What does Lord's Prayer mean in the Bible?

Dictionary

Holman Bible Dictionary - Lord's Prayer, the
Words Jesus used to teach His followers to pray. Three forms of the Lord's Prayer exist in early Christian literature—two in the New Testament (Matthew 6:9-13 ; Luke 11:2-4 ) and the other in the Didache Luke 8:2 , a non-canonical Christian writing of the early second-century from northern Syria. See Didache . Their similarities and differences may be seen if the three forms are set side-by-side.
Matthew
Luke
Didache
Our Father who art in heaven:
Father :
Our Father who art in heaven:
Hallowed be thy name;
Hallowed be thy name;
Hallowed be thy name;
Thy kingdom come;
Thy kingdom come;
Thy kingdom come;
Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven
Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our bread for the morrow
Give us each day our bread for the morrow
Give us this day our bread for the morrow
And forgive us our debts as we also have forgiven our debtors;
And forgive us our sins for we ourselves forgive every one who is indebted to us;
And forgive us our debt as we also forgive our debtors;
And cause us to go not into temptation, But deliver us from evil.
And cause us to go not into temptation .
And cause us to go not into temptation , But deliver us from evil For thine is the power and the glory for ever.
Three conclusions derive from such comparison. First, it is the same prayer in all three cases. Second, the Didache likely uses the form of the prayer found in Matthew. Third, Matthew's version is longer than that of Luke at three points: at the end of the address to God, at the end of the petitions related to God, and at the end of the petitions related to humans. Also, study of the Greek manuscripts shows that the doxology that appears at the end of the Matthean form in some translations is not original; the earliest form of the prayer with a doxology in Didache Luke 8:2 . It is likely that each Evangelist gave the prayer as it was generally used in his own church at the time.
Matthew and Luke used the Lord's Prayer in different ways in their Gospels. In Matthew the prayer appears in the Sermon on the Mount where Jesus spoke about a righteousness that exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees (Luke 5:20 ). It is located in a section that warns against practicing one's piety before men in order to be seen by them (Luke 6:1-18 ). Almsgiving, praying, and fasting are for God's eyes and ears. When praying one should not make a public display (Luke 6:5-6 ) nor heap up empty phrases, thinking that one will be heard for many words (Luke 6:7 ). Prayer should be private and brief. The Lord's Prayer serves as an example or how to pray briefly. It is seen as a substitute for the wrong kind of prayer.
In Luke the prayer comes in the midst of Jesus' journey to Jerusalem (Luke 9:51-19:46 ). In His behavior Jesus is an example of one who prays. His prayer life caused one of His disciples to ask for instruction in prayer, as John the Baptist had given his disciples. What follows (Luke 11:2-13 ) is a teaching on prayer in which the disciples are told what to pray for (Luke 11:2-4 ) and why to pray (Luke 11:5-13 ). Here the Lord's Prayer is a model of what to pray for. To pray in this way is a distinguishing mark of Jesus' disciples.
Although all three versions of the prayer exist only in Greek the thought pattern and expressions are Jewish. In the address, God is designated “Father” or “Our Father who art in heaven.” One Jewish prayer begins: “Forgive us, Our Father” (Eighteen Benedictions, 6). Rabbi Akiba (about A.D. 130) said: “Happy are you Israelites! Before whom are you purified, and who purifies you? Your Father in heaven” (Mishnah, Yoma , Luke 8:9 ). The Ahaba Rabba (Great Love) prayer, which formed part or the morning worship in the Jerusalem Temple, began: “With great love hast thou loved us, O Lord, our God, with great and exceedingly great forbearance hast thou ruled over us. Our Father, our King, be gracious to us.”
The “Thou-petitions” are likewise Jewish in their thought and expression. The first two, “Hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come,” echo the language of the Jewish prayer, the Kaddish. It begins: “Magnified and hallowed be his great name in the world And may he establish his kingdom in your lifetime and in your days quickly and soon.” The third, “Your will be done,” is similar to a prayer of Rabbi Eliezer (about A.D. 100): “Do thy will in heaven above and give peace to those who fear thee below” (Babylonian Talmud, Berakoth , 29b).
The “Us-petitions” are also Jewish in their idiom. The first, “Give us our bread,” is akin to the first benediction of grace at mealtime. “Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, king of the universe, who feedest the whole world with thy goodness ; thou givest food to all flesh. Through thy goodness food hath never failed us: O may it not fail us for ever and ever.” The second, “Forgive us,” echoes the Eighteen Benedictions, 6: “Forgive us, our Father, for we have sinned against thee; blot out our transgressions from before thine eyes. Blessed art thou, O Lord, who forgivest much.” The accompanying phrase, “as we also have forgiven,” reflects the Jewish teaching found in Sirach 28:2 : “Forgive the wrong of your neighbor, and then your sins will be forgiven when you pray.” The third petition, “Cause us to go not into temptation,” is similar to a petition in the Jewish Morning and Evening Prayers. “Cause me to go not into the hands of sin, and not into the hands of transgression, and not into the hands of temptation, and not into the hand of dishonor.”
Just as it was a practice of Jewish teachers to reduce the many commandments to one or two (compare Mark 12:28-34 ), so it was often the case that Jewish teachers would give synopses of the Eighteen Benedictions (Babylonian Talmud, Berakoth , 29a). The Lord's Prayer seems to be Jesus' synopsis of various Jewish prayers of the time.
If the language of the Lord's Prayer and that of various Jewish prayers is similar, the meaning must be determined from Jesus' overall message. Jesus and the early Christians believed in two ages, the Present Evil Age and the Coming Good Age. The Age to Come would be brought by a decisive intervention of God at the end of history. This shift of the ages would be accompanied by the resurrection from the dead and the last judgment. Before either of these events, there would be a time of great suffering or tribulation. One name given to the Age to Come was the Kingdom of God. It was a ideal state of affairs when Satan would be defeated, sin would be conquered, and death would be no more. Jesus believed that in His ministry, the activity of God that was to bring about the shift of the ages was already taking place. Within this world of thought, the Lord's Prayer must be understood.
The “Thou-petitions” are synonymous parallelism. They all mean roughly the same thing. “Hallowed be thy name,” “Thy kingdom come,” and “Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven,” are all petitions for the shift of the ages to take place and for the ideal state of affairs to come about. They constitute a prayer for the final victory of God over the devil, sin, and death. It is possible that they were also understood by the early Christians to be a petition for God's rule in their lives in the here and now.
The “Us-petitions” participate in the same tension between the ultimate future and the disciples' present. “Give us our bread for the morrow” (RSV note to Matthew 6:11 ) may refer to the gift of manna to be renewed at the shift of the ages. At the Jewish rabbi, Joshua (about A.D. 90) said: “He who serves God up to the last day of his death, will satisfy himself with bread, namely the bread of the world to come” (Genesis Rabbah 82). It also refers to the bread necessary for daily life in this world as Luke 11:3 indicates: “Give us day by day.” “Forgive us our debts or sins” may very well refer to the ultimate forgiveness of sins on the last day, but it also refers to the continuing forgiveness of the disciples by their Heavenly Father as they, living in this age, continually forgive those indebted to them. “And cause us to go not into temptation” may refer to protection of the disciples in the final tribulation (as in Revelation 3:10 ), but it also speaks about being helped to avoid something evil within history where we now live. In all of the petitions, therefore, there is a tension between the present and the future. All of the petitions can be understood to refer both to the shift of the ages and to the present in which we now find ourselves. This is not surprising, considering the tension between the two in both Jesus' message and the early church's theology. The concern about the shift of the ages in the prayer sets it apart from the Jewish prayers whose language was so similar.
The Lord's Prayer in the New Testament is a community's prayer: “Our Father,” “Give us our bread,” Forgive us our debts,” “as we forgive our debtors,” “Cause us ,” “Deliver us .” It is the prayer of the community of Jesus' disciples.
The Lord's Prayer is a prayer of petition. It is significant that the Model Prayer for Christians is not praise, thanksgiving, meditation, or contemplation, but petition. It is asking God for something.
This prayer of petition seeks two objects. First, one who prays in this way implores God to act so as to achieve His purpose in the world. Second, one who prays in this manner requests God to meet the physical and spiritual needs of the disciples. It is significant that the petitions come in the order they do: first, God's vindication; then, disciples' satisfaction.
Such a prayer of petition assumes a certain view of God. A God to whom one prays in this way is assumed to be in control; He is able to answer. He is also assumed to be good; He wants to answer. The Father to whom Jesus taught His disciples to pray is One who is both in control and good. See Eschatology , Kingdom of God ; Mishnah ; Midrash ; Rabbi ; Talmud and Targums.
Charles Talbert
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Lord's Prayer
The name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matthew 6:9-13 ). The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by (Luke 11:2-4 ), also in the RSV of Matthew 6:13 . This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17 . The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer."
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Lord's Prayer
Is that which our Lord gave to his disciples on the Mount. According to what is said in the sixth chapter of Matthew, it was given as a directory; but from Luke 11:1 . some argue that it was given as a form. Some have urged that the second and fourth petition of that prayer could be intended only for a temporary use; but it is answered, that such a sense may be put upon those petitions as shall suit all Christians in all ages; for it is always our duty to pray that Christ's kingdom may be advanced in the world, and to profess our daily dependence on God's providential care. Nevertheless, there is no reason to believe that Christ meant that his people should always use this as a set form; for, if that had been the case, it would not have been varied as it is by the two evangelists, Matthew 6:1-34 : Luke 11:1-54 : It is true, indeed, that they both agree in the main, as to the sense, yet not in the express words; and the doxology which Matthew gives at large is wholly left out in Luke. And, besides, we do not find that the disciples ever used it as a form. It is, however, a most excellent summary of prayer, for its brevity, order, and matter; and it is very lawful and laudable to make use of any single petition, or the whole of it, provided a formal and superstitious use of it be avoided.
That great zeal, as one observes, which is to be found in some Christians either for or against it, is to be lamented as a weakness; and it will become us to do all that we can to promote on each side more moderate sentiments concerning the use of it.
See Doddridge's Lectures, lec. 194; Barrow's Works, vol. 1: p. 48; Archbishop Leighton's Explanation of it; West on the Lord's Prayer; Gill's Body of Divinity, vol. 3: p. 362, 8vo. Fordyce on Edification of Public Instruction, p. 11, 12; Mendlam's Exposition of the Lord's Prayer.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Lord's Prayer
A prayer taught by Christ (Luke 11:2-4; Matthew 6:9-15) and therefore the most revered and oft-used formula of the Christian religion, frequent in Liturgy. The strictly correct form is that in use among Catholics, the termination "For thine is the kingdom, and the power and the glory" used by Protestants being an interpolation. It is referred to as the Pater Noster as these are the first two words of the prayer in Latin.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Lord's Prayer
LORD’S PRAYER
Matthew 6:9-13 .
