What does Living Creatures mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ζῴων a living being. / an animal 7
ζῷα a living being. / an animal 6
הַחַיּ֑וֹת living 2
הַחַיָּ֖ה living 2
חַיּ֑וֹת living 1
הַחַיּ֜וֹת living 1
וְהַחַיּ֖וֹת living 1
הַֽחַיּ֔וֹת living 1
הַֽחַיּוֹת֙ living 1
הַחַיָּה֙ living 1
הַחַיּ֗וֹת living 1

Definitions Related to Living Creatures


   1 a living being.
   2 an animal, brute, beast.
   Additional Information: For synonyms see entry 2342, therion.
   See entry 5846 for comparison of synonyms.


   1 living, alive.
      1a green (of vegetation).
      1b flowing, fresh (of water).
      1c lively, active (of man).
      1d reviving (of the springtime).
   2 relatives.
   3 life (abstract emphatic).
      3a life.
      3b sustenance, maintenance.
   4 living thing, animal.
      4a animal.
      4b life.
      4c appetite.
      4d revival, renewal.
   5 community.

Frequency of Living Creatures (original languages)

Frequency of Living Creatures (English)


Easton's Bible Dictionary - Living Creatures
As represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Revelation 4 , etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Revelation 15:7 ); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8,9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isaiah 6:3-5 ), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezekiel 10:2,7 ); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Revelation 14:3 ), and with the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4). They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
Holman Bible Dictionary - Living Beings, Living Creatures
Characters in Ezekiel's first vision (Ezekiel 1:5 ,Ezekiel 1:5,1:13-15 ,Ezekiel 1:13-15,1:19-20 ,Ezekiel 1:19-20,1:22 ; also Ezekiel 3:13 ; Ezekiel 10:1 ). The creatures are later identified as cherubim (Ezekiel 10:20 ). The creatures numbered four. Each had a human form but with four faces. Perhaps the best interpretation views the creatures as a pictorial representation of the total sovereignty of God. Four creatures represent the four corners of the earth. The four faces represent four classes of creation: man humanity; lion king of wild beasts; ox king of domestic beasts; eagle king of the birds. Central to this interpretation is the One seated on the throne above all the creatures (Ezekiel 1:26-28 ). The Book of Revelation develops a similar image to portray God's total sovereignty (Revelation 4:7-8 ).
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Living Creatures
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Living Creatures
These in Ezekiel point symbolically to the attributes of God in connection with His throne, and His acting upon earth in His judicial government and providence. There were wheels on earth, and there was a wheel within a wheel. These wheels acted in concert with the living creatures; for the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels. The faces of these living creatures correspond with the faces of the ' four beasts' (which should be translated 'living creatures,' the word being ζῶον, and not θηρίον,which occurs for the 'beasts' of Ezekiel 13 etc.) in Revelation 4 , etc. Each living creature had four faces: the first was the face of a man, which speaks of 'intelligence;' the second the face of a lion, which symbolises 'strength.' the third the face of an ox, representing 'patient endurance;' and the fourth the face of an eagle, which implies 'swiftness of execution.' All show perfect organisation for carrying out the government of God according to His righteous judgement. Ezekiel 1:5-25 ; Ezekiel 3:13 ; Ezekiel 10:15-22 . See CHERUBIM.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Living Creatures

Sentence search

Living Creatures - * For Living Creatures see BEAST ...
Living Creatures - Living Creatures
Living Creatures - These wheels acted in concert with the Living Creatures; for the spirit of the Living Creatures was in the wheels. The faces of these Living Creatures correspond with the faces of the ' four beasts' (which should be translated 'living creatures,' the word being ζῶον, and not θηρίον,which occurs for the 'beasts' of Ezekiel 13 etc
Hexicology - ) The science which treats of the complex relations of Living Creatures to other organisms, and to their surrounding conditions generally
Creature - The Living Creatures in Ezekiel 10:15,17 , are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes and operations
Wild Beasts - Most often the Hebrew is chayyah indicating Living Creatures ( Genesis 1:24 ) including wild animals (Genesis 1:25 )
Beast - , where it should be 'living creatures,' as in Ezekiel. See Living Creatures
Calf - The second of the four Living Creatures in the Apocalypse had the likeness of an ox, presumably as the symbol of strength. The four Living Creatures remind us of certain of the signs of the zodiac (bull, angel, lion, eagle), and possibly they have some connexion with that source (so Moffatt and Gunkel), Irenaeus (iii. 8) associate the Living Creatures with the four evangelists, and holds that the ‘calf,’ signifying the priestly and sacrificial character of Jesus, is the symbol of St
Ark - (Latin: arca, chest) ...
