What does Life mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ζωὴν life. 52
ζωῆς life. 45
ζωὴ life. 20
ψυχὴν breath. 17
חַיִּ֑ים living 12
נַפְשִׁ֖י soul 9
נֶ֣פֶשׁ soul 9
חַיֵּ֣י living 8
ζωήν life. 7
נַפְשִׁ֑י soul 6
נַפְשְׁךָ֙ soul 6
חַיָּֽיו living 6
חַיֶּֽיךָ living 5
ψυχήν breath. 5
חַיִּֽים living 5
חַיָּֽי living 5
נַפְשֶֽׁךָ soul 4
נַפְשׁ֔וֹ soul 4
חַ֝יִּ֗ים living 4
נַפְשֽׁוֹ soul 4
נַפְשָׁ֑ם soul 4
חַ֭יִּים living 4
נַפְשׁ֖וֹ soul 4
נַפְשׁ֑וֹ soul 4
חַיִּ֣ים living 4
חַיָּ֔ה living 4
נַפְשִׁ֗י soul 3
נַפְשִֽׁי soul 3
נֶ֖פֶשׁ soul 3
נָֽפֶשׁ soul 3
חַיֶּ֑יךָ living 3
חַיֵּ֥י living 3
חַיַּ֔י living 3
ψυχῇ breath. 3
חַיָּ֔יו living 3
לְחַיִּ֑ים living 3
βίου life. 3
נֶ֥פֶשׁ soul 3
נַ֫פְשִׁ֥י soul 3
ζωή life. 3
ζωῇ life. 3
נַפְשֶׁ֑ךָ soul 3
ψυχὴ breath. 3
חַיָּ֑י living 3
נַפְשִׁי֙ soul 3
הַֽחַיִּים֙ living 3
؟ נַפְשִֽׁי soul 2
נֶ֔פֶשׁ soul 2
וְ֝חַיָּת֗וֹ living 2
נַפְשׁוֹ֙ soul 2
וְ֝חַיָּתָ֗ם living 2
יְחִידָתִֽי only 2
יָמִ֣ים day 2
נַפְשׁ֥וֹ soul 2
נַפְשֶׁ֔ךָ soul 2
חָ֑לֶד age 2
ἀναστροφήν manner of life 2
נֶֽפֶשׁ־ soul 2
חַיָּֽו living 2
ἀναστροφῆς manner of life 2
ζωοποιεῖ to produce alive 2
ψυχῆς breath. 2
נַפְשְׁךָ֖ soul 2
ζωοποιοῦν to produce alive 2
בַּֽחַיִּ֔ים living 2
חַיָּ֑יו living 2
נַ֝פְשִׁ֗י soul 2
כְּנֶ֖פֶשׁ soul 1
נַפְשִׁ֣י soul 1
לְנֶ֣פֶשׁ soul 1
נַפְשִׁ֔י soul 1
בְנַפְשׁ֔וֹ soul 1
בְנַפְשׁ֥וֹ soul 1
נַפְשׁ֨וֹ soul 1
נַפְשְׁךָ֔ soul 1
בְנַפְשֽׁוֹ soul 1
לְנַפְשִֽׁי soul 1
בְנַפְשׁוֹ֮ soul 1
נַפְשֵׁ֔ךְ soul 1
מִשְׁפַּט־ judgment 1
מְרֽוּצָתָם֙ running 1
לְמִֽחְיָ֔ה preservation of life 1
מָ֭אַסְתִּי to reject 1
נַפְשִׁי֮ soul 1
יָ֭מִים day 1
יְמֵי־ day 1
יָמַ֛י day 1
יָמִ֥ים day 1
מֵעוֹדִ֖י a going round 1
לְנַפְשִׁ֗י soul 1
נֶ֨פֶשׁ soul 1
נֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ soul 1
נַפְשָׁ֗ם soul 1
חִיָּֽתְנִי to live 1
בְּנַפְשׁ֥וֹ soul 1
לְנַפְשָׁ֔ם soul 1
לְנַפְשׁ֔וֹ soul 1
לְנַפְשִׁ֑י soul 1
נַפְשׁ֛וֹ soul 1
בְּנֶ֗פֶשׁ soul 1
הַנֶּ֖פֶשׁ soul 1
הַנָּ֑פֶשׁ soul 1
נַפְשֵׁ֥ךְ soul 1
(בְנַפְשִׁי֙) soul 1
! נַפְשׁ֔וֹ soul 1
נַפְשָׁ֔ם soul 1
בְּנֶ֤פֶשׁ soul 1
וְ֝נַפְשִׁ֗י soul 1
וְנֶ֨פֶשׁ soul 1
؟ נַפְשֽׁוֹ soul 1
בְּנַפְשִׁ֖י soul 1
בְּנֶ֙פֶשׁ֙ soul 1
נַפְשִׁ֤י soul 1
נַפְשְׁךָ֛ soul 1
נַפְשִׁ֛י soul 1
נָ֑פֶשׁ soul 1
נַפְשָֽׁם soul 1
וְנַפְשׁ֖וֹ soul 1
؟ וָחָ֑י to live 1
בַּֽחַיִּים֮ living 1
יְחַיֶּ֥ה to live 1
חַיָּ֛יו living 1
הַֽחַיִּ֖ים living 1
הַחַיִּ֤ים living 1
חַיֶּ֙יךָ֙ living 1
חַיֵּיכֶ֑ם living 1
הַ֣חַיִּ֔ים living 1
(חַיָּ֛יו‪‬‪‬) living 1
בַּֽחַיִּ֗ים living 1
חַיָּתָ֑ם living 1
חַיֶּ֔יךָ living 1
חַיָּ֖ה living 1
בְחַיַּ֔י living 1
؟ חַיִּֽים living 1
הַֽחַיִּ֔ים living 1
הַֽחַיִּֽים living 1
חֵ֤י living 1
חֵ֣י living 1
בְּחַיֶּֽיךָ living 1
לְחַיֵּ֣י living 1
חַיִּ֔ים living 1
ζωογονοῦντος to bring forth alive. 1
βίον life. 1
βίωσίν manner of living and acting 1
βιωτικαῖς pertaining to life and the affairs of this life. 1
βιωτικά pertaining to life and the affairs of this life. 1
βιωτικὰ pertaining to life and the affairs of this life. 1
ἡμῶν I 1
ἔζησεν to live 1
ζωοποιεῖται to produce alive 1
לְחַיִּ֔ים living 1
ζωοποιῆσαι to produce alive 1
ζωοποιοῦντος to produce alive 1
ζωοποιήσει to produce alive 1
τρόπος a manner 1
ψυχάς breath. 1
מַאֲרִ֖יךְ to be long 1
דּוֹרִ֗י period 1
דַּ֣ם blood. 1
؟ חַיֶּֽיךָ living 1
לְחַיֵּי־ living 1
תְּחַיֵּֽנִי to live 1
חַיַּ֥ת living 1
ἀναστροφὴν manner of life 1
חַיִּ֤ים ׀ living 1
חַ֝יַּ֗י living 1
חַיַּ֑י living 1
חַיִּ֪ים living 1
חַיַּי֮ living 1
מֵֽחַיִּ֗ים living 1
וְחַיַּ֗י living 1
חַיָּתִ֑י living 1
לְחַיֵּ֥י alive 1
הֶחֱיָ֨ה to live 1
הֶחֱיָ֣ה to live 1
הֶחֱיָ֤ה to live 1
הֶחֱיָ֥ה to live 1
תְּחַיֶּ֥ה to live 1
לְהַחֲיֹתֽוֹ to live 1
לְחַיֹּת֑וֹ to live 1
חַ֫יִּ֥ים living 1
חַיָּ֑יְכִי living 1
חַיִּ֜ים living 1
וְ֝חַיִּ֗ים living 1
חַיַּי֙ living 1
חַיֵּ֖ינוּ living 1
חַיַּ֤ת living 1
הַחַיִּ֖ים living 1
מֵֽחַיִּ֔ים living 1
בְּחַ֫יָּ֥י living 1
בַּֽחַיִּֽין living 1
חַיָּת֣וֹ living 1
חַיֶּֽיה‪‬ living 1
(וְ֝חַיָּתוֹ) living 1
הַֽחַיִּים living 1
חַיַּ֖י living 1
בְּחַיָּֽיו living 1
חַיָּ֔י living 1
לְ֭חַיִּים living 1
וְ֭חַיִּים living 1
וְחַיִּֽים living 1
פְרָז֛וֹן rural population 1

Definitions Related to Life

G2222


   1 Life.
      1a the state of one who is possessed of vitality or is animate.
      1b every living soul.
   2 Life.
      2a of the absolute fullness of Life, both essential and ethical, which belongs to God, and through him both to the hypostatic “logos” and to Christ in whom the “logos” put on human nature.
      2b Life real and genuine, a Life active and vigorous, devoted to God, blessed, in the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions (among them a more perfect body), and to last for ever.
      Additional Information: For synonyms see entry 979, bios.
      See entry 5821 for comparison of synonyms.
      

G5590


   1 breath.
      1a the breath of Life.
         1a1 the vital force which animates the body and shows itself in breathing.
            1a1a of animals.
            1a12 of men.
      1b Life.
      1c that in which there is Life.
         1c1 a living being, a living soul.
   2 the soul.
      2a the seat of the feelings, desires, affections, aversions (our heart, soul etc.
      ).
      2b the (human) soul in so far as it is constituted that by the right use of the aids offered it by God it can attain its highest end and secure eternal blessedness, the soul regarded as a moral being designed for everlasting Life.
      2c the soul as an essence which differs from the body and is not dissolved by death (distinguished from other parts of the body).
      

H5315


   1 soul, self, Life, creature, person, appetite, mind, living being, desire, emotion, passion.
      1a that which breathes, the breathing substance or being, soul, the inner being of man.
      1b living being.
      1c living being (with Life in the blood).
      1d the man himself, self, person or individual.
      1e seat of the appetites.
      1f seat of emotions and passions.
      1g activity of mind.
         1g1 dubious.
      1h activity of the will.
         1h1 dubious.
      1i activity of the character.
         1i1 dubious.
         

H2416


   1 living, alive.
      1a green (of vegetation).
      1b flowing, fresh (of water).
      1c lively, active (of man).
      1d reviving (of the springtime).
   2 relatives.
   3 Life (abstract emphatic).
      3a Life.
      3b sustenance, maintenance.
   4 living thing, animal.
      4a animal.
      4b Life.
      4c appetite.
      4d revival, renewal.
   5 community.
   

H2421


   1 to live, have Life, remain alive, sustain Life, live prosperously, live for ever, be quickened, be alive, be restored to Life or health.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to live.
            1a1a to have Life.
            1a1b to continue in Life, remain alive.
            1a1c to sustain Life, to live on or upon.
            1a1d to live (prosperously).
         1a2 to revive, be quickened.
            1a2a from sickness.
            1a2b from discouragement.
            1a2c from faintness.
            1a2d from death.
      1b (Piel).
         1b1 to preserve alive, let live.
         1b2 to give Life.
         1b3 to quicken, revive, refresh.
            1b3a to restore to Life.
            1b3b to cause to grow.
            1b3c to restore.
            1b3d to revive.
      1c (Hiphil).
         1c1 to preserve alive, let live.
         1c2 to quicken, revive.
            1c2a to restore (to health).
            1c2b to revive.
            1c2c to restore to Life.
            

G2227


   1 to produce alive, begat or bear living young.
   2 to cause to live, make alive, give Life.
      2a by spiritual power to arouse and invigorate.
      2b to restore to Life.
      2c to give increase of Life: thus of physical Life.
      2d of the spirit, quickening as respects the spirit, endued with new and greater powers of Life.
   3 metaph.
   , of seeds quickened into Life, i.e. germinating, springing up, growing.
   

G979


   1 Life.
      1a Life extensively.
         1a1 the period or course of Life.
      1b that by which Life is sustained, resources, wealth, goods.
      Additional Information: For synonyms see entry 2222, zoe.
      See entry 5821 for comparison of synonyms.
      

H3173


   1 only, only one, solitary, one.
      1a only, unique, one.
      1b solitary.
      1c (TWOT) only begotten son subst.
   2 one.
   

H2465


   1 age, duration of Life, the world.
   

G391


   1 manner of Life, conduct, behaviour, deportment.
   

H3117


   1 day, time, year.
      1a day (as opposed to night).
      1b day (24 hour period).
         1b1 as defined by evening and morning in Genesis 1.
         1b2 as a division of time.
            1b2a a working day, a day’s journey.
      1c days, lifetime (pl.
      ).
      1d time, period (general).
      1e year.
      1f temporal references.
         1f1 today.
         1f2 yesterday.
         1f3 tomorrow.
         

G982


   1 pertaining to Life and the affairs of this Life.
   

G5158


   1 a manner, way, fashion.
      1a as, even as, like as.
   2 manner of Life, character, deportment.
   

G2198


   1 to live, breathe, be among the living (not lifeless, not dead).
   2 to enjoy real Life.
      2a to have true Life and worthy of the name.
      2b active, blessed, endless in the kingdom of God.
   3 to live i.e. pass Life, in the manner of the living and acting.
      3a of mortals or character.
   4 living water, having vital power in itself and exerting the same upon the soul.
   5 metaph.
   to be in full vigour.
      5a to be fresh, strong, efficient,.
      5b as adj.
      active, powerful, efficacious.
      

G981


   1 manner of living and acting, way of Life.
   

H2417


   1 alive, living, Life.
   

H2425


   1 to live, have Life, remain alive, sustain Life, live prosperously, live for ever, be quickened, be alive, be restored to Life or health.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to live.
            1a1a to have Life.
            1a1b to continue in Life, remain alive.
            1a1c to sustain Life, to live on or upon.
            1a1d to live (prosperously).
         1a2 to revive, be quickened.
            1a2a from sickness.
            1a2b from discouragement.
            1a2c from faintness.
            1a2d from death.
      1b (Piel).
         1b1 to preserve alive, let live.
         1b2 to give Life.
         1b3 to quicken, revive, refresh.
            1b3a to restore to Life.
            1b3b to cause to grow.
            1b3c to restore.
            1b3d to revive.
      1c (Hiph).
         1c1 to preserve alive, let live.
         1c2 to quicken, revive.
            1c2a to restore (to health).
            1c2b to revive.
            1c2c to restore to Life.
            

H4794


   1 running, course (of Life).
      1a running, mode or style of running.
      1b course (of Life).
      

H1755


   1 period, generation, habitation, dwelling.
      1a period, age, generation (period of time).
      1b generation (those living during a period).
      1c generation (characterised by quality, condition, class of men).
      1d dwelling-place, habitation.
      

H748


   1 to be long, prolong.
      1a (Qal) to be long.
      1b (Hiphil).
         1b1 to prolong (days).
         1b2 to make long (tent cords).
         1b3 to grow long, continue long.
         

H5750


   1 a going round, continuance adv.
   2 still, yet, again, besides.
      2a still, yet (of continuance or persistence).
      2b still, yet, more (of addition or repetition).
      2c again.
      2d still, moreover, besides.
      

H4241


   1 preservation of Life, sustenance.
      1a preservation of Life.
      1b sustenance.
      1c reviving.
      1d the quick of the flesh, live flesh, tender or raw flesh.
      

H1818


   1 blood.
      1a of wine (fig.
      ).
      

H3988


   1 to reject, despise, refuse.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to reject, refuse.
         1a2 to despise.
      1b (Niphal) to be rejected.
   2 (Niphal) to flow, run.
   

H6520


   1 rural population, rustics, rural people, people of unwalled villages.
      1a meaning dubious.
      

H4941


   1 judgment, justice, ordinance.
      1a judgment.
         1a1 act of deciding a case.
         1a2 place, court, seat of judgment.
         1a3 process, procedure, litigation (before judges).
         1a4 case, cause (presented for judgment).
         1a5 sentence, decision (of judgment).
         1a6 execution (of judgment).
         1a7 time (of judgment).
      1b justice, right, rectitude (attributes of God or man).
      1c ordinance.
      1d decision (in law).
      1e right, privilege, due (legal).
      1f proper, fitting, measure, fitness, custom, manner, plan.
      

Frequency of Life (original languages)