Matthew 6:8 Thus therefore pray ye:
(1) Our Father which art in the heavens;
(2) Hallowed be thy name.
Matthew 6:10 (3) Thy kingdom come.
(4) Thy will be done, as in heaven, so on [1] earth.
Matthew 6:11 (5) Our daily (?) bread give us to-day.
Mat 6:12 (6) And forgive us our debts, as we also [2] our debtors.
Matthew 6:13 (7) And bring us not into temptation;
(8) But deliver us from the evil ( one? ).
For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, unto the ages. Amen.
Luke 11:2-4 .
Luke 11:2 Whensoever ye pray, say,
(1) [3] Father [4];
(2) Hallowed be thy name.
(3) Thy kingdom come.
(4) [5]
Luke 11:3 (5) Our daily (?) bread give us day by day.
Luke 11:4 (6) And forgive us our sins, for we ourselves also forgive every one that is indebted to us.
(7) And bring us not into temptation;
(8) [6].
The request of one of the disciples ‘Lord, teach us to pray’ (Luke 11:1 ) expresses a desire which doubtless found a place in the hearts of all. Great teachers were expected to give their disciples a form of prayer. Because John had taught his disciples to pray, Christ was petitioned to do the same for His followers.
The Lord’s Prayer has been delivered to us in two forms, one by Mt., another by Lk.; in each case in a different context. The forms are set out above for comparison, in a literal translation, as a preliminary to the consideration of questions connected with the texts and the contexts. The places in which there is a difference of reading, or where words are omitted by some authorities, are enclosed in brackets. The form in Mt. consists of eight clauses, which correspond, clause by clause, to an equal number in Lk., according to the longer text. The shorter Lukan text omits clauses 4 and 8. The Doxology is found only in MSS of Mt., and not in the oldest of these.
‘Thus,’ ‘after this manner’ (Matthew 6:9 ) introduces the prayer as a model of acceptable devotion. ‘Whensoever’ ( Luke 11:2 ) enjoins the use of the words which follow, and implies that the prayers of Christ’s disciples should be conceived in the spirit of the form He was giving them.
In clause 4 (Mt.) the article before ‘earth’ is omitted in some MSS; but as, by a well-known rule, the article in Greek is often implied, but not expressed, after a preposition, the omission does not demand a change in the translation.
In clause 6 (Mt.) a few old authorities read the perfect ‘have forgiven.’
In Lk., clause 1, the words ‘Our’ and ‘which art in the heavens,’ and the whole of clauses 4 and 8, are omitted by a few ancient authorities, and, in consequence, have been rejected by the RV [7] . Yet the TR [8] of Lk. is attested by the majority of the MSS. If we go behind these witnesses, and, in spite of their evidence, accept the shorter Lukan form, it will perhaps follow that the rejected clauses were never parts of the Prayer, as taught by Christ, but are later amplifications, which obtained a place in Mt., and thence were copied into the Lukan text.
Clause 6 in Lk. explains the corresponding words in Mt. In the latter ‘as’ is not of strict proportion, but of general condition. It cannot be, as is sometimes stated in devotional exegesis, that we are to pray God to measure His boundless pity by our imperfect attempts to forgive; but we plead that we have endeavoured to remove what would be a bar to His grant of pardon; and this is expressed clearly in Lk., ‘for we ourselves also forgive.’
The Doxology, which is not found in the oldest MSS, is contained in the majority of copies. The evidence of the ancient versions is divided. Some of the Fathers, in commenting on the Lord’s Prayer, take no account of a Doxology; but Chrysostom and others recognize it, and note its connexion with the preceding petitions. If the Doxology be not an integral part of the Matthæan text, it is certainly of very great antiquity. It may have been interpolated from a Liturgy; for it is now admitted that liturgical forms existed in the earliest days of Christianity, although perhaps at first they were unwritten, and were transmitted orally.
The word in clause 5 which we have provisionally rendered ‘daily’ was of doubtful import in early times, for different interpretations have been given by the ancients.
Origen (3rd cent.), the greatest textual critic of primitive days says that the word ( epiousios ) was coined by the Evangelists, and is not found in earlier Greek writers. Among the Syrians, one Version (Curetonian) has in Mt. ‘bread constant of the day,’ in Lk. ‘bread constant of every day’; in Lk. the Lewis Version (not extant in Mt.) has the same as the Curetonian; in Mt. the Pesh. has ‘bread of our need today,’ in Lk. ‘bread of our need daily.’ The ancient Latin rendering of epiousios was ‘daily.’ This is read now in the Vulgate in Lk., but in Mt. was altered by Jerome to ‘super-substantial.’ The term is derived either from epi and ienai , ‘to come upon,’ i.e . ‘succeed,’ ‘be continual’; or from epi and ousia , upon substance,’ i.e . ‘added to, or adapted to, substance.’ The Syriac rendering ‘constant’ comes from the first derivation; the second derivation permits their other rendering ‘of our need,’ bread ‘ adapted to our human substance .’ Jerome’s rendering in Mt. takes epiousios in a spiritual sense, ‘something added to natural substance .’ In either case ‘bread’ may be taken in an earthly or a heavenly sense. The fulness of Scriptural language justifies the widest application of the term. If we adopt the derivation from ienai ‘to come,’ the bread epiousios will be (i) whatsoever is needed for the coming day, to be sought in daily morning prayer ‘give us to-day’; (ii) whatsoever is needed for the coming days of life. The petition becomes a prayer for the presence of Him who has revealed Himself as ‘the Bread.’ Another application, the coming feast in the Kingdom of God (cf. Luke 14:15 ), seems excluded by the reference to the present time in both Evangelists.
In clause 8 the Greek may be the genitive case of ho ponçros , ‘the evil one,’ or of to ponçron , where the article to is generic, ‘the evil,’ ‘whatsoever is evil.’ The Greek is indefinite, and commentators have taken the words in both applications.
We have already observed that the longer readings in the Lukan form of the Prayer may be due to the attempts of copyists to harmonize the text with the form found in their days in Mt. Some may further argue that the two forms are different reminiscences of the same instruction. If it beheld that the Gospels are late compositions, in which, long after the events recorded, certain unknown writers gathered together, without method, or accurate knowledge, such traditions as had reached them, it will be as justifiable as it is convenient to treat all related passages as mere varying traditions of the same original. But if it be admitted that the Evangelists were accurate and well-informed historians, there is no ground for identifying the Prayer in Lk. with that in Mt. They occupy different places in the history. Mt. records the Prayer as part of a discourse. It was delivered unasked, as a specimen of right prayer, in contrast to the hypocritical and superstitious habits which the Master condemned; and it is followed by an instruction on forgiveness. The occasion in Lk. is altogether different. Christ had been engaged in prayer; then, in response to a request, He delivered a form for the use of His disciples, and enforced the instruction by a parable and exhortations teaching the power of earnestness in prayer. The differences of text, especially if the shorter readings in Lk. be adopted, distinguish the one form from the other; and it is unreasonable to deny that the Master would, if necessary, repeat instructions on an important subject.
The Prayer is rightly named ‘the Lord’s,’ because it owes to the Master its form and arrangement; but many of the sentiments may be paralleled in Jewish writings, and are ultimately based on the teachings of the OT.
In a work accessible to the ordinary reader, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (ed. C. Taylor), we read (ch. 5:30): ‘R. Jehudah ben Thema said, Be strong as a lion, to do the will of thy Father which is in heaven.’ In ch. 4:7 (n. [9] 8) examples are given of the use of ‘the Name’ as a substitute for titles of the Almighty, and including all that they imply. The Rabbinical doctrine of the correspondence of the upper with the lower world is exemplified by Taylor, ch. 3:15 n. [9] Hillel said of a skull floating on the water (2:7), ‘Because thou drownedst, they drowned thee, and in the end they that drowned thee shall be drowned’; which illustrates clause 6 of the Prayer. From Talmudic prayers are quoted (p. 128) the petitions: ‘May it be thy will to deliver us from evil man, evil chance,’ etc.; and ‘Bring me not into the hands of sin, nor into the hands of temptation.’ In the OT we may compare with clause 1, Isaiah 63:16 ; clause 2, Exodus 20:7 ; clauses 2, 3, Zechariah 14:9 ; clause 4, Psalms 103:20 ; Psalms 135:6 ; clause 5, Exodus 16:4 , Proverbs 30:8 ; clause 6, Obadiah 1:15 . The Doxology may be compared with 1 Chronicles 29:11 .
It is remarkable that there is no instance in the NT of the use of the Prayer by the disciples; but the scantiness of the records forbids an adverse conclusion. There is in 2 Timothy 4:18 what seems to be an allusion to clause 8, and to the Doxology, in relation to St. Paul’s experience. The first word of the Prayer in our Lord’s vernacular and in the Evangelists’ translation is alluded to in Romans 8:15 , Galatians 4:6 . It is doubtful whether an Oriental would consider that he had satisfied the requirements of the ‘thus’ and the ‘whensoever’ by ex tempore or other devotions, which merely expressed the sentiments of the Prayer. In any case, from early days the opinion has prevailed in the Church that the use of the actual words is an essential part of every act of worship.
G. H. Gwilliam.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Lord's Prayer, the
Jesus teaches this prayer to his disciples as a paradigm of proper prayer as he trains them for the missionary task of the messianic age that he is inaugurating in his own person as the incarnate Son of God and Son of man. The prayer needs to be seen in the larger contexts of the Sermon on the Mount and the Gospel of Matthew. The shorter version in Luke 11:2-4 appears in a different setting; during Jesus' itinerant ministry he paraphrased important teachings in training his followers for prayer and mission. Both versions of the Lord's Prayer imply the importance of a vertical dimension of personal purity in worship of the Father as a prerequisite of valid missionary activity on the Lord's behalf.
A second requirement of successful mission is the horizontal bearing of fruit, as evidenced in Jesus' teaching that his true followers will be known by their fruits (Matthew 7:15-20 ). Both vertical and horizontal dimensions are emphasized as a unit in the Sermon on the Mount, which summarizes the purpose of the Gospel of Matthew as a whole. The Gospel was likely written to serve as a manual for mission in the early church and was based on eyewitness accounts of Jesus' work and teaching. Matthew then would have been written within the nascent Jewish Christian mission originating in and emanating from Jerusalem, reflecting Jesus' exemplary training of the first line of missioners with a view to serving as model for all his subsequent followers.
