What does Magic mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
μαγείαις magic 1
περίεργα busy about trifles and neglectful of important matters. 1
כְּסָת֜וֹת band 1
כִּסְּתוֹתֵיכֶ֙נָה֙ band 1

Definitions Related to Magic

H3704


   1 band, fillet, covered amulets, false phylacteries.
      1a used by false prophetesses in Israel to support their demonic fortune-telling schemes.
      

G4021


   1 busy about trifles and neglectful of important matters.
      1a esp.
      busy about other folks’ affairs, a busybody.
      1b of things: impertinent and superfluous.
         1b1 of Magic arts.
         

G3095


   1 Magic, Magic arts, sorceries.
   

Frequency of Magic (original languages)

Frequency of Magic (English)

Dictionary

Easton's Bible Dictionary - Magic
The Jews seem early to have consulted the teraphim (q.v.) for oracular answers (Matthew 2:1-1271 ; Zechariah 10:2 ). There is a remarkable illustration of this divining by teraphim in Ezekiel 21:19-22 . We read also of the divining cup of Joseph (Genesis 44:5 ). The magicians of Egypt are frequently referred to in the history of the Exodus. Magic was an inherent part of the ancient Egyptian religion, and entered largely into their daily life. All magical arts were distinctly prohibited under penalty of death in the Mosaic law. The Jews were commanded not to learn the "abomination" of the people of the Promised Land (Leviticus 19:31 ; Deuteronomy 18:9-14 ). The history of Saul's consulting the witch of Endor (1 Samuel 28:3-20 ) gives no warrant for attributing supernatural power to magicians. From the first the witch is here only a bystander. The practice of magic lingered among the people till after the Captivity, when they gradually abandoned it.
It is not much referred to in the New Testament. The Magi mentioned in 1618650131_1 were not magicians in the ordinary sense of the word. They belonged to a religious caste, the followers of Zoroaster, the astrologers of the East. Simon, a magician, was found by Philip at Samaria ( Acts 8:9-24 ); and Paul and Barnabas encountered Elymas, a Jewish sorcerer, at Paphos (13:6-12). At Ephesus there was a great destruction of magical books (Acts 19:18,19 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Divination And Magic
An attempt to contact supernatural powers to determine answers to questions hidden to humans and usually involving the future. The practice was widely known in the ancient Middle East, especially among the Babylonians who developed it into a highly respected discipline. Ezekiel 21:21 records, “For the king of Babylon stood at the parting of the way, at the head of the two ways, to use divination: he made his arrows bright, he consulted with images, he looked in the liver.”
The ancient Babylonians and Assyrians employed several methods. The Babylonians commonly used hepatoscopy, divination by the liver. The liver of a sacrificial animal by virtue of being considered the seat of life could be observed carefully by specially trained priests to determine the future activities of the gods. For this purpose the priests underwent ceremonial cleansings in preparing to interpret the livers which had carefully been divided into zones, each containing its own secrets. This was done before action was taken on any matter of real gravity. Clay models of animal livers apparently used as instructional tools in teaching the science of hepatoscopy appear in archaeological sites in Babylonia and in Palestine.
Other methods included augury (foretelling the future by natural signs, especially the flight of birds), hydromancy (divination by mixing liquids; see Genesis 44:5 ), casting lots (Jonah 1:7-8 ), astrology (2 Kings 21:5 ), necromancy (1 Samuel 28:7-25 ), observing the Urim and Thummim (1 Samuel 28:6 ), and by consulting the liver (Ezekiel 21:21 ).
The use of magic is seen often in the literature of the ancient Middle East, employed both by the gods and by human beings. As superhumans, the gods themselves were subject to the higher power of magic. In Enuma Elish, the Babylonian Creation Story, the god of wisdom, Ea, killed his father Apsu, god of the fresh river waters, after reciting a spell. In the same epic, Marduk, the leader of the pantheon, went into battle against Tiamat, goddess of the chaotic sea, with a talisman of red paste in his mouth. Likewise, Tiamat relied on the recitation of a charm to cast a spell. To demonstrate his supreme position in the godhead, Marduk through the magical power of his word caused a piece of cloth to vanish and to reappear. To assure her reappearance on the earth, Ishtar, the goddess of love and fertility, donned charms before descending to the underworld.
Similar beliefs in magic are evident from ancient Canaanite myths. The supreme Canaanite deity El acted to heal the ill king Keret by working magic. The goddess Anath through magical means restored the dead Baal to the earth. Paghat, the daughter of the legendary king Daniel, observed the movements of water and of the stars.
The Old Testament often attests to the practice of magic by the Hebrews themselves, reflecting how entrenched it was. Saul, the first Hebrew king, is said to have “put away those that had familiar spirits, and the wizards, out of the land” (1 Samuel 28:3 ), but even he later sought out a necromancer (1 Samuel 28:7 ). Jehu responded to the question of Joram, king of Israel, as to whether he came in peace, “What peace, so long as the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel and her witchcrafts are so many?” (2 Kings 9:22 ). Isaiah 2:6 accuses the house of Jacob of being “full of diviners from the east and of soothsayers like the Philistines” (NRSV). Isaiah 3:2-3 reflects that the society attaches the same importance to “the diviner,” “the skillful magician,” and “the expert in charms” as to “the mighty man, and the soldier, the judge, and the prophet” (RSV). Consequently, King Manasseh could make public use of such services ( 2 Chronicles 33:6 ). The people acted in a similar fashion. Jeremiah 27:9 admonishes the people not to heed “your [1] prophets, your diviners, your dreamers, your enchanters, or your sorcerers.” (Compare Jeremiah 29:8 ).
Although varying kinds of divination and magic are reported to have been practiced widely in ancient Israel and among her neighbors (Deuteronomy 18:9-14 ; 1 Samuel 6:2 ; Isaiah 19:3 ; Ezekiel 21:21 ; Daniel 2:2 ), Israel herself was clearly and firmly admonished to have no part in such activities. “You shall not practice augury or witchcraft” (Leviticus 19:26 RSV). “Do not turn to mediums or wizards; do not seek them out to be defiled by them” ( Leviticus 19:3 RSV). “If a person turns to mediums and wizards playing the harlot after them, I will set my face against that person and cut him off from among his people” ( Leviticus 20:6 RSV). “A man or a woman who is a medium or a wizard shall be put to death; they shall be stoned with stones, their blood shall be upon them” ( Leviticus 20:27 RSV). “When you come into the land which the Lord your God gives you, you shall not learn to follow the abominable practices of those nations. There shall not be found among you any one who burns his son or his daughter as an offering, any one who practices divination, a soothsayer, or an augur, or a sorcerer, or a charmer, or a medium, or a wizard, or a necromancer. For whoever does these things is an abomination to the Lord; and because of these abominable practices the Lord your God is driving them out before you. You shall be blameless before the Lord your God. For these nations, which you are about to dispossess, give heed to soothsayers and to diviners; but as for you, the Lord your God has not allowed you so to do” ( Deuteronomy 18:9-14 ). “You shall no more see delusive visions nor practice divination” (Ezekiel 13:23 RSV).
Karen Joines
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Magic, Divination, And Sorcery
MAGIC, DIVINATION, AND SORCERY. Magic, divination, sorcery, and witchcraft are all connected with belief in superhuman powers, and are methods whereby men endeavour to obtain from these powers knowledge of the future, or assistance in the affairs of life. Belief in magic and divination is most prevalent in the lower stages of civilization and religion. The arts of the magician and the diviner were founded upon the same logical processes as have issued in the development of modern science; but the limits within which deduction would be valid were disregarded, and the data were frequently imperfect. Accidental coincidence was often confused with causal sequence. (See Hastings’ DB [1] , art. ‘Divination’). Magic and divination were derived from attempts at reasoning which were very often erroneous; but from such crude beginnings science has slowly grown.
In their beginning these arts were associated with religion; and diviners and magicians were those thought to be most intimately connected with the Deity, and, owing to their superior knowledge of Him and His ways, best able to learn His secrets or secure His aid. Among the Arabs the priest was originally also the soothsayer ; the Heb. kôhçn , ‘priest,’ is cognate with the Arab. [2] kâhin , ‘soothsayer’; the primitive priest had charge of the shrine of the god, and both offered sacrifices and gave responses. In this manner classes of professional diviners and magicians arose, as in Egypt ( Genesis 41:8 , Exodus 7:11 ), in Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 ), in connexion with Baal ( 1 Kings 18:19 ), and even among the Israelites in the lower rank of professed prophets ( Micah 3:5-11 ; see G. A. Smith, Twelve Prophets , Introd.). Such officials were set apart for their office by some rite specially connecting them with the god, as the eating of a particular food, or the wearing of a sacred dress (cf. 2 Kings 1:8 , Zechariah 13:4 ). The animism, in which magical arts had their root, soon passed beyond the simple belief that Nature was peopled with spirits, and began to distinguish between good and evil spirits. When that distinction had been attained, the art of the magician and diviner also became subject to moral distinctions, according to the character of the spirit whose aid was sought and the purpose in view. This diversity in the moral characteristics of magic and divination is illustrated in the history of Israel; for divination is akin to some of the institutions sanctioned by God, such as the Urim and Thummim ( Exodus 28:30 , Leviticus 8:8 ), and it includes, at the other extreme, such necromancy as that of the witch of Endor. Among Semitic races and by the Egyptians, magic and divination were associated with the worship of various gods and the belief in the existence of a vast number of demons. With the gradual rise of religion in Israel under the teaching of God, early modes of prying into the future, and magical methods of seeking superhuman help, were slowly abandoned, and, as revelation became clearer, they were forbidden. The teaching of the inspired prophets of Jehovah was very different from that of the merely professional prophets and from the religion of the common people. Throughout pre-exilic times there was a struggle in Israel between the pure worship of Jehovah alone as inculcated by the great prophets, and the worship of ‘other gods,’ such as the local Canaanitish Baalim and idols in the homes of the people. In process of time magic and divination became closely linked with these illicit cults, and were consequently denounced by the great prophets; but at the same time the desire of the human heart to learn the future and to secure Divine help (which lies at the root of magic and divination) was met by God, purified, elevated, and satisfied by the revelation of His will through the prophets. God’s revelation was suited to the stage of spiritual development to which the people had attained, hence His prophets sometimes employed methods similar to those of divination; consequently some forms of divination are allowed to pass without censure in many passages of the Bible, but these were gradually put aside as the people were educated to a more spiritual conception of religion. On the other hand, as men sought to prognosticate the future by illicit commerce with false gods and spirits, magic and divination became generally degraded and divorced from all that is right and good. This explains the increasing severity with whic magic and divination are regarded in Scripture; nevertheless we find it recorded, without any adverse comment, that Daniel was made head of the ‘wise men’ of Babylon although these included magicians, enchanters, sorcerers, and ‘Chaldæans’ ( Daniel 2:2 ; Daniel 2:48 ); and that the wise men ( Matthew 2:1 ) were magi . (See Grimm-Thayer’s Lex . p. 385.) In explanation it may be said that reliance upon divination is a moral evil in proportion to the religious light vouchsafed to the individuals concerned; and God accommodated the methods of His teaching to the condition of those to whom He revealed Himself.
General course of the history of magic and divination in Israel. Several sources can be traced from which the Israelites derived their magical arts, and different periods are apparent at which these influences were felt.
( a ) From patriarchat times up to Israel’s contact with Assyria , most of their occult arts were the outcome of the beliefs common to Semitic peoples. Although their sojourn in Egypt brought them into contact with a civilized nation which greatly practised divination and sorcery, we cannot trace any sign that they borrowed many magical arts from the Egyptians at that time. In this early period of Israelitish history we find divination by teraphim , the interpretation of dreams, and necromancy, besides the authorized means of inquiry of God. The very earliest legislation enacts that witchcraft shall be punished by death ( Exodus 22:18 [3]); and we read that Saul put to death ‘those that had familiar spirits and the wizards ’ ( 1 Samuel 28:3 ).
( b ) Under the influence of the Assyrian advance southward , the small States of Palestine were driven into closer relations with one another, owing to the necessity of united opposition to the common foe. This was prejudicial to religion, through its rendering Israel more tolerant towards the gods of their allies ( e.g . the worship of the Phœnician Baal, fostered by Ahab), and by its favouring the introduction of methods of magic and divination in use among their neighbours (cf. Isaiah 2:6 , Jeremiah 10:2 ). This evil tendency was encouraged by Manasseh ( 2 Kings 21:6 ), but in the reformation of Josiah, idolatry, witchcraft, and the use of teraphim were suppressed ( 2 Kings 23:24 ) in accordance with Deuteronomy 18:10-12 (D [4] ).
( c ) The Captivity brought Israel into contact with a much more fully developed system of magic and divination than they had known before. In Babylon, not only were illicit magical practices widely indulged in, but the use of such arts was recognized by their being entrusted to a privileged class ( Daniel 2:2 ). The officials are here denominated ‘ magicians ’ ( chartummîm , scribes who were acquainted with occult arts), ‘ enchanters ’ ( ’ashshâphîm , prob. a Bab. [5] word meaning ‘those who used conjurations,’ but its derivation is uncertain), ‘ sorcerers ’ ( mĕkashshĕphîm , in its root-meaning perhaps indicating those who mixed ingredients for magical purposes [6] pharmakoi ], but this is not certain), and ‘ Chaldæans ’ ( kasdîm , a name which, from being a national designation, had come to mean those who were skilled in the occult lore of Babylonia and could interpret dreams). Recent discoveries have revealed that the Babylonians believed in a vast number of demons who could be compelled by proper spells; also they practised astrology ( Isaiah 47:12-13 ), augury from the inspection of victims ( Ezekiel 21:21 ), the tying of magic knots, and the designation of fortunate and unfavourable days.
( d ) Egyptian influences were strongly felt in the century before, and the one following, the Christian era. The Mishna shows the presence of a very strong tendency to occult sciences, and in the NT we find examples of Jews who practised them in Simon Magus ( Acts 8:9 ) and Elymas ( Acts 13:8 ). Among the Alexandrian Jews, and later by the Alexandrian Gnostics, magic was much used, and the name of Jehovah in various forms entited into their spells and the inscriptions upon their amulets. Books of incantations , reputed to have been the work of Solomon, were extant, and the Babylonian Talmud is full of superstition (Schürer, HJP [7] ii. iii. 152). Such books and charms were burnt at Ephesus when their owners became Christians ( Acts 19:19 ). So celebrated was Ephesus for its magic, that ‘Ephesian letters’ was a common name for amulets made of leather, wood, or metal on which a magic spell was written (Farrar, St. Paul , ii. 26).
A. Distinguishing divination , in which prominence is given to the desire to know the future, from magic , which has for its object power to do something by supernatural aid, we have now to inquire into the modes of divination and magic which appear in the Scriptures.
