the Last Judgment, (5) the inauguration of the Kingdom of God, The NT passages in which this ‘eschatological scheme’ is implied are too numerous to be cited; for typical examples, see Acts 2:17-36; Acts 3:20 f. The new Christian message...
(1) The Messiah has come, in the Person of Jesus. It is to be noticed that the NT conception of our Lord’s Messiahship, while higher than any previously set forth, is much more nearly related to the Danielic ‘Son of Man’ than to the political type of Messiah (Acts 3:21, 1 Thessalonians 4:16, 2 Thessalonians 1:7, etc. Now, if Jesus was the Messiah, then, since He had actually come, and had been rejected by His people, several consequences seemed (to Jewish minds) to follow inevitably, viz. -In Jewish apocalyptic, the coming of the Messiah is invariably associated with the end of this world and the beginning of the New Era. So, when the apostles proclaimed that the Messiah had come, they thereby conveyed to their Jewish hearers the impression that the Last Days had also come-not merely that they were at hand, but that they had actually begun and were in progress. ’...
(3) The Messiah is immediately to return as Judge. -Jesus, the Messiah, has been rejected by His people, but there remains yet another act in the great drama of the Last Things. So the Messiah is about to come again immediately in glory on the clouds of heaven to judge all mankind (Acts 1:11; Acts 10:42; Acts 17:31; Acts 24:25, James 5:8-9; 1 Peter 4:5) and to destroy the apostate city of Jerusalem and the inhabitants thereof (Acts 6:14). Although the Jews had incurred the severest penalties of the Divine judgment by crucifying the Messiah (Acts 3:14 f. The only conditions demanded by God are (a) belief in Jesus as Lord and Messiah (Acts 16:30 f. ; Acts 5:32), and the ‘seasons of refreshing,’ which would sustain the elect until the return of the Messiah and the ‘restoration of all things’ (Acts 3:19-21; see below, I. On the other hand, it should be remembered that (a) the ‘unearthly’ conception of the Messiah set forth in the Enochic ‘Son of Man’ would be modified by the recollection of the historical human personality of Jesus the Messiah; and (b) the apocalyptic idea of Messiahship, though one-sided, and therefore inadequate for a satisfactory Christology, was yet a high and transcendent ideal-one which needed to be supplemented and enlarged, rather than corrected
Birthright - Esau transferred his birthright to Jacob for a paltry mess of pottage, profanely setting at nought what was the spiritual privilege connected with it, the being progenitor of the promised Messiah (Genesis 25:33; Hebrews 12:16-17). Ordinarily the firstborn inherited the throne (2 Chronicles 21:3), typifying Messiah the "first begotten" of the Father, "the Firstborn among many brethren," and Heir of all things (Romans 8:29; Hebrews 1:6)
Ephratah - Micah 5:2 also appears to equate Bethlehem and Ephrath(ah) as the home of the coming Messiah. In sending Messiah, God chose to start over at David's birthplace
Genealogy - Joseph was the legal father of Christ, and of the same family connections with Mary; so that the Messiah was a descendant of David both by law and "according to the flesh. It is now, therefore, impossible for any pretended Messiah to prove his descent from David
Dayspring - Light frequently stands for salvation and deliverance (Isaiah 58:10; Isaiah 60:1, Malachi 4:2, Luke 2:32), and was specially applied to the Messiah, cf. Godet would connect these words with ἐπισκέψεται (‘it is from the bosom of Divine mercy that this star comes down, and it does not rise upon humanity until after it has descended and has been made man’), but this seems hardly necessary; ἐξ ὕψονς represents ‘from God,’ and ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους is simply ‘God’s Messiah’ (Dalman, The Words of Jesus, pp. ...
A different translation is based on the fact that ἀνατολή in LXX Septuagint stands several times for צֶמַח, a ‘shoot’ or ‘branch,’ one of the prophetic names of the Messiah (Jeremiah 23:5, Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12; cf
Messianic Secret - Although the messianic secret can be found in the Gospels of Matthew (Matthew 8:3-4 ; Matthew 9:29-31 ; Matthew 12:15-16 ; Matthew 17:9 ) and Luke (Luke 4:41 ; Mark 4:26-2989 ; Luke 9:21 ), Mark used the mysterious unveiling of the Messiahship of Jesus as the unifying theme of his Gospel. Why did Jesus want to keep His Messiahship a secret?...
Perhaps Jesus avoided the title due to the popular messianic expectations of the people—they were looking for a political deliverer. Jesus intended for people of faith to learn the secret of His Messiahship ( Mark 4:11 ,Mark 4:11,4:34 ). Jesus did not force people to accept Him as Messiah; “those who had ears to hear” must learn the secret on their own. The disciples not only needed time to recognize Jesus as Messiah (Mark 4:41 ; Mark 6:52 ; Mark 8:17-21 ), they also needed time to come to terms with His messianic agenda: messianic suffering precedes messianic glory (Mark 9:31-32 ). See Jesus; Christ; Messiah
Hannah - It is worthy remark, that though the patriarchs, and other holy men of old, before the days of Hannah, spoke of the Lord Jesus under various characters belonging to him, yet Hannah is the first that was commissioned by the Holy Ghost to speak of him as the Messiah, the Anointed. If the Lord Jesus was thus anointed, and called as such the Messiah (which is, in fact, the Anointed), so many ages before his incarnation, as the glorious Head of his body the church, was not the church, the body of that glorious Head, anointed also in him? Could the Head, in this instance, be considered detached and separated from the members? Surely Christ, as Christ, that is, Anointed, could not have been thus called, had not the Holy Ghost virtually and truly, in the secret councils of JEHOVAH, anointed him as much as God the Father called him. Had not the Father given his dear Son a church, Jesus had not given himself to the church, and for the church, neither would the Holy Ghost named him as the Messiah, the Anointed, before his incarnation; neither after would he have anointed him and given him without measure of his influence
Enoch - The intent of the Apostle, in the discourse containing this passage, is, to show that there has been but one way of obtaining the divine favour ever since the fall, and that is, by faith, or a firm persuasion and confidence in the atonement to be made for human transgressions by the obedience, sufferings, death, and resurrection of the promised Messiah. This prophecy is a clear, and it is also an awful, description of the day of judgment, when the Messiah shall sit upon his throne of justice, to determine the final condition of mankind, according to their works; and it indicates that the different offices of Messiah both to save and to judge, or as Prophet, Priest, and King, were known to the holy patriarchs
Prophet, Christ as - The largest Old Testament passage on the coming Messiah in the role of a prophet is Deuteronomy 18:15-19 . The Samaritan woman recognized Jesus as the Messiah and the Prophet who would come (John 4:19,25 ). But since you do not believe what he wrote, how are you going to believe what I say?" Of all the places that Jesus could have been referring to in Moses' writings, none would be a more obvious candidate for a messianic reference than Deuteronomy 18:15-19 , where the Messiah would function as the prophetic teacher. And the Jews knew that it was vain to look for the Messiah while there was no temple, for Haggai 2:1-9 and Malachi 3:1 had told them that Messiah would come to his temple when he came. Aune, The Messiah: Developments in Early Judaism and Christianity, pp. Baron, Rays of Messiah's Glory: Christ in the Old Testament ; C. Briggs, Messianic Prophecy: The Prediction of the Fulfillment of Redemption Through the Messiah ; C
Eschatology (2) - The Messiah. Various forms of the conception of the Messiah. The Messiah. ]'>[1] the definite expectation that the Kingdom would come through the advent of a personal Ruler—called by the Jews the Messiah or, in Greek, the Christ = ‘the Anointed’—on whom God would pour forth His Spirit in extraordinary measure. Deutero-Isaiah) or in the Apocalypse of Daniel, which had originally no reference to an individual Messiah,‡ [4] ), and perhaps others also (Matthew 14:33), expressed their belief in the Messiahship of Jesus by calling Him the Son of God, the prevalence of a belief among Jewish theologians of the 1st cent. that the Messiah was of one metaphysical being with Jahweh. The utmost perhaps which we can affirm is that it was largely believed that the origin of the Messiah would be mysterious (John 7:27), and that this belief rested in all probability directly on the Messianic interpretation of Daniel 7:13 ff. ]'>[5] It seems possible, however, to distinguish two general types of belief regarding the Messiah and His work. ]'>[4] ), rested on the early Prophetic testimony that the Messiah would spring from the house of David,—a belief of whose persistence and of whose correspondence with the actual fact the circumstance that Jesus is confidently affirmed or assumed by five of the NT writers (Matthew, Luke, Paul, author of Hebrews, author of Apocalypse* [4] have reached on these points the most negative conclusions, do not doubt that in the fatter part of His career, and perhaps habitually, Jesus held the apocalyptic view of the final Kingdom and of the glorious advent of the Messiah; and, even if we exclude the title ‘Son of Man’ from those passages in the Gospels which have no eschatological reference, there remains a sufficient number (about a third of the entire number, exclusive of John) where the eschatological reference is distinct. It was the unlikeness of Jesus to the altogether wonderful Personage of the apocalyptic Messiah that offended the Pharisees. If He were the Messiah, why should He refuse a sign from heaven? (Matthew 16:1 ff. that the Messiah would come when Jahweh’s people, the Jews, were found generally and carefully observing the Law. 64a) remarks on " translation="">Exodus 16:25 that ‘if Israel only kept one Sabbath according to the commandment, the Messiah would immediately come. ’ See Edersheim’s Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol. But generations of faithful Israelites passed, and the Messiah did not come
Isaiah, Book of - The Messiah is prophesied of and His rejection, and universal blessing is spoken of. ...
Isaiah 49 — Isaiah 57 : Controversy of God with Israel on account of the rejected suffering Messiah. The people were unfit for their Messiah, but will be judged in view of His coming glory: a remnant is acknowledged. Messiah, the 'Branch,' and His reign the source of millennial blessing. The Messiah is but little introduced: it is rather a question of God and idols. Israel had been as divorced, but Messiah had come to them suitably, to instruct them and take up their cause. Judgement did follow, but the consummation of evil was not reached until their Messiah had come, and had been rejected ; indeed Antichrist will yet be received. Judgement followed the rejection of their Messiah, but the great tribulation is yet to come
Magistrate - This term is used of the Messiah, "Prince of the kings of the earth" (Revelation 1:5 )
Thomas - He was not with the other disciples when the Lord breathed into them, and said, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost;" and thus he may be taken as a type of the future remnant of the Jews, who will not believe till they see their Messiah
Shechi'Nah - ( Luke 2:9 ; John 1:14 ; Romans 9:4 ) and we are distinctly taught to connect it with the incarnation and future coming of the Messiah as type with antitype
Tobiah, the Children of - Crowns were made of them by Zechariah (Zechariah 6:9-15), at Jehovah's direction, and set on the high priest Joshua's head, as type of Messiah the King Priest who harmonizes in Himself the conflicting claims of justice as the King and love as the Father and Priest (Ephesians 2:13-17; Ephesians 1:10)
Anna - guided by Providence, when the infant Jesus was being presented in the temple, to come in "that instant," and enabled by the Spirit to discern and to announce to others the Messiah, and to render praises accordingly
Iron - The apocalyptic Messiah is to rule the nations with a rod of iron (Revelation 2:27; Revelation 12:5; Revelation 19:15), a symbol of inflexible justice (cf
Dismayed, To Be - The coming Messiah is to “shatter” or “break” the power of all His enemies ( Deuteronomy - The Messiah is explicitly foretold in this book; and there are many remarkable predictions interspersed in it, particularly in the twenty-eighth, thirtieth, thirty-second, and thirty-third chapters, relative to the future condition of the Jews
Habakkuk - The promise of the Messiah is confirmed; the overruling providence of God is asserted; and the concluding prayer, or rather hymn, recounts the wonders which God had wrought for his people, when he led them from Egypt into Canaan, and expresses the most perfect confidence in the fulfilment of his promises
Kingdom - The reign of the Messiah
Capernaum - Jesus often taught in these synagogues, but the people’s stubborn refusal to believe in him as the Messiah would one day bring God’s judgment upon them (Matthew 11:23; Luke 4:31; John 6:59)
Stumbling Block - )...
The crucifixion of Jesus was a stumbling block to the Jews, because they would not believe that a person who died on a cross could be the Messiah sent by God. They expected the Messiah to be a mighty saviour who would rescue the nation Israel from its enemies and bring in an era of peace, joy and prosperity
Zechariah - This son, whom they were to name John, was to be the forerunner of the Messiah (Luke 1:5-17). His first words of praise were for the promised Messiah (Luke 1:67-75). He then offered praise for his son John, who would prepare the people for the Messiah’s arrival by calling them to repentance (Luke 1:76-79)
Cloud - The Messianic people and the Messiah Himself sweep through the heaven with clouds ( Daniel 7:13 , Mark 14:62 , Revelation 1:7 ), or on the clouds ( Matthew 26:64 ): hence the later Jews identified Anani (= ‘He of the clouds,’ 1 Chronicles 3:24 ) with the Messiah. The Messiah’s throne is a white cloud ( Revelation 14:14 )
Refreshing, Times of - 12-16) and acknowledged that the people had acted in ignorance when they killed God's Messiah (vv. That the plural times of refreshing (kairoi anapsyxeos ) includes the gift of the Holy Spirit and is also a broader eschatological term, is suggested by Peter's additional assertion that the Messiah will only return after these times of refreshing have come (3:20)
Isaiah (2) - Isaiah prophesies of the Messiah with distinctness and in a way that his predecessors had not done. It may be called the gospel of the Old Testament, on account of the graphic and faithful picture it gives of the Messiah, as the "Man of sorrows," suffering in the stead of mankind
Fullness - ...
In Romans 11 , Paul discusses the fate of the nation of Israel, which has rejected its Messiah. He says that God's plan is to use Israel's unbelief to bring about the salvation of the Gentiles, which in turn will provoke Israel to faith in their own Messiah. But it seems clear that in this context, "fullness" refers to an extensive acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah by the nation of Israel. The illustration of the olive tree in verses 17-24 makes the point that God is able to regraft the natural branches (unbelieving Israelites) back into their own olive tree (salvation brought about through Israel's Messiah)
David - ...
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42). ‘The Son of David’ was synonymous in the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry with ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ. When the children cried in the temple, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’ (Matthew 21:15), both the rulers and the multitude looked upon the words as a distinct recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||). Jesus wished to show His foes and the multitude that the orthodox view of the time overlooked the exalted dignity of the Messiah
David - ...
The four Evangelists unite in the view that the Messiah was to come from the seed of David (Matthew 1:1, Mark 10:47, Luke 2:4, John 7:42). ‘The Son of David’ was synonymous in the time of our Lord’s earthly ministry with ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ. When the children cried in the temple, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David’ (Matthew 21:15), both the rulers and the multitude looked upon the words as a distinct recognition of the Messiahship of Jesus. Having drawn from them a statement of their belief that the Christ would be the son of David, He at once quoted David’s words in Psalms 110:1 to show that the Messiah would also be David’s Lord (Matthew 22:41 ||). Jesus wished to show His foes and the multitude that the orthodox view of the time overlooked the exalted dignity of the Messiah
Birthright - ...
...
The Jews attached a sacred importance to the rank of "first-born" and "first-begotten" as applied to the Messiah (Romans 8:29 ; Colossians 1:18 ; Hebrews 1:4-6 )
Judah - In the last prophetic blessing pronounced on him by his father Jacob, Genesis 49:8-9 , there is a promise of the regal power; and that it should not depart from his family before the coming of the Messiah
Engraver - I (God) will prepare for Him (Messiah) an exquisitely wrought body, a suitable temple for the Godhead (John 2:21)
Davidists - The adherents of David George, a native of Delft, who, in 1525, began to preach a new doctrine, publishing himself to be the true Messiah; and that he was sent of God to fill heaven which was quite empty for want of people to deserve it
Wolf - The following are the scriptural allusions to the wolf: Its ferocity is mentioned in ( Genesis 49:27 ; Ezekiel 22:27 ); Habb 1:8; Matthew 7:15 Its nocturnal habits, in ( Jeremiah 5:6 ; Zephaniah 3:3 ); Habb 1:8 Its attacking sheep and lambs, (Matthew 10:16 ; Luke 10:3 ; John 10:12 ) Isaiah (Isaiah 11:6 ; 65:25 ) foretells the peaceful reign of the Messiah under the metaphor of a wolf dwelling with a lamb: cruel persecutors are compared with wolves
Stephen - ” The first Christian martyr; foremost of those chosen to bring peace to the quarreling church (Acts 6:1-7 ) and so mighty in the Scriptures that his Jewish opponents in debate could not refute him (Acts 6:10 ) as he argued that Jesus was the Messiah
Obed - " From her springs "the Anointed King" Messiah, of whom Hannah sings
Approve - ...
This word seems to include the idea of Christ's real office as the Messiah, and of God's love and approbation of him in that character
Inheritance - This all shows that they were and will be an earthly people, but God blessed them on earth in relationship with Himself as Jehovah, and will again bless them on earth when they own the Lord Jesus as their Messiah
Sheminith - Those Psalms beyond all doubt have an eye to Christ, and express sweet leading features of his office-character as Messiah
Christ - term "messiah" and means "anointed one
Andrew - He, at once found his brother Simon and told him that he had found the Messiah
Anna - Anna was fourscore years of age when the holy virgin came to present Jesus in the temple; and entering accidentally, while Simeon was pronouncing his thanksgiving, she likewise began to praise God, and to speak of the Messiah to all those who waited for redemption in Jerusalem
Shoulder - Thus Messiah was to bear the government upon his shoulder: "For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor," &c, Isaiah 9:6 ; and God promises Eliakim the son of Hilkiah, to give him the key of the house of David, and to lay it upon his shoulder; "so he shall open, and none shall shut, and he shall shut, and none shall open;" that is, the sole authority shall rest upon him
Veil - ...
2: κάλυμμα (Strong's #2571 — Noun Neuter — kalumma — kal'-oo-mah ) "a covering," is used (a) of the "veil" which Moses put over his face when descending Mount Sinai, thus preventing Israel from beholding the glory, 2 Corinthians 3:13 ; (b) metaphorically of the spiritually darkened vision suffered retributively by Israel, until the conversion on the nation to their Messiah takes place, 2 Corinthians 3:14-16
Leopard - Isaiah, describing the happy reign of the Messiah, says, Isaiah 11:6 , "The leopard shall lie down with the kid, and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together
Promise - Used by Paul to denote the spiritual gifts of God, chiefly the Messiah, the Holy Spirit, and the fullness of gospel blessings, of which an assurance was given to Abraham and other saints in behalf of themselves, and of believers who should come after them, Romans 4:13-14 Galatians 3:14-29
Psalms - Like the Benedictus they look for a Messiah of the house of David
Philip (st.) And st. James' Day - He brought Nathanael, a person of great noteand eminence, to the knowledge of the Messiah; and it was to St
Hannah - Her gladness of heart then found vent in that remarkable prophetic (Song of Solomon 2:1-10 ; Compare Luke 1:46-55 ) which contains the first designation of the Messiah under that name (1 Samuel 2:10 , "Annointed" = "Messiah")
Prophecy - The great prediction which runs like a golden thread through the whole contents of the Old Testament is that regarding the coming and work of the Messiah; and the great use of prophecy was to perpetuate faith in his coming, and to prepare the world for that event. ...
But the great body of Old Testament prophecy relates directly to the advent of the Messiah, beginning with Genesis 3:15 , the first great promise, and extending in ever-increasing fulness and clearness all through to the very close of the canon
Angel of the Lord - ...
The connection between the angel of the Lord and the preincarnate appearance of the Messiah cannot be denied. In the New Testament, there is no mention of the angel of the Lord; the Messiah himself is this person
Anointing, - Prophets were occasionally anointed to their office, ( 1 Kings 19:16 ) and were called Messiahs, or anointed. -- ...
In the Old Testament a Deliverer is promised under the title of Messiah, or Anointed, (Psalm 2:2 ; Daniel 9:25,26 ) and the nature of his anointing is described to be spiritual, with the Holy Ghost. (Isaiah 61:1 ) see Luke 4:18 In the New Testament Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the Messiah, or Christ or Anointed, of the Old Testament, ( John 1:41 ; Acts 9:22 ; 17:2,3 ; 18:4,28 ) and the historical fact of his being anointed with the Holy Ghost is asserted and recorded
False Christs - As the pages of Josephus testify, one rival Messiah followed another, each and all succeeding more or less in kindling the passions of the people against the Roman authorities. Either, then, we must suppose that the phrase ‘in my name’ has been inserted by the Evangelists in order to stamp as Christian what was originally a Jewish prediction, or the phrase must be taken as equivalent to ‘in the name of Messiah,’ as is implied in ‘I am he. ’ False Christs would thus be equivalent to false Messiahs (so Mark 13:21, Matthew 24:23), and the logion would be a warning against the claims and pretensions of the numerous impostors who swarmed in Palestine down to the days of Bar Cochba (131–135 a. ’ The false prophets, of course, are the heralds of the false Messiahs; they guarantee the movement in question by means of miracles. But occasionally a false Messiah may have been, as Theudas was, a false prophet as well. The Didache, curiously enough, omits all mention of false Messiahs, though it notices the danger of false prophets (xvi. ...
The locale of the false Messiahs (Matthew 24:26) is either the wilderness (cf. 1 Kings 20:30)—alluding possibly to the current idea that the Messiah was to remain hidden for some time previous to His appearance in public. Christians, at Israel’s great crisis, were to be saved by unbelief in pseudo-Messiahs and pseudo-prophets’ (Expos
Christ, Christology - ) The Christians of the early days identified Jesus with the Messiah. ) They appealed for confirmation of this conviction to the fact that God had ‘raised him from the dead’; and also that He had been ‘exalted’ by, and to, the right hand of God, the Resurrection and Exaltation marking a decisive moment in the Messiahship. Luke’s word, identified Jesus who had died but risen again with the Messiah of Jewish expectation. But with an enthusiasm which no scorn could quench, a determination which neither threats nor imprisonment could weaken, they proclaimed to high and low their conviction that the Jesus they had known was the Messiah. His name for our Saviour is either ‘Jesus’ or ‘the Lord’; and χριστός when it stands alone always means ‘Messiah. Acts 3:20, ‘that he may send the Messiah who has been before appointed-Jesus’; Acts 5:42; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5; Acts 18:28, ‘shewing by the scriptures that Jesus was the Messiah. The first may be stated thus: What did the disciples understand by the Messiah? What character, rôle, or function did they assign to Him? And the second thus: At what point did they understand Him to have entered on His Messiah-ship? They identified Jesus with the Messiah of Jewish expectation; but did that mean that He had been (and was still, and was to return as) Messiah, or that the Messiahship was a dignity conferred on Him after death and at the Resurrection? The answer to these questions follows on the examination of the other elements in the primitive conviction. ) That conviction rested upon, and appealed to, the Resurrection as the conclusive proof of the Messiahship of Jesus. The Resurrection is thus regarded as the externally visible side of a great transaction which has its true significance in the Exaltation of Jesus to Messianic rank and honour in heaven; it was a public declaration of His station; the man whom they had seen crucified now occupied the place of dignity and authority which prophecy and apocalyptic had assigned to the Messiah. The word ‘Lord’ (κύριος), like ‘Christ,’ is probably used as an official title; but in any case the phrase witnesses to the belief that the Resurrection and Exaltation had marked a decisive moment in the Messiahship of Jesus. The ascription of the characteristic ‘righteous’ is probably due to a reminiscence of a description already traditional for the Messiah (cf. The result of this reflexion is seen in the ascription to Jesus as Messiah of certain important titles and functions which indicate more precisely the relation in which He stands towards God or the function He discharges towards men. We are justified, therefore, in looking to the writings of the prophets for the sources of phrases and ideas now connected with Jesus as the risen Messiah. Its effect was to link on to the traditional conception of the Messiah a series of ideas of quite a different character, including humility, submission, vicarious suffering and death
King (2) - ]'>[1] who deny that Jesus thought of Himself as the Messiah at all, there are others who are convinced that He was in possession of some kind of ‘Messianic consciousness’; and among the latter the controversy turns upon the peculiar significance and the specific colouring of the implied claims and expectations. To His descent from David, if He gave it credence at all, He did not attach the slightest importance; indeed, He even sought to convince the scribes that in regarding the coming Messiah as the Son of David they fell far short of the truth. It is thus quite in keeping with these facts that He announces, not that God is about to send forth the Messiah, the Son of David, not that the kingdom of David is at hand, but that ‘the kingdom of God is at hand. Nor do the prophecies of Daniel, when rightly interpreted, present us with the figure of a Messiah. ), where the Messiah appeals as the King’s son. 34, 40; probably, however, we have in this passage reminiscences of some older parable, which had to do with a king and not with the Messiah at all. If Jesus deemed Himself to be the predestined Messiah in any sense whatsoever, He certainly thought of the Messianic office as being different from that of a king. Messiah
Pharisees (2) - One was that both He and the Jews drew so directly from the OT that their ideas of the Messiah and His work were essentially the same, the chief question at issue being whether or not Jesus was the looked-for Messiah (cf. In their confused teachings drawn from the OT by traditional exegesis, three great groups of thought may be distinguished; they refer to God, His revelation in the Law, and the hope of a promised Messiah. Paul teaches a just God, His holy Law, and peace through faith in the Messiah. Peter, when the Law convicted men of murder, preached to them repentance toward God and faith in the slain Messiah, Jesus (Acts 2:37-38; Acts 3:19 f. John sums up the contrast between Jew and Christian in the Law of God given by Moses, and grace and truth coming in the Messiah (Acts 1:17). ...
(1) Their views of the Messiah and His Kingdom. Law and Messiah were two centres of Jewish thought when Christ appeared. In this expectation, the nature of the Messiah also took a more universal, and at the same time more personal character, corresponding somewhat to the growing sense of personal responsibility in religion among the Jews. The Messiah, as Son of Man, appeared sharing the majesty, glory, and heavenly nature of Jehovah (Enoch 47:3 and often). ‘The identification of Divine hypostases with the Messiah had already taken place in pre-Christian Judaism. But there was also the human Messiah, the Son of David; and two confused accounts arose among the Pharisaic theologians respecting these two views of the Messiah and His Kingdom (cf. Stanton, The Jewish and Christian Messiah, 1886, p. The Pharisees had no idea that the Messiah would be a Saviour of all men. Especially foreign was the conception of a suffering and dying Messiah, as Dalman has shown (Der leid. The usual explanation of two Messiahs did not arise till two centuries after Christ (Dalman, l. —The teachings of Jesus differed from those of the Pharisees on salvation, first, by showing it was not by law; and, second, by presenting the Messiah as a sin-bearer. Messiah and sufferer were inseparable thoughts; and as soon as He was confessed as Messiah and Son of God, He declared He must suffer, be rejected, be killed, and rise again (Mark 8:29 f. Much that the Jews expected He grouped under a new doctrine, that of the second advent of the Messiah
Daniel, Theology of - ...
There are at least four themes that dominate this book: the sovereignty of God; the self-destructive pride of humankind; the ultimate victory of God's kingdom; and the coming of his servant, the Messiah. ...
God's Messiah . This anointed one ("Messiah" in Hebrew, "Christ" in Greek) was the principal figure for the prophets, who speak of a movement from chaos and defeat to victory and redemption for national Israel. ...
In Daniel, the concept of the Messiah was reinterpreted toward the universal, rather than being limited to a single nation, Israel. Now Daniel sees the Messiah as the antithesis of personified evil. ...
The political and military dimensions of the son of David, the king-Messiah, are broadened in Daniel. In chapter 7 the nationalistic interpretation of the Messiah is transcended. Instead of savior of national Israel, who leads his people to victory over enemy nations that are evil, the Messiah becomes victorious over evil in general. Arnold...
See also Apocalyptic ; Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ; Revelation, Theology of ...
Bibliography
Root - Root of Jesse (Isaiah 11:10 ; Romans 15:12 ) and root of David (Revelation 5:5 ; Revelation 22:16 ) serve as titles of the Messiah
Chaff - So the final doom of the world powers before the coming manifested kingdom of Messiah (Daniel 2:35)
Nathan - Several men named Nathan are mentioned in the Bible, one of them being a son of David in the line of descent that produced the Messiah (2 Samuel 5:14; Zechariah 12:12; Luke 3:31)
Barabbas - If so, there is a dramatic adroitness in Pilate’s presentation of the alternative to the multitude: ‘Which of the two do ye wish me to release to you Jesus the bar-Abba or Jesus that is called Messiah?’...
David Smith
Menahem, - ...
It is interesting to note that in the literature of Judaism Menahem (= ‘Comforter’) is a title of the Messiah
Amminadab - Rather: "My soul made me like the chariots of my willing people" (Psalms 110:3), or else, "of the Prince of My people," Messiah
John - In prison his faith seemed to waver, for he sent to Jesus to know if he were really the Messiah, and received a satisfactory answer
Anna - The name of an aged prophetess ( Luke 2:35-38 ), one of the godly remnant in Israel who in the dark days which preceded the Messiah’s advent were looking for the dayspring from on high and waiting for the consolation of Israel. At the Presentation of the Infant Messiah ( Luke 2:22-24 ) she entered the sacred court, and, hearing Simeon’s benediction and prophecy, took up the refrain of praise and talked about the Holy Child to her godly intimates, quickening their hope and preparing a welcome for the Saviour when He should by and by be manifested unto Israel
Pharez - Hezron was forefather of David and Messiah
Anointed, the - Daniel spoke of Messiah the Prince, and that He would be cut off and have nothing
Herodians - But as the general expectation of the Jewish nation, at that time, was on the tiptoe for their king the Messiah to appear, to deliver them from the Roman yoke, and to raise an empire that should conquer the world, Herod was glad to fall in with this popular idea, not doubting but that they would regard him as the person
Promise - The word in the New Testament is usually taken for the promises that God heretofore made to Abraham, and the other patriarchs, of sending the Messiah, and conferring his Holy Spirit and eternal life on those that should believe on him
John - In prison his faith seemed to waver, for he sent to Jesus to know if he were really the Messiah, and received a satisfactory answer
Walls - Hence they assemble here every Friday, and more or less on other days, to weep and wail with every token of the sorest grief, and to pray for the coming of the Messiah
Circumcision - It was enjoined upon Abraham, the father of the nation, by God, at the institution and as the token of the covenant, which assured to him and his descendants the promise of the Messiah
Branch - It was not uncommon for the prophets to depict the Messiah as a new shoot or branch growing from David's stock, even though that "tree" would be cut off. Schaefer...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
Bibliography
Shiloh - One of the names of the Messiah, given by the dying patriarch Jacob under the spirit of prophecy, and to which both Jew and Gentile agree; though in the application of the name to the person of Christ they differ. " (John 19:15)...
I cannot dismiss this article without first observing that Shiloh is rendered the more remarkable, because as the name of the Messiah, nor indeed as any other name of a person, we no where meet with it but in this place
Anoint - ” A word that is important both to Old Testament and New Testament understandings is the noun mâshı̂yach, which gives us the term Messiah. Interestingly enough, the only person named “messiah” in the Old Testament was Cyrus, the pagan king of Persia, who was commissioned by God to restore Judah to her homeland after the Exile ( Noble - ” The word is applied to the Messiah; the Messiah is none other than God Himself: “But there the glorious Lord will be unto us a place of broad rivers …” ( Leaven - In the ensuing discussion (8:16-21) it is apparent that the attitude that Jesus is warning about is that of blindness toward his identity as the Messiah. 22-26 — the first was 7:31-37), Peter "finally" confesses that Jesus is the Messiah (8:27-30). For Mark, then, leaven stands for the obdurate refusal to perceive that Jesus is the Messiah. Matthew does not record either process miracle, but immediately narrates the confession of Peter that Jesus is the Messiah
Isaiah - In Isaiah 24:1-35:10 , which would seem to belong to the time of Hezekiah, the prophet appears to look forward in prophetic vision to the times of the exile and of the Messiah. The remainder of the book of Isaiah, Isaiah 40:1-66:24 , contains a series of oracles referring to the future times of temporal exile and deliverance, and expanding into glorious views of the spiritual deliverance to be wrought by the Messiah. With the prospect of freedom from the Babylonish exile, he connects the prospect of deliverance from sin and error through the Messiah. Sometimes the prophet beholds the Author of this deliverance in his humiliation and sorrows; and again, the remotest ages of the Messiah's kingdom present themselves to his enraptured vision-when man, so long estranged from God, will have again returned to him; when every thing opposed to God shall have been destroyed, and internal and external peace universally prevail; and when all the evil introduced by sin into the world, will be for ever done away. Elevated above all space and time, the prophet contemplates from the height on which the Holy Spirit has thus placed him, the whole development of the Messiah's kingdom, from its smallest beginnings to its glorious completion. The simplicity, purity, sweetness, and sublimity of Isaiah, and the fullness of his predictions respecting the Messiah, give him the preeminence among the Hebrew prophets and poets
Christ, Christology - ” See Messiah which translates the corresponding Hebrew term mashiach , the anointed one. ...
Old Testament and Jewish Background See Messiah . Such a prophetic figure is not actually called the Messiah in the Old Testament. by a Pharisee, gives the first positive identification of the coming redeemer of Israel with one whom the Lord anoints as His Messiah. The scarcity of allusions to the Messiah before the New Testament period is probably to be explained by the fact that Israel's hope took on various shapes. The term “Messiah,” where it is found, relates to a human figure who, as a member of David's family, would usher in the restored kingdom and promote Israel's interests in the world, usually implying a triumph over Israel's enemies in a war of liberation (Song of Solomon), or in the creation of a purified people (as in the hope entertained by the sect of the Dead Sea Scrolls at Qumran). ...
Jesus as the Christ in the Gospels The first three Gospels give less prominence to the title “Christ” (the Messiah) than we might have expected. Jesus never openly paraded His Messiahship, nor did He overtly claim to be the Messiah in the sense of announcing an aspiration to be Israel's warrior king. ...
For this reason—that God's redemption of Israel would take place only by the suffering of the Messiah—Jesus took a reserved and critical attitude to the title “Christ. The balance of the evidence points in the direction that He still maintained a reserve ( Matthew 26:63-64 ; Luke 22:67-68 ), with the same reluctance to be identified with a worldly Messiah-king evident, too, in the interview with Pilate (Mark 15:2 : “Art thou the King of the Jews?” asked Pilate. ...
The early believers in Jerusalem were Jews who had come to faith in Jesus as Messiah and risen Lord (Acts 2:32-36 ). The cross had also to be explained, since Jesus' death at the hands of the of the Roman political powers stood in direct and obvious contradiction to all that pious Jews believed about the Messiah, God's expected Deliverer of His people and a glorious Figure. See Messiah ; Son of God ; Lord
Mark, Gospel of - ...
According to Mark, the ministry of Jesus from beginning to end showed that he was a divine person in human form, the God-sent Messiah. The statement, combining Old Testament quotations concerning the Davidic Messiah and the Servant of Yahweh, showed that Jesus’ way to kingly glory was to be that of the suffering servant (Mark 1:11; cf. Psalms 2:7; Isaiah 42:1; see Messiah). ...
The record of this part of Jesus’ ministry concludes with Peter’s acknowledgment of his Messiahship (8:27-33), Jesus’ reminder of the cost of discipleship (8:34-9:1), the Father’s declaration at Jesus’ transfiguration (9:2-8), the disciples’ inability to heal a demon-possessed boy (9:9-29), and Jesus’ teaching on the necessity for humble submission in his kingdom (9:30-50). ...
On the Sunday before his crucifixion, Jesus entered Jerusalem as Israel’s God-sent Messiah (11:1-11). In the days that followed, he cleansed the temple and warned of the terrible judgment that was to fall on the Jewish nation because of its rejection of the Messiah (11:12-12:12)
Matthew, Gospel According to - In the period of preparation for the Kingdom, the gospel was to be preached to all nations for a testimony (Matthew 24:14), and those who entered by baptism into the Christian Church would become members of that new Israel, which in the days of the Kingdom should be judged and governed by the twelve Apostles as viceroys of the King Messiah (Matthew 19:28). ...
(1) The Messiah. —Jesus the Messiah was legally descended from David, and through him from Abraham, the father of the Israelite people (Matthew 1:1). He was the Divinely foreordained Messiah, the supernaturally-born King of Israel, the unique Son of God. He is interested in the events of the life chiefly in so far as they proved Jesus to be the Messiah of the OT, and with His actions either as proofs of His supernatural power over all the known forces of life, or as illustrative of His attitude towards the orthodox Pharisaism of the day. The miracles proved Christ’s power, or illustrated His attitude towards Pharisaism, or showed Him to be the Messiah of the OT. But to what end was He powerful, and, if the Messiah, where was His Kingdom? We might have expected to find a good deal more emphasis laid on the significance of Christ’s death, but such emphasis is strikingly absent. The death is rather regarded as without significance in itself, but as a necessary stage in the revelation of the Messiah. The insistence on the fact that the death had to take place, because it had been foretold in the Scriptures, suggests the inference that to the editor it was a fact which required explanation, a difficult phase in the history of the Messiah rather than the central fact which itself explained everything else in His life. In two passages only is the death referred to as having any purpose or effect, rather than as being simply a thing which had happened as a necessary transition stage from the earthly life to the heavenly monarchy of the Messiah. But it is equally clear that the editor of the First Gospel has recorded them because they formed part of the tradition which had come to him, without seeing in them an explanation of the entire earthly life of the Messiah. Jesus was the Davidic Messiah and also the Son of God. But how then was He the Messiah, and where was the Kingdom? The main object of the Gospel is to explain this, and the explanation is given in the great discourses which the editor has formed by massing sayings or groups of sayings. ...
In the above sketch of the picture drawn for us in the First Gospel of the Person and teaching of the Messiah, we have purposely omitted the parables. Jesus was the King-Messiah of the OT. In the meantime the good news was to be preached, and men were to be gathered into the society of disciples of the Messiah. The Messiah is at hand, and will sweep away all such false claims with the fire of judgment
Prudence - Should He not then have committed Himself to the Father: could Herod defeat the mission of the Messiah, the Son who alone could reveal the Father? In the wilderness Jesus recognized that thought to be a temptation of Satan (Matthew 4:5-7). He rode up to the city on an ass’s colt as the Messiah, with an enthusiastic crowd strewing palm branches and singing hosannas to the Son of David. But (1) it was necessary that He should openly make His claim to be the Messiah. It was to spiritual believers, won by His preaching of the Father, who felt that He, the meek and lowly One, had the words of eternal life, that He made known the fact that He was God’s Messiah. But it was necessary that the claim should ultimately be proclaimed, after all His gospel had been declared, that Israel’s rejection of Him should be their rejection of Him as Messiah. And as soon as Peter had made his confession of belief in Him as Messiah, Jesus began to prepare His disciples for sufferings and death (Mark 8:30-31)
Girdle - "Righteousness and faithfulness" are the girdle of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:5 )
Banner - )...
Messiah set forth manifestly as the crucified Savior (Galatians 3:1) is the rallying point for the gathering together in one unto Him of all the redeemed in spirit, in the glorified body also hereafter (Genesis 49:10; Matthew 24:31; 2 Thessalonians 2:1)
Nail - ...
Isaiah 22:23 (a) By this picture we see the permanent and secure position of CHRIST, the Messiah, as He sits on the throne of His kingdom
Pain (And Forms) - Israel did not seem to feel their need of the Messiah; nevertheless He came to save them
Expectation - The object of expectation the expected Messiah
ra'Hab, - (wide ), a celebrated woman of Jericho who received the spies sent by Joshua to spy out the land, hid them in her house from the pursuit of her countrymen, was saved with all her family when the Israelites sacked the city, and became the wife of Salmon and the ancestress of the Messiah
Simeon - And being led by the Spirit, at the time when Jesus was presented by his mother at the temple, he recognized the infant as the expected Messiah, and took him in his arms and blessed him, glorifying God
Malachi - Thus the Old Testament closes with Predictions of the Messiah, and the New Testament opens with the record of their fulfillment
TRUE - Not false or pretended real as, Christ was the true Messiah
ra'Hab, - (wide ), a celebrated woman of Jericho who received the spies sent by Joshua to spy out the land, hid them in her house from the pursuit of her countrymen, was saved with all her family when the Israelites sacked the city, and became the wife of Salmon and the ancestress of the Messiah
Symbol - For this reason and others, he strongly resisted the claims that Jesus was Messiah. How could one obviously under a divine curse possibly be Messiah? Only when the risen Lord appeared to Saul did he realize that what appeared to be a curse had been transformed into a source of the greatest blessing
Judah, the Kingdom of - They were the people to whom the Messiah was presented, and who refused and crucified Him. Their descendants are scattered over the earth; but when God's set time is come they will be brought through the fire of judgement, and a remnant will be saved, restored to their own land, and blessed under their Messiah whom they now reject
Servant of the Lord - The third and highest meaning of the servant applies to the Messiah, Jesus (Isaiah 53:12; Luke 22:37; Acts 3:13; Acts 4:30; Philippians 2:7). ...
Israel as a nation was Abraham’s natural offspring (John 8:37; Romans 4:1; Romans 11:1), the faithful remnant were his spiritual offspring (Romans 9:6-7; Galatians 3:28-29), but the Messiah Jesus was the perfect offspring. Israel’s sufferings at the hands of Babylon and its glory in the rebuilt Jerusalem were a picture of the sufferings of the Messiah and the glory that followed (Isaiah 52:13-15; Acts 2:23-24; Acts 2:36; Philippians 2:8-11; 1 Peter 1:18-21)
Reap - GOD had been dealing with Israel through the years preparing their hearts for the Messiah. " The prophets had been telling that the Messiah would come, and that they should believe on Him when He arrives. Now the disciples were to go forth pointing to Him and saying, the hour has come, the Messiah has arrived, and you must believe on Him
Matthew, Theology of - Attached to this expectation of God's intervention was the hope of a personal Messiah who would lead Israel (e. the citations of the Old Testament in Matthew 1:18-2:23 ) it was God's purpose to bring the Messiah to Israel for the deliverance of Israel (1:21). This Messiah is Jesus, son of Mary and Joseph (1:18-25). Who is this Jesus, according to Matthew? Jesus is the one who, as Messiah (1:1), fulfills the messianic expectations of the Old Testament, and who, as Son of God, brings the salvation of God ( Messiah to his people to reveal his grace and truth. This Messiah, through his life, teachings, death, and resurrection, has inaugurated the kingdom of heaven. Put differently, the exile of Israel ends its awful time in the birth of the Messiah ( Messiah who inaugurates the restoration of Israel, but still awaiting (with the rest of Israel's history) the final age that comes when the Son of Man appears to bring God's promises to Israel to their consummation. Thus, the Gospel addresses the problem of an Israel still led by the Pharisees even though it is clear that God's Messiah, Jesus, has appointed the apostles as the new shepherds for the new Israel (9:35-11:1; 23). All of Israel must now turn to Jesus, the Messiah, at this crucial juncture in history, and in so doing must turn from sin to follow Jesus, the way the disciples of Jesus did (4:18-22). Matthew's symbols include the Messiah, the Torah (as understood by Jesus), the church as the new people of God, baptism, and the Lord's Supper. Israel is the people of God, elected by God and chosen to be his faithful heritage; however, this people of God is now fulfilled in the church, the body of those who trust and obey Jesus, the Messiah
Zechariah, the Book of - ...
