What does Manuscripts mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Manuscripts, Illuminated
A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments in the form of initial letters or of borders, of marginal and full page paintings; and some rolls of parchment consist entirely of paintings. They are called illuminations or miniatures. The most ancient examples of this art are on Egyptian papyri. It was practised by the Greek artists of Alexandria. The Syro-Mesopotamian School arose in the 5th century in the Christian convents of the East and its influence spread to Armenia. The Mussulman schools of the 13th century excelled in geometric designs and the Persian painters attempted landscape and even the human face. The 9th century is the golden age of Byzantine illumination which combines Hellenic and Oriental influences. All the manuscrips of the Slavic countries belong to the Byzantine school and also show direct influence of the Orient. In the West the earliest school was the Irish which excelled in decorative work. The "Book of Kells" (7th century) is a famous example. Irish monks brought the art to England and the Continent. Under Charlemagne the art fiourished in the monasteries and a style of vigorous coloring and luxurious ornamentation was introduced. In the 11th century there is the beginning of naturalism and anachronism. More grace is shown in the treatment of figures. In the 13th century studios of illuminators arose to supply the demand for manuscripts. Works of profane literature were illuminated. A new school in the 14th century introduced garlands copied from nature and scenes from life. A transformation took place in 15th century through the influence of Flemish painters; real landscapes are used as backgrounds, figures are treated with fidelity to nature, and all details of furniture, clothing, etc., are portrayed. The invention of printing and wood-engraving was fatal to the art of illumination.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Illuminated Manuscripts
A large number of manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments in the form of initial letters or of borders, of marginal and full page paintings; and some rolls of parchment consist entirely of paintings. They are called illuminations or miniatures. The most ancient examples of this art are on Egyptian papyri. It was practised by the Greek artists of Alexandria. The Syro-Mesopotamian School arose in the 5th century in the Christian convents of the East and its influence spread to Armenia. The Mussulman schools of the 13th century excelled in geometric designs and the Persian painters attempted landscape and even the human face. The 9th century is the golden age of Byzantine illumination which combines Hellenic and Oriental influences. All the manuscrips of the Slavic countries belong to the Byzantine school and also show direct influence of the Orient. In the West the earliest school was the Irish which excelled in decorative work. The "Book of Kells" (7th century) is a famous example. Irish monks brought the art to England and the Continent. Under Charlemagne the art fiourished in the monasteries and a style of vigorous coloring and luxurious ornamentation was introduced. In the 11th century there is the beginning of naturalism and anachronism. More grace is shown in the treatment of figures. In the 13th century studios of illuminators arose to supply the demand for manuscripts. Works of profane literature were illuminated. A new school in the 14th century introduced garlands copied from nature and scenes from life. A transformation took place in 15th century through the influence of Flemish painters; real landscapes are used as backgrounds, figures are treated with fidelity to nature, and all details of furniture, clothing, etc., are portrayed. The invention of printing and wood-engraving was fatal to the art of illumination.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Manuscripts
MANUSCRIPTS. See Text and Writing.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Manuscripts
It appears that the books of the Bible were written originally on scrolls of papyrus, a material made from dried and flattened strips of papyrus reed (see WRITING). Papyrus did not last well, and the original writings all perished long ago. But from the beginning people had made copies of the original writings, and others continued to make copies down through the centuries. These copies are known as manuscripts (abbreviated MS in the singular, MSS in the plural).
Although the original writings were written by ordinary people in ordinary human language, they were at the same time written under the special direction of the Spirit of God. They expressed the truth as God wanted it expressed (see INSPIRATION). The copies that have survived, however, have suffered some damage from people who have copied or used them.
Because methods of mechanical printing were unknown in ancient times, people who made copies of the Scriptures had to write them out by hand. Writing skills varied and copyists at times made errors. Some of the common errors were to misread the master copy, misspell words, or misplace, omit, or repeat words or lines. There were also cases where copyists deliberately changed the wording to make a sentence mean what they thought it should mean. Yet, in spite of human failings, God has preserved his Word. There are so many good manuscripts in existence that people with the necessary skills are able to determine the original wording fairly accurately.
Old Testament manuscripts
The language of the Old Testament, Hebrew, reads from right to left and was written originally with consonants only. The absence of vowels caused no problem to the readers, as they could mentally put in the vowels as they read. But with the spread of the Aramaic language and then Greek during the latter centuries BC (see ARAM; GREECE), Hebrew had become less widely known in Palestine in New Testament times. After the destruction of the Jewish state in AD 70, the use of Hebrew declined even further. This decline continued, till Hebrew ceased to be a commonly spoken language.
Over an extended period from the sixth to the eleventh centuries AD, Hebrew scholars called Massoretes introduced a system of vowel signs, or ‘points’, to ensure that the meaning of the original writing was not lost. These vowel points were dots and other symbols placed below or above the consonants to show what the word was and how it should be pronounced. The version of the Old Testament that the Massoretes established is commonly called the Massoretic Text (MT).
Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1948, the oldest known manuscripts of the Old Testament were from the ninth to the eleventh centuries AD. The reason why no earlier manuscripts survived was that when manuscripts became too old or worn to use, the Hebrew scholars buried them, rather than let them fall into dishonourable use. In making fresh manuscripts, the Hebrew copyists were almost fanatical at preserving every letter exactly as it was in the former manuscripts. As a result they made few errors.
Manuscripts
MANUSCRIPTS.—The aim of the present article is to give a select list of the more ancient or interesting Manuscripts of the Gospels, with a description of the most important or interesting of these. The simplest course will be to divide them into the languages in which they are written, premising that the Gospels were originally written in Greek, and that the versions in other languages are translations, generally direct, from the Greek. The symbols employed to indicate these manuscripts, whether letters or numbers, were invented for the sake of brevity, when they are referred to in an apparatus of variant readings. The standard collection of variants contained in Gospel manuscripts is that of C. Tischendorf (Novum Testamentum Graece: Editio Octava Critica Maior, vol. i., Lipsiae, 1869), and the standard lists of Manuscripts are those contained in the Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes (2 vols., Leipzig, 1900, 1902) of C. R. Gregory, an American scholar domiciled in Germany. The new numbers which von Soden (Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments, Band i., Berlin, 1902) has given to the Greek Manuscripts are added for the sake of completeness, but it is very doubtful whether they will gain wide currency. Capital letters are used to indicate Manuscripts with uncial writing, which is never later than the 10th cent.; numbers, for those in minuscule writing (9th to 15th centuries and later).
I. Greek Manuscripts :
(a) Uncials:—
א (= δ 2, von Soden), Codex Sinaiticus (of the 4th or 5th cent.), now in the Imperial Library, St. Petersburg, with the exception of a small portion, which is in the University Library, Leipzig, contains OT (with considerable losses), NT (complete), followed by Ep. Barnab. and the Shepherd. The MS, found by Tischendorf in the Convent of St. Catharine, Mt. Sinai, in 1844, consists of 346½ (NT 147½) leaves of fine parchment, measuring 48 × 37.8 cm., with four columns to the page and 48 lines to the column. The ink is now brownish; the letters are not very large, and are painfully regular, without breathings or accents, the use of which is only sporadic till the 9th century. The hands of seven revisers, dating from the 4th (5th) to the 12th centuries, can be observed in the MS. This MS shares with B the honour of being considered the purest MS of the Gospels. Tischendorf has been charged more than once with having stolen this MS, but the charges are successfully refuted by Gregory.
A (= δ 4, von S.), Codex Alexandrinus, in London, British Museum, Reg. I. D. v.–viii. (the NT is in showcases). This MS is of the 5th cent., and consists of 773 leaves (NT 143 leaves) of parchment, measuring 32 × 26.3 cm., with 2 columns to the page and 49–51 lines to the column. It contains, with some losses, the whole Greek Bible. It was probably written in Egypt, and came in 1098 into the possession of the patriarch of Alexandria, from which place it gets its name. Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, and former patriarch of Alexandria, sent it as a gift to Charles I. of England in 1628. About a century afterwards it was presented to the nation. A few lines at the beginning of each book are written in red. The following portions of the Gospels are lost: Matthew 1:1 to Matthew 25:6, John 6:50 to John 8:52. It is quite clear that John 7:53 to John 8:11 never formed a part of the manuscript. A complete facsimile was published in 1878–1880.
B (= δ 1, von S.), Codex Vaticanus, Vat. Lib. MS Gr. 1209 (in showcases). The MS is of the 4th cent., and consists of 759 (NT 142) leaves of parchment, measuring 27 cm. square, with 3 columns to the page and 42 lines to the column. The parchment is very soft and fine. The uncial letters are small, simple, and written, without breaks between the individual words; the first hand wrote no breathings or accents, and punctuation is very rare. The MS is of uncertain origin, and, when complete, contained the whole of the Greek Bible with perhaps the exception of the Books of Maccabees and the Prayer of Manasses. No gaps occur in the Gospels. It has been twice revised, once by a corrector contemporary with the original scribe (called B2 [1] ), and again by another of the 10th or 11th cent., who worked over the letters and often added accents and breathings. WH [2] consider it our very best MS, and regard the combination BN as practically infallible. A splendid facsimile of the NT part was published by Hœpli of Milan in 1904 (see the notice of it by Nestle in the Theol. Literaturblatt for 6th Jan. 1905), superseding the inferior photograph issued by Cozza-Luzi at Rome in 1889.
C (= δ 3, von S.), Codex Ephraemi rescriptus, Paris Bibl. Nat., gr. 9, a palimpsest of the 5th century. Contains, in present form, 209 leaves, written in single columns. The NT portion consists of 145 leaves, and contains parts of every book except 2 John and 2 Thessalonians. Edited by Tisch. (Leipzig, 1843 and 1845).
D evv. act. (= δ 5, von S.), Codex Bezae, in Cambridge University Library, Nn. 2, 41 (in a showcase in Cockerell’s Building). This MS is of the 6th cent. (according to Burkitt, of the 4th), and is bilingual (Greek and Latin). It is on parchment, 26 cm. in height and 21.5 in breadth, and contains now 415 (406 + 9 added later) leaves, with one column to the page. When the book is open, the left side is Greek, the right side Latin. Originally it contained probably Mt., Jn., Lk., Mk. (the regular Western order of the Gospels), Apocalypse, Apocalyptic , 1, 2, 3 Jn., Acts (Dom Chapman in Expositor, 1905, ii. p. 46 ff.). Now the Gospels and Acts are almost complete, the Apocalypse and 1James , 2 nd. Jn. have disappeared, and of 3 Jn. there remain only a few verses in Latin. Many hands have been engaged in correcting the MS. It was probably written in Italy, or South France, where it was when Beza acquired it and gave it to the University of Cambridge in 1581. The MS is the only representative of the Western text in Greek, a form of text which was widespread already in the 2nd century. It contains, therefore, many original elements, which have been worked over at a very early date. In spite of this revision, it often agrees with the neutral Manuscripts , א B. Scrivener published an accurate and handy edition of the MS at Cambridge (1864), which retains its use side by side with the gorgeous facsimile published by the Cambridge University Press in 1899.
N (= ε 19, von S.), Codex Purpureus Petropolitanus, incomplete and mutilated, the parts being distributed between St. Petersburg, Rome, Patmos, London, and Vienna. It is an uncial, probably of the 6th cent., measuring 32 by 26.5 cm.; has 2 columns to the page, 16 lines to the column, and 227 leaves. The leaves are stained with purple, and the writing is silver, the Divine names being in gold. The MS is very like Σ both in text and external character. The only complete edition is that of H. S. Cronin in TS [3] , vol. v. No. 4 (Cambridge, 1899). He considers N and Σ to be copies of the same lost original. The text is of a mixed character, representing a sort of transition stage between the purity of the older uncials and the corruption of the majority of cursives. While it sometimes supports the former, it also at times provides the earliest known authority for readings which are subsequently almost universal. For particulars see Cronin’s valuable introduction.
Σ (= ε 18, von S.), Codex Purpureus Rossanensis, in the charge of the Archbp. of Rossano, S. Italy. An uncial of the 6th cent., probably later than its. brother MS N, it is, like it, purple with silver writing. It measures 30.7 by 26 cm., has 2 columns, to the page, 20 lines to the column, and comprises 188 leaves. It contains Matthew and Mark (the latter without Mark 16:14–end). Edited by von Gebhardt (Die Evangelien des Matthäus und des Marcus aus dem cod. purp. Rossan., Leipzig, 1883). See under N. The credit of the discovery of this MS belongs to von Gebhardt and Harnack (1879), It contains eight pictures of Gospel scenes, the oldest known.
Ψ (= δ 6, von S.), Athos, Laura 172 (β 52), an uneial of the 8th or 9th cent., measuring 20.8 by 15 cm., has 31 lines to the page, and comprises 262 leaves. It contains the greater part of the NT, but lacks Mt., and Mk. down to Mark 9:3. The ending of Mk. is like that in L and T1 [1] . After Mark 16:8 ἐφοβοῦντο γάρ, it proceeds as follows: πάντα δὲ τὰ παρηγγελμένα τοῖς περὶ τὸν Πέτρον συντόμως ̇ ἐξήγ γειλαν: Μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα, καὶ αὐτὸς ἰησοῦς ἐφάνη ἀπὸ, ἀνατολῆς καὶ μέχρι δύσεως ἐξαπέστειλεν διʼ αὐτῶν τὸ, ἱερὸν καὶ ἄφθαρτον κήρυγμα τῆς αἰωνίου σωτηρίας ἀμήν: ἔστιν καὶ ταῦτα φερόμενα μετὰ τὸ ἐφοβοῦντο γὰρ:—Ἀναστὰς δὲ, κ.τ.λ., up to Mark 16:20, and at the end Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Μᾶρκον. It is only in this Gospel that the text is of interest. The character of its readings, is set forth in Lake’s edition (Studies Biblica et Ecclesiastiea, vol. v. (Oxford, 1903) pp. 94–122), [5].
TX (= ε 02, von S.), Oxyrhynchus Papyri, vol. ii. No. 208. We mention this papyrus uncial fragment of the 3rd cent. (John 1:23-31; John 1:33-41; John 20:11-17; John 20:19-25), because it is probably the oldest fragment of Gospel MS in existence.
(b) Minuscules:—
1 (= δ 50, von S.), Basel University Library, A.N. iv. 2 (formerly B vi. 27), of the 12th (others say 10th) century. This MS was used for Erasmus’ Gr. Test., the first published edition. It gives a good text, which is often in agreement with 118 (= ε 346, von S.), 131 (= δ 467, von S.), and 209 (= δ 457, von S.). Lake has edited the four, taking 1 as the basis, and showing the variants in the others (‘Codex 1 of the Gospels and its Allies’ in TS [3] , vol. vii. No. 3, Cambridge, 1902). He has also discussed with thoroughness the relations between them. The reader will find his Introduction a valuable lesson in textual criticism. It is sufficient here to quote his conclusion with regard to the text in Mark, which escaped a good deal of the assimilating process which affected the texts of Matthew and Luke: ‘(1) fam1 [1] in St. Mark seems to form part of a larger family of which the most certain members are fam13 [8] 22, 28, 565, 700; (2) this larger family seems to represent a local text or local texts which were current in a comparatively limited region in the East; (3) the only definite localities which there is any reason to suggest are Jerusalem and Sinai, and even for these the evidence is insufficient to justify confident assertion’ (p. liv). The most noticeable features in the other Gospels are an element akin to אB and a Western element (cf. p. lv).
13 (= ε 368, von S.), Paris, Bibl. Nat., gr. 50, of the 13th century. This MS is one of the group 13–69–124–346–543–788–826–828–983–ε 1053 (von S.)—ε 1054 (von S.), conveniently named by Lake fam13 [8] . The group is also called the Ferrar group, because the relation between 13, 69, 124, and 346 was discovered by Ferrar of Dublin (A Collation of Four Important Manuscripts of the Gospels, by W. H. Ferrar and T. K. Abbott, Dublin, 1877). The studies of Rendel Harris (On the Origin of the Ferrar Group, Cambridge, 1893; Further Researches into the History of the Ferrar Group, London, 1900), Lake (JThSt [10] , vol. i. [11] pp. 117–120), and von Soden have shed further light upon this group. The archetype appears to have been in Calabria or Sicily in the Middle Ages. Its most remarkable characteristics are the transposition of John 7:53 to John 8:11 to Luke 21:38, and Luke 24:43 f. to Matthew 26:39 (on the first transposition see von Soden, Die Sehriften des Neuen Testaments, i. (Berlin, 1902) p. 486 ff.). The importance of the group lies in the great support which it gives to the Western text.
II. Syriac Manuscripts :—
(a) of the Old Syriae translation (Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, ‘Gospel of the Separated Ones’):—
1. London, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts , No. 14,451 (No. 119 in Wright’s catalogue), and Berlin, Royal Library, Orient. Quart. No. 528. This MS, Codex Nitriensis Curetonianus (Burkitt’s C), consists of 82½ leaves in the British Museum and 3 leaves in Berlin; and came from the great Library of the Convent of St. Mary Deipara in the Nitrian Valley, west of Cairo. The greater portion of the MS reached England in 1842. In its original state it contained Mt., Mk., Jn., Lk. (in this unusual order). The portions still extant are Matthew 1:1 to Matthew 8:22; Matthew 10:32 to Matthew 23:25, Mark 16:17-20, John 1:1-42; John 3:5 to John 8:19; John 14:10-12; John 14:15-19; John 14:21-24; John 14:26-29, Luke 2:48 to Luke 3:16, Luke 7:33 to Luke 16:12; Luke 17:1 to Luke 24:44. The early part of the 5th cent. is the latest possible date for it. Each page has two columns, each with lines varying from 22 to 26. Each leaf measures 30 by 24 cm. The first edition of this MS is that of Cureton (London, 1858) supplemented by Rödiger (Berlin, 1872), but the definitive edition is that of F. C. Burkitt, who has edited this MS and the following together, the only representatives of the Old Syriac version, with an English translation, copious Introduction and Notes (Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, etc., 2 vols., Cambridge, 1904). From this work the details here are taken. A photograph of a page of C is in vol. ii. opposite p. 7, also p. 38 two pages; also in Kenyon’s Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts , facing p. 155.