Forms of divination mentioned in the Bible
( a ) The casting of lots . The casting of lots was founded on the belief that God would so direct the result as to indicate His will ( Proverbs 16:33 ). It was employed: (1) In crises in national history and in individual lives . Most scholars consider that the phrase ‘enquire of God’ refers to the use of Urim and Thummim , which seems to have been of the nature of drawing lots. This occurs in the arrangements for the conquest of Canaan ( Judges 1:1 ), in the campaign against the Benjamites ( Judges 20:27 ), in David’s uncertainty after the death of Saul ( 2 Samuel 2:1 ), and in war ( 2 Samuel 5:19 ; 2 Samuel 5:23 ). The Phœnicians cast lots to discover the cause of the tempest ( Jonah 1:7 ). (2) In criminal investigation . It was employed to discover the wrongdoer in the cases of Achan ( Joshua 7:14 ) and Jonathan ( 1 Samuel 14:41-42 ). (3) In ritual . Lots were cast in reference to the scapegoat ( Leviticus 16:8 ). Two goats were brought, and lots were cast; one goat was offered as a sin-offering, and the other was sent away into the wilderness. (4) In dividing the land of Canaan ( Numbers 26:55 ; Numbers 33:54 ; Numbers 34:13 , Joshua 21:4 ; Joshua 21:6 ; Joshua 21:8 ). (5) In selecting men for special duties : the election of Saul ( 1 Samuel 10:20 ), the choice of the men to attack Gibeah ( Judges 20:9 ), the division of duties among the priests ( 1 Chronicles 24:5 ).
In most cases the method of casting the lot is not stated. Several ways were in use among the Israelites, some of which were directly sanctioned by God as a means of Divine guidance suited to the degree of religious knowledge attained by the people at the time. The following methods can be distinguished:
(i.) By Urim and Thummim . Although not certain, it is believed by most scholars that the Urim and Thummim were two stones which were carried in a pouch under the breastplate of the priest, and which were drawn out as lots (see Hastings’ DB [1] s.v . ‘Urim and Thummim’). In connexion with this the ephod is mentioned. In some passages this evidently means a priestly dress ( e.g . 1 Samuel 2:18 ; 1 Samuel 22:18 ), but in other references it is considered by some to have been an image of gold representing Jehovah ( Judges 8:25 ; Judges 8:27 ; Judges 18:14 [9]) or the gold sheathing of an image ( Isaiah 30:22 ), although in this passage some understand it as being a garment. The use of the ephod in connexion with the Urim and Thummim is not known. The employment of the Urim and Thummim for consulting God disappeared before the clearer guidance received through the inspired prophets. Apparently it had ceased by the time of Israel’s return from the Captivity ( Ezra 2:63 ). Inquiry respecting the future was also made of heathen deities ( 2 Kings 1:2 f.), and their responses were probably given by the drawing of lots.
(ii.) By belomancy and in other ways . The word qâsam (which is specially applied to the drawing of lots as with headless arrows) is used of divination generally and frequently translated ‘to divine.’ It is generally referred to unfavourably (except Proverbs 16:10 ). Arrows are once specified as the means by which the lot was cast ( Ezekiel 21:21-22 ). This practice is found among the Arabs, and was also used in Babylonia. Arrows with the alternatives written upon them were shaken in a quiver at a sanctuary, and the first to fall out was taken as conveying the decision of the god. Nebuchadnezzar is represented as deciding in this manner his line of march ( Ezekiel 21:21 ), and, as the result of casting the lot, holding in his hand ‘the divination Jerusalem,’ i.e . the arrow with ‘Jerusalem’ written upon it (see Driver, Deut . p. 224).
Without any indication of the method of divination, operations denoted by the word qesem appear among the Moabites (Balaam, Numbers 23:23 , payment being made for the service, Numbers 22:7 ), among the Philistines ( 1 Samuel 6:2 ), and among the Babylonians ( Isaiah 44:25 ). It also appears as a method of the lower rank of prophets in Israel ( Micah 3:8-11 , Ezekiel 13:6 ; Ezekiel 13:9 ; Ezekiel 22:28 ). Prophets are named in connexion with diviners ( qôsĕmîm , Jeremiah 27:9 ; Jeremiah 29:8 ). The word is used in relation to necromancy and the consultation of teraphim ( 1 Samuel 15:23 ; 1Sa 28:8 , 2 Kings 17:17 , Zechariah 10:2 ). The practice is forbidden in Deuteronomy 18:10 .
(iii.) By rhabdomancy . This is alluded to in Hosea 4:12 . Probably pieces of stick were used for drawing lots, as in the case of divination by arrows.
( b ) Dreams and visions . Numerous instances occur in which Divine intimations were communicated to men by dreams and visions. (1) In so far as these were spontaneous and unsought, they do not properly belong to the domain of divination. Such occur in Genesis 20:8 ; Genesis 28:12 ; Genesis 31:10 ; Genesis 31:24 ; Gen 37:5 , 1 Kings 3:5 , Matthew 1:20 ; Matthew 2:12 ; Matthew 27:19 . Dreams are spoken of as a legitimate channel for God’s communications to His prophets and others ( Numbers 12:6 , 1 Samuel 28:6 , Job 33:15 , Joel 2:28 ). (2) But the belief in Divine warnings through dreams came very near to divination when Interpreters were sought to make clear their meaning, as in Egypt ( Genesis 40:5 ff; Genesis 41:1 Peterharaoh calls the chartummîm a word used only in the sense of scribes possessed of occult knowledge), among the Midianites ( Judges 7:13 ), and in Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 ). (3) Dreams were sought by the prophets of a lower order in Israel, and it is known that among the Egyptians and other ancient nations special means, such as fasting or drugs, were used to induce them, from the belief that they were Divine communications. In Egypt it was a common practice for worshippers to sleep within the precincts of the temples in order to obtain intimations by dreams, and some devotees lived by the rewards received by them for recounting the dreams which had come to them in the temple. References to misleading divination by dreams occur in Deuteronomy 13:1-5 (prophets were to he judged by the character of their teaching and to be put to death if they favoured idolatry), Jeremiah 23:25-28 ; Jeremiah 27:9 ; Jeremiah 29:8 , Zechariah 10:2 .
Vision ( châzôn , with its cognate words) has a similarly wide application, extending from the God-given experiences of the higher prophets to the misleading predictions of false prophets. Instances of its highest signification occur in Isaiah 1:1 ; Isaiah 2:1 , Amos 1:1 , Micah 1:1 . The word is used respecting the deception practised by lower prophets, as in Numbers 24:3 ; Numbers 24:16 , where reference is apparently made to the seer receiving the intimation in a trance, but the interpretation is not quite certain (see Gray, Numbers , p. 361); other physical phenomena appear in connexion with prophesying ( 1 Samuel 10:10 ; 1 Samuel 19:18-24 ; see G. A. Smith, Twelve Prophets , i. p. 21). The word also appears in connexion with false prophets ( Isaiah 28:7 ; Isaiah 30:10 , Lamentations 2:14 , Ezekiel 12:24 ; Ezekiel 13:6 , Ezekiel 13:16 , 28; Ezekiel 21:29 ; Ezekiel 22:28 , Zechariah 10:2 ).
( c ) Observation of omens ( augury ). nâchash , tr. [10] ‘to divine’ or ‘to use enchantments,’ the agent being called ‘an enchanter’ ( Deuteronomy 18:10 ), means ‘to learn by means of omens.’ Very probably the expression is derived from nâchâsh , ‘a serpent,’ with the underlying idea that the intimation was obtained by the worshipper through the assistance of the serpent-god; another, but less likely, derivation is from the ‘hissing’ or ‘whispering’ tones of the diviner. The word is very frequently used with a bad sense attaching to it.
Words were sometimes taken as omens of the future (1 Kings 20:33 RVm [11] ‘took it as an omen,’ also 1 Samuel 14:16 ). The movements of animals also constituted omens. It was considered by the Arabs that some animals, under the influence of a higher power, could see what was invisible to men, and consequently their action became an omen. It would be quite in accordance with this that Balaam’s ass should see what was hidden from her master ( Numbers 22:27 ); a similar belief in the significance of the movements of animals is shown in the lords of the Philistines watching the way the kine took with the ark of God ( 1 Samuel 6:12 ).
The methods of divination by omens are often unexpressed, as Genesis 30:27 , Leviticus 19:26 , 2Ki 17:17 ; 2 Kings 21:8 , 2 Chronicles 33:6 . The following practices in divination by omens appear: (i.) By hydromancy ( Genesis 44:5 ). In Egypt it was common to attempt to divine the future by the appearance of the liquid in a goblet or dish. (ii.) By the observation of the clouds . The clouds were carefully studied by diviners among the Chaldæans, and the word ônçn seems to indicate this practice as existing among the Hebrews and Philistines ( Isaiah 2:5 ; see Cheyne, Isaiah , vol. i. p. 17). Driver, however, leaves the kind of divination undecided, and suggests a derivation from an Arabic root meaning ‘to murmur’ or ‘whisper,’ the reference being to the mutterings of the soothsayer ( Deut . p. 224). Perhaps it meant the bringing of clouds by magic arts, as in Jeremiah 14:22 (see Delitzsch on Isaiah 2:6 ). It has also been suggested that the word is a denominative from ayin (‘eye’), and means ‘to glance with an evil eye.’ This form of augury was forbidden ( Leviticus 19:26 , Deuteronomy 18:10 ), and those practising it were denounced ( Micah 5:12 , Jeremiah 27:9 ). Manasseh fostered it ( 2 Kings 21:8 , 2 Chronicles 33:6 ). (iii.) By astrology . The stare were very early believed to have an influence on the fortunes of men ( Judges 5:20 , Job 38:33 ). Professional astrologers were prominent among the Assyrians and Babylonians, among whom a standard astrological work was constructed as early as the 16th cent. b.c. (Cheyne, Isaiah , vol. i. p. 310). Babylonian astrology, with its announcement of coming events and notification of favourable and unpropitious days (such as are now extant on Babylonian clay tablets), is mentioned in Isaiah 47:13 ; but astrology does not seem to have been practised by Israel in early times; Jeremiah speaks of it as ‘the way of the nations,’ and warns the people against it. In later times astrology was regarded by the Jews in a less unfavourable lignt: e.g . Daniel 2:48 , where Daniel is made chief of ten wise men who included astrologers (cf. Matthew 2:1-23 , where the wise men, who appear to have been astrologers, were met by God in their darkness, and led to the infant Saviour [12]). (iv.) By inspecting victims . Forecasting the future from the appearance of the livers of victims is mentioned in Ezekiel 21:21 . This was common in Babylon (Diod. Sic. ii. 29) and also among the Romans (Cic. de Divin . ii. 12). It does not appear to have been in use among the Israelites; the sacrifices of Balaam ( Numbers 23:1 ; Numbers 23:14 ) were not for this purpose, but to propitiate the deity consulted.
Connected with the use of omens is the appointment of ‘ signs ’ by prophets to assist their consultors in believing what they predicted. Signs were given by God and His prophets as well as by false prophets; these were exhibitions of Divine power in smaller matters by which men might be enabled to trust God in things of greater moment ( Judges 6:36 ); or they were Instances of truth in small predictions, to awaken confidence in greater promises or threatenings ( Exodus 4:8 ; Exodus 10:2 , Isaiah 7:11 ); or they were simply the attachment of particular meaning to ordinary facts to remind men of God’s promises or threats ( Genesis 9:12 ; Genesis 17:11 , Isaiah 8:18 , Ezekiel 12:11 , Zechariah 3:8 ). In the time of Christ such signs were demanded by the Jews ( Matthew 12:38 ; Matthew 16:1 , Luke 11:16 , John 4:46 , 1 Corinthians 1:22 ). Cf. art. Sion.
( d ) Necromancy and familiar spirits. Of these there were two kinds: (1) A spirit (primarily a subterranean spirit, ’ôb ) was conceived as dwelling in a human being ( Leviticus 20:27 ), most commonly in a woman. Those thus possessed were sometimes called ’ôbôth ( Isaiah 8:19 ), or the woman was denominated ba‘alath’ôb ( 1 Samuel 28:7 ). Another explanation (H. P. Smith, Samuel , p. 239) makes the ’ôb a sort of idol, on the ground that Manasseh ‘made’ an ’ôb ( 2 Kings 21:6 ) and that it is classed with teraphim ( 2 Kings 23:24 ). These necromancers professed to have the power of call
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Magic
People have from earliest times had the urge to use supernatural (occult) forces to help them know the future. The foretelling of events in this way is sometimes called divination (Acts 16:16-18). Magic, witchcraft and sorcery go beyond divination in that they seek to use occult powers not merely to foretell future events but also to influence those events.
Such magic often has an evil intent, being directed at enemies by means of curses, spells and ritualistic actions. Sometimes it may have a partly good intent in trying to reverse evil spells and curses (Numbers 24:1; Numbers 24:10; 1 Samuel 6:2; Colossians 3:1-371; 2 Kings 21:6; Ezekiel 13:17-192; Revelation 9:21). But divination and sorcery derive their power from the demons of the spirit world, and for this reason the Bible condemns them (Leviticus 19:26; Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6; Leviticus 20:27; Deuteronomy 18:10-11; 2 Kings 21:6; 2 Kings 23:24; Galatians 5:19-20; Revelation 9:21; Revelation 21:8; Revelation 22:15). Sorcerers often used their powers in deliberate opposition to God (Acts 13:8; Acts 19:19; 2 Timothy 3:8).
Among the methods of divination and sorcery mentioned in the Bible are throwing arrows into the air and observing the pattern formed when they fall (Ezekiel 21:21), consulting idolatrous figures or images (Ezekiel 21:21), looking into the liver of a sacrificed animal (Ezekiel 21:21), consulting the spirits of the dead (1 Samuel 28:8-9), studying the movements of the stars (Isaiah 47:13), gazing into a bowl or large cup of water (Genesis 44:5; Genesis 44:15) and using wristbands and veils in weird rituals to cast deadly spells over people (1618650131_23). Magicians were among the chief advisers to kings in many ancient countries (Exodus 7:11; Daniel 2:2).
Divination, witchcraft and all these associated practices are contrary to the ways of God, not only because they depend on evil spiritual powers for their operation, but also because they are a denial of faith. True believers walk humbly with their God, accepting that, no matter what the circumstances, God is still in control of their affairs. Having been saved by faith, they now live by faith (Galatians 2:20; Ephesians 4:17-24; Colossians 1:11-13; Hebrews 11:6).
Jesus Christ has triumphed over all the unseen powers of evil, and through him believers too can triumph (Ephesians 1:19-21; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 2:8-10; 1618650131_4). They believe in the power of the living Christ, but they do not treat that power as if it is magical (Acts 19:13-16).