Zechariah repeats this threat as about to be fulfilled again by Rome for their rejection of Messiah Matthew, by mentioning Jeremiah, implies that the field of blood now bought by "the reward of iniquity" in the valley of Hinnom was long ago a scene of doom symbolically predicted, that the purchase of it with the traitor's price renewed the prophecy and revived the curse. The third vision is the man with line measuring Jerusalem; Messiah, its coming Restorer (Ezekiel 40:3; Ezekiel 47:1-129). ...
The next two (fourth and fifth) visions (Zechariah 3-4) show Joshua the high priest's (representing Jerusalem) trial and vindication against Satan, being justified by Jehovah through Messiah the Righteous Branch, though unclean in himself (compare Psalms 109:6; Psalms 109:31; Luke 1:11; Judges 1:9; Judges 1:23; Romans 8:33-34; Isaiah 64:6; Revelation 13:5-634; Isaiah 66:21; Revelation 19:8; Luke 15:22). The double crowning of Joshua symbolizes the union of the priesthood and kingship in Messiah (Zechariah 6:13; Psalms 110:1-2; Psalms 110:4; Hebrews 5:10; Hebrews 6:20; Hebrews 7:1-21). The crowns were made of silver and gold, presented for the temple by Heldah, Tobijah, and Jedaiah, coming from Babylon, and should be deposited in the temple' as a memorial of the donors until Messiah appear; and as typifying Israel's return from afar to the King of the Jews at Jerusalem (Isaiah 60:9), and secondarily the conversion of the Gentiles from "far off" (Zechariah 6; Zechariah 2:11; Zechariah 8:22-23; Isaiah 60:10; Isaiah 57:19). Antitypically so shall Israel be delivered from her last oppressor, antichrist, by looking to Messiah. ...
Zechariah 10 urges prayer, and promises in answer to it rulers coming out of themselves (the Maccabees, Judah's governors and deliverers from Antiochus, typifying Messiah), conquest of enemies, restoration of both Israel and Judah in their own land in lasting peace. Zechariah 11 foretells the destruction of the second temple and Jewish polity for the rejection of Messiah (Zechariah 11:4; Zechariah 11:7, the "flock" doomed to slaughter by Rome, whom Messiah "fed," but they rejected Him "the Bread of life". The climax was the sale of Messiah through Judas to Rome for 30 pieces of silver (Zechariah 11:13). When Messiah demanded His" price" for pastoral care of Israel during the whole theocracy, and especially in the three and a half years of His ministry in person, they gave only 30 shekels, the price of a gored bond servant (Zechariah 11:12-13; Exodus 21:32). At Zechariah 13:7 the prophecy of Messiah's betrayal (Zechariah 11:4; Zechariah 11:10; Zechariah 11:13-14) is resumed, "Awake O sword against My Shepherd and against the Man that is My Fellow (the mighty Man of My union, 'geber 'amithiy ,' one indissolubly joined by a common nature; contrast the Levitical law against injuring one's fellow. Messiah-Jehovah shall save her and destroy the foe of whom the remnant shall turn to Him reigning at Jerusalem
Zechariah, Prophecy of - Zechariah's prophecy is much occupied with the great Gentile kingdoms under which the Jews were placed: there is also much respecting Jerusalem, and it reaches on to the time of the Messiah and His rejection, and to the last days when Israel and Judah shall be blessed in the land. All flesh is to be silent before the Lord, Israel were to know that though He providentially ordered things in the earth, yet that the prophet — a figure of Messiah — was the sent one of Jehovah. From this chapter onward the prophecy has a distinct bearing upon the consciences of the people, the Messiah is introduced, and the consequences of His rejection. Zion is called upon to rejoice, for Messiah her King cometh riding upon an ass. ...
Zechariah 11 treats of the rejection of the Messiah; its commencement is a great contrast to the end of Zechariah 10 . The Messiah is valued at thirty pieces of silver, as related in the Gospels. Judah will see and acknowledge that the One they crucified was their true Messiah, and great sorrow will pierce their hearts: comp. Israel, as not having been immediately guilty of the death of their Messiah, will be dealt with differently: cf. ...
The whole prophecy concerns God's earthly people, and is full of detail with respect to their punishment; their blessing; their Messiah, and their rejection of Him; also their future reception of Him, and His glory in their midst. It will be noticed that Jehovah, and their Messiah (in whatever way prefigured), are often spoken of as one and the same
Gog - But while Ezekiel contemplates the great conflict in a more general light as what was certainly to be connected with the times of the Messiah, and should come then to its last decisive issues, John, on the other hand, writing from the commencement of the Messiah's times, describes there the last struggles and victories of the cause of Christ
Andrew - After he had been led to recognize Jesus as the Messiah, his first care was to bring also his brother Simon to Jesus
Transubstantiation - 6; A Dialogue between Philalethes and Benevolus; Kidder's Messiah, part 3: p
Money-Changers - It was, in short, a place of public resort and thoroughfare, a house of merchandise, as the temple of the Jews had become in the days of the Messiah
Myrrh - It was used as a perfume, Psalm 45:8 , where the language is symbolic of the graces of the Messiah; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:13 ; 5:5 ; it was one of the ingredients of the "holy anointing oil" for the priests, Exodus 30:23 (RV, "flowing myrrh"); it was used also for the purification of women, Esther 2:12 ; for embalming, John 19:39 ; as an anodyne see B); it was one of the gifts of the Magi, Matthew 2:11
Boaz - He married Ruth, and the child born to them was an ancestor of King David and of Jesus the Messiah (Ruth 4:18-22; Matthew 1:1; Matthew 1:5)
Son of God - The promised Messiah would also be God’s son, for he would belong to the Davidic line of kings. That Messiah was Jesus. He did not become the Son of God through being the Messiah; rather he became the Messiah because he was already the pre-existent Son of God (Matthew 22:42-45; John 1:34; John 1:49; John 20:31; see Messiah)
Matthew, Gospel of - ...
Matthew was particularly concerned to show that Jesus was the promised Messiah, the son of David, the fulfilment of God’s purposes in choosing Israel (Matthew 1:1; Matthew 1:17; Matthew 2:6; Matthew 9:27; Matthew 11:2-6; Matthew 15:22; Matthew 16:16; Matthew 21:9; Matthew 26:63-64). Some saw that he was the Messiah (9:18-34). The disciples knew that Jesus was the Messiah (16:13-20), but Jesus warned that death lay ahead for him and perhaps for them (16:21-28). After his transfiguration (17:1-8), he repeated that the Messiah would be cruelly treated and killed (17:9-27). Those in the Messiah’s kingdom therefore needed to be characterized by a humble and forgiving spirit (18:1-35). ...
Jesus then entered Jerusalem as the messianic king (21:1-11), cleansed the temple (21:12-17), and in a series of disputes with the Jews showed how their rejection of the Messiah was leading them to national catastrophe (21:18-22:46)
Reserve - His reserve is explained, not by the slow growth of His own conception of His Messiahship, but by the method of establishing the Kingdom of God which He had set before Him from the beginning. Jesus recognized no other path to faith in Him as Messiah, the revealer of the Father, and the founder of the Kingdom of God upon the earth. John belonged to the old economy (John 11:11); his prophecy of the Messiah’s coming had been a prophecy of judgment (John 3:12). The simple acknowledgment by Jesus that He was the Messiah could never have brought to him enlightenment and faith as to that Kingdom of heaven whose least disciple was greater than he. Its inevitable consequence would have been to confirm him in his old expectations of judgment; it would have appeared to him a call to wait in patience the good time of the Messiah, when He would play the stern part John had foretold. These were the signs of that Kingdom of love which Jesus was establishing; and if John were ever to gain the higher and richer conceptions of God and of man manifested there, he must see the Messiah through these quiet and lowly activities of loving helpfulness, and believe in Him as Him that should come, because of them and not despite them. The sufferings of the Messiah
Apollos - Apollos was "fervent in spirit;" and so when he came to Ephesus, "he spoke and taught diligently the things of Jesus" (so the three oldest manuscripts read), as John had pointed to Jesus as the Messiah. But Apollos knew only the water baptism of John; he did not yet know that what John had foretold ("I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance, but He Messiah shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire") had actually come to pass, in the church's baptism with the Spirit on Pentecost, and that graces and gifts were now being bestowed on the several living stones composing "the temple of the Holy Spirit
Eschatology - The kingly Messiah and heavenly Son of man, having died for sin, will return to reign (Matthew 25:31-34; see KINGDOM OF GOD; Messiah; MILLENNIUM; SON OF MAN)
Divinity of Christ - The two considerations, that the Hebrew race had worked out the conception of the Messiah, and that the ethnic peoples were quite familiar with Divine incarnations, processes both present admittedly to the mind of the Early Church, furnish no evidence to the contrary. ’ It seeks by a study of the original records in the light of all the historical and critical aids now open to us, and guided by the modern idea of evolution, not only to bring us face to face with Jesus of Nazareth, to listen to His direct words of wisdom, but to trace all the steps of His spiritual advance, all the steps by which He grew into the Messiah of Israel and the Ideal of humanity, giving the deepest interpretation to the prophetic dream of His nation, and so lifting it into that higher region in which the freely accepted Cross became the necessary means to the deliverance of man. ) have sought to show that Jesus did not accept the title of Messiah; but not even these deny its attribution to Him by the disciples, and that as their main view of His Person. In that belief Jesus stands forth as Messiah, Himself accepting as appropriate what they attribute; a sublime figure, not merely human, or exalted to Messiahship only by self-mastery and self-dedication, but by peculiar nature and special appointment. The endeavour to reduee the Evangelic description of Messiah to human dimensions is ludicrously inadequate to the facts. It came in a series of disappointments, intended, probably, to wean them from the popular ideas of what the Messiah should be. There is first the death of the Baptist, the prophet of Messiah. Lastly came the crisis, as it were, the open challenge to prove His Messiahship by a sign and legitimate His claim, a challenge refused (Luke 22:67; Luke 23:35). Hand in hand with this progressive disillusionment of all that was contrary to His thought in current Messianic ideas went the progressive revelation of the true Messiah,—a revelation which became at once a testing and a discipline of the character of the disciples, and an unfolding of undreamt of forces in His; so that at last they fell at His feet and worshipped, while others acknowledged Him as ‘Lord and God’ (John 20:28); and still others plainly felt that He was ‘ascending to the Father’ (John 20:17). That Jesus claimed to be the Messiah, and gave His sanction to the belief on the part of His disciples is certain* Jesus Christ - The Son of God, the Messiah and Savior of the World, the first and principal object of the prophecies; who was prefigured and promised in the Old Testament; was expected and desired by the patriarchs; the hope and salvation of the Gentiles; the glory, happiness, and consolation of Christians. ...
JESUS was the common name of the Savior; while the name CHRIST , meaning the Anointed One, The Messiah, was his official name. See further, concerning Christ, Messiah, REDEEMER, etc
Illyricum - Paul points to the fact that he had fully preached the good news of the Messiah from Jerusalem and round about as far as Illyricum
to'Bit, Book of, - In all there is not the slightest trace of the belief in a personal Messiah
Hannah - Thus the prayer of a feeble and barren woman brings in intervention and blessing of God by His Messiah
World to Come - ...
The 'present age' was well understood by the Jews to be in contrast to that age which should be introduced by the Messiah
Jehoiachin - I should have thought it had respect to the promised seed, and that the writing this man childless might have been in other words to say, the Messiah shall not be in his family
Rod - The empire of the Messiah is sometimes represented by a rod of iron, to show its power and its might, Psalms 2:9 ; Revelation 2:27 ; Revelation 12:5 ; Revelation 19:15
Shiloh - This term is used, Genesis 49:10 , to denote the Messiah, the coming of whom Jacob foretells in these words: "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be;" that is, until the time of Christ, Judah's self-governments as a tribe should not ceases
Flax - ...
The prophet Isaiah, in speaking of the gentleness of the Messiah, makes use of a proverbial expression, which is also quoted by Matthew and applied to Jesus: "The bruised reed he shall not break, and the smoking flax he shall not quench," Isaiah 42:3 Matthew 12:20
Perdition - 13), points to a constant tradition in the Christian Church of the Apostolic Age, which appears, from the passages alluded to, to have conceived not of a foreign potentate alien to the Church, but rather of a false Messiah who should be ‘sent to them that are perishing’ (namely, the Jews), and was expected to make his appearance at Jerusalem
Jude - Jesus’ brothers at first did not accept him as the Son of God and the Davidic Messiah (John 7:5), but the resurrection must have caused them to change their minds
Governor - nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2 Chronicles 28:7 ; Compare 1 Kings 4:6 ), chief of the temple (1 Chronicles 9:11 ; Jeremiah 20:1 ), the leader of the Aaronites (1 Chronicles 12:27 ), keeper of the sacred treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1 Samuel 9:16 ), the Messiah (Daniel 9:25 ). Used of many classes of rulers (Genesis 3:16 ; 24:2 ; 45:8 ; Psalm 105:20 ); of the Messiah (Micah 5:2 ); of God (1 Chronicles 29:12 ; Psalm 103:19 )
Transfiguration, the - ) Moses and Elijah themselves were heralds of the Messiah (Deuteronomy 18:15 ; Malachi 4:5-6 ). The Messiah must suffer; but glorification and enthronement, not suffering, is His ultimate fate
Nazareth - It was the home of Joseph and Mary ( Luke 2:39 ), and here the angel announced to the Virgin the birth of the Messiah (1:26-28). The Jews believed that, according to Micah 5:2 , the birth of the Messiah would take place at Bethlehem, and nowhere else
Beauty - The promised Messiah was prophesied to be a beautiful king (Isaiah 33:17 ). Yet the prophet also said that the suffering Messiah would have "no beauty or majesty to attract us to him" (Isaiah 53:2 )
Antichrist - The dragon is used twelve times in Revelation and designates the devil and Satan and the enemy of God's Messiah. ...
The New Testament indicates the presence of cosmic opposition to God through reference primarily to forces, people, or a person who seek to deceive those who already know God's Messiah
Thigh - Others carry the matter farther, and while supposing, as the former, that the oath had respect to this fraternity and relationship in one common covenant, they add to it a reference to the person, and the expectation of the Messiah as the head and substance of the covenant; and in confirmation of this opinion they refer to that passage, Genesis 46:26 where it is said that "all the souls which cause with Jacob into Egypt, came out of his loins," or, as the margin renders it, his thigh. By which I humbly conceive is meant, as still with an eye to the covenant, an interest in the Messiah
Annas - 116; Edersheim, LT Elijah - He was expected to return to earth as the forerunner of Messiah; an expectation encouraged by the remarkable prophecy, Malachi 4:5-6, already referred to. John Baptist, though not personally Elijah, John 1:21, was to go before the Messiah in the spirit and power of the ancient prophet, Luke 1:17; and thus our Lord himself explained the matter to his disciples
Comfort, Comforter, Comfortless - , Luke 2:25 (here "looking for the consolation of Israel" is equivalent to waiting for the coming of the Messiah); Luke 6:24 ; Acts 9:31 ; Romans 15:4,5 ; 1 Corinthians 14:3 , "exhortation;" 2 Corinthians 1:3-7 ; 7:4,7,13 ; 2 Thessalonians 2:16 ; Philemon 1:7 . " "Comforter" or "Consoler" corresponds to the name "Menahem," given by the Hebrews to the Messiah
Apocalyptic Literature - The Messiah is then to appear, although his function is not definitely described. In them are to be found representations of the sleep of the righteous, the resurrection of the spirit of the Messiah, though human, as God’s Son (105. The most remarkable characteristic of these Similitudes is the use of the term ‘Son of Man’ for the Messiah. The Messiah pre-exists and is more than a man. While there is no mention of the Messiah, the members of the Messianic age are to live a thousand years, and are to be free from the influence or control of Satan. Its author (or authors) was opposed to monarchy as such, and looked forward to the time when the Messiah would really be king of Judæa. All the members of the new kingdom, which, like the Messiah, is miraculous, are to be ‘sons of God. The Judgment is to be extended to the Gentiles, but no Messiah is mentioned, the Messianic kingdom rather than He being central. Both for this reason and because of its emphasis on generic human misery and sin, with the consequent need of something more than a merely national deliverance, it gives a prominent position to the Messiah, who is represented as dying. Like Second Esdras, it is marked by a despair of the existing age, and looks forward to a transcendental reign of the Messiah, in which the Jews are to be supremely fortunate
Advent (2) - As the Son of God (Matthew 10:32, John 3:16-17), revealing and representing God in His own person (John 5:30; John 14:9-10), whose mission it was to redeem men from sin (Matthew 18:11, Luke 4:43; Luke 17:21), Jesus was to prove Himself in the truest sense the Messiah whom the Jewish people had long been expecting,—‘a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord’ (Luke 2:11). Their allusions to the Messianic hope are somewhat meagre, and do not expressly refer to the appearance of a personal Messiah. The Messiah is regarded as ‘the Son of David,’ ‘the Anointed of the Lord,’ free from sin and endowed with miraculous powers, who will conquer, not by force of arms, but will smite the earth by the rod of His mouth (17:28f. Messiah. —In many respects the way had been prepared for the appearance of Jesus and the spread of His influence as Messiah and Saviour. —The Jewish people, fretting under political depression, had flung themselves with impassioned eagerness on the hope that the long-desired Messiah and His kingdom must be drawing nigh. —For a lengthened treatment of the Messianic hope and its transformations, see Riehm, Messianic Prophecy3 [1] (English translation 1900); Drummond, The Jewish Messiah (1877); Stanton, The Jewish and Christian Messiah (1886); Briggs, Messianic Prophecy (1886); Orelli, OT Prophecy of the Consummation of God’ Kingdom (English translation); and for a more condensed survey, Schürer, HJP Plan - ...
That Jesus declared Himself the Messiah is established beyond all doubt by the fact of His trial and crucifixion. The first intention of Jesus was, they say, simply to proclaim the Kingdom of God; and the assumption of Messiahship was forced upon Him by the failure of His original message. In order to retrieve His declining cause, He consented, though against His will, to bring it into line with the national hope, and appeared in Jerusalem as the declared Messiah. ’ From the moment that He knew Himself called by God to inaugurate the Kingdom, Jesus must have recognized His title to the office of Messiah. As yet He made no open claim to the place of Messiah, but the knowledge that it belonged to Him coloured His whole action and thought. The title was ambiguous, and did not necessarily involve the more explicit title; but it served to awaken reflexion, and to prepare the way for the definite claim to Messiahship. (1) He had resolved on a method of working which would have been impossible if the people had immediately known Him as the Messiah. As Messiah, He would have been committed at once to action of a conspicuous nature, and could never have pursued His work of teaching, healing, comforting. When they had learned to replace their worldly conception of the Messiah by a truer and more spiritual one, He would be able to declare Himself. Through their intercourse with Jesus they had attained to a higher knowledge of the Divine purposes, and recognized in Him the true Messiah. He knew Himself to be the Messiah, but had determined to conceal His claim until His teaching and His personal influence should produce a change in the minds of His countrymen. But while He surmised, with an ever clearer conviction, that the assertion of His Messiahship would involve His death, it does not appear that He chose death deliberately as necessary to His plan
Elijah - His life is best understood when considered from four historical perspectives which at times are interrelated: his miracles, his struggle against Baalism, his prophetic role, and his eschatological relationship to Messiah. ...
Relationship to Messiah Elijah and Elisha were involved in the schools of the prophets when Elijah struck the waters of the Jordan and they parted to allow their crossing (2 Kings 2:1-12 ). John the Baptist was spoken of as the one who would go before Messiah “in the spirit and power” of Elijah (Luke 1:17 )
Virgin, Virgin Birth - Some believe the prophet wrote of a son to be born to his wife or to some other woman of the day and only then with a further reference to the birth of the Messiah. Others claim that the prophet had no reference to anyone in his day but only spoke of the coming Messiah. See Ahaz ; Christ; Divorce ; Incarnation ; Isaiah ; Jesus; Joseph ; Maid; Marys of the Bible; Messiah
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - The promise was, Messiah was to be "of the fruit of the loins of David" (Acts 2:30), but to Solomon only that "his throne should be established evermore" (1 Chronicles 17:14). Isaiah 11:1 implies that Messiah was the seed of David by natural as well as legal descent. The first and second tessaradecade have an illustrious beginning; the third not so, that its ending in Messiah might stand forth pre-eminent above all that went before
Blasphemy - ...
After Jesus had come to be acknowledged as the Messiah, the denial of His status and the insulting of His name were regarded by His followers as conscious or unconscious blasphemy. 97), he doubtless found it was all but impossible to make men and women speak evil of their so-called Messiah-‘maledicere Christum’-or submit to any other test that would have indicated disloyalty to Him: ‘quorum nihil cogi posse dicuntur, qui sunt re verâ Christiani’ (ib. Paul began to preach Jesus as His own Messiah, the blasphemies of his countrymen against that Name became his daily fare
Pre-Existence - PRE-EXISTENCE...
The OT conception of the Messiah was, for the most part, limited by the horizon of this present world. Such passages as these, whether they are understood as implying definitely the personal pre-existence of the Messiah, or only his existence in the eternal counsels of God, tended undoubtedly to raise the Messianic conception to a higher level, and to prepare for the claims of Christ Himself, and the developed teaching of the pre-existence of Christ which is found in NT and the Christian writers generally. of Pre-existence of Messiah’ in JBL Bar-Kochba - The title designated him as the Messiah (Numbers 24:17 )
Meekness - ’ In our Lord’s time these terms denoted the godly remnant in Israel, those who, despised by the rulers, lived devout lives in obscure corners, nourishing their faith on the Scriptures, and ‘waiting for the consolation of Israel’ ( Luke 2:25 ; Luke 2:38 ), the blessed Advent of the Messiah
Nathanael - Philip thereupon conducted him to meet Jesus, and, when he looked on that wondrous face, his doubt vanished, and he hailed Him as the Messiah, ‘the Son of God, the King of Israel
Nicodemus - (1) At the outset of His ministry Jesus went up to Jerusalem to keep the Feast of the Passover, and His miracles made a deep impression on Nicodemus, half persuading him that He was the Messiah; insomuch that he interviewed Him secretly under cover of the darkness ( John 3:1-21 )
Horn - —The expression ‘a horn of salvation’ in the song of Zacharias (Luke 1:69) is undoubtedly a reference to the promised Messiah
Judah - 70, when the Christian dispensation had become established, compare Matthew 24:14; Acts 2:8; Romans 10:18, in the glory and triumph of the Messiah
Zechariah - The second division gives a prophetic description of the future fortunes of the theocracy in conflict with the secular powers, the sufferings and death of the Messiah under the figure of the shepherd, the conversion of Israel to him, and the final glorification of the kingdom of God
Holy, Holiness - The Messiah is called "the Holy One," Psalm 16:10 ; Luke 4:34 ; Acts 3:14 ; and Holy is the common epithet given to the third person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit
Alexandria - In the New Testament there is a record of one of them, Apollos, whose knowledge of Old Testament references to the Messiah was extraordinary
Horn - —The expression ‘a horn of salvation’ in the song of Zacharias (Luke 1:69) is undoubtedly a reference to the promised Messiah
David - The term "messiah" means "anointed one, " and the idea of a Messiah for Israel grows out of her ideology about a righteous king, one who would be like David. The Messiah as a figure is integrally involved in Israel's unique understanding of her place in history: their awareness from the beginning that God had chosen them to bring blessing to the nations. God had raised up great leaders and deliverers for Israel during her history, and he would yet do so again in the person of a Messiah. The crowds and even the demons recognize him as the son of David, the Messiah of Israel (Matthew 12:23 ; 20:30-31 ; 21:9,15 ). The title "Christ" is a Greek translation of the Hebrew anointed one or Messiah. "...
Hannah's longing for a child and for a righteous king and anointed one (1 Samuel 2:10 ) is heard again in Mary's own magnificat as she anticipates the birth of Israel's king and Messiah (Luke 2:32-33,46-55,69 )
Capstone - Jesus makes use of this psalm in a parable referring to Israel and its rejection of him as Messiah ( Matthew 21:33-44 , ; and parallels)
Corner - When (Zechariah 10:4 ), speaking of Judah, says, "Out of him came forth the corner," he is probably to be understood as ultimately referring to the Messiah as the "corner stone
Branch - "The branch of Jehovah" (Isaiah 4:2), the sprout of Jehovah, Messiah (Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15; Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12; Luke 1:78 margin)
Herodians - Jerome, in his dialogue against the Luciferians, takes the name to have been given to such as owned Herod for the Messiah; and Tertullian and Epiphanius are of the same opinion
Caiaphas, Joseph - Providence therefore, while employing him as the last of the sacerdotal order (for it ceased before God at the death of Messiah, the true and everlasting Priest, whose typical forerunner it was) to prophesy Christ's death for the people, left him to judicial blindness as to the deep significance of his words: "Ye know nothing at all, nor consider that it is expedient for us that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not" (John 11:50-52)
Kerygma - According to this reconstruction, the preaching of the early church included the following elements: (1) the prophecies of the coming Messiah have been fulfilled, (2) the prophecies were fulfilled by the Davidic descent, ministry, death, and resurrection of Jesus, (3) Jesus has been exalted to God's right hand as the Head of the new Israel, (4) the Holy Spirit is the sign of Christ's present power and glory, (5) Christ will return, and (6) a call for repentance
Husband - Happy unions when the Lord Jesus will be owned and loved by Israel, as their Messiah and King, and the Church be owned and manifested as the bride of Christ!...
Hallowed - ) to the office of Messiah by His submitting to death; and (2) of His disciples (John 17:17; John 17:19) as consecrated by the truth
Spitting, Spittle - Christ foretold it among the insults which He as Messiah would endure (Mark 10:34, Luke 18:32); and during His Passion He was spit upon both by Jews (Matthew 26:67, Mark 14:65) and by Gentile soldiers (Matthew 27:30, Mark 15:19)
Zion - ...
Zion was understood, also, to refer to the heavenly Jerusalem (Isaiah 60:14 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 14:1 ), the place where the Messiah would appear at the end of time
Genealogy - The Davidic descent of Jesus is a mark of the Messiah, and is clearly taught in the prophecy, and also in Romans 1:3; 2 Timothy 2:8; Hebrews 7:14; John 7:42; Acts 13:23
Hades - It is likewise the subterranean abode of all the dead, but only their temporary abode until the advent of the Messiah or the final judgment, and is divided into two departments, called Paradise or Abraham's bosom for the good, and Gehenna or hell for the bad
Anna - From it some beautiful women are said to have been chosen as wives for the priests (Edersheim, and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i
Leopard - ...
Isaiah, describing the happy state of the reign of Messiah, says, "The leopard shall lie down with the kid," Isaiah 11:6
Almah - The Apostles and Evangelists, and the Jews of our Saviour's time, explained it in the same sense, and expected a Messiah born of a virgin
Micah - He proclaims the coming of the Messiah, "whose going forth have been from of old, from everlasting," as the foundation of all hope for the glorious and blessed future he describes; and specifies Bethlehem in Judah as the place where He should be born of woman, Micah 5:2,3
Apollos - He had a detailed knowledge of Old Testament Scriptures concerning the Messiah and became a believer in Jesus
Shiloh - If ‘Shiloh’ were a name applied to the Messiah, it would have a special significance; but this cannot be discovered. ) all interpret it of the Messiah
Seed - While the plural form "seeds," neither in Hebrew nor in Greek, would have been natural any more than in English (it is not so used in Scripture of human offspring; its plural occurrence is in 1 Samuel 8:15 , of crops), yet if the Divine intention had been to refer to Abraham's natural descendants, another word could have been chosen in the plural, such as "children;" all such words were, however, set aside, "seed" being selected as one that could be used in the singular, with the purpose of showing that the "seed" was Messiah. Descendants were given to Abraham by other than natural means, so that through him Messiah might come, and the point of the Apostle's argument is that since the fulfillment of the promises of God is secured alone by Christ, they only who are "in Christ" can receive them; (2) of spiritual offspring, Romans 4:16,18 ; 9:8 ; here "the children of the promise are reckoned for a seed" points, firstly, to Isaac's birth as being not according to the ordinary course of nature but by Divine promise, and, secondly, by analogy, to the fact that all believers are children of God by spiritual birth; Galatians 3:29
Nail - Judah shall be under a native ruler, not a foreigner; the Maccabees primarily, Judah's deliverers from the oppressor Antiochus Epiphanes: antitypically Messiah of the tribe of Judah. ...
On Messiah hang all the glory and hope of His people
Keys - ’ ” There is therefore strong significance in the claim here made by the Risen Messiah. ’ The allusion is clearly to the promise in Isaiah 22:22 ‘I will give to him (Eliakim) the key of the house of David upon his shoulder,’ a passage which, according to Zullich, was commonly referred by Jewish commentators to the Messiah
Bartholomew - Edersheim (Messiah, i. A person with Isaiah 9:1 in his mind, and convinced that rich blessings would come from Galilee, might nevertheless think that Nazareth was not a likely place to be the dwelling-place of the Messiah
Anointing - Anointing with oil was a rite of inauguration into each of the three typical offices of the Jewish commonwealth, (a) Prophets were occasionally anointed to their office, 1 Kings 19:16, and are called Messiahs, or anointed. In the Old Testament a Deliverer is promised under the title of Messiah, or Anointed, Psalms 2:2; Daniel 9:24-26; and the nature of his anointing is described to be spiritual, with the Holy Ghost. In the New Testament Jesus of Nazareth is shown to be the Messiah or Christ, or anointed of the Old Testament, John 1:41; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:2-3; Acts 18:4-5; Acts 18:28; and the historical fact of his being anointed with the Holy Ghost is asserted and recorded
Isaiah, the Book of - The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts: ...
The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic, Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler and King. ...
Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and lowly
Disciple - Although these people may have thought Jesus to be the Messiah, many of them had a wrong understanding of the sort of person the Messiah would be
Ass - Zechariah pictured the Messiah as riding on “a colt the foal of an ass” (athon ), thus emphasizing the animal was a purebred ass and not a crossbred mule (Zechariah 9:9 ). The Messiah would ride on a donkey (Zechariah 9:9 ), the animal of the nobility in days when Israel did not have a king. The picture in Zechariah 9:1 thus joins the humble suffering servant and the royal Messiah
Miracles - To those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah, the miracles confirmed the truth of their beliefs and revealed to them something of God’s glory (John 2:11; John 11:40; Acts 14:3; Hebrews 2:3-4; see Messiah). There was a connection between the miracles of Jesus and the era of the Messiah. ...
Jesus’ miracles demonstrated clearly that he was the Messiah, the Son of God (John 20:30-31), and that the power of the Spirit of God worked through him in a special way (Deuteronomy 4:34; Luke 4:18). The rule of God was seen in the miracles by which Jesus the Messiah delivered from the power of Satan people who were diseased and oppressed by evil spirits (Matthew 4:23-24; Matthew 11:2-6; Matthew 12:28; see KINGDOM OF GOD)
Prophets, the - As a whole the prophets refer to Israel as an inner circle, or chief platform, on which the dealings of Jehovah were and will be developed, and with which the Messiah is in immediate relation. Beyond and above all, there is God's universal government; in which everything is in result to be made subject to the Messiah, while God's promises are made good to Israel, for all Israel will again be brought into blessing, with Jehovah in their midst surrounded with glory, and the nations will be blessed with them. Those referring to the times of the Gentiles, which began with Nebuchadnezzar, and, continuing beyond the days of the Messiah on earth, are still running on: these are almost entirely given in Daniel. Those given after a portion of Judah had returned from exile, when they were helped by the prophecies of Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, which present the time of the Messiah on earth, and go even beyond to future blessing. This recovery and blessing by God of His ancient people, in their Messiah, may be said to be a golden thread running through all the prophets
Apocrypha - Yet the former, although it does not know a personal Messiah, is the very fount and spring of the Messianic conception of the golden age in subsequent Apocalypses. But it is evident that David as the founder of the royal line, not the Messiah, is here referred to, and that the permanence of the throne is for the succession of his descendants, not for any one person. Not only is this the most reasonable interpretation of the passage, but it rests on OT promises to that effect, where the family of David and not the personal Messiah is intended (e. The reason why these were not connected with a coming Messiah may be twofold. We must go outside our Apocrypha to the Psalms of Solomon for the Pharisaic revival of the Messiah of the line of David. ...
Apocalyptic literature lends itself more readily to Messianic ideas, and these find full expression in the Book of Enoch, where—in the ‘Similitudes’—the descriptions of the Messiah who appears in clouds as the Son of Man are assigned by Dr. The picture of the Messiah is quite un-Christian. A Messiah who lived for 400 years and then died, and so ended his Messiahship, could not be Jesus Christ. The reference to the death of the Messiah is not found in the Arabic or the Armenian versions; but it is easy to see how it came to be omitted, while there is no likelihood that it would be inserted later, either by a Jew, to whom the idea would be unwelcome, or by a Christian, since the resurrection is not also mentioned. A noteworthy fact is that the Messiah is addressed by God as ‘My son. ’ The Ethiopic of 7:28, instead of ‘My son Jesus’ reads ‘My Messiah,’ and the Armenian, ‘the anointed of God. The Messiah appears as a lion rising up out of a wood and roaring. Thus we have the idea of a restoration of all Israel under the Messiah, but with no further extension of the happy future so as to include other nations, as in the Christian Apocalyptic conceptions; on the contrary, those nations will be humiliated and chagrined at the spectacle of the glorification of the former victims of their oppression. 202) that 2 Ezra adopts the traditional hope of the Messiah, but does not see in it the chief ground of assurance for the future
Denial - If He suffered death for claiming to be the Messiah (Mark 14:61-64), it is evident that those who afterwards proclaimed Him as such must run the risk of sharing a fate like His. It is admitted that ‘His earlier demand that men should fulfil the condition of participation in the Kingdom of God by repentance and trust in the message of salvation, became narrowed down afterwards to the demand that men should unite themselves to Him as the Messiah, and cleave fast to Him in trust’ (Wendt, Teaching, ii. But the force of the concession is quite destroyed by the further representation that ‘union to the person of the Messiah is nothing else than adherence to the message of the Kingdom of God brought by Him’ (p. ) This is to reduce the person of the Messiah to a compendious formula for His teachings, and ignores the fact that, after the great confession at Caesarea Philippi, Christ grounded on His Messiahship a claim to absolute self-surrender and self-sacrifice (Mark 8:34 f
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - Rather, He was born (as the Jewish Messiah must be) in Bethlehem, the “city of David,” as a descendant of David's royal line (Matthew 1:1-17 ; Matthew 2:1-6 ). The crowds appear to have concluded that He must be the Messiah, the anointed King of David's line expected to come and deliver the Jews from Roman rule. If Jesus was playing out the role of Messiah, the Gospels present Him as a strangely reluctant Messiah. Seldom, if ever, did He apply to Himself the customary terms “Messiah” or “Son of God. ” Though He made no explicit messianic claims and avoided the ready-made titles of honor that the Jews customarily applied to the Messiah, Jesus spoke and acted with the authority of God Himself. ...
Jesus' Mission Who were “the lost sheep” to whom Jesus was called to be the Shepherd? The apparent answer is that they were those who were not expected to benefit from the coming of the Messiah
Christ, Christology - It is accordingly of first importance to understand the biblical portrayal of the Messiah (Heb. ...
A key passage that summarizes the risen Christ's own interpretation of his completed Messiahship is the Emmaus saying of Luke 24:25-27 : "'How foolish you are, and how slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Did not the Christ have to suffer these things and then enter his glory?' And beginning with Moses and all the Prophets, he explained to them what was said in all the Scriptures concerning himself. " In Luke's abbreviated account abstracted from a longer and more detailed story circulated among eyewitnesses in the early church, Jesus claims the Old Testament as prelude to his role as the Christ/Messiah, highlighting his redemptive suffering and triumphal glorification. These typological offices notably describe Jesus' royal Messiahship, which inaugurates the saving reign of God by the anointing of the Spirit and the invasion of satanic territory. Jesus as anointed Messiah embodies these royal and priestly functions and consciously sets his vision on fulfilling Old Testament suffering and glorification typologies in the cross and resurrection (Matthew 16:21 ). " In this excerpt from Jesus' larger manual for mission in the Sermon on the Mount he is presenting the proper attitude of discipleship in the inaugurated age of evangelization when the disciples, following the example of their Messiah, place themselves at the disposal of sinners to bring them to salvation. When the saying is placed in the context of Jesus' inaugurated kingdom proclamation, one sees that the kingly Messiah requires a new attitude and conversion of thought in regard to himself. There is no longer clean and unclean according to the old typologies of food and ethnic priorities, but equality between Jew and Gentile through the far-reaching forgiveness of the Messiah that brings inner transformation. Thus the petition in the Lord's Prayer, "Forgive us our sins, as we ourselves herewith forgive everyone who has sinned against us" implies not only the presence of forgiveness in Jesus the Messiah but acknowledges that his disciples are to carry on the messianic mission by sharing the good news of forgiveness with others. ...
The texts examined above imply the present work of the Messiah. A number of "consensus" passages also imply confidence in the future dimension of the Messiah's inaugurated work. Already seeds are being sown and are taking root, bread is rising, the reign of God is inaugurated, the banquet has already begun as converted sinners begin to feast at the gracious Messiah's table, and all will be brought to fulfillment at the end of the age. Jesus sees himself as the Messiah who inaugurates the reign of God and phases out the old era of the prophets represented by John the Baptist. ...
Peter is inspired by the Father to utter an affirmation of Jesus' Messiahship: "You are the Christ, the Son of the living God" (Matthew 16:16 ). Jesus then discloses that he is the suffering Messiah whose work will culminate in his death and resurrection (Matthew 16:21 ), countermanding Peter's objections that stem from the traditional view of Messiahship as something tied to ethnic and nationalistic aspirations
Dead Sea Scrolls - Three figures are anticipated: the Prophet and two Messiahs—the Messiah of Aaron, presumably a priestly Messiah, and the Messiah of Israel, presumably a royal Messiah. The Damascus Rule seems to exhibit an expectation of one Messiah, the Messiah of Aaron and Israel, rather than two. It describes, among other things, the council meeting called by the priestly Messiah, to which the Messiah of Israel will come, and the ritual of the messianic meal. Significant is the preeminence of the priestly Messiah over the royal Messiah in this document
Zacharias - While Zacharias ministered at the golden altar of incense in the holy place, it was announced to him by the angel Gabriel that his wife Elisabeth, who was also of a priestly family, now stricken in years, would give birth to a son who was to be called John, and that he would be the forerunner of the long-expected Messiah (Luke 1:12-17 )
Sanhedrim - ), before whom Christ was tried on the charge of claiming to be the Messiah
Rahab - If this Rahab is the person of that name who married Salmon, she was mother of Boaz and an ancestor of Jesus the Messiah (Matthew 1:1; Matthew 1:5-6)
Testament, New - The two covenants are always in Scripture the two dispensations: that under Moses is the old, that under the Messiah is the new
Meekness - The Messiah will also have a special ministry to the meek (Isaiah 11:4 ; Isaiah 61:1 ; Luke 4:18 )
Man of Sin - For that reason it may be best to refer the ‘man of lawlessness’ to the Jewish people or their expected Messiah, and ‘he that restraineth’ to the Roman power
Week - ...
As Judah's captivity in Babylon was for 70 years, so its time of deliverance by Messiah was to be 70 sevens of years (Daniel 9:24-27)
Melchizedek - ...
When the psalm was applied literally to David, it was extravagant, but in later times Jews applied it to the expected Messiah
Age - Messiah is the Lord by whom and for whom all these ages, or vast cycles of time, have existed and do exist (Hebrews 1:2), "through whom He made the ages" (Greek) (Isaiah 26:4), "the Rock of ages" (Psalms 145:13). , Messiah's kingdom (Revelation 11:15), the torment of the lost (Revelation 14:11)
Vineyard - He was not allowed, however, to be the ruler of His people Israel, to deliver them from their enemies, and to be their Messiah
Stones - The Jews "fell" on Messiah "the rock of offense and were broken"; the rock shall fall on antichrist who "burdens himself with it" by his assault on the restored Jews, and "grind him to powder" (Zechariah 13; 14)
Hope - The hope of Israel is the Messiah
Hosanna - The prophet Zechariah had predicted of the Messiah, that he should so come; and none but Christ ever did so
Daniel - The prophecies of Daniel concerning the Messiah were so bright and clear, that the modern Jews endeavoured to call in question their authenticity, but without effect
Melchiz'Edek - ( Genesis 14:18-20 ) The other places in which Melchizedek is mentioned are (Psalm 110:4 ) where Messiah is described as a priest forever, "after the order of Melchizedek," and (Hebrews 5:1 ; Hebrews 6:1 ; Hebrews 7:1 )
Day - referring to the Messiah's day, sometimes connected with judgement and sometimes with blessing, the context of each passage showing its application. the days of the Law and the Prophets, which extended from the giving of the law until the coming of the Messiah. This introduced Messiah's Day. Messiah's Day, when He returns in judgement and then to reign
Fulness - "The fulness of time" is the time when the Messiah appeared, which was appointed by God, promised to the fathers, foretold by the prophets, expected by the Jews themselves, and earnestly longed for by all the faithful: "When the fulness of the time was come, God sent his Son,"...