The vessel of timber daubed with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 broad, and 30 high, which Noe constructed at the command of God for the preservation of him and his family and two of all Living Creatures during the Deluge; also the chest in Which were kept the tables of the Law, called the Ark of the Covenant
Wheels - These are used symbolically in Ezekiel in connection with the Living Creatures of God's providential administration on earth
Cherub, Cherubim - They are called 'living creatures' in Ezekiel 1 , with the faces of a man (intelligence), of a lion (strength), of an ox (plodding endurance), and of an eagle (swiftness): see also Ezekiel 10 : where they are called 'cherubims,' and cf. the four Living Creatures are unhappily called 'beasts
Wing - 1: πτέρυξ (Strong's #4420 — Noun Feminine — pterux — pter'-oox ) is used of birds, Matthew 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 ; symbolically in Revelation 12:14 , RV, "the two wings of the great eagle" (AV, "two wings of a great eagle"), suggesting the definiteness of the action, the "wings" indicating rapidity and protection, an allusion, perhaps, to Exodus 19:4 ; Deuteronomy 32:11,12 ; of the "living creatures" in a vision, Revelation 4:8 ; 9:9
Creature - ’ In Romans 8:19-21 it is not merely Living Creatures in the modern use of the word that wait for deliverance, but the whole creation of God (as AV Wings - The Living Creatures in Ezekiel 1 , had each four wings, and those in Isaiah 6:2 and Revelation 4 , had each of them six wings
Firmament - The Living Creatures in Ezekiel 1 move amidst the firmament: "and the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above" ( Ezekiel 1:22 ), showing them to be executors of God's judicial government: cf
Animals in Christian Art - After Constantine, most of the decorative schemes are derived from the Apocalypse: the dove is the Holy Spirit, the lamb is Christ the Victim, and the "four Living Creatures" (man, lion, ox, and eagle) are personifications of the four Evangelists
Flesh - In the Bible, besides the ordinary sense, Job 33:25 , it denotes mankind as a race, Genesis 6:12 Psalm 145:21 Isaiah 40:5-6 ; and all Living Creatures on the earth, Genesis 6:17,19
Alleluia - John, in the Revelation 19:1 ; Revelation 19:3-4 ; Revelation 19:6 , says, "I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, who cried, Alleluia; and the four Living Creatures fell down, and worshipped God, saying, Alleluia
Beast - ]'>[3] ), or ‘living creatures’ (RV Standard - If this were so, the same characters appear in the faces of the Living Creatures in Ezekiel 1:10 and in Revelation 4:4-7
Cherub, Cherubim - One is in the visions of the presence of God attended by Living Creatures (cherubim and seraphim, Isaiah 6:2-6 ; Ezekiel 1:4-28 ; Ezekiel 10:3-22 ). However, a comparison of Ezekiel 1:1 and Ezekiel 10:1 with the Temple representations and with Isaiah's vision does clearly indicate that the function of these heavenly, Living Creatures was that of attending the presence of the living God
Flock - ) A company or collection of Living Creatures; - especially applied to sheep and birds, rarely to persons or (except in the plural) to cattle and other large animals; as, a flock of ravenous fowl
Eagle, - In Ezekiel and in the Revelation the Living Creatures have the eagle character as portraying the swiftness in execution of God's power in creation and judicial government
Cherub - In Ezekiel's vision (10:1-20) they appear as Living Creatures supporting the throne of God. (Ezekiel 1:4-14 ) speaks of four; and this number of "living creatures" is mentioned in Revelation 4:6
Light of the World, Parable of the - Light is the symbol of joy (luminous thoughts give us thrills), of life (light vivifies Living Creatures), of happiness (days of light are days of happiness)
Alleluia - So in the heavenly perfect liturgy (Revelation 19:1; Revelation 19:3-4; Revelation 19:6), the triumphant shout of the great multitude, the 24 elders, and four Living Creatures at the judgment on the whore
Seraphim - The 'living creatures' of Revelation 4 combine the characteristics of both cherubim and seraphim
Cherub (1) - In Ezekiel 1 the four Living Creatures of the Cherubim stand in contrast with the four world monarchies (Daniel 7), termed "beasts. ...