A study of the four Gospels affirms a recurrent pattern: Jesus as incarnate Son of God and Son of man models in action for his disciples what he teaches, since he embodies the ideal image of God in humanity. Where Adam failed he succeeds in his redemptive and exemplary work. Since God is the relational Trinity in everlasting and inexhaustible fellowship as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, the divine design and nature of created humanity are to reflect relatedness and fellowship both vertically and horizontally as the Old Testament Decalogue indicates, and this Jesus does to perfection. While his relation to the Father and the spirit is unique in view of his oneness and equality within the Triune Family, as incarnate Son he also exemplifies direct address, passionate intent and purity, unostentatious setting in prayer, and concern with the two dimensions of proper prayer—honoring the Father vertically and asking for help in realizing the Father's will in the present mission horizontally. These two dimensions constitute the heart of the Sermon on the Mount and the Lord's Prayer.
The immediate context of the Lord's Prayer in Matthew 6 is the triple teaching of Jesus on alms (vv. 1-4), prayer (vv. 5-15), and fasting (vv. 16-18). In each Jesus warns against ostentatious hypocrisy and requires worship en to krypto ("in secret"). This has to do not so much with privacy and isolation (" Our Father" indicates a communal prayer), but praying with pure intent for the honor and pleasure of the Father, not for selfish and transient approval from the world. When this proper attitude is fulfilled God rewards the worshiper, but "in secret, " on his own terms (vv. 4,6, 18).
With the crucial matter of proper intent established at the outset, Jesus instructs his disciples as to the priority and content of the ideal prayer. The prayer is not necessarily given for strict liturgical use, for Jesus says, "This, then, is how you should pray." If used as a set prayer, the conditions of the teaching unit are to be observed, especially the warning not to "keep on babbling like pagans" (6:7). The significance of the Lord's Prayer lies in the fact that every prayer directed to God should function in two spheres. The basic format of the prayer is accordingly divided into two sections. The first is directed vertically in glorification of the Father and in petition that his name be hallowed, his reign realized, and his will accomplished on earth as in heaven. Where the first section (vv. 9-10) focuses on the Father, the second (vv. 11-13) focuses on us: give us, forgive us, lead us. The priority is important, for according to Jesus' own formula the second set will not function without the first in place. Glorification of God must be given pride of place in prayer and takes precedence over "us" petitions.
Examining the opening vertical unit of the prayer we notice its poetic arrangement in the following sentence flow of verse 9-10 :
Πατερ ημων ο εν τοις ουρανοις, (Our Father who art in heaven), αγιασθητω το ονομα σου, (Let thy name be hallowed). ελθετω η βασιλεια σου, (Let thy kingdom come), γενηθητω το θελημα σου, (Let thy will be done), ως εν ουρανω και επι γης. (As in heaven so upon earth). The opening line of the prayer is a declarative statement; it affirms that God is (implied), that he is in heaven (distant and sovereign), and that he is also our Father (near, familial, and personal). The three petitions follow with imperatives up front, emphasizing all three aspects of the Greek aorist tense: let the action begin (inceptive), let it continue (durative), let it be completed (terminal). The triplet indicates not so much the power of the petitioner to bring about what is petitioned, but agreement with the fact that God is already sovereignly bringing to pass all three petitions. In the person of Jesus the Son his name is being hallowed, his kingdom is now coming, his will is in process of being done on earth as it is in heaven.
All three petitions are to be understood in light of inaugurated eschatology that Jesus embodies in his own words and work and will bring to completion at his second coming. The three petitions accordingly are "joining" petitions in the sense that Jesus is asking his followers to join him in what already are the sovereign realities and doings of the Father through the Son. In praying the disciples are in effect serving notice that they want to be part of this great, ongoing, glorifying ministry, desiring that all humankind will come to honor God as he deserves to be honored. Hence the petitions acknowledge the already and not yet aspects of Jesus' ministry and the disciples' desire to participate in the mission of realizing on earth what is enjoyed in heaven.
The second unit in the prayer comprises three parallel "us" petitions that request divine help in the mission to which Jesus' followers are being called: "give us"; "forgive us"; "deliver us." These correspond on the human side to the three petitions in the first unit, which focus on God. As the Father's name is to be hallowed, so the disciples ask to be honored with spiritual and material sustenance because they bear the image of God and reflect his glory, especially now that they are experiencing the redeeming work of Jesus the Son of God in their lives and are engaged in sharing the good news of salvation in the mission of fruitbearing.
The key here is "not too much, not too little, but just enough, " as with God's supply of manna in the morning and quail in the evening for Israel during the wilderness missionjust enough for the day, no more (Exodus 16:4,12-21 ). Hence epiousion is best translated "what is sufficient" "Give us food sufficient for the day, " remembering that the setting of the Gospel of Matthew, the Sermon on the Mount, and the Lord's Prayer (in Luke as well) is one of eschatological urgency and preparation for mission in the new exodus inaugurated by Jesus, and of traveling light; it is not a general prayer for common grace. There was no ordinariness for Israel in the wilderness, nor is there for God's people in the new mission. As with Israel, Jesus' disciples are to acknowledge the honor of being called to represent God's image in the world, to conquer enemy-held territory in his name, and to exhibit faith in the Lord that he will provide daily sustenance for their extraordinary eschatological journey.
The second petition in the "us" section parallels the second petition in the "Father" section. How does "your kingdom come"? It comes by the Father's bringing forgiveness through the redemptive work of Jesus the Son, who personifies the redeeming reign of God. Accordingly, the kingdom comes as sinners ask forgiveness of the Lord by acknowledging moral and spiritual obligations, receive saving grace by faith, and then pass along the good news of Jesus to others with a forgiving heart. The petition is not conditional; sinners are not forgiven because they forgive others. They are saved by grace through the redeeming work of Jesus alone. But they have no right to claim forgiveness for themselves if they are unwilling to forgive others, for that would undermine the purpose of the disciples' mission: as they have been forgiven by God's grace in Jesus the Son, so they are to share the message of forgiveness with the world.
The mission of proclamation to which the disciples of Jesus are called leads to the third "us" petition, which corresponds to the third "Father" petition. How shall "your will be done on earth as it is in heaven"? It is done by proclaiming the work of reconciliation Jesus came to accomplish and so binding the devil and plundering his goods (Matthew 12:28-30 ; Luke 11:20-23 ). Jesus defeated the tempter by successfully passing the probation of testing (Matthew 4:1-11 ), and hence proved worthy as his disciples' savior and exemplar. Thus the third petition is best understood if it focuses on the prayer "deliver us from the evil one, " taking the clause "and lead us not into temptation" as explanatory of what is involved in the petition: protection from the adversary who would keep us from salvation and from sharing it with others. This is essentially the prayer Jesus prays in Gethsemane (Matthew 26:39 ; 4:7 ) as he resists the temptation not to drink the cup of redemptive suffering, thus again foiling the devil who is seeking to divert the image-keeper from his redemptive role.
With the exception of the petition for forgiveness of sins (Jesus is the sinbearer who provides forgiveness), the eschatological themes of the Lord's Prayer would have been prayed by Jesus throughout his ministry; they are thus fitting for his followers, who are given the honor and responsibility of sharing in his mission by proclaiming the coming of the kingdom and doing the will of God, to his glory.
Royce Gordon Gruenler
See also Jesus Christ ; Prayer
Bibliography . W. Barclay, The Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer for Everyman ; A. W. Pink, The Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Lord's Prayer (i)
LORD’S PRAYER (I)
1. Place in NT.—Matthew 6:9-13, Luke 11:1-4. The former passage has been more influential in the later history of the Lord’s Prayer, but the latter seems to give it in a more historical setting. In the Sermon on the Mount, the Prayer is, to all appearance, a later insertion; Lk. leads into the neighbourhood of Bethany (Luke 10:38-42) or Gethsemane; see J. A. Robinson, ‘On the Locality in which the Lord’s Prayer was given,’ in F. H. Chase, ‘The Lord’s Prayer in Early Church’ (TS [1] iii. [2] pp. 123–125). Not far from the traditional site of Gethsemane, on the slope of the Mount of Olives, stands to-day the Church of the Paternoster, showing in the quadrangle the Lord’s Prayer engraved in thirty-two languages.
The Lord’s Prayer has been frequently published in Polyglot editions; the oldest at Rome, 1591, in 26 languages; then by II. Megiser, Frankfort, 1593, in 40 [3]; by Andr. Müller, 1660, in 100; Chamberlayne, 1715, in 150 languages. J. Adelung (Mithridates, 1804–1817) made the Lord’s Prayer the basis of a scientific classification of languages. Further Polyglot editions by Bodoni (Parma), J. J. Marcel (Paris), Auer (Vienna), Dalton (St. Petersburg, 1870, in 108 languages of Russia), S. Apostolides (London, no date, in 100 languages, published for the benefit of the poor Cretan refugees now in Greece); The Lord’s Prayer in Three Hundred Languages … with a Preface by Heinrich Rost, 1891; in 300 dialects of Africa, 1900. But most of these compilations lack scholarly supervision. A pleasant task would be for a united band of scholars to trace the historic development of those languages for which this is possible, on the basis of the Lord’s Prayer, and to show the character of the rest on the same basis. The Lord’s Prayer has also been frequently turned into metre and rhyme. Whether there exists a collection of this kind in English, is unknown to the present writer; in German, cf. Das Gebet des Herrn: Eine Sammlung metrischer Umschreibungen des Vaterunsers, Reutlingen, 1821; E. W. Scripture, ‘A Record of the Melody of the Lord’s Prayer,’ in Die neueren Sprachen, ed. by W. Vietor, x. 9.
For early English translations of the Lord’s Prayer, see Albert S. Cook, ‘Study of the Lord’s Prayer in English’ (Amer. Journ. Philol. vol. xii. pp. 59–66), and Biblical Quotations of Old English Prose Writers (London, 1898, pp. xxv, liii, lix, lxiv, 147 ff.). Cook refers to Wanley’s Catalogus, where separate versions of the Lord’s Prayer are either given or their existence noted, pp. 51, 160, 169, 197, 202, 221, 224, 239 (?), 240, 248. Cook gives the first from MS. Bodl. Jun. 121. Three poetical paraphrases of the Lord’s Prayer of uncertain date are given by Greiss in his Bibliothek der Angelsächsischen Poesie, ii. 285–290 (new ed. ii. 227–238), the last two published by Wanley, Catalogus, pp. 48 and 147 f., and by Ettmüller, Scopas and Boceras, pp. 230–237; the first by Thorpe, Codex Exoniensis, p. 468 f. On p. 147, Cook gives the Lord’s Prayer from aelfric’s Homilies, and an isolated quotation in Cnut’s Laws (Schmid, Gesetze der Angelsachsen, p. 270). We may quote: ‘urne daeghwamlican hlâf,’ ‘ure gyltas,’ ‘on costnunge’; ‘fram yfele,’ ‘hlâf userne oferwistlic,’ ‘instondenlice,’ ‘scylda’ (Cook, pp. liii, lix). For the expression ‘costnunge,’ it is interesting to note that the corresponding German word ‘Bekorung,’ was declared by Luther better than the received ‘Versuchung.’