Galatians 4:4
Mark - "It is probable that the Apostle refers to the physical sufferings he had endured since he began to proclaim Jesus as Messiah and Lord Jesus Christ - ‘Christ’ was a Greek word equivalent to the Hebrew ‘Messiah’ (Matthew 22:42). (For the significance of this name see Messiah. He entered Jerusalem as Israel’s Messiah-King, cleansed the temple, debated with the Jews and gave teaching to his disciples on many subjects. Jesus rarely referred to himself as the Messiah, probably because of the widespread misunderstanding among Jews concerning the sort of Messiah they wanted. He wanted people to see for themselves that he, the Son of man, was both a heavenly figure and the Davidic Messiah (Matthew 16:13-16; Mark 2:10; Mark 2:28; John 6:62; John 9:35-36; John 12:23; John 12:34; see Messiah). The Messiah had to die before he could reign in the full glory of his kingdom (Matthew 16:21; Matthew 5:27-28; see SERVANT OF THE LORD). They made people think, and those who understood and accepted their message entered the kingdom of their Saviour-Messiah (Matthew 13:10-16; see PARABLES)
Consolation - This consolation involves the coming of the Messiah (Luke 2:26 ) and the revealing of salvation for all nations (Luke 2:29-32 ). The Messiah announces the coming of the eschatological kingdom, where the afflicted will find consolation (Matthew 5:4 ; Revelation 7:15-17 )
Lion - Messiah is "the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David," yet also the Lamb, combining opposites. The first of the four living creatures was like a lion (Revelation 4:7, compare Ezekiel 1:10), the kingly aspect of Messiah in Matthew
Deliverer - Paul here seizes on that hope, and the OT prophecy of the Messiah as Deliverer, to hold out a second hope to the Jews who have already in large measure rejected the Messiah
Eating - " This is followed up with prayer, in which is generally expressed the Lord's goodness to Israel, beseeching him to pity Jerusalem and his temple, to restore the throne of David, and to send Elias and the Messiah, and to deliver them out of their long captivity: all answer Amen. At what table shall we go to find so much piety? They looked forward but to the Messiah to come
Gos'Pels - He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the Jews, the Messianic royalty of Jesus. He places the life and character of Jesus, as lived on earth, alongside the life and character of the Messiah, as sketched in the prophets, showing Christianity as the fulfillment of Judaism
Father - In particular he was Father to the king of his chosen people, and more particularly still, of the Messiah, whom Israel’s king foreshadowed (2 Samuel 7:14; Psalms 2:7; cf. Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5; see Messiah)
Pilgrim (2) - The rejection of Jesus by the Samaritan village (Luke 17:11-12) was due to their knowledge that Jesus and His band, though taking the less familiar route, were pilgrims to the hated Jerusalem (Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah [1]
Prophet - The Messiah a prophet. The Church has rightly felt that the unction bestowed on Jesus as the Messiah separated and endowed Him to these offices. When, therefore, we dwell separately on any one of these three vocations of the Messiah (as we do in this article), we must remember that we are necessarily taking a partial view of His Person; for to hold that He is only a prophet, is to fall into a heresy that has ever faced the Church. Similarly, the Mohammedan Koran says: ‘The Messiah, the son of Mary, is only a prophet’ (v. It is clear from our Gospels that His contemporaries did not regard the ‘coming prophet’ as one with the coming Messiah; for when the multitude were astonished at Jesus’ discourse at the Feast of Tabernacles, and were divided in opinion regarding Him, some saying, ‘This is of a truth the Prophet,’ and others, ‘This is the Christ’ (John 7:40), none declared Him to be the Christ, and therefore the Prophet. But probably the Samaritans generally had small reason to expect the coming of a kingly Messiah (see Westcott, Study of the Gospels, note 2, ch. 2; Stanton, Jewish and Christian Messiah, pp. Nor does this separation of the offices of ‘the Prophet’ and ‘the Messiah’ seem to be due to any special obtuseness on the part of our Lord’s contemporaries; the OT prophets themselves appear also to have been unable to rise above it. Isaiah, prophesying during the monarchy, pictures the Messiah as a Davidic king, and foretells the outpouring of a fuller revelation during His reign, predicting that then the God of Jacob would teach Israel His way (Isaiah 2:3), and then Israel’s teacher(s) would not be hidden any more, but the people would see their teacher(s), and hear a word behind them saying, ‘This is the way’ (Isaiah 30:20); but he does not unite these kingly and prophetic endowments in the one person of the Christ. Fuller light of truth is to be a mark of the Messianic reign, but Isaiah does not recognize the Messiah as the organ of the revelation. This was a characteristic of the Maccabaean age, when the anticipation of a coming prophet overshadows that of the Messiah (1 Maccabees 4:46; 1 Maccabees 14:41; 1 Maccabees 9:27, also Sirach 48:10). Patriarchs (Levi 8:15) as an implicit claim of John Hyrcanus to the Messiahship; and he alone was said by the Jews to have held the threefold office (Josephus BJ i. The nation, galled by a foreign yoke, and meditating on the predictions found in their sacred books, and, above all, picturing the return of Elijah as a herald of emancipation, ‘mused in their heart’ whether the Baptist were himself the Messiah, or Elijah, or the Prophet, or one of the old prophets returned (Luke 3:15, John 1:20 ff. Whatever difficulty His contemporaries felt in acknowledging His Messiahship, they had none in recognizing Him as a prophet. And if it seems strange that Israel, which more than all other nations had spiritual instincts, should have habitually rejected those sent to them with the very message they above all should have received, and if it be stranger still that they should have crucified the Messiah whom they so passionately desired, it must be remembered that mankind at all times has been unable to receive, with patience, rebukes that shattered its self-conceit and truth that attacked its vested interests
Antichrist - While the precise term ‘Antichrist’ is lacking in Jewish literature, the idea of an opponent who persecutes God’s people and is ultimately to be conquered by the Messiah, is an integral part of that general hope, born in Prophetism, which developed into Messianism in the NT period. He is also by the early Church writers sometimes identified with the false Jewish Messiah, who was to work miracles, rebuild the Temple, and establish a great empire with demons as his agents. The saints were to be exposed to the miseries that the book describes, but the Messiah was to slay Antichrist with the breath of His mouth, and establish the Judgment and the conditions of eternity
Nazarene - ’ To state the theory more exactly, we should say that they called Him Jesus the Nçṣer, or the Na(t)zoraean, partly because there was a pre-existing belief that the Messiah would be the Nçṣer, and partly because they vaguely felt what Matthew ventured definitely to express, that His residence from childhood onward in Nazareth had been ordained to fulfil the prophecy, ‘He shall be called Nazoraean (i. ...
There can be no doubt that the Nçṣer (the Branch) of Isaiah 11:1 was interpreted of the Messiah, the Targum on the passage making that quite definite; and it is quite probable that among the many names in popular use for the Messiah in the 1st cent
Pseudepigrapha - The writings teach that the Messiah will be revealed to bring in a time of great plenty. The book refers to two Messiahs: one from Levi, one from Judah. Psalms of Song of Solomon 17,18 are of special importance because of their references to the Messiah. According to these Psalms, the Messiah was to be a human figure, a descendant of David, wise and righteous, and without sin. The titles Son of David and Lord Messiah are used of Him
Proselyte (2) - 321; also Edersheim, LT [7]. 2): ‘Proselytes and sodomites hinder the coming of the Messiah. Edersheim, however, suggests (LT [7]. But from the fact that he had built a synagogue (Luke 7:5), he was clearly one of the wider class of adherents to Judaism, called in later days ‘proselytes of the Gate’ (see Edersheim, LT [7]. ‘Proselyte’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible and in EBi [12]
John the Baptist - Zacharias was old, and Elisabeth barren, when, as he was burning incense at the golden altar, Gabriel announced the answer to his prayers (not directly for a son, but, as Israel's representative, for Messiah the Hope of Israel) in the coming birth of a son, the appointed forerunner of Messiah; John (Jehovah's gift) was to he his name, because his supernatural birth was a pledge of the Lord's grace, long looked for, now visiting again His people to their joy (Luke 1). John had the special honour of being the subject off prophecy ages before, and of being associated in close juxtaposition with Messiah Himself. John was the forerunner of the reigning Messiah (Matthew 3:2; Malachi 3:1), but through the nation's rejection of Him that reign was deferred (compare Numbers 14:34 with Matthew 23:37-39). John baptized Jesus and though knowing Him before as a man and his kinsman, yet then first knew His divine Messiahship by the Spirit's visible descent (John 1:30-34). )...
From the prison John had sent two (the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus manuscripts read Matthew 11:2 "by," dia , for duo , two) disciples to Jesus to elicit from Himself a profession of His Messiahship, for their confirmation in the faith. John fell just before the third Passover of Christ's ministry; his disciples buried him Self denial, humility, wherewith he disclaimed Messiahship and said he was not worthy to unloose His shoes' latchet, zeal for the Lord's honour, and holy faithfulness at all costs, were his prominent graces
Person of Christ - Messiah. The first article in the creed of the Apostles is the Messiahship of the crucified and risen Jesus of Nazareth. The title Messiah (‘Christ’), familiar to Jewish religion from Psalms 2:1-12 , denotes in general the anointed Head of the Kingdom of God, the new King of a redeemed people; and Jesus, retaining the outline of the traditional idea, infused into it a new spiritual meaning, which, as applied to Himself, signified that He was not a new Teacher or Lawgiver or even the Founder of a new faith, but the Bearer and Finisher of divinely wrought salvation. His self-avowal as Messiah was, however, marked by a singular reserve. It is noticeable, therefore, that at Nazareth He announced Himself not as Messiah, but as a prophet ( Luke 4:18 ). To the world at large, however, He first declared His Messiahship when arraigned before Calaphas. ‘Jesus was condemned by His heathen judge as a usurper of the throne, by the Jewish tribunal as One who pretended to such a dignity as had never been conceded even to the Messiah’ (Dalman). Furthermore, while the idea of a suffering Messiah may not have been altogether unknown to Rabbinical theology, it was Jesus who first made it current spiritual coin. It was in this mode through the felt need and reality of saving vicarious sorrow that the conception of Israel’s Messiah was so glorified as to pass into that of the Redeemer of the world. ‘With the recognition of Jesus as the Messiah the closest possible connexion was established, for every devout Jew, between Jesus’ message and His person, for it is in the Messiah’s activity that God Himself comes to His people, and the Messiah who does God’s work and sits at His right hand has a right to be worshipped’ (Harnack). Its educative value lay in this, that while in no sense can it be called a popular or transparent designation of the Messiah otherwise Jesus’ question in Matthew 16:13 is meaningless it yet hinted Messiahship to those who cared to search deeper. It is a title which denotes the vocation rather than the nature of Him who bears it; and we are led to think that Jesus chose it deliherately in order to veil, for a time, His personal claim to Messiahship. He trained the disciples to grasp this novel view of what it meant to be Messiah; and when they at last understood Him, what their minds dwelt on, and held fast, as indicated by the title so interpreted, was not the Divine origin of Jesus; it was rather His Divine calling and the Divine destiny that awaited Him. It is at most only a synonym of Messiah. In the Synoptic records He does not Himself use the full title ‘Son of God’; probably because it was too familiar as a designation of the Messiah. It was not that He knew Himself to be Messiah, and rose from this to the certainty that God was His Father; the connexion of the two facts is just the reverse
Kingdom of God - ...
To reassure John, Jesus pointed out that the miracles of healing he performed were in keeping with the Old Testament prophecies concerning the Messiah’s mission. His kingdom had begun (Matthew 11:4-6; see Messiah; MIRACLES). ...
The kingdom and the church...
God’s purpose was that when the Messiah came, the people of Israel would be the first to hear the good news of the kingdom. Upon accepting the Messiah, they would enter God’s kingdom and then spread the good news to all nations (Isaiah 49:5-6; Matthew 10:6-7; Matthew 15:24). But when Israel on the whole rejected the Messiah, God sent the message to the nations direct. They wanted a Messiah who would be a political deliverer, and they wanted a kingdom that would bring material prosperity. Even the apostles did not fully understand the nature of the Messiah and the kingdom, but they did not, as others, reject Jesus. They knew that he was indeed the Messiah of God who brought them the kingdom of God and eternal life (Matthew 16:13-16; John 6:66-69)
Fast, Fasting - His claim to be the Bridegroom, Matthew 9:15 , and the reference there to the absence of "fasting," virtually involved a claim to be the Messiah (cp
Tamar (2) - ) Her importance in the narrative (Genesis 38:6-30) lies in her being the instrument (though in an incestuous way) of saving from extinction the family and tribe from which Messiah was to spring
Eliakim - "...
Type of Messiah: "the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder (the key hung from the kerchief on the shoulder as emblem of his office, or figuratively for sustaining the government on his shoulder); so he shall open and none shall shut:, and he shall shut and none shall open;" i. Antitypically, "the government shall be upon Messiah's shoulder" (Isaiah 9:6; Isaiah 22:22); He shuts or opens at will the access to the heavenly mansion (Revelation 3:7), He has the keys also of hell (the grave) and death (Revelation 1:18)
Martha - ...
Martha still believed that Jesus had the power to do anything (John 11:22) and, in response to Jesus’ question, she reaffirmed her faith in him as the Messiah, the Son of God (John 11:25-27)
Vine, Vineyard - ...
The familiar form of the vine, with its abundant and luxuriant branches, would lend itself all the more readily to the allegorical use of Jesus, inasmuch as ‘in the OT, and partially in Jewish thought, the vine was the symbol of Israel, not in their national, but in their Church capacity’ (Edersheim, LT [2]
Corner, Corner-Stone - The corrected text of Isaiah 28:16 speaks of ‘a precious foundation corner-stone,’ which is neither Zion (as usually interpreted), nor the future Messiah, but a calm trust in J″ Slowness of Heart - Jesus was not the sort of Messiah they expected, and His teaching was not the kind of teaching they desired
Zephaniah, the Book of - The bulk of the book forms the introduction to the grand closing consummation under Messiah (Zephaniah 1:2 to 3:8; Zephaniah 3:9-20)
Genealogies - ...
The prophecies, which reveal that in the seed of Abraham should all the nations of the earth be blessed, and that the Messiah was to be of the royal line of David, made it needful that the genealogies of both these lines should be preserved, as we find them given in the N
Enoch - It refers to the Messiah as 'Son of God,' which has been judged to proveconclusively that it was written in the Christian era
Shechinah - They anticipated the Shekinah's return under Messiah; Haggai 1:8 they paraphrase, "I will cause My Shekinah to dwell in it in glory"; Zechariah 2:10, "I will cause My Shekinah to dwell in the midst of thee," etc
Hagiography - The prophecy of Daniel in particular, was so exact in pointing to the time of the Messiah's coming and the object of his sufferings, that one of the Rabbins who lived about fifty years before the coming of Christ, asserted, that the time of the Messiah, as signified by Daniel, could not be deferred longer than those fifty years
Ishi - ...
Let the reader first observe, that the prophet was commissioned to tell the church, that in the gospel-day, when the glorious Messiah, whom the church had been all along expecting, should come, the church should know the Lord by this name Ishi, my husband, or my man; and should drop the common name of Baali, my Lord: as if this was not sufficiently expressive of the nearness and dearness between them
Cleopas - Our Saviour joined them, appearing as a traveller; and, taking up their discourse, he reasoned with them, convincing them out of the Scriptures, that it was necessary the Messiah should suffer death, previously to his being glorified
Christ - , the word "Messiah," a term applied to the priests who were anointed with the holy oil, particularly the high priest, e
Genealogy of Jesus Christ - Only as the son and heir of David should he be the Messiah
Haggai - His second message encouraged them with the assurance that their work was part of the reconstruction of the Jewish nation, as a result of which the Messiah would come (2:1-9)
Anointing - Jesus was in a special sense God’s Anointed (Luke 4:18; Acts 4:26-27; Acts 10:38; see Messiah)
Enoch - ...
It vindicates God's government of the world, spiritual and natural, recognizes the Trinity, also Messiah "the Son of man" (the name "Jesus" never occurs), "the Elect One" from eternity, before whom "all kings shall fall down, and on whom they shall fix their hopes," the supreme Judge, who shall punish eternally the wicked and reward the just. If the book belong to the period just before our Lord's coming, it gives an interesting view of believing Jews' opinions concerning Messiah at that time
Dedication, Feast of - It was, indeed, a fitting occasion on which to raise the question, since the whole Festival breathed hopes connected with the national deliverance of Maccabaean times, looking forward to another deliverance in the future such as would come with the Messiah. ; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Firstborn - ...
It shall hereafter realize this high Calling in a degree that it has not yet realized it, standing as "the firstborn among many brethren" (like the antitypical Israel, Messiah, Romans 8:29; Hebrews 2:12), and priest among all nations, which in subordination to Jerusalem, the spiritual metropolis, shall be the kingdoms of our Lord and His Christ, then manifested (Isaiah 61:6; Isaiah 66:21; Revelation 11:15; Zechariah 14:16; Jeremiah 3:17). Psalms 89:27, "My Firstborn, higher than the kings of the earth," David's antitype, the Messiah
Chaff - ...
The imagery of the threshing-floor was finely adapted to express the sweeping reform of the national life which the ardent soul of the Baptist expected to characterize the coming of the Jewish Messiah. And the winnowing represented the readiness with which such unsubstantial elements of national character would be carried away by the first wind of trial, or burnt up by the divinely authorized Messiah, whose coming John expected to be with swift discrimination and judgment
Philip the Apostle - We have found Him (implying his sharing with Andrew, whose words he repeats, in the hope of Messiah, John 1:41) of whom Moses in the law did write, Jesus of Nazareth. Probably they had before communed together of the divine promise of Messiah
Jeshua - " Jeshua represents Jerusalem (and so the church) before Jehovah; accused by Satan, but justified by Jehovah, of His own will and choice, through Messiah his Advocate, who strips off his rags (compare Isaiah 64:6), and "clothes him with change of raiment (the filthy garments were worn by those on trial; the white robe or caftan is put on an Eastern minister of state when acquitted; compare Isaiah 61:10), and sets a fair (symbolizing purity) mitre (the priestly turban, the pledge of the reestablished priesthood) upon his head," in answer to Zechariah's prayer Zechariah 3:1-9). They of the captivity brought silver and gold, which were made into crowns and set upon Jeshua's head by Jehovah's command; symbolizing the combination of kingship and priesthood in Messiah, unknown to the Levitical priesthood, realized in Him of whom Melehizedek was type (Zechariah 6:9-13; Psalms 110:1-4; Hebrew 5-6)
Pre-Existence of Christ - He is proclaimed as ‘both Lord and Christ’; and under the category of Messiahship this primitive gospel involves all that is characteristic in historical Christianity (see Denney, Jesus and the Gospel, p. -‘Even as a Jew, Saul believed the Messiah to be already in existence’ (H. 7 bear out the statement that pre-existence of the Messiah was a feature of traditional apocalyptic doctrine; nor is there any antecedent improbability that the development of Christian belief may have been influenced from this quarter. Since according to the cherished apocalyptic hope the Redemption was imminent and might arrive at any moment, it followed that the Messiah must be already in existence, waiting only to be revealed (Dalman, Words of Jesus, Eng. Thus, according to the Midrash on Psalms 8:9, the Throne of Glory, Messiah the King, the Torah, ideal Israel, Repentance, Gehenna, were created before the world. In Rabbinism, according to the best authorities, the pre-existence of the Messiah was only ideal-‘not literal, but present only in God’s eternal counsel of salvation’ (Weber, Jüdische Theologie, p. The name of the Messiah was ideally pre-existent (ib. ...
While the history of primitive Christianity proves its eclectic genius, its hospitality towards all ideas and forms of thought by which it could express its sense of the inexpressible religious value of Christ, and while there is no a priori reason to deny that it may have incidentally woven into its own web sundry hints of a pre-existent Messiah or Ideal Man, it seems impossible that the rapid Christological advance which had taken place by the time the Pauline Epistles were written can have been in any vital way influenced by the recondite speculations of apocalyptic, Rabbinical, or Hellenistic Judaism. It is implicit there in its central truth of the suffering Messiah; but the presentation is shaped by the polemical necessities of the hour, and the chief aim is to establish that the Crucified Jesus is Lord rather than to emphasize that His sovereignty is won by sacrifice
Transmigration - Here the disciples are puzzled by the apparent inconsistency between the fact that Jesus is the Messiah and the fact that Elijah has not appeared, as, in accordance with an authoritative interpretation of the prophecy of Malachi (Malachi 4:5), he was expected, to precede and prepare the way for the Messiah. The doctrine of pre-existence (of the Messiah, of the Torah, of the Tabernacle) would easily lend itself as a basis for the idea of the pre-existence in some form or other of human souls
Son of Man - The rage of Stephen’s audience, on hearing the words of the speaker, is accounted for only on the supposition that ‘the Son of man’ was recognized as the Jesus whom they had so recently done to death, and who now is described as occupying the transcendent position, and discharging the functions, of Messiah. If the details of the martyrdom of James the Just given by Hegesippus and quoted by Eusebius be accepted, we have the designation used of the glorified Jesus Messiah. Quite obviously the references are to Jesus as the glorified Messiah (see, on the other hand, H
Preaching - ” The sixth garment He will put on when the Messiah comes; then He will clothe Himself in a garment of righteousness, for it is said: “And he puts on righteousness as a breastplate, and an helmet of salvation upon his head. red; for it is said ( Isaiah 63:2 ): “Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel?” But the garment which He will put upon the Messiah, this will shine far, from one end of the earth to the other; for it is said ( Isaiah 61:10 ): “As a bridegroom decketh himself with a garland. ” And the Israelites will partake of His light, and will speak:...
“Blessed is the hour when the Messiah shall come!...
Blessed the womb out of which He shall come!...
Blessed His contemporaries who are eye-witnesses!...
Blessed the eye that is honoured with a sight of Him!...
For the opening of His lips is blessing and peace;...
His speech is a moving or the spirits;...
The thoughts of His heart are confidence and cheerfulness;...
The speech of His tongue is pardon and forgiveness;...
His prayer is the sweet incense of offerings;...
His petitions are holiness and purity. To the Jews the Apostles preached the Messiahship of Jesus, basing their appeal mainly on two arguments, viz
Son of Man - The rage of Stephen’s audience, on hearing the words of the speaker, is accounted for only on the supposition that ‘the Son of man’ was recognized as the Jesus whom they had so recently done to death, and who now is described as occupying the transcendent position, and discharging the functions, of Messiah. If the details of the martyrdom of James the Just given by Hegesippus and quoted by Eusebius be accepted, we have the designation used of the glorified Jesus Messiah. Quite obviously the references are to Jesus as the glorified Messiah (see, on the other hand, H
Shadow - Biblical writers looked to the Messiah for needed shade or shadow (Isaiah 32:2 ; Ezekiel 17:23 )
Cornerstone - The New Testament draws on two Old Testament passages about the coming Messiah (Isaiah 28:16 ; Zechariah 10:4 )
Counselor - The Creator God described his Messiah as "Wonderful Counselor" (Isaiah 9:6 )
Jeshua - Zechariah had a vision featuring Jeshua in which God announced the full cleansing of the high priest, preparing him to lead in the atonement rites for the people and pointing to the day when Messiah would come and provide complete and eternal atonement for God's people (Zechariah 3:1 )
Regeneration - ...
In Matthew 19:28 the word is used, in the Lord's discourse, in the wider sense, of the "restoration of all things" ( Acts 3:21 , RV), when, as a result of the second advent of Christ, Jehovah "sets His King upon His holy hill of Zion" (Psalm 2:6 ), and Israel, now in apostasy, is restored to its destined status, in the recognition and under the benign sovereignty of its Messiah
Name - So Messiah, Jesus, Immanuel, the Word, indicate His manifested relations to us in redemption (Revelation 19:13); also Isaiah 9:6, "His name shall be called Wonderful," etc
Insurrection - —Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Nazarene - Matthew, Matthew 2:23, writes "Jesus came and dwelt in Nazareth that it might be fulfilled which is spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene"; not "by the prophet," but "by the prophets," meaning no particular quotation but the general description of Messiah in them as abject and despised (Isaiah 53:2-3). Men in applying the name unconsciously and in spite of themselves shed glory on Him; for Nazarene is related to neetser , a "branch," Messiah's distinctive title, indicating His descent from royal David yet His lowly state (Isaiah 11:1); the same thought and image appear in the term tsemach (Jeremiah 23:5; Jeremiah 33:15; Zechariah 3:8; Zechariah 6:12). Had the prophets expressly foretold He should be of Nazareth, it would not have been so despised; nor would the Pharisees, who were able from Micah 5 to tell Herod where Messiah's birthplace was - Bethlehem (Matthew 2) - have been so ignorant of the prophecy of His connection with Nazareth as to say, "out of Galilee ariseth no prophet" (John 7:52)
Simeon - ...
In the New Testament...
At the time of Jesus’ birth, only a few Jews had a true understanding of the sort of Saviour that the Messiah would be
Lamb of God - ...
The specific title ‘the Iamb of God’ may be an invention of the Baptist’s own, which he used to point an aspect of the Messianic mission for his hearers’ benefit, or it may have been a well-known phrase currently employed to designate the Messiah; we have no trace of such an earlier use, but it may have existed (see Westcott on John 1:29 )
Reed - (Matthew 27:29) How little, did they think that both the crown of thorns and the reed, were emblems of the Lord Jesus's character as the Messiah
Caiaphas - Failing to obtain evidence from witnesses, he adjured the prisoner to declare whether or not He was the Messiah; and on Jesus declaring He was, the pious hypocrite rent his clothes, shocked at the blasphemy of the answer
Sychar - The woman probably went to this well, irrespectively of distance, just because it was Jacob's; her looking for "Messiah" is in consonance with this, besides the well was deep and the water therefore especially good
Apollos - Acts 18:25 suggests that he was a Christian in some sense, that he knew the story of Jesus, believed in Him as Messiah, but did not know of the coming of the Holy Ghost
Dust - , “the dust of an evil tongue,” “the dust of usury’; as, on the other hand, to “dust to idolatry” meant to cleave to it’ (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol
Birthright - Jacob, having bought Esau's birthright, acquired a title to the particular blessing of his dying father; and, accordingly, he had consigned to him the privilege of the covenant which God made with Abraham, that from his loins the Messiah should spring; a prerogative which descended to his posterity
Sechem - Here Joseph's bones were brought out of Egypt to be interred; and on the same piece of ground was the well called Jacob's well, at which our Saviour sat down when he had the memorable conversation with the woman of Samaria, John 4, which caused her, and many other inhabitants of Sechem, or Sychar, as it is there called, to receive him as the Messiah
Cocceians - Cocceius also taught, that the covenant made between God and the Jews was of the same nature as the new covenant by Jesus Christ; that the law was promulgated by Moses, not merely as a rule of obedience, but also as a representation of the covenant of grace; that when the Jews had provoked the Deity by their various transgressions, particularly by the worship of the golden calf, the severe yoke of the ceremonial law was added as a punishment; that this yoke, which was painful in itself, became doubly so on account of its typical signification; since it admonished the Israelites from day to day of the imperfection of their state, filled them with anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had merited the righteous judgment of God, and could not expect, before the coming of the Messiah, the entire remission of their iniquities; that indeed good men, under the Mosaic dispensation, were, after death, made partakers of glory; but that, nevertheless, during the whole course of their lives they were far removed from that assurance of salvation, which rejoices the believer under the dispensation of the Gospel; and that their anxiety flowed from this consideration, that their sins, though they remained unpunished, were not yet pardoned; because Christ had not as yet offered himself up to make an atonement for them
Dreams - The Prophet Joel promises from God, that in the reign of the Messiah, the effusion of the Holy Spirit should be so copious, that the old men should have prophetic dreams, and the young men should receive visions, Joel 2:28
Potter - ‘Potter,’ ‘Akeldama’; Edersheim, LT [2]
Mediator - The Messiah has been in all ages the only true Mediator between God and man; and without Him, God is inaccessible and a consuming fire, John 14:6 Acts 4:12
Potter - ‘Potter,’ ‘Akeldama’; Edersheim, LT [2]
Beast - ...
The multitude opposing Messiah are but so many "bulls" and "calves" to be stilled by His "rebuke" (Psalms 68:30). The kingdom of Messiah, on the contrary, is that of "the Son of MAN," supplanting utterly the former, and alone everlasting and world wide
Witness - The works Jesus did were also a witness, for they showed clearly that he was the Messiah who had come from God. ...
Witness in the early church...
After Jesus’ resurrection and ascension, the disciples boldly bore witness to him as Lord and Messiah
King, Christ as - The Old Testament hope for the future included a vision of a new king like David, called the anointed one, or the Messiah in Hebrew (Mark 4:35-41 ). The prophet Isaiah intensified the promises and pointed to the Messiah yet to come (see Psalm 45:1 ; Psalm 110:1 )
Rest - It is the sense of security and peace that flows from a right relation with God, the Father, through obedience to his Son, the Messiah, and membership in his kingdom. ...
Finally, we note that as the Spirit of the Lord rests on the Messiah (Isaiah 11:2 ), so in the new covenant, "If you [3]6 are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, for the Spirit of glory and of God rests on you" (1 Peter 4:14 )
Crowd - The attention that John the Baptist attracted was due to the belief that he was the Messiah, a belief that he took pains to shatter. Along these splendid roads the crowd would stream on the first hint of the appearance of one who might be the Messiah
Profession - Most probably the confession was the avowal of belief in Jesus as the Messiah, as in the great confession of Peter, ‘Thou art the Christ’ (Mark 8:29). To the Christian Jew of Palestine He was the ‘Messiah’; to the Hellenistic Christian Jew He was the ‘Christ’; to the Christian Gentile He was the ‘Lord
Elijah - ...
Jews of a later era expected the return of Elijah immediately before the coming of the Messiah (Malachi 4:5-6; Mark 6:15; Mark 8:27-28). Jesus pointed out that this ‘Elijah’, this forerunner of the Messiah, was John the Baptist (Matthew 11:10-14; Matthew 17:10-13; Luke 1:17)
Heal, Health - ...
The Healing Messiah . There is rabbinic evidence that some were looking for a Messiah who would heal the world's sickness. The Talmud later preserves among "signs of the Messiah" the portrait of "one in the midst of the suffering poor tending their wounds. And when the Baptist, hearing in prison of Jesus' ministry, sent someone to ask Jesus if he was indeed the Messiah, Jesus sent back the message, "The blind receive sight, the lame walk, those who have leprosy are cured, the deaf hear, the dead are raised Blessed is the man who does not fall away on account of me" (Matthew 11:4-6 ). Yet, in spite of all Jesus' avoidance of display, "the healing Messiah" left everywhere a deep and lasting impression, still plainly visible in the Gospel records, kindling new hope for the afflicted and a strong motive of active compassion in the church
Virgin Birth - View 2 accepts the supernatural but harbors disbelief about Jesus as the Messiah. Pre-Christian Jewish tradition never anticipated a virgin birth of the Messiah. The unmerited favor God showed to Mary in choosing her to bear the Messiah parallels the more general unmerited favor he has shown to all people through the Messiah's redemptive work. ...
The lack of anticipation of a virginal conception of the Messiah in pre-Christian Jewish literature suggests that the event was apparently fully unexpected. The scriptural connection drawn between these two passages in Matthew marks the virgin birth of Jesus the Messiah as a fulfillment of Old Testament Scripture. Brown, The Birth of the Messiah ; idem, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus ; C
Baptism - ...
John's "baptism of repentance for the remission of sins" (Luke 3:3) was the pledge his followers took of their determination to separate themselves from the prevalent pollutions, as the needful preparation for receiving the coming Messiah, who remits the sins of His believing people. The "remission" was not present but prospective, looked for through Messiah, not through John (Acts 10:43). Elijah was to "turn the heart of the fathers to the children, and the heart of the children to their fathers," namely, the disobedient children to the faith and fellowship of their pious forefathers, Abraham, Jacob, Levi, Elijah (Luke 1:17), lest Messiah at His coming" should smite the earth with a curse. The Jews, as a nation, brought the "curse" on their land ("earth") by not repenting, and by rejecting Messiah at His first advent. ...
John, being among the Old Testament prophets, not in the kingdom of God or New Testament church, preached the law and baptism into legal repentance and reformation of morals, and Messiah's immediate advent. This is the sense of 1 John 5:6; "this is He that came by water and blood;" by water at His consecration by baptism to His mediatorial ministry for us, when He received the Father's testimony to His Messiahship and His divine Sonship (John 1:33-34). John Baptist came only baptizing with water; therefore was not Messiah. Jesus came, undergoing Himself the double baptism of water and blood, then baptizing us with the Spirit cleansing, of which water is the sacramental seal, and with His atoning blood once for all shed and of perpetual efficacy; therefore He Messiah. , agree in testifying to Jesus' Sonship and Messiaship by the sacramental grace in water baptism received by the penitent believer through His droning blood and His inwardly witnessing Spirit (1 John 5:5-6; 1 John 5:8; 1 John 5:10), answering to the testimony to Jesus' Sonship and Messiahship by His baptism, by His crucifixion, and by the Spirit's manifestation in Him. By Christ's baptism, by His blood shedding, and by the Spirit's past and present working in Him, the Spirit, the water, and the blood are the threefold witness to His divine Messiahship
Elect, Election - ...
God's Election of the Messiah . The redemptive ministry of God's Anointed One, the Messiah, was carefully planned for by God. The Messiah, his own Son Jesus Christ, was the Chosen One, par excellance. Through prophetic utterances in the Old Testament there gradually accumulated a virtually complete picture of who the Messiah was to be, what he would do, and the consequences of his ministry. Jesus the Messiah is God's Chosen One and believers are chosen in him (Ephesians 1:4 ). Elwell...
See also Israel ; Messiah ...
Bibliography
Mark, Theology of - In this ministry, defined as good news (gospel), Jesus as the Christ fulfills the promises of the Old Testament concerning the Davidic Messiah-King in a unique way as the Son of God (1:1,11). While the crowds who welcome Jesus as he entered Jerusalem rightly proclaim him as the Davidic Messiah-King (11:9-10; cf. The failure to conclude that he is the Messiah is shared by the crowds (1:27), the religious leaders (2:7), the disciples (4:41), and his acquaintances (6:3). Could it be that the secret of his true identity can only be resolved when it is clear what it means for Jesus to be the Messiah? Jesus' order to his disciples not to tell others about his Messiahship (8:29-30) supports this conclusion. ...
If Jesus' Messiahship is minimally identified by the usual title, it is clear that the kingdom of God is one of the major topics of Jesus' teaching, and that his Davidic ancestry and subsequent claim to kingship are stated by friend and foe alike. Whatever else miracles mean in the Gospel of Mark they too are proof of Jesus' Messiahship. 1:32-34; 3:7-12; 6:53-56; 7:37) in contrast to the false Messiahs who perform signs and miracles (13:22). As a public title, in contrast to the use of Messiah as a confessional title, it is related to three key aspects of Jesus' ministry. ...
The three explicit teaching sections on discipleship following Peter's confession of Jesus as the Messiah (8:29) occur as Jesus is on the way to Jerusalem and the cross. Jesus relates Jewish apocalyptic descriptions of events that are to precede the end of history, including false Messiahs (vv
Sight - The recovery of sight to the blind was predicted to be among the events which should mark the person and acts of the Messiah
Esau - This stripped Esau of the headship of the people through which Messiah would come
Sign - With such cravings the Gospel of a 'crucified Messiah' was to them a stumblingblock indeed" (Lightfoot); 1 Corinthians 14:22 ; (2) by demons, Revelation 16:14 ; (3) by false teachers or prophets, indications of assumed authority, e
Throne - He fulfils the promise given to David of a descendant who would sit on David’s throne and rule for ever (2 Samuel 7:12-16; Isaiah 11:1-9; Luke 1:32-33; Acts 2:30-33; Hebrews 1:8; Revelation 19:16; see KING; Messiah)
Christianity - Many psalms (as Psalm 2; Psalm 72; Psalm 22; Psalm 67) and all the prophets (compare Isaiah 2; Isaiah 53) look forward to the Messiah as about to introduce a new and worldwide dispensation
Cocceians - In consequence of this general principle, he maintained that the ten commandments were promulgated by Moses, not as a rule of obedience, but as a representation of the covenant of grace...
that when the Jews had provoked the Deity by their various transgressions, particularly by the worship of the golden calf, the severe and servile yoke of the ceremonial law was added to the decalogue, as a punishment inflicted on them by the Supreme Being in his righteous displeasure...
that this yoke, which was painful in itself, became doubly so on account of its typical signification; since it admonished the Israelites from day to day of the imperfection and uncertainty of their state, filled them with anxiety, and was a perpetual proof that they had merited the righteous displeasure of God, and could not expect before the coming of the Messiah the entire remission of their iniquities...
that indeed good men, even under the Mosaic dispensation, were immediately after death made partakers of everlasting glory; but that they were nevertheless, during the whole course of their lives, far removed from that firm hope and assurance of salvation, which rejoices the faithful under the dispensation of the Gospel...
and that their anxiety flowed naturally from this consideration, that their sins, though they remained unpunished were not pardoned; because Christ had not as yet offered himself up a sacrifice to the Father, to make an entire atonement for them
Paganism - Thus things continued in the Gentile world, until the light of the Gospel was sent among them: the times before were times of ignorance, as the apostle calls them: they were ignorant of the true God, and of the worship of him; and of the Messiah, and salvation by him
Bethlehem - The birth of the Messiah there is prophesied in Micah 5:2 (quoted Matthew 2:6 , John 7:42 ), a prophecy fulfilled by the birth of Christ ( Matthew 2:1 ; Matthew 2:5 , Luke 2:4 ; Luke 2:15 )
Leviathan - ]'>[1] and some recent expositors interpret Psalms 104:26 ); the Jordan empties itself into his mouth; his flesh will be for food to the godly in the days of the Messiah; part of his skin will be made into a tent for them, whilst the rest is spread on the walls of Jerusalem, and its brightness is visible to the ends of the earth (En 60
Gentiles - The Jews in national pride failed to see this, and despised the Gentiles Rejecting Messiah, they were "broken oft" from the olive, that the Gentiles might be" grafted in" (Romans 11:11-35)
Groaning - Paul’s figure may have been suggested by the Jewish tradition of the ‘birth-pangs of the Messiah’: חָבְלֵי הַמָשִׁיחַ (F
Astrology - Travelling to Palestine, they ascertained at Jerusalem that the Messiah was expected to be born in Bethlehem, and directing their steps thither they saw the ‘star’ in front of them all the way, till they came to the house where the infant Jesus was found
Rachel - Besides the reference to the Babylonian exile of Rachel's sons, the Holy Spirit foreshadowed Messiah's exile to Egypt, and the accompanying desolation caused near Rachel's tomb by Herod's massacre, to the grief of Benjamite mothers who had "sons of sorrow," as Rachel's son proved to her. Israel's representative Messiah's return from Egypt, and Israel's (both the literal and the spiritual) future restoration (including the innocents) at His second advent, are antitypical to Israel's restoration from Babylon, the consolation held out by Jeremiah. were dead (Genesis 42:13), does not apply so strictly to the Babylonian exiles as it does to Messiah and His people, past, present, and future. The singular too suits Messiah going to exile in Egypt, Rachel's chief object of lamentation
Mary - She was blessed above all women, for God chose her to be the mother of the Messiah (Luke 1:28; Luke 1:46-5638; Luke 1:42-43). When Jesus set out on his public ministry, his brothers did not believe him to be the Messiah. ...
Nevertheless, Mary was convinced of her son’s Messiahship and remained devoted to him even to the cross (John 19:25-27)
Legs - He asks himself anxiously what is to be done to the body of the Messiah, which is still more sacred than the Paschal lamb. —Neander, Life of Christ; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah; Godet, St
Sop - —Edersheim (LT [2]. ; Edersheim, LT [2]
Offence - Its disgrace and ignominy made it difficult for the Jews to accept Christ as their Messiah, and it also roused their animosity to the preachers of the gospel (Galatians 5:11). They expected a Messiah who should restore their political freedom and re-establish the kingdom in material success and splendour, and our Lord’s ministry being essentially spiritual made Him to be a stumbling-block to them
Hour - … The supplying of wine to a company of peasants seemed so trivial, so unworthy of the Messiah, so insufficient for the inauguration of the kingdom of heaven’ (Smith, The Days of His Flesh, p. John 17:1); the hour when He should be betrayed into the hands of sinners (Matthew 26:45); the hour when the Father’s will gave Him over to the power of darkness (Luke 22:53)? If Jesus went down to the Jordan in order to participate in the Baptism of Repentance, conscious that His vocation as Messiah was to be that of the Suffering Servant, and to take upon Himself the sins of His brethren, then the thought of His hour as the hour of His sacrifice could never be absent from His mind. And the simple suggestion of His mother, involving, as it did, for Him the first exercise of a power which came to Him as Messiah, raised suddenly and vividly before Him the issue of suffering, and called forth the intense feeling in the words, ‘Mine hour is not yet come
Son of God - ...
The Jews might have known Messiah's Godhead from Psalms 45:6-7, and Isaiah 9:6, "a Son . Their supposing John the Baptist to be Messiah (Luke 3:15) shows they did not expect Messiah or Christ to be more than man (Matthew 22:42-45). ...
Had the Pharisees believed in Messiah's Godhead they could have answered: As man Messiah was David's son, as God He was David's and the church's Lord. The Sanhedrin unanimously (Mark 14:64) condemned Him to death, not for His claim to Messiahship but to Godhead (John 19:7; Luke 22:70-71, "art Thou the Son of God?" etc. ...
The apostles preached His divine Lordship as well as Messiahship (Acts 2:36). The Jews could not ascend to the idea of Christ's divine Sonship, nor descend to the depth of Christ's sufferings as the Son of man; so they invented the figment of two Messiahs to reconcile the seemingly opposite prophecies, those of His transcendent glory and those of His exceeding sufferings
Forsaking All - The men of His generation cherished a secular ideal of the Messiah. They were looking for a glorious Messiah, a king with a crown on his head and an army at his back; and Jesus presented Himself, the Son of man, meek and lowly, the very antithesis of what, they believed, the Messiah should be. ’ What was his notion? He had been convinced of the Messiahship of Jesus, and, sharing the prevailing expectation, thought to reap a rich harvest of honour and emolument in the new era which would presently be inaugurated
Scribes - Their reputed skill in the Scriptures induced Herod, Matthew 2:4 , to consult them concerning the time at which the Messiah was to be born. It may be observed, that this in a great measure accounts for the extreme blindness of the Jews with respect to their Messiah, whom they had been taught by these commentators upon the prophecies to expect as a temporal prince. But when he converses with Nicodemus, John 3, who appears to have been convinced by his miracles that he was "a teacher sent from God," when he came to Jesus by night," anxious to obtain farther information concerning his nature and his doctrine, our Lord, after intimating the necessity of laying aside all prejudices against the spiritual nature of his kingdom, asks, "Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these things?" that is, knowest not that Moses and the prophets describe the Messiah as the Son of God? and he then proceeds to explain in very clear language the dignity of his person and office, and the purpose for which he came into the world, referring to the predictions of the ancient Scriptures
Psalms, the Book of - Besides the proper Messianic psalms, predictions of the Messiah are widely scattered through this book, and the attention of the devout reader is continually attracted by passages foretelling His character and His works. The mention of these in the inspired writings is not undesigned; the recorded trials and victories of David find in their reference to the Messiah their highest claim to a place in the sacred writings. ...
These invaluable sacred songs exhibit the sublimest conceptions of God, as the creator, preserver, and governor of the universe; to say nothing of the prophetical character of many of them, and their relation to the Messiah and the great plan of man's redemption
Baptism - Those who accepted Jesus as the Saviour-Messiah would enter the kingdom of God and, through Jesus’ gift of the Holy Spirit, receive an inner power to live righteously (1 Corinthians 10:1-20; John 1:26-28; John 1:31; John 1:33; Acts 1:5; see BAPTISM WITH THE SPIRIT). As the Messiah, he was the representative chosen by God for a people needing deliverance, which in this case meant the deliverance of people from the bondage of sin. The Father’s expression of full satisfaction with his Son consisted of combined quotations from the Old Testament relating to God’s Messiah-king and God’s submissive servant (Matthew 3:17; cf
Son of God - The political title rests upon personal qualities and experiences; He is not the Son of God because He is the Messiah, but, on the contrary, He is the Messiah because He is the Son of God. In like manner the Messiahship of Jesus may rest on a spiritual and ethical relationship to God; but this may be of so intimate a kind as to demand a peculiar relationship to the Father physically or metaphysically; and in all the Gospels there is reference, more or less, to all the three. It is also usual to state that it is employed in the pseudepigraphic literature of the period between the OT and the NT as a synonym for the Messiah. If the Textus Receptus of Mark 1:1 be correct,—‘the beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, the Son of God,’—it would be rash to limit the Evangelist’s intention to the Messiahship; but the reading is suspected. ...
Still more dubious, one would suppose, must it remain what the demoniacs intended by calling Jesus by this title, though it is usually taken for granted that they must have used it in the Messianic sense, because they also sometimes acknowledged Him as the Messiah. Peter from the sea, ‘came and worshipped him,’ saying, ‘Of a truth thou art the Son of God’ (Matthew 14:33), the most natural interpretation may be that they were acknowledging Him as the Messiah. ...