In Revelation 5:9-12 the four Living Creatures (zooa , not theeria , "beasts") identify themselves as the redeemed (All creation is summed up in man its lord; from whence Christ's command, "preach the gospel to every creature," for man's redemption involves the restoration of the creature now subject to vanity: Romans 8) "Thou wast slain and hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood out of every kindred and tongue . "...
In Revelation the four Living Creatures represent the elect redeemed, as they shall be when perfected, ministering as king-priests unto God, and media of blessing to the redeemed earth with its nations and its animal creation. ...
Whereas angels are "round about the throne," the Living Creatures occupy the innermost circle next it and Him who is in their midst (Revelation 5:6; Revelation 5:11). Thirty times they are called "the Living Creatures," full of the life of God everlastingly flowing into them. " Colossal figures of compound Living Creatures are still found "guarding the portals of the Assyrian temples" (Layard)
Cherubim - 1) the four composite figures of the Living Creatures are in a later passage termed cherubim ( Psalms 10:2 ). The prophet’s Living Creatures were composite figures, each having the face of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle. The Living Creatures of the Apocalyptic vision are borrowed from Ezekiel’s imagery
Beasts - The Hebrew word commonly rendered beast signifies Living Creatures
Azazel - The belief that sin, disease, and the like can be removed by being transferred to Living Creatures, beasts or birds, is not confined to the Semitic races, and has its analogy in Hebrew ritual, in the ceremony of the cleansing of the leper ( Leviticus 14:53 )
Cherub, Cherubim - Others, combining all the other references with the description of the Living Creatures in Revelation, make the cherubim to represent God's redeemed people
Lie - ) To rest extended on the ground, a bed, or any support; to be, or to put one's self, in an horizontal position, or nearly so; to be prostate; to be stretched out; - often with down, when predicated of Living Creatures; as, the book lies on the table; the snow lies on the roof; he lies in his coffin
Fish - The Hebrews recognized fish as one of the great divisions of the animal kingdom, and as such gave them a place in the account of the creation, (Genesis 1:21,28 ) as well as in other passages where an exhaustive description of Living Creatures is intended
Creeping Things - ]'>[1] ‘moving thing’) it includes all Living Creatures
Beasts - " In Revelation 4, 5, 6, mention is made of four beasts, or rather, as the word ζωα signifies, Living Creatures, as in Ezekiel 1; and so the word might have been less harshly translated
Likeness - 1:10, for example, the word represents the “form” or “likeness” of the faces of the Living Creatures Ezekiel describes
Cherubim - In the Tabernacle and Temple they were represented by the two golden figures of two-winged Living Creatures
Cherub - The cherubim are variously represented as Living Creatures, Genesis 3:24; Ezekiel 1:1-28; Revelation 4:1-11; or as images wrought in tapestry, gold, or wood, Exodus 36:35; Exodus 37:7; Ezekiel 41:25; as having one, two, or four faces, Exodus 25:20; Ezekiel 41:18; Ezekiel 10:14, as having two, four, or six wings, 1 Kings 6:27; Ezekiel 1:6; Revelation 4:8; in the simplest form, as in the golden figures above the ark of the covenant; or in the most complex and sublime form, as in Ezekiel's wonderful visions of the glory of God—discerning and ruling all things, and executing irresistibly and with the speed of thought all his wise and just decrees
Soul - Both animals and people are nephesh, Living Creatures. Older English versions of the Bible have created misunderstanding by the translation ‘man became a living soul’ (Genesis 2:7), for the words translated ‘living soul’ are the same words as earlier translated ‘living creatures’ (Genesis 1:21; Genesis 1:24)