2. Sinai, Monastery of St. Catharine; Syr. [12] 30, Codex Palimpsestus Sinaiticus (Burkitt’s S). The MS was discovered by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, of Cambridge, in 1892, and has been since studied repeatedly by Mrs. Lewis and other scholars. The MS consists of 182 leaves of vellum (one leaf was stolen in 1902, but afterwards restored; see Exp. Times, xiii. 405; xvii. 396). The upper writing is of the 8th cent., and consists of Lives of Saints. In its original form the MS had 166 leaves, containing the four Gospels in the usual order. Its date is early 5th, perhaps 4th century. Each page contains 2 columns, with from 29 to 21 lines each, and measures 21.9 by 15.8 cm. The Gospels are nearly complete. Of the two Manuscripts this must be regarded as the better representative of the original translation. Complete photographs of it are in Cambridge University Library; Westminster College, Cambridge; Rylands’ Library, Manchester: photos of separate pages in Burkitt, vol. ii. pp. 28, 257, and elsewhere.
The Evangelion da-Mepharreshe was so called to distinguish it from Tatian’s Diatessaron or Harmony, in which form the Gospels were regularly read in the Syrian Church at first. This Church had its centre at Edessa near the Euphrates, and its language must not be identified with the Aramaic our Lord spoke. The value of the Old Syriac Version consists in the fact that it reproduces the Greek text current in Antioch at the end of the 2nd cent., with a certain amount of contamination from the use of the Diatessaron, which is in origin Italian. It is of the first authority for the constitution of the text of the Greek Gospels. For all problems connected with it the reader is referred to Burkitt’s second volume.
(b) of the Peshitta (‘simple’) translation:
2. Earl of Crawford’s MS 1, now Rylands’ Library, Manchester, of the 6th cent. (Gwilliam, No. 11).
13. London, British Museum, Addit. Manuscripts 14,470, of the 5th or 6th cent. (Gwilliam, No. 17).
15. London, British Museum, Addit. Manuscripts 14,453, of the 5th or 6th cent. (Gwilliam, No. 14).
22. London, British Museum, Addit. Manuscripts 12,140, of the 6th cent. (Gwilliam, 31).
There are many other codices, complete or incomplete, of equal antiquity, in other libraries. See Gwilliam’s list of 42 Manuscripts in the Tetraeuangelium Sanctum by Pusey and Gwilliam (Oxonii, 1901), which is the best edition of the Peshitta, and is provided with a literal Latin translation. As to the date of the Peshitta itself, Burkitt’s view that it was prepared by Rabbula, bp. of Edessa from 411 to 435 a.d., has gained wide acceptance. He regards it as ‘a revision of the Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, undertaken mainly with the object of conforming the translation more closely to the Greek text as read at Antioch early in the 5th century’ (Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, vol. ii. p. 5).
(c) of the Palestinian or Jerusalem translation:
1. Rome, Vaticanus Syr. [12] 19 (formerly 11), of the year 1030 (Codex A, Lewis-Gibson).
6. Sinai, Monastery of St. Catharine, of the year 1104 (Codex B, Lewis-Gibson).
7. Sinai, Monastery of St. Catharine, of the year 1118 (Codex C, Lewis-Gibson).
Edited by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson in the Palestinian Syriac Lectionary of the Gospels (London, 1899). This version is perhaps more closely related to the Old Syriac than to the Peshitta, and may be a revision of the former.
(d) of the Philoxenian-Harklean translation:
1. Belonging to the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut, but lent to the Union Theological Seminary of New York. Of the 9th cent., and somewhat defective.
22. Florence, Laur. i. 40 (Assem. 3). Of date 757.
25. Rome, Vat. Syr. [12] 266. Of the 7th century.
26. Rome, Vat. Syr. [12] 267. Of the 8th century.
This, the youngest of the Syrian versions, is a revision by Thomas of Harkel (Heraclea) in the first half of the 7th cent. of an earlier version made at the instance of Philoxenus, Monophysite bp. of Hierapolis (Mabog) in the early 6th century. The earlier translation was perhaps made from the Peshitta by reference to the ‘corrected’ form of the Greek text, and Thomas found in Egypt older Greek Manuscripts , which had escaped the enthusiasm of the destroyers, who favoured the ‘corrected’ text, and inserted some readings from them, adding others in the margin.
III. Egyptian (Coptic) Manuscripts :
(a) of the Bohairic translation:
Complete manuscripts are all of late date, none being earlier apparently than the 12th century. On all questions connected with this translation and its Manuscripts , see The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Northern Dialect [16]; 4 vols. (Oxford, 1898–1905).
1. Oxford, Bodleian Library, Huntington, 17,* [17] Horner’s A, printed entire by him as the basis of his edition. This MS was written in 1174, and contains the Gospels complete, both in Bohairic and Arabic. It is on paper, contains 457 (+ 5) leaves, and 2 columns to the page, with 20 lines each. It measures 34.5 by 26 cm. The MS has a number of omissions: see the valuable tables of omissions in the chief Bohairic Manuscripts in Horner’s edition, vol. i. p. cxxvi ff.
21. Paris, Bibl. Nat., copt. 16, Horner’s C. The MS was written in 1196, and contains the Gospels almost complete, both in Bohairic and Arabic. It is on paper, contains 369 (+2) leaves, and 2 columns to the page, with 26 lines each. It measures 28.5 by 21 cm. The text is perfect, with the exception of a small lacuna, John 16:6-18.
33. Paris, Institut Catholique, Horner’s H. This MS was written in 1250, and contains the Gospels complete, both in Bohairic and Arabic. It is on paper, contains 235 (+2) leaves, and 2 columns to the page, with 33 lines each. It measures 25 by 17.5 cm., and contains some beautiful pictures.
(b) of the Sahidic translation:
Of this there exists only a considerable quantity of short fragments (Gregory gives 91). Some are as old as the 5th century. One is still older (No. 48 Rome, Propag. 65).
(c) of the Fayyum translation:
Gregory gives fragments of 5 Gospel Manuscripts only, one (No. 2), in the possession of Flinders Petrie, of the 4th century. Of (b) and (c) there is as yet neither a comprehensive edition nor a complete study. Further fragments of both are certain to be discovered.
The Ethiopic, Armenian, Georgian, Persian, and Arabic translations may be here passed over.
IV. Latin Manuscripts :—
(a) of the pre-Vulgate (otherwise called ‘Old Latin,’ or ‘Itala’) translation(s):—
a: Vercelli, Cathedral. This MS is of the 4th cent., measures 25.5 by 16 cm., has 2 columns to the page, and 24 lines to the column. The order of the Gospels is Mt., Jn., Lk., Mk., the regular Old Latin order. Much is wanting in Matthew 20-27; Jn. is slightly defective; in Lk. much of chs. 1, 11 and 12 has disappeared; in Mk. chs. 1, 4, 5, 15, 16 have suffered greatly; a second but ancient hand has supplied Mark 16:7-20. The text is good, and was, according to tradition, copied by the famous bishop Eusebius of Vercelli, martyred in 371. The book has suffered greatly from neglect and bad treatment. Editions by G. A. Irico (Sacrosanctus Evangeliorum Codex S. Eusebii Magni, Milan, 1748), J. Bianchini (Evangeliarium Quadruplex, Rome, 1749; very accurately reprinted in Migne’s Patrologia Latina, vol. xii.), and J. Belsheim (Codex Vercellensis, Christiania, 1894).
b: Verona, Cathedral Library (Biblioteca Capitolare). The MS is of the early part of the 5th cent. (or of the end of the 4th), and is written in silver. The following parts are wanting: Matthew 1:1-11; Matthew 15:12-23; Matthew 23:18-27, John 7:44 to John 8:12, Luke 19:26 to Luke 21:29, Mark 13:9-19; Mark 13:24 to Mark 16:20. Edited by Bianchini (see under a) and by J. Belsheim (Codex Veronensis Quattuor Euangelia, Prag, 1904). It was probably a MS like this which was the chief basis of Jerome’s revision known as the Vulgate. It is perhaps the best representative of the European Latin versions of the 4th century. There is a photograph of one page in Monumenta Palœographica Sacra (Turin, 1899).
c: Paris, Bibl. Nat. 254 (Colb. 4051), of the 12th century. Edited by P. Sabatier (Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinœ Versiones Antiquœ, vol. iii., Paris, 1751; there is also an edition with ‘Reims’ on the title-page), and by J. Belsheim (Codex Colbcrtinus Parisiensis, Christiania, 1888). The work of P. Sabatier is still unsuperseded as the most complete repertory of the readings of the Old Latin Bible.
d: This symbol indicates the Latin side of Codex Bezae (D).
e: Palatinus; all that is left is in Vienna (Kais. Lat. 1185) except one leaf, which is in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin (N. 4, 18). The MS is of the 5th cent., and is, with k (see below), representative of a form of text used in the Roman province of Africa (corresponding to modern Tunis). It is very defective, containing about half of Mt., nearly the whole of Jn. and Lk., and about half of Mark. A copy of the MS made before its present mutilation exists in the Vallicellian Library, Rome, as U. 66. The Vienna part was edited by Tischendorf (Evangelium Palatinum, Leipzig, 1847), the Dublin leaf by T. K. Abbott (Par Palimpsestorum Dublincnsium, etc., London, 1880); reports on the copy in the Vallicellian Library were published by H. Linke (Sitzungsberichte der Königl. bayer. Akad. der Wissenschaften [18], Munich, 1893, Heft 2, pp. 281–287). See also Belsheim (Evangelium Palatinum, Christiania, 1896), and Old-Latin Biblical Texts, vol. ii. (Oxford, 1886), pp. lxvii–lxxxv, by W. Sanday.
f: Brixianus; in the Capitular Library of Brescia. It is of the 6th cent., and is written in silver. It lacks the last quarter or so of Mark. It

Sentence search

Lebbeus - (lehb bee' uhss) Reading of some ancient Greek Manuscripts for Thaddeus in Matthew 10:3 (KJV). Modern translations and interpreters follow earlier Greek Manuscripts which read simply Thaddeus
Shachia - ” Clan leader in tribe of Benjamin (1 Chronicles 8:10 ), following different Manuscripts than modern translations which read Sachia. Many Manuscripts and early versions read, “Shabia
Manuscripts - Manuscripts
Alluminor - ) An illuminator of Manuscripts and books; a limner
Joahaz - One of Kennicott's Manuscripts reads "Ahaz"
Majuscule - ) A capital letter; especially, one used in ancient Manuscripts
Hadarezer - (had' ahr-ee' zuhr) Copying change in some Manuscripts for Hadad-ezer
Punites - Some Manuscripts read Puvanites or Puvites
Majusculae - ) Capital letters, as found in Manuscripts of the sixth century and earlier
Bethesda - ” Most ancient Manuscripts identify Bethesda as the place of the pool. Some ancient Manuscripts name it Bethzatha or Bethsaida. The references to the pool being stirred by angels (John 5:3-4 ) are not found in either the oldest or the majority of Manuscripts. However, regardless of the disagreement among Manuscripts on the name of the pool or the angel passage, the pool did exist
Uncial - ) Of, pertaining to, or designating, a certain style of letters used in ancient Manuscripts, esp. in Greek and Latin Manuscripts
Hahiroth - (huh hi' rahth) Reading of some Manuscripts and translations for Pi-hahiroth in Numbers 33:8
Lebbaeus - Matthew 10:3, Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts omit
Gob - Some Hebrew Manuscripts read Benob or “in Nob” as in 2 Samuel 21:16 . The Greek Manuscripts presuppose either in Gath or in Gezer
Shalmai - ” Manuscripts have several variant spellings
Sigla - , in ancient Manuscripts, or on coins, medals, etc
Bibliography - ) A history or description of books and Manuscripts, with notices of the different editions, the times when they were printed, etc
Scriptorium - ) In an abbey or monastery, the room set apart for writing or copying Manuscripts; in general, a room devoted to writing
Collator - ) One who collates Manuscripts, books, etc
Polyautography - ) The act or practice of multiplying copies of one's own handwriting, or of Manuscripts, by printing from stone, - a species of lithography
Jadah - ” NIV translation based on early Greek and Hebrew Manuscripts for Jarah
Beth-Abara - ” KJV reading for Bethany in John 1:28 following some Greek Manuscripts
Second Sabbath - Chronological notation in some Manuscripts of Luke 6:1 believed by many commentators to be a later addition to the text (NRSV, NIV, NAS, REB)
Bethzatha - (behth zay' thaw) TEV, NSRV reading of place name in John 5:2 based on different Greek Manuscripts than those followed by other translators
Man of Sin - Modern translations follow other Manuscripts in reading “man of lawlessness
Minuscule - Different copies of Greek Manuscripts appear in minuscule form
Black Letter - The old English or Gothic letter, in which the Early English Manuscripts were written, and the first English books were printed
Black Letter - The old English or Gothic letter, in which the Early English Manuscripts were written, and the first English books were printed
Archaeology - prehistoric antiquities, such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early epoch, inscriptions, implements, and other relics, written Manuscripts, etc
Sopater - "Son of Pyrrhus" (in the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus Manuscripts), of Berea, was one of Paul's companions on his return from Greece to Asia, after his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4)
Diphath - KJV, NIV follow other Hebrew Manuscripts and versions and Genesis 10:3 in reading Riphath
Thaddaeus - ) The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts read in Matthew 10:3 only "Thaddaeus, "omitting "and Lebbaeus whose surname was
Shamed - ” Many commentators follow early Manuscripts and versions in reading, “Shemer
Joses - In Matthew 13:55 KJV follows some Greek Manuscripts in reading Joses for a brother of Jesus, but modern translations follow the earliest Manuscripts in reading Joseph
Gelasian Sacramentary - The book exists in several Manuscripts, the oldest of which is preserved in the Vatican Library (manuscript Reginae 316). In none of the old Manuscripts does the book bear the name Gelasius but is simply called "Liber Sacramentorum Romanre ecclesire
Sacramentary, Gelasian - The book exists in several Manuscripts, the oldest of which is preserved in the Vatican Library (manuscript Reginae 316). In none of the old Manuscripts does the book bear the name Gelasius but is simply called "Liber Sacramentorum Romanre ecclesire
Ebron - Several Manuscripts in Joshua 19:28 plus the lists in Joshua 21:30 ; 1 Chronicles 6:39 have Abdon
Vatican Manuscript - One of the principal Greek Manuscripts now extant
Izrahite - Other Hebrew Manuscripts read, “Zerahites
Masora - (maw' ssoh raw) Hebrew term meaning, “tradition,” used for note added to the margins of Manuscripts of the Masoretic text of the Old Testament as a safeguard to transmission of the text
Inerrancy - Inerrancy does not extend to the copies of the biblical Manuscripts
Antiquary - ) One devoted to the study of ancient times through their relics, as inscriptions, monuments, remains of ancient habitations, statues, coins, Manuscripts, etc
Jerioth - Keil, with the oldest Syriac (Peshito) and Vulgate Manuscripts, reads instead of the text, which is corrupt, "he begat, with Azubah his wife, Jerioth (a daughter); and these are her sons
Cauda - (cayyoo' duh) or CLAUDA A small island whose name is variously spelled in the Greek Manuscripts
Epaenetus - A Christian at Rome greeted by Paul as "my well beloved, who is the firstfruits of Achaia (Asia in the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus Manuscripts) unto Christ" (Romans 16:5)
Ben - Other translations follow the Septuagint or earliest Greek translation and some Hebrew Manuscripts that omit Ben
Manuscript - There are thousands of existing Manuscripts of the biblical documents ranging from vellum (animal skins) to papyri (plant material) upon which the original and copies of the original writings were made
New Testament - ) said truly, "after the Complutenses and Erasmus, who had very ordinary Manuscripts, the New Testament became the property of booksellers. correcting by older Latin Manuscripts the edition of Jerome's Vulgate put forth by Sixtus V, A. Leo X lent the Manuscripts used for it from the Vatican. It follows modern Greek Manuscripts in all cases where these differ from the ancient Manuscripts and from the oldest Greek fathers. Erasmus completed his edition in haste, and did not have the scruples to supply, by translating into Greek front the Vulgate, both actual hiatuses in his Greek Manuscripts and what he supposed to be so, especially in the Apocalypse, for which he had only one mutilated manuscript. Stephens printed two small editions at Paris, and in 1550 a folio edition, following Erasmus' fifth edition almost exclusively, and adding in the margin readings from the Complutensian edition and from 15 Manuscripts collected by his son Henry, the first large collection of readings. ...
He possessed the two famous Manuscripts, namely, the Gospels and Acts, now by his gift in the university of Cambridge; "Codex Bezae" or "Cantabrigiensis," D; and the epistles of Paul, "Codex Clermontanus" (brought from Clermont), now in the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris; both are in Greek and Latin. ...
Constantine ordered 50 Manuscripts to be written on fair skins for the use of the church. Whitby attacked Mill for presenting in his edition 30,000 various readings found in Manuscripts. Bentley (Phileleutherus Lipsiensis), reviewing Collins' work, shows if ONLY ONE manuscript had come down there would have been no variations, and therefore no means of restoring the true text; but by God's providence MANY Manuscripts have come down - some from Egypt, others from Asia, others from the western churches. ...
He found the oldest Manuscripts of Jerome's Vulgate differ widely from the Clementine, and agree both in the words and in their order (which Jerome preserved in his translated "because even the order of the words is a mystery": Ep. ) with the oldest Greek Manuscripts The citations of the New Testament by fathers are then especially valuable as evidences, when a father cites words expressly, or a special word which agrees with ancient Manuscripts and versions, for such could hardly come from transcribers. The Latin version before Jerome's having become variously altered in different copies caused the need for his translation from the original Greek of Manuscripts current at Rome (and in a few passages probably from Origen's Greek Manuscripts in the Caesarean library), at Damasus' suggestion. ...