In the new and enlarged edition of The Lord’s Prayer in Five Hundred Languages, comprising the Leading Languages and their Principal Dialects throughout the World, with the Places where Spoken; with a Preface by Reinhold Rost (London, Gilbert & Rivington, 1905), the Lord’s Prayer is given in English in sixteen forms, namely: Charles 11. Prayer-Book, 1662; Edward VI. Prayer-Book, 1549; as sent from Rome by Pope Adrian, an Englishman, about 1160; from two Manuscripts of the 13th cent.; from Wyclif, about 1380; Tindale, 1534; Cranmer, 1575; Rheims Version, 1582; Authorized Version , 1611; Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 , 1881; The Twentieth Century NT; further, in Anglo-Saxon.
A disciple—it is not said whether one of the Twelve—asked Jesus, as He was praying in a certain place, when He ceased, ‘Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.’ That the disciples of John were wont to make prayers or supplications, besides their fasting, is told by St. Luke only (5:33). On a form of prayer ascribed to John, see ‘Lord’s Prayer’ (by present writer) in EBi [4] 2817, n. [5] 6, and the Catalogue of the Syriac Manuscripts preserved in the Library of the University of Cambridge (p. 529). There it begins: ‘Bright Morning, Jesus Christ, Who was sent by God the Father.’ Where fixed forms of prayer are in use, as was the case, it seems, with the Jews in the time of Christ, it is but natural that petitions on particular subjects should be added to them; such additions are mentioned as made, for example, by R. Eliezer and by R. Johanan (see Lightfoot, Hor. Heb. on Matthew 6, and art. ‘Schemone Esre’ in Hamburger, RE ii. [1] 1098).
2. Sources.—The sources whence our Mt. and Lk. took the Lord’s Prayer are quite unknown. The Gospel of Mk., which, according to the common view, was used by our Mt. and Lk., does not give it. On Mark 11:24 f., where Mk. speaks about prayer, see A. Wright, Synopsis2 [7] , 1903, p. 115, and Wellhausen, who thinks that Mk. may have known the Lord’s Prayer as a prayer of the Church, but did not dare to refer it in its wording to Jesus; the expression (ὁ πατὴρ ὑμῶν) ὁ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς, occurring there, is not found elsewhere in Mk. If the first Gospel was originally written in (Hebrew or) Aramaic, its author may have had the Lord’s Prayer before him, written or oral, in (Hebrew or) Aramaic, and given it in one of these dialects; then the translator may have formed the Greek under the influence of Lk. (cf. the hapaxlegomenon ἐπιούσιος). This is the view especially of Th. Zahn. The opposite view, that ἐπιούσιος was first coined by Mt. or one of his fellow-workers, is maintained, for instance, by A. Wright, The Gospel acc. to Luke, 1900, p. 102.
3. Text of the Lord’s Prayer.—As there are two traditions about the place of origin of the Lord’s Prayer, so even its wording is given in two different forms. In the Received Text, it is true, they differ very little; in the Authorized Version , for instance, the variations are but four:
Matthew.
Luke.
(1) in earth as it is in heaven.
as in heaven, so in earth.
(2) this day.
day by day.
(3) debts, as we forgive our debtors.
sins, for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us.
(4) For thine … Amen.
omits.
In the Greek Textus Receptus they differ even less, the first of the above variations has nothing to correspond in Greek. (In Mt. the Authorized Version preserved the order of the Pr. Bk. [8] version, which differs both from Mt. and Lk. in the fifth petition, ‘trespasses’ against ‘debts’ and ‘sins’).
There can be no doubt that in the Textus Receptus the form of Lk. has been assimilated to that of Mt. The modern critical editions agree almost to the letter; see the editions of Scrivener, Weymouth, Nestle. Weiss retained in Mt. the form ἐλθέτω instead of ἐλθάτω, and the article τῆς before γῆς. The critical apparatus of Tischendorf and WH [9] [10] may be supplemented by the following notes:
(1) The Didache (8:2) has the singular τῷ οὐρανῷ; the Apost. Const. in both places, 3:18 and 7:24 (here reproducing the Didache), the plural.
(2) On the form ‘veni ad regnum tuum’ in the oldest Latin MS (Cod. Bobbiensis), see F. C. Burkitt (Cambr. Univ. Reporter, 5th March 1900).
(3) Syr [11] cur and the Syr. [12] Acts of Thomas have the plural for ‘thy will’ as the first hand of Cod. א in Matthew 7:21 (τὰ θελήματα).
(4) On the article for ‘on earth,’ see EBi [4] 2818; on the new punctuation of the third petition, see below.
(5) With τὴν ὀφειλήν of the Didache cf. Matthew 18:32, and the difference of the singular and plural in German and Dutch: Schuld and Schulden. Two Manuscripts of the Apost. Const. give καραπτώματα = ‘trespasses,’ καθώς for ὡς, and omit the verb. Syriac forms combine ‘debts’ and ‘sins’; see, besides EBi [4] 2818, Burkitt in his ed. of the Evangelion da-Mepharreshe, Mrs. Gibson’s ed. of the Didascalia, and Mrs. Lewis’ MS of the Acts of Thomas.
(6) In some Oriental translations ‘deliver’ is rendered by different roots in Mt. and Lk., and then both are combined in liturgical use of the Lord’s Prayer.
(7) Of the Doxology the Didache omits ‘the kingdom and’; in the Apost. Const. (7:24) one MS, on the contrary, omits ‘and the power and the glory’; and the same two clauses are omitted by another MS at 3:18, which with its ally ends ‘of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever.’ In this connexion it is worth while to remark, that Funk, in his new edition of the Didascalia and Apost. Const., puts at 3:18 and 7:24 the final quotation marks after τονηροῦ, implying by this that he does not regard the Doxology as part of the quotation from the NT. Compare with this the above statement about the Manuscripts of the Constitutions, and Brightman’s Liturgies Eastern and Western, p. 353 f.
In Lk. the modern editions differ even less than in Mt.—only in a single letter, Weiss retaining here also the spelling ἐλθέτω. With this unity contrast the judgment of Dean Burgon (The Revision Revised, pp. 34–36; The Traditional Text, p. 84):
‘ “The five Old Uncials” (אABCD) falsify the Lord’s Prayer as given by St. Luke in no less than forty-five words. But so little do they agree among themselves, that they throw themselves into six different combinations in their departures from the Traditional Text; and yet they are never able to agree among themselves as to one single various reading: while only once are more than two of them observed to stand together, and their grand point of union is no less than an omission of the article. Such is their eccentric tendency, that in respect of thirty-two out of the whole forty-five words they bear in turn solitary evidence.’
Any one who is unwilling to believe that the Textus Receptus of Lk. is due to assimilation with Mt. may compare the critical apparatus of the Latin Testament of Wordsworth-White, or of the pre-Lutheran German Bible as edited by Kurrelmeyer. There he can watch the same process for the German and the Latin texts. Even the Vulgate of Sixtus V. (1590) has the addition in Lk., Fiat voluntas tua sicut in cœlo ct in terra; but not the rest.
The chief question about the Lord’s Prayer in Lk. is, What about the petition ἐλθέτω τὸ ἅγιον πνεῦμά σον ἐφʼ ἡμᾶς καὶ καθαρισάτω ἡμᾶς, which is witnessed for Marcion and found since in one MS (604, or Scrivener’s b, Gregory’s 700, von Soden’s ε 133, pub. by Hoskier, 1890). Perhaps a trace of it is found in D [15] , which has ἁγιασθήτω ὄνομά σου ἐφ ̓ ἡμᾶς, ἐλθέτω σον ἡ βασιλεία, etc. Another reading of Marcion is ‘thy bread’ for ‘our’; whether he read the second clause of the fifth petition we do not know, the sixth (and last with him) had the form καὶ μὴ ἄφες ἡμᾶς εἰσενεχθῆναι εἰς πειρασμόν. The same or similar forms are found independently from Marcion down to the present day. Harnack (Sitzungsber. Acad. Berl. 21st Jan. 1904) was inclined to see in the petition, ‘Thy holy spirit come (upon us) and cleanse us,’ the original for Lk., comparing Luke 11:13 with Matthew 7:11.
4. Arrangement of the Lord’s Prayer.—Augustine tells us (Enchir. 116): ‘Lucas in oratione dominica petitiones non septem sed quinque complexus est’; thus it became the custom in the West to count seven petitions; but Origen, Chrysostom, and the Reformed Churches count six, connecting ‘but deliver us from evil’ closely with what precedes. WH [9] print in Mt. the Lord’s Prayer in 2 × 3 stichi, in Lk. without strophical arrangement, seeing in ‘as in heaven, so on earth’ the common burden for the first triplet of single clauses; see § 421. This has been adopted now for the Pr. Bk. [8] version by Parliamentary Papers, 1903, No. 53, removing the comma from behind ‘on earth’ to behind ‘done.’ For the Authorized Version , the editions of the Parallel NT give a comma after ‘done’ as well as after ‘on earth’; but Scrivener’s Paragraph Bible (1873), the Two Version Edition (1900), and the Interlinear Bible (1906) omit the first comma. Whether the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 agrees with WH [9] is not quite clear from its comma (in this case we should have expected a colon). This arrangement was already put forward by the Opus imperfectum in Mt. (Migne, lvi. 712): ‘Communiter autem accipi debet quod ait, Sicut in cœlo et in terra,’ i.e.—
‘Sanctificetur nomen tuum, sicut in cœlo et in terra.
Adveniat regnum tuum, sicut in cœlo et in terra.
Fiat voluntas tua, sicut in cœlo et in terra.’
On the fact that in mediaeval explanations the beginning was construed ‘Pater noster qui es. In cœlis sanctificetur nomen tuum,’ see below.