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Magic
Magic was the art of influencing future events and changing their course by dark and secret means. Of the religion of the Egyptians, Chaldæans, Persians, etc., magic formed an essential element, and of the Egyptian magicians, in their conflict with Moses and Aaron, Exodus gives a vivid account. 7:11, 12, 22; 8:7. Of the religion of the Jews magic did not only not form a part, but the law forbade the consulting of magicians, under penalty of death. Leviticus 19:31; Leviticus 20:6. Nevertheless, from their neighbors magic crept in among the Israelites. The most remarkable instance is that of Saul and the sorceress of Endor. 1 Samuel 28:3-20. Also in the New Testament we find it mentioned. Acts 8:9.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Magic Bands
Bands or cushions placed on the wrist in magical practices (Ezekiel 13:18 ,Ezekiel 13:18,13:20 ). The KJV translates “pillows.” Their precise nature is unknown. Apparently they represented part of a diviner's paraphanalia used to determine the destinies the gods had determined. See Kerchiefs .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Band, Magic
See Magic Bands .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Magic
The Old Testament . Magic—the attempt to exploit supernatural powers by formulaic recitations to achieve goals that were otherwise unrealizablewas seen in a negative light in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:26,31 ; 20:6 ; 1 Samuel 28:9 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 44:25 ; 57:3 ; Jeremiah 27:9 ; Ezekiel 22:28 ; Micah 5:12 ; Nahum 3:4 ; Malachi 3:5 ) and was banned under penalty of death (Exodus 22:18 ; Leviticus 20:27 ; Deuteronomy 18:10-11 ). However, many Canaanite magical practices were later widespread in the divided monarchy: Jezebel practiced sorcery (2 Kings 9:22 ); Manasseh encouraged divination (2 Kings 21:6 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 ); Hebrew seers and diviners practiced the magic arts (Micah 3:7 ); and Isaiah condemned women who wore charms (Isaiah 3:18-23 ). The multiplicity of terminology used in the bans testifies that magic was a pervasive problem in the Israelite world. However, many of the banned terms (primarily in Deuteronomy 18:10-11 ) have defied easy explanation, including child sacrifice (possibly used for divinatory purposes Deuteronomy 18:10 ; 2 Kings 21:6 ), types of divination (Numbers 23:23 ; Deuteronomy 18:10-11 ; 1 Samuel 15:23 ; 2 Kings 17:17 ; Micah 3:6 ), sorceries (Exodus 22:18 ; Deuteronomy 18:11 ; Jeremiah 27:9 ; Micah 5:12 ; Malachi 3:5 ), and necromancy (1 Samuel 28 ).
Magic was considered an aspect of pagan wisdom; magicians were counted as wise men (Psalm 58:5 ; Daniel 1:20 ; 2:13 ) and officials of foreign governments (Genesis 41:6 ; Exodus 7:11 ; Daniel 2:2 ). Different from pagan sources, the Old Testament writers did not see a connection between magic and the gods. Foreign magicians in Scripture did not invoke help of their gods for magical formulas, but often called upon self-operating forces that were independent of the gods (Isaiah 47:13 ; the monotheistic Israelites did not accept the existence of the foreign gods ). Moreover, the biblical writers seemed to attribute a reality to magical power that it did not ascribe to the gods. Magic was considered human rebellion that unlocked divine secrets, making humanity equal with God.
Although there was a formal ban on magic, Israelite religion appeared on the surface to have adopted some Canaanite magical practices. There are many references scattered throughout the Old Testament to various imitative magical practices, including the use of clothing (2 Kings 2:13-14 ), magic staffs (Exodus 7:9 ), hands (2 Kings 5:11 ), mandrakes (Genesis 30:14-18 ), instruments (2 Kings 6:7 ), hair (Judges 16:17 ), whispering (2 Samuel 12:19 ), spells (Joshua 10:12 ), belomancy (1 Samuel 20:20-22 ), hydromancy (Exodus 15:25 ), and various blessings, curses, and dreams. Old Testament ceremonial regulations appear to have had a magical flavor to them. Animals for sacrifice had to be the proper age, sex, and color; many were probably not used because they were utilized in the magic arts of the Canaanites (Deuteronomy 14:21 ).
However, foreign materials and technical terms of magic were simply used as vehicles of expression in Israelite religion. The magical features preserved ancient elements whose original meaning had been radically altered. The writers stripped the magical actions of their autonomous power and made them serve as vehicles of God's will. Yahweh's name was invoked by the miracle worker (Exodus 7:8-9 ; 15:25 ; 1 Kings 17:21 ; 2 Kings 2:14 ). Miracles were merely signs validating the mission of the prophet, who did not work by his skill but by the power of Yahweh (Exodus 3:14-17 ; Deuteronomy 13:2-3 ; Judges 6:17,36 ; 1 Kings 18:36 ; Isaiah 7:10-11 ). The writers took great pains to show that Moses was helpless without God (Exodus 4:10 ; 6:12,30 ). Even Balaam, both a magician and prophet, could only do God's will (Numbers 23:12 ). God could overturn a curse and make it a blessing (Psalm 109:28 ). The man of God healed the sick, revealed hidden things, performed wonders, and pronounced curses and blessings, just like a pagan magician. However, it was not done with any technical skill, nor were these people praised for any wisdom (2 Kings 5:11 ). All procedures were commonplace and untraditional.
The Israelites viewed divination as a subsidiary of magic. The biblical writers banned all of the foreign techniques employed for divinatory oracles (Leviticus 20:6,27 ; Deuteronomy 18:10 ; 1 Samuel 28:3 ; 2 Kings 23:24 ; Isaiah 2:6 ; 8:19 ; 57:3 ; Ezekiel 13:17 ), including hydromancy (Genesis 44:5,15 ) and astrology (Isaiah 47:13 ; Jeremiah 10:2 ). They were distinguished from inquiries of Yahweh (Urim and Thummin, Numbers 27:21 ; ephod, 1 Samuel 23:9 ; lots, Numbers 26:55 ; dreams, 1 Samuel 28:6 ) on the grounds that divination was a custom of the nations. However, the Israelites believed in its power (1 Samuel 28:8-20 ). As with magic, the biblical writers did not view divination as connected with the gods, but instead considered it a magic or wisdom art that revealed secrets of God in a wrong way (Isaiah 19:3 ; Ezekiel 21:26 ; Hosea 4:12 ). Thus, the divinatory technician trusted in omens and in human wisdom, rather than in God. Inquiry was acceptable, as long as it was only to God and confirmed by him (Judges 6:36 ; 7:4 ; 2 Samuel 5:23 ). The Israelites preferred the simple technique of lot inquiry, addressing God and relying on his decision instead of going through an elaborate system of ritual. In sum, they did not reject divination in the strictest sense, but approved of the technique of inquiring of God to learn of his decisions.
The New Testament . Magical practices were also prevalent in the New Testament world. Although the New Testament writers did not explicitly condemn magic, none who practiced magic arts were described in a flattering way. There were numerous warnings against sorcery (Gk. pharmakos [ Galatians 5:20 ; Revelation 9:21 ; 18:23 ; 21:8 ; 22:15 ).
New Testament Christians viewed magical practices like their Old Testament counterparts. Although Simon the magician (Gk. magos [ Matthew 2:1-16 ; Acts 13:6-8 ) was severely criticized by Peter (Acts 8:9-24 ), the efficacy of his power was not denied, and he was considered dangerous. The story of Bar-Jesus (who attempted to resist Paul and Barnabas Acts 13:4-12 ) was used by the writer to exhibit the differences between Christ and magic. The only other magicians mentioned by name were Jannes and Jambres, the Egyptian priests of Moses' time (2 Timothy 3:6-8 ); these names were noted in later Jewish writings and even by Pliny the Elder, who thought Moses was one of the Egyptian magicians (Natural History 30,1 11). These two were looked upon by Paul as examples of those who opposed the truth. The one who had a spirit of divination (Gk. pneuma python normally a spirit connected with the Delphic oracle Acts 16:16 ) was forced to acknowledge Jesus, but the apostles did not accept this testimony because of the ungodly source. The burning of books on magic arts (Acts 19:19-20 ) was seen as a sign that the word of the Lord was growing. Seducers (a term that probably signified a spell-binding magician 2 Timothy 3:13 ) were thought by Paul to be deceived, and Paul claimed figuratively that the Galatians had been bewitched (Galatians 3:1 ). He likely alluded to magical practices in his treatment of heresy in Colossians 2:8-23 .
Many of the accepted practices in the New Testament (exorcisms, faith healing, and the use of lots Acts 1:26 ) could have been construed by the Gentiles as similar to their own rituals. In fact, there were some linguistic similarities between words used for exorcism and healing in the New Testament and pagan magical rites. The Gentiles saw miracles as magical in nature, and thus confused those of the apostles with their own magic (Acts 8:9-11 ). The exorcisms of Jesus appeared to some as magical (Matthew 12:25-37 ; Mark 3:23-30 ; Luke 11:17-20 ), as well as his use of saliva to heal the blind (Mark 7:33 ). In fact, some rabbinical references claimed that Jesus was a magician. But the New Testament writers regarded Jesus and the apostles' miraculous Acts as of divine origin. The healing of the woman with the issue of blood was done because of her faith (Matthew 9:20-22 ; Mark 5:25-34 ; Luke 9:34-38 ), not by magic.
Mark W. Chavalas
See also Divination ; Idol, Idolatry
Bibliography . H. C. Brichto, The Problem of "Curse" in the Hebrew Bible ; A. Guillaume, Prophecy and Divination Among the Hebrews and Other Semites ; H. Huggman, The Word of the Lord Shall Go Forth :Essays in Honor of David Noel Freedman inCelebration of His Sixtieth Birthday, pp. 355-59; S. Iwry, JAOS 81 (1961): 27-34; J. Lindbloom, VT 12 (1962): 164-78; M. Unger, Biblical Demonology ; R. B. Zuck, Bibliotheca Sacra 128 (1971): 362-60.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Magic
See Divination.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Magic
A science which teaches to produce surprising and extraordinary effects; a correspondence with bad spirits, by means of which a person is able to perform surprising things. This was strictly forbidden by the law of God, on pain of death, Leviticus 19:31 .
Webster's Dictionary - Magic
(1):
(a.) A comprehensive name for all of the pretended arts which claim to produce effects by the assistance of supernatural beings, or departed spirits, or by a mastery of secret forces in nature attained by a study of occult science, including enchantment, conjuration, witchcraft, sorcery, necromancy, incantation, etc.
(2):
(a.) Alt. of Magical
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Magic
In the Bible, all the superstitious ceremonies of magicians, sorcerers, enchanters, necromancers, spiritualists, exorcists, astrologers, soothsayers, interpreters of dreams, fortune-tellers, casters of nativities, etc., which are all forbidden by the law of God, whether practiced to hurt or to benefit mankind. It was also forbidden to consult magicians on pain of death, Leviticus 19:31 20:6 . See ENCHANTMENTS and SORCERERS.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Magic, Magicians
Magic is "the science or practice of evoking spirits, or educing the occult powers of nature to produce effects apparently supernatural." It formed an essential element in many ancient religions, especially among the Persians, Chaldeans and Egyptians. The Hebrews had no magic of their own. It was so strictly forbidden by the law that it could never afterward have had any: recognized existence, save in times of general heresy or apostasy and the same was doubtless the case in the patriarchal ages. The magical practices which obtained among the Hebrews were therefore borrowed from the nations around. From the first entrance into the land of promise until the destruction of Jerusalem we have constant glimpses of magic practiced in secret, or resorted to not alone by the common but also as the great. It is a distinctive characteristic of the Bible that from first to last it warrants no such trust or dread. Laban attached great value to, and was in the habit of consulting, images. (Genesis 31:30,32 ) During the plagues in Egypt the magicians appear. (Exodus 7:11 ; 8:18,19 ) Balaam also practiced magic. (Numbers 22:7 ) Saul consulted the witch of Endor. An examination of the various notices of magic in the Bible gives this general result: They do not, act far as can be understood, once state positively that any but illusive results were produced by magical rites. (Even the magicians of Egypt could imitate the plagues sent through Moses only so long as they had previous notice and time to prepare. The time Moses sent the plague unannounced the magicians failed; they "did so with their enchantments," but in vain. So in the case of the witch of Endor. Samuel appearance was apparently unexpected by her; he did not come through the enchantments. --Ed.) The Scriptures therefore afford no evidence that man can gain supernatural powers to use at his will. This consequence goes some way toward showing that we may conclude that there is no such thing se real magic; for although it is dangerous to reason on negative evidence, yet in a case of this kind it is especially strong. [1]

Sentence search

Magically - ) In a Magical manner; by Magic, or as if by Magic
Witch - A female whose work was in divination and Magic. See Divination and Magic
Demonomagy - ) Magic in which the aid of demons is invoked; black or infernal Magic
Theurgy - ) A kind of Magical science or art developed in Alexandria among the Neoplatonists, and supposed to enable man to influence the will of the gods by means of purification and other sacramental rites. ) A divine work; a miracle; hence, Magic; sorcery. ) In later or modern Magic, that species of Magic in which effects are claimed to be produced by supernatural agency, in distinction from natural Magic
Occult Art - At present, occult art is limited to practises in which invisible, spiritual powers or agencies are experimented with for the purpose of securing information from them or enlisting their aid; such as Magic, theosophy, spiritism, divination, and witchcraft. Magic is traceable back to the Chaldeans and Persians whose priests, because they were supposed to be learned in secret lore, were called magi (plural of magus). The art of Magic consists in actually experimenting with spiritual beings or forces, consulting them, enlisting their aid. Magic may be harmless; like the "white" Magic of sleight-of-hand artists as the late Herman or Houdini, who combined cleverness and skill with some knowledge of psychology. The reality of such phenomena and of the power to produce them is admitted in the Christian Church, but the practise, or art, of Magic is condemned