And in his commentaries, he appeals to Manuscripts against what he had adopted at Rome. Origen's readings show a text agreeing with Manuscripts A, B, C (usually considered Alexandrian) rather than with the Western and Latin authorities. He observed differences in classes of Manuscripts and versions. The Alexandrian Manuscripts, few but far weightier, represent the more ancient ones; the far more numerous Byzantine Manuscripts the more recent, family or class. ...
The Greek fathers prior to Jerome's Vulgate in quoting the Greek Testament agree with the readings in the oldest Manuscripts, as does the Vulgate. ...
Lachmann first cast aside the received text as an authority entirely, and reconstructed the text as transmitted by our most ancient authorities, namely, the oldest Greek Manuscripts: A, B, C, D, Delta (Claromontanus), E, G, H, P, Q, T, Z; citations in Origen; the ante-Jerome Latin in the oldest Manuscripts: a, b, c, d, e, Laudianus, Actuum, f Claromontanus Paul. , h Primasius in the Apocalypse; Jerome's Vulgate in the oldest Manuscripts: Fuldensis, and its corrections by Victor of Capua, and Amiatinus or Laurentianus; readings in Irenaeus, Cyprian, Hilary of Poictiers, and Lucifer of Cagliari. To Lachmann's authorities other ancient versions besides the Latin ones need to be added; also the oldest Manuscripts need accurate collation. ...
Tischendorf has added to our Greek Manuscripts Codex Sinaiticus ('aleph), which he found on Mount Sinai in 1844 and rescued from papers intended to light the stove in the convent of Catherine. Tischendorf followed, adding however many Manuscripts and versions of later date to the older authorities (including the two old Egyptian and the two Syriac versions). ...
Alexandria was in the early ages the center for publishing Greek Manuscripts; hence, our oldest Manuscripts were copied there, though the originals were written elsewhere. The oldest Manuscripts are written in uncial (capital) letters; the modern ones in cursive or small letters. Then Paul's epistles in Eusebius, in the Latin church, and in Jerome's Vulgate (oldest Manuscripts) But the uncial Manuscripts A, B, C, also Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, and the council of Laodicea (A. ...
OLDEST Manuscripts. In the Gospels 'aleph, A, B, C, D, and the fragments Z, J, N, gamma, P, Q, T, are of primary authority; the uncial Manuscripts are of secondary authority, and mostly agreeing with these, are L, X, delta; there are cursive Manuscripts - 1, 33, 69 - which support the old Manuscripts. In Acts, the oldest Manuscripts are 'aleph, A, B, C, D, E; G, H, and the F(a) fragment have a text varying from the oldest Manuscripts; the cursives 13 and 31 agree with the oldest Manuscripts. In the universal epistles 'aleph, A, B, C, G; the uncial J differs from these oldest Manuscripts. In the Pauline epistles 'aleph, A, B, C, D (and E Sangermanensis, its copy), and H; the cursives 17 and 37 agree with the oldest Manuscripts. In Revelation 'aleph, A, C; B Basilianus (not Codex Vaticanus), a valuable but later uncial; cursives 14 and 38 agree often with the oldest Manuscripts. Manuscripts of Acts, besides 'aleph, A, B, C, D. Manuscripts of the universal epistles, besides 'aleph, A, B, C, G. Manuscripts of Paul's epistles besides 'aleph, A, B, C, D (delta in Lachmann), Claromontanus, Greek and Latin, in Royal Library, Paris; came from Clermont, Beza had owned it; all Paul's epistles except a few verses; Tischendorf published it, 1852; sixth century. " F, G, agree with the oldest Manuscripts F, Angiensis, Greek and Latin, bequeathed by T. Manuscripts of Revelation besides 'aleph, A, C. ...
MANUSCRIPTS IN CURSIVE LETTERS. Translated from oldest Greek Manuscripts, a text related to D, and of a different family from the Alexandrian Manuscripts. brought from Africa to Italy, and there emended from Greek Manuscripts also improved in Latinity), and "nonemended copies," i. ...
(3) The Old Latin appears more accordant with the Alexandrian old Greek Manuscripts in Bobbiensis, k, containing a fragment of the New Testament. Jerome, collating the Latin with Greek Manuscripts considered by him, the greatest scholar of the Latin church, ancient at the end of the fourth century, says he "only corrected those Latin passages which altered the sense, and let the rest remain. " He rejects certain interpolated Greek Manuscripts, "a Luciano et Ηesychio nuncupatos ", on the ground that the versions made in various languages before the additions falsify them, suggesting the use of the oldest versions, namely, to detect interpolations unknown in the Greek text of their day. ...
(1) Cureton published the Syriac Manuscripts brought by Dr. " The Armenian, by Mesrobus, early in the fifth century, made from Greek Manuscripts; brought from Alexandria and from Ephesus. Citations in Greek and Latin fathers down to Eusebius inclusive; important in fixing the text of the fourth and previous centuries, only in cases where they must be quoting from Manuscripts and not from memory. Textual variations and ancient Manuscripts of Origen who died in 254 A. Citations in fathers often support the versions' readings against the interpolated texts, so that if even there were no Greek Manuscripts to support the versions' readings the evidence would still be on the side of these. But we have Manuscripts habitually supporting the readings which are in
Heleb - ” One of David's military heroes (2 Samuel 23:29 ), probably a copyist's change from Heled in the parallel passage (1 Chronicles 11:30 ), Heled also appearing in many Manuscripts of 2Samuel
Jozachar - (2 Kings 12:21 ) based on Hebrew Manuscripts differing from the base manuscript normally used for the Hebrew text
Joelah - Early Manuscripts and translations give various forms of the name such as Jaalah and Azriel
Shuah - Ten of DeRossi' s and Kennicott's Manuscripts read "Shuah son of Chelub," another form of Caleb, the addition distinguishing him from Caleb, son of Hezron, and from Caleb the son of Jephunneh
Ithlah - Its location is not known, but some students of Bible lands geography follow some Greek Manuscripts identifying Ithlah with Shithlah or Shilta, about four miles northwest of Beth-horon
Giuseppe Mezzofanti - He left only a few Manuscripts on comparative philology, as his polyglotism was intuitive rather than analytic, but is credited with a perfect knowledge of 38 languages and a less perfect knowledge of 30 other languages and of 50 dialects
Abdon (2) - Many Manuscripts there read "Abdon"; the Hebrew letters Resh ( ר ) and Daleth ( ד ) are very similar, and therefore often interchanged
Lahmam - ” Reading in many Hebrew Manuscripts and early translations for Lahmas (Joshua 15:40 )
Magadan - At Mark 8:10 , most translations follow other Greek Manuscripts reading Dalmanutha
Ibleam - Some Greek Manuscripts read Iebatha, perhaps a corruption of Ibleam. Other Greek Manuscripts read Beth-Shean. Some Greek Manuscripts read Ibleam
Ash - Some Manuscripts of the Hebrew text have the word for cedas, which is very similar to the word found in the text translated by the KJV
Mary - A Roman Christian greeted in Romans 16:16 as one "who bestowed much labour on you" (so the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read for "us"
Manuscript - Large numbers of New Testament and some Old Testament Manuscripts survive from the first few centuries B
Calligraphy - (Greek: kalligraphia, beautiful handwriting) ...
The art of fine handwriting, the greatest masterpieces of which are found in Manuscripts of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
Puvah - (pyoo' vuh) Personal name spelled differently in Hebrew text and in various Manuscripts and versions; thus rendered differently by translators
Beth-Abara - Many of the best Greek Manuscripts and recent editions have Bethany, also unknown, instead of Beth-abara
Hamran - The parallel list has Hemdan (Genesis 36:26 ); NIV picks up Hemdan in 1Chronicles along with some Hebrew and Greek Manuscripts
Beth-Abara - and some of the best Manuscripts read Bethany for Beth-abara; possibly it was at Beth-nimrah, or Nimrîn; or, as Conder thinks, at ʾAbarah, a leading ford of the Jordan on the road to Gilead
Adrammelech - One reading of the Hebrew Manuscripts describes this Adrammelech as Sennacherib's son (KJV, NIV, RSV). Other Manuscripts do not have “his sons” (NAS)
Vashni - ” Modern translations and commentators follow 1 Samuel 8:2 and Manuscripts of early versions, taking Vashni as a copyist's change from the similar Hebrew word for “the second” and inserting Joel
Ammonian Sections - Divisions of the four Gospels indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek and Latin Manuscripts, attributed to Ammonius of Alexandria (c
Pannag - RSV follows variant Manuscripts in reading “early figs
Joy to Thee, o Queen of Heaven! Alleluia - It may be found in 14th-century Manuscripts, but it is not known who the author was
Library, Palatine - It contains from 10,000 to 12,000 printed books and about 2,450 Manuscripts
Palatine Library - It contains from 10,000 to 12,000 printed books and about 2,450 Manuscripts
Bor-Ashan - ” Place in most Manuscripts of 1 Samuel 30:30 ; others read Chor-ashan (KJV)
Regina Caeli Laetare, Alleluia - It may be found in 14th-century Manuscripts, but it is not known who the author was
Codex - ...
Biblical Manuscripts produced in the codex form were all handcopied in Greek capital letters on parchment from older Manuscripts. Nearly 250 of these Manuscripts in codex form are now preserved in various libraries and museums
Holon - The parallel passage (1 Chronicles 6:58 ) has Hilez or Hilen in different Manuscripts
Ordines Romani - A considerable number of Ordines are preserved among Manuscripts from the 8th to the 12th century
John Shepherd - The Music School, Oxford, has preserved in Manuscripts many of his religious compositions
Dappled - ” The Hebrew term also appears in Genesis 31:10 ,Genesis 31:10,31:12 and in a few Manuscripts of Nehemiah 5:18
Iob - Son of Issachar, according to Genesis 46:13 ; but a copyist apparently omitted one Hebrew letter, the name appearing as Jashub in Samaritan Pentateuch and some Greek Manuscripts of Genesis (followed by NRSV, NIV, TEV) and in Numbers 26:24 ; 1 Chronicles 7:1
Myra - Some Manuscripts of the Western Text give Myra as port call after Patara in Acts 21:1
Sceva - His seven sons, Jews, exorcised demons in Jesus' name, whereupon the demon-possessed leaped on two of them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of the house naked and wounded: (Acts 19:14-16; the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read "prevailed against both"
Abana - Many Hebrew Manuscripts, the Septuagint and Targums call the river the Amana
Roman Regulations - A considerable number of Ordines are preserved among Manuscripts from the 8th to the 12th century
Shepherd, John - The Music School, Oxford, has preserved in Manuscripts many of his religious compositions
Censor - ) One who is empowered to examine Manuscripts before they are committed to the press, and to forbid their publication if they contain anything obnoxious; - an official in some European countries
Magdala - In the chief Manuscripts and versions the name is given as "Magadan
Miniature - ) Originally, a painting in colors such as those in mediaeval Manuscripts; in modern times, any very small painting, especially a portrait
Emmaus - Some Manuscripts, however, read one hundred and sixty furlongs, instead of sixty; and Eusebius and Jerome locate Emmaus at the ancient Nicopolis, twenty miles west-north-west of Jerusalem, where a village called Amwas still exists
Crane - " Thirteen Manuscripts of Kennicott read isis for sus or sis ; that goddess having been, according to Egyptian fable, changed into a swallow; a fable transferred to the Greek mythology, in the story of Procne
Beelzebub - (bee eel' zee buhb) (KJV, NIV) or BEELZEBUL (NAS, TEV, NRSV) Name for Satan in New Testament spelled differently in Greek Manuscripts
Cleophas - —This form appears in some Latin MSS Reader - ) One who reads Manuscripts offered for publication and advises regarding their merit
Roll - To this class belong legal records, Manuscripts for the chanting of the Exultet, and mortuary rolls or documents employed to publish the names of the deceased of monasteries and other associations
Apphia - (in some Manuscripts and VSS Bible, Texts And Versions - The difficulty of tracing the history of the Old Testament text is the scarcity of Manuscripts that go back beyond the ninth and tenth century. One reason for this scarcity is the practice by Jewish scribes of burying old Manuscripts in a storehouse called a genizah and then destroying these Manuscripts. The Manuscripts used most frequently in editing the Old Testament today are of this variety. Most of the Manuscripts of the Targums originated 500 to 1000 A. Basic problems in using a translation to seek to study the earlier wording of the Hebrew text are: the difficulty of determining the exact readings of the Hebrew text(s) used by the original translators because of the innate differences in all languages, the difficulties in establishing the original readings of the Greek translation by studying the many Manuscripts of it, and uncertainty concerning the quality of the translation itself. The oldest copies of Old Testament Scriptures found in these discoveries are Manuscripts written in the second century before Christ. They are over a thousand years older than the basic Manuscripts of the Masoretic texts. Along with Old Testament Manuscripts, the caves preserved documents written by the participants in the community and their founders. Biblical Manuscripts have been found containing fragments or complete copies from every book of the Old Testament except Esther. In 1976, only 88 separate fragments of papyrus New Testament Manuscripts were known. The original papyrus Manuscripts contained only portions of the New Testament, such as the Gospels and Acts or Paul's letters or the Revelation or some or all of the General Epistles. Apparently all New Testament Manuscripts so far discovered were made in the leaf form of books, not on rolls. ...
The New Testament circulated as a single volume in the time of the great parchment Manuscripts. ...
Not only Manuscripts written in Greek, the language of the New Testament, but also Christian writings which quote from the Greek New Testament furnish evidence for the text of the New Testament. Thus during the long period from 400 to 1500, most New Testament Greek Manuscripts used the official text of the Orthodox Church. Hence, today most Greek New Testament Manuscripts are of the type designated as Byzantine, Ecclesiastical, Koine , Standard, or Eastern. When the printers in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries looked for Manuscripts from which to edit the earliest printed Greek New Testaments, all that they could find were those of the Byzantine type. Since then, the process of discovery and editing of Manuscripts has brought to light over 5,300 handwritten copies of all or part of the New Testament. ” 2) The text of the Greek New Testament during the time of the KJV rested on less than a dozen Manuscripts, the oldest of which was twelfth century
Collate - ) To compare critically, as books or Manuscripts, in order to note the points of agreement or disagreement
Hadar - (hay' dahr) Apparently a copyist's change of the name Hadad, a Syrian god, in Genesis 36:39 and in some Manuscripts of Genesis 25:15
Faribault, George Barthelemy - His splendid collection of rare books and original Manuscripts, inspired by his love of Canada, burned with Montreal Parliament House, 1849; his second collection was bequeathed to Laval University
Lasharon - The early Greek translators had great difficulty with the text, some Greek Manuscripts omitting the verse altogether
George Faribault - His splendid collection of rare books and original Manuscripts, inspired by his love of Canada, burned with Montreal Parliament House, 1849; his second collection was bequeathed to Laval University
Acts of the Apostles - [3] ); by three pairs of connected Manuscripts , 7 (Apl. 261)-264 (233), 200 (83)-382 (231), 70 (505)-101 (40); and by a few other Manuscripts which have suffered more or less severely from K contamination. ]'>[4] and a series or other Manuscripts contaminated in varying degrees by K. A branch of the European text of a Spanish or provençal type is found in p, a Paris manuscript from Perpignan, and in w, a Bohemian manuscript now in Wernigerode, but in both Manuscripts there is much Vulgate contamination. Other primarily European mixed Manuscripts are s, a Bobbio palimpsest (saec. ...
(3) Besides these purely Latin Manuscripts , we have the Latin sides of the Graeco-Latin manuscript δ5 (D) or d (Codex Bezae), and of the Latino-Greek manuscript 1001 (E) or e. -It is impossible here to enumerate the hundreds of Vulgate Manuscripts of the Acts. -It is probable from the quotations in Aphraates and Ephraim that there existed originally an Old-Syriac Version of Acts, corresponding to the Evangelion da-Mepharreshe represented by the Curetonian and Sinaitic Manuscripts ; but no manuscript of this type has survived. Thomas of Heraclea revised the Philoxenian with the help of Greek Manuscripts in the Library of the Enaton at Alexandria, and enriched his edition with a number of critical notes giving the variants of these Greek Manuscripts which often have a most remarkable text agreeing more closely with Codex Bezae than with any other known Greek manuscript . -As soon as textual criticism began to be based on any complete view of the evidence, it became obvious that the chief feature to be accounted for in the text of Acts was the existence of a series of additions in the text in the Latin Versions and Fathers, usually supported by the two great bilingual Manuscripts δ5 and 1001 (D and E), frequently by the marginal readings in SyrHarcl, and sporadically by a few minuscules; opposed to this interpolated test stood the Alexandrian text of δ1, δ2 (B א), and their allies; while between the two was the text of the mass of Manuscripts agreeing sometimes with one, sometimes with the other, and sometimes combining both readings. ), using the new facts as to the Manuscripts summarized above, has revived Blass’s theory in so far that be thinks that the interpolated text witnessed to by δ5 and the Latin Versions and Fathers really goes back to a single original; but, instead of assigning this original to Luke, he attributes it to Tatian, who, he thinks, added a new recension of Acts to his Diatessaron. [15] which also gives a clear statement of the best editions of the separate Manuscripts of the Old Latin and the Vulgate (pp
Glede - An easily-confused Hebrew word (daah) occurs in Leviticus 11:14 and in some Manuscripts and early translations of Deuteronomy 14:13
Bible, Editions of the - The autograph originals and the earliest copies have all been lost, the oldest extant Manuscripts of the whole Bible having been written in the 4th century. It has been the task of Scripture scholars, by the comparison and appraisal of these Manuscripts, to reconstruct the original as exactly as possible
Editions of the Bible - The autograph originals and the earliest copies have all been lost, the oldest extant Manuscripts of the whole Bible having been written in the 4th century. It has been the task of Scripture scholars, by the comparison and appraisal of these Manuscripts, to reconstruct the original as exactly as possible
Shamir - A Levite (1 Chronicles 24:24 ), written Shamur in some Manuscripts
Greek - The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," denoting the heathen Greeks of that city, as rendered in the Revised Version according to the reading of the best Manuscripts ("Hellenes")
Ashurites - The Targum of Jonathan reads Beth Asher, "the house of Asher," so also several Hebrew Manuscripts The Asherites will then be the whole country W
Library, Laurentian - It contains 7000 Manuscripts, many of which were collected by the Medici with the assistance of Greek scholars from Constantinople
Laurentian Library - It contains 7000 Manuscripts, many of which were collected by the Medici with the assistance of Greek scholars from Constantinople
Griffon, Gerald - In 1838 he entered the Christian Brothers after ending his literary career by destroying nearly all his unpublished Manuscripts
Papyrus - Many of the biblical Manuscripts were on papyrus
Charles Russell Writer - He was appointed a member of the Historical Manuscript Commission in 1869, and acted as joint editor of the Report on the Carte Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library
Barabbas - ...
According to Origen, supported by a relatively small number of late Manuscripts at Matthew 27:16 , Barabbas was named “Jesus Barabbas
Gerald Griffin - In 1838 he entered the Christian Brothers after ending his literary career by destroying nearly all his unpublished Manuscripts
Regiomontanus - Arriving in Rome, 1461, he studied the planets and searched for Greek Manuscripts
Russell, Charles William - He was appointed a member of the Historical Manuscript Commission in 1869, and acted as joint editor of the Report on the Carte Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library
Judas Barsabas - After tarrying there a space "they were let go in peace from the brethren unto the apostles" (the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus Manuscripts omit Acts 15:34)
Hazazon-Tamar - Edom (NIV; TEV; NRSV; REB following one Hebrew manuscript; most Manuscripts and early translations read, “Aram,” meaning Syria, as read by NAS; KSV)
Belial - ) In the New Testament, "Beliar" is the form in some oldest Manuscripts (2 Corinthians 6:15
Clauda - The Euroclydon (rather as the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read, Euraquilon) or E
Perea - (Modern translations follow other Manuscripts reading Gerasenes
Lebbaeus - This is the reading of the Received Text, which is still maintained in the Patriarchal Edition of the Greek Testament (Constantinople, 1904), and supported by most of the Greek Manuscripts , to which was added lately the Palimpsest of Cairo. ]'>[2] (§ 304) adduce the reading ‘Thaddaeus’ found only in אB as proof of the unique excellence of these Manuscripts , and are inclined to attribute the name ‘Lebbaeus’ to an attempt to bring Levi (Mark 2:14) within the number of the Twelve. ]'>[5] and the Old Latin Manuscripts a b d ff i q r, whereas in Mt. Very curious is the testimony of the Manuscripts of the Evangeliarium Hierosolymitanum. The Manuscripts AB give וליביום הדין דאתקרי תאדי סימון ק׳ C has וליזדם הרין רחקדי סימן ק׳ Here וליודם seems to be a combination of ‘Lebbaeus’ and ‘Judas,’ and תקדי a confusion of ‘Thaddaeus’ with ‘was surnamed. 906), it may be stated that this strange combination ‘Judas Zelotes,’ mentioned above as the reading of the Old Latin Manuscripts in Matthew 10:3, is attested for Rome by the chronographer of the year 334, by the list of the canonical books of the year 382; and for Ravenna by the mosaics of the great Baptistry (5th cent. From the oldest Manuscripts of the Martyrologium Hieronymianum it would appear that also in the name of the 28th Oct
Magdala - In Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts (Matthew 15:39)" Magadan" is the reading
Elnathan - Many Bible students feel that copying of the Manuscripts has introduced extra names into the list
Heart - " Ephesians 1:18, "the eyes of your understanding (the Vaticanus manuscript; but the Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus Manuscripts 'heart') being enlightened
Rubric - ) That part of any work in the early Manuscripts and typography which was colored red, to distinguish it from other portions
Abbey of Saint Gall - The library suffered at the hands of the Humanists (14th century) and the Calvinists (16th century) who removed many valuable Manuscripts and books, but in 1530 Abbot Diethelm instituted a noteworthy restoration
Saint Gall, Abbey of - The library suffered at the hands of the Humanists (14th century) and the Calvinists (16th century) who removed many valuable Manuscripts and books, but in 1530 Abbot Diethelm instituted a noteworthy restoration
Manuscripts, Illuminated - A large number of Manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments in the form of initial letters or of borders, of marginal and full page paintings; and some rolls of parchment consist entirely of paintings. In the 13th century studios of illuminators arose to supply the demand for Manuscripts
Illuminated Manuscripts - A large number of Manuscripts are covered with painted ornaments in the form of initial letters or of borders, of marginal and full page paintings; and some rolls of parchment consist entirely of paintings. In the 13th century studios of illuminators arose to supply the demand for Manuscripts
Lord's Prayer, - , is wanting in many Manuscripts. It is omitted in the Revised Version; but it nevertheless has the authority of some Manuscripts, and is truly biblical, almost every word being found in ( 1 Chronicles 29:11 ) and is a true and fitting ending for prayer
Ink - The substance also found in an inkstand at Herculaneum, looks like a thick oil or paint, with which the Manuscripts there have been written in a relievo visible in the letters, when you hold a leaf to the light in a horizontal direction. Such vitriolic ink as has been used on the old parchment Manuscripts would have corroded the delicate leaves of the papyrus, as it has done the skins of the most ancient Manuscripts of Virgil and Terence, in the Vatican library; the letters are sunk into the parchment, and some have eaten quite through it, in consequence of the corrosive acid of the vitriolic ink, with which they were written
Dunkards - They transcribed numerous Manuscripts and founded free schools at Windesheim (1386) at Deventer, where there were 2,000 students in 1500, and in many places in Germany and the Netherlands
Ithra - Ithra is called Jether in some Greek and Old Latin Manuscripts as well as in 1Kings 2:5,1 Kings 2:32 ; 1 Chronicles 2:17
Tertullus - whereof we accuse him," are omitted in the oldest Manuscripts, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus
Laodiceans, Epistle to the - About one half of the Latin Manuscripts of the Pauline Epistles produced between 500,1600 contain the Epistle to the Laodiceans
Gerasa - "Gerasenes" is read in Mark 5:1 by the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus Manuscripts; also in Luke 8:26 by the Vaticanus A city on the eastern border of Peraea amid the Gilead mountains, 20 miles E
Umbilicus - ) An ornamented or painted ball or boss fastened at each end of the stick on which Manuscripts were rolled
Scriptorium - Rules of the scriptorium varied in different monasteries, but artificial light was everywhere forbidden for fear of injury to the Manuscripts, and silence was always enforced
Manuscripts - MANUSCRIPTS. —The aim of the present article is to give a select list of the more ancient or interesting Manuscripts of the Gospels, with a description of the most important or interesting of these. The symbols employed to indicate these Manuscripts, whether letters or numbers, were invented for the sake of brevity, when they are referred to in an apparatus of variant readings. The standard collection of variants contained in Gospel Manuscripts is that of C. , Lipsiae, 1869), and the standard lists of Manuscripts are those contained in the Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes (2 vols. , Berlin, 1902) has given to the Greek Manuscripts are added for the sake of completeness, but it is very doubtful whether they will gain wide currency. Capital letters are used to indicate Manuscripts with uncial writing, which is never later than the 10th cent. Greek Manuscripts :...
(a) Uncials:—...
א (= δ 2, von Soden), Codex Sinaiticus (of the 4th or 5th cent. In spite of this revision, it often agrees with the neutral Manuscripts , א B. The group is also called the Ferrar group, because the relation between 13, 69, 124, and 346 was discovered by Ferrar of Dublin (A Collation of Four Important Manuscripts of the Gospels, by W. Syriac Manuscripts :—...
(a) of the Old Syriae translation (Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, ‘Gospel of the Separated Ones’):—...
1. London, British Museum, Additional Manuscripts , No. 38 two pages; also in Kenyon’s Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts , facing p. Of the two Manuscripts this must be regarded as the better representative of the original translation. Manuscripts 14,470, of the 5th or 6th cent. Manuscripts 14,453, of the 5th or 6th cent. Manuscripts 12,140, of the 6th cent. See Gwilliam’s list of 42 Manuscripts in the Tetraeuangelium Sanctum by Pusey and Gwilliam (Oxonii, 1901), which is the best edition of the Peshitta, and is provided with a literal Latin translation. The earlier translation was perhaps made from the Peshitta by reference to the ‘corrected’ form of the Greek text, and Thomas found in Egypt older Greek Manuscripts , which had escaped the enthusiasm of the destroyers, who favoured the ‘corrected’ text, and inserted some readings from them, adding others in the margin. Egyptian (Coptic) Manuscripts :...
(a) of the Bohairic translation:...
Complete Manuscripts are all of late date, none being earlier apparently than the 12th century. On all questions connected with this translation and its Manuscripts , see The Coptic Version of the New Testament in the Northern Dialect [11]9; 4 vols. The MS has a number of omissions: see the valuable tables of omissions in the chief Bohairic Manuscripts in Horner’s edition, vol. ...
(c) of the Fayyum translation:...
Gregory gives fragments of 5 Gospel Manuscripts only, one (No. Latin Manuscripts :—...
(a) of the pre-Vulgate (otherwise called ‘Old Latin,’ or ‘Itala’) translation(s):—...
a: Vercelli, Cathedral
Confession - But the Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus Manuscripts and Vulgate read "sins" (hamartias )
Goliards - Two collections exist: the Carmina Burana from the monastery of Benedictbeuren, and another among the so-called Harleian Manuscripts, both containing songs on wine, women, nature, pious hymns of enthusiasm for the Crusades, or coarse lampoons on the clergy
Golias - Two collections exist: the Carmina Burana from the monastery of Benedictbeuren, and another among the so-called Harleian Manuscripts, both containing songs on wine, women, nature, pious hymns of enthusiasm for the Crusades, or coarse lampoons on the clergy
Esther, the Book of - Has always been esteemed canonical, both by Jews and Christians, though certain additions to it, found in some versions and Manuscripts, are apocryphal
Mount Athos - The buildings are mostly Byzantine in style, with many art treasures, and the libraries contain about 8000 valuable Manuscripts
Stephanas - In Romans 16:5 oldest Manuscripts read "Asia" for Αchaia
Athos, Mount - The buildings are mostly Byzantine in style, with many art treasures, and the libraries contain about 8000 valuable Manuscripts
Absolution - A variety of such prayers, including those in the present Roman Breviary, is found in Manuscripts of the 12th and 13th centuries
Escorial - The palace is a treasure-house of art and learning, containing Manuscripts, tapestries, and paintings
Euroclydon - The Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read Euraquilon, i
o'Curry, Eugene - Appointed to the topographical and historical department of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 1834, he was brought into touch with Irish Manuscripts, which with his associate John O'Donovan he later published in part
Needle - Some late Greek Manuscripts read rope (kamilos ) for camel (kamelos )
Apocrypha - The Septuagint (LXX) includes the books, not as scripture, but as part of the translation of the Hebrew Manuscripts as a whole
Ammiel - Many Bible students think these verses are talking about the same person, whose names have been slightly altered in the process of copying the Manuscripts
Eugene o'Curry - Appointed to the topographical and historical department of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, 1834, he was brought into touch with Irish Manuscripts, which with his associate John O'Donovan he later published in part
Reading - In criticism, the manner of reading the Manuscripts of ancient authors, where the words or letters are obscure
Old Testament - They rejected Manuscripts not agreeing with others (Taanith Hierosol. Their rules as to transcribing and adopting Manuscripts show their carefulness. Its chief value is its collection of Qeri's, of which some are from the Talmud, many from Manuscripts, others from the sole authority of the Masoretes. Jacob, a Babylonian Jew, having collated Manuscripts in the 11th century, mention 864 different readings of vowels, accents, and makkeph , and (Song of Solomon 8:6) the division of a word. Our Manuscripts generally agree with Ben Asher's readings. The Masorah henceforward settled the text of Jewish Manuscripts; older Manuscripts were allowed to perish as incorrect. Synagogue rolls and Manuscripts for private use are the two classes known to us. Private Manuscripts are in book form, the inner margin being used for the Masorah Parva, the upper and lower margins for the Masorah and rabbinical comments. Most Manuscripts are of the 12th century. The Spanish Manuscripts, like the Masorah, place Chronicles before the hagiographa; the German Manuscripts, like the Talmud, place Jeremiah and Ezekiel before Isaiah; and Ruth, separate from the other megilloth , before Psalms. ...
Of the 581 Manuscripts collated by Kennicott, 102 have the whole Old Testament. Pinner found at Odessa Manuscripts (presented by a Karaite of Eupatoria in 1839 to the Odessa Hist. The China Manuscripts resemble the European; so the manuscript brought by Buchanan from Malabar. Kennicott's Dissertations on the Printed Text, 1753 and 1759, drew from the English public 10,000 British pounds to secure a collation of Manuscripts throughout Europe. He and Brans of Helinstadt collated 581 Jewish and 16 Samaritan Manuscripts (half of them throughout, the rest only in select passages), and 40 printed editions. ...
DeRossi at Parma gave from ancient versions various readings of SELECT PASSAGES, and from the collation on them of 617 Manuscripts, and 134 besides, which Kennicott had not seen; four vols
Septuagint - The oldest Manuscripts in capitals ("uncials") are the Cottonian ("fragments") in British Museum; Vatican (representing especially the oldest text) at Rome; Alexandrian in British Museum, of which Baber in 1816 published a facsimile; Sinaitic at Petersburgh. ...
The Pentateuch is the best part of the version, being the first translated; the other books betray increasing degeneracy of the Hebrew Manuscripts, with decay of Hebrew learning. The Septuagint translators did not have Hebrew Manuscripts pointed as ours; nor were their words divided as ours. Being made from Manuscripts older far than our Masoretic text (from 280 to 180 B
Various Readings - ...
Printed copies could only be made from the Manuscripts, and it is not now known what Manuscripts were used for the early printed Testaments. ...
All the above editions are very similar, but at this period more attention was called to the variations in the Manuscripts, and they were carefully compared, with the laudable aim to discover what was the text as it stood originally . He laboured many years in his work, and, in searching for more Manuscripts, was rewarded by discovering and issuing the Codex Sinaiticus, one of the most valued copies, though erroneous in many places. He also laboured many years and collated more Manuscripts; but he confined his attention to ancient copies. He believed that God had overruled the issuing of the commonly received text, and he kept to that except where he believed that the Greek Manuscripts and other evidence warranted him in making an alteration. ...
The Greek Manuscripts naturally fall into two classes: ...
1. ...
...
The principal Uncial Manuscripts, omitting small portions and mere fragments, are:...
Century. ...
The most important of the Cursive Manuscripts are:...
Century. ...
There are hundreds of other Manuscripts, but most of them are seldom quoted, and some have not been collated. ...
There is also a class of Greek Manuscripts called EVANGELISTARIES, books containing portions of the Gospels which were used in religious services: there are more than 900 of these. ...
Besides the Greek Manuscripts there are other helps by which to ascertain what was the original Greek text
Manuscripts - These copies are known as Manuscripts (abbreviated MS in the singular, MSS in the plural). There are so many good Manuscripts in existence that people with the necessary skills are able to determine the original wording fairly accurately. ...
Old Testament Manuscripts...
The language of the Old Testament, Hebrew, reads from right to left and was written originally with consonants only. ...
Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1948, the oldest known Manuscripts of the Old Testament were from the ninth to the eleventh centuries AD. The reason why no earlier Manuscripts survived was that when Manuscripts became too old or worn to use, the Hebrew scholars buried them, rather than let them fall into dishonourable use. In making fresh Manuscripts, the Hebrew copyists were almost fanatical at preserving every letter exactly as it was in the former Manuscripts
Oscott - Its library of 30,000 volumes contains the Harvington, Marini, Kirk, and Forbes collections, as well as valuable collections of early printed books and Manuscripts
John Shea - The John Gilmary Shea Papers, a collection of correspondence, Manuscripts, and research materials, are preserved in the Georgetown University Library (Special Collections Division)
Bethany -
The Revised Version in John 1:28 has this word instead of Bethabara, on the authority of the oldest Manuscripts
Baruch - The king ordered the writing to be read in his presence, and he became so angry that he destroyed the Manuscripts and gave orders to arrest both the prophet and his secretary, but they had concealed themselves
Shea, John Dawson Gilmary - The John Gilmary Shea Papers, a collection of correspondence, Manuscripts, and research materials, are preserved in the Georgetown University Library (Special Collections Division)
Aquila And Priscilla - She is named Prisca Romans 16:3 in the three oldest Manuscripts; Priscilla is its diminutive (2 Timothy 4:19), the name of endearment. Manuscripts has Priscilla first), she seems to have been the more energetic Christian
Jashobeam - Some Greek Manuscripts actually read Ishbaal
Euodias - And ('yea' in the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts) I entreat thee also, true yokefellow, help them (i
Muratori, Luigi Antonio - Educated by the Jesuits and at the University of Modena, he was ordained in 1694, and in 1695 commenced his work of collecting unedited ancient Manuscripts, at the Ambrosian library in Milan
Luigi Muratori - Educated by the Jesuits and at the University of Modena, he was ordained in 1694, and in 1695 commenced his work of collecting unedited ancient Manuscripts, at the Ambrosian library in Milan
Lace - In the 8th century the geometric patterns were modified probably through the influence of realistic ornamentation that had been introduced in illuminating Manuscripts
Gadarene - The textual tradition in the Greek Manuscripts of each of these passages shows confusion among Gadarenes, Gerasenes, and Gergesenes
Gershom - Many Manuscripts of Judges 18:30 list Jonathan, Gershom's son and Moses' grandson, as founder of the priesthood in the sanctuary at Dan (NIV, NRSV, REB), though the traditional printed Hebrew text reads Manasseh rather than Moses (KJV, NAS)
Footstool - In Matthew 22:44 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, on the authority of some of the most ancient MSS Hebrew - (Concerning Hebrew as the language of the Old Testament see Manuscripts
Libraries - More important was the library of Caesarea in Palestine collected by the martyr Pamiphilus (died 308), which contained a number of Manuscripts used by Origen in Rome. Popes have founded numerous libraries and enriched them with Manuscripts and documents
Thyatira - ) Some self-styled prophetess, or collection of prophets (the feminine in Hebrew idiom expressing a multitude), closely attached to and influencing the Thyatira church and its presiding bishop or "angel" (the Alexandrinus and Vaticanus Manuscripts read "thy wife" for "that woman") as Jezebel did her weak husband Ahab. "Unto you (omit 'and' with the Alexandrinus and the Vaticanus Manuscripts, the Sinaiticus manuscript reads: 'among ') the rest in Thyatira I say,
Fra Angelico - Entering the Dominican Order as Fra Giovanni, in Fiesole, 1407, the illumination of missals and Manuscripts furnished his first training in art
Koppernick, Niclas - He hesitated to publish it, but, influenced by the spread of the doctrine and the urging of Cardinal Schönberg, Archbishop of Capua, and Bishop Giese of Culm, he surrendered his Manuscripts for publication
Niclas Koppernick - He hesitated to publish it, but, influenced by the spread of the doctrine and the urging of Cardinal Schönberg, Archbishop of Capua, and Bishop Giese of Culm, he surrendered his Manuscripts for publication
Nicolaus Copernicus - He hesitated to publish it, but, influenced by the spread of the doctrine and the urging of Cardinal Schönberg, Archbishop of Capua, and Bishop Giese of Culm, he surrendered his Manuscripts for publication
Angelico, Fra - Entering the Dominican Order as Fra Giovanni, in Fiesole, 1407, the illumination of missals and Manuscripts furnished his first training in art
Silas - Then he returned to Jerusalem (Acts 15:33), for (Acts 15:34) "notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still" is an interpolation to account for Acts 15:40 (the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts omit Acts 15:34). " The uncertainty is not as to Silas's faithfulness to them (which is strongly marked by the article in the Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus Manuscripts), but as to whether he or some other would prove to be the bearer of the epistle, addressed as it was to five provinces, all of which Silas might not reach
Galatia - Compare 1 Corinthians 16:1 ; 2 Timothy 4:10 , where some Manuscripts have Gaul, and 1 Peter 1:1
Shiloh (1) - ...
The letter Υod[1] ( י ) (the i in Shiloh) is made an objection to this latter translation, but many Hebrew Manuscripts and all Samaritan Manuscripts are without the yod[1] , which probably did not appear until the tenth century
Bethesda - John 5:4, as to the angel troubling the water, is omitted in the Vaticanus and Sinaiticus Manuscripts, but is found in the Alexandrinus, and John 5:7 favors it
Shield - to cover all that was put on before; but Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts read "IN all things
Septuagint - He had been collating from more than three hundred Greek Manuscripts; from twenty or more Coptic, Syriac, Arabic, Sclavonian, and Armenian Manuscripts; from eleven editions of the Greek text and versions; and from near thirty Greek fathers, when death prevented him from finishing this valuable work
Epaphras - (shortened probably from Epaphroditus, but not to be identified with the evangelist so named)...
Epaphras was a native or citizen of Colossae (Colossians 4:12), the founder, or at least an early and leading teacher of the Church there (Colossians 1:7, where καί, ‘also,’ is omitted in the oldest Manuscripts ), who had special relations with the neighbouring churches of Laodicea and Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13). ; but if the reading ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν (‘on our behalf,’ ‘as our delegate’) be accepted in Colossians 1:7 (as by Revised Version on the authority of the three oldest Manuscripts ), the Apostle, during his long residence at Ephesus, when ‘all who dwelt in Asia heard the Word’ (Acts 19:10), must have specially commissioned Epaphras to evangelize Colossae in his (St
Ephphatha - ’ In Greek MSS Sweat - The Church Fathers, Hilary, Jerome, and others bear witness that there were many Manuscripts known to them which did not contain these two verses; and certain Manuscripts insert them in the parallel passage in Mt. ’ On the other hand, the Manuscripts that include the verses as they stand in Lk. While A omits the passage, as we have seen, it has the reference section-number in the margin, showing that its presence in other Manuscripts must have been known to the scribe. The verses are contained also in the majority of the Manuscripts of the Old Latin, some few Egyptian, the Syr-Pesh. ’ Here again there is a secondary question of reading, because certain Manuscripts and versions (אVX, Vulgate Boh
Bethabara - " The Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus, the three oldest Manuscripts, read "Bethany," which also may mean "house of a ferryboat," i
Jozabad - (2 Kings 12:21 , where Hebrew text says Jozabad, son of Shimeath and Jehozabad, son of Amaziah, but many Hebrew Manuscripts read the first name of Jozachar)
Upper Room (2) - The best Manuscripts of Vulgate have diversorio in Luke 2:7; refectiomea (also in bfi) in Mark 14:14, diversorium in Luke 22:11. Manuscripts (besides differences of spelling,—divor. ]'>[1] ...
(2) Upper room (ἀνάγαιον in best Manuscripts : other Manuscripts have ἀνόγαιον, ἀνωγέων, ἀνωγέως, ἀνώγαιον, ἀνώγεον). The best Manuscripts of Vulgate have cenaculum for both words in all places. Manuscripts (besides differences of spelling,—cacn. ), in " translation="">Mark 14:15 k has sub ‘pedaneum’ sterranœum (having apparently first written subpedaneum, and then tried to alter it to sterranœum), q has locum stratum, ff2 has stratum; in " translation="">Luke 22:12 a has mœdianum, b has pede plano locum, d has superiorem domum, q has superiorem locum, c e ff2 ir have in superioribus locum, l has in superioribus; in " translation="">Acts 1:13 degig Manuscripts used by St
Raca - ’ The spelling of the Greek Manuscripts is ῥαχα in א*D, adopted by Tischendorf; ῥακα in אcBE, etc. , with -ᾶ in B, -ά in other Manuscripts , as 13, 124, 556 (see Scrivener, Adversaria); ῥακκα, ῥακκαν, ῥακαν in Apost. 32; racha in most Manuscripts of the Latin Versions; raccha in d; only f k Zc and the official Vulgate have raca; רקא in all Syriac Versions, vocalized רָקָא, רַקָא, רָקֵא, רַקָא (see the edition of the Tetraeuangelium by Pusey-Gwilliam, and the Thesaurus Syriacus; it is explained as = שׁיטא, i. Aramaic (1896) Dalman assumed that in the form of the NT ai had been contracted to a, and that the spelling with χ in the Manuscripts אD was due to an aspirated pronunciation of the Hebrew qoph, by which it approached to the aspirated kaph
bi'Ble - ANCIENT Manuscripts OF THE ORIGINAL. --There are no ancient Hebrew Manuscripts older than the tenth century, but we know that these are in the main correct, because we have a translation of the Hebrew into Greek, called the Septuagint, made nearly three hundred years before Christ. 0F the Greek of the New Testament there are a number of ancient Manuscripts They are divided into two kinds, the Uncials , written wholly in capitals , and the Cursives , written in a running hand . This is one of the earliest best of all the Manuscripts
ir-ha-Heres - ...
So 16 Manuscripts, also Vulgate
Purim - "...
(See JESUS CHRIST on "the feast of the Jews," John 5:1, not probably Purim (which the Vaticanus and the Alexandrinus Manuscripts reading, "a," favors), but the Passover (which the Sinaiticus manuscript, "the," indicates)
Hashabiah - Israelite called to divorce his foreign wife to protect the people from temptation to false worship according to Greek Manuscripts of Ezra 10:25 (NRSV)
Shimei - Temple musician under David (1 Chronicles 25:17 ; perhaps also in 1 Chronicles 25:3 with a Hebrew manuscript and some Greek Manuscripts as in NRSV, REB, NAS, NIV, TEV)
Trogyllium - This in itself is likely to have happened, and, though the words καὶ μείναντες ἐν Τρωγυλλίῳ are omitted by the great Manuscripts (א ABCE), they are retained by Meyer, Alford, Blass, and Ramsay on the strength of DHLP and many ancient versions
Zaretan - If with oldest Manuscripts we read "Bethany," John 1:28, the name will connect itself with Bashan and Batanaea, and the 'Abarah ford is near the hills of Bashan, whereas the Jericho fords are far away
Read - ) To appear in writing or print; to be expressed by, or consist of, certain words or characters; as, the passage reads thus in the early Manuscripts
Epiphanius Scholasticus - In this relationship, in all probability, Epiphanius stood to his distinguished master, by whom he was summoned to take a part in urging his monks to classical and sacred studies, and especially to the transcription of Manuscripts
Acts of the Apostles - Luke is prefixed to this book in several ancient Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament, and also in the old Syriac version. This latter opinion rests upon the subscriptions at the end of some Greek Manuscripts, and of the copies of the Syriac version; but the best critics think, that these subscriptions, which are also affixed to other books of the New Testament, deserve but little weight; and in this case they are not supported by any ancient authority
Carpenter - The passage of Sirach quoted is from the chapter describing the honour of a physician, with which may be compared the proverb, ‘Physician, heal thyself,’ quoted by Christ in similar circumstances at Nazareth, when they said, ‘Is not this Joseph’s son?’...
An attempt to make Mark 6:3 conform to Matthew 13:55 is seen in some old MSS [3] is supported by all the chief MSS Text of the Gospels - This text is found in the great mass of existing Greek Manuscripts , and was used by almost all ecclesiastical writers from Chrysostom onwards. Moreover, existing Manuscripts and Patristic quotations of the earlier Latin versions differed from the Textus Receptus even more fundamentally, and similar types of text are found to have been very widely spread, speaking in a geographical sense, and occur in some important Manuscripts , in many ancient Versions, and in the quotations of many Christian writers, especially in the earliest times. ) But a few of our earliest Greek Manuscripts , supported by the quotations of the most scholarly Fathers of the earlier centuries, and by a few Versions, present a different text, which has commended itself on its intrinsic merits, as well as on account of its proved antiquity, to most modern critical scholars: it forms the base of practically all the modern critical editions, and of our English Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 . From that time onwards it held practically undisputed sway, and the main mass of later Manuscripts contain it. When at length, some time after the introduction of printing, the first New Testaments in Greek were published, they naturally rested on the Manuscripts in ordinary ecclesiastical use, and thus the Antiochian text became the ‘Received’ Greek text of modern Christendom, from which our own Authorized Version was made. ’ Unfortunately, Burgon wrote in such a contemptuous manner of the leading textual critics and of the most ancient Manuscripts of the NT that most of his work has the appearance of an ex parte statement rather than of a solid contribution to the investigation of a difficult problem. The reading of the mass of Manuscripts gives such good sense that Hort himself says (§ 136), ‘There is nothing in the sense that would tempt to alteration: all runs easily and smoothly, and there is neither contradiction nor manifest tautology’; and again (§ 138), ‘Had it been the only extant reading, it would have roused no suspicion. It may be, for instance, that Origen has a reading which agrees with Manuscripts most approved by critical writers, but that the passage in which it occurs is not quoted by Clement of Alexandria. The works of many Greek Fathers have been notoriously badly edited, and it is only when we have had personal experience of the editor’s methods that we can feel any security that full advantage has been taken of the Manuscripts and other evidence available. ...
And when we go behind the editions, we often find that only comparatively late Manuscripts are now extant, and we have to allow for the natural tendency of scribes to substitute, both consciously and unconsciously, familiar for unfamiliar readings. This is, of course, seldom the case with the Manuscripts of ancient authors; but. A fair number of Manuscripts exist of the Paedagogue of Clement of Alexandria. Now two leaves have been lost from a MS preserved at Florence (called F), which contained exactly this passage; it is therefore beyond doubt that the Manuscripts referred to were copied from F after the loss of these leaves, and they are therefore of no value as evidence
Barabbas - In his exposition of the passage, Origen refers to this reading, which is favoured by some cursive MSS Donatio Constantini - In many Manuscripts the document bears the title "Constitutum domni Constantini Imperatoris" (Ordinance of Lord Constantine Emperor)
Donation of Constantine - In many Manuscripts the document bears the title "Constitutum domni Constantini Imperatoris" (Ordinance of Lord Constantine Emperor)
Mark, Saint Evangelist - In the preface to his Gospel in Manuscripts of the Vulgate, Mark is represented as having been a Jewish priest, but this may be only an inference from his relation to Barnabas the Levite
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The explicit statement of 1:1 would seem to indicate that the letter was written to the Christians who dwelt at Ephesus, but the absence of any allusion to time or place or definite persons, together with the omission of the words "at Ephesus" from some Manuscripts, have led many even conservative scholars to regard the work as a circular letter rather than a message to a particular church
Ascension of Christ - The ascension of Christ receives brief mention in the gospels, not appearing in Matthew, appearing only in the long ending of Mark (Mark 16:19 ) which is not in the Greek Manuscripts used by most modern translations; being noted in one verse by Luke (Luke 24:51 ); and not appearing in John
Epistle to the Ephesians - The explicit statement of 1:1 would seem to indicate that the letter was written to the Christians who dwelt at Ephesus, but the absence of any allusion to time or place or definite persons, together with the omission of the words "at Ephesus" from some Manuscripts, have led many even conservative scholars to regard the work as a circular letter rather than a message to a particular church
Abel - Instead of "the great stone of Abel," in 1 Samuel 6:18, the Septuagint, and Chaldee versions, and some Hebrew Manuscripts, read "the great stone;" as in the margin, and the 14th and 15th verses
Bible, Canon of the - Extant Greek Old Testament Manuscripts, whose text is quoted often in the New Testament, contain apocryphal books. Greek Old Testament Manuscripts typically preserve the Alexandrian order, which arranged books according to their subject matter (narrative, history, poetry, and prophecy). Two of our earliest and best Manuscripts of the Greek Testament contain books not accepted by the church as a whole. ...
There is no "proper" order of New Testament books; several different arrangements exist in early Manuscripts. More than 284 different sequences of biblical books (Old and New Testament) have been found in Latin Manuscripts alone, and more than twenty different arrangements of Paul's letters have been found in ancient authors and Manuscripts
Tiberias - " In its original form, and in all Manuscripts, the Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it ceased to be a spoken language, the importance of knowing what vowels to insert between the consonants
Ephratah - It is part of Judah's tribal territory according to the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament, words omitted in current Hebrew Manuscripts (Joshua 15:59 REB)
Hebrew Bible - Until the labours of Kennicott and De' Rossi it was thought that there were no errors in the Hebrew Manuscripts, but many differences were found
Abiathar - Some New Testament Greek Manuscripts omit “when Abiathar was high priest
Paper, Papyrus - ...
New Testament Manuscripts produced before the fourth century were written exclusively on papyrus; after the fourth century almost all New Testament documents were preserved on parchment
Macedonia - Its most celebrated mountains were Olympus and Athos: the former renowned in heathen mythology as the residence of the gods, lying on the confines of Thessaly, and principally within the state; the latter being at the extremity of a promontory which juts out into the Aegean sea, and noted in modern times as the seat of several monasteries, in which are many Manuscripts supposed to be valuable
Scriptures - (Concerning the preparation of books and Manuscripts in ancient times see Manuscripts; WRITING
Judgment Seat of Christ - We also read of God's judgment seat in a passage where several Manuscripts have "Christ's judgment seat" (Romans 14:10 ). ...
The passage where some Manuscripts refer to "the judgment seat of Christ" but most to that of God (Romans 14:10 ) forbids us to judge one another and tells us that God or Christ will judge us all
Mark, the Gospel According to - The Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts omit Mark 15:28, which is an interpolation from Luke 22:37. ...
From the Latinisms, and the place where, and the persons to whom it was written, it was thought originally to have been in Latin; so the Syriac version states, and many Greek Manuscripts, "it was written in Rome, in the Roman language. ...
Possibly the last 12 verses of Mark 16, not found in the Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus Manuscripts but found in the Alexandrinus manuscript, were added at the later date assigned by Irenaeus, i. ...
The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts omit Mark 16:9-20, but Alexandrinus and Beza and Paris Manuscripts and Vulgate support them, and "they were afraid" would be a strangely abrupt close of the Gospel
Version - "This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest interest, (a) as preserving evidence for the text far more ancient than the oldest Hebrew Manuscripts; (b) as the means by which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought; (c) as the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament. ...
...
...
The New Testament Manuscripts fall into two divisions, Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all between the different words, and very little even between the different lines; and Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with divisions of words and lines. Only five Manuscripts of the New Testament approaching to completeness are more ancient than this dividing date
Tychicus - that he might know your estate (rather as the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts 'that YE may know OUR state,' compare Colossians 4:7; Ephesians 6:22) and comfort your hearts," distressed by my imprisonment as well as by your own trials
Septuagint, the - The principal uncial Manuscripts are the Codices Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, Sinaiticus, and Ephraemi; with a number of cursive copies
Hesychius (3), Egyptian bp - It was doubtless an attempt, like that of Lucian, to purify the text in use in Egypt, by collating various Manuscripts and by recourse to other means of assistance at hand
Mary of Cleophas - The names of the two sisters being alike may be explained by the fact that many Manuscripts distinguish the Virgin Mary as Mariam, Mary of Cleophas and the other Mary's as Maria (as we distinguish Mary and Maria); it was a favorite name for mother's to give to children, from the famous Miriam, Moses' sister
Alabaster - , which is found in different MSS Art, Christian - Even the lesser arts were developed mainly in the service of the Church, in illuminated Manuscripts, carved ivories, sacred vessels of wrought gold or silver, jeweled clasps, memorial brasses, embroidered vestments, rich tapestries, and silken hangings. ...
See also: ...
architecture
brasses
catacombs
ivory
manuscripts
painting
sculpture
vestments
Christian Art - Even the lesser arts were developed mainly in the service of the Church, in illuminated Manuscripts, carved ivories, sacred vessels of wrought gold or silver, jeweled clasps, memorial brasses, embroidered vestments, rich tapestries, and silken hangings. ...
See also: ...
architecture
brasses
catacombs
ivory
manuscripts
painting
sculpture
vestments
Sculpture - Even the lesser arts were developed mainly in the service of the Church, in illuminated Manuscripts, carved ivories, sacred vessels of wrought gold or silver, jeweled clasps, memorial brasses, embroidered vestments, rich tapestries, and silken hangings. ...
See also: ...
architecture
brasses
catacombs
ivory
manuscripts
painting
sculpture
vestments
Bible, Translations - In the fourth century Pope Damascus invited Jerome to revise current Latin translations based on Hebrew and Greek Manuscripts. Accompanying this development was the rise of archaeological discovery which gave new Manuscripts of both the Old and New Testaments. The Cairo Genizah collection of Hebrew Manuscripts was found at the end of the last century, and the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947. Perhaps twenty-five Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament could have been used in 1611
Titus Justus - (so in the Manuscripts אE
Maon - But thus all notice of Israel's great oppressor Midian would be omitted; and Septuagint in both the best Manuscripts read for "the Maonites" in Judges 10:12 "Midian
Bithynia - , Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus, the oldest Manuscripts, read) suffered them not" (Acts 16:7)
Samaritan Pentateuch - Honore, where perhaps it is still preserved; and from which father Morinus, in 1632, printed the first Samaritan Pentateuch, which stands in Le Jay's Polyglot, but more correctly in Walton's from three Samaritan Manuscripts, which belonged to Usher
Staff (2) - in some Manuscripts which gives the plural ῥάβδους, ‘neither staves
Gallus (11), Abbat, the Apostle of Switzerland - Gall gave rise to one of the most celebrated monasteries of the middle ages, and its library to this day stands unrivalled in the wealth and variety of its ancient Manuscripts
Gerasenes, Gergesenes - According to Origen, the majority of the MSS Manger - In Luke 2:7; Luke 2:12 the definite article is not used; for, though it appears in the Textus Receptus and a few Manuscripts of minor importance, in which it was probably inserted to designate the well-known φάτνη, preponderating evidence is altogether against it. It occurs, as the best Manuscripts show, in Luke 2:16, but there it clearly refers to the φάτνη spoken of in Luke 2:7; Luke 2:12
Luke - -Very little is added by tradition to the information in the Pauline Epistles except (a) the constant attribution to Luke of the Third Gospel and Acts; (b) the statement that he was an Antiochene Greek; (c) somewhat less frequently, statements that he died in Bœotia, Bithynia, or Ephesus; (d) the statement, found only in late Manuscripts , that the Gospel was written in Alexandria. The most important expressions of tradition are those of (1) Eusebius; (2) Jerome; (3) the Monarchian Prologues, found in Vulgate Manuscripts , and possibly of Priscillianist origin; (4) notes appended to NT Manuscripts . ) possibly the text in some Manuscripts (which may belong to that I recension which, on von Soden’s view, was familiar to Eusebius) of Acts 11:27 f. ...
(4) Information in Manuscripts of the Gospels. -Almost all the later Manuscripts contain statements at the beginnings or ends of the various books relating to their authors. This form is found in many late Manuscripts with a great number of textual variants. ) Further information confirming the Eusebian tradition that Luke was an Antiochene is found in some Manuscripts , e
Dead Sea Scrolls - Eleven caves from the Qumran area have since yielded Manuscripts, mostly in small fragments
Bishop - The verb episkopeo , meaning “to exercise oversight,” appears in some Greek New Testament Manuscripts and hence some English translations (KJV, ASV) in 1 Peter 5:2
Music, Ecclesiastical - The historic validity of the Medicean edition was attacked, a thorough examination of Manuscripts was instituted in the Benedictine monastery of Solesmes, France, and after over 20 years of research, the "Liber Gradualis" was published
Caves - However, the Manuscripts stored in the dry environment of the eleven caves at Qumran (the Dead Sea Scrolls) are the most important discovery of this century
Sarah - )...
Hebrews 11:11, "through faith also Sarah herself received strength to conceive seed, and that when she was past age (the Alexandrinus and Sinaiticus Manuscripts omit "was delivered of a child") because she judged Him faithful that promised"; though first doubting, as the weaker vessel, she ceased to doubt, faith triumphing over sense
Bed, Couch - Regarding the former of these we find that κλιναρίων, the reading of the principal Manuscripts , has replaced an earlier κλινῶν
Ecclesiastical Music - The historic validity of the Medicean edition was attacked, a thorough examination of Manuscripts was instituted in the Benedictine monastery of Solesmes, France, and after over 20 years of research, the "Liber Gradualis" was published
Ephesus - In the opening verse of the letter to the Ephesians some Manuscripts describe the recipients of the letter as the saints who are “at Ephesus. ” The earliest and most reliable Manuscripts, however, do not include the reference to Ephesus
Inspiration - ...
Further, it has been asserted that the doctrine of verbal inspiration is valueless, because of diversities in the Greek Manuscripts, which in some places prevent any one from determining what are the words God caused to be written. The variations in the Greek Manuscripts do not affect any one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, and only in a few places are the words doubtful
James - ...
The next call was after an unsuccessful night's fishing, when the fishermen had gone out of their ships and had washed (Luke 5:2, Vaticanus and Cambridge Manuscripts read eplunon , "were washing"; the Sinaiticus and Paris Manuscripts have epifainoo ) their nets; Jesus entering one of the ships, Simon's, prayed him to thrust out a little from land, and preached. Manuscripts The same John subsequently (Acts 8:14-17) came down with Peter to confer the Spirit's gifts on Samaritan believers. Manuscripts omit in Matthew 20:22-23 the clause as to the "baptism") of suffering (Acts 12:1-2; James; Revelation 1:9; John), but to sit on His right and left, said He, "is not Mine to give, except to those for whom it is prepared of My Father" (so the Greek). Clopas (Alexandrinus and Vaticanus Manuscripts, John 19:25) or Cleophas (Sinaiticus manuscript) is the Hebrew, Alphaeus the Greek, of the same name: he married Mary, sister of the Virgin Mary, and had by her James, Joses, Jude, and Simon, and three daughters (Mary is sometimes designated "mother of James and Joses," Matthew 27:56, as these were the two oldest); he died before our Lord's ministry began, and his widow went to live with her sister the Virgin Mary, a widow also herself (for Joseph's name never occurs after Luke 2), at Nazareth (Matthew 13:55), Capernaum (John 2:12), and Jerusalem (Acts 1:14)
Magnificat - ...
Μαριάμ is the reading of all Greek Manuscripts , of the great majority of Latin Manuscripts , and of innumerable Patristic testimonies, back to the 2nd cent. ’...
Ἐλισάβετ is the reading of three Old Latin Manuscripts . Harnack thinks that Jerome, if he had been responsible for this reference, would have mentioned whether the reading was in Latin or Greek Manuscripts
Baptism - In the last passage the words ἐξ ὕδατος, read in all Manuscripts and VSS Dalmanutha - is probable (independently of the witness of MSS Luke (2) - The biography found in many Manuscripts of the Gospel in Latin, and printed, for example, in Wordsworth and White’s Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi Latine, Pars i. There appears to be no example of the nominative in Manuscripts , but the accusative cata lucanum is regular (see C. The Latin biography states that he never married, and that he died at the age of 74 in Bœotia (some Manuscripts , Bithynia)
Apollos - Apollos was "fervent in spirit;" and so when he came to Ephesus, "he spoke and taught diligently the things of Jesus" (so the three oldest Manuscripts read), as John had pointed to Jesus as the Messiah
Lydia - For quietness and freedom from interruption it was "outside of the gate" (so the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read instead of "out of the city"), and "by the river side" for the sake of the ablutions connected with the worship
Hebron - Abdon is read in many Manuscripts...
Tyrannus - Some of the best Manuscripts (e. If the text of the best Manuscripts , which has been adopted in the Revised Version , be correct, then it does seem more than likely that the ‘school of Tyrannus’ was a public or semi-public place of resort and that the phrase would nave as its modern equivalent some such expression as ‘the McEwan Hall,’ or ‘the Trades Hall,’ or the like
Honey - But a number of the most ancient MSS Bethabara - MSS Dead Sea Scrolls - Name given to over eight hundred ancient Jewish Manuscripts recovered from eleven caves along the northwest shore of the Dead Sea. Between 1952,1956 ten more caves containing Manuscripts and related material were found. Scholars have dated these Manuscripts from the third century b. In the large building was a tower, a kitchen, storage rooms, a large cistern, and several other rooms, one of which contained tables, benches, and inkwells, and seems to have been used for copying Manuscripts. Cave 4, which contained more than five hundred of the eight hundred Manuscripts, is literally a stone's throw from the site. Second, the Manuscripts were copied during the same period of time that the settlement was occupied
Monachism - Agriculture, the copying of Manuscripts, education; the fine arts, historical and patristic writings, and missionary work have engaged the monks at various periods throughout their history
Monasticism - Agriculture, the copying of Manuscripts, education; the fine arts, historical and patristic writings, and missionary work have engaged the monks at various periods throughout their history
Synagogue - The arrangements for the women's place in a separate gallery or behind a partition of lattice-work; the desk in the centre, where the reader, like Ezra in ancient days, from his 'pulpit of wood,' may 'open the book in the sight of all of people and read in the book of the law of God distinctly, and give the sense, and cause them to understand the reading' (Nehemiah 8:4,8 ); the carefully closed ark on the side of the building nearest to Jerusalem, for the preservation of the rolls or Manuscripts of the law; the seats all round the building, whence 'the eyes of all them that are in the synagogue' may 'be fastened' on him who speaks (Luke 4:20 ); the 'chief seats' (Matthew 23:6 ) which were appropriated to the 'ruler' or 'rulers' of the synagogue, according as its organization may have been more or less complete;", these were features common to all the synagogues
Lord's Day - The words "he that regardeth not the day to the Lord he doth not regard it" are not in the Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus Manuscripts, and the Vulgate
Sidon - ...
No details are given of our Lord’s visit to Sidon, though it is definitely stated that He came through it, or at least its surrounding territory (reading διά not καί in Mark 7:31, with the best Manuscripts ), on His way to Decapolis, which He probably reached by the highway over the Lebanon to Damascus (see H
Alms - The Hebrew "righteousness" in Old Testament and the Greek in many Manuscripts of Matthew 6:1, stands for ALMS
Sardis - " Her works were not "filled up in full complement (pepleromena ) in the sight of My God" (so the Siniaticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus Manuscripts)
Belial, Beliar - ...
In 2 Corinthians 6:15, where the best Manuscripts (B C L P א) and most of the VSS Swallows - So the Septuagint, Vulgate, and two ancient Manuscripts, Theodotion, and Jerom, render it, and Bochart and Lowth follow them
Solomon's Song - This highly figurative and beautiful poem has always held a place in the canonical Scriptures, and of course was a part of the Bible in the time of Christ; it was so regarded by the early Christians, and appears in the ancient catalogues, Manuscripts, and versions
Jezebel - The Sinaiticus manuscript and the Paris manuscript and Vulgate Latin read as the KJV; but the Alexandrinus and Vaticanus Manuscripts "thy wife," i
Cassiodorus (or Rather, Cassiodorius) Magnus Aurelius - The monks were incited by his example to the study of classical and sacred literature, and trained in the careful transcription of Manuscripts, in the purchase of which large sums were continually disbursed. Nor was the influence of his example confined to his own age, institution, or country; the multiplication of Manuscripts became gradually as much a recognized employment of monastic life as prayer or fasting; and for this the statue of Cassiodorus deserves an honourable niche in every library
Old Testament - Critical procedure is also evinced in a mention of their rejection of Manuscripts which were found not to agree with others in their readings; and the rules given with refer once to the transcription and adoption of Manuscripts attest the care bestowed upon them. ...
Manuscripts
Lord's Prayer (i) - Prayer-Book, 1549; as sent from Rome by Pope Adrian, an Englishman, about 1160; from two Manuscripts of the 13th cent. ]'>[5] 6, and the Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (p. Two Manuscripts of the Apost. Compare with this the above statement about the Manuscripts of the Constitutions, and Brightman’s Liturgies Eastern and Western, p. 157) to the belief that ἐπιούσιος was actually found in some Greek Manuscripts
Mary, Sister of Lazarus - ) In John 12:7 Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts read cf6 "let her alone that she may keep this against the day of My burying"; but the Alexandrinus manuscript supports KJV
Food Offered to Idols - ...
The term “food offered to idols” also appears in 1Corinthians 8:1,1Corinthians 8:4,1Corinthians 8:7,1 Corinthians 8:10 and 1 Corinthians 10:19 (some Manuscripts include it in 1 Corinthians 10:28 )
Spikenard - John is there any variation in the Manuscripts
Chorazin - Most MSS Carnal - , a difficulty arises owing to the way in which they are interchanged in different Manuscripts
Alexander - There are, however, slight variations in the Manuscripts of Acts 19:33, and different views have been taken with regard to Alexander and the intention of the Jews
Camel - But there are no ancient Manuscripts to support the reading
Pamphilus, Presbyter of Caesarea - Jerome speaks of Palestinian Manuscripts of the LXX current in the Syrian church, which, having been carefully prepared by Origen, were published by the two friends (Hieron
Sayings (Unwritten) - ...
The extra-canonical Sayings are preserved in some Manuscripts of the Gospels, and in those religious romances known as the Apocryphal Gospels, also in the Commentaries of the Fathers; but there are, besides, a few sayings which are Agrapha in that they are not included in the written Gospels, but yet possess high attestation as being parts of the text of Acts and 1 Cor. ...
The sayings preserved in some Manuscripts of the Gospels are of the nature of textual variations for the most part. are useful: ‘Sayings’ from Manuscripts and Fathers—Lock, Expositor, iv
Demon - -The word δαιμόνιον (or δαίμων, which, however, occurs only once in the NT in the best Manuscripts , viz. in Matthew 8:31, though some Manuscripts have it in Mark 5:12, Luke 8:29, and some inferior ones in Revelation 16:14; Revelation 18:2) is almost always rendered ‘devil’ in English Version , though Revised Version margin usually gives ‘demon. In this last passage we read of the evil spirit speaking out of the possessed man’s month, and of the man’s actions being those of the evil spirit (Acts 19:15); also of Jewish exorcists who endeavoured to expel him (the seven of Acts 19:14 become in all the best Manuscripts two at Acts 19:16; probably there were seven brothers, but only two took part in this incident)
Library - They included Manuscripts of all of the Old Testament books except for Esther, works from the Old Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, and sectarian compositions such as The Manual of Discipline, The War Scroll, and The Temple Scroll. The excavators also recovered a table, a bench, and ink wells from the scriptorium, where the Manuscripts were copied
Samaritan Pentateuch - Gesenius thinks that both Samaritan and Septuagint were formed from Hebrew Manuscripts differing from one another as well as from the authorized one of Palestine, and that many willful corruptions have crept, in latterly. The Septuagint Manuscripts preserve some fragments of it
Peter - " He was a son of Jonas (John, so read the best Manuscripts), a brother of Andrew, probably a native of Bethsaida in Galilee
Berôa - Berœa (Βέροια, some Manuscripts Βέρροια) was a city of Southern Macedonia, in the district of Emathia (Ptol
Masora - ...
The text of the sacred books, it is to be observed, was originally written without any breaks or divisions into chapters or verses, or even into words: so that a whole book, in the ancient manner, was but one continued word: of this kind we have still several ancient Manuscripts, both Greek and Latin
Philip the Evangelist - The Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts omit Acts 8:37, the confession of Jesus required before baptism, an early Christian usage (1 Peter 3:21 end)
Baptism - In the last passage the words ἐξ ὕδατος, read in all Manuscripts and VSS Scripture - The oldest extant Hebrew Old Testament Manuscripts date from the tenth century. These Manuscripts are of two classes—uncials, written in capitals and with no division of words or sentences and very few marks of punctuation, and cursives, written in running band. — The order of the various books differs in Hebrew Manuscripts, according as they are Talmudic or Massoretic. Of the doctrinal class, some leading Manuscripts—including the Alexandrine and Vatican—make the catholic epistles precede those of Paul; the Hebrews following 2 Thessalonians
Zechariah, Book of - In some Old Testament Manuscripts, then, the verses (and presumably their context) probably were attached to the Book of Jeremiah, while in the Manuscripts preserved in our Hebrew Bibles they were attached to Zechariah
Only Begotten - אB and other Manuscripts give ἐκλελεγμένος). It is to be found in a number of good Manuscripts of the Gospel: א BCL 33 and in the Pesh
John the Baptist - " By his testimony at Bethany (so oldest Manuscripts for Bethabara) beyond Jordan, "Behold the Lamb of God," he led two of his disciples to Him, Andrew and John the apostle and evangelist (John 1:35 ff; John 3:23-36; John 4:1-2; Acts 19:3). )...
From the prison John had sent two (the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts read Matthew 11:2 "by," dia , for duo , two) disciples to Jesus to elicit from Himself a profession of His Messiahship, for their confirmation in the faith
Sodom - Σοδόμοις ῆ Γομόρροις for γῇ Σοδόμων καὶ Γομόρρων) is inserted in A and some Latin Manuscripts
Curse - , where even the unauthorized additions of some MSS Beelzebub or Beelzebul - The first part of the name is clear enough; it is the Aramaic form of the Hebrew ‘Baal’; nor is there anything strange in the dropping of λ before ζ the MSS Nicopolis - Some Manuscripts of the epistle (A and P) have the subscription, ‘It was written from Nicopolis,’ and these are followed by the Greek commentators (Chrys
Nineveh, Ninevites - ]'>[1] and some Latin Manuscripts add the harmonistic statement καὶ καθὼς Ἰωνᾶς ἐν τῇ κοιλίᾳ τοῦ κήτους ἐγένετο τρεῖς ἡμέρας καὶ τρεῖς νύκτας οὕτως καὶ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐν τῇ γῇ, ‘and as Jonah (was) in the belly of the whale three days and three nights, so also (is, or shall be) the Son of Man in the earth
Chronology - ...
Another note of time is furnished by Paul (Acts 13:19-21): "after that (the division of Canaan) He; gave judges about the space of 450 years until Samuel"; or rather, as the three oldest Manuscripts - the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts, "He distributed their land to them for an inheritance, about 450 years. Rawlinson truly says: nothing in ancient Manuscripts is so liable to corruption from mistakes of copyists as numbers, it is quite possible that we may not possess Moses' real scheme in any of the three extant versions of his words
Biblical Criticism - " Textual criticism is made necessary because the original Manuscripts of the sacred writers have not been preserved and the earliest copies of them exhibit many different readings. The earliest Hebrew Manuscripts are from the 9th or l0th century, and the Greek from the 4th century
Tongues, Gift of - The Alexandrinus manuscript confirms Mark 16:9-20; The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts, omit it; "they shall speak with "new" ("not known before", kainais ) tongues"; this promise is not restricted to apostles; "these signs shall follow them that believe. Probably Paul did so in Lycaonia (Acts 14:11; Acts 14:15; he says (1 Corinthians 14:18) "I speak with tongues (the Vaticanus manuscript, but the Sinaiticus and the Alexandrinus Manuscripts 'with a tongue') more than ye all
Bible, - For a long time it was thought that their great care and exactitude in copying had preserved the Manuscripts from error; but it has been abundantly proved that those copyists erred, as all others have erred in this respect, and numerous errors have been discovered in the MSS, though many of them are seen at once to be mistakes of the pen, some doubtless caused through the similarity of the Hebrew letters, and are easily corrected. Many GREEK Manuscripts:some 40 being called Uncials because of being written all in capital letters (though some of this number are only portions or mere fragments), and are represented by capital letters, A, B, C, etc. ...
The variations in the Greek Manuscripts are very numerous, yet the Editors (men who have attempted to discover what God originally caused to be written) — though each formed his own plan as to which of the above witnesses he would examine — have come to the same judgement in the great majority of the variations
Abba (2) - , and the distinction between abâ, a spiritual father, and ܐܒܼܐ avâ, a natural father, which the grammarians make, appears not to be founded on any certain basis, nor to agree with the Manuscripts (Payne-Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, s. with ܒܿ) in all three NT places; but this is rather a following of the grammarians than of good Manuscripts
Archaeology, Christian - He was commissioned to collect the inscriptions of the earliest days of Christianity in Gaul, and made an investigation of Manuscripts, printed books, museums, churches, and the Gallo-Roman cemeteries
Christian Archaeology - He was commissioned to collect the inscriptions of the earliest days of Christianity in Gaul, and made an investigation of Manuscripts, printed books, museums, churches, and the Gallo-Roman cemeteries
Saints - In reply, it is argued that the textual evidence of Manuscripts and Versions is exactly the same for this passage as for the rest of the First Gospel
Salim - With the view of a plural agrees the fact that most Manuscripts spell the ending -ειμ, and not -ημ, as in the Complutensian Polyglott; the latter spelling (Σαλήμ) would favour identification with שָׁלֵם
Salt (2) - ]'>[1] , and Nestle, following Manuscripts אBL Eternal Sin - It is not surprising that the latter explanation of a difficult word (ἀμάρτημα) should have found its way into the text of some later MSS Key - It is not surprising that the reading of this verse should have been attracted to Revelation 1:18, as appears in some inferior Manuscripts (ἅδον for Δαυείδ)
Jezebel - ’ Romans Epistle to the - ]'>[7] of the Codex Amiatinus of the Vulgate (a system found in many other Manuscripts ) the 50th ‘chapter’ clearly describes Romans 14:15-23, and the 51st, and last, the doxology (Romans 16:25-27), the remainder of 15 and 16 being omitted. ...
(δ) In the group of Manuscripts DEFG, which seem to come from a common ancestor, it is argued that the text of the last two chs. In some Manuscripts and Fathers (Chrysostom, Theodoret, etc. The variation in the position of ‘the Grace’ (Romans 16:20), which is inserted in some Manuscripts after Romans 16:23 and in Textus Receptus by a natural conflation in both places, is additional evidence of the existence of copies which did not end with the doxology. But the fact of a passage being found in different places in our Manuscripts always suggests the possibility that it is a later addition (cf
Bethesda - ...
The last clause of John 5:3 and the whole of John 5:4, containing the account of the troubling of the water by an angel and the miraculous healing that followed, are relegated to the margin in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885, on the ground of their omission by the ancient Manuscripts א BD, and the exceptional number of variants in the other MSS Mark of the Beast - It is also noteworthy that a variant reading in Greek New Testament Manuscripts exits that cites the number as "616" rather than "666
Grecians - ...
"Spake ALSO unto" is the true reading (Acts 11:20, the Alexandrinus, the Vaticanus, the Sinaiticus Manuscripts, and the Vulgate version)
Famine - The most important of these references is Acts 11:28, where μεγάλην, followed by ἤτις, the reading of the best Manuscripts , proclaims the noun as feminine
Jude, the Epistle of - ...
The oldest Manuscripts of the Peshito Syriac omit it, but Ephraem Syrus recognizes it
Ephesians, Letter to the - If so, that would explain why some ancient Manuscripts include the word ‘Ephesus’ in Paul’s opening greeting, but others omit it
Amen - In two old Manuscripts of Tobit (end), as in some later Manuscripts of the NT, it appears by itself without a doxology
Jairus - א) are also to be met with in the MSS Consecrate, Consecration - In Leviticus 21:10 τετελειωμένος is used without the rest of the phrase = ‘consecrated,’ although many Manuscripts supply τᾶς χεῖρας αὐτοῦ
Fasting - As to the texts quoted for fasting as a mean of spiritual power, the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts omit Matthew 17:21; they omit also "and fasting," Mark 9:29
Inspiration - Various readings in Manuscripts do not invalidate verbal inspiration. The words of the Decalogue were written by the finger of God, though the Manuscripts transmitting them to us contain variations. ) Moreover God has preserved by human means a multitude of Manuscripts, patristic quotations, and ancient versions, enabling us to restore the original text almost perfectly for all practical purposes
Romans, the Epistle to the - That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Romans 1:5; Romans 1:13; Romans 9:3-4; Romans 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus Manuscripts read for "Israel"), Romans 11:23; Romans 11:25; Romans 11:30. Alexandrinus manuscript transposes the doxology Romans 16:25-27 (which Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts keep as KJV) to the close of Romans 14
Simeon - Sinaiticus and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read "Symeon" (2 Peter 1:1), but Vaticanus "Simon. The Samaritan who practiced magic, "bewitching the people of Samaria, giving out that he himself was some great one," so that all said "this is the power of God which is called great" (so the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts)
Jewish Parties in the New Testament - More information about the Essenes has come to light since 1947 with the discovery of the Manuscripts from the caves above the Dead Sea, commonly called the Dead Sea Scrolls
Home - In Titus 2:5 Revised Version the young married women are to be οἰκουργοί, ‘workers at home’ (Authorized Version οἰκουροί, ‘keepers at home’; the former word is not found elsewhere, but is attested by all the best Manuscripts )
Building - The weight of the best Manuscripts favours the omission of the article, and Meyer translates accordingly ‘every building
Building - The weight of the best Manuscripts favours the omission of the article, and Meyer translates accordingly ‘every building
Text of the New Testament - The materials available for ascertaining the true text of the NT (and, in their measure, of all other ancient works of literature) fall into three classes: (1) Manuscripts, or copies of the NT in the original Greek; (2) Versions, or ancient translations of it into other languages, which were themselves, of course, originally derived from very early Greek MSS, now lost; (3) Quotations in ancient writers, which show what readings these writers found in the copies accessible to them. Manuscripts . 700, so that the styles of writing in use at the time when the NT books were written are well known to us; but Christianity and its literature are not likely to have penetrated much beyond Lower Egypt in the first two centuries of their existence, and consequently it is perfectly natural that no Manuscripts of the NT of this period are now extant. Minuscules continue in use, with progressive modifications of form, until the supersession of Manuscripts by print in the 15th cent. Cureton discovered, among the Manuscripts brought to the British Museum from the convent of S
Archaeology And Biblical Study - The major Greek Manuscripts from which the New Testament is translated came from the fourth century A. The Bible, particularly the Old Testament, was copied by hand many times before reaching the form found in the Manuscripts just mentioned. This moved knowledge of Hebrew Manuscripts back from the Middle Ages to the period 250 B. ...
With reference to the New Testament, during the last one to two centuries, numerous old papyrus Manuscripts have been found, mainly in Egypt, which contain portions of the biblical text. The number of Greek Manuscripts and fragments known has increased from about 1,500 in 1885 to 5,373 in 1986
Book - The form which obtains among us is the square, composed of separate leaves; which was also known, though little used, among the ancients; having been invented by Attalus, king of Pergamus, the same who also invented parchment: but it has now been so long in possession, that the oldest Manuscripts are found in it. Montfaucon assures us, that of all the ancient Greek Manuscripts he has seen, there are but two in the roll form; the rest being made up much after the manner of the modern books. There still remain several Manuscripts of the eighth, ninth, and following centuries, written on parchment, from which some former writing had been erased, in order to substitute a new composition in its place. Manuscripts thus defaced, the vellum or parchment of which is occupied with some other writings, are called "palimpsests," codices rescripti or palimpsesti, from παλιμψηστος
Canon of the New Testament - Moreover all our oldest Greek Manuscripts of the epistles contain those epistles once doubted by some; so do all the versions except the Syriac; see above. Nor have we received most of our Manuscripts, testimonies of fathers and versions, from Rome, but, from the Greek, Syrian, and African churches
Emmaus - If it is asked how this conclusion could be formed, seeing that Emmaus-Nicopolis is situated at a distance from Jerusalem which is estimated (according to the particular route adopted) at 180, 175, 170, or 166 furlongs, almost thrice the 60 furlongs mentioned above, the reply is promptly given: א and some other MSS Barnabas - ") The surname given by the apostles to Joses or Joseph (as the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus Manuscripts read), a Levite, settled in Cyprus (Acts 4:36)
Melita - (Euraquilon in the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus Manuscripts instead of Euroclydon), carrying them under the lee of the island Clauda (or Cauda, Vaticanus manuscript), 20 miles to the S
Poetry - Hebrew Manuscripts do not distinguish poetry from prose in such a clear-cut way
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - The most ancient and reliable Manuscripts of Mark end with Matthew 16:8
Sidon (2) - Thus the primary Gospel of Mark, the more ancient Sinaitic and Vatican Manuscripts , Professor Weiss, and the Revisers do not hesitate to depict Jesus as entering Gentile territory (twice), entering a (probably) heathen house, and dispensing blessings upon a pagan woman, going then yet farther ‘through Sidon’ and Decapolis
Print - —In the Gospels ‘print’ is found only in John 20:25, where in most Manuscripts it occurs twice: ‘Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and put my hand into his side, I will not believe’ (for other uses of τύπος in NT see Grimm-Thayer and Cremer, s
Versions - "...
The Durham Book, of the ninth century (in British Museum, Cottonian Manuscripts), has the Anglo Saxon interlinear with the Latin Vulgate The Rushworth Gloss of the same century is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Many Manuscripts of this age are extant, containing the English harmony of the Gospels and portions of the epistles by others. Tischendorf's Authorized English Version of the New Testament (Tauchnitz edition) with the various readings of the three most celebrated Manuscripts has done much to familiarize the ordinary English reader with the materials from which he must form his own opinion
Ascension - Manuscripts , Angustine* Obadiah - But as four only are mentioned, Kennicott with four Manuscripts omits "and the sons of Israhiah," thus making him brother not father of Obadiah, and both sons of Uzzi
Theophilus - The notes occasionally appended to Manuscripts of the Gospels sometimes say that Theophilus was a disciple of Luke (H
Mark, Gospel of - (These last twelve verses are not in the oldest and best Manuscripts
Magdala - 159) turns Megiddo into Magdalum, so some Manuscripts in Matthew 15:39 turn Magdala into Magadan’ (SP Silas or Silyanus - As this implies the presence of Silas again at Antioch, it may be supposed that Paul has sent for him to Jerusalem, or that he has returned of his own accord after reporting to the primitive Church the fulfilment of his original mission; Acts 15:34 (Authorized Version , ‘it pleased Silas to abide there still’), which appears with variations in some ancient Manuscripts , is generally regarded as a gloss
Angels of the Seven Churches - ’ Even on the supposition that the Ethiopic version, supported by some Greek Manuscripts , is a correct translation of the original, and the simple word ‘Church’ is substituted for ‘angel of the Christian Church,’ we are confronted by the primitive identification of the Church and its angel (see Charles, Asc
Chapters - There are but very few Manuscripts which have not both of them together
Poetry of the Hebrews - ...
In the common Manuscripts and editions of the Hebrew Bible, the members of the parallelisms in the poetical arts are not written or printed separately; but the accents serve to divide them
Language - In Arabic, there exists a great variety of Manuscripts and books, historical, scientific, and literary
Paul - " Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Sinaiticus Manuscripts read "and" before "at Jerusalem") was at Jerusalem "at the feet of Gamaliel, taught according to the perfect manner of the law of the fathers" (Acts 22:3). "It is hard for thee to kick against the goads" (not in Acts 9:5 the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus Manuscripts, but only in Acts 26:14), which, as in the case of oxen being driven, only makes the goad pierce the deeper (Matthew 21:44; Proverbs 8:36). )...
Again as at Cyprus Paul's ministry resembles Peter's, the cure of' the impotent man in Lystra corresponding to Peter's cure of the same disease at the Beautiful gate of the temple (3); indeed the parallelism probably led three very old Manuscripts, C, D, E, to insert from Acts 3:8, in Acts 14:10, "I say unto thee in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ," etc
New York, City of - The club possesses a valuable library of over 50,000 volumes including several rare Manuscripts
Quirinius - We might suppose that the clause Luke 2:2 was not in the original narrative, but was a marginal date inserted by an early copyist, who made a mistake as to the census intended; but the Manuscripts afford no warrant for this suggestion
Bible, History of Interpretation - This was the analysis of all of the available biblical Manuscripts, comparing the variant readings, and making an informed judgment as to what the original text of the Scriptures really was
Hallel - The LXX Septuagint and many Hebrew MSS Abomination of Desolation - Matthew characteristically adds the words (absent from the best MSS Vulgate, the - the printed editions are not often referred to, but the Manuscripts that are still in existence of Jerome's revision
Only- Begotten - ...
Another Greek rendering of יָחִיד, is ἀγαπητός, and this is found in the Septuagint of Genesis 22:2, whence the same word has found its way into 2 Peter 1:17 and into Matthew 17:5, Mark 9:7 (‘my beloved Son’); in Luke 9:35 the best Manuscripts have ἐκλελεγμένος, ‘chosen
Interpretation - ...
Unless people are reading the Bible in the original languages (Hebrew in the Old Testament, Greek in the New), whatever they are reading is a translation (see Manuscripts; SCRIPTURES)
Bible - Concerning the formation of the Bible and the organization of its contents see CANON; Manuscripts; SCRIBES; SCRIPTURES; SEPTUAGINT; WRITING
Barnabas, Epistle of - -Until the discovery of the famous Codex Sinaiticus (א) in 1862, this Epistle was known only in a Latin translation and in eight Greek Manuscripts . The Greek Manuscripts all lacked exactly the same portion of the Epistle-the first five and a half chapters-and joined the remainder of Barnabas on to the end of the Epistle of Polycarp as though it were all one letter. A good account of the Manuscripts will be found in Harnack’s Altchristl
Tears - —The only two passages in Authorized and Revised Versions of the Gospels where tears are mentioned are Mark 9:24, where the father of the epileptic lad is said in Authorized Version to have cried out with tears, ‘Lord, I believe; help thou mine unbelief’ [1]; and Luke 7:38-44, where, in Simon the Pharisee’s house, the penitent harlot washed with her tears the Saviour’s feet
Hutchinsonians - From this time to his death he published a volume every year or two, which, with the Manuscripts he left behind, were published in 1748, in 12 volumes, 8 vo
Pseudepigrapha - The Manuscripts are incomplete, and the missing portion may have contained an account of Moses' death and his being taken to heaven
Jehoiachin - But a few Hebrew Manuscripts, Syriac and Arabic, read "eighteen" here also; it is probably a transcriber's error
Number - Our Manuscripts all write numbers at full length
Authors of Articles - , of the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum, London, Late Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford
Zedekiah - ...
In Jeremiah 27:1 read "Zedekiah" for "Jehoiakim" with Syriac, Arabic, and one of Kennicott's Manuscripts (compare Jeremiah 27:3; Jeremiah 27:12; and Jeremiah 28:1, "in the fourth year
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs - 3)-in 3 Manuscripts only. The Greek Manuscripts differ greatly, but tend to amplify the title, the secondary (β) recension and the Armenian adding the main theme of each Testament thus, διαθήκη Ῥουβὴμ περὶ ἐννοιῶν. 3) which occur in only three Manuscripts and interrupt the narrative (see, further, Charles’s edition, pp
Matthew, the Gospel According to - The Greek of Matthew is the most Hebraic of the New Testament Hellenistic writers (Hellenistic is Hebrew in idiom and thoughts, Greek in words): for instance matheteuein , tafos sumboulion lambanein , distazein , katapontizesthai , metairein , proskunein with the dative (not the accusative as in Mark and Luke), sunairein logon , omnuoo eis or en of the thing or person sworn by; akousoo for akousomai ; pas hostis (but Luke pas hos ); brechein to rain (but in Luke to moisten); sunteleia tou aionos (elsewhere only in Hebrews 9:26, both Scriptures being for Jews); basileta ton ouranon (in the rest of the New Testament basileia tou ΤΗeou ); the phrase "that it might be fulfilled" (Matthew 2:15; Matthew 1:22) implies that the prophetic word necessitated the fulfillment (Matthew 24:35); "that which was spoken" (to rethen , errethee ) is the form of quotation 20 times, suitable to the Hebrew mode (Mark 13:14, the only other instance, is omitted in the two oldest Manuscripts, Sinaiticus and Vaticanus), compare Hebrews 2:2. The genuineness of the first two chapters, disputed by some, is established by their presence in the oldest Manuscripts and versions
Number - ...
A comparison of the various Manuscripts, versions, etc. Then, as regards Manuscripts, etc
Peter, the Epistles of - He exhorts all, husbands, wives, servants, elders, and people, by discharging relative duties to give the foe no handle for reproaching Christianity, rather to attract them to it; so Peter seeks to establish them in "the true grace of God wherein they stand "; but the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus Manuscripts read "stand ye," imperatively (1 Peter 5:12), "Grace" is the keynote of Paul's doctrine which Peter confirms (Ephesians 2:5; Ephesians 2:8; Romans 5:2). The oldest Greek Manuscripts (fourth century) contain "the disputed Scriptures
Jeremiah - Fragments of Hebrew Manuscripts from Qumran show that a longer and a shorter Hebrew text existed side-by-side in the time of Jesus
Inspiration of Scripture - Usually those who hold to this view are careful to distinguish between the original Manuscripts and the present form of the Bible
Lord's Supper - The Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, and Vaticanus Manuscripts omit "Lord's," "not discerning the body" (compare Hebrews 10:29)
Church of England - The original Manuscripts, subscribed by the houses of convocation, were burned in the fire of London; but Dr
Surname - The Sinaitic (and Palestinian) Syriac version, some good minuscules, and Manuscripts known to Origen read: ‘Whom will ye that I release unto you? Jesus Barabbas, or Jesus which is called Christ?’3 [Note: " translation="">Matthew 27:16-17; HDB i
James, the General Epistle of - In the oldest Manuscripts except the Sinaiticus manuscript they stand before Paul's epistles
Love-Feast - ’ In the parallel passage in 2 Peter 2:13 the bulk of the Manuscripts read ἀπάταις for ἀγάπαις
Gospels - His mission of the 70 (the better Manuscripts have: 72) before Him (Luke 10), also Luke 13:22-23; Luke 17:11; Luke 23:5 confirm this. Eusebius' Chronicle in some Manuscripts gives this date
Lord's Prayer, the - Also, study of the Greek Manuscripts shows that the doxology that appears at the end of the Matthean form in some translations is not original; the earliest form of the prayer with a doxology in Didache Luke 8:2
Angels - Manuscripts reject it), giving it a healing power, as in our mineral springs (John 5:4): They act, in an unknown way, in and through "nature's laws
Benedictus - It may be mentioned here that the text of the Benedictus varies little either in MSS Mark, Gospel According to - Pseudo-Clement (§ 2), after quoting Is 54:1 LXX Septuagint , continues: ‘Another Scripture saith, I came not to call the righteous, but sinners,’ exactly as Matthew 9:13, Mark 2:17, where ‘to repentance’ is not in the best Manuscripts, but comes from || Luke 5:32. ...
The Gospel is found in all the old Versions—Curetonian and Sinaitic Syriac (of the former only 16:17–20 is extant), Old Latin, Bohairic, Sahidic; and in all catalogues and Greek Manuscripts of the Gospels
Jesus Christ - Mark began his brief Gospel in some Manuscripts by introducing Jesus as the Son of God (Mark 1:1 )
Samaria - -The city of Samaria, rather than the territory, appears to be meant in Acts 8:5; Acts 8:9; Acts 8:14, the best Manuscripts having the article before πόλιν τῆς Σαμαρίας in Acts 8:5, and the genitive being probably that of apposition
Sabbath - In Romans 14:5 the oldest Manuscripts omit "he that regardeth not the day to the Lord he doth not regard it
the Angel of the Church in Thyatira - Our classical scholars have a recognised canon of their own when they are engaged on their editorial work among old and disputed Manuscripts; a canon of criticism to this effect that the more difficult to receive any offered reading is the more likely it is to be the true reading
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - CODICES AMBROSIANI, being five Manuscripts, now in the Ambrosian Library ofMilan
John the Apostle - Younger than his brother James; being named after him in Matthew and Mark, the earlier Gospels; but Luke (Luke 9:28; Acts 1:13, the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus Manuscripts), writing when John had gained so much greater prominence in the church, ranks him in the order of church esteem, not that of nature
Aristion (Aristo) - Four Greek MSS Sirach - ...
In the colophon (Sirach 50:27) some Greek Manuscripts give the grandfather’s name as Eleazar, and, as has been seen, the Syriac gives the father’s as Simon, supposing Asira to be an Aramaic sobriquet. The author in the Greek translation calls himself in the colophon (Sirach 50:27) ‘of Jerusalem,’ according to some Manuscripts ‘a priest of Jerusalem’; and the list of eminent Israelites with which the book closes ends with an encomium on the high priest Simon son of Onias (‘Nathania’ of the Syriac is a corruption to be explained from the Syriac script)
Colossians, Epistle to the - In several Manuscripts the words ‘written from Laodicea’ were added at the end of 1 Timothy. Lightfoot, however, argues that it shows traces of being from a Greek original, despite the fact that all known Manuscripts are in Latin
Canticles; the Song of Solomon - ) Its divine canonicity and authority are certain, as it is found in all Hebrew Manuscripts of Scripture; also in the Greek Septuagint version; in the catalogues of Melito, bishop of Sardis A
John - Relative of Annas, the high priest (Acts 4:6 ), unless Manuscripts reading Jonathan are right
Hymn - ...
The ecclesiastical canticles under the title of ᾠδαί immediately follow the Psalter in certain of the Greek uncials and in a large number of the Greek cursive MSS Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - "...
His stay at Thessalonica was probably longer than the three weeks recorded in Acts 17:2, for some time is implied in his labouring there for support (1 Thessalonians 2:9; 2 Thessalonians 3:8), in his receiving supplies there more than once from Philippi (Philippians 4:16), in his receiving many converts from the Gentiles (1 Thessalonians 1:9, and, according to the Alexandrinus manuscript of Acts 17:4, though not the Sinaiticus and Vaticanus Manuscripts, "of the devout (and) of the Greeks a great multitude"), and in his appointing ministers
Mark, the Gospel of - The story ends as abruptly as it began; Mark finished his Gospel account with the angelic announcement of the resurrection of Jesus the Nazarene (the earliest Greek Manuscripts of the New Testament end Mark's Gospel at Mark 16:8 )
Versions of the Scripture, English - ...
Wycliffe's version must have been well circulated, for though Arundel destroyed many copies there are about 150 Manuscripts of it still existing
Targums - ’ The fragments have been gathered from a variety of sources, from Manuscripts and from quotations found in the writings of ancient authors
Corinth - "I write," the Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, and Sinaiticus Manuscripts rightly omit; KJV "as if I were present the second time," namely, this time, is inconsistent with verse 1, "this is the third time I am coming" (compare 2 Corinthians 1:15-16)
Hebrews, the Epistle to the - " So the Sinaiticus and the Vaticanus Manuscripts, but Alexandrinus manuscript "on the prisoners"
God - to God who alone is wise (Romans 16:27; the same phrase occurs in some Manuscripts of 1 Timothy 1:17, but ‘wise’ is there an interpolation)
Mockery - Several Manuscripts , however, read ἔβαλλον or ἔβαλον (see Field)
Session - also Revelation 3:21); in Revelation 12:2 the Perfect (κεκάθικεν), found in the best Manuscripts , denotes the entrance on a permanent state
Esdras, the Second Book of - The Latin Manuscripts mostly distinguish five books of Ezra: the first being the canonical Ezra-Nehemiah, the second the prefixed chapters of 2 Es
Apocrypha - They did not attain canonical status, but some of them were cited by early Christians almost on a level with the Old Testament writings, and a few were copied in biblical Manuscripts
Septuagint - There is no other way by which to reconcile these conflicting opinions than by supposing either that the manuscript used by the Egyptian Jews approximated toward the letters and text of the Samaritan Pentateuch, or that the translators of the Septuagint made use of Manuscripts written in ancient characters
John, the Epistles of - So the oldest extant Manuscripts eight of the 13 verses in 2 John 1 are in 1 John
Multitude - Mark 6:33 (Textus Receptus ; all the best Manuscripts omit] and Mark 10:2 without the article; once only in Jn
Bible - " Accordingly, the uniformity of the Manuscripts of the Holy Scriptures that are extant, which are incomparably more numerous than those of any ancient author, and which are dispersed through so many countries, and in so great a variety of languages, is truly astonishing. The number of various readings, that by the most minute and laborious investigation and collations of Manuscripts have been discovered in them, are said to amount to one hundred and fifty thousand; though at first sight they may seem calculated to diminish confidence in the sacred text, yet in no degree whatever do they affect its credit and integrity
Odes of Solomon - Manuscripts and principal editions of the Odes. So far as the text is concerned, few amendments worth noticing have been suggested, and the very few linguistic difficulties that the original offers will remain for a long time insoluble, owing to the scarcity of Manuscripts and the lack of exact Patristic quotations
Ephesians, Book of - ”...
The expression “at Ephesus” is not in the oldest Manuscripts of Ephesians, but it is in many of the best ones
Heir Heritage Inheritance - Manuscripts have the present potiuntur); so in 4:3 ‘we which have believed do enter-are now entering (εἰσερχόμεθα)-into that rest,’ not as Vulgate ingrediemur, ‘shall enter’ (see Westcott, op
House - The same is probably true of κλίνη in Mark 7:30, Luke 17:34, Revelation 2:22, where either sense is possible; and of the κλινἀρια καὶ κράββατα in Acts 5:15 (inferior Manuscripts substitute κλίναι for the former word), where the sick are laid in the streets
Lord (2) - in that part of the Gospel which is regarded by critical editors as not belonging to the original Manuscripts
Mary, the Virgin - This is supported by the Old Latin Manuscripts Vercellensis, Veronensis, Rhedigeranus, and by Irenaeus
Pentateuch - Prisse in the hieratic character is considered the oldest of existing Manuscripts and is attributed to a prince of the fifth dynasty; weighed down with age, he invokes Osiris to enable him to give mankind the fruits of his long experience
Apostolic Constitutions And Canons - The dependence of the ‘Constitutions’ on these Canons, though not noted in the complete Manuscripts (unless, indeed, the old conjecture were revived that in the title, after Κλήμεντος … ἐπισκόπου should be read καὶ Ἱππολύτου, instead of τε καὶ πολίτου), is pointed out by the title Διατάξεις τῶν ἁγίων ἀποστόλων περὶ χειροτονιῶν διὰ Ἱππολύτου, in excerpts from book viii
New Testament - ...
Manuscripts, it must be remembered, are but one of the three sources of textual criticism
Ephesians, Theology of - It is listed among Paul's letters in the early Manuscripts and cited as such by early Christian authors such as Irenaeus (Against Heresies 5
Winter - in some Manuscripts for τέκνα in Matthew 11; Matthew 19
Angels - ...
The unfallen angels are holy (Revelation 14:10, Mark 8:38, Luke 9:26, and some Manuscripts of Matthew 25:31; so perhaps 1 Thessalonians 3:13, Judges 1:14 [5]; cf
Amen (2) - This use has a further curious illustration in the practice of copyists of MSS Pentateuch - ” These titles are not in the Hebrew Manuscripts
Language of Christ - ’ The special arguments in favour of this theory are: (1) that copies of the Septuagint could be had at a much smaller cost than Hebrew or Aramaic Manuscripts , that indeed the price of the latter was prohibitive so far as the people generally were concerned; and (2) that the OT quotations in the NT point to a very general familiarity with the Septuagint, inasmuch as the majority of them are verbatim or practically verbatim, or show unmistakable traces of the Septuagint, and particularly as in some cases the Septuagint is followed when it differs from the Hebrew
Family - ...
(c) οἰκία is similarly used for a ‘household’ in Philippians 4:22 (Caesar), Matthew 10:13; Matthew 12:25, John 4:53 (the Capernaum royal officer), 1 Corinthians 16:15 (Stephanas); and therefore for ‘possessions’ in the phrase ‘widows’ houses,’ Mark 12:40, Luke 20:47, and inferior Manuscripts of Matthew 23:14
Angels (2) - It is possible, in spite of the reading of some very ancient Greek MSS Letters - We have thus an easy way of accounting for the alphabetical, though obscure, character of the hieroglyphic running-hand, or hieratic writing, so much used in Manuscripts
Thessalonians Epistles to the - But probably the insertion of καὶ by the Bezan and ‘inferior’ Manuscripts on which it is based represents only a scribe’s attempt to avoid the unusual phrase τῶν σεβομένων Ἑλλήνων (Askwith, An Introduction to the Thessalonian Epistles, p
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - ἔλεγαν, and the like, in Manuscripts of the Septuagint and other texts-are proved to have belonged to the spoken Koine by the fact that they survive in Modern Greek
Genealogies of Jesus Christ - In the reading that probably underlies the Ferrar group of MSS Metaphor - Another instance of this would be 1 Thessalonians 2:7, where the text is uncertain, ‘But we were babes in the midst of you, as when a nurse cherisheth her own children’ (for νήπιοι, ‘babes,’ some Manuscripts read ἤπιοι, ‘gentle’; but the former reading seems to fit in better with the context)
Sin (2) - , and the absence of the clause in the best Manuscripts of Luke 11:4 suggest that it is correlative to the preceding clause, representing the same act differently)
Covenant - ]'>[2] and some other MSS Passover - And during supper" (ginomenou , the Vaticanus, Sinaiticus Manuscripts, even if genomenou be read with the Alexandrinus manuscript it means when supper had, begun to be), etc
Baruch, Apocalypse of - , see above) is extant in several Syriac Manuscripts and found a place in the Paris and London Polyglots
Marriage - And so, probably, we are to interpret our Lord’s words about leaving ‘house, or wife, or brethren, or parents, or children, for the kingdom of God’s sake’ (Luke 18:29; in || Matthew 19:29, Mark 10:29 the best Manuscripts omit ‘or wife’)
Gospels (Uncanonical) - ) Several uncanonical Gospels are still unedited, from the standpoint of modern critical research; even the extant Greek and Latin Manuscripts are not properly collated, in many cases
Preaching - He collected and collated Manuscripts of the sacred writings, and arranged and published the holy canon in its present form
Dates - ]'>[18] and some Manuscripts of Jerome’s translation ]) as the 11th year of Claudius
Animals - ...
A kid (ἔριφος, some MSS Jesus Christ - ) confirms the genuineness of the passage, which is omitted from good Manuscripts
Quakers - "It is to a meeting of this kind in London, called the second-day's morning meeting, that the revisal of Manuscripts concerning our principles, previously to publication, is intrusted by the yearly meeting held in London; and also the granting, in the intervals of the yearly meeting, of certificates of approbation to such ministers as are concerned to travel in the work of the ministry in foreign parts, in addition to those granted by their monthly and quarterly meetings
Noah - In the 120 years' respite Noah was "a preacher of righteousness," "when the long suffering of God was continuing to wait on to the end (apexedecheto , and no 'once' is read in the Alexandrinus, the Vaticanus, and the Sinaiticus Manuscripts) in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing," the limit of His long suffering (1 Peter 3:20; 2 Peter 2:5; Hebrews 11:7)
Hermas Shepherd of - These are two in number, the so-called Old Latin Version (L) found in about twenty Manuscripts , and the Palatine Version (L2) existing in one manuscript of the 14th century
Greek Versions of ot - The materials for its solution are, as in the NT, threefold Manuscripts, Versions, Patristic Quotations; and these must be briefly described
Psalms - Their genuineness is confirmed by their antiquity (which is proved by their being unintelligible to the Septuagint translators of the Hebrew into Greek), and by their presence in the greatest number of Manuscripts, and in fragments of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion
Apocalypse - Much the best edition of them, based on 14 Manuscripts , is that of Rzach (Oracula Sibyllina, Vienna, 1891)
Ascension of Isaiah - Of this Version there are three Manuscripts , one at the Bodleian, and two inferior ones in the British Museum
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - ’ This apocryphal correspondence was contained in the Acts of Paul, but it also circulated in some Syriac and Armenian NT Manuscripts ; no doubt it was an excerpt from the Acts, but it is not clear whether Ephraim knew the Acts or the excerpt
Ordination - ...
Fasting was frequently in early ages associated with solemn prayer (Psalms 35:13, Daniel 9:3, Mark 9:29 [5], Luke 2:37); and so with baptism and the Eucharist
Omnipresence - ’ The genuineness of this passage has been denied, not because it is lacking in any Greek Manuscripts , but for a priori reasons
Revelation, the - ...
There are fewer ancient Manuscripts of the Revelation than of any other part of the N
Mss - The Greek Manuscripts which he employed as his guides appear to have been similar in character to B א
Ignatius - Manuscripts and YSS of the Epistles
Samaria, Samaritans - ...
So far as Manuscripts are concerned, the only one that, on account of its antiquity, merits our consideration is the jealously guarded Pentateuch roll in Nâblus
Josephus - executed at the instance of Cassiodorus, a very free translation of the Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) , the de Excidio Hierusalem of Hegesippus (the so-called Iosippus), bearing a thoroughly Christian character, was current-often under the name of Ambrose-in the West, so there was found among the Slavonic Manuscripts a very peculiar form of the Bellum Judaicum (Josephus) , giving a detailed account of the trial of Jesus
Dates (2) - ...
On the other side may be urged the fact that Bethabara, for which the best MSS Arabia - In the former country, the Fatimites collected a library of a hundred thousand Manuscripts, beautifully transcribed, and very elegantly bound; and in the latter, the Ommiades formed another of six hundred thousand volumes; forty-four of which were employed in the catalogue
Enoch Book of - ...
(2) The Ethiopic version, which is a translation from the Greek, is known in 29 Manuscripts , of which 15 are in England
Christ in Jewish Literature - Krauss, who is the chief authority on the subject, enumerates 22 complete Manuscripts and 6 fragments of the Tôl’dôth, which be arranges in five groups, according to their points of resemblance, it seems likely that these were not all derived from a single original, but rather that the story, founded on the scanty notices in the Talmud, was told and circulated orally, and in course of time written down by several hands in different countries
Art - in MSS -->