5. Contents.—(a) The exordium.—The short πάτερ in Lk., the fuller πάτερ ἡμῶν in Mt., would both correspond to an Aram. Aramaic אַבָּא, which is connected with ὁ πατήρ in Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6, Mark 14:36. Cf. J. H. Moulton’s Prolegomena, pp. 10, 233, and art. Abba in vol. i. That πάτερ ἡμῶν may also correspond to אַבָּא and does not necessarily presuppose the form with suffix (אַבִינו̇ in Heb., אֲבוּנַן in Aram. Aramaic , אֲבוּנָא in Galilaean), is shown by Dahman, Worte Jesu, 157, though for the beginning of a prayer the more solemn form appears to him more probable. Among Jews it is customary to add שֶׁבַּשָׁמַיִם in Hebrew (דְּבַשְׁמַיָא in Aramaic) to אָב where it is used of God, but the isolated אַבָּא is not unusual. In the NT ὁ ἑν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς is almost exclusively used in Matthew. On the question whether from Romans 8:15, Galatians 4:6 an acquaintance of St. Paul and his churches with the Lord’s Prayer may be concluded, see Gerh. Bindemann, Das Gebet um tügliche Vergebung der Sünden in der Heilsverkündigung Jesu und in den Bricfen der Apostel, Gütersloh, 1902.
(b) On the imperatives ἁγιασθήτω, γενηθήτω, see Origen, de Orat. 24. 5; Blass, Grammar, § 20. 1; Moulton, Proleg. p. 172, who quotes from Gildersleeve on Justin Martyr, p. 137: ‘As in the Lord’s Prayer, so in the ancient Greek Liturgies the aor. imper. is almost exclusively used. It is the true tense for “instant” prayer.’ Moulton adds: ‘To God we are bidden, by our Lord’s precept and example, to present the claim of faith in the simplest, directest, most urgent form with which language supplies us.’
(c) With the first petition cf. SE* [19] 3, and the beginning of the Kaddish תְנַּדַּל וְיִתְקרַּשׁ שְׁמַיה רַבָּא; afterwards eight more such verbs are placed together about ‘the name of holiness (Blessed be it).’ A benediction without mentioning הַשֵׁם (= יהוה) is no benediction at all (Ber. 40b).
(d) Likewise a benediction with no מַלְבוּת is no benediction at all (ib.; cf. SE 11, in opposition to 12, 14, 17, Kaddish).
(e) γενηθήτω is translation יֵעָשָׂה by Shemtob, Delitzsch, Salkinson-Ginsburg, Resch; יְהִי by Alexander (McCaul-Hoga), Margoliouth, by the old Syriac versions except the Syro-Palestinian; from SE cf. 13, עשֵׁי̇ דְצוֹנָךָ; in the Kaddish: ‘May your prayers be accepted, and may your petition be done.’ To רָצוֹן of Biblical Hebrew would correspond צִבְיוֹן in post-Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic.
(f) For ἐπιούσιος the remark of Origen, de Orat. 27, still holds good, that the word is found nowhere else in the whole range of Greek literature. Jerome compares it with the LXX Septuagint περιούσιος; but this stands almost everywhere for סְנֻלָּה (ap. Aquila, Genesis 14:21 for רְכוּשׁ, LXX Ps 16:14 for יֶתֶר). On περιούσιος, see Jerome’s remark (Anecd. Mareds. iii. 1, p. 92): ‘Verbo περιούσιος, i.e. substantialis, exceptis sanctis scripturis nullus foris disertorum usus est.’ The Gospel according to the Hebrews had for ἐπ., as Jerome states, mâhâr (מָחָר=). His most explicit statement has been published by Morin, Anecd-Mareds. iii. 2, p. 262: ‘In Hebraico evangelio secundum Matthaeum ita habet: Panem nostrum crastinum da nobis hodie.’ This lends a strong support to the view that ἐπιούσιος is formed from ἡ ἐπιοῦσα, ‘the coming day,’ even if this mâhâr were nothing but a retranslation of the Greek. But another view is that it is the original word used by Jesus and preserved by the Jewish-Christian communities. This is the view of Zahn, Gesch. Kan. ii. 193, 703, Eind. ii. 312; Ambrose: ‘Latinus hune panem quotidianum dixit, quem Graeci dicunt advenientem, quia Graeci dicunt τὴν ἐπιοῦσαν ἡμέραν advenientem diem’; Athanasius: τὸν ἐ. ἄρτ. τουτέστι τὸν μέλλοντα; Cyril Alex. [4] : οἱ μὲν εἶναί φασι τὸν ἥξοντά τε καὶ δοθησόμενον κατὰ τὸν αἰῶνα τὸν μέλλοντα; the Sahidic Version, on which see Lagarde, Mitt. ii. 374.
But the Oriental versions took another view: Syr [11] cur לחמן אמינא, i.e. ‘our continual bread,’ in Luke Syr [11] cur sin and Acts of Thomas ‘the continual bread’ (לחמא אמינא); the same tradition seems to be followed by the cotidianus of the Latin, the sinteinan of the Gothic, especially by לחמנו חמירי of Shemtob ben Shafrut, with which cf. Numbers 4:7 לֶחֶם הַתָּמִיר ‘the continual bread.’ [23] i. 250, EBi [4] 2820, n. [5] 1; but it is repeated by Wellhausen in his Com. on Mt. and not recalled in that on Lk.]. The Vulgate (Jerome?) has supersubstantialis in Mt. and cotidianus in Lk. How the Peshitta (Rabula?) came to translate ‘the bread of our need,’ לחמא דסונקנן, is not quite clear, while the translation ‘our bread of richness’ in the Syro-Palestinian version rests on confusion with περιούσιος.
The following is a conspectus of the different renderings that have been tried:
(1) Shemtob: לחמנוּ חמירי. (2) J. B. Jona, Rome, 1668: על הקיום להמנו, a literal rendering of the supersubstantialis of the Vulgate, as überstantlich in three editions of the pre-Lutheran German Bible. (3) Delitzsch, Salkinson, Resch: לָחָם חֻקֵּנ
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Lord's Prayer (ii)
LORD’S PRAYER (II.)—This name for the prayer which Jesus taught His disciples (Matthew 6:9-13, Luke 11:2-4), though used so generally by Christians, does not occur in the NT, and objection to it has sometimes been offered. It might suggest that the prayer was one which Jesus Himself employed, while not only is there no evidence of His having done so, but the petition for forgiveness is a sufficient assurance that He cannot have made it His own. ‘When ye pray,’ He said to His disciples, ‘pray thus’; but His own manner of praying would be different—how different we may judge from the recollections preserved in the Fourth Gospel of one of His prayers (John 17). And so it has sometimes been suggested that we should speak not of ‘The Lord’s Prayer,’ but of ‘The Disciples’ Prayer,’ or that we should content ourselves with designating it by its first two words, calling it the ‘Our Father,’ just as German Protestants call it the ‘Vaterunser’ and Roman Catholics the ‘Paternoster.’ But apart from the consecration of long and hallowed use, the name is appropriate as giving expression to the fact that the prayer comes to us from the very lips of our Lord. In this sense it is the Lord’s Prayer. When we use it, we are approaching God with no words of our own, but in the very words which our Master has taught us.
1. Occasion.—Of the two accounts, in Mt. and Lk. respectively, of the occasion when Christ gave the prayer, it is generally agreed that if we must choose between them, Lk.’s is to be preferred as the more historical. It may be that the author of the First Gospel, after recording the Lord’s injunctions with regard to the spirit and manner of prayer (Matthew 6:5-8), thought this a suitable opportunity to set down the prayer-form which was really given at a different time. And yet there seems no positive reason why we should set aside Mt.’s statement as to the connexion at least in which the prayer was spoken. If Jesus gave a form of prayer at all, and meant it to be used as He gave it, it seems likely that He would repeat it, more especially when dealing with different sets of hearers. And if it was natural that He should impart it when one of His disciples, not necessarily one of the Twelve, asked to be taught to pray, it was also natural that, when He had just been warning His disciples against hypocrisy in prayer and the vain repetitions of the Gentiles, He should instruct them to pray after the brief, simple, and filial manner of this model of approach to God.
2. Structure.—This is exceedingly simple. A part from the Doxology, which occurs only in Mt., and even there forms no part of the original, but is a later insertion due to liturgical usage, we have only an invocation and a series of six petitions. Since Augustine, the number of the petitions has commonly been reckoned at seven, the last clause in Mt.’s version being regarded as two separate requests. But the view that now commends itself to most scholars is that the two members of the sentence are to be taken as one and the same petition negatively and positively expressed. This view is confirmed by the fact that in the critical text of Lk. (see Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ) the petition runs simply, ‘Bring us not into temptation,’ and it is further borne out by the Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 rendering (almost certainly correct) of Mt.’s τοῦ πονηροῦ by ‘the evil one’ instead of ‘evil.’ The petition is that we may not be brought into temptation, but may be delivered from the Tempter; and these are two aspects of the selfsame request.
Looking now at the six petitions, we observe at once that the first three have a Godward, the second three a manward reference. Because of this the prayer has often been compared to the Decalogue with its summation of human duty first to God and then to man (cf. Matthew 22:40, Mark 12:31). But beneath this resemblance there lies a great difference between the Ten Words and the Lord’s Prayer, the familiar difference between law and grace, between the Old Testament and the New. For while in the one case our debt to God and to man is laid upon us from above as a commandment that must be obeyed, in the other we look up to God, crying like Augustine, ‘Da quod jubes, et jube quod vis’ (Conf. x. 60).
When we examine the prayer more closely, a beautiful continuity and symmetry of thought becomes apparent. In the invocation God is addressed by His new name of ‘Father’; and it is with a petition for the hallowing of this name that the prayer proper begins. If we take the three petitions of the first group, God appears to be addressed: (1) as the Father whose name must be hallowed, (2) as the King whose Kingdom is to come, (3) as the Lord of heaven and earth whose will must be fulfilled. And when we pass to the three petitions of the second group, the same threefold view of God may be traced, coming, too, in the same order, so that the successive clauses of this group correspond respectively to those of the first. For the prayer for bread naturally suggests the request of the child to the Father, the prayer for forgiveness the petition of the subject to the King, and the prayer for deliverance from the Tempter the cry of one who feels in the presence of the world’s evil his utter dependence upon the strong and holy will of his Master and Lord.
3. Contents.—Without entering here into the questions raised by the twofold text (see preceding art.), we shall for convenience follow Mt.’s version as the one which has passed into general use in the Christian Church.
(a) The Invocation: ‘Our Father which art in heaven.’ These words mark a new epoch not only in the history of prayer, but in the history of revelation. In the OT, God is occasionally spoken of as the Father of the Jewish people (Deuteronomy 32:6, Isaiah 63:16 etc.), but individuals do not venture to address Him by this name (Psalms 103:13 is only a comparison). And though in some of the extra-canonical writings there appears a dawning consciousness of a personal relation to God as a Father (Wisdom of Solomon 2:16, Sirach 23:1; Sirach 23:4 etc.), it was Jesus Christ who first turned the dim hope of pious hearts into the assured certainty of faith. ‘Father’ is the distinctive Christian name of God, the name which Christ taught us, and which, apart from Him, we have no proper right to use (cf. John 1:12, Galatians 4:6). The Fatherhood here appealed to is not the general Fatherhood of Creatorship, but the special Fatherhood of grace. It is for those who are the children of God by Christian faith that this prayer is meant, those who turn to Him with filial hearts, prepared to say: ‘Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done.’