Undoubtedly the most convincing case for the identity of meaning in the terms ‘the Messiah’ and ‘the Son of God’ is the confession of the Twelve, through the lips of St. Now, it is argued, they could not have omitted this, had it contained a momentous addition to the acknowledgment of the Messiahship; against which the only caveat that can be hinted is that there are many examples to prove that it is perilous to rest much on the silence of one or more of the Gospels. Holtzmann, who writes with extraordinary feeling on this subject, recently, in a review in the Theologische Literaturzcitung, declaring it to be a shame that Protestant scholars should even doubt the identity, affirms that ‘the blasphemy can only have been found in the fact that a man belonging to the lower classes, one openly forsaken of God and going forward to a shameful death, should have dared to represent himself as the object and fulfilment of all the Divine promises given to the nation’; but the blasphemy is far more obvious if the claim to be ‘the Son of God’ was understood to mean more than even Messiahship. Here and there, indeed, there may be Messianic associations involved, as when Jesus promises to the Twelve that, in the day of the full manifestation of the Kingdom, they shall sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28), or when He predicts that on the judgment-day He will appear in the glory of His Father and of the holy angels (Mark 8:38); but, as a rule, one might read the greater number of these sayings without being reminded that they proceeded from the lips of one claiming to be the Messiah. Of course, it may be said that the Messiah was different from all the prophets, and that this difference may be indicated by the difference between a son and a servant; but the analogy would be closer if a more intimate and personal relationship were assumed. Most assume that it lies in Messiahship; and, no doubt, in being the Messiah, Jesus is unique
Psalms, Book of - When the attitude of the Jews at the time the Lord was here is remembered, and their bitter opposition to their Messiah, which exists to this day, light is thrown upon their feelings when, under tribulation, their eyes will be opened to see that it was indeed their Messiah that they crucified. In Psalm 45 Messiah is introduced, and the remnant celebrate with gladness what God is for His people. 91Messiah takes His place with Israel; and in Psalm 94 to Psalm 100 Jehovah comes into the world to establish the kingdom in glory and divine order. The restoration of Israel amid dangers and difficulties is alluded to; the exaltation of Messiah to God's right hand till His enemies are made His footstool; God's ways with Israel; their whole condition, and the principles on which they stand with God, His law being written in their hearts; ending with full and continued praise after the destruction of their enemies, in which they have part with God
Gospel - They are written with different degrees of conciseness; but every one of them is sufficiently full to prove that Jesus was the promised Messiah, the Saviour of the world, who had been predicted by a long succession of prophets, and whose advent was expected at the time of his appearance, both by Jews and Gentiles. But if all the circumstances of the history of Jesus, that is, his miraculous conception in the womb of the virgin, the time at which he was born, the place where he was born, the family from which he was descended, the nature of the doctrines which he preached, the meanness of his condition, his rejection, death, burial, resurrection, and ascension, with many other minute particulars; if all these various circumstances in the history of Jesus exactly accord with the predictions of the Old Testament relative to the promised Messiah, in whom all the nations of the earth were to be blessed, it follows that Jesus was that Messiah. The sacred narratives then represent to us the high character that he assumed; the claim he made to a divine original; the wonderful miracles he wrought in proof of his divinity; the various prophecies which plainly marked him out as the Messiah, the great Deliverer of the Jews; the declarations he made that he came to offer himself a sacrifice for the sins of all mankind; the cruel indignities, sufferings, and persecutions to which, in consequence of this great design, he was exposed; the accomplishment or it, by the painful and ignominious death to which he submitted, by his resurrection after three days from the grave, by his ascension into heaven, by his sitting there at the right hand of God, and performing the office of a Mediator and Intercessor for the sinful sons of men, till he shall come a second time in his glory to sit in judgment on all mankind, and decide their final doom of happiness or misery for ever
Esdras, the Second Book of - She is encountered and annihilated by a lion, and Esdras learns that the eagle is the fourth kingdom of Daniel, and the lion the Messiah. 13) reveals the Messiah as a wondrous man, coming out of the sea, destroying His enemies, and gathering the righteous and peace-loving to Himself. Some attempt is made in the book to adjust these points of view by the introduction of a temporary reign of the Messiah before the final consummation, which ushers in the glorious Heavenly Kingdom. At one time the Messiah is presented as a purely human being, an earthly, temporal ruler of the line of David (12:32ff. Now the Messiah is Judge (12:32, 33), now God Himself (6:6)
Perdition - Judas is called ὁ υἱὸς τῆς ἀπωλείας (John 17:12), ‘son of perdition,’ and the same phrase is used of ὁ ἄνθρωπος τῆς ἀνομίας, ‘the man of sin,’ in 2 Thessalonians 2:3, which is variously interpreted of the Roman Emperor, the Roman Empire, or a false Messiah (cf
Japheth - If "younger son" in Genesis 9:24 is Canaan not Ham, the invariable order of the names represents also the order of their ages," Shem, Ham, and Japheth" Shem's genealogy is put last, being traced from Genesis 10:21 onwards uninterruptedly as the line of Messiah
Hart - Αijeleth , "the hind," in the title Psalm 22 symbolizes one shot at by the archers and persecuted to death, namely, Messiah; as the persecutors are symbolized by "bulls," "lions," "dogs
Rending of Garments - —Edersheim, LT [1]
Hosanna - In him the age-old cry, "Lord, save us, " has become the glad doxology, "Hosanna, " which equals: "Praise God and his Messiah, we are saved
Alexandria - , his Alexandrine education would familiarize him with Philo's idea of the word as the mediating instrument of creation and providence; and John the Baptist's inspired announcement of the personal Messiah would enable him to "teach accurately the things of the Lord" up to that point, when Aquila's and Priscilla's teaching more perfectly informed him of the whole accomplished Christian way of salvation
Canaanitish - ; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Day of Christ - In order to grasp its real significance, it is necessary to remember that the early Christians did not believe that Jesus had done strictly Messianic work during His earthly career, and that they looked forward to His return as the time when He would take up the work of the Messiah pictured in the apocalypses
Alphaeus - xxi; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, bk
Pour, Flow - ” (The regular term for “to anoint” is mashach, which gives us the word “messiah
Jubilee - Thus, also, it would be known with certainty of what tribe or family the Messiah sprung
Hosea - The principal predictions contained in this book, are the captivity and dispersion of the kingdom of Israel; the deliverance of Judah from Sennacherib; the present state of the Jews; their future restoration, and union with the Gentiles in the kingdom of the Messiah; the call of our Saviour out of Egypt, and his resurrection on the third day
Apollos - However, he acknowledged that Jesus Christ was the Messiah, and declared himself openly as his disciple
Jesus - In the Epistles of James, Peter John, and Jude, men who had companied with the Lord in the days of His flesh, 'Jesus Christ' is the invariable order (in the RV) of the Name and Title, for this was the order of their experience; as 'Jesus' they knew Him first, that He was Messiah they learnt finally in His resurrection
Rebuke - He rebuked the spirit (1) because, being personal, he was susceptible of rebuke; and (2) because of his malevolence in torturing the human patient (Matthew 17:15), or because of his testimony to Him as Messiah, which testimony, seeing it tended towards a faith founded upon marvels and not upon a simple love of goodness and joy in His revelation of the Father, really opposed His work (Mark 1:24-25; Mark 1:34, Luke 4:41). ’ (4) The Pharisees’ request that Jesus would rebuke His followers for hailing Him as Messiah, only served to make more clear and definite His acceptance of that homage with all it meant (Luke 19:39)
Repentance - He differed, though, from the prophets in that his message of repentance was intricately bound up with his expectation of the imminent coming of the Messiah (Luke 3:15-17 ; see also Acts 19:4 ). ...
The Messiah came also preaching a message of repentance (Mark 1:15 )
Melchizedek - ...
In Psalms 110:4 , to the ideal king of Jewish hopes, the Messiah, there is promised an endless priesthood ‘after the order of Melchizedek. ...
The writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews, identifying Jesus with the Messiah, and asserting His high priesthood, cites the words of Psalms 110:1-7 , and declares that He was named of God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek’ ( Hebrews 5:10 )
Mary - " Mary is both "the handmaid of the Lord" and "the mother of my Lord, " for her Son is the Son of God, the Messiah of Israel and Savior of the world. It would appear that the woman has a primary reference to the people of God, Israel, and the church, with a secondary reference to Mary, mother of the Messiah: she is a "type" of the church
Antichrist - The Jews will receive him as their Messiah, as we read in John 5:43 . the Messiah, of whom every Jewess hoped to be the mother): he exalts himself above all
Judas Iscariot - Judas, the leading trait in whose character was covetousness, was probably induced to follow Jesus at first with a view to the riches, honours, and other temporal advantages, which he, in common with the rest, expected the Messiah's friends would enjoy. He might naturally have grown impatient under the delay, and dissatisfied also with Jesus for openly discouraging all ambitious views among his disciples; and, therefore, he might have devised the scheme of delivering him up to the sanhedrim, or great council of the nation, (composed of the chief priests, scribes, and elders,) in order to compel him to avow himself openly as the Messiah before them; and to work such miracles, or to give them the sign which they so often required, as would convince and induce them to elect him in due form, and by that means enable him to reward his followers. Even the rebukes of Jesus for his covetousness, and the detection of his treacherous scheme, although they unquestionably offended Judas, might only serve to stimulate him to the speedier execution of his plot, during the feast of the passover, while the great concourse of the Jews, from all parts assembled, might powerfully support the sanhedrim and their Messiah against the Romans. "...
The above view of the case of Judas endeavours ingeniously to account for his conduct by supposing him influenced by the motive of compelling our Lord to declare himself, and assume the Messiahship in its earthly glory
Gospels - The book shows a strong interest in the fulfilment of God’s purposes concerning Israel’s Messiah, and the responsibility of the Messiah’s people to spread his message to the Gentiles. John wanted people to be convinced that Jesus was the Messiah, the Son of God, and to find true life through him (John 20:30-31)
Lord's Supper. (i.) - Feeling Himself already victor over death and the world, He wishes to inspire His disciples with His own conviction, and by an act of vivid imagination conceives Himself as already dispensing the blessings of the completed Kingdom, their simple farewell meal having been transformed into the great Messianic banquet of the future, which commonly served as a figure for the joys of Messiah’s sovereignty. No sufficient treatment of the Lord’s Supper can pass in silence these problems which have been raised with great learning and acuteness, but they must be discussed in relation to the method of Jesus the Messiah, who brings Israel to its fulfilment. —The Gospel narratives represent the Supper as a solemn final act in the life of the Messiah. But the Messiah of their delineation is a Person of startling originality. Their faith had been for them a heroic venture, and the death of the Messiah meant little less than His desertion of them. On the other side see Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Bk. But while the Messiah is abrogating the letter of the old, He fulfils its spirit. By ‘a masterpiece of practical skill as a teacher’ Jesus enshrines, in this symbolic action, for the spiritual representatives of the new Israel, the memory of its ransom through the death of Messiah, whereby a new covenant relationship with Jehovah is possible
Jesus Christ - "Christ," or the Messiah, was looked for by all Jews as "He who should come" (Matthew 11:3) according to the Old Testament prophets. When His Messiahship became recognized "Christ" was used as His personal designation; so in the epistles. Jesus' claim to be Messiah or "the Christ of God" (Luke 9:20), i. the anointed of the Father to be king of the earth (Psalms 2:6-12; Revelation 11:15; Revelation 12:10), rests:...
(1) On His fulfilling all the prophecies concerning Messiah, so far as His work has been completed, the earnest of the full completion; take as instances Isaiah 53; Psalm 22; Micah 5; Hosea 6:2-3; Genesis 49:10, compare Luke 2; "the testimony of Jesus is the Spirit of prophecy" (Revelation 19:10; Luke 24:26; Luke 24:44-46; Acts 3:22-25). What exquisite tact and tenderness appear in His dealing with the woman of Samaria (John 4), as He draws the spiritual lesson from the natural drink which He had craved of her, and leads her on to convict herself of sin, in the absence of His disciples, and to recognize Him as the Messiah. 780 (30 counted back bring our Lord's birth to 750), when Pontius Pilate was procurator of Judea and Annas and Caiaphas jointly in fact exercised the high priesthood, Caiaphas being nominally the high priest (Deuteronomy 9:11-25), John Baptist, as last prophet of the Old Testament dispensation, by preaching repentance for sin and a return to legal obedience, prepared the way for Messiah, the Saviour from sin; whereas the people's desire was for a Messiah who would deliver them from the hated foreign, yoke. John, though knowing His goodness and wisdom before, as he must have known from the intimacy between the cousin mothers, Mary and Elisabeth (Luke 1), and knowing that Messiah should come, and when Jesus presented Himself feeling a strong presentiment that this was the Messiah, yet knew not definitely Jesus' Messiahship, until its attestation by God the Father with the Holy Spirit at His baptism (John 1:31-33)
Malachi, Theology of - ...
The Coming Messiah . Most of the Messiah's judging work is associated with his second coming, but Christ did cleanse the temple and denounce the hypocrisy of the teachers of the law and the Pharisees. Much of the judgment connected with the Messiah will take place at Christ's second coming, but in 3:2-4 it is the priests and Levites who are refined and purified. Wolf...
See also Israel ; Messiah ; Prophet, Prophetess, Prophecy ...
Bibliography
John the Baptist - John was that voice crying in the wilderness preparing the way for the coming Messiah (Isaiah 40:3 ; Matthew 3:3 ; Mark 1:2-3 ; Luke 3:3-6 ). It may be that John's vision of the Messiah varied so much from what he heard and saw in Jesus, that he came to question if Jesus were really the Christ (Matthew 11:1-2 ; Luke 7:18 ). He ended nearly four hundred years of prophetic silence and paved the way for the Messiah
Matthew, Gospel by - In this gospel Christ is more especially presented as the Messiah, the son of Abraham, and son of David. The Messiah being rejected, the remnant comes into weeping. Messiah takes His place with them in Jordan according to divine order
Prophecy, Prophet - The one who would rule in this golden age they called the Messiah (cf. Psalms 2:1-7; see Messiah). ...
But while the prophets pictured the Messiah as a king, a conqueror and a saviour, they also spoke of a prophetic figure whom they pictured as a servant, a sufferer and a victim. The Messiah was a king and a servant, a conqueror and a sufferer, a saviour and a victim (Deuteronomy 18:15; Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 11:1-5; Isaiah 52:13-14; Isaiah 53:4-7; Zechariah 6:12-13; Zechariah 12:10). The Messiah’s first coming began with Jesus’ birth and ended with his death, resurrection and ascension
Peter - Jesus was there; and Andrew, who was one of the Baptist’s disciples, having been directed by his master to Him as the Messiah, told Simon of his glad discovery, and brought him to Jesus. (1) In the synagogue of Capernaum, after the feeding of the five thousand at Bethsaida, Jesus delivered His discourse on the Bread of Life, full of hard sayings designed to test the faith of His disciples by shattering their Jewish dream of a worldly Messiah, a temporal King of Israel, a restorer of the ancient monarchy (John 6:22-65 ). (2) During the season of retirement at Cæsarea Philippi in the last year of His ministry, Jesus, anxious to ascertain whether their faith in His Messiahship had stood the strain of disillusionment, whether they still regarded Him as the Messiah, though He was not the sort of Messiah they had expected, put to the Twelve the question: ‘Who do ye say that I am?’ Again it was Peter who answered promptly and firmly:’ Thou art the Christ,’ filling the Lord’s heart with exultant rapture, and proving that he had indeed earned his new name Peter, the rock on which Jesus would build His Church, the first stone of that living temple
Transfiguration - Recognized as Messiah by the disciples, He must now prepare them to meet the stumbling-block of the cross
Interpret, Interpretation, Interpreter - , John 1:38 (Rabbi, interpreted as "Master"); John 1:41 (Messiah, interpreted as "Christ"); see No
Remnant - The ‘remnant’ in the time of Elijah and that in the time of Isaiah are prototypes of the believing minority of Jews who accepted Jesus as the Messiah
Zealot - Edersheim (LT [1]
Balaam - He even spoke of a future star and scepter (Numbers 24:17 ) a prophecy ultimately fulfilled in the coming of Jesus as the Messiah
Sin Unto Death - But those who walk in darkness while claiming to be in the light (1:6), who hate believers (2:9), and who deny that Jesus is the Messiah (2:22) are committing deadly sins
Mercy-Seat - , ἱλαστήριος), it is scarcely possible that he conceives the Messiah as a ‘mercy-seat,’ or ‘covering of the ark,’ sprinkled with blood-His own blood
Feasts - } receive their Messiah,...
15th
Den - —Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, also The Temple, etc
Seraphim - " Thus he was inaugurated in office, as the disciples were by the tongues of fire resting on them, the sign of their speaking of Jesus in various languages; his unfitness for the office, as well as his personal sin, were removed only by being brought into contact with the sacrificial altar, of which Messiah is the antitype
Commander - , the Messiah)
People of God - ...
Christ claimed His servant-messiahship, for He is the Son of David, fulfilling the promise of God in the Old Testament. ...
The role of servant-messiah developed another dimension in its collectivity, that is, church
Prophecy - Such were the predictions respecting the coming and crucifixion of the Messiah, the dispersion and preservation of the Jews, etc
Genealogy - The promise of the land of Canaan to the seed of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob successively, and the separation of the Israelites from the Gentile world; the expectation of Messiah as to spring from the tribe of Judah; the exclusively hereditary priesthood of Aaron with its dignity and emoluments; the long succession of kings in the line of David; and the whole division and occupations of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, occupation of the land upon genealogical principles by the tribes, families and houses of fathers, gave a deeper importance to the science of genealogy among the Jews than perhaps any other nation
Remnant - The Messiah would give special attention to them (Micah 5:2-5 ,Micah 5:2-5,5:7-9 ). ...
Many remnant passages are closely tied with the future king, the Messiah, who would be the majestic ruler of those who seek his mercies (Isaiah 9:1-7 ; Isaiah 11:1-16 ; Isaiah 32:1-8 ; Isaiah 33:17-24 )
Lawlessness - On the one hand, the occurrences in Matthew are particularly related to the persistent refusal to accept the Messiah on God's terms and to harassment of God's people by those in opposition. Thus, lawlessness comes to be seen in direct connection with opposition to the Messiah and his message
Seventy Weeks of Daniel - The second period of sixty-two weeks extends to the times of Messiah the Prince, after which He should be cut off and have nothing (margin ) — nothing of His Messianic glory. ...
It is judged however by some that the sixty-nine weeks reach only up to Messiah the Prince as entering on His ministry; after which (indefinitely) He was cut off: and therefore the sixty-nine weeks should end at least three years earlier
Barabbas - The fact that he seems to have expected this precludes the view which some have held that Barabbas was a pseudo-Messiah, and even the notion that he was no vulgar bandit, but the leader of a party of Zealots, since popular sympathy might have been anticipated on behalf of a bold Zealot or insurrectionary Messiah
Nazareth - Though it was a city (πόλις, Matthew 2:23), not a village (κώμη), it was a place without a history, and Nathanael of Cana-who may not have been quite free from the jealousy of neighbourhood-had great difficulty in imagining that it might produce the Messiah (John 1:46). Nazareth was in truth the best of all places for the education of the Messiah (cf
Nazareth - Though it was a city (πόλις, Matthew 2:23), not a village (κώμη), it was a place without a history, and Nathanael of Cana-who may not have been quite free from the jealousy of neighbourhood-had great difficulty in imagining that it might produce the Messiah (John 1:46). Nazareth was in truth the best of all places for the education of the Messiah (cf
Regeneration - ]'>[1] The gospel of regeneration was not a striking novelty either to the Jewish or to the pagan world, and if the condition of regeneration were simply stated as a belief that Jesus was the Messiah the Son of God, it might seem quite consonant with the common faith of the time. But it is necessary also to realize that Christianity was able to take over the whole schema of apocalypticism by simply putting Jesus as the expected Messiah. Current Judaism made sharp distinction between the present age under the dominion of Satan and the coming age when the Messiah would be in power. Among the most glorious expectancies regarding the Messiah were the supernatural endowments that He would bestow upon His people. If, then, Jesus were the Messiah already manifested, crucified for sin, raised from the dead, coming again in glory, empowered to bestow an earnest of the gifts of the coming age, a supernatural new life would, of course, be possible. The believer in those redemptive facts would be translated from the Kingdom of Satan to that of Messiah. The schema of the new religion is clearly set forth; Jesus is the Messiah (Acts 2:36, Acts 5:42), predicted in the Scriptures (Acts 7:52, Acts 8:35, Acts 13:47), attested by the Resurrection (Acts 2:32, Acts 10:41, Acts 13:33, Acts 26:23); acceptance of Him as such is the basis of salvation (Acts 4:12, Acts 10:43, Acts 13:39); but there must be also a very definite repentance, not merely for having crucified the Messiah (Acts 2:38), but a turning from iniquities (Acts 3:26), and from darkness to light (Acts 26:18), and this is to be followed by works worthy of repentance (Acts 26:20); baptism follows on repentance and seems to have a sacramental efficacy (βαπτισθήτω … εἰς ἄφεσιν τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ὑμῶν, Acts 2:38; βάπτισαι καὶ ἀπόλουσαι τὰς ἁμαρτίας σου, Acts 22:16)
Barnabas, Epistle of - The followers of Jesus believed that He, as Messiah, had authority from God to institute a new Covenant between God and His people Israel, and that He actually did so when He offered Himself on the cross as a sacrifice for sin. ...
(2) Another logical consequence of belief in Jesus as Messiah will further illustrate the mind of our writer. If the Messiah has indeed come in the person of Jesus, then the national religion of the Jews is not destroyed but proved to be the true service of the Living God, and its claim that it had received a direct Divine revelation is not exploded but vindicated by God Himself. ...
(3) If Jesus was the Messiah, He was clothed with full authority to mould the national religious life according to the will of God. Those who refused to believe and obey Him refused to obey and believe God, and by this act of disobedience cut themselves off from the Covenant and the mercies of God, On the other hand, those who did believe God and were obedient to His Messiah, became the true people of God, the New Israel, the present possessors of all the privileges that once belonged to the Jewish nation, and the recipients of all the Messianic blessings. If the purpose of God in creating the world and in calling Abraham had been fulfilled in Jesus, then it was not for the sake of unbelieving Jews but for the sake of the believers in the Messiah that the world had been created and Abraham called. Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews know of two Covenants-an old and a new; and the old was in force until the coming of the Messiah (Romans 7:2 ff. His animus is against the Jews, not against the Jewish religion; from Sinai onwards they have in reality stood outside that religion; its privileges were always the peculiar property of the Christians, held in reserve for them until the coming of the Messiah
Prophet - However, various in other respects, they all agree to testify of Messiah (Acts 10:43). Above all, the prophets by God's inspiration foretold concerning Jesus the Messiah (Matthew 1:22-23 with Isaiah 7:4; Isaiah 8:8). The details as to Messiah scattered through so many prophets, yet all converging in Him, the race, nation, tribe, family, birthplace, miracles, humiliation, death, crucifixion with the wicked yet association with the rich at death, resurrection, extension of His seed the church, are so numerous that their minute conformity with the subsequent fact can only be explained by believing that the prophets were moved by the Holy Spirit to foretell the event. ...
A "son," yet "the everlasting Father"; a "child," yet "the mighty God"; "Prince of peace," sitting "upon the throne of David," yet coming as Shiloh (the peace-giver) when "the sceptre shall depart from Judah"; Son of David, yet Lord of David; a Prophet and Priest, yet also a King; "God's Servant," upon whom He "lays the iniquity of us all," Messiah cut off, yet given by the Ancient of days "an everlasting dominion. Moreover, many prophecies, besides their references to events of the times of the sacred writer, look forward to ulterior fulfillments in Messiah and His kingdom; for "the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy" (Revelation 19:10). Thus the foretold deliverance from Babylon by Cyrus foreshadows the greater deliverance from the antitypical Babylon by Cyrus' Antitype, Messiah (Isaiah 44:28; Isaiah 45:1-5; Isaiah 45:13; Isaiah 45:22-25; Jeremiah 28:9; Jeremiah 51:25; compare Revelation 18:4; Revelation 17:4; Revelation 14:8; Revelation 8:8)
Crucifixion - Since it was expected that the Messiah would be a glorious and victorious King, it seemed incredible that one who was slain, and not only slain but crucified, should be the Messiah. In the eyes of the NT writers, on the contrary, its very ignominy constituted its supreme suitability to the Messiah. At the moment all was dark to the disciples; but when their minds were illumined by the Holy Spirit, they saw not only ‘the sufferings that befell Messiah’ but ‘the glories that followed these’ (1 Peter 1:11). A crucified Messiah was ‘to Jews a stumbliog-block and to Gentiles foolishness’ (1 Corinthians 1:23); and the Apostles, eager to remove ‘the stumbling-block of the Cross,’ represented the Crucifixion as no ignominious catastrophe, but ‘a link in a chain of higher knowledge, part of a Divine plan of salvation
Education (2) - One much discussed quaestio theologicalis was, ‘Are they few that are being saved?’ Some Rabbis held that ‘all Israel would have a portion in the world to come’; others, that as only two of all that came out of Egypt entered into the land of Canaan, so would it be in the days of the Messiah. Once, when some wondered if He were the Messiah, others answered that His origin was known, and, according to the Rabbinical teaching, the Messiah would appear suddenly, none would know whence, like a serpent by the way or a treasure-trove (John 7:20-27; cf. ]'>[1] Thus it fared with the Messiah when He made His appeal to the men of Jerusalem
Hosanna - And (3) was not the occasion of Christ’s entry into Jerusalem one that must have seemed eminently suitable alike to His disciples who began it (Luke 19:37) and to the candid (Matthew 21:15) and grateful (John 12:17) Israelites who joined them in the celebration of it? The Jews, we know, were accustomed to associate with the feast of Tabernacles the highest of those blessings which Messiah was to bring. It was as Messiah that Jesus now presented Himself. ’ As given (1) absolutely, as in Mark 11:9 and John 12:13, the natural meaning of this would be an address to Christ, as Messiah, asking Him to bestow the salvation expected of Him; or, as our English hymn expresses it, ‘Bring near Thy great salvation. Of Messiah, even when thought of as Divine and reigning, the Scripture says, ‘prayer also shall be made for him continually’ (Psalms 72:15)
Inheritance - In the reconstituted theocracy, the Messiah figured as the mediator both of temporal and of spiritual blessings. Accordingly Canaan is the Holy Land, and Jehovah’s own inheritance; and Messiah when incarnate ‘came to His own country, and His own people received Him not. ( c ) The Messiah, through whom the disinheritance should be brought to a close, and the covenant should be renewed, was naturally regarded as the supreme ‘inheritor’ or ‘heir’ of all the promises and privileges implied in the covenant. As, moreover, the Messiah’s unique relation to the Father became more clearly defined, the idea of His inheritance, connoting His unique primogeniture and universal supremacy, became enlarged and expanded
Offices of Christ - The idea, however, abounds in connexion with the Jewish Messiah and the Christ of the Gospel. Jesus, being the Messiah, fulfilled these three offices, as the supreme prophet, arch-priest, and Divine king. That Jesus should embody a fulfilment of OT prophecy as to the Messiah is of remote interest to many
Passover - ) It was primarily a commemorative ordinance, reminding the children of Israel of their deliverance out of Egypt; but it was, no doubt, also a type of the great deliverance wrought by the Messiah for all his people from the doom of death on account of sin, and from the bondage of sin itself, a worse than Egyptian bondage ( 1 Corinthians 5:7 ; John 1:29 ; 19:32-36 ; 1 Peter 1:19 ; Galatians 4:4,5 )
Iron (2) - As it "breaketh in pieces," so, in righteous retribution, itself will be "broken in pieces" at last by the kingdom of the Stone, Messiah the Rock (Daniel 2:40; Daniel 2:44; Revelation 13:10)
Mourning - Penitent mourning was often expressed by fasting, so that the words are interchanged as synonymous (Matthew 9:15), and the day of atonement, when they "afflicted their souls," is called "the fast" (Acts 27:9; Leviticus 23:27; Israel, 1 Samuel 7:6; Nineveh, Jonah 3:5; the Jews when hereafter turning to Messiah, Zechariah 12:10-11)
Son of God - ...
The term Son of God reveals Jesus' divine sonship and is closely associated with His royal position as Messiah
Heifer - If (a particle which posits a fact, and scarcely insinuates a doubt) the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a heifer cleanse the flesh, defiled by contact with death, much more does the life-blood of the Messiah cleanse the conscience from dead works
Immanuel, Emmanuel - Names of the Messiah prophetically announced, meaning "God with us
Bear - This relationship is especially relevant to the king who typifies the Messiah, the Son whom God “begot” ( Breathing - 81; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Travail - The nation of Israel was formed in a day, but they did not want their King, they were not ready for their Messiah
Genealogy of the Lord Jesus - According to the distinctive character of Matthew in which Christ is emphatically the Messiah and Son of David, the genealogy commences with Abraham; whereas in Luke, in which Christ is displayed as the Son of man, the list is traced up to "Adam who was the son of God
Shiloh (1) - " Solomon ("peaceful") typically (Psalm 72), Messiah antitypically, fulfils the prophecy (Gesenius, Keil, etc. "Abraham rejoiced to see Messiah's day, he saw it and was glad" (John 8:56); Jacob naturally expresses the same sure anticipation
Zephaniah, Prophecy of - Christ is not, as in other prophecies, introduced here as the Messiah, but as Jehovah
Gospel - He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the Jews, the Messianic royalty of Jesus
Compassion, Merciful - This is the heart of salvation by the suffering Servant-Messiah
Anoint - Hence the Holy Spirit is called an unction or anointing, 1 John 2:20 ; 1 John 2:27 ; and our Lord is called the "Messiah," or "Anointed One," to denote his being called to the offices of mediator, prophet, priest, and king, to all of which he was consecrated by the anointing of the Holy Ghost, ...
Matthew 3:16-17
Confession - The confession of faith that Christians make is an open acknowledgment of their belief in Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Messiah, the chosen one of God who died on the cross and rose victoriously to be crowned Lord of all (Matthew 16:16; John 1:49; Romans 10:9; 1 Timothy 6:12; 1 John 4:2; 1 John 4:15)
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - Jesus appeared to Cleopas and another disciple on the way to Emmaus and gave them a prophetic overview concerning the Messiah. He then reminded them of prophecies of the Messiah and commissioned them on the mission task
Water - Water was the element in which John baptized his penitents, and the best that he had; but he was profoundly conscious of its inadequacy, and eagerly expectant of an altogether different kind of baptism, to be introduced by the Messiah. Historically the baptism and death of the Messiah were crises in His activity, occurring once for all at the beginning and the end of His ministry, but spiritually He ever abides with and in the water and the blood, which are ‘the two wells of life in His Church, His baptism being repeated in every fresh act of baptism, and His blood of atonement never failing in the communion cup’ (H
Origenists - For the Scriptures teach us that the soul of the Messiah was created before the beginning of the world, Philippians 2:5 ; Philippians 2:7 . It was this Messiah who conversed with the patriarchs under a human form: it was he who appeared to Moses upon the Holy Mount: it was he who spoke to the prophets under a visible appearance: and it is he who will at last come in triumph upon the clouds to restore the universe to its primitive splendour and felicity
Redeem, Redemption - In rabbinic expectation the Messiah would be the Redeemer of Israel, and the great Day of the Lord would be the day of redemption. It is possibly due to the nationalistic expectation that became attached to the concept of the coming Messiah-Redeemer that Jesus is never called "redeemer" (lytrotes [4]) in the New Testament
Sin - The greater heinousness of the sin of these men would consist in their rejecting a greater body of testimony; for they are supposed to be acquainted with the resurrection of our Saviour from the dead, with his ascension into heaven, with the miraculous descent of the Holy Ghost, and with the supernatural powers which it communicated; circumstances, all of which were enforced by the Apostles when they preached the Gospel; but none of which could be known to those who refused to acknowledge Jesus as the Messiah during his actual ministry. But, on the other hand, they who finally rejected the accumulated and complete evidence of Jesus being the Messiah, as exhibited by the inspired Apostles, precluded themselves from the possibility of conviction, because no farther testimony would be afforded them, and consequently, there being no means of repentance, they would be incapable of forgiveness and redemption
Saviour (2) - There is no passage in the OT where the Messiah is called ‘Saviour. ’ Wherever the Messiah is connected with the idea of salvation, He is not the subject but the object of it (Psalms 28:8; Psalms 144:10, Zechariah 9:9). In Luke 2:11 σωτήρ is not a formal title, but a descriptive designation of the Messiah, ‘a Saviour who is Christ the Lord. And it will be noticed that σωτήρ is synonymous with χριστὸς κύριος, so that the reference cannot be confined to our Lord’s earthly ministry, but extends to His activity as the glorified Messiah. As Jesus had represented Himself to the woman not as a mere revealer (John 4:19; John 4:26), but as the giver of ‘living water,’ and ‘water unto eternal life’, (John 4:10; John 4:14), so the Samaritans, in acknowledging Him as σωτὴρ τοῦ κόσμου, prove to have attained a deeper conception of Messiahship than was commonly current among them, both as to the nature and extent of the Messiah’s calling (cf. The designation of God as Saviour can appear strange only on the basis of our established custom to reserve this title for Christ; on the basis of the OT it was a perfectly natural usage, for here always God, never the Messiah, is called מוֹשִׁיעַ, σωτήρ. The derivation of the whole idea of σωτήρ and σωτηρία from the Oriental expectation of the Saviour-King is impossible, because OT prophecy not at all, and Jewish theology very rarely, applies the name מוֹשִׁיעַ, σωτήρ, to the Messiah, and yet in eschatological Messianism it would be natural to look first of all for the evidence of such Oriental importation
Matthew, Gospel According to - His great object is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah, and that in him the ancient prophecies had their fulfilment
Synagogue - ...
The establishment of synagogues wherever the Jews were found in sufficient numbers helped greatly to keep alive Israel's hope of the coming of the Messiah, and to prepare the way for the spread of the gospel in other lands
Elam - " After scattering them God saith, "in the latter days I will bring again the captivity of Elam," namely, in the coming restitution of all things by Messiah, an earnest of which was given in that Elamites were on Pentecost among the first who heard and accepted the gospel (Acts 2:9)
Elect, Elected, Election - signifies "picked out, chosen" (ek, "from," lego, "to gather, pick out"), and is used of (a) Christ, the "chosen" of God, as the Messiah, Luke 23:35 (for the verb in Luke 9:35 see Note below), and metaphorically as a "living Stone," "a chief corner Stone," 1 Peter 2:4,6 ; some mss
Promise - Again, in Ephesians 2:12 , "the covenants of the promise" does not indicate different covenants, but a covenant often renewed, all centering in Christ as the "promised" Messiah-Redeemer, and comprising the blessings to be bestowed through Him
Crown - ...
The "miter" elsewhere is always used of the high priest; but the anointed king partook of the priestly character, from whence his "diadem" is so-called (Exodus 19:6; Exodus 28:4; Zechariah 3:5); also the crown, the emblem of the kingdom; until they be restored and united in the Mediator Messiah (Psalms 110:2; Psalms 110:4; Zechariah 6:13)
Tiberias - A Jewish idea is that Messiah will emerge from the lake, proceed to Tiberias and Safed, then set His throne on the highest peak in Galilee
Herodians - Hence they were said to look upon Herod the Great, Antipus, and Agrippa successively as Messiah
Tower - Edersheim (Life of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Bethlehem - Micah 5:2 was understood to indicate that the Messiah, like David, would be born in Bethlehem not Jerusalem
Servant, Service - In them the servant may represent Israel as a whole; Israel after the Spirit; or the mediator of salvation (the Messiah of Israel)
Elijah - Israel as a whole seemed once more to have forsaken God, in rejecting the Messiah
Lydda - Peter, whose preaching, aided by the miraculous healing of aeneas, is said, ‘in a popular hyperbolical manner’ (Meyer on Acts 9:35), to have resulted in a general conversion of the Jewish population to Jesus as the Messiah
Gabbatha - The Gospel mention of Gabriel, then, is as a messenger of the signal favour of God, at least in connexion with the Messiah and His forerunner
Oil - ...
Messiah is the Antitype "anointed with the oil of gladness above His fellows" (Hebrews 1:9; Psalms 45:7); not only above us, the adopted members of God's family, but above the angels, partakers with Him, though infinitely His inferiors, in the holiness and joys of heaven. So Messiah's bruising preceded His pouring out the Spirit on us (Exodus 25:6; Exodus 27:20)
Captivity - They retained possession of the land, under many changes and vicissitudes, until their Messiah appeared
Answer - In Isaiah 49:8 the Lord tells the Messiah, “In an acceptable time have I heard thee, and in a day of salvation have I helped thee
Axe - The Messiah, the Coming One, is the last of the line
Bill - —Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Infant Communion - and even the passover was a commemoration of a temporal deliverance; nor is there any reason to believe that its reference to the Messiah was generally understood by the Jews
Annas (2) - Beyond this, the house of Annas is charged with the special sin of ‘whispering’ or hissing like vipers, ‘which seems to refer to private influence on the judges, whereby “morals were corrupted, judgment perverted, and the Shekinah withdrawn from Israel” ’ (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i
Nation - So the Messiah is the light of the nations ( Flock - This would come to pass as the Messiah (“the Branch of David”) will establish His rule over the people (vv
Sadducees - " Beside, it is generally believed that the Sadducees expected the Messiah with great impatience, which seems to imply their belief in the prophecies, though they misinterpreted their meaning
Horse - That they might not be tempted to extend their dominion by means of cavalry, and so get scattered among the surrounding idolatrous nations, and thus cease in process of time, to be that distinct and separate people which God intended they should be, and without which the prophecies relative to the Messiah could not be known to have their due and full accomplishment
Joseph - He was doubtless a believer in the Messiah, and "waited for the kingdom of God
Zion or Sion - He seems to have greatly delighted in its beauty and strength, and to have loved it as a type of the church of the Messiah: "Beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth, is mount Zion on the sides of the north, the city of the great King
Publican - ; Edersheim, LT [3]
Lamentations - " The language, true of good Josiah, is too favorable to apply to Zedekiah personally; it is as royal David's representative, and type of Messiah, and Judah's head, that he is viewed. At one time he speaks of her, then introduces her personified, and uttering the pathetic appeal (antitypically descriptive of her Antitype Messiah), "Is it nothing to you, all ye that pass by? Behold . Here he uses language typical of Messiah (Lamentations 3:8; Lamentations 3:14; Lamentations 3:30; Lamentations 3:54; Psalms 69:22; Isaiah 1:6)
Temple - Their assurance of Jesus’ Messiahship, proved by His victory over death, made no breach in the continuity of their Jewish faith and practice. Until the appearance of Stephen created a new situation, the apostles were daily in the Temple, teaching and preaching Jesus as the Messiah. Against so strict and thoroughgoing Jews the guardians of the national religion, as embodied in the Temple and its cultus, had no ground of complaint, and the apostles on their side ‘could still cherish the hope that the nation at large might be brought to turn and bow the knee to its true Messiah’ (Hort, op. For him, as for every other Jewish Christian in Jerusalem, the Law, without distinction of moral and ceremonial precepts, was ‘ordained of angels’; in his view the nation’s treatment of its prophets and its Messiah was the supreme proof that the Law had not been kept; and the burden of his preaching was a call to Jerusalem not to close her Temple and abolish her ritual, but to take the lead in a national repentance for a broken Law
Covenant - The promised offspring of Abraham through whom God would send his salvation to the world was Jesus the Messiah (Genesis 12:3; Genesis 12:7; Galatians 3:16; Galatians 3:29). ...
God prepared Israel to produce the Messiah by choosing from the nation one person, King David, and promising that his dynasty would be the channel through which the Messiah would come
Antichrist - It is not, however, an idea original to Christianity, but an adaptation of Jewish conceptions which, as Bousset has shown (The Antichrist Legend), had developed before the time of Christ into a full-grown Antichrist legend of a hostile counterpart of the Messiah who would make war against Him but whom He would finally overthrow. -Although the word ‘Antichrist’ does not occur till we come to the Johannine Epistles, we have many evidences in pre-Christian Jewish literature, canonical and extra-canonical, that there was a widely spread idea of a supreme adversary who should rise up against God, His Kingdom and people, or His Messiah. And when, by a process or synthesis, the scattered elements of Messianic prophecy began to gather round the figure of a personal Messiah, a King who should represent Jahweh upon earth, it was natural that the various utterances of OT prophecy regarding an evil power which was hostile to God and His Kingdom and people should also be combined in the conception of a personal adversary. But, so far as the NT is concerned, the earlier Antichrist tradition is taken over with important changes, due to the differences between Judaism and Christianity, and especially to the differences in their conception of the Messiah Himself. 2 Thessalonians 2:4 with Daniel 7:25; Daniel 11:36), the Antichrist is conceived of, not after the fashion of the later Judaism as a heathen potentate and oppressor, but as a false Messiah from within the circle of Judaism itself, who is to work by means of false signs and lying wonders, and so to turn men’s hearts away from that love of the truth which brings salvation (Daniel 11:9)
Psalms - " With regard to the Jews, Bishop Chandler very pertinently remarks, that "they must have understood David, their prince, to have been a figure of Messiah. Were the Messiah not concerned in the Psalms, it would have been absurd to celebrate twice a day, in their public devotions, the events of one man's life, who was deceased so long ago, as to have no relation now to the Jews and the circumstances of their affairs; or to transcribe whole passages from them into their prayers for the coming of the Messiah. By substituting Messiah for David, the Gospel for the law, the church Christian for that of Israel, and the enemies of the one for those of the other, the Psalms are made our own. ...
Very few of the Psalms, comparatively, appear to be simply prophetical, and to belong only to Messiah, without the intervention of any other person
Peter (2) - Andrew was one of the two disciples of the Baptist who heard him declare that Jesus was the Lamb of God (John 1:35), and who, after their interview with Jesus, were convinced that He was the Messiah. Then, not long after, when the common people had ceased to regard our Lord as the Messiah, and assigned Him only the subordinate place of a forerunner, Peter, without a moment’s hesitation, clothed in fit words the conviction which had now attained maturity and consistency in his mind—the ripe fruit of his intercourse with our Lord; he affirmed that He was the Messiah (Matthew 16:13 ff. But, though Peter had grasped the truth that Jesus was the Messiah, he was still in bondage to the traditional conception of the Messiah as a conqueror
Apostles - The remarkable expression doubtless suggested to his hearers that this was the Messiah. Two of them sought an interview with our Lord, and ere they quitted the house were convinced that they had found the Messiah. Hence Andrew and John, the two disciples in question, had no doubt that the Messiah stood before them (John 1:41). On starting, He called Philip to follow Him, and the instant obedience rendered suggests that Philip had already believed that Jesus was the Messiah, probably through his friends and fellow-citizens Andrew and Peter. On the way Philip encountered his friend Nathanael, who lived in the village of Cana, at no great distance from his own home at Bethsaida, and informed him of the discovery of the Messiah, in the person of Jesus of Nazareth. Though ten of the tribes had largely disappeared, Israel still consisted ideally of twelve tribes, and the mission of the Messiah was to be to all the tribes of the nation. Nor should it be overlooked that the employment of this number was a fresh claim on the part of Jesus to be the Messiah. His disciples would argue thus: Who but the Messiah could venture to create a body or group of twelve disciples only? Nobody had done so before, no prophet, not even the Baptist. Jesus then must be the Messiah
Claims (of Christ) - A very important aspect of Christ’s claims is their point of connexion with the national hope regarding the Messiah (which see). And if until the end of His ministry He did not call Himself or allow Himself to be called the Messiah (Matthew 16:20), this was clearly because the false ideals of the Jews regarding the Messianic kingdom made it impossible for Him to do so without creating all kinds of misunderstandings, and so precipitating the inevitable crisis before His work on earth was accomplished. No doubt in popular usage the title ‘Son of God,’ through the influence especially of Psalms 2:7, had become an official name for the Messiah (Matthew 8:29, Mark 14:61, John 1:49). In asserting His Divine Sonship He was not merely affirming His right to an external title of honour, but was giving expression to a consciousness of relationship to God the Father which was absolutely unique, and in which the very essence of His Messiahship consisted. John 5:22), and is confirmed by the fact that throughout the rest of the NT the office of the final Judge is constantly assigned to Jesus (Acts 10:42; Acts 17:31, Romans 2:16; Romans 14:10, 2 Corinthians 5:10, 2 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 4:8; 1 Peter 4:5, James 5:8-9), an office, be it noted, which was never ascribed to the Messiah either in the OT revelation or in the popular Jewish belief (see Salmond, Christian Doct
Virgin Birth - ’|| [17] the application to the virgin birth of Messiah would seem to he Jewish-Christian. And this remark applies to the later Jewish transformations of the idea (the origin of the Messiah is often pictured as mysterious and obscure); and the ‘woman’ of Revelation 12 is no exception. ’† Resurrection - ...