Throne - The angelic guardians of his throne are the cherubim, sometimes called ‘living creatures’ (Psalms 80:1; Psalms 93; Isaiah 6:1-3; Ezekiel 1:22; Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:20-22; Matthew 5:34; Revelation 4:2; Revelation 4:6; Revelation 5:11-14; see CHERUBIM)
Noah - Then the Lord promised never again to destroy Living Creatures as He had done in the flood and established a covenant with Noah and his sons and sealed that covenant with a rainbow
Almighty - The four Living Creatures cry day and night "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come
Beast - , the word "beasts" is most unsuitable; the RV, "living creatures," should always be used; it gives to zoon its appropriate significance
Ordinance - The authority upon which it rests may be Divine, as when it is applied by Clement to the laws of nature, which earth, sea, sky, and all Living Creatures must obey; or it may be primarily human, albeit ultimately Divine, as in 1 Peter 2:13
Dead Sea - "The fish carried down by the Jordan at once die, nor can even mussels or corals live in it; but it is a fable that no bird can fly over it, or that there are no Living Creatures on its banks
Seraphim - The seraphim with six wings and one face differ from the cherubim with four wings (in the temple only two) and four faces (Ezekiel 1:5-12); but in Revelation 4:8 the four Living Creatures (zooa ) have each six wings
Seraphim - The seraphim may be traced in the Imagery and symbolism of the NT Apocalypse, where the four Living Creatures, in both their function and their form, are a combination of the seraphim with the cherubim of Ezekiel’s vision (cf
Cherubim - ) which are the original of the ‘living creatures’ of Revelation 4:6-8, there may be the signs of the zodiac (Gunkel)
Noah - ...
When the ark of "gopher-wood" (mentioned only here) was at length completed according to the command of the Lord, the Living Creatures that were to be preserved entered into it; and then Noah and his wife and sons and daughters-in-law entered it, and the "Lord shut him in" ( Sacrifice - Sacrifices (though the term is sometimes used to comprehend all the offerings made to God, or in any way devoted to his service and honour) differ from mere oblations in this, that in a sacrifice there is a real destruction or change of the thing offered; whereas an oblation is only a simple offering or gift, without any such change at all: thus, all sorts of tithes, and first fruits, and whatever of men's worldly substance in consecrated to God for the support of his worship and the maintenance of his ministers, are offerings, or oblations; and these, under the Jewish law, were either of Living Creatures, or other things; but sacrifices, in the more peculiar sense of the term, were either wholly or in part consumed by fire. Bloody sacrifices were made of Living Creatures; unbloody, of the fruits of the earth
Thanksgiving - ) and respond to the great voices of the Living Creatures in stirring strains
Man - Adam is capable of recognizing the qualities of, and so of naming, the Living Creatures ( Genesis 2:19 ), cannot find a help meet among them ( Genesis 2:20 ), is innocent ( Genesis 2:25 ), and capable of moral obedience ( Genesis 2:16-17 ) and religious communion ( Genesis 3:9-10 )
Living - -(2) The ‘living creatures’ (Revised Version ; Authorized Version ‘beasts’; Gr
Flesh - 5:26: “For who is there of all flesh, that hath heard the voice of the living God …?” In another place, this phrase refers to “all Living Creatures within the cosmos,” or all men and animals ( Thanksgiving - ) and respond to the great voices of the Living Creatures in stirring strains
Numbers as Symbols - Ezekiel saw four Living Creatures, each had four faces, four wings, and four hands. Ezekiel 1:5-8 : compare the four Living Creatures in Revelation 4:6
Lion - The first of the four Living Creatures was like a lion (Revelation 4:7, compare Ezekiel 1:10), the kingly aspect of Messiah in Matthew
Breath - ...