Frequency of Life (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, Canonical
A rule of life drawn up in ancient times for canons and other clergy, especially cathedral assistants, living in community life, and so intermediate between the monastic and the ordinary secular clergy. Later many of these communities became canons regular following the Rule of Saint Augustine, who introduced this community life into his episcopal household.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, Contemplative
A way of living especially adapted to induce and facilitate contemplation. Based on the preeminent Christian duty of seeking to increase one's knowledge and love of God, contemplation is in itself the noblest occupation that may engage man's faculties, and has been held in veneration since the early Christian Fathers retired to the desert in imitation of Christ. The contemplative seeks that union with God which is to reach perfection in the life to come. To this end he strives to prepare his soul by the exercise of Christian virtues, by estrangement from the world, profession of vows contrary to the worldly spirit, silence as an aid to converse with God, and by self-mortification. His investigation of Divine things necessitates the study of history and science, in short, of whatsoever bears witness to the development of the Divine plan. His great function is, of course, worship, and in community this sacred duty is performed in a public, official way by the recitation of Divine Office. Moreover, the second great commandment, love of our neighbor for God's sake, is fulfilled by contemplatives by means of prayer for suffering humanity, and by penance as an atonement for sinners. Those who practise this twofold ministry have greater merit, theoretically, than those in active orders, but the individual vocation must in all cases be considered. Undoubtedly the contemplative life presupposes a remarkable vocation.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, Common
As a condition of the religious state, is opposed to the eremetical or solitary religious state. Common life implies membership in a religious community, involving submission to a common rule and to the same superiors, and secondly, a community of goods, such as food, clothing, and lodging. By the profession of vows, religious become members of the community, and thus assume the obligation of applying their talents and faculties for the benefit of the community, and in return have a right to support by the community. Though common life is not essential for the religious state, still the Church has always esteemed it as an important help in fostering the religious life, for which, according to present legislation, it is a requisite (canon 487).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, Book of
Figurative expression in Holy Writ (Apocalypse 21) for predestination, which signifies God's foreknowledge of the elect. It is plain that God by virtue of His omniscience must infallibly know the number of the elect and the lost, which, however, does not imply that the fate of either the elect or the damned is sealed by God without prevision of each individual's merit. Damnation is in no way forewilled, but merely foreknown by God. See predestination.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Fathers Lived a Life in Shade, the
Hymn for Lauds on February 12, Feast of the Seven Holy Founders. It was written by Vincent Tarozzi (1849-1918). The English title given above is by C. Paul.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, the
Our Lord's own way of naming Himself before raising Lazarus from death (John 11).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, Bread of
The Eucharist, the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, contained really and substantially under the appearances of bread and wine. It is called bread from the matter from which it is confected and as bread, i.e.,food in general, keeps the life in the body, so the Holy Eucharist increases the spiritual life of the soul (John 6).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life
The perfection in virtue of which an agent is capable of immanent action. Bodies as natural units are found to be possessed of various kinds of activity. Organic or living bodies have an organized structure of heterogeneous parts; inorganic bodies are homogeneous in structure. Organic bodies through the action of the physical and chemical forces inherent in them produce effects which always pass from the agent to some object distinct from it; these activities are called transient. The organized bodies, however, besides exercising transient activities are endowed with other activities never found in the inorganic, e.g., nutrition, growth, and reproduction; some organized bodies are also capable of consciousness and the various local motions arising therefrom; living man is conscious of forming judgments, of reasoning, and of striving for the attainment of non-sensible good. All of these activities are living, vital, and in the corporeal universe are found to be the exclusive properties of bodies which we call living. The definition of life, then, must be found in some quality common to all of these functions and to these alone. Analysis shows that everyone of them results in a term which remains, and must of its nature remain, as a perfection of the natural unitary whole producing it. Hence the name immanent activity, also called self-movement. It involves three essential elements: the unit of activity must be a natural unitary whole, not merely an artificial unit; the efficient cause immediately eliciting the activity must be a power within this unit; the immediate term of the activity must remain as a perfection of the unit. Thus an organism in nutrition by its own active power produces as a term the anabolism within the cells comprising the organism.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Life, Religious
The state of people who profess to aim at the perfection of Christian charity in the bosom of the Church, by the three perpetual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The religious life pointed out to us by the Evangelical counsels is a life of charity and of union with God, and the great means it employs to this end are freedom and detachment from everything that could in any manner prevent or impair that union. From another point of view it is a devotion, a special consecration to Christ and God, to whom every Christian acknowledges that he belongs. Christian virgins were the first to profess a life distinguished from the ordinary, by its tendency to perfection; continence, and often the renunciation of riches, attached them specially to Christ. Shortly after them, appeared the "confessores" who also made profession of chastity and sometimes of poverty. In the 3century we find the first distinct traces of the kind of life in which the religious profession becomes by degrees perfected and brought under rule, that of the monks. The Gospel clearly states virginity and continence as the means, and charity as the end, of all religious life. Persecutions necessitated retirement and a first form of life entirely directed towards personal sanctification; community life produced obedience; the inconveniences caused by frequent changes of residence suggested the vow of stability; the excessive multiplication and diversity of religious institutes called for the intervention of the sovereign pontiff and his express approbation of rules; the needs of soul and body grafted the practise of corporal and spiritual works of mercy upon personal sanctification, and joined the reception of Holy Orders to religious profession; and the exigencies and difficulties of modern times caused the making of simple vows antecedent to, or in substitution for, solemn vows. Some examples of the regular religious life may be seen among the Canons Regular, the mendicant orders, the military orders, the hospitaller orders, the Clerks Regular, the Eastern orders, those orders founded principally for teaching, as the Christian Brothers, and innumerable congregations of nuns.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Inner Life of Mary
The supernatural life which Mary led on earth, particularly her advancement in grace and wisdom, in her intimate union with Jesus, her Divine Son, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity. Saint Luke, in chapter 2, tells us Mary's manner of meditation, how she pondered on the words concerning Jesus and the words spoken by Jesus: "But Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart," and "his mother kept all these words in her heart." The feast of the Inner Life of Mary is celebrated by the Sulpicians, October 19,.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Introduction to the Devout Life
Work written by Saint Francis de Sales, intended to lead "Philothea" (philos, loving; Theos, God), the soul living in the world, into the paths of devotion. It consists of five books. In the first the author helps the soul to free itself from all inclination to sin; in the second he teaches it how to be united to God by prayer and the sacraments; in the third he exercises it in the practise of virtue; in the fourth he strengthens it against temptation; and in the fifth he teaches it how to form resolutions and persevere. It has been translated into nearly every language and has gone through innumerable editions.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canonical Life
A rule of life drawn up in ancient times for canons and other clergy, especially cathedral assistants, living in community life, and so intermediate between the monastic and the ordinary secular clergy. Later many of these communities became canons regular following the Rule of Saint Augustine, who introduced this community life into his episcopal household.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Life
Generally of physical life (Genesis 2:7 ; Luke 16:25 , etc.); also used figuratively (1) for immortality (Hebrews 7:16 ); (2) conduct or manner of life (Romans 6:4 ); (3) spiritual life or salvation (John 3:16,17,18,36 ); (4) eternal life (Matthew 19:16,17 ; John 3:15 ); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (John 1:4 ; 5:26,39 ; 11:25 ; 12:50 ).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Family Life And Relations
The Old Testament . In Western societies individuals are often considered the societal units, brought together by some commonly felt need (commerce, industry, mutual defense, etc.). In contrast, Israel's social structure was tribal and therefore corporate (solidary) in its internal relationships, generating tightly structured communities. Whatever their size, these communities perceived themselves as totalities, bound together through internal agencies that made their presence felt in each individual member. The individual was neither overlooked, nor was he considered the unit on which the society was built. Instead, the family was the unit, and the individual found his place in society through the family and its extensions. The subtribe was really a greatly extended family; a collection of related subtribes formed a tribe; and a federation of tribes yielded a people.
Nowhere is community stronger in Hebraic society than in that most foundational of the primary groups, the bayit [ Jeremiah 2:3-4 ). The household would embrace the mother and children, even after the latter had reached maturity (Judges 6:15 ; 9:1 ; 1 Samuel 16:5 ). In its broadest definition, the household would also include its servants: Abraham had 318 who had been "born in his household" (Genesis 14:14 ).
Though every effort was expended to preserve the stability of the family, tensions existed, and the Bible makes no effort to conceal them (Abraham's quarrel with his nephew Lot, Genesis 13:5-8 ; Esau's hatred of Jacob, Genesis 27:41 ; and the favoritism shown Jacob by Rebekah, Genesis 25:28 ; 27:15-17 ). In a polygynous environment the only bond between siblings born to disparate mothers was the often remote father. At times bitterness developed between women such as Hannah and Penninah, both wives of Elkanah. The story of Joseph's sale into Egyptian bondage (Genesis 37:12-36 ) vividly portrays how competition between wives in childbearing (Genesis 30:1-7 ) could be transmitted to the children. An even more severe example may be seen in Amnon's rape of his half-sister Tamar and his subsequent murder by Absalom (2 Samuel 13:1-29 ). The bond of affection between Joseph and his only full brother Benjamin (Genesis 43:15-16 ) is also echoed in Absalom's concern over his sister's disgrace, contrasted to his cold hatred for his half-brother, Amnon.
In ancient Israel large families were deemed necessary to conduct the family business, to provide for the parents in their old age, and to carry on the family name. As a result, the large family was regarded as a blessing from God (1 John 3:1-2,10 ; Psalm 128:3 ). Sons were especially valued (Psalm 127:3-5 ) to carry on the family name, yet it is against rebellious sons, not daughters, that legislation was directed and proverbs were coined (Proverbs 20:20 ; 30:11,17 ).
Legally, children were regarded as the property, and therefore the responsibility, of the father. Accordingly, he is compensated for the loss of a fetus (Exodus 21:22 ), an unmarried daughter who is seduced (Exodus 22:16 ), and unfounded charges about his daughter's character lodged by his son-in-law (Deuteronomy 22:13-19 ). The father may sell his daughter as a servant or concubine (Exodus 21:7-11 ), or even pledge his sons as a loan guaranty, although these practices seem to have arisen more out of cases of economic necessity than from established custom (cf. 2 Kings 4:1 ; Nehemiah 5:1-5 ). The distance between the father and his children in a polygynous household may be seen in Absalom's efforts to unseat his father David and kill him (2 Samuel 15:14 ; 17:2-4 ).
Government of the family was by its family head, usually the eldest male. The father and other aged males were shown respect and deference. It was the father's task to arrange marriages (Exodus 22:17 ) and to discipline his sons (1 Samuel 3:13 ). The age of the children determined their rank within the family, with the eldest having the position of privilege and with it, the responsibility of acting for his father in the father's absence. Joseph's brothers, for example, were seated in order of their birth, with the eldest presumably having the seat of honor (Genesis 43:33 ). The eldest daughter had an understood agreement with the family that she would be married before her younger sisters (Exodus 1:21 ).
Wives had much more power than they are often credited with. Sarah, for example, after urging Abraham to have sexual relations with Hagar to father a child, expels both the girl and her infant child over Abraham's protests (Genesis 21:9-13 ). The numerous stories of women who were heroes (Deborah, Jael, etc.) or villains (Jezebel, Athaliah) show that free women had a degree of self-determination that modern writers sometimes ignore. Likewise, the stories of the successes of Joseph and David and the failures of Reuben and Esau show that age was not inviolably superior to youth.
The functions of the extended family were to provide for its own perpetuation and to maintain an atmosphere of emotional warmth and stability for rearing children. The harmony of the home was necessary to provide a stable environment for its functions. Accordingly, in the Mosaic legislation a number of provisions were made to ensure this harmony and to circumvent rivalries that would endanger it and cause the home to break apart. A case in point may be seen in the command to honor one's father and mother (Exodus 20:12 ), with the death penalty prescribed for anyone who attacked or belittled his father or his mother (Exodus 21:15,17 ; cf. Deuteronomy 21:18-21 ).
Another effort to promote harmony in the family was the law forbidding marriage of sisters to the same husband (Leviticus 18:18 ), an obvious effort to avoid the sort of strife that had infected Jacob's household. But not so obvious are the laws of incest. One's father's wife, mother-in-law, and sister (including one's half-sister) are forbidden degrees of sexual contact in Deuteronomy (22:30; 27:20,22-23), to which the priestly formulation adds one's mother, granddaughter, aunt (including the wife of one's uncle), daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, wife's child or grandchild, as well as the sister of one's wife as mentioned already (Leviticus 18:6-18 ). That the issue at stake is not genetic may be seen in the many forbidden relationships in which the female is not genetically related to the male (one's father's wife, mother-in-law, uncle's wife, daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, or wife's child, grandchild, or sister). The end, instead, is harmony in the home. Strife is to be avoided as destructive to the family's inner cohesiveness; any two males striving for the same woman would yield an incendiary situation (e.g., Reuben's liaison with Bilhah). The same obtains for adultery, a rebellion against the structure of the family: it is forbidden because of its destructive effects on the home, the fragmentation it yields, and the alienation that follows. Since the social structure was predicated on the family and its extensions, any violation of the integrity of the family could be perceived as a threat to the integrity of the entire group.
The social foundations for Israel's preoccupation with responsibility and motives may be traced to its understanding that an individual cannot act in such a way that his deeds have no effect on others, whether or not those effects are visible in the present. Rather than seeing infractions as isolated incidents, a violator endangered his group by bringing upon them guilt, whether it be upon an entire people (as the Gileadite altar, Joshua 22:19-20 ) or the succeeding generations (as in the sin of idolatry, Exodus 20:5 ; 34:7 ; Numbers 14:18 ; Deuteronomy 5:9 ). The woman convicted of adultery became a curse on the community to which she belonged (Numbers 5:27 ). Oft-cited examples are Achan's sin that brought guilt on his family and through it, to the entire people of Israel (Joshua 7:24 ). The families of Dathan, Abiram, and Korah, and the latter's entire household, were destroyed because of the rebellion of their leaders (Numbers 16:32-35 ).
Rooted in the promise given to Abraham, and through him to his seed (Genesis 12:1-3,7 ), lay the assurance of an election, ever present and articulated in the covenant. Embracing the whole of the people of Israel (Genesis 15:5-21 ; 17:1-22 ), it was premised, not on the goodness of the people themselves, but on that of Abraham. Through him, all who claimed kinship to him were to receive blessing and to participate in the covenant (Genesis 26:3 ; 28:4 ; 35:12 ; Exodus 2:24 ; 6:8 ; Leviticus 26:42 ; Numbers 32:11 ; Deuteronomy 1:8 ; 6:10 ; 9:5 ; 29:13 ; 30:20 ; 34:4 ; 2 Kings 13:23 ). In an earlier period, Noah was able to save his entire family from destruction (Genesis 7:1 ) because of his righteousness; Lot's entire family was spared because of him (Genesis 19:1-28 ). Rahab's favorable treatment of the Israelite spies brought her family mercy from human agencies (Joshua 2:12-14,17-20 ; 6:22-25 ), and the house of Obed-Edom obtained blessing because he gave shelter to the ark (2 Samuel 6:11 ). While Exodus 20:5 is frequently cited as showing God's vengeance to the fourth generation, the following verse adds that his mercy embraces the myriads who love him.
The New Testament . Words used in the New Testament for family are patria [ Luke 1:27 ; 2:4 ). In Acts 3:25 patria [ Acts 2:46 ; 5:42 ; 12:12 ). Paul frequently mentions households by name in his epistles (Romans 16:10-11 ; 1 Corinthians 1:11,16 ; 16:15 ; 2 Timothy 1:16 ; 4:19 ) and recalls with great affection Priscilla and Aquilla and the church that met in their house (Romans 16:5 ; 1 Corinthians 16:19 ).
Perhaps because it assumes an understanding of the Old Testament or because it is less predicated on the social structure of a single people, the New Testament has much less to say about the family as a sociological unit. While not denying the value of strong internal ties in a traditional Jewish family (see Luke 1:17 ), Jesus would not permit such ties to stand in the way of one's decision to follow him (Matthew 10:35-36 ). Genesis 2:24 is cited with approbation twice in the Gospels ( Matthew 19:5 ; Mark 10:8 ) and twice in the Pauline corpus (1 Corinthians 6:16 ; Ephesians 5:31 ) as indicating the close bonds between husband and wife and, therefore, of the family unit.
Paul and Silas seem to attribute a position of headship to the Philippian jailer not unlike the head of an Old Testament household (Acts 16:31 ): his belief will bring about the salvation of both himself and his entire family. Although certain women may have been the heads of their households (e.g., Lydia, Nympha; Priscilla is always mentioned before her husband), Paul's understanding of the family seems to have the husband generally as its head (1 Corinthians 11:3 ; Ephesians 5:23 ), yet involved in a loving (Ephesians 5:25-33 ; Colossians 3:19 ), caring relationship with his wife and with his children (Ephesians 6:4 ; Colossians 3:21 ).
Possibly because of the disruptive effect of Christian conversion on pagan homes, a considerable effort is made by the New Testament writers to articulate the familial nature of the kingdom of God. Paul stresses God as Father of believers (Romans 1:7 ; 8:15 ; 1 Corinthians 1:3 ; 2 Corinthians 1:2 ; Galatians 1:3-4 ; 4:6 ; Ephesians 1:2 ; Philippians 1:2 ; 4:20 ; Colossians 1:2 ), while John emphasizes believers as God's children (John 1:12 ; 11:52 ; Genesis 29:26 ; 5:2,19 ). Believers, even Gentiles, are no longer "separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world" (Ephesians 2:12 ), but have become members of God's own family (Galatians 6:10 ; Ephesians 2:19 ; Hebrews 3:2-6 ; 1 Peter 4:17 ) through the work of the Holy Spirit, the spirit of adoption (Romans 8:15 ). God is their Father and Christ their elder brother (Romans 8:29 ).
William C. Williams
See also Divorce ; Marriage ; Woman ; Widow
Bibliography . T. D. Alexander, EQ 61/1 (1989): 5-19; F. I. Andersen, The Bible Translator 20 (1969): 29-39; M. Burrows, JBL 59 (1940): 23-33; W. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament ; I. Ellis, SJT 38 (1985): 173-88; N. K. Gottwald, The Tribes of Yahweh ; J. Hempel, IDB, 2:155; D. Jacobson, The Social Background of the Old Testament ; H. van Oyen, Ethik des Alten Testaments ; J. Pedersen, Israel: Its Life and Culture ; C. S. Rodd, The Bible Translator 18 (1967): 19-26; J. Rogerson and P. Davies, The Old Testament World ; M. J. Selman, Tyn Bul 27 (1976): 114-36; R. P. Shedd, Man in Community ; W. R. Smith, Lectures on the Religion of the Semites: The Fundamental Institutions ; F. Tä nies, Community and Society ; R. de Vaux, Israel: Its Life and Institutions ; W. C. Williams, An Examination of the Relationship Between Solidarity and Adultery in Ancient Israel ; C. J. H. Wright, ABD, 2:761-69.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Catholic Rural Life
The purpose of the Catholic rural life movement is the upbuilding of country parishes, recognizing in the rural community an important source of urban as well as of country population. The movement aims at the economic, social, hygienic, cultural, and religious rehabilitation of Catholic rural communities in the United States. The Rural Life Bureau in the Social Action Department of the National Catholic Welfare Conference was established in 1921, with its office at Eugene, Lane Coounty, Oreegon, where it remained until January, 1929, when it was moved to the headquarters of the National Catholic Welfare Conference in Washington, District of Columbia. The Catholic Rural Life Conference was organized at Saint Louis, Missouri, in 1923, at the call of the Catholic Rural Life Bureau. The conference is governed by a board of 18 directors chosen from as many different states. Since its organization it has held annually a national convention for the promotion of the Catholic rural life movement. Its official organ is "Catholic Rural Life," a monthly established in 1921 as "Saint Isidore's Plow," and first issued at Eugene, Oregon; the name was changed in 1924; circulation, 2,582. Editor, Dr. Frank O'Hara, Catholic University of America, Washington, District of Columbia.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Book, Book of Life
The written word was a powerful creation in the ancient Near East. Both Egyptians and Babylonians saw writing as sacred, a direct gift of the gods. Although Yahweh did not make writing a specific gift to the people of Israel, he did employ writing in his dealings with people. He used writing to communicate directly in specific instances, such as the Ten Commandments and at Balthasar's feast. The biblical writers also record that God shared with humanity the employment of writing in an "economic" role. The balance book of God is named "the Book of Life."
An anguished interchange between a wrathful Yahweh and a pleading Moses after the discovery of the golden calf illustrates the Old Testament understanding of the Book of Life. Moses asks that God either forgive the people or "blot me out of the book you have written" (Exodus 32:32 ). Yahweh responds that he will blot out whoever has sinned; the punishment is immediate. The Book of Life is a list of the righteous. In the Old Testament focus on divine reward and punishment in this life, the blessed on the list receive their blessings here and now and those stricken from the book suffer in this life, not in some eternal future. The psalmist understands this when he asks God to "list my tears on your scroll" (56:8) and have his enemies "blotted out of the book of life" (69:28).
The New Testament transforms this balance book into an eternal ledger of heavenly citizenship. Within the classical world, citizenship was not an automatic right, but a strictly protected honor. Citizens were specifically enrolled, and the franchise was strictly limited. In the Gospel story of the seventy sent out into the world, Jesus assures these disciples that their names will be written in heaven (Luke 10:20 ). In the letter to the church at Sardis, heavenly citizenship, exemplified by listing in the Book of Life, is promised to those who overcome the world (Revelation 3:5 ). At the last judgment, anyone whose name is not written in the Book of Life is thrown into the Lake of Fire (Revelation 20:15 ).
Thomas W. Davis
Bibliography . A. A. Anderson, Psalms (1-72) ; A. Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible 10,000-586 B.C.E .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Eternal Life
This expression occurs in the Old Testament only in Daniel 12:2 (RSV, "everlasting life"). It occurs frequently in the New Testament ( Matthew 7:14 ; 18:8,9 ; Luke 10:28 ; comp 18:18). It comprises the whole future of the redeemed (Luke 16:9 ), and is opposed to "eternal punishment" (Matthew 19:29 ; 25:46 ). It is the final reward and glory into which the children of God enter (1 Timothy 6:12,19 ; Romans 6:22 ; Galatians 6:8 ; 1 Timothy 1:16 ; Romans 5:21 ); their Sabbath of rest (Hebrews 4:9 ; comp 12:22).
The newness of life which the believer derives from Christ (Romans 6:4 ) is the very essence of salvation, and hence the life of glory or the eternal life must also be theirs (Romans 6:8 ; 2 Timothy 2:11,12 ; Romans 5:17,21 ; 8:30 ; Ephesians 2:5,6 ). It is the "gift of God in Jesus Christ our Lord" (Romans 6:23 ). The life the faithful have here on earth (John 3:36 ; 5:24 ; 6:47,53-58 ) is inseparably connected with the eternal life beyond, the endless life of the future, the happy future of the saints in heaven (Matthew 19:16,29 ; 25:46 ).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Jesus, Life And Ministry of
(jee' zuhss) The story of Jesus begins abruptly in the Gospel of Mark when He presented Himself at the Jordan River to the desert prophet John the Baptist as a candidate for baptism. All that is said about His origin is that He came to the river “from Nazareth” (Mark 1:9 ). “Jesus of Nazareth” was a designation that followed Him to the day of His death (Luke 2:1-701 ). His Origins Matthew's Gospel demonstrates that although Nazareth was Jesus' home when He came to John for baptism, He was not born there. Rather, He was born (as the Jewish messiah must be) in Bethlehem, the “city of David,” as a descendant of David's royal line (Matthew 1:1-17 ; Matthew 2:1-6 ). This Child born in Bethlehem ended up as an adult in Nazareth, described sarcastically by his enemies as a “Nazarene” (literally, “Nazarite” Matthew 2:23 ). The play on words seems intended to poke fun simultaneously at Jesus' obscure origins and at the stark contrast (in the eyes of many) between His supposed holiness (like the Nazirites of the Old Testament) and His practice of keeping company with sinners, prostitutes, and tax collectors (Mark 10:33-3406 ). The Gospel of Luke supplies background information on John the Baptist, showing how the families of John and Jesus were related both by kinship and by circumstances (Luke 1:5-80 ). Luke added that Nazareth was the family home of Jesus' parents all along (Luke 1:26-27 ). Yet he confirmed Matthew's testimony that the family was of the line of David. Luke introduced the Roman census as the reason for their return to the ancestral city of Bethelehem just before Jesus' birth (John 8:28 ). More the biographer than either Mark or Matthew, Luke provided glimpses of Jesus as an eight-day-old infant (Luke 2:21-39 ), a boy of twelve years (Luke 2:40-52 ), and a man of 30 beginning His ministry (Luke 3:21-23 ). Only when this brief biographical sketch was complete did Luke append His genealogy (Luke 3:23-38 ), which confirms in passing Jesus' Davidic ancestry (Matthew 15:21-282 ; compare Luke 1:32-33 ), while emphasizing above all His solidarity with the entire human race in its descent from “Adam, which was the son of God” (Matthew 5:31-32,50 ). The reflection on Jesus' baptism in the Gospel of John centers on John the Baptist's acknowledgement that Jesus “is preferred before me: for he was before me” (John 1:30 ; compare John 1:15 ). This pronouncement allowed the Gospel writer to turn the story of Jesus' origins into a theological confession by tracing Jesus' existence back to the creation of the world and before (John 1:1-5 ). Despite His royal ancestry and despite His heavenly preexistence as the eternal Word and Son of God, Jesus was of humble origins humanly speaking and was viewed as such by the people of His day. When He taught in Nazareth, the townspeople asked, “Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary, the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us?” (Mark 6:3 ; compare Luke 4:22 ). When He taught in Capernaum, they asked, “Is not this Jesus, the son of Joseph, wose father and mother we know? how is it then that he saith, I came down from heaven?” (John 6:42 ). Though two Gospels, Matthew and Luke, tell of His mother Mary's miraculous conception and of Jesus' virgin birth, these matters were not public knowledge during His time on earth, for “Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart” (Luke 2:19 ; compare Luke 2:51 ).
Jesus and the God of Israel Even after the momentous events associated with Jesus' baptism in the Jordan River—the descent of God's Spirit on Him like a dove and the voice from heaven announcing “Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (Mark 1:10-11 )—His identity as Son of God remained hidden from those around Him. We have no evidence that anyone except Jesus, and possibly John the Baptist, either heard the voice or saw the dove. Ironically, the first intimation after the baptism that He was more than simply “Jesus of Nazareth” came not from His family or friends nor from the religious leaders of Israel, but from the devil!
Twice the devil challenged him: “If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread” (Luke 4:3 ), and (on the pinnacle of the Temple in Jerusalem), “If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence” (Luke 4:9 ). Jesus made no attempt to defend or make use of His divine sonship but appealed instead to an authority to which any devout Jew of His day might have appealed—the holy Scriptures—and through them to the God of Israel. Citing three passages from Deuteronomy, Jesus called attention not to Himself, but to “the Lord thy God” (Luke 4:8 ; compare Mark 10:18 ; Mark 12:29-30 ). Jesus apparently used this story out of His personal experience to teach His disciples that they too must “live... by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God,” (Matthew 4:4 ), must “not tempt the Lord your God” (Luke 4:12 ), and must “worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve” (Luke 4:8 ).
Two things about this temptation story have a special bearing on the ministry of Jesus as a whole. First, the God-centered character of His message continued in the proclamation He began in Galilee when He returned home from the desert: “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent ye, and believe the gospel” (Mark 1:1 ;Mark 1:1;15:1 ; compare Matthew 4:17 ). Mark called this proclamation “the gospel of the kingdom of God” (Mark 1:14 ). John's Gospel presented Jesus as reminding His hearers again and again that He had come not to glorify or proclaim Himself, but solely to make known “the Father,” or “the One who sent me” (John 4:34 ; John 5:19 , Matthew 5:33-34,5 ; John 6:38 ; John 7:16-18 ,John 7:16-18,7:28 ; 1618419304_8 ,John 8:28,8:42 ,John 8:42,8:50 ; John 14:10 ,John 14:10,14:28 ). Second, the issue of Jesus' own identity continued to be raised first by the powers of evil. Just as the devil challenged Jesus in the desert as “Son of God,” so in the course of His ministry the demons (or the demon-possessed) confronted Him with such words as “what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God” (Mark 1:24 ), or “What have I to do with thee Jesus, thou Son of the most high God?” (Mark 5:7 ).
The mystery of Jesus' person emerged in pronouncements of this kind, but Jesus seemed not to want the question of His identity raised prematurely. He silenced the demons (Mark 1:25 ,Mark 1:25,1:34 ; Mark 3:12 ); and when He healed the sick, He frequently told the people who were cured not to speak of it to anyone (Mark 1:43-44 ; Mark 7:36 ). The more He urged silence, however, the faster the word of His healing power spread (Mark 1:45 ; Mark 7:36 ). The crowds appear to have concluded that He must be the Messiah, the anointed King of David's line expected to come and deliver the Jews from Roman rule. If Jesus was playing out the role of Messiah, the Gospels present Him as a strangely reluctant Messiah. At one point, when the crowds tried to “take Him by force to make Him a king, “he departed again into a mountain himself alone” (John 6:15 ). Seldom, if ever, did He apply to Himself the customary terms “Messiah” or “Son of God.” He had instead a way of using the emphatic “I” when it was not grammatically necessary and a habit sometimes of referring to Himself indirectly and mysteriously as “Son of man.” In the Aramaic language Jesus spoke, “Son of man” meant simply “a certain man,” or “someone.” Though He made no explicit messianic claims and avoided the ready-made titles of honor that the Jews customarily applied to the Messiah, Jesus spoke and acted with the authority of God Himself. He gave sight to the blind and hearing to the deaf; He enabled the lame to walk. When He touched the unclean, He made them clean. He even raised the dead to life. In teaching the crowds that gathered around Him, He did not hesitate to say boldly, “Ye have heard that it was said. . . but I say unto you” (Matthew 5:21-22 , Matthew 5:27-28 ,Matthew 5:27-28,5:31-32 ,1618419304_59:33-34 ,John 5:30:38-39 ,Matthew 5:38-39,5:43-44 ). So radical was He toward the accepted traditions that He found it necessary to state at the outset: “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill” (Matthew 5:17 ).
Such speech and behavior inevitably raised questions about Jesus' identity. The crowds who heard Him “were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes” (Matthew 7:28-29 ). Despite His reluctance (or perhaps because of it), His following in the early days of His ministry was enormous. He had to get up before daylight to find time and a place for private prayer (Matthew 8:5-136 ). So pressed was He by the crowds that He taught them on one occasion while standing in a boat offshore on the lake of Galilee (Mark 4:1 ). Once when a group of people desired healing for a paralyzed man, the huge mob around the house where Jesus was staying forced them to lower the man through a hole in the roof (Mark 2:4 ). Everyone needed what they knew Jesus had to give. There was no way He could meet all their needs at once.
Jesus' Mission Who were “the lost sheep” to whom Jesus was called to be the Shepherd? The apparent answer is that they were those who were not expected to benefit from the coming of the Messiah. Through their carelessness about the law, they had become the enemies of God; but God loved His enemies. Jesus' conviction was that both He and His disciples must love them, too (Matthew 5:38-48 ). Jesus was challenged on one occasion for enjoying table fellowship with social outcasts (known to the religious Jews as “sinners”) in the house of Levi, the tax collector in Capernaum. He replied to criticism: “They that are whole have no need of the physician, but they that are sick; I came not to call the righteous, but sinners” (Mark 2:17 ). Another time, when the religious authorities murmured that “This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them” (Luke 15:2 ), Jesus told three parables of God's inexhaustible love for those who are “lost” and of God's unbridled joy when the lost are found (the parables of the lost sheep, the lost coin, and the lost son; Luke 15:3-32 ). He claimed that God's joy at the recovery of all such sinners (tax collectors, prostitutes, shepherds, soldiers, and others despised by the pious in Israel) was greater than any joy “over ninety and nine just persons, which need no repentance” (Luke 15:7 ; compare Luke 15:25-32 ). Such an exuberant celebration of divine mercy, whether expressed in Jesus' actions or in the stories He told, must have seemed to religious leaders both in Galilee and Jerusalem a serious lowering of ancient ethical standards and a damaging compromise of the holiness of God.
We have little evidence that Jesus included non-Jews among the “sinners” to whom He was sent. Despite the reference in Luke 4:25-27 to Elijah and Elisha and their ministry to foreigners, Jesus explicitly denied that He was sent to Gentiles or Samaritans ( Matthew 15:24 ; see Matthew 10:5-6 ). Yet the principle, “not to the righteous, but to sinners,” made the extension of the good news of the kingdom of God to the Gentiles after Jesus' resurrection a natural one. Even during Jesus' lifetime, He responded to the initiatives of Gentiles seeking His help (1618419304_74 ; Luke 7:1-10 ; Mark 7:24-30 ; 1618419304_95 ), sometimes in such a way as to put Israel to shame (Matthew 8:10 ). Twice He traveled through Samaria (Luke 9:51-56 ; John 4:4 ); once He stayed in a Samaritan village for two days, calling a Samaritan woman and a number of other townspeople to faith (John 4:5-42 ), and once He made a Samaritan the hero of one of His parables (Luke 10:29-37 ).
None of this was calculated to win Him friends among the priests in Jerussalem or the Pharisees throughout Israel. He described visions that many would “come from east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness” (Matthew 8:11-12 ). He predicted that twelve uneducated Galileans would one day “sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel” (Matthew 19:28 ; compare Luke 22:28-29 ). He warned the religious leaders sternly that they were in danger of “blasphemy against the Spirit” by attributing the Spirit's ministry through Him to the power of the devil (Matthew 12:31 ). The whole affair was complicated by the concern of Jesus' relatives over his safety and sanity (Mark 3:21 ) and by His consequent affirmation of His disciples as a new family based on obedience to the will of God (Mark 3:31-35 ).
The so-called “Beel-zebub controversy,” triggered by his healing and saving activity, set a grim precedent for Jesus' relationship with the Jerusalem authorities and made His eventual arrest, trial, and execution almost inevitable (Mark 3:20-35 ). From that time Jesus began to speak in parables to make the truth about God's kingdom clear to His followers while hiding it from those blind to its beauty and deaf to its call (Mark 4:10-12 ; notice that Jesus is first said to have spoken in parables in Mark 3:23 , in immediate response to the charge of demon possession). He also began to intimate, sometimes in analogy or parable (Mark 10:38 ; Luke 12:49-50 ; John 3:14 ; John 12:24 ,John 12:24,12:32 ) and sometimes in explicit language (Mark 8:31 ; Mark 9:31 ; 1618419304_8 ), that He would be arrested and tried by the religious leadership in Jerusalem, die on the cross, and rise from the dead after three days. From the start He had defined His mission, at least in part, as that of the “Servant of the Lord” described in Isaiah 40-46 (see, for example the citation of Isaiah 61:1-2 in Luke 4:18-19 ). As His ministry moved toward its completion, the vicarious suffering of the Servant (see Isaiah 52:13-53:12 ) came into sharper and sharper focus for Jesus (see
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Life And Death
1. Life.-In a consideration of the subject of life as dealt with in the Acts and Epistles, three Gr. words-βίος, ψυχή, and ζωή-require to be distinguished.
(1) βίος denotes life in the outward and visible sense-its period or course (cf. ‘the time past of our life,’ 1 Peter 4:3), its means of living (hence in 1 John 3:17 the Revised Version renders ‘goods’), the manner in which it is spent (cf. ‘that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life,’ 1 Timothy 2:2), its relation to worldly affairs (2 Timothy 2:4) and to the world’s love of pomp and show (1 John 2:16).
(2) ψυχή (fr. [1] ψύχω, ‘breathe’) originally means the breath of life, and in such an expression as ‘his life is in him’ (Acts 20:10) would quite adequately be rendered ‘breath.’ But, as breathing is the sign of the presence in the body of an animating vital force, ψυχή (cf. Lat. anima) comes to mean ‘life’ in the sense of the animal soul, and especially the life of the individual as distinguished from other individual lives. This is the life that may be injured or lost through a shipwreck (Acts 27:10; Acts 27:22), counted dear or willingly surrendered (Acts 20:24, Revelation 12:11); the life which Jesus Christ laid down for His people (1 John 3:16), and which they should be prepared to lay down for Him (Acts 15:26) or for one another (Romans 16:4, Philippians 2:30, 1 John 3:16). From meaning the animal soul or life (anima), however, ψυχή comes to be used for the individualized life in its moral and spiritual aspects, the ‘soul’ in the deeper significance of that word (Lat. animus), the part of man which thinks and feels and wills (Acts 2:27, Romans 2:9, 2 Corinthians 1:23, etc). See, further, Soul.
(3) But of the three words for life ζωή for the purposes of the present article is much the most important. Occasionally it is employed in a way that makes it practically equivalent to βίος (1 Corinthians 15:19, ‘If in this life only we have hoped in Christ’; cf. Luke 16:25, ‘in thy lifetime’ [2]), and more frequently in connexions not far removed from those of ψυχή in the sense of the vital energy or animal soul (e.g. Acts 17:25, James 4:14), though even in these cases it is noticeable that ζωή does not denote, like ψυχή, the life of the individual, but life in a sense that is general and distributed. Ordinarily, however, ζωή stands for a life which is not existence merely, but existence raised to its highest power; not a bare life, but’ life more abundantly’ (John 10:10), a life which St. Paul describes as ‘the life which is life indeed’ (ἡ ὄντως ζωή, 1 Timothy 6:19), a life, i.e., which in its essential nature is full and overflowing, and in its moral and spiritual quality is perfect and complete. In this employment of it, ζωή is very frequently characterized as ‘eternal (αἰώνιος) life’; but the epithet does not impart any real addition to the connotation of the word as elsewhere used without the adjective, much less restrict its reference to the life after death; it only expresses more explicitly the conception of that life as something so full and positive that from its very nature it is unconquerable by death, and consequently everlasting. See, further, Eternal, Everlasting.
(a) In the usage of the NT this ζωή or ζωὴ αἰώνιος is first of all a Divine attribute-a view of it which finds its most complete expression in the Johannine writings. It inheres in God and belongs to His essential nature. ‘The Father hath life in himself’ (John 5:26), the life eternal is ‘with the Father’ (1 John 1:2). The Father, however, imparts it to the Son, so that He also possesses ‘life in himself’ (John 5:26), and possesses it in a manner so copious that this endowment with life is predicated of Him as if it were the most characteristic quality of His being (John 1:4). Thereafter this life which Christ possesses is communicated by Him to those who are willing to receive it, the record being that God gave unto as the eternal life which is in His Son (1 John 5:11), and that he that hath the Son, viz. by believing on His name, hath the life (1 John 5:12 f.)
(b) The ζωή (αἰώνιος) thus becomes a human possession and quality; and it is with the manifestations in human character and experience of this life flowing from God through Christ that the apostolic writers are principally concerned in what they have to say about it. Their references bear chiefly upon the source from which it comes, the means by which it is obtained, its fruits or evidences, its present possession, and its completion in the world to come.
(α) As follows from the fact that this life inheres essentially in God, its primal source is God the Father, from whom it comes as a gift (Romans 6:23, 1 John 5:11) and a grace (1 Peter 3:7). But this gracious gift is manifested and mediated only by Christ (1 John 1:2, 1 Timothy 2:5). According to St. John, the eternal life which men enjoy resides in God’s Son (1 John 5:11), and that in so absolute a sense that ‘he that hath the Son hath the life; he that hath not the Son of God hath not the life’ (1 John 5:12). Similarly St. Paul writes that it is through the Son that the gift of life is bestowed (Romans 6:23), describes Christ as ‘our life’ (Colossians 3:4), and declares that this life of ours ‘is hid with Christ in God’ (Colossians 3:3).
(β) But this gift of life is not bestowed arbitrarily or apart from the fulfilment of certain conditions. It is not thrust upon anyone, but needs to be laid hold of (1 Timothy 6:12; 1 Timothy 6:19). In the symbolic language of the Apocalypse the fruition of the tree of life which is in the Paradise of God is promised to him that overcometh (Revelation 2:7). Various energies and attitudes of the soul are mentioned as conditioning the attainment of life, e.g. patience in well-doing (Romans 2:7), en durance of temptation (James 1:12), sowing to the Spirit (Galatians 6:8), But the fundamental conditions, on which all the others depend, are repentance (Acts 11:18) and faith (Acts 13:48, 1 Timothy 1:16, 1 John 5:10-12). The old life must be renounced if the new life is to begin; that is what is meant by the demand for repentance. And life cannot be self-generated, but can only be received from a living source; that is the explanation of the call for faith.
(γ) Among the fruits or evidences of the possession of life St. Paul includes freedom from the bondage of sin (Romans 6:6) and a way of walking in the world which is new (Romans 6:4) and has God for its object (Romans 6:11). Inwardly the life reveals its presence in a daily experience of renewal (2 Corinthians 4:16), in the possession of a spiritual mind (Romans 8:6), in the consciousness of spiritual liberty (Romans 8:2). Outwardly its fruits are seen in holy living (Romans 6:22) and its signature written even upon the mortal flesh (2 Corinthians 4:11). To St. John the great evidence of life is love to the brethren (1 John 3:14). Everyone that loveth is born of God (1 John 4:7); but the love which is the proof of this Divine birth and consequent Divine life must flow out towards the visible brother as well as towards the invisible God if there is to be any assurance of its reality (1 John 4:12; 1 John 4:20). In the mystical language of the author of the Apocalypse life has the evidence of a written record. The names of those who possess it are written in a book which is called ‘the book of life’ (Revelation 3:5; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12; Revelation 22:19), or more fully ‘the Lamb’s book of life’ (Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27). With this may be compared St. Paul’s use of the same figure in Philippians 4:3. See Book of Life.
(δ) To the apostolic writers life or eternal life is a present possession. While distinct from the ordinary forms of earthly existence, with which it is contrasted (1 Timothy 6:19), it is not separated from them in time, but here and now interfused dynamically through them all. This is a conception which is especially characteristic of the Johannine writings. In the Fourth Gospel it occurs constantly (John 3:36; John 17:3 etc.), and in the First Epistle we see it reappearing, as when the writer declares that he that hath the Son hath the life (1 John 5:12), and that those who possess eternal life may know that they possess it (1 John 3:14; 1 John 5:13). But it is evident that St. Paul also conceives of life as a present reality when he proclaims that Christ is out life (Colossians 3:4), and that our life is hid with Christ in God (Colossians 3:3), when he makes our baptism into Christ’s Death, and resurrection in His likeness, determinative of our present walk in newness of life (Romans 6:4), and declares that to be spiritually-minded is life and peace (Romans 8:6).
(ε) And yet this life, though it is a present experience, is not realized in its totality in the present world. The promise given to godliness in 1 Timothy 4:8 is said to be for the life that now is and that which is to come. Similarly it is in ‘the time to come’ that ‘the life which is life indeed’ arrives at its completion (1 Timothy 6:19). St. Paul gives especial prominence to this future aspect of the life in Christ. He anticipates a time when what is mortal shall be swallowed up of life (2 Corinthians 5:4), co-ordinates eternal life with immortality (Romans 2:7; cf. 2 Timothy 1:10), and places it in direct antithesis with death (Romans 6:23) and corruption (Galatians 6:8). And yet, though life for its completeness must wait for the full revelation of the powers of the world to come, which are only tasted here (Hebrews 6:5), the present and the future life are essentially one and the same. It is because the Christian life is hid with Christ in God that it carries the assurance of immortality within itself. As, in St. Peter’s language, it was not possible that Christ should be holden of death (Acts 2:24), so it is impossible that those whose very life Christ is (Colossians 3:4) should not be sharers in His victory over death’s pains and powers. To all who abide in the Son and through Him in the Father there belongs this promise which He promised us, even the life eternal (1 John 2:24 f.). And in this promise there lies enfolded the hope not only of the immortality of the soul but of the resurrection of the body. It is the frailty and imperfection of the earthly body, its domination by the law of sin and death, that hinder the full enjoyment of eternal life in the present world (2 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 5:4). But when mortality shall be swallowed up of life, Christ’s people, instead of being ‘unclothed,’ shall be ‘clothed upon’ (2 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 5:4). To the natural body will succeed a spiritual body (1 Corinthians 15:44), to the body of death (Romans 7:24) a body instinct with the Lord’s own life, to the house that must be dissolved a house not made with hands, eternal, in the heavens (2 Corinthians 5:1).
2. Death (θἀνατος, to which in its various senses correspond the vb. ἀποθνήσκω, ‘die,’ and the adj. νεκρός, ‘dead’).-Death is frequently used in the apostolic literature in its ordinary, everyday meaning of the end of man’s earthly course (βίος) or the extinction of his animal life (ψυχή) through the separation of the soul from the body (Acts 2:24, 1 Corinthians 3:22, Philippians 2:27). Much more important than this purely physical employment of the word are its various theological uses, the chief of which maybe distinguished as the punitive, the redemptive, the mystical, the spiritual and moral.
(1) For the NT writers, and above all for St. Paul, death has a punitive significance as the judicial sentence pronounced by God upon sin. When St. Paul writes, ‘The wages of sin is death’ (Romans 6:23), or ‘Through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin; and so death passed unto all men, for that all sinned’ (Romans 5:12); or when the author of Hebrews links together the facts of death and the judgment and relates them to the Death and redeeming Sacrifice of Christ (Hebrews 9:26-28); or when St. James says, ‘He which converteth a sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death and shall cover a multitude of sins’ (James 5:20), death is used to denote the punitive consequences of sin and the state in which man lies as condemned on account of it. For, just as ζωή in the NT means not the earthly existence but the larger life of the Christian salvation, so θάνατος means not the end of the earthly existence merely but the loss of life in the full Christian conception of the word-the whole of the miserable results that flow from sin and constitute its penalty. Among these penal consequences certainly physical death is included, as passages like Romans 5:12; Romans 5:14 and 1 Corinthians 15:21 f. make perfectly clear. More than this, the death of the body is treated as ‘the point of the punitive sentence, about which all the other elements in that sentence are grouped’ (H. Cremer, Bib.-Theol. Lex.3, 1880, p. 284). Death is the wages of sin (Romans 6:23), it is the recompense received by the servants of sin (Romans 6:16). Sin reigns in death (Romans 5:21); it is the sting of death (1 Corinthians 15:56). The saving significance of the Death of Christ is due to this same punitive relation between death and sin. He died for our sins (1 Corinthians 15:3); He bare our sins in His body upon the tree (1 Peter 2:24). And it is through the Death of His Son that we are reconciled to God (Romans 5:10). In including physical death among the penalties of sin, however, the apostolic writers are not to be held as meaning either that man was naturally immortal or that until he fell there was no natural law of death in the physical world. In neither the OT nor the NT is the assertion ever made that death entered into the natural world in consequence of the sin of man (the ‘world’ in Romans 5:12 is the moral world, as the context shows). And when man became liable to death because of sin (Romans 5:12; Romans 5:14; cf. Genesis 2:17), this does not imply that he was not created mortal (cf. Genesis 3:19). But it does imply that, mortal as he was, he differed from the rest of the animal world in a potentiality of exemption from the law of decay and death, owing to the fact that he was a spiritual being made in God’s image; and that by his transgression he lost God’s proffered gift of physical immortality (Romans 5:14, 1 Corinthians 15:21 f.).
But, while physical death is the point of the punitive sentence, the sentence of death stretches far beyond it. Just as ζωή has a future and otherworldly as well as a present reference, so is it with θάνατος. Sometimes it plainly refers to a death that is not an earthly experience but a future state of misery which awaits the wicked in the world to come (Romans 1:32, 1 John 3:14; 1 John 5:16). In Revelation 2:11; Revelation 20:6; Revelation 14; Revelation 21:8 this future condition of woe is called ‘the second death,’ in contrast, viz., with the first death by which the life on earth is ended (see Punishment).
(2) At the other extreme from this punitive sense of death is the use of the word with a redemptive meaning. When St. Paul declares in Romans that we died to sin (Revelation 6:2), that we were buried through baptism into death (Revelation 6:4), that he that hath died is justified from sin (Revelation 6:11); or when in Galatians he says of himself, ‘For I through the law died unto the law’ (Revelation 2:19), the death he speaks of, as the last passage shows, is a legal or judicial death which carries with it a deliverance from the state of condemnation into which the sinner has been brought by his sin (Romans 6:7). And when he speaks of this death as a dying with Christ (Romans 6:8), and explains more fully that all died because one died for all (2 Corinthians 5:14), he reminds us that this redemptive death is possible for Christians only because a punitive Death was endured by Christ on their behalf. If they can reckon themselves to be dead unto sin (Romans 6:11), it is because ‘Christ died for our sins according to the scriptures’ (1 Corinthians 15:3).
(3) Side by side with this redemptive death in Christ-a death to the penalty of sin-St. Paul sets a mystical dying-a dying to its power. The Christian’s union with Christ in His redeeming Death is not only the ground of his justification but the secret source and spring of his sanctification. If the transition from the one to the other is not very clearly marked, the reason is that for St. Paul the two were inseparably joined together. He passes at a bound, and as it were unconsciously, from the legal aspect of the Christian’s death in Christ to its mystical aspect, from a death in the eyes of the law against sin to a death to the principle of sin itself (2 Corinthians 5:14 f.). Baptism into Jesus Christ is the symbol and seal of a baptism into His Death, which means not only a dying to the retribution of the of offended law but a crucifixion of the old man, a destruction of ‘the body of sin,’ so that we should no longer be in bondage to sin’s power (Romans 6:2-7; cf. Galatians 2:12). It may be that St. Paul’s view of the body, not indeed as essentially sinful, but as the invariable seat and source of sin in fallen humanity (see article Body) helped him to think of the Crucifixion of Christ as carrying with it a destruction of the polluted flesh (cf. Romans 8:3) through which the way was opened for a new life of holiness. But in any case death to the law meant life unto God, because crucifixion with Christ meant the death of the former self and the substitution for it of a life of faith in the son of God (Galatians 2:19 f.). Nor is it only to sin that the Christian died in Christ, but to the world (Galatians 6:14), to the world’s doctrines and precepts (Colossians 2:20 f.), to the attitude and affections of the mind that is set on earthly things (Colossians 3:2). ‘For ye died,’ the Apostle writes, ‘and your life is hid with Christ in God’ (Colossians 3:3). And in this case, at least, it is plain that the death of which he thinks is not the judicial but the mystical dying, the dying which is at the same time the birth to a new life (cf. John 12:24 f.) that carries with it a putting to death of all that is earthly and evil in the natures of those whom Christ has redeemed (Colossians 3:5).
(4) Once more, death is used to denote the spiritual atrophy and moral inability of fallen man in his unregenerate condition. This is the sense that belongs to it in the expression ‘dead in trespasses and sins’ (Ephesians 2:1; cf. Colossians 2:13), in the summons to the spiritual sleeper to awake and arise from the dead (Ephesians 5:14), in the description of true believers as those that are alive from the dead (Romans 6:13) and of false professors as having a name that they are living when they are really dead (Revelation 3:1), in the statements that the mind of the flesh is death (Romans 8:6) and that the woman who lives in pleasure is dead while she liveth (1 Timothy 5:6). This, especially on the side of moral inability, is the death which St. Paul describes so powerfully in Romans 7:14 ff., from which, conscious of his helplessness, he cries to be delivered (Romans 7:24), and from which he recognizes that no deliverance is possible except through the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:2).
Literature.-I. Life.-S. D. F. Salmond, The Christian Doctrine of Immortality3, 1895, p. 487ff.; E. White, Life in Christ, 1878; E. van Schrenck, Die johan. Auffassung von ‘Leben,’ 1898; the NT Theologies of B. Weiss (Eng. translation , 1882-83, 2 vols.) and W. Beyschlag (Eng. translation , 1895, 2 vols.), passim; J. R. Illingworth, Sermons preached in a College Chapel, 1882, p. 60; J. Macpherson, in Expositor, 1st. ser. v. [3] 72ff.; J. Massie, in do., 2nd ser. iv. [4] 380ff. II. Death.-J. Laidlaw, The Bible Doctrine of Man, 1895, p. 233ff.; J. Müller, The Christian Doct
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Tree of Life
1. Sources.-There are three sources for our knowledge of the idea of the tree of life: the OT, Jewish apocalypses and Jewish theology, and ethnic legends.
(1) In the OT the tree of life appears neither in Psalms nor in the Prophets, but only in Genesis and Proverbs. The Genesis story (Genesis 2:9; Genesis 3:22) intimates that there are two objects which man would grasp at-knowledge and immortality. It has been maintained, however, that in Genesis 2:9 the tree of life is a later addition, and was inserted only when the idea of the under world had suffered such a change that immortality became an object of desire (K. Budde, Die biblische Urgeschichte untersuch?, Giessen, 1883, p. 53 f.; but cf. A. Dillmann, Genesis, Eng. translation , Edinburgh, 1897, i. 121 f.). In any case, by reason of his sin man was not permitted to eat of the fruit of this tree, which signified fullness of life. Driven out from the Garden of Eden, he was effectually debarred from this Divine good. In Proverbs (Proverbs 3:18; Proverbs 11:30; Proverbs 13:12; Proverbs 15:4) wisdom, the fruit of the righteous, desire fulfilled, and a wholesome tongue are each a ‘tree of life.’ The reference is not to the recovery of a lost, or to the winning of a future, but to the enjoyment of a present, good (cf. Budde, op. cit., p. 85f.).
(2) In Jewish apocalyptic three constant factors are associated with the tree of life: it is in Paradise; the righteous have access to its fruit; it will be available only after the judgment. Its first appearance is in Enoch, xxiv. 1-6, xxv. 4-6, xxxi. 1-3 (cf. Slavonic Enoch, viii. 3-5, 4 Ezr_7:123; Ezr_8:52, Pss.- Son_14:3, Test, of Levi, xviii.-a Christian interpolation [1]). According to Jewish theology, its branches cover the whole of Paradise, and it has 500,000 kinds of taste and smell (F. Weber, Jüd. Theologie2, Leipzig, 1897, p. 346; A. Wünsche, Die Sagen vom Lebensbaum und Lebenswasser, Leipzig, 1905).
(3) All Oriental religions which have risen above the nature stage have their legends of a tree of life. Sometimes it appears in a simple, at other times in a fantastic, form; but whoever, even a god, partakes of its fruit or its sap renews and preserves his life (cf. E. Schrader, Jahrbücher für protestantische Theologie i. [2] 124 ff.; W. W. von Baudissin, Studien zur semitischen Religionsgeschichte, ii. [3] 189 ff.; Friedrich Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies?, Leipzig, 1881, p. 148 f.). In the Babylonian-Assyrian circle this tree was date-palm, cedar, or vine (F. R. Tennant, The Sources of the Doctrines of the Fall and Original Sin, Cambridge, 1903, p. 49; T. G. Pinches, The OT in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia2, London, 1903, p. 71 ff.). In the Gilgamesh Epic the hero obtained a scion from the ‘plant of life’ which healed his mortal illness (cf. B. Meissner, Ein altbabylon. Fragment des Gilgamosepos, Berlin, 1902; A. Jeremias, Die babylonisch-assyrischen Vorstellungen vom Leben nach dem Tode, Leipzig, 1887, p. 93). In the Zend-Avesta the tree of life is the white Haoma-death-destroyer-similar to a grape vine, with plentiful buds and jasmine-like leaves; whoever eats of the fruit becomes immortal (SBE [4] xxiii. [4]5 20; cf. Rigveda, X. xcvii. 17). The Hindu tree of life grows in the midst of water; whoever looks on it is made young.
Much that is fantastic and unreliable has been written by Assyriologists concerning the tree of life. Two facts, however, stand out as incontestable: there was throughout the ancient world a worship of trees, and man’s dependence on particular trees for support of life offered the basis for a profound religious suggestion. ‘The tree had always been the seat of Divine life and the intermediary between Divine and human nature.… In the holy tree the Divine life is bringing itself closer to man’ (W. M. Ramsay, The Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, London, 1904, p. 248).
2. In Revelation.-The dependence of the idea of the tree of life in Revelation (Revelation 2:7; Revelation 22:2; Revelation 22:14) upon earlier, especially Jewish, conceptions is evident. The legend has been traced to an Arabian or North African oasis, thence to Babylon, where the habitat of the tree became a garden; thence the Hebrews derived it (G. A. Barton, A Sketch of Semitic Origins, New York, 1902, p. 95 f.). With the shifting fortunes of Jerusalem, the garden was transformed into a city. The apocalyptists show this transformation under way. They picture the future as a garden (Enoch, xxiv., xxv.); then as a city-Jerusalem (Pss.- Solomon 17:33 f.; J. R. Harris, The Odes and Psalms of Solomon, Cambridge, 1909); finally, it is a city indeed, but with a garden enclosed (Revelation 21; Revelation 22:2; cf. also R. H. Charles, The Book of the Secrets of Enoch, Oxford, 1912, p. 53). Ezekiel 47:12 has been influential here. In the prophet’s vision, on each side of the river grow all trees bearing new fruits according to their months, which shall be for food, and their leaves for healing. The picture in the Revelation is of a city, in the midst of which is a garden; through this flows a river, on each bank of which is the tree of life (a word used collectively)-a row of trees bearing either twelve manner of fruits (Authorized Version , Revised Version ) or twelve crops (Revised Version margin). In the garden of God, then, grows the tree of life. For those who have been purified by faith, the doom man brought on himself in Eden, of prohibition from its food, is repealed. All that Judaism had lost, or mythology dreamed of, or Christianity awakened in the soul in the way of immortal longing was restored and fulfilled in the world to come. Not only is the fruit for food, but even the leaves have healing virtue. How this therapeutic property of the leaves is to be available for the ‘nations’ (cf. Revelation 21:24-27, Isaiah 60:3; Enoch, xxv. 4-6)-those not yet belonging to the New Jerusalem-is problematic. It may suggest the present functions of the Church in respect of social ills, or imply that after the Parousia the citizens of the city will have a ministry towards those outside, or, yet again, indicate that the writer had not fully assimilated the ideal proposed by Ezekiel (cf. C. A. Scott, Revelation [6], London, n.d., p. 297).
C. A. Beckwith.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Brethren And Clerks of the Common Life
A denomination assumed by a religious fraternity towards the end of the fifteenth century. They lived under the rule of St. Augustin, and were said to be eminently useful in promoting the cause of religion and learning.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Christian: Manifest by His Life
Longfellow in his Hiawatha sings of: 'The pleasant watercourses,
You could trace them through the valley,
By the rushing in the Spring-time,
By the alders in the Summer,
By the white fog in the Autumn,
By the black line in the Winter.'
So traceable are the lives of really gracious men and women. They are not solicitous to be observed, but the gracious 'signs following' are sure to reveal them. Like their Master they cannot be hid.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tree of Life
Stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Genesis 2:9 ; 3:22 ). Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the Life (John 1:4 ; 14:6 ). Wisdom is compared to the tree of life (Proverbs 3:18 ). The "tree of life" spoken of in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 2:7 ; 22:2,14 ) is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Eternal Life
The quality of life including the promise of resurrection which God gives to those who believe in Christ. This important term in the New Testament is emphasized in the Gospel of John, but also appears in the other Gospels and in Paul's writings. Eternal life in the New Testament eliminates the boundary line of death. Death is still a foe, but the one who has eternal life already experiences the kind of existence that will never end. Yet in this expression, the emphasis is on the quality of life rather than on the unending duration of life. Probably some aspects of both quality and duration appear in every context, but some refer primarily to quality of life and others point to unending life or a life to be entered into in the future.
“Quality of life” involves (1) life imparted by God; (2) transformation and renewal of life; (3) life fully opened to God and centered in Him; (4) a constant overcoming of sin and moral evil; and (5) the complete removal of moral evil from the person and from the environment of that person.
Eternal Life As Experience in the Present This term in John has important implications. The one trusting in the Son has eternal life; the one disobeying the Son has the wrath of God abiding on him (John 3:36 ). Trusting and obeying go together; they leave no room for neutrality. The one who hears Christ's message and believes or trusts in the Father who sent Him has eternal life. This person does not come into condemnation but has passed out of death into life (John 5:24 ). The perfect tense—one who has passed and remained in the state of having passed from death into life—emphasizes eternal life as a permanent, present reality. But no presumption is possible here. Eternal life is a present reality for the one hearing and trusting (John 5:24 ).
The bold metaphors of eating and drinking point to active involvement with Christ. “The one eating my flesh and drinking my blood, has eternal life” ( John 6:54 ). (Translations in this article are the author's.) John 6:57 explains: “The one eating me will live because of me .” Since Christ is our life, we must make that life part of us by “sharing in Christ,” by actively coming to Him and drawing life-giving strength from Him.
Eternal life is defined in Jesus' high priestly prayer: “Eternal life is this: that people be constantly knowing you, the only genuine God and Jesus Christ whom You sent” (John 17:3 ). The present tense of the verb “to know” indicates that this knowledge is by experience—not from intellectual facts. Genuine knowledge of God by experience brings eternal life. Such experience transforms life.
Eternal Life as Experienced in the Present and Future John compared the lifting up of the serpent in the wilderness to the lifting up of the Son of Man on the cross and His exaltation to heaven. People who respond to Christ by constant trust have eternal life (John 3:15 ). They have healing from something more deadly than snakebite—the destructive effects of sin. Here eternal life involves a present healing, a present reality. But John 3:16 refers both to the present and the future: “Now God loved the world in this fashion; as a result he gave his unique Son, that everyone believing or trusting in him should not perish but should be having eternal life.” Perishing is contrasted with having eternal life. “Eternal life” here is both present and future and is the alternative to “perishing.”
Christ defined His true sheep as those who hear or listen to His voice and follow Him (John 10:27 ). To such disciples, He gives eternal life, and they will not perish (John 10:28 ). Again, no presumption is possible. Those are secure who persistently listen, hearken, and follow. For such people eternal life is both a present and a future reality.
Eternal Life as a Future Experience “What shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?” the rich young ruler asked. (Mark 10:17 ; compare Matthew 19:16 ; Luke 18:18 ). He saw eternal life as a final inheritance. His earnestness moved Jesus, and Jesus loved this young man (Mark 10:21 ). But he had to make a decision: Would he follow Jesus without his possessions? (Mark 10:22 ). He answered, “No.” He could not part with his possessions first and then follow Jesus.