But God is called not ‘Father’ only, but ‘Our Father,’ and thus the invocation acknowledges the brotherhood of man as well as the Fatherhood of God. There is a human brotherhood which rests on the Divine Creatorship (cf. Malachi 2:10). But just as there is a special sonship, the sonship of believers, so there is a distinctive brotherhood, the brotherhood of saints; and it is this brotherhood that finds immediate expression in the invocation of the Lord’s Prayer.
Our Father is ‘in heaven.’ The phrase speaks to us of His greatness and holiness, of the reverence we owe Him, of His power to bless. But it also reminds us that if we are the children of the heavenly Father, His home is the true home of our souls, and that, as always, so especially when we bow before His throne with our requests, we must set our mind on the things that are above.
(b) First Petition: ‘Hallowed be thy name.’ In the OT the ‘name’ of God is a constant expression for His revealed character (cf. Psalms 9:10; Psalms 20:7, Proverbs 18:10). Without doubt it is in this sense that the word is used by Jesus. But His immediate reference here must be to that character of Fatherhood under which He had just presented God to His disciples. It is our Father in heaven whose name is to be hallowed. To hallow that name is to set great store by it, to exalt it and revere it and glory in it. To pray that it may be hallowed is to pray that God as revealed to us by Christ may be accepted and honoured by ourselves and others—that we may turn to Him as our Father with loving, trustful hearts, and give Him the honour that is due.
(c) Second Petition: ‘Thy kingdom come.’ The Kingdom of God was the hope of Israel before Christ’s advent, and when He came it formed the constant and central theme of His teaching. When we examine the Synoptic Gospels to learn what His teaching upon the subject was, we find Him speaking of the Kingdom of God in two ways. (1) It was a present reality set up on earth (Matthew 12:28, Mark 1:15, Luke 17:21), gathering round His own person (Matthew 13:41; Matthew 16:28; Matthew 25:31; Matthew 25:34 etc.), the coming of which meant its entrance (which is really His own entrance, Matthew 8:10 ff; Matthew 11:28-30 etc.) into the individual heart (Luke 17:20-21, Matthew 18:3 ||, John 3:3), its steady growth (Mark 4:26-32), and its gradual spread like leaven through society (Matthew 13:33 = Luke 13:20 f.). (2) But again it was a hope of the future, a Kingdom not realized as yet, but one day to be revealed in power by the Parousia of the Son of Man Himself (Matthew 13:41 f., Matthew 13:49 f.,Matthew 22:13; Matthew 25:30). And so, when we pray for the coming of God’s Kingdom, we are praying that Christ the King may enter into our hearts, that He may take full possession of them, that the gospel of the Kingdom may spread throughout the world, and that its principles may work in human society with subduing power. But we are praying also for the hour of the final consummation when the Lord Himself shall appear in His glory, when the kingdom of this world shall become the Kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ, when out of that Kingdom there shall be cast all things that offend, and God shall be all in all.
(d) Third Petition: ‘Thy will be done.’ This may be described as the dominant note of the Lord’s Prayer. The petitions that precede lead up to this, and those that follow must be brought into harmony with it. We frequently use these words as if they were nothing more than a prayer of submission and resignation in the day of sorrow, an echo of the Saviour’s cry in the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:39 ||). And no doubt this is part of their meaning, and one of the uses to which they may be applied. They are a cry to God to enable us to bear what He sees fit to send, and to make us meek and patient under His chastening hand. But while this is implied in the petition, it is not its first intention. The added words, ‘as in heaven, so on earth,’ should keep us right here, since from heaven all sorrow and sighing have fled away. This is the prayer of active rather than of passive obedience, an obedience like that of God’s angels who excel in strength and do His commandments. Before we think of Jesus in the garden of shadows, we should think of Him as He sat by the well of Sychar and said to His disciples, ‘My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to accomplish his work’ (John 4:34). When we pray this prayer we are asking that we and all men, being delivered from the spirit of wilfulness, may attain to a joyful alacrity like that of angels in doing the will of God.
(e) Fourth Petition.—‘Give us this day our daily (ἐπιούσιον) bread.’ We pass now from the God ward to the manward aspects of the prayer. The first petition of this second group shows that it is right and proper to pray for material as well as for spiritual blessings. The prayer is not to be spiritualized, with most of the Fathers, into a request for the Bread of Life; it is literal bread, bread for bodily sustenance, that Jesus means us to ask for.
The one expository difficulty of this petition lies in the word ἐτιούσιος, which has been called ‘the most untranslatable word in the NT.’ It appears here (in both Mt. and Lk.) for the first time in Gr. literature, and within the NT occurs nowhere else. Of the three principal renderings—‘daily’ (Authorized and Revised Versions text), ‘for the coming day’ ((Revised Version margin) ), and ‘needful’ (Amer. (Revised Version margin) , alternat.)—there is least to be said for the first, familiar as it is. It reproduces the Old Lat. quotidianum, but finds no support in etymology, and may be regarded perhaps as nothing more than a guess suggested by what the sense of the passage appeared to require. ‘For the coming day’ is more likely from the etymological point of view (ἑσιούσιος fr. ἡ ἑτιοῦσα [1] = ‘the coming day,’ fr. ἐτιών, pres. part. of ἔπειμι [2]), but seems out of keeping with Christ’s teaching elsewhere in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 6:34). If this rendering is accepted, Chase’s view (‘Lord’s Prayer in Early Church,’ Texts and Studies, Cambridge [3], in loc.) is plausible, that the word was a liturgical insertion intended to adapt the prayer for use at evening service. In the morning the petition would run, according to its original form, ‘Give us this day our bread,’ while in the evening there would be substituted, ‘Give us our bread for the coming day.’ Cf. Lk.’s ‘day by day,’ which obviates any inappropriateness in asking at night for the bread of the day.
Perhaps, however, there is most to be said for the view that ἑτιούσιος is a word specially coined, after the analogy of the LXX Septuagint τεριούσιος (Exodus 19:5, Deuteronomy 7:6; Deuteronomy 14:2; Deuteronomy 26:18, for Heb. סְנְלָּה Authorized and Revised Versions ‘peculiar.’ It is evidently derived from τεριουσία = wealth, abundance [4]). ἐτιούσιος in contrast to περιούσιος would thus denote what is needful or sufficient as distinguished from what is abundant or superfluous. If this is the proper rendering of the word, the petition would correspond almost exactly with the prayer of Agur, ‘Feed me with the food that is needful for me’ (Proverbs 30:8 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ).* [5] p. 61. Cf. also the preceding article.]
(f) Fifth Petition.—‘Forgive us our debts (ὀφειλήματα), as we forgive our debtors.’ Lk. has ‘sins’ (ἁμαρτίας), while in the explanatory addition given by Mt. (Matthew 6:14-15) ‘trespasses’ (παραπτώματα) is used—the word which in the Bk. of Com. Prayer is substituted for ‘debts’ in the Lord’s Prayer itself. ‘Debts’ is particularly suggestive. In the first place, it reminds us of the personal accountability to God into which we are brought by every act of sin. We may look at sin in many aspects—as the transgression of an ideal law, as a wrong done to our neighbour, as a harm inflicted upon ourselves. But most solemn of all is the thought that sin makes us debtors before God, debtors who have wasted our Lord’s money and are called to render account. But further, ‘debts’ reminds us of a class of sins we are most apt to forget—our sins of omission. It is when we ask ourselves, ‘How much owest thou unto thy Lord?’ that the full extent of our shortcoming begins to appear. Perhaps we have striven hard against wrongdoing, but what of the things we have left undone? In Christ’s great vision of the Judgment, ‘Inasmuch as ye did it not’ is the preface to the sentence of condemnation (Matthew 25:45).
By teaching us to offer this petition our Lord teaches that God is ready to forgive all our debts. But a condition is laid down. Those who pray for forgiveness must be ready to forgive. On this Jesus placed great emphasis, so great that He does for the fifth petition what He does for no other, adding at the end of the prayer (Matthew 25:14-15) a sentence of explanation and enforcement, in which He makes it perfectly clear that if we will not forgive those who have trespassed against us, neither will our Father in heaven forgive our trespasses.† [6]
(g) Sixth Petition.—‘Bring us not into temptation, but deliver us from the evil one.’ This petition follows naturally after the fifth, for the recollection of past falls makes us conscious of weakness and fearful of future possibilities. But is it not an impracticable petition? How can we hope to escape from being tempted? The world and the flesh and the devil are ever with us, and still ‘in the midst of the garden’; just where all life’s daily cross-paths meet, the tree of temptation grows and the Tempter himself lies waiting. And is it not also a mistaken petition? Is not temptation a means of grace, an opportunity of ‘winning our souls’? Does not St. James write, ‘My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations’? (James 1:2). Yes, but there is another side to the question. Temptation is a means of grace, but it may prove to be an occasion of stumbling and even of utter destruction. Blessed is the man that endureth it (James 1:12); but what of him who is drawn away by his own lusts and enticed, and so falls into the snare of the devil? By putting this petition into our lips Jesus reminds us that the hour of temptation is always a dangerous hour. He hangs out a red lamp of warning on the dark and crooked road along which we have to pass, and summons us to ‘watch and pray’ (cf. Matthew 26:41 = Mark 14:38).
And yet temptations must come, we cannot hope to escape meeting them, and this petition, like every other in the Lord’s Prayer, is subject to the rule of the guiding petition of all, ‘Thy will be done.’ But ‘Deliver us from the evil one’ is a prayer that Satan may not gain the victory over our souls. That ‘the evil one’ is the right rendering of τοῦ πονηροῦ is now commonly accepted by scholars on grounds of exegesis. It is in keeping, too, with our Lord’s teaching about the presence and influence in the world of a hostile and malevolent will, an ‘enemy’ of God’s Kingdom and its King (cf. Matthew 13:25; Matthew 13:39). From him we may well pray to be delivered. Jesus Himself prayed for Simon that in the hour of Satan’s sifting his faith might not fail (Luke 22:31 f.). And we know that faith need never fail. God will not suffer us to be tempted above that we are able (1 Corinthians 10:13), and this petition is an appeal to Him for strength to endure and to overcome in the evil day.