Breath (neshamah ) refers to all Living Creatures
Beast - In Revelation 4; 5, the four cherubic forms are not "beasts" (as KJV), but "living creatures" (zoa )
Wind - God answered Job out of the whirlwind (Job 38:1 ), and the four Living Creatures appeared to Ezekiel in a strong wind from the north (Job 1:4 )
Lion - The same intimation of majesty and strength occurs in Revelation 4:7, where the Seer is taken up into heaven, and beholds the four and twenty elders about the throne, with the four Living Creatures, having the likeness respectively of a lion, a calf, the face of a man, and a flying eagle (cf
Lamp - ...
Ezekiel 1:13 (a) The Living Creatures represent four aspects of the Lord JESUS CHRIST
Hymns - ...
The Song of the Living Creatures in 4:8 varies from the Sanctus of Isaiah’s vision which is followed in the Liturgies and the Te Deum. ...
In 5:12 the angels offer a fuller doxology to the Lamb, and the response of all creation with a fourfold doxology, and of the Living Creatures with the familiar ‘Amen’ which ended the eucharistic thanksgiving of the Church on earth, is ‘highly suggestive of the devotional attitude of the Asiatic Church in the time of Domitian towards the Person of Christ’ (Swete, op
Soul - Such is observable in Genesis 1:20,21 , 24 , where the qualified (living) nepes [1] refers to animals and is rendered "living creatures
Harp - In Revelation 5:8 the four Living Creatures and the four and twenty elders who abased themselves before the Lamb have each of them a harp; and the voice which was heard, as the Lamb and the hundred and forty and four thousand stood on Mount Zion, is described as that of ‘harpers harping with their harps’ (Revelation 14:2)
Apocalyptic - There are heavenly counterparts of earthly realities, like the "angels of the seven churches" (Revelation 1:20 ), and the four Living Creatures by the throne (Revelation 4:6 ), and the "son of man" of Daniel 7:13 , who to some extent represents God's people in heaven (Daniel 7:18 ). This appears vividly in the compelling vision of uNIVersal worship in Revelation 5 , where John sees (and hears) the worship spreading from the throne in concentric circles outward, from the Living Creatures to the twenty-four elders, then to the myriads of angels (v
Cherubim - ) The general representation of the cherubim was under the similitude of four Living Creatures: the face of a man; the face of a lion; the face of an ox, or calf; and the face of an eagle
Evangelist (2) - The symbolism is founded on the description of the four Living Creatures in the Apocalypse (4:7). The symbolism spread throughout the Church, but there was no agreement as to the connexion between the different Living Creatures and the separate Evangelists
Vision(s) - The opening chapter depicts four Living Creatures in human form, each accompanied by wheels within wheels
Praise - And the four Living Creatures said, Amen. In Revelation 4:8 the Living Creatures say: ‘Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God, the Almighty, which was and which is and which is to come
Sea of Glass - ...
(c) In the apocalyptic vision of Ezekiel, upon which the symbolism of Revelation 4 is most directly based, a firmament like the colour of the terrible crystal is stretched over the heads of the four Living Creatures, and upon it is placed the throne like sapphire stone (Ezekiel 1:22; Ezekiel 1:26)
Lamb, Lamb of God - In the heavenly vision of chapter 4, the choir of twenty-four elders and four Living Creatures worship the "Lord God, " who sits on the throne, for he is worthy (v
Lamb - ...
According to Revelation 5:6, in the central place before the throne, in the midst of the four and twenty elders, and the four Living Creatures, the Revelationist turned to see a Lion, symbol of majesty and overmastering power, when lo! instead of a lion he beheld a Lamb, standing, bearing still the wound by which He was slain in sacrifice, yet with the emblems of power and wisdom in the highest degree
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - Four Living Creatures "give glory, honor and thanks to him who sits on the throne" (4:9), twenty-four elders worship him for he has taken his great power and begun to reign (11:17)
Live - Sometimes this word is used of “living beings” in general: “Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four Living Creatures: ( Ark - "...
Whether Noah was commanded to bring with him, into the ark, a pair of all Living Creatures, zoologically and numerically considered, has been doubted
Revelation, the - In the midst of the throne were four Living Creatures, symbolical of power, firmness, intelligence, and rapidity of execution of God's government, when the throne is once taken: cf. The four Living Creatures and the elders fall down, and the new song of redemption is sung. What are prominent are horses and their riders, which come forth successively at the call of the four Living Creatures
Body - ...