In Matthew 19:27 Peter asked Jesus, “What then shall be to us?” The disciples had left their dear ones and their possessions to follow Jesus. Jesus promised them loved ones and lands (possessions) with persecutions. Then He added: “And in the coming age, eternal life” ( Mark 10:30 ). Eternal life here refers to an unending future reality.
John 12:20-26 tells of some Greeks who wanted to see Jesus. We do not know how Jesus interacted with these Greeks. We do know He spoke about His death and what it meant to be a disciple: “The one loving his life [1] will lose it; but the one hating his life [1] in this world will guard the soul unto eternal life ” (John 12:25 ). Jesus here contrasted eternal life with the present life. Believers are to guard their persons or souls by serving Christ and following Him (John 12:26 ). Such servants will be where Christ is, and the Father will honor them (John 12:26 ). To be where Christ is means to come into eternal life—a life freed from sin or moral evil.
Paul declared that “the one sowing to the Spirit will reap eternal life from the Spirit” (Galatians 6:8 ). Eternal life is given by Jesus and the Holy Spirit. This future reality, already experienced to some limited degree in the present, involves the Father, Son, and Spirit. Fellowship in life eternal means fellowship with the Triune God.
A. Berkeley Mickelsen
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Canonical Life
The rule of living prescribed by the ancient clergy who lived in community. The canonical life was a kind of medium between the monastic and clerical lives.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Christianìs Life: the Power of
There is a spot on the Lago Lugano, where the song of the nightingale swells sweetly from the thickets on the shore in matchless rush of music, so that the oar lies motionless and the listeners hushed into silent enhancement; yet we did not see a single bird, the orchestra was as hidden as the notes were clear. Such is a virtuous life, and such the influence of modest holiness; the voice of excellence is heard when the excellent themselves are not seen.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Economic Life
Economic life in ancient Palestine involved the simple desire to improve the condition of life and to expand contact with other peoples. The people's success in doing this was determined to a large extent by the environmental conditions in which they lived. Adequate rainfall or water sources, arable farm and grazing lands, and the availability of natural resources were the most important of these ecological factors. Once the nation was formed and the monarchy established, the demands of the local and international markets, government stability, and the effects of international politics also came into play. Throughout their history, however, the economic life of the people of Israel was at least in part governed by the laws of God which concerned the treatment of fellow Israelites in matters of business and charity.
Like most of the rest of the Near East, the economy of ancient Palestine was primarily agricultural. However, unlike the major civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt, Israel's economy was not as completely dominated by the concerns of palace or temple as they were in other nations. For instance, there was no state monopoly on the ownership of arable land. Private ownership of land and private enterprise were the rule during the early history of the tribes of Israel. This changed somewhat after the establishment of the monarchy when large estates were formed (Exodus 21:1-6 ) to support the kings and the nobility. Attempts were also made by the royal bureaucracy to control as much of the country's land and economic activity as possible (1 Kings 4:1-19 ).
Further changes took place after the conquest of the nation by Assyria and Babylon. From that point on, the economic efforts (farm production, industry, and trade) of the nation were largely controlled by the tribute demands of the dominant empires (2 Kings 18:14-16 ) and the maintenance of international trade routes. This pattern continued into the New Testament period when Roman roads speeded trade, but also held the populace in submission. The economy, while relatively stable, was burdened with heavy taxes (Matthew 22:17-21 ) to support the occupation army and government.
Environmental Conditions Many aspects of the economic life of the people were determined by the environmental conditions in which they lived. Palestine has a remarkably varied geographic pattern and huge shifts in climate. Within its environs are steppe and desert to the south and east in the Negev and the corresponding areas of the Transjordan. In these areas only dry or irrigation farming is possible, and much of the land is given over to pastoralists guiding their flocks and herds. A desolate wilderness region lies near the Dead Sea, while well-watered farm lands are found in the Shephelah plateau (between the coastal plain and the hill country) and in the Galilee area of northern Palestine. Rolling hill country dominates the center of the country where agriculture must be practiced on terraced hillsides and where water conservation and irrigation are necessary to grow crops.
The semi-tropical climate of Palestine includes a hot, dry summer and autumn during which no rains fall for six months. The drought is broken in September or October with rains continuing throughout the winter and into March and April. Yearly amounts of rainfall, which may all come in torrents within a few days, average 40 inches a year in the north and in the western areas of the hill country and Shephelah. Under the influence of the desert winds and the barrier of the hill country, these amounts decrease to the south and east, with less than eight inches a year in the desert regions of the Judean wilderness and the Negev. Average temperatures also vary widely, again with the highlands and northern coastal strip remaining cooler while the desert regions and low lying areas see temperatures well into the 90 degree range.
Uncertain climatic conditions often determined the economic activity of the local village, the region, and the nation. The fact that Abram's first experience in Palestine was a famine (Genesis 12:10 ) is not surprising. Drought, which destroyed crops (1 Kings 17:1 ; Jeremiah 14:1-6 ), had a ripple effect on the rest of the economy. Some people left the country for the more predictable climate of Egypt (Genesis 46:1-7 ) or went to areas in Transjordan unaffected by a famine (Ruth 1:1 ). Economic hardship brought on by climatic extremes also hurt the business of the local potter, tanner, blacksmith, and weaver.
Local Village Economy Agriculture in ancient Palestine took three basic forms: grain production (barley and wheat), cultivation of vines and fruit trees, and the care of oleaginous plants (olive, date, sesame) from which oil was extracted for cooking, lighting, and personal care uses. Most of the energies of the village population were taken up with plowing fields (1 Kings 19:19 ) and the construction and maintenance of the hillside terraces where vineyards (Isaiah 5:1-6 ; Mark 12:1 ) and grain were planted. In the hill country, water sources were usually in the valleys, and thus it would have been too much work to carry water up to the hillside terraces. As a result, irrigation channels were dug to insure that the terraces were evenly watered by rain and dew. Roof catch basins and plastered cisterns were constructed to augment water supplies from the village's wells and springs during the dry summer months.
The ideal situation for every rural Israelite was to spend his days “under his vine and under his fig tree” (1 Kings 4:25 ). To insure this possibility for his sons, a man's ownership of land was considered part of a family trust from one generation to the next. Each plot of land was a grant to the household by Yahweh and as such had to be cared for so that it would remain productive (Deuteronomy 14:28-29 ). Its abundance was the result of hard work (Proverbs 24:30-34 ) and was to be shared with the poor (Deuteronomy 24:19-21 ). Yahweh's grant of the land was repaid (Numbers 18:21-32 ) through the payment of tithes to the Levites and through sacrifices.
The family's holdings were duly marked off. It was strictly against the law to remove the boundary stones (Deuteronomy 19:14 ; Proverbs 22:28 ). Inheritance laws were well defined with every eventuality provided for in the statutes. Normally, the oldest son inherited the largest portion of the lands of his father (Deuteronomy 21:17 ; Luke 15:31 ). Sometimes this was all a man had to pass on to his children. It thus became traditional that land not be permanently sold outside the family or clan (Leviticus 25:8-17 ). The tradition was so strong that Naboth could refuse King Ahab's request to purchase his vineyard saying he could not give him “the inheritance of my fathers” (1 Kings 21:3 ). In later periods, however, the prophets spoke of rich men who add “house to house, that lay field to field” (Isaiah 5:8 ), taking advantage of the poor farmer whose land has been devastated by invading armies (Micah 2:2 ) or drought.
If a man died without a male heir, his daughters would receive charge of the land (Numbers 27:7-8 ), but they were required to marry within the tribe to insure it remained a part of the tribal legacy (Numbers 36:6-9 ). A childless man's property passed to his nearest male relative (Numbers 27:9-11 ). The tragedy of childlessness was sometimes resolved through the levirate obligation. In these cases the nearest male relative married the dead man's widow to provide an heir for the deceased (Ruth 4:1-6 ). The duty of the redeemer, or go'el, as the relative was called, also included the purchase of family lands which had been abandoned (Jeremiah 32:6-9 ).
Since life was uncertain and disease and war often took many of the village's inhabitants, laws were provided to insure that the widow, the orphan, and the stranger would not go hungry. Each field owner was required to leave a portion of the grain unharvested and some grapes on the vine (Leviticus 19:9-10 ). This belonged to the poor and the needy who had the right to glean in these fields (Ruth 2:2-9 ). The land was also protected from exhaustion by the law of the sabbatical year which required that it be left fallow every seventh year (Leviticus 25:3-7 ).
Despite the back-breaking work of harvesting fields with flint-edged sickles (Joel 3:13 ), the grain and the fruits meant the survival of the village and was cause for celebration (Judges 21:19 ). Following the harvest, the threshing floor became the center of the economic activity of the village and countryside (Joel 2:24 ). The sheaves of grain from the harvested fields of the district were brought here (Amos 2:13 ) to be trampled by oxen (1 Kings 10:11-12 ) and threshing sledges (2 Samuel 24:22 ; Isaiah 41:15 ). The grain was further separated from the chaff with winnowing forks (Ruth 3:2 ; Isaiah 41:16 ; Jeremiah 15:7 ), and finally with sieves (Amos 9:9 ; Luke 22:31 ). Once this process was complete, the grain was guarded (Ruth 3:2-7 ) until it could be distributed to the people. The village may have had a communal granary, but most kept their grain in home storage pits or private granaries (Matthew 3:12 ).
Because of the importance this distribution held for the well-being of the people, the threshing floor gradually became associated with the administration of justice for the community. This is seen in the Ugaritic epic of Aqhat (dated to about 1400 B.C.) where the hero's father Daniel is said to be judging the cases of widows and orphans at the threshing floor. Similarly, Ruth's coming to Boaz as he lay on the threshing floor after the winnowing (Ruth 3:8-14 ) may have been an attempt to obtain justice regarding the ownership of her dead husband's estate. In another instance from the monarchy period, it can be seen how the threshing floor evolved into a symbolic place of judgment used by kings to augment their authority. 1 Kings 22:10 (NAS, NIV) portrays Kings Ahab and Jehoshaphat sitting enthroned before the gates of Samaria on a threshing floor as they judge the statements of the prophet Micaiah.
Village economies also included the maintenance of small herds of sheep and goats. Nomadic pastoralism, like that described in the patriarchal narratives, was not a part of village life. The flocks were moved to new pastures in the hill country with the coming of the dry summer season (1 Samuel 25:7-8 ), but this would have required only a few herdsmen (1 Samuel 16:11 ). Only the shearing of the sheep would have involved large numbers of the community (Genesis 31:19 ; 1 Samuel 25:4 ; 2 Samuel 13:23-24 ).
What little industry existed in Israelite villages was designed to complement agricultural production and provide both necessities and some trade goods. This activity included the making of bricks and split timbers for house construction, and the weaving of material for clothing. Some households (usually consisting of a group of related families—Judges 18:22 ) had the skill to shape cooking utensils and farm tolls from clay, stone, and metal. Few, however, had the ability to shape their own weapons, relying in many cases on clubs and ox goads (Judges 3:31 ) for protection.
In exceptional cases village craftsmen may have set up stalls or business where they provided some of the more specialized items, especially fine pottery, bronze weapons, and gold and silver jewelry. Anything additional could either be done without or obtained in trade with other villages or nations who might possess a particularly fine artisan (1 Samuel 13:20 ). It is also possible that during a yearly visit to the city (Luke 2:41 ) to attend a religious festival the villager could visit the stalls of traders from all over the Near East and buy their wares.
Urban Economic Life Local trade expanded beyond the sale of surplus commodities and hand-crafted items as the villages and towns grew in size. Population growth, sparked by the establishment of the monarchy and social stability, also increased the needs and appetites for metals (gold, tin, copper, iron), luxury items, and manufactured goods. A network of roads gradually developed to accommodate this economic activity and to tie together the villages and towns throughout the nation. More sophisticated road construction, designed to allow heavy vehicular traffic, was introduced by the kings who marshaled large numbers of corvee workers (persons who worked in lieu of paying taxes) to construct public works projects (1 Kings 9:15-22 ). Ezion-geber, a port on the Red Sea, was acquired from the Edomites and serviced a fleet of ships bringing gold from Ophir and rare woods and other luxury items to the royal court (1 Kings 9:26 ; Deuteronomy 25:4 ). Another fleet joined that of Hiram of Tyre in the Mediterranean trade (1 Kings 10:22 ).
Within the walled cities and towns, most commercial activity occurred within the gate complex or its environs. This would have been the site of the heaviest traffic in any town and the most likely spot, other than private homes (Jeremiah 18:2-3 ), for stalls and shops to be set up for business. Since legal matters were also handled here (Deuteronomy 21:18-19 ), business contracts could be witnessed (Genesis 23:15-16 ), and disputes settled (Genesis 38:1 ). Shops may have also been established within the walls of those cities which had hollow-wall (casemate) construction.
Since this was an economy without coined money until about 550 B.C., barter and specified weights (shekel, mina, talent) of precious metals were used as rates of exchange. Prices, as always, were determined by the law of supply and demand (2 Kings 6:25 ; Revelation 6:6 ), with an extra markup to cover the costs of transport, and, where applicable, manufacturing. For instance, luxury items such as spices and perfumes from Arabia and ivory and rare animals commanded high prices. They were portable enough to make the venture worthwhile.
Weights and measures also fitted into the sale of commodities in the town marketplace. These weights varied from one district and time period to the next (2 Samuel 14:26 ; Ezekiel 45:10 ). However, the law required that Israelites provide a fair measure to their customers (Leviticus 19:35-36 ). The fact that the law did not prevent fraud in every case is seen in the prophets' cries against deceitful weights (Micah 6:11 ) and false balances (Amos 8:5 ). Archaeological evidence shows some attempt by the royal administration to standardize shekel weights. Hieratic symbols on these markers demonstrate a reliance on the Egyptian system of weights and measures.
Slave labor was also an outgrowth of the urbanization of Israel and the constant military campaigns of the kings. The large number of military prisoners joined the levies of forced labor gangs (1 Kings 5:13 ; 1 Kings 9:20-22 ) building roads and repairing the walls of the fortresses which guarded the kingdom. Royal estates were managed by stewards (1 Chronicles 27:25-31 ) and worked by large bands of state-owned slaves and a levy of free men (1 Samuel 8:12 ).
It is unlikely that private individuals held as many slaves as the monarchy or the social elite. Since the laws regarding slaves were quite stringent (Exodus 21:1-11 ,Exodus 21:1-11,21:20 ,Deuteronomy 15:12-145:26 ; Leviticus 25:39-46 ), it is more likely that day laborers were hired by most landowners (Matthew 20:1-5 ). The leasing of land to tenant-farmers was another alternative to the labor problem, but this was not common in Israel until the New Testament period (Matthew 21:33-41 ; Mark 12:9 ).
Israelites could sell their families or themselves into slavery to resolve a debt (Exodus 21:7-11 ; Leviticus 25:39 ; Matthew 18:25 ). This was regulated by the law so that the normal term of slavery or indenture was no more than six years. Then the slave was to be released and given a portion of the flock and the harvest with which to make a new start (1618419304_36 ). Perpetual slavery was only to occur if the Israelite himself chose to remain a slave. This choice might be made because he did not want to be separated from a wife and children acquired during his term of enslavement (2 Samuel 9:10 ) or because he did not feel he would have a better life on his own (Deuteronomy 15:16 ).
Urbanization and the imposed demands of foreign conquerors brought greater complexity to the economic life of the people of Palestine. Travel and trade increased, and the variety of goods and services was magnified by the increased demands of consumers and the influx of new ideas and technologies from outside the country. Agriculture remained the staple of the economy, but it was augmented by the public works projects of the kings and foreign rulers. The increase in commercial a
Holman Bible Dictionary - Tree of Life
Plant in Garden of Eden symbolizing access to eternal life and metaphor used in Proverbs. For the biblical writer the tree of life was an important consideration only after Adam and Eve disobeyed. Sin interrupted the quality of life God intended for them. They were to obey God (Genesis 2:17 ) in a family setting (Genesis 2:18-25 ) and perform their assigned tasks (Genesis 2:15 ). The implication is that they had access to all the trees in the garden, including the tree of life, but God gave an explicit command not to eat of the tree of knowledge. Their relationship to God changed radically when they disobeyed that command. Chief among the radical changes was that they no longer had access to the tree of life (Genesis 3:22-24 ).
The “tree of life” appears in Proverbs four times (Proverbs 3:18 ; Proverbs 11:30 ; Proverbs 13:12 ; Proverbs 15:4 ) and in Revelation 2:7 ; Revelation 22:2 ,Revelation 22:2,22:14 . To lay hold of wisdom is to lay hold on “a tree of life” (Proverbs 3:18 ). “The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life” (Proverbs 11:30 NIV). Yet another proverb has this comparison: “a longing fulfilled is a tree of life” ( Proverbs 13:12 NIV). The author of another proverb wrote, “The tongue that brings healing is a tree of life” ( Proverbs 15:4 NIV). None of these proverbs seems to refer to “the tree of life” mentioned in Genesis. All of the references in Revelation do. See Adam and Eve ; Eden ; Tree of Knowledge .
Billy K. Smith
Holman Bible Dictionary - Book of Life
The book of life is the heavenly record (Luke 10:20 ; Hebrews 12:23 ) written by God before the foundation of the world (Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:8 ) containing the names of those who are destined because of God's grace and their faithfulness to participate in God's heavenly kingdom. Those whose names are in the book have been born into God's family through Jesus Christ (Hebrews 12:23 ; Revelation 13:8 ); remain faithful in worship of God (Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:8 ); are untouched by the practice of abomination and falsehood (Revelation 21:27 ); are faithful through tribulation (Revelation 3:5 ); and are fellow workers in the work of Jesus Christ (Philippians 4:3 ). The book of life will be used along with the books of judgment at the final judgment to separate the righteous and the wicked for their respective eternal destinies (Revelation 20:12 ,Revelation 20:12,20:15 ; Revelation 21:27 ).
Christ Himself determines whether the names that are recorded in the book of life remain in that record and are supported by His confession that they belong to Him at the day of judgment or are blotted out (Revelation 3:5 ).
The Old Testament refers to a record kept by God of those who are a part of His people (Exodus 32:32 ; Isaiah 4:3 ; Daniel 12:1 ; Malachi 3:16 ). As in Revelation, God can blot out the names of those in the book (Exodus 32:32 ; Psalm 69:28 ). In the Old Testament this may simply mean people not in the book die, leaving the list of the living. Those whose names are written in the book are destined for life in a restored Jerusalem (Isaiah 4:3 ) and deliverance through future judgment (Daniel 12:1 ). See Apocalyptic ; Book ; Eschatology ; Judgment, Books of.
Jeff Cranford
Holman Bible Dictionary - Breath of Life
The translation of several Hebrew words and phrases. The phrase denotes the capacity for life. In the Bible, God is the source of the breath of life (Genesis 1:30 ; Genesis 2:7 ; Genesis 7:15 ; Isaiah 57:16 ). Just as God gave the breath of life, so can He take it away (Genesis 6:17 ; Genesis 7:22 ; Isaiah 57:16 ). See Life ; Immortality .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Prince of Life
The word translated as “prince” (Acts 3:15 ; Acts 5:31 , “author” and “leader” respectively in some modern versions) is also translated as “captain” (Hebrews 2:10 ; “pioneer” or “author” in some modern versions) and “author” (Hebrews 12:2 ; “pioneer” in modern versions). All of these references are to Jesus as the founder of a new life which His followers now share with Him.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life
The divinely bestowed gift of blessedness in God's presence that endures without end. This relates especially to the quality of life in this age, and to both the quality and duration of life in the age to come. Key to understanding the biblical meaning of these terms is the Bible's use of the word "eternal."
Old Testament Teaching . God is eternal (Deuteronomy 33:27 ; Psalm 10:16 ; 48:14 ). Scripture does not provide philosophical reflection on this fact but assumes it. The Lord is the Rock eternal (Isaiah 26:4 ) and the eternal King (Jeremiah 10:10 ). God's word, rooted in his being and will, is likewise eternal (Psalm 119:89 ), as are his righteous laws (119:60), his ways (Habakkuk 3:6 ), and his kingdom or dominion (Daniel 4:3,34 ). Since God is eternal, so are his love (1 Kings 10:9 ), his blessings (2Col 5:18-21 ), and all his other attributes and benefits. They endure without end; as long as God exists, so do they.
"His love endures forever" is repeated twenty-six times in Psalm 136 alone. Elsewhere in the psalms "forever" is used to describe God's reign (9:7), his protection (12:7), his plans (33:11), the inheritance of his people (37:18), his throne (55:19), his rule (66:7), his remembrance of his covenant (105:8), his righteousness (111:3), his faithfulness (117:2), his statutes (119:111,152), and his name (135:13). Other Old Testament books offer abundant additional affirmation of these and other never-ending aspects of God or his saving provisions.
Some deny awareness of a personally significant eternity in most Old Testament Scripture and history. A prominent segment of modern biblical scholarship would concur that in Israel there was no belief in life after death. It is truth that many biblical characters, like some who study them, seem oblivious to their eschatological destiny. They show little awareness of a transcendent world order in which they will be personally involved, a divinely ordained future imposing imperatives on the present. It is likewise true that Old Testament awareness of eternal realities is less specific and complete than that of the New Testament. Yet the progressive nature of biblical revelation (as well as the necessarily restricted scope of each Old Testament book) should be borne in mind. Many central biblical doctrines (e.g., the Trinity, the incarnation, divine self-sacrifice for sin) are only adumbrated in earlier biblical history, to be fleshed out in the fullness of time. The numerous Old Testament references to the Lord's future and thus to the future of those who trust in him leave little room for insisting that the Old Testament contains no inkling of a life beyond the present world. Such insistence is understandable where Enlightenment or postmodern assumptions, methods, and conclusions are dogmatically embraced.
The Old Testament does not seem to conceive of eternity in purely abstract terms, as a static state of timelessness. The Greek word aion [1] (age, era, lengthy time, eternity) in the Septuagint and New Testament corresponds to the Hebrew Old Testament's olam [2] (a long time, eternity); neither word as used in Scripture answers to the notion of "eternity" that shows up in the ancient philosophies of Plato and Aristotle. For Plato, eternity is a timeless and transcendent state totally outside the dimension of time. For Aristotle, as for Thomas Aquinas who followed him at this point, eternity "becomes known from two characteristics: first, from the fact that whatever is in eternity is interminable, that is, lacking beginning and end ; second, from the fact that eternity itself lacks successiveness, existing entirely at once [3]" (Aquinas, Summa, I, 10,1).
In this view eternity is a motionless, changeless state, remote and qualitatively distinct from time. Time and eternity are antithetical, and eternity is accessible to human thought only by logical speculation that views God not as the personal, living, historically self-revealing being described in Scripture but as the inscrutable "unmoved first mover" of Aristotelian reasoning. This understanding has had great influence on Western theology and on the way many Christians even today understand "eternity" and "eternal life" when they encounter them in the Bible.
The Old Testament, like the New, resists this time-eternity dualism. True, it speaks of a coming age from which evil will be banished and for which God's life and glory will be determinative for all that exists and takes place. This is quite different from the current world order. But that age has points of continuity with the present one because the God of that age is at the same time the God of the present age (allowing for the presence of Satan and evil in this "present evil age" [4]; until they meet their final end ). His reign extends for all time and over all times.
This means that the temporal order has redemptive potential as the sphere in which God's Spirit, the Spirit of the incarnate and risen Jesus Christ, works out his will in human affairs. History, while it cannot fully contain the reality of the transcendent God, also is not incapable of receiving and responding to his presence. The incarnation offers abundant proof of this fact. And eternity, while it lies chronologically beyond temporal life in the here and now, is not in all respects qualitatively remote and aloof from it. We may thus look to biblical revelation as descriptive of God's presence in and intent for both the present world order and the coming one; we need not turn from Scripture to atemporal philosophical idealism for normative insight into the nature of eternity and its relation to present time.
The Old Testament, then, encourages us to define eternity in terms of the duration of the revealed God's dealings with his people in times past, now, and always. This God has ever been solicitous for his name and for the people with whom he has deigned to share it. This past state of affairs will continue for eternity, so long as God who lives and loves endures. To define eternity more closely, the Bible would seem to call for laying hold of personal relationship with God. To trust him is to begin to realize what "eternal" signifies. To live responsively before him means to gain understanding, indeed induction, into "eternal life."
Eternal Life . A dominant theme of the New Testament, though not without Old Testament grounding, is eternal (or everlasting) life. Eternal life is therefore one of the unifying themes of the New Testament. It is a term that describes the salvation that God bestows on those who trust and serve him. It denotes not only the length of time that God's favor extends to his people but also the quality of existence that they may enjoy as they worship and serve him.
John's Gospel is rich with references to eternal life. Nicodemus' questions about Jesus' ministry and teaching lead Jesus to speak of it (3:15-16). It is a gift to all those who believe in the Son but will be withheld from all those who reject him (3:36). Jesus likewise speaks of eternal life during his brief early ministry in Samaria. He assures the woman at the well that trust in him will slake the thirst of her soul; she will receive "a spring of water welling up" within her "to eternal life" (4:14; cf. 4:36). In response to charges of Sabbath breaking in Jerusalem Jesus urges listeners to heed his message and trust God; to do so is to have "eternal life." This means escape from condemnation on judgment day and in the age to come. In the present it means a crossing over "from death to life" (5:24). Eternal life is available through study of the Scriptures as they relate to Jesus Christ (5:39).
Jesus urges a crowd by Galilee's shores not to "work for food that spoils, but for food that endures to eternal life, which the Son of Man will give you (6:27). God wills that "everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal life." This will result in resurrection "at the last day" (6:40). Jesus' difficult statement that everyone "who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life" (6:54) is a summons for sinners to make the Father's will their meat and drink, by trusting in the Son, just as the Son made the Father's will his own daily fare (4:34).
The Christocentric nature of eternal life is underscored by Jesus' own words in prayer on the night he was betrayed. First, he reminds the heavenly Father that he gave the Son "authority over all people that he might give eternal life to all those you have given him" (17:2). Next he furnishes a succinct description of what eternal life involves: "Now this is eternal life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent" (17:3).
Eternal life as presented in John's Gospel forms a solid core within apostolic preaching and teaching in the decades subsequent to Jesus' death and resurrection. Predictably, it receives repeated mention in John's own longest extant epistle (1 John 1:2 ; 2:25 ; 3:15 ; 5:11,13 , 20 ). Both Paul and Luke speak of it, too, in connection with Paul's first missionary journey (Acts 13:46,48 ). In Paul's earliest extant epistle he avows that whoever "sows to please the Spirit" will also "reap eternal life from the Spirit" (Galatians 6:8 ). Paul refers, of course, to the Spirit of the living God, the Spirit of Jesus Christ (Romans 8:9-11 ). The Epistle to the Romans reveals that God grants eternal life "to those who by persistence in doing good seek glory, honor, and immortality" (2:7). Yet eternal life is won not by human effort but by divine self-sacrifice as Christ undoes the woe that Adam's fall helped unleash on the human race (5:12-21). Through Christ grace reigns "through righteousness to bring eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord" (5:21; cf. 6:22,23).
Far from treating eternal life as a rudimentary or unimportant matter, in Paul's last extant letter he is still extolling its glories. "The hope of eternal life" is in fact foundational to faith in and knowledge of God (Titus 1:1-2 ). Here, as elsewhere in Paul, "hope" denotes a sure, if not yet fully realized, reality (Romans 8:24 ). Paul, originally the arch-enemy of Christ, tells Timothy that his conversion serves "as an example for those who would believe on [5] and receive eternal life" (1 Timothy 1:16 ). He exhorts Timothy "to take hold of the eternal life" to which he was called (1 Timothy 6:12 ). It may have been in the same general span of time late in the apostolic era that Jude encouraged his readers, "Keep yourselves in God's love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal life" (Jude 21 ).
If in Jude eternal life seems to be a future possession, many other references speak of it as a present reality. Which is it? The answer seems to be both. Eternal life has both an "already" and a "not yet" dimension. Interpreters have sometimes erred in stressing one to the exclusion of the other. Biblical statements taken in their entirety counsel careful regard for both aspects of a two-sided truth: eternal life is a present possession in terms of its reality, efficacy, and irrevocability (John 10:28 ). Yet its full realization awaits life with the Lord in the age to come.
"Eternal" Elsewhere in the New Testament . "Eternal" (Gk. aionios [ John 14:2-3 ). Paul speaks of the "eternal house" that awaits humans after death (2 Corinthians 5:1 ), but he has in mind the resurrection body rather than a heavenly dwelling place in terms of a building. Further, Paul uses this figure of speech to underline the temporary nature of life, not to speak of the Platonic release of the soul from captivity in the body. In the New Testament as in the Old, "eternal" carries a different connotation than it does in Greek philosophy.
God's "eternal power" is evident even to nonbelievers from the grandeur of the created order (Romans 1:20 ). "Eternal" describes God himself, the King in his regal splendor who is at the same time "immortal, invisible, " and unique (1 Timothy 1:17 ). Paul speaks of the "eternal God" whose command undergirded the apostolic proclamation to the nations (Romans 16:26 ). God presides over an "eternal kingdom" (2 Peter 1:11 ), grants "eternal encouragement" (2 Thessalonians 2:16 ), works to effect his "eternal purpose" (Ephesians 3:11 ), and offers "eternal glory" (2Col 4:17; 2 Timothy 2:10 ; 1 Peter 5:10 ) to the elect who suffer for the sake of his kingdom and his Son. Enjoyment of "eternal glory" in the wake of suffering is explained elsewhere as one of the great privileges and assurances of union with Christ: Christians are "heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings in order that we may also share in his glory" (Romans 8:17 ).
The writer of Hebrews speaks of Jesus Christ as "the source of eternal salvation for all who obey him" (Hebrews 5:9 ). "The resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment" are rudimentary truths that mature believers should long since have learned (6:2). Christ's blood, in contrast to that of Old Testament sacrifices, won "eternal redemption" (9:12), and it was by "the eternal Spirit" that Christ offered himself up to God (9:14). By faith in Christ "those who are called receive the promised eternal inheritance" (9:15) by virtue of "the blood of the eternal covenant" (13:20).
In the same sense that "eternal" describes the boon that those who seek the Lord receive, now and forever, eternal condemnation threatens the rebellious and indifferent. Jesus speaks of the "eternal sin" of blaspheming the Holy Spirit; for this there can be no forgiveness (Mark 3:29 ), in part perhaps because the perpetrator of such a heinous act cannot muster the will to seek it (Hebrews 12:17 ). The ultimate outcome of rejection of Jesus Christ is "eternal fire" (Matthew 18:8 ; 25:41 ; Jude 7 ), "eternal punishment" (Matthew 25:46 ) and "eternal [NIV: "everlasting"; the Greek word is aion [1]] destruction." While such bleak pronouncements seem hard for some to square with the idea of a loving God, there is no linguistically convincing or theologically satisfactory way to avoid the conclusion that just as joy in the Lord's presence will endure for all time—for eternityso will the experience of his hot displeasure.
Yet "the eternal gospel" (Revelation 14:6 ) offers hope, the entré into an unending blessed future before the Lord rather than banishment from it. While the background assumption of both Old and New Testament is a coming judgment with eternal implications for every single soul, its prominent and urgent plea is for all people to heed the gospel, thereby being reconciled to God (cf. Psalm 21:6).
Ethics and Worship . A major assumption of virtually all biblical writers is that the eternal has weighty and necessary implications for the temporal. They are aware that God is the "Everlasting Father" (Isaiah 9:6 ) who gives good gifts to all, just and unjust alike. But they also insist that he will one day appear as eternal judge of all the earth (Genesis 18:25 ; 1 Samuel 2:10 ; 1 Chronicles 16:33 ; Psalm 9:8 ; John 12:48 ; Romans 2:16 ). What lies in the futureeschatological judgmentshould be regarded as determinative for human thought and action in the present. "For God will bring every deed into judgment, including every hidden thing, whether it is good or evil" (Ecclesiastes 12:14 ; cf. 1Col 4:5; 2 Timothy 4:1 ). "But I tell you that men will have to give account on the day of judgment for every careless word they have spoken" (Matthew 12:36 ). If words will be so gravely assessed, how much more all human actions?
Eternality is, then, not a philosophical category serving sheerly speculative ends. It is rather a dimension of God's established order that calls people to seek God's pleasure here, making it their highest priority to further his interests and kingdom in every way, so they may enjoy his favor in the hereafter. In this sense reflection on eternality and eternal life is never complete without sober contemplation of ethical corollaries. The Lord who is "our king" and "our judge" is also "our lawgiver" (Isaiah 33:22 ; cf. James 4:12 ). Unlocking the mysteries of eternity begins with careful attention and trusting response to the precepts and commands of the "righteous judge" (Psalm 7:11 ). Paul voices a fundamental if optimal Christian conviction regarding that day when God brings all things to light: "Now there is in store for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that dayand not only to me, but also to all who have longed for his appearing" (2 Timothy 4:8 ). Eternitywith the assurance of vindication before the eternal judgerightly shaped Paul's present.
If ethical focus is one corollary of a biblical theology of eternity, another is worship. Eternity is the basis for doxology. Already in Moses' hymn of victory, God's eternal reign is the basis for praise: "The Lord will reign for ever and ever" (Exodus 15:18 ). David picks up and continues the strain: "The Lord is King for ever and ever" (Psalm 10:16 ). The place of God's dwelling is "secure forever" (Psalm 48:8 ); his "praise reaches to the ends of the earth for this God is our God for ever and ever; he will be our guide even to the end" (vv. 10,14).
Sinners receive access to God's everlasting throne (Psalm 45:6 ; Hebrews 1:8 ), promised to David's descendants (2 Samuel 7 ) on behalf of Abraham's heirs (Luke 1:33,55 ), through the priestly ministrations of Jesus Christ, "a priest forever" (Hebrews 5:6 ; 6:20 ; 7:21 ). In keeping with the sober historical integrity of the four Gospels and Acts, the accounts of Jesus' life and ministry are not studded with lofty ascriptions of praise to Christ. His earthly rigors hid his eternal glory. But this alters perceptibly in the Epistles. Most of them well up in worshipful exclamation linked explicitly to God's, or Christ's eternality. He is praised "forever" or "for ever and ever." Other Epistles imply the same praise by extolling the Lord's eternal rewards: "a crown that will last forever" (1 Corinthians 9:25 ); life "with the Lord forever" (1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; cf. Philippians 1:23 ). As John writes, the person "who does the will of God lives forever" (1 John 2:17 ) because of the gospel's "truth, which lives in us and will be with us forever" (2 John 2 ).
But it is Scripture's last book that most sweepingly links God's eternality to worship. John's vision begins with praise to God "for ever and ever" (1:6). The exalted Jesus Christ declares that he is "alive for ever and ever" (1:18). The Lord's power, reign, and glory in their ceaseless duration dot the literary landscape of subsequent chapters. Also never ending is the torment of God's enemies, the smoke of whose "torment rises for ever and ever" (14:11; cf. 19:3; 20:10). Yet happier prospects await all who have received the grace of the eternal God through his Son in this present life: in worshiping the eternal King "they will reign for ever and ever" (22:5).
Robert W. Yarbrough
See also Faith ; Grace ; Heaven, Heavens, Heavenlies ; Salvation
Bibliography . J. Auer and J. Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life ; O. Cullmann, Salvation in History ; G. Habermas and J. P. Moreland, Immortality: The Other Side of Death ; A. T. Lincoln, Paradise Now and Not Yet ; O. O'Donovan, Resurrection and Moral Order ; B. Witherington, Jesus, Paul, and the End of the World .
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Religious Life: Not Mere Imitation
At one of the late grand reviews in Eastern Prussia, says a German paper, a brigade of artillery was ordered to pass at full gallop over a piece of uneven ground, intersected by a ditch full of water. One of the guns, from the horses not making a sufficient spring, got stuck in the ditch. The first gunner, a man of great strength, jumped down into the water and, setting his shoulders to one of the wheels, lifted it out of the mud, and, resuming his seat, the gun crossed the ditch. Prince Augustus, of Prussia, who came up at the moment, cried, 'Bravo, my lad,' and tearing off a strip from his sash, gave it to the artilleryman, telling him to fasten it to his sword-belt in remembrance. In the evening, the soldier, when in his barracks, was surprised by receiving a gratuity of 150 golden crowns. A short time afterwards, another artilleryman having heard this anecdote, wished in his turn to display his strength. Prince Augustus, when one day at the arsenal of Berlin, ordered a 24-pounder to be mounted on its carriage. The man in question immediately raised the piece from the ground, and, unassisted, put it on its carriage. The prince, however, said, 'This man is a fool: he has risked his limbs, and wasted his strength without any necessity. Let him be under arrest for three days.'
Thus, Galignarn's Messenger furnishes us with a warning against being mere copyists. An action may from the tim e and circumstances be noble and praiseworthy in one man, but another would render himself ridiculous who, forgetting the surrounding circumstances, should merely repeat the action itself. True grace, like a truly soldierly spirit, guides its possessor as emergencies arise, but that mimicry of religion which only follows precedents is to be despised.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life
John Mackintosh thus writes to his biographer, Norman Macleod:: 'May it not be said that the movement of our age is towards life? I sometimes fancy that I can discern three epochs in the Reformed Churches, corresponding in the main to those three weighty epithets: via, yenta:, vita. The Reformers themselves, no doubt, laid the stress chiefly upon the first (via). It was on this Popery had gone most astray, obscuring the doctrine of justification by faith alone. The epoch following was essentially dogmatic (veritas), when the doctors drew up 'systems' of the truth. It was now, indeed, Christ as veritas! but the dogma taken alone led to coldness, dogmatism, sectarianism, and formality. Happy will it be for the church, if, not forgetting the other two, she shall now be found moving on to the third development of Christ as vita: the life, which will regulate the two former aspects, while it consummates and informs them. This l must develop the individual, and on individuals the church depends; for in God's sight it is no abstraction.'
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Explains Religion
ONE of our party greatly needed some elder-flower water for her face upon which the sun was working great mischief. It was in the Italian town of Varallo, and not a word of Italian did I know. I entered a chemist's shop and surveyed his drawers and bottles, but the result was nil. Bright thought, I would go down by the river, and walk until I could gather a bunch of elder-flowers, for the tree was then in bloom. Happily the search was successful: the flowers were exhibited to the druggist, the extract was procured. When you cannot tell in so many words what true religion is, exhibit it by your actions. Show by your life what grace can do. There is no language in the world so eloquent as a holy life. Men may doubt what you say, but they will believe what you do.
Webster's Dictionary - Self-Life
(n.) Life for one's self; living solely or chiefly for one's own pleasure or good.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Book of Life
BOOK OF LIFE . The legalistic conception of morality which existed among the Jews involved a record of the deeds of life on the basis of which the final judgment of God would be given. Allied with this was another conception, derived from the custom of enrolling citizens ( Jeremiah 22:30 , Nehemiah 7:5 ; Nehemiah 7:64 ; Nehemiah 12:22 f.; cf. Exodus 32:32 ), of a list of those who were to partake of the blessings of the Messianic Age. A second natural step was to conceive of God as keeping two sets of books, a Book of Life ( Daniel 12:1 ff., Malachi 3:16 , Psalms 69:28 ) for the righteous, and a Book of Death for the wicked (Jub xxx 20 22). To have one’s name blotted out from the Book of Life was equivalent to complete condemnation (Eth. Enoch 108:3).
In the Apocalyptic writings of Judaism the Final Judgment was to be based upon the records contained in the books supposedly kept by the archangel Michael. In some cases Rabbinical thought elaborated the figure until each man was to read and sign his record. The judgment of God was thus supposed to be based upon absolute justice, and determined by the balance of recorded good and evil deeds. In the NT are to be found references both to the books of records (Revelation 20:12 ; Revelation 20:15 ; cf. Daniel 7:10 , Eth. Enoch 89:61ff.), and to the books containing a list of those who were to enjoy eternal life ( Luke 10:20 , Philippians 4:3 , Hebrews 12:23 , Revelation 3:5 ; Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:6 ; Revelation 21:27 ).
Shailer Mathews.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Life
LIFE
I. In the OT
The term ‘life’ in EV [1] is used, with a few unimportant exceptions, as the equivalent of one or other of two Heb. expressions: (1) chai , or mostly in plur. chayyim; (2) nephesh . The LXX [2] makes a general distinction between these two, by usually rendering the former as zôç and the latter as psychç . The former term occurs more frequently than the latter. The notion of life and the terms used to denote it belong, like ‘death,’ to the primitive elements in human thought and speech. Roughly speaking, we may explain (1) as primarily = what is fresh, new, in active existence; and (2) as primarily = breath.
1. Self-originated movement, especially as seen in locomotion and breathing, were naturally the earliest criteria of life. So still, scientists are investigating life as merely a ‘mode of motion.’ Life, however, has not yet yielded up its secret to human inquiry; not yet has life, by any experiment, been produced from purely inorganic origins. Meantime those who do not stumble at a theistic view of creation hold an entirely worthy and satisfactory position in following the Genesis Creation narratives, and ascribing the origin of all life to God, who ‘giveth to all life and breath and all things’ ( Acts 17:25 ). The mystery of life abides, but it is not in the least likely that any results of scientific investigation will ever really conflict with this position.
Life as a physical phenomenon is pre-eminently associated with animals the living creatures of the sea, the land, and the air (Genesis 1:21 ff.). Plant-life is hardly recognized as such. OT writers do not go so far as to predicate life of trees in much the same way as of animals, as is the case with some of the early Greek philosophers ( e.g . Aristotle, Eth. Nic . i. 7, 12). Still ‘green’ and ‘dry,’ as applied to plants, correspond to ‘living’ and ‘dead.’ There is the feeling that trees possess ‘a sort of’ life; and such references to trees as that concerning the fresh sprouting of a stock or root ( Job 14:7 ff., Isaiah 11:1 ) are very significant. Notice also the way in which the prosperity of man is likened to that of a flourishing tree ( Psalms 1:3 etc.), and other frequent illustrative uses.
Physical life is not only primitively connected with the breath, but also with the blood. The effect of the draining away of the blood (as from a wound) in the lessening vitality of the body and finally death a matter of early observation naturally explains this. A certain sacredness thus attaches to the blood ( 1 Samuel 14:33 ff.), and definite prohibitive legislation relating to the eating of flesh with the blood becomes incorporated in the laws of Israel ( Leviticus 3:17 ; Leviticus 7:25 etc.). This primitive conception of blood as the seat of life lies at the root of the whole OT system of sacrifices and of all the Scripture Ideas and teachings based thereupon.
The sacredness of life as such is strongly emphasized. The great value ascribed to human life is indicated by the numerous laws relating to manslaughter and to offences which interfere in any way with a man’s right to live and with his reasonable use and enjoyment of life. The feeling extends to other creatures. See the suggestive words ‘and also much cattle’ in Jonah 4:11 . The beasts are associated with man’s humiliations and privations ( Jonah 3:7 f., Joel 1:18 ; Joel 1:20 ); their life is a thing to be considered. We find the ground of this feeling in the view that God is not only the original Creator or Source of life, but directly its Sustainer in all its forms ( Psalms 36:6 , Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 145:1-21 passim ). This seems also to be the fundamental significance of the very common expression ‘the living God’ (lit. ‘God of life’).
2 . Life is predominantly set forth as man’s summum bonum . Life and death are respectively ‘the blessing and the curse,’ and that uniquely ( Deuteronomy 30:19 ). ‘Choose life’ is the appeal pointing to the one desirable boon. Every man should answer to the description in Psalms 34:12 . The language which disparages life and praises death ( e.g . Job 7:16 , Ecclesiastes 4:1 ff. etc.) is the expression of an abnormal state of feeling, the outcome of man’s experience of misery in one form and another. But it is not mere existence that is in itself desirable. As Orr points out, life in its Scripture use has ‘a moral and spiritual connotation’ ( Christian View [3], p. 393); and it is only the godly and righteous life that is a boon from the Scripture point of view. Such is the burden of the Wisdom books, when they speak of ‘finding life,’ and describe wisdom as a ‘tree of life’ ( Proverbs 3:18 ; Proverbs 8:35 ).
3. The idea of a life to come is in many portions of the OT conspicuous by its absence. There is nothing anywhere that will compare with the NT conception of ‘ eternal life. ’ The latter expression, it is true, is found in the OT, but only once, and that in the late-Hebrew Book of Daniel ( Daniel 12:2 ). It is to be remembered that, though this book is in EV [1] numbered among the Major Prophets, its affinities are not with that group but rather with later post-Biblical Jewish writings. In these writings the use of this expression is best illustrated. Enoch, Ps.-Sol., 4 Mac. furnish examples. See also in Apocrypha, 2Ma 7:9 ; 2Ma 7:36 . ‘Life’ alone in this later use comes to be used as = ‘life eternal.’ (See, e.g ., 2Ma 7:14 ; cf. in NT, Matthew 7:14 ; Matthew 19:17 ). Later Jewish use, however, prefers the clearer phrase, ‘life of the age to come’: and along this line the genesis of the term ‘eternal life’ must be explained. (Cf. the last clause in the Nicene Creed: ‘the life of the world to come’). Jewish eschatological hopes, first for the nation and afterwards for the individual, contributed largely to the development of this idea.
At the same time, though in some parts of the OT the hope of life hereafter seems expressly excluded (see, e.g ., Isaiah 38:11 ; Isaiah 38:18 , Ecclesiastes 9:5 ; Ecclesiastes 9:10 [5]), and this world alone is known as’ the land of the living,’ the very asking of the question in Job 14:14 is significant, and the language of Psalms 16:1-11 concerning ‘the path of life’ lends itself readily to an interpretation looking to life beyond death.
II. In the Apocrypha. Chs. 1 5 of Wis. yield much that is of interest relating to contemporary Jewish thought; e.g . God is the author of life but not of death ( Wis 1:13 f., Wis 2:23 f.). The wicked live in harmony with the saying, ‘Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we die’ (ch. 2). The righteous have immortality as their inheritance, whilst the wicked shall be brought to judgment and shall be destroyed (chs. 3 5). For an impressive presentment of a foolish appreciation of life, see also Wis 15:7 ff. In Sir 15:17 ‘Before man is life and death,’ we have an echo of Deuteronomy 30:19 . The conception of life (‘soul’) as a loan that can be recalled is found in Wis 15:8 ; Wis 15:18 , a close parallel with Luke 12:20 . Such phrases as ‘the fountain of life’ ( Sir 21:13 ) and ‘the tree of life’ ( 2E Esther 2:12 ; 2Es 8:52 ) recall their use in both OT and NT. For the former, see Psalms 36:8 , Proverbs 10:11 , John 4:10 ; John 4:14 ; for the latter Genesis 2:9 , Revelation 2:7 ; Revelation 22:2 etc. 2Es 7:1-70 furnishes a notable and picturesque view of life beyond death, with the judgment of the righteous and the unrighteous. See especially the long passage beginning at v. 75. The return of the spirit ‘to him who gave it,’ v. 78, has none of the limitations that attend a similar reference to death in Ecclesiastes 12:7 . (See above.)
III. In NT
The term ‘life’ is the Eng. equivalent of three terms used in the original (1) zôç . This is of most frequent occurrence; generally corresponding to chayyim in OT; = life in the absolute: vitality: full, active existence. It is the term capable of embodying all progressive conceptions as to what constitutes life, and so regularly occurring in the phrase ‘eternal life.’ (2) psychç , generally = OT nephesh , but the fluctuation between ‘life’ and ‘soul’ (see, e.g ., the well-known passage Matthew 16:25 f.) as its rendering in English is significant. The primary notion is that of the animating principle (in contrast to the ‘body’). It further denotes the specific life or existence of any individual. By an easy transition it comes to stand for a man’s ‘self’ (roughly ‘soul’). (3) bios , occurring only a few times. = the present state of existence, this life; as in Luke 8:14 , 1 Timothy 2:2 , 2 Timothy 2:4 , 1 John 2:16 ; 1 John 3:17 ( zôç , however, is sometimes used in this sense, with ‘this’ or ‘the present’ qualifying it, e.g . 1 Corinthians 15:19 ); also = means of subsistence; and so = ‘living’ ( Luke 8:43 ; Luke 15:12 etc.).
1. The teaching of Jesus . As regards the present life we gather from the Gospels that Jesus never bewailed its brevity and vanity. The mournful notes of some of the OT Scriptures, the pensive commonplaces of so much of man’s thoughts and moralizings, find no echo here. On the contrary, in His own life He graciously exemplifies the joie de vivre . This in one respect was made even a ground of complaint against Him ( Matthew 11:19 ). The sacredness of life is insisted on, and the Sixth Commandment is accentuated ( Matthew 5:21 ). The preciousness of life, even in its humblest forms (‘sparrows,’ Matthew 10:29 || Luke 12:6 ), appears in connexion with our Lord’s arresting doctrine of Divine Providence, which stands in such unhesitating defiance of the sterner features of the world of life ( In Memoriam , lv. f.).
Very conspicuously Jesus condemns over-anxiety about this life and its ‘goods.’ Simplicity and detachment in regard to these things are repeatedly insisted on (see, e.g ., Matthew 6:19 ; Matthew 6:31 , Luke 12:15 ). Certainly the accumulation of a superabundance of the ‘goods’ of life at the expense of others’ deprivation and want is in direct opposition to the spirit of His teaching. The deep, paradoxical saying ( Matthew 16:25 f.) about losing and finding one’s life is of significance here a saying found not only in the three Synoptics (see Mark 8:35 , Luke 9:24 ), but also in its substance in John 12:25 .
Eternal life figures conspicuously in the teaching of Jesus. He did not originate the expression: it was already established in the Rabbinical vocabulary. The subject was, and continued to be, one greatly discussed among the Jews. The phrasing of Jesus as when He speaks of ‘inheriting’ ( Matthew 19:29 ), ‘having’ (Jn. passim ), ‘receiving’ ( Mark 10:30 ), ‘entering into,’ or ‘attaining’ ( Matthew 19:17 ), eternal life, or life simply is also that of the Jewish teachers of His own and a later day. (Note even the significance of the wording in Mark 10:17 ||). ‘Life’ alone as = ‘eternal life’ is used in Matthew 7:14 , Mark 9:43 etc.; also in John’s Gospel (as John 3:36 ; John 10:10 etc.). (See above.)
The Johannine Gospel conspicuously gives ‘eternal life’ as a chief topic of Christ’s teaching; whilst in the Synoptics ‘the kingdom of God’ holds the corresponding place. The connexion between the two conceptions is intimate and vital. The primary characteristic of eternal life is that it is life lived under the rule of God. The definition found in John 17:3 (with which Wis 15:3 invites comparison) shows how essentially it is a matter of moral and spiritual interests. The notion of ever-lastingness rather follows from this: the feeling that death cannot destroy what is precious in God’s sight. Cf. Tennyson:
‘ Transplanted human worth
Shall bloom to profit otherwhere.’
But the life is a present possession, an actual fact of experience (John 3:35 ; John 5:24 ; John 6:47 etc.). We have, however, the indication of a special association of eternal life with the hereafter in Mark 10:30 (‘in the world to come’) Matthew 25:40 . Cf. also p. 490 a .
It is the teaching of Christ that has caused the words ‘eternal life’ to be written, as it were, across the face of the NT. Still more are we to notice the unique claim made as to His relation to that life. The keynote of the Johannine presentation is ‘in him was life’ (John 1:4 ), and throughout He is consistently represented as giving and imparting this life to His people. Note also, it is eternal life as predicated of these that is principally, if not exclusively, in view in the Evangelical teaching there is little or nothing on human immortality in the widest sense.
2. The rest of the NT. The leading theme of. l Jn . is ‘eternal life,’ and it is handled in complete accord with the Fourth Gospel. St. Paul is in agreement with the Johannine teaching on the cardinal topic of eternal life. His Epistles throb with this theme, and he conspicuously presents Christ as the source of this life in its fullest conception, or the One through whom it is mediated. See Romans 6:23 , and note his strong way of identifying Christ with this life, as in Galatians 2:20 , Philippians 1:21 , Colossians 3:3-4 . Christ is also presented as author or mediator of life in the widest sense, the life that moves in all created things ( Colossians 1:16-17 ; cf. John 1:3 ). St. Paul, again, uses ‘life’ alone as containing all the implicates of ‘eternal life’ ( Romans 5:17 , 2 Corinthians 5:4 , Philippians 2:16 ). The supremely ethical value associated with life is seen in the definition given in Romans 8:6 , with which cf. John 17:3 . The new life of the Spirit as a dynamic in the present and as having the promise of full fruition in eternity, is central in the Apostle’s exposition of Christianity. For the rest, the Apocalypse should be noticed for its use of such images as ‘crown of life,’ ‘book of life,’ ‘fountain,’ ‘river,’ and ‘water of life,’ and the ‘book of life’ (which we also meet with elsewhere) all embodying the Christian hope of immortality.
J. S. Clemens.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Life
God (Yahweh) as the Source and Sustainer of Life . According to Genesis 2:7 , "the Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and the man became a living being." This "breath of life" does not distinguish human beings from other animals, nor perhaps even plant life, as can be seen in Genesis 1:29-30 . When God declared his judgment against Noah's generation, all creation in which there was the "breath of life" would suffer the destruction of the flood (Genesis 6:17 ; 7:15,21-23 ). The breath of life distinguishes the living from the dead, not human beings from animals (Ecclesiastes 3:18-19 ). Consistently throughout Scripture God is portrayed as the giver of life, which distinguishes living organisms from inanimate things (Romans 4:17 ).
Life is contingent upon the continuing, sustaining "breath" of God. When God ceases to breathe, life is no more, "How many are your works, O Lord! In wisdom you made them all; the earth is full of your creatures When you take away their breath, they die and return to the dust" (Psalm 104:24,29 ). Death is frequently described as the cessation of this divine activity (Ecclesiastes 9:9-10 ; Mark 15:37 ). It is for this reason that the psalmist concludes, "Let everything that has breath praise the Lord" (Psalm 150:6 ; cf. Romans 1:20-21 ).
The Quality and Duration of Life . Between birth and death, creation and cessation of life, the living experience varying qualities of life and length of days. On the one hand, the Creator is the sovereign Lord of the days of one's life. He sends poverty and wealth, humility, and exaltation, makes paupers to be princes and princes to be paupers (1 Samuel 2:6-9 ). For this reason, those who live by faith are not to worry, for they rest in the assurance that God cares about their life (Matthew 6:25-34 ; Luke 12:22-31 ). One cannot add a single hour to the span of life by worrying (Matthew 6:27 ). "The length of our days is seventy years—or eighty, if we have the strength; yet their span is but trouble and sorrow, for they quickly pass, and we fly away" (Psalm 90:10 ). Long life is viewed as the evidence of divine favor (Exodus 20:12 ; Deuteronomy 5:16 ; Psalm 21:4 ; 91:16 ; Proverbs 10:27 ; Joshua 24:14-15 ), so to die in the midst of one's years was a calamity (Isaiah 38:10-14 ; Genesis 4:10-116 ; Lamentations 2:21 ). On the other hand, the situation and quality of life may be diminished and even destroyed by chance, circumstances, and the conduct of unrighteous or negligent persons. In such circumstances, the lowly pray for divine mercy and help. Worries, riches, and pleasures (Mark 4:19 ; Luke 12:15 ), as well as hunger, sickness, sorrow, and sin can choke and even destroy life.
Life as a Choice . In Moses' third address to Israel (Deuteronomy 29:1-30:20 ), he calls them to reaffirm their covenant with God. A choice, not a difficult one, must be made (Deuteronomy 30:11 ), for God had set before them "life and prosperity, death and destruction blessings and curses. Now choose life" (Deuteronomy 30:15,19 ). In a similar manner. Joshua appeals to the next generation after the settlement in the promised land (Isaiah 65:20 ).
The choice is not always one of obedience and disobedience, but rather one of wisdom that results in health, prosperity, honor, and a better quality of life (Exodus 15:26 ; Proverbs 3:22 ; 4:13,22 ; 6:23 ; 8:35 ; 10:17,28 ; 19:23 ; 21:21 ; 22:4 ; Mark 10:17-31 ). Such a Person experiences the shalom and peace of God ( Proverbs 14:30 ; Galatians 1:3 ). This choice is inherent in the psalms and the Beatitudes of Jesus. The promised blessed life is contingent upon the community and/or individual response of obedience to the will of God (Matthew 7:24-27 ).
The Sanctity of Life . In a physical sense, life is associated with the blood of an animal (Leviticus 17:11-14 ; Deuteronomy 12:23 ). As long as there is blood, there is life. When the blood is drained from the body, so is life. The connection is so strong that the law forbade the consumption of blood or meat with blood in it (Genesis 9:4 ; Leviticus 17:12,14 ; Deuteronomy 12:23 ; Acts 15:20,29 ). Also, the blood of an animal could make atonement for the transgressions and sins of the people of God (Leviticus 16:14-19 ). The life-blood of the sacrifice was substituted for the life-blood of the worshiper, although inadequate and creating a longing for the perfect sacrifice of Christ (Psalm 49:7-9 ; Hebrews 10:1-4 ).
God demands a reverence for human life (Psalm 139:13-14 ), and forbids murder (Exodus 20:13 ; Deuteronomy 5:17 ; Matthew 5:21 ). Where violence has shed blood, there must be an accounting and a just penalty (1618419304_27 ; 9:5-6 ; Exodus 21:23 ; Leviticus 24:17-22 ; Deuteronomy 19:21 ; Matthew 5:38 ). Jesus enlarges this understanding of life to include more than physical life, proscribing angry words, insults, and name calling (Matthew 5:22 ), for these wound and kill the spirit, self-esteem, and well-being of another. The perpetrator becomes subject to judgment. The gospel of God extends a special invitation to the poor, the disabled, the weak, the oppressed, and the children, offering hope and new life.
Sin and Spiritual Death . Mortal humanity was created in the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27 ), and given the opportunity of eternal life in relationship with the Creator (Genesis 2-3 ). Central and vital to life in paradise was access to the tree of life in the midst of the garden of Eden (Genesis 2:9 ). There was one commandment, "You are free to eat from any tree in the garden; but you must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat of it you will surely die." When Eve and Adam listened to the tempter and disobeyed the commandment, eating the fruit of the forbidden tree, they brought a curse upon themselves (Genesis 3:16-19 ), their descendants (Romans 5:12-14 ; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22 ), and upon all creation (Genesis 3:17 ; Romans 8:19-22 ). The human race lost innocence, knowing right from wrong, and, even more, the disobedience abolished a continuing privileged access to the tree of life (Revelation 2:7 ; 22:2,14 , 19 ), and thus eternal life. Spiritual death, separation from the tree of life, and a broken relationship with God resulted. The human race was destined to die, as were all living creatures, but now without hope beyond the grave. Spiritual death reigned from Adam to Christ (Romans 5:14,21 ; 1 Corinthians 15:20-26 ).
The Good News of the Gospel . Life is a central motif of the four Gospels. John summarizes his purpose in writing the Fourth Gospel: "These are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have life in his name" (20:31).
Jesus announced that he alone is the narrow gate or entrance into the way that leads to life (Matthew 7:13-14 ; John 10:7,9 ; 14:6 ). As the Son of God, he had been active in creation (John 1:1-4 ), and came to give new life or birth (3:3,5, 7; 6:33,51) to all who believe in him (3:16). Those who experience the new birth are described as having been formerly dead (Luke 15:32 ; John 5:21 ). Thus, Jesus stands alone at the center of history as "the Author of Life" (John 5:40 ; Acts 3:15 ). This life is nearly synonymous with entering into the kingdom of God and experiencing the restoration of the divine-human relationship intended in creation. When Jesus healed the sick, exorcised demons, and cleansed lepers, he was restoring life to its intended, physical wholeness (Luke 4:18-19 ; 6:9 ). When he proclaimed the good news of God, he was seeking to save and restore the spiritual life lost in Adam's sin.
Eternal Life . There is only an embryonic understanding of eternal life in the Old Testament. The psalms frequently reveal a deep longing to be permitted entrance into the presence of God, which goes beyond earthly, temporal worship in the sanctuary or temple. In Psalm 71:9 the psalmist prays in his old age, not that he might escape death, but rather that the Lord would not forsake him as his strength fades and death approaches. It is pious Job who becomes the champion of eternal hope ( Job 19:25-27 ). This hope, which seems to burst through the boundaries of death, is expressed in more apocalyptic terms in Isaiah 65:17-19 . Daniel envisions a resurrection and judgment assigning those raised to everlasting life or everlasting shame and contempt (Daniel 12:1-3 ). To die, however, generally meant that one entered the mysterious underworld beyond of Sheol or Hades.
Life in the New Testament, beginning with Jesus, predominantly has a metaphysical and spiritual meaning, an indestructible quality, which supersedes physical death and the grave. This life is more important than eating, drinking, and clothes (Matthew 6:25 ; Luke 12:22-33 ), and more valuable than physical wholeness and health. The distinction becomes clearer when Jesus commands disciples to deny themselves, take up the cross daily, and follow him (Mark 8:34 ; par. ). There is a tension, even a conflict, between the present physical existence with its passions, and the spiritual life that will continue beyond physical death. Whoever loses or denies the present life for the sake of Christ, finds eternal life, life in the age to come (Mark 8:35-37 ; 10:30 ; par. John 12:25 ). The rich young ruler desired to inherit eternal life, but to him the cost of denying his present life by selling all that he had and giving to the poor in order to gain the eternal was too great (Genesis 25:8 ; par. ).
"Eternal life (zoen aionion )" becomes a common phrase in the Johannine writings. Jesus is life (1:4; 5:26; 11:25; 14:6; 1 John 1:2 ) and the giver of life (John 5:40 ; 6:33,35 , 48,51 , 63 ; 10:10 ; 17:2 ; 1 John 5:11-12 ) to all who believe in him (John 1:7 ; 3:15,16 , 36 ; 6:40 ; 11:26 ; 12:46 ). The beginning of life as a child of God is likened to a new birth (John 3:3-8 ; 1 John 2:29 ; 3:9 ; 4:7 ; 5:1,4 , 18 ), which is not of human decision, but the result of the divine, spiritual action of God (John 1:13 ; 3:5-8 ; 6:63 ). It is a transformation from death to life, becoming a present reality. This life is available to "all who believe" in Jesus, the Son of God.
According to Paul, the death of Jesus on the cross opens the way to reconciliation with God, and it is the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ that gives life to those who believe (Romans 5:10 ; 6:3-4 ; Galatians 2:20 ). Those who have experienced the free gift of life from God (Romans 5:15 ; 6:23 ) are led in triumphal procession spreading the knowledge of the gospel of Christ everywhere (2 Corinthians 2:14 ). They walk in newness of life (Romans 6:4 ; 7:6 ), and the righteousness of God reigns in their mortal bodies to eternal life through Jesus Christ (Romans 5:21 ; 6:13,22 ). The Spirit of God at work in them gives life, peace, and freedom (Romans 8:6,11 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ), which is witnessed by the present world in their love for one another.
Melvin H. Shoemaker
See also Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life ; New Life
Bibliography . G. R. Beasley-Murray, SJT 27 (1974): 76-93; G. Bornkamm, Early Christian Experience ; F. F. Bruce, SJT 24 (1971): 457-72; R. Bultmann, G. von Rad, and G. Bertram, TDNT, 2:832-75; J. C. Coetzee, Neot 6 (1972): 48-66; C. H. Dodd, The Interpretation of the Fourth Gospel ; A. J. Feldman, The Concept of Immortality in Judaism Historically Considered ; G. E. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament ; J. Pedersen, Israel: Its Life and Culture ; H. H. Rowley, The Faith of Israel ; R. Schnackenburg, Christian Existence in the New Testament ; V. Taylor, ExpT 76 (1964-65): 76-79; H. W. Wolff, Anthropology of the Old Testament .