The Assumption of Moses presents a temporary Messianic kingdom, without a Messiah (cf. 70 we have the following important passages: 30:1, 2, ‘And it will come to pass after these things, when the time of the advent of the Messiah is fulfilled, and He shall return in glory. ’ Here the resurrection of the righteous is placed after the period of tribulation preceding the advent of Messiah. It contains the doctrine of a Messianic kingdom of 400 years’ duration, at the close of which the Messiah and His companions are to die, before the Final Judgment and end of all things. the Ezra-Apocalypse and the Son of Man Vision, we have the doctrine of the revelation of Messiah from heaven with the saints who had been caught up alive, prior to the establishment of the 400 years’ kingdom. Then follows the death of the Messiah and all men, then the Final Judgment for which all will be raised (cf. Paul regarded the Resurrection as an evidence of the Messiahship of Jesus. ...
Into this original stock of eschatological belief there broke the new conception of a Messiah who had died and risen
John the Baptist - ] ...
How long John remained in ‘the deserts,’ by which is doubtless meant the awful solitudes of the Wilderness of Judaea, and how he grew into the full sense of the precise nature of his prophetic vocation as the forerunner and herald of the Messiah, we cannot tell. To the Jewish mind this was an unexpected and unwelcome note in a herald of the Messiah; and John’s utterance of it and strenuous emphasis upon it form one of the marks of his profound originality as a prophet. It was John’s function to declare that those great Messianic promises were now going to receive their fulfilment at the hands of the Messiah Himself. But even more than a baptism of preparation it was a baptism of promise, promise both of the Kingdom and the King, being a promissory symbol of a perfect spiritual cleansing which the Messiah in person should bestow—‘I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance; but he that cometh after me … shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire’ (Matthew 3:11 ||). ) as an authenticating sign which he received that He was the Messiah; and this incident is represented by the other three as following immediately upon the baptism, though the first two, and probably the third also, describe the visible sign as bestowed upon Jesus Himself along with the approving voice from heaven (Matthew 3:16, Mark 1:10 f. Of the intercourse of John with Jesus, the Fourth Gospel gives an account which differs widely from that presented in the Synoptics; but apart from the Johannine colouring of the later narrative, the difference is sufficiently explained on the ordinary view that the Synoptists describe the meeting between the two at the time of our Lord’s baptism, while the Fourth Evangelist concerns himself only with John’s subsequent testimony to the now recognized Messiah (cf. On the other hand, the ‘I knew him not’ of the last Gospel, as the context shows, only means that John did not know that Jesus was indeed the Messiah until he received the promised sign (John 1:32 f
Micah - The middle division (Micah 3-5) has Messiah and His kingdom for its subject. The intimations concerning the birth of Messiah as a child and His reign in peace, and Jacob's remnant destroying adversaries as a "lion," but being "a dew from the Lord amidst many people" (Micah 4:9-5:5), correspond to Isaiah 7:14-16; Isaiah 9:6-7
Magdala - The suggestion made by Lightfoot, that the name meant ‘curler of hair,’ is rejected by Edersheim, who regards it as founded upon a misapprehension (Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol. —Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, vol
Gospels, the - All proving that this gospel was a testimony to Jesus as the true Messiah for Israel. In pointing out the characteristic feature of this gospel, which represents Christ as the Messiah and Son of David, it is not meant that other characters of the Lord are not there in a subordinate degree
Church - John Owen, that sin having entered into the world, God was pleased to found his church (the catholic or universal church) in the promise of the Messiah given to Adam; that this promise contained in it something of the nature of a covenant, including the grace which God designed to show to sinners in the Messiah, and the obedience which he required from them; and that consequently, from its first promulgation, that promise became the sole foundation of the church and of the whole worship of God therein. Hence we may learn that at the coming of the Messiah, there was not one church taken away and another set up in its room; but the church continued the same, in those that were the children of Abraham, according to the faith. Great alterations indeed were made in the outward state and condition of the church, by the coming of the Messiah. The carnal privilege of the Jews, in their separation from other nations to give birth to the Messiah, then failed, and with that also their claim on that account to be the children of Abraham. Christians reply, that their privilege on that ground was of another nature, and ended with the coming of the Messiah: that the church of God, unto whom all the promises belong, are only those who are heirs of the faith of Abraham, believing as he did, and are consequently interested in his covenant
Peter, First Epistle of - Imbued with a strong love for the risen Christ, and a profound conviction of the truth of the gospel as established in the world by the life, death, and resurrection of the Messiah, the author delineates a rich Christian life on the basis of these evangelical facts. ...
( b ) To redeem us from sin the eternal and spotless Messiah was slain, and by His resurrection has awakened us to true faith in God. Faith in God as the holy Father and faithful Creator is built upon the solid facts of the gospel, in particular, the life, death, and resurrection of Christ the eternal Messiah ( 1 Peter 1:8-21 ). He was spotless, the perfect pattern for men, but also the Messiah, who as the Servant of the Lord has by His death ransomed a new people and ratified a new covenant ( 1Pe 1:2 ; 1 Peter 1:18-20 , 1 Peter 2:22-24 ). This Spirit was also identified with the pre-existent Messiah, and was the means of His persistence through death ( 1 Peter 1:11 , 1 Peter 3:18-19 , 1 Peter 4:14 ). , the witness of the prophets to the Messiah; Jesus Christ as the Suffering Servant whose death was foreknown to God, and was endured for our sins; His exaltation and near return to judge the living and the dead ( Acts 2:23 ; Acts 2:33 ; Acts 3:18 ; Acts 5:30-31 ; Acts 10:42-43 )
Messiah - ...
MESSIAH is the English word based on the Greek representation of the original Hebrew or Aramaic. —The custom of anointing the king, from which his designation as ‘messiah’ arose, is connected with magical usages of hoary antiquity, based on the conception that the smearing or pouring of the unguent on the body endows the human subject with certain qualities. —Among the Hebrew anointed kings or Messiahs, David came in course of time to have a special significance. In the first the Messiah is portrayed as a military conquering hero, ‘breaking in pieces the oppressor’s mace’; in the second, the sounds of discord cease, and He, sprung from Jesse’s stock, is the ruler of justice and peace in God’s ‘holy mountain’ of Zion, where even the powers of violence and injustice are turned into submission to a Divine authority. We shall have to note how profoundly the Deutero-Isaianic portraiture of the Suffering Servant came in later times to modify the Hebrew ideal of the Messiah, and to constitute an entirely new conception which the Hebrew race only partially and very slowly assimilated, and whose leaven worked powerfully in the Messianic ideal of the ‘Son of Man’ in the consciousness of Christ and His immediate followers. ...
When we pass to the Trito-Isaiah (56–66), which probably arose in the years that immediately preceded the advent of Nehemiah, we find that the old ideal of the Davidic Messiah, which Ezekiel and Haggai attempted with poor success to revive, has altogether disappeared
Sorrow, Man of Sorrows - Whatever may have been the primary historical bearing of that passage, it is generally admitted that in the time of Christ there was no expectation of a suffering Messiah. ‘The idea of the Messiah’s sufferings is not found in any Jewish document up to the close of the first century’ (Stanton, Jewish and Christian Messiah, p. ‘Son of David’ expressed the contemporary hopes of what the Messiah was to be. Messiah. From the point of view of the disciples, and the popular conception of the Messiah, a certain amount of conflict and hardship could readily be allowed for
Begetting - Here the use of the term μονογενής in this connexion at once raises the question as to the precise sense in which it is applied to Christ, whether it refers to His being by Divine nature and essence Son of God, or merely to His manifestation in time as Messiah, as one specially chosen to reveal to mankind the will of the invisible God. We are reminded, for instance, that Israel (Exodus 4:22, Hosea 1:10), the kings of Israel (1 Chronicles 28:6), and the Messiah (Psalms 2:7), of whom the latter were types, were successively called sons of God, or God’s firstborn. They must have been largely influenced by traditional opinions on the subject of the Messiah, and would therefore interpret the words, ‘This day have I begotten thee,’ as referring not to any event in a past eternity or to any period prior to the Incarnation of the Son of God, but to some definite point in the history of His manifestation to the world, as, for example, to the period of the birth of Jesus, or of the Baptism, when the voice from heaven declared Him to be God’s Beloved Son, or, as St. This notion of begetting is practically the idea conveyed by the word ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ’ itself, and by what Jesus Himself says, according to John 10:36, ‘Say ye of him, whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?’ Lastly, the thought of begetting is applied in the sense of a Divine communication of life, as when the Spirit of God descended and abode upon Christ. ‘Sending forth’ and ‘coming forth’ appear, according to the Fourth Gospel, to have been favourite expressions in the mouth of Jesus with which to describe His Messianic commission, and that act of Divine grace which was, as it were, the genesis of the New Dispensation—the reign of ‘grace and truth’ inaugurated by Christ as Messiah; as St
Paul - ...
This zealous commitment to the study of the Old Testament laws and traditions is the background of Paul's persecution of his Jewish brothers who believed Jesus was the Messiah. He knew the message of Christianity: Jesus' resurrection, His Messiahship, and His availability to all humankind. Paul was traveling to Damascus to arrest Jewish people who had accepted Jesus as the Messiah. See Damascus ; Messiah . Jesus was truly the Messiah and took priority over the Temple and the law. (b) This will begin with the coming of the Messiah
Day of the Lord - In this view the day of the Lord includes the great tribulation, the following judgment on the nations, and the time of worldwide blessing under the rule of the Messiah
Mary, Sister of Lazarus - She anoints the Savior for burial; rising above the Jews' expectation of an immediately reigning Messiah, she is not offended at His crucifixion, burial, and rising again on the third day (Matthew 26:10-12)
Murmur, Murmuring - ’ There is some uncertainty as to what precisely is here meant: whether the new teaching of life through death (Westcott); the paradoxical nature of the words just spoken by Jesus, the need of eating His flesh and drinking His blood (Godet); His claim to have come down from heaven (Lampe and others); the apparent pride with which He connected the salvation of the world with His own Person (Tholuck, Hengstenberg); or the bloody death of the Messiah (de Wette, Meyer)
Adoption - More specifically, he says to David (and the Messiah), "You are my son; today I have become your Father" (Psalm 2:7 ); and of David's descendant, "I will be his father, and he will be my son" (2 Samuel 7:14 )
Hand - The accuser in a trial stood "at the right hand" of the accused, so Satan at Joshua's right hand (Zechariah 3:1; Psalms 109:6); but the Advocate Messiah also is at the believer's "right hand," to defend his cause effectively (Psalms 16:8; Psalms 109:31); therefore Paul could say (Romans 8:31; Romans 8:33-34), "If God be for us, who can be against us? Who shall lay anything to the charge of God's elect? It is God that justifieth
Torch - —Besides the authorities cited above, see Wetstein and Zahn on Matthew 25:1; Edersheim, LT [2]
Find - He saith to him, we have found the Messiah
Man From Heaven - The people of Jerusalem and some Pharisees know that he is from Galilee but are puzzled by his messianic actions and teachings since the Messiah (they believe) will not come from there (7:26,52)
Law of Christ - If we take this passage to refer to the Messiah, then we could paraphrase it by saying that the Christ, when he comes, will teach God's law to the Gentiles ("the coastlands")
Zacharias - (Luke 1:68-80; Isaiah 12:1-3; Zechariah 12:10,) "The horn of salvation in the house of David" contrasts beautifully with "the little horn" or antichrist destroying Israel before Messiah shall appear for Israel's help (Daniel 7:8; Daniel 8:9-14; Daniel 8:11; Daniel 12:1-3)
Alexander the Great - The empire of Greece had thus to do with God's ancient people the Jews, and formed a link in the chain of kingdoms until the Messiah Himself appeared and laid the foundation for His kingdom that shall endure for ever
Cluster - The learned Bishop Patrick hath observed, that the Hebrew Doctors, by dividing the word Eshcol into two words, found out the mystery of the Messiah in the passage, and read them thus, my beloved is unto me the Esh, that is, the man; Col, copher; that is, a cluster of atonement
Hero - The messianic expectation included the hope that the Messiah would be “mighty”: “For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder; and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace” ( Come - ...
Bô' also is used to refer to the “coming” of the Messiah
Kingdom - Campbell, in which there is a manifest allusion to the predictions in which the dispensation of the Messiah was revealed by the prophets in the Old Testament, particularly by Daniel, who mentions it as "a kingdom which the God of heaven would set up, and which should never be destroyed,"...
Daniel 2:44
Esau - The church of God was to be established in the line of the first-born; and in that line the Messiah was to appear
Daniel - The book of Daniel is a mixture of history and prophecy: in the first six chapters is recorded a variety of events which occurred in the reigns of Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius; and, in particular, the second chapter contains Nebuchadnezzar's prophetic dream concerning the four great successive monarchies, and the everlasting kingdom of the Messiah, which dream God enabled Daniel to interpret
Mark, Gospel of - Matthew as the Messiah, "the son of David and Abraham," Oath - " To this oath, thus solemnly administered, Jesus replied that he was indeed the Messiah
Paronomasia - In the former of these passages the words Ναζωραῖος (=an inhabitant of Nazareth) κληθήσεται are not found in any prophet, but it seems not unlikely that they contain an allusion to the language of Isaiah 11:1 where Messiah is called נֵצֶר (= a branch), and possibly also to the word נָצַר (to preserve); cf
James the Brother of Jesus - ...
From unbelief to church leadership...
During Jesus’ earthly life his brothers did not believe that he was the Messiah
Lord (2) - Briggs (Messiah of the Gospels, pp. We agree with him in regarding κύριος (Lord) as a word added by the Evangelist to interpret the Jewish title Messiah (χριστός) to his Gentile readers. To the Jewish Christian, Jesus was the ‘Messiah,’ to the Hellenistic Christian Jew He was ‘the Christ,’ and to the Gentile Christian He was ‘the Lord. Paul’s Conception of Christ, 295; Spurgeon, The Messiah, 649: Expository Times, vol
Holy Spirit - ...
(4) The Spirit and Messiah . The point of contact between the OT and NT is the expectation of a special outpouring of the Spirit in connexion with the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom ( Ezekiel 39:29 , Joel 2:28-29 , Zechariah 12:10 ; cf. But it is on Messiah Himself that the Spirit is to rest in its fulness ( Isaiah 11:1-5 ). Genesis 1:2 ) which was to find its home in the Messiah ( John 1:33 ‘abiding’); in the power of which He was to ‘fulfil all righteousness’ ( Matthew 3:15 ); to be driven into the wilderness for His fight with temptation ( Fulfillment - The prayer of Daniel for the restoration of the devastated Jerusalem temple was answered by the startling revelation of seventy weeks that would involve the Messiah (9:1-27). Only after the resurrection did Peter gain lasting insight into the true character of Christ's Messiahship. John the Baptist was the one who fulfilled Malachi's prediction of a forerunner for the Messiah (Malachi 4:5 ) in his preaching and his life, while Jesus in his atoning death brought to fulfillment the new covenant promised by Jeremiah (31:31-34; cf. For them, the Messiah would appear as God's champion to expel the hated Roman occupation army and introduce the age when powerful nations would do homage to the Lord in Jerusalem (Zechariah 8:20-23 )
Isaiah - The name of Isaiah, as Vitringa has remarked after several preceding commentators, is in some measure descriptive of his high character, since it signifies the salvation of Jehovah; and was given with singular propriety to him, who foretold the advent of the Messiah, through whom "all flesh shall see the salvation of God," Isaiah 40:5 ; Luke 3:6 ; Acts 4:12 . To comfort all the truly pious, in the midst of all the calamities and judgments denounced against the wicked, with prophetic promises of the true Messiah, which seem almost to anticipate the Gospel history, so clearly do they foreshow the divine character of Christ. ...
Isaiah has, with singular propriety, been denominated the evangelical prophet, on account of the number and variety of his prophecies concerning the advent and character, the ministry and preaching, the sufferings and death, and the extensive permanent kingdom, of the Messiah
Jews - ...
About this time the Jews had hopes of the Messiah; and about A. The Jews, however, a few excepted, rejected the Messiah, and put him to death. That the Messiah is to come, though he tarry a long time. They deny the accomplishment of the prophecies in the person of Christ; alleging that the Messiah is not yet come, and that he will make his appearance with the greatest worldly pomp and grandeur, subduing all nations before him, and subjecting them to the house of Judah. Since the prophets have predicted his mean condition and sufferings, they confidently talk of two Messiahs; one Ben-Ephraim, whom they grant to be a person of a mean and afflicted condition in this world; and the other Ben-David, who shall be a victorious and powerful prince. About 130, one Barocaba pretended that he was the Messiah, and raised a Jewish army of two hundred thousand, who murdered all the Heathens and Christians who came in their way; but he was defeated by Adrian's forces. Provoked with their mad running after pretended Messiahs, Califf Nasser scarce left any of them alive in his dominions of Mesopotamia. The Jew ought to be weary of expecting a Messiah, who so unkindly disappoints his vain hopes: and the Christian ought to have his attention and his regard excited towards men whom God preserves, for so great a length of time, under calamities which would have been the total ruin of any other people. on the Messiah
Malachi - Hence, the "seven weeks" (49 or 50 years) stand by themselves at the beginning of the foretold "seventy weeks" (Daniel 9:25), to mark the fundamental difference between them, as the last period of Old Testament revelation, and the 62 weeks of years that follow without revelation, preceding the final week standing out by itself in unrivaled dignity as Messiah's week. And wherefore did He make us the one people? That He might seek a seed of God," to be the repository of the covenant, the stock for Messiah, the witness for God against surrounding polytheism. ...
(4) In answer to their cavil, "where is the God of judgment?" Messiah's forerunner, followed by the sudden coming of Jehovah Himself the Angel of the covenant (which they had despised) to His temple, is foretold (Malachi 2:17-4:6). The "incense and pure offering from the rising to the setting of the sun" points on to the spiritual sacrifices of self devotion, prayer, and praise under the gospel, based on the once for all completed sacrifice of Messiah (Psalms 141:2; Revelation 8:3; Hebrews 13:10; Hebrews 13:15-16; Romans 12:1; 1 Peter 2:5; 1 Peter 2:12); in every place (John 4:21-24; 1 Timothy 2:8)
Paul - ...
Paul considered the Christians to be guilty of blasphemy in believing in a Messiah who died on a cross; for a person who died on a cross was under God’s curse (Acts 26:11; Galatians 3:13). )...
Preparation for future ministry...
After his conversion, Paul remained for a while in Damascus, trying to convince the Jews that Jesus was Lord and Messiah
Waterpot - ‘For such an occasion the family would produce or borrow the largest and handsomest stone vessels that could be procured’ (Edersheim, LT [1]. John; Edersheim, LT [1]
Man of Sin - ...
(2) The other and more probable theory, accordingly, takes the man of lawlessness to be anti-Christian Judaism coming to a head in the person of a pseudo-Messiah, and the restraining power to be the Roman Empire personified in the Caesar himself. It is sometimes objected that under this theory an insuperable difficulty is presented by 2 Thessalonians 2:4, as it would be contrary to the rôle of a Jewish Messiah to sit in the Temple of God and set himself forth as God
Pharisees - ...
Lastly: the Pharisees contended that God stood engaged to bless the Jews, to make them all partakers of the terrestrial kingdom of the Messiah, to justify them, and make them eternally happy. Of this number was Saul of Tarsus; but as a body, their attachment to traditions, their passionate expectation of deliverance from the Roman yoke by the Messiah, and the splendour of his civil reign, their pride, and above all their vices, sufficiently account for that unconquerable unbelief which had possessed their minds as to the claims of Christ, and their resistance to the evidence of his miracles
John the Baptist - the forerunner of the Messiah, was the son of Zechariah and Elizabeth, and was born about six months before our Saviour. His character was so eminent, that many of the Jews thought him to be the Messiah; but he plainly declared that he was not that honoured person. Nevertheless, he was at first unacquainted with the person of Jesus Christ; only the Holy Ghost had told him that he on whom he should see the Holy Spirit descend and rest was the Messiah. John did not enjoin his disciples to continue the baptism of repentance, which was of his institution, after his death, because, after the manifestation of the Messiah, and the establishment of the Holy Ghost, it became of no use; yet there were many of his followers who still administered it, and several years after the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ, did not so much as know that there was any other baptism than that of John. After this he warns her against false teachers, who deny that Jesus entered into the world as the Christ, or Messiah, and forbids an intercourse with them
Gospels - 50 by a Jewish Christian of the party who wished to enforce the keeping of the Law upon the Gentiles, and the writer, as one who was anxious to preserve all those sayings of Christ which represented Him as One who taught that He was the Messiah of the Jews who would shortly inaugurate the Kingdom, is in his natural place in the development of the Church. Peter was prominent in Jerusalem as leader of the little society of disciples of Jesus the Messiah (the First Gospel reflects this rightly). The central figure of the book is introduced under the description ‘Jesus Messiah, Son of God’ (Mark 1:1), but nothing is said of His human parentage. If we set aside the last five chapters, which describe in detail, disproportionate to the rest of the book, the last few days of the Messiah’s life, the account of His doings in MK Mark 1:14 to Mark 10:52 is strangely disconnected and without sequence. He wished to put into permanent form such of the incidents of the Messiah’s life as were well known from St. Its purpose is to prove that Jesus of Nazareth was, though rejected by the rulers of His people, the true Messiah, in whom were or would be fulfilled all the Messianic expectations of the OT. Characteristic of the book are the following: (1) its apologetic aspect; it is a defence of the Messiahship of Jesus against (i. ) the hard fact that the Jewish authorities rejected Him; (2) its consequent polemic against the recognized authorities of the Jews; (3) its conception of the Church or Society of the Messiah as consisting of Jews or proselytes still under the authority of the Mosaic Law; (4) its conception of the Kingdom as to be inaugurated shortly when the Messiah returned on the clouds of heaven
Apocalyptic Literature - The coming Messiah. Akiba, The Hebrew Elijah Apocalypse, The Apocalypse of Zerubbabel, The Wars of King Messiah, The Revelations of R. The appearance of the Messiah, the righteous One, brings an end of sinners upon earth (38). In a vision of six mountains of metal which pass away, the destruction of the heathen world by the Messiah is portrayed. Then the Lord Himself burst forth from heaven, the enemies of Israel were overthrown and exterminated, the judgment ensued, and the universal restoration; and the Messiah was born as a white bull. ...
It has been demonstrated by Baldensperger and Dalman that the title ‘Son of Wan’ occurs in Jewish rabbinical writings as the name of the Messiah (Das Selbstbewusstsein Jesu2 [3] , p
Tabernacles, Feast of - ]'>[3] ; Edersheim, LT [4]
French Prophets - Their message was (and they were to proclaim it as heralds to the Jews, and every nation under heaven, beginning at England, ) that the grand jubilee, the acceptable year of the Lord, the accomplishment of those numerous Scriptures concerning the new heaven and the new earth, the kingdom of the Messiah, the marriage of the Lamb, the first resurrection, or the new Jerusalem descending from above, were now even at the door; that this great operation was to be wrought on the part of man by spiritual arms only, proceeding from the mouths of those who should by inspiration, or the mighty gift of the Spirit, be sent forth in great numbers to labour in the vineyard; that this mission of his servants should be witnessed to by signs and wonders from heaven, by a deluge of judgments on the wicked universally throughout the world, as famine, pestilence, earthquakes, &c
Age, Ages - "...
This Age and the Age to Come The Old Testament predicts the future coming of God or the Messiah; most forms of postbiblical Judaism (see esp
Zechariah, Book of - Through him God was preparing his people for the task for which he had chosen them, namely, the coming of the Messiah, the establishment of his kingdom and the salvation of people worldwide. He again notes the difference between the false shepherds and the true shepherd, and looks forward to the final triumph of the Messiah’s kingdom (12:1-14:21)
Torment - The Messiah shall show the evil multitude ‘the torments wherewith they shall be tormented, which are likened unto a flame’ (13:38)
Caesarea Philippi - Although in John's gospel Jesus was acknowledged as Christ before this event, in the Synoptic Gospels this is the first time that anyone openly confessed Jesus as the Messiah. That Peter and the other disciples did not fully understand the nature of Jesus' Messiahship is evidenced by Peter's rebuke of Jesus. After this He confined His ministry mostly to the twelve to reinterpret to them the meaning of His Messiahship and to prepare them for the events to come
Advocate - Singularly enough, the Greek-speaking Fathers mostly took the word in the impossible sense of ‘Comforter,’ influenced perhaps by the false analogy of Menahem ( Consolator ), a Jewish name for the Messiah
Abel - The firstling and the fat point to the divine dignity and infinite fullness of the Spirit in the coming Messiah
Philip the Evangelist - The Samaritans were looking for Messiah (John 4:25), which paved the way; still more the two days of Jesus' presence and the conversions which He made
False Witness - they were not consistent with each other, since it was necessary that two at least should agree (Deuteronomy 17:6), and witnesses were examined separately, not in the presence of each other (see Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, ii
Fame - A few who cherished sacred tradition believed that the Messiah had come (John 1:41; John 1:49; John 7:40, Matthew 16:4; Matthew 21:9)
Asiarch - It seems at first sight so strange that men elected to foster the worship of Rome and the Emperor should be found favouring the ambassador of the Messiah, the Emperor’s rival for the lordship of the Empire
Siloam, the Pool of - Messiah "the sent One" (Luke 4:18; John 10:36) answers to the type Siloam the sent water (Job 5:10; Ezekiel 31:4) that healed; He flows gently, softly, and healing, like Siloam fertilising and beautifying, not turbid as the winter torrent Kedron, nor sweeping destructively all before it as Euphrates (symbol of Αssyria) , but gliding on in its silent mission of beneficence (Isaiah 8:6; Isaiah 42:1-4; Isaiah 40:11; 2 Corinthians 10:1)
Bless - They blessed God for their present refreshment, for their deliverance out of Egypt, for the covenant of circumcision, and for the law given by Moses; and prayed that God would be merciful to his people Israel, that he would send the Prophet Elijah, and that he would render them worthy of the kingdom of the Messiah
Age - The Jews call the third age, the age to come, or the future age; denoting by it the time from the advent of the Messiah to the end of the world
Ezekiel - From the thirty-second to the fortieth chapter, he inveighs against the accumulated sins of the Jews collectively, and the murmuring spirit of his captive brethren; exhorts them earnestly to repent of their hypocrisy and wickedness, upon the assurance that God will accept sincere repentance; and comforts them with promises of approaching deliverance under Cyrus; subjoining intimations of some far more glorious, but distant, redemption under the Messiah, though the manner in which it is to be effected is deeply involved in mystery
Lamb - His sacrifice, the efficacy of which avails for those who accept the salvation thereby provided, forms the ground of the execution of Divine wrath for the rejector, and the defier of God, John 14:10 ; (c) in the description of the second "Beast," Revelation 13:11 , seen in the vision "like a lamb," suggestive of his acting in the capacity of a false Messiah, a travesty of the true
Samaritans - The Samaritans, like the Jews, expected a Messiah, John 4:25 and many of them became the followers of Jesus, and embraced the doctrines of his religion
Meek, Meekness - Christ uses it of His own disposition, Matthew 11:29 ; He gives it in the third of His Beatitudes, Matthew 5:5 ; it is said of Him as the King Messiah, Matthew 21:5 , from Zechariah 9:9 ; it is an adornment of the Christian profession, 1 Peter 3:4
Oil (Olive) - Elsewhere there is more distinct reference to His royal position as the Messiah or Anointed One, and to the Holy Spirit as the means of His consecration to this office (Acts 10:38; cf
John - John the Baptist, a prophet from a priestly family, who preached a message of repentance, announced the coming of the Messiah, baptized Jesus, and was beheaded by Herod Antipas. His role would be to prepare the Lord's people for the coming of the Messiah. John's preaching emphasized the coming judgment, the need for repentance, and the coming of the Messiah
Lord - ...
Jesus as the Messiah of Israel (Acts 2:36 ) was installed as Head of His church and Ruler of the cosmos by His resurrection (Colossians 1:17 ; Colossians 2:6 ,Colossians 2:6,2:10 ; Ephesians 1:20-23 ). ...
How can humans be convinced that the crucified Jesus from Nazareth is the Lord—that is, that in Him God acted in the way that the Bible says and in the way that the world needs? How can people be convinced that He is the Messiah of Israel and the Lord of all people, who comes near to all people as Friend and Brother? How does the Lord of the cosmos become our personal Lord in His church? This happens through the Holy Spirit. See Christ; God ; Holy Spirit ; Messiah ; Jesus; Rabbi ; Resurrection
Logos - Philo does not identify the Logos with the Messiah; to St. John uses his Logos conception, not ‘to manufacture the Light of the World out of the Messiah of Israel,’ but to set forth, in a way that would appeal to the men of his own place and time, Christ’s real relations to God and the universe as these had been attested by His words and deeds, by His dying and rising from the dead, and by all the facts of His self-revelation. The attempt has been made to distinguish between the Logos doctrine in the Prologue as Hellenic, and the Gospel itself as Palestinian; and it has been maintained that the influence of the Logos idea does not extend beyond the Prologue, and that it was merely intended to introduce to Greek readers the story of the Jewish Messiah with a view to making it more attractive and intelligible
Micah, Theology of - In Micah it embraces the remnant's restoration from Babylon (4:9-10), the birth of the Messiah (5:2), and his universal and everlasting peace (5:5-6). ...
In the fifth vision and at the center of these glorious prophecies (5:1-6), Micah now predicts that the remnant will give birth to the Messiah, who will be born in lowly Bethlehem, David's cradle (v. He predicts the Babylonian exile and the survival of the remnant, and the birth of his Messiah in Bethlehem and the triumph of his rule, and brings them to pass
King, Kingship - This future king came to be known as the "Messiah" (in Hebrew, "the anointed one") and longing for his appearance came to be known as messianic expectation. The Greek word translated "Christ" in our English versions of the Bible is a translation of the Hebrew term for Messiah (the anointed one). Jesus laid claim to fulfillment of the messianic prophecies of the Old Testament when at his trial before the Sanhedrin he was asked by the high priest whether he was the Messiah
Daniel, Book of - While he was yet speaking Gabriel was sent with a communication, which embraced not only the rebuilding of Jerusalem in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, but the coming of the Messiah, and the action of a prince (head of the Roman power) in the last of the seventy weeks. Some were elated at the small restoration in Ezra 1 - 3, but Daniel was still before God about His people, the previous chapter having revealed that 70 weeks (of years) would have to run on before blessing; Messiah would be rejected, etc. Daniel 11:36-39 are a parenthesis and refer to Antichrist as a king: he will be a Jew and not regard 'the God of his fathers,' nor the Messiah as 'the desire of women,' nor regard any known god; but will set himself up above all
Ephesians, Theology of - Nevertheless, the Jews had prepared the way for the Messiah and were the first to be called into the church. It is in the context of the role of Israel as the elect, the chosen, descended from Abraham to propagate the Messiah, rather than in the context of individual predestination to salvation, that Paul speaks of election. 5), chosen in the beloved (Messiah) for God's glory, that is, to declare the sovereignty of monotheism, (v. They were the first to hope in the Messiah (v
Incarnation - This was at its root an anticipation of the union of Divine and human attributes in a single personality (see Messiah). ...
(2) He claimed to be the Messiah, summing up and uniting the different lines of expectation alluded to above. Before our Lord’s death the disciples had recognized Him as the Messiah, though with still very inadequate ideas as to the nature of the Messianic Kingdom which He was to set up. The conception of Christ prominent in the earliest Apostolic age, and emphasized in the first part of the Acts and in the Epistles of 1Peter , James, and Jude, regards Him primarily as the Messiah, the glory of whose Person and mission has been proved by the Resurrection, who has been exalted to God’s right hand, and who will be judge of quick and dead
Righteousness - 67) that if Christians could prove from Scripture that Jesus really was the Messiah, it would be better to argue that He deserved this honour on account of His dutiful obedience to the rites and regulations of the law than that He owed it to a legendary virgin-birth. Paul never speaks of Jesus Christ as righteous,’ nor of His righteousness, although this was a familiar predicate of Messiah not only in the OT but in the later Judaism, especially in the Enochic Parables, where righteousness is one of the leading characteristics of Messiah as well as of the saints. Messiah as Son of Man is ‘born to righteousness’ (lxxi
Baruch, Apocalypse of - At the end will come the Messiah, the Manna will descend again, and Behemoth and Leviathan will be there for the saints to eat (xxix. ...
The cedar is the Roman Empire, the vine is Messiah (xxxix. 5, 7); in the end the last great heathen ruler will be destroyed by Messiah (xl. 5, Baruch is told that Zion will be built again, but in the later predictions of the final troubles before the advent of Messiah no mention is made of its subsequent destruction. Rome, is destroyed in the end; the last act in the world-drama is the glorious 400 years’ reign of Messiah
je'Sus Christ - ( 1 Chronicles 16:22 ) In the New Testament the name Christ is used as equivalent to the Hebrew Messiah (anointed ), ( John 1:41 ) the name given to the long-promised Prophet and King whom the Jews had been taught by their prophets to expect. The name of Jesus is the proper name of our Lord, and that of Christ is added to identify him with the promised Messiah
King - They looked for one who would be the ideal king, the great descendant of David whom they called the Lord’s ‘anointed one’, or, in the Hebrew language, ‘the Messiah’ (Isaiah 11:1; Jeremiah 23:5; Ezekiel 34:23-24; Philippians 2:9-111; see Messiah)
Preaching Christ - Now ‘the Christ,’ or ‘the Messiah,’ was not a meaningless expression for Jews: it had a distinct meaning, and a great range of ideas and hopes attached to it. There was a Messianic dogmatic, as it has been called, among the Jews, quite apart from the question who was to be the Messiah; or, to put it otherwise, Jewish disciples had a Christology before they became believers in Jesus as the Christ. We can conceive how a Jew, whose imagination was on flame with the apocalyptic hopes associated with the Messiah, might allow these hopes, when he accepted the Christian faith, to overpower the person of Jesus; Jesus, so to speak, would become nothing to him but the person through whom expectations were to be realized which in their origin had nothing to do with Jesus. The Apostles sincerely believed that they had seen the Lord, and they could not conceive of their calling as having anything in it to take precedence of this—that they were witnesses of the resurrection, and therefore of the Messiahship of Jesus. … The disciples demanded faith in Him as the Messiah exalted to God, and in the conception of His death as an atonement appointed by God for sins. With the experience of the resurrection and with this dogma of the death of the Messiah, the Christ-religion, Christianity in the narrower sense, begins. His function was to be a witness to the resurrection—that is, to the Messiahship of Jesus; he was, in other words, to be a preacher of the Christ. ...
To proceed by illustration: (a) One of the ways in which Jesus represented His absolute significance for the true religion was this: He regarded Himself as the Messiah. It has been urged that this prerogative of judgment is merely an element in the Jewish conception of the Messiah, and as such has been formally transferred to Jesus in the Gospels; but nothing is less formal in the NT than the conception of Jesus as judge
Salvation, Saviour - ...
The teaching of the prophets bore fruit in the age preceding the advent of Jesus in deepening ideas of the future life, of resurrection and a future perfected state: of the connexion of prosperity with righteousness though mostly in the sense of outward legal obedience, the very error against which the prophets declaimed and in more concrete representations of the Messiah
Targum - They also very much serve the Christian cause against the Jews, by interpreting many of the prophecies of the Messiah in the Old Testament in the same manner as the Christians do
Heathen - Newton, favour the same opinion; the latter of whom thus observes: "If we suppose a heathen brought to a sense of his misery; to a conviction that he cannot be happy without the favour of the great Lord of the world; to a feeling of guilt, and desire of mercy, and that, thought he has no explicit knowledge of a Saviour, he directs the cry of his heart to the unknown Supreme, to have mercy upon him; who will prove that such views and desires can arise in the heart of a sinner, without the energy of that Spirit which Jesus is exalted to bestow? Who will take upon him to say, that his blood has not sufficient efficacy to redeem to God a sinner who is thus disposed, though he have never heard of his name? Or who has a warrant to affirm, that the supposition I have made is in the nature of things impossible to be realized?" Newton's Messiah; Dr
Southcotters - Joanna gives those who profess belief in her mission, and will subscribe to the things revealed in her "WARNING, " a sealed written paper with her signature, and by which they are led to think they are sealed against the day of redemption, and that all those who are possessed of these seals will be signally honoured by the Messiah when he comes this spring
Transfiguration, the - connects the coming of Moses with that of the Messiah
Repose - 20; Edersheim, LT [1]. ‘Jesus,’ § 11, in EBi [1] , vol
Treasury - ; Edersheim, LT [3]
Veil - ‘Veil’; Edersheim, LT [2]
Hardening, Hardness of Heart - This event was taken as prophetic by Jesus (Matthew 13:14-15 ) and Paul (Acts 28:25-27 ) as referring to Israel's rejection of Jesus as God's Messiah
Saints - It was the saints, the holy people of God in the Old Testament, who brought the Messiah and redemption into the world, eventually extending the blessings to the Gentiles
Consolation - Similarly the Messiah Himself was known to the Rabbins as מְנַחִם, ‘the Consoler,’ or ‘Comforter,’ of Israel (see Schöttgen, Hor
Abomination, Abomination of Desolation - ...
The idea of “idol worship” being conquered by The Righteous One and righteousness reaches its full and climactic expression when the Kingdom of God was inaugurated by Jesus the Messiah
Sow (Verb) - ...
Zechariah 10:9 (b) Probably this refers to the fact that all over the world the Spirit of GOD will work on and in the hearts of His people in such a way that they will turn back to the living GOD, and to the Messiah, the Son of GOD
Bartimaeus - Thus, in the case of Bartimaeus himself, we have a notable instance of a determination that resolved to let no opportunity of being healed escape it; of a perseverance that continued its efforts notwithstanding the difficulties placed in its path; of an eagerness that cast off all that hindered its free approach; of a faith that recognized in Jesus the Divinely-appointed Messiah (‘Thou Son of David’) before and not after the cure; and of a thankfulness that showed itself in ready obedience and triumphant praise when the cure was complete (‘followed him, glorifying God’)
Ark - Nebo (2 Esdras 10:22; 2 Maccabees 2:5), whence it was to be miraculously restored to its place at the coming of the Messiah
Kingdom, Kingdom of God, Kingdom of Heaven - In many respects the two expressions are identical, but the 'kingdom of heaven' occurs in the gospel by Matthew only, and stands in contrast to the Messiah on earth
Law - 2) and challenged God’s people to remember the “law” of Moses in preparation for the coming Messiah ( Strong, To Be - To His Servant, the Messiah, God said: “I … will hold thine hand …” ( am ha'Arez - ‘Am haarez’); Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i
Herodians - Jerom, in his dialogue against the Luciferians, takes the name to have been given to such as owned Herod for the Messiah; and Tertullian, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, and Theophylact, among the ancients; and Grotius, and other moderns, are of the same sentiment
Shepherd - In like manner Christ, as the Messiah, is often called a shepherd, ...
Zechariah 13:7 , and also takes on himself the title of "the Good Shepherd," who gives his life for his sheep, John 10:11,14,15
Paradise (2) - ; Edersheim, LT [1]
Veil - ‘Veil’; Edersheim, LT [2]
John Epistles of - Falsehood culminates in the denial that Jesus is the Messiah. Victory over the world-the forces opposed to God-is gained by faith in Jesus as the Messiah, the Son of God. This is shown by the writer’s insistence on the confession that Jesus is the Messiah (1 John 2:22; cf. Hitherto they had no doubt hoped against hope for the recognition of Jesus as Messiah by the majority of their countrymen. If some openly accepted the condition, many Jewish Christians must have been sorely tempted to think that their estimate of Jesus as Messiah had been mistaken, and to regard Him as a Prophet indeed, but not as Messiah, still less as the unique Son of God
Caesarea Philippi - Mark 6:14), others Elijah, and still others Jeremiah (Matthew 16:14) or one of the prophets; but in the midst of this variety there was general agreement that Jesus, whoever else He might be, was not the Messiah. Manifestly Jesus was not the popular Messiah. Moreover, Jesus had not spoken plainly in Galilee of His Messiahship. He had not assumed a popular Messianic title, and when individuals had recognized in Him the Messiah, He had commanded silence. Unlike the people, the disciples had recognized in Jesus the Messiah, and to this conviction Peter gave brief expression. The content of Peter’s faith, moreover, was entirely inadequate when measured by Jesus’ conception of what His Messiahship involved. It was expected that the Messiah would have a people and would rule over them in an organized community
Offence (2) - ’ They had felt the charm of Jesus, and continued with Him in His temptations so far; but a Messiah who should be seized, tortured, and crucified by sinners would be too much for them. He had had reason to regard Him as the Messiah, but He was not the Messiah John had expected. Where were the axe and the fan and the consuming fire? Why, if the Messiah had really come, were not all wrongs irresistibly righted? Why was a true servant of God like himself left to suffer for fidelity to his Master? It is to this temper in John that Jesus says, ‘Blessed is he whosoever shall not be offended in me’ (Matthew 11:6, Luke 7:23). They could not accommodate themselves to a Messiah who had been hanged, especially when they thought of Deuteronomy 21:23
Isaiah - For the law of prophetical suggestion carried him on to the greater deliverance from the spiritual Babylon and the God-opposed world power and Satan, by Cyrus' Antitype, Messiah, the Saviour of the present elect church gathered from Jews and Gentiles, and the Restorer of Israel and Head of the worldwide kingdom yet to come. The second, Messiah's advent prefigured by Cyrus. Isaiah 53 minutely depicts Messiah's sufferings ages before the event, as Jews, unwilling witnesses, admit, while evading the acceptance of Jesus by various makeshifts. Then in the fullest sense Israel, the "elect servant of Jehovah," becomes concentrated in Messiah, the innocent sufferer atoning for the guilty, the seed of an everlasting and holy generation (Isaiah 42:1-7; Isaiah 44:1; Isaiah 49:3-25; Isaiah 49:52; Isaiah 49:53). ...