4. Uses.—(1) This is a breviary of Christian prayer, in which all Christian petitions are summarily comprehended. As the commandments of the moral law are all gathered up in the two tables of duty to God and to man, so the petitions of the gospel are all represented in the two divisions of this little prayer. Apart from requests of a personal and particular kind, everything that the universal Christian heart need ask for is explicitly stated or implicitly enfolded here, whether things on earth or things in heaven, things human or Divine, things of the body or the spirit, things of the life that now is or of that which is to come.
(2) It is a model or directory of prayer. According to Mt.’s account, Jesus, when He gave it, had just been warning His disciples against the formalisms of hypocrites and the vain repetitions which the Gentiles use (Matthew 6:5-8), and it was in contrast with these that He said, ‘After this manner pray ye.’ Looking at the manner of the prayer we are struck by its direct sincerity, its brevity, its simplicity, its calmness and quietness of spirit, its entire submission to the will of God. It teaches us that we are not heard for our much speaking, that long and elaborate prayers are unnecessary, that a simple request like that of a child to a father is enough. It teaches also the right relation and proportion in prayer between what belongs to God and what concerns ourselves. The earthly has its claims, but the heavenly comes before it; and all requests must be made in subordination to the Divine will.
(3) It is a form of prayer. The prayers which John the Baptist taught his disciples (Luke 11:1) must have been forms; and when a disciple of Jesus, reminding Him of John’s custom, said, ‘Lord teach us to pray,’ it was doubtless a prayer-form for which he asked. And Jesus justified the request by replying, ‘When ye pray, say, Our Father,’ etc. Not that He wished His disciples to restrict themselves to this form or to repeat it incessantly. It is significant that, apart from these two passages in Mt. and Lk., we do not hear of the Lord’s Prayer in the NT again. The recorded prayers of the Apostolic Church bear no resemblance to it. When God sent forth the Spirit of His Son into men’s hearts, they prayed with freedom as the Spirit gave them utterance. And yet from the first this must have been, and must ever continue to be, a specially consecrated form of prayer, which no one can sincerely use without being conscious that, in presenting his petitions in the very words that Christ has given, he is asking according to the will of God (cf. 1 John 5:14).
(4) It is a prayer especially for social use. There are prayers which can be offered only in secret, and Jesus had already spoken of these. ‘Thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet,’ He said (Matthew 6:6). But this was a prayer for the whole Christian society: ‘After this manner pray ye,’ ‘When ye pray, say.’ The invocation is addressed to ‘our Father,’ the requests are on behalf of others as well as ourselves: ‘give us,’ ‘forgive us,’ ‘bring us not,’ ‘deliver us.’ And so this prayer, which is an appeal to the Fatherhood of God, is also a constant reminder of our human and especially of our Christian brotherhood. It teaches us to join our desires with those of the universal Church as we pray for the coming of the Kingdom. It teaches us when we ask for bread, or forgiveness, or guidance and deliverance, to bear the needs of others along with our own on our hearts before God, and to remember that the unspeakable privilege of intercession is of the very essence of Christian prayer.
Literature.—See preceding article.
J. C. Lambert.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Lord's Prayer,
the prayer which Jesus taught his disciples. (Matthew 6:9-13 ; Luke 11:2-4 ) "In this prayer our Lord shows his disciples how an infinite variety of wants and requests can be compressed into a few humble petitions. It embodies every possible desire of a praying heart, a whole world of spiritual requirements; yet all in the most simple, condensed and humble form, resembling, in this respect, a pearl on which the light of heaven plays." --Lange. "This prayer contains four great general sentiments, which constitute the very soul of religion, --sentiments which are the germs of all holy deeds in all worlds. (1) Filial reverence : God is addressed not as the great unknown, not as the unsearchable governor, but as a father, the most intelligible, attractive and transforming name. It is a form of address almost unknown to the old covenant, now an then hinted at as reminding the children of their rebellion. ( Isaiah 1:2 ); Mali 1:6 Or mentioned as a last resource of the orphan and desolate creature, (Isaiah 63:16 ) but never brought out in its fullness, as indeed it could not be, till he was come by whom we have received the adoption of sons." --Alford. (2) "Divine loyalty : 'Thy kingdom come.' (3) Conscious dependence : 'Give us this day,' etc. (4) Unbounded confidence : 'For thine is the power,' etc." --Dr. Thomas' Genius of the Gospels. The doxology, "For thine is the kingdom" etc., is wanting in many manuscripts. It is omitted in the Revised Version; but it nevertheless has the authority of some manuscripts, and is truly biblical, almost every word being found in ( 1 Chronicles 29:11 ) and is a true and fitting ending for prayer.
The American Church Dictionary and Cycopedia - Lord's Prayer, the
The prayer which our Blessed Lord taught Hisdisciples when He said, "After this manner, therefore, pray ye," oras given in another place, "When ye pray, say Our Father," etc. TheChurch has always taken these words literally, so that in all herservices—Daily Prayer, Litany, Baptism, Confirmation, HolyCommunion, Marriage, Visitation of the Sick, etc., the Lord's Prayeris always an integral part. In the Communion Office the Lord'sPrayer occurs twice, but it is to be noted that the rubric directsthe first to be said by the Priest alone, as a part of his privatepreparation. With regard to the second there is the followingrubric: "Then shall the Minister say the Lord's Prayer, the peoplerepeating after him every petition." These last words (initalics) are omitted in the first rubric, thus indicating adifference of use.

Sentence search

Dominical - ) The Lord's day or Sunday; also, the Lord's Prayer
Kneel - ...
As soon as you are dressed,kneel down and say the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer - "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17 . The Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most universal prayer
Daily - Lord's Prayer ...
DA'ILY, adv
Deliver us From Evil - Closing petition in the Lord's Prayer, the Our Father; the very words of Our Lord, instead of the Greek substitution adopted in later editions of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer: "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for ever and ever
Libera Nos a Malo - Closing petition in the Lord's Prayer, the Our Father; the very words of Our Lord, instead of the Greek substitution adopted in later editions of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer: "For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, for ever and ever
Beatitudes, Mount of - Name given to the place where Our Lord, surrounded by people from all parts of Palestine, delivered the Sermon on the Mount and taught His Apostles the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 5-7; 8)
Mount of Beatitudes - Name given to the place where Our Lord, surrounded by people from all parts of Palestine, delivered the Sermon on the Mount and taught His Apostles the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 5-7; 8)
Doxology - The concluding words of the Lord's Prayer beginning, "ForThine is the kingdom," etc
Hallow - 1: ἁγιάζω (Strong's #37 — Verb — hagiazo — hag-ee-ad'-zo ) "to make holy" (from hagios, "holy"), signifies to set apart for God, to sanctify, to make a person or thing the opposite of koinos, "common;" it is translated "Hallowed," with reference to the name of God the Father in the Lord's Prayer, Matthew 6:9 ; Luke 11:2
Bogomill - They held that the use of churches, of the sacrament of the Lord's supper, and all prayer except the Lord's Prayer, ought to be abolished; that the baptism of Catholics is imperfect; that the persons of the Trinity are unequal, and that they often made themselves visible to those of their sect
Paternoster - ) The Lord's Prayer, so called from the first two words of the Latin version
Catechism of Saint Peter Canisius - The division of the subject-matter is as follows: Faith (Apostles' Creed); Hope and Prayer (Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary); Charity and the Commandments of God and the Church; the Sacraments; Christian Justice, i
Catechism, Westminster - Both contain an exposition of the Ten Commandments and of the Lord's Prayer
Saint Peter Canisius, Catechism of - The division of the subject-matter is as follows: Faith (Apostles' Creed); Hope and Prayer (Lord's Prayer, Hail Mary); Charity and the Commandments of God and the Church; the Sacraments; Christian Justice, i
Westminster Catechism - Both contain an exposition of the Ten Commandments and of the Lord's Prayer
Abrahamites - Also the name of a sect in Bohemia, as late as 1782, who professed the religion of Abraham before his circumcision, and admitted no scriptures but the decalogue and the Lord's Prayer
Versicles - This is with specialreference to the Versicles after the Lord's Prayer in the DailyOffices, which have been called the SURSUM CORDA of the Dailyservices
Sentences, the Opening - Originally the Daily Services began with the Lord's Prayer, but in1552 the Sentences, with the Exhortation, Confession and absolutionwere prefixed to Morning Prayer; they were not placed in the EveningPrayer until 1661
Lay-Reader - When thePriest is present a laymen may read the Lessons in the Daily Morningand Evening Prayer, and also the Litany as far as the Lord's Prayer
Henry Rawes - Translated the treatises of Saint Thomas Aquinas on the Blessed Sacrament and the Lord's Prayer
Rawes, Henry Augustus - Translated the treatises of Saint Thomas Aquinas on the Blessed Sacrament and the Lord's Prayer
Catechism For Parish Priests - The division of the subject-matter follows the four formulas: the Creed, the Sacraments, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer
Catechism of Pius v - The division of the subject-matter follows the four formulas: the Creed, the Sacraments, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer
Catechism of the Council of Trent - The division of the subject-matter follows the four formulas: the Creed, the Sacraments, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer
Catechism, Roman - The division of the subject-matter follows the four formulas: the Creed, the Sacraments, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer
Bread - Lord's Prayer
Roman Catechism - The division of the subject-matter follows the four formulas: the Creed, the Sacraments, the Decalogue, the Lord's Prayer
Repetitions - So Roman-catholics still repeat the Lord's Prayer, Ave Marias, etc
Directory - It enjoins no forms, but recommends the Lord's Prayer as a model of devotion; directs that the Lord's Supper may be received sitting; that the Sabbath day be strictly observed; but puts down all saints' days, consecrations of churches, and private or lay baptisms
Lord's Prayer, the - , the Lord's Prayeris always an integral part. With regard to the second there is the followingrubric: "Then shall the Minister say the Lord's Prayer, the peoplerepeating after him every petition
Discretion, Years of - " The phrase "years of discretion"is defined in the Rubric at the end of The Catechism, as follows,"So soon as children are come to a competent age and can say theCreed, the Lord's Prayer and the Ten Commandments, and can answerthe other questions of this Short Catechism, they shall be broughtto the Bishop
Catechesis - The first manual resembling our modern catechism was used by Alcuin (735-804); it is a Latin explanation, in questions and answers, of the Creed and the Lord's Prayer
Catechism - The first manual resembling our modern catechism was used by Alcuin (735-804); it is a Latin explanation, in questions and answers, of the Creed and the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer - 48; Archbishop Leighton's Explanation of it; West on the Lord's Prayer; Gill's Body of Divinity, vol. 11, 12; Mendlam's Exposition of the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer, the - Three forms of the Lord's Prayer exist in early Christian literature—two in the New Testament (Matthew 6:9-13 ; Luke 11:2-4 ) and the other in the Didache Luke 8:2 , a non-canonical Christian writing of the early second-century from northern Syria. ...