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - New Life
God has brought his people salvation in Jesus Christ, a gift that is described throughout the Scriptures as new life. Two words are used in the New Testament to describe newness. The first, neos [1]. It, and its derivatives, describe that which is new in nature, different from usual, better than the old, and superior in significance. Used in conjunction with zoe [2], kainos [3]describes the essence of what God has done through Jesus Christ: he has given his children new life.
Believers begin a new life when they are born again by the Spirit (1 Peter 1:3 ). Regeneration places believers on the road of faith whereby they become new creations (2 Corinthians 5:17 ) and enjoy a new life in Christ (Romans 6:4 ). In spite of that reality, believers wrestle with the old nature and old self. They must seek to put on the new self (Ephesians 4:24 ) and to follow the new commandment of Christ (1 John 2:8 ).
The gift of new life was foretold by the prophets in the Old Testament. Ezekiel prophesied the gift of a new heart and a new spirit (Ezekiel 36:26 ). Jeremiah told of a new covenant (Jeremiah 31:31 ). Isaiah spoke of a new name (Isaiah 62:2 ). The new age promised by the prophets came in Jesus Christ, the new Adam. Yet that which is presently realized by believers is only a foretaste of that which is yet to come in fullness. The apocalyptic Book of Revelation tells us that God will make everything new (21:5). He will create a new heaven and new earth (21:1), a new Jerusalem (3:12), where the saints enjoy a new name (2:17) and sing a new song (5:9).
Sam Hamstra, Jr.
See also Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life ; Life
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Life, New
See New Life
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Eternal Life (2)
ETERNAL LIFE.—This phrase occurs more than forty times in the New Testament. In many passages it denotes primarily a present possession or actual experience of the Christian believer, while in others it clearly contemplates a blessed life to come, conceived as a promised inheritance. The Greek expressions are ζωὴ αἱώνιος, ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή (John 17:3, 1 Timothy 6:12), ἡ ζωὴ ἡ αἰώνιος (1 John 1:2). The word ‘life,’ or ‘the life’ (ζωή, ἡ ζωή), without the qualifying adjective ‘eternal,’ is often employed in the same general meaning.
There are passages in the Synoptic Gospels in which the phrase ‘eternal life’ is used synonymously and interchangeably with ‘the kingdom of God’ (Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47, Matthew 7:14; Matthew 7:21). The Kingdom of heaven and the life eternal are very closely related in the teaching of Jesus. Compare also the suggestive language of Romans 5:17 ‘shall reign in life through Jesus Christ.’ But it is especially in the writings of St. John that we find ‘eternal life’ presented as a heavenly boon which may become the actual possession of believers in the present life. God Himself is the source of all life, and ‘as the Father hath life in himself, even so gave he to the Son also to have life in himself’ (John 5:26). In the Word ‘which became flesh and dwelt among us’ there was a visible manifestation of the life eternal: ‘In him was life; and the life was the light of men’ (John 1:4); so that He Himself declares, ‘I am the way, and the truth, and the life’ (John 14:6). In accord with these statements the very life of God is conceived as begotten in the believer by the Holy Spirit, so that he is ‘born anew,’ ‘born from above’ (John 3:3-7). Thus begotten of God, the children of God become distinctly manifest, and God’s ‘seed abideth in them’ (1 John 3:9-10). That is, in these Divinely begotten children of God there abides the imperishable germ (σπέρμα) of life from above, the eternal kind of life which the twice born possess in common with the Father and the Son. Hence it is that the believer ‘hath eternal life’ as an actual possession (John 3:36). He ‘hath passed out of death into life’ (John 5:24, 1 John 3:14).
In John 17:3 we read what has to some extent the manner of a definition: ‘This is life eternal, that (ἵνα) they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ.’ So far as this text furnishes a definition, it seems clearly to imply that ‘eternal life’ consists in such a knowledge of God and of Christ as involves a personal experience of vital fellowship. It carries with it the love and obedience which, according to John 14:23, bring the Father and the Son into the believer’s inmost life, so that they ‘make their abode with him.’ In view of the use of ἵνα in John 4:34, John 15:12, John 18:39 we need not refine so far as (with Westcott on this passage) to maintain that the connective here retains its telic force and indicates an aim and an end, a struggle after increasing knowledge rather than the attainment of a knowledge already in possession. But it should not be supposed that any present knowledge of God and of Christ is inconsistent with incalculable future increase. While the essence of this Divine life consists in the knowledge of the only true God and His anointed Son, such knowledge is not the whole of eternal life, for other ideals with their additional content are also set before us in the teaching of Christ and of His Apostles. Whatever else is true touching this saving knowledge of the true God, its present possession is one of the great realities in the personal experience of the believer. In 1 John 5:11-13 the gift and actual possession of this eternal kind of heavenly life are made emphatic: ‘God gave unto us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath the life; he that hath not the Son of God hath not the life.’ This language is incompatible with the thought that the ‘eternal life’ spoken of is merely a promise, a hope or an expectation of such life in a future state, as some of the older expositors maintained.
This heavenly kind of life in Christ, conceived as a present experience of salvation, is further confirmed and illustrated by what Jesus said of Himself as ‘the bread of life’ and the giver of the water that springs up into eternal life. We have, no doubt, the enigmatical words of profound mysticism in John 6:35-58. Jesus declares that He is ‘the bread of life,’ which ‘giveth life unto the world.’ ‘I am the living bread which came down out of heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: yea, and the bread which I will give is my flesh, for the life of the world.’ ‘Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye have not life in yourselves. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath eternal life: and I will raise him up at the last day.’ ‘He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood abideth in me, and I in him.’ ‘He that eateth me shall live because of me.’ ‘He that eateth this bread shall live for ever.’ These emphatic repetitions of statement would seem to put it beyond all question that their author meant to teach that the Son of God, sent by the living Father, ‘lives because of the Father,’ and imparts the eternal life of the Father to every one who believes in Him. Of this living bread the believer now partakes, and ‘hath eternal life’ (John 6:47; John 6:54). This life also is conceived as attaining a certain goal, or receiving a definite consummation ‘at the last day.’ For it is a permanent possession, and of a nature to advance from strength to strength and from glory to glory. The eating the flesh and drinking the blood of the Son of Man have been thought by some expositors to refer to the partaking of the body and blood of Christ in the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper; but such a reference to an institution not yet established, and utterly unknown to His Jewish opponents, would have been strangely irrelevant. The life eternal into which the believer enters involves, as matter of course, all due allowance for Divinely appointed conditions, aids, provisions and means of nourishing the life itself; but to exalt these unduly is to divert the thought from the more central and profound mystic conception of Christ Himself as the life of the world. So the remarkable sayings of Jesus in the synagogue at Capernaum, recorded in John 6:32-59, are but another form and a mystic expression of His emphatic declaration in John 5:24 ‘He that heareth my word, and believeth him that sent me, hath eternal life, and cometh not into judgment, but hath passed out of death into life.’
The exact meaning of the word ‘eternal,’ when used to qualify ‘the life,’ is best understood when the life is conceived as issuing from the eternal Father, and so partaking of His Divine nature (cf. 2 Peter 1:4). Having life in Himself, and giving to His Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26), He imparts the same life to all who believe in the Son; and that life is in its nature eternal as God Himself. It is an eternal kind of life which belongs to the unseen and imperishable things (cf. 2 Corinthians 4:18). In the Johannine writings the word ‘life’ or ‘the life,’ and the phrase ‘eternal life,’ are used interchangeably. The latter is the more frequent form of expression, but it is evident that the writer often employs ‘the life’ in the same sense. This life is spoken of in contrast with ‘death’ and ‘perishing.’ The believer ‘shall not perish, but have eternal life’ (John 3:16), ‘hath passed out of the death into the life’ (John 5:24), ‘shall never see death,’ nor ‘taste of death’ (John 8:51-52), ‘shall never perish’ (John 10:28). He who has not the life is in a condition of spiritual death, and must perish unless he receive the life of God, the eternal kind of life, which has been manifested in Christ. In these and other similar passages life and death are not to be understood as identical in meaning with existence and non-existence. The person who has passed out of death into life had existence before the new life came, and such existence, in estrangement from God and in disobedience of the gospel, may be perpetuated in ‘eternal destruction from the face of the Lord’ (2 Thessalonians 1:9). So the ‘death,’ which those who ‘perish’ taste, need not be understood as annihilation, or utter extinction of being. As ‘the death’ is a condition of moral and spiritual destitution in which one has no fellowship with God, so ‘the life’ is the blessed experience of fellowship and union with Christ as vital as that of the branch and the vine. And this participation in the very nature of the Eternal God is the essence of the ‘life eternal.’
In the writings of St. Paul we also find a mystic element in which we note the concept of eternal life as a present possession. The exhortation to ‘lay hold on the life eternal,’ and the designation of it as ‘the life which is life indeed’ (ἡ ὄντως ζωή, 1 Timothy 6:12; 1 Timothy 6:19), may refer either to the present or the future; but when the Apostle speaks of believers as made alive and risen with Christ, and sitting with Him in the heavenlies (Ephesians 2:5-6), he implies a fruition that was already realized. It involved a positive experience like that in which ‘the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made him free from the law of sin and of death’ (Romans 8:2). He also has a wonderful appreciation of the heavenly illumination which ‘shined in our hearts to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ’ (2 Corinthians 4:6). This surpassing light is conceived by the Apostle as a product of the Spirit of the Lord, and a reflexion of the glory of Christ as seen in the mirror of His gospel. In that mirror the believer beholds the glory of his Lord reflected, and by the power of the heavenly vision he is ‘transformed into the same image’ (2 Corinthians 3:17-18). The Johannine doctrine of ‘passing out of death into life’ is conceived by St. Paul as a dying unto sin and being made alive unto God in Christ Jesus. The believer is ‘alive from the dead’ and ‘walks in newness of life’ (Romans 6:1-13). He has been ‘crucified with Christ: and it is no longer I that live, but Christ liveth in me; and that life which I now live in the flesh I live in faith, which is in the Son of God’ (Galatians 2:20). And so in Pauline thought the spiritual life of faith, enjoyed in fellowship with God and Christ, is a ‘life hid with Christ in God’ (Colossians 3:3), and ‘the free gift of God’ (Romans 6:23). This conception is in essential harmony with the doctrine of St. John. Eternal life is in its inmost nature the free, pure, permanent spiritual life of Christlikeness. It is a present possession, a glorious reality, a steadfastness of conscious living fellowship with the Eternal Father, and with His Son, Jesus Christ.
But in all the Gospels and in the Epistles we also find eternal life contemplated as a future glorious inheritance of the saints. In St. John’s Gospel the ‘eternal life’ which the believer now ‘hath’ is destined to attain a glorious consummation in the resurrection ‘at the last day’ (John 5:40; John 5:45). For Jesus is Himself the resurrection as well as the life, and declares: ‘He that believeth on me, though he die, yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth on me shall never die’ (John 11:25-26). Such a life must needs abide in eternal permanence. Jesus spoke of ‘the water of life’ which becomes in him who drinks it ‘a fountain of water springing up into eternal life’ (John 4:14). He spoke of food ‘which abideth unto life eternal,’ and of ‘gathering fruit unto life eternal’ (John 4:36, John 6:27). In all the Gospels He is represented as teaching that ‘he that loveth [1] his soul loseth it; and he that hateth [2] his soul in this world shall keep it unto life eternal.’ We read in Mark 10:29-30 ‘There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, … or lands, for my sake and for the gospel’s sake, but he shall receive a hundredfold now in this time, … and in the age to come life eternal’ (cf. Matthew 19:29 and Luke 18:29-30). These Gospels also speak of eternal life as an inheritance to be received at a future day (Matthew 19:16, Mark 10:17, Luke 10:25; Luke 18:18). Such contrast of ‘this time,’ ‘this world,’ ‘on the earth’ with ‘the age to come,’ and ‘in heaven,’ implies possessions in some other age or world beyond the present. In the picture of the Judgment (Matthew 25:31-46), the righteous who go ‘into eternal life’ are said to ‘inherit the kingdom prepared for them from the foundation of the world,’ and to enter into the joy and glory of the King Himself.
This idea of eternal life as a glorious future inheritance finds also frequent expression in the Epistles. Those who ‘by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honour and immortality’ shall receive eternal life as a reward of the righteous judgment of God (Romans 2:7). All who are made free from sin and become servants of God ‘have their fruit unto sanctification, and the end life eternal’ (Romans 5:21; Romans 6:22). In the Epistle to the Hebrews (Hebrews 1:14; Hebrews 9:15) we read of ‘them that shall inherit salvation,’ and of them that ‘receive the promise of the eternal inheritance.’ In 1 Peter 1:4 the writer tells his readers that God has begotten them unto a living hope, ‘unto an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved for them in heaven.’ According to all these scriptures, eternal life is begotten in the Christian believer by the Holy Spirit of God, and is to be perpetuated through the ages of ages. It is eternal in quality as being a participation in the Divine nature of the Eternal One, and eternal in duration as continuing for ever and ever. It is a possession of manifold fulness, and is conditioned in a character of god-likeness, which ‘has the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come’ (1 Timothy 4:8). There can be no living this life apart from God, for it is begotten in the soul by a heavenly birth, and must be continually nourished by the Spirit of God. Such vital union with the eternal Spirit brings unspeakable blessedness in this life and in this world; but it is as permanent and abiding as the nature of God, and is therefore appropriately called an incorruptible inheritance. Each individual life, whose ‘fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ’ (1 John 1:3), is conceived as continuing eternally in that heavenly fellowship. In this age and that which is to come, in this world and in any other, on the earth or in the heavens, the child of God abides in eternal life.
See art. Eschatology ii. 2, and so far as this subject relates to the Future State, artt. Heaven, Immortality, Resurrection.
Literature.—Gueder in Herzog, Real-Encyclopadie (ed. Plitt, 1881), vol. viii. pp. 509–517, also Kahler in same Encyc. (ed. Hauck, 1902), vol. xi. pp. 330–334; M‘Clintock and Strong’s Cyclopaedia, vol. iii. pp. 313–317; Charles, Crit. Hist. of Doctrine of Future Life, pp. 368–370; Dalman, Words of Jesus, pp. 156–162; Drummond, Relation of Apostolic Teaching to Teaching of Christ, pp. 193–198; Hort, The Way, the Truth, the Life (Hulsean Lectures for 1871), Lect. iii.: Titius, Jesu Lehre vom Reiche Gottes, pp. 29–39; Wendt, The Teaching of Jesus, vol. i. pp. 242–255; Westcott, The Epistles of John, pp. 214–218; Beyschlag, New Test. Theology, vol. i. pp. 266–268, vol. ii. pp. 429–430; Holtzmann, Neutest. Theologie, vol. ii. pp. 516–518; Immer, Theol. des NT, pp. 512–515; Stevens, Johannine Theology, pp. 312–327, also Theology of the NT, pp. 224–233; Weiss, Bibl. Theol. of the NT, vol. ii. pp. 347–352.
M. S. Terry.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Reviewed
Here is a good searching question for a man to ask himself as he reviews his past life:: Have I written in the snow? Will my life-work endure the lapse of years and the fret of change? Has there been anything immortal in it, which will survive the speedy wreck of all sublunary things? The boys inscribe their names in capitals in the snow, and in 'the morning's thaw the writing disappears; will it be so with my work, or will the characters which I have carved outlast the brazen tablets of history? Have I written in the snow?
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Spiritual
How like to a Christian a man may be and yet possess no vital godliness! Walk through the British Museum, and you will see all the orders of animals standing in their various places, and exhibiting themselves with the utmost possible propriety. The rhinoceros demurely retains the position in which he was set at first, the eagle soars not through the window, the wolf howls not at night; every creature, whether bird, beast, or fish, remains in the particular glass case allotted to it; but we all know that these are not the creatures, but only the outward semblances of them. Yet in what do they differ? Certainly in nothing which you could readily see, for the well-stuffed animal is precisely like what the living animal would have been; and that eye of glass even appears to have more of brightness in it than the natural eye of the creature itself; there is a secret inward something lacking, which, when it has once departed, you cannot restore. So in the churches of Christ, many professors are not living believers, but stuffed Christians. They possess all the externals of religion, and every outward morality that you could desire; they behave with great propriety, they keep their places, and there is no outward difference between them and the true believer, except upon the vital point, the life which no power on earth can possibly confer. There is this essential distinction, spiritual life is absent.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life of Tre Believer: Interesting
I heard a gentleman assert that he could walk almost any number of miles when the scenery was good; but, he added, 'When it is flat and uninteresting, how one tires!' What scenery enchants the Christian pilgrim; the towering mountains of predestination, the great sea of providence, the rocks of sure promise, the green fields of revelation, the river that makes glad the city of God, all these compose the scenery which surrounds the Christian, and at every step fresh sublimities meet his view.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Uncertainty of
It fareth with most men's lives, as with the sand in a deceptive hour-glass; look but upon it in outward appearance, and it seemeth far more than it is, because it riseth up upon the sides, whilst the sand is empty and hollow in the midst thereof:, so that when it sinks down in an instant, a quarter of an hour is gone in a moment. Thus many men are mistaken in their own account, reckoning upon threescore and ten years, the age of a man, because their bodies appear strong and lusty. Alas! their health may be hollow, there may be some inward infirmity and imperfection unknown to them, so that death may surprise them on a sudden, and they be cut down like the grass.'
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Life
LIFE (ζωή).—The term applied by Jesus, alike in the Synoptic and the Johannine records of His teaching, to the supreme blessing mediated by Him to men. Certain elements in the conception are common to the two records, but their differences are so marked that it will be necessary to consider them separately.
1. The idea of Life in the Synoptic teaching is substantially that of the OT, unfolded in all its potential wealth of meaning. Hebrew thought, averse to metaphysical speculation, conceived of life as the sum of energies which make up man’s actual existence. The soul separated from the body did not cease to be, but it forfeited its portion in the true life. It either departed to the shadowy world of Sheol, or, according to the later view of Ecclesiastes, was reabsorbed (?) into the Divine Being,—‘returned to God who gave it’ (Ecclesiastes 12:7). Thus the highest good was simply ‘length of days,’—the continuance of the bodily existence right on to its natural term. Two factors, however, were latent in the OT conception from the beginning, and became more and more prominent in the course of the after-development. (1) The radical element in life is activity. Mere physical being is distinguished from that essential ‘life’ which consists in the unrestricted play of all the energies, especially of the higher and more characteristic. In the loftier passages of the Psalms, more particularly, the idea of ‘life’ has almost always a pregnant sense. It is associated with joy, peace, prosperity, wisdom, righteousness; man ‘lives’ according as he has free scope for the activities which are distinctive of his spiritual nature. God Himself is emphatically the ‘living One,’ as contrasted with men in their limitation and helplessness. (2) Since God alone possesses life in the highest sense, fellowship with Him is the one condition on which men can obtain it. ‘By every word of God doth man live’ (Deuteronomy 8:3). ‘With thee is the fountain of life’ (Psalms 36:9). In the higher regions of OT thought, life and communion with God are interchangeable ideas. The belief in immortality is never expressly stated, but, as Jesus Himself indicates, it was implicit in this conception of a God who was not the God of the dead but of the living. See art. Living.
Jesus accepted the idea of life as it had come to Him through the OT. To Him also life is primarily the physical existence (cf. Matthew 6:25 ‘Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat and drink,’ etc.), and He advances on this conception along ethical and religious lines, in the same manner as the Psalmists and Prophets. (1) He distinguishes between the essential ‘life’ and the outward subsidiary things with which it is so easily confused. ‘The life is more than meat’ (Luke 12:23). ‘A man’s life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth’ (v. 15). ‘What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his life?’ (Mark 8:36). (2) Thus He arrives at the idea of something central and inalienable which constitutes the reality of life. This He discovers in the moral activity. The body with its manifold faculties is only the organ by which man accomplishes his true task of obedience to God. Meat, raiment, and all the rest are necessary, ‘but seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness.’ (3) In this way He is led to the conception of a higher, spiritual life, gained through the sacrifice of the lower. ‘If a man hate not his own life, he cannot be my disciple’ (Luke 14:26). ‘He that findeth his life shall lose it, and he that loseth his life for my sake shall find it’ (Matthew 10:39; Matthew 16:25).
Here, however, we become aware of the difficulty which meets us under different forms throughout our Lord’s teaching. In His account of the supreme blessing for which lower things must be sacrificed, He seems to pass abruptly from ethical to eschatological ideas. ‘Life’ is a reward laid up for the righteous in the world to come. It is regarded sometimes as a new state of being (Matthew 25:46), sometimes as a sort of prize that can be bestowed in the same manner as houses and goods and lands (Mark 10:30). The precise meaning to be attached to ‘the world to come’ in which this ‘life’ will be imparted, depends on our interpretation of the general conception of the Kingdom of God. Our Lord would appear to waver between the idea of a world beyond death and that of a Messianic age or aeon, apocalyptically revealed on earth. In either case, however, He thinks of ‘life’ as of something still in the future, the peculiar blessing of the realized Kingdom of God.
This future possession is defined more particularly in several passages as ‘eternal life,’ and the epithet might appear at first sight to imply a distinction. We find, however, on closer examination that the term ‘life’ itself usually involves the emphatic meaning. ‘This do and thou shalt live’ (Luke 10:28) is our Lord’s reply to the inquiry concerning ‘eternal life.’ So when He says, ‘It is better to enter into life halt or maimed’ (Matthew 18:8, Mark 9:43), or ‘Narrow is the way that leadeth unto life’ (Matthew 7:14), it is evidently the future blessing that is in His mind. There is good ground for the conjecture that Jesus Himself never used the expression ‘eternal life.’
Since the ethical and eschatological ideas are denoted by the same word, we are justified in assuming that in the mind of Jesus they were bound up with one another. The ‘life’ which is projected into the future and described figuratively as a gift bestowed from without, is in the last resort the life of moral activity. This becomes more apparent when we take account of certain further elements in our Lord’s teaching.
(a) The condition on which the future reward is given is faithful performance of the moral task in the present. Those shall ‘live’ who keep the commandments. The narrow way that leads to life is the way of obedience and sacrifice. By voluntary loss of earthly things in the cause of Christ, the disciples will gain ‘life’ (Mark 10:30). The apocalyptic imagery does not conceal from us the essential thought of Jesus, that the promised ‘life’ is nothing but the outcome and fulfilment of a moral obedience begun on earth.
(b) Life is not only a future fulfilment, but has a real beginning in the present. Thus in the saying, ‘Follow me, and let the dead bury their dead’ (Matthew 8:22 = Luke 9:60), Jesus implies that the disciples even now enter into possession of a new and higher life. They are the ‘living’ as opposed to the children of this world, who are spiritually dead. The same thought appears in the parable of the Prodigal Son: ‘he was dead and is alive again’ (Luke 15:32). Life in its full reality is the blessing of the world to come, but it will be different in degree, not in kind, from the present life of true discipleship.
(c) One element is common to the two types of ‘life,’ and marks their ultimate identity. The future consummation, described by Jesus in vivid pictorial language, is in its substance a closer fellowship with God. In the Kingdom which He anticipated, the pure in heart were to see God (Matthew 5:8); those who hungered and thirsted after righteousness were to be satisfied with God’s presence (v. 6). This perfect communion with God is the supreme reward laid up for the believer. It constitutes the inner meaning and content of the future Life. In like manner the present life of moral obedience is in its essence a life of fellowship with God. The aim of Jesus is to bring His disciples even now into such a harmony with the Divine will that they may be children of their Father who is in heaven, resembling Him and holding real communion with Him. The eschatological idea of life thus resolves itself at its centre into the purely ethical and religious. The Kingdom is already come when God’s will is done on earth as it is in heaven.
Jesus is Himself the Mediator of the new life. He imparts to His disciples His own consciousness of God’s presence and Fatherhood. He inspires in them a faith and obedience which without Him would have been for ever impossible. Through knowledge of Him and participation in His spirit, they enter into that fellowship with God which is eternal life. See Mediator.
2. In the Fourth Gospel the idea of Life is much more prominent than in the Synoptics. The Evangelist expressly states (John 20:31) that he has ‘written these things that believing ye may have life,’ and this statement of his main intention is fully borne out by the detailed study of the Gospel. The teaching of Jesus, as he records it, centres wholly on the subject of Life.
This in itself need not be regarded as a breach with the authentic tradition. We have seen that in the Synoptics also the idea of Life lies at the heart of our Lord’s teaching, since life is the peculiar blessing of the Kingdom of God. St. John, after his manner, detaches the essential thought from the eschatological framework. The future ‘kingdom’ becomes simply ‘life.’
The idea of Life as a present possession (already implicit in the Synoptic teaching) becomes in the Fourth Gospel central and determinative. ‘He that believeth on the Son hath (even now) everlasting life’ (John 3:36). ‘He that heareth my word … is passed out of death into life’ (John 5:24). The whole purpose of the work of Christ, as conceived by the Evangelist, was to communicate to His disciples, here and now, the eternal life. To those who have received His gift the death of the body is only a physical incident, a ‘falling asleep’ (John 11:11). The true death is the state of sin and privation, out of which they have been delivered, once and for all, in the act of surrender to Christ.
Isolated passages in the Gospel might seem to conflict with this, the characteristic and prevailing view. In the 6th chapter more especially, the conception of Life as a spiritual possession in the present appears side by side with repeated allusions to a resurrection ‘at the last day’ (John 6:39; John 6:44; John 6:54). These allusions are partly to be explained as reminiscences of an earlier type of doctrine, not completely in harmony with the writer’s own; such ‘concessions’ to a traditional belief meet us continually in this Gospel. At the same time, they serve to emphasize a real, though secondary, aspect of John’s own teaching. He anticipates in the future world a full manifestation of the Life which under earthly conditions is necessarily hidden. For the believer, as for Christ Himself, the escape from this world and its limitations marks the entrance into a larger activity and ‘glory’ (cf. John 14:2-3).
The Evangelist nowhere attempts to define his conception of Life. The great saying, ‘This is life eternal,’ etc. (John 17:3), cannot be construed as a definition. It only declares that the knowledge of God through Jesus Christ carries with it the assurance of life (cf. ‘His commandment is life everlasting’ [1]). The nature of the life is indicated only in vague and half-figurative terms. It is indestructible (John 6:58, John 11:26), satisfies all spiritual thirst and hunger (John 6:35, John 4:14), is the source of light (John 1:4, John 8:12). But, while little is said by way of express definition, the general import of the Johannine conception is sufficiently clear. The Life which Christ communicates is the absolute, Divine Life. ‘As the Father has life in himself, so he hath given the Son to have life in himself’ (John 5:26., cf. John 1:4). It is assumed that in God and in the Logos, who is one with Him, a life resides which is different in kind from that of men, and is the real, the ‘eternal’ Life.
The conception arises from the blending in the Fourth Gospel of Hebrew and early Christian with Greek-philosophical influences. Hebrew thought did not concern itself with questions regarding the ultimate nature of God. He was the ‘living’ God, who could be known only through His activity in the creation and moral government of the world. The Greek thinkers, on the other hand, tried to get behind His activity to His essential Being. He was the absolute and self-existent, over against the world of phenomena. His Life, so far as Life could be predicated of Him, was an energy of pure thought, abstracted from every form of sensible manifestation (cf. Arist. Metaph. xii. 7). The Fourth Evangelist, carrying out more fully the suggestion of Philo, combines the Hebrew and Greek ideas. He thinks of God as the ‘only true’ (John 17:3), the absolute Being who is eternally separate from the world which He has created. Nevertheless He is a living and personal God. The Life which He possesses is analogous to the life in man, but of a higher order, spiritual instead of earthly.
It follows from this attempt to combine Hebrew with Greek ideas, that the ethical moment falls largely out of sight. The difference between the human and the Divine Life is one of essence. Till man has undergone a radical change, not in heart merely but in the very constitution of his being, there can be no thought of his participating in the life of God. St. John thus involves himself in a conception which may be described as semi-physical. The Divine life is regarded as a sort of higher substance inherent in the nature of God. How can man, who is ‘born of flesh’ (John 3:6), become partaker in this substance, and so experience a new birth as a child of God? This is the religious problem as it presents itself to St. John.
The solution is afforded by the doctrine of the Incarnate Word. Jesus Christ, as the eternal Logos, possessed ‘life in himself,’ and yet assumed humanity and entered into our lower world. He therefore became the vehicle through which the life of God is imparted to men, or at least to those elect natures who are predisposed to receive it. He not only possesses, but is Himself the Life. To impart His gift He must also impart Himself, since life is inalienable from the living Person. This idea, which lies at the very centre of St. John’s thinking, determines his theory of the communication of Life through Christ.
The subjective condition, apart from which the gift cannot be bestowed, is belief in Jesus as the Son of God. This belief is primarily an act of intellectual assent to the claim of Christ; but such an act implies a religious experience which has led up to it and gives it value. It runs back in the last resort to the ‘drawing by the Father’ (John 6:44), the work of God’s Spirit in the heart. Through the act of belief a man is brought into such a relation to Christ that His power as Life-giver becomes operative.
Three means are indicated by which Christ imparts the gift to those who have believed. (1) It is conveyed through His word, regarded not simply as the medium of His message, but in the Hebrew sense as active and creative. The words spoken by Jesus are of the same nature as the quickening word of God. They are ‘spirit and life,’ carrying with them some portion of His own being. He can say indifferently, ‘My word shall abide in you’ and ‘I shall abide in you’ (John 15:7). It is this imparting of Himself through His words that renders them ‘words of eternal life.’ (2) The gift is conveyed likewise in the Sacraments, more especially in the Lord’s Supper. The Eucharistic reference in the 6th chapter appears to the present writer unmistakable, and, while the Supper is interpreted in a spiritual sense, its real validity is also emphasized. Ignatius, writing in the same age, describes the Eucharist as the φάρμακον ἀθανασίας (Ephes. 20), and St. John accepts this current belief, and harmonizes it with his own doctrine of Life: ‘Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, ye have no life in you’ (John 6:53). Since Jesus in His own Person is the Life, it can be given only through an actual incorporation of His ‘flesh and blood,’ and this is offered in the mystery of the Eucharist. The idea of Life as a semi-physical essence here comes to its sharpest expression. (3) In this same chapter, however, we have the indication of another and still more mysterious means by which the Life is imparted. The Eucharist, while it possesses in itself a real validity, is typical of an abiding union of the believer with Christ. He is like the vine (John 15:1 ff.), out of which the several branches draw their nourishment. He is united with His disciples in a relation so profound and intimate that they feel themselves to be one with Him. They abide in Him and He in them, and the life which He possesses becomes their life, springing up within them like a perennial well (John 4:14). This doctrine of a mystical union with Christ in which He imparts His Divine life to the believer, contains the central and characteristic thought of the Fourth Gospel.
Thus far we have considered the Johannine idea of Life as it is determined by the Logos theory. It becomes apparent, however, the more we study the Gospel, that the writer is working throughout with two conceptions, essentially different from each other and never completely reconciled. The incarnate Logos is at the same time the historical Jesus, who revealed God and drew all men to Himself by the moral grandeur of His personality and life. Doctrines which are presented theologically on the lines of the Logos hypothesis are also capable of a purely religious interpretation. They require to be so interpreted if we are not to miss their underlying and vital import.
Life regarded from this other side bears a meaning substantially the same as in the Synoptic Gospels. Jesus was the Living One, inasmuch as He realized in His own Person the love and goodness and holiness which constitute the inmost nature of God. The life He sought to communicate was nothing else than His own Spirit, as it was revealed in the scene of the feet-washing (John 13), and in the subsequent discourse with His disciples. Even in the Eucharistic chapter in which the theological view of Life is expressed most forcibly, we can discern this other view in the background. To partake of Christ’s flesh and blood is to become wholly conformed to Him, absorbing into oneself the very spirit by which He lived. We cannot read the chapter attentively without feeling that St. John is always passing from the metaphysical conception to this moral and religious one. Both are present in his mind, and he endeavours to fuse them, though such a fusion is in the nature of things impossible.
The cardinal doctrine of union with Christ assumes a new meaning in the light of this other aspect of St. John’s thought. What is elsewhere described as a mystical indwelling becomes a moral fellowship. ‘Henceforth I call you not servants, but friends; for the servant knoweth not what his lord doeth; but I have called you friends’ (John 15:15). The disciples are to enter into a perfect harmony of mind and will with their Master. His spirit is not to act on them from the outside, through set commandments, but inwardly and spontaneously. The relation of discipleship thus passes into one of ‘friendship,’—a friendship so close that they lose all sense of separateness between themselves and Christ. He ‘abides in them,’ and replaces their will with His own.
To the Synoptic teaching St. John adds one element of priceless value. He perceives that the new Life proclaimed by Jesus was bound up indissolubly with His living Person. ‘In him was life’ (John 1:4), and it is not enough to render some vague obedience to His teaching. There must be a real and personal communion with Christ, so that He may impart His very self to His disciple. In his presentation of this truth, John avails himself of metaphysical modes of thinking which are not wholly adequate to the Christian message. The conception of Christ as Logos obscures the true significance of His Person and of the higher life imparted through Him. But the essential thought of the Gospel is independent of the form, borrowed from an alien philosophy, in which it is expressed. Jesus Christ is not only the Life-giver, but is Himself the Life. He imparts His gift to those who know Him by an inward fellowship, and become one with Him in heart and will. See also Living.
Literature.—H. Holtzmann, NT Theol. i. 293 ff. (1897); Schrenck, Die johan. Anschauung vom ‘Leben’ (1898); Titius, Die NT Lehre von der Seligkeit (esp. the Johannine section, 1900); Grill, Untersuchungen über die Entstehung des vierten Evang. 206–327 (1902); G. Dalman, Words of Jesus, 156; G. B. Stevens, Johannine Theology, 241, 312; P. Brooks, More Abundant Life; B. F. Westcott, Historic Faith, 142; F. J. A. Hort, The Way, the Truth, the Life (1893); E. Hatch, Memorials, 181; J. G. Hoare, Life in St. John’s Gospel, (1901).
E. F. Scott.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Power of the Inner
On a winter's day I have noticed a row of cottages, with a deep load of snow on their several roofs; but as the day wore on, large fragments began to tumble from the eaves of this one and that other, till, by-and-by, there was a simultaneous avalanche, and the whole heap slid over in powdery ruin on the pavement, and before the sun went down you saw each roof as clear and dry as on a summer's eve. But here and there you would observe one with its snow-mantle unbroken, and a ruff of stiff icicles around it. What made the difference? The difference was to be found within. Some of these huts were empty, or the lonely inhabitant cowered over a scanty fire; whilst the peopled hearth and the high- blazing fagots of the rest created such an inward warmth that grim winter melted and relaxed his gripe; and the loosened mass folded off and tumbled over on the trampled street. It is possible by some outside process to push the main volume of snow from the frosty roof, or chip off the icicles one by one. But they will form again, and it needs an inward heat to create a total thaw. And so, by sundry processes, you may clear off from a man's conduct the dead weight of conspicuous sins; but it needs a hidden heat, a vital warmth within, to produce such a separation between the soul and its besetting iniquities, that the whole wintry incubus, the entire body of sin, will come spontaneously away. That vital warmth is the love of God abundantly shed abroad: the kindly glow which the Comforter diffuses in the soul which he makes his home. His genial inhabitation thaws that soul and its favourite sins asunder, and makes the indolence and self-indulgence and indevotion fall off from their old resting-place on that dissolving heart. The easiest form of self-mortification is a fervent spirit.: James Hamilton, D.D.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Life Book of
See Book of Life.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Eternal Life
See Eternal and Life and Death.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: the Hidden
Standing by the telegraphic wires one may often hear the mystic wailing and sighing of the winds among them, like the strains of an Aolian harp, but one knows nothing of the message which is flashing along them. Joyous may be the inner language of those wires, swift as the lightning, far- reaching and full of meaning, but a stranger intermeddles not therewith. Fit emblem of the believer's inner life; men hear our notes of outward sorrow wrung from us by external circumstances, but the message of celestial peace, the divine communings with a better land, the swift heart-throbs of heaven-born desire, they cannot perceive: the carnal see but the outer manhood, but the life hidden with Christ in God, flesh and blood cannot discern.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: the Power of an Earnest
The upper galleries at Versailles are filled with portraits, many of them extremely valuable and ancient. These are the likenesses of the greatest men of all lands and ages, drawn by the ablest artists. Yet most visitors wander through the rooms with little or no interest; in fact, after noticing one or two of the more prominent pictures, they hasten through the suite of chambers and descend to the other floors. Notice the change when the sight-seers come to fine paintings like those of Horace Vernet, where the men and women are not inactive portraits but are actively engaged. There the warrior who was passed by without notice upstairs, is seen hewing his way to glory over heaps of slain, or the statesman is observed delivering himself of weighty words before an assembly of princes and peers. Not the men but their actions engross attention. Portraits have no charm when scenes of stirring interest are set in rivalry with them. After all, then, let us be who or what we may, we must bestir ourselves or be mere nobodies, chips in the porridge, forgotten shells of the shore. If we would impress we must act. The dignity of standing still will never win the prize, we must run for it. Our influence over our times will arise mainly from our doing and suffering the will of God, not from our office or person. Life, life in earnest, life for God, this will tell on the age; but mere orderliness and propriety, inactive and passionless, will be utterly inoperative.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: to be Viewed in Reference to Its End
The way is good, says Chrysostom, if it be to a feast, though through a dark and miry lane; if to an execution not good, though through the fairest street of the city. Non qua sed quo. Not the way but the end is to be mainly considered.
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: Uncertain Tenure of
There is a talk of giving fixity of tenure in Ireland; can they find it in England, or for the matter of that, in all the world? No, we are all tenants, liable to be ejected without an hour's notice. How death must laugh at our leases and our bonds! Cobwebs are not more frail. A bubble has as sure a tenure as a man.
'What boots your houses and your lands? In spite of close-drawn deed and fence, Like water, 'twixt your cheated hands, They slip into the graveyard's sands, And mock your ownership's pretence.'
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Life: the Need of the Sinner
WE visited two palaces in Venice, and realized the contrast of life and death. The first was tenanted by a noble family, who delighted to maintain it in good repair, to adorn it with fresh beauties, and to furnish it in the most sumptuous manner. Everything was fresh, fair, bright, and charming. From the paving of mosaics in the hail one looked up to ceilings glowing with the creations of the artist's pencil, and in every chamber paintings, statues, ormolu, tapestry, and all things else of the richest kind surrounded you. The other was a palace, too, with marble pillars, and carved work, but the stones were loosening, and the columns shifting, grass grew in the halls, and the roofs let in the rain, decay was there and desolation, and yet the palace was as noble in its architecture as the first. Thus when God dwells in a man, all his powers and faculties are bright with a sacred light, and joy and peace and beauty adorn his entire manhood; but if the Holy Spirit depart, the heart being empty and void becomes a ruin, everywhere decaying, and alas! too often haunted by the demons of vice and iniquity.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Giver of Life, Eternal Lord!
Hymn for Lauds on November 1, the feast of All Salnts. It is attributed to Rabanus Maurus and has eight translations; the English title given is by E. Caswall.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Author, Author of Life
See Prince of Life .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Book of Life, the
Registry of persons' names as living. One (also called simply God's book,) may be a book of those who only have a name to live, and consequently whose names may be blotted out. Exodus 32:32,33 ; Psalm 69:28 ; Revelation 3:5 ; Revelation 22:19 . Another is a book of the saved, from which none will be erased. Philippians 4:3 ; Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:8 ; Revelation 20:12,15 ; Revelation 21:27 . A third (called simply 'the book,') contains the names of the remnant of Israel. Daniel 12:1 .
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Life
This is one of the characters of the Lord Jesus Christ. In him, saith the apostle John, "was life, and the life was the light of men." (John 1:4) And elsewhere Jesus saith himself, "I am the life and the light of men. I am the resurrection and the life. I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly." It is most essential to our happiness, that we should have clear conceptions of this most blessed truth, so as to see and know from whence and in whom all the springs of life are. It is not, in my view of things, sufficient to understand that Christ gives life to his people, but that he is himself the life of his people. He saith himself, "Because I live, ye shall live also." So that Jesus is, to the soul of his redeemed, the very life of the soul, as our soul is the life of the body. When the soul departs from the body, the body dies; and could it be supposed that Christ was to depart from the souls of his redeemed, the soul would die also. But this is impossible; for it is said, that he hath quickened them, who were by nature dead in trespasses and sins. And the apostle to the church of the Colossians saith, "Your life is hid with Christ in God; so that when Christ, who is your life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory." What a world of blessedness there is in this one consideration of the Lord Jesus as the life of his people! Precious Lord, I would say, thou art indeed both the life and the light of men! Thou art in thyself the whole of their spiritual and eternal life. Keep alive, I beseech thee, the renewed life thou hast given me in thyself; and cause me to enter into the full apprehension and enjoyment of that most glorious proclamation of thine in which thou hast, said, "I am the resurrection and the life; he that believeth in me, though he were deadly, yet shall he live, and he that liveth and believeth in, me shall never die."
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Common Life
COMMON LIFE.—The teaching of our Lord upon this subject is no more restricted and definite than it is upon any other of life’s relations. It was never His purpose to draw up anything like a code of laws for the regulation of human life. Indeed, it is just this indefiniteness, this liberty, this leaving all detail to the spiritual guidance which He promised, that has made the religion of Jesus so far transcend every other religion that has been given to men. Christ left His teaching unrestricted, that by its inner and spiritual power it might be able to adapt itself to the ever-changing needs and thoughts of men. That doctrine which makes itself particular, which binds itself up with the peculiar circumstances of a definite people, a definite clime, a definite era, must of necessity pass away with those circumstances to which it specially applied. Our Lord, in that He laid down principles, not rules, has given us that which will apply to all peoples and climes and eras. Christianity is the universal faith, because it is founded upon the universal needs of the human heart (John 8:31-32; John 14:12-13).
It is, of course, true that Christianity is particular to this extent, that its Founder faces and combats those particular evils which chanced to be most prevalent at the time when He lived on earth. Had renunciation of the world in the monastic sense been as widespread as it became two centuries after His death, we should certainly have had more definite teaching upon our subject. But it was Pharisaism that He had to oppose, not asceticism. There were, indeed, the Essenes at the time of Christ, but that community was never a large one, nor were their tenets so opposed to the truths He taught as to demand His special attention. The Baptist, it is true, was an ascetic (Matthew 3:4 || Mark 1:6, Matthew 11:18 || Luke 7:33); but we never find him commanding others to lead his life. John preached repentance, but a repentance that did not entail renunciation of the world. Even the publicans and the rough soldiery of Herod, when they came seeking his advice, were not required to give up professions so fraught with temptation. All that be asked of them was that they should perform the duties of their callings honestly and honourably (Luke 3:10-14). It was therefore in opposition to the ritualism of the Pharisees alone that Christ had to develop His teaching as to common life. Purity and holiness in the eyes of the Pharisees were matters of ceremonial observance far more than of heart and life; and to such an extent had they elaborated the Mosaic ritual, that it was no longer possible for the poor man and the toiler to attain to holiness in the sense which they had rendered popular. Only the wealthy and the leisured could win their esoteric righteousness. It is for this reason that we so continually find our Lord in strenuous opposition to all externalism. It is ever the religion of heart and life, not that of ceremonial, that He demands of His followers. Consider, for example, His fulfilling of the Law in the Sermon on the Mount. Throughout it is the Law’s moral requirements that He treats of; and the discourse is prefaced by the assertion that the righteousness of the new kingdom must start by exceeding that of the scribes and Pharisees (Matthew 5:20). He speaks of least commandments, the breaking of which does not exclude from the kingdom (Matthew 5:19); and which He accounts the greater and which the less is manifested by His saying—‘First be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift’ (Luke 18:9-142). From a similar standpoint He treats the observance of the Sabbath, subordinating all external and ceremonial requirements to those spiritual commands of love to God and to our neighbour which He made all-important (Mark 2:23-28, Luke 6:1-12; Luke 13:10-17). In regard to the question of washing the hands before eating, He comes into open conflict with the Pharisees, upbraiding their hypocrisy, and contending that defilement comes not from external things, but from within the heart (Matthew 15:1-20, Mark 7:1-23).
All this tends towards the placing of a higher value upon common life. He is thus clearing the way for the reception of the thought that God may be as truly served in the round of daily life and toil as in those observances distinctively called religious. We have the boldest assertion of this truth in the parable of the Pharisee and the Publican (1618419304_55), wherein He points out that the strictest—nay, the supererogatory—performance of ritual cannot win justification in the sight of God, while simple repentance, utterly without these things, is assured of pardon and peace. We are not told whether the repentance of this publican entailed the giving up of his profession; but in the case of Zacchaeus there is evidence that it did not (Luke 19:1-10). Apparently, then, in the eyes of our Lord, even this, the most despised of callings, could be followed by a member of the kingdom. Levi, it is true, was called to leave all and follow (Luke 5:27 f.); but his case we must regard as an exception. He showed a special aptitude, and was called to a special office.
But it is rather the whole tendency of the teaching and example of Jesus, than any explicit statement, that in Christianity assigns to common life a dignity which it receives in no other religion. That Christianity so early developed monkish asceticism cannot be adduced as an argument against Christ’s teaching. The life of Jesus is throughout a clear admission of the value of that probation which God the Father and Creator has allotted to mankind. Jesus as the universal Man, the Example for all the world, assumed for Himself the most universal experience. For thirty years He lived the common life of a labouring man, working like any one of His brethren in the carpenter’s shop at Nazareth. We have Him described as a carpenter, as one well known to His fellow-townsmen, as one but little distinguished from His brothers and sisters (Matthew 13:55 f., Mark 6:3). Commonplace daily toil and family intercourse, and that throughout a period of thirty years, were thus the training which the Heavenly Father accounted the best for His Son who was to be the Saviour of the world. In this lowly sphere the Son of God grew ‘in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man’ (Luke 2:52). Than this there could be no stronger argument for the value and the nobleness of common life in the eyes of the Father and the Son. It is impossible to conceive that He who thus honoured the common lot could desire any renunciation of it on the part of those who wished to be His followers. Those who were called to be His missionaries must of necessity give up all to do a higher work, but not to attain a higher life. It is to be noted that when for a time that work is in abeyance, His chief disciples return to their old calling (John 21:3).
The whole attitude of Jesus towards the world of nature and of man is in accordance with His claim to be the Son of the Creator. He clearly recognized the wisdom and the beauty and the love that shine forth in Creation and Providence. The lilies of the field and the fowls of the air, the sunshine and the rain, are used by Him as evidences of the goodness of the Father. His teaching is bound up in closest harmony with the things of earth and time. For Him the family ties are types of Heaven. His kingdom is far more a family than a nation. The names of father, mother, brother, sister, wife, are ennobled by His use of them. From all the callings of men He draws images of Divine things. The physician, the sower, the reaper, the fisherman, the vinedresser, the shepherd, the king at war, the housewife at her baking, the commonest incidents of daily life, the simplest phenomena of nature,—all have a place in His doctrine; all are used to illustrate the character and development of His kingdom. He did not, it is true, enlarge upon the relations of life. That was not His mission. His reformation was to proceed from within, not from without. But everywhere there is the manifest acceptance of the order, alike social and natural, which God has ordained. Even the civil order, with which He came into contact in no ideal form in the Roman domination, receives His sanction. ‘Render unto Caesar,’ He says, ‘the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s’ (Matthew 22:15-22, Mark 12:13-17, Luke 20:20-26). There is duty to God and duty to civil order, and these must not conflict in religion’s name: the former should include the latter. Marriage is recognized by Him as a holy tie, an indissoluble Divine institution, and thus obtains a position more honourable than it had ever held before (Matthew 19:3-9, Mark 10:2-12). His presence and first miracle at the wedding at Cana of Galilee (John 2:1-11)—a miracle which shows His deep sympathy with even trivial human needs—is in itself a consecration of marriage. That episode strikes the keynote of His life,—a life lived amid His fellows, sharing their joys and sorrows, their trials and temptations, their feastings and their mournings. The Son of man came eating and drinking, with no ascetic gloom; came to live in, and thus to sanctify, the whole round of common life.
Yet in the view of our Lord all these things had but a transitory value. They were but means to something higher. They were the temporal and seen, from which the unseen and eternal was to be extracted. In so far, then, as they conflicted with that higher good, that eternal treasure, Christ demanded renunciation in regard to them. His treatment of the young ruler (Matthew 19:16-22, Mark 10:17-27, Luke 18:18-27) illustrates well this attitude. Wealth is not in itself an evil, but it is a great danger, and in certain cases it may destroy the life of the soul. For some, therefore, it is wiser and safer to discard it. It has an engrossing power that deprives the soul of its proper nourishment (cf. the parable of the Rich Fool, Luke 12:16-21). It tends to harden the heart against compassion and charity, to make the man self-sufficient, to give a physical delight so great as to close the eyes to that which is spiritual (cf. the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus, Luke 16:19-31). But there are other blessings far more innocent that possess a like danger. Things as precious and as natural as the hand and eye and foot may yet lead to sin and obstruct the passage to the higher life (Matthew 5:29 f., Mark 9:43-48). In such cases, too, these must be renounced. Even the family ties, if they become so binding as to come between the soul and its true weal—the service of God in Christ—must be broken; for the kingdom of God is the one aim and purpose of the spiritual man, and nought must be permitted to interfere therewith (Matthew 10:37 || Luke 14:26, Matthew 6:33). Even life itself must be laid down for the sake of Christ (Matthew 10:39, Luke 17:33, John 12:25).
Christ’s teaching as to worldly good is particularly revealed in the parable of the Unjust Steward (Luke 16:1-12). There He calls the command of wealth and natural advantage by the name of ‘the unrighteous mammon,’ thus pointing to its seductive power and contrasting it with the true spiritual good. He calls it also ‘that which is another man’s’ in distinction to ‘that which is your own.’ Of earthly good we are but the stewards. Wealth is never really our own. We may use it or abuse it, but sooner or later we must resign its control. The spiritual gifts of God are of a nature totally different. They become truly ours, a part of our true self. Yet the unrighteous mammon can be so employed as to win us spiritual advantage. By its means we can make us friends who will receive us into everlasting habitations. As the unjust steward employed his power to his own worldly advantage, so must we with the wisdom of light use to our highest advantage the worldly power which is ours which is always one with the service of God.
There is a remarkable passage in Mark 10:29 f. (cf. Matthew 19:29 and Luke 18:29), which promises that earthly loss suffered for Christ’s sake and the gospel’s shall receive an hundredfold reward ‘now in this time’ in the same kind in which the loss was suffered. That the Christian in his profession and practice of love to all men must have the family ties strengthened and extended an hundredfold, is readily to be understood: but the promise of lands is not so simple. To the mind of the present writer it suggests the great truth, which Christ’s own life exemplified, that only the child of God is capable of the pure and perfect enjoyment of all that God has made. Only to the eyes of him whose heart is filled with the Father’s love, is all the beauty of the Creator’s work displayed. As one with the Father through Christ, as sharing the purposes of God, as beholding the Divine plan and submitting to and working for it, the Christian possesses the world in a sense in which no other can. It is his to rejoice in and to use for God’s glory. (Cf. Expositor 1st ser. iv. [1] 256 ff.).
To sum up the whole, we may say that there are two great ideas which underlie all Christ’s teaching:—(1) The inestimable value of the human soul (Matthew 16:26, Mark 8:36 f., Luke 9:25), to the salvation of which all must be subordinated, for the sake of which all things, if necessary, must be renounced: the Gospel, therefore, which gives this salvation is all-important, and its service must have no rival; and (2) the recognition of common life and daily toil, with all that these terms include, as the ordinances of a loving Father by whose Providence they are designed to be the chiefest elements in fitting men for citizenship in the Kingdom of Heaven. He who uses well the talents which God gives, in the sphere in which his lot is cast, who is faithful in a little, shall have his reward hereafter in the obtaining of a larger sphere wherein to exercise for God’s glory those very qualities, purified and ennobled, which his earthly diligence has made his own (Matthew 23:14-30, Luke 19:11-27). Work that is the expression of love to God and man is always noble; and there is no work on earth that may not be performed to God’s glory.
Literature.—Beyschlag, New Testament Theology, ii. 250 ff.; Weiss, New Testament Theology, ii. 347 ff.; the standard Commentaries on the Gospels, and works on the Parahles; Stoplord Brooke, Christ in Modern Life, p. 1 ff.; R. W. Dale, Laws of Christ for Common Life, esp. chs. i. xi. xii. xiv.; J. T. Jacob, Christ the Indweller, ch. ix; R. Glaister, ‘Christ’s Sympathy in Life’s Commonplace,’ Exp. Times, x. 360 ff.; J. W. Diggle, Short Studies in Holiness, 197.
W. J. S. Miller.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Eternal Life
See LIFE, ETERNAL.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Book of Life
The actual phrase occurs in six passages only of the NT: Philippians 4:3, Revelation 3:5; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12; Revelation 20:15; Revelation 21:27 (in Revelation 22:19 the evidence for the reading ‘book of life’ [1] instead of ‘tree of life’ [2] is negligible). Of these passages the most important for the purpose of determining the meaning is Revelation 20:12; Revelation 20:15, because there the book of life is distinguished from certain other books: ‘and the books were opened, and another book was opened which is the book of life; and the dead were judged out of those things that were written in the books, according to their works … and whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire,’ The natural implication here is that the other books were records of works, but that the book of life was simply a register of the names of those destined for life-an interpretation which fits all the above-noted passages.
An interesting exegetical point comes up in connexion with Revelation 13:8. The words ‘from the foundation of the world’ may grammatically refer either to ‘written’ or to ‘the Lamb which hath been slain.’ But in Revelation 17:8, where the same phrase occurs, the only natural way to take it is as referring to ‘written’; and this is practically decisive for Revelation 13:8 also (so Swete, Apoc. of St. John 2, London, 1907, and Revised Version ). The phrase thus carries a suggestion of predestination; but this is not thought of as absolute, since the idea of blotting out a name from the book of life occurs quite freely.
With the above-noted passages there fall into fine a number of others where the same conception is clearly implied: Luke 10:20, Daniel 12:1, Psalms 69:28, Exodus 32:32-33. The conception of a register found in all these passages seems to be based on the analogy of citizen-lists, registers of the theocratic community, such as are referred to in Isaiah 4:3 : ‘He that is left in Zion shall be called holy, every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem’ (cf. Nehemiah 12:22-23, Ezekiel 13:9) To be written in the heavenly counterpart of such a list meant to be assured of being a sharer in the blessings destined for the true Israel. Other passages which associate themselves more or less closely with this conception are 1 Samuel 25:29, Psalms 87:6; Psalms 139:16, Isaiah 48:19, Jeremiah 22:30, Hebrews 12:23.
The conception of a heavenly record of man’s actions, which we found clearly distinguished from the above in Revelation 20:12; Revelation 20:15, appears equally distinct in Daniel 7:10 as compared with Daniel 12:1. See also Psalms 56:8, Isaiah 65:6, Malachi 3:15.
Different again is the conception of the Book with the Seven Seals in Revelation 5, for that is thought of as the book of destiny-the prophetic history of the world.
All three conceptions appear in the Book of Enoch. When the Head of Days ‘seated Himself on the throne of His glory, and the books of the living were opened before Him’ (En. xlvii. 3), the context makes it clear that the purpose of the opening of the books is not a great assize, it is a vindication of the righteous that is at hand, and ‘the living’ means, not all living, but the righteous. Charles remarks that ‘books of the holy ones’ in En. cviii. 3 has practically the same meaning. The complementary conception ‘The book of those that shall be destroyed’ appears in Jub. xxx. 22.* [3], p. 87).] The second conception, that of a record, appears in En. lxxxix. 70ff., where the evil deeds of the shepherds are recorded and read before the Lord; cf. xc. 17, 20, xcviii. 7, 8, civ. 7 (a daily record). The idea of a book of fate or prophetic history, is represented by the ‘heavenly tablets,’ lxxxi. 1, 2, xciii. 1ff.; but this should be kept separate. See, further, following article.
As regards the origin of the conception, if we take the heavenly book in the wider sense of a record of men’s actions or a prophetic world history, it is obviously one of those conceptions for which it is not easy to establish a relation of dependence between one religion and another, since it is likely to arise independently in various places. A. Jeremias (Babylonisches im NT, Leipzig, 1905, p. 69ff., and article ‘Book of Life.’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ) has pointed to the Bab. [4] New Year’s Festival, at which it was conceived that an assembly of the gods determined the events of the year, and especially the duration of men’s lives, which was written down in a ‘tablet of life.’ For the narrower conception of the book of life as set forth above, the most interesting literary parallel is that cited by Jeremias from the Akhmim fragments of the Coptic Apoc. of Sophonias (Zephaniah), translation L. Stern, in Zeitschr. für ägypt. Sprache, xxiv. [5], There the seer inquires about two angels whom he sees, and is told by his angel guide: ‘These are the angels of the Lord Almighty who inscribe all the good works of the righteous in His scrolls, sitting at the gate of heaven. They give these scrolls to me, to take them to the Lord Almighty, in order that He may write their name (sc. names of the righteous) in the Book of the Living,’ This passage is not of any value as evidence for the source of the conception, for the work shows in many places dependence upon Rev., but it probably indicates correctly how the relation of the book of life to the other books in Revelation 20:12 is to be conceived. As Alford there explains it, on internal grounds, the other books are, so to speak, the ‘vouchers’ for the book of life.
In the Apostolic Fathers the conception occurs in 1 Clem. xlv. 8: ‘Those who remained faithful, inherited glory and honour, were exalted and were inscribed by God in His memorial for ever’; Hermas, Vis. i. 3, 2: ‘Cease not to admonish thy children, for I know that if they shall repent with their whole hearts they shall be inscribed in the books of life with the saints,’ and Sim. ii. 9: ‘He that does these things shall not be abandoned by God, but shall be inscribed upon the books of the living’; cf. Mand. viii. 6: ‘Refrain thyself from all these things, that thou mayest live to God, and be enrolled with those who exercise self-restraint therein.’
Among homiletic expositions of the passage Revelation 20:12 one of the moat impressive is that of St. Augustine in de Civ. Dei, xx. 14. Taking the book of life as a record of men’s deeds, he observes that it cannot be understood literally, since the reading of such a record would be interminable. ‘We must therefore understand it of a certain Divine power by which it shall be brought about that every one shall recall to memory all his own works, whether good or evil, and shall mentally survey them with a marvellous rapidity, so that this knowledge will either accuse or excuse conscience, and thus all and each shall be simultaneously judged.’
Literature.-R. H. Charles, The Boot of Enoch2, Oxford. 1912, note on xlvii. 3; H. Zimmern, KAT [6] 3 [7] Berlin, 1903, p. 401ff.; A, Jeremias, article ‘Book of Life’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ; W. Bousset, Com. (Göttingen, 1896) on " translation="">Revelation 3:5; B. Duhm, Com. (Göttingen, 1902) on " translation="">Isaiah 4:3; A. Bertholet, Stellung der Israeliten u. der Juden zu den Fremden, Freiburg and Leipzig, 1896.
W. Montgomery.
 
