What does Mesopotamia mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
μεσοποταμίαν the entire country between the two rivers 1
μεσοποταμίᾳ the entire country between the two rivers 1
נַהֲרַ֜יִם Mesopotamia. 1
נַהֲרַ֖יִם Mesopotamia. 1
נַֽהֲרַ֖יִם Mesopotamia. 1
נַהֲרָ֑יִם Mesopotamia. 1
נַהֲרַיִם֮ Mesopotamia. 1

Definitions Related to Mesopotamia

H763


   1 Mesopotamia.
   Additional Information: Aram-naharaim = “Aram of the two rivers”.
   

G3318


   1 the entire country between the two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates.
   Additional Information: Mesopotamia = “between two rivers”.
   

Frequency of Mesopotamia (original languages)

Frequency of Mesopotamia (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Mesopotamia
(Greek: mesas, middle; potamos, river; country between rivers)
A great plain between the Euphrates and the Tigris; the upper part covered ancient Assyria; the lower comprised ancient Chaldea and Babylonia. Rebecca's father was born in Mesopotamia (Genesis 25), also Jacob's sons; inhabitants of this country were present at Pentecost (Acts 2).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia
The country between the two rivers (Heb. Aram-naharaim; i.e., "Syria of the two rivers"), the name given by the Greeks and Romans to the region between the Euphrates and the Tigris (Genesis 24:10 ; Deuteronomy 23:4 ; Judges 3:8,10 ). In the Old Testament it is mentioned also under the name "Padan-aram;" i.e., the plain of Aram, or Syria (Genesis 25:20 ). The northern portion of this fertile plateau was the original home of the ancestors of the Hebrews (Genesis 11 ; Acts 7:2 ). From this region Isaac obtained his wife Rebecca (Genesis 24:10,15 ), and here also Jacob sojourned (28:2-7) and obtained his wives, and here most of his sons were born (35:26; 46:15). The petty, independent tribes of this region, each under its own prince, were warlike, and used chariots in battle. They maintained their independence till after the time of David, when they fell under the dominion of Assyria, and were absorbed into the empire (2 Kings 19:13 ).
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia
("region between the rivers"); 700 miles long, from 20 to 250 broad; bounded N.E. by the Tigris, S.W. by the Euphrates. Its Hebrew name Aram Naharaim means "Aram between the rivers." The tribe sprung from Aram, Shem's fourth son, first colonized it. Man's first dwelling after the flood. Here was the plain of Shinar (Genesis 11:2; Genesis 14:1), where the Babel tower and kingdom were. Padan Aram, "plain Syria," was the N. part of the whole; the whole Syrian "highland" was Aram, in contradistinction from Canaan "the lowland." The upper Tigris valley was separated from the Mesopotamian plain by a mountain range (Masius: Strabo, 11:12, section 4).
The vast plain is intersected by the Sinjar running E. and W. Mounds mark city sites on every side. Innumerable lines of embankment indicate a network of ancient canals which diffused by irrigation fertility where now are morasses or barrenness. The N.W. part between the bend of the Euphrates and the upper Tigris is what Scripture names Mesopotamia. The Chaboras or (See HABOR , flowing from the S. side of the Sinjar range, empties itself into the Euphrates. Orfa, Abram's native city, and Haran, his resting place between Chaldaea and Palestine, are in Padan Aram (Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2). Nahor settled in Mesopotamia after quitting Ur (Genesis 24:10). Naharina occurs in Egyptian inscriptions of the 18th and 19th dynasties. Bethuel, Rebekah, and Laban lived in Padan Aram. Balaam's abode was Pethor of Mesopotamia among "the mountains of the East" (Numbers 23:7; Numbers 22:5).
Chushan Rishathaim of Mesopotamia oppressed Israel in the time of the Judges (Judges 3:8). (See CHUSHAN RISHATHAIM.) The Mesopotamians aided the Ammonites with chariots against David (1 Chronicles 19:6; 1 Chronicles 19:16). Assyrian inscriptions confirm Scripture in asserting that Mesopotamia was independent of Assyria until after David ("the tribes of the Nairi," stream lands, were under their several independent princes, until in 880 B.C., Jehu's time, Assyria became completely their master); also that Mesopotamians used chariots in battle, and that after David's time Mesopotamia became absorbed in Assyria. Men of Mesopotamia were among those who heard in their own tongue the wonderful works of God (Acts 2:9).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia
(mihss uh puh tay' mih uh) Strictly speaking, Mesopotamia (from the Greek “between the rivers”) is the designation of the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia applies more generally to the entire Tigris-Euphrates valley. At times in antiquity the culture of Mesopotamia dominated an even larger area, spreading east into Elam and Media, north into Asia Minor, and following the fertile cresent into Canaan and Egypt.
The Scriptures witness to a long history of contacts between the Hebrew people and the people of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was the homeland of the patriarchs (Genesis 11:31-12:4 ; Genesis 24:10 ; Genesis 28:6 ). A Mesopotamian king subdued Israel for a time during the period of the judges (Judges 3:8 ). Mesopotamia supplied mercenary chariots and cavalry for the Ammonites' war with David (1 Chronicles 19:6 ; superscription of Psalm 60:1 ). Both the Northern Kingdom of Israel (2 Kings 15:29 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ) and the Southern Kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 24:14-16 ; 2 Chronicles 36:20 ; Ezra 2:1 ) went into Exile in Mesopotamia.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia
Originally the name ‘Mesopotamia’ was given to the fertile land around the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers (Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8-10; 1 Chronicles 19:6). By New Testament times it applied to the whole of the Euphrates-Tigris valley, so that even the city of Ur, which was near the mouth of the Euphrates, was considered to be in Mesopotamia (Acts 2:9; Acts 7:2). (For details see ARAM; ASSYRIA; BABYLON; EUPHRATES; SYRIA; TIGRIS.)
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia (mĕs-o-po-tâ'mi-ah), the region, between the rivers. The name given by the Greeks and Romans to that tract of fertile country lying between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. Acts 2:9; Acts 7:2. It was called by the Hebrews Aram-naharaim, or "Aram (or Syria) of the two rivers;" Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8; Judges 3:10; 1 Chronicles 19:6; and Padan-aram or "Plain of Syria," Genesis 25:20; Genesis 28:2-7; Genesis 46:15; also Aram or "Syria," Numbers 23:7; Genesis 31:20; Genesis 31:24. The great plains of Mesopotamia possess a nearly uniform, level, good soil, but barren from want of irrigation. Mesopotamia was the country of Nahor, R. V., "city of Nahor." Genesis 24:10. Here lived Bethuel and Laban, and hither Abraham sent his servant to fetch Isaac a wife. A century later Jacob came on the same errand, and hence he returned with his two wives after an absence of 21 years. Mesopotamia again occurs at the close of the wanderings in the wilderness. Deuteronomy 23:4. About a half century later, Mesopotamia appears as the seat of a powerful monarchy. Judges 3:1-31. The children of Ammon, having provoked a war with David, "sent a thousand talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria-maachah, and out of Zobah." 1 Chronicles 19:6. Assyrian inscriptions and the Scripture record show that Mesopotamia was inhabited in the early times of the empire, b.c. 1200-1100, by a vast number of petty tribes, each under its own prince, and all quite independent of each other, Judges 3:8-10; 2 Kings 19:12-13; Isaiah 37:12, until subjugated by the kings of Assyria. Mesopotamia became an Assyrian province. The conquests of Cyrus brought it wholly under the Persian yoke, and thus it continued to the time of Alexander. The whole region is studded with mounds and ruins of Assyrian and Babylonian greatness. See Assyria.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Mesopotamia
MESOPOTAMIA = Aram-naharaim (see Aram).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia is referred to in Acts 2:9, where it is evidently the well-known district between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris with which the name is generally associated, and also in Acts 7:2, where it is roughly parallel with ‘the land of the Chaldaeans’ in v. 4. The name ‘Mesopotamia’ represents the Hebrew Aram-Naharaim in the OT, which is usually rendered ‘Aram of the two rivers,’ but is more correctly Aram Naharim or Naharin, i.e. ‘Aram of the river-lands’ (Encyclopaedia Biblica i. 287). Mesopotamia reached, on the north, to the plains beneath the Masius range of hills. To the south its limits were about where Babylonia begins, at the so-called Median Wall, which runs from a little below Is (Hit), on the Euphrates, to a point just above Opis (Kadisiya), on the Tigris. It thus formed a deep triangle with the apex to the south and the base along the foot of the northern mountains. The country fell steadily from 1,100 ft. in the north to 65 ft. at its southern extremity, and consisted for the most part of a single open stretch of steppe-land.
The river Chaboras (Khabur), entering the Euphrates from the east near Circesium, marks off the three divisions of Mesopotamia-(a) the northern tracts on its west side, (b) the similar tracts to east of it, and (c) the steppe-land stretching away south to the Median Wall. As to (a), the north-western tracts bore the name of Osrhœne, or Orrhœne, in Seleucid times, and the chief city of the district was Urfa, the Edessa of the Greeks and Romans. To the south of Urfa lie the ruins of Harran, and along the western bank of the Habor stretched Gauzanitis, the Hebrew Gozan, to which Israelites were deported by the king of Assyria (2 Kings 17:6). As to (b), the principal city of the north-eastern region was Nisibis, a busy trading centre and a place of frequent conflict between Roman and Persian armies. As to (c), the southern region of Mesopotamia contained several cities of importance. Among these may be mentioned Corsothe, Anatho, and Is (on the Euphrates), and Atrae and Caenae (on the Tigris). Along the banks of the two rivers, in this southern country, was a belt of cultivated land, outside of which the conditions were (for the most part) those of the Syrian Desert.
Mesopotamia was constantly being crossed and traversed by armies and caravans in ancient times, and was repeatedly a scene of conflict between the nations of the West and of the Farther East. In the earliest times, its history was closely bound up with that of Babylonia on the south. The Babylonians held predominance for long periods, influencing the civilization to a very considerable extent. At the same time, the land lay open to Syria and Arabia, whose tribes were constantly breaking across its borders. From the Tel-el-Amarna tablets and certain Egyptian tribute-lists, it appears that a non-Semitic people, called Mitani, occupied the district of Naharin between 1700 and 1400 b.c. Harran was probably their capital city. After the Mitani supremacy, the country fell under the rule of the Assyrian kings, and in the 10th cent. b.c. seems to have become part of Assyria proper. When the Assyrian power declined, Mesopotamia was overrun (as it had been more or less all along) by Aramaean hordes from the west and south.
Literature.-Encyclopaedia Biblica iii. 3050-3057; H. Winckler, History of Babylonia and Assyria, Eng. translation , 1907.
A. W. Cooke.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Mesopotamia
Between two rivers
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Mesopotamia
A province rendered remarkable for the first peopling of the earth after the deluge. The meaning of the word is, between two rivers—perhaps from Potamos, river.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia
This name signifies 'midst of the rivers.' It is the district lying between the rivers Euphrates and the Upper Tigris, especially in the N.W. It is first mentioned as the abode of Nahor and his family. Isaac's wife came from thence, and Jacob served Laban there. Mention is made of but one king of Mesopotamia, Chushanrishathaim, who ruled over Israel — no doubt a part of them — for eight years. Judges 3:8-10 . Mesopotamia became absorbed in the great nations, belonging successively to the Assyrians, Medes and Persians, Greeks, and Romans, and then the Turks, it is now Iraq. Genesis 24:10 ; Deuteronomy 23:4 ; 1 Chronicles 19:6 ; Acts 2:9 ; Acts 7:2 . See ARAM-NAHARAIM.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Mesopotamia
an extensive province of Asia, the Greek name of which denotes "between the rivers," and on this account Strabo says, οτι κειται μεταξυ του Ευφρατου και του Τιγρος , that "it was situated between the Euphrates and the Tigris." In Scripture this country is called Aram, and Aramea. But as Aram also signifies Syria, it is denominated Aram Naharaim, or the Syria of the rivers. This province, which inclines from the southeast to the north-west, commenced at 33 20' N. lat., and terminated near 37 30' N. lat. Toward the south it extended as far as the bend formed by the Jordan at Cunaxa, and to the wall of Semiramis which separated it from Messene. Toward the north, it comprehended part of Taurus and the Mesius, which lay between the Euphrates and the Tigris. The modern name, given by the Arabs to this part, is of the same import with the ancient appellation; they call it "isle," or, in their language, Al- Dgezera. In this northern part is found Osrhoene, which seems to have been the same place with Anthemusir. The northern part of Mesopotamia is occupied by chains of mountains passing from north-west to south-east, in the situation of the rivers. The central parts of these mountains were called Singarae Montes. The principal rivers were Chaboras, (Al Kabour,) which commenced at Charrae, (Harran,) east of the mountains, and discharged itself into the Euphrates at Circesium (Kirkisieh;) the Mygdonius, (Hanali,) the source of which was near Nisibis, and its termination in the Chaboras. The principal towns in the eastern part along the Tigris and near it, are Nisibis, (Nisibin,) Bezabde, (Zabda,) Singora, (Sindja,) Labbana on the Tigris, (Mosul,) Hatru, (Harder,) and Apamea-Mesenes. At some distance to the south, upon the Tigris and on the borders of Mesopotamia, was the town of Antiochia, near which commenced the wall that passed from the Tigris to the Euphrates, under the name of Murus Mediae, or Semiramidis. In the western part were Edessa, called also Callin-Rhae, (Orfa,) Charrae, (Harran,) Nicephorium, (Racca,) Circesium at the mouth of the Chaboras, Anatho, (Anah,) Neharda, (Hadith Unnour,) upon the right of the Euphrates. There are several other towns of less importance. According to Strabo, this country was fertile in vines, and afforded abundance of good wine. According to Ptolemy, Mesopotamia had on the north a part of Armenia, on the west the Euphrates on the side of Syria, on the east the Tigris on the borders of Assyria, and on the south the Euphrates which joined the Tigris. Mesopotamia was a satrapy under the kings of Syria.