Occultism - At present, occult art is limited to practises in which invisible, spiritual powers or agencies are experimented with for the purpose of securing information from them or enlisting their aid; such as Magic, theosophy, spiritism, divination, and witchcraft. Magic is traceable back to the Chaldeans and Persians whose priests, because they were supposed to be learned in secret lore, were called magi (plural of magus). The art of Magic consists in actually experimenting with spiritual beings or forces, consulting them, enlisting their aid. Magic may be harmless; like the "white" Magic of sleight-of-hand artists as the late Herman or Houdini, who combined cleverness and skill with some knowledge of psychology. The reality of such phenomena and of the power to produce them is admitted in the Christian Church, but the practise, or art, of Magic is condemned
Sorcery - See Magic
Witch - (See DIVINATION; Magic
Bewitch - See Magic
Band, Magic - See Magic Bands
Warlockry - ) Impishness; Magic
Ramarye - ) Necromancy; Magic
Magic - Magic was the art of influencing future events and changing their course by dark and secret means. , Magic formed an essential element, and of the Egyptian Magicians, in their conflict with Moses and Aaron, Exodus gives a vivid Magic did not only not form a part, but the law forbade the consulting of Magicians, under penalty of death. Nevertheless, from their neighbors Magic crept in among the Israelites
Enchanter - See Magic; Sorcery; Divination
Astrology, Astronomy - See Magic, etc
Soothsayer - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Wizard - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Sorcery - Magic, conjuration
Necromancy - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Omens - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Ordeal - See Magic, p
Enchantment - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Incantations - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Conjury - ) The practice of Magic; enchantment
Augury - See Magic, Divination and Sorcery
Sciopticon - ) A kind of Magic lantern
Divination - See Magic, Divination, and Sorcery
Witch, Witchcraft - See Magic Divination and Sorcery
Mice - See Mouse, and Magic, 569 b
Arrow - See Armour, and Magic Divination, etc
Lots - See Magic (567f
Prognosticator - See Magic Divination and Sorcery, and Stars
Magus - See Bar-Jesus, Magi, Magic, and Simon Magus
Wizardry - ) The character or practices o/ wizards; sorcery; Magic
Black Art - The art practiced by conjurers and witches; necromancy; conjuration; Magic
Charm - See Amulets and Chakms; and Magic Divination and Sorcery
Sorcerer - See Divination and Magic
Thaumaturgy - ) The act or art of performing something wonderful; Magic; legerdemain
Kid - See Goat, and (for Exodus 23:19 ) Magic, p
Prognosticators - See Divination and Magic
Magician - One skilled in Magic one that practices the black art an enchanter a necromancer a sorcerer or sorceress
Tantra - ) A ceremonial treatise related to Puranic and Magic literature; esp
Magician - ) One skilled in Magic; one who practices the black art; an enchanter; a necromancer; a sorcerer or sorceress; a conjurer
Magical - Hence: Seemingly requiring more than human power; imposing or startling in performance; producing effects which seem supernatural or very extraordinary; having extraordinary properties; as, a Magic lantern; a Magic square or circle
Conjure - ) To practice Magical arts; to use the tricks of a conjurer; to juggle; to charm. ) To affect or effect by conjuration; to call forth or send away by Magic arts; to excite or alter, as if by Magic or by the aid of supernatural powers
Megascope - ) A modification of the Magic lantern, used esp
Observer of Times - See Divination and Magic
Magic, Magicians - Magic is "the science or practice of evoking spirits, or educing the occult powers of nature to produce effects apparently supernatural. The Hebrews had no Magic of their own. The Magical practices which obtained among the Hebrews were therefore borrowed from the nations around. From the first entrance into the land of promise until the destruction of Jerusalem we have constant glimpses of Magic practiced in secret, or resorted to not alone by the common but also as the great. (Genesis 31:30,32 ) During the plagues in Egypt the Magicians appear. (Exodus 7:11 ; 8:18,19 ) Balaam also practiced Magic. An examination of the various notices of Magic in the Bible gives this general result: They do not, act far as can be understood, once state positively that any but illusive results were produced by Magical rites. (Even the Magicians of Egypt could imitate the plagues sent through Moses only so long as they had previous notice and time to prepare. The time Moses sent the plague unannounced the Magicians failed; they "did so with their enchantments," but in vain. This consequence goes some way toward showing that we may conclude that there is no such thing se real Magic; for although it is dangerous to reason on negative evidence, yet in a case of this kind it is especially strong
Charm - Human grace and attractiveness; Magic objects intended to ward off evil; and a method used to prevent poisonous snakes from biting. Magic charms sewn as wristbands (Ezekiel 13:18 NIV) to ward off evil spirits and diseases receive prophetic condemnation. Snake charmers exercised power in the community because they knew “magic words” or “magic acts” to prevent poisonous snakes from harming people
Tel-Harsha - (tehl-hahr' sshuh) Place name meaning, “mound of the forest” or “mound of Magic
Chromatrope - ) A device in a Magic lantern or stereopticon to produce kaleidoscopic effects
Astromancy - ) A species of divination, by means of glasses or other round, transparent vessels, in the center of which figures are supposed to appear by Magic art
Magic - Magic—the attempt to exploit supernatural powers by formulaic recitations to achieve goals that were otherwise unrealizablewas seen in a negative light in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:26,31 ; 20:6 ; 1 Samuel 28:9 ; Isaiah 8:19 ; 44:25 ; 57:3 ; Jeremiah 27:9 ; Ezekiel 22:28 ; Micah 5:12 ; Nahum 3:4 ; Malachi 3:5 ) and was banned under penalty of death (Exodus 22:18 ; Leviticus 20:27 ; Deuteronomy 18:10-11 ). However, many Canaanite Magical practices were later widespread in the divided monarchy: Jezebel practiced sorcery (2 Kings 9:22 ); Manasseh encouraged divination (2 Kings 21:6 ; 2 Chronicles 33:6 ); Hebrew seers and diviners practiced the Magic arts (Micah 3:7 ); and Isaiah condemned women who wore charms (Isaiah 3:18-23 ). The multiplicity of terminology used in the bans testifies that Magic was a pervasive problem in the Israelite world. ...
Magic was considered an aspect of pagan wisdom; Magicians were counted as wise men (Acts 19:19-20 ; Daniel 1:20 ; 2:13 ) and officials of foreign governments (Genesis 41:6 ; Exodus 7:11 ; Daniel 2:2 ). Different from pagan sources, the Old Testament writers did not see a connection between Magic and the gods. Foreign Magicians in Scripture did not invoke help of their gods for Magical formulas, but often called upon self-operating forces that were independent of the gods (Isaiah 47:13 ; the monotheistic Israelites did not accept the existence of the foreign gods ). Moreover, the biblical writers seemed to attribute a reality to Magical power that it did not ascribe to the gods. Magic was considered human rebellion that unlocked divine secrets, making humanity equal with God. ...
Although there was a formal ban on Magic, Israelite religion appeared on the surface to have adopted some Canaanite Magical practices. There are many references scattered throughout the Old Testament to various imitative Magical practices, including the use of clothing (2 Kings 2:13-14 ), Magic staffs (Exodus 7:9 ), hands (2 Kings 5:11 ), mandrakes (Genesis 30:14-18 ), instruments (2 Kings 6:7 ), hair (Judges 16:17 ), whispering (2 Samuel 12:19 ), spells (Deuteronomy 13:2-3 ), belomancy (1 Samuel 20:20-22 ), hydromancy (Exodus 15:25 ), and various blessings, curses, and dreams. Old Testament ceremonial regulations appear to have had a Magical flavor to them. Animals for sacrifice had to be the proper age, sex, and color; many were probably not used because they were utilized in the Magic arts of the Canaanites (Deuteronomy 14:21 ). ...
However, foreign materials and technical terms of Magic were simply used as vehicles of expression in Israelite religion. The Magical features preserved ancient elements whose original meaning had been radically altered. The writers stripped the Magical actions of their autonomous power and made them serve as vehicles of God's will. Even Balaam, both a Magician and prophet, could only do God's will (Numbers 23:12 ). The man of God healed the sick, revealed hidden things, performed wonders, and pronounced curses and blessings, just like a pagan Magician. ...
The Israelites viewed divination as a subsidiary of Magic. As with Magic, the biblical writers did not view divination as connected with the gods, but instead considered it a Magic or wisdom art that revealed secrets of God in a wrong way (Isaiah 19:3 ; Ezekiel 21:26 ; Hosea 4:12 ). Magical practices were also prevalent in the New Testament world. Although the New Testament writers did not explicitly condemn Magic, none who practiced Magic arts were described in a flattering way. ...
New Testament Christians viewed Magical practices like their Old Testament counterparts. Although Simon the Magician (Gk. The story of Bar-Jesus (who attempted to resist Paul and Barnabas Acts 13:4-12 ) was used by the writer to exhibit the differences between Christ and Magic. The only other Magicians mentioned by name were Jannes and Jambres, the Egyptian priests of Moses' time (1618650131_23 ); these names were noted in later Jewish writings and even by Pliny the Elder, who thought Moses was one of the Egyptian Magicians (Natural History 30,1 11). The burning of books on Magic arts (Psalm 58:5 ) was seen as a sign that the word of the Lord was growing. Seducers (a term that probably signified a spell-binding Magician 2 Timothy 3:13 ) were thought by Paul to be deceived, and Paul claimed figuratively that the Galatians had been bewitched (Galatians 3:1 ). He likely alluded to Magical practices in his treatment of heresy in Colossians 2:8-23 . In fact, there were some linguistic similarities between words used for exorcism and healing in the New Testament and pagan Magical rites. The Gentiles saw miracles as Magical in nature, and thus confused those of the apostles with their own Magic (Acts 8:9-11 ). The exorcisms of Jesus appeared to some as Magical (Matthew 12:25-37 ; Mark 3:23-30 ; 2 Samuel 5:23 ), as well as his use of saliva to heal the blind (Mark 7:33 ). In fact, some rabbinical references claimed that Jesus was a Magician. The healing of the woman with the issue of blood was done because of her faith (Matthew 9:20-22 ; 1 Kings 17:21 ; Luke 9:34-38 ), not by Magic
Charm - ) To subdue, control, or summon by incantation or supernatural influence; to affect by Magic. ) A word or combination of words sung or spoken in the practice of Magic; a Magical combination of words, characters, etc. ) To use Magic arts or occult power; to make use of charms
Magus, Simon - According to legend Simon came to Rome and won many adherents by his Magic. By Magic he rose into the air, but the prayers of the Apostles Peter and Paul caused him to fall, a scene depicted in the attached image
Simonans - According to legend Simon came to Rome and won many adherents by his Magic. By Magic he rose into the air, but the prayers of the Apostles Peter and Paul caused him to fall, a scene depicted in the attached image
Simon Magus - According to legend Simon came to Rome and won many adherents by his Magic. By Magic he rose into the air, but the prayers of the Apostles Peter and Paul caused him to fall, a scene depicted in the attached image
Kerchief - Magic veils, put over the heads of those consulting them, to fit them for receiving a response, rapt in spiritual trance above the world
Wise Men - In Chaldea medicine was only a branch of Magic
Druidism - A secret cult which dealt with the Magic arts practised in ancient Gaul and the British Isles. They had special regard for the oak and mistletoe, and practised Magic rites
Shamanism - (probably Manchu: saman, an excited man) ...
A vague term used to designate a form of savage Magic or science prevailing among the tribes of Asia, Australasia, and the American Indians and Eskimos. Springing from animism, and closely resembling fetishism, it teaches that all nature is pervaded by spirits or gods which can be brought near or driven away by various means, such as symbolic Magic, fasting, dances, incantations, and demoniac possession, practised by the Shaman
Conjurer - ) One who practices Magic arts; one who pretends to act by the aid super natural power; also, one who performs feats of legerdemain or sleight of hand
Familiar - See Magic, etc
Diabolism - (Latin: diabolus, the devil) ...
The term includes all kinds of intercourse or attempts to deal with the evil spirit by witchcraft, incantations, Magic, spiritism, and other occult practises. What is known as white Magic is merely sleight-of-hand, or prestidigitation, and involves no offense against the moral law
Incantations - Chants used by Magicians to control evil spirits and thus heal the sick or afflict enemies. The books of Magic of Acts 19:19 were likely collections of incantations. See Blessing and Cursing ; Imprecation; Magic
Conjuration - ) The act or process of invoking supernatural aid by the use of a Magical form of words; the practice of Magic arts; incantation; enchantment
Curious - * Note: For the adjective periergos, "busy about trifles," see BUSYBODY: it is used of Magic arts in Acts 19:19 (lit
Physician - The "physicians" were those who "practised heathen arts of Magic, disavowing recognized methods of cure, and dissociating the healing art from dependence on the God of Israel
Enchantment - The act of producing certain wonderful effects by the invocation or aid of demons, or the agency of certain supposed spirits the use of Magic arts, spells or charms incantation. ...
The Magicians of Egypt did so with their enchantments
Sorcery - ...
A — 2: μαγεία (Strong's #3095 — Noun Feminine — magia[1] — mag-i'-ah ) "the Magic art," is used in the plural in Acts 8:11 , "sorceries" (see SORCERER , No. 2, "to practice Magic," Acts 8:9 , "used sorcery," is used as in A, No
Jannes And Jambres - Two Magicians. So as to the lice, the Magicians confessed," this is the finger of God" (Exodus 8:18-19; Exodus 9:11). " (Speaker's Commentary, note at end of Exodus 7) The Targum of Jonathan mentions Jannes and Jannes as "chiefs of the Magicians. , 9:8) wrote, "Jannes and Jannes were sacred scribes, deemed inferior to none in Magic. 30:1) makes Moses, Jamnes, and Jotape, heads of Magic factions
Enchantment - ) The act of enchanting; the production of certain wonderful effects by the aid of demons, or the agency of supposed spirits; the use of Magic arts, spells, or charms; incantation
Phantasmagoria - ) An optical effect produced by a Magic lantern
Occult - , astrology (Isaiah 47:13), casting spells (Deuteronomy 18:11), consulting with spirits (Deuteronomy 18:11), Magic (Genesis 41:8), sorcery (Exodus 22:8), witchcraft (Deuteronomy 18:10), and spiritism (Deuteronomy 18:11)
Elymas - As belief in religion declined under the Roman empire, belief in eastern Magic increased
Rosicrucians - (Latin: fraternitas rosae crucis, brotherhood of the Red Cross) ...