 
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Christian Life
The type of moral and religious life which was lived by the Christians of the Apostolic Age had already been so far fixed as to be described in the phrase κατὰ χριστιανισμὸν ζῆν by Ignatius (Magn. x. 1) towards the close of that period; and the Didache (xii. 4), possibly at an earlier date, used the title Χριστιανός, showing that the name which Antioch invented (Acts 11:26; cf. Acts 26:28 and 1 Peter 4:16) was now accepted as specifying a person whose life was distinctive alike in ideal and practice. If we take the year a.d. 100 as marking the extreme limit of the Apostolic Age, our authorities for determining the characteristics of Christian practice and of the Christian life in its inner and outer aspects are but meagre, consisting of the NT writings, the Didache, 1 Clement, the Epistle of Barnabas, the Epistles of Ignatius, some fragments of Papias and Hegesippus preserved by Eusebius, and a few contemporary references in pagan writers like Tacitus and Suetonius. There is a difficulty in using and classifying the information of these authorities, inasmuch as the chronology of the NT writings is a subject of inquiry and even of controversy; while the traditional origin and authorship of writings like the Epistle to the Ephesians and the Pastoral Epistles, of the Johannine writings and several others, are disputed by competent critics (see article Dates). Some scholars (e.g. Gwatkin) regard the Didache as one of the earliest works of Christian literature; while others, like von Dobschütz, place it beyond the limits of the Apostolic Age. Nevertheless, in spite of the various opinions on questions of chronology and authorship, it is possible to arrive at some definite conclusions on universally accepted premisses, and to form a clear, if in details an incomplete, conception of the practice of the Christian life exhibited by Christian communities from the death of Christ to the close of the 1st century.
One general principle may be laid down by way of preface. The earliest witnesses of Christianity are more concerned with Christ than with a system of Christian morals. It is not primarily a new code of ethics which they unfold; it is a new Personality. Not the teaching, but the Teacher is their theme. The summum bonum had been realized in the life of Jesus. The Sermon on the Mount, indeed, entered into the apostolic consciousness, as we see from the precepts of Romans 12; but the Law-giver, as on the occasion of its utterance, is more than His precepts (Matthew 7:29). The devotion to a living historical Person, the Son of God and Redeemer of the world, who was capable of communicating His Spirit to all mankind-this is the note of the earliest preaching of the gospel.* [1] the apostles preach ‘Christ and him crucified.’ ‘They seem to think that if they can only fill men with true thankfulness for the gift of life in Christ, morality will take care of itself’ (Gwatkin, Early Church Hist. i. 55). What results did such a presentation of truth produce on the age to which it was given? This question can be answered only by a study of moral conditions within the Christian Church. We must go for our enlightenment, not to any general studies of Christian ethics, but to the extant authorities of the age, which treat of the Christian life in: (1) the Jewish-Christian period; (2) the Pauline period; and (3) the post-Pauline period. In the evolution of the Christian communities, there is a direct connexion between ethical conditions and the official or institutional organization of the churches, which grew naturally out of these conditions; but it will be necessary to narrow our survey to religions and moral aspects, and to disregard in detail problems of a historical and institutional character, e.g. Baptism, Lord’s Supper, ritual and worship in general, bishops and elders, the relation of St. Paul to the Jerusalem Council, and the like (see articles Church, Baptism, Eucharist, Bishop, etc.).
1. Jewish Christianity.-The followers of Christ at the time of His death were distinguished from the majority of their fellow-Jews by their conviction that Jesus was the Messiah. They were thus to their contemporaries a Messianic sect within the pale of Judaism, conforming to the rites and moral code of their religion. Their Master, while condemning the defects of representative leaders of religion, like the Pharisees, had never rejected the observances of the Jewish religion-true to the spirit of His mission, which, was rather to fulfil than to destroy. Weizsäcker seems to go too far when he suggests (Apostol. Age, ii. 341) that there is disharmony between the evidence of the Synoptics and the Acts, on the ground that the latter shows the primitive Church more bound up with Judaism than Jesus Himself was, and the Pharisees actual patrons of the apostolic community. The fact is that both Jesus and the early Church accepted the outward symbols of Judaism, e.g. the Temple and national festivals, while in spirit they had already advanced beyond the national faith (cf. Acts 2:40).
The primitive Christians of Jerusalem, while following the rules of the Jewish religion for everyday life (Acts 15), and for worship and devotion observances (Acts 3:1), come before us in the early chapters of the Acts as a distinctive community, given to prayer (Acts 1:14). Prayer was at once the source and seal of that unity or spirit of brotherhood which was to find further expression in a common social life characterized by ἀγαλλίασις καὶ ἀφελότης καρδίας, and in a community of goods (Acts 2:44-46). The latter feature represented merely the socialism of self-sacrifice, its real motive being not a desire for social innovation, but the support of the poor; and it may have been suggested by Essene models (see Community of Goods). The Christians lived a happy family life; the members were ‘brethren’; new converts were received into the fellowship by baptism (Acts 2:41); the practice of charity produced noble examples of generosity like that of Barnabas (Acts 4:36), and incidentally provoked unworthy ambition, of which the deceit of Ananias and Sapphira (ch. 5) was a dark and memorable result. Women such as Mary, the mother of John Mark, and Sapphira held an independent position in the community, and slowly the influence and aims of the brotherhood broadened out. They were known as ‘disciples,’ men ‘of the Way’ (Acts 9:2; Acts 24:14), and ‘saints.’ The appointment of the seven Hellenists (Acts 7) which quelled the internal differences between the Hebrews or pure Jews and the Hellenists, their Greek-speaking brethren of the Dispersion, indicates not only the large-hearted charity of the Christian apostles, but their gradual alienation from the narrowness of Judaic legalism. This spirit of alienation came to a head in the extreme views of St. Stephen, the leader of the Hellenists, who paid the penalty of his undisguised anti-Judaism in martyrdom. It is easy to see that the ideas of St. Stephen anticipated the essential principles of Pauline Christianity, and further, that they were in advance of minds like that of St. Peter, who still maintained a loyal observance of Jewish law and felt scruples about entering a Gentile house (Acts 10) and joining St. Paul, Barnabas, and other Gentile Christians (Galatians 2:11). Thus, while the Hellenists were scattered abroad, being found in Samaria and as far north as Antioch, the Petrine section remained at Jerusalem to find a new head in St. James, who in a.d. 51 is associated with St. Peter and St. John and in 58 is sole leader of the Church. The Apostolic Decree (Acts 15), which was intended to solve the differences of Jewish and Gentile Christianity, was a compromise which shows at once the strength and the weakness of the Jewish-Christian position: its strength lay in its jealousy for pure morality-Gentile Christians are to abstain from meat offered to idols, blood, things strangled, and fornication; its weakness lay in its ceremonialism and in its distrust of the Gentile per se. The later factors of Jewish Christianity represented by the Johannine literature and such writings as the Epistle of James are treated below.
Palestinian Christianity, in spite of its reverence for Jewish law, did not escape persecution. The Christian Jews fled to Pella before a.d. 70, and refused to join the Bar Cochba rebellion, and finally became a sect beyond the Jordan, known as Ebionites or Nazarenes. The saint of Palestinian Christianity is undoubtedly James, the Lord’s brother, already referred to (see the glowing account of him by Hegesippus, preserved in Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc.)ii. 23); he was ‘the Just,’ a Nazirite in practice, but consecrated to God, a typical priest of righteousness to the Jewish-Christian mind. The martyrdom of St. Stephen and that of St. James in their several ways indicate the undying influence of Christ’s example and teaching. It is probable that in this community the oral teaching of our Lord had a wider vogue than in Pauline circles. His sayings were circulated and known in the sphere of His earthly ministry, and produced a new type of personality and conduct (see Dobschütz, Christian Life in the Primitive Church, 156f.). We may sum up the features of Christian life in its earliest environment as a moral ideal, coloured and modified by loyalty to the tenets of Judaism; but issuing, under belief in the Messianic Jesus and by the power of His Spirit, in brotherliness, sympathy, love of enemies, heroic confession of faith, and purity of life.
2. Pauline Christianity.-The conversion of St. Paul was a new departure in the Christian witness, and opened a new epoch for Christianity. His own Christianity was not in essence so much a negation of or a revolt from Judaism as a fresh inspiration, the result of a moral crisis in his inner life. One of the results of the crisis, it is true, was to reveal to him what he calls τὸ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου (Romans 8:3), and to bring about his rejection of the Jewish ideal of salvation; but his conception of Christianity was based on the positive conviction rooted in experience that newness of life consisted in a personal union with Christ. Faith in Christ transfigured a man’s personality, and thereby gave him a new ethic, together with the power to carry it into practice. The Pauline morality is the offspring of the Apostle’s doctrine of salvation by faith. ‘He who was united to Christ could not help practising the Christian virtues’ (Gardner, Religious Experience of St. Paul, 159). His insistence on ethics reveals his abhorrence of antinomianism, even when that abhorrence is not as expressly stated as it is in Romans 6:15 and Galatians 5:18 f. The difference between Pauline morality and the morality of the Judaizers who were found all over the Greek-speaking world, lay in the fact that Gentile Christianity formed an independent ethic, while the ethic of the Jewish Christian ‘merely looked like an addition to the commandments, an ennobling and purifying of the rule of the pious, law-abiding Jew’ (see Weizsäcker, ii. 346). This distinction arose naturally from the exalted view which St. Paul held as to the Person of Christ; wherever the Deity of our Lord is proclaimed, as in the Fourth Gospel and 1 John, 1 Peter, and the Ignatian Epistles, we find, as McGiffert notes (see article ‘Apostolic Age’ in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics ), that the Pauline idea of moral transformation by the indwelling of the Divine becomes prominent. On the other hand, elsewhere in the NT and in Clement’s First Ep. to Corinthians, where the Jewish type of theology prevails, salvation is placed in the future as the reward of the faithful. for the message of the Pauline Epistles and the ethical life and problems of the Christian communities as portrayed therein the reader is referred to articles on the individual Epistles, but a general summary of the evidence of his writings may be added here.
We may often infer from St. Paul’s warnings the general perils to which the Christians were liable. We see that the Christian standard is not attained at once (Philippians 3:12); there are express references to flagrant examples of moral failure necessitating a ban of excommunication; and the ‘saints’ are good men and women still in the making; hence the hortative form so largely adopted by this Apostle. True to his essential convictions, the Apostle assigns to the direct action of the Spirit the transforming of human character. He appeals not to Scripture or law, but to the Christian consciousness. Christ is the fulfilment and end of the Law (Romans 10:4) and the founder of a new law of love (Galatians 6:2, 1 Corinthians 9:21), in that His Spirit is a new vital power. With the truth of the Incarnation several of his greatest precepts are allied (2 Corinthians 8:9, Philippians 2:5, Galatians 2:20, Colossians 3:13, Romans 15:7), and there is often a direct connexion between his ethics and his theological and christological doctrine. His distinction between ‘flesh’ and ‘spirit’ colours all his thought regarding personal morality. His insistence on sexual chastity (in 1 Cor. he reveals his preference for celibacy, and his sympathy with the ascetic ideal, while he denounces its excesses), and his warnings against sins of the flesh are everywhere prominent. The body is a temple of the Holy Ghost (1 Corinthians 6:19). His memorable indictment of pagan vice in Romans 1:21 ff. is pointed by the actual life of Corinth, the city from which he wrote the Epistle, and there is hardly an Epistle in which reference is not made to sexual vice (cf. Colossians 3:5 ff.). The famous ‘hymn of love’ (1 Corinthians 13) places love at the head of his ethical system, and is indirectly an indictment against all forms of self-seeking elsewhere specified: e.g. covetousness (Colossians 3:5), the spirit of faction and the love of pre-eminence (Philippians 1:15; Philippians 1:17), and dishonesty (1 Thessalonians 4:6). In Romans 12:1 f. we have the moral life set forth as a λογικὴ λατρεία, and its motive the fulfilment of God’s will. The duty of prayerfulness* [2] is frequently proclaimed (Romans 12:12, 1 Corinthians 7:5, Philippians 4:6, Colossians 4:2). The spirit of revenge is condemned, the love of one’s enemy (Philippians 1:10) and returning of good for evil are expressly inculcated. Ordinary conversation is to be wholesome and yet pleasing (Colossians 4:6). The gentler virtues which found no place in pagan ethics, such as sincerity, humility, reasonableness (Philippians 4:5), patience, meekness, brotherly love, kindness (Galatians 5:22), are united with love and temperance or self-control; while joy, peace, and thankfulness (cf. Philippians 4:6, εὐχαριστία) are the resultant graces of Christian conduct.
The domestic and social virtues are frequently urged on the Christian convert-love of husband for wife, of wife for husband, of children for parents, of slave for master, of master for slave (cf. Romans 3:18, Colossians 3:18-22). In all social relations St. Paul is conscious of the need of Christian tactfulness and discretion (Colossians 3:21 and Philippians 1:9). ‘To walk worthily of the gospel of Christ’ (Philippians 1:27) is his comprehensive formula for Christian conduct. The Christian’s relation to the heathen outsiders and to his less strict or ‘weak’ brother, and to heathen practices and use of heathen tribunals, is set forth in 1 Cor., which is a manual of social Christianity. He did not attack the slave-system or proclaim a social revolution: he sought to Christianize the relationship of master and slave by Christianizing both master and slave (see article Philemon). In 1 Thess. he warns men against the moral perils of ‘an overstrained Parousia-expectation’; in 2 Thess. he proclaims the dignity and duty of labour.
Finally, there is the duty of the ‘strong’ to help the weak (Galatians 6:1), the care for and liberality towards the poor (see 1 Corinthians 16), and, above all, obedience to civic and Imperial authorities (Romans 13:1-10). In dealing with social and civil responsibilities, the ethics of Pauline Christianity are opposed to revolt or agitation. The sanctification of the individual and the community is their aim and object. For his views with regard to the subordination of women (1 Corinthians 7), St. Paul has frequently been criticized, but on the whole they made for domestic purity and the strengthening of the marriage tie, in an age when the matrimonial relationship was losing its binding and sacred sanctions. His doctrine of the solidarity of society-a sin against a brother is a sin against Christ (1 Corinthians 8:12)-and of the equality of all men in Christ (Galatians 3:28, Colossians 3:11) prepared the way for the up-lifting of the masses, and identified Christianity with the spirit of brotherhood, even though the references to love of the brethren are more frequent than to love of mankind as a whole (see article Fellowship). In fact, Christianity, as we find it set forth by St. Paul and exemplified however imperfectly by the Pauline churches, already exhibits the new ethical passion and power which were eventually to win the Empire and the world.
3. Post-Pauline Christianity.-For this period our chief authorities are the later writings of the NT. These include, in addition to the Pastoral Epistles and the Epistle to the Ephesians (now widely regarded as sub-Pauline), the Epistle to the Hebrews, 1 Peter, the Johannine writings, Revelation, James, and Jude. We have also the Ignatian Epistles, 1 Clement, and the recently discovered Odes of Solomon (q.v. [3] ), to which Harnack assigns the date of c. [2] a.d. 100. The interest of the Odes is doctrinal and ceremonial rather than ethical, although it appears that they were associated with the teaching of the catechumens. 1 Peter, Revelation, and Hebrews belong to the time of the persecution under Domitian, in which Christians and Jews alike suffered. The Pastorals apparently have reference to the earlier or Neronian persecution (a.d. 64), in which a large number of the Christians perished because they were convenient scapegoats (Tac. Ann. xv. 44) for Nero’s unreasoning anger. Both Ephesians and the Pastorals give us the Pauline type of morality, Ephesians being influenced by and modelled on Colossians. In fact, the influence of St. Paul is manifest not only in those Epistles traditionally assigned to him, but generally in the later literature, which is really the offspring of a Jewish-Christian type of thought, e.g. 1 Peter, Hebrews, and the Johannine writings. For the special characteristics of this post-Pauline literature, see articles on the several books.
In 1 Peter, Hebrews, and the Epistle of the Roman Church to the Church of Corinth (1 Clem.) we find ourselves in touch with the Church at Rome. In Hebrews the Christians addressed had already passed through the Neronian persecution and became a ‘gazing-stock’ (Hebrews 10:33) to the world. The didactic purpose was to show the preparatory character of the Jewish religion; but throughout we find the hortatory element prominent: it was a λόγος παρακλήσεως (Hebrews 13:22). The peril was shrinking from confession of Christ, a failure of παῤῥησία (Hebrews 10:19), their lack of Christian knowledge (Hebrews 6:1); on the other hand, good works are praised (Hebrews 6:10)-brotherly love, hospitality, care for the sick and imprisoned; the great need is πίστις, not intellectual belief, but the moral assurance of a future reward-‘a better country.’ 1 Peter similarly lays stress on the consolatory power of ἐλπίς-the ‘living hope’ of a future life-in the midst of sufferings. 1 Clem. shows that the Church at Rome had not lost its stability, nor forgotten the duty of intercession especially for captive fellow-members. On the other hand, at Corinth since the 40 years when St. Paul wrote, there is little change; there are the defects of licentiousness and rebellion against authority. Throughout the Epistle we are conscious of St. Paul’s influence; ch. 49, e.g., is an imitation of the ‘hymn of love.’ 1 Peter, while sent from Rome, is addressed to the Churches of Asia Minor.
Possibly Ephesians belongs to the same period. While emphasizing knowledge (Life, the
CARM Theological Dictionary - Book of Life
A book kept by God with the list of names of people who will escape God's wrath (Psalms 69:28; Revelation 21:27). Those who names are not in the book of Life are cast into hell (Revelation 20:15).
CARM Theological Dictionary - Eternal Life
Life everlasting in the presence of God. "This is eternal life, that they may know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou has sent" (John 17:3).
There are two senses in which this is used. First, as Christians we possess eternal life (1 John 5:13), yet we are not in heaven or in the immediate presence of God. Though we are still in mortal bodies and we still sin, by faith we are saved (Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9) and possess eternal life as a free gift from God (Romans 6:23). Second, eternal life will reach its final state at the resurrection of the believers when Christ returns to earth to claim His church. It is then that eternal life will begin in its complete manifestation. We will no longer sin.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Life
A state of active existence.
1. Human life is the continuance or duration of our present state, and which the Scriptures represent as short and vain, Job 14:1-2 . James 4:14 .
2. Spiritual life consists in our being in the favour of God, influenced by a principle of grace. God, influenced by a principle of grace, and living dependent on him. It is considered as of divine origin, Colossians 3:4 . hidden, Colossians 3:3 . peaceful, Romans 8:6 . secure, John 10:28 .
3. Eternal life is that never-ending state of existence which the saints shall enjoy in heaven, and is glorious, Colossians 3:4 . holy, Revelation 21:27 . and blissful, 1 Peter 1:4 . 2 Corinthians 4:17 .
See HEAVEN.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Soul; Self; Life
A. Noun.
Nephesh (נֶפֶשׁ, Strong's #5315), “soul; self; life; person; heart.” This is a very common term in both ancient and modern Semitic languages. It occurs over 780 times in the Old Testament and is evenly distributed in all periods of the text with a particularly high frequency in poetic passages.
The basic meaning is apparently related to the rare verbal form, nephesh. The noun refers to the essence of life, the act of breathing, taking breath. However, from that concrete concept, a number of more abstract meanings were developed. In its primary sense the noun appears in its first occurrence in Gen. 1:20: “the moving creature that hath life,” and in its second occurrence in Gen. 2:7: “living soul.”
However, in over 400 later occurrences it is translated “soul.” While this serves to make sense in most passages, it is an unfortunate mistranslation of the term. The real difficulty of the term is seen in the inability of almost all English translations to find a consistent equivalent or even a small group of high-frequency equivalents for the term. The KJV alone uses over 28 different English terms for this one Hebrew word. The problem with the English term “soul” is that no actual equivalent of the term or the idea behind it is represented in the Hebrew language. The Hebrew system of thought does not include the combination or opposition of the terms “body” and “soul,” which are really Greek and Latin in origin. The Hebrew contrasts two other concepts which are not found in the Greek and Latin tradition: “the inner self” and “the outer appearance” or, as viewed in a different context, “what one is to oneself” as opposed to “what one appears to be to one’s observers.” The inner person is nephesh while the outer person, or reputation, is shem, most commonly translated “name.” In narrative or historical passages of the Old Testament, nephesh can be translated as “life” or “self,” as in Lev. 17:11: “For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for [1].…” Needless to say, the reading “soul” is meaningless in such a text.
But the situation in the numerous parallel poetic passages in which the term appears is much more difficult. The Greek Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate both simply use the Greek and Latin equivalent “soul,” especially in the Psalms. The first occurrence is in Ps. 3:2: “Many are saying of my soul, // There is no deliverance for him in God” (NASB). The next occurrence is in Ps. 6:3: “And my soul is greatly dismayed; // But Thou, O Lord— how long?” (NASB). In both passages the parallel contrast is between nephesh and some aspect of the self, expressed as “him” in Ps. 3:2 and not expressed but understood in Ps. 6:3. There is no distinction as to whether it appears as an “A” or “B” word in the parallelism. However, since Hebrew rejects repeating the same noun in both halves of a poetic line, nephesh is often used as the parallel for the speaker, primary personal subject, and even for God, as in Ps. 11:5: “The Lord trieth the righteous: but the wicked // and him that loveth violence [2] hateth.” Such passages are frequent, and a proper understanding of the word enlightens many wellknown passages, such as Ps. 119:109: “My life is continually in my hand, // Yet I do not forget Thy law” (NASB). The versions vary widely in their readings of nephesh, with the more contemporary versions casting widely for meanings.
B. Verb.
Naphash means “to breathe; respire; be refreshed.” This verb, which is apparently related to the noun nephesh, appears 3 times in the Old Testament (Exod. 23:12; 31:17). The other appearance is in 2 Sam. 16:14: “And the king, and all the people that were with him, came weary and refreshed themselves there.”
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Life
Life is that by which a created being enjoys the place in which the Creator has set it. God breathed into man's nostrils 'the breath of life; and man became a living soul.' Genesis 2:7 . Sin having come in, this life is forfeited and God claims it, saying, "surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man." Genesis 9:5 . This instituted capital punishment for murder, which law has never been rescinded or altered.
Scripture recognises a difference between 'life' in a moral sense and 'existence,' as seen in the passage, "What man is he that desireth life, and loveth many days, that he may see good?" Psalm 34:12 . Here is a man desiring life, desiring to enjoy life. This answers the objection of those who, wishing to deny eternal punishment, say that 'living for ever' is only spoken of the Christian, as in John 6:51,58 . True, but many other scriptures prove that the wicked will have an eternal existence.
Man, in his natural state, is regarded as morally dead in sins, and as needing to be quickened by the power of God; or as living in sins and needing to accept death in order to live in Christ, as in the Epistle to the Romans.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Life, Eternal
This stands commonly in scripture in contrast to death. It is revealed in the Lord Jesus. "He is the true God, and eternal life." "This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal life, and this life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not life." 1 John 5:11,12,20 . He that has the Son of God therefore has life now, and knows it by the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of life. The apostle John speaks of life as a subjective state in believers, though inseparable from the knowledge of God fully revealed as the Father in the Son, and indeed characterised by this. The Lord said to His Father, "This is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent." John 17:3 . The apostle Paul presents eternal life more as a hope before the Christian, which however has a present moral effect. Titus 1:2 ; Titus 3:7 . From which we gather that eternal life for the Christian refers in its fulness to the glory of God, when the present body as a part of the old creation will be changed, and there will be complete conformity to Christ, according to the purpose of God. In the meantime the mind of God is that the Christian, indwelt by the Holy Spirit, should know (have the conscious knowledge) that he has eternal life. 1 John 5:13 . For Christians it is evident that eternal life is morally distinct from life after the flesh.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Life, Living, Lifetime, Life-Giving
A — 1: ζωή (Strong's #2222 — Noun Feminine — zoe — dzo-ay' ) (Eng., "zoo," "zoology") is used in the NT "of life as a principle, life in the absolute sense, life as God has it, that which the Father has in Himself, and which He gave to the Incarnate Son to have in Himself, John 5:26 , and which the Son manifested in the world, 1 John 1:2 . From this life man has become alienated in consequence of the Fall, Ephesians 4:18 , and of this life men become partakers through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, John 3:15 , who becomes its Author to all such as trust in Him, Acts 3:15 , and who is therefore said to be 'the life' of the believer, Colossians 3:4 , for the life that He gives He maintains, John 6:35,63 . Eternal life is the present actual possession of the believer because of his relationship with Christ, John 5:24 ; 1 John 3:14 , and that it will one day extend its domain to the sphere of the body is assured by the Resurrection of Christ, 2 Corinthians 5:4 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 . This life is not merely a principle of power and mobility, however, for it has moral associations which are inseparable from it, as of holiness and righteousness. Death and sin, life and holiness, are frequently contrasted in the Scriptures.
"Zoe is also used of that which is the common possession of all animals and men by nature, Acts 17:25 ; 1 John 5:16 , and of the present sojourn of man upon the earth with reference to its duration, Luke 16:25 ; 1 Corinthians 15:19 ; 1 Timothy 4:8 ; 1 Peter 3:10 . 'This life' is a term equivalent to 'the gospel,' 'the faith,' 'Christianity,' Acts 5:20 ."* [1]
Death came through sin, Romans 5:12 , which is rebellion against God. Sin thus involved the forfeiting of the "life." "The life of the flesh is in the blood," Leviticus 17:11 . Therefore the impartation of "life" to the sinner must be by a death caused by the shedding of that element which is the life of the flesh. "It is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life" (id., RV). The separation from God caused by the forfeiting of the "life" could be removed only by a sacrifice in which the victim and the offerer became identified. This which was appointed in the typical offerings in Israel received its full accomplishment in the voluntary sacrifice of Christ. The shedding of the blood in the language of Scripture involves the taking or the giving of the "life." Since Christ had no sins of his own to die for, His death was voluntary and vicarious, John 10:15 with Isaiah 53:5,10,12 ; 2 Corinthians 5:21 . In His sacrifice He endured the Divine judgment due to man's sin. By this means the believer becomes identified with Him in His deathless "life," through His resurrection, and enjoys conscious and eternal fellowship with God.
A — 2: βίος (Strong's #979 — Noun Masculine — bios — bee'-os ) (cp. Eng. words beginning with bio-), is used in three respects (a) of "the period or duration of life," e.g., in the AV of 1 Peter 4:3 , "the time past of our life" (the RV follows the mss. which omit "of our life"); Luke 8:14 ; 2 Timothy 2:4 ; (b) of "the manner of life, life in regard to its moral conduct," 1 Timothy 2:2 ; 1 John 2:16 ; (c) of "the means of life, livelihood, maintenance, living," Mark 12:44 ; Luke 8:43 ; 15:12,30 ; 21:4 ; 1 John 3:17 , "goods," RV (AV, "good"). See GOODS.
Note: "While zoe is "life' intensive ... bios is 'life' extensive. ... In bios, used as manner of 'life,' there is an ethical sense often inhering which, in classical Greek at least, zoe does not possess." In Scripture zoe is "the nobler word, expressing as it continually does, all of highest and best which the saints posses in God" (Trench, Syn. xxvii).
A — 3: ψυχή (Strong's #5590 — Noun Feminine — psuche — psoo-khay' ) besides its meanings, "heart, mind, soul," denotes "life" in two chief respects, (a) "breath of life, the natural life," e.g., Matthew 2:20 ; 6:25 ; Mark 10:45 ; Luke 12:22 ; Acts 20:10 ; Revelation 8:9 ; 12:11 (cp. Leviticus 17:11 ; Esther 8:11 ); (b) "the seat of personality," e.g., Luke 9:24 , explained in Luke 9:25 as "own self." See list under SOUL. See also HEART , MIND.
Notes: (1) "Speaking generally, psuche, is the individual life, the living being, whereas zoe, is the life of that being, cp. Psalm 66:9 , 'God ... which holdeth our soul (psuche) in life (zoe),' and John 10:10 , 'I came that they may have life (zoe),' with John 10:11 , 'The Good Shepherd layeth down His life (psuche) for the sheep.'" * [2] (2) In Revelation 13:15 , AV, pneuma, "breath," is translated "life" (RV, "breath"). (3) In 2 Corinthians 1:8 , "we despaired even of life," the verb zao, "to live," is used in the infinitive mood, as a noun, and translated "life" (lit., "living"). In Hebrews 2:15 the infinitive mood of the same verb is translated "lifetime."
A — 4: βίωσις (Strong's #981 — Noun Feminine — biosis — bee'-o-sis ) from bioo, "to spend one's life, to live," denotes "a manner of life," Acts 26:4 .
A — 5: ἀγωγή (Strong's #72 — Noun Feminine — agoge — ag-o-gay' ) "a manner of life," 2 Timothy 3:10 ; see CONDUCT.
A — 6: ἀναστροφή (Strong's #391 — Noun Feminine — anastrophe — an-as-trof-ay' ) "behavior, conduct," is translated "manner of life" (AV "conversation") in the RV of Galatians 1:13 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 ; 1 Peter 1:18 ; 3:16 ; "living," in 1 Peter 1:15 . See BEHAVIOR.
B — 1: βιωτικός (Strong's #982 — Adjective — biotikos — bee-o-tee-kos' ) "pertaining to life" (bios), is translated "of this life," in Luke 21:34 , with reference to cares; in 1 Corinthians 6:3 , "(things) that pertain to this life," and 1 Corinthians 6:4 , "(things) pertaining to this life," i.e., matters of this world, concerning which Christians at Corinth were engaged in public lawsuits one with another; such matters were to be regarded as relatively unimportant in view of the great tribunals to come under the jurisdiction of saints hereafter. Moulton and Milligan (Vocab.) illustrate the word from phrases in the papyri, e.g., "business (documents);" "business concerning my livelihood;" "(stories) of ordinary life."
B — 2: ἄψυχος (Strong's #895 — Adjective — apsuchos — ap'-soo-khos ) denotes "lifeless, inanimate" (a, negative, and psuche, see A, No. 3), "without life," 1 Corinthians 14:7 .
C — 1: ζῳοποιέω (Strong's #2227 — Verb — zoopoieo — dzo-op-oy-eh'-o ) "to make alive, cause to live, quicken" (from zoe, "life," and poieo, "to make"), is used as follows: "(a) of God as the bestower of every kind of life in the universe, 1 Timothy 6:13 (zoogoneo, to preserve alive, is the alternative reading adopted by most editors; see LIVE , No. 6), and, particularly, of resurrection life, John 5:21 ; Romans 4:17 ; (b) of Christ, who also is the bestower of resurrection life, John 5:21 (2nd part); 1 Corinthians 15:45 ; cp. 1 Corinthians 15:22 ; (c) of the resurrection of Christ in "the body of His glory," 1 Peter 3:18 ; (d) of the power of reproduction inherent in seed, which presents a certain analogy with resurrection, 1 Corinthians 15:36 ; (e) of the 'changing,' or 'fashioning anew,' of the bodies of the living, which corresponds with, and takes place at the same time as, the resurrection of the dead in Christ, Romans 8:11 ; (f) of the impartation of spiritual life, and the communication of spiritual sustenance generally, John 6:63 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Galatians 3:21 ." * [3] See QUICKEN , and cp. sunzoopoieo, "to quicken together with," Ephesians 2:5 ; Colossians 2:13 .
Notes: (1) For the verb diago, "to lead a life," see LIVE , No. 7. (2) For politeuo, in Philippians 1:27 , RV, "let your manner of life be," see LIVE , No. 8.
Webster's Dictionary - Life-Giving
(a.) Giving life or spirit; having power to give life; inspiriting; invigorating.
Webster's Dictionary - Life-Size
(a.) Of full size; of the natural size.
Webster's Dictionary - Life-Saving
(a.) That saves life, or is suited to save life, esp. from drowning; as, the life-saving service; a life-saving station.
Webster's Dictionary - Life-Preserver
(n.) An apparatus, made in very various forms, and of various materials, for saving one from drowning by buoying up the body while in the water.
Webster's Dictionary - Life
(1):
(n.) A history of the acts and events of a life; a biography; as, Johnson wrote the life of Milton.
(2):
(n.) The system of animal nature; animals in general, or considered collectively.
(3):
(n.) That which imparts or excites spirit or vigor; that upon which enjoyment or success depends; as, he was the life of the company, or of the enterprise.
(4):
(n.) An essential constituent of life, esp. the blood.
(5):
(n.) The potential principle, or force, by which the organs of animals and plants are started and continued in the performance of their several and cooperative functions; the vital force, whether regarded as physical or spiritual.
(6):
(n.) The state of being which begins with generation, birth, or germination, and ends with death; also, the time during which this state continues; that state of an animal or plant in which all or any of its organs are capable of performing all or any of their functions; - used of all animal and vegetable organisms.
(7):
(n.) Figuratively: The potential or animating principle, also, the period of duration, of anything that is conceived of as resembling a natural organism in structure or functions; as, the life of a state, a machine, or a book; authority is the life of government.
(8):
(n.) A certain way or manner of living with respect to conditions, circumstances, character, conduct, occupation, etc.; hence, human affairs; also, lives, considered collectively, as a distinct class or type; as, low life; a good or evil life; the life of Indians, or of miners.
(9):
(n.) Something dear to one as one's existence; a darling; - used as a term of endearment.
(10):
(n.) Enjoyment in the right use of the powers; especially, a spiritual existence; happiness in the favor of God; heavenly felicity.
(11):
(n.) Animation; spirit; vivacity; vigor; energy.
(12):
(n.) A person; a living being, usually a human being; as, many lives were sacrificed.
(13):
(n.) Of human beings: The union of the soul and body; also, the duration of their union; sometimes, the deathless quality or existence of the soul; as, man is a creature having an immortal life.
(14):
(n.) The living or actual form, person, thing, or state; as, a picture or a description from the life.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Life
In the Bible, is either natural, Genesis 3:17 ; spiritual, that of the renewed soul, Romans 8:6 ; or eternal, a holy and blissful immortality, John 3:36 Romans 6:23 . Christ is the great Author of natural life, Colossians 1:16 ; and also of spiritual and eternal life; John 14:6 6:47 . He has purchased these by laying down his own life; and gives them freely to his people, John 10:11,28 . He is the spring of all their spiritual life on earth, Galatians 2:20 ; will raise them up at the last day; and make them partakers for ever of his own life, John 11:25 14:19 .
King James Dictionary - Life
LIFE, n. plu lives. See Live.
1. In a general sense, that state of animals and plants, or of an organized being, in which its natural functions and motions are performed, or in which its organs are capable of performing their functions. A tree is not destitute of life in winter, when the functions of its organs are suspended nor man during a swoon or syncope nor strictly birds, quadrupeds or serpents during their torpitude in winter. They are not strictly dead, till the functions of their organs are incapable of being renewed. 2. In animals, animation vitality and in man, that state of being in which the soul and body are united. He entreated me not to take his life.
3. In plants, the state in which they grow or are capable of growth, by means of the circulation of the sap. The life of an oak may be two, three, or four hundred years. 4. The present state of existence the time from birth to death. The life of man seldom exceeds seventy years. If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable. 1 Corinthians 15 .
5. Manner of living conduct deportment, in regard to morals. I will teach my family to lead good lives.
6. Condition course of living, in regard to happiness and misery. We say, a man's life has been a series of prosperity, or misfortune. 7. Blood, the supposed vehicle of animation. And the warm life came issuing through the wound.
8. Animals in general animal being. Full nature swarms with life.
9. System of animal nature. Lives through all life.
10. Spirit animation briskness vivacity resolution. They have no notion of life and fire in fancy and words.
11. The living form real person or state in opposition to a copy as, a picture is taken from the life a description from the life. 12. Exact resemblance with to, before life. His portrait is draw to the life.
13. General state of man, or of social manners as the studies and arts that polish life. 14. Condition rank in society as high life and low life. 15.Common occurrences course of things human affairs. But to know that which before us lies in daily life, is the prime wisdom.
16. A person a living being usually or always, a human being. How many lives were sacrificed during the revolution? 17. Narrative of a past life history of the events of life biographical narration. Johnson wrote the life of Milton, and the lives of other poets. 18. In Scripture, nourishment support of life. For the tree of the field is man's life. Deuteronomy 20 .
19. The stomach or appetite. His life abhorreth bread. Job 33 .
20. The enjoyments or blessings of the present life. Having the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come. 1 Timothy 4 .
21. Supreme felicity. To be spiritually minded is life and peace. Romans 8 .
22. Eternal happiness in heaven. Romans 5 . 23. Restoration to life. Romans 5 . 24. The author and giver of supreme felicity. I am the way, the truth, and the life. John 14 .
25. A quickening, animating and strengthening principle, in a moral sense. John 6 . 26. The state of being in force, or the term for which an instrument has legal operation as the life of an execution.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - the Life
Our Lord's own way of naming Himself before raising Lazarus from death (John 11).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Common Life
See Community of Goods .
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Religious Life
The state of people who profess to aim at the perfection of Christian charity in the bosom of the Church, by the three perpetual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience. The religious life pointed out to us by the Evangelical counsels is a life of charity and of union with God, and the great means it employs to this end are freedom and detachment from everything that could in any manner prevent or impair that union. From another point of view it is a devotion, a special consecration to Christ and God, to whom every Christian acknowledges that he belongs. Christian virgins were the first to profess a life distinguished from the ordinary, by its tendency to perfection; continence, and often the renunciation of riches, attached them specially to Christ. Shortly after them, appeared the "confessores" who also made profession of chastity and sometimes of poverty. In the 3century we find the first distinct traces of the kind of life in which the religious profession becomes by degrees perfected and brought under rule, that of the monks. The Gospel clearly states virginity and continence as the means, and charity as the end, of all religious life. Persecutions necessitated retirement and a first form of life entirely directed towards personal sanctification; community life produced obedience; the inconveniences caused by frequent changes of residence suggested the vow of stability; the excessive multiplication and diversity of religious institutes called for the intervention of the sovereign pontiff and his express approbation of rules; the needs of soul and body grafted the practise of corporal and spiritual works of mercy upon personal sanctification, and joined the reception of Holy Orders to religious profession; and the exigencies and difficulties of modern times caused the making of simple vows antecedent to, or in substitution for, solemn vows. Some examples of the regular religious life may be seen among the Canons Regular, the mendicant orders, the military orders, the hospitaller orders, the Clerks Regular, the Eastern orders, those orders founded principally for teaching, as the Christian Brothers, and innumerable congregations of nuns.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Life
God is the source and controller of all life. He brings it into existence, sustains it, and brings it to an end, all according to his purposes (Genesis 2:7; Numbers 16:22; Deuteronomy 32:39; Job 34:14-15; Psalms 36:9; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Matthew 10:28; Luke 12:20; 1 Timothy 6:13).
Human life is especially sacred, for people exist in God’s image. Israelite law therefore considered that any person who murdered another was no longer worthy to enjoy God’s gift of life and had to be executed (Genesis 9:5-6; Numbers 35:33; see IMAGE). The law required that even when people killed animals for food, they had to carry out the killing with fitting acknowledgment that the life belonged to God (Genesis 9:4; Leviticus 17:2-4; Leviticus 17:10-14; Deuteronomy 12:15-16; see BLOOD).
Human life
In speaking of human life, people often make a contrast between physical life and spiritual life. But God’s intention is that all aspects of a person’s life be united harmoniously. God wants people to enjoy their physical life fully, but to do so in a right relationship with himself (Deuteronomy 8:1; Deuteronomy 8:3; Deuteronomy 30:15-20; Psalms 16:9-11; Ecclesiastes 5:18-20; Ecclesiastes 9:9-10). The life that is proper to them is one in which physical and spiritual aspects find their fulfilment as a unity (see HUMANITY, HUMANKIND).
Sin, however, has so changed the character of human existence that life is no longer as it should be. Because of sin, the lives of all people are affected by the power of death. The result is that physically they are doomed to death and spiritually they are dead already (Romans 5:12; Romans 6:23; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 4:18; see DEATH). They are cut off from God and therefore cut off from true spiritual life, the life that is life indeed, eternal life (1 Timothy 6:19).
The Bible may speak of human life from both the physical and the spiritual aspects (Genesis 25:7; Genesis 27:46; John 5:40; John 6:33), but these two aspects are not opposed to each other. Nor are they completely separated. Life in its physical earthly existence finds new meaning when people are ‘born again’. They then receive spiritual life as the free gift of God (John 1:13; John 3:5-6; Ephesians 2:5; see REGENERATION). They find life in its truest sense; they begin a new existence (Mark 8:35; John 12:25).
Even though physical death is the common experience of all, believers will never be separated from God (John 8:51; Romans 8:38-39). Their physical death is viewed as a temporary ‘sleep’. At Christ’s return, God will raise them to resurrection life, where sin and death will have no more power (John 11:11; John 11:25-26; 1 Corinthians 15:20-26; 1 Corinthians 15:51-57).
Eternal life
Life in its highest sense is what the Bible calls eternal life (1 Timothy 6:13; 1 Timothy 6:15-16; 1 Timothy 6:19). In referring to this life as eternal, the Bible is emphasizing its quality rather than its length. The word ‘eternal’ comes from the Greek word for ‘age’ or ‘era’. Eternal life is the life of the age to come. It is the life that belongs to the eternal and spiritual world in contrast to the life of the temporal and physical world (John 4:10; John 4:13-14; John 6:27; John 6:35; John 6:40). Certainly, that age will be unending (John 6:51; John 8:51), but more importantly it will be an age when people enjoy the close personal relationship with God for which they have been made. They will enjoy the life that God desires them to live (John 6:63; John 10:10; John 17:3; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5-6; Philippians 1:21; see ETERNITY).
This eternal life has its source in God. In fact, it is a characteristic of the nature of God himself. It has been revealed through Christ, made possible through Christ, and is available to all through Christ (John 1:4; John 5:26; John 14:6; Colossians 3:4; 1 John 5:20).
People cannot achieve eternal life by their own efforts. It comes solely as the gift of God (John 10:28; Romans 6:23; 1 John 5:11). But God gives this gift only to those who repent of their sins and commit themselves in faith to Jesus (John 3:16; John 11:25; John 17:3; John 20:31; Acts 11:18; 1 John 5:12). God wants people to have confidence and assurance in the eternal life that he gives them. Those who have eternal life have salvation; those without it are under condemnation (John 3:18; John 3:36; John 5:24; 1 John 5:13; see ASSURANCE; SALVATION).
Being part of a world affected by sin and death, believers may have to pass through physical death, but they will never die in the sense that really matters (John 11:25-26). They have eternal life now (John 5:24; Ephesians 2:1; 1 John 3:14), and can look forward to the experience of that life in its fulness in the age to come. When Jesus Christ returns, they will be raised from death to enjoy the resurrection life of glory, perfection, power and immortality (Matthew 25:46; John 5:28-29; John 6:40; Romans 2:7; Romans 6:22; 1 Corinthians 15:42-44; 2 Corinthians 5:4; 2 Timothy 1:10; see RESURRECTION).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Book of Life
It appears that different Bible writers used the expression ‘book of life’ in different ways. In Old Testament times it may have meant simply the register of all living people. It seems also to have had a special meaning as referring to the register of all who claimed to be God’s people (Exodus 32:32-33; Psalms 69:28).
Among those known as God’s people, from Old Testament times to the present, there are those who become apostates or who were not genuine believers in the first place. They demonstrate this by openly and deliberately rejecting God, and God removes their names from the book of life. True believers do not reject God, and God does not remove their names from the book of life. They are assured of eternal life in its fulness (Exodus 32:32-33; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 21:22-25; see APOSTACY; BACKSLIDING).
From this usage, ‘book of life’ has developed a more specific meaning. It becomes the register of all true believers – those whom God has chosen and who have received cleansing from sin through the blood of Jesus. Thus it becomes specifically the ‘Lamb’s book of life’ (Luke 10:20; Philippians 4:3; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27). In the coming judgment, all whose names are not written in the Lamb’s book of life will suffer eternal punishment (Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12-15).