In the earliest accounts we have of this country, subsequent to the time of Abraham, it was subject to a king, called Cushan-Rishathaim, then perhaps the most powerful potentate of the east, and the first by whom the Israelites were made captive, which happened soon after the death of Joshua, and about B.C. 1400, Judges 3:8 . The name of this king bespeaks him a descendant of Nimrod; and it was probably of the Lower Mesopotamia only, or Babylonia, of which he was sovereign; the northern parts being in the possession of the Arameans. This is implied in the history of Abraham; who, when ordered to depart from his country, namely, Chaldea, in the southern part of Mesopotamia, removed to Charran, still in Mesopotamia, but beyond the boundary of the Chaldees, and in the territory of Aram. About four hundred years after Cushan-Rishathaim, we find the northern parts of Mesopotamia in the hands of the Syrians of Zobah; as we are told, in 2 Samuel x, that Hadarezer, king of Zobah, after his defeat by Joab, "sent and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river" Euphrates. The whole country was afterward seized by the Assyrians; to whom it pertained till the dissolution of their empire, when it was divided between the Medes and the Babylonians. It subsequently formed a part of the Medo-Persian, second Syrian or Macedonian, and Parthian empires, as it does at the present day of the modern Persians. The southern part of Mesopotamia answers nearly to the country anciently called the land of Shinar; to which the Prophet Daniel 1:2 , refers, and Zechariah 5:11 .
"On the fifth or sixth day after leaving Aleppo," says Campbell in his Overland Journey to India, "we arrived at the city of Diarbeker, the capital of the province of that name; having passed over an extent of country of between three and four hundred miles, most of it blessed with the greatest fertility, and abounding with as rich pastures as I ever beheld, covered with numerous herds and flocks. The air was charmingly temperate in the day time, but, to my feeling, extremely cold at night. Yet notwithstanding the extreme fertility of this country, the bad administration of government, conspiring with the indolence of the inhabitants, leaves it unpeopled and uncultivated. Diarbeker Proper, called also Mesopotamia from its lying between two famous rivers, and by Moses called PADANARAM, that is, ‘the fruitful Syria,' abounds with corn, wine, oil, fruits, and all the necessaries of life. It is supposed to have been the seat of the earthly paradise; and all geographers agree that here the descendants of Noah settled immediately after the flood. To be treading that ground which Abraham trod, where Nahor the father of Rebecca lived, where holy Job breathed the pure air of piety and simplicity, and where Laban the father-in-law of Jacob resided, was to me a circumstance productive of delightful sensations. As I rode along, I have often mused upon the contemptible stratagems to which I
was reduced, in order to get through this country, for no other reason than because I was a Christian; and I could not avoid reflecting with sorrow on the melancholy effects of superstition, and regretting that this fine tract of country, which ought to be considered above all others as the universal inheritance of mankind, should now be cut off from all except a horde of senseless bigots, barbarous fanatics, and inflexible tyrants."
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Mesopotamia
Between the rivers, the Greek name of the country between the Euphrates and the Tigris, called in Arabic, Al Jezira, the island. See ARAM 2, and PADAN-ARAM . In its fullest sense, Mesopotamia extended from the Persian Gulf to mount Taurus; but the name usually denotes only the tract above Babylonia, now called Dearbekr and celebrated for its exuberant fertility; while the part below, now Irak-Arabi, is sterile and without water. Mesopotamia was including the territories of the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman empires successively, and belongs now to that of the Turks.
This region is associated with the earliest history of the human race both before and after the flood. Eden was not far off; Ararat was near to it on the north, and the land of Shinar on the south. The traveler here reaches what is truly "the Old World," and is surrounded by objects compared with which the antiquities of Greece and Rome are modern novelties. This was the home of the patriarchs who proceeded Abraham-Terah, Heber, Peleg, etc. Here Abraham and Sarah were born, and the wives of Isaac, and Jacob, and most of the sons of Jacob, the heads of the twelve tribes. Mesopotamia is also mentioned in Scripture as the abode of the first oppressor of Israel in the time of the judges, Judges 3:8-10 ; in the history of the wars of David, 2 Samuel 10:16 ; and as furnishing a delegation of Jews, and perhaps proselytes, to attend the Passover at Jerusalem, Acts 2:9 .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Gezireh, Mesopotamia, Iraq, Diocese of
Seat of a Chaldean and a Syrian episcopal see.
The Chaldean diocese was founded, 1852. There has been no bishop since Philip Abraham, shot by the Turks, 1915.
The Syrian see, founded, 1863, has been vacant since the massacre of Right Reverend Flavian Malke, 1915.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Baghdad, Mesopotamia (Iraq), Archdiocese of
See of the Latin and Syrian Rites.
(1) In the Latin Rite the see is directly dependent on the Holy See. Founded at Ispahan, 1629, transferred to Baghdad, 1742, and raised to an archbishopric, 1848, it comprises the missions of Baghdad, founded, 1721, and entrusted to the Discalced Carmelites, and that of Mosul, dating from 1750 and placed in care of the Dominicans. The archiepiscopal residence is at Mosul. Francis Berre was appointed to the see, 1921, succeeding John Drure, archbishop from 1902. See also:
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org
(2) The see of the Syrian Rite was established in 1862, and comprises Baghdad and Bassorah. See also:
Catholic-Hierarchy.Org

Sentence search

Mesopotamia - (mihss uh puh tay' mih uh) Strictly speaking, Mesopotamia (from the Greek “between the rivers”) is the designation of the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia applies more generally to the entire Tigris-Euphrates valley. At times in antiquity the culture of Mesopotamia dominated an even larger area, spreading east into Elam and Media, north into Asia Minor, and following the fertile cresent into Canaan and Egypt. ...
The Scriptures witness to a long history of contacts between the Hebrew people and the people of Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was the homeland of the patriarchs (Genesis 11:31-12:4 ; Genesis 24:10 ; Genesis 28:6 ). A Mesopotamian king subdued Israel for a time during the period of the judges (Judges 3:8 ). Mesopotamia supplied mercenary chariots and cavalry for the Ammonites' war with David (1 Chronicles 19:6 ; superscription of Psalm 60:1 ). Both the Northern Kingdom of Israel (2 Kings 15:29 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 ) and the Southern Kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 24:14-16 ; 2 Chronicles 36:20 ; Ezra 2:1 ) went into Exile in Mesopotamia
Pethor - a city of Mesopotamia, of which the Prophet Balaam was a native. He places it in the Upper Mesopotamia
Padan-Aram - called also Sedan-Aram in Hosea; both names denoting Aram or Syria the fruitful, or cultivated, and apply to the northern part of Mesopotamia, in which Haran or Charran was situated. See Mesopotamia
Padan Aram - of Mesopotamia (Hosea 12:12), "the field (sedeh ) of Aram" (Genesis 25:20), the same as Aram Naharaim, "Aram of the two rivers," or Mesopotamia. (See Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia - Mesopotamia = Aram-naharaim (see Aram)
Mesopotamia - Mesopotamia (mĕs-o-po-tâ'mi-ah), the region, between the rivers. The great plains of Mesopotamia possess a nearly uniform, level, good soil, but barren from want of irrigation. Mesopotamia was the country of Nahor, R. Mesopotamia again occurs at the close of the wanderings in the wilderness. About a half century later, Mesopotamia appears as the seat of a powerful monarchy. The children of Ammon, having provoked a war with David, "sent a thousand talents of silver to hire them chariots and horsemen out of Mesopotamia, and out of Syria-maachah, and out of Zobah. Assyrian inscriptions and the Scripture record show that Mesopotamia was inhabited in the early times of the empire, b. Mesopotamia became an Assyrian province
Pethor - Dwelling place of Balaam in Mesopotamia
cu'Shan - (blackness ), ( Habakkuk 3:7 ) possibly the same as Cushan-rishathaim (Authorized Version Chushan-) king of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia - " The upper Tigris valley was separated from the Mesopotamian plain by a mountain range (Masius: Strabo, 11:12, section 4). part between the bend of the Euphrates and the upper Tigris is what Scripture names Mesopotamia. Nahor settled in Mesopotamia after quitting Ur (Genesis 24:10). Balaam's abode was Pethor of Mesopotamia among "the mountains of the East" (Numbers 23:7; Numbers 22:5). ...
Chushan Rishathaim of Mesopotamia oppressed Israel in the time of the Judges (Judges 3:8). ) The Mesopotamians aided the Ammonites with chariots against David (1 Chronicles 19:6; 1 Chronicles 19:16). Assyrian inscriptions confirm Scripture in asserting that Mesopotamia was independent of Assyria until after David ("the tribes of the Nairi," stream lands, were under their several independent princes, until in 880 B. , Jehu's time, Assyria became completely their master); also that Mesopotamians used chariots in battle, and that after David's time Mesopotamia became absorbed in Assyria. Men of Mesopotamia were among those who heard in their own tongue the wonderful works of God (Acts 2:9)
Chushanrishathaim - King of Mesopotamia, who oppressed Israel for eight years: he was conquered by Othniel, Caleb's nephew
Chushan-Rishathaim - A king of Mesopotamia, who oppressed the Israelites eight years, but was defeated by Othniel, Caleb's nephew, Judges 3:8-10
Hena - Supposed to have been a city of Mesopotamia afterwards called Ana, at a ford of the Euphrates, 2 Kings 18:34 ; 19:13 ; Isaiah 37:13
pe'Thor - (soothsayer ), a town of Mesopotamia, where Balaam resided, and situated "upon the river," possibly the Euphrates
Padan, Padanaram - A cultivated district in Mesopotamia, in which was the city of Nahor, to which Terah and his family migrated from Ur of the Chaldees; and from whence Rebekah, Leah, and Rachel, the wives of Isaac and Jacob, were obtained. ' Mesopotamia is the translation of Padan-aram both in the LXX and the Vulgate
Sepharvaim - It may, with most probability, be assigned to Mesopotamia, because it is named along with other places in that region, and because Ptolemy mentions a city of a similar name, Sipphara, as the most southern of Mesopotamia
Telabib - A place on the river Chebar in Mesopotamia, where a colony of captive Jews was located, Ezekiel 3:15
Padan-Aram - ), commonly regarded as the district of Mesopotamia (q
Tel-Assar - ” City in northern Mesopotamia which the Assyrians conquered (2 Kings 19:12 KJV, Thelasar; Isaiah 37:12 )
Hena - One of the cities of Mesopotamia destroyed by sennacherib (2 Kings 18:34 ; 19:13 )
Chebar - It is thought to have risen near the head of the Tigris, and to have run through Mesopotamia, to the south-west, and emptied itself into the Euphrates
Padan-Aram - See Mesopotamia, and SYRIA
Telassar - Some have identified it with Tel Afer, a place in Mesopotamia, some 30 miles from Sinjar
Elam - Elam was an ancient kingdom north of the Persian Gulf in the region of Mesopotamia
Pethor - ” City in upper Mesopotamia identified with tell Ahmar, twelve miles south of Carchemish near the confluence of the Sajur and Euphrates rivers
Shinar - See Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia - Mention is made of but one king of Mesopotamia, Chushanrishathaim, who ruled over Israel — no doubt a part of them — for eight years. Mesopotamia became absorbed in the great nations, belonging successively to the Assyrians, Medes and Persians, Greeks, and Romans, and then the Turks, it is now Iraq
pa'Dan-a'Ram - Syriac, the Hebrews designated the tract of country which they otherwise called the Aram-naharaim, "Aram of the two of rivers," the Greek Mesopotamia, ( Genesis 24:10 ) and "the field (Authorized Version,'country') of Syria. " (Hosea 12:13 ) The term was perhaps more especially applied to that portion which bordered on the Euphrates, to distinguish if from the mountainous districts in the north and northeast of Mesopotamia
Aramaic - ) Pertaining to Aram, or to the territory, inhabitants, language, or literature of Syria and Mesopotamia; Aramaean; - specifically applied to the northern branch of the Semitic family of languages, including Syriac and Chaldee
Shinar - A region in Mesopotamia, the plain between the Tigris and Euphrates
Terah - The father of Abraham, who left Ur to go to Canaan, but died at Haran, in Mesopotamia
Che'Bar - It is commonly regarded as identical with the Habor, (2 Kings 17:6 ) and perhaps the Royal Canal of Nebuchadnezzar, --the greatest of all the cuttings in Mesopotamia
Chebar - More probably the Chebar is the nahr Malcha, Nebuchadnezzar's royal canal, the greatest (chabeer means great) in Mesopotamia. Tradition places Ezekiel's tomb at Keffil, which favors our placing Chebar in Chaldaea, rather than upper Mesopotamia
Rebekah - A daughter of Bethuel, and sister of Laban in Mesopotamia, who became the wife of Isaac, and twenty years afterwards the mother of Jacob and Esau. Her deceit led to disastrous results: Jacob fled from home; and when he returned from Mesopotamia twenty years afterwards, his mother lay buried in the cave of Machpelah, Genesis 24:1-28:22 49:31
Chaldea - Chaldea was situated in central and southeastern Mesopotamia, i. ...
The Chaldeans In Old Testament times different peoples occupied southeastern Mesopotamia at various times. One such group was the Chaldeans, whose name derives from the ancient term Kaldai , which refers to several Aramean tribes who moved into lower Mesopotamia between 1000,900 B. , the Chaldeans emerged as the champions of resistance against Assyria, a dangerous, aggressive imperial force in upper Mesopotamia
Chu'Shan-Rishatha'im - (chief of two governments ), the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel during eight years in the generation immediately following Joshua
Hiddekel - The name now in use among the inhabitants of Mesopotamia is Dijleh
Kir - Being associated with Elam in Isaiah it is supposed to be in Lower Mesopotamia
Balak - His knowing as to the seer in Mesopotamia would imply a circulation of intelligence, great considering the times. Moab's descent from Lot, originally of Mesopotamia; also the merchant caravans passing across the deserts; also the advanced civilization of Moab in letters, proved by the Moabite stone some centuries later: all make it intelligible
Mesopotamia - Mesopotamia is referred to in Acts 2:9, where it is evidently the well-known district between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris with which the name is generally associated, and also in Acts 7:2, where it is roughly parallel with ‘the land of the Chaldaeans’ in v. The name ‘Mesopotamia’ represents the Hebrew Aram-Naharaim in the OT, which is usually rendered ‘Aram of the two rivers,’ but is more correctly Aram Naharim or Naharin, i. Mesopotamia reached, on the north, to the plains beneath the Masius range of hills. ...