“All flesh” refers to the entire human race (Isaiah 40:5-6 ; John 17:2 ), or even all Living Creatures (Genesis 6:17 ; Psalm 136:25 ), since through material bodily existence the human being is tied even with the animal world (Genesis 6:19 )
Number - The four Living Creatures or cherubim with four wings and four faces (Ezekiel 1:5, etc
Adder - Blunt's Voyage into the Levant:—...
"Many rarities of Living Creatures I saw in Grand Cairo; but the most ingenious was a nest of serpents, of two feet long, black and ugly, kept by a Frenchman, who, when he came to handle them, would not endure him, but ran and hid in their hole
Number Systems And Number Symbolism - Significant biblical references to four include the four corners of the earth (Isaiah 11:12 ), the four winds (Jeremiah 49:36 ), four rivers which flowed out of Eden to water the world (Genesis 2:10-14 ), and four Living Creatures surrounding God (Ezekiel 1:1 ; Revelation 4:6-7 )
Ezekiel, Book of - Compare the four Living Creatures with those described in Revelation 4:6-8
Angels - The saints (the Living Creatures and 24 elders) occupy the inner circle, the angels the outer circle, round the throne of the Lamb (Revelation 5:11)
Daniel, the Book of - ) In Revelation 4; 5, the four cherubim are "living creatures," not "beasts" as KJV
Animals - It was very good for waters, air, and land to teem with Living Creatures
Angel - The Living Creatures of Ezekiel 1:5-14 were composites of human and animal parts, which was typically Mesopotamian in character, and they seem to have depicted the omnipotence and omniscience of God
Life - The human race was destined to die, as were all Living Creatures, but now without hope beyond the grave
Person, Personhood - Such is observable in Genesis 1:20,21 , 24 , where the qualified (living) nepes [5] refers to animals and is rendered "living creatures
Ezekiel - The Living Creatures of Ezekiel 37:1-14 reappear in Revelation 4:6-9
Life - ...
Life as a physical phenomenon is pre-eminently associated with animals the Living Creatures of the sea, the land, and the air (Genesis 1:21 ff
Divination - Besides mentioning Jahweh, the God of the Hebrews, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit, worshipped by the Christians, and some of the innumerable ethnic deities, the literature of the Apostolic Age contains references to angels, archangels, Living Creatures, Satan, the Devil, the Wicked One, the Antichrist, demons, unclean and evil powers, dominions, principalities, authorities, thrones, and glories
Fire - The four Living Creatures are four symbols or types of CHRIST
Physical - And this explains and manifests the perfect wisdom of Christ as a teacher, in including all men within, and in excluding all other Living Creatures on the earth from, the moral government of God and its system of administration
Wisdom of Solomon - probably ancient, modern, and mediaeval history), the alterations of the turnings (of the sun) and the change of seasons, the circuits of years and the position of stars, the natures of Living Creatures and the dispositions of beasts, the forces of the winds and the reasonings of men, the diversities of plants and the virtues of roots’-a list which shows little sign of Greek influence, but is much more suggestive of the learning of Egypt, Phœnicia, and Arabia
John, Gospel of - ’ He dwells in mystical fashion upon the significance of the number four, and characterizes the Fourth Gospel as corresponding to the ‘flying eagle’ among the Living Creatures of Ezekiel 1:10 ; Ezekiel 10:14
Palestine - The prohibition (1) of making graven images or likenesses of Living Creatures, and (2) of building any other temple than that at Jerusalem, restricted art
Palesti'na - These are (1) the prohibition of sculptured representations of Living Creatures, and (2) the command not to build a temple anywhere but at Jerusalem
Possession - _ Of these some were beneficent, as the Spirit of God, the Spirit of Jesus, the seven spirits before the throne of God, angels, archangels, principalities, powers, ‘living creatures,’ and probably the πρεσβύτεροι before the throne
God - The first act ascribed to God is that of creating the heavens and the earth out of nothing; and by his fiat alone arranging their parts, and peopling them with Living Creatures