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Biography - Taylor's Life of Christ; Cave's Lives of the Apostles; Cave's Lives of the Fathers; Fox's Lives of the Martyrs; Melchior Adam's Lives; Fuller's and Clark's Lives; Gilpin's Lives of Wickliffe, Cranmer, Latimer, &c. ; Walton's Lives by Zouch; Baxter's Narrative of the most remarkable Passages of his Life and Times, by Silvester; Palmer's Nonconformist Memorial; Lives of P. Henry; Life of Halyburton; Orton's Memoirs of Doddridge; Gillies' Life of Whitfield; Doddridge's Life of Gardner; Life of Wesley by Hampson, Coke, More, and Whitehead; Middleton's Biographia Evangelica; Edward's Life of D. Brainerd; Gibbon's Life of Watts; Brown's Life of Hervey; Fawcett's Life of Heywood; Brown's Lives in his Student and Pastor; Burnet's Life of Rochester; Hayley's Life of Cowper; Benson's Life of Fletcher; Jay's Life of Winter; Cecil's Life of Newton; Priestley's Chart of Biography, with a Book describing it, 12mo. ; Haweis's Life of Romaine; Fuller's Life of Pearce
Life-Saving - ) That saves Life, or is suited to save Life, esp. from drowning; as, the Life-saving service; a Life-saving station
Lives - of Life. ) Alive; living; with Life. ) of Life...
Azoic - ) Destitute of any vestige of organic Life, or at least of animal Life; anterior to the existence of animal Life; formed when there was no animal Life on the globe; as, the azoic
Life - Life, n. A tree is not destitute of Life in winter, when the functions of its organs are suspended nor man during a swoon or syncope nor strictly birds, quadrupeds or serpents during their torpitude in winter. He entreated me not to take his Life. The Life of an oak may be two, three, or four hundred years. The Life of man seldom exceeds seventy years. If in this Life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable. We say, a man's Life has been a series of prosperity, or misfortune. And the warm Life came issuing through the wound. Full nature swarms with Life. Lives through all Life. They have no notion of Life and fire in fancy and words. The living form real person or state in opposition to a copy as, a picture is taken from the Life a description from the Life. Exact resemblance with to, before Life. His portrait is draw to the Life. General state of man, or of social manners as the studies and arts that polish Life. Condition rank in society as high Life and low Life. But to know that which before us lies in daily Life, is the prime wisdom. Narrative of a past Life history of the events of Life biographical narration. Johnson wrote the Life of Milton, and the lives of other poets. In Scripture, nourishment support of Life. For the tree of the field is man's Life. His Life abhorreth bread. The enjoyments or blessings of the present Life. Having the promise of the Life that now is, and of that which is to come. To be spiritually minded is Life and peace. Restoration to Life. I am the way, the truth, and the Life. The state of being in force, or the term for which an instrument has legal operation as the Life of an execution
Vital - ) Being the seat of Life; being that on which Life depends; mortal. ) Containing Life; living. ) Contributing to Life; necessary to, or supporting, Life; as, vital blood. ) Belonging or relating to Life, either animal or vegetable; as, vital energies; vital functions; vital actions
Homicide - (Latin: homo, man; caedere, to kill) ...
Destroying a human Life, taking the Life of another unjustly. Its malice consists in interfering with God's right over Life as its author and owner, and with the God-given right of man to Life
Eternal Life - The quality of Life including the promise of resurrection which God gives to those who believe in Christ. Eternal Life in the New Testament eliminates the boundary line of death. Death is still a foe, but the one who has eternal Life already experiences the kind of existence that will never end. Yet in this expression, the emphasis is on the quality of Life rather than on the unending duration of Life. Probably some aspects of both quality and duration appear in every context, but some refer primarily to quality of Life and others point to unending Life or a Life to be entered into in the future. ...
“Quality of Life” involves (1) Life imparted by God; (2) transformation and renewal of Life; (3) Life fully opened to God and centered in Him; (4) a constant overcoming of sin and moral evil; and (5) the complete removal of moral evil from the person and from the environment of that person. ...
Eternal Life As Experience in the Present This term in John has important implications. The one trusting in the Son has eternal Life; the one disobeying the Son has the wrath of God abiding on him (John 3:36 ). The one who hears Christ's message and believes or trusts in the Father who sent Him has eternal Life. This person does not come into condemnation but has passed out of death into Life (John 5:24 ). The perfect tense—one who has passed and remained in the state of having passed from death into Life—emphasizes eternal Life as a permanent, present reality. Eternal Life is a present reality for the one hearing and trusting (John 5:24 ). “The one eating my flesh and drinking my blood, has eternal Life” ( John 6:54 ). ” Since Christ is our Life, we must make that Life part of us by “sharing in Christ,” by actively coming to Him and drawing Life-giving strength from Him. ...
Eternal Life is defined in Jesus' high priestly prayer: “Eternal Life is this: that people be constantly knowing you, the only genuine God and Jesus Christ whom You sent” (John 17:3 ). Genuine knowledge of God by experience brings eternal Life. Such experience transforms Life. ...
Eternal Life as Experienced in the Present and Future John compared the lifting up of the serpent in the wilderness to the lifting up of the Son of Man on the cross and His exaltation to heaven. People who respond to Christ by constant trust have eternal Life (John 3:15 ). Here eternal Life involves a present healing, a present reality. But John 3:16 refers both to the present and the future: “Now God loved the world in this fashion; as a result he gave his unique Son, that everyone believing or trusting in him should not perish but should be having eternal Life. ” Perishing is contrasted with having eternal Life. “Eternal Life” here is both present and future and is the alternative to “perishing. To such disciples, He gives eternal Life, and they will not perish (John 10:28 ). For such people eternal Life is both a present and a future reality. ...
Eternal Life as a Future Experience “What shall I do that I may inherit eternal Life?” the rich young ruler asked. He saw eternal Life as a final inheritance. Then He added: “And in the coming age, eternal Life” ( Mark 10:30 ). Eternal Life here refers to an unending future reality. We do know He spoke about His death and what it meant to be a disciple: “The one loving his Life [1] will lose it; but the one hating his Life [1] in this world will guard the soul unto eternal Life ” (John 12:25 ). Jesus here contrasted eternal Life with the present Life. To be where Christ is means to come into eternal Life—a Life freed from sin or moral evil. ...
Paul declared that “the one sowing to the Spirit will reap eternal Life from the Spirit” (Galatians 6:8 ). Eternal Life is given by Jesus and the Holy Spirit. Fellowship in Life eternal means fellowship with the Triune God
Life - Generally of physical Life (Genesis 2:7 ; Luke 16:25 , etc. ); also used figuratively (1) for immortality (Hebrews 7:16 ); (2) conduct or manner of Life (Romans 6:4 ); (3) spiritual Life or salvation (John 3:16,17,18,36 ); (4) eternal Life (Matthew 19:16,17 ; John 3:15 ); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all Life (John 1:4 ; 5:26,39 ; 11:25 ; 12:50 )
Ridgerope - ) See Life line (a), under Life
Life, Eternal - "He is the true God, and eternal Life. " "This is the record, that God hath given to us eternal Life, and this Life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath Life; and he that hath not the Son of God hath not Life. He that has the Son of God therefore has Life now, and knows it by the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Life. The apostle John speaks of Life as a subjective state in believers, though inseparable from the knowledge of God fully revealed as the Father in the Son, and indeed characterised by this. The Lord said to His Father, "This is Life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent. The apostle Paul presents eternal Life more as a hope before the Christian, which however has a present moral effect. From which we gather that eternal Life for the Christian refers in its fulness to the glory of God, when the present body as a part of the old creation will be changed, and there will be complete conformity to Christ, according to the purpose of God. In the meantime the mind of God is that the Christian, indwelt by the Holy Spirit, should know (have the conscious knowledge) that he has eternal Life. For Christians it is evident that eternal Life is morally distinct from Life after the flesh
Longevity - ) Long duration of Life; length of Life
Life - In him, saith the apostle John, "was Life, and the Life was the light of men. " (John 1:4) And elsewhere Jesus saith himself, "I am the Life and the light of men. I am the resurrection and the Life. I am come that they might have Life, and that they might have it more abundantly. " It is most essential to our happiness, that we should have clear conceptions of this most blessed truth, so as to see and know from whence and in whom all the springs of Life are. It is not, in my view of things, sufficient to understand that Christ gives Life to his people, but that he is himself the Life of his people. " So that Jesus is, to the soul of his redeemed, the very Life of the soul, as our soul is the Life of the body. And the apostle to the church of the Colossians saith, "Your Life is hid with Christ in God; so that when Christ, who is your Life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory. " What a world of blessedness there is in this one consideration of the Lord Jesus as the Life of his people! Precious Lord, I would say, thou art indeed both the Life and the light of men! Thou art in thyself the whole of their spiritual and eternal Life. Keep alive, I beseech thee, the renewed Life thou hast given me in thyself; and cause me to enter into the full apprehension and enjoyment of that most glorious proclamation of thine in which thou hast, said, "I am the resurrection and the Life; he that believeth in me, though he were deadly, yet shall he live, and he that liveth and believeth in, me shall never die
Lifetime - The time that Life continues duration of Life
Biometry - ) Measurement of Life; calculation of the probable duration of human Life
Life-Giving - ) Giving Life or spirit; having power to give Life; inspiriting; invigorating
Revivification - ) Renewal of Life; restoration of Life; the act of recalling, or the state of being recalled, to Life
Life, Living, Lifetime, Life-Giving - , "zoo," "zoology") is used in the NT "of Life as a principle, Life in the absolute sense, Life as God has it, that which the Father has in Himself, and which He gave to the Incarnate Son to have in Himself, John 5:26 , and which the Son manifested in the world, 1 John 1:2 . From this Life man has become alienated in consequence of the Fall, Ephesians 4:18 , and of this Life men become partakers through faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, John 3:15 , who becomes its Author to all such as trust in Him, Acts 3:15 , and who is therefore said to be 'the Life' of the believer, Colossians 3:4 , for the Life that He gives He maintains, John 6:35,63 . Eternal Life is the present actual possession of the believer because of his relationship with Christ, John 5:24 ; 1 John 3:14 , and that it will one day extend its domain to the sphere of the body is assured by the Resurrection of Christ, 2 Corinthians 5:4 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 . This Life is not merely a principle of power and mobility, however, for it has moral associations which are inseparable from it, as of holiness and righteousness. Death and sin, Life and holiness, are frequently contrasted in the Scriptures. 'This Life' is a term equivalent to 'the gospel,' 'the faith,' 'Christianity,' Acts 5:20 . Sin thus involved the forfeiting of the "life. " "The Life of the flesh is in the blood," Leviticus 17:11 . Therefore the impartation of "life" to the sinner must be by a death caused by the shedding of that element which is the Life of the flesh. "It is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the Life" (id. The separation from God caused by the forfeiting of the "life" could be removed only by a sacrifice in which the victim and the offerer became identified. The shedding of the blood in the language of Scripture involves the taking or the giving of the "life. By this means the believer becomes identified with Him in His deathless "life," through His resurrection, and enjoys conscious and eternal fellowship with God. words beginning with bio-), is used in three respects (a) of "the period or duration of Life," e. , in the AV of 1 Peter 4:3 , "the time past of our Life" (the RV follows the mss. which omit "of our Life"); Luke 8:14 ; 2 Timothy 2:4 ; (b) of "the manner of Life, Life in regard to its moral conduct," 1 Timothy 2:2 ; 1 John 2:16 ; (c) of "the means of Life, livelihood, maintenance, living," Mark 12:44 ; Luke 8:43 ; 15:12,30 ; 21:4 ; 1 John 3:17 , "goods," RV (AV, "good"). ...
Note: "While zoe is "life' intensive . bios is 'life' extensive. In bios, used as manner of 'life,' there is an ethical sense often inhering which, in classical Greek at least, zoe does not possess. ...
A — 3: ψυχή (Strong's #5590 — Noun Feminine — psuche — psoo-khay' ) besides its meanings, "heart, mind, soul," denotes "life" in two chief respects, (a) "breath of Life, the natural Life," e. ...
Notes: (1) "Speaking generally, psuche, is the individual Life, the living being, whereas zoe, is the Life of that being, cp. which holdeth our soul (psuche) in Life (zoe),' and John 10:10 , 'I came that they may have Life (zoe),' with John 10:11 , 'The Good Shepherd layeth down His Life (psuche) for the sheep. ]'>[2] (2) In Revelation 13:15 , AV, pneuma, "breath," is translated "life" (RV, "breath"). (3) In 2 Corinthians 1:8 , "we despaired even of Life," the verb zao, "to live," is used in the infinitive mood, as a noun, and translated "life" (lit. In Hebrews 2:15 the infinitive mood of the same verb is translated "lifetime. " ...
A — 4: βίωσις (Strong's #981 — Noun Feminine — biosis — bee'-o-sis ) from bioo, "to spend one's Life, to live," denotes "a manner of Life," Acts 26:4 . ...
A — 5: ἀγωγή (Strong's #72 — Noun Feminine — agoge — ag-o-gay' ) "a manner of Life," 2 Timothy 3:10 ; see CONDUCT. ...
A — 6: ἀναστροφή (Strong's #391 — Noun Feminine — anastrophe — an-as-trof-ay' ) "behavior, conduct," is translated "manner of Life" (AV "conversation") in the RV of Galatians 1:13 ; 1 Timothy 4:12 ; 1 Peter 1:18 ; 3:16 ; "living," in 1 Peter 1:15 . ...
B — 1: βιωτικός (Strong's #982 — Adjective — biotikos — bee-o-tee-kos' ) "pertaining to Life" (bios), is translated "of this Life," in Luke 21:34 , with reference to cares; in 1 Corinthians 6:3 , "(things) that pertain to this Life," and 1 Corinthians 6:4 , "(things) pertaining to this Life," i. , "business (documents);" "business concerning my livelihood;" "(stories) of ordinary Life. " ...
B — 2: ἄψυχος (Strong's #895 — Adjective — apsuchos — ap'-soo-khos ) denotes "lifeless, inanimate" (a, negative, and psuche, see A, No. 3), "without Life," 1 Corinthians 14:7 . ...
C — 1: ζῳοποιέω (Strong's #2227 — Verb — zoopoieo — dzo-op-oy-eh'-o ) "to make alive, cause to live, quicken" (from zoe, "life," and poieo, "to make"), is used as follows: "(a) of God as the bestower of every kind of Life in the universe, 1 Timothy 6:13 (zoogoneo, to preserve alive, is the alternative reading adopted by most editors; see LIVE , No. 6), and, particularly, of resurrection Life, John 5:21 ; Romans 4:17 ; (b) of Christ, who also is the bestower of resurrection Life, John 5:21 (2nd part); 1 Corinthians 15:45 ; cp. 1 Corinthians 15:22 ; (c) of the resurrection of Christ in "the body of His glory," 1 Peter 3:18 ; (d) of the power of reproduction inherent in seed, which presents a certain analogy with resurrection, 1 Corinthians 15:36 ; (e) of the 'changing,' or 'fashioning anew,' of the bodies of the living, which corresponds with, and takes place at the same time as, the resurrection of the dead in Christ, Romans 8:11 ; (f) of the impartation of spiritual Life, and the communication of spiritual sustenance generally, John 6:63 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ; Galatians 3:21 . ...
Notes: (1) For the verb diago, "to lead a Life," see LIVE , No. (2) For politeuo, in Philippians 1:27 , RV, "let your manner of Life be," see LIVE , No
Breath of Life - The phrase denotes the capacity for Life. In the Bible, God is the source of the breath of Life (Genesis 1:30 ; Genesis 2:7 ; Genesis 7:15 ; Isaiah 57:16 ). Just as God gave the breath of Life, so can He take it away (Genesis 6:17 ; Genesis 7:22 ; Isaiah 57:16 ). See Life ; Immortality
Worldly - ) Pertaining to this world or Life, in contradistinction from the Life to come; secular; temporal; devoted to this Life and its enjoyments; bent on gain; as, worldly pleasures, affections, honor, lusts, men. ) With relation to this Life; in a worldly manner
Life - God is the source and controller of all Life. ...
Human Life is especially sacred, for people exist in God’s image. Israelite law therefore considered that any person who murdered another was no longer worthy to enjoy God’s gift of Life and had to be executed (Genesis 9:5-6; Numbers 35:33; see IMAGE). The law required that even when people killed animals for food, they had to carry out the killing with fitting acknowledgment that the Life belonged to God (Genesis 9:4; Leviticus 17:2-4; Leviticus 17:10-14; Deuteronomy 12:15-16; see BLOOD). ...
Human Life...
In speaking of human Life, people often make a contrast between physical Life and spiritual Life. But God’s intention is that all aspects of a person’s Life be united harmoniously. God wants people to enjoy their physical Life fully, but to do so in a right relationship with himself (Deuteronomy 8:1; 1 Corinthians 15:51-57; Deuteronomy 30:15-20; Psalms 16:9-11; Ecclesiastes 5:18-20; Ecclesiastes 9:9-10). The Life that is proper to them is one in which physical and spiritual aspects find their fulfilment as a unity (see HUMANITY, HUMANKIND). ...
Sin, however, has so changed the character of human existence that Life is no longer as it should be. They are cut off from God and therefore cut off from true spiritual Life, the Life that is Life indeed, eternal Life (1 Timothy 6:19). ...
The Bible may speak of human Life from both the physical and the spiritual aspects (Genesis 25:7; Genesis 27:46; John 5:40; John 6:33), but these two aspects are not opposed to each other. Life in its physical earthly existence finds new meaning when people are ‘born again’. They then receive spiritual Life as the free gift of God (John 1:13; John 3:5-6; Ephesians 2:5; see REGENERATION). They find Life in its truest sense; they begin a new existence (Mark 8:35; John 12:25). At Christ’s return, God will raise them to resurrection Life, where sin and death will have no more power (John 11:11; John 11:25-26; 1 Corinthians 15:20-26; Deuteronomy 8:3). ...
Eternal Life...
Life in its highest sense is what the Bible calls eternal Life (1 Timothy 6:13; 1 Timothy 6:15-16; 1 Timothy 6:19). In referring to this Life as eternal, the Bible is emphasizing its quality rather than its length. Eternal Life is the Life of the age to come. It is the Life that belongs to the eternal and spiritual world in contrast to the Life of the temporal and physical world (John 4:10; John 4:13-14; John 6:27; John 6:35; John 6:40). They will enjoy the Life that God desires them to live (John 6:63; John 10:10; John 17:3; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5-6; Philippians 1:21; see ETERNITY). ...
This eternal Life has its source in God. ...
People cannot achieve eternal Life by their own efforts. God wants people to have confidence and assurance in the eternal Life that he gives them. Those who have eternal Life have salvation; those without it are under condemnation (John 3:18; John 3:36; John 5:24; 1 John 5:13; see ASSURANCE; SALVATION). They have eternal Life now (John 5:24; Ephesians 2:1; 1 John 3:14), and can look forward to the experience of that Life in its fulness in the age to come. When Jesus Christ returns, they will be raised from death to enjoy the resurrection Life of glory, perfection, power and immortality (Matthew 25:46; John 5:28-29; John 6:40; Romans 2:7; Romans 6:22; 1 Corinthians 15:42-44; 2 Corinthians 5:4; 2 Timothy 1:10; see RESURRECTION)
Life - Life...
I. In the OT...
The term ‘life’ in EV
Life as a physical phenomenon is pre-eminently associated with animals the living creatures of the sea, the land, and the air (Genesis 1:21 ff. Plant-life is hardly recognized as such. OT writers do not go so far as to predicate Life of trees in much the same way as of animals, as is the case with some of the early Greek philosophers ( e. ’ There is the feeling that trees possess ‘a sort of’ Life; and such references to trees as that concerning the fresh sprouting of a stock or root ( Job 14:7 ff. ...
Physical Life is not only primitively connected with the breath, but also with the blood. This primitive conception of blood as the seat of Life lies at the root of the whole OT system of sacrifices and of all the Scripture Ideas and teachings based thereupon. ...
The sacredness of Life as such is strongly emphasized. The great value ascribed to human Life is indicated by the numerous laws relating to manslaughter and to offences which interfere in any way with a man’s right to live and with his reasonable use and enjoyment of Life. , Joel 1:18 ; Joel 1:20 ); their Life is a thing to be considered. We find the ground of this feeling in the view that God is not only the original Creator or Source of Life, but directly its Sustainer in all its forms ( Psalms 36:6 , Psalms 104:1-35 ; Psalms 145:1-21 passim ). ‘God of Life’). Life is predominantly set forth as man’s summum bonum . Life and death are respectively ‘the blessing and the curse,’ and that uniquely ( Deuteronomy 30:19 ). ‘Choose Life’ is the appeal pointing to the one desirable boon. The language which disparages Life and praises death ( e. As Orr points out, Life in its Scripture use has ‘a moral and spiritual connotation’ ( Christian View [3], p. 393); and it is only the godly and righteous Life that is a boon from the Scripture point of view. Such is the burden of the Wisdom books, when they speak of ‘finding Life,’ and describe wisdom as a ‘tree of Life’ ( Proverbs 3:18 ; Proverbs 8:35 ). The idea of a Life to come is in many portions of the OT conspicuous by its absence. There is nothing anywhere that will compare with the NT conception of ‘ eternal Life. ‘Life’ alone in this later use comes to be used as = ‘life eternal. Later Jewish use, however, prefers the clearer phrase, ‘life of the age to come’: and along this line the genesis of the term ‘eternal Life’ must be explained. the last clause in the Nicene Creed: ‘the Life of the world to come’). ...
At the same time, though in some parts of the OT the hope of Life hereafter seems expressly excluded (see, e. , Isaiah 38:11 ; Isaiah 38:18 , Ecclesiastes 9:5 ; Ecclesiastes 9:10 [5]), and this world alone is known as’ the land of the living,’ the very asking of the question in Job 14:14 is significant, and the language of Psalms 16:1-11 concerning ‘the path of Life’ lends itself readily to an interpretation looking to Life beyond death. God is the author of Life but not of death ( Wis 1:13 f. For an impressive presentment of a foolish appreciation of Life, see also Wis 15:7 ff. In Sir 15:17 ‘Before man is Life and death,’ we have an echo of Deuteronomy 30:19 . The conception of Life (‘soul’) as a loan that can be recalled is found in Wis 15:8 ; Wis 15:18 , a close parallel with Luke 12:20 . Such phrases as ‘the fountain of Life’ ( Sir 21:13 ) and ‘the tree of Life’ ( 2E Esther 2:12 ; 2Es 8:52 ) recall their use in both OT and NT. 2Es 7:1-70 furnishes a notable and picturesque view of Life beyond death, with the judgment of the righteous and the unrighteous. In NT ...
The term ‘life’ is the Eng. This is of most frequent occurrence; generally corresponding to chayyim in OT; = Life in the absolute: vitality: full, active existence. It is the term capable of embodying all progressive conceptions as to what constitutes Life, and so regularly occurring in the phrase ‘eternal Life. ’ (2) psychç , generally = OT nephesh , but the fluctuation between ‘life’ and ‘soul’ (see, e. It further denotes the specific Life or existence of any individual. = the present state of existence, this Life; as in Luke 8:14 , 1 Timothy 2:2 , 2 Timothy 2:4 , 1 John 2:16 ; 1 John 3:17 ( zôç , however, is sometimes used in this sense, with ‘this’ or ‘the present’ qualifying it, e. As regards the present Life we gather from the Gospels that Jesus never bewailed its brevity and vanity. On the contrary, in His own Life He graciously exemplifies the joie de vivre . The sacredness of Life is insisted on, and the Sixth Commandment is accentuated ( Matthew 5:21 ). The preciousness of Life, even in its humblest forms (‘sparrows,’ Matthew 10:29 || Luke 12:6 ), appears in connexion with our Lord’s arresting doctrine of Divine Providence, which stands in such unhesitating defiance of the sterner features of the world of Life ( In Memoriam , lv. ...
Very conspicuously Jesus condemns over-anxiety about this Life and its ‘goods. Certainly the accumulation of a superabundance of the ‘goods’ of Life at the expense of others’ deprivation and want is in direct opposition to the spirit of His teaching. ) about losing and finding one’s Life is of significance here a saying found not only in the three Synoptics (see Mark 8:35 , Luke 9:24 ), but also in its substance in John 12:25 . ...
Eternal Life figures conspicuously in the teaching of Jesus. passim ), ‘receiving’ ( Mark 10:30 ), ‘entering into,’ or ‘attaining’ ( Matthew 19:17 ), eternal Life, or Life simply is also that of the Jewish teachers of His own and a later day. ‘Life’ alone as = ‘eternal Life’ is used in Matthew 7:14 , Mark 9:43 etc. )...
The Johannine Gospel conspicuously gives ‘eternal Life’ as a chief topic of Christ’s teaching; whilst in the Synoptics ‘the kingdom of God’ holds the corresponding place. The primary characteristic of eternal Life is that it is Life lived under the rule of God. ’...
But the Life is a present possession, an actual fact of experience (John 3:35 ; John 5:24 ; John 6:47 etc. We have, however, the indication of a special association of eternal Life with the hereafter in Mark 10:30 (‘in the world to come’) Matthew 25:40 . ...
It is the teaching of Christ that has caused the words ‘eternal Life’ to be written, as it were, across the face of the NT. Still more are we to notice the unique claim made as to His relation to that Life. The keynote of the Johannine presentation is ‘in him was Life’ (John 1:4 ), and throughout He is consistently represented as giving and imparting this Life to His people. Note also, it is eternal Life as predicated of these that is principally, if not exclusively, in view in the Evangelical teaching there is little or nothing on human immortality in the widest sense. is ‘eternal Life,’ and it is handled in complete accord with the Fourth Gospel. Paul is in agreement with the Johannine teaching on the cardinal topic of eternal Life. His Epistles throb with this theme, and he conspicuously presents Christ as the source of this Life in its fullest conception, or the One through whom it is mediated. See Romans 6:23 , and note his strong way of identifying Christ with this Life, as in Galatians 2:20 , Philippians 1:21 , Colossians 3:3-4 . Christ is also presented as author or mediator of Life in the widest sense, the Life that moves in all created things ( Colossians 1:16-17 ; cf. Paul, again, uses ‘life’ alone as containing all the implicates of ‘eternal Life’ ( Romans 5:17 , 2 Corinthians 5:4 , Philippians 2:16 ). The supremely ethical value associated with Life is seen in the definition given in Romans 8:6 , with which cf. The new Life of the Spirit as a dynamic in the present and as having the promise of full fruition in eternity, is central in the Apostle’s exposition of Christianity. For the rest, the Apocalypse should be noticed for its use of such images as ‘crown of Life,’ ‘book of Life,’ ‘fountain,’ ‘river,’ and ‘water of Life,’ and the ‘book of Life’ (which we also meet with elsewhere) all embodying the Christian hope of immortality
Biology - (Greek: bios, Life; logos, science) ...
The science of Life and living organisms. It is concerned with the origin, structure, development, functions, and relations to environment, of plant and animal Life, and the causes thereof
Vitalize - ) To endow with Life, or vitality; to give Life to; to make alive; as, vitalized blood
Dissipation - Deceptive desires leading to a Life-style without discipline resulting in the dizzy hangovers of drunkenness. People following such a way of Life will suffer “the penalty for doing wrong” as they continue “reveling in their dissipation” (2 Peter 2:13 NRSV). Asotia means to be hopelessly sick and refers to a Life-style by which one destroys oneself. It is the Life of “dissipation” resulting from drinking wine ( Ephesians 5:18 NAS). The Bible speaks against a disorderly Life, whereas the Greeks used the term to mean a wasteful or luxurious Life. The Bible teaches believers to avoid both Life-styles
Hinge - 1 Kings 7:50 (c) The hinges tell of the motives which actuate the Life of the Christian. The inner motives of the private Life, and the outer motive of the public Life are to be pure, rich, and valuable as gold is valuable and rich
Eternal Life (2) - ETERNAL Life. In many passages it denotes primarily a present possession or actual experience of the Christian believer, while in others it clearly contemplates a blessed Life to come, conceived as a promised inheritance. The word ‘life,’ or ‘the Life’ (ζωή, ἡ ζωή), without the qualifying adjective ‘eternal,’ is often employed in the same general meaning. ...
There are passages in the Synoptic Gospels in which the phrase ‘eternal Life’ is used synonymously and interchangeably with ‘the kingdom of God’ (Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47, Matthew 7:14; Matthew 7:21). The Kingdom of heaven and the Life eternal are very closely related in the teaching of Jesus. Compare also the suggestive language of Romans 5:17 ‘shall reign in Life through Jesus Christ. John that we find ‘eternal Life’ presented as a heavenly boon which may become the actual possession of believers in the present Life. God Himself is the source of all Life, and ‘as the Father hath Life in himself, even so gave he to the Son also to have Life in himself’ (John 5:26). In the Word ‘which became flesh and dwelt among us’ there was a visible manifestation of the Life eternal: ‘In him was Life; and the Life was the light of men’ (John 1:4); so that He Himself declares, ‘I am the way, and the truth, and the Life’ (John 14:6). In accord with these statements the very Life of God is conceived as begotten in the believer by the Holy Spirit, so that he is ‘born anew,’ ‘born from above’ (John 3:3-7). That is, in these Divinely begotten children of God there abides the imperishable germ (σπέρμα) of Life from above, the eternal kind of Life which the twice born possess in common with the Father and the Son. Hence it is that the believer ‘hath eternal Life’ as an actual possession (John 3:36). He ‘hath passed out of death into Life’ (John 5:24, 1 John 3:14). ...
In John 17:3 we read what has to some extent the manner of a definition: ‘This is Life eternal, that (ἵνα) they should know thee the only true God, and him whom thou didst send, even Jesus Christ. ’ So far as this text furnishes a definition, it seems clearly to imply that ‘eternal Life’ consists in such a knowledge of God and of Christ as involves a personal experience of vital fellowship. It carries with it the love and obedience which, according to John 14:23, bring the Father and the Son into the believer’s inmost Life, so that they ‘make their abode with him. While the essence of this Divine Life consists in the knowledge of the only true God and His anointed Son, such knowledge is not the whole of eternal Life, for other ideals with their additional content are also set before us in the teaching of Christ and of His Apostles. In 1 John 5:11-13 the gift and actual possession of this eternal kind of heavenly Life are made emphatic: ‘God gave unto us eternal Life, and this Life is in his Son. He that hath the Son hath the Life; he that hath not the Son of God hath not the Life. ’ This language is incompatible with the thought that the ‘eternal Life’ spoken of is merely a promise, a hope or an expectation of such Life in a future state, as some of the older expositors maintained. ...
This heavenly kind of Life in Christ, conceived as a present experience of salvation, is further confirmed and illustrated by what Jesus said of Himself as ‘the bread of Life’ and the giver of the water that springs up into eternal Life. Jesus declares that He is ‘the bread of Life,’ which ‘giveth Life unto the world. ’ ‘I am the living bread which came down out of heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: yea, and the bread which I will give is my flesh, for the Life of the world. ’ ‘Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, ye have not Life in yourselves. He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath eternal Life: and I will raise him up at the last day. ’ These emphatic repetitions of statement would seem to put it beyond all question that their author meant to teach that the Son of God, sent by the living Father, ‘lives because of the Father,’ and imparts the eternal Life of the Father to every one who believes in Him. Of this living bread the believer now partakes, and ‘hath eternal Life’ (Romans 6:1-139; John 6:54). This Life also is conceived as attaining a certain goal, or receiving a definite consummation ‘at the last day. The Life eternal into which the believer enters involves, as matter of course, all due allowance for Divinely appointed conditions, aids, provisions and means of nourishing the Life itself; but to exalt these unduly is to divert the thought from the more central and profound mystic conception of Christ Himself as the Life of the world. So the remarkable sayings of Jesus in the synagogue at Capernaum, recorded in John 6:32-59, are but another form and a mystic expression of His emphatic declaration in John 5:24 ‘He that heareth my word, and believeth him that sent me, hath eternal Life, and cometh not into judgment, but hath passed out of death into Life. ’...
The exact meaning of the word ‘eternal,’ when used to qualify ‘the Life,’ is best understood when the Life is conceived as issuing from the eternal Father, and so partaking of His Divine nature (cf. Having Life in Himself, and giving to His Son to have Life in Himself (John 5:26), He imparts the same Life to all who believe in the Son; and that Life is in its nature eternal as God Himself. It is an eternal kind of Life which belongs to the unseen and imperishable things (cf. In the Johannine writings the word ‘life’ or ‘the Life,’ and the phrase ‘eternal Life,’ are used interchangeably. The latter is the more frequent form of expression, but it is evident that the writer often employs ‘the Life’ in the same sense. This Life is spoken of in contrast with ‘death’ and ‘perishing. ’ The believer ‘shall not perish, but have eternal Life’ (John 3:16), ‘hath passed out of the death into the Life’ (John 5:24), ‘shall never see death,’ nor ‘taste of death’ (John 8:51-52), ‘shall never perish’ (John 10:28). He who has not the Life is in a condition of spiritual death, and must perish unless he receive the Life of God, the eternal kind of Life, which has been manifested in Christ. In these and other similar passages Life and death are not to be understood as identical in meaning with existence and non-existence. The person who has passed out of death into Life had existence before the new Life came, and such existence, in estrangement from God and in disobedience of the gospel, may be perpetuated in ‘eternal destruction from the face of the Lord’ (2 Thessalonians 1:9). As ‘the death’ is a condition of moral and spiritual destitution in which one has no fellowship with God, so ‘the Life’ is the blessed experience of fellowship and union with Christ as vital as that of the branch and the vine. And this participation in the very nature of the Eternal God is the essence of the ‘life eternal. Paul we also find a mystic element in which we note the concept of eternal Life as a present possession. The exhortation to ‘lay hold on the Life eternal,’ and the designation of it as ‘the Life which is Life indeed’ (ἡ ὄντως ζωή, 1 Timothy 6:12; 1 Timothy 6:19), may refer either to the present or the future; but when the Apostle speaks of believers as made alive and risen with Christ, and sitting with Him in the heavenlies (Ephesians 2:5-6), he implies a fruition that was already realized. It involved a positive experience like that in which ‘the law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus made him free from the law of sin and of death’ (Romans 8:2). The Johannine doctrine of ‘passing out of death into Life’ is conceived by St. The believer is ‘alive from the dead’ and ‘walks in newness of Life’ (1618419304_75). He has been ‘crucified with Christ: and it is no longer I that live, but Christ liveth in me; and that Life which I now live in the flesh I live in faith, which is in the Son of God’ (Galatians 2:20). And so in Pauline thought the spiritual Life of faith, enjoyed in fellowship with God and Christ, is a ‘life hid with Christ in God’ (Colossians 3:3), and ‘the free gift of God’ (Romans 6:23). Eternal Life is in its inmost nature the free, pure, permanent spiritual Life of Christlikeness. ...
But in all the Gospels and in the Epistles we also find eternal Life contemplated as a future glorious inheritance of the saints. John’s Gospel the ‘eternal Life’ which the believer now ‘hath’ is destined to attain a glorious consummation in the resurrection ‘at the last day’ (John 5:40; John 5:45). For Jesus is Himself the resurrection as well as the Life, and declares: ‘He that believeth on me, though he die, yet shall he live; and whosoever liveth and believeth on me shall never die’ (John 11:25-26). Such a Life must needs abide in eternal permanence. Jesus spoke of ‘the water of Life’ which becomes in him who drinks it ‘a fountain of water springing up into eternal Life’ (John 4:14). He spoke of food ‘which abideth unto Life eternal,’ and of ‘gathering fruit unto Life eternal’ (John 4:36, John 6:27). ]'>[1] his soul loseth it; and he that hateth [2] his soul in this world shall keep it unto Life eternal. ’ We read in Mark 10:29-30 ‘There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, … or lands, for my sake and for the gospel’s sake, but he shall receive a hundredfold now in this time, … and in the age to come Life eternal’ (cf. These Gospels also speak of eternal Life as an inheritance to be received at a future day (Matthew 19:16, Mark 10:17, Luke 10:25; Luke 18:18). In the picture of the Judgment (1618419304_47), the righteous who go ‘into eternal Life’ are said to ‘inherit the kingdom prepared for them from the foundation of the world,’ and to enter into the joy and glory of the King Himself. ...
This idea of eternal Life as a glorious future inheritance finds also frequent expression in the Epistles. Those who ‘by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honour and immortality’ shall receive eternal Life as a reward of the righteous judgment of God (Romans 2:7). All who are made free from sin and become servants of God ‘have their fruit unto sanctification, and the end Life eternal’ (Romans 5:21; Romans 6:22). ’ According to all these scriptures, eternal Life is begotten in the Christian believer by the Holy Spirit of God, and is to be perpetuated through the ages of ages. It is a possession of manifold fulness, and is conditioned in a character of god-likeness, which ‘has the promise of the Life that now is, and of that which is to come’ (1 Timothy 4:8). There can be no living this Life apart from God, for it is begotten in the soul by a heavenly birth, and must be continually nourished by the Spirit of God. Such vital union with the eternal Spirit brings unspeakable blessedness in this Life and in this world; but it is as permanent and abiding as the nature of God, and is therefore appropriately called an incorruptible inheritance. Each individual Life, whose ‘fellowship is with the Father, and with His Son Jesus Christ’ (1 John 1:3), is conceived as continuing eternally in that heavenly fellowship. In this age and that which is to come, in this world and in any other, on the earth or in the heavens, the child of God abides in eternal Life. of Doctrine of Future Life, pp. 193–198; Hort, The Way, the Truth, the Life (Hulsean Lectures for 1871), Lect
Tree of Life - Plant in Garden of Eden symbolizing access to eternal Life and metaphor used in Proverbs. For the biblical writer the tree of Life was an important consideration only after Adam and Eve disobeyed. Sin interrupted the quality of Life God intended for them. The implication is that they had access to all the trees in the garden, including the tree of Life, but God gave an explicit command not to eat of the tree of knowledge. Chief among the radical changes was that they no longer had access to the tree of Life (Genesis 3:22-24 ). ...
The “tree of Life” appears in Proverbs four times (Proverbs 3:18 ; Proverbs 11:30 ; Proverbs 13:12 ; Proverbs 15:4 ) and in Revelation 2:7 ; Revelation 22:2 ,Revelation 22:2,22:14 . To lay hold of wisdom is to lay hold on “a tree of Life” (Proverbs 3:18 ). “The fruit of the righteous is a tree of Life” (Proverbs 11:30 NIV). Yet another proverb has this comparison: “a longing fulfilled is a tree of Life” ( Proverbs 13:12 NIV). The author of another proverb wrote, “The tongue that brings healing is a tree of Life” ( Proverbs 15:4 NIV). None of these proverbs seems to refer to “the tree of Life” mentioned in Genesis
Animated - ) Endowed with Life; full of Life or spirit; indicating animation; lively; vigorous
Rough - Isaiah 40:4 (a) GOD will overcome difficult places in the Life in order to make the way of Life easy and happy for His child. He smoothes out the rocky road, brings down the hills and exalts the valleys to make Life a blessing
Worldly - Secular temporal pertaining to this world or Life, in contradistinction to the Life to come as worldly pleasures worldly affairs worldly estate worldly honor worldly lusts. Devoted to this Life and its enjoyments bent on gain as a worldly man a worldly mind. With relation to this Life
Biogenesis - (Greek: bios, Life; genesis, generation) ...
Name for the theory affirming that Life originates only from pre-existing Life; a fact supported by both reason and experience. Lifeless matter can never generate Life, the contradictory to its essential nature. Life owes its ultimate origin solely to the creative act of God
Tree of Life - Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve Life. Probably the lesson conveyed was that Life was to be sought by man, not in himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is emphatically the Life (John 1:4 ; 14:6 ). Wisdom is compared to the tree of Life (Proverbs 3:18 ). The "tree of Life" spoken of in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 2:7 ; 22:2,14 ) is an emblem of the joys of the celestial paradise
Life - Christ is the great Author of natural Life, Colossians 1:16 ; and also of spiritual and eternal Life; John 14:6 6:47 . He has purchased these by laying down his own Life; and gives them freely to his people, John 10:11,28 . He is the spring of all their spiritual Life on earth, Galatians 2:20 ; will raise them up at the last day; and make them partakers for ever of his own Life, John 11:25 14:19
Zoonomy - ) The laws of animal Life, or the science which treats of the phenomena of animal Life, their causes and relations
Paleontology - ) The science which treats of the ancient Life of the earth, or of fossils which are the remains of such Life
Decease - ) Departure, especially departure from this Life; death. ) To depart from this Life; to die; to pass away
Eternal Life - Life everlasting in the presence of God. "This is eternal Life, that they may know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom Thou has sent" (John 17:3). First, as Christians we possess eternal Life (1 John 5:13), yet we are not in heaven or in the immediate presence of God. Though we are still in mortal bodies and we still sin, by faith we are saved (Romans 4:5; Ephesians 2:8-9) and possess eternal Life as a free gift from God (Romans 6:23). Second, eternal Life will reach its final state at the resurrection of the believers when Christ returns to earth to claim His church. It is then that eternal Life will begin in its complete manifestation
Life - God (Yahweh) as the Source and Sustainer of Life . According to Genesis 2:7 , "the Lord God formed the man from the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of Life, and the man became a living being. " This "breath of Life" does not distinguish human beings from other animals, nor perhaps even plant Life, as can be seen in Genesis 1:29-30 . When God declared his judgment against Noah's generation, all creation in which there was the "breath of Life" would suffer the destruction of the flood (Genesis 6:17 ; 7:15,21-23 ). The breath of Life distinguishes the living from the dead, not human beings from animals (Ecclesiastes 3:18-19 ). Consistently throughout Scripture God is portrayed as the giver of Life, which distinguishes living organisms from inanimate things (Romans 4:17 ). ...
Life is contingent upon the continuing, sustaining "breath" of God. When God ceases to breathe, Life is no more, "How many are your works, O Lord! In wisdom you made them all; the earth is full of your creatures When you take away their breath, they die and return to the dust" (Psalm 104:24,29 ). ...
The Quality and Duration of Life . Between birth and death, creation and cessation of Life, the living experience varying qualities of Life and length of days. On the one hand, the Creator is the sovereign Lord of the days of one's Life. For this reason, those who live by faith are not to worry, for they rest in the assurance that God cares about their Life (Matthew 6:25-34 ; Luke 12:22-31 ). One cannot add a single hour to the span of Life by worrying (Matthew 6:27 ). Long Life is viewed as the evidence of divine favor (Exodus 20:12 ; Deuteronomy 5:16 ; Psalm 21:4 ; 91:16 ; Proverbs 10:27 ; Romans 8:19-22 ), so to die in the midst of one's years was a calamity (1618419304_45 ; Jeremiah 11:22 ; Lamentations 2:21 ). On the other hand, the situation and quality of Life may be diminished and even destroyed by chance, circumstances, and the conduct of unrighteous or negligent persons. Worries, riches, and pleasures (Mark 4:19 ; Luke 12:15 ), as well as hunger, sickness, sorrow, and sin can choke and even destroy Life. ...
Life as a Choice . A choice, not a difficult one, must be made (Deuteronomy 30:11 ), for God had set before them "life and prosperity, death and destruction blessings and curses. Now choose Life" (Deuteronomy 30:15,19 ). ...
The choice is not always one of obedience and disobedience, but rather one of wisdom that results in health, prosperity, honor, and a better quality of Life (Exodus 15:26 ; Proverbs 3:22 ; 4:13,22 ; 6:23 ; 8:35 ; 10:17,28 ; 19:23 ; 21:21 ; 22:4 ; Ecclesiastes 9:9-10 ). The promised blessed Life is contingent upon the community and/or individual response of obedience to the will of God (Matthew 7:24-27 ). ...
The Sanctity of Life . In a physical sense, Life is associated with the blood of an animal (Leviticus 17:11-14 ; Deuteronomy 12:23 ). As long as there is blood, there is Life. When the blood is drained from the body, so is Life. The Life-blood of the sacrifice was substituted for the Life-blood of the worshiper, although inadequate and creating a longing for the perfect sacrifice of Christ (Psalm 49:7-9 ; Hebrews 10:1-4 ). ...
God demands a reverence for human Life (Psalm 139:13-14 ), and forbids murder (Exodus 20:13 ; Deuteronomy 5:17 ; Matthew 5:21 ). Jesus enlarges this understanding of Life to include more than physical Life, proscribing angry words, insults, and name calling (Matthew 5:22 ), for these wound and kill the spirit, self-esteem, and well-being of another. The gospel of God extends a special invitation to the poor, the disabled, the weak, the oppressed, and the children, offering hope and new Life. Mortal humanity was created in the image of God (Genesis 1:26-27 ), and given the opportunity of eternal Life in relationship with the Creator (Genesis 2-3 ). Central and vital to Life in paradise was access to the tree of Life in the midst of the garden of Eden (Genesis 2:9 ). The human race lost innocence, knowing right from wrong, and, even more, the disobedience abolished a continuing privileged access to the tree of Life (Revelation 2:7 ; 22:2,14 , 19 ), and thus eternal Life. Spiritual death, separation from the tree of Life, and a broken relationship with God resulted. Life is a central motif of the four Gospels. John summarizes his purpose in writing the Fourth Gospel: "These are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that by believing you may have Life in his name" (20:31). ...
Jesus announced that he alone is the narrow gate or entrance into the way that leads to Life (Matthew 7:13-14 ; John 10:7,9 ; 14:6 ). As the Son of God, he had been active in creation (John 1:1-4 ), and came to give new Life or birth (3:3,5, 7; 6:33,51) to all who believe in him (3:16). Thus, Jesus stands alone at the center of history as "the Author of Life" (John 5:40 ; Acts 3:15 ). This Life is nearly synonymous with entering into the kingdom of God and experiencing the restoration of the divine-human relationship intended in creation. When Jesus healed the sick, exorcised demons, and cleansed lepers, he was restoring Life to its intended, physical wholeness (Luke 4:18-19 ; 6:9 ). When he proclaimed the good news of God, he was seeking to save and restore the spiritual Life lost in Adam's sin. ...
Eternal Life . There is only an embryonic understanding of eternal Life in the Old Testament. Daniel envisions a resurrection and judgment assigning those raised to everlasting Life or everlasting shame and contempt (Daniel 12:1-3 ). ...
Life in the New Testament, beginning with Jesus, predominantly has a metaphysical and spiritual meaning, an indestructible quality, which supersedes physical death and the grave. This Life is more important than eating, drinking, and clothes (Matthew 6:25 ; Luke 12:22-33 ), and more valuable than physical wholeness and health. There is a tension, even a conflict, between the present physical existence with its passions, and the spiritual Life that will continue beyond physical death. Whoever loses or denies the present Life for the sake of Christ, finds eternal Life, Life in the age to come (Mark 8:35-37 ; 10:30 ; par. The rich young ruler desired to inherit eternal Life, but to him the cost of denying his present Life by selling all that he had and giving to the poor in order to gain the eternal was too great (Mark 10:17-31 ; par. ...
"Eternal Life (zoen aionion )" becomes a common phrase in the Johannine writings. Jesus is Life (1:4; 5:26; 11:25; 14:6; 1 John 1:2 ) and the giver of Life (John 5:40 ; 6:33,35 , 48,51 , 63 ; 10:10 ; 17:2 ; 1 John 5:11-12 ) to all who believe in him (John 1:7 ; 3:15,16 , 36 ; 6:40 ; 11:26 ; 12:46 ). The beginning of Life as a child of God is likened to a new birth (John 3:3-8 ; 1 John 2:29 ; 3:9 ; 4:7 ; 5:1,4 , 18 ), which is not of human decision, but the result of the divine, spiritual action of God (John 1:13 ; 3:5-8 ; 6:63 ). It is a transformation from death to Life, becoming a present reality. This Life is available to "all who believe" in Jesus, the Son of God. ...
According to Paul, the death of Jesus on the cross opens the way to reconciliation with God, and it is the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ that gives Life to those who believe (Romans 5:10 ; 6:3-4 ; Galatians 2:20 ). Those who have experienced the free gift of Life from God (Romans 5:15 ; 6:23 ) are led in triumphal procession spreading the knowledge of the gospel of Christ everywhere (2 Corinthians 2:14 ). They walk in newness of Life (Romans 6:4 ; 7:6 ), and the righteousness of God reigns in their mortal bodies to eternal Life through Jesus Christ (Romans 5:21 ; 6:13,22 ). The Spirit of God at work in them gives Life, peace, and freedom (Romans 8:6,11 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 ), which is witnessed by the present world in their love for one another. Shoemaker...
See also Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life ; New Life ...
Bibliography . Pedersen, Israel: Its Life and Culture ; H
Earthly - John 3:31 (a) A term to describe one whose Life, ambitions, and desires are connected wholly with the things of this Life
Lively - ) With strong resemblance of Life. ) Endowed with or manifesting Life; living. ) Representing Life; Lifelike
Family - Man's nature and God's appointment (Genesis 1,3) make family Life normal and necessary. Man and woman are complementary, and enjoy Life in its fulness only by combining their physical, spiritual, moral, social, and economic capacities. The perfect example of family Life is the Holy Family. Attacks on family Life, in its permanence (divorce), its purpose (birth control), its solidarity (recreation, work, and other interests inconsistent with home Life), are sure methods, in logic and in practise, of injuring both Church and State
Life, Canonical - A rule of Life drawn up in ancient times for canons and other clergy, especially cathedral assistants, living in community Life, and so intermediate between the monastic and the ordinary secular clergy. Later many of these communities became canons regular following the Rule of Saint Augustine, who introduced this community Life into his episcopal household
Canonical Life - A rule of Life drawn up in ancient times for canons and other clergy, especially cathedral assistants, living in community Life, and so intermediate between the monastic and the ordinary secular clergy. Later many of these communities became canons regular following the Rule of Saint Augustine, who introduced this community Life into his episcopal household
Monkery - ) The Life of monks; monastic Life; monastic usage or customs; - now usually applied by way of reproach
Reginald Buckler - He was the author of widely read books on the spiritual Life, among them: "The Perfection of Man by Charity," "Spiritual Considerations," "A Few First Principles of Religious Life," "A Good Practical Catholic," "Dispositions to Catholic Faith," "A Spiritual Retreat," "The Life of Faith and Love," "The Love of God and Prayer," and "Spiritual Instruction on Religious Life," ...
Ludolph of Saxony - He governed the charterhouse of Coblenz, 1343-1348; resigning his office, he spent the last 30 years of his Life in retreat and prayer. He is the author of an excellent "Commentary of the Psalms" and a "Life of Christ. " In this latter work are combined a history, a commentary based on the Fathers, a series of instructions, meditations, and prayers in relation to the Life of Christ. Its excellence is attested by numerous editions and translations, and by frequent use by such masters of the spiritual Life as Saint Theresa and Saint Francis de Sales. It was the Life studied by Ignatius Loyola after his conversion
Saxony, Ludolph of - He governed the charterhouse of Coblenz, 1343-1348; resigning his office, he spent the last 30 years of his Life in retreat and prayer. He is the author of an excellent "Commentary of the Psalms" and a "Life of Christ. " In this latter work are combined a history, a commentary based on the Fathers, a series of instructions, meditations, and prayers in relation to the Life of Christ. Its excellence is attested by numerous editions and translations, and by frequent use by such masters of the spiritual Life as Saint Theresa and Saint Francis de Sales. It was the Life studied by Ignatius Loyola after his conversion
Esau - Genesis 25:25 (c) This is a type of the flesh and the Life of selfishness in contrast with Jacob and the Life of faith
Long-Lived - ) Having a long Life; having constitutional peculiarities which make long Life probable; lasting long; as, a long-lived tree; they are a longlived family; long-lived prejudices
Hitlabshut - �enclothing�); the vesting of Divine Life energy in an entity in a manner which the Divine Life energy adapts itself to the level and condition of the recipient...
Warfare - ) To lead a military Life; to carry on continual wars. ) Military service; military Life; contest carried on by enemies; hostilities; war
Canaan - Genesis 17:8 (c) This describes this country and compares it to the Life of victory which should be the portion of every believer. It probably represents typically the victorious Life of the happy, radiant, conquering Christian. He has crossed over Jordan out of the desert into the Life more abundant, the Life that is Life indeed
Walk - This word in its typical meaning refers to the manner of Life and to the path pursued through Life. ...
Genesis 24:40 (a) This man of GOD lived a Life according to the will of GOD, and kept himself by faith in the presence of GOD. The manner of Life of Israel was to be in observance of the Word of GOD, and the will of GOD, as revealed in the law. ...
Galatians 5:16 (a) Again the manner of Life is described in this passage, as also in Ephesians 5:2, and Ephesians 5:8
Death - ) Manner of dying; act or state of passing from Life. ) Cause of loss of Life. ) Loss of spiritual Life. ) Personified: The destroyer of Life, - conventionally represented as a skeleton with a scythe
Living - ) Power of continuing Life; the act of living, or living comfortably. ) Manner of Life; as, riotous living; penurious living; earnest living. ) The state of one who, or that which, lives; lives; Life; existence
Immortality - In the true sense of the word, only God is immortal (1 Timothy 6:16 ; see 1 Timothy 1:17 ; 2 Timothy 1:10 ), for only God is living in the true sense of the word (see Life). In Romans 2:7 , Paul says, “To those who by patiently doing good seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal Life” (NRSV). Paul also explained that the perishable nature of human Life will put on the imperishable and that the mortal nature of human Life will put on immortality. As it is, humans in their earthly Life are mortal; they are subject to death. ...
Thus, eternal Life is not ours because we have the inherent power to live forever; eternal Life and immortality are ours only because God chooses to give them to us. See Eternal Life
Life - Life is that by which a created being enjoys the place in which the Creator has set it. God breathed into man's nostrils 'the breath of Life; and man became a living soul. Sin having come in, this Life is forfeited and God claims it, saying, "surely your blood of your lives will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the Life of man. ...
Scripture recognises a difference between 'life' in a moral sense and 'existence,' as seen in the passage, "What man is he that desireth Life, and loveth many days, that he may see good?" Psalm 34:12 . Here is a man desiring Life, desiring to enjoy Life
Eternal Life - This expression occurs in the Old Testament only in Daniel 12:2 (RSV, "everlasting Life"). ...
The newness of Life which the believer derives from Christ (Romans 6:4 ) is the very essence of salvation, and hence the Life of glory or the eternal Life must also be theirs (Romans 6:8 ; 2 Timothy 2:11,12 ; Romans 5:17,21 ; 8:30 ; Ephesians 2:5,6 ). The Life the faithful have here on earth (John 3:36 ; 5:24 ; 6:47,53-58 ) is inseparably connected with the eternal Life beyond, the endless Life of the future, the happy future of the saints in heaven (Matthew 19:16,29 ; 25:46 )
Jubal - Brother of Jabal, the beginner of pastoral Life. The connection herein is implied between nomadic Life and music, which can be practiced in the leisure afforded by such a Life
Life - LIFE (ζωή). The idea of Life in the Synoptic teaching is substantially that of the OT, unfolded in all its potential wealth of meaning. Hebrew thought, averse to metaphysical speculation, conceived of Life as the sum of energies which make up man’s actual existence. The soul separated from the body did not cease to be, but it forfeited its portion in the true Life. (1) The radical element in Life is activity. Mere physical being is distinguished from that essential ‘life’ which consists in the unrestricted play of all the energies, especially of the higher and more characteristic. In the loftier passages of the Psalms, more particularly, the idea of ‘life’ has almost always a pregnant sense. (2) Since God alone possesses Life in the highest sense, fellowship with Him is the one condition on which men can obtain it. ‘With thee is the fountain of Life’ (Psalms 36:9). In the higher regions of OT thought, Life and communion with God are interchangeable ideas. ...
Jesus accepted the idea of Life as it had come to Him through the OT. To Him also Life is primarily the physical existence (cf. Matthew 6:25 ‘Take no thought for your Life, what ye shall eat and drink,’ etc. (1) He distinguishes between the essential ‘life’ and the outward subsidiary things with which it is so easily confused. ‘The Life is more than meat’ (Luke 12:23). ‘A man’s Life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth’ (v. ‘What shall it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his Life?’ (Mark 8:36). (2) Thus He arrives at the idea of something central and inalienable which constitutes the reality of Life. ’ (3) In this way He is led to the conception of a higher, spiritual Life, gained through the sacrifice of the lower. ‘If a man hate not his own Life, he cannot be my disciple’ (Luke 14:26). ‘He that findeth his Life shall lose it, and he that loseth his Life for my sake shall find it’ (Matthew 10:39; Matthew 16:25). ‘Life’ is a reward laid up for the righteous in the world to come. The precise meaning to be attached to ‘the world to come’ in which this ‘life’ will be imparted, depends on our interpretation of the general conception of the Kingdom of God. In either case, however, He thinks of ‘life’ as of something still in the future, the peculiar blessing of the realized Kingdom of God. ...
This future possession is defined more particularly in several passages as ‘eternal Life,’ and the epithet might appear at first sight to imply a distinction. We find, however, on closer examination that the term ‘life’ itself usually involves the emphatic meaning. ‘This do and thou shalt live’ (Luke 10:28) is our Lord’s reply to the inquiry concerning ‘eternal Life. ’ So when He says, ‘It is better to enter into Life halt or maimed’ (Matthew 18:8, Mark 9:43), or ‘Narrow is the way that leadeth unto Life’ (Matthew 7:14), it is evidently the future blessing that is in His mind. There is good ground for the conjecture that Jesus Himself never used the expression ‘eternal Life. The ‘life’ which is projected into the future and described figuratively as a gift bestowed from without, is in the last resort the Life of moral activity. The narrow way that leads to Life is the way of obedience and sacrifice. By voluntary loss of earthly things in the cause of Christ, the disciples will gain ‘life’ (Mark 10:30). The apocalyptic imagery does not conceal from us the essential thought of Jesus, that the promised ‘life’ is nothing but the outcome and fulfilment of a moral obedience begun on earth. ...
(b) Life is not only a future fulfilment, but has a real beginning in the present. Thus in the saying, ‘Follow me, and let the dead bury their dead’ (Matthew 8:22 = Luke 9:60), Jesus implies that the disciples even now enter into possession of a new and higher Life. Life in its full reality is the blessing of the world to come, but it will be different in degree, not in kind, from the present Life of true discipleship. ...
(c) One element is common to the two types of ‘life,’ and marks their ultimate identity. It constitutes the inner meaning and content of the future Life. In like manner the present Life of moral obedience is in its essence a Life of fellowship with God. The eschatological idea of Life thus resolves itself at its centre into the purely ethical and religious. ...
Jesus is Himself the Mediator of the new Life. Through knowledge of Him and participation in His spirit, they enter into that fellowship with God which is eternal Life. In the Fourth Gospel the idea of Life is much more prominent than in the Synoptics. The Evangelist expressly states (John 20:31) that he has ‘written these things that believing ye may have Life,’ and this statement of his main intention is fully borne out by the detailed study of the Gospel. The teaching of Jesus, as he records it, centres wholly on the subject of Life. We have seen that in the Synoptics also the idea of Life lies at the heart of our Lord’s teaching, since Life is the peculiar blessing of the Kingdom of God. The future ‘kingdom’ becomes simply ‘life. ’...
The idea of Life as a present possession (already implicit in the Synoptic teaching) becomes in the Fourth Gospel central and determinative. ‘He that believeth on the Son hath (even now) everlasting Life’ (John 3:36). ‘He that heareth my word … is passed out of death into Life’ (John 5:24). The whole purpose of the work of Christ, as conceived by the Evangelist, was to communicate to His disciples, here and now, the eternal Life. In the 6th chapter more especially, the conception of Life as a spiritual possession in the present appears side by side with repeated allusions to a resurrection ‘at the last day’ (John 6:39; John 6:44; John 6:54). He anticipates in the future world a full manifestation of the Life which under earthly conditions is necessarily hidden. ...
The Evangelist nowhere attempts to define his conception of Life. The great saying, ‘This is Life eternal,’ etc. It only declares that the knowledge of God through Jesus Christ carries with it the assurance of Life (cf. ‘His commandment is Life everlasting’ [1]). The nature of the Life is indicated only in vague and half-figurative terms. The Life which Christ communicates is the absolute, Divine Life. ‘As the Father has Life in himself, so he hath given the Son to have Life in himself’ (John 5:26. It is assumed that in God and in the Logos, who is one with Him, a Life resides which is different in kind from that of men, and is the real, the ‘eternal’ Life. His Life, so far as Life could be predicated of Him, was an energy of pure thought, abstracted from every form of sensible manifestation (cf. The Life which He possesses is analogous to the Life in man, but of a higher order, spiritual instead of earthly. The difference between the human and the Divine Life is one of essence. Till man has undergone a radical change, not in heart merely but in the very constitution of his being, there can be no thought of his participating in the Life of God. The Divine Life is regarded as a sort of higher substance inherent in the nature of God. Jesus Christ, as the eternal Logos, possessed ‘life in himself,’ and yet assumed humanity and entered into our lower world. He therefore became the vehicle through which the Life of God is imparted to men, or at least to those elect natures who are predisposed to receive it. He not only possesses, but is Himself the Life. To impart His gift He must also impart Himself, since Life is inalienable from the living Person. John’s thinking, determines his theory of the communication of Life through Christ. Through the act of belief a man is brought into such a relation to Christ that His power as Life-giver becomes operative. They are ‘spirit and Life,’ carrying with them some portion of His own being. It is this imparting of Himself through His words that renders them ‘words of eternal Life. John accepts this current belief, and harmonizes it with his own doctrine of Life: ‘Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, ye have no Life in you’ (John 6:53). Since Jesus in His own Person is the Life, it can be given only through an actual incorporation of His ‘flesh and blood,’ and this is offered in the mystery of the Eucharist. The idea of Life as a semi-physical essence here comes to its sharpest expression. (3) In this same chapter, however, we have the indication of another and still more mysterious means by which the Life is imparted. They abide in Him and He in them, and the Life which He possesses becomes their Life, springing up within them like a perennial well (John 4:14). This doctrine of a mystical union with Christ in which He imparts His Divine Life to the believer, contains the central and characteristic thought of the Fourth Gospel. ...
Thus far we have considered the Johannine idea of Life as it is determined by the Logos theory. The incarnate Logos is at the same time the historical Jesus, who revealed God and drew all men to Himself by the moral grandeur of His personality and Life. ...
Life regarded from this other side bears a meaning substantially the same as in the Synoptic Gospels. The Life He sought to communicate was nothing else than His own Spirit, as it was revealed in the scene of the feet-washing (John 13), and in the subsequent discourse with His disciples. Even in the Eucharistic chapter in which the theological view of Life is expressed most forcibly, we can discern this other view in the background. He perceives that the new Life proclaimed by Jesus was bound up indissolubly with His living Person. ‘In him was Life’ (John 1:4), and it is not enough to render some vague obedience to His teaching. The conception of Christ as Logos obscures the true significance of His Person and of the higher Life imparted through Him. Jesus Christ is not only the Life-giver, but is Himself the Life. Brooks, More Abundant Life; B. Hort, The Way, the Truth, the Life (1893); E. Hoare, Life in St
Eden - Genesis 2:15 (c) Here is a type of the condition of bliss and blessing that is the portion of the consecrated, trusting Christian in this Life and of the eternal richness of the next Life
Vitals - ) Organs that are necessary for Life; more especially, the heart, lungs, and brain. : The part essential to the Life or health of anything; as, the vitals of a state
Vivacious - ) Having vigorous powers of Life; tenacious of Life; long-lived
Vivid - ) True to the Life; exhibiting the appearance of Life or freshness; animated; spirited; bright; strong; intense; as, vivid colors
Flour - Exodus 29:2 (c) This is no doubt a type of the beautiful white, smooth Life of CHRIST in which there was no sin, nor evil. His Life was pure grace, pure love, pure holiness and pure beauty
Reanimate - ) To animate anew; to restore to animation or Life; to infuse new Life, vigor, spirit, or courage into; to revive; to reinvigorate; as, to reanimate a drowned person; to reanimate disheartened troops; to reanimate languid spirits
Sparrow - Psalm 102:7 (a) Our Lord Himself uses this bird as a type of His loneliness in His Life on earth. They could not live the Life that He lived. He lived a lonely Life for lack of companions who understood Him. This is a picture of the lonely, desolate Life of our Lord JESUS on earth
Newness - 1: καινότης (Strong's #2538 — Noun Feminine — kainotes — kahee-not'-ace ) akin to kainos, is used in the phrases (a) "newness of Life," Romans 6:4 , i. , Life of a new quality (see NEW , No. 1); the believer, being a new creation (2 Corinthians 5:17 ), is to behave himself consistently with this in contrast to his former manner of Life; (b) "newness of the spirit," RV, Romans 7:6 , said of the believer's manner of serving the Lord. While the phrase stands for the new Life of the quickened spirit of the believer, it is impossible to dissociate this (in an objective sense) from the operation of the Holy Spirit, by whose power the service is rendered
Vivacity - ) Tenacity of Life; vital force; natural vigor. ) Life; animation; spiritedness; liveliness; sprightliness; as, the vivacity of a discourse; a lady of great vivacity; vivacity of countenance
Lifeless - ) Destitute of Life, or deprived of Life; not containing, or inhabited by, living beings or vegetation; dead, or apparently dead; spiritless; powerless; dull; as, a Lifeless carcass; Lifeless matter; a Lifeless desert; a Lifeless wine; a Lifeless story
Life - ) A history of the acts and events of a Life; a biography; as, Johnson wrote the Life of Milton. ) That which imparts or excites spirit or vigor; that upon which enjoyment or success depends; as, he was the Life of the company, or of the enterprise. ) An essential constituent of Life, esp. ) Figuratively: The potential or animating principle, also, the period of duration, of anything that is conceived of as resembling a natural organism in structure or functions; as, the Life of a state, a machine, or a book; authority is the Life of government. ; hence, human affairs; also, lives, considered collectively, as a distinct class or type; as, low Life; a good or evil Life; the Life of Indians, or of miners. ) Of human beings: The union of the soul and body; also, the duration of their union; sometimes, the deathless quality or existence of the soul; as, man is a creature having an immortal Life. ) The living or actual form, person, thing, or state; as, a picture or a description from the Life
Dower - A widow's Life portion, granted by law, in the estate of her deceased husband, usually one-third interest in all the real estate which he possessed at any time during their married Life; the term is sometimes erroneously confounded with dowry
Religion - These spiritual things can be God, people in relation to God, salvation, after Life, purpose of Life, order of the cosmos, etc
Youthful - ) Of or pertaining to the early part of Life; suitable to early Life; as, youthful days; youthful sports
Resuscitate - ) To come to Life again; to revive. ) Restored to Life
Walk - See Christian Life
Pikuach nefesh - saving a Life...
Life, New - See New Life ...
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Eternal Life - See Life, ETERNAL
Casluhim - Hopes of Life
Book of Life - It appears that different Bible writers used the expression ‘book of Life’ in different ways. They demonstrate this by openly and deliberately rejecting God, and God removes their names from the book of Life. True believers do not reject God, and God does not remove their names from the book of Life. They are assured of eternal Life in its fulness (Exodus 32:32-33; Revelation 3:5; Revelation 21:22-25; see APOSTACY; BACKSLIDING). ...
From this usage, ‘book of Life’ has developed a more specific meaning. Thus it becomes specifically the ‘Lamb’s book of Life’ (Luke 10:20; Philippians 4:3; Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27). In the coming judgment, all whose names are not written in the Lamb’s book of Life will suffer eternal punishment (Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12-15)
Incense - Exodus 30:1 (c) A figure of the sweet, fragrant Life of the Lord JESUS offered up to GOD during His Life of suffering and death of agony wherein and wherewith GOD was well pleased. ...
(Strange)...
Exodus 30:9 (c) In this case, the strange incense is a figure of human activities and religious performances which are offered to GOD for His acceptance in competition with and instead of the Life of the Lord JESUS
Signet - He informed Zerubbabel that He would touch his Life in such a blessed way that he would leave on every other Life he touched the imprint of GOD and the impress of Heaven. His conversation with others and his manner of Life with them would make an indelible impression upon their hearts and they would know that he was a man of GOD
Pattern - 1 Timothy 1:16 (a) Paul's Life is compared to a mold into which other lives will be poured so they would live a Life like his
Soul - nephesh ) for any animated being, whether human or animal ( Genesis 1:20 ‘life,’ Genesis 2:7 ), must be distinguished from the Greek philosophical use for the immaterial substance which gives Life to the body, and from the use in the NT (Gr. pneuma ) may be recognized; while the latter is the universal principle imparting Life from the Creator, the former is the individual organism possessed of Life in the creature ( Genesis 2:7 ‘breath of Life’ and ‘living soul’). The distinction is this: ‘soul’ expresses man as apart from God, a separate individual; ‘spirit’ expresses man as drawing his Life from God (cf. John 10:11 , ‘life’ = ‘soul,’ and John 19:30 ). Probably sensual in the two passages conveys more moral meaning than the term ‘psychical’ justifies, and natural is the better rendering, as expressing what belongs to the old unregenerate Life in contrast with the characteristic of the new Life in Christ, the spiritual ( pneumatic )