The river Chaboras (Khabur), entering the Euphrates from the east near Circesium, marks off the three divisions of Mesopotamia-(a) the northern tracts on its west side, (b) the similar tracts to east of it, and (c) the steppe-land stretching away south to the Median Wall. As to (c), the southern region of Mesopotamia contained several cities of importance. ...
Mesopotamia was constantly being crossed and traversed by armies and caravans in ancient times, and was repeatedly a scene of conflict between the nations of the West and of the Farther East. When the Assyrian power declined, Mesopotamia was overrun (as it had been more or less all along) by Aramaean hordes from the west and south
Mash - The name Mash is probably represented by the Mons Masius of classical writers, a range which forms the northern boundary of Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates
Mesopotamia - Rebecca's father was born in Mesopotamia (Genesis 25), also Jacob's sons; inhabitants of this country were present at Pentecost (Acts 2)
Chaldea - or Babylonia, the country lying on both sides of the Euphrates, of which Babylon was the capital; and extending southward to the Persian Gulf, and northward into Mesopotamia, at least as far as Ur, which is called Ur of the Chaldees
Shinar, Plain of - Whatever its meaning outside the Bible, biblical texts use Shinar as a designation for Mesopotamia (Genesis 10:10 ). See Mesopotamia
Mash - (= Meshech 1 Chronicles 1:17 ), one of the four sons of Aram, and the name of a tribe descended from him (Genesis 10:23 ) inhabiting some part probably of Mesopotamia
Telas'Ear - it must have been in western Mesopotamia, in the neighborhood of Harran and Orfa
ti'Dal - ) He is called "king of nations," from which we may conclude that he was a chief over various nomadic tribes who inhabited different portions of Mesopotamia at different seasons of the year, as do the Arabs at the present day
Mash - (massh) A son of Aram (Genesis 10:23 ) in Table of Nations and thus original ancestor of Syrian tribal group, possibly from Mount Masius (Tur Abdin) in Northern Mesopotamia or the Mashu mountains of the Gilgamesh epic, probably the Lebanon and anti-Lebanon mountains
Bardesanists - A sect so denominated from their leader Bardesanes, a Syrian, of Edessa, in Mesopotamia, who lived in the second century
Othniel - Son of Kenaz, and first judge of the Israelites, delivering them from the tyranny of the king of Mesopotamia, and ruling them in peace forty years
Fertile Crescent - The Fertile Crescent is composed of Mesopotamia in the east and the Levant, or Palestine and Syria in the west. See Mesopotamia, Palestine
Fertile Crescent - The Fertile Crescent is composed of Mesopotamia in the east and the Levant, or Palestine and Syria in the west. See Mesopotamia, Palestine
Tellssar - Somewhere in western Mesopotamia; associated with Gozan, Haran, and Rezeph, in the hill country above the upper Mesopotamian plain, from which rises the river Khabour
Gozan - Region in Mesopotamia, to which some of the Israelites were carried captive
Church, Greek or Eastern - Comprehends the churches of all the countries anciently subject to the Greek or Eastern empire, and through which their language was carried; that is, all the space extended from Greece to Mesopotamia and Persia, and thence into Egypt
Caravan - Palestine lay along the main travel route between Egypt, Arabia, and Mesopotamia and had many caravans passing through it
Erech - Jerome identifies Erech with Edessa, in Mesopotamia; others identify it with Orchoe or Orech of the Greek and Roman geographers
Chushan-Rishathaim - A king of Mesopotamia, of whom nothing more is known than that he subjugated Israel shortly after the time of Joshua
Bacchides - Governor of Mesopotamia under Demetrius Soter; sent to establish Alcimus (wh
Mesopotamia - In its fullest sense, Mesopotamia extended from the Persian Gulf to mount Taurus; but the name usually denotes only the tract above Babylonia, now called Dearbekr and celebrated for its exuberant fertility; while the part below, now Irak-Arabi, is sterile and without water. Mesopotamia was including the territories of the Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, and Roman empires successively, and belongs now to that of the Turks. Mesopotamia is also mentioned in Scripture as the abode of the first oppressor of Israel in the time of the judges, Judges 3:8-10 ; in the history of the wars of David, 2 Samuel 10:16 ; and as furnishing a delegation of Jews, and perhaps proselytes, to attend the Passover at Jerusalem, Acts 2:9
Peleg - But more probably the reference is to the dispersion of the two races which sprang from Eber, the one spreading towards Mesopotamia and Syria, and the other southward into Arabia
Chebar - A river which rises in the northern part of Mesopotamia, and flows first southeast, then south and southwest, into the Euphrates
Cuth - Cuthah was the center of worship of Nergal, god of death in Mesopotamia
Halah - (hay' luh) City-state or region in northern Mesopotamia to which Assyrians exiled some leaders of the Northern Kingdom after capturing Samaria in 722 B
Beth-Barah - It was probably the chief ford of the Jordan in that district, and may have been that by which Jacob crossed when he returned from Mesopotamia, near the Jabbok (Genesis 32:22 ), and at which Jephthah slew the Ephraimites (Judges 12:4 )
Aram-Naharaim - Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in Genesis 24:10 ), the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west (Psalm 60 , title); called also the "field of Aram" (Hosea 12:12 , RSV) i
Chushan-Rishathaim - Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately following Joshua (Judges 3:8 ). , "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was still intriguing in Canaan
Haran - HARAN, otherwise called Charran, in Mesopotamia, a city celebrated for having been the place to which Abraham removed first, after he left Ur, Genesis 11:31-32 , and where Terah was buried. Haran was situated in the north-western part of Mesopotamia on a river of the same name running into the Euphrates
Joshua (1) Stylites, a Syrian Monk - Joshua (1) Stylites, a Syrian monk; a native of Edessa, entered the monastery of Zuenin near Amida in Mesopotamia. Before this he had written in 507 the history of his times from 495, entitled, History of the Calamities which befel Edessa, Amida, and all Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia - The northern part of Mesopotamia is occupied by chains of mountains passing from north-west to south-east, in the situation of the rivers. At some distance to the south, upon the Tigris and on the borders of Mesopotamia, was the town of Antiochia, near which commenced the wall that passed from the Tigris to the Euphrates, under the name of Murus Mediae, or Semiramidis. According to Ptolemy, Mesopotamia had on the north a part of Armenia, on the west the Euphrates on the side of Syria, on the east the Tigris on the borders of Assyria, and on the south the Euphrates which joined the Tigris. Mesopotamia was a satrapy under the kings of Syria. The name of this king bespeaks him a descendant of Nimrod; and it was probably of the Lower Mesopotamia only, or Babylonia, of which he was sovereign; the northern parts being in the possession of the Arameans. This is implied in the history of Abraham; who, when ordered to depart from his country, namely, Chaldea, in the southern part of Mesopotamia, removed to Charran, still in Mesopotamia, but beyond the boundary of the Chaldees, and in the territory of Aram. About four hundred years after Cushan-Rishathaim, we find the northern parts of Mesopotamia in the hands of the Syrians of Zobah; as we are told, in 2 Samuel x, that Hadarezer, king of Zobah, after his defeat by Joab, "sent and brought out the Syrians that were beyond the river" Euphrates. The southern part of Mesopotamia answers nearly to the country anciently called the land of Shinar; to which the Prophet Daniel 1:2 , refers, and Zechariah 5:11 . Diarbeker Proper, called also Mesopotamia from its lying between two famous rivers, and by Moses called PADANARAM, that is, ‘the fruitful Syria,' abounds with corn, wine, oil, fruits, and all the necessaries of life
Othniel - He afterwards became one of the judges, and prevailed against Chushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia
pe'Leg - " The reference is to a division of the family of Eber himself, the younger branch of which (the Joktanids) migrated into southern Arabia, while the elder remained in Mesopotamia
Hid'Dekel - The name now in use among the inhabitants of Mesopotamia is Dijleh
Maacah - A small district or kingdom on the northeastern frontier of Palestine, in Syria, near Ammon and toward Mesopotamia, 2 Samuel 10:6; or Maachah, 1 Chronicles 19:6-7
Laban - He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia
Gozan - It was situated in Mesopotamia, on the river Habor (2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:11 ), the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates
Ahava - In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia
Tidal - Probably chief of several nomadic tribes who occupied different tracts of Lower Mesopotamia at different times, as the Arabs do there to this day
Silk - India also traded with Mesopotamia
Paint - Archaeologists have uncovered numerous tomb and palace paintings in both Egypt and Mesopotamia
Heber (1) - The father of Peleg and ancestor of Abraham (Genesis 10:24; Genesis 10:25); marking that Arphaxad's descendants were now crossing over or beyond the great rivers on their way to Mesopotamia and thence to Canaan
Aramaic - (from Aram, a country in southwestern Asia) A Semitic language, used in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, etc
East Country - At 1 Kings 4:30 the wisdom of the East, either of Mesopotamia or of the desert dwelling Arabs, together with the wisdom of Egypt signifies all wisdom
Othniel - Othniel is the first mentioned among the ‘Judges’ of Israel; Cushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, had oppressed the Israelites for eight years, when Jahweh ‘raised up a saviour’ in the person of Othniel, who fought against the oppressor and overcame him, thus bringing rest to the land
Arphaxad - He dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans
Archelaus, Supposed Bishop of Carchar - of Carchar (perhaps Carrhoe Harrom in Mesopotamia)
Captivity, Assyrian - ), Sargon destroyed Samaria, and carried off the upper classes to Mesopotamia and Media (4Kings 17; 1Par
Terah - He intended to continue from Haran into Canaan, but died in Mesopotamia at the age of 205 (Genesis 11:32 )
Cushan-Rishathaim - King of Mesopotamia, or Aram-naharaim, first of the oppressors of Israel, from whom Othniel
Assyrian Captivity - ), Sargon destroyed Samaria, and carried off the upper classes to Mesopotamia and Media (4Kings 17; 1Par
Benjamin - Jacob, being on his journey from Mesopotamia, as he was proceeding southward with Rachel in the company, Genesis 35:16-17 , &c, the pains of child-bearing came upon her, about a quarter of a league from Bethlehem, and she died after the delivery of a son, whom, with her last breath, she named Benoni, that is, "the son of my sorrow;" but soon afterward Jacob changed his name, and called him Benjamin, that is, "the son of my right hand
Pethor - Mesopotamia, when he was called by Balak to curse Israel
Ur - It is usually called "Ur of the Chaldees," Hebrews 9:7 Acts 7:4 ; and is located, with strong probability, in the north-west part of Mesopotamia
Discalced Carmelite Order - Its mother-house is in Rome and is established in Spain, Italy, England, Ireland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Malta, Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Persia, British India (in the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin), Egypt, the United States, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia. Its houses, especially in many parts of America, are centers of apostolic life; and it has foreign, or Apostolic, missions in Uraba, Colombia, with one Prefect Apostolic, in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and especially in British India, comprising the Archdiocese of Verapoly, and the Diocese of Quilon, where it has under its care two preparatory seminaries, and the great central Apostolic Seminary of Puthempally for the indigenous clergy; and, in addition to these, several hospitals, and orphanages, as well as 308 grammar schools, 2 normal schools, 40 high schools, 27 middle schooIs
Order of Discalced Carmelites - Its mother-house is in Rome and is established in Spain, Italy, England, Ireland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Malta, Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Persia, British India (in the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin), Egypt, the United States, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia. Its houses, especially in many parts of America, are centers of apostolic life; and it has foreign, or Apostolic, missions in Uraba, Colombia, with one Prefect Apostolic, in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and especially in British India, comprising the Archdiocese of Verapoly, and the Diocese of Quilon, where it has under its care two preparatory seminaries, and the great central Apostolic Seminary of Puthempally for the indigenous clergy; and, in addition to these, several hospitals, and orphanages, as well as 308 grammar schools, 2 normal schools, 40 high schools, 27 middle schooIs
Ur - ” An ancient city in lower Mesopotamia that is mentioned in the Bible as Abraham's birthplace. See Abraham ; Babylon ; Chaldees ; Mesopotamia ; Sumeria
Akkadian - describes the first known Semitic invaders of Mesopotamia and the language they spoke. ...