(1) A sect which arose at the beginning of the 17th century, but which traced its origin to Christian Rosenkreuz, 200 years earlier, who is said to have learned Arabian Magic while traveling in the East
Sorcery - The noun בָּשָׁף in Isaiah 47:9; Isaiah 47:12 is translated by ‘sorceries (Authorized Version and Revised Version ), and by φαρμακεία in the Septuagint ; but in 2 Kings 9:22, Micah 5:11 (12), Nahum 3:4 it is translated by ‘witchcrafts,’ Septuagint φάρμακον, where clearly the right translation is ‘magic arts. 101) uses this word to indicate the Magi, one of the six tribes of the Medes, who were probably a sacred priestly class, devoted to astrology, divination by dreams, and the practice of Magic generally. These are translated in Authorized Version and Revised Version ‘used sorcery’ and ‘sorceries,’ but Moffatt’s translations, ‘practised Magic arts’ and ‘skill in Magic,’ are much truer to the Greek and to the facts so far as we can judge. This word means a drug which can be given to a person, or used Magically by one person on another to produce an effect hurtful or the reverse. The word is translated in Authorized Version and Revised Version ‘sorceries,’ by Moffatt ‘magic spell,’ and by Weymouth ‘practice of Magic. ’ This is translated in Authorized Version ‘sorceries,’ in Revised Version ‘sorcery,’ by Moffatt ‘magic spell,’ by Weymouth ‘magic thou didst practice’; the Twentieth Century New Testament has come nearest to the right translation in ‘magical charms,’ i. charms not natural, but produced by Magic; but the true meaning seems to be ‘magical love philtre. ’ One class of those who are to be cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 21:8) is that of the φαρμακεύς, which is translated ‘sorcerers’ by Authorized Version and Revised Version and Moffatt, while Weymouth’s version ‘those who practise Magic’ might be improved by translating ‘those who practise poisoning. In Galatians 5:20, among the deeds of the flesh is φαρμακεία, which is translated in Authorized Version ‘witchcraft,’ in Revised Version ‘sorcery,’ and by Moffatt ‘magic. ]'>[9] translates, ‘thou shalt not practise Magic’ and ‘thou shalt not use enchantments
Divination - The Eastern people were fond of divination, Magic, and the pretended art of interpreting dreams and acquiring a knowledge of futurity. See Magic , SORCERERS
Kircher, Athanasius - He also perfected the speakIng tube and the AEolian harp, and invented the Magic lantern
Athanasius Kircher - He also perfected the speakIng tube and the AEolian harp, and invented the Magic lantern
Cinematograph - ) A machine, combining Magic lantern and kinetoscope features, for projecting on a screen a series of pictures, moved rapidly (25 to 50 a second) and intermittently before an objective lens, and producing by persistence of vision the illusion of continuous motion; a moving-picture machine; also, any of several other machines or devices producing moving pictorial effects
Anastasius, Saint - A Persian Magician and a soldier in the army of Khusrau, he was converted to Christianity when that monarch carried the Holy Cross from Jerusalem to Persia. Desiring martyrdom he went to Caesarea, where he reproached his countrymen for their Magic and fire-worship
Enchantments - The words so translated have several signification: the practice of secret arts, (Exodus 7:11,22 ; 8:7 ); "muttered spells," (2 Kings 9:22 ; Micah 5:12 ) the charming of serpents, (Ecclesiastes 10:11 ) the enchantments sought by Balaam, (Numbers 24:1 ) the use of Magic, (Isaiah 47:9,12 ) Any resort to these methods of imposture was strictly forbidden in Scripture, (Leviticus 19:26 ; Isaiah 47:9 ) etc
Magi - (ma' gi) Eastern wise men, priests, and astrologers expert in interpreting dreams and other “magic arts. Paul blinded Simon, showing God's power over the Magic arts
Ligature - ) Impotence caused by Magic or charms
Magic - The Magicians of Egypt are frequently referred to in the history of the Exodus. Magic was an inherent part of the ancient Egyptian religion, and entered largely into their daily life. All Magical arts were distinctly prohibited under penalty of death in the Mosaic law. The history of Saul's consulting the witch of Endor (1 Samuel 28:3-20 ) gives no warrant for attributing supernatural power to Magicians. The practice of Magic lingered among the people till after the Captivity, when they gradually abandoned it. The Magi mentioned in Matthew 2:1-12 were not Magicians in the ordinary sense of the word. Simon, a Magician, was found by Philip at Samaria ( Acts 8:9-24 ); and Paul and Barnabas encountered Elymas, a Jewish sorcerer, at Paphos (13:6-12). At Ephesus there was a great destruction of Magical books (Acts 19:18,19 )
Cantus - Rhythm and repetition were essential to these Magic chants
Chant - Rhythm and repetition were essential to these Magic chants
Projector - ) An optical instrument for projecting a picture upon a screen, as by a Magic lantern or by an instrument for projecting (by reflection instead of transmission of light) a picture of an opaque object, as photographs, picture post-cards, insects, etc
Multiplication - ) The art of increasing gold or silver by Magic, - attributed formerly to the alchemists
Enchantments - Deceptive arts and charms practiced by designing men, and classed in the Bible with sorcery, Magic, divination, witchcraft, and necromancy, or professed communication with departed spirits. The Magicians of Egypt are said to have done several things "with their enchantments," Exodus 7:1-9:29 Acts 19:19
Balaam - Balaam has become the representative of false teachers and sorcerers, and we may suspect a play on his name in Revelation 2:14 (perhaps = ‘lord of the people’), in order to brand certain Gnostic teachers as making gain for themselves out of the simple folk by the use of Magic and by the teaching of a gnosis which tended to laxity of practice. On this he and his sons returned to Egypt and became the master-magicians who opposed Moses. Finally, Phinehas attacked Balaam, who by his Magic flew into the air, but was killed by Phinehas in the power of the Holy Name
Pillow - ...
Modern translations render the underlying Hebrew as Magic bands (NAS, REB, NRSV), charms (NIV), or wristbands (TEV)
Demonology - Belief in evil spirits and consequent Magic is of remotest antiquity, among both savage and cultured races, varying from crude to the elaborate systems of the ancient Assyrians, Chal4eans, and Persians
Bardic Schools in Ireland - These books prescribe a knowledge of Magic, including numerous and varied incantations
Demons - Those who follow these religions usually fear demons, and often use Magic and sorcery to resist demonic power. But God forbids Magic and sorcery, for these things themselves involve cooperating with supernatural evil powers (Leviticus 19:26; Leviticus 20:6; Galatians 5:20; Revelation 9:20-21; Revelation 21:8; see Magic)
Divination And Magic - ...
The use of Magic is seen often in the literature of the ancient Middle East, employed both by the gods and by human beings. As superhumans, the gods themselves were subject to the higher power of Magic. To demonstrate his supreme position in the godhead, Marduk through the Magical power of his word caused a piece of cloth to vanish and to reappear. ...
Similar beliefs in Magic are evident from ancient Canaanite myths. The supreme Canaanite deity El acted to heal the ill king Keret by working Magic. The goddess Anath through Magical means restored the dead Baal to the earth. ...
The Old Testament often attests to the practice of Magic by the Hebrews themselves, reflecting how entrenched it was. Isaiah 3:2-3 reflects that the society attaches the same importance to “the diviner,” “the skillful Magician,” and “the expert in charms” as to “the mighty man, and the soldier, the judge, and the prophet” (RSV). ...
Although varying kinds of divination and Magic are reported to have been practiced widely in ancient Israel and among her neighbors (Deuteronomy 18:9-14 ; 1 Samuel 6:2 ; Isaiah 19:3 ; Ezekiel 21:21 ; Daniel 2:2 ), Israel herself was clearly and firmly admonished to have no part in such activities
Witch - ) One who practices the black art, or Magic; one regarded as possessing supernatural or Magical power by compact with an evil spirit, esp
Sorcerer - 1: μάγος (Strong's #3097 — Noun Masculine — magos — mag'-os ) (a) "one of a median caste, a Magician:" see WISE; (b) "a wizard, sorcerer, a pretender to Magic powers, a professor of the arts of witchcraft," Acts 13:6,8 , where Bar-Jesus was the Jewish name, Elymas, an Arabic word meaning "wise. " Hence the name Magus, "the Magician," originally applied to Persian priests. ...
2: φάρμακος (Strong's #5333 — Adjective — pharmakos — far-mak-os' ) an adjective signifying "devoted to Magical arts," is used as a noun, "a sorcerer," especially one who uses drugs, potions, spells, enchantments, Revelation 21:8 , in the best texts (some have pharmakeus), and Revelation 22:15
Necromancy - It gradually became associated with alchemy, witchcraft, and Magic, and was often known as the "black art" owing to a faulty derivation of the term from niger (Latin: black)
Magic, Divination, And Sorcery - Magic, DIVINATION, AND SORCERY. Magic, divination, sorcery, and witchcraft are all connected with belief in superhuman powers, and are methods whereby men endeavour to obtain from these powers knowledge of the future, or assistance in the affairs of life. Belief in Magic and divination is most prevalent in the lower stages of civilization and religion. The arts of the Magician and the diviner were founded upon the same logical processes as have issued in the development of modern science; but the limits within which deduction would be valid were disregarded, and the data were frequently imperfect. Magic and divination were derived from attempts at reasoning which were very often erroneous; but from such crude beginnings science has slowly grown. ...
In their beginning these arts were associated with religion; and diviners and Magicians were those thought to be most intimately connected with the Deity, and, owing to their superior knowledge of Him and His ways, best able to learn His secrets or secure His aid. In this manner classes of professional diviners and Magicians arose, as in Egypt ( Genesis 41:8 , Exodus 7:11 ), in Babylon ( Daniel 2:2 ), in connexion with Baal ( 1 Kings 18:19 ), and even among the Israelites in the lower rank of professed prophets ( Micah 3:5-11 ; see G. The animism, in which Magical arts had their root, soon passed beyond the simple belief that Nature was peopled with spirits, and began to distinguish between good and evil spirits. When that distinction had been attained, the art of the Magician and diviner also became subject to moral distinctions, according to the character of the spirit whose aid was sought and the purpose in view. This diversity in the moral characteristics of Magic and divination is illustrated in the history of Israel; for divination is akin to some of the institutions sanctioned by God, such as the Urim and Thummim ( Exodus 28:30 , Leviticus 8:8 ), and it includes, at the other extreme, such necromancy as that of the witch of Endor. Among Semitic races and by the Egyptians, Magic and divination were associated with the worship of various gods and the belief in the existence of a vast number of demons. With the gradual rise of religion in Israel under the teaching of God, early modes of prying into the future, and Magical methods of seeking superhuman help, were slowly abandoned, and, as revelation became clearer, they were forbidden. In process of time Magic and divination became closely linked with these illicit cults, and were consequently denounced by the great prophets; but at the same time the desire of the human heart to learn the future and to secure Divine help (which lies at the root of Magic and divination) was met by God, purified, elevated, and satisfied by the revelation of His will through the prophets. On the other hand, as men sought to prognosticate the future by illicit commerce with false gods and spirits, Magic and divination became generally degraded and divorced from all that is right and good. This explains the increasing severity with whic Magic and divination are regarded in Scripture; nevertheless we find it recorded, without any adverse comment, that Daniel was made head of the ‘wise men’ of Babylon although these included Magicians, enchanters, sorcerers, and ‘Chaldæans’ ( Daniel 2:2 ; Daniel 2:48 ); and that the wise men ( Matthew 2:1 ) were magi . ...
General course of the history of Magic and divination in Israel. Several sources can be traced from which the Israelites derived their Magical arts, and different periods are apparent at which these influences were felt. Although their sojourn in Egypt brought them into contact with a civilized nation which greatly practised divination and sorcery, we cannot trace any sign that they borrowed many Magical arts from the Egyptians at that time. the worship of the Phœnician Baal, fostered by Ahab), and by its favouring the introduction of methods of Magic and divination in use among their neighbours (cf. ...
( c ) The Captivity brought Israel into contact with a much more fully developed system of Magic and divination than they had known before. In Babylon, not only were illicit Magical practices widely indulged in, but the use of such arts was recognized by their being entrusted to a privileged class ( Daniel 2:2 ). The officials are here denominated ‘ Magicians ’ ( chartummîm , scribes who were acquainted with occult arts), ‘ enchanters ’ ( ’ashshâphîm , prob. ]'>[5] word meaning ‘those who used conjurations,’ but its derivation is uncertain), ‘ sorcerers ’ ( mĕkashshĕphîm , in its root-meaning perhaps indicating those who mixed ingredients for Magical purposes Exorcism - ) Practiced with spells, as the name of Solomon, Magic charms, and incantations among the Jews
Amethyst - This was doubtless a case of sympathetic Magic, wine being amethystine in colour
Divination - Divination and Magic. -Just as worship, by becoming systematized, left behind it the forms of communication called ‘divination,’ so divination, as it became more regulated and elaborated in the hands of professional diviners, left behind it cruder and lower forms of communication which may all be included under the term ‘magic. Haddon, Magic and Fetishism, 1906; F. ]'>[1] The distinction between divination and Magic may be briefly and not inaccurately stated thus: the diviner is in touch with the divinities because he is their servant; the Magician, because, for the time being, he is their master. Magic and Sorcery, 1896, Bab. Thompson, The Report of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon, 1900, also The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 1903-04. Davies, Magic, Divination, and Demonology among the Hebrews and their Neighbours, 1898; HDB i. ]'>[14] ...
The Pax Romana and the toleration of the Roman Government permitted the cults of innumerable divinities and all these forms of divination to spread throughout the Empire; and Jews, Christians, worshippers of all kinds of Eastern and Egyptian deities, diviners, ‘magicians, astrologers, and wizards jostled each other in a theological confusion to which no parallel can be found’ (K. The testimony of history to this fact is fully confirmed by the discovery of contemporary texts, among which are ‘innumerable … horoscopes, amulets, cursing tablets, and Magical books. Divination and Magic were prevalent not merely among sects like the Essenes, but among the Jews generally (Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng. In the Didache among other commandments are these, ‘thou shalt not practise Magic, thou shalt not use enchantments,’ οὐ μαγεύσεις, οὐ φαρμακεύσεις (ii. The Didache describes the Way of Death as full, among other things, of ‘magical arts and potions,’ μαγεῖαι, φαρμακίαι (v. ), while in the Way of Darkness, among other things that destroy the soul, are ‘potions and Magical arts,’ φαρμακεία, μαγεία (Ep. Ignatius speaks of the birth of Jesus as destroying or making ridiculous every kind of Magic, πᾶσα μαγεία (Eph. , ‘the practice of Magic,’ γοητέας, is a vice forbidden even to the Gentiles. ) in indicating the things which Christians should not do, omits all reference to divination or Magic, and a similar omission is noticeable in Ep. Magic and Sorcery, 1896, Bab. Thompson, The Report of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon, 1900, also The Devils and Evil Spirits of Babylonia, 1903-04. ...
The human beings in touch with these supernatural beings, were variously named exorcists, soothsayers, sorcerers, enchanters; and, lower still, Magicians, witches, and wizards. The ultimate end will be reached when worship shall be the approach to the One Father by a man, who, because he is taught and led by the indwelling Spirit of Jesus, needs no divination, and who, because he can proffer his requests to the Father in prayer, scorns all Magic
Meonenim, the Oak of - These practiced some of their Magic arts at this oak
Sorcerer - One who practised sorcery; nearly synonymous with Magician, soothsayer, or wizard. See DIVINATION , ENCHANTMENTS , and Magic
Teraphim - The Israelites used the teraphim for Magic purposes and divination, side by side with the worship of Jehovah
Screen - , upon which an image, as a picture, is thrown by a Magic lantern, solar microscope, etc
Magic - Magic, witchcraft and sorcery go beyond divination in that they seek to use occult powers not merely to foretell future events but also to influence those events. ...
Such Magic often has an evil intent, being directed at enemies by means of curses, spells and ritualistic actions. Magicians were among the chief advisers to kings in many ancient countries (Exodus 7:11; Daniel 2:2). They believe in the power of the living Christ, but they do not treat that power as if it is Magical (Acts 19:13-16)
Fetishism - (Latin: factitius, made by art) ...
 ...