Conduct - A — 1: ἀγωγή (Strong's #72 — Noun Feminine — agoge — ag-o-gay' ) from ago, "to lead," properly denotes "a teaching;" then, figuratively, "a training, discipline," and so, the Life led, a way or course of Life, conduct, 2 Timothy 3:10 , RV, "conduct;" AV, "manner of Life. " See Life
Pioneer - See Prince of Life
Leader - See Prince of Life
Life Book of - See Book of Life
Leaves - See Tree of Life
Author, Author of Life - See Prince of Life
Death - See Life and Death
Reviction - ) Return to Life
Lifemate - ) Companion for Life
Catholic Rural Life - The purpose of the Catholic rural Life movement is the upbuilding of country parishes, recognizing in the rural community an important source of urban as well as of country population. The Rural Life Bureau in the Social Action Department of the National Catholic Welfare Conference was established in 1921, with its office at Eugene, Lane Coounty, Oreegon, where it remained until January, 1929, when it was moved to the headquarters of the National Catholic Welfare Conference in Washington, District of Columbia. The Catholic Rural Life Conference was organized at Saint Louis, Missouri, in 1923, at the call of the Catholic Rural Life Bureau. Since its organization it has held annually a national convention for the promotion of the Catholic rural Life movement. Its official organ is "Catholic Rural Life," a monthly established in 1921 as "Saint Isidore's Plow," and first issued at Eugene, Oregon; the name was changed in 1924; circulation, 2,582
Walk - The Bible sometimes speaks of people’s conduct or manner of Life as their ‘way’ or ‘walk’. ...
Frequently, the Bible uses the word ‘walk’ when contrasting people’s way of Life before they were Christians with their new Life in Christ (Romans 6:4; Ephesians 2:1-2; Ephesians 5:8; Colossians 3:7-8). Their new way of Life is controlled by the Spirit, not by the flesh (Romans 8:4; Galatians 5:16; Galatians 5:25). It is lived in fellowship with God rather than in obedience to sin (1 John 1:6-7), and is patterned on the Life of Christ rather than on the Life of their fellows (1 John 2:6; 1 John 2:11; 2 John 1:6)
Saint Isidore's Plow - The purpose of the Catholic rural Life movement is the upbuilding of country parishes, recognizing in the rural community an important source of urban as well as of country population. The Rural Life Bureau in the Social Action Department of the National Catholic Welfare Conference was established in 1921, with its office at Eugene, Lane Coounty, Oreegon, where it remained until January, 1929, when it was moved to the headquarters of the National Catholic Welfare Conference in Washington, District of Columbia. The Catholic Rural Life Conference was organized at Saint Louis, Missouri, in 1923, at the call of the Catholic Rural Life Bureau. Since its organization it has held annually a national convention for the promotion of the Catholic rural Life movement. Its official organ is "Catholic Rural Life," a monthly established in 1921 as "Saint Isidore's Plow," and first issued at Eugene, Oregon; the name was changed in 1924; circulation, 2,582
Murder - Intentional taking of human Life. Human Life is given great value in the Bible. Human Life is viewed as a sacred trust. It is because of this that taking human Life is viewed as a serious crime in the Bible. Deliberately taking the Life of a human being ursurps the authority that belongs to God. ...
The Old Testament (Genesis 9:6 ) prescribed that a murderer should be prepared to forfeit his own Life. We are compelled to do all that we can do to protect the Life of our neighbor and help it flourish. The writer of 1John pushed Jesus' teaching to its ultimate: “Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and ye know that no murderer hath eternal Life abiding in him (1 John 3:15 )
Judaism - (jyoo' day ihssm) The religion and way of Life of the people of Judah, the Jews. Paul contrasted his Christian calling from his previous Life in Judaism (Galatians 1:13-14 )
Quicken - 1: ζῳοποιέω (Strong's #2227 — Verb — zoopoieo — dzo-op-oy-eh'-o ) "to make alive:" see Life , C. ...
2: ζῳογονέω (Strong's #2225 — Verb — zoogoneo — dzo-og-on-eh'-o ) "to endue with Life, produce alive, preserve alive:" see LIVE , No. 1), is used in Ephesians 2:5 ; Colossians 2:13 , of the spiritual Life with Christ, imparted to believers at their conversion
Life And Death - Life. -In a consideration of the subject of Life as dealt with in the Acts and Epistles, three Gr. ...
(1) βίος denotes Life in the outward and visible sense-its period or course (cf. ‘the time past of our Life,’ 1 Peter 4:3), its means of living (hence in 1 John 3:17 the Revised Version renders ‘goods’), the manner in which it is spent (cf. ‘that we may lead a quiet and peaceable Life,’ 1 Timothy 2:2), its relation to worldly affairs (2 Timothy 2:4) and to the world’s love of pomp and show (1 John 2:16). ]'>[1] ψύχω, ‘breathe’) originally means the breath of Life, and in such an expression as ‘his Life is in him’ (Acts 20:10) would quite adequately be rendered ‘breath. anima) comes to mean ‘life’ in the sense of the animal soul, and especially the Life of the individual as distinguished from other individual lives. This is the Life that may be injured or lost through a shipwreck (Acts 27:10; Acts 27:22), counted dear or willingly surrendered (Acts 20:24, Revelation 12:11); the Life which Jesus Christ laid down for His people (1 John 3:16), and which they should be prepared to lay down for Him (Acts 15:26) or for one another (Romans 16:4, Philippians 2:30, 1 John 3:16). From meaning the animal soul or Life (anima), however, ψυχή comes to be used for the individualized Life in its moral and spiritual aspects, the ‘soul’ in the deeper significance of that word (Lat. ...
(3) But of the three words for Life ζωή for the purposes of the present article is much the most important. Occasionally it is employed in a way that makes it practically equivalent to βίος (1 Corinthians 15:19, ‘If in this Life only we have hoped in Christ’; cf. Luke 16:25, ‘in thy Lifetime’ [2]), and more frequently in connexions not far removed from those of ψυχή in the sense of the vital energy or animal soul (e. Acts 17:25, James 4:14), though even in these cases it is noticeable that ζωή does not denote, like ψυχή, the Life of the individual, but Life in a sense that is general and distributed. Ordinarily, however, ζωή stands for a Life which is not existence merely, but existence raised to its highest power; not a bare Life, but’ Life more abundantly’ (John 10:10), a Life which St. Paul describes as ‘the Life which is Life indeed’ (ἡ ὄντως ζωή, 1 Timothy 6:19), a Life, i. In this employment of it, ζωή is very frequently characterized as ‘eternal (αἰώνιος) Life’; but the epithet does not impart any real addition to the connotation of the word as elsewhere used without the adjective, much less restrict its reference to the Life after death; it only expresses more explicitly the conception of that Life as something so full and positive that from its very nature it is unconquerable by death, and consequently everlasting. ‘The Father hath Life in himself’ (John 5:26), the Life eternal is ‘with the Father’ (1 John 1:2). The Father, however, imparts it to the Son, so that He also possesses ‘life in himself’ (John 5:26), and possesses it in a manner so copious that this endowment with Life is predicated of Him as if it were the most characteristic quality of His being (John 1:4). Thereafter this Life which Christ possesses is communicated by Him to those who are willing to receive it, the record being that God gave unto as the eternal Life which is in His Son (1 John 5:11), and that he that hath the Son, viz. by believing on His name, hath the Life (1 John 5:12 f. )...
(b) The ζωή (αἰώνιος) thus becomes a human possession and quality; and it is with the manifestations in human character and experience of this Life flowing from God through Christ that the apostolic writers are principally concerned in what they have to say about it. ...
(α) As follows from the fact that this Life inheres essentially in God, its primal source is God the Father, from whom it comes as a gift (Romans 6:23, 1 John 5:11) and a grace (1 Peter 3:7). John, the eternal Life which men enjoy resides in God’s Son (1 John 5:11), and that in so absolute a sense that ‘he that hath the Son hath the Life; he that hath not the Son of God hath not the Life’ (1 John 5:12). Paul writes that it is through the Son that the gift of Life is bestowed (Romans 6:23), describes Christ as ‘our Life’ (Colossians 3:4), and declares that this Life of ours ‘is hid with Christ in God’ (Colossians 3:3). ...
(β) But this gift of Life is not bestowed arbitrarily or apart from the fulfilment of certain conditions. In the symbolic language of the Apocalypse the fruition of the tree of Life which is in the Paradise of God is promised to him that overcometh (Revelation 2:7). Various energies and attitudes of the soul are mentioned as conditioning the attainment of Life, e. The old Life must be renounced if the new Life is to begin; that is what is meant by the demand for repentance. And Life cannot be self-generated, but can only be received from a living source; that is the explanation of the call for faith. ...
(γ) Among the fruits or evidences of the possession of Life St. Inwardly the Life reveals its presence in a daily experience of renewal (2 Corinthians 4:16), in the possession of a spiritual mind (Romans 8:6), in the consciousness of spiritual liberty (Romans 8:2). John the great evidence of Life is love to the brethren (1 John 3:14). Everyone that loveth is born of God (1 John 4:7); but the love which is the proof of this Divine birth and consequent Divine Life must flow out towards the visible brother as well as towards the invisible God if there is to be any assurance of its reality (1 John 4:12; 1 John 4:20). In the mystical language of the author of the Apocalypse Life has the evidence of a written record. The names of those who possess it are written in a book which is called ‘the book of Life’ (Revelation 3:5; Revelation 17:8; Revelation 20:12; Revelation 22:19), or more fully ‘the Lamb’s book of Life’ (Revelation 13:8; Revelation 21:27). See Book of Life. ...
(δ) To the apostolic writers Life or eternal Life is a present possession. ), and in the First Epistle we see it reappearing, as when the writer declares that he that hath the Son hath the Life (1 John 5:12), and that those who possess eternal Life may know that they possess it (1 John 3:14; 1 John 5:13). Paul also conceives of Life as a present reality when he proclaims that Christ is out Life (Colossians 3:4), and that our Life is hid with Christ in God (Colossians 3:3), when he makes our baptism into Christ’s Death, and resurrection in His likeness, determinative of our present walk in newness of Life (Romans 6:4), and declares that to be spiritually-minded is Life and peace (Romans 8:6). ...
(ε) And yet this Life, though it is a present experience, is not realized in its totality in the present world. The promise given to godliness in 1 Timothy 4:8 is said to be for the Life that now is and that which is to come. Similarly it is in ‘the time to come’ that ‘the Life which is Life indeed’ arrives at its completion (1 Timothy 6:19). Paul gives especial prominence to this future aspect of the Life in Christ. He anticipates a time when what is mortal shall be swallowed up of Life (2 Corinthians 5:4), co-ordinates eternal Life with immortality (Romans 2:7; cf. And yet, though Life for its completeness must wait for the full revelation of the powers of the world to come, which are only tasted here (Hebrews 6:5), the present and the future Life are essentially one and the same. It is because the Christian Life is hid with Christ in God that it carries the assurance of immortality within itself. Peter’s language, it was not possible that Christ should be holden of death (Acts 2:24), so it is impossible that those whose very Life Christ is (Colossians 3:4) should not be sharers in His victory over death’s pains and powers. To all who abide in the Son and through Him in the Father there belongs this promise which He promised us, even the Life eternal (1 John 2:24 f. It is the frailty and imperfection of the earthly body, its domination by the law of sin and death, that hinder the full enjoyment of eternal Life in the present world (2 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 5:4). But when mortality shall be swallowed up of Life, Christ’s people, instead of being ‘unclothed,’ shall be ‘clothed upon’ (2 Corinthians 5:2; 2 Corinthians 5:4). To the natural body will succeed a spiritual body (1 Corinthians 15:44), to the body of death (Romans 7:24) a body instinct with the Lord’s own Life, to the house that must be dissolved a house not made with hands, eternal, in the heavens (2 Corinthians 5:1). -Death is frequently used in the apostolic literature in its ordinary, everyday meaning of the end of man’s earthly course (βίος) or the extinction of his animal Life (ψυχή) through the separation of the soul from the body (Acts 2:24, 1 Corinthians 3:22, Philippians 2:27). For, just as ζωή in the NT means not the earthly existence but the larger Life of the Christian salvation, so θάνατος means not the end of the earthly existence merely but the loss of Life in the full Christian conception of the word-the whole of the miserable results that flow from sin and constitute its penalty. , with the first death by which the Life on earth is ended (see Punishment). Romans 8:3) through which the way was opened for a new Life of holiness. But in any case death to the law meant Life unto God, because crucifixion with Christ meant the death of the former self and the substitution for it of a Life of faith in the son of God (Galatians 2:19 f. ‘For ye died,’ the Apostle writes, ‘and your Life is hid with Christ in God’ (Colossians 3:3). And in this case, at least, it is plain that the death of which he thinks is not the judicial but the mystical dying, the dying which is at the same time the birth to a new Life (cf. , from which, conscious of his helplessness, he cries to be delivered (Romans 7:24), and from which he recognizes that no deliverance is possible except through the law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:2). Life. White, Life in Christ, 1878; E
Child, Children - See Family Life and Relations ...
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Father - See Family Life and Relations ...
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Alife - ) On my Life; dearly
Shepherdism - ) Pastoral Life or occupation
Biolysis - ) The destruction of Life
Biognosis - ) The investigation of Life
Hiram - Exaltation of Life; a destroyer
Joha - Who enlivens or gives Life
Vivifical - ) Giving Life; reviving; enlivening
Vitalic - ) Pertaining to Life; vital
Opsimathy - ) Education late in Life
Randevity - ) Great age; long Life
Lives - of Life
Archaean - It includes an Azoic age, previous to the appearance of Life, and an Eozoic age, including the earliest forms of Life
Apotheosis - It is often used to signify the transition of a person from this Life to eternal Life and glory
Ink - 2 Corinthians 3:3 (b) As in physical Life, ink is used to make impressions upon paper, so in spiritual Life, the Holy Spirit is the medium by and through whom impressions are made on human hearts
Hiel - God lives; the Life of God
Eternal Life - See Eternal and Life and Death
Dislive - ) To deprive of Life
Unlived - ) Bereft or deprived of Life
Lifelong - ) Lasting or continuing through Life
Lifespring - ) Spring or source of Life
Macrobiotics - ) The art of prolonging Life
Lifetime - ) The time that Life continues
s.g.l. - = Servants of the Gospel of Life ...
Quickening - Giving Life accelerating inciting
Killing - Depriving of Life quelling
Chaim - Life; also a common Jewish name...
Zaphnath-Paaneah - Some think it means "creator," or "preserver of Life. " Brugsch interprets it as "governor of the district of the place of Life", i. , of Goshen, the chief city of which was Pithom, "the place of Life
Agag - 1 Samuel 15:9 (c) This King of Amalek is a type of some wicked habit or evil way which is promoted and cultivated in the Life of one who knows better. In that he spared his Life, he is a picture of the believer who spares things in his Life that are hurtful to his own soul
Raising - Lifting elevating setting upright exalting producing enhancing restoring to Life collecting levying propagating, &c. The act of lifting, setting up, elevating, exalting, producing, or restoring to Life
Four kingdoms - Inanimate, vegetation, animal kingdom, and human Life
Biolytic - ) Relating to the destruction of Life
Mother - See Family Life and Relations ; Marriage ; Woman ...
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Plantal - ) Belonging to plants; as, plantal Life
Exanimation - ) Deprivation of Life or of spirits
Wineless - ) destitute of wine; as, wineless Life
Habitus - ) Habitude; mode of Life; general appearance
Ruralist - ) One who leads a rural Life
Jovialist - ) One who lives a jovial Life
Monasticism - ) The monastic Life, system, or condition
Lifehold - ) Land held by a Life estate
Killed - Deprived of Life quelled calmed
Aesthetics - As all beauty consists in order, proportion, symmetry, harmony, there is a spiritual and supernatural beauty, invisible to the senses but perceptible to the spiritual view or intuition, the conformity of a Life with God's law of Life. " The conformity of human Life and conduct with the divine idea is admirably explained in the "Art of Life," by Monsignor Kolbe, and in the "Life of All Living, the Philosophy of Life," by Fulton Sheen
Zaphhath Paaneah - Egyptian title of Joseph, Zfntanch; from zaf "corn food," nt "of," anch "life" (Genesis 41:45). Cook, in Speaker's Commentary, Harkavy, from zaf "food," net "saviour," paaneh "life
Daily Bread - Among the Hebrews bread was the principal article of food, thus signifying all the physical necessities of Life. Many of the Fathers of the Church (Saints Cyprian, Hilary, Ambrose, Jerome, Peter Chrysologus, and Augustine) and some later exegetes think the word "bread" refers to the necessities of our spiritual Life, e. The textual rendition may admit two interpretations of "daily": ...
(1) that which must be taken each day
(2) necessary for Life, supersubstantial.
Both renditions mean "bread needed daily," and "bread necessary for Life
Brother - See Christians, Names of ; Family Life and Relations ...
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Biotic - ) Relating to Life; as, the biotic principle
Nativity of Christ - See Jesus Christ ; Jesus, Life and Ministry of
Sister - See Christians, Names of ; Family Life and Relations ...
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Devitalize - ) To deprive of Life or vitality
High-Bred - ) Bred in high Life; of pure blood
Livelode - ) Course of Life; means of support; livelihood
Alive - * For ALIVE see Life , C, LIVE , No
New Life - God has brought his people salvation in Jesus Christ, a gift that is described throughout the Scriptures as new Life. Used in conjunction with zoe [2], kainos [3]describes the essence of what God has done through Jesus Christ: he has given his children new Life. ...
Believers begin a new Life when they are born again by the Spirit (1 Peter 1:3 ). Regeneration places believers on the road of faith whereby they become new creations (2 Corinthians 5:17 ) and enjoy a new Life in Christ (Romans 6:4 ). ...
The gift of new Life was foretold by the prophets in the Old Testament. ...
See also Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life ; Life ...
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Live - ) To be maintained in Life; to acquire a livelihood; to subsist; - with on or by; as, to live on spoils. ) To enjoy or make the most of Life; to be in a state of happiness. ) To pass one's time; to pass Life or time in a certain manner, as to habits, conduct, or circumstances; as, to live in ease or affluence; to live happily or usefully. ) To spend, as one's Life; to pass; to maintain; to continue in, constantly or habitually; as, to live an idle or a useful Life. ) To be alive; to have Life; to have, as an animal or a plant, the capacity of assimilating matter as food, and to be dependent on such assimilation for a continuance of existence; as, animals and plants that live to a great age are long in reaching maturity. ) Having Life; alive; living; not dead. ) Life
Tragical - ) Fatal to Life; mournful; terrible; calamitous; as, the tragic scenes of the French revolution. ) Mournful; expressive of tragedy, the loss of Life, or of sorrow
Night - ...
(2) Death, the time when Life's day is over (John 9:4). ...
(4) The present Life, compared with the believer's bright Life to come (Romans 13:12)
Extinction - ) The act of extinguishing or making extinct; a putting an end to; the act of putting out or destroying light, fire, Life, activity, influence, etc. ) State of being extinguished or of ceasing to be; destruction; suppression; as, the extinction of Life, of a family, of a quarrel, of claim
Beam - Matthew 7:3 (a) This represents a great fault in the Life of a person who is critical and faultfinding about some small error in the Life of another
Besford Court Hospital - To provide an intermediate stage between institutional Life and Life in the community, hostels have been constructed on the estate where the youth lives the Life of an ordinary workman two or three years a before dismissal
Chamber - ...
Song of Solomon 1:4 (c) The different experiences of blessing in the Christian Life are compared to chambers in the palace of the king. ...
Isaiah 26:20 (b) This refers to those times in the believer's Life when he retires from the busy public Life to be alone with the Lord
Breath - ” Generally neshamah is used in a milder manner to refer to the fact of breath in all forms of Life. It is concerned with the physiological concept of breath with a primary emphasis on breath as a principle of Life. By contrast, ruach refers more to the force of breath in the extreme experiences of Life, judgment, and death. It identifies God as the source of Life ( Genesis 2:7 ; Ezekiel 37:5-1008 ; Job 33:4 ; Daniel 5:23 ). ...
God is also the sovereign of Life. God has the power to restore Life to the dead if He wishes to do so (Ezekiel 37:9 ). More important is the impact of God's breath on national Life, for He can breathe anger and judgment on threatening enemies bringing festive joy to God's people (Isaiah 30:33 ; compare Job 41:21 ). It refers to God providing human Life in the same manner as neshamah ( Genesis 6:17 ). His breath also sustains Life (Job 12:10 ; Psalm 104:29 ). By His breath He even restores Life (Ezekiel 37:5-10 ). It is used to affirm the possibility of giving Life to the dry bones. ...
In a unique way, ruach is used to demonstrate how God monitors Life. Breath is regarded as a sign of Life ( Genesis 7:15 ). ...
The New Testament contains a few references to breath as the Life principle which God gives (Acts 17:25 ) and as the mighty wind at Pentecost (Acts 2:2 ). In Revelation 13:15 it refers to the power to breathe Life into the image of the beast. See Spirit ; Life
Humanity of Christ - See Incarnations; Jesus, Life and Ministry of ; Christ, Christology
Brigandage - ) Life and practice of brigands; highway robbery; plunder
Animative - ) Having the power of giving Life or spirit
Autobiographer - ) One who writers his own Life or biography
Autobiographist - ) One who writes his own Life; an autobiographer
Aimless - ) Without aim or purpose; as, an aimless Life
Zoic - ) Of or pertaining to animals, or animal Life
Vivency - ) Manner of supporting or continuing Life or vegetation
Plasmodium - ) A naked mobile mass of protoplasm, formed by the union of several amoebalike young, and constituting one of the stages in the Life cycle of Mycetozoa and other low organisms. ) A jellylike mass of free protoplasm, without any union of amoeboid cells, and endowed with Life and power of motion
Fabre, Jean Henri - The last 35 years of his Life were spent at Serignan where he devoted all his time to the study of insects. It was only toward the end of his Life that he obtained the recognition he deserved. Teixeira de Mattos was published in 12 volumes; they comprise "The Life of the Fly," "The Mason Bees," "The Hunting Wasps," and "Adventures in Insect Life
Jean Fabre - The last 35 years of his Life were spent at Serignan where he devoted all his time to the study of insects. It was only toward the end of his Life that he obtained the recognition he deserved. Teixeira de Mattos was published in 12 volumes; they comprise "The Life of the Fly," "The Mason Bees," "The Hunting Wasps," and "Adventures in Insect Life
Heled - (hee' lehd) Personal name meaning, “life
Anchoretism - ) The practice or mode of Life of an anchoret
Asceticism - ) The condition, practice, or mode of Life, of ascetics
Biographize - ) To write a history of the Life of
Domesticity - ) The state of being domestic; domestic character; household Life
Lechaim! - �To Life!�); toast or blessing exchanged over strong drink...
Revivificate - ) To revive; to recall or restore to Life
Monasterial - ) Of or pertaining to monastery, or to monastic Life
Monachism - ) The system and influences of a monastic Life; monasticism
Wifely - ) Becoming or Life; of or pertaining to a wife
World - ) In a more restricted sense, that part of the earth and its concerns which is known to any one, or contemplated by any one; a division of the globe, or of its inhabitants; human affairs as seen from a certain position, or from a given point of view; also, state of existence; scene of Life and action; as, the Old World; the New World; the religious world; the Catholic world; the upper world; the future world; the heathen world. ) The earth and its affairs as distinguished from heaven; concerns of this Life as distinguished from those of the Life to come; the present existence and its interests; hence, secular affairs; engrossment or absorption in the affairs of this Life; worldly corruption; the ungodly or wicked part of mankind. ) Individual experience of, or concern with, Life; course of Life; sum of the affairs which affect the individual; as, to begin the world with no property; to lose all, and begin the world anew. ) The customs, practices, and interests of men; general affairs of Life; human society; public affairs and occupations; as, a knowledge of the world
Injustice - The violation of another's right to Life, well-being, liberty, good name, property, which continues until compensation be made for injury to Life or limb, apology or retraction for calumny, restitution for theft
Religious - It is also used for a person engaged by solemn vows to the monastic Life; or a person shut up in a monastery, to lead a Life of devotion and austerity under some rule or institution
Animism - ) The doctrine, taught by Stahl, that the soul is the proper principle of Life and development in the body. ) The belief that inanimate objects and the phenomena of nature are endowed with personal Life or a living soul; also, in an extended sense, the belief in the existence of soul or spirit apart from matter
Headstone - The beginning of the Christian Life is brought about by trusting the Saviour. The end of the Christian Life is to live with the Saviour
Dying - ) The act of expiring; passage from Life to death; loss of Life
End of Man - The object or purpose of man's existence, his well-being here in this Life as a proximate object; his well-being, or salvation as it is called, in the future Life
Warfare - Military service military Life war. ...
WARFARE, To lead a military Life to carry on continual wars
Vivificative - ) Able or tending to vivify, animate, or give Life; vivifying
Unblemished - ) Not blemished; pure; spotless; as, an unblemished reputation or Life
Archaeozoic - ) Like or belonging to the earliest forms of animal Life
Prolongable - ) Capable of being prolonged; as, Life is prolongable by care
Secularity - ) Supreme attention to the things of the present Life; worldliness
Thalassography - ) The study or science of the Life of marine organisms
Revitalize - ) To restore vitality to; to bring back to Life
Monachal - ) Of or pertaining to monks or a monastic Life; monastic
Mendicity - ) The practice of begging; the Life of a beggar; mendicancy
Reuben - He showed kindness to Joseph, and was the means of saving his Life when his other brothers would have put him to death (37:21,22). It was he also who pledged his Life and the Life of his sons when Jacob was unwilling to let Benjamin go down into Egypt
Age - Used to denote the period of a man's Life (Genesis 47:28 ), the maturity of Life (John 9:21 ), the latter end of Life (Job 11:17 ), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8 ), and an indefinite period (Ephesians 2:7 ; 3:5,21 ; Colossians 1:26 )
Blood - By the Hebrews also blood was Invested with peculiar sanctity as the seat of the soul ( nephesh ), that is of the principle of Life ( Leviticus 17:11 ‘the Life Ecclesiastes - ...
Teaching style...
In keeping with a common practice of the time, the author writes as if he were some well known person whose Life would form a background for his own teaching. He then puts himself in Solomon’s position and proceeds to show that all the wealth, pleasure, wisdom and power that people may gain will, in the end, benefit them nothing if they have wrong attitudes to Life and to God. Rather it is a collection of some of the writer’s thoughts and ideas, probably written down later in Life. ...
Being a wisdom teacher, the writer is concerned with some of the apparent contradictions of Life (see WISDOM LITERATURE). He does not rely upon comfortable orthodox theories, but examines the frustrations and injustices that sometimes make Life seem useless and without meaning. He has a strong faith in God, and that faith gives him his interpretation of Life. ...
Meaning of the book...
The writer’s interpretation of Life is built around two main observations: first, that God is sovereign; second, that God is the Creator. ...
No matter what benefits people may gain for themselves in Life, they lose them at death. Life seems useless (2:14,18; 6:1-6). People should not therefore waste time searching after what God has kept for himself, but instead enjoy what God has given to them, namely, Life (3:12-13; 5:18-19). On the contrary, they will only enjoy Life properly as they act with wisdom rather than folly, and as they do good rather than evil (7:5,7-9,19). ...
Summary of contents...
Life seems at times to have no purpose (1:1-11). The search for a meaning to Life through selfish ambition will lead to frustration. Having set out the central message of his book, the writer turns to consider some related matters: the control of God over Life’s affairs (3:1-15), the widespread injustice in the world (3:16-4:3), and the uselessness of self-centred achievement (4:4-16). ...
A collection of short messages encourages people to make the most of Life’s frustrations. Life presents people with great opportunities for true contentment (9:1-12), but they will have no contentment without wisdom (9:13-10:20). The final section therefore encourages people to have a positive attitude to Life (11:1-8); for the Creator holds them accountable for the way they handle the gifts of creation (11:9-12:14)
Path - Two contrasting paths are a common image for rival ways of Life in Hebrew wisdom literature. This approach to Life contrasts with the path of righteousness (Psalm 23:3 ; Proverbs 2:13 ,Proverbs 2:13,2:20 ). This Life-path entails living by the commands or instruction of the Lord (Psalm 119:1 ; Proverbs 10:17 ). The reward for following this path is Life (Proverbs 10:17 ; Proverbs 12:28 ; compare Psalm 16:11 ; Proverbs 2:19 ; Proverbs 5:6 )
Family purity - The Laws of: The system of laws which govern Jewish marital Life
Nazarite - A jew who professed extraordinary purity of Life and devotion
Bambocciade - ) A representation of a grotesque scene from common or rustic Life
Rhyparography - ) In ancient art, the painting of genre or still-life pictures
Dully - ) In a dull manner; stupidly; slowly; sluggishly; without Life or spirit
Durante - ) During; as, durante vita, during Life; durante bene placito, during pleasure
Taharat hamishpachah - �family purity�); the system of laws which govern Jewish marital Life
Abiogenist - ) One who believes that Life can be produced independently of antecedent
Profligateness - ) The quality of being profligate; an abandoned course of Life; profligacy
Requicken - ) To quicken anew; to reanimate; to give new Life to
Slayer - ) One who slays; a killer; a murderer; a destrroyer of Life
Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius - The Exercises are not a treatise on mysticism or asceticism but a practical manual consisting of considerations and meditations to lead to the amendment and sanctification of one's Life and of certain practical rules. They are divided into four weeks, which occupy one for about thirty days and which correspond to the purgative, illuminative, and unitive ways of the spiriiual Life. The principle and foundation states the purpose of Life, the attainment of salvation by serving God, and the consequent necessity of holding oneself in indifference of will towards creatures and of using them only as they further this object. The second week, on the Life of Christ, is introduced by a parable of a king, a type of Christ, who invites high-souled knights to assist him in winning the world for God. There are other great directive meditations: the Two Standards, the Three Classes of Men, and the Three Modes of Humility; and the second week culminates in the election of a state of Life, or of methods of amending the one already adopted. The third week is occupied with the Passion; the fourth with the risen Life of Christ
Life, Religious - The religious Life pointed out to us by the Evangelical counsels is a Life of charity and of union with God, and the great means it employs to this end are freedom and detachment from everything that could in any manner prevent or impair that union. Christian virgins were the first to profess a Life distinguished from the ordinary, by its tendency to perfection; continence, and often the renunciation of riches, attached them specially to Christ. In the 3century we find the first distinct traces of the kind of Life in which the religious profession becomes by degrees perfected and brought under rule, that of the monks. The Gospel clearly states virginity and continence as the means, and charity as the end, of all religious Life. Persecutions necessitated retirement and a first form of Life entirely directed towards personal sanctification; community Life produced obedience; the inconveniences caused by frequent changes of residence suggested the vow of stability; the excessive multiplication and diversity of religious institutes called for the intervention of the sovereign pontiff and his express approbation of rules; the needs of soul and body grafted the practise of corporal and spiritual works of mercy upon personal sanctification, and joined the reception of Holy Orders to religious profession; and the exigencies and difficulties of modern times caused the making of simple vows antecedent to, or in substitution for, solemn vows. Some examples of the regular religious Life may be seen among the Canons Regular, the mendicant orders, the military orders, the hospitaller orders, the Clerks Regular, the Eastern orders, those orders founded principally for teaching, as the Christian Brothers, and innumerable congregations of nuns
Religious Life - The religious Life pointed out to us by the Evangelical counsels is a Life of charity and of union with God, and the great means it employs to this end are freedom and detachment from everything that could in any manner prevent or impair that union. Christian virgins were the first to profess a Life distinguished from the ordinary, by its tendency to perfection; continence, and often the renunciation of riches, attached them specially to Christ. In the 3century we find the first distinct traces of the kind of Life in which the religious profession becomes by degrees perfected and brought under rule, that of the monks. The Gospel clearly states virginity and continence as the means, and charity as the end, of all religious Life. Persecutions necessitated retirement and a first form of Life entirely directed towards personal sanctification; community Life produced obedience; the inconveniences caused by frequent changes of residence suggested the vow of stability; the excessive multiplication and diversity of religious institutes called for the intervention of the sovereign pontiff and his express approbation of rules; the needs of soul and body grafted the practise of corporal and spiritual works of mercy upon personal sanctification, and joined the reception of Holy Orders to religious profession; and the exigencies and difficulties of modern times caused the making of simple vows antecedent to, or in substitution for, solemn vows. Some examples of the regular religious Life may be seen among the Canons Regular, the mendicant orders, the military orders, the hospitaller orders, the Clerks Regular, the Eastern orders, those orders founded principally for teaching, as the Christian Brothers, and innumerable congregations of nuns
Living Waters - ...
(2) The Life of Grace on earth leading to Life everlasting in heaven, "
Life, Bread of - ,food in general, keeps the Life in the body, so the Holy Eucharist increases the spiritual Life of the soul (John 6)
Plague - 1 Kings 8:38 (a) This name is applied to the sins that curse the soul, hinder the Life, and hurt the heart. ...
Psalm 91:10 (a) The believer that walks with the Lord, and dwells in His presence, is safe from the attacks of Satan, and from the thorns and thistles that are in this Life to hurt and hinder
Mote - Matthew 7:3 (b) This word describes what may be a very small and inconsiderate flaw in the Life of another person, whereas the critic may have faults and flaws far greater than in the one he observes and criticizes. The mote is in the flaw in the other person's Life, while the beam is the flaw in our own lives
Tie - CHRIST comes into the Life, breaks the ties that bind one to the old Life, and sets him free
Anthropic Principle - Is the universe necessarily arranged by God so as to make Life possible or is it simply that the universe is godless and that Life came into existence due to the chance state that we now find it in?...
Youth - ) The part of Life that succeeds to childhood; the period of existence preceding maturity or age; the whole early part of Life, from childhood, or, sometimes, from infancy, to manhood
Slaughter - ) To visit with great destruction of Life; to kill; to slay in battle. ) The extensive, violent, bloody, or wanton destruction of Life; carnage
Waters, Living - ...
(2) The Life of Grace on earth leading to Life everlasting in heaven, "
Monachism - (Greek: monos, alone) ...
Denotes the mode of Life, characterized by self-denial and asceticism, which is followed by religious living secluded from the world, according to a fixed rule and under religious vows, in order to perfect themselves in the love of God. , while the Life of the monk is lived primarily for its own sake, and its effect on the subject, though indirectly for the good of others also. The solitary or Antonian type of monasticism obtained in northern Egypt from Lycopolis to the Mediterranean, and large numbers of hermits following a semi-eremitical Life arose at Nitria and Scete. This type of monasticism spread to Palestine, Syria, Italy, and Gaul, and later affected the independent growth of the religious Life in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. About 318 Saint Pachomius developed cenobitical monasticism in southern Egypt, and introduced the common Life. Work as an essential of the daily Life of the monks also distinguished the Pachomian followers from those of Saint Anthony. 360,and inaugurated full community Life there, marked by prayer, work, and scriptural reading. To him is due the present monachism of eastern Europe, which is however now more noteworthy for the contemplative Life of its followers than for its element of work. The vow of stability which he introduced bound a monk for Life to a particular monastery, a development of great importance which furthered the family Life of the individual monastery, which Benedict sought. Recitation of the Divine Office is the principal occupation of the followers of the monastic Life; to it all work must be subordinated. The monastic Life was embraced by women at an early date; their history follows the same course as that of the monks
Monasticism - (Greek: monos, alone) ...
Denotes the mode of Life, characterized by self-denial and asceticism, which is followed by religious living secluded from the world, according to a fixed rule and under religious vows, in order to perfect themselves in the love of God. , while the Life of the monk is lived primarily for its own sake, and its effect on the subject, though indirectly for the good of others also. The solitary or Antonian type of monasticism obtained in northern Egypt from Lycopolis to the Mediterranean, and large numbers of hermits following a semi-eremitical Life arose at Nitria and Scete. This type of monasticism spread to Palestine, Syria, Italy, and Gaul, and later affected the independent growth of the religious Life in Ireland, Wales, and Scotland. About 318 Saint Pachomius developed cenobitical monasticism in southern Egypt, and introduced the common Life. Work as an essential of the daily Life of the monks also distinguished the Pachomian followers from those of Saint Anthony. 360,and inaugurated full community Life there, marked by prayer, work, and scriptural reading. To him is due the present monachism of eastern Europe, which is however now more noteworthy for the contemplative Life of its followers than for its element of work. The vow of stability which he introduced bound a monk for Life to a particular monastery, a development of great importance which furthered the family Life of the individual monastery, which Benedict sought. Recitation of the Divine Office is the principal occupation of the followers of the monastic Life; to it all work must be subordinated. The monastic Life was embraced by women at an early date; their history follows the same course as that of the monks
Drowned - Deprived of Life by immersion in a fluid overflowed inundated overwhelmed
Simchah - �joy�); a happy occasion or Jewish Life-cycle celebration, e
Eleph - ) A town of Benjamin, whose inhabitants followed pastoral Life (Joshua 18:28)
Eremitism - ) The state of a hermit; a living in seclusion from social Life
Short-Breathed - ) Having short Life
Perennibranchiata - ) Those Batrachia which retain their gills through Life, as the menobranchus
Fireside - ) A place near the fire or hearth; home; domestic Life or retirement
Protandric - ) Having male sexual organs while young, and female organs later in Life
Unborn - ) Not born; no yet brought into Life; being still to appear; future
Microform - ) A microscopic form of Life; an animal or vegetable organism microscopic size
Lifestring - ) A nerve, or string, that is imagined to be essential to Life
Roue - ) One devoted to a Life of sensual pleasure; a debauchee; a rake
Reviviscency - ) The act of reviving, or the state of being revived; renewal of Life
Menopause - See Change of Life, under Change
Divine Nature, Partakers of - Christian grace imparts to us a sublime share in God's own Life. This marvelous Life of grace is the prelude and means of the eternal Life of glory where the blessed see God face to face and love Him in bliss
Godlessness - An attitude and style of Life which excludes God from thought and ignores or deliberately violates God's laws. Romans 1:20-32 is a classic characterization of godlessness: the godless refuse to acknowledge God in spite of the evidence of creation ( Romans 1:22 ), engage in willful idolatry (Romans 1:25 ), and practice a Life-style unconstrained by divine limits (Romans 1:26-31 ). “Godless myths and old wives' tales” (NIV) refers to speech that encourages an attitude and Life-style of godlessness (1 Timothy 4:7 ; compare 1 Timothy 6:20 ; 2 Timothy 2:16 )
Vivification - ) The act of vivifying, or the state of being vivified; restoration of Life; revival. ) One of the changes of assimilation, in which proteid matter which has been transformed, and made a part of the tissue or tissue cells, is endowed with Life, and thus enabled to manifest the phenomena of irritability, contractility, etc
Animate - ) Endowed with Life; alive; living; animated; lively. ) To give natural Life to; to make alive; to quicken; as, the soul animates the body
Elixir - ) An imaginary liquor capable of transmuting metals into gold; also, one for producing Life indefinitely; as, elixir vitae, or the elixir of Life
Immortality - The quality of never ceasing to live or exist exemption from death and annihilation Life destined to endure without end as the immortality of the human soul. ...
--Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought Life and immortality to light through the gospel
Moralist - ) One who practices moral duties; a person who lives in conformity with moral rules; one of correct deportment and dealings with his fellow-creatures; - sometimes used in contradistinction to one whose Life is controlled by religious motives. ) One who moralizes; one who teaches or animadverts upon the duties of Life; a writer of essays intended to correct vice and inculcate moral duties
Experience Table - A table of mortality computed from the experience of one or more Life-insurance companies
Fenced City - See Cities and Urban Life ; Fortified Cities
Breezy - ) Fresh; brisk; full of Life
Shlita - an acronym for the Hebrew words meaning, �May he live a long and good Life�...
Self-Life - ) Life for one's self; living solely or chiefly for one's own pleasure or good
Biography - ) The written history of a person's Life
Animating - ) Causing animation; Life-giving; inspiriting; rousing
Microbicide - ) Any agent detrimental to, or destructive of, the Life of microbes or bacterial organisms
Living - 1, Life, Nos
Lifelike - ) Like a living being; resembling Life; giving an accurate representation; as, a Lifelike portrait
Revived - Brought to Life reanimated renewed recovered quickened cheered reduced to a metallic state
Reen - ...
Job 15:32 (b) By this figure we see that the man who is deceived and is not true to GOD's Word, and is not really linked up with GOD, will not prosper, and shall not be productive in his Life. ...
Psalm 52:8 (a) This type indicates a fresh, happy spirit, full of Life, vigor and growth. ...
Jeremiah 17:8 (a) This symbol represents youth, Life, freshness and vigor. ...
Hosea 14:8 (a) By this type we understand Life at its best. Such a Life is filled with joy, gladness, singing and service
Almond - Exodus 25:33 (c) The almond on the golden candlestick in the tabernacle is a type of the fruitfulness which will characterize that one who sheds abroad the light of Life in his Life. Each one who dwells in the holy place, holds forth the Word of Life, and brings light to those who sit in darkness, will be a fruit-bearing Christian. This almond is connected with the flower which indicates the beauty of that Life and also with the knop which represents the fullness of the Christian Life
Laura - (Greek: a passage, alley, avenue, or street; later a set of shops along a street, hence a bazaar) ...
In the ecclesiastical sense, a series of streets of hermitages clustered around a monastery and the type of Life lived by the monks in a laura. The type of monastic Life followed in the lauras might be called quasi-eremitical or quasi-cenobitic. Hence the Life partook both of the cenobitic and eremitical. While the laura, and the type of Life led there is little in evidence after the 10th century, still as late as 1927, Monsignor d'Herbigny saw several lauras of Oriental monks on the O Holy Mount of Athos
Hylozoism - (Greek: hyle, matter; zoe, Life) ...
Term used to designate a doctrine according to which all matter possesses Life, and which forms the basis of many false philosophical systems. This primitive form disappeared when Plato and Aristotle differentiated between mind and matter, and hylozoism became materialistic with Strato, who explained Life as a property of matter. It grew pantheistic with the later Peripatetics, the Neo-Pythagoreans, and the Neo-Platonic school of Alexandria, which explained that there was Life in all material beings but that perfections proceed from the soul
Religion - ) The outward act or form by which men indicate their recognition of the existence of a god or of gods having power over their destiny, to whom obedience, service, and honor are due; the feeling or expression of human love, fear, or awe of some superhuman and overruling power, whether by profession of belief, by observance of rites and ceremonies, or by the conduct of Life; a system of faith and worship; a manifestation of piety; as, ethical religions; monotheistic religions; natural religion; revealed religion; the religion of the Jews; the religion of idol worshipers. ) Specifically, conformity in faith and Life to the precepts inculcated in the Bible, respecting the conduct of Life and duty toward God and man; the Christian faith and practice. ) A monastic or religious order subject to a regulated mode of Life; the religious state; as, to enter religion
Belgravian - ) Belonging to Belgravia (a fashionable quarter of London, around Pimlico), or to fashionable Life; aristocratic
Semitontine - , half-tontine; - used to designate a form of tontine Life insurance
Dryad - ) A wood nymph; a nymph whose Life was bound up with that of her tree
Vegetive - ) Having the nature of a plant; vegetable; as, vegetive Life
Landlubber - ) One who passes his Life on land; - so called among seamen in contempt or ridicule
Book, Book of Life - The balance book of God is named "the Book of Life. "...
An anguished interchange between a wrathful Yahweh and a pleading Moses after the discovery of the golden calf illustrates the Old Testament understanding of the Book of Life. The Book of Life is a list of the righteous. In the Old Testament focus on divine reward and punishment in this Life, the blessed on the list receive their blessings here and now and those stricken from the book suffer in this Life, not in some eternal future. The psalmist understands this when he asks God to "list my tears on your scroll" (56:8) and have his enemies "blotted out of the book of Life" (69:28). In the letter to the church at Sardis, heavenly citizenship, exemplified by listing in the Book of Life, is promised to those who overcome the world (Revelation 3:5 ). At the last judgment, anyone whose name is not written in the Book of Life is thrown into the Lake of Fire (Revelation 20:15 )
Concupiscence - Such desire is part of the old Life without Christ and is deceitful (Ephesians 4:22 ). The Christian Life then is a war between desires of the old Life and desire to follow the Spirit (1 Peter 4:3 ; 1 Peter 2:11 ), the Spirit-led Life crucifying worldly desires (Galatians 5:24 ). ) As the new Life comes through the Spirit, so old desires come through Satan (John 8:44 ) and the world of which he is prince (1 John 2:16 ). The power of sin then changed the good commandment into an instrument to arouse human desires to experience new arenas of Life. Thus they sin and die rather than trust God's guidance through the law that such arenas are outside God's plan for Life and thus should not be experienced (Romans 7:7-8 ). ...
In a very limited sphere of Life, Paul called on believers to rise above the normal activities caused by lust in society
Monastery - The term applies principally to the houses of such religious as lead a contemplative Life and recite the divine office in common. It is opposed to a convent or residence, terms used to indicate the houses of religious devoted principally to the active Life
Conversation - Generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Ephesians 2:3 ; 4:22 ; RSV, "manner of Life"); one's deportment or course of Life
Anagogical Sense - , the teachings of the Bible lead to eternal Life) ...
That division of the typical sense which includes blessings to be hoped for, and which refers particularly to the future Life
Adorn - Titus 2:10 (b) As jewels make a person more attractive, and as pictures make a room more beautiful, and as color schemes add to the delightful beauty of the room, so the Christian graces in the believer's Life are an ornament of beauty to those who observe them. ...
These attributes from Heaven make a person more attractive, and the Christian Life more desirable
Sense, Anagogical - , the teachings of the Bible lead to eternal Life) ...
That division of the typical sense which includes blessings to be hoped for, and which refers particularly to the future Life
Life, Common - Common Life implies membership in a religious community, involving submission to a common rule and to the same superiors, and secondly, a community of goods, such as food, clothing, and lodging. Though common Life is not essential for the religious state, still the Church has always esteemed it as an important help in fostering the religious Life, for which, according to present legislation, it is a requisite (canon 487)
Self-Control - Modern translations' term for several Greek words indicating a sober, temperate, calm, and dispassionate approach to Life, having mastered personal desires and passions. Nor does it call for a withdrawal from Life and its temptations. It calls for a self-disciplined Life following Christ's example of being in the world but not of the world
Life - Human Life is the continuance or duration of our present state, and which the Scriptures represent as short and vain, Job 14:1-2 . Spiritual Life consists in our being in the favour of God, influenced by a principle of grace. Eternal Life is that never-ending state of existence which the saints shall enjoy in heaven, and is glorious, Colossians 3:4
Evolution, Creative - Duration, which is the present colored by the entire past and possessed of a persistent eagerness to press forward (the elan vital), is the very stuff of Life. This evolutionary driving force divides into vegetal and animal Life; and attains to complete consciousness and liberty in man. The next advance is to be "intuition," the faculty of apprehending the essence of all things as Life
Relive - ) To recall to Life; to revive
Autobiography - ) A biography written by the subject of it; memoirs of one's Life written by one's self
Biochemistry - ) The chemistry of living organisms; the chemistry of the processes incidental to, and characteristic of, Life
Animalism - ) The state, activity, or enjoyment of animals; mere animal Life without intellectual or moral qualities; sensuality
Plasmodial - ) Of or pertaining to, or like, a plasmodium; as, the plasmodial form of a Life cycle
Dervis - ) A Turkish or Persian monk, especially one who professes extreme poverty and leads an austere Life
Disanimation - ) Privation of Life
Eudipleura - ) The fundamental forms of organic Life, that are composed of two equal and symmetrical halves
Estrepement - ) A destructive kind of waste, committed by a tenant for Life, in lands, woods, or houses
Dynamiter - , one who uses it for the destruction of Life and property
Ender - ) One who, or that which, makes an end of something; as, the ender of my Life
Commonly - Usually generally ordinarily frequently for the most part as, confirmed habits commonly continue through Life
Warrior - ) A man engaged or experienced in war, or in the military Life; a soldier; a champion
Defunct - ) Having finished the course of Life; dead; deceased
Ender - ) One who, or that which, makes an end of something; as, the ender of my Life
Cheerfully - In a cheerful manner with alacrity or willingness readily with Life, animation or good spirits
Self-Defence - Implies not only the preservation of one's Life, but also the protection of our property, because without property Life cannot be preserved in a civilized nation. Some condemn all resistance, whatsoever be the evil offered, or whosoever be the person that offers it; others will not admit that it should pass any farther than bare resistance; others say, that it must never be carried so far as hazarding the Life of the assailant; and others again, who deny it not to be lawful in some cases to kill the aggressor, at the same time affirm it to be a thing more laudable and consonant to the Gospel, to choose rather to lose one's Life, in imitation of Christ, than to secure it at the expense of another's in pursuance of the permission of nature. "Notwithstanding, " says Grove, "the great names which may appear on the side of any of these opinions, I cannot but think self-defence, though it proceeds to the killing of another to save one's self, is in common cases not barely permitted, but enjoined by nature; and that a man would be wanting to the Author of his being, to society, and to himself, to abandon that Life with which he is put in trust. ...
That a person forfeits his own Life to the sword of justice, by taking away another's unprovoked, is a principle not to be disputed. Whereas, by killing the invader of my Life, I only take a Life, which must oterwise have been forfeited, and preserve the Life of an innocent person. Nor, for the same reason, can there be any such obligation arising from the love of our neighbour; since I do not really save his Life b parting with my own, but only leave him to be put to death after a more ignominious manner by the public executioner. Incase of an attempt made upon the Life of a person, against which he has no other way of securing himself but repelling force by force
Live - To have the principles of vegetable Life to be in a state in which the organs do or may perform their functions in the circulation of sap and in growth applied to plants. To pass Life or time in a particular manner, with regard to habits or condition. To continue in Life. To live, emphatically to enjoy Life to be in a state of happiness. To feed to subsist to be nourished and supported in Life as, horses live on grass or grain fowls live on seeds or insects some kinds of fish live on others carnivorous animals live on flesh. To subsist to be maintained in Life to be supported. To recover from sickness to have Life prolonged. To appear as in Life or reality to be manifest in real character. To continue in constantly or habitually as, to live a Life of ease. Having Life having respiration and other organic functions in operation, or in a capacity to operate not dead as a live ox. Having vegetable Life as a live plant
Hope - It makes us desire eternal Life or the possession of God and gives us the confidence of receiving the grace necessary to arrive at this possession. The grounds of our hope are: the omnipotence of God, or the fact that He can give us eternal Life and the means to attain it; His goodness, or the fact that He wills to give us eternal Life and the means to attain it; and His fidelity to His promises, or the fact that He has pledged Himself to give us eternal Life and the means thereto. Since the virtue of hope is based on God's power, goodness, and fidelity to His promises, it must be sure and unshakable in the sense that God will certainly offer us the means necessary for the attainment of eternal Life and that if we employ our free-will to cooperate with the grace of God we shall certainly be saved. The virtue of hope infused into the soul at Baptism is sufficient for those who have not attained the use of reason; in all others an act of hope is required, such at least as is included in living a Christian Life
Caducibranchiate - ) With temporary gills: - applied to those Amphibia in which the gills do not remain in adult Life
Regardless - ) Having no regard; heedless; careless; as, regardless of Life, consequences, dignity
Unlive - ) To //ve in a contrary manner, as a Life; to live in a manner contrary to
Youngling - ) A young person; a youth; also, any animal in its early Life
Reviving - ) Returning or restoring to Life or vigor; reanimating
Haematoplastic - ) Blood formative; - applied to a substance in early fetal Life, which breaks up gradually into blood vessels
Lives of Christ - , wrote copiously on the Life of Our Lord, among other works, "The Life of our Life, Introduction, Harmony and Notes" (London, 1869). Griffeth (Longmans, 1891); "The Life of Christ," by Monsignor Le Camus, translated by Father (later Bishop) Hickey (New York, 1907); "Jesus Christ," by Pere Didon, O. , 1893); and finally the "Life of Christ" by the late Father L. A more recent French Life, not yet translated, is that of Father Lagrange, O. Another French work which may be classed as a Life of Christ is that by the late Father Uonce de Grandmaison, S. ...
The text of the "Life of Jesus Christ" by the late Father Maas, S. " The principal contribution of this learned scriptural scholar was his methodical explanatory notes, which make the Life a valuable commentary on the Gospels. The "Life of Christ" by the late Father Walter Elliott (New York, 1901), is "a contribution to the devotional study of our Redeemer's teaching and example. , "The Life of Our Lord Jesus Christ in Meditation" (Herder, 1909). His "Storia di Cristo" (Florence, 1921) has been translated ably, but not with sufficient fidelity, by Dorothy Canfield Fisher under the title "Life of Christ
Soul - ...
The soul designates the physical Life. The soul means the entire human being in its physical Life needing food and clothing (Matthew 6:25 ). The breathing organs and the breath blown out from them also express individual Life in animals as well as human beings (Job 11:20 ; Job 41:21 ; Acts 20:10 ). At times, then, soul can be interchanged with Life (Proverbs 7:23 ; Proverbs 8:35-36 ) and can be identical with blood (Deuteronomy 12:23 ). That means a living being that owes Life itself to the Creator just as does the animal (Genesis 2:19 ). For this Life or soul, one gives all one has (Job 2:4 ). Satan is permitted by God to take health, that is flesh and blood, but Satan cannot take the bare Life of a person (Job 2:5-6 ). Soul is not only a synonym with Life. One can also speak of the Life of the soul (Proverbs 3:22 ). ” This includes the throat as the organ of Life, the soul as the totality of capabilities; my own personal Life which experiences the saving actions of Yahweh our God; my person; my own “I”; and the vital, emotional self. ...
Soul designates the essential Life. Physical Life is given and maintained by God (Matthew 6:25-34 ). Meaningful and fulfilled Life comes only when it is free to give itself to God as a disciple of Jesus Christ. Life is the highest good when it is lived according to God's intentions and not used up in search for material and cultural goods (Mark 8:34-37 ). This Life is stronger than death and cannot be destroyed by human beings (Matthew 10:28 ). Paul, thus, avoids the word soul in connection with eternal Life. There is a continuity between the earthly and the resurrected Life that does not lie in the capabilities or nature of mortal humans
Severinus, Monk of Noricum - He was assisted by EUGIPPIUS, who afterwards presided over a monastery dedicated to his memory, and there wrote his Life c. Severinus lived a Life of the sternest asceticism in a small cell where he could barely stand erect. His Life is full of the wonders wrought and predictions uttered by him, but is important as illustrating the social Life of the outlying provinces of the empire when the foundations of the modern European system were beginning to be laid. His Life is in AA
Pachomius, Saint - Founder of the cenobitical Life, born near Esneh, Egypt; died Phebôou c346 After spending some time with the hermit Palemon, he withdrew to Tabennisi where he introduced community Life among the hermits who gathered around him
Calvary - A fit place; in death's stronghold the Lord of Life gave death his deathblow through death (Hebrews 2:14). Chronicles, 434, quoted in Ellicott's Life of our Lord
Career - ) General course of action or conduct in Life, or in a particular part or calling in Life, or in some special undertaking; usually applied to course or conduct which is of a public character; as, Washington's career as a soldier
Bedstead - Deuteronomy 3:11 (c) This is used as a symbol of the Life that Og, King of Bashan, lived. These two selfish purposes characterize his Life and GOD recorded it in the story of the bedstead
Hose'a - Probably the Life, or rather the prophetic career, of Hosea extended from B. Nothing is known of the prophet's Life excepting what may be gained from his book
Children in Tub - Representation in Christian art associated with Saint Nicholas with reference to his miraculous restoration of three children to Life
Christology - ) A treatise on Christ; that department of theology which treats of the personality, attributes, or Life of Christ
Epictetain - ) Pertaining to Epictetus, the Roman Stoic philosopher, whose conception of Life was to be passionless under whatever circumstances
Biopsychical - ) Pertaining to psychical phenomena in their relation to the living organism or to the general phenomena of Life
Physianthropy - ) The philosophy of human Life, or the doctrine of the constitution and diseases of man, and their remedies
Fox - Luke 13:32 (a) A type of the crafty, cunning and wicked cruelty which characterized the Life of Herod
Jairus - Ruler of a synagogue in Galilee, whose daughter the Lord restored to Life
Caloricity - ) A faculty in animals of developing and preserving the heat necessary to Life, that is, the animal heat
Tub, Children in - Representation in Christian art associated with Saint Nicholas with reference to his miraculous restoration of three children to Life
Jocelin, Bishop - Author and supporter of writers in his day; he commissioned the works Life of Saint Waltheof, Life of Saint Kentigern, and Chronical of Melrose. 1135in the Scottish border area ...
Died March 17, 1199 at Melrose Abbey of natural causes; interred in the choir of the abbey church ...
Works The Most Ancient Lives of Saint Patrick...
Life and Acts of Saint Patrick ...
Dunkards - A group of secular priests and lay persons, attached themselves to De Groote and became known as the Brethren of the Common Life. They took no vows, but aimed at the interior Life and devoted themselves to education and literature. Men like Thomas a Kempis, who wrote a Life of De Groote, Pope Adrian VI, and Gabriel Biel, were trained in their schools, which were almost all swept away during the Reformation
Fate - ) The element of chance in the affairs of Life; the unforeseen and unestimated conitions considered as a force shaping events; fortune; esp. ) The three goddesses, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, sometimes called the Destinies, or Parcaewho were supposed to determine the course of human Life. ) Appointed lot; allotted Life; arranged or predetermined event; destiny; especially, the final lot; doom; ruin; death
Soul - ...
Below is a list of some of the things which are covered by this word:...
Genesis 2:7 The human Life...
Genesis 34:8 Human feelings...
Genesis 35:18 The human spirit...
Leviticus 5:2 The person's body...
Leviticus 17:11 The whole person...
Leviticus 17:12 The person's body...
2 Chronicles 6:38 Purpose of heart...
1 Samuel 18:1 Human affections...
1 Kings 17:21 The spirit of Life...
Deuteronomy 11:13 The human mind or will...
Hebrews 10:39 The whole person...
Hebrews 13:17 The human Life...
The above types cover practically all of the places where the word "soul" is used throughout the Scriptures
Natural - ψυχικός, from 'life, soul. ' "The natural man [1] receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God. The body of the Christian is sown 'a natural body' (having had natural Life through the living soul); it will be raised 'a spiritual body
Eternity - This applies to both salvation and judgment (Isaiah 45:17; Judges 1:7), to Life and destruction (John 17:2; 2 Thessalonians 1:9). Eternal Life, being the Life of the age to come, is endless, because the age to come is endless. More importantly, it is Life of a particular quality. It is a Life that shares in some way the nature of God and that God gives through Jesus Christ (John 1:4; John 5:21; John 5:24; John 8:51; John 17:2-3; see Life, sub-heading ‘Eternal Life’). Even in the present age, believers in Jesus Christ have the Life of the age to come – eternal Life, the Life of the kingdom of God (Matthew 19:16; Matthew 19:24; John 3:3; John 3:5; John 3:15; Colossians 1:13; see KINGDOM OF GOD). ...
Divine and human viewpoints...
Jesus’ teaching concerning the nature of eternal Life showed that it was more than merely Life stretched out for ever. It was Life of an entirely different order from the normal Life of this world (John 4:14; John 6:51; John 6:63; John 17:3)
Cleanness - ) Purity of Life or language; freedom from licentious courses
Jabal - Son of Lamech by Adah, and originator of the nomadic form of Life, Genesis 4:20 (J On ben peleth - Originally a leader in Korah�s mutiny, his wife persuaded him to disaffiliate from the cause, thus saving his Life
Enethliacs - ) The science of calculating nativities, or predicting the future events of Life from the stars which preside at birth
Jackeroo - A young man living as an apprentice on a sheep station, or otherwise engaged in acquainting himself with colonial Life
Resurrection, the - Our Lord's way of naming Himself before raising Lazarus from death: "I am the Resurrection and the Life
Catholic Benevolent Legion - A fraternal Life insurance society with headquarters in Brooklyn, New York, organized in 1881. Life insurance not to exceed $5,000 was given in various amounts to members according to an optional classification, assessments for which were governed by the age of the member
Letter, the - This expression occurs in Romans 2:29 ; Romans 7:6 ; 2 Corinthians 3:6 , where the apostle contrasts it with 'the spirit:' "the letter killeth, but the spirit giveth Life. " Whether of the law or of the gospel, the mere intellectual reception of the words only leads to formality and death; it is only what is 'of the Spirit' that can result in Life
Laving - ) Producing Life, action, animation, or vigor; quickening. ) Being alive; having Life; as, a living creature
Biographer - ) One who writes an account or history of the Life of a particular person; a writer of lives, as Plutarch
Siph'Moth - (fruitful ), one of the places in the south of Judah which David frequented during his freebooting Life
Derech hachayim - �Path of Life�); Chassidic text by the second Lubavitcher Rebbe, R
Brevity - ) Shortness of duration; briefness of time; as, the brevity of human Life
Exanimate - ) Lifeless; dead. ) To deprive of animation or of Life
Scripturist - ) One who is strongly attached to, or versed in, the Scriptures, or who endeavors to regulate his Life by them
Decease - Literally, departure hence, departure from this Life death applied to human beings only
Kohelet - A book of Tanach containing Solomon's wise observations on Life
Reproachful - ) Occasioning or deserving reproach; shameful; base; as, a reproachful Life
Tenderfoot - ) A delicate person; one not inured to the hardship and rudeness of pioneer Life
Virginity - ) The unmarried Life; celibacy
Eve - (Hebrew: hawwah, living, Life) ...
The name of the first woman, the wife of Adam, the mother of Cain, Abel, and Seth
Microorganism - ) Any microscopic form of Life; - particularly applied to bacteria and similar organisms, esp
Live - In the ground stem this verb connotes “having Life”: “And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years …” ( Life” or “to cause to live”: “… I dwell … with him also that is of a contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones” ( Life. ” The use of this word occurs only in the oath formula “as X lives,” literally, “by the Life of X”: “And he said, They were my brethren, even the sons of my mother: as the Lord liveth, if ye had saved them alive, I would not slay you” ( Life of Pharaoh ye shall not go forth hence, except your youngest brother come hither. 30:15: “See, I have set before thee this day Life and good, and death and evil. 27:46: “And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my Life because of the daughters of Heth. …” In a second nuance the plural signifies “lifetime,” or the days of one’s Life: “… And dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy Life” ( Life” represents the same idea: “And Sarah was a hundred and seven and twenty years old: these were the years of the Life of Sarah” ( Life” in Life; and man became a living soul” (cf. ...
The “tree of Life” is the tree which gives one eternal, everlasting “life. ” Therefore, it is the tree whose fruit brings “life”: “And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of Life also in the midst of the garden …” (
Life as a special gift from God (a gift of salvation): “I call heaven and earth to record this day against you, that I have set before you Life and death, blessing and cursing: therefore choose Life, that both thou and thy seed may live” ( Life; and man became a living soul. 5:26 refers to God as the “living” God, distinguishing Him from the Lifeless gods/idols of the heathen. 2:13 the NASB translates “living” waters, or waters that give Life (cf
Vanity - This approaches the chief Old Testament understanding that human Life apart from God, even at its best, has no ultimate significance and consequently is valueless. In viewing Life without God the believer is on the same level as the unbeliever in recognizing the desperateness of Life. The development of vanity as reflecting the despair of human Life in Ecclesiastes shows to some commentators that its author was a skeptic, an agnostic, or a rationalist, as its message seemed to contradict the prophetic message that Israel place its hope in God. The tension between hope and hopelessness can be resolved in realizing that the inspired writer is expressing his emotions apart from his Life as a believer. It does not suggest that he has gone after other gods, but rather he views Life apart from God. All work (4:8), wealth (2:1-17), and varied experiences (4:7) add nothing to Life's meaning. Human Life is of equal value with that of animals (3:19-20). In the Sermon on the Mount he uses the transience of Life to engender in Christians confidence as God's children (Matthew 6:25-33 ). Vanity as a despair of value of human Life thus destroying confidence in self, abilities, and possessions can be of value if faith is allowed to focus on him with whom true joys are to be found
Wilderness - This is to be preferred to living the Life with one who is constantly a source of sorrow and trouble to the heart. ...
Isaiah 32:15 (b) This is a wonderful type of the barren Christian Life, which is filled with sorrow, difficulty, disappointment and grief, but which, by the ministry of the Spirit, becomes a Life filled with fruitfulness, beauty and joy. ...
Isaiah 43:19 (b) This word describes the deliverance which GOD is able to bring into the tangled affairs of human Life, straightens out the difficulties, delivers from perplexities, and brings His child safely through to a Life of peace
Annuity - ) A sum of money, payable yearly, to continue for a given number of years, for Life, or forever; an annual allowance
Celibacy - ) The state of being unmarried; single Life, esp
Commonly - ) Usually; generally; ordinarily; frequently; for the most part; as, confirmed habits commonly continue through Life
Cytode - ) A nonnucleated mass of protoplasm, the supposed simplest form of independent Life differing from the amoeba, in which nuclei are present
Carnage - ) Great destruction of Life, as in battle; bloodshed; slaughter; massacre; murder; havoc
During - ) In the time of; as long as the action or existence of; as, during Life; during the space of a year
Elected - Chosen preferred designated to office by some act of the constituents, as by vote chosen or predestinated to eternal Life
Silvics - ) The science treating of the Life of trees in the forest
a Mensa et Thoro - A kind of divorce which does not dissolve the marriage bond, but merely authorizes a separate Life of the husband and wife
Mephitical - ) Tending to destroy Life; poisonous; noxious; as, mephitic exhalations; mephitic regions
Low-Lived - ) Characteristic of, or like, one bred in a low and vulgar condition of Life; mean dishonorable; contemptible; as, low-lived dishonesty