The Akkadians, under Sargon the Great, conquered Mesopotamia and established the first true empire in world history (2360-2180 BC). Their ancient capital Akkad, (Agade), is mentioned in Genesis 10:10 as one of the cities of Shinar (Mesopotamia)
Bethbarah - ) Grove supposes Bethbarah to be the ford Jacob crossed in returning from Mesopotamia, and at which Jephthah slew the Ephraimites
Hara - City or region in northern Mesopotamia where, according to 1 Chronicles 5:26 , the Assyrians under Tiglath-pileser settled some of the exiles from east of the Jordan in the Northern Kingdom in 734 B
East - , Arabia, Mesopotamia and Babylonia; on the other hand mizrach is used of the far east with a less definite signification
Armenia - A large country of Asia, having Media on the east, Cappadocia on the west, Colchis and Iberia on the north, Mesopotamia on the south, and the Euphrates and Syria on the southwest
Mole - Mole rats in Syria and Mesopotamia frequent cultivated lands
Pethor - A town of Mesopotamia
Othniel - ), the king of Mesopotamia
Aram - It corresponded generally with the Syria and Mesopotamia of the Greeks and Romans
Chebar - An opinion that has much to support it is that the "Chebar" was the royal canal of Nebuchadnezzar, the Nahr Malcha, the greatest in Mesopotamia, which connected the Tigris with the Euphrates, in the excavation of which the Jewish captives were probably employed
Shinar, the Land of - and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf
Chushan Rishathaim - ) The Mesopotamian king who oppressed Israel eight years in the generation succeeding Joshua (Judges 3:8). Chushan Rishathaim, a chieftain, probably had established a temporary dominion over the petty tribes of Mesopotamia, which ceased long before Assyria marched there
Peleg - Arabia the elder Peleg remaining in Mesopotamia
Jacobites - A sect of Christians in Syria and Mesopotamia; so called, either from Jacob, a Syrian, who lived in the reign of the emperor Mauritius, or from one Jacob, a monk, who flourished in the year 550
Laban - The elder branch of Abram's family remained at Haran, in Mesopotamia, when Abraham removed to the land of Canaan
Succoth - A spot in the valley of the Jordan and near the Jabbok, where Jacob set up his tents on his return from Mesopotamia, Genesis 33:17
Eber - The line of descent through Joktan produced many of the Arab tribes (Genesis 10:26-30), and the line through Peleg produced those tribes of Mesopotamia to which Abraham belonged (Genesis 11:16-26)
Isaac - At the age of forty, he married the pious and lovely Rebekah of Mesopotamia. At the age of one hundred and thirty-seven, Isaac blessed Jacob and sent him away into Mesopotamia
East - , the lands lying east of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, etc
Isaac - A few years later he married Bathuel's daughter, Rebecca, whom one of his father's servants had brought from Mesopotamia and who, at an advanced age, bore him twin sons, Jacob and Esau
Ephraem, Saint - (Hebrew: fruitful) ...
Doctor of the Church, born Nisibis, Mesopotamia, c
Bartholomew, Saint - Bartholomew was introduced to Christ by his friend, Saint Philip; his missionary labors brought him to India, Mesopotamia, Parthia, and Lycaonia
East - By the east, they frequently describe, not only Arabia Deserta, and the lands of Moab and Ammon, which lay to the east of Palestine, but also Assyria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, and Chaldea, though they are situated rather to the north than to the east of Judea
di'Nah - ) She accompanied her father from Mesopotamia to Canaan, and, having ventured among the inhabitants, was violated by Shechem the son of Hamor, the chieftain of the territory in which her father had settled
Laban - After the father of Abraham migrated to the region of Paddan-aram in northern Mesopotamia, some of the family settled there
Euphrates - The Euphrates was a famous river of Mesopotamia. In the allegorical language of the period, as Egypt was the type of bodily life, so was Mesopotamia of spiritual (cf. 3: ‘Mesopotamia is the current of the great ocean flowing from the midst of the Perfect Man’)
Terah - The wanderer; loiterer, for some unknown reason emigrated with his family from his native mountains in the north to the plains of Mesopotamia
Lud - of Palestine, near Mesopotamia and Assyria
Nahor - City in Mesopotamia where Abraham's servant sought and found a wife for Isaac (Genesis 24:10 ); this in keeping with the ancient custom of marrying within one's family
Shushan - Archaeological evidence indicates that Shushan traded heavily with nations in Mesopotamia
Wheat - In the days of Jacob this grain was already so much cultivated in Mesopotamia that "wheat harvest" denoted a well-known season
Terah - Upon Abraham's first call to remove into the land of promise, Terah and all his family went with him as far as Haran, in Mesopotamia, about B
Table of Nations - The descendants of Shem were located generally in north Syria, that is, the region of the upper part of the Euphrates River, and Mesopotamia, especially the eastern part. See Assyria; Babylon ; Canaan; Habiru ; Israel ; Mesopotamia ; Semites
Haran - The city was in Mesopotamia, and more definitely in Padanaram, Genesis 24:10; Genesis 25:20, and also in western Assyria
Aram - Aram-naharaim of Genesis 24:10 is translated Mesopotamia in the English Version, and refers to the region between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers
Levi - The third son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia; and father of three sons, and of Jochebed the mother of Moses, Genesis 29:34 Exodus 6:16-20
Judas Thaddeus, Saint - Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia
Jude, Saint - Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia
Telassar - This Till-ashurri is supposed to have lain near the land of Mitanni (Upper Mesopotamia), which would find support if Mihrânu be connected with the Mehru mentioned by Tukulti-Ninib (-Nirig) 1
Beyond the River - A phrase that refers to the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia
Job - He lived in the land of Uz and belonged to the Aramean race, which had settled in the lower part of Mesopotamia (probably to the south or south-east of Palestine, in Idumean Arabia), adjacent to the Sabeans and Chaldeans
Hermit - Saint Anthony popularized it at Pispir early in the 4th century, and after the persecutions hermits increased in Egypt, Palestine, the Sinaitic peninsula, Mesopotamia, Syria, and Asia Minor, and spread to the West
Eden - A region conquered by the Assyrians, 2 Kings 19:12; Isaiah 37:12; probably in Mesopotamia, near modern Balis, and same as the Eden of Ezekiel 27:23
Captivity - Six captivities are reckoned during the government by judges: the first, under Chushanrishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, which continued about eight years; the second, under Eglon, king of Moab, from which the Jews were delivered by Ehud; the third, under the Philistines, from which they were rescued by Shamgar; the fourth, under Jabin, king of Hazor, from which they were delivered by Deborah and Barak; the fifth, under the Midianites, from which Gideon freed them; and the sixth, under the Ammonites and Philistines, during the judicatures of Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Eli, Samson, and Samuel
Haran - An ancient city called in the New Testament Charran, in the northwest part of Mesopotamia
Laban - A rich herdsman of Mesopotamia, son of Bethuel, and grandson of Mahor, Abraham's brother, Genesis 24:28-31
Thaddeus, Judas, Saint - Judas's missionary work was performed principally in Palestine, also in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia
East - of Palestine, namely, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Babylonia. Arabia and Mesopotamia
Divination - In Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Egypt, and Canaan, people communicated with their deities by means of divination, both on a personal and public level. ) on in Mesopotamia, the reading of livers helped determine the actions of commoners and kings. Oppenheim, Ancient Mesopotamia
Tigris - Then it flows through narrow gorges into the plateau of Mesopotamia, where it receives from the east the Greater and Lesser Zab, the Adhem or Radanu, and the Diyaleh or Tornadotus
Mash - of Mesopotamia, above Nisibis
Haran - ” Three men and an important city of northern Mesopotamia located on the Balik River
Accad - of Mesopotamia, midway between Orfa and Nineveh
Mount Seir - ) But what makes Seir an interesting subject to the Lord's people is, that here it was Jacob, in his return from Mesopotamia, had those soul-exercises which we read of Genesis 32:3-20
Peleg - Though Peleg's descendants are only traced through Abraham, Peleg is recognized as the ancestor of all the Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia, while his brother Joktan was ancestor of the Arabian Semites
Mandrakes - It grows in Palestine and Mesopotamia
la'Ban - ) The elder branch of the family remained at Haran, Mesopotamia, when Abraham removed to the land of Canaan, and it is there that we first meet with Laban, as taking the leading part in the betrothal of his sister Rebekah to her cousin Isaac
Ur - Stephen places it, by implication, in Mesopotamia. It has been identified by the most ancient traditions with the city of Orfah in the highlands of Mesopotamia, which unite the table-land of Armenia to the valley of the Euphrates
Furnace - This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia
Judah - the son of Jacob and Leah, who was born in Mesopotamia, Genesis 29:35
Engraver - Seal engraving the Israelites learned in Egypt; it existed in Mesopotamia from about 2000 B
Nineveh - Situated on the Tigris River in northern Mesopotamia, Nineveh was one of the great cities of the ancient world, and became capital of the powerful Assyrian Empire (Genesis 10:11-12; 2 Kings 19:36)
Zebulun - Or ZABULON, Revelation 7:8 , the sixth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia, Genesis 30:20
Nippur - (nihp puhr') City located in Mesopotamia, approximately fifty miles southeast of the ancient city of Babylon and approximately one hundred miles south of modern Baghdad, Iraq. See Babylon ; Cuneiform ; Hammurabi ; Mesopotamia ; Sumer
Jacob - Jacob having taken advantage of his brother's absence and his father's infirmity to obtain the blessing of the birthright, or primogeniture, was compelled to fly into Mesopotamia to avoid the consequences of his brother's wrath, Genesis 27:1-28:22 . On his solitary journey of six hundred miles into Mesopotamia, and during the toils and injuries of this twenty years' service with Laban, God still prospered him, and on his return to the land of promise inclined the hostile spirits of Laban and of Esau to peace
Haran - It stood on the river Belik, an affluent of the Euphrates, about 70 miles above where it joins that river in Upper Mesopotamia or Padan-aram, and about 600 miles northwest of Ur in a direct line
Teraphim - ) Worshipped by Abram's kindred in Mesopotamia (Joshua 24:14)
George, Saint - " His existence is established by inscriptions of ruined churches in Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia, by his church at Thessalonica, dating from the 4th century, and by the monastery at Baralle built by Clovis in honor of Saint George, c512During the Crusades his cult became widespread
Cush - From this country originated Nimrod, who established himself in Mesopotamia, Genesis 10:8
Palms - Five thousand-year-old inscriptions from Mesopotamia give instruction for their cultivation
Vow - When Jacob went to Mesopotamia, he vowed to God a tenth of this substance, and his own future devotion to his service
Amorites - Non-biblical records suggest that the word meant ‘westerner’ and referred to the early Semitic peoples who migrated to ancient Babylonia from Western Mesopotamia and Syria. They conquered the formerly powerful kingdom of Ur, and soon spread their rule throughout Lower, Upper and Western Mesopotamia
Horites - The Hurrians created the Mitannian Empire in Mesopotamia about 1500 B
Aram - Thus defined, it includes also Mesopotamia, which the Hebrews named Aram-naharaim, Aram of the two rivers, Genesis 25:20 48:7
Aram - Mesopotamia
Uz - Evidently the more ancient and northerly members of the Aramaic family coalesced with some of the later Abrahamids holding a central position in Mesopotamia, and subsequently with those still later, the Edomites of the S
a'Ram - " ( Genesis 24:10 ) Authorized Version "Mesopotamia
ha'Ran - (Genesis 24:10 ) with Genesis27:43 It is said to be in Mesopotamia, (Genesis 24:10 ) or more definitely in Padan-aram, ch
ba'Laam - Numb 31:16 He seems to have lived at Pethor, (23:4; Numbers 22:5 ) on the river Euphrates, in Mesopotamia
Dispersion, the Jews of the, - Mesopotamia; (2) Judea (i
Honey - (Ezekiel 27:17 ) A third kind has been described by some writers as a "vegetable" honey, by which is meant the exudations of certain trees and shrubs, such as the Tamarix mannifera , found in the peninsula of Sinai, or the stunted oaks of Luristan and Mesopotamia
Nebaioth - Quatremere from them shows that these Nabateans inhabited Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and Tigris; they were Syro Chaldaeans, and were celebrated among the Arabs for agriculture, magic, medicine, and astronomy. The Greeks and Romans identified the Nabateans as Arabs, and though the Nabateans of Petra were pastoral and commercial whereas the Nabathaeans of Mesopotamia were, according to the books referred to above, agricultural and scientific, it is probable they were both in origin the same people
Sarah - At the time of her marriage to Abraham in Mesopotamia, Sarah’s name was Sarai and Abraham’s was Abram. From Mesopotamia God directed Abraham and Sarah into Canaan, the land that he promised would be Israel’s eventual homeland (Genesis 12:1; Genesis 12:5-8)
Euphrates - A famous river of Asia, which has its source in the mountains of America, runs along the frontiers of Cappadocia, Syria, Arabia Deserta, Chaldea, and Mesopotamia, and falls into the Persian Gulf. Its current, after reaching the plains of Mesopotamia, is somewhat sluggish, and in this part of its course many canals, etc
Dagon - However, his origins were in Mesopotamia during the third millennium B
Habiru - in Mesopotamia, Syria-Palestine, and Egypt
Creation - ) A peculiar interest belongs to the traditions of the Accadians, the primitive inhabitants of the plains of Lower Mesopotamia
Chariots - They were used widely in Mesopotamia before 3000 B
Judges - The following is a partial list of the judges, and the approximate length of their rule: First oppression, by Mesopotamia—8 years
Eliezer - He was afterward sent into Mesopotamia, to procure a wife for Isaac, Genesis 24:2-3 , &c; which business he accomplished with fidelity and expedition
Syria - In Hebrew ARAM , a large district of Asia, lying, in the widest acceptation of the name, between the Mediterranean, Mount Taurus, and the Tigris, and thus including Mesopotamia, that is, in Hebrew, Syria of the two rivers
Medeba - A fortress in David's time (1 Chronicles 19:7-15), before which Joab defeated Ammon and the Syrians of Maachah, Mesopotamia, and Zobah
Goiim - Others point to the Manda people, barbarian invaders who entered Mesopotamia about 2000 B
Esdraelon - Josiah here attacked Pharaoh-necho on his way to Mesopotamia and was slain ( 2 Kings 23:30 )
e'Den - Probability seems to point to the northwest of Mesopotamia as the locality of Eden
Judah - The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, born in Mesopotamia, B
e'Den - Probability seems to point to the northwest of Mesopotamia as the locality of Eden
Parthians - ), and their kingdom extended from Mesopotamia eastwards to the borders of India
Petrus, Bishop of Edessa - During his episcopate Mesopotamia was ravaged by Cabades, king of Persia, in his endeavour to wrest the province from Anastasius
Human Sacrifice - In Mesopotamia, and perhaps elsewhere, the remains of animals and humans offered as sacrifice were deposited within foundations to protect the building from evil powers, a practice possibly reflected in Jeremiah 19:5-6 . The Arameans of Gozan in northwest Mesopotamia sacrificed humans to the god Hadad
Ararat - In Genesis 11:2 translate "they journeyed eastward," Mesopotamia being described relatively to the writer's country, rather than to Ararat, which is N. of Mesopotamia
Messalians - An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360
Filthy, the - An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360
Magog - Probably the European Scythians, dominant in the region between the Caucasus and Mesopotamia for 30 years from 630 to 600 B
Balaam - He resided at Pethor (Deuteronomy 23:4 ), in Mesopotamia (Numbers 23:7 )
Olive - They grew also in Mesopotamia and other places in the region (Genesis 8:11)
Harosheth of the Gentiles - Hazor was rebuilt in the interval between Jabin I and Jabin II; the latter of whom was the first who threw off Israel's yoke and oppressed Israel in turn (for their previous oppressors, the kings of Mesopotamia and Moab, Chushan Rishathaim and Eglon, were outside not within the promised land, as Jabin II)
Adelphians - An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360
Judah - The fourth son of Jacob and Leah, was born in Mesopotamia
Euchites - An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360
Adelphians - An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360
Vow - Jacob, going into Mesopotamia, vowed the tenth of his estate, and promised to offer it at Beth-el, to the honor of God, Genesis 28:20-22
Messalians - An heretical sect originating in Mesopotamia, 360
Malchus, a Hermit in Syria - After a time they escaped to the Roman settlements in Mesopotamia
Haran - of Mesopotamia, marked by the modern village of Harran , situated on the Bçlikh, a tributary of the Euphrates, and about nine hours’ ride S
Menahem - Situated on the western bank of the Euphrates on the great trade road from Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia to Mesopotamia, it was important for Menahem to secure it
Hadarezer - Psalm 60 by David was composed after victory in part had been gained over Aram Naharaim (Syria of the two floods) and Aram (Syria) of Zobah the kingdom of Hadarezer, who had come to help his vassals of Mesopotamia, the region of the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates; after having conquered the two Syrias, Joab returned and smote Edom in the valley of Salt; Psalm 60 refers to the expedition subsequently undertaken to occupy Edom in revenge for Edom's invasion of Israel
Golden Calf - ...