Messiah appears as Prophet (Isaiah 42:4), as Priest (Isaiah 53), as King (Isaiah 49:7; Isaiah 52:15). The mystical union of Messiah the Head and the members is implied in His being called "Israel," just as the New Testament church is called "Christ" (1 Corinthians 12:12; Romans 16:7). His royal priesthood, Isaiah His suffering priesthood; this last, especially in the latter portion, addressed to the faithful elect, whereas in the former part, addressed to the whole people, he dwells on Messiah's glory, the antidote to the fears of the people and the pledge to assure them that the kingdom of God, represented by Judah, would not be overwhelmed by Syria, Israel, and Assyria; so that they should trust wholly in Him and not in Egypt
Tares - This ties the parable to the historical situation in which it was spoken, forbidding an exclusive reference to the future; while the fact that it is the Son of Man (= Messiah) who has sown the good seed (cf. John the Baptist had at least, publicly and prevailingly, described the Messiah as coming for judgment (Matthew 3:10-12), and this was in perfect accord with the popular anticipation that the Messianic reign would begin with a judgment (Schürer, HJP Ezekiel - As Israel served the nations for their rejection of Messiah, so shall they serve Israel in the person of Messiah when Israel shall acknowledge Messiah (Isaiah 60:12; Zechariah 14:16-19; Psalms 72:11). The ideal temple exhibits under Old Testament forms the essential character of Messiah's worship as it shall be when He shall reign in Jerusalem among His own people the Jews, and thence to the ends of the earth (Jeremiah 3:17-18)
Righteousness - However, conformity to his own teachings presupposes that he is the Messiah, that he fulfills the Law and the Prophets, and that what he declares is the morality of the kingdom of God relating to the totality of life, inward and outward, seen by God. Yet what Jesus proclaims and outlines is certainly not a self-righteousness, for it is portrayed as the outflowing of a life that is centered on submitting to, worshiping, and seeking after God and confessing Jesus as the Messiah (see especially 5:17-42). It is the unique work of the Spirit, who comes into the world in the name of Jesus the Messiah, to convince/convict the world of righteousness
Jonah - Hosea (Hosea 6:2) saw the prophetical meaning of Jonah's entombment: "after two days will He revive us, in the third day He will raise us up;" primarily Israel, in a short period (Luke 13:32-33) to be revived from its national deadness, antitypically Messiah, raised on the third day (John 2:19; 1 Corinthians 15:4); as Israel's political resurrection typifies the general resurrection, of which Christ's resurrection is the firstfruits (Isaiah 26:19; Ezekiel 37:1-14; 1 Corinthians 15:22-23; Daniel 12:2). Jonah reflected' Israel's backsliding and consequent punishment; type of Messiah who bears our imputed guilt and its punishment; compare Psalms 42:7; Psalms 69:1-2; John 11:50. To the Pharisees who, not satisfied with His many signs, still demanded "a sign (Messiah coming gloriously) from heaven," Christ gave a sign "out of the belly of hell" (Jonah 2:2), i. Christ's death, entombment three days without corruption, and resurrection, is the grand proof of His Messiahship and of His power and will to save, just as Jonah's message derived its weight with the Ninevites from his past entombment and restoration
Jesus Christ - Christ (the Greek translation of the Hebrew Messiah) means anointed. Jesus occurs in the Bible 711 times; Christ 304 times; Jesus Christ, Lord Jesus Christ, and Christ Jesus (anointed Saviour), 244 times, and Messiah 4 times
People - (2) It had been organically associated by the OT revelation with the prospective advent of the Messiah and His Kingdom. He knew that He was Himself the Jewish Messiah and the Saviour of the world
People - (2) It had been organically associated by the OT revelation with the prospective advent of the Messiah and His Kingdom. He knew that He was Himself the Jewish Messiah and the Saviour of the world
Paul - His advocacy of Jesus as the Jewish Messiah exposed him everywhere to the hatred and malice of his countrymen
Shekinah - ’ It was believed that the Shekinah would return with the Messiah; ‘the glory of the Lord shall he seen and the cloud’ ( 2M Malachi 2:8 )
Delight - God had special delight in his Servant-Messiah, upon whom he put his Spirit (Isaiah 42:1 )
Bethlehem - For "Ephratah," now become obsolete, he substitutes" in the land of Jude"; furthermore he implies, "though thou art little in a worldly point of view, thou art the reverse of least among Jude's princes, in the spiritual glory of being Messiah's birthplace" (1 Corinthians 1:27-28). The low state of David's line when Messiah was born is also implied in Micah (Isaiah 53:2)
Nazareth - ...
As "John the Baptist; was in the desert until the day of his showing unto Israel," so Messiah was growing up unknown to the world in the sequestered town among the mountains, until His baptism by the forerunner ushered in His public ministry
Candlestick - Zechariah's candlestick (Zechariah 4) is prophetical of that final church which shall join in one all the earth under Messiah the King, reigning in Jerusalem as the spiritual center and rallying point of all (compare Zephaniah 3:9; Zechariah 14:9; Zechariah 14:16-17; Jeremiah 3:17)
Saints - The tombs were near Jerusalem, and the fact of recognition implied in the appearance of the risen ones in the city suggests that the saints were some of those who, during their earthly life, had been led to faith in Jesus as the Messiah: godly people of the type of Anna, Simeon, Zacharias, and Elisabeth
Salt (2) - The words in the text thus adjusted (πᾶς γὰρ πυρὶ ἁλισθήσεται) have been translated ‘for every one shall be salted for the fire’ (Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Joy - The birth of John the Baptist as the forerunner of the Messiah is an occasion of joy for his father and others (Luke 1:14 )
Foreknowledge - And Isaiah's contemporary, Micah, prophesied that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (5:2)
Matthew - Edersheim, LT Isaiah - ...
With regard to the original Messianic import of the passages applied in the Gospels to Jesus Christ and His work, there is no difficulty in those cases where the ‘Servant of Jehovah’ is identified with the Messiah
Messenger - ’ These two applications are in the NT interpreted of the Baptist and the Messiah respectively
Gate - Psalms 69:12, "they that sit in the gate speak against Me (Messiah), and I was the song of the drunkards," i
Mediator - Both Jews and Gentiles have a notion of a Mediator: the Jews call the Messiah the Mediator or Middle One
Luke, Gospel of - ...
Luke morally sets aside the Jewish system and introduces the Son of man as the Man before God, presenting Him as the One who is filled with all the fulness of God dwelling in Him bodily, as the Man before God, according to His own heart, and thus as Mediator between God and man, centre of a moral system much more vast than that of Messiah among the Jews
Micah, Book of - ...
Micah 5 Another subject and another Person are introduced before the final blessings of Israel can be brought to them, namely, the Messiah,'the judge of Israel,' whose goings forth had been from of old, from everlasting
Eating - " Then he recites a pretty long prayer, wherein he thanks God for his many benefits vouchsafed to Israel; beseeches him to pity Jerusalem and his temple, to restore the throne of David, to send Elias and the Messiah, to deliver them out of their long captivity, &c
Barrenness - This was looked upon as reproachful among the Greeks and Romans, but more particularly so among the Jews; which may be accounted for by the constant expectation of Messiah, and the hope that every woman had, that she might be the mother of the promised seed
Feasts - The observance of these sacred festivals was adapted not merely to freshen the remembrance of their early history as a nation, but to keep alive the influence of religion and the expectation of the Messiah, to deepen their joy in God, to dispel animosities and jealousies, and to form new associations between the different tribes and families
Descent Into Hades - ...
We may pass by fanciful theories such as that the passage refers to the preaching of Enoch regarded as an incarnation of the Messiah
John the Baptist - ...
While in prison John's faith or patience seems in measure to have failed him, and he sent two of his disciples to the Lord with the question, "Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?" He evidently had not apprehended the humiliation and rejection of the Messiah, and expected to have been delivered from prison by the power which he knew had been exercised in grace by the Lord
Isaiah - ...
With regard to the original Messianic import of the passages applied in the Gospels to Jesus Christ and His work, there is no difficulty in those cases where the ‘Servant of Jehovah’ is identified with the Messiah
Paradox - More paradoxical still must have appeared His condemnation of the Pharisees (Matthew 23:1-36), His friendship with publicans and sinners (Matthew 9:9-13, Mark 2:15-16, Luke 19:1-10), His conception of the Messiah (Mark 10:45; Mark 8:27-38)
Jesus Christ - Guthrie, Jesus the Messiah, 1972; B. He spoke out against false trust in one's Jewishness, demanded conversion in the light of the coming judgment, required a changed life as evidence of conversion, and spoke of the coming Messiah, of whom he was the forerunner. Second, when John the Baptist asked Jesus from prison if he was the Messiah, Jesus replied with a definition of Messiahship that was one of service and suffering rather than of immediate triumph (Matthew 11:2-19 ). Conflict immediately broke out, some saying he was the Messiah or a Prophet, others denying it (John 7:11-13,40-43 ). They charged that Jesus had actively misled the people, opposed payment of taxes to Caesar, and claimed to be the Messiah, a king (Luke 23:2 )
Magi - From this phenomenon, however, whatever it may have been, the Magi inferred the birth of a Messiah-king of the Jews. ); nor is there any historical evidence that there was at this time among the nations any widespread expectation of the advent of a Messiah in Palestine (Tac. On the other hand, the Jews themselves were undoubtedly expecting the Messiah (Charles, Eschatology, p. 330), and a Rabbinical tradition, which may be previous to Christ’s birth, declared that a star in the East was to appear two years before the Messiah’s advent (Edersheim, i. The writer’s object is to show that the prophecy of Deuteronomy 18:15 was fulfilled in Jesus, and he endeavours to do this by drawing a parallel between the early career of Moses and that of the Christian Messiah (see the Midrash Rabbâ to Exodus in the section which deals with the birth of Moses, and cf. At last, in the reign of king Pir Shabour, the star appeared, and the Magi were sent with great pomp to do homage to the Messiah
Mediator - ’ We are also able to do more justice to the truth that He revealed Himself as already the Messiah during ‘the days of his flesh,’ and did not teach that His Messianic Kingdom was only an affair of the future. He claimed to fulfil the Jewish expectation of an ideal King, the Messiah. The confession of His Messiahship by St. ...
(a) In Acts Jesus is set forth as Prophet, Messiah, Son of God, and Redeemer. He died, not as any ordinary martyr, but as the Messiah and the atoning Servant. Further, it would have been impossible for the Apostles to attribute this meaning to the death of Christ, unless they had been able to point to the empty grave, to assert that the Messiah lives, and that a direct relation can be established between Him and His sinful people
Annunciation, the - The angelic message is given ‘in three little pieces of trimeter poetry, which have become somewhat obscured by the Greek translation’ (Briggs, The Messiah of the Gospels, p. This ‘grace’ is manifested in making her the mother of the longed-for Messiah, an unspeakable joy to a Jewish mother. As to the explanation, it is an influence that is spiritual and not carnal, that is holy and not sinful, that is to come upon her and enable her to become a mother, and the mother of the Messiah. ’...
‘Son of God’ was a recognized title of the Messiah. Both in the Book of Enoch and frequently in 4 Ezra the Almighty speaks of the Messiah as His Son
Doctrines - The earlier form may possibly, as has been suggested, have been by association so closely connected with the national hope of the Jews, and with that selfish exclusiveness which led them to regard themselves as in a peculiar sense the elect people of God, as to seem to countenance the old narrow views of Messiah’s kingdom, to the prejudice of the more spiritual and catholic teaching of Jesus Himself, which impressed itself the more strongly upon His followers the more successfully they sought to win the Gentiles to the faith of Christ. The prophecy of the Messiah is fulfilled in the person and work of Him whom God has sent. As we read in the Fourth Gospel that ‘to as many as received him’ Jesus ‘gave the right to become children of God’ (John 1:12), so, according to the testimony of all four, the Kingdom of God is come in the person of the Messiah (Matthew 12:28 || Luke 11:20). ...
A remarkable feature, indeed, of the Gospels is the fact that the essential Divinity of Christ, and even the express doctrine of His Messiahship, appear to have been made in His public teaching the subject of gradual development rather than of direct and explicit teaching. Jesus suffered not the confession of His Messiahship by the demons whom He cast out of those who were possessed. And although, when He received the first disciples, John and Andrew, Peter, Nathanael and Philip, He accepted their confession that in Him they had found the Messiah (John 1:41-51), it was in but few cases that He declared Himself in so many words to be the Christ of God; as, for example, in that of His conversation with the woman of Samaria (John 4:26); again when He declared to His townsmen in Nazareth that Isaiah’s prophecy of the Messiah as the great preacher and healer was fulfilled in Himself (Luke 4:21); and again when He answered the doubting question of the Baptist, ‘Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?’, by pointing to the testimony of His teaching and of His works of mercy (Matthew 11:2-6 || Mark 4:2). For the rest, Jesus allowed the thought of His Divine claims to grow in the minds of His disciples, and it was not until within a few months of His death that Peter in their name confessed His Messiahship, when Jesus, in welcoming their faith, expressly declared that it had come to them by revelation from God
Ebionism And Ebionites - 26]'>[2]); its restoration would take place in the millennial kingdom of Messiah and the Jews would return there as the manifestly chosen people of God. ) it was the turning-point in the life of Jesus: from that moment He was endued with power necessary to fill His mission as Messiah; but He was still man. They are said to have freed themselves from the common Jewish notion that the Messiah was to be an earthly king; they were not shocked as were so many of the Jews at the humbleness of the birth the sufferings and crucifixion of Jesus; but they agreed with them in looking upon the advent of Messiah as future and in deferring the restitution of all things to the millennium
Heaven - Messiah comes from heaven to establish a temporary Messianic Kingdom, and returns to heaven at the close of it. Acts 2:34-35 interprets Psalms 110:1 of the Ascension of Christ, and Acts 3:21 adds that it was necessary for the Messiah to return to heaven because the ἀποκατάστασις had not yet arrived. Both passages show that the belief in the Messiah’s present existence in heaven was an essential part of primitive apostolic tradition, and also that the early tradition was very little occupied with heaven as a place of abode in the future, but rather as the place whence God would intervene by sending the Messiah again to establish the kingdom on earth. 1 Peter 1:4 echoes Colossians 1:5 : heaven is the place where the inheritance incorruptible and undefiled is kept with care until the moment for the revelation of Messiah
Satan - It is interesting to note that in the later Midrash one of the works of Messiah ben-Joseph is the slaying of Sammael, who is ‘the Satan, the prime mover of all evil. One principal function of the Messiah is to destroy the works of Satan and his subordinates ( Mark 1:24 ; Mark 1:34 ; Mark 3:11-12 ; Mark 3:15 etc
Time - The most outstanding Old Testament example of this is Israel's redemption from Egypt (Nehemiah 9:9-25 ; Psalm 78:12-55 ; Hosea 11:1 ); in the New Testament it is the coming of Jesus as Messiah, Savior, and Lord (Acts 3:12-26 ; 10:34-43 ; 13:16-41 ). ...
In the New Testament, Jesus' coming as the Messiah inaugurated "the year of the Lord's favor" (Luke 4:19,21 )
Confess, Confession - ...
A variation of the formula "Jesus is Lord" that is probably just as early is the confession "Jesus is the Christ, or the Messiah. " John tells us that the Pharisees refused to confess that Jesus was the Messiah (12:42), and forced out of the synagogue all Jews who did make such a confession (9:22)
Ark of the Covenant - The antitype, Messiah, goes before His redeemed, exploring their way through the wilderness, making clear passage through death's waters into the heavenly Canaan. Like the ark with the Philistines Messiah was the captive of the grave for a brief space, but with triumph He rose again; and as when the ark went up to the tabernacle reared for it by David on Zion, so on Christ's ascending the heavenly mount the glorious anthem arose: "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors, and the King of glory shall come in" (Psalm 24)
Joseph (2) - † Parable - Most parable studies that deal with the sort of implicit claim Jesus was making through the parables assume that it is a messianic claim, but most of this imagery was not used in the Old Testament to depict the Messiah. Even those symbols that were occasionally also used of the Messiah in the Old Testament (shepherd, king, stone) in Jesus' parables refer more naturally to God
Genesis, the Book of - Genesis is the first of the five parts of the Pentateuch, the grand subject of which is the setting up of the theocratic kingdom, Israel, amidst the nations as the repository of the divine promise until its fulfillment in Messiah, who should be a "light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of His people Israel. Eve's exclamation (Genesis 4:1), "I have gotten a man by the help of (Gesenius) JEHOVAH," marks her hope of her firstborn proving one link toward the birth of the Messiah covenanted by God to His people
Dead, the - 166; Salmond, Christian Doctrine of Immortality; Drummond, The Jewish Messiah; Stanton, The Jewish and the Christian Messiah; Luckock, After Death; Randles, After Death; Beet, Last Things; White, Life in Christ
Aeon - ’ These are identified with the age before and after the coming of the Messiah. It is difficult to believe that a nation which expected as much from the advent of the Messiah did not form some idea, at a date before the days of Jesus Christ, of the vast changes vast would be produced when He did come, and look upon the age which was so marked as one to be contrasted with the age in which they were living
Serve - In the reign of Messiah, “all nations shall serve him” ( Messiah in Isaiah (42:1-7; 49:1- 7; 50:4-10; 52:13-53:12)
Judah - " Spiritually the targums of Jerusalem and Pseudo Jonathan refer this also to Messiah. Pharez and Zarah were the offspring, Pharezthe ancestor of David and of Messiah Himself (Genesis 46:12))
Nazarene (2) - The followers of ‘the Nazarene’ had evidently been made to feel the reproach of the alleged Galilaean origin of their Messiah. seems to turn the edge of the reproach levelled at the Christian Messiah in the characteristically Jewish-Palestinian designation of Jesus as ‘the Nazarene’ (יֵשׁוּע הַנּו̇צְרִי)
Poverty (2) - ]'>[1] condemn all its inhabitants to poverty (see Edersheim, Life and Times of the Messiah, i. —Edersheim, Life and Times of the Messiah; Schürer, HJP Promise (2) - , John the Baptist definitely inquired ‘Art thou he that cometh?’ (Matthew 11:2-19, Luke 7:19-23), Jesus deliberately appealed not to the correspondence between Himself and the expectations formed of the promised Messiah, but to the effect being at the moment produced by His ministry. He objected to being proclaimed as the Christ, not simply because He knew that the people, when persuaded of this, would seek to make Him a king and expect Him to use temporal resources, but because the very tenacity with which His countrymen clung to their stereotyped notions of the promised Messiah would prevent them from gaining a true understanding of the scope and purpose of His mission
Enoch Book of - On the other hand, there is ever and anon a baffling change in the presentation of ideas about the Kingdom, the Messiah, the form of the future judgment and life after death. are enlightened); a white bull (= Messiah) is born, and is adored by all; the others are all transformed into white bulls, and the Lord of the sheep rejoices over them all alike; Enoch awakes and weeps [xc. -God and the Messiah to dwell with men. There is no Messiah; God Himself is to abide with men (xxv. The Messiah is eternally pre-existent, and all judgment is committed to Him. The problem is the oppression of the righteous by the kings and mighty, and the solution consists in a vision of the coming liberator and vindicator, the Messiah of supernatural power and privilege
Perfection (of Jesus) - And His miracles of healing were never demonstrations, seals of His Messiahship; personal sympathy was their source and regulator. He had to appeal to the popular expectation, their hopes of the Messiah soiled by ignoble thought. When Jesus saw Himself as the long-looked-for Messiah, all the worldly hopes that clung to the office in the thoughts of Rabbi or people flowed in upon Him. There was the Rabbinic expectation of a kingdom of right obedience set up miraculously by God through the sudden appearance of the Messiah—a more refined, seemingly pious expectation, full of trust in God only and of zeal for His glory. These were the thoughts and hopes which rose up at the claim of Messiah. And as soon as the disciples had come to clear faith in Him as the Messiah, He began to prepare them for disappointment and tribulation and His death. Though He proclaimed, when need was, His greatness as the Son of God, yet He turned aside from personal questions as to whether He was the Messiah
Mediation Mediator - Peter on the Day of Pentecost boldly interprets Jesus as the Messiah (Acts 2:31) of whose resurrection from the dead they were all witnesses (Acts 2:32). The death of Jesus is not an obstacle to His Messiahship. On the strength of the claim that Jesus is both Lord and Messiah as shown by His resurrection, Peter urges repentance and baptism in the name of Jesus Christ. The Lordship of Jesus the Messiah is accented as the ground for repentance
Matthew, the Gospel of - This opening section makes it obvious that Jesus is designated by God to be the Messiah with authority—for all nations. In the midst of the trial scene Jesus was asked if He was the Messiah. Faith sees Jesus as Messiah, but blindness calls Him satanic (Matthew 12:22-37 )
Old Testament in the New Testament, the - After all, obedience to the Law had led him to persecute the Messiah! Following this, he could not continue to read and interpret the Scriptures as before. Rabbinic Judaism in the post-New Testament period sought to "complete" the Scriptures by filling out the body of its case law, reinterpreting the sacrificial legislation ethically, and gently downplaying the significance of the Messiah (in the main). Some prophecies are quoted frequentlyespecially those relating to the Davidic Messiah, the Son of Man, the prophet like Moses, and the "Servant" of Isaiah (see examples below)
Heir Heritage Inheritance - We can trace in the OT (see Sanday-Headlam on Romans 8:17) the transitions of meaning, from the simple possession of Canaan to the permanent and assured possession, then to the secure possession won by Messiah, and so to all Messianic blessings. Edersheim, LT Condemnation - "...
In New Testament theology the rebellion of the first Adam with its disastrous consequences of death and condemnation for all humankind is more than offset by the obedience of the second Adam, the Lord Messiah Jesus (Romans 5:12-21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:22 )
Faith - Faith in Christ, or saving faith is that principle wrought in the heart by the Divine Spirit, whereby we are persuaded that Christ is the Messiah; and possess such a desire and expectation of the blessings he has promised in his Gospel, as engages the mind to fix its dependence on him, and subject itself to him in all the ways of holy obedience, and relying solely on his grace for everlasting life
Preaching in the Bible - This proclamation of God's revelation functions as God's chosen instrument for bringing us to salvation by grace, although its message of a crucified Messiah seems to be foolishness to people of worldly wisdom and a scandalous offense to Jews (1 Corinthians 1:21-23 )
Justice - The Old Testament goes on to predict that the Messiah will execute justice on God's behalf ( Isaiah 9:7 ; 11:3-4 ; 16:4b-5 ; 28:17 )
Hope - And if Simeon, having received the Messiah into his arms, felt his greatest hopes realized, then the disciples, having found the Christ, must have been so absorbed by Him as to have had little room and little need for longings regarding the future
Aaron - In the consecration of the high priest the supreme act was anointing with oil (Leviticus 8:12), from which, indeed, the designation Messiah (‘anointed one’) arose
Fire - John the Baptist, as the last and greatest prophet of the Old Testament dispensation, declared of the Messiah, "He shall baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire," referring to His judicial aspect, "burning up the chaff with unquenchable fire" (Matthew 3:11-12)
Gospel - He represents the Savior as the fulfillment of the hopes of Israel, the promised Messiah, King of the kingdom of God
ju'Das Iscar'Iot - (4) A much larger covetousness, --an ambition to be the treasurer, not merely of a few poor disciples, but of a great and splendid temporal kingdom of the Messiah
Hope, Hope - , the expectation of the coming of the Messiah
Hope - And if Simeon, having received the Messiah into his arms, felt his greatest hopes realized, then the disciples, having found the Christ, must have been so absorbed by Him as to have had little room and little need for longings regarding the future
Lord's Supper - Christ and his people will be together for ever in the triumphant kingdom of the Messiah
Jesus Christ, Name And Titles of - ...
Christ, Messiah, Anointed One . The word "Messiah, " therefore, does not appear in major English translations of the Hebrew Bible such as the Revised Standard Version or the New International Version. "Messiah" appears only twice in the New Testament (John 1:41 ; 4:25 ) as an explanation of the Greek word "Christ. The Apocalypse of John describes Jesus as the Anointed One when looking forward to the end when the kingdom and salvation of the Lord and his Messiah will enjoy an eternal and full dominion (11:15; 12:10; 20:4,6)
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - It was assumed that He was ‘Son of David,’ and the title was given to Him as the Messiah; nor does it appear that His claim was ever seriously contested on the ground that His Davidic descent was doubtful. parallels) Jesus appears to raise difficulties as to the appropriateness of the current application of the title to the Messiah (see Holtzmann, Hdcom. The evidence to be derived from the Fourth Gospel is of a doubtful character; in John 7:27 we find traces of the phase of Jewish thought according to which the Messiah would appear suddenly and his origin would be secret: the answer of Jesus implies that the people did indeed know His human, but not His spiritual, origin. Thus he brings the Messiah into relation with all who, whether in a literal or a spiritual sense, could call Abraham their Father
Sin (2) - What Jesus the Messiah found was disobedience and disloyalty. The bringing forth of the people from Pharaoh’s bondage to serve Jehovah is the ancient experience which is before the mind of devout men under the old covenant as the pattern of the deliverance which Messiah was to accomplish (Matthew 2:15, cf. The Kingdom of Messiah was a vivid reality, and the earlier Epistles show that at first he was not without the common anticipation of its immediate establishment in manifested power. If Messiah was to be manifested at the Parousia, Satan was also destined to be manifested in the Man of Sin (2 Thessalonians 2:3-11)
Holiness Purity - The phrase is evidently a designation of the Messiah. This was regarded in contemporary Jewish thought as a function of the Messiah. ...
In the Book of Acts Jesus is called τὸν ἄγιον καὶ δίκαιον (Acts 3:14), where the epithet is simply an equivalent for the Messiah; and it has the same meaning in Acts 4:27 (τὸν ἄγιον παῖδά σου), where παῖδα is to be translated ‘servant’ in the sense of Isaiah 52:13; Isaiah 61:1 (see R. In all the uses of the word In the NT, even in the semi-technical applications to Messiah quoted from Acts, the reference is to moral conduct, considered as fitness for the service of God (cf
Jeremiah - His personal experiences were providentially ordered to qualify him to be the type in his own person, as well as the prophet, of Messiah (compare Isaiah 53:7). The Jews expected his reappearing as the forerunner of Messiah (Matthew 16:14), "that prophet" (John 1:21). He in a true sense did forerun Messiah, foreseeing to his own "sweet" comfort (Jeremiah 31:26) not only His conception by a "virgin," but His kingdom, first spiritual, whereby He is "the Lord our righteousness" (Jeremiah 23:5-6), making the "new covenant," "remembering our sin no more," and "writing His law in our hearts" (Jeremiah 31:22; Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-12; Hebrews 10:16-17), then visible in Jerusalem, Judah, and Israel, in the last days (1618419556_89; Jeremiah 3:16-18). ...
The picture of his sufferings in Lamentations 1:12 is antitypically realized in Messiah alone
Peter - Simon and his brother doubtless enjoyed all the advantages of a religious training, and were early instructed in an acquaintance with the Scriptures and with the great prophecies regarding the coming of the Messiah. They were convinced, by his gracious words and by the authority with which he spoke, that he was the Messiah (Luke 4:22 ; Matthew 7:29 ); and Andrew went forth and found Simon and brought him to Jesus (John 1:41 )
Isaac - ) "laughter," because Abraham laughed in joy at the promise of his birth, type of the annunciation of Messiah's birth (Genesis 17:17); and Sarah too, with some degree of incredulity because of the improbability at her age (Genesis 18:12), but at his birth with thankful joy toward God, saying "God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me" (Genesis 21:6-7; compare Isaiah 54:1). His miraculous conception and naming before birth typify Messiah (Luke 1; Matthew 1). His living still after the three days (Genesis 22:4) in which he was dead in Abraham's purpose prefigures the Messiah's resurrection on the third day. ...
Thus Abraham had the wonderful honour of representing the Father, and Isaac, the only son of the promise, was the most remarkable of all the types of the Son Messiah. Abraham herein had the glimpse which he had desired of Messiah's day "and was glad" (Isaac meaning "laughter flowing from gladness") (John 8:56); not that he fully comprehended the anti-typical meaning
Atonement, Day of - ...
During this no ordinary priest was allowed to be in or about the sanctuary (Leviticus 16:16-20; Exodus 30:10); teaching that Messiah has a priesthood exclusively His own, and that no work of layman or priest is to be added to His complete work of atonement (Hebrews 7:24; Hebrews 9:12; Hebrews 10:12-18). " No such change took place for 40 years before the destruction of Jerusalem; a singular testimony from Jewish authority to Messiah, as His ministry was precisely 40 years before the destruction of the holy city; the type ceased when the Antitype came
Psalms, Book of - They also point ahead to the Messiah, who would inaugurate God's kingdom. From them we learn to pray for and respect the role of government officials as well as praise God's Messiah
Preach, Proclaim - Jesus points out that the Messiah had to suffer and rise, and that forgiveness of sins must be proclaimed (kerysso [16:9-20) contains a use of "proclaim" similar to that of Luke 24:47 . The mention of crowds and the reference to great joy in the city would point to a public proclamation of Jesus as the Messiah to the whole city
Antiochus - Daniel 9 would comfort the faithful Jews amidst the "abominations" against "the covenant," with the prospect of Messiah, who would confirm it. , went forth with great fury, on the way took Arad in Judah, devastated Phoenicia (according to Porphyry), "planting the tabernacles of his palace between the seas" (the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean), attacked the temple of Nanae at Elymais, ("the desire of women," the Syrian Venus; but the antitypical reference is to Messiah, whom Antichrist shall try to supplant,) to replenish his treasury, so as to renew the war with the Jews
Benedictus - They look, like the Benedictus, for a Messiah of the House of David. The Messiah they expect is purely human (cf
Blasphemy (2) - But, since the term ‘the Son of Man’ appears to be a veiled reference to His Messiahship, for Himself and for the enlightened among His followers He must have meant that those who insulted Him, even though He was the Christ, were not beyond pardon; cf. Yet the claim was not for more than the Book of Enoch assigned to the Messiah. But the Messiah in that Apocalyptic book is a heavenly being
Holy Spirit - And the one upon whom God’s Spirit would rest in a special way was the Messiah (Isaiah 11:1-5; see Messiah)
Atonement - ...
The literature preserved in the NT witnesses to the undoubted fact that the Apostolic Church had very early established a close connexion between the death of Jesus the Messiah and the redemption of men from their sins. ...
(3) All the Synoptics assure us that, when Jesus received the first full recognition of Messiahship from His disciples, He instantly met it by the open confession that His suffering and death were a necessity. Beginning to search the Scriptures to discover whether death had a place in the prophetic presentation of the Messiah, the disciples were surprised into the apprehension of the meaning of the words of Jesus spoken whilst He was yet with them; they thus came to see that the Death was only the shadow side of an experience by which He passed to the exaltation and authority of His redeeming work; the catastrophe was seen to have a place in the moral order of God, and the scandal of the cross was transfigured into the glory of the Divine purpose of redemption. In this account the sufferings and death of Jesus the Messiah have a fundamental place. The cross is now more than a scandal; the ‘word of the cross’ is more than an apologetic device for getting over the difficulties of accepting a crucified Messiah. -(2) Jesus as the Messiah is identified with the suffering Servant of the Lord (Acts 4:27; Exodus 24:8). -(5) Christ’s death is not distinctly represented as the ground of forgiveness, by setting forth the Messiah’s death as a satisfaction for sin or as a substitute for sin’s penalty
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - ...
The work is remarkable for its high ethical teaching, in which it approaches nearer the NT than any other Jewish pseudepigraph, and for its expectation of a Messiah from the tribe of Levi. In the Resurrection life, however, the figure of the Messiah vanishes and in the reconstituted nation each tribe is ruled by its ancestor. ]'>[3]8 The Messiah and His Kingdom shall then come (xxiv. A decisive argument against any Christian origin, however, is to be found in the remarkable expectation of a Messiah from the tribe of Levi. They refer not merely to a second great apostasy, but to a second destruction of the Temple and a second captivity and a final restoration wrought by God directly or through the Messiah
Church - Paul? What was it that turned Saul the persecutor of the Church into Paul the apostle of Jesus Christ? It was the indelible conviction that Jesus was the Messiah, and that He had risen from the dead and conversed with him on the road to Damascus, that converted and ever afterwards controlled St. The conviction that the Messiah had been crucified, and had risen, and was now the Lord in heaven, was reached very quickly and surely by large numbers, who had good opportunities of ascertaining the truth and staked everything on the result. Peter began his Pentecostal address to the assembled Jews by pointing out that the outpouring of the Spirit was a fulfilment of Jewish prophecy (Joel 2:28-31) and an inauguration of ‘the last days,’ which were to precede the coming of the Messiah in glory. Its Founder was the Jewish Messiah, the fulfilment of OT prophecies. 66-70 was regarded by the Christians as a judgment for the murder of the Messiah, and also for the more recent murder in 62 of the Messiah’s brother, James the Just
Jesus Christ - It is, in short, a history written with the purpose of demonstrating that Jesus was the expected Messiah. , is to exhibit Jesus as the Messiah, and it supports the argument by citing numerous instances of the fulfilment in the life of Jesus of OT prediction. Could Jesus, they may well have asked, be the Messiah, seeing that His mission had issued, not in the deliverance of Israel, but in its ruin? In answer to this the Gospel makes it plain that the overthrow of the Jewish State was a punishment which was foreseen by Jesus, and also that He had become the head of a vaster and more glorious kingdom than that of which, as Jewish patriots, they had ever dreamed ( Matthew 28:18-20 ). The predicate of the Messiah is reaffirmed, and as the Saviour He appears in the most sublime and tender characters, but the Prologue furnishes the key to the interpretation of His Person in a title which imports the highest conceivable dignity of origin, being, and prerogative: ‘In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. ]'>[4] 1883); Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah , 1884; Didon, Jesus Christ , 1891; Sanday, Outlines of the Life of Christ , 1906
Holy Spirit - This prophetic foreshadowing, in light of the individual, sporadic, and temporary manifestation of the Spirit in the Old Testament, looked forward to a time when the Spirit of God would revitalize His chosen people, empower the Messiah, and be lavishly poured out on all humankind
Haggai - Besides Messiah is "all desires," containing collectively all desirable things in Himself such as they missed in the present temple, splendor, riches, etc. The glory of the latter house did not exceed that of the former except in Messiah's advent; the silver and gold brought to it scarcely equaled those of Solomon's temple, and certainly all nations did not bring their desirable things to it
Angel - Compare Exodus 23:20,21 ; 32:34 ; 33:2 ; Numbers 20:16 ) is probably rightly interpreted of the Messiah as the guide of his people
Ruth - Orpah's end is shrouded in darkness, while Ruth is remembered to all generations as chosen ancestress of Messiah
Mary - Luke presented Mary as a person of great faith prepared to be an agent of God in the birth of the Messiah
Guest-Chamber - on Mark; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i
Sisters - also Edersheim, LT [8]
Arment - This is probably a picture of the redemption of Israel when GOD again works on and in this great people to make them a holy and righteous people when they accept the Messiah
James, Epistle of - This was written to the twelve tribes which were in the dispersion, viewing them as still in relationship with God, though it was only the Jewish remnant, now become Christians, who professed the faith, which the Spirit gave, in the true Messiah
First-Born First-Begotten - The title ‘Firstborn’ was used figuratively by the Jews of Messiah, from Psalms 89:27 (which they generally interpreted in a Messianic sense), and of Israel in Exodus 4:22; this paved the way for the NT usage
Think, Devise - 53:3-4: “He [1] is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief; and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not
Anointing - , the imparting of the Divine Spirit, whether to the Messiah or to the Christian disciple
Sacrifice - Accordingly, we find Abel, Noah, Abraham, Job, and others, offering sacrifices in the faith of the Messiah; and the divine acceptance of their sacrifices is particularly recorded
Captives - To the wretched state of such prisoners, the Prophet Isaiah alludes in a noble prediction where he describes in very glowing colours the character and work of the promised Messiah: "He hath sent me to heal the broken hearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised," as captives too frequently were by the weight of their fetters
Physician (2) - Spurgeon, The Messiah, 483
Prince (2) - ; Spurgeon, The Messiah, 163, 175
Confession (of Christ) - —In the earlier period of the ministry of Jesus the faith of His followers did not rise above the belief that He was the long-expected Messiah; and it was this conviction which was expressed in their confessions. Typical at this stage are the words of Andrew, ‘We have found the Messiah’ (John 1:41). And yet even this was a great thing—to see in the man of Nazareth the Messiah of prophecy and hope. John tells us that the Jews had agreed that if any man should confess Jesus to be Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue (John 9:22); that they actually cast out, for making such a confession, the blind man whom Jesus had cured (John 9:34); and that through fear of excommunication many of the chief rulers who believed in His Messiahship refrained from the confession of their faith (John 12:42). It was no small thing to confess that Jesus was the Christ, crude and unspiritual in most cases as the notions of His Messiahship might still be
Jesus Christ - (jee' zuhss krisst) Greek form of Joshua and of title meaning, “Yahweh is salvation” and “the anointed one” or “Messiah. At baptism He was sealed to be a suffering Messiah
Apocrypha - Romans 5 ), the limitations of human understanding, the signs of the end, the final judgment, the intermediate state between death and the final judgment, the destruction of the Roman Empire, and the coming Messiah. Although the literature is too vast and varied to summarize here, many Pseudepigrapha contain visionary journeys through heaven (or a series of heavens) and hell, an increased interest in angels and demons, speculations on the origins of sin and the nature of the final judgment, various expectations of a Messiah, predictions of the end of time, and ethical exhortations
Headship - The corner-stone, a stone fitted into an angle of the building and binding together the walls which meet at that point, and without which the structure must collapse, represents the Messiah, through whom the theocracy finds its realization. Thus quoted and applied, the words of the Psalm speak of the Messiah as of Him ‘upon whom depend the maintenance and development of the theocracy, without whom it would fall to pieces, as the corner-stone is the upholder and stay of a building’ (Meyer)
Antichrist - ) The false Christs and false prophets (Matthew 24) point to the pretenders to Messiahship before the fall of Jerusalem, the foreshadowing of the future impostors about to deceive all but; the elect. All who deny Jesus's Messiahship and Sonship (as Cerinthus and the Gnostics of John's days) forerun the Antichrist "to come" (the same Greek verb is used as of Christ's" coming". , outwardly resembling Christ or Messiah (Revelation 13:11); sitting in God's temple as God, apparently restored Israel's persecutor, whence the sacred Hebrew is the language of Daniel 8-12, wherein the little horn from the East is a leading subject, whereas the world's language, Chaldee, is that of Daniel 7 wherein the Romish little horn is described. At first hailed by Israel with hosannahs as her Messiah (John 5:43), and making a covenant with the Jews, then breaking it (Daniel 9; 11; 12; Zechariah 11; 12; 13; 14)
Anointing (2) - 39, Simon thought Jesus might be the prophet who should arise and herald the Messiah. The Hebrew word ‘Messiah’ (משַׁיחַ from מִשַׁח ‘to anoint’) means ‘the anointed one’; and of this word ‘Christ’ is the Greek equivalent (χριστός, from χρίω, ‘to anoint,’ being employed in LXX Septuagint to render משַׁיחַ)
Prophets - And most of the prophets had revelations concerning future events; above all, concerning the coming and kingdom of the Messiah: "He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David, as he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began,"...
Luke 1:69-70 . The great object of prophecy was, as has been before observed, a description of the Messiah, and of his kingdom, Matthew 26:56 ; Luke 1:70 ; Luke 18:31 ; Luke 24:44 ; John 1:45 ; Acts 3:18 ; Acts 3:24 ; Acts 10:43 ; Acts 13:29 ; Acts 15:15 ; Acts 28:23 ; 1 Peter 1:10-12
Decrees - The decree of Caesar Augustus for a census (Matthew 2:4-68 ) is providentially used to ensure the fulfillment of the prophecy that the Messiah would be born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:2 ; cf
Judgment Day - God is usually pictured as the Judge although sometimes the Messiah is charged with this responsibility (Enoch 45:3; 69:27-29)
Tittle - letters are distinguished from others that they closely resemble, and there are several Jewish sayings which declare that any one who is guilty of interchanging such letters in certain passages of the OT will thereby destroy the whole world (see Edersheim, LT [4]
Synagogue - The first-century synagogue worshipers believed in the one true God, studied the Scriptures, and looked for the coming Messiah
Baptism of the Holy Spirit - ...
In Matthew 3:11 and Luke 3:16 , John predicts that the Messiah who will come after him will baptize with the Spirit and fire
Rahab (1) - ...
Her faith was richly rewarded, she becoming mother of Boaz (Ruth 4:21), an ancestress of Messiah; one of the four women, all foreigners, Thamar, Rahab, Ruth, and Bathsheba, named in Matthew's genealogy (Matthew 1:5)
Foreigner - When the Messiah arrived, however, foreigners were present (Matthew 2:1-12 )
Peace - ...
The Old Testament anticipated, and the New Testament confirmed, that God's peace would be mediated through a Messiah (see Isaiah 9:6-7 ; Micah 5:4-5 )
Loneliness - 432; Edersheim, Life and Times of Messiah, i
Four - In this particular case it reveals the power of the Holy Spirit to bring Israel back into true fellowship with GOD, giving them the gift of eternal life when they accept JESUS CHRIST, and trust Him as their Messiah and their Saviour
Palm Tree - ...
The carrying of palm leaves (τὰ βαΐα τῶν φοινίκων) by the people in honour Of the Messiah (John 12:13) was in accordance with the custom observed at feasts and on great public occasions
Biblical Theology - While biblical theology can err in overstating the ways the Old Testament foreshadows and predicts the Messiah, and the ways in which the New Testament finds its meaning in Jesus Christ, it may likewise err in denying him his central place in the grand drama of both biblical and world history. ...