A term first applied probably to the religion of idols and amulets made by hand and supposed to possess Magic power
Lamaism - The efficacy of Magic formulas and sacred names is stressed
Superstition - It is also applied to those who believe in witchraft, Magic, omens, &c
Art - ) The black art; Magic
Sceva - The incident led to many conversions, and several brought and destroyed their books of Magic
Strangled - Thus they have a Magical influence, and have been so used in N. The word may therefore stand here as a well-known allusion to Magical rites in Syria, and the prohibition may become equivalent to ‘Keep yourselves from Magic
Liver - Magic Divination and Sorcery, p
Flavius Valerius Constantinus - As Pontifex Maximus, although he protected the rights of heathenism, he abolished offensive forms of worship, and suppressed divination and Magic
Great, Constantine the - As Pontifex Maximus, although he protected the rights of heathenism, he abolished offensive forms of worship, and suppressed divination and Magic
Asa - He was disciplined in his person, for he was diseased in his feet, and the disease increased exceedingly; yet he sought not the Lord, but to the physicians (perhaps these were healers by Magic arts in connection with idolatry, on which God's blessing could not be asked) and he died after a reign of 41 years
Physician - Of Asa it is said, "he sought not to the Lord, but to the physicians," which probably means those associated with Magic
Jannes - and JAMBRES, or, as Pliny calls them, Jamne and Jotape, two Magicians, who resisted Moses in Egypt, 2 Timothy 3:8 . He speaks, likewise, of the faction or sect of Magicians, of which, he says, Moses, Jannes, and Jocabel, or Jopata, were heads. Artapanus tells us, that Pharaoh sent for Magicians from Upper Egypt to oppose Moses. Jerom translates their names Johannes and Mambres; and there is a tradition, they say, in the Talmud, that Juhanni and Mamre, chief of Pharaoh's physicians, said to Moses, "Thou bringest straw into Egypt, where abundance of corn grew;" that is, to bring your Magical arts hither is to as much purpose as to bring water to the Nile. Numenius, cited by Aristobulus, says that Jannes and Jambres were sacred tribes of the Egyptians, who excelled in Magic at the time when the Jews were driven out of Egypt
Inchantments - לחש , which signifies to mutter, to speak with a low voice, like Magicians in their evocations and Magical operations, Psalms 58:6 . לטים , secrets, whence Moses speaks of the inchantments wrought by Pharaoh's Magicians. It was common for Magicians, sorcerers, and inchanters, to speak in a low voice, to whisper: they are called ventriloqui, because they spake, as one would suppose, from the bottom of their stomachs. Their pretended Magic often consisted in cunning tricks only, in sleight of hand, or some natural secrets, unknown to the ignorant. Respecting the inchantments practised by Pharaoh's Magicians, (see Exodus 8:18-19 ,) in order to imitate the miracles which were wrought by Moses, it must be said either that they were mere illusions, whereby they imposed on the spectators; or that, if they performed such miracles, and produced real changes of their rods, and the other things said to be performed by them, it must have been by a supernatural power which God had permitted Satan to give them, but the farther operation of which he afterward thought proper to prevent
Oil (Olive) - That the practice was associated from early times with a belief in Magic is shown by S. Daiches (Babylonian Oil Magic in the Talmud and in the later Jewish Literature, 1913)
Magi - ("magicians". A regular order among the Egyptians, devoted to Magic and astrology. ) The word is Persian or Median; it appears in Rab-mag, "chief of the Magicians" (Jeremiah 39:3), brought with Nebuchadnezzar's expedition, that its issue might be foreknown. ...
All forms of Magic, augury, necromancy, etc. In the sense "magician" Simon Magus at Samaria is an instance (Acts 8:9-10); also Elymas the Jewish sorcerer and false prophet who with. ...
Pharaoh's Magicians practiced the common juggler's trick of making serpents appear "with their enchantments" (from a root, "flame" or else "conceal," implying a trick: Exodus 7:11-12); but Aaron's rod swallowed theirs, showing that his power was real, theirs illusory. At last the plague of boils broke out upon the Magicians themselves (Exodus 9:11); they owned themselves defeated, "they could not stand before Moses. " The peculiarity of Balaam was, he stood partly on pagan Magic and soothsaying augury, partly on true revelation
Chaldean Philosophy - Beside the supreme Being, the Chaldeans supposed spiritual beings to exist, of several orders; gods, demons, heroes: these they probably distributed into subordinate classes, agreeably to their practice of theurgy or Magic. From the religious system of the Chaldeans were derived two arts, for which they were long celebrated; namely, Magic and astrology. Their Magic, which should not be confounded with witchcraft, or a supposed intercourse with evil spirits, consisted in the performance of certain religious ceremonies or incantations, which were supposed, by the interposition of good demons, to produce supernatural effects
Divination - The "magicians" of Egypt in Isaiah 47:9-127 (chartumim , from cheret "a style" or pen,) were sacred "scribes" of the hieroglyphics, devoted to astrology, Magic, etc. "...
Daniel was made "master of the Magicians" (Daniel 5:11); chokmim , wise men, our wizards (Exodus 7:11);" sorcerers" (mekaskphim ), "mutterers of Magic formulae" (1618650131_44). Jambres, the other name of an Egyptian Magician preserved by Paul (2 Timothy 3:8), means "scribe of the south. In Egypt books containing Magic formulae belonged exclusively to the king, the priests and wise men, who formed a college, being called in by Pharaoh when needful. " But the kashaph , mekashphim , "sorcerers" above, used fascinations and Magic charms (Exodus 7:11; Exodus 22:18; Daniel 2:2; Deuteronomy 18:10). Of dealings in Magic in the New Testament instances occur: Simon Magus (Acts 8:9-11); Elymas Bar Jesus (Acts 13:6; Acts 13:8); the pythoness (Acts 16:16's margin); the vagabond Jews, exorcists (Acts 19:13; Acts 19:19), the Ephesian books treating of "curious arts"; Galatians 5:20, "witchcraft"; Revelation 9:21, "sorceries
Wise - Skilled in arts, science, philosophy, or in Magic and divination
Disease - Many of the non-Israelite physicians were actually sorcerers (2 Chronicles 16:12; see Magic)
Earrings - There were besides netiphot (Judges 8:26), not "collars" but pearlshaped "ear drops," or jewels attached to the rings, or else pendent scent bottles, or pendants from the neck on the breast, "Chains" KJV (Isaiah 3:19; Isaiah 3:21), "earrings" (leehashim , from laachash "to whisper"), AMULETS with Magic inscriptions, and so surrendered along with the idols by Jacob's household (Genesis 35:4)
Witch And Wizard - Even modern mesmerism has its counterpart among the pretended Magic arts of the East, practiced, like many other existing superstitions, from time immemorial
Bar-Jesus - They were both Magicians and men of science; moreover, their system presented a religious aspect to the world. From the wider point of view it was between Paul the Roman citizen who championed Christianity, and Elymas the Greek philosopher and Magician. Paul probably shared the opinion of educated Judaism, that Magic was associated with idolatry and the realm of darkness, and was therefore to be shunned as demoniacal. -articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) on ‘Barjesus’ (Massie) and ‘Magic’ (Whitehouse), and in Encyclopaedia Biblica (Schmiedel) on ‘Barjesus’; W
Cabbala - All the words, terms, Magic figures, numbers, letters, charms, &c, used in the Jewish Magic, as also in the hermetical science, are comprised under this species of cabbala; which professes to teach the art of curing diseases, and performing other wonders, by means of certain arrangements of sacred letters and words. It is not, however, the Magic of the Jews alone which we call cabbala: but the word is also used for any kind of Magic
Nebaioth - Quatremere from them shows that these Nabateans inhabited Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and Tigris; they were Syro Chaldaeans, and were celebrated among the Arabs for agriculture, Magic, medicine, and astronomy
Beast - Revelation 16:13; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10) and Magic, enlisted as ally of the political power-a false Christ or Antichrist, by which the worship of the Caesar was imposed on the provinces
Slide - ) A plate or slip of glass on which is a picture or delineation to be exhibited by means of a Magic lantern, stereopticon, or the like; a plate on which is an object to be examined with a microscope
Parched Ground - We halted, and remained long in contemplation, of the Magic scene, until whatever was unpleasant in its strangeness ceased by degrees to affect us
Ift - Edison exercised his gift of invention and was brought before great men; Houdini exercised his gift of Magic and appeared before the wealthy; Paderewski exercised his musical talent and played for royalty
Exorcism - ...
The usual technique of exorcism, as shown by contemporary Magical papyri, was to adjure the demon (by name, if possible) through the power of one or more gods to depart the one possessed. Magical words of extended, repeated syllables were also part of almost all exorcistic formulas. See Miracles; Magic; Healing; Demon
Amulets And Charms - The Jews were in this respect like the rest of the world, and in the Talmud it is said that ninety-nine deaths occur from the evil eye to one from natural causes (see Magic Divination and Sorcery)
Divination - The eastern people were always fond of divination, Magic, the curious arts of interpreting dreams, and of obtaining a knowledge of future events
Preface - The whole subject of Magic Divination and Sorcery, for example, has been dealt with in a single article
Canaan, History And Religion of - The mode of worship was tied especially to procreative sympathetic Magic. Crucial for this mode of worship was the worshiper's possibility to assist the process via sympathetic Magic. In sympathetic Magic, humans ordain when and how the god and goddess act. Practically all ancient worship structures operated from such a fertility-sympathetic Magic orientation. What is transparent is the cyclic nature of the highly sensual, sympathetic Magic worship
Manasseh - He raised altars to the whole host of heaven, in the courts of God's house; made his son pass through the fire in honour of Moloch; was addicted to Magic, divinations, auguries, and other superstitions; set up the idol Astarte in the house of God; finally, he involved his people in all the abomination of the idolatrous nations to that degree, that Israel committed more wickedness than the Canaanites, whom the Lord had driven out before them
Ephesus - ...
The people of Ephesus were well known for their superstition and Magic, and some dramatic events accompanied the people’s response to Paul’s preaching (Acts 19:11-20)
Moloch - " Acts 7:43, "the tabernacle of Moloch" (like the sacred tent of the Carthaginians: Diodorus 20:65), the shrine in which the image was concealed; containing also possibly the bones of sacrificed children used for Magic
Daniel the Prophet - The Magic and astrology of Chaldea was not equal to it, and Daniel and his companions were in danger of being destroyed with all the wise men; but they turned to the God of heaven and prayed to Him, and the dream was revealed to Daniel in a night vision
Wise, Skilled - 41:8: “And it came to pass in the morning that his spirit was troubled; and he sent and called for all the Magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof: and Pharaoh told them his dream; but there was none that could interpret them unto Pharaoh. In pagan cultures the “wise” man practiced Magic and divination: “Then Pharaoh also called the wise men and the sorcerers: now the Magicians of Egypt, they also did in like manner with their enchantments” ( Magic
Simon Magus - The story of Simon is then related by two of his pupils: that his father’s name was Antonius, his mother’s Rachel; that he was a Samaritan of the village of Gitta, six miles from Samaria; that he was educated at Alexandria, and was skilled in the wisdom of the Greeks and in Magic. ...
The substance of the story as it concerns Simon is that he travelled in Syria and as far as Rome, deceiving people by his Magic and winning widespread adherence for his claims to Divine power; that he was opposed by Simon Peter, who exposed his deceit and brought to naught his efforts to impose on the people. There was a Samaritan, Simon, a native of the village called Gitta, who in the reign of Claudius Caesar, and in your royal city of Rome, did mighty acts of Magic, by virtue of the art of the devils operating in him. And a man, Menander, also a Samaritan, of the town Capparetaea, a disciple of Simon, and inspired by devils, we know to have deceived many while he was in Antioch by his Magical art’ (26). In 56 is another reference: ‘But the evil spirits were not satisfied with saying, before Christ’s appearance, that those who were said to be sons or Jupiter were born of him; but after He had appeared and been born among men, and when they learned how He had been foretold by the prophets, and knew that He should be believed on and looked for by every nation, they again, as was said before, put forward other men, the Samaritans Simon and Menander, who did many mighty works by Magic, and deceived many, and still keep them deceived. Also the general ascription to him of Magical powers probably reflects a claim he made. ’ His conclusion is that ‘the Simon described by Justin was his elder only by a generation; that he was a Gnostic teacher who had gained some followers at Samaria; and that Justin rashly identified him with the Magician told of in the Acts of the Apostles’ (ib. Is it not this early struggle between Jewish and Samaritan universalism, involving as it did a struggle of religion against Magic, that is really symbolized under the wild traditions of the contest between Peter and Simon?’ (ib. ‘Justin Martyr was decidedly weak in history, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that he may have confused the Simon of Acts with a heretical leader of the same name who lived much nearer to his own time, especially as this other Simon also had a great reputation for Magic. The Magical element is prominent in both. Simon taught doctrines whose elements were taught by the earlier Simon; also that both were distinguished for sorcery and for Magical powers. It may be assumed that he was born in the Samaritan village of Gitta; that he was a man of unusual attainments; that he received some training in Alexandrian philosophy; that he startled Samaria with his powers; that he was, for a time, nominally a Christian, but that he broke away from the Christian Church; that his knowledge of Christian truth was very shallow, and that he carried some Christian ideas over with him, but in confusion; and that his subsequent teaching was an amalgam of this crude Christian precipitate with Alexandrian speculation and with Magic. It is probable that he travelled, preaching his new doctrines, practising his Magical arts, and winning for himself and for his teaching something of the devotion with which he was regarded in Samaria. Gnosticism, which it may have done something to evolve and with which the Simonian sect became impregnated, though it still retained many of its early Magico-Christian elements
Fertility Cult - Sacral sexual intercourse by priests and priestesses or by cult prostitutes was an act of worship intended to emulate the gods and share in their powers of procreation or else an act of imitative Magic by which the gods were compelled to preserve the earth's fertility (1 Kings 14:23 ; 1 Kings 15:12 ; Hosea 4:14 )
Talmud - ...
The Babylonian Talmud also contains theoretical legal discussion as well as information on the daily life of Jewish people in the first six centuries, history, medicine, astronomy, commerce, agriculture, demonology, Magic, botany, zoology, and other sciences
Demon, Demoniacal Possession, Demoniacs - , Leipzig, 1904; King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery, London, 1896, Babylonian Religion and Mythology, p. ...
For Egyptian beliefs...
Budge, Egyptian Magic, ch. ]'>[5] and among tombs|| || Mockery - Andrew Lang in the very elaborate investigation he gives in Magic and Religion. Lang reminds us, ‘Wallace was crowned at his trial with laurel’; and Atholl, who was a pretender to the crown, ‘was tortured to death with a red-hot iron crown’ (Magic and Religion, p. Lang, Magic and Religion, 76–204, 295–305; Vollmer, Jesus und das Sacœenopfer; Reich, Der König mit der Dornenkrone
Obsolete or Obscure Words in the English av Bible - ...
Curious arts, Acts 19:19—magic. ...