Ancient Near Eastern Background and Biblical References Living bulls were important in the religion of some regions of ancient Egypt, and bull images appear in the art and religious texts of Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Phoenicia, and Syria
Wheat, - the well-known valuable cereal, cultivated from the earliest times, is first mentioned in ((Genesis 30:14 ) in the account of Jacob's sojourn with Laban in Mesopotamia
Assyria - (Hebrew: Aram-Naharaim, Aram of the two rivers) A country which occupied the northern and middle part of Mesopotamia, extended as far south as the Persian Gulf, and included Babylonia and Chaldea
Chaldeans - ...
The Chaldeans were originally a warlike people, who at first inhabited the Carduchian or Koordish mountains north of Assyria and Mesopotamia, Jeremiah 50:17
e'Lam - It is plain that at this early time the predominant power in lower Mesopotamia was Elam, which for a while held the place possessed earlier by Babylon, (Genesis 10:10 ) and later by either Babylon or Assyria
Judges - The following is a list of judges, whose history is given under their respective names:-- First servitude, to Mesopotamia -- 8 years
Plains - Out of Palestine we find denoted by the word bik'ah the "plain of the land of Shiner," ( Genesis 11:2 ) the "plain of Mesopotamia," (Ezekiel 3:22,23 ; 8:4 ; 37:1,2 ) and the "plain in the province of Dura
Lot - When Abraham and his household moved from Mesopotamia into Canaan, his nephew Lot went with him. Mesopotamian invaders raided his territory, plundered his goods and took Lot himself captive
Genesis - One of these was a man from Mesopotamia named Abram, later renamed Abraham (11:10-26). ...
Jacob moved from Canaan to Mesopotamia to obtain a wife among his parents’ relatives. He stayed in Mesopotamia for twenty years, during which he built up a large family
Cuneiform - ...
The decipherment of the cuneiform scripts of Mesopotamia was aided by the existence of trilingual inscriptions, such as the Behistun Rock inscriptions written in Persian, Babylonian, and Elamite cuneiform
Epistles - But the case was different when the Christian Church came to consist of a number of scattered parts, stretching from Mesopotamia in the east to Rome or even Spain in the far west
Syria - Mesopotamia is called (Genesis 24:10 ; Deuteronomy 23:4 ) Aram-naharain (=Syria of the two rivers), also Padan-aram (Genesis 25:20 )
Ur - In Mesopotamia (Acts 7:2)
Cilicia - Through the Cilician Gates (pass) in the Taurus Mountains to the north, through “level” Cilicia itself, and through the Syrian Gates in the Ammanus Mountains to the east ran the great international highway between central Asia Minor and Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt
Abraham - Here he lived seventy years, when at the call of God he left his idolatrous kindred, and removed to Haran, in Mesopotamia, Acts 7:2-4 , accompanied by his father, his wife Sarai, his brother Nahor, and his nephew Lot. Abraham sent his steward, and obtained a wife for Isaac from his pious kindred in Mesopotamia, Genesis 24:1-67
Syria - ...
Name and Geography Syria is most properly a geographical term for the northwestern Mediterranean region situated between Palestine and Mesopotamia, roughly equal to the modern states of Syria and Lebanon with small portions of Turkey and Iraq. ), Syria was home to large city states similar to those found in Mesopotamia. The Arameans began to settle in Syria and northern Mesopotamia around the beginning of the Iron Age (about 1200 B
Merchant - ) Tyre's trading partners included twenty-two nations or peoples encompassing Asia Minor, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia
Sword - The sickle or curved sword was used throughout Mesopotamia, Egypt, and in Palestine
Bitumen - It occurs both in Mesopotamia and Palestine
Zebulun - He was born in Mesopotamia, about A
Mari - ...
Located about midway between the great powers of Sumeria (Kish, Ur, Akkad) and Syro-Mesopotamia (Ebla, Aleppo), Mari played a significant role in the flow of trade as early as the third millennium, though, to judge from the documents which have already been published from this era, the city experienced a dependent status to these more powerful neighbors. This era in Mesopotamian history has been compared by one noted historian to the age of Pericles in Greek history or of Caesar Augustus in Rome. Encompassing a nine-acre rectangular plot and containing more than 300 rooms, this palatial estate is one of the largest and best preserved buildings in all of Mesopotamian history. His archive contains hundreds of bureaucratic registers which detail in a most graphic way certain aspects of daily life in a Mesopotamian court: where and how the king worshiped and his temples were serviced; where, what, and how often the king ate or was luxuriated; how courtiers were selected for the court or enticing female dancers were selected for the royal harem; what were various forms of entertainment for the court and/or visiting dignitaries; where, how far, and how frequently did the king journey; how was royalty attired. Documentation from Mari has opened the historical, geographical, and social dimension of Northern Mesopotamia, the homeland of the biblical patriarchs. Mari's literary sources contribute to a richly-textured reconstruction of Mesopotamian history during the early patriarchal period, just as they often provide linguistic elucidation of certain biblical concepts (compass points, tribal terms and leadership, flora and fauna, military terms)
Ebla - The city of Ebla, ideally situated near the intersections of ancient trade routes, established political and economic ties with Asia Minor, Egypt and her Mesopotamian neighbors. If its political control ever reached the extent of its commercial influence, Ebla dictated terms to vassals from the Sinai peninsula on the border of Egypt in the south to Kanish and Hatti-land in the north, and from the Zagros mountains on the eastern fringe of Mesopotamia to Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea. At stake had been the control over the Euphrates River (and possibly even the Tigris) and the trade routes along which the wood, metals, and raw materials flowed to Mesopotamia from Syria and Anatolia. The economic and technological supremacy of Mesopotamia depended on their control, and Ebla was vying with Akkad for supremacy of the entire trade network. Trade expeditions to Asshur provided distribution of Ebla's goods to various centers of Upper Mesopotamia, especially Haran. Most of the texts deal with the well-known Mesopotamian deities Enki and Enlil, as well as Utu and Inanna
Ebla - The city of Ebla, ideally situated near the intersections of ancient trade routes, established political and economic ties with Asia Minor, Egypt and her Mesopotamian neighbors. If its political control ever reached the extent of its commercial influence, Ebla dictated terms to vassals from the Sinai peninsula on the border of Egypt in the south to Kanish and Hatti-land in the north, and from the Zagros mountains on the eastern fringe of Mesopotamia to Cyprus in the Mediterranean Sea. At stake had been the control over the Euphrates River (and possibly even the Tigris) and the trade routes along which the wood, metals, and raw materials flowed to Mesopotamia from Syria and Anatolia. The economic and technological supremacy of Mesopotamia depended on their control, and Ebla was vying with Akkad for supremacy of the entire trade network. Trade expeditions to Asshur provided distribution of Ebla's goods to various centers of Upper Mesopotamia, especially Haran. Most of the texts deal with the well-known Mesopotamian deities Enki and Enlil, as well as Utu and Inanna
Exile - ), there was a general deportation of the Israelites into Mesopotamia and Media (2 Kings 17:6 ; 18:9 ; 1 Chronicles 5:26 )
Aramaic - Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Syria were its proper home
Esau - ...
Years later the two brothers were reconciled when Jacob returned from Mesopotamia
Cush (2) - Also part of Arabia (Genesis 10:7; Isaiah 43:3, especially 2 Chronicles 21:16), Mesopotamia (Genesis 10:8-10), and still further E
Irrigation - Large canal systems crossed the lands of Egypt and Mesopotamia, providing the vast amounts of water necessary to support crops during the dry months of March to October
Monophysites - 588, he left it in a most flourishing state in Syria, Mesopotamia, Armenia, Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, and other countries
Sumer - The Babylonians and other surrounding peoples adapted the cuneiform script to their own languages so that for centuries, cuneiform was the dominant mode of writing in ancient Mesopotamia
Aramaic - (ar uh may' ihc) A North Semitic language similar to Phoenician and Hebrew was the language of the Arameans whose presence in northwestern Mesopotamia is known from about 2000 B. The eastern (Mesopotamian) group includes Babylonian Jewish Aramaic, Mandaean, and Syriac
Armenia - a considerable country of Asia, having Colchis and Iberia on the north, Media on the east, Mesopotamia on the south, Pontus and Cappadocia on the west, and the Euphrates and Syria on the south-west
Palm Tree - It flourishes in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the oases of Arabia ( Exodus 15:27 , Numbers 33:9 ), but its cultivation has for long been much neglected in Palestine
Cush - He conquered the Accadians, a Tauranian race, already settled in Mesopotamia, and founded his kingdom, the Cushites mingling with the Accads, and so forming the Chaldean nation
Hebrew Language - ) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Barak - Heretofore, foes without, Mesopotamia and Moab, had chastised Israel; but now their sin provokes God to raise an oppressor within their own borders, Canaan itself! Jabin seduced them into idolatry, besides oppressing them (Judges 5:8)
Dispersion - " In the assembly on Pentecost the several dispersions were represented:...
(1) Parthians, Mesopotamia;...
(2) Judaea (Syria), Pamphylia;...
(3) Egypt, Greece;...
(4) Romans
Japheth - of Mesopotamia and Syria Japhetic, comprising seven principal races within the geographical limits known to him
Wheat - In what land it had its-origin is unknown, but de Candolle assigns the honour to Mesopotamia
Wheat - In what land it had its-origin is unknown, but de Candolle assigns the honour to Mesopotamia
Tiglath-Pileser - In 739 he went to Ulluba in Mesopotamia, and the presence of his armies there enabled him, in b. 736) his forces were again directed against Mesopotamia, and reached the mountain of Nal
Mesopotamia - Originally the name ‘Mesopotamia’ was given to the fertile land around the upper reaches of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers (Genesis 24:10; Deuteronomy 23:4; Judges 3:8-10; 1 Chronicles 19:6). By New Testament times it applied to the whole of the Euphrates-Tigris valley, so that even the city of Ur, which was near the mouth of the Euphrates, was considered to be in Mesopotamia (Acts 2:9; Acts 7:2)
Jacobus, Bishop of Nisibis - of Nisibis in Mesopotamia, called "the Moses of Mesopotamia," born at Nisibis or Antiochia Mygdoniae towards the end of 3rd cent
Arabia, Arabs - The name always follows Babylonia, Assyria (which as a province included Mesopotamia proper and also probably N. We shall have to understand by this name the great desert region not only of Syria, but also of Mesopotamia as well as the peninsula of Sinai. He too gives this name to the desert to the east of the Euphrates, the desert which separates Babylonia from Mesopotamia proper ( Anab
Cloth, Clothing - In the Iron Age the cotton tree was introduced into Assyria, but the climate of southern Mesopotamia was more suitable to crop cultivation. Silk was imported from China and spread to Mesopotamia and eventually to the Mediterranean islands, where the moths were cultivated. Spinning wheels were better developed in Egypt and Mesopotamia
Idol - Similarly, the various Mesopotamian cultures used idol representations of their deities, as did the Hittites in ancient Asia Minor. Joshua called on the people to put away the gods their fathers had served in Mesopotamia and in Egypt (Joshua 24:14 )
Chaldea - The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of the whole of the Mesopotamian plain
Gog - country, their weapon the bow, their warriors horsemen and notorious for cruel rapacity; probably the Scythians, the dominant Japhetic race between the Caucasus (Ghogh and Moghef are names still applied to its heights) and Mesopotamia from 630 to 600 B
Babylon (2) - Asshur or Assyria and Mesopotamia were on the north, Elam and Media on the east, Chaldæa on the south
Babylon, History And Religion of - Babylon was a city-state in southern Mesopotamia during Old Testament times, which eventually became a large empire that absorbed the nation of Judah and destroyed Jerusalem. From his time forward, Babylon was considered the political seat of southern Mesopotamia, the region called Babylonia. ...