Along with Mosesa precursor of the Messiah (Exodus 18:18 ; cf. Like the Old Testament office of priest and king, it not only actualizes God's redemptive work in Old Testament times but also foreshadows the offices fulfilled by the Messiah yet to come. The messianic deliverance already foretold in Eden (Genesis 3:15 ) finds definitive expression in the Messiah Jesus
Heaven - Messiah comes from heaven to establish a temporary Messianic Kingdom, and returns to heaven at the close of it. Acts 2:34-35 interprets Psalms 110:1 of the Ascension of Christ, and Acts 3:21 adds that it was necessary for the Messiah to return to heaven because the ἀποκατάστασις had not yet arrived. Both passages show that the belief in the Messiah’s present existence in heaven was an essential part of primitive apostolic tradition, and also that the early tradition was very little occupied with heaven as a place of abode in the future, but rather as the place whence God would intervene by sending the Messiah again to establish the kingdom on earth. 1 Peter 1:4 echoes Colossians 1:5 : heaven is the place where the inheritance incorruptible and undefiled is kept with care until the moment for the revelation of Messiah
Announcements of Death - He explains that He is the bread of heaven, the true manna, the spiritual Messiah. Just after the renewed confession by Peter that Jesus is the Messiah, St. The specific teaching concerning His death follows, therefore, the searching test of their fidelity to Him as the Messiah. They could not understand a dying Messiah now or later till the risen Christ had made it clear
Peter - According to Matthew 16:17-192 Luke 6:14, early in his Galilaean ministry Jesus set apart the Twelve to be His helpers and gave Simon the surname Peter (καὶ ἐπέθηκεν ὄνομα τῷ Σίμωνι Πἐτρον) In referring to the same incident, Matthew (Matthew 10:2) speaks of ‘the so-called Peter’ (ὁ λεγόμενος Πέτρος), but seemingly intends to make the Apostle’s famous confession at Caesarea Philippi the occasion for the Messiah to bestow upon him the name ‘Peter’ and to designate him formal head of the Church (1618419556_50). The seducers in Galatia were not really preaching Peter’s gospel-they were perverting it (Galatians 1:7); it was as truly founded upon faith in Jesus the Messiah as was St. Although he is the first of the Twelve to affirm belief in Jesus’ Messiahship, his failure to understand the true Messianic programme calls forth a sharp rebuke from Jesus (Mark 8:32 f. In copying Mark’s account of the Caesarea-Philippi incident, Luke omits the closing verses which tell of Jesus’ upbraiding Peter for his presumption in attempting to regulate the Messiah’s conduct (Mark 8:32 ff. Peter was one of the most prominent members in the company of disciples, and so strongly did Jesus and His work appeal to him that he saw in the new movement foreshadowings of the long-looked-for Messianic Kingdom, and ultimately he identified Jesus with the Messiah. But Peter’s conception of the Messiah’s programme underwent some radical readjustments in the course of time. This vision gave him a solution of his difficulties, since it enabled him to resume his belief in Jesus’ Messiahship and look forward to the establishment of the new Kingdom. It necessitated, however, considerable readjustment in his thinking, for the Messiah in whom he now believed was not an earthly figure who would demonstrate the validity of His claims by leading a revolt against the Romans; He was a heavenly apocalyptic Being who would come on the clouds in glory when the day arrived for the final establishment of God’s rule upon earth. Whatever doubts may be entertained regarding the verbal accuracy of the speeches of Peter recorded in Acts, the accuracy of the main content is hardly to be disputed, so far at least as the interpretation of Jesus’ Messiahship is concerned
Psalms (2) - He believed in His Messiahship, but He did not rest it upon the basis of individual passages. But in the Hebrew psalm the address is to Jehovah, a title which no Hebrew could possibly have applied to the Messiah. ‘his Messiah,’ LXX Septuagint ‘Christ’), in Psalms 20:7 (6) is almost necessarily some historical king, and the psalm appears to have been composed on the eve of a battle. If, then, in some of the psalms which deal with a ‘Messiah’ or ‘Christ,’ the reference is to a historic king of Israel or Judah, the presumption at least is raised that all the Messianic psalms may be similarly interpreted. ...
Here, then, are three different interpretations of the verse within the NT: the Divine sonship of the Messiah is variously connected with His baptism, His resurrection, or His eternal generation
Church, the - The church, according to the New Testament, is the eschatological Israel incorporated in Jesus Messiah and, as such, is a progression beyond historical Israel (1 Corinthians 10:11 ; 2 Corinthians 5:14-21 ; etc. John administered a baptism of repentance in expectation of the baptism of the Spirit and fire that the Messiah would exercise (Matthew 3:11 /Luke 3:11/3:16 ). Those who accept Jesus as Messiah experience the baptism of fire and judgment
Bible - And His revealing His will "in many portions" (polumeros ; Hebrews 1:1, one prophet or inspired person or writer receiving one portion of revelation, another another: to Noah the quarter of the world where Messiah should appear, to Abraham the nation, to Jacob the tribe, to David and Isaiah the family, to Micah the town, to Daniel the time), and "in divers manners," corresponds to tits sending from time to time a Bacon, Newton, Shakespeare, etc. The former 400 years' break directed the world's undivided attention to Messiah, so that His identity could not be mistaken. Their present longer dispersion, and the diffusion of the whole Bible in all lands, are preparing for Messiah's manifestation in glory. ...
The national prejudices of all the New Testament writers, as Jews, were in behalf of an immediate temporal kingdom and an outwardly reigning Messiah, the very reverse of what His actual manifestation was
Gospel - By this time the word is most often used to describe the anticipated deliverance and salvation which would come from the hand of God when the long-awaited Messiah appeared to deliver Israel (Isaiah 52:7 ). The arrival of this Messiah would be good news. For instance, the purpose of the nativity story in Matthew is to present Jesus as the royal Messiah from the lineage of David. Luke mentions shepherds as the witnesses of the Messiah's birth, because the filth associated with their occupation made them prime examples of society's outcasts
Philippians, Theology of - ...
What was different in the writings of the New Testament from those of the Old Testament and the literature between the Testaments is that the Messiah, the Anointed of the Lord who was to come, had come and could be identified. It was this message, then, that he preached to the Philippians: God's action to save the world through Christ, the long-expected Messiah (1:15-18,27; 3:9,18). In this combined name he makes it clear to his friends at Philippi that the longed-for deliverer, the long-awaited Savior, the hope of ancient Israel and of the world, the Messiah, was Jesus of Nazareth
Influence - Andrew has no misgivings, but goes off to his brother with the great news that they have found the Messiah (John 1:37 ff. The disciples, spiritually minded though they were, must have felt all the prejudices that widely existed against the appearance of the Messiah as a poor and undistinguished person from a northern village of no reputation, and yet they were at once conquered. That the Prince and Messiah should be betrayed by His own people into the hands of the heathen, and that they should clamour for His death, was the greatest trial that a faithful friendship has ever had to bear. This was given them by the Resurrection, which at once illuminated all the perplexities of the past and made His Messiahship a felt reality
Holy Spirit - The Messiah as the new vehicle of the Spirit. -The second presupposition of the Christian conviction regarding the Spirit lay in the fact that, in accordance with the promises, the Messiah was expected to be the vehicle of the Spirit. Thus the avowal of the Messiahship of Jesus involved the doctrine that the Spirit of God is effectively operative in man. Accordingly it sought to prove the Messiahship of Jesus by the fact that the Spirit was revealed in the community (Acts 5:32; of. Moreover, even if in that age the Gosper still clung closely to the Jewish expectation of the Messiah, dissociating the working of the Spirit from the present, and assigning it wholly to the coming dispensation-the idea being that the Spirit would raise from the dead all who had been baptized into Christ-yet, even on that hypothesis, the preaching of Christ must still have embraced the promise of the Spirit
Fellowship (2) - Thus His followers, constituted into the society of the Messiah, become a Divinely ordered fellowship not dependent on outward organization, but united by a common faith in Jesus as the Revealer of God to them. Love working in helpful ministries for others is of the essence of fellowship in Messiah’s company. Before His death the Messiah gave concreteness to this fellowship by a solemn communion with His disciples in the Last Supper, which became the means of making real to them the blessings of the New Covenant. ...
The Church appears on the stage of the public world as a new sect, holding to the belief that Jesus is Messiah
Alpha And Omega (2) - Hence, while in Revelation 1:8 as in Revelation 1:4 and Revelation 21:6 Jehovah Himself, ‘the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end,’ is also ὁ ἐρχόμενος, there is no escape for any believer in Jesus from transferring the title in this soteriological sense to Him as Messiah. In Pauline language it represents that the people of Messiah were ‘blessed with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ, inasmuch as God chose them in his person before the foundation of the world … and foreordained them to be an adoption of sons,’ Ephesians 1:4-5; cf. Thus in Rabbinic phrase Messiah is one of the ‘seven pre-existent things,’ or His ‘soul is laid up in Paradise before the foundation of the world
Psalms of Solomon - The Messiah is to be, unlike the actual king whom the sinners had presumptuously set up (17:7, 8), a descendant of David (v. ’ This Messiah is also called ‘the king of Israel’ (17:42) and ‘the son of David’ (v. He will appear at a time determined by God (18:6), being raised up, or brought forward again (though the idea of a pre-existing Messiah detected by some in this phrase is very doubtful) by God Himself
Canticles; the Song of Solomon - The name of God does not occur, because throughout the allegory, to the exclusion of everything literal, is maintained, and Solomon throughout represents Messiah JEHOVAH, whose love is the grand theme. ...
Here Israel's sighing after Messiah, and finding Him hereafter as one united nation, combining "Tirzah" the northern capital and
Balaam - Then Balaam, seeing God's determinate counsel, stopped seeking further enchantments, but looking at Israel in their beautiful order by tribes, he compares them to the rows of lign aloes and cedars by the waters, and foretells the advent of a Hebrew prince who should smite Moab and Edom (David, 2 Samuel 8, the type), and of the Messiah, the Star out of Jacob" (compare Revelation 22:16; Matthew 2, announced to the Gentile wise men from the E. ...
Balaam foretold also (See AMALEK'S utter ruin; the Kenites' being carried captive by Assyria; and Assyria in its turn being afflicted by the Greeks and Romans from Chittim (Cyprus, put for all western lands whence the approach to Palestine was by sea); and these, the last destroying power, in turn, "shall perish for ever" before Messiah's kingdom. Balaam's prophecy is a comprehensive germ, which Isaiah and the prophets, especially Daniel, develop, concerning the four successive world empires which, after their successive rise and fall, shall be superseded by the universal and everlasting kingdom of Messiah (Daniel 2; 7)
Jerusalem - This vision, along with the belief in the kingship of God and the coming of a Davidic Messiah, continued to be cherished in the hearts of the faithful. The prophecy of the destruction of Jerusalem (Matthew 24:1 ; Mark 13:1 ; Luke 21:1 ), is mixed with prophecies concerning the coming of the Son of man at the end of the age when forsaken and desolated Jerusalem will welcome the returning Messiah (Matthew 23:39 )
Daniel, the Book of - ...
(1) That the four world monarchies should rise (Daniel 2; Daniel 7), Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece, and Rome, and that Rome in a tenfold divided form should be the last, and should be overthrown by Messiah's kingdom alone; Charlemagne, Charles V, and Napoleon have vainly tried to raise a fifth. ...
(2) The time of Messiah's advent dating from the foretold decree to restore the temple, His being cut off, and the city's destruction, are foretold definitely. ...
Nebuchadnezzar's degradation, repentance, and restoration contrast strikingly with Belshazzar's sacrilegious luxury and consequent doom; and Daniel develops definitely the prophetical germs already existing as to Messiah (Daniel 7; Daniel 9), the resurrection (Daniel 12:2-3), and the ministry of angels (Daniel 8:16; Daniel 8:10; Daniel 12:1). The 70th one week, the period of New Testament revelation in Messiah, consummates the preceding ones, as the sabbath succeeds and crowns the work days
Hymn - Briggs, The Messiah of the Gospels (1894), ch. ’§ God - The prophet looked for the Messiah to be named Emmanuel, meaning, “God with us”; and Matthew reported that God fulfilled that promise in Jesus (Isaiah 7:14 ; Matthew 1:23 ). He redeemed Israel in the Exodus from Egypt ( Exodus 1-15 ); through the prophets He promised a Messiah who would save His people, and in Jesus Christ provided that salvation (John 3:16 )
Upper Room (2) - —There is some probability in the suggestion (Edersheim, LT [3]. —Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Majesty (2) - ...
(b) Was there no majesty, then, in His personal appearance? The Gospels are completely silent on this point, and in the lack of any trustworthy tradition the Fathers seem to have fallen back chiefly on the prophetic pictures of the Messiah, with the result that a wide diversity of view came to exist, according as one passage or another was taken as the norm. And this poor Carpenter of Nazareth further assumes without the least hesitation the name and dignity of the promised Messiah of Israel; He affirms, in a sense altogether unique, that He is the Son of God, unto whom all things have been delivered of the Father (Matthew 11:27, Luke 10:22; cf
Adam - And it is this that makes him a type of the Messiah. But such a comparison between Adam and the Messiah was unknown to the earlier Jewish teachers
Peter - "Behold the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world;" and, meeting Simon shortly afterward, said, "We have found the Messiah," and then brought him to Jesus, John 1:41 . Peter on almost every occasion evincing the strength of his faith in Jesus as the Messiah, and the most extraordinary zeal in his service, of which many examples are extant in the Gospels
David - Christ was the true Messiah, whom David prefigured, being anointed at His baptism by the Holy Spirit before entering on His service toward Israel. David showed grace to Mephibosheth, a descendant of Saul, and brought him to his table; typical of the grace that will in the futurebe shown to the remnant that own their Messiah
Adam - And it is this that makes him a type of the Messiah. But such a comparison between Adam and the Messiah was unknown to the earlier Jewish teachers
Ethics - He was not a social reformer, but the Saviour-Messiah who brought the kingdom of God into the world. ...
Being like Christ does not mean that Christians in different cultures and eras must try to copy the actions of the Messiah who lived in first century Palestine
Vision(s) - These visions contain an important prediction of the coming of God's servant, "the Branch" (3:8), a term that in biblical thought became synonymous with "Messiah
Magi - " Accordingly the very guide they look to is a star (a meteor probably), and the question they ask is "where is He that is born King of the Jews?"...
Moreover, Daniel, "chief of the Magi," had foretold Messiah's kingdom (Daniel 2:44; Daniel 9:25); naturally the Magi ("wise men") looked for the kingdom and the king among the people of him whose fame as a Magian they had heard of. Herod discovered the foretold birthplace of Messiah from the scribes' quotation of Micah (Micah 5:2) in answer to his query where He should be born
Nazarite - Similarly, Daniel (Daniel 1:8-15); David (1 Samuel 16:12; 1 Samuel 17:42), type of Messiah (Song of Solomon 5:10)
Supremacy - 1891); Seeley, Ecce Homo, 1866; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, 1883; Père Didon, Jesus Christ, 1891; Sanday, art
Jews in the New Testament - For Paul a true Jew is one who believes that Jesus is the Messiah or Christ (Galatians 3:26-29 ), relies on God's grace and not works of the law (Ephesians 2:8-9 ), and has been circumcized in his heart by the Holy Spirit (Galatians 2:2-9 ; Galatians 5:6 )
Confession - In the earlier period of our Lord’s ministry, confession meant no more than the expression of belief that Jesus was the expected Messiah ( John 1:41 )
Haggai, Theology of - ...
The Coming Messiah
Smyrna - An honest scepticism regarding the claims of the Nazarene to be the Messiah could have been understood and forgiven
Enthusiasm - John’s record: His answer to His mother in Cana, the casting out of the traders from the temple, the challenge to the priests, the confession of His Messiahship to the woman of Samaria, the forgetfulness of the needs of the body in His absorption in His work (John 2:4; John 2:17; John 2:19; John 4:26; John 4:32; John 4:34), have all the same characteristic of an intense, exalted emotion. The Baptist contrasted his own baptism with water and the Messiah’s baptism with the Holy Spirit and fire (Matthew 3:11). Messiah will baptize with wind and fire, sweeping away and consuming the impenitent, leaving behind only the righteous’ (Bruce, ‘St
Holy One - It is in itself so remarkable, and used in a manner so calculated to arrest attention, that it has been surmised that we have here a characteristic designation of the Messiah (Meyer on Mark 1:24)
Angel - Most Jews have always believed that GOD had a Son who was to be the Messiah
Zerubbabel - Finally Messiah combined both in Himself the Antitype (Zechariah 3:7-10; Zechariah 6:13)
Attila, King And General of the Huns - But in Eastern Europe, though Attila's kingdom was dismembered at his death, the great body of the Huns, who had followed him from the wilds of Central Asia, settled permanently in the wide plains of the Lower Danube; while, viewed as a special instrument of Providence, "a Messiah of grief and ruin," whose mission it was to chastise the sins of Christians, the "scourge (or rather flail ) of God " had an abiding influence over Western Christendom, and the virtues and merits of the saints who thwarted him by bold resistance or prudent submission shone forth the brighter, the darker became the picture of the oppressor
Chief Priests - 593–657; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i
Comfort (2) - In His sermon at Nazareth (Luke 4:16-27) He applied to Himself the prophecy of Isaiah (Isaiah 61:1-3), which tells that the Messiah was ‘to comfort all that mourn
Samuel, the Books of - ...
The allusion to "the Lord's king and His anointed" (1 Samuel 2:10) does not imply that kings already existed, and that therefore this is not Hannah's genuine utterance (for she lived before any king in Israel), but prophetically points on to the necessary culmination of God's kingdom in the coming Messiah, and in David His typical forefather
Trees - ...
1 Chronicles 16:33 (b) This is a poetic picture of all the people of Israel who would rejoice and sing when their King, the Messiah, returns to be their Lord and leader
Bethabara - and note; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i
Jephtha - For every daughter of Israel had an eye to the promised seed the Messiah; to be devoted, therefore, to an unmarried life totally precluded that hope; and the daughters of Israel going yearly to lament the daughter of Jephtha being so, is a proof of it
Sow - The Messiah or Suffering Servant will see His “offspring,” or those who believe in and follow Him ( Praise - ...
Second, in some cases tehillâh represents the words or song by which God is publicly lauded, or by which His “glory” is publicly declared: “My praise [1] shall be of thee in the great congregation …” ( Name - Of the Messiah it is said, "And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords," Revelation 19:16
Antichrist - compounded of αντι , contra, against, and Χριστος , Christ, in a general sense, denotes an adversary of Christ, or one who denies that the Messiah is come
the Angel of the Lord - "...
The Jews held this Word, or Angel of the Lord, to be the future Messiah, as appears from the writings of their older rabbins
Isaac - " At an early period of life he was the object of the profane contempt of Ishmael, the son of the bond woman, by whom he was persecuted; and as in the circumstances attending his birth there was something typical of the birth of Abraham's greater Son, the Messiah, the promised Seed; so, in the latter instance, we contemplate in him a resemblance of real Christians, who, as Isaac was, are "the children of promise," invested in all the immunities and blessings of the new covenant; but, as then, "he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the Spirit, even so it is now," Galatians 4:29
Prophet - ...
That the Messiah of revelation could not be so clearly portrayed in his varied character as God and man, as prophet, priest and king, if he had been the mere teacher
Jubilee - Apparently in this, as in everything else, they failed to obey; but the Jubilee will be made good to them in grace when they own their Messiah
Justice - The perfect expression of justice in governing human society is seen in the authority exercised by Jesus the King-Messiah (Isaiah 9:7; John 5:30; Acts 22:14; see KING)
Faith - These conditions prevent them from responding to Jesus when he reveals to them what it means to be the Messiah (Mark 8:31-32 ; 9:31-32 ; 10:32-34 ), or from hearing how believers can be true followers of this Messiah (8:34-38; 9:33-37; 10:41-45). Because Mark is intent on clarifying for the church the central truth that Jesus as the Son of Man is a suffering-servant Messiah whose example they must be willing to follow, a blind Bartimaeus, who is healed as he exercises faith, becomes the model disciple as he follows Jesus to Jerusalem and the way of the cross with his new sight
Emperor-Worship - Many inscriptions might be quoted which show that the Eastern pagan world found its Messiah in Caesar, the language in some cases bearing a resemblance to Jewish Messianic psalms and prophecies. (β) Each proclaimed and honoured a ‘Messiah. ’ As noted above, Caesar’s praise was celebrated in phrases closely parallel to the praises of Messiah in Isaiah or the Psalms. The prosperity and peace of Messiah’s reign as pictured in Isaiah have been regarded by many as the basis of Vergil’s Eclogue, though there is no probability in the view
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - His name shall be Messiah, the son of Mary, illustrious in this world and in the next, and one of those who have near access to God. The Jews are reproached for speaking against Mary, and—...
‘for their saying, “Verily we have slain the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, an apostle of God. ...
‘The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, is only an apostle of God, and His word which He conveyed into Mary, and a Spirit from Him. 5), we read—...
‘Infidels now are they who say, “God is the Messiah, son of Mary” ’ (v. ’ The reply came, ‘O Mary, thy heart turned to me, love for Jesus has come into it; be tranquil, sustenance will be provided, eat and drink and have joy in the Messiah
Revelation, Book of - The victory of the Messiah (chs. ...
The sublime theme of Revelation thus becomes evident the victory of the Messiah over the Roman Empire, together with the miseries to be inflicted on His enemies and the blessings to be enjoyed by His followers
Targums - An interesting example of this Targum is the following paraphrase of Isaiah 52:13-15 : ‘Behold, my servant the Messiah shall prosper, he shall be exalted and extolled, and he shall be very strong. ’ In the whole of the following chapter 53 ‘it is curious to notice that the passages which refer to the humiliation of the Servant are interpreted of the people of Israel, while those which speak of the glory of the Servant are referred to the Messiah’ (Oesterley and Box, op
Time, Meaning of - ...
Christ's new time After a long age of waiting and sometimes of despair, the Jewish people who were heirs of the Old Testament promises heard the announcement that God had brought history to its fulfillment in His Messiah (Mark 1:15 ). This Messiah eventually died a cruel death on the cross, but when He arose to everlasting life, His followers went into all the world to announce, “See, now is the acceptable time; see, now is the day of salvation” (2 Corinthians 6:2 NRSV; compare 2 Corinthians 3:7-18 )
Salvation Save Saviour - ...
σωτηρία (‘salvation’), used in the Gospels for spiritual deliverance in general, but connected with the idea of salvation through the Messiah (Luke 1:69; Luke 1:71; Luke 1:77; Luke 19:9, John 4:22), occurs for the deliverance from Egypt in Acts 7:25, for deliverance from death in shipwreck in Acts 27:34, for the deliverance of Noah in Hebrews 11:7. ‘Redemption’ is used in Luke 1:68; Luke 2:38 and ‘redeem’ in Luke 24:21 for the redemption to be accomplished by the Messiah, and ‘redemption’ is used in Luke 21:28 for that which is to accompany the coming of the Son of Man after our Lord’s earthly ministry ‘with power and great glory
Repentance - The earliest Christian preaching, as there described, involved the announcement of Jesus as the Messiah and the simple call for repentance in view of His near return (Acts 2:38; Acts 3:19; Acts 8:22; Acts 20:21). Matthew 3:2 and ||s), except that the Baptist spoke of Jesus as coming, and of the Kingdom, or the Messiah, as at hand, while the apostles referred to Jesus as already come
Mission - ...
When the prophets did speak of a hope for future deliverance "in the last days, " they refer to a mission for God's messenger or Elijah whom God sends to prepare his way (Malachi 3:1 ); of the Servant-Messiah, anointed to preach good news to the oppressed, whom the Lord sends to bring deliverance (Luke 11:47-512 ); and of a remnant of survivors who are sent to evangelize the nations: "They will proclaim my glory among the nations" (Isaiah 66:19 ). So significant is the redemptive mission of the Messiah, the Son of God, that God sends an angel not only to announce his birth (Luke 1:26 ), but to announce the birth of John the Baptist, the messenger who will be sent to prepare his way and introduce him (1:19; Matthew 11:10 ; cf
Ebionism - ...
(b) As to Christ, they acknowledged His Messiahship and Divinity. Jesus is the Messiah, yet a mere man, born by natural generation to Joseph and Mary. On His baptism, a higher Spirit united itself with Him, and so He became the Messiah
Session - Chama, In the time to come the Holy One, Blessed be He, causes the King Messiah to sit at His right hand, according as it is said, “The utterance of Jehovah to my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand,” and Abraham on His left. ; and Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Parable - The Lord said on one occasion that He spoke in parables, so that the multitude should not understand His teaching: they had virtually rejected their Messiah, and were not morally in a condition to be taught. Christ renounced all that belonged to Him as man after the flesh and as Messiah on earth, in order that He might possess the church
Apocrypha - The third section pictures the Messiah. The next three visions stress God's coming intervention and salvation of His people through the pre-existent Messiah
Heaven - Peter affirmed that heaven is the place where the believer's inheritance is kept with care until the revelation of the Messiah (1 Peter 1:4 )
Loose - ...
Isaiah 5:27 (b) This beautiful picture tells the story of Israel restored to the Lord when the Messiah returns and rebuilds the nation of Israel and Palestine
Mary - While she resided at Nazareth with her parents, before she became the wife of Joseph, the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah (Luke 1:35 )
Obadiah - Messiah will assume the kingdom with His transfigured saints, the Antitype to all former "saviours
Theophilus - The Second Gospel seems to have been written to prove that Jesus was the Messiah, not to support the view that the Christians were the chosen people of God
Title on the Cross - ; and Edersheim, LT [8]
Lord's Day - Their new faith did not at first lead them to cut themselves off from their old Jewish worship, for their belief in Jesus as Messiah seemed to them to add to and fulfil, rather than to abolish, the religion of their childhood
Judas Iscariot - (4) His faith in his Master’s Messiahship, thought Neander, was wavering. If He were really the Messiah, nothing could harm Him; if He were not, He would perish, and it would be right that He should
Lamb, Lamb of God - To this title the Evangelist adds other titles: "Son of God" (1:34,49), "Messiah" (1:41), "King of Israel" (1:49), and "Son of Man" (1:51)
Predestination - "...
Predetermined also, and thus mentioned variously in the prophets, is the purpose of God to be fulfilled in a Messiah of the house of David (Isaiah 9:6-7 ; 11:1-9 ; Jeremiah 23:5-6 ; Ezekiel 34:23-24 ; 37:24-28 )
Restore, Renew - The greater contexts of Matthew and Mark place some of the disciples with Jesus on the Mount of Transfiguration where Elijah appears and discusses the exodus (death) of the Messiah
Know, Knowledge - Failure to know Jesus as Lord and Messiah (Acts 2:36 ) resulted in his rejection and crucifixion (1 Corinthians 2:8 )
Galilee - Jerusalem, the theocratic capital, might readily have known Messiah; to compensate less favored Galilee He ministered mostly there
High Priest (2) - to Hebrews; Briggs, Messiah of the Apostles, 242–283; Ménégoz, Théol
Manaen (2) - 4), Menahem was to be one of the titles of the Messiah, and indeed it became so (see 1 John 2:1 παράκλητος, used in Job 16:2 Cosmopolitanism - Simeon welcomes the infant Messiah as a light to lighten the Gentiles (Luke 2:32), in spite of the markedly Jewish tone of Luke 1, 2
Dish - Edersheim’s Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Temple, the - Scripture speaks in many places of the return of the Jews to their own land, but in unbelief as to the Lord Jesus being their Messiah
Forgiveness - In the primitive apostolic teaching of the Acts, it was enough to announce that Jesus was the Messiah, that He had risen from the death to which the rulers of the Jews had condemned Him, and that in Him the old promises of forgiveness of sins wore fulfilled-forgiveness even for the sin of putting Him to death. The cardinal notes of the apostles’ early preaching are the facts of the Resurrection and Messiahship of Jesus, and the necessity of believing in Him for the promised spiritual change
Magnify - The Messiah “shall stand and feed in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth” ( Nazareth - But the said precipice is shown as that which the Messiah leaped down to escape from the Jews; and as the monks could not pitch upon any other place frightful enough for the miracle, they contend that Nazareth formerly stood eastward of its present situation, upon a more elevated spot
Feasts - To keep them under the influence of religion, and by the majesty of that service which he instituted among them, and which abounded in mystical symbols or types of evangelical things, to convey spiritual instruction, and to keep alive the expectation of the Messiah, and his more perfect dispensation
Cerinthians - The institution of the jubilee, and the glowing descriptions given by the prophets of the restoration of the Jews, and the reign of the Messiah, may have led the later Jews to some of their mystical fancies; and when all these systems were blended together by the Gnostics, it is not strange, if a millennium formed part of their creed long before the time of Cerinthus
Type - In a subsequent period, David was no indistinct type of "the Messiah the Prince," Daniel 9:25 , for a long time humbled, and at length triumphant over his enemies
Pentateuch - Thus also the translation, first of the Pentateuch, and afterward of the remaining works of the Old Testament, into Greek, for the use of the Alexandrian Jews, disseminated this sacred volume over a great part of the civilized world, in the language most universally understood, and rendered it accessible to the learned and inquisitive in every country; so as to preclude all suspicion that it could be materially altered by either Jews or Christians, to support their respective opinions as to the person and character of the Messiah; the substance of the text being, by this translation, fixed and authenticated at least two hundred and seventy years before the appearance of our Lord
Vine - It is mentioned as a mark of the great work and power of the Messiah, that he had trodden the figurative wine-press alone, and of the people there was none with him, Isaiah 63:1-3 Revelation 19:15
David - He established a dynasty out of which, according to God’s plan, came the great Messiah, the son of David, who was Jesus Christ, Saviour of the world (1 Samuel 16:1; 1 Samuel 16:11; 2 Samuel 5:3-4; 2 Samuel 5:12; Isaiah 9:7; Luke 1:32-33; Luke 2:11)
Election - From this people he produced one man, Jesus the Messiah, chosen by him before the foundation of the world to be the Saviour of the world (Luke 9:35; Acts 2:23; Acts 4:27-28; Ephesians 1:9-10; 1 Peter 1:20; 1 Peter 2:4; 1 Peter 2:6)
Atonement (2) - The frequent repetition of this OT expression (παῖς θεοῦ) in the early chapters of Acts (Acts 3:13; Acts 3:26; Acts 4:27; Acts 4:30), taken in connexion with explicit references to the things which God foreshadowed by the prophets that His Messiah should suffer (Acts 2:23; Acts 3:18; Acts 4:11; Acts 4:25-28; Acts 13:27; cf. What we find is the remarkable manner in which the idea of the King and the Kingdom, consonant with contemporary Jewish expectation, is combined with that of the suffering Messiah, so alien to the current interpretation of the Scriptures as to present ‘to the Jews a stumbling-block. And the taunt of the rulers on Calvary, when the crucified Jesus is bidden to prove Himself the Christ of God, the chosen (Luke 23:35 ὁ ἐκλεκτός), makes it clear that the claim to be at once the Messiah and the Servant, if doubted by the disciples and derided by the Jews, was at least in the hour of its accomplishment sufficiently understood. Messiah’s kingship is based on service which takes specific form in the death He goes to accomplish—‘The Son of Man came to give his life a ransom for many’—a substitution which made His soul an offering for sin, fulfilling all that was foreshadowed not only in the redemption of the people from Egypt, but also in the redemptions of the Ceremonial Law (Mark 10:45,
Religious Experience - He is represented as claiming, without misgiving, to be the expected Messiah and Judge of the world (Mark 8:29), who has power to forgive sins (Mark 2:10), and to whom all men owe absolute spiritual allegiance (Mark 8:34; Mark 8:38). ‘Jesus’), though believing that Jesus never claimed to be the Messiah, at the same time acknowledges that ‘his most striking characteristic was his claim that spiritual peace and salvation were to be found in the mere acceptance of his leadership. ’ Nathaniel Schmidt (Prophet of Nazareth, 1905) also makes a suggestive admission when he says that, while Jesus never claimed to be the Messiah, yet all the hopes of OT prophets embodied in King, Redeemer, and Divine Manifestation were more than fulfilled in Him; and although He never, probably, claimed to forgive sins, yet He could forgive them, and historically He has actually been the Saviour of the world, and is saving men yet (pp
Immortality - ) and the conception of the transformation of the righteous into the likeness of Messiah occurs first in Enoch xc. No apocalyptic scheme offered any such conception as the Death and Resurrection of Messiah, and the acceptance by St. Paul of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus as historical facts, together with his identification of Jesus with the Messiah, set a train of thought working in his mind which yielded entirely new forms, not to be explained by any patch-work of older elements to be found in them
Acts of the Apostles (2) - ...
But it may be asked, Was Jesus then nothing more than this to the earliest disciples, was He not to them the Messiah? In a certain sense—yes, and in another sense—no. The primitive Jewish-Christian Church was far from saying: Jesus of Nazareth, as He journeyed through the land teaching and healing, was the Messiah; no, He was then merely the One destined for lordship. , speaking of the future, it is said ‘that there may come the times of refreshing from the presence of the Lord, and that he may send the Christ who hath been appointed for you, even Jesus,’ this assumes that Jesus has not yet made His appearance as Messiah; in that capacity He belongs to the future; there is not a word of coming again or of a second sending. The Spirit sent by the latter is the proof of His exaltation and Messiahship (Acts 2:33-36)
Deuteronomy, the Book of - " In the ultimate and exhaustive sense Messiah fulfills the prophecy; Deuteronomy 34:10 expressly says "there arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face. " The Samaritans, who received the Pentateuch alone, must have drawn their expectation of the all-revealing Messiah from it: "when He is come He will tell us all things," answering to "I will put My words in His mouth
Law - The sacrificial part (3) taught the hope of propitiation, and thus represented the original covenant of promise, and pointed on to Messiah, through whom the sense of guilt, awakened by the moral law which only condemns men through their own inability to keep it, is taken away, and peace with God is realized. The sense of Psalms 139:24 is "see if there be any way of "idolatry" (otseb , as in Isaiah 48:5; the Hebrew also means pain which is the sure issue of idolatry) in me, and lead me in the way everlasting" promised to David and his seed in Messiah (compare 1 John 5:21; Proverbs 8:35; Proverbs 12:28; Proverbs 14:32; Proverbs 21:16; Proverbs 24:11; Ecclesiastes 8:11-12; Ecclesiastes 11:9; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14; 2 Kings 2:11-12; James - to announce His Messiahship, which He did not conceal in Samaria as in Judaea and Galilee: John 4:26; Luke 9:54), because His face was as though He would go to Jerusalem, whereas they expected the Messiah would confirm their anti-Jewish worship in the mount Gerizim temple. Or if all are included, the negation of belief is not a negation of all belief, but of such as recognized the true nature of His Messiahship. They looked for a reigning Messiah, and thought Jesus' miracles were wrought with a view to this end: "depart hence (from obscure Galilee) and go into Judea, that Thy disciples also may see the works that Thou doest, for there is no man that doeth anything in secret and (yet) he himself seeketh to be known openly (which they take for granted He seeks); if Thou do these things, show Thyself to the world
Salvation - Sirach 51:12 (ἐξ ἀτωλείας), Wisdom of Solomon 16:7, Judith 9:11, Enoch 48:7 (of ‘the Son of Man’; ‘in his name are they being saved, and he is the God of their life’) 50:3 (eschatological-negative, mere salvation without glory) 63:8, 4 Ezr 6:25, 7:131, 9:8, 12:34, 13:26, 8:39 (the righteous shall he satisfied with salvation in connexion with the Messiah), Ps-Sol 6:2, 10:8, 12:6, 18:6, Baruch 4:22; Baruch 4:24; Baruch 4:29, Test. There is also an advance in this, that in a couple of instances the act of salvation is connected with the Messiah
Sadducees - ...
(e) The Messiah. -The Sadducees held that Aaron and his family were the chosen of God from whom Messiah should proceed
Jews, Judaism - During this period the biblical concept of the Messiah took on new importance. Yet it was through Perez, one of the twin sons born to Tamar and fathered by Judah, that David's lineage is traced, and ultimately that of Jesus, the Messiah (Matthew 1:3-6 )
Lazarus - He would fain win her even yet, and He prayed that God would bring about some crisis which might persuade her of His Messiahship or at least leave her without excuse (cf. the Messiah) may be glorified thereby. ...
(2) According to Strauss, the story, like the two earlier stories of resuscitation (Matthew 9:18-19; Matthew 9:23-26 = Mark 5:21-24; Mark 5:35-43 = Luke 8:40-42; Luke 8:49-56; Luke 7:11-17), is a myth, originating in the desire of the primitive Church that the Messiah should not only rival but surpass His great prototypes in the OT
Christ - It is precisely the same word as Messiah in the original Hebrew. ...
Messiah, Daniel 9:25; John 1:41
Nicodemus - It had never once entered his snow-white head to doubt for one moment but that be would sit on a throne up at the right hand of the Messiah. Imagine, then, what a sudden blow in the face it was to Nicodemus to be told, and that by the very Messiah Himself, that he had neither part nor lot in that kingdom, and could not have, until he had been baptized in Jordan confessing his sins beside the offscourings of the city
Teach, Teacher - These three Old Testament motifs coalesce in Jesus the Messiah, who enables the new covenant community to be taught by spiritually gifted teachers who lead the church
Cross, Crucifixion - Galatians 3:13-14 ) and thereby serves not only to state the radical nature of Christ's humiliation, but by implication to judge the world and all its inhabitants as being "the despised" who must identify with a crucified Messiah in order to receive God's salvation
Esau - Yet his characteristic faith appears in his looking on to the unseen future privileges attached to, the birthright (the priesthood of the family (Numbers 8:17-19) and the progenitorship of Messiah independently of temporal advantages
Body of Christ - ) Clearly, the New Testament ties the destiny of God's people to the faithful and selfless act of Messiah, and identification with Christ in his death is indispensable for Paul (Romans 6:8 ; Galatians 2:20 ; 5:24 ; and his "in Christ" formula )
Tradition (2) - 1–93; Edersheim, LT [5]
Zacharias - This son must be brought up as a Nazirite in the highest form of Levitical devotion (Numbers 6:4, Judges 13:4, Lamentations 4:7, Amos 2:12); he should, like another Elijah (1 Kings 18:37), turn many of the children of Israel unto the Lord, and be the forerunner, as foretold by Malachi, to Messiah Himself (Luke 1:15-17)
Son of Man - Scholars are divided over whether the Son of man of Daniel's vision should be seen as an angel, as the Messiah, or as all of Israel
Caesar, Caesar's Household - The second aspect in which the Caesar appears in the Gospels is that of the Messiah’s rival to lordship over the chosen people. ; on Caesar and the Messiah as rivals cf
Debt, Debtor - Edersheim, LT Doxology - ...
Immediately after the Resurrection, Jesus is associated with the Father in glory, and receives worship as Messiah and Son of God
Dropsy - 96–105; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, App
Poor (Person), Weak (Person) - 9:9, where it describes the Messiah: “Behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass …” (cf
Judaizing Christians - They were indeed fully aware, that another communication from heaven was to be made to mankind, and that this was to be announced by a messenger more distinguished than even the lawgiver whom they revered; but they had satisfied themselves, that the great design of the Messiah's mission would be to rescue them from the oppression of a foreign yoke, and to lay in Jerusalem the foundation of universal empire. ...
For accomplishing these purposes, it was requisite that their Messiah should be invested with temporal power; and in this idea, which so many circumstances in their history tended to endear to them, they were confirmed by those passages in the books of their prophets which described him as destined to sit on the throne of David, to sway a righteous sceptre, and to establish an everlasting kingdom. They regarded the two dispensations as forming one whole; and believed that the rites which had distinguished from the rest of mankind those who belonged to the commonwealth of Israel, would in the same manner mark the disciples of the Messiah's kingdom
Gardens - The place was so small, that he was perfectly certain no man but himself was there; and so completely defended, that none could break through, or look over, the fence; and, by consequence, that no eye was upon him, but the all-seeing eye of God; and, therefore, since Christ saw him there, Nathanael knew he could be no other than the Son of God, and the promised Messiah
Sanhedrim - To Hillel succeeded Simeon his son, who by some is supposed to have been the person who took Jesus Christ in his arms, Luke 2:28 , and publicly acknowledged him to be the Messiah
Doxology - ...
Immediately after the Resurrection, Jesus is associated with the Father in glory, and receives worship as Messiah and Son of God
Acts, Book of - He was the Messiah of whom the Jewish religion spoke and for whom it had prepared the way (Acts 2:36; Acts 3:18; Acts 9:22; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5; Acts 18:28)
Philip - John 1:45 ‘the son of Joseph’), he shows himself endued with the genuine missionary spirit in proceeding in his turn to ‘find’ Nathanael, that together they may rejoice in the discovery of the promised Messiah
Teaching of Jesus - Thus the ‘sacred laws’ of Mosaism were transmuted into ‘the teaching’ of Jesus, the Messiah, with its new spirit and fresh emphasis. But the form of its presentation, and much of its resulting spirit, were largely determined by two features peculiar to Jesus as a teacher: (a) a note of fresh, personal authority, in contrast to the derivative authority claimed by the scribes (Mark 1:22); (b) constant reference to ‘the kingdom of heaven,’ the true Theocracy for which Israel had long been waiting and watching, in connexion with Messiah, its Divinely commissioned Inaugurator. ): ‘From the Kingdom as present, Jesus as already constituted (dagewesener) and present Messiah is inseparable; accordingly He cannot Himself have spoken of it
John, Theology of - ...
When John describes Jesus as the Messiah we are firmly in a traditional Jewish framework. Christ (which translates "messiah" in Greek, 1:41) is almost always used as a title of identity, not a proper name (1:17,17:3 are the only exceptions of eighteen uses). He is the one who fulfills the Old Testament expectation (1:45) and belief in his Messiahship is inherent in discipleship (4:29; 9:22; 11:27; 20:31). Burge...
See also Jesus Christ ; Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ; Messiah ...
Bibliography
Immanuel - If she were one of the king’s wives, then the child would be the king’s son, and the possibility of an identification with the Messiah would have to be considered, it would be possible to accept, with McCurdy, the identification of Immanuel with Hezekiah, the chronological difficulties not being altogether insuperable. It was of a largely polemical character, since it was necessary, against the cavilling of the Jews, to prove the Messiahship of Jesus from the OT. They consider that even, before the birth of Jesus there had been formed a doctrine of the Messiah, which included among other things His supernatural birth. It had arisen on the soil of Judaism itself, and it is in the Judaeo-pagan syncretism, with its doctrine that the Messiah must be born of a virgin, that the origin of the belief is to be sought
Apocalypse - ]'>[6] occur those references to the pre-existent Messiah under the title ‘Son of man,’ which Hilgenfeld and others hare ascribed to Christian interpolation, but whose direct debt is probably only to Daniel (see esp. ...
On the side of good, we have (to take great examples) God and His throne, angels such as Michael and Gabriel, or angelic beings resembling men (of whom the chief, when he appears at all, is the Messiah), books written with the names of the saints, the paradise of God with its trees of healing and nourishment, the new creation with its wonders specialized in the new city and temple. In the last passage the figure of ‘one like a man’ (the Messiah) rises from the sea, and then flies among the clouds, and the explanation is given; ‘As none can find out what is in the depths of the sea, so none of the inhabitants of the earth can see my son and his companions save at the hour of his day’ (v
Inspiration - The Spirit was needed to qualify the writers for giving what they have given, a condensed yet full and clear portraiture of Messiah, calculated to affect all hearts in every nation, and to sow in them seeds of faith, hope, and love. The one word My is Christ's proof of His Godhead (Matthew 22:43), "the Lord said unto MY Lord (Psalms 90:1): if David call Him Lord, how is He His Son?" David could not have understood the full force of his own words (Psalm 22) as to the "gall," the "vinegar," the "parting of His garments," and "casting lots for the vesture," and other minute details fulfilled in Messiah
Romans, Book of - Paul was also aware of the threat posed by the “unbelievers in Judea” (Romans 15:31 ) or the Jews, loyal to their ancient traditions, who were upset by Paul's proclamation of Jesus as Messiah. Second, Paul stressed matters in Romans he does not give much attention to in his other letters, such as the wrath of God (Romans 1:18-32 ) and the Jewish rejection of Jesus as Messiah (Romans 9-11 )
Winter - 14, 4 Ezra 8:62; and the spirit of wisdom will abide in the Messiah, the Elect One, xlix. [3] four articles on ‘The Wisdom of Jesus the Messiah’)
Zechariah, Theology of - Because of this and because of Haggai's words, that God was about to overturn the kingdoms of the world and appoint Zerubbabel his signet ring (2:20-23), many hoped that Zerubbabel was the Messiah and would usher in the kingdom of God. The fact that Joshua is crowned but not Zerubbabel, with that one crown being kept in reserve in the temple (6:14), indicates that it was not God's time to introduce the Messiah, the Davidic descendant who would reign forever in righteousness
Nazirite - If one said, however, ‘Let me be a Nazirite on the day that Messiah appears,’ one might drink wine on Sabbaths and feast days, since it was held Messiah would not appear on any of them (’Erubîn, 43a)
Nazirite - If one said, however, ‘Let me be a Nazirite on the day that Messiah appears,’ one might drink wine on Sabbaths and feast days, since it was held Messiah would not appear on any of them (’Erubîn, 43a)
David - ” The first king to unite Israel and Judah and the first to receive the promise of a royal Messiah in his line
King - ...