Jenkins - ) name of contempt for a flatterer of persons high in social or official Life; as, the Jenkins employed by a newspaper
Cheerfulness - Life animation good spirits a state of moderate joy or gayety alacrity
Tammuz - The name appears to be Sumerian, Dumuzi, Tamuzu , and may mean ‘son of Life. He was celebrated as a shepherd, cut off in early Life or slain by the boar (winter). Ishtar descended to Hades to bring him back to Life
o'Meara, Kathleen - Mohl, Thomas Grant, the Cure d'Ars, and "Frederick Ozanam, Professor at the Sorbonne, His Life and Works," her masterpiece. She also wrote several novels marked by their wholesome spirit, purity of tone, and delicacy of feeling; "Narka, a story of Russian Life" is probably the best
Kathleen o'Meara - Mohl, Thomas Grant, the Cure d'Ars, and "Frederick Ozanam, Professor at the Sorbonne, His Life and Works," her masterpiece. She also wrote several novels marked by their wholesome spirit, purity of tone, and delicacy of feeling; "Narka, a story of Russian Life" is probably the best
Bough - Genesis 49:22 (a) This is a picture of the blessed and fruitful influence of Joseph in the Life of all nations when he was governor of Egypt. It is also a picture of the blessed effect that his Life and his words were to have on following generations
Anagogical - Signifies mysterious, transporting; and is used to express whatever elevates the mind, not only to the knowledge of divine things, but of divine things in the next Life. The anagogical sense is when the sacred text is explained with regard to eternal Life, the point which Christians should have in view; for example, the rest of the Sabbath, in the anagogical sense, signifies the repose of everlasting happiness
Consummation - ) The act of consummating, or the state of being consummated; completed; completion; perfection; termination; end (as of the world or of Life)
Bloodshed - ) The shedding or spilling of blood; slaughter; the act of shedding human blood, or taking Life, as in war, riot, or murder
Orach chayim - �Path of Life�); the first section of the Tur and the Shulchan Aruch, dealing with prayers, blessings, Shabbat, and the various festivals...
Eventful - ) Full of, or rich in, events or incidents; as, an eventful journey; an eventful period of history; an eventful period of Life
Civilized - ) Reclaimed from savage Life and manners; instructed in arts, learning, and civil manners; refined; cultivated
Unfruitful - ) Not producing fruit or offspring; unproductive; infertile; barren; sterile; as, an unfruitful tree or animal; unfruitful soil; an unfruitful Life or effort
Tench - It is noted for its tenacity of Life
Jerusalem - ) The chief city of Palestine, intimately associated with the glory of the Jewish nation, and the Life and death of Jesus Christ
Vapor - 1: ἀτμίς (Strong's #822 — Noun Feminine — atmis — at-mece' ) is used of "smoke," Acts 2:19 ; figuratively of human Life, James 4:14
Lowliness - ) Low condition, especially as to manner of Life
Patrobas - (pat' roh buhss) Personal name meaning, “life of (or from) father
Pathway - A way a course of Life
Warrior - In a general sense, a soldier a man engaged in military Life
Regeneration - All people are sinners; therefore all are spiritually dead and unable to give themselves spiritual Life. God, however, can save them from this hopeless condition by forgiving their sins, giving them new Life and restoring them to a right relationship with himself. It takes place when people humbly submit to Jesus Christ and trust him for forgiveness, salvation and Life (John 1:12-13; John 3:3-6; Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 2:5; Titus 3:5). Without it sinners remain in their hopeless state and are incapable of experiencing spiritual Life (John 3:5-6). They have new Life inwardly, characterized by renewed minds that govern all his thinking and attitudes (Romans 12:2; Ephesians 4:23-24; cf. They also have new Life outwardly, characterized by loving behaviour towards others, hatred of sin and victory over the world’s temptations (Colossians 3:10; Colossians 3:12-13; 1 John 2:29; 1 John 4:7; 1 John 5:4; 1 John 5:18; cf
Light of the World, Parable of the - Light is the symbol of joy (luminous thoughts give us thrills), of Life (light vivifies living creatures), of happiness (days of light are days of happiness). "In him (the Word) was Life and the Life was the light of men," and "The light shineth in darkness, and darkness did not comprehend it" (refused to be enlightened). In the divine economy we must believe in Christ, to be possessed of tte light of Life
Godliness - "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience; or it may be reduced to these four ideas; knowledge in the mind, by which it is distinguished from the visions of the superstitious; rectitude in the conscience, that distinguishes it from hypocrisy; sacrifice in the Life, or renunciation of the world, by which it is distinguished from the unmeaning obedience of him who goes as a happy constitution leads him; and, lastly, zeal in the heart, which differs from the languishing emotions of the lukewarm. " The advantages of this disposition, are honour, peace, safety, usefulness, support in death, and prospect of glory; or, as the apostle sums up all in a few words, "It is profitable unto all things, having the promise of the Life that now is, and of that which is to come, " 1 Timothy 4:8 . ; Scott's Christian Life: Scougall's Life of God in the Soul of Man
Way - Possibly this was because Christians spoke of their newfound Life as the way of the Lord, the way of Life, or the way of salvation (cf. ...
Since the way of God led to true Life and true enjoyment, that ‘way’ may have meant God’s will and God’s commandments (Job 21:14; Psalms 37:23-24; Psalms 119:27; Psalms 119:37; Jeremiah 5:4; Matthew 22:16; Romans 11:33; Revelation 15:3). The word could also refer to a person’s manner of Life in general
New Birth - A term evangelicals use to describe the unique spiritual experience of beginning a changed Life in Christ. ” New birth, like the earlier physical birth, is an initiation to a new experience of Life. Individuals, however, cooperate with God's saving work through their repentance (break with a Life of sin, Luke 13:3 ) and their commitment of Life to Christ (John 1:12 ; John 3:16 ). Rededication and renewal may come often in one's Lifetime, but the new birth never reoccurs
Evangelical Counsels - That the Christian Life demands from all a serious discipline of natural affections, is clear. He that findeth his Life shall lose it. " (Matthew 10) Or this the narrowest interpretation must be, that one ruling his Life by the love of worldly goods is outside the way of salvation; to be in it one must be ready to keep the Commandments at any cost. This does not exhaust the possibilities of Christian-life, a service of love
Naim - (Hebrew: pleasantness) ...
City where Christ raised the widow's son to Life (Luke 7), situated on the northwest ridge of Jebel Dahy, the Little Hermon
Ecclesiastes - the Book of: A book of Tanach containing Solomon's wise observations on Life
Capitally - ) In a way involving the forfeiture of the head or Life; as, to punish capitally
Coston Lights - Signals made by burning lights of different colors and used by vessels at sea, and in the Life-saving service; - named after their inventor
Apologia - A defense or vindication, such as Plato's Apology of Socrates, Apology of Thomas More, Newman's Apologia Pro Vita Sua (Vindication of His Own Life)
Tanistry - ) In Ireland, a tenure of family lands by which the proprietor had only a Life estate, to which he was admitted by election
Tabitha - A female disciple at Joppa, called also Dorcas, restored to Life in answer to Peter's prayer
Luxurious - ) Of or pertaining to luxury; ministering to luxury; supplied with the conditions of luxury; as, a luxurious Life; a luxurious table; luxurious ease
Leucomaine - ) An animal base or alkaloid, appearing in the tissue during Life; hence, a vital alkaloid, as distinguished from a ptomaine or cadaveric poison
Whosoever - ...
Whosoever will, let him take of the water of Life freely
Cenobite - (Greek: koinos, common; bios, Life) ...
A monk who forms one of a religious community, as distinguished from a hermit or anchorite, one who leads a solitary or eremitical Life
Barabbas - ") A contrast to the true Son of the Father! The Jews asked the murderous taker of Life to be given as a favor to them (it being customary to release one prisoner at the passover), and killed the Prince of Life! (Acts 3:14-15
Drink Offering - ...
Leviticus 23:13 (c) This drink offering of wine represents the things that bring joy into the heart and Life and even these are offered to the Lord in utter consecration. If Paul's Life should be poured out for the Philippians and he should be killed while seeking to serve them, he would consider it an honor
Regeneration - It is a spiritual change brought about by the work of the Holy Spirit so that the person then possesses new Life, eternal Life
Revive - ) To return to Life; to recover Life or strength; to live anew; to become reanimated or reinvigorated. ) To restore, or bring again to Life; to reanimate
Hind - Genesis 49:21 (a) This is a picture of the freedom, liberty and enjoyment which this tribe would have in Life. It is a picture also of the ability GOD gives His children to travel easily over the rough paths of Life, and to feel at home among the difficulties of Life
Jordan - Psalm 42:6 (c) This represents a beautiful Christian Life in which the stream of GOD (the Holy Spirit). refreshes the soul and enriches the Life. The argument evidently is that if in this Life the people of this world are wearied with the realities of eternity, what would be their condition if they were transported across the river into Heaven, where there are none of the things that attract the unsaved
Religious State - A permanent manner or mode of Life in which religious oblige themselves to strive for Christian perfection by the observance of the evangelical counsels. It is a permanent mode of Life because once entered upon it cannot be renounced except for grave reasons, and then only with consent of competent superiors. of community Life, obedience to a rule and constitution, submission to a superior
State, Religious - A permanent manner or mode of Life in which religious oblige themselves to strive for Christian perfection by the observance of the evangelical counsels. It is a permanent mode of Life because once entered upon it cannot be renounced except for grave reasons, and then only with consent of competent superiors. of community Life, obedience to a rule and constitution, submission to a superior
Victuals - when it is cooked or prepared for the table; that which supports human Life; provisions; sustenance; meat; viands
Hobo - ) A professional tramp; one who spends his Life traveling from place to place, esp
Cholera - ) One of several diseases affecting the digestive and intestinal tract and more or less dangerous to Life, esp
Bioscope - ) A view of Life; that which gives such a view
Assurer - ) One who takes out a Life assurance policy
Perennibranchiate - ) Having branchae, or gills, through Life; - said especially of certain Amphibia, like the menobranchus
Edify - 1 Thessalonians 5:11 (c) This is the thought of enriching the Life, inspiring the heart, and enlightening the mind of the children of GOD
Vapid - ) Having lost its Life and spirit; dead; spiritless; insipid; flat; dull; unanimated; as, vapid beer; a vapid speech; a vapid state of the blood
Uncivilized - ) Not civilized; not reclaimed from savage Life; rude; barbarous; savage; as, the uncivilized inhabitants of Central Africa
Vernal - : Belonging to youth, the spring of Life
Roguery - ) The Life of a vargant
Treacherous - ) Like a traitor; involving treachery; violating allegiance or faith pledged; traitorous to the state or sovereign; perfidious in private Life; betraying a trust; faithless
Raised - Lifted elevated exalted promoted set upright built made or enlarged produced enhanced excited restored to Life levied collected roused invented and propagated increased
Book of Life - BOOK OF Life . The legalistic conception of morality which existed among the Jews involved a record of the deeds of Life on the basis of which the final judgment of God would be given. A second natural step was to conceive of God as keeping two sets of books, a Book of Life ( Daniel 12:1 ff. To have one’s name blotted out from the Book of Life was equivalent to complete condemnation (Eth. ), and to the books containing a list of those who were to enjoy eternal Life ( Luke 10:20 , Philippians 4:3 , Hebrews 12:23 , Revelation 3:5 ; Revelation 13:8 ; Revelation 17:6 ; Revelation 21:27 )
Nest - ...
Deuteronomy 32:11 (a) This is a description of the home Life as it existed in Egypt among the Israelites and out of which they were emptied at the Passover. It is also a description of the personal Life in the home, in the business, or in the church, out of which the Lord sometimes thrusts His children in order that they learn to know His power, and trust His love. ...
Job 29:18 (a) Job uses this term to describe his own lovely, comfortable home Life before he was attacked by Satan. ...
Jeremiah 48:28 (a) This type represents the believer who finds his home, his Life, and all his affairs wholly resting in the Lord JESUS CHRIST, the Rock of Ages. ...
Jeremiah 49:16 (a) In this way the Lord describes the sinner who seeks to make for himself a comfortable place in which to live, but who omits GOD from his Life
Rapes - Numbers 13:23 (c) This lovely fruit may be taken as a type of the rich blessings which may be found across the Jordan of spiritual death, in the promised land in which the Christian should live after he has died with CHRIST at Calvary and been raised to walk in newness of Life. It represents the precious blessings that fill the Life of that one who walks with GOD in constant fellowship with Him, loving CHRIST and obeying the Holy Spirit. This Life is the Life that is Life indeed. He is stating that Job is a hypocrite and will never be able to produce good fruit in his Life. ...
Song of Solomon 2:15 (b) This is typical of the delicate and delightful fruits of a human Life such as kindness, love, patience, etc. ...
Jeremiah 31:29 (a) GOD is telling us in this way that the Life of the father is reflected in the character of the child; the actions of the child are a result of the Life and the attitude of the father
Tree of Life - -There are three sources for our knowledge of the idea of the tree of Life: the OT, Jewish apocalypses and Jewish theology, and ethnic legends. ...
(1) In the OT the tree of Life appears neither in Psalms nor in the Prophets, but only in Genesis and Proverbs. It has been maintained, however, that in Genesis 2:9 the tree of Life is a later addition, and was inserted only when the idea of the under world had suffered such a change that immortality became an object of desire (K. In any case, by reason of his sin man was not permitted to eat of the fruit of this tree, which signified fullness of Life. In Proverbs (Proverbs 3:18; Proverbs 11:30; Proverbs 13:12; Proverbs 15:4) wisdom, the fruit of the righteous, desire fulfilled, and a wholesome tongue are each a ‘tree of Life. ...
(2) In Jewish apocalyptic three constant factors are associated with the tree of Life: it is in Paradise; the righteous have access to its fruit; it will be available only after the judgment. ...
(3) All Oriental religions which have risen above the nature stage have their legends of a tree of Life. Sometimes it appears in a simple, at other times in a fantastic, form; but whoever, even a god, partakes of its fruit or its sap renews and preserves his Life (cf. In the Gilgamesh Epic the hero obtained a scion from the ‘plant of Life’ which healed his mortal illness (cf. In the Zend-Avesta the tree of Life is the white Haoma-death-destroyer-similar to a grape vine, with plentiful buds and jasmine-like leaves; whoever eats of the fruit becomes immortal (SBE
Much that is fantastic and unreliable has been written by Assyriologists concerning the tree of Life. Two facts, however, stand out as incontestable: there was throughout the ancient world a worship of trees, and man’s dependence on particular trees for support of Life offered the basis for a profound religious suggestion. ‘The tree had always been the seat of Divine Life and the intermediary between Divine and human nature. … In the holy tree the Divine Life is bringing itself closer to man’ (W. -The dependence of the idea of the tree of Life in Revelation (Revelation 21:24-27,; Revelation 22:2; Revelation 22:14) upon earlier, especially Jewish, conceptions is evident. The picture in the Revelation is of a city, in the midst of which is a garden; through this flows a river, on each bank of which is the tree of Life (a word used collectively)-a row of trees bearing either twelve manner of fruits (Authorized Version , Revised Version ) or twelve crops (Revised Version margin). In the garden of God, then, grows the tree of Life
Blood - ...
The Life of the flesh...
Blood has this special significance because ‘the Life of the flesh is in the blood’ (Genesis 9:4; Romans 5:7-9; Deuteronomy 12:23). Since blood in the body represents Life, shed blood represents Life poured out; that is, death. ...
One of the principles on which Israelite law was based was that all physical Life belonged to God and was therefore precious in his sight. This was particularly so in the case of human Life, because men and women are made in God’s image (Genesis 1:26). Any person who killed another without God’s approval was considered no longer worthy to enjoy God’s gift of Life and had to be executed. ...
Animal Life also belonged to God. God allowed the flesh of animals to be a source of food for human beings, but in the law he set out for Israel, those who took an animal’s Life had to acknowledge God as the rightful owner of that Life. They took the animal’s Life only by God’s permission. Therefore, they poured out the animal’s blood (representing the Life that had been taken) either on the altar or on the ground. This was an expression of sacrificial thanks to God for benefits received at the cost of the animal’s Life. ...
The blood of atonement...
Because of this connection between shed blood and Life laid down, God gave the blood of sacrificial animals to his people as a way of atonement. To have Life through Christ’s blood means to have Life through his death. Those who ‘share in Christ’s blood’ share in the benefits of his death through receiving forgiveness of sins and eternal Life (John 6:54-58; 1 Corinthians 10:16). This blood was a sign of a Life laid down in atonement for sin, so that the barrier to God’s presence through sin might be removed (Leviticus 16; Hebrews 9:7; Hebrews 9:25; for details of the ritual see DAY OF ATONEMENT)
Amniota - ) That group of vertebrates which develops in its embryonic Life the envelope called the amnion
Ankh - ) A tau cross with a loop at the top, used as an attribute or sacred emblem, symbolizing generation or enduring Life
Slavish - ) Of or pertaining to slaves; such as becomes or befits a slave; servile; excessively laborious; as, a slavish Life; a slavish dependance on the great
Deathbed - ) The bed in which a person dies; hence, the closing hours of Life of one who dies by sickness or the like; the last sickness
Acme - ) Mature age; full bloom of Life
Eutychus - The young man who when Paul was preaching fell, while asleep, from the third floor, and was restored to Life by the apostle
Freehold - ) An estate in real property, of inheritance (in fee simple or fee tail) or for Life; or the tenure by which such estate is held
Protozoic - ) Containing remains of the earliest discovered Life of the globe, which included mollusks, radiates and protozoans
Militarism - ) The spirit and traditions of military Life
Worldliness - ) The quality of being worldly; a predominant passion for obtaining the good things of this Life; covetousness; addictedness to gain and temporal enjoyments; worldly-mindedness
Infanticide - Specifically it designates the destruction of pre-natal Life. All such operations which are aimed at the extinction of fetal Life are murder in intent
John Ruysbroeck, Blessed - He led a Life of extreme austerity, became famous as a sublime contemplative, and skilled director of souls, and was called the Admirable Doctor and the Divine Doctor. His most characteristic treatise on mystical Life is "The Spiritual Espousals
Inner Life of Mary - The supernatural Life which Mary led on earth, particularly her advancement in grace and wisdom, in her intimate union with Jesus, her Divine Son, the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity. " The feast of the Inner Life of Mary is celebrated by the Sulpicians, October 19,
Meal - Both CHRIST and His Word are able to dispel all poisonous thoughts in the Life, and to deliver safely from the evil doctrines and teachings of false religions. Since the meal offering represents the Life of CHRIST offered to the Father instead of our own, we are rather inclined to believe that this meal may represent the blessed Person of our Lord JESUS who delivers from all evil doctrines, and every poisonous faith
Marsh - They live in the lowlands of Life where the stinging, crawling, evil varmints of sin make their habitation, and where dirt abounds in the Life, the soul and the words of those who live there
Fortunatus (18), bp - Germanus, who induced him to write the Life of St. of the Life of St
Eschatology - These are, for the individual, death, judgment (particular), heaven or hell (purgatory, as a transitory state), the so- called "four last things," since they constitute the end of man's mortal Life, and the immediate and final retribution of that Life in another world
Scandinavian Evangelical Bodies - Three bodies have been organized: ...
Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant
Swedish Evangelical Free Church
Norwegian-Danish Evangelical Free Church Association of North America
In doctrine the Covenant is strictly evangelical, accepting the Bible as the inspired Word of God unto men, the only infallible guide in matters of faith, doctrine, and practise, and His message regarding both this Life and the Life that is to come
Ruysbroeck, John, Blessed - He led a Life of extreme austerity, became famous as a sublime contemplative, and skilled director of souls, and was called the Admirable Doctor and the Divine Doctor. His most characteristic treatise on mystical Life is "The Spiritual Espousals
Reputation - With the loss of reputation, a man and especially a woman, loses most of the enjoyments of Life. The best evidence of reputation is a man's whole Life
Trees - The "tree of Life" may have been both an assurance and a means of imparting Life, a seal of eternal holiness and bliss, if man had not sinned
Hellbender - It is very voracious and very tenacious of Life
Conventionality - ) The state of being conventional; adherence to social formalities or usages; that which is established by conventional use; one of the customary usages of social Life
Canonical Life - The canonical Life was a kind of medium between the monastic and clerical lives
Animalization - ) The act of animalizing; the giving of animal Life, or endowing with animal properties
Bigthan - One of the two eunuchs whose plot against the Life of Ahasuerus was discovered and foiled by Mordecai
Captain - As the term is applied to Christ, see Prince of Life
Enre - ) A style of painting, sculpture, or other imitative art, which illustrates everyday Life and manners
Amends - ...
Compensation for an injury recompense satisfaction equivalent as, the happiness of a future Life will more than make amends for the miseries of this
Welfare - ) Well-doing or well-being in any respect; the enjoyment of health and the common blessings of Life; exemption from any evil or calamity; prosperity; happiness
Belteshazzar - Belteshazzar (bĕl'te-shăz'zar), Bel's prince, or Bel protect Ms Life
Reviving - Bringing to Life again reanimating renewing recalling to the memory recovering from neglect or depression refreshing with joy or hope reducing to a metallic state
Jehosheba - The aunt of Joash, king of Judah, whose Life in infancy and childhood she saved, in spite of the designs of Athaliah, 2 Kings 11:1 - 3
Wholly - They employed themselves wholly in domestic Life
Heaven: a Sustaining Prospect - ' When he was in the midst of the flames he exhorted his companions to constancy, saying, 'We shall not end our lives in the fire, but make a change for a better Life; yea, for coals we shall receive pearls. ' Thus do we clearly see, that although 'if in this Life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable,' yet the prospect of a better and enduring substance enables us to meet all the trials and temptations of this present Life with holy boldness and joy
Eve - Chawwâh ; the name probably denotes ‘life’: other proposed explanations are ‘life-giving,’ ‘living,’ ‘kinship,’ and some would connect it with an Arah. Eve is little more, in Genesis, than a personification of human Life which is perpetuated by woman
Retreat - (Latin: retrahere, to withdraw) ...
Withdrawal from the usual surroundings and business distractions to a place set apart for solitude, meditation, self-examination, and amendment of Life. Under a competent director the retreatants follow certain spiritual exercises, like those of Saint Ignatius, which enable one to grasp more clearly the simple truths of religion about God and man's relations with Him, sin and its penalties, the following of Christ, and a rule of Life, in order to rise above the thought of doing evil and to aim at a higher standard of Life
Blood - The Life of all animals was regarded as especially in the blood, which was a sacred and essential part of the sacrifices offered to God, Hebrews 9:22 . It was solemnly sprinkled upon the altar and the mercy seat, "for it is the blood that maketh atonement for the soul," Leviticus 17:1-16 the Life of the victim for the Life of the sinner. The cause "between blood and blood," Deuteronomy 17:8 , was one where Life was depending on the judgment rendered
Cephalization - ) Domination of the head in animal Life as expressed in the physical structure; localization of important organs or parts in or near the head, in animal development
Felo-de-se - ) One who deliberately puts an end to his own existence, or loses his Life while engaged in the commission of an unlawful or malicious act; a suicide
Indulgence - In Catholicism, a means by which the Catholic church takes away some of the punishment due the Christian in this Life and/or purgatory because of his sin
Divine providence - the concept that every event in the universe and every experience in a person's Life, and their every aspect, is specifically guided and determined by the Divine will ...
Hashgacha pratit - the concept that every event in the universe and every experience in a person's Life, and their every aspect, is specifically guided and determined by the Divine will ...
Anecdote - ) A particular or detached incident or fact of an interesting nature; a biographical incident or fragment; a single passage of private Life
Assured - ) One whose Life or property is insured
Chastity - ) The unmarried Life; celibacy
Belteshazzar - (behl teh sshaz' zuhr) Babylonian name meaning, “protect the king's Life
Perfectionist - , one pretending to moral perfection; one who believes that persons may and do attain to moral perfection and sinlessness in this Life
Bestir - To put into brisk or vigorous action to move with Life and vigor usually with the reciprocal pronoun as, rise and bestir yourselves
Profligacy - ) The quality of state of being profligate; a profligate or very vicious course of Life; a state of being abandoned in moral principle and in vice; dissoluteness
Vitality - ) The quality or state of being vital; the principle of Life; vital force; animation; as, the vitality of eggs or vegetable seeds; the vitality of an enterprise
Youngly - ) In a young manner; in the period of youth; early in Life
Lowbred - ) Bred, or like one bred, in a low condition of Life; characteristic or indicative of such breeding; rude; impolite; vulgar; as, a lowbred fellow; a lowbred remark
Larvalia - ) An order of Tunicata, including Appendicularia, and allied genera; - so called because certain larval features are retained by them through Life
Migratory - ) Hence, roving; wandering; nomad; as, migratory habits; a migratory Life
Path - Genesis 49:17 (b) Those who study the Life of Dan, and the tribe of Dan, will find that he acted just as this type indicates. ...
Psalm 27:11 (b) The word is used to describe GOD's way of Life for His children. ...
Psalm 77:19 (b) In this way the Lord describes the blessedness of a Life that is lived in obedience to GOD, and fellowship with GOD. ...
Proverbs 2:19 (b) This indicates that the one who walks in GOD's way, and along the road GOD has designed will find his Life becoming sweeter, richer and brighter as the years go by. The immoral miss GOD's ways and GOD's program of Life
Age - ) The time of Life at which some particular power or capacity is understood to become vested; as, the age of consent; the age of discretion. ) The latter part of Life; an advanced period of Life; seniority; state of being old. ) The whole duration of a being, whether animal, vegetable, or other kind; Lifetime. ) Mature age; especially, the time of Life at which one attains full personal rights and capacities; as, to come of age; he (or she) is of age. ) One of the stages of Life; as, the age of infancy, of youth, etc
Age - ) The time of Life at which some particular power or capacity is understood to become vested; as, the age of consent; the age of discretion. ) The latter part of Life; an advanced period of Life; seniority; state of being old. ) The whole duration of a being, whether animal, vegetable, or other kind; Lifetime. ) Mature age; especially, the time of Life at which one attains full personal rights and capacities; as, to come of age; he (or she) is of age. ) One of the stages of Life; as, the age of infancy, of youth, etc
Conduct - The word seems originally to have been followed with Life, actions, affairs, or other term as the conduct of Life the conduct of actions that is, the leading along of Life or actions. ...
What in the conduct of our Life appears. ...
But by custom, conduct alone is now used to express the idea of behavior or course of Life and manners. Exact behavior regular Life
Self-Surrender - ’ The proof that in ‘the mind’ the ruling element is not ‘flesh’ but ‘spirit’ is the absence of hostility to God; this state of ‘life and peace’ is the result of ‘subjecting oneself to the law of God’ ( Romans 8:8 f. True Life comes from complete self-surrender’ (Westcott, Com. It depends upon the point of view whether the Christian ideal of Life is described as the Life of self-surrender or as the Life of self-development. ‘To yield oneself up as the organ of a higher spirit which disposes of us as may be fit constitutes the mystic ideal of perfect Life’ (Martineau, Types of Ethical Theory , ii. The open secret of that Life is revealed in St
Divine Retribution - ...
Though the exact phrase “divine retribution” does not occur in the Old Testament, the idea is quite prevalent: people will be repaid in this Life for what they do—blessing for good, punishment for evil. The Book of Job, however, issues a proviso to such a mechanical view of God and suffering in this Life. ...
The New Testament also affirms that humans are rewarded and punished by God in this Life (Galatians 6:7-8 ). In fact, the wage earner is a profound image for the Life of Jesus' disciple. Blessing and reward come to those who live Life in accordance with the reality of the kingdom of God (Matthew 5-7 ; Mark 10:41 ; Luke 10:7 ; John 9:36 ). The remarkable development in the New Testament is that reward/punishment in this Life is a foretaste of that which will be experienced at the end of time. The standard has been revealed to all creation in the events surrounding the Life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ. See Eschatology ; Eternal Life ; Everlasting Punishment ; Future Hope
Teacher (2) - He reveals the truths concerning man’s true nature and destiny, and his relationship to God; and sheds an ineffable light upon all the dark and perplexing problems of Life, death, and immortality. ‘They are spirit and they are Life’ (John 6:63). They pass into the soul of man and there quicken and create new Life. The discourse with Nicodemus (John 3) was intended to emphasize this very fact, that Jesus was not only a Teacher but a Saviour, and that the passport into the Kingdom of God was not mere knowledge, but a new Life which demands new birth. Christ is not merely the truth: He is also the Life. His truth liberates and saves; and those who receive it into their hearts and minds are thereby raised to a higher and a nobler Life of righteousness and holiness, and are endued with power to become ‘sons of God’ (John 1:12). His teaching still exercises this cleansing and Life-giving power; and everywhere men in quest of God and salvation re-echo the assertion of St. Peter, ‘Lord, to whom shall we go? Thou hast the words of eternal Life’ (John 6:68)
Living - in 1 Peter 1:15, 2 Peter 3:11, where it denotes the manner of Life (Authorized Version ‘conversation,’ Gr. means of Life) by sea’ represents the Authorized Version ‘trade by sea,’ the Revised Version margin ‘work the sea,’ Gr. is ‘soul of Life’ (Revised Version margin). , are so called as being not alive merely, but instinct with Life and activity (cf. -(3) With an intensified force the word is used of God, who is called ‘the living God’ (Acts 14:15, Romans 9:26, 2 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 6:16, 1 Thessalonians 1:9, 1 Timothy 3:15; 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:17 [1], Hebrews 3:12; Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 10:31; Hebrews 12:22, Revelation 7:2) not only as being self-existent, but as possessing the fullness of Life in absolute perfection. ]'>[2] and Authorized Version ; Revised Version ‘fountains of waters of Life’). The word of God is living because, being God’s, it is instinct with His own Life; the way into the holy place because it is real and efficacious, as contrasted with the mere ceremony of entrance into the earthly sanctuary; the Christian hope because it is the result of a Divine begetting, and is therefore lasting and certain of fruition as human hopes are not; the heavenly fountains because they are ever ‘springing up unto eternal Life’ (cf. The elect Stone and the stones built upon it are living stones because the persons whom they metaphorically represent are living persons-the One alive with the very Life of God, the others sharing in that Life through their union with Him
Or hachayim - �the Light of Life�); commentary on the Torah based on the Kabbalah, composed by R
Austerity - ) Severity of manners or Life; extreme rigor or strictness; harsh discipline
Electro-Bioscopy - ) A method of determining the presence or absence of Life in an animal organism with a current of electricity, by noting the presence or absence of muscular contraction
Bishop - 1 Peter 2:25 (a) This title is given to the Lord JESUS in regard to His right to rule over the religious Life and affairs of the church
Deportment - ) Manner of deporting or demeaning one's self; manner of acting; conduct; carriage; especially, manner of acting with respect to the courtesies and duties of Life; behavior; demeanor; bearing
Enchylemma - ) The basal substance of the cell nucleus; a hyaline or granular substance, more or less fluid during Life, in which the other parts of the nucleus are imbedded
Physiology - ) The science which treats of the phenomena of living organisms; the study of the processes incidental to, and characteristic of, Life
Resurrect - ) To reanimate; to restore to Life; to bring to view (that which was forgotten or lost)
Killer - ) One who deprives of Life; one who, or that which, kills
Cui Bono - , the ultimate object of Life
Way - Used in the sense "religious system," course of Life (Psalms 139:24)
Advanced - Moved forward promoted improved furnished beforehand situated in front, or before the rest also old, having reached the decline of Life as, advanced in years an advanced age
Beulah - Isaiah 62:4 (c) This name probably describes the Christian Life in which the joy of the Lord, the fruits of righteousness and the glories of GOD permeate the soul
Ship - Proverbs 30:19 (b) This indicates the remarkable guidance of the Lord in directing His own through the trackless lanes of Life and bringing them safely to the desired haven
Methuselah - He lived 969 years, a longer Life than any other on record, and died within the year before the deluge, Genesis 5:21,22
Retired - He lives a retired Life he has a retired situation
Unprepared - Not prepared by holiness of Life for the event of death and a happy immortality
Melania the Younger, Saint - After the early death of their two children, they freed their numerous slaves, and both embraced the monastic Life. Cardinal Rampolla published her Life (Rome, 1905)
Juda - The story of his Life is contained in Genesis 29-49. He saved the Life of Joseph by interceding with his brethren, proposing that he be sold to the Ismaelites
Matrimonial Separation - The separation or husband and wife, or a limited divorce from bed and board, without the right of remarriage until the death of one of parties, is sometimes permitted by the Church on account of adultery, or lapse into heresy, or the entrance into a religious Life on the part of husband or wife. The common married Life ceases but the marriage bond remains intact (1 Corinthians 7; Mark 10; Matthew 19)
Life: Reviewed - Here is a good searching question for a man to ask himself as he reviews his past Life:: Have I written in the snow? Will my Life-work endure the lapse of years and the fret of change? Has there been anything immortal in it, which will survive the speedy wreck of all sublunary things? The boys inscribe their names in capitals in the snow, and in 'the morning's thaw the writing disappears; will it be so with my work, or will the characters which I have carved outlast the brazen tablets of history? Have I written in the snow? ...
...
America (Publication) - It aims to provide a "review and conscientious criticism of the Life and literature of the day, a discussion of actual questions, and a study of vital problems from the Christian standpoint, a record of religious progress, a defense of sound doctrine, an authoritative statement of the position of the Church in the thought and activity of modern Life, a removal of traditional prejudice, a refutation of erroneous news, and a correction of misstatements about Catholic beliefs and practises
Breath - For as the breath of the body is the Life of the body, so Christ is the breath or Life of the soul
Mortal - ) Destructive to Life; causing or occasioning death; terminating Life; exposing to or deserving death; deadly; as, a mortal wound; a mortal sin
Mortality - ) Human Life; the Life of a mortal being
Anathema Maranatha - They are the words with which the Jews began their greater excommunication, whereby they not only excluded sinners from their society, but delivered them up to the divine cherem, or anathema, that is, to misery in this Life, and perdition in the Life to come
Occupation - The principal business of one's Life vocation calling trade the business which a man follows to procure a living or obtain wealth. Agriculture, manufactures and commerce furnish the most general occupations of Life
Younger, Melania the, Saint - After the early death of their two children, they freed their numerous slaves, and both embraced the monastic Life. Cardinal Rampolla published her Life (Rome, 1905)
Separation, Matrimonial - The separation or husband and wife, or a limited divorce from bed and board, without the right of remarriage until the death of one of parties, is sometimes permitted by the Church on account of adultery, or lapse into heresy, or the entrance into a religious Life on the part of husband or wife. The common married Life ceases but the marriage bond remains intact (1 Corinthians 7; Mark 10; Matthew 19)
Anatomism - ) The doctrine that the anatomical structure explains all the phenomena of the organism or of animal Life
Postmeridian - , belonging to the after portion of Life; late
Promethean - ) Having a Life-giving quality; inspiring
Heteroecious - ) Passing through the different stages in its Life history on an alternation of hosts, as the common wheat-rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), and certain other parasitic fungi; - contrasted with autoecious
Atman - ) The Life principle, soul, or individual essence
Jezebel - Revelation 2:20 (b) She is a type of religious groups which teach and practice things opposed to the truth of GOD and which lead to a dissolute and wicked Life
Liken - ) To allege, or think, to be like; to represent as like; to compare; as, to liken Life to a pilgrimage
jo'ha - (Jehovah gives Life )
Alive - Luke 15:24, Luke 15:32 (b) The word as used here indicates that the Life of this wayward, prodigal was again what it should be. When he ceased the Life of disobedience and came back to his father, then his condition is described as being "alive. " Now his Life was as it once was, and as it should be. ...
Romans 6:11 (a) Here the word "alive" refers to the presence of the new eternal Life in the soul which is given to any person when he trusts JESUS CHRIST
Dysteleology - ) The doctrine of purposelessness; a term applied by Haeckel to that branch of physiology which treats of rudimentary organs, in view of their being useless to the Life of the organism
Anaerobic - ) Not requiring air or oxygen for Life; - applied especially to those microbes to which free oxygen is unnecessary; anaerobiotic; - opposed to aerobic
Mariology - (Greek: Maria; logos, word) ...
That branch of theology which treats of the Life and prerogatives of the Blessed Virgin, and of her eminent place in the economy of man's redemption and sanctification
Biogeny - ) Life development generally
Physicist - ) A believer in the theory that the fundamental phenomena of Life are to be explained upon purely chemical and physical principles; - opposed to vitalist
Diamond - Jeremiah 17:1 (a) This is a figure of the indelible record which sin makes upon the pages of GOD's book, and upon the heart, soul and Life of the wicked person
Dim - Lamentations 4:1 (b) Here is shown the falling away of former glories in the Life of either a nation or a man who once walked with GOD and then turned away
Calm - Psalm 107:29 (b) Describes the peace and tranquility of one who has called on the Lord in the storms of Life and His Word has removed all fear from the soul
Diogenes - ) who lived much in Athens and was distinguished for contempt of the common aims and conditions of Life, and for sharp, caustic sayings
Sap - Psalm 104:16 (a) This is a type of the live, fresh, sweet character of GOD's children in whom the water of Life (the Spirit) s free to have His own way
Whereby - You take my Life, when you do take the means whereby I live
Madeleine Sophie Barat, Saint - Educated by her brother Louis, she became associated with his friend Father Varin, and at his suggestion she made her first consecration to the religious Life, 1800, thus founding the Society of the Sacred Heart. During her Life Mother Barat established over 80 foundations in France, North America, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Algiers, England, Ireland, Spain, Holland, Germany, South America, Austria, and Poland. Despite these labors, her Life was one of increasing holiness and continued prayer
Henry Coleridge - His published works include a classic commentary on "The Public Life of Our Lord," "The Life and Letters of Saint Francis Xavier," "The Life and Letters of Saint Teresa," and a harmony of the Gospels, "Vita Vitre Nostre," in English and Latin versions
Barat, Madeleine Sophie, Saint - Educated by her brother Louis, she became associated with his friend Father Varin, and at his suggestion she made her first consecration to the religious Life, 1800, thus founding the Society of the Sacred Heart. During her Life Mother Barat established over 80 foundations in France, North America, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Algiers, England, Ireland, Spain, Holland, Germany, South America, Austria, and Poland. Despite these labors, her Life was one of increasing holiness and continued prayer
Book - In the New Testament, we read of "the book of Life. " (Philippians 4:3; Revelation 20:12) It is our happiness to have all that it behoves us to know, concerning the book of Life, in the copy of it of the Bible, which becomes indeed, in the proclamation of grace it contains, "the book of Life
Mortal, Mortality - 1: θνητός (Strong's #2349 — Adjective — thnetos — thnay-tos' ) "subject or liable to death, mortal" (akin to thnesko, "to die"), occurs in Romans 6:12 , of the body, where it is called "mortal," not simply because it is liable to death, but because it is the organ in and through which death carries on its death-producing activities; in Romans 8:11 , the stress is on the liability to death, and the quickening is not reinvigoration but the impartation of Life at the time of the Rapture, as in 1 Corinthians 15:53,54 ; 2 Corinthians 5:4 (RV, "what is mortal;" AV, "mortality"); in 2 Corinthians 4:11 , it is applied to the flesh, which stands, not simply for the body, but the body as that which consists of the element of decay, and is thereby death-doomed. Christ's followers are in this Life delivered unto death, that His Life may be manifested in that which naturally is the seat of decay and death
Book - ‘Book of Life,’ etc
Pilgrimage - , the journey of human Life
Alan of Tewkesbury - He wrote the Life of Saint Thomas
Cinnamon - Exodus 30:23 (c) This is typical of the delightful fragrance of the Life of CHRIST before His Father
Heterosis - ) A figure of speech by which one form of a noun, verb, or pronoun, and the like, is used for another, as in the sentence: "What is Life to such as me?"...
Vivificate - ) To give Life to; to animate; to revive; to vivify
Tewkesbury, Alan of - He wrote the Life of Saint Thomas
Eutychus - His Life was miraculously restored, Acts 20:6-12
Profane - ’ And so a ‘profane person’ ( Hebrews 12:16 ) is an ‘ungodly person,’ a person of common, coarse Life, not merely of speech
Ghost - The spirit, or principle of Life in man
Big'Than, - (gift of God ), a eunuch (chamberlain, Authorized Version) in the court of Ahasuerus, one of those "who kept the door," and conspired with Teresh against the king's Life
Jabal - This description indicates that he led a wandering Life
Parosh - Perhaps his name is derived from Parah, to produce; and Hash, moth; and if so, the meaning might be, Life is but vanity
Dead - ) Deprived of Life; - opposed to alive and living; reduced to that state of a being in which the organs of motion and Life have irrevocably ceased to perform their functions; as, a dead tree; a dead man. ) Destitute of Life; inanimate; as, dead matter. ) Resembling death in appearance or quality; without show of Life; deathlike; as, a dead sleep. ) To die; to lose Life or force. ) To make dead; to deaden; to deprive of Life, force, or vigor
Way - This word is used to describe the manner of Life which is lived by both saved and unsaved. ...
Psalm 110:7 (b) This is a reference to the Life of our Lord as He walked through the desolate scenes of earth. ...
Psalm 119:1 (b) By this is described the general path of Life which the Christian enters at the new birth and pursues on his way to Heaven. Christianity is a way of living, a manner of Life. ...
Psalm 119:29 (a) There are those who persistently live a Life of deceit in seeking to obtain position, power and wealth. ...
Proverbs 14:12 (a) Satan is very clever in devising a path of Life that seems to be the right way to Heaven
Soul - The ancients supposed the soul, or rather the animating principle of Life, to reside in the breath, that it departed from the body with the breath. Hence the Hebrew and Greek words which, when they refer to man, in our Bibles are translated "soul," are usually rendered "life" or "breath" when they refer to animals, Genesis 2:7 7:15 Numbers 16:22 Job 12:10 34:14,15 Psalm 104:29 Ecclesiastes 12:7 Acts 17:25 . ...
But together with this principle of Life, which is common to men and brutes, and which in brutes perishes with the body, there is in man a spiritual, reasonable, and immortal soul, the seat of our thoughts, affections, and reasonings, which distinguishes us from the brute creation, and in which chiefly consists our resemblance to God, Genesis 1:26 . It threatens men only with punishment in another Life, and with the pains of hell. The ancient patriarchs lived and died persuaded of this truth; and it was in the hope of another Life that they received the promises. In the gospel "life and immortality," and the worth of immortal souls, are fully brought to light, Matthew 16:26 1 Corinthians 15:45-57 2 Timothy 1:10
Live - 1: ζάω (Strong's #2198 — Verb — zao — dzah'-o ) "to live, be alive," is used in the NT of "(a) God, Matthew 16:16 ; John 6:57 ; Romans 14:11 ; (b) the Son in Incarnation, John 6:57 ; (c) the Son in Resurrection, John 14:19 ; Acts 1:3 ; Romans 6:10 ; 2 Corinthians 13:4 ; Hebrews 7:8 ; (d) spiritual Life, John 6:57 ; Romans 1:17 ; 8:13 ; Galatians 2:19,20 ; Hebrews 12:9 ; (e) the present state of departed saints, Luke 20:38 ; 1 Peter 4:6 ; (f) the hope of resurrection, 1 Peter 1:3 ; (g) the resurrection of believers, 1 Thessalonians 5:10 ; John 5:25 ; Revelation 20:4 , and of unbelievers, Revelation 20:5 , cp. 2 Corinthians 12:10 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5 ; (j) bread, figurative of the Lord Jesus, John 6:51 ; (k) a stone, figurative of the Lord Jesus, 1 Peter 2:4 ; (l) water, figurative of the Holy Spirit, John 4:10 ; 7:38 ; (m) a sacrifice, figurative of the believer, Romans 12:1 ; (n) stones, figurative of the believer, 1 Peter 2:5 ; (o) the oracles, logion, Acts 7:38 , and word, logos, Hebrews 4:12 ; 1 Peter 1:23 , of God; (p) the physical Life of men, 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ; Matthew 27:63 ; Acts 25:24 ; Romans 14:9 ; Philippians 1:21 (in the infinitive mood used as a noun, with the article, 'living'),22; 1 Peter 4:5 ; (q) the maintenance of physical Life, Matthew 4:4 ; 1 Corinthians 9:14 ; (r) the duration of physical Life, Hebrews 2:15 ; (s) the enjoyment of physical Life, 1 Thessalonians 3:8 ; (t) the recovery of physical Life from the power of disease, Mark 5:23 ; John 4:50 ; (u) the recovery of physical Life from the power of death, Matthew 9:18 ; Acts 9:41 ; Revelation 20:5 ; (v) the course, conduct, and character of men, (1) good, Acts 26:5 ; 2 Timothy 3:12 ; Titus 2:12 ; (2) evil, Luke 15:13 ; Romans 6:2 ; 8:13 ; 2 Corinthians 5:15 ; Colossians 3:7 ; (3) undefined, Romans 7:9 ; 14:7 ; Galatians 2:14 ; (w) restoration after alienation, Luke 15:32 . ...
4: βιόω (Strong's #980 — Verb — bioo — bee-o'-o ) "to spend Life, to pass one's Life," is used in 1 Peter 4:2 . , his Life, RV marg. ...
7: διάγω (Strong's #1236 — Verb — diago — dee-ag'-o ) is used of time in the sense of passing a Life, 1 Timothy 2:2 , "(that) we may lead (a tranquil and quiet, RV) Life;" Titus 3:3 , "living (in malice and envy). " ...
8: πολιτεύομαι (Strong's #4176 — Verb — politeuo — pol-it-yoo'-om-ahee ) "to be a citizen (polites), to live as a citizen," is used metaphorically of conduct as in accordance with the characteristics of the heavenly community; in Acts 23:1 , "I have lived;" in Philippians 1:27 , "let your manner of Life (AV, conversation) be
Death (2) - He recognized that man’s true being was something apart from the mere bodily existence, and death thus resolved itself into a natural incident, analogous to sleep, which broke the continuity of Life only in seeming. (Luke 12:4 = Matthew 10:28), where it is expressly declared that Life resides in the soul, over which God alone has power. The Life which to outward appearance had ceased, had only been withdrawn from the body, and could be reunited with it at the Divine word. His conception of death as a passing sleep was derived solely from His certainty that man, being a child of God, was destined to an immortal Life. In virtue of their relation to God they must have passed into a more perfect Life through apparent death. As the marriage relation is natural and necessary to man’s earthly state, but has no place in the Life of higher spirits, so with death. [1]; ‘If a man hate not … his own Life also,’ etc. The thought of it ought therefore to guard us against over-anxiety about the things of this world, and to keep us always watchful, and mindful of the true issues of Life (‘This night thy soul shall be required of thee’ [3]; parable of Rich Man and Lazarus [5]). As ‘life,’ to the mind of Jesus, consists in moral obedience and communion with God, so in the opposite condition He perceives the true death. The idea is enforced in its full extent that physical death is only a ‘taking rest in sleep,’ and in no wise affects the real Life (John 11:4; John 11:11-14). He is ‘the resurrection and the Life. ’ He has come to raise men out of the state of death in which they find themselves, and to make them inheritors, even now, of the Life of God. Jesus had spoken of Life as a reward laid up in ‘the world to come,’ and had contrasted it with the ‘casting out’ or ‘destruction’ (ἀπώλεια) which is reserved for the wicked. Life is a spiritual possession here and now, and has its counterpart in ‘death,’ which is likewise realized in the present world. John, indeed, contemplates a future in which the Life, and by implication the death, will become complete and final (John 6:39; John 6:44; John 6:54); but they will continue the same in essence as they already are on earth. ...
Death is thus regarded not as a single incident but as a condition, in which the soul remains until, through the power of Christ, it passes into the opposite condition of Life. Life, in the view of St. John, is the absolute, Divine Life, in which man, as a creature of earth, does not participate (See Life). His natural state is one of ‘death,’ not because of his moral sinfulness, but because he belongs to a lower world, and the Life he possesses is therefore relative and unreal. It is Life only in a physical sense, and is more properly described as ‘death. As the Word made flesh, He communicates to them His own higher essence, and makes possible for them the mysterious transition ‘from death unto Life’ (John 5:24). It is assumed that the state of exclusion from the true Life is also a state of moral darkness, into which men have fallen ‘because their deeds are evil’ (John 3:19). Life
Bioplasm - Beale for the germinal matter supposed to be essential to the functions of all living beings; the material through which every form of Life manifests itself; unaltered protoplasm
Countervail - To countervail ( Esther 7:4 , Sir 6:15 ) is to make up for, give an equivalent, as in More’s Utopia : ‘All the goodes in the worlde are not liable to countervayle man’s Life
Preserver - , one who saves the Life or character of another
Age of Reason - That time of Life at which one begins to distinguish clearly between right and wrong, to have a sense of obligation, and to incur moral responsibility; it is generally about the age of seven
Comeliness - Daniel 10:8 (a) A word used to describe the virtues and excellent qualities in Daniel's Life which became utterly vile to him when he was brought into the conscious presence of the Lord
Bigthan, Bigthana - One of the two servants of Ahasuerus who 'kept the door,' and conspired against his Life
Etiquette - ) The forms required by good breeding, or prescribed by authority, to be observed in social or official Life; observance of the proprieties of rank and occasion; conventional decorum; ceremonial code of polite society
Remorse - ) The anguish, like gnawing pain, excited by a sense of guilt; compunction of conscience for a crime committed, or for the sins of one's past Life
Vulgarity - ) The quality or state of being vulgar; mean condition of Life; the state of the lower classes of society
Saint Bede's College - Has commercial and classical schools and is a center of Catholic Life in England
Reason, Age of - That time of Life at which one begins to distinguish clearly between right and wrong, to have a sense of obligation, and to incur moral responsibility; it is generally about the age of seven
Samson - The narrative of his Life is given in Judges 13-16 . The first recorded event of his Life was his marriage with a Philistine woman of Timnath (Judges 14:1-5 ). During the twenty years following this he judged Israel; but we have no record of his Life. Probably these twenty years may have been simultaneous with the last twenty years of Eli's Life. "So the dead which he slew at his death were more [1] than they which he slew in his Life
Carnal - People walk either in the flesh or in the Spirit, leading to death or to Life. Jesus Christ in human flesh overcame the condemnation of the fleshly way to offer the free Life of the Spirit's way. Christ served on the basis of His indestructible, eternal Life (Hebrews 7:16 ). It consisted of commandments for the old order dealing with external matters until Christ came to deal with the spiritual matters of eternal redemption, sanctification, cleansing, and eternal Life. ...
Using the same Greek word (sarkikos ), Peter issued a battle cry against “fleshly lusts” so that glory would go to God and people would be attracted to His way of Life (1 Peter 2:11 )
Infant - A child in the first period of Life, beginning at his birth a young babe. Pertaining to infancy or the first period of Life
Effeminate - The king, by his voluptuous Life and mean marriage, became effeminate, and less sensible of honor. Womanish weak resembling the practice or qualities of the sex as an effeminate peace an effeminate Life
Ghost - nephesh , 'animal Life, soul. only in reference to the Holy Spirit (see HOLY GHOST), and to death, by the 'ghost' being given up, or the spirit or Life being breathed out
Remainder - ) An estate in expectancy, generally in land, which becomes an estate in possession upon the determination of a particular prior estate, created at the same time, and by the same instrument; for example, if land be conveyed to A for Life, and on his death to B, A's Life interest is a particuar estate, and B's interest is a remainder, or estate in remainder
Lively - Representing Life as a lively imitation of nature. With strong resemblance of Life
Kill - To deprive of Life, animal or vegetable, in any manner or by any means. To kill an animal or a plant, is to put an end to the vital functions, either by destroying or essentially injuring the organs necessary to Life, or by causing them to cease from action
Sodality of Saint Peter Claver - It includes members of a female religious institute who are entirely engaged in the work of the African missions (these lead a community Life in civilized countries, and have their headquarters at Rome); laymen and women who devote themselves as far as their state in Life permits, to the work of the sodality, especially by managing the succursals; and common helpers of either sex who foster the work by contributions and other means
Poemen, Anchorite of Egypt - His Life occupies much space in Rosweyd's Vitae Patrum, v. His solitary Life destroyed all feelings of human nature
Heresy. Heretic - The Church regards the trueFaith as of such vital importance to her Life and to the Life ofeach individual soul, she bids us to pray in the Litany, "From allfalse doctrine, heresy, and schism, Good Lord, deliver us
Neophyte - (Greek: neophytos, newly planted) ...
One who has entered upon a new and better state of Life, e
Christology - The branch of theology dealing specially with the nature and personality of Jesus Christ, His realization of the types and prophecies of the Old Testament, and His Life and teachings as narrated in the Gospels
Fish Ate - Nehemiah 3:3 (c) This may be taken as a figure of the fruitful Life of the one who has entered through the sheep gate into GOD's Kingdom
Dorcas - A female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom Peter restored to Life (Acts 9:36-41 )
Fungi Imperfecti - ) A heterogenous group of fungi of which the complete Life history is not known
Giles of Assisi, Blessed - Assigned to the hermitage of Fabriano, he there led a Life of contemplation
Fire (Send) - Lamentations 1:13 (a) The deep sorrow and trouble that filled the Life of the prophet in the midst of a disobedient and hostile Israel is compared to the burning pain caused by the flame
Conflict - Philippians 1:30 (b) Describes the battle that was constantly going on in Paul's heart and Life because of the evil forces and persecutions which came upon him from both Jewish religious leaders and Gentiles
Formalist - , one who rests in external religious forms, or observes strictly the outward forms of worship, without possessing the Life and spirit of religion
Civilian - ) One whose pursuits are those of civil Life, not military or clerical
Endanger - ) To put to hazard; to bring into danger or peril; to expose to loss or injury; as, to endanger Life or peace
Kidney - Exodus 29:13 (c) This figure probably indicates those secret activities of the Life which are occupied with unpleasant things which should not be made known, and yet are necessary and must be given into
Retired - ) Private; secluded; quiet; as, a retired Life; a person of retired habits
Lengthen - ) To extent in length; to make longer in extent or duration; as, to lengthen a line or a road; to lengthen Life; - sometimes followed by out
Jairus - His deceased daughter, twelve years of age, was restored to Life and health by the Savior, Mark 5:33 ; Luke 8:41
Younger - A person of ninety years old is younger than one of a hundred, though certainly not a young man, nor in the first part of Life
Raca, - ( "Raca denotes a certain looseness of Life and manners, while 'fool,' in the same passage, means a downright wicked and reprobate person
Professors (Mere): Have no Changes - Life has its changes; 'tis death that abideth the same. Life has muscle, sinew, brain, spirit, and these vary in physical condition; but the petrified limbs of death lie still until the worm has devoured the carcase. Life weeps as well as smiles, but the ghastly grin of death relaxes not with anxiety or fear. ' As no weather can give ague to marble, as no variation of temperature can bring fever to iron, so to some men the events of Life, the temptations of prosperity, or the trials Of adversity, bring little change
Balances - He is interested in every detail of Life and knows how important each movement is, whether right or wrong. ...
Daniel 5:27 (b) This represents GOD's judgment in Heaven wherein He weighed the Life of the king on one side of the scales, and the just demands of the law on the other side. Of course, each Life in every person is found wanting and not sufficient to meet GOD's holy requirements. We must have the imputed righteousness and righteous Life which GOD gives to those who belong to JESUS CHRIST by faith
Revive - To return to Life to recover Life. To recover new Life or vigor to be reanimated after depression. To bring again to Life to reanimate
Quick, Quicken - ]'>[1] ‘quick’ frequently means ‘living,’ and ‘quicken’ means ‘bring to Life
Palsy - Mark 2:3 (a) This physical ailment may be used to describe the spiritual condition in which sin paralyzes the Life and the activities of a person, and renders him helpless in the things of GOD
Preservation - ) The act or process of preserving, or keeping safe; the state of being preserved, or kept from injury, destruction, or decay; security; safety; as, preservation of Life, fruit, game, etc
Hamadryad - ) A tree nymph whose Life ended with that of the particular tree, usually an oak, which had been her abode
Wen - Leviticus 22:22 (c) This may be considered as a type of any defect in the Christian's Life which would hinder him from being a true servant of GOD, faithful, useful and devoted to the Lord
Fever - The touch of CHRIST on the Life will bring peace
Recreate - ) To give fresh Life to; to reanimate; to revive; especially, to refresh after wearying toil or anxiety; to relieve; to cheer; to divert; to amuse; to gratify
Joab - His history begins 2 Samuel 2:1-32 and runs through the greater part of the Life of David...
Worldly-Minded - ) Devoted to worldly interests; mindful of the affairs of the present Life, and forgetful of those of the future; loving and pursuing this world's goods, to the exclusion of piety and attention to spiritual concerns
Langya - ) One of several species of East Indian and Asiatic fresh-water fishes of the genus Ophiocephalus, remarkable for their power of living out of water, and for their tenacity of Life; - called also walking fishes
Year, Claustral - (Latin: annus claustralis) A year of strict residence, signifying the first year following the appointment of a canon, when he was bound by such strict rules as to suggest the sacredness of enclosure in monastic Life
Joyful - ...
Sad for their loss, but joyful of our Life
Hab'Akkuk - Of the facts of the prophet's Life we have no certain information
Light - While light is not itself divine, it is often used metaphorically for Life (Psalm 56:13 ), salvation (Isaiah 9:2 ), the commandments (Proverbs 6:23 ), and the divine presence of God (Exodus 10:23 ). Throughout the Old Testament light is regularly associated with God and his word, with salvation, with goodness, with truth, with Life. ...
The Light of Salvation and Life for Believers Those responding to the light are ushered into the sphere of Life in which darkness is dispelled. Jesus Christ is Life-giving light, in whom is Life (John 1:4 ), and those who follow him "will never walk in darkness, but will have the light of Life" (John 8:12 ). ...
Light possesses powers essential to true Life. Hence "to be in the light" means simply "to live"—both Life eternal and Life temporal. The one who has come into the light of Jesus Christ is brought into the ethical Life characterized by light (cf. The godly person enjoys the light of Life in the present age (1 John 2:10 ). Paul intentionally contrasts the old Life in darkness with new Life in the light in Christ Jesus (Ephesians 4:17-24 ). A stark contrast will characterize the old Life and the new: "For once you were darkness, but now in the Lord you are light. The truly Christian Life is a Life of light
Bigthan - With Teresh he conspired against the king's Life
Curtesy - ) the Life estate which a husband has in the lands of his deceased wife, which by the common law takes effect where he has had issue by her, born alive, and capable of inheriting the lands
Suburbs - See Cities and Urban Life
Run, Running - Running serves as common metaphor for the struggle to live out the Christian Life (1 Corinthians 9:24-26 ; Galatians 5:7 ; Hebrews 12:1 )
Reinsure - ) To insure, as Life or property, in favor of one who has taken an insurance risk upon it
Naturalistic Evolution - The theory that the universe is many billions of years old and that after a long period of time, all galaxies, stars, planets, and Life on earth evolved
Licentious - ) Unrestrained by law or morality; lawless; immoral; dissolute; lewd; lascivious; as, a licentious man; a licentious Life
Jehoiada - A high priest, who preserved the Life and throne of the young Josiah against the usurping Athaliah
Bat mitzvah - �daughter of the commandment�) a Jewish girl who reaches the age of twelve, the age of adulthood in Jewish Life, thus becoming religiously responsible for her own conduct; also refers to the event marking this milestone ...
Bar mitzvah - �son of the commandment�) a Jewish boy who reaches the age of thirteen, the age of adulthood in Jewish Life, thus becoming religiously responsible for his own conduct; also refers to the event marking this milestone ...
Soul, Spirit - ...
The Hebrew word commonly translated 'soul' is nephesh: in many instances this is translated 'life' in the A. , as in Jonah 1:14 ; "Let us not perish for this man's Life," or soul. the word ψυχή stands for both 'life' and 'soul:' "Whosoever will save his 'life' shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his 'life' for my sake shall find it. God breathed into man's nostrils the breath of Life, and by this man was set in relation with God, and cannot be really happy separated from Him, either in present existence or eternally. ...
The Holy Spirit being given to the Christian, as the spring in him of Life in Christ, he is exhorted to pray with the spirit, sing with the spirit, walk in the Spirit, so that in some cases it is difficult to distinguish between the Spirit of God and the Christian's spirit
Sail - Isaiah 33:23 (b) It indicates that Zion had failed to take advantage of GOD's provisions to make progress over the sea of Life and the ocean of time
Fiar - ) One in whom the property of an estate is vested, subject to the estate of a Life renter
Occurrence - , one which happens without being designed or expected; as, an unusual occurrence, or the ordinary occurrences of Life
Monogamy - Also, one marriage only during Life; - opposed to deuterogamy
Reprobate - Some men are spoken of as reprobate even in this Life, being hardened in sin and unbelief, Romans 1:28 2 Timothy 3:8 Titus 1:16
na'Chon's - (prepared ) threshing floor, the place at which the ark had arrived in its progress from Kirjath-jearim to Jerusalem, when Uzzah lost his Life in his too-hasty zeal for its safety
Visitandines - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative Life and the care of children and young ladies needing home Life and education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. The method enjoined by Saint Francis secures the benefit of the religious Life to those who lack physical strength for the usual corporal austerities of the cloister by substituting the spirit of interior mortification
Reign - These represent sins in the Life. ...
Romans 6:12 (a) By this figure we are admonished to let no evils prevail in the Life, so that they direct the Life in wrong paths
Nuns of the Visitation of Mary - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative Life and the care of children and young ladies needing home Life and education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. The method enjoined by Saint Francis secures the benefit of the religious Life to those who lack physical strength for the usual corporal austerities of the cloister by substituting the spirit of interior mortification
Giotto di Bondone - His genius revolutionized art since he inaugurated the rounded treatment of figures, dramatic movement and the expression of feeling, and the representation of actual Life. In Assisi are his frescoes representing "The Life of Saint Francis" painted from 1296 to 1320 in the upper and lower church of the Basilica; and the "Triumph of Saint Francis" which decorates the roof-groining above the high altar. Santa Croce in Florence has his "Death of Saint Francis," and in Padua in the Capella dell' Arena is perhaps his finest work, 36 frescoes of "The Life of Christ and the Virgin," painted after 1306
Galesians - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative Life and the care of children and young ladies needing home Life and education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. The method enjoined by Saint Francis secures the benefit of the religious Life to those who lack physical strength for the usual corporal austerities of the cloister by substituting the spirit of interior mortification
Visitation Nuns - Religious order founded by Saint Francis de Sales and Saint Jane de Chantal at Annecy, France, in 1610, as a congregation for the observance of the contemplative Life and the care of children and young ladies needing home Life and education, also for the visitation of the sick; canonically erected into a religious order, its active ministry abandoned and enclosure adopted, under the Rule of Saint Augustine, 1618; constitutions by the founder. The method enjoined by Saint Francis secures the benefit of the religious Life to those who lack physical strength for the usual corporal austerities of the cloister by substituting the spirit of interior mortification
Dionysia - He was the god of tree-life, but especially of the Life of the vine and its produce. The most famous festivals of Dionysus, four in all, were held in Attica at various periods of the year, corresponding to the stages in the Life of the vine, the Anthesteria , the Lenœa , the Lesser and the Greater Dionysia
Spirit, Fruits of the - In this enumeration it will be found that thearrangement is threefold, corresponding to the three great aspectsof Life. For example, the first three, "Love, Joy, and Peace," havereference to the Life of a Christian in his intercourse with God. In the remaining Fruits of the Spirit we have a descriptionof the Christian Life in respect of self viz
Exile - For details of Life in captivity in Babylon see DANIEL; EZEKIEL. ...
In the New Testament ‘the exile’ refers to the Life of Christians in the present world. Since Christians are considered to be a citizen of heaven, their present Life is like that of foreigners or pilgrims in an alien country (Philippians 3:20; Hebrews 13:14; 1 Peter 1:1; 1 Peter 1:17; 1 Peter 2:11; see FOREIGNER)
Death - Especially when Life was long and blessed (Abraham, Genesis 25:8 ; David, 1 Chronicles 29:28 ), the Israelites accepted death with some degree of grace. They found consolation in long Life, many children, remembrance of the family name, and burial in the family grave (Genesis 15:15 ). ...
When death occurred in the prime of Life or without children or without proper burial, it was strictly understood as a curse. In fact, because of the Hebrews' love of Life and conviction that Yahweh was the Author of Life, death and Sheol always represented either a potential or actual threat. Job and Ecclesiastes questioned the idea that justice is always served in this Life. Finally, the Book of Daniel teaches that to serve justice in individual lives, the dead had to be raised by God, “some to everlasting Life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt” (Daniel 12:2 ). Similar to the Old Testament accounts of some of the partriarchs, Simeon's death would be the peaceful resignation of a Life dedicated to God. In a Sermon on the Mount saying (Matthew 6:27 ; Luke 12:25 ), Jesus counseled His hearers with a rhetorical question, “and which of you by being anxious can add a single cubit to his Life's span?” (NAS). If this translation is correct (some interpreters prefer “stature” to “span of Life”), the teaching implies that mortality is a fact which must be accepted by Jesus' followers and entrusted to God. Above all else, death in the Synoptic Gospels is interpreted by the paradoxical death of the Servant who found Life through the means of death. ...
Death in the Writings of John As much or more than Paul, John redefined death (and Life) in relationship to Jesus. In the fourth Gospel especially, how the hearers respond to Jesus is a matter of Life and death: “Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting Life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death unto Life” (John 5:24 ). Jesus waited until Lazarus had been dead four days and declared to Martha, “I am the resurrection, and the Life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die” ( John 11:25-26 ). Because the Bible also affirms the value of Life as a gift from God, death is sometimes depicted as threatening and never entirely desirable. ...
The distinctive contribution of the New Testament is that it relentlessly defines human Life, death, and resurrection in light of Jesus' Life, death, and resurrection. Thus death is removed from its normal context at the end of Life and placed in the very middle of Life; in Christ we die and are raised as we commit our lives to Him
John Baptist Mary Vianney, Saint - Persons of all ranks and conditions of Life sought his advice and in 1855 the number of pilgrims to Ars had reached 20,000 a year. He led a Life of extreme mortification and performed numerous miracles
Death, Second - The second death has no power over those who remain faithful in persecution (John 2:11 ), who are martyred (John 20:6 ), or for those whose names are written in the book of Life (John 20:15 ). The alternative is eternal Life with God
Mystical Body of Christ - It is chiefly this: Christ as the head of the Church exercises in a mystical, supernatural manner the same Life-giving influence of the Church as the human head in the human organism. From Christ proceeds that supernatural Life which unites the members among themselves and with Him
Sower - Purity reached into the far corners of Hebrew Life. Jesus used the sower for a parable about Life and illustrated the everyday hardships farmers faced (Matthew