The political and socio-economic history of Babylonia in Hammurabi's time is well known thanks to extensive collections of cuneiform tablets discovered at various cities in Mesopotamia, especially at Mari. Babylonian religion is the best known variant of a complex and highly polytheistic system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia
Uz - 1 and 2 seem to point to Mesopotamia
Shechem - Here also Jacob "bought a parcel of a field at the hands of the children of Hamor" after his return from Mesopotamia, and settled with his household, which he purged from idolatry by burying the teraphim of his followers under an oak tree, which was afterwards called "the oak of the sorcerer" (Genesis 33:19 ; 35:4 ; Judges 9:37 )
Isdigerdes i, King of Persia - of Martyropolis in Mesopotamia, who had been sent on an embassy from the Romans early in his reign, he was very favourably disposed towards Christianity and the church in Persia had peace with full liberty of worship and church-building
Jude - Some have said that he preached in Arabia, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Persia; and that he suffered martyrdom in the last mentioned country
Artaxerxes - After having extinguished the family of Rostam, which was formidable to him on account of the great men who composed it, he carried his arms into the western provinces, Mesopotamia and Syria, which formed part of his empire
Seir - The posterity of Esau afterward were in possession of the mountains of Seir, and Esau himself dwelt there when Jacob returned from Mesopotamia, Genesis 33:3 ; Genesis 33:14 ; Genesis 36:8-9
Balaam - At the time of Israel’s migration to Canaan, the Moabite king Balak, fearing the Israelites, sent to Mesopotamia asking the soothsayer Balaam to come and put a curse on them
Aram - ...
Arameans...
By the time the Arameans first appear in the Bible story, they were living in the north-western part of Mesopotamia
Antiochus - On the murder of his father he came into possession of practically the entire region of Asia Minor as far east as the provinces beyond Mesopotamia. , he was a great colonizer, and induced 2000 Jewish families to go from Mesopotamia into Lydia and Phrygia, thus laying the foundation for the influential Jewish Dispersion in those regions
Assyria - Most generally, Assyria means the Kingdom of Assyria, including Babylonia and Mesopotamia, and extending to the Euphrates, which is therefore used by Isaiah as an image of this empire, Isaiah 7:20 ; 8:7
Sun - The Arabians appear to have paid direct worship to it without the intervention of any statue or symbol, (Job 31:26,27 ) and this simple style of worship was probably familiar to the ancestors of the Jews in Chaldaea and Mesopotamia
Dispersion - Antiochus the Great, king of Syria and Asia, removed 3,000 families of Jews from Mesopotamia and Babylonia, and planted them in Phrygia and Lydia
Ur - Harran was in Mesopotamia, and took its name from the highroad which led through it from the east to the west
Exorcism - The office of the exorcist, long known in the religious practice of Mesopotamia, is totally absent from the Hebrew Bible
Megiddo - This range was an obstacle along the international coastal highway which connected Egypt with Mesopotamia and even further destinations
Eden - Mesopotamia an Eden is mentioned near the Tigris (2 Kings 19:12; Isaiah 37:12; Ezekiel 27:23)
Joseph - He was born in Mesopotamia
Abraham - A woman named Rebekah was obtained from Abraham's relatives in Mesopotamia, and Isaac married her gladly (Genesis 24:67 )
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - Isaacus (31) Antiochenus, born at Amid (Diarbekir) in Mesopotamia, called "the Great" and "the Elder," a priest of Antioch in Syria, said to have visited Rome
Arabia - They possessed considerable wealth from incenses and spices which they grew, from gold, silver, and precious stones, which they mined in their own territory, and from these and other products which they transported and traded to the Mediterranean world and Mesopotamia from as far away as East Africa, India, and China
Joseph - The son of Jacob and his beloved Rachel, born in Mesopotamia, Genesis 30:22-24 , B
Babylonia - This celebrated province included the track of country lying on the river Euphrates, bounded north by Mesopotamia and Assyria and south by the Persian Gulf
Assyria, History And Religion of - Assyria (Assihrya) was a nation in northern Mesopotamia in Old Testament times that became a large empire during the period of the Israelite kings. ...
History Assyria lay north of the region of Babylonia along the banks of the Tigris River (Genesis 2:14 ) in northern Mesopotamia. ), who reestablished the nation as a power to be reckoned with in Mesopotamia. Merodach-baladan of Babylon, supported by the Elamites, had inspired the rebellion of all southern Mesopotamia
Calendars - From biblical data and from Near Eastern writings we know that all the peoples from the Mesopotamian area, as well as the Arabians, the Greeks, and the Romans, chose the first, unquestionably because spring is when new life sprouts forth. These names reflected the presence of one or another dominating cultural influence, first that of the Canaanites, then that of Mesopotamia. Because the first month is always in the spring, we must trace this practice back to the patriarchs, who would have learned it in Mesopotamia (Genesis 11:31 )
Commerce - ...
Products The irrigated fields of Mesopotamia and Egypt and the terraced hillsides of Palestine produced a variety of agricultural products. Palestine, situated on a land bridge between Mesopotamia and Africa, naturally became a center of commercial travel. They used hilltop pathways as well as the Via Maris coastal highway and the King's Highway in Transjordan to move between Mesopotamia and Egypt
House - ...
Abraham left Mesopotamia where he lived in houses made of mud brick (compare Genesis 11:3 ) and became a tent dweller (Hebrews 11:9 )
Tadmor - It was thus between Syria, Babylonia, and Mesopotamia proper
Dinah - After his return from Mesopotamia he pitched his tent in Shechem, and bought a field of Ham or, Shechem's father
Nineveh - It was located on the left bank of the Tigris River in northeastern Mesopotamia (Iraq today)
Judges - To chastise them, he suffered the people of Mesopotamia and of Moab, the Canaanites, Midianites, Ammonites, and Philistines, in turn to oppress by their exactions apart of the tribes, and sometimes the whole nation
Paulus i, Bishop of Constantinople - Paulus was afterwards loaded with chains and taken to Singara in Mesopotamia, then to Emesa, and finally to Cucusus in Armenia, where he died
Library - ...
The Material and Form of Ancient Books The earliest writings, which were from Mesopotamia, were inscribed in cuneiform on clay tablets, which ranged in size from six by-six-inches up to seven-by-thirteen inches. ...
Archives and Libraries in the Old Testament Era Abraham came from Mesopotamia, which had a well-developed tradition of palace and temple archives/libraries
Tiglath Pileser - He warred successfully in Media, Armenia, and upper Mesopotamia; but it was only on the western frontier that he made permanent additions to the empire, namely, Damascus, Syria, and Gilead
Lebanon - They were exploited by Egypt and Mesopotamia long before biblical times, and they continued to supply precious timber well into the Roman Era
Adam - The biblical view of the worth of humans is to be contrasted sharply with the other views in the ancient Near East, especially in Mesopotamia, where the human being was created to be the slave of the gods
Tadmor - "...
It is probable, says Mansford, that, although Tadmor is said to have been built by Solomon, or, in other words, to have been erected by him into a city, it was a watering station between Syria and Mesopotamia before; with perhaps accommodations suited to the mode of travelling in those times, as we read of palm trees being found there, which are not trees that come by chance in these desert regions
Ezekiel - 598, and was placed with many others of his countrymen upon the river Chebar, in Mesopotamia, where he was favoured with the divine revelations contained in his book
Dispersion - 55), and settled them in Mesopotamia and Media ( 2 Kings 17:6 )
Simeon Stylites - in the imperial library at Vienna, ascribes it to Simeon of Mesopotamia ( Comm
Balaam - Mesopotamia (Deuteronomy 23:4). ...
So after all Balaam did not return as he had said, to his own place, Mesopotamia. Appropriately the seer that God appoints to announce this belonged to Mesopotamia, the center of the great world powers whose doom he foretells, as rebels against Jehovah's purpose concerning Israel and Israel's Messianic king (Psalm 2)
Fertility Cult - In Mesopotamia the divine couple was Ishtar and Tammuz (who is mourned in Ezekiel 8:14 ), in Egypt Isis and her son Osiris, in Asia Minor Cybele and Attis
Euchites - or a little earlier fanatics made their appearance in Syria whose manner of life was said to have been introduced from Mesopotamia and who were known by the Syriac name of Messalians or Massalians (מְצָלין) praying people. He was a layman of Mesopotamia. Probably it was on this occasion that Flavian held a synod against them (Photius, 52), attended by three other bishops (Bizus of Seleucia, a Mesopotamian bishop, Maruthas, described by Photius as bp. ad Magnam , 21) couples with Adelphius of Mesopotamia, Alexander, who polluted Constantinople with like teaching, and against whom he contends that their idleness, instead of aiding devotion, gave scope to evil thoughts and passions and was inimical to the true spirit of prayer
Isaac - His mother died when he was thirty-six years of age; and Abraham sent a servant to fetch a wife for Isaac from amongst his kindred in Mesopotamia, according to Genesis 24:1-67 , where the religious spirit is as noticeable as the idyllic tone
Genesis, Book of - Isaac must not go to Mesopotamia, the country from whence the heirs of promise had been called out, therefore Abraham sent his steward to obtain a wife for his son — as the Holy Spirit is here now, gathering a bride for Christ
Babylon - Such identification is, however, somewhat uncertain, and rests ultimately on the Improbability that the word in the connexion in which it appears can refer to the city of Mesopotamia (the word is so used in Matthew 1:11 ; Matthew 12:17 , Acts 7:43 )
Promise - Sumerian kings promised the inhabitants of their Mesopotamian city-states that current fiscal and social abuses would be rectified, they furnished evidence of good intent by enacting legislation to resolve the various problems that had arisen. Mesopotamia, a classic example being the one between Laban and Jacob (Genesis 31:43-55 ), when the latter was seeking his independence. ...
Promises of a prophetic order were also prominent in ancient Mesopotamia, especially where last wills and testaments were concerned
Altar - Mud-brick was a common building material in Mesopotamia, so mud-brick altars would have appeared most likely in Mesopotamia. It might also reflect the Mesopotamian ancestry of the Hebrews, since the mud-brick was the typical building material there
Games - ” Boards for a game called “fifty-eight holes” have been found at Megiddo and in Egypt and Mesopotamia as well
Tithes - Jacob imitated this piety of his grandfather, when he vowed to the Lord the tithe of all the substance he might acquire in Mesopotamia, Genesis 28:22
Jude, the Epistle of - ...
As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses. ) says that Jude preached in Mesopotamia; and his epistle of 25 verses contains no less than eleven passages from 2 Peter
Jacobus Sarugensis, Bishop of Batnae - Further, he began his episcopate under Justin, by whose orders Severus was driven from Antioch, Philoxenos from Hierapolis, and other heretics from Mesopotamia and Syria
Babylon - (bab ih' luhn), a capital city in ancient Mesopotamia (mostly modern Iraq), is mentioned some 200 times in the Bible, nearly all in the Old Testament and referring to the city of the Neo-Babylonian Period (625-539 BC). ...
Origin Information about Babylon's origin has been lost in antiquity, but it did not rank among the leading Mesopotamian cities before 3000 B. ...
Babylon was one of a number of Mesopotamian sites excavated seriously from 1842 onwards. ...
Sprawling ancient Babylon covered an area of nearly 1000 acres, making it the largest ancient settlement in Mesopotamia, some fifteen percent larger than Nineveh
Ebal - Here too Jacob dwelt upon returning from Mesopotamia, and bought a field from the children of Hamer, father of Shethem, and built the altar El-elohe-Israel (Genesis 33:19-20)
Spices - They were brought into Palestine from India, Arabia, Persia, Mesopotamia, and Egypt
Phrygia - ) ‘thought proper to remove 2000 families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon’ to Lydia and Phrygia (XII
Babylon - Although its boundaries varied from one era to the next, the land of Babylon was always centred on Mesopotamia, the region of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris
Euphrates - The territory of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers was known as Mesopotamia, and formed part of the ancient land of Babylon
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - ...
The surname Baradaeus is derived from the ragged mendicant's garb patched up out of old saddle-cloths, in which, the better to disguise his spiritual functions from the unfriendly eyes of those in power, this indefatigable propagator of his creed performed his swift and secret journeys over Syria and Mesopotamia. Of the simplest mode of life, inured to hardship from his earliest years, tolerant of the extremities of hunger and fatigue, "a second Asahel for fleetness of foot" (Abulpharagius), fired with an unquenchable zeal for what he regarded as the true faith, with a dauntless courage that despised all dangers, James, in his tattered beggar's disguise, traversed on foot the whole of Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia, and the adjacent provinces, even to the borders of Persia, everywhere ordaining bishops and clergy, by his exhortations or his encyclical letters encouraging his depressed co-religionists to courageously maintain their faith against the advocates of the two natures, and organizing them into a compact spiritual body
Cosmetics - ...
Utensils, Colors, and Manufacture of Cosmetics Cosmetic utensils of glass, wood, and bone have been found in archeological excavations in Palestine, Egypt, and Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian women preferred yellows and reds
Circumcision - The procedure was rejected by the east Semitic peoples of Mesopotamia, the Canaanites, and the Shechemites
Tigris - Two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, flowed through Mesopotamia, a fertile region that in biblical times was part of the lands of Aram, Assyria, Babylon and Persia (Genesis 2:14-15; Daniel 10:4)
Rahab (1) - The flax she spread on her roof and the scarlet line make it likely she manufactured linen and dyed, as did the Phoenicians; compare Joshua 7:21 the "Babylonian garment," implying a trade in such articles with Mesopotamia
Foreigner - Abram and his family, the founders of the Israelite nation, obeyed the call of God to emigrate to this land, leaving Mesopotamia to become resident aliens in Canaan (12:10; 20:1; 23:4)
Eden - ...
The country of Eden, therefore, according to others, was some where in Media, Armenia, or the north of Mesopotamia; all mountainous tracts, and affording, instead of the sickening plains of Babylonia, some of the grandest, as well as the richest scenery in the world
Judges, Book of - ...
From the Exodus to the crossing the Jordan 40 }...
From the Jordan to the division of the land 7 }...
Rest under Joshua and the Elders Judges 2:7 12 }...
Oppression by the king of Mesopotamia Judges 3:8 8 } ...
Othniel judge Judges 3:11 40 } About 338 years -...
Oppression by the Moabites Judges 3:14 18 } ...
Ehud and Shamgar Judges 3:30 80 } the 300 years...