Type of Messiah (Daniel 9:26)
Promise - ...
The Promise and the Law The promise was eternal, Abraham's descendants had to transmit the promise to subsequent generations until the final Seed, even Jesus the Messiah, came
Jehoiada - Jehoiada had saved Joash's life and throne, and had been God's providential instrument in preventing the extinction of David's line, which then hung upon the one seemingly frail thread, but which could not be broken since to it belonged the promises of Messiah; he had stifled the idolatry transplanted into Judah by Joram's marriage into apostate Ahab's house, and restored Jehovah's worship
Restitution - The prophet Malachi had foretold that Elijah should be sent as the Messiah’s forerunner (Malachi 4:5) and that he should effect a work of moral restoration (Malachi 4:6); and in the Septuagint this restoring work (Heb. On the ground of this saying the expectation of Elijah’s reappearance to herald the advent of the Messiah had become general among the Jews (Sirach 48:10-11; cf
Holy Spirit, the - Jesus by His unction became Messiah or Christ (Isaiah 61:1)
Servant of the Lord - Wolf...
See also Isaiah, Theology of ; Jesus Christ ; Messiah ...
See also Jesus Christ, Name and Titles of ...
Bibliography
Ministry, Minister - In his life and particularly in his death, Jesus fulfilled the prophecy of the Messiah as the Suffering Servant of Yahweh (Isaiah 52:13-53:12 )
Nahum, Theology of - John the Baptist expected the imminent arrival of such a Messiah: "You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? Produce fruit in keeping with repentance
Hope - Simeon looked for Israel's consolation at the advent of the Messiah (Luke 2:25-26 )
Gentiles (2) - 291–327; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Index, s
Celibacy (2) - 13–18; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, ii
Zechariah, Book of - Matthew 9:1 through 11 depict God's deliverance of His people in terms of the victory of God and His Messiah over the neighboring peoples, including the Greeks ( Zechariah 9:1-10:7 ), the return of the Exiles (Zechariah 10:6-12 ), and the punishment of the wicked leaders of Judah (Zechariah 11:4-17 )
Poetry - enabling him to enter into the spirit of the services of the sanctuary, and so to feel his need of Messiah, whose coming the Psalms announce
Judah - The same prophetic spirit that was in Jacob, leading him to the acknowledgment of Judah under one character typical of the Messiah, prompted him to speak of him under another
Cross - The cross was the punishment inflicted by the Romans, on servants who had perpetrated crimes, on robbers, assassins, and rebels; among which last Jesus was reckoned, on the ground of his making himself King or Messiah, Luke 23:1-5 ; Luke 23:13-15
Matthew - It is certain that the Apostles, immediately after the descent of the Holy Ghost, which took place only ten days after the ascension of our Saviour into heaven, preached the Gospel to the Jews with great success; and surely it is reasonable to suppose, that an authentic account of our Saviour's doctrines and miracles would very soon be committed to writing, for the confirmation of those who believed in his divine mission, and for the conversion of others; and, more particularly, to enable the Jews to compare the circumstances of the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus with their ancient prophecies relative to the Messiah; and we may conceive that the Apostles would be desirous of losing no time in writing an account of the miracles which Jesus performed, and of the discourses which he delivered, because the sooner such an account was published, the easier it would be to inquire into its truth and accuracy; and, consequently, when these points were satisfactorily ascertained, the greater would be its weight and authority
Nebuchadnezzar the Great - This last is that of the Messiah, represented by the little stone coming out from the mountain and overthrowing the statue
Lion - Isaiah, describing the happy time of the Messiah, says, that then the calf, and the young lion, and the fatling should lie down together; and that a little child should lead them; and that the lion should eat straw like the ox, Isaiah 11:6-7 , which is hyberbolical, and signifies the peace and happiness which the church of Christ should enjoy
Purification (2) - a measure equal to one and a half ‘eggshells’ (Edersheim, LT [3]
Elijah - A John the Baptist, Elijah's antitype, the last representative of the Sinaitic law, must be followed by the Messiah and His Spirit speaking in the winning tones of Matthew 11:29. The Jews always understood a literal Elijah, and said, "Messiah must be anointed by Elijah. " As there is a second consummating advent of Messiah, so also of His forerunner (possibly in person as at the transfiguration, Matthew 17:3, even after which He said (Matthew 17:11), "Elias shall first come and restore all things," namely, at "the times of restitution of all things"), possibly a prophet clothed with Elijah's miraculous power of inflicting judgments, which John had not. ...
The forerunning "the great and dreadful day of Jehovah" can only exhaustively refer to Messiah's second coming, preceded by a fuller manifestation of Elijah than that of John before Messiah's first coming
Millenarians - The tradition which fixes the duration of the world, in its present imperfect state, to six thousand years, and announces the approach of a Sabbath of one thousand years of universal peace and plenty, to be ushered in by the glorious advent of the Messiah, has been traced up to Elias, a rabbinical writer, who flourished about two centuries before the birth of Christ. The Jews understood several passages of the prophets, as Zechariah 14:16 , &c, of the millennium; in which, according to their carnal apprehensions, the Messiah is to reign on earth, and to bring all nations within the pale, and under subjection to the ordinances, of the Jewish church. The Jews will then be converted to the faith of the Messiah, and partake with the Gentiles of the blessings of his kingdom
Matthew, the Gospel According to - The genealogy was necessary in a Gospel for Jews, to show that Jesus' claim to Messiahship accorded with His descent through king David from Abraham, to both of whom the promise of Messiah was given; while its insertion is proof of early date. For the Jews; to show Jewish, readers (to whom were committed the Old Testament "oracles of God") that Jesus is the Messiah of the Old Testament, fulfilling Old Testament prophecies, as born of a virgin in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:6); fleeing to Egypt and called out of it; heralded by John Baptist (Matthew 3:3); laboring in Galilee of the Gentiles (Matthew 4:14-16); healing (Matthew 8:17); teaching in parables (Matthew 13:14 ff). Events in order, proving His claim to Messiahship by miracles (Matthew 8-9)
Church - But already in the NT that ideal element, which distinguished the primitive fellowship as the Kingdom of Messiah, is beginning to express itself in a conception of the ecclesia which, while it never loses touch with the actual concrete society or societies of Christians, has nevertheless no constitutional value. There is therefore little doubt that Jesus meant His disciples to understand the establishment of Messiah’s Kingdom; and that the use of the less common word ecclesia , far from being unintentional, is designed to connect with the new and enlarged Israel only the spiritual associations of Jehovah’s congregation, and to discourage the temporal aspirations which they were only too ready to derive from the promised Kingdom. The passage combines in a remarkable degree the three elements in the Divine Society, namely, the redeemed congregation of Israel ( Psalms 74:2 ), the Kingdom or ecclesia of Messiah ( Matthew 16:18 ), and the body established upon the Atonement ( Colossians 1:20-22 , Ephesians 2:13 )
Elect, Election - Luke seems to be the only NT writer who has adopted the use of the word as a designation, strictly speaking, of the Messiah (cf. Of the many names by which the coming Messiah is designated there, the favourite one seems to be ‘the Elect One’ (see 40:5, 45:3f. , 49:2, 4, 51:3, 5, 52:6, 9, 55:4, 61:5, 8, 10, 62:1), and on a couple of occasions this is joined with another word or words which are equivalent to a characterization of the conditions upon which His election to the Messiahship rests (‘the righteous and elect one,’ 53:6; ‘the elect one of righteousness and faith,’ 39:6 Light - The light of Christ, the Messiah, was thus His ministry (see Bruce’s Galilean Gospel, p. The Messiah (e
Jeremiah - Neither Peter nor the mother of Zebedee's children, could accuse Jeremiah of having misled them in one word of his, in any chapter of his, concerning the coming Kingdom of the Messiah. And more and more as his ministry went on, Jeremiah strove with all his might to draw both the hearts and the imaginations of his people not only off all alliance with the kingdoms that were around them, but also off the too pictorial Kingdom of the Messiah that had been hung up before them
Peter - On the occasion when Jesus questioned his disciples to see if they were convinced he was the Messiah, Jesus seems to have accepted Peter’s reply as being on behalf of the group
Chronology of the Old Testament - Now the interest that the writer had in this calculation was probably due to the theory which he had formed or which had come down to him by tradition, that the length of time from the Creation to the coming of the Messiah would be 4000 years
Election - The birth of the Messiah is seen to mark the dawn of the age of salvation for the remnant (Ezekiel 34:12-13 , Ezekiel 34:23-31 ; Micah 5:1-2 )
Devil - Even one who followed Jesus most closely and recognized His role as Messiah could be called, “Satan” for seeking to prevent Jesus from carrying out His role as Suffering Servant (Mark 8:33 )
Nativity of Christ - ...
Guided by the sure word of prophecy, the Jews of that age concluded the period predetermined by God to be then completed, and that the promised Messiah would suddenly appear, 1618419557_89
Voice (2) - ...
The attempt of Edersheim (LT [7]
Old - Golden - It is rising again to shine with even greater glory when CHRIST JESUS, the Messiah, returns
Remnant - Upon this shoot, customarily interpreted as the Messiah, rests the sevenfold spirit (vv
Priest, Christ as - The Messiah is told to sit at Yahweh's right hand, assuming the ceremony of royal enthronement to kingly power, but in the very presence of God (v
Moses - ...
Moses is so strongly interwoven with the religious tradition involving God's plan for human salvation through Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and ultimately the Davidic Messiah, and attested to as an authoritative figure for Hebrew culture even in the New Testament period, that he could not possibly have been an invention or a fictional character used as an object of religious or social propaganda
Herod - It has been taken to mean either ‘you are persuading me somewhat to act the part of a Christian,’ or ‘on slight grounds would make me a believer in your assertion that the Messiah has come’ (Encyclopaedia Biblica i
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - 3) as a murderer and a robber (φονικὸς καὶ λῃστρικὸς) of the Barabbas type but was recognized by Akiba the leading rabbi of the time as the Messiah seized 50 fortresses and 985 villages and established himself in the stronghold of Bethera between Caesarea and Lydda (rebuilt by Hadrian and renamed Diospolis). The Christians of Palestine true to the apostolic precept of submission to the powers that be took no part in the insurrection and were accordingly persecuted by the rebel leader and offered the alternative of denying the Messiahship of Jesus or the penalty of torture and death (ib
Persia - ), and from his inserting passages from David's writings and prophecies of Messiah
Following - ; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah; Commentaries of Godet, Westcott, etc
Providence - The translation of the Jewish Scriptures into the language of a large part of the civilized world, Greek, by the Septuagint (by it the history of providence and the prophecies of Messiah became accessible to the learned everywhere; all possibility of questioning the existence or falsifying the contents of the prophecies was taken away; the closing of the canon just before proved that the Scriptures, so translated, supplied complete all that God revealed in Old Testament times); the expectation throughout the East of a great King and Deliverer to arise in Judaea; the increasing light of philosophy; the comprehension of most of the known world by the Roman empire, breaking down the barrier between E
Triumphs - These words are a quotation from the sixty-eighth Psalm, where David in spirit describes the ascension of Messiah in very glowing colours: "The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels: the Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place
Election - They might have retained it as Christians, had they been willing to admit the believing Gentiles of all nations to share it with them; but the great reason of their peculiarity and election, as a nation, was terminated by the coming of the Messiah, who was to be "a light to lighten the Gentiles," as well as "the glory of his people Israel
Joseph - We learn from the evangelists that he followed the occupation of a carpenter, Matthew 13:55 ; and that he was a just man, or one of those pious Israelites who looked for the coming of the Messiah, Matthew 1:19
Jacob - ...
Still more typifying Messiah, through whom heaven is opened and also joined to earth, and angels minister with ceaseless activity to Him first, then to His people (John 14:6; Revelation 4:1; Acts 7:56; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:19-20). Tears (recorded by Hosea under an independent Spirit of revelation) and supplications were his weapons; type of Messiah (Hebrews 5:7)
Guilt (2) - Romans 5:9), the reply is that Jesus is here represented as Saviour in the sense in which Messiah was to save, and that this is determined by the meaning of ‘salvation’ as developed in the theology of the OT. Paul was familiar with this prevalent view hardly admits of doubt, or that he availed himself of it to interpret the relation of Jesus the Messiah to the whole human race, as giving the victory over sin, the wages of which is death (Romans 6:23), and the power of which is the outraged law (1 Corinthians 15:56)
Blood - When Peter confessed that Jesus was the Messiah, Jesus told Peter, “Flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven” (Matthew 16:1 ;Matthew 16:1;17:1 )
Abraham - ...
The prophecy whereby all human families would be blessed (or "bless themselves") came to fruition in the work of Jesus Christ, the Messiah of God, who was the long-promised descendant of Abraham (Matthew 1:1 ; Galatians 3:16 )
Scripture - ), or even the Messiah (Hebrews 2:12 f
Mediator, Mediation - Similarly, the king often functioned as the channel through which God mediated his blessings to his people (2 Samuel 7:5-17 ; Psalm 72:1-4 ), a role the Messiah especially was expected to perform (Isaiah 9:2-7 ; 11:1-9 )
Freedom - The very concept of Messiah was widely understood against the background of earthly kingship
Promise - In the postexilic period the expectation of a Messiah was quickened by prophecy (Malachi 4:5-6 ), and when Jesus began his ministry he was expected by some to behave like a conquering king, liberating his people from Roman oppression and fulfilling ancient expectations
Joy - Through the entrance of the Messiah into glory, through His pneumatic presence and activity in the Church, and through the prospect of His speedy return, believers have been brought into real contact with the world to come
Circumstantiality in the Parables - the Messiah; the king, in spite of the refusal of the guests, sends them a second invitation (Matthew 22:3-4); they ill-treat and slay the servants who bring the invitation, and the king sends forth his armies to destroy them and to bum their city (Matthew 22:6-7)
Scribes - Simeon, Gamaliel's son, was so but for a short time; possibly the Simeon of Luke 2:25, of the lineage of David, therefore disposed to look for Messiah in the Child of that house
Stephen - ...
(2) That in their past history from the first the same failure to recognize their true friends appeared as in their present rejection of the great Antitype Messiah and His ministers: "ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Spirit, as your fathers did so do ye"; so the brethren toward Joseph, the Israelites towards Moses (Acts 7:9; Acts 7:35; Acts 7:40), and worst of all toward God, whom they forsook for a calf and for Moloch. ...
(3) That God nevertheless by ways seeming most unlikely to man ultimately exalted the exile Abraham, the outcast slave Joseph, and the despised Moses to honour and chiefship; so it will be in Messiah's case in spite of the humiliation which makes the Jews reject Him
Honor - The Messiah is said to have “no form nor [1]; and when we shall see him, there is no beauty that we should desire him” ( Mary - Mary being espoused to Joseph, the Angel Gabriel appeared to her, to announce to her that she should be the mother of the Messiah, Luke 1:26-27 , &c
Jeremiah - He describes the destruction of Babylon, and the downfall of many nations, Jeremiah 25:12 ; Jeremiah 9:26 ; Jeremiah 25:19-25 ; Jeremiah 42:10-18 ; Jeremiah 46, and the following chapters, in predictions, of which the gradual and successive completion kept up the confidence of the Jews for the accomplishment of those prophecies, which he delivered relative to the Messiah and his period, Jeremiah 23:5-6 ; Jeremiah 30:9 ; Jeremiah 31:15 ; Jeremiah 32:14-18 ; Jeremiah 33:9-26
Hebrews - They lived in expectation of the Messiah, the Desire of all nations, to complete their hopes and wished, and fully to instruct and bless them
Psalms, Book of, - Now there are in the Psalter at least three psalms of which the interest evidently centers in a person distinct from the speaker, and which, since they cannot without violence to the language be interpreted of any but the Messiah, may be termed directly and exclusively Messianic
Church - ...
From this faithful minority (or remnant) there came one person, Jesus the Messiah, who was the one particular descendant of Abraham to whom all God’s promises to Abraham pointed
Peraea - Edersheim, LT [5]
Punishment (2) - Such are decapitation (Mark 6:27, Matthew 14:10), drowning (Mark 9:42, Matthew 18:6), incarceration (Mark 6:17, Matthew 5:25; Matthew 18:30, Luke 23:19), and hanging (Matthew 27:5), inflicted, according to Jewish custom, only for idolatry or blasphemy, and then only after the victim had already been put to death in some other way (Edersheim, LT [2]
Jews - ...
At this time there was a confident expectation of the Messiah among the Jews; and indeed, a general idea prevailed among the Heathen, also, that some extraordinary conqueror or deliverer would soon appear in Judea. Herod, misled by the opinion, which was then common among the Jews, that the Messiah was to appear as the temporal prince, and judging from the inquiries of the wise men of the east, that the child was actually born, sent to Bethlehem, and ordered that all the children of two years old and under should be put to death, with the hope of destroying one whom he considered as the rival of himself, or at least of his family. That the Messiah is to come, though he tarry a long time
Transfiguration (2) - The legend was constructed skilfully from OT figures and analogies (especially from the parallel illumination of Moses’ countenance on Sinai), and from the prophecies as to the appearance of the Messiah and His forerunner (Malachi 4:5) Elijah. It is to be regarded as symbolic, and consequent on the determination of Jesus to go to Jerusalem and possibly encounter a fate which, to the ordinary Jewish mind, would entirely destroy His claim to be the Messiah, or in any way a chosen instrument of Deity
Sanctification - He sanctified himself by fulfilling his unique calling as the Messiah (John 17:19 ), being declared the Son of God at his resurrection (Romans 1:4 ). ...
Just as all forgiveness of sin was provisional until the ministry of the Messiah was complete, so all sanctification was provisional (Hebrews 9:13-14 ; 10:10-12 )
Law of Moses - It contained the "spiritual promise" of the Messiah; but it contained also the temporal promises subsidiary to the former. The belief in God as the Redeemer of man, and the hope of his manifestation as such int he person of the Messiah, involved the belief that the Spiritual Power must be superior to all carnal obstructions, and that there was in man spiritual element which could rule his life by communion with a spirit from above
Christian - ‘the Anointed One,’ the Messiah; and they ardently looked for Him to come
Daniel, Book of - Daniel confesses the nation's sins, seeks forgiveness, and learns meaning of Jeremiah's 70 weeks as pointing to Messiah and to desolation of Jerusalem (Daniel 9:1-27 )
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the - For Ezekiel 38:1-23 ; Ezekiel 39:1-29 , Daniel 7:1-28 ; Daniel 8:1-27 ; Daniel 9:1-27 ; Daniel 11:1-45 ; Daniel 12:1-13 , and later extra-canonical Jewish apocalyptic literature present, under varied historic colouring, the same conception of a final rally of the powers of evil before the last days, and of the triumph of Messiah over ‘antichrist
Captivity - ...
Their return under Messiah (then to be manifested) and their spiritual glory shall be the appointed instrumentality of the conversion of all nations (Isaiah 2; Isaiah 60; Micah 5:7; Zechariah 8:13)
Elijah - The New Testament, which mentions the prophet nearly thirty times, shows the influence of the late Jewish tradition of Elijah being the forerunner of the Messiah
Edom - Of the kingdom of the Messiah, Israel's king, there shall be no end (Luke 1:33)
Immanuel - ( f ) There remains the view which sees in the passage a reference to a Messiah in the wider use of the term, as understood by Isaiah and his contemporaries
New Covenant - Eschatological stage of salvation history in which God, through the work of the Messiah and the Spirit, would unconditionally bring about Israel's full salvation. The benefits of the new covenant received by the church are forgiveness and the Spirit (the means of the internal spiritual transformation) whereas restored Israel will receive in addition the promised land under the Messiah's kingship and will be subject to the law (written on the heart) as the governing code of the messianic kingdom
Inn - ...
In this connexion it is interesting to note that the Talmud has the following passage: ‘In the time of the Messiah the people will be impudent, and be given to drinking; public-houses will flourish, and the vine will be dear’ (Sota, quoted in M‘Clintock and Strong’s Cyc
Judaea - In this ‘land not inhabited’ John the Baptist sought seclusion while preparing for his ministry as the forerunner of the Messiah; and here the Holy One, concerning whom he bore record, abode ‘forty days tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him’ (Matthew 3:1-6 || Luke 3:2, Matthew 4:1-11 || Mark 1:12-13)
Stone - There are sermons in these stones, we might say, for they have lessons to impart to us regarding Christ’s history, His teaching, and His Person as the Messiah
Paul's Visit to Jerusalem to See Peter - Peter began by telling Paul all about that day when his brother Andrew so burst in upon him about the Messiah
Genealogy - The hope of being the ancestor of the Messiah, and the natural pride of royal descent, probably caused the records of the house of David to be preserved with great care
Ave Maria - ...
To His first Jewish disciples the name Messiah was the unveiling of a historical mystery, the justification of the calling, preservation, and discipline of Israel
Dominion (2) - Thus, as He withstood the temptation of Satan (Luke 4:6) to assume the royal sceptre which belonged to Him as Son of God, and to reign as the Divinely appointed king of a visible and temporal realm, so He resisted, as a repetition of that temptation, every suggestion or appeal that was made to Him, by the people or by His disciples, formally and publicly to appear as the Messiah
Hellenists - By the notions which they had received from the Jews, of one God, of the divine government of the world, of God's judgment, and of the Messiah, they were more prepared for the Gospel than other Heathens; and because they still thought that they had too little, because they had no determined religious system, and were curious after more instruction in divine things, and because they had not received many of the prejudices which swayed the Jews, they were more fitted to receive the Gospel than many of the Jews
Judaea - In this ‘land not inhabited’ John the Baptist sought seclusion while preparing for his ministry as the forerunner of the Messiah; and here the Holy One, concerning whom he bore record, abode ‘forty days tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him’ (Matthew 3:1-6 || Luke 3:2, Matthew 4:1-11 || Mark 1:12-13)
Peace (2) - —In prophetic anticipation the coming of the Messiah was to inaugurate a reign of peace (Isaiah 9:7, Psalms 72:3; Psalms 72:7), and He Himself was to be ‘the Prince of Peace’ (Isaiah 9:6)
Pre-Eminence - In it Jesus is the Son of David, predicted by the prophets, and surely, therefore, Messiah (Acts 11:22 f
Corinthians, First And Second, Theology of - The latter will be implemented when the Messiah comes and, with him, righteousness and peace. Perhaps the dominant christological perspective operative in 1,2Corinthians is that Jesus the Messiah, by his death on the cross and resurrection from the grave, has effected the shift of the two ages
Miracles - ...
Messiah's miracles were foretold (Isaiah 35:5-6; Isaiah 42:7), and so were asked for by John Baptist (Matthew 11:2-4), and made the ground by the people of calling Him "Son of David" (Matthew 12:23; John 7:31). Strauss' mythic theory, namely, that the story of Jesus embodies the nation's cherished idea of what the Messiah was expected to do, and therefore was believed to have done, is counter to the fact that the Jews expected a reigning Messiah, who should not die but deliver them from their Roman masters
Prophecy - Jortin, "besides gradually opening and unfolding the things relating to the Messiah, and the blessings which by him should be conferred upon mankind, are many, great, and manifest. Is an empire, or kingdom erected? that empire, or kingdom is erected with a view, directly or indirectly, to the kingdom of the Messiah
Holiness - In Acts the words of Psalms 16:10 are quoted twice; ‘thy Holy One’ is a title of the Messiah to whom pre-eminently belongs the OT designation of the theocratic nation,—οἱ ὅσιοι τοῦ θεοῦ, God’s pious ones. The phrase is a designation of the Messiah, described by John (John 10:36) as ‘him whom the Father consecrated’ (ἡγίασε
Mark, Gospel According to - Our Lord, for example, does not at once proclaim His Messiahship, nor does He allow evil spirits to proclaim it in-opportunely (Mark 1:25; Mark 3:12; cf. We might even think, at first sight, especially if we have the Matthaean account (Mark 16:16) of Peter’s confession chiefly in mind and not the Markan, that the disciples then and then only found out that Jesus was Messiah. , which makes the Baptist begin by calling Jesus the Lamb of God and the Son of God, and makes Andrew, Philip, and Nathanael at once recognize Him as Messiah (John 1:29; John 1:34; John 1:41; John 1:45; John 1:49), bears all the marks of probability
Atonement - It is certain that, in the time of our Lord, even if, as some think, there were partial exceptions, the great mass of the Jewish people had no idea of a suffering Messiah, or thought of any connexion between the Messiah and the sacrifices. The main task of Jesus on earth was to reveal the Father, to disclose the true nature of the Kingdom of God and its righteousness, in opposition to false ideals, to lead men to the recognition of His Messiahship, to recover the lost, to attach a few faithful souls to Himself as the foundation of His new Kingdom, and prepare their minds for His death and resurrection, and for the after duty of spreading His gospel among mankind. From the hour of His definite acceptance of His vocation of Messiahship in His baptism, and at the Temptation, combined as this was with the clear consciousness of a break with the ideals of His nation, Jesus could not but have been aware that His mission would cost Him His life. Mark 14:33 ff; Mark 15:34 , John 12:27 ); how strange to see them submitted to by the Prince of Life; how awful the horror of great darkness in which the Christ passed away! Can we explain it on the hypothesis of a simple martyrdom? Do we not need the solution which the other passages suggest of a sin-bearing Redeemer? Finally, there is the crowning attestation to His Messiahship, and seal upon His work, in the Resurrection, and the commission given to the disciples to preach remission of sins in His name to all nations a clear proof that through His death and resurrection a fundamental change had been wrought in the relations of God to humanity ( Matthew 28:18-20 , Luke 24:47 , John 20:21-23 )
Birth of Christ - Luke’s accuracy, so well attested in other respects, would have saved him from making an initial and needless error, and that the least consideration would have prevented him from connecting such an event as an enrolment of the people with the birth of the Messiah at Bethlehem, unless it was true. Undoubtedly both OT prediction and Rabbinic teaching pointed to Bethlehem, yet the prophecy was fulfilled according to the Gospel story by the introduction of a set of circumstances which were strangely alien to Jewish national thought and prestige: ‘a counting of the people, or census, and that census taken at the bidding of a heathen emperor, and executed by one so universally hated as Herod, would represent the ne plus ultra of all that was most repugnant to Jewish feeling’ (Edersheim, Jesus the Messiah, i
Oracle - These oracles contained the law, both moral and ceremonial, with all the types and promises relating to the Messiah which are to be found in the writings of Moses. They also contained all the intimations of the divine mind which he was pleased to communicate by means of the succeeding prophets who prophesied beforehand of the coming and of the sufferings of the Messiah with the glory that should follow
Disciple, Discipleship - The promise of a coming Davidic Messiah is intertwined with the promise that God himself would be with his people
Moab - Spiritual blessings under Messiah are finally meant
Atonement - flee lid of the ark, covering the law inside, which is fulfilled in Messiah who is called by the corresponding Greek term, hilasterion , "the propitiatory" or mercy-seat, "whom God hath set forth to be a propitiatory through faith in His blood" (Romans 3:23)
Esther - Maimonides says that in Messiah's days the prophets and hagiographa shall pass away, except "Esther," which will remain with the Pentateuch. ...
The hand of Providence is to be traced palpably in the overruling of the king's reckless feastings and wanton deposing of Vashti because she shrank from violating her own self respect, to laying the train for His appointed instrument, Esther's elevation; in Mordecai's saving the king's life from the two would-be assassins, and the recording of the fact in the royal chronicles, preparing the way for his receiving the royal honors which his enemy designed for himself; in Haman's casting Pur, the lot, for an auspicious day for destroying the Jews, and the result being, by God's providence which counterworked his appeal to chance, that the feast of Purlin is perpetually kept to commemorate the Jews' preservation and his destruction; in Esther's patriotic venture before the king after previous fasting three days, and God's interposing to incline the king's heart to hold out to her the golden scepter, ensuring to her at once life and her request (Proverbs 21:1); in Haman's pride at being invited to the queen's banquet and his preparing the gallows for Haman, and Providence, the very night before it, withdrawing sleep from the king so that the chronicles were read for his pleasure, and Mordecai's service was thus brought to his remembrance, so that when Haman came to solicit that Mordecai should be hanged the king met him with the question, "What shall be done unto the man whom the king delighteth to honor?"...
Then, in Haman supposing himself to be the object of honor, and suggesting the highest royal honors (such as Joseph had from the Egyptian king, Genesis 41:43), and thus unwittingly being constrained with his own voice and hand to glorify him whom he had meant to destroy; then in the denouement at the queen's banquet, and Haman's execution on the very gallows he erected for Haman (Psalms 7:14-16); and the consequent preservation from extinction of the holy race of whom Messiah must spring according to prophecy, and of whom Isaiah (Isaiah 54:17) writes, "no weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper, and every tongue that shall rise against thee thou shalt condemn
Israel, Israelite - Matthew 2:6, Luke 1:54; Luke 1:68; Luke 2:25; Luke 2:32; Luke 24:21, Acts 1:6, all of which reveal the national conviction that the Messiah would come for the benefit of Israel, and that to Israel were God’s attention and love especially given
Elijah - According to the Rabbis, Elijah was to precede the Messiah, to restore families to purity, to settle controversies and legal disputes, and perform seven miracles (cf
Judgment, Day of - This is distinctively Christian teaching, for the Jews do not seem to have thought of the Messiah as the Judge
Head - David often speaks in this manner about the Messiah
Feasts - " Meanwhile on earth Israel, long finding no ease or rest for the sole of the foot, but having "trembling of heart, failing of eyes, and sorrow of mind" (Deuteronomy 28:65), shall at length rest in her own land under Messiah reigning at Jerusalem as His holy capital and over the whole earth, and "everyone that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem shall even go up from year to year to worship the King the Lord of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles" (Zechariah 14:9; Zechariah 14:16; Revelation 7)
Widow - It was no accident that one of the poorest of the poor, Anna, was privileged to greet the infant Messiah (Luke 2:36-38 )
Excommunication - Edersheim, LT Miracles - They were 'wonders' that arrested the attention of the people; they were 'signs' that God had visited His people, and that the acts of the Lord Jesus identified Him with the promised Messiah; and they were 'powers,' for they were superhuman
Mystery - Paul, accordingly, must be attributed the first utilization of Isaiah 6:9, which henceforth becomes the locus classieus to account for the rejection of the Messiah by His own people (with Mark 4:11 and parallels, cf
John the Apostle - The name, meaning "the favor of God", had become a favorite one in the age where there was a general expectation of Messiah, and members of the high priestly families bore it (Acts 4:6)
David - At first sight, we wonder at his leaving his father and mother for safe-keeping with the king of Moab (1 Samuel 22); but the Book of Ruth shows how coincident with probability this is, and yet how little like the harmony contrived by a forger! His Gentile connection gave him somewhat enlarged views of the coming kingdom of Messiah, whose type and ancestor he was privileged to be (Psalms 2:8; Matthew 1:5). His birthplace was Bethlehem (as it was of his Antitype, Messiah: Luke 2:4, etc
Moses - So Israel's Antitype, Messiah, has "all the fullness of the Godhead dwelling in Him bodily" (John 1:14; Colossians 2:9). At once the prophet (foremost and greatest, Deuteronomy 34:10-11), lawgiver, and leader of Israel, Moses typifies and resembles Messiah (Numbers 21:18; Deuteronomy 33:21; especially Deuteronomy 18:15-19, compare Acts 3:22; Acts 7:37; Acts 7:25; Acts 7:35; John 1:17)
Samuel, First And Second, Theology of - This is the first time in Scripture that the king of Israel is referred to as the "anointed of the Lord" or "messiah. Although the technical sense of "messiah" as an "ideal king of the future" did not emerge u
Gospel (2) - He was the Messiah (Matthew 16:16). He foretold His death and resurrection, directly He had brought His disciples to confess His Messiahship (Matthew 16:21). The presence in the world of the Son of man, the Messiah of prophecy, demonstrated God’s love in providing for men’s deepest needs
Boyhood of Jesus - Edersheim (Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, i. Or, building on His previous knowledge of the Law and the Prophets, and on the current Messianic hopes, He might desire to learn from the Rabbis about the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom
Day of Judgment - As a part of the more highly developed Messianism, it sometimes ceased to represent a single judicial act on the part of the sovereign Deity, and with something like a recurrence to the picture of Ezekiel, came to stand for the period of struggle in which the Messiah was to overcome and punish the enemies of a righteous nation. This double conception is to be found also in the apocalyptic literature, and is easily understood by reference to the representative character of the Messiah
Psalms - 5), extending from Moses to the times of Malachi "the Hebrew history set to music an oratorio in five parts, with Messiah for its subject" (Wordsworth). Thus, Psalm 22 portrays Messiah's death scene, Psalm 23. ...
Wordsworth suggests Psalm 41 and Psalm 71, at the close of Books I and II respectively, were written at the time of Adonijah's, Joab's, and Abiathar's conspiracy when David was old and languishing, yet "in the strength of the Lord God" enabled to rise afresh in the person of Solomon his son, whose throne in Messiah is to be everlasting, as Psalm 72 sets forth. Psalm 42; Psalm 43; Psalm 84; Psalm 86 (according to Hengstenberg, as occurring in the midst of Korahitic psalms though superscribed with David's name), refer to Absaiom's rebellion; Psalm 44 on the invasion of the Edomites (2 Samuel 8:13; 1 Chronicles 18:12; Matthew 5:3); Psalm 49 of general import; Psalm 45 on King Messiah's marriage to Israel and the church, in Solomon's time; Psalm 47; Psalm 48; Psalm 83, in Jehoshaphat's time; Psalm 46; Psalm 87, refer to Sennacherib's host overthrown before Jerusalem, in Hezekiah's reign; Psalm 85; Psalm 88; Psalm 89, before the Babylonian captivity. And Isaiah 52:13-53;Isaiah 52:12; the introduction three verses (Isaiah 52:13-15) with the concluding two verses (Isaiah 53:11-12) making up five, the half; the main part comprises ten (Isaiah 53:1-10), divided into seven for Messiah's humiliation (three of which represent Messiah's sufferings, four their cause, His being our substitute) and three for His glorification (Hengstenberg). The three form a trilogy: Psalm 108 anticipating triumph over the foe, Psalm 109 the foe's condemnation, Psalm 110 Messiah's divine kingly and priestly glory
Abram - To this second migration he was incited also by a Divine command, accompanied by the promises of a numerous issue, that his seed should become a great nation, and, above all, that "in him all the families of the earth should be blessed; " in other words, that the Messiah, known among the patriarchs as the promised "seed of the woman," should be born in his line. The numerous natural posterity promised to Abraham was also a type of the spiritual seed, the true members of the church of Christ, springing from the Messiah, of whom Isaac was the symbol
Omnipresence - ), it follows most naturally—and this is precisely what the Gospels presuppose—that He applied to Himself all the OT predictions of the Messiah, and was conscious that He possessed the properties and attributes which the OT assigns to Him who was to come—King, Servant, Prophet, and Messiah in one
the Penitent Thief - Is He indeed the promised Messiah? Is He really David's Son? Is this really He who is to overcome and cast out Cæsar? If it is, we shall join His standard immediately, and He will remember us when He comes into His kingdom
Prophecy, Prophets - (1) Some prophecies seem to have a direct, literal fulfillment: the Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem (Matthew 2:5-6 ; Micah 5:2 )
Harmony of the Gospels - M also contained many Old Testament proof texts related to Jesus' role as Messiah
Angel - In the postexilic period the term "messenger" described the teaching functions of the priest (Malachi 2:7 ), but most particularly the individual who was to prepare the way for the Lord's Messiah (Malachi 3:1 )
Woman (2) - —Edersheim, LT [3]
Mark, the Gospel of - After the Baptist fulfilled his role as the forerunner to the Messiah (in a very brief appearance), Jesus began His public ministry in Galilee by preaching the “gospel of God” and collecting a few disciples collecting a few disciples (Mark 1:14-20 ). When the disciples finally offered their superlative confession of faith at Caesarea Philippi (Mark 8:27-30 ), they failed to understand the full implications of Jesus' Messiahship (Mark 8:31-38 )
Gideon - To take away still further all attribution of the victory to man not God, the army was reduced to 300 by retaining those alone whose energy was shown by their drinking what water they lifted with their hands, not delaying to kneel and drink (compare as to Messiah Psalms 110:7)
Laughter - , Matthew 9:14, Mark 2:18); He made it a habit to enter convivial assemblies, and was a guest at feasts where laughter, jest, and song were a part of the order of the day;§ Excommunication (2) - But if the later lists of Talmudical writers rest on traditions that go back to the time of Christ, there were certain recognized categories of offence, such as ‘dealing lightly with any of the Rabbinic or Mosaic precepts,’ under which it would be easy for the Jewish casuists to arraign any one who called Jesus Master or acknowledged Him to be the Messiah
Matthew - But he is now the Messiah Himself! And Matthew in his toll-booth has a thousand thoughts about all that, till he cannot get his columns to come right all he can count
Jacob - The promised Seed was the constant object of faithful expectation; and all the patriarchal ordinances, institutions, and predictions, had an allusion, positive or incidental, to the Messiah
Chronicles, Books of - The person is the Son of David—the Messiah
Profaning, Profanity - ‘Eid bei den Hebräern’; Edersheim, LT [7]
Dates (2) - Edersheim (Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah) suggests that the conjunction in b. Two Jewish traditions, one that the star of the Messiah should be seen two years before His birth, and the other that the conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in Pisces portended something of importance for the Jewish nation, might be mentioned
Miracles - That our Lord laid the greatest stress on the evidence they afforded, nay, that he considered that evidence as sufficient to authenticate his claims to the office of the Messiah with all reasonable and well disposed inquirers, is manifest not only from his own words, John 10:25 , but also from a great variety of other passages in the evangelists. But his enemies, who admitted their reality and yet resisted their design, by not acknowledging the person who wrought them to be the Messiah, had recourse to the most impious and most absurd suppositions, in order to evade their evidence
Cross, Crucifixion - Matthew took Mark even further, pointing to Jesus as the royal Messiah who faced His destiny in complete control of the situation
Scripture, Unity And Diversity of - Jesus as Messiah brings both together and presents not only a unity but provides information for the final chapter—the eschaton
Baptism - repentance and profession of faith in Jesus as Messiah or as ‘the Lord,’ following on the preaching of the word
Joy (2) - Another strange attendant circumstance of the joy of these days that preceded our Lord’s incarnation is the utterance of Elisabeth, who, when Mary, the predestined mother of the Messiah, comes to visit her, cries out in an ecstasy of wonder and joy, ‘Behold, when the voice of thy salutation came into mine ears, the babe leapt in my womb for joy’ (Luke 1:44). In this latter respect it came into line with what the prophets had described as the marked characteristic of the Kingdom of God, and also with what the Jewish apocalypses pictured as the outcome of the Messiah’s advent
Kenosis - Without taint or flaw in His own nature, the expectations of the people regarding the Messiah, and the desires they pressed upon Him, afforded the occasions of temptation to Him
Disciple (2) - ]'>[1] ]; Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah; Greenhough, The Apostles of Our Lord
Apocrypha, New Testament - It tells how Judas Thomas, “Twin of the Messiah,” was given India when the apostles divided the world by casting lots
John the Baptist - John had drunk in the Sonship and the Messiahship of Jesus of Nazareth with his mother's milk. And thus it was that for full thirty years John did nothing else but wait for the Messiah
Jeroboam - And if only Jeroboam had tarried the Lord's leisure, and had kept his heart clean and humble, Jeroboam would soon have been king over all Israel, he and his sons, till the Messiah came Himself to sit down on David's undivided throne
James the Lord's Brother - We have found the Messiah
Multitude - Edersherm (LT [1]
Church (2) - After the fall of the actual kingdom, the idea of the future kingdom became, to a great extent, idealized, and in close connexion with it there grew up the expectation of a personal Messiah. ...
The most conspicuous feature in the teaching of Christ, as recorded in the Synoptic Gospels, is undoubtedly His claim to be the Messiah, and His announcement of the coming of the Kingdom of God
Authority of Christ - Probably in the generation before that in which He lived the Jews had come to regard the Messiah as God’s vicegerent in the great judgment which ushered in the world to come; but what we find in the NT in this connexion is not the formal transference of a piece of Messianic dogmatic to Jesus; it is the moral recognition of the moral supremacy of Jesus, and of His right to pronounce finally on the moral worth of men and things. He is teaching that the essential thing in Messiahship is not a relation to David, but a relation to God; and He refers to the 110th Psalm, and to David as its author, as unintelligible except on this hypothesis. Jesus, he holds, could only have used ‘Son of God’ in the Messianic official sense of " translation="">Psalms 2:7; here, therefore, where the meaning is clearly more than official, it cannot be the voice of a Jewish Messiah which is heard, but the voice of the Christian consciousness in a Gentile environment: the larger Church has universalized the Jewish conception, elevated the official Son—the Messianic King—into a Son by nature, and put its own faith and its own experience of Jesus into Jesus’ own lips
Back to Christ - In His consciousness of this vocation and of His equipment for it, He accepted the title of Messiah. The facts that give to His inner life its character are His moral perfection and consciousness of sinlessness, His assertion of a unique knowledge of God, and of a Sonship different in kind from that possible to His disciples, His assertion of His Messiahship and pre-existence, His demand for absolute devotion to His Person, His claim to a superhuman authority in forgiving sins and in dealing with OT institutions and laws, His claim to be the Saviour of the world, the arbiter of human destiny, the final Judge. To believe the gospel is no longer, in the first place at least, to receive God’s message of love and forgiveness, and to obey His summons to repentance, trust, and service; it is to believe that Jesus is Messiah, a pre-existent, heavenly Being, the second Person in the Trinity
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - The ultimate triumph of Christian universalism, and the recognized equality between Jewish and Gentile members of the church of the Messiah, was a fruit of the life-long labours of St. , while the great mass of Jewish unbelievers were, as a penalty for their rejection of the true Messiah, excluded from the blessings of the kingdom of God
Ezra, the Book of - , the probable date of Malachi's prophecy and Nehemiah's work, which the prophet supported, ending; then (2) 62 weeks (434 years) of no revelation; then seven years of special and brightest revelation to Israel, first by Messiah in person, then by His still more powerful presence by the Holy Spirit, in the middle of which week His one sacrifice supersedes all other sacrifices
Baptize, Baptism - ...
John's practice added to proselyte baptism a still stronger emphasis on repentance, a firm background of moral teaching (Luke 3:3,10-14,33 ), and initiation into a community ("John's disciples") preparing for Messiah's advent (Luke 3:16-17 ). Some think Jesus was already aware of his role as Servant-Messiah, "numbered with the transgressors" (Isaiah 53:12 )
Scribes - ]'>[1] may be taken as a standard authority; Ewald, Kuenen, and Wellhausen are all important; so are Edersheim’s LT [2]
Unpardonable Sin - But while it is true that the Jews of our Lord’s time used the phrases ‘this age’ and ‘the coming age’ to denote the period before and the period after the advent of the expected Messiah (cf