Matthew and Luke used the Lord's Prayer in different ways in their Gospels. The Lord's Prayer serves as an example or how to pray briefly. Here the Lord's Prayer is a model of what to pray for. The Lord's Prayer seems to be Jesus' synopsis of various Jewish prayers of the time. ...
If the language of the Lord's Prayer and that of various Jewish prayers is similar, the meaning must be determined from Jesus' overall message. Within this world of thought, the Lord's Prayer must be understood. ...
The Lord's Prayer in the New Testament is a community's prayer: “Our Father,” “Give us our bread,” Forgive us our debts,” “as we forgive our debtors,” “Cause us ,” “Deliver us . ...
The Lord's Prayer is a prayer of petition
Lord's Prayer, the - Both versions of the Lord's Prayer imply the importance of a vertical dimension of personal purity in worship of the Father as a prerequisite of valid missionary activity on the Lord's behalf. These two dimensions constitute the heart of the Sermon on the Mount and the Lord's Prayer. ...
The immediate context of the Lord's Prayer in Matthew 6 is the triple teaching of Jesus on alms (vv. The significance of the Lord's Prayer lies in the fact that every prayer directed to God should function in two spheres. Hence epiousion is best translated "what is sufficient" "Give us food sufficient for the day, " remembering that the setting of the Gospel of Matthew, the Sermon on the Mount, and the Lord's Prayer (in Luke as well) is one of eschatological urgency and preparation for mission in the new exodus inaugurated by Jesus, and of traveling light; it is not a general prayer for common grace. ...
With the exception of the petition for forgiveness of sins (Jesus is the sinbearer who provides forgiveness), the eschatological themes of the Lord's Prayer would have been prayed by Jesus throughout his ministry; they are thus fitting for his followers, who are given the honor and responsibility of sharing in his mission by proclaiming the coming of the kingdom and doing the will of God, to his glory. Barclay, The Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer for Everyman ; A. Pink, The Beatitudes and the Lord's Prayer
Bohemian Brethren - They held the Scriptures to be the only rule of faith, and rejected the popish ceremonies in the celebration of the mass; nor did they make use of any other prayer than the Lord's Prayer
Office - The Lord's Prayer, the ten commandments and the creed, is a very good office for children if they are not fitted for more regular offices
Devil - ; dragon, Revelation 12:7; Revelation 20:2; the god of this world, 2 Corinthians 4:4; the evil one, from whom, in the Lord's Prayer, we are to pray to be delivered, Matthew 6:13; Matthew 13:19; Matthew 13:38; Luke 11:4, A
Watchfulness - The petition in the Lord's Prayer to be able to stand against temptation points not only toward the eschatological future, but to the daily enablement needed by believers (Matthew 6:9-13 )
Directory - ...
The Directory recommends the use of the Lord's Prayer, as the most perfect model of devotion; it forbids private or lay persons to administer baptism, and enjoins it to be performed in the face of the congregation; it orders the communion-table at the Lord's supper to be so placed, that the communicant may sit about it
Confession of Faith - On the other hand, the advocates for them observe, that all the arts and sciences have been reduced to a system; and why should not the truths of religion, which are of greater importance? ...
That a comendious view of the chief and most necessary points of the Christian religion, which lie scattered up and down in the mind, as well also to hold forth to the world what are in general the sentiments of such a particular church or churches; they tend to discover the common friends of the same faith to one another, and to unite them; that the Scriptures seem to authorize and countenance them; such as the moral law, the Lord's Prayer, the form of doctrine mentioned by Paul, Romans 6:17 ; and again, "the form of sound words, " in 2 Timothy 1:13 &c
Kingdom of God - ...
The Lord's Prayer contains three requests, as follows: “Hallowed be thy name. ” See Lord's Prayer
Sermon on the Mount - Where Matthew's Sermon has the Lord's Prayer as part of a general instruction given by Jesus to the disciples (6:9), Luke has the disciples asking Jesus to follow the example of John the Baptist who taught his disciples to pray (11:1). Directives for the worshiping community are set down (6:1-18): giving to the needy is to be done in secret (6:1-4); rubrics on prayer include reciting the Lord's Prayer and avoiding long repetitions (6:5-15); and fasting remains part of Christian piety, but must be unannounced (6:16-18). Its Beatitudes (5:3-11), Lord's Prayer (6:9-13), and Golden Rule (7:12), along with other sections belong to common Christian piety
Prayer - ...
The Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:9-13 ; Luke 11:2-4 ) is taught to disciples who realize the kingdom's inbreaking, yet await its full coming. See Lord's Prayer
Prayer - These sins Christ reproves in Matthew 6:5-15 , and gives to his disciples the form of the Lord's Prayer as a beautiful model
Brownists - They rejected all forms of prayer, and held that the Lord's Prayer was not to be recited as a prayer, being only given for a rule or model whereon all our prayers are to be formed
Prayer - Yet "the Spirit helpeth our infirmities," and Jesus teaches us by the Lord's Prayer how to pray (Luke 11). "...
THE Lord's Prayer, (Matthew 6:9-13) couched in the plural, cf6 "when ye pray, say, Our Father . The Lord's Prayer is our model
King, Christ as - When we pray “Your kingdom come” as we do in the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:10 ), we have in mind this present rule of Christ the King
Prayer - This consistency extended into the patristic period, for the early Father's understanding of prayer was thoroughly shaped and limited by the Lord's Prayer, particularly through mutually influencing exegetical literature on it, devotional and liturgical use of it, and the catechetical tradition that employed it. Accordingly, petitions were to cover the entire gamut of one's life, including material and spiritual needs, though by the time we reach the New Testament period the former has been subordinated to the latter, as the pattern of the Lord's Prayer suggested. In fact, even the intimacy of the "abba" in the Lord's Prayer is mitigated by the following phrase, "who are in heaven, " to insure that petitioners remember that they and the addressee are not on a par with each other. ...
This Old Testament emphasis is not as clearly set forth in the New Testament, which may account, for example, for some disagreements about the intention of the first three petitions in the Lord's Prayerwhether they are a call for God to act alone (Lohmeyer, for example) or a call to God for help (Augustine, Luther). Indeed, the patristic exegesis of the third petition of the Lord's Prayer insisted that God's will is expressed by the divine economy in Christ
Prayer - ...
If we except the "Lord's Prayer" (Matthew 6:9-13 ), which is, however, rather a model or pattern of prayer than a set prayer to be offered up, we have no special form of prayer for general use given us in Scripture
Forgiveness - In the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:12 ; Luke 11:4 ) and the parable of the Unforgiving Servant (Matthew 18:12-35 ) Jesus clearly indicated such is the case: “But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses” (Matthew 6:15 )
Isaacus, Egyptian Solitary - Then he expounds at length the Lord's Prayer (cc
Send - Pempo is not used in the Lord's Prayer in ch
Prayer - All Christian prayer is, of course, based on the Lord's Prayer; but its spirit is also guided by that of his prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded by St
Sedulius, 5th-Cent. Poet - describe in full detail the miracles of the Gospel and the Lord's Prayer
Beatitudes - In the fifth petition of the Lord's Prayer Christians pray that God will forgive them, just as they forgive others (Matthew 6:12 )
Number - ) Seven petitions of the Lord's Prayer in the New Testament
Synagogue - (Deuteronomy 6:4), and "prayers", the kadish , shemoneh 'esreh , berachoth ; (compare brief creeds, 1 Timothy 3:16; 2 Timothy 1:13, the "Lord's prayer" (Luke 11), the "order" (1 Corinthians 14:40);) the teaching out of the law, which was read in a cycle, once through in three years
the Man Who Went Out to Borrow Three Loaves at Midnight - And not the Lord's Prayer only; but that richly-favoured disciple got for himself and for his fellow-disciples and for us also, what we call the parable of the friend at midnight
the Unmerciful Servant - ...
I feel sure you all say the Lord's Prayer every night before you sleep
Prayer - The Lord's Prayer, it is observed, was not given to be a set form, exclusive of extemporary prayer. ...
See Lord's Prayer
Matthew, the Gospel of - Jesus attested to His sonship in the Lord's Prayer (Matthew 6:9 ), His thanksgiving to God (Matthew 11:25-26 ), and the Garden of Gethsemane (Matthew 26:39 )
Shimei - When our political and ecclesiastical partisans begin to have charity we shall no longer need to offer the Lord's Prayer every day, and say, Thy kingdom come
God, Names of - It is the word for God in the Lord's Prayer (Luke 11:2 )
Will of God - Lohmeyer, The Lord's Prayer ; D
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - " In the Lord's Prayer he has "quotidianum," not "supersubstantialem
Matthew, the Gospel According to - Origen (on Prayer, 161:150) argues that epiousion , the Greek word for "daily" in the Lord's Prayer, was formed by Matthew himself; Luke adopts the word
Kingdom of God - In the Lord's Prayer we pray "Your kingdom come" ( Luke 11:2 ), and the kingdom must as a result be future
Christ, Christology - Thus the petition in the Lord's Prayer, "Forgive us our sins, as we ourselves herewith forgive everyone who has sinned against us" implies not only the presence of forgiveness in Jesus the Messiah but acknowledges that his disciples are to carry on the messianic mission by sharing the good news of forgiveness with others
Forgiveness - In the Lord's Prayer, receiving forgiveness from God is joined to forgiving others (Matthew 6:12 ; Luke 11:4 )
Gregorius Nyssenus, Bishop of Nyssa - (viii) Five homilies on the Lord's Prayer "lectu dignissimae" (Fabric
Psalms - The decalogue has its form determined by number; also the genealogy in Matthew; so the Lord's Prayer, and especially the structure of the Apocalypse
Victorinus Afer - " "Panis ἐπιούσιος ," in the Lord's Prayer, is interpreted as "panis ex ipsa aut in ipsa Substantia, hoc est vitae panis," and referred to the Eucharist, and, in the same way, "popuIus περιούσιος " is given an Eucharistic reference, as meaning "populus circa Tuam Substantiam veniens
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - The Lord's Prayer is given in conformity with St
Pelagianism And Pelagius - They reject the idea that the petition in the Lord's Prayer, "Forgive us our sins," is inappropriate for Christian men and can only be regarded as a prayer for others, and that it can only be used as a fictitious expression of humility, not as a true confession of guilt
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - ( a ) Of the Lord's Prayer specifically (cc