Oppression by king Jabin Judges 4:3 20 } ...
Deborah and Barak Judges 5:31 40 } in round...
Oppression by the Midianites Judges 6:1 7 } ...
Gideon Judges 8:28 40 } numbers...
Abimelech Judges 9:22 3 } ...
Tola Judges 10:2 23 } of...
Jair Judges 10:3 22 } ...
} Judges 11:26 ...
In the West
Victor, Bishop of Rome - Synods were held on the subject in various parts—in Palestine under Theophilus of Caesarea and Narcissus of Jerusalem, in Pontus under Palmas, in Gaul under Irenaeus, in Corinth under its bishop, Bachillus, at Osrhoene in Mesopotamia, and elsewhere, by all of which synodical letters were issued, unanimous in disapproval of the Asian custom, and in declaring that "on the Lord's Day only the mystery of the resurrection of the Lord from the dead was accomplished, and that on that day only we keep the close of the paschal fast" (Eus
Abram - They first migrated to Haran, or Charran, in Mesopotamia, a flat, barren region westward of Ur; and after a residence there of a few years, during which Terah had died, Abraham left Haran to go into Palestine, taking with him Sarah his wife, who had no child, and Lot, with his paternal property. Thus the migrations of the three primitive families proceeded from the central regions of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria; and in succession they established numerous communities,—the Phenicians, Arabians, Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Lybians southward;—the Persians, Indians, and Chinese eastward;—the Scythians, Celts, and Tartars northward;—and the Goths, Greeks, and Latins westward, even as far as the Peruvians and Mexicans of South America, and the Indians of North America. Abraham, having grown old, sent Eliezer, his steward, into Mesopotamia, with directions to obtain a young woman of his own family, as a wife for his son Isaac. Not that many scattered patriarchal and family churches did not remain: such was that of Melchizedec; and such probably was that of Nahor, whom Abraham left behind in Mesopotamia
Damascus - Both major international highways ran through Damascus the Via Maris from Mesopotamia in the east through Damascus and the Jezreel Valley to the Plain of Sharon and the Mediterranean coast, then south to Egypt; and the King's Highway from Damascus south through Ashtaroth, Rabbath-ammon, and Bozrah to Elath on the Red Sea and to Arabia
Babylon, Mystical - Babylon contained many Jews in the apostolic age ("one of the greatest knots of Jews in the world:" Lightfoot, quoted in Smith's Dictionary), and doubtless "the apostle of the circumcision," Peter, who had among his hearers on Pentecost (Acts 2) "the dwellers of Mesopotamia," would visit the Jews there
Damascus - The people of Damascus were carried captive to Kir, as Amos (Amos 1:5) foretold, the region from which they originally came, associated with Elam (Isaiah 22:6), probably in Lower Mesopotamia = Kish or Cush, i
She'Chem - See ( Genesis 12:6 ) At the time of Jacob's arrival here, after his sojourn in Mesopotamia, (Genesis 33:18 ; 34 ) Shechem was a Hivite city, of which Hamor, the father of Shechem, was the headman
Song of Solomon, Theology of - The discovery and publication of formally similar love poetry from modern Arabic literature as well as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia signaled the end of the allegorical approach to the text, but left the church with a number of questions about the theological meaning of the Song
Colossae - ) transplanted 2000 Jewish families from Babylonia and Mesopotamia to Lydia and Phrygia (Jos
a'Braham - Haran died before his father in Ur of the Chaldees, leaving a son, Lot; and Terah, taking with him Abram, with Sarai his wife and his grandson Lot, emigrated to Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died
Greek Church - The Greek church comprehends a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lybia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Siberia in Asia, Astrachan, Casan, and Georgia
Isaac - He sent Jacob into Mesopotamia, there to take a wife of his own family, Genesis 28:1-2 , and to prevent his marrying among the Canaanites as his brother Esau had done
Idol, Idolatry - Jacob after his return from Mesopotamia, required his people to reject the strange gods from among them and also the superstitious pendants worn by them in their ears, which he hid under a terebinth near Shechem
jo'Seph - He was born in Padan-aram (Mesopotamia), probably about B
Sabellianism, or Patripassianism - ) says that in his time Sabellians were still numerous in Mesopotamia and Rome—a fact confirmed by an inscription discovered at Rome in 1742, which runs: "Qui et Filius diceris et Pater inveniris," evidently erected by Sabellian hands (Northcote's Epitaph
Gods, Pagan - ...
Mesopotamian Gods The complex system of belief common throughout Mesopotamia included thousands of gods. ...
The patron deities of the oldest Sumerian cities became the high gods of the Mesopotamian pantheon. While many of these are related to Mesopotamian gods, Canaanite religion was not well understood until the discovery of religious texts in the 1920s at the Syrian city of Ugarit. In the Ugaritic myths, Baal is frequently identified with the storm god Hadad (Adad of Mesopotamia), perhaps as a title. Closely associated with Anat and more important in Palestine was another goddess of war/love, Astarte, the Mesopotamian Ishtar. Resheph (Hebrew for “flame” or “pestilence” Habakkuk 3:5 ) was a god of lague, equivalent to the Nergal of Mesopotamia. The myth involved the death and restoration of her consort Attis and was similar to the Mesopotamian myth of Ishtar and Tammuz (see above) as well as that of Atargatis and Hadad in Syria
Nineveh - ) connects Niniu (Nineveh) with Naharaima or Naharaim or Mesopotamia. ...
The first kings reigned when the early Chaldee empire had its seat in lower Mesopotamia
Monk - Almost about the same time, Aones, or Eugenius, with their companions Gaddanus and Azyzias, instituted the monastic order in Mesopotamia, and the adjacent countries; and their example was followed with such rapid success, that in a short time the whole east was filled with a lazy set of mortals, who abandoning all human connexions, advantages, pleasures, and concerns, wore out a languishing and miserable existence amidst the hardships of want and various kinds of suffering, in order to arrive at a more close and rapturous communication with God and angels
Trajan - The Emperor himself set out for the East at the end of 113, and in a succession of campaigns he was able to subdue the enemies of Rome and to add three provinces to the Empire-Armenia minor, Mesopotamia, and Assyria
Arabia - To the settled races of Mesopotamia, Syria, and Palestine, it meant any part of that hinterland, skirting the confines of civilization, which was the camping-ground of wandering tribes for ever hovering around peaceful towns and spreading terror among their inhabitants
Monk - ...
Almost about the same time, Aones, or Eugenius, with their companions, Gaddanus and Azyzas, instituted the monastic order in Mesopotamia, and the adjacent countries; and their example was followed with such rapid success, that in a short time the whole east was filled with a lazy set of mortals, who, abandoning all human connections, advantages, pleasures, and concerns, wore out a languishing and miserable existence amidst hardships of want, and various kinds of suffering, in order to arrive at a more close and rapturous communication with God and angels
Language - The Aramaean, spoken in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, is subdivided into the Syriac and Chaldee dialects sometimes called also the West and East Aramaean
Jacob - And now all connection of the Israelites with Mesopotamia is at an end
Julianus, Bishop of Halicarnassus - Eutropius afterwards ordained ten Julianist bishops, and sent them as missionaries east and west, among other places to Constantinople, Antioch, and Alexandria, and into Syria, Persia, Mesopotamia, and the country of the Homerites (Asseman
Government - Some of these ancient social regulations have been unearthed in Mesopotamia by archeologists, and contain statements governing property rights, damage, reparations, and so on. ...
The earliest observable city-states are those occurring in Mesopotamia, some of which go back to at least 4500 b. ...
Law and justice in society were fundamental concerns for the Sumerians, as well as for the later Mesopotamians, since they believed that upon such principles the survival of the state depended. The state was engaged in trade with the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Syrians, and Palestinians, and at its height it was one of the most powerful communities in the Near East. " They were actually dispersed widely throughout Mesopotamia and parts of Syria, and raised flocks and cattle as well as being involved in some agricultural work
Ephraim (4) the Syrian - Ephraim (4) the Syrian , usually called Ephrem Syrus, from the Syriac form of his name Aphrem, was born in Mesopotamia, for he describes his home as lying between the Tigris and the Euphrates (Opp. "...
In 337 Constantine the Great died, and Sapor, king of Persia, seized the opportunity of invading Mesopotamia. James died, when Ephrem probably left Nisibis, and after a short stay at Amid, to which city his mother is said to have belonged, travelled towards Edessa, the chief seat both of Christianity and of learning in Mesopotamia
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Since the area occupied by ancient Israel was relatively poor in “treasure,” much of this work was carried out in Egypt and in Mesopotamia, the ancient homeland of the Assyrians and Babylonians (the present site of the country of Iraq). The secrets of Mesopotamia began to unfold following the copying and decipherment of the Behistun inscription by Rawlinson begun in 1835, and by the later discovery in 1852 of Ashurbanipal's library by Rassam. Of particular interest are mythological stories relating traditions of creation and of a great flood as understood by the people of ancient Mesopotamia. The list includes such important places as Babylon and Ur in ancient Mesopotamia and Ai, Bethel, Hazor, Jericho, Jerusalem, Lachish, Megiddo, Shechem, and many other sites in ancient Israel
Assur - , the Mesopotamian desert (between Tigris and Euphrates), or else the Euphrates, on the W. Chushan-Rishathaim (Judges 3:8), the first foreign oppressor of Israel, was master of the whole of Syria between the rivers (Aram Naharaim) or Mesopotamia, in the time of the judges, so that at that time (about 1400 B. He himself overran Cappadocia, Armenia, Azerbijan, Media Magna, the Kurd mountains, Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Phoenicia
Money - Mesopotamia attested simultaneous usage of a "heavy" and "light" shekel in both a royal and a common standard; ancient Near Eastern standards not only varied within one geographical locale but fluctuated from place to place and over time. Extraordinarily high interest rates could make loans a lucrative enterprise, when, for example, annual interest rates on silver in Mesopotamia were attested as high as 80 percent
Thyatira - Some of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus the Great deported from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Jos
Cassianus (11) Johannes, Founder of Western Monachism - i) that Cassian visited the monks of Mesopotamia; some say that he returned for a time to Egypt or Palestine; and by some he is identified with Cassianus Presbyter
Ararat - Some have supposed that it was one of the mountains which divide Armenia on the south from Mesopotamia, and that part of Assyria inhabited by the Curds, from whom those mountains took the name of Curdue, or Cardu; by the Greeks denominated Gordyaei
Sabbath - The week was an established division of time in Mesopotamia and Arabia, Genesis 29:27 ; and traces of it have been found in many nations of antiquity, so remote from each other and of such diverse origin as to forbid the idea of their having received it from Sinai and the Hebrews
Manes, Called Also Mani - If genuine, it is scarcely possible that Eusebius, living but a few miles from Jerusalem and with all the imperial resources at his back, could have been ignorant of a dispute which must have made such a noise all over Syria and Mesopotamia
Palladius, Bishop of Helenopolis - During this time he may also have visited Mesopotamia, Syria, and the other portions of the eastern world which he speaks of having traversed
Bible - He chose Abraham, a man from Mesopotamia, promising to make of him a nation, to give that nation the land of Canaan as a homeland, and to use that nation as his channel of blessing to the world
Greek Church - Comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian Isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Libya, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Cilicia, and Palestine, which are all under the jurisdiction of the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem
Sheba - They bring before us a set of traders disposing of the products of their own country, and also carrying goods from India and Africa to the great emporium Tyre and the powerful empires of Mesopotamia
Abraham - Abraham at first only partially obeyed the call: he left Ur and went to dwell at Haran, in Mesopotamia (Charran in Acts 7:4 ), but with his father and kindred; and did not enter Canaan until the death of his father
Severus, Aurelius Alexander - The troops in Mesopotamia mutinied and killed their commander, Flavius Heracleon
Possession - ’_ In some religions, as Zarathustrianism and the cults of Mesopotamia, the inferior spirits were grouped into grades as angels, archangels, principalities, and powers, at whose head there sometimes stood a supreme spirit as the Satan. The primitive Semites believed in demons, and this racial faith was inherited and developed by the Arabians, and the nations which swarmed from the desert cradle-land-Mesopotamians, Phcenicians, Canaanites, and Hebrews. in Mesopotamia, they were divided into classes with distinct names. _...
(2) In Mesopotamian mythology one of the most prominent of the groups of demons was the shçdîm, storm-deities. They were represented in an ox-like shape, and from being used as the protective genii of palaces became, in Mesopotamia, propitious deities
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - ...
The flooding of the Mesopotamian rivers in March and April differs from the Nile schedule which during that season is at its low ebb. ...
The banks of the Tigris were dotted by some of the most important cities of antiquity: Nineveh, the capital of Assyria during the Assyrian Empire; Asshur, the original capital of Assyria; Opis (in the vicinity of Baghdad), the important commercial center of Neo-Babylonian and later times; Ctesihyphon, the capital of the Parthians and Sassanians; and Seleucia, capital of the Seleucid rulers of Mesopotamia. ...
Apart from the significant roles played by the Nile in Egypt and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the rivers of the biblical world were small and mostly unnavigable
Abraham - ...
In the proper Jahwistic tradition the starting-point of the Exodus was Harran in Mesopotamia, but in Genesis 11:28 ff
Bread - These last are about an inch thick; and, being commonly prepared in woody countries, are used all along the shores of the Black Sea, from the Palus Maeotis to the Caspian, in Chaldea and Mesopotamia, except in towns
Containers And Vessels - One of the few artifacts not from Egypt is a conical beaker from Mesopotamia, found at Megiddo
Mines And Mining - Tin deposits in Mesopotamia made the growth of this new technology easier in the northern Fertile Crescent, while Palestine and Egypt, without local tin deposits and mines, were forced to import raw materials
Stephen - His speech is not the unconnected narrative that many suppose, but a covert argument which carries his hearers unconsciously along with him until at the close he unveils the drift of the whole, namely, to show:...