Exorcists, Acts 19:13—one who pretends to cast out evil spirits by Magic
Prostitution - It is thought that sacral prostitution was a form of sympathetic Magic
Powers - Rather than relating to Magic or Magical formulas, common in the ancient world, Jesus' powerful Word overcame demonic forces, and demonstrates "the invading dominion of God, " expelling Satan and the demons
Jephthah - This death of Tammuz was celebrated annually with bitter wailing, chiefly by women ( Judges 11:40 ); often (though not always, for the rite differed in different localities) his resurrection was celebrated the next day, thus ensuring by means of imitative Magic the re-appearance of fresh vegetation in its time
Essenes - ...
They revered certain esoteric books which probably dealt with angelology, Magic, and divination. 6), probably Magical. Acts 3:1; Acts 21:26), its views of the body, its sun-worship and Magic, is in sharpest contrast to Christianity. They may be called ‘the Gnostics of Judaism,’ Their fondness for speculation on cosmogony, their allegorizing of the GT, of which Philo speaks, their dualistic views, which involve a depreciation of matter, their Magic and their esoteric books-all connect them with Gnosticism
Issue of Blood - The malady was in general regarded as incurable by medical treatment, and was handed over to be dealt with by Magic charms and amulets
Ancestors - See Burial ; Divination and Magic ; Genealogies ; Necromancy
Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus - The nominal charge against him was that he had baptized and ordained one Heraclius of Tyre, who, being accused of Magic, had fled to Cyzicus, and whom, when the facts came to his knowledge, he had refused to depose
Ugarit - Fertility religion consisted in part of various Magical and ritual practices designed to bring Baal back to life. ” Like the prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel (1 Kings 18:1 ), he was practicing imitative Magic as though preparing the fields to receive the rain. The practice of imitative Magic in order to manipulate deity and the natural order is mentioned often (compare 1 Kings 18:28 ; Jeremiah 41:5 )
Hieracas, an Egyptian Teacher - Epiphanius ascribes to him a good knowledge of medicine and with more hesitation of astronomy and Magic
Simeon - The Samaritan who practiced Magic, "bewitching the people of Samaria, giving out that he himself was some great one," so that all said "this is the power of God which is called great" (so the Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, and Alexandrinus manuscripts). His case shows that the apostles could not always infallibly read motives, and that the grace symbolized in baptism is not indifferently conferred on all as Romanists teach giving sacraments a Magic power as if they could profit without faith
Satan - ...
Satan causes people physical suffering through disease (Luke 13:16; 2 Corinthians 12:7; see DISEASE), and evil spirits (Mark 3:20-27; Mark 7:25; Acts 10:38; see Magic; UNCLEAN SPIRITS)
Balaam - It has been a subject of controversy, whether Balaam was a true prophet or a mere diviner, Magician, or fortune teller. Origen says that his whole power consisted in Magic and cursing. Cyril says that he was a Magician, an idolater, and a false prophet, who spoke truth against his will; and St. It cannot be denied that the Scripture expressly calls him a prophet, 2 Peter 2:15 , and therefore those are probably right who think that he had once been a good man and a true prophet, till, loving the wages of unrighteousness, and prostituting the honour of his office to covetousness, he apostatized from God, and, betaking himself to idolatrous practices, fell under the delusion of the devil, of whom he learned all his Magical enchantments; though at this juncture, when the preservation of his people was concerned, it might be consistent with God's wisdom to appear to him and overrule his mind by the impulse of real revelations
Constantius ii, Son of Constantius - These men, with an army of spies (curiosi ), organized a reign of terror for three years after the overthrow of Magnentius, especially in Britain, acting particularly on the laws against sacrifice and Magic (cf. They were mixed up with another class, the theurgists, practisers of a higher kind of Magic which was particularly attractive to Julian
Antonius - From their dialectical subtleties he appealed to facts, to a Christian's contempt of death and triumph over temptation; and contrasted the decay of pagan oracles and Magic with the growth of Christianity in spite of persecutions
Infallibility - This is the chain which keeps its members fast bound to its communion; the charm which retains them within its Magic circle; the opiate which lays asleep all their doubts and difficulties: it is likewise the magnet which attracts the desultory and unstable in other persuasions within the sphere of popery, the foundation of its whole superstructure, the cement of all its parts, and its fence and fortress against all inroads and attacks
Ephesus - In the times of the Apostles it retained much of its former grandeur; but, so addicted were the inhabitants of the city to idolatry and the arts of Magic, that the prince of darkness would seem to have, at that time, fixed his throne in it
Precious Stones - ...
It is probable that precious stones were originally valued less for their beauty and rarity than for the Magical and medicinal powers which they were supposed to possess. By a kind of sympathetic Magic the amethyst (ἀ, ‘not,’ and μεθύσκω, ‘make drunk’) with its wine-red colour was reputed to be a preventive of intoxication, the red jasper (or blood-stone) was a cure for haemorrhage, the green jasper brought fertility to the soil, and so forth
Exorcism - A heathen amulet has the inscription ἐξορκίζω ὑμας κατὰ τοῦ ἁγίου ὀνόματος θεραπεῦσαι τὸν Διονύσιον; and ‘the adjective is of constant occurrence in the Magic papyri’ (Moulton and Milligan, ‘Lexical Notes from the Papyri’ in Expositor, 7th ser. The men who had become Christians realized the incompatibility of loyalty to Jesus and the practice of such Magical arts, and they publicly burned their copies of the famous Ἐφέσια γράμματα (Acts 19:19). ) Christ is by way of honour called ‘this Magician’ (μάγος αὑτος), and in the spurious Epistle to the Antiochians (ch. Frazer, The Golden Bough3 ‘The Magic Art,’ 1911, i
Crimes And Punishments - The offenses subject to capital punishment were: intentional homicide (Exodus 21:12 ; Deuteronomy 18:20-220 ; Numbers 35:16-21 ,Numbers 35:16-21,35:29-34 ), giving false testimony in capital cases (Deuteronomy 19:16-21 ), idolatry (Exodus 20:3-5 ; Leviticus 20:1-5 ; Numbers 25:1-9 ; Deuteronomy 13:2-19 ; Deuteronomy 17:2-7 ; 1 Kings 15:11-13 ; 2 Kings 10:18-28 ), kidnapping an Israelite (Exodus 21:16 ; Deuteronomy 24:7 ), incest, homosexuality, and beastiality (Exodus 22:19 ; Leviticus 20:11-17 ), rape (if the victim did not cry for help, she, too, should be executed; Deuteronomy 22:23-27 ), adultery (Leviticus 20:10-12 ; Deuteronomy 22:22 ), other sexual relations outside marriage (Leviticus 21:9 ; Deuteronomy 22:20-21 ,Deuteronomy 22:20-21,22:23-24 ), false prophecy (Deuteronomy 13:1-5 ; 1618650131_56 ; 1 Kings 22:19-28 ; Jeremiah 26:9 ,Jeremiah 26:9,26:15-16 ; Jeremiah 28:5-9 ), Magic, divination, and witchcraft (Exodus 22:18 ; Leviticus 19:26 ,Leviticus 19:26,19:31 ; Leviticus 20:6 ,Leviticus 20:6,20:27 ; Deuteronomy 18:10 ; 1Samuel 28:3,1 Samuel 28:9 ), violation of the Sabbath (Exodus 20:8-11 ; Exodus 23:12 Exodus 31:14-17 ; 2 Kings 6:31-323 ; Exodus 35:1 ;Exodus 35:1;2:1 ; Leviticus 23:3 ; Numbers 15:32-36 ; Nehemiah 13:15-22 ), blasphemy (Leviticus 24:14-16 ,Leviticus 24:14-16,24:23 ; 1 Kings 21:13 ), cursing or striking one's parents (Exodus 21:15 ,Exodus 21:15,21:17 ), disobeying the ruling of the court of appeals (Deuteronomy 17:8-13 ), and certain crimes against the king (1 Samuel 20:31 ; 1 Samuel 22:7-19 ; 2 Samuel 12:5 ; 2 Samuel 13:30 ; 2 Samuel 15:12 ; 2Samuel 16:5-9,2 Samuel 16:21 ; 1Kings 1:21,1 Kings 1:51 ; 1 Kings 2:22-25 ; 1 Kings 12:18-19 ; 1 Kings 21:10 )
Gnostics - Their notion, that malevolent genii presided in nature, and occasioned diseases and calamities, wars and desolations, induced them to apply themselves to the study of Magic, in order to weaken the powers, or suspend the influence of these malignant agents
Medes - ) The magi performed the sacred rites, and divined the future; from them "magic" takes its name
Apollonius of Tyana - ...
What, then, can we really be said to know of Apollonius of Tyana? That he was born at Tyana and educated at Aegae, that he professed Pythagoreanism, and that he was celebrated in his day for what were considered Magical arts, are the only facts that rest on altogether unexceptionable authority. His reputation as a Magician is confirmed by the double authority of Moeragenes and Lucian (Pseudomantis , c. Yet there are also reasons for believing that he was more than a mere Magician, and even a philosopher of some considerable insight. Philosophy and Magic, the search after knowledge and the search after power, were familiar to men who had never heard of Christianity; but this ideal is different from either, and from both of them united
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - He was not free from superstition; he believed in Magic, and declared that serpents and eagles were more skilled in it than men (iv
Severus, l. Septimius - He was an adept in astrology and Magic
Egypt - We may well admire the early connexion of religion with morality, shown especially in the ‘Negative Confession’ and the judgment scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating not later than the 18th Dynasty; yet in practice the Egyptian religion, so far as we can judge, was mainly a compelling of the gods by Magic formulæ. The daily ritual of offering to the deity was strictly regulated, formula) with Magic power being addressed to the shrine, its door, its lock, etc. Prayers also occur; but the tendency was overwhelmingly greater to Magic , compelling the action of the gods, or in other ways producing the desired effect. The endless texts inscribed in the pyramids of the end of the Old Kingdom, on coffins of the Middle Kingdom, and in the Book of the Dead, are almost wholly Magical formulæ for the preservation of the material mummy, for the divinization of the deceased, for taking him safely through the perils of the under world, and giving him all that he would wish to enjoy in the future life. ’ Supplies for the dead were deposited with him in the grave, or secured to him by Magic formulæ; offerings might be brought by his family on appropriate occasions, or might be made more permanent by endowment; but such would not be kept up for many generations
Spiritual Gifts - Indeed, in an age when exorcisms and miracles were associated with Magic, and the heathen mantis , or frenzied prophet, was a familiar phenomenon, it was impossible to ascribe all ‘powers’ and ecstasy to the Holy Spirit
Magi - These are (1) astrology , (2) oneiromancy , or divination by dreams, aod (3) Magic , which was traditionally associated with their name, but was expressly forbidden by the religion of the Persians
Corban - ...
Commentators are divided as to whether the dedication was meant seriously, and the property actually given to God and put into the treasury; or whether the utterance of the word was a mere evasion, and when the Magic word corban had been uttered over any possession, the unfilial son was able to ‘square’ matters with the Rabbis, so as to be free from obligation to support his aged parents (Bruce on Matthew 15:5)
Sanhedrim - They were to be skilful in the written and traditional law; and they were obliged to study Magic, divination, fortune telling, physic, astrology, arithmetic, and languages
Manes, Called Also Mani - According to Epiphanius he also wrote treatises on astronomy, astrology, and Magic
Magi - Thompson, Reports of the Magicians and Astrologers of Nineveh and Babylon; W. King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery; Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Religionsgeschichte; Jastrow, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria). ...
Lastly, the words magi and Chaldœi came to be applied not only to the members of a sacerdotal caste, but in a secondary sense to all those who cultivated Magic arts (Soph. ...
In what sense, then, did the author of Matthew 2 understand the term? The majority of the Fathers affix the worst interpretation, and lay stress on the idea that Magic was overthrown by the advent of Christ (Ign
Heresy - The heresies chiefly alluded to in the apostolical epistles are, first, those of the Judaizers, or rigid adherents to the Mosaic rites, especially that of circumcision; second, those of converted Hellenists, or Grecian Jews, who held the Greek eloquence and philosophy in too high an estimation, and corrupted, by the speculations of the latter, the simplicity of the Gospel; and third, those who endeavoured to blend Christianity with a mixed philosophy of Magic, demonology, and Platonism, which was then highly popular in the world. Paul had preached at Ephesus, a quantity of Magical and theurgical books were brought forward by their possessors and burned before his eyes, Acts 19:19 . As late even as the fourth century, the synod at Laodicea was obliged to institute severe laws against the worship of angels against Magic, and against incantations. This is the peculiar expression by which the ancients denoted Magical arts and necromantic experiments; γοης is, according to Hesychius, μαγος , κολαξ , περιεργος , and γοητευει , απατα μαγευει , φαρμακμευει , εξαιδει . These two persons are, according to the ancient tradition, the Magicians who withstood Moses by their arts. They were from time immemorial names so notorious in the Magical science, that they did not remain unknown even to the Neo-Platonics. Where he mentions these, he enumerates in order the names of this Magico-spiritual world, αρχας , εξουσιας , particularly the κοσμοκρατορας , "principalities," "powers," "rulers;" and likewise fixes their abode in the upper aerial regions, εις τον αερα εν τοις επουρανιοις . These, then, are the persons who passed before the Apostle's mind, and who, when they adopted Christianity, established that sect among the professors of Jesus, which gave to it the name of Gnostics, and which, together with the different varieties of this system, is accused by history of Magical arts
False Prophet - Some false prophets used Magic (Ezekiel 13:17-23 ), others appeared to use divination, soothsaying, witchcraft, necromancy, and sorcery, which were all forbidden arts and practices in the classical passage that set forth divine revelation in contrast to such practices (Deuteronomy 18:9-13 ). ...
The classical encounter between true and false prophets of God in the New Testament is Paul and Barnabas's rebuke of the Jewish Magician Bar-Jesus on the island Paphos (Acts 13:6-10 )
Manasseh - The sacrifice of his son and the practice of witchcraft and Magic, of which he is accused, were also sanctioned by ancient Israelitish custom
Adder - In proportion as he was struck with the Magic effect, his eyes lost their fierceness, the oscillations of his tail became slower, and the sound which it emitted became weaker, and gradually died away
Clean And Unclean - Their primitive significance is wholly ceremonial; the conceptions they represent date back to a very early stage of religious practice, so early indeed that it may be called pre-religious, in so far as any useful delimitation can be established between the epoch in which spell and Magic predominated, and that at which germs of a rudimentary religious consciousness can be detected. ...
Human excreta were sources of uncleanness (Deuteronomy 23:12-14 ); but the directions on this subject very possibly date from the epoch of Magical spells, and arose from the fear lest a man’s excrement might fall into an enemy’s hands and be used to work Magic against him. A Magical conception appears to underlie the prohibition, and it has been suggested that some nations used to sprinkle the broth on the ground for some such purposes. The animistic horror of ghosts and theories of a continued existence after death, gave a rationale for such terror; but it probably existed in pre-animistic days, and the precautions exercised with regard to dead bodies were derived partly from the intrinsic mysteriousness of death, partly from the value of a corpse for Magical purposes
Miracles - Jesus did not perform miracles as if they were acts of Magic, and he never performed them for his own benefit (cf
Jude, Epistle of - Possibly Magic played no inconsiderable part in the practice of these libertines
Error - At best she looks upon Him as a worker of Magic
Deaf And Dumb - ’] —the taking aside, the mysterious remedies applied, the sigh, the word spoken, not of Magic but of power,‡ Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - He became an expert in the secrets of Magic and astrology
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - On John's death Simon was absent studying Magic in Egypt, and so Dositheus was put over his head into the chief place, an arrangement in which Simon on his return thought it prudent to acquiesce. Recognitions and Homilies agree that Simon after his enrolment among the disciples of Dositheus, by his disparagement among his fellow-disciples of their master's pretensions, provoked Dositheus to smite him with a staff, which through Simon's Magical art passed through his body as if it had been smoke
Prayer - ...
At this point we must guard against equating Christian belief in the efficacy of prayer and Magic. Magic attempts to control or manipulate the divine will in order to induce it to grant one's wishes, especially through the use of techniques such as charms, spells, rituals, or ceremonies. This is not some Magical formula
Christ in Jewish Literature - 107b, ‘Jçshû ha-Nôtzri practised Magic, and deceived and led astray Israel. Jesus had been in Egypt, and had brought Magic thence. He was a Magician, and deceived and led astray Israel. The Baraithas contain the statements that Jesus brought Magic from Egypt, that he deceived and led astray Israel, that He was tried at Lydda and hung on the eve of Passover which was also the eve of Sabbath, that a herald proclaimed the approaching execution and invited evidence in his favour, and that he had five disciples. It is therefore important to note that the chief points in the Talmudic tradition which furnished the base for that caricature were His alleged illegitimate birth, and His character as a Magician and a deceiver
Sol'Omon - The widespread belief of the East in the Magic arts of Solomon is not, it is believed, without its foundation of truth
Head - Just as the lower level of primitive thought represented by symbolic Magic often finds a real connexion in acts, because they are similar, so ancient theology (cf
Head - Just as the lower level of primitive thought represented by symbolic Magic often finds a real connexion in acts, because they are similar, so ancient theology (cf
Miracles - Early Christian writers, Justin Martyr, Tertullian, and Origen, occasionally appeal to miracles in proof of Christianity; but state that their pagan opponents, admitting the facts, attributed them to Magic; which accounts for the fewness of their references to miracles. The Jewish writings, as the Sepher Toldoth Jeshu, also the extant fragments of Celsus, Porphyry, and Julian, admit the fact of the miracles, though ascribing them to Magic and evil spirits. The miracles must have been altogether different from the wonders of exorcists, Magicians, etc
Carpocrates, Philospher - The privilege of the higher souls was to escape the rule of those who had made the world; even by Magical arts to exercise dominion over them, and ultimately, on leaving the world, to pass completely free from them to God Who is above them. ...
Mention has already been made of the cultivation of Magic by the Carpocratians, and their pretension to equal the miraculous powers of our Lord. Hippolytus, in the fourth book of the Refutation, gives us several specimens of wonders exhibited by Magicians, not very unlike feats performed by professional conjurors to-day
Cooking And Heating - Guesses have been made that the commandment was given for “humanitarian” reasons, or that the practice was somehow associated with Magic in contemporary religious life
Dominicans - ...
The next night this masculine virgin brought, as he pretended, some of the linen in which Christ had been buried, to soften the wound; and gave Jetzer a soporific draught, which had in it the blood of an unbaptized child, some grains of incense and of consecrated salt, some quicksilver, the hairs of the eye- brows of a child; all which, with some stupifying and poisonous ingredients, were mingled together by the prior with Magic ceremonies, and a solemn dedication of himself to the devil in hope of his succour
Salutations - This significance held long in Magic
Crimes And Punishments - The practice of Magic , wizardry, and similar black arts, exposes their adepts and those who resort to them to the same penalty (H 161865013122 DEU 20:27)
Jude Epistle of - Great stress was laid on Magic as a means of salvation
Divination - We read of it first in Genesis 41:8 , when Pharaoh called for all the Magicians, chartummim, of Egypt and the wise men, to interpret his dream. When Moses was endeavouring by means of signs to convince Pharaoh of the power of God, the Magicians of Egypt were able to turn their rods into serpents, and to simulate the first two plagues with their enchantments. ' This was beyond mere human power, and certainly the Magicians did not work by the power of God; it must therefore have been by the power of Satan. We know not the nature of the enchantments used, the word is lat, and signifies 'secret, Magic arts. After the first two plagues the power was stopped, and the Magicians had to own, whenlice were produced, "This is the finger of God. The Hebrew word is kashaph, and refers to the practice of Magical arts, with the intent to injure man or beast, or to pervert the mind; to bewitch. These used Magical arts (called 'curious arts' in Acts 19:19 ) and bewitched the people
Lots - Robertson Smith, ‘Divination and Magic in " translation="">Deuteronomy 18:10-11,’ in J Ph xiii
Ebionism - Paul; Christ’s appearance in Adam and others; permissibility of formal idolatry in times of persecution; Magic, astrology, prophecy
Cross, Cross-Bearing - For the archaeological and Magical history of the sign of the cross outside as well as within the pale of Christianity, see Zöckler’s Das Kreuz Christi (1875 [1]), Goblet d’Alviclla’s Migration of Symbols (1894), and his art. This sublime mysticism does not degenerate into Magic and crucifixes
Day of Atonement - ...
(d) The ceremonies performed by the high priest were not a mere opus operatum, the Magic of a medicine man
Name (2) - ), He is certainly not speaking of the use of His name as a species of Magical formula—nothing could be further from the mind of Christ (cf. ’...
The view has been taken that this use of the name of Christ for the working of miracles was nothing more than the employment of a theurgic formula, which finds its analogue in the invocations and incantations of ancient Magic (so esp. The influence of Greek and Oriental superstition soon brought into the Church a Magical and theurgic element, which gathered specially round the use of Christ’s name in formulas of exorcism
Julianus, Flavius Claudius, Emperor - The chief agent in effecting it was the neo-Platonist Maximus of Ephesus, a philosopher, Magician, and political schemer. 356), in repressing Magic and all kinds of divination with very severe edicts ( ib. One of the edicts against Magic, which threatens torture for every kind of divination, seems almost personally directed against Julian ( Cod
Theodorus, Bishop of Mopsuestia - the catechetical lectures, the ecthesis, and possibly the treatise on "Persian Magic. ...
(e ) Three books on "Persian Magic
Baptize, Baptism - The sacrament is a faith-sacrament, rooted in history, and conveying what it represents not by Magic but by divine action in believing and receptive hearts
Metaphors - ...
So the statement that Jesus spat on the blind man’s eyes and on the dumb man’s tongue (Mark 8:23; Mark 7:33), though omitted for obvious reasons from the other Gospels, becomes peculiarly impressive when we remember that spittle, according to all ancient thought, represented the essence of a man’s inner spirit, the quintessence of himself, and therefore played, from the earliest ages, a leading part in Magic and witchcraft
Confession - Paul is represented as receiving many confessions publicly at Ephesus (Acts 19:18), when many ‘came, confessing, and declaring their deeds,’ and there was a bonfire of books of Magic
Disease - Exorcism was effected by the sorcerer-priest, the intermediary between mankind and the spiritual world, using Magic spells consisting of the names of deities, the name signifying the personality of the god, who was compelled by this use of the name to attend to the exorcist
Devil - ’ At first the idea of malignancy was not necessarily associated with these beings, some being regarded as harmless and others as wielding even benign influence; but gradually they were considered as operating exclusively in the sphere of mischief, and as needing to be guarded against by Magic rites or religious observances
Solomon - Josephus also speaks of his power over demons; Rabbinical legend of his control over beasts and birds, of his ‘magic carpet,’ and knowledge of the Divine name
Antichrist - To the early Church, Simon with his Magic arts and false miracles was the arch-heretic and the father of all heresy, and suggestions of his legendary figure loom out from the description of the second beast (Revelation 13:13-15), even while the author attributes to it functions and powers that belong more properly to the ministers of the Emperor-worship (Revelation 13:12)
Lots - Robertson Smith, ‘Divination and Magic in " translation="">Deuteronomy 18:10-11,’ in J Ph xiii
Talmud - This includes the whole of the non-legal matter of Rabbinical literature, such as homilies, stories about Biblical saints and heroes; besides this it touches upon such subjects as astronomy, astrology, medicine, Magic, philosophy, and all that would come under the term ‘folklore
Diseases - Medicine gradually became more scientific and less controlled by Magic and superstition. The use of these medicines was often accompanied by Magical rites, incantations, and prayers
Messiah - —The custom of anointing the king, from which his designation as ‘messiah’ arose, is connected with Magical usages of hoary antiquity, based on the conception that the smearing or pouring of the unguent on the body endows the human subject with certain qualities. The oil, like the sprinkled blood in a covenant-rite‡ Idol - ...
Magic influences were attributed to sowing mingled seed in a field and to wearing garments of mixed material; hence the prohibition Leviticus 19:19
Cures - Drugs and Magic were, in fact, generally employed, the chief reliance being placed on the latter
Fulfilment - Still, in general, the letter of the NT takes the letter of the OT as a Magic book, foreshowing what must happen to Christ
Plagues of Egypt - This plague, therefore, was particularly disgraceful to the Magicians themselves; and when they tried to imitate it, but failed, on account of the minuteness of the objects, (not like serpents, water, or frogs, of a sensible bulk that could be handled,) they were forced to confess that this was no human feat of legerdemain, but rather "the finger of God. " Thus were "the illusions of their Magic put down, and their vaunting in wisdom reproved with disgrace," Wis_17:7 . And the Magicians could not stand before Moses because of the boil, which affected them and all the Egyptians, Exodus 9:8-11
Egypt - The monuments depict him as "one whose mind was turned almost exclusively towards sorcery and Magic
Hell - ...
‘They showed me there a very terrible place … and all manner of tortures in that place … and there is no light there, but murky fire constantly flameth aloft, and there is a fiery river coming forth, and that whole place is everywhere fire … and those men said to me: This place is prepared for those who dishonour God, who on earth practise … Magic-making, enchantments, and devilish witchcrafts, and who boast of their wicked deeds, stealing, lies, calumnies, envy, rancour, fornication, murder … for all these is prepared this place amongst these, for eternal inheritance’ (cf
Egypt - "...
Astronomy, which probably, like that of the Chaldeans, comprehended also judicial astrology, physics, agriculture, jurisprudence, medicine, architecture, painting, and sculpture, were the principal sciences and arts; to which were added, and that by their wisest men, the study of divination, Magic, and enchantments
Hell - ...
‘They showed me there a very terrible place … and all manner of tortures in that place … and there is no light there, but murky fire constantly flameth aloft, and there is a fiery river coming forth, and that whole place is everywhere fire … and those men said to me: This place is prepared for those who dishonour God, who on earth practise … Magic-making, enchantments, and devilish witchcrafts, and who boast of their wicked deeds, stealing, lies, calumnies, envy, rancour, fornication, murder … for all these is prepared this place amongst these, for eternal inheritance’ (cf
Sanhedrin - 17b) says: ‘They must also be of high stature, of pleasing appearance and of advanced age, conversant with the art of Magic and the seventy spoken languages,’ to which Judah han-Nâsî is said to have added ‘the dialectic power by which Levitically unclean things can be proven to be clean
Colossians, Epistle to the - Lightfoot tries to find parallels in Acts for the use of Magic (cf
Ascension of Isaiah - The sins specified are witchcraft, Magic, divination and auguration, fornication, and the persecution of the righteous
Acts of the Apostles (Apocryphal) - Paul restores the boy to life, and makes many converts; but he is suspected of Magic, and a riot ensues in which he is ill-treated and stoned
Psalms, Theology of - Typically, the individual speaks of being falsely accused (4:2; 5:6,8-9; 7:1-5,8, 14-16; 17:1-5,8-12; 22:6-8; 26:1-12; 27:12; 35:11-12,19-26; 38:11-12,19-20; 52:1-4; 59:12-13; 69:4; 71:10-11; 109:2-4; 120:2-3; 140:9-11), of being threatened or attacked by foes of various sorts including sorcerers who employ curses and black Magic (10:2-11; 28:3; 55:2-5,9-15,20-21; 58:1-5; 59:1-7; 69:9-12,19-21; 109:2-20,28-29; 140:1-5), of having committed sin (25:7; 38:18; 39:8; 51:1-9; 69:5; 130:3; 143:2), or of suffering due to some sort of illness or incapacity (6:2; 22:14-15,17-18; 38:3-10,17; 71:9; 88:3-9,15-18; 102:3-11)
Gospels (Apocryphal) - 18) affords an interesting parallel to the scene in the fairy tale, ‘The Sleeping Beauty,’ when by a Magic spell the whole of nature suddenly stands still, and all living beings are immovably rooted where they are
Arius the Heresiarch - Charges were made of sacrilege, tyranny, Magic, mutilation, murder, of immorality (as some allege), and, worst of all in the emperor's eyes, of raising funds for treasonable objects
Jesus Christ - The Jews remembered Him as charged with deceiving the people, practising Magic and speaking blasphemy, and as having been crucified; but the calumnies of the Talmud as to the circumstances of His birth appear to have been comparatively late inventions (Huldricus, Sepher Toledot Jeschua , 1705; Laible, Jesus Christus im Talmud , 1900)
Miracles - The Heathen imputed them to some occult power of Magic: and thus applied what has no existence in nature, in order to account for a phenomenon that existed out of its common course
Tatianus - To Babylonia they owed astronomy, to Persia Magic, to Egypt geometry, to Phoenicia instruction by letters
Enoch Book of - Knowledge of arts, Magic, and astronomy imparted by fallen angels (viii
Athanasius, Archbishop of Alexandria - A rumour was then spread that he had been murdered, and dismembered for purposes of Magic, by Athanasius, in proof of which the Meletians exhibited a dead man's hand (Apol
Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyons - 14 and 15 are concerned with Marcus, his Magic arts and theories about the symbolism of letters and numbers, concluding with a citation of some Iambic Senarii, written against him by a "Divinae aspirationis Senior et Praeco veritatis" (ὁ θεόπνευστος πρεσβύτης καὶ κήρυξ τῆς ἀληθείας )
Clementine Literature - These give an account of the history of Simon and of his Magical powers, stating that Simon supposed himself to perform his wonders by the aid of the soul of a murdered boy, whose likeness was preserved in Simon's bed-chamber. Simon, in alarm, flees to Laodicea, and there meeting Faustinianus, who had come to visit their common friends, Apion (or, as our author spells it, Appion) and Anubion, transforms by his Magic the features of Faustinianus into his own, that Faustinianus may be arrested in his stead
Palestine - New ideas first stagger and then captivate men’s minds, and the new names which these theories introduce assume Magic powers for a time
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - ’ Simon said: ‘This is simply Magic: give another proof