(1) That in Israel's past history God's revelation of Himself was not confined to the holy land and the temple, that Abraham had enjoyed God's revelations in Mesopotamia, Haran, and Canaan before he possessed a foot of the promised land; so also Israel and Moses in the strange land of Egypt, and in Midian and Sinai, which was therefore "holy ground" (Acts 7:33), and in the wilderness 40 years
Assyria - Brown, "the Babylonio-Assyrian territory was about 600 miles from northwest to southeast, and in the widest part 300 miles from east to west, including Mesopotamia
Isaac - As he lived 43 years afterward, to see Jacob return from Mesopotamia, he probably was now dangerously sick; hence, loathing ordinary food, he longed to have "savoury meat such as he loved
Ugarit - ” Located at the juncture of major trade routes from Anatolia, northwest Mesopotamia, and Egypt and possessing a harbor (modern Minet el-Beida) which accommodated vessels from Cyprus, the Aegean, and Egypt, Ugarit was an important commercial center in most periods until the Sea People destroyed it in 1180 B. ...
The Excavations Although the existence of Ugarit had been known from Mesopotamian and Egyptian documents, its location was uncertain
Language of Christ - It would be heard in the seaports, and in the neighbourhood of the great roads by which communication was kept up through Palestine between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Egypt
Shepherds - The patriarch Jacob, though he was the son of a shepherd prince, kept the flocks of Laban, his maternal uncle; and his own sons followed the same business, both in Mesopotamia, and after his return to the land of Canaan
Abram - Here he lived 70 years, when at the call of God he left his idolatrous kindred, Joshua 24:2; Joshua 24:14, and removed to Haran, in Mesopotamia, Acts 7:2-4, accompanied by his father, his wife Sarai, his brother Nahor, and his nephew Lot
Government - Centralized government was necessary for the building and maintaining of canals used for irrigation in Mesopotamia
Patriarchs, the - Then Abram, apparently impatient for an heir, took Sarai's handmaid Hagar as a concubine, following Mesopotamian custom, because Sarai continued childless. To escape his vengeance Jacob fled to Mesopotamia on his father's instructions
Judges (1) - ]'>[4] Of the twelve Judges dealt with, seven are of Quite subordinate importance, little more than a bare mention of them being recorded; they are: Othniel ( Judges 3:7-11 ), who delivers the children of Israel from Cushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia; he is mentioned incidentally in Judges 1:13 as marrying the daughter of Caleb; Shamgar ( Judges 3:31 ), of whom nothing more is said than that he killed six hundred Philistines; Tola ( Judges 10:1-2 ); Jair ( Judges 10:3-5 ); Ibzan ( Judges 12:8-10 ); Elon ( Judges 12:11-12 ); and Abdon ( 1618527324_41 ). ...
Judges 3:7-11 , the story of Othniel, shows too clearly the hand of the ‘Deuteronomic’ redactor for it to be regarded as authentic history; whether Othniel is an historical person or not, the mention of the king of Mesopotamia in the passage, as having so far conquered Canaan as to subjugate the Israelite tribes in the south, is sufficient justification for questioning the historicity of the section
Work - In creation texts associated with Israel's neighbors, the divine work is not something to be admired, as creation emerged from either a struggle between the gods (Mesopotamia) or an act of defilement (Egypt—but cf. In fact, the gods made the human race as slaves to provide relief from the labor of running the universe (Mesopotamia)
Transportation And Travel - ...
Kings of the ancient Near East (Shulgi of Ur III, Mesopotamia, and Mesha, king of Moab) often boasted in their official inscriptions of their road-building activities. Estimates of the chariot's size in this period are based on the width of ruts in the roadways in Mesopotamian and Roman cities
Egypt - Successive Eighteenth Dynasty pharaohs made military campaigns into Canaan and against the Mitannian kingdom of Mesopotamia, creating an empire which reached the Euphrates River. ...
The consistent provision of the Nile gave Egyptians, in contrast to Mesopotamians, a generally optimistic outlook on life
Rome And the Roman Empire - The most effective resistance to the culture was, as might be expected, among the eastern countries such as Egypt, Syrian, Mesopotamia, and the Levant (Syria-Palestine) which had the longest history of civilization
Flood, the - ...
Four main flood stories are found in Mesopotamian sources: the Sumerian Eridu Genesis (ca. Three major positions are taken: (1) the traditional, which asserts the universal, worldwide, nature of the deluge; (2) limited flood theories, which narrow the scope of the flood story to a particular geographical location in Mesopotamia; and (3) nonliteral (symbolic) interpretation, which suggests that the flood story is a nonhistorical account written to teach theological truth
Tongues, Confusion of - of Mesopotamia and Syria were Japhetic and, within the geographic limits alluded to, comprise seven chief races; ethnology does not contradict this
Wages - Abram obeys the divine call, leaving Mesopotamia for Canaan, but requires a sign that the promise is to be fulfilled. This "Mesopotamian exile" is a prelude to Israel's oppressive sojourn in Egypt, where a tyrannical Pharaoh pays her the "wages" of a slave (Exodus 1-3 )
Abraham - His being oldest appears from the fact that his brothers married his daughters, and that Sarai was only ten years younger than Abraham (Genesis 17:17); the two younger were born subsequently, Abram, the youngest, when Terah was 130, as appears from comparing Genesis 11:31 with Genesis 12:4; Acts 7:3-4; "before he dwelt in Charran Ηaran , while he was in Mesopotamia," in his 60th year, at Ur he received his first call: "Depart from thy land, to a land which I will show thee" (as yet the exact land was not defined)
Assyria - Newton, "the Assyrian empire seems arrived at its greatness; being united under one monarch, and containing Assyria, Media, Apolloniatis, Susiana, Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and part of Arabia; and reaching eastward into Elymais, and Paraetaecene, a province of the Medes, and if Chalach and Chabor be Colchis and Iberia, as some think, and as may seem probable from the circumcision used by those nations till the days of Herodotus, we are also to add these two provinces, with the two Armenias, Pontus, and Cappadocia, as far as to the river Halys: for Herodotus tells us that the people of Cappadocia, as far as to that river, were called Syrians by the Greeks, both before and after the days of Cyrus; and that the Assyrians were also called Syrians by the Greeks
Law - ...
These contrasts reflect differences in ideology between Israel and Mesopotamia
Antioch - A navigable river and a fine seaport-Seleucia of Pieria-made it practically a maritime city, while caravan roads converging from Arabia and Mesopotamia brought to it the commerce of the East
Joshua - Again he gathered all the tribes with their heads and officers to Shechem, as being the place where Abram received God's first promise of the land after his migration into Canaan (Genesis 12:6-7); more especially because here Jacob on his return from Mesopotamia settled, and removed his household's strange gods (Genesis 33:19; Genesis 35:2-4), just as Joshua now wished Israel to renew the covenant binding them to renunciation of all idols
Judges, the Book of - ...
The three first servitudes brought Israel under the nations destined to scourge it in after history: Moab, Philistia, Mesopotamia or Babylon
Greece, Religion And Society of - In addition to local and regional commerce, communities of this period traded with Anatolia (ancient Turkey), Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt
Music, Instruments, Dancing - Heptatonic and diatonic musical scales reflective of ancient Mesopotamian practice have been discerned through the research of Assyrian culture which has, over the last few decades, brought to light much pertinent information on the subject. The discovery of four Akkadian cuneiform texts describing the Mesopotamian theory of music from about 1800 to about 500 B. Giving evidence of seven different heptatonic-diatonic scales, the musical system of ancient Mesopotamia shows one similar to the major scale known today. , the pictorial and written clues to Egyptian music tradition that have survived the centuries are particularly valuable in the appreciation of musical instruments, providing background information for instruments mentioned in the biblical text as well as comparative study with Mesopotamian data. Male and female dancers are known to us from Egyptian reliefs, and cultic dancers are attested in Mesopotamian texts
Isaiah - ...
In northwest Mesopotamia, the energetic monarch Tiglath-pileser III (745-727) founded the mighty Assyrian Empire
Economic Life - However, unlike the major civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, Israel's economy was not as completely dominated by the concerns of palace or temple as they were in other nations
Bride - These customs appear to have been derived from a very remote antiquity; for when Eliezer of Damascus went to Mesopotamia to take a wife from thence unto his master's son, he disclosed the motives of his journey to the father and brother of Rebecca; and Hamor applied to Jacob and his sons, for their consent to the union of Dinah with his son Shechem
Palestine - This natural barrier caused the passes in the Carmel chain to achieve unusual importance, lying as it does on the historic route between Egypt and Mesopotamia
Trade And Commerce - A system of roads leading from Arabia, Egypt, and Mesopotamia appears to have converged at Sela or Petra, whence two branches spread northwards, to Gaza and to the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, continuing northwards on the left bank of the Jordan
Diseases - A Sumerian physician, Lulu, lived in Mesopotamia about 2700 B
Canaan, History And Religion of - Whatever the land was called, it exercised extraordinary influence as the land bridge between Mesopotamia and Egypt and between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. , the Amorites invaded the area, having migrated via the Fertile Crescent from the southern Mesopotamian Valley. The people of Ugarit, like their Mesopotamian counterparts (and unlike the Egyptians), apparently recognized both their dependency upon as well as the dangers associated with water
Immorality, Sexual - ...
In general, homosexuality in Mesopotamia is not documented to any extent in surviving tablets, but that it was a widespread problem in the Middle Assyrian period (1300-900 b. This judicial sentence, when compared with the Hebrew prescription of death (Leviticus 20:13 ), shows that in Mesopotamian society the offense was regarded as a secondary civic infraction. It appears to have been fairly common in antiquity (Leviticus 18:24 ), being indulged in by the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, and Hittites
Achan - Balak's gold had long before now brought Balaam the soothsayer across the plains of Mesopotamia, and the gold and silver of Jericho had also drawn toward that city the travelling dealers in the woven work of the Babylonian looms
Division of the Earth - ) The children of Aram planted the fertile country north of Babylonia, called Aram Naharaim, "Aram between the two rivers," the Euphrates and the Tigris, thence called by the Greeks, Mesopotamia, Genesis 24:10 , and Padan Aram, the level country of Aram, Genesis 25:20
Pronunciation of Proper Names - ...
(1) Shall we adopt what may be called the Continental pronunciation of the vowels a = ah, e = eh, i = ee, u = oo? In many instances we may be strongly tempted to do so; to one who knows Hebrew it is more natural, and the effect is finer Mesopotâmia is a grander word than Mesopotamia
Manicheans - , where they are also called Ἀκουανῖται , from Ἀκούας , one of their leaders, who carried the heresy from Mesopotamia to Eleutheropolis)
Education in Bible Times - ...
The primary agency of education in both ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia was the home
Animals - They appear in Mesopotamia (onager) and Egypt three thousand years before Christ
Oracle - Mercury had oracles at Patras, upon Harmon, and in other places; Mars, in Thrace, Egypt and elsewhere; Hercules, at Cadiz, Athens, in Egypt, at Tivoli, in Mesopotamia, where he issued his oracles by dreams, whence he was called Somnialis
Eschatology (2) - onwards) to place the peculiar stamp of the Jahweh faith on mythical ideas or pictures, which in some cases it had carried with it since the days of its infancy in Mesopotamia
Palestine - On the western verge of Asia, and severed from the main body of Asia by the desert between Palestine and the regions of Mesopotamia and Arabia, it looks on the other side to the Mediterranean and western world, which it was destined by Providence so powerfully to affect; oriental and reflective, yet free from the stagnant and retrogressive tendencies of Asia, it bore the precious spiritual treasure of which it was the repository to the energetic and progressive W
Pentecost - ’ It seems a little odd that ‘Judaea ’ should be named between ‘Mesopotamia’ and ‘Cappadocia,’ and gives rise to a question as to whether there has not been some misplacement or error in the name itself. ) says that (for Judaea ) ‘Armeniam legit Augustinus: eaque inter Mesopotamiam Cappadociamque jacet,’ and rather inconclusively adds: ‘sed vetustam sane Armeniorum linguam sub alia quadam gente hic nominata innui existimare licet
Pentecost - ’ It seems a little odd that ‘Judaea ’ should be named between ‘Mesopotamia’ and ‘Cappadocia,’ and gives rise to a question as to whether there has not been some misplacement or error in the name itself. ) says that (for Judaea ) ‘Armeniam legit Augustinus: eaque inter Mesopotamiam Cappadociamque jacet,’ and rather inconclusively adds: ‘sed vetustam sane Armeniorum linguam sub alia quadam gente hic nominata innui existimare licet
Babel - Nimrod the son of Cash carne over in ships to lower Mesopotamia, and built Ur on the right of the Euphrates near the mouth
Israel - The sons of Shem were Elam, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Lud (a land of unknown situation, not Lydia), and Aram (the Aramæans)
Jews - Provoked with their mad running after pretended Messiahs, Califf Nasser scarce left any of them alive in his dominions of Mesopotamia
Monophysitism - Its result was to encourage Monophysitism, and that form of Christian belief rooted itself in Armenia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and ultimately in Abyssinia
Tatianus - of the Tigris, in a land incorporated, under Trajan, with Mesopotamia and Armenia into one Roman province of Syria (Zahn, Forsch
Valentinus, Founder of a Gnostic Sect - Its division into an oriental and an Italian school shews that it had adherents even after the death of its founder, in both the East (Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia) and West (specially at Rome)
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - 357, when still under thirty, Basil left Caesarea to seek the most celebrated ascetics upon whose life he might model his own; visiting Alexandria and Upper Egypt, Palestine, Coelesyria, and Mesopotamia
Egypt - had carried on an active correspondence with the distant kings of Babylonia, Assyria, and Mitanni in Mesopotamia; but after a few years Akhenaton must have lost all influence with them
Odes of Solomon - It is written in Syro-Occidental letters, and its editor tells us that it came from the valley of the Tigris, in Northern Mesopotamia
Palestine - ...
For many centuries Israel had been a buffer State between the conflicting powers of Egypt and Mesopotamia. see) divided Galilee from Judaea by the alien race that is supposed to have originated in a cross between Mesopotamians and Israelites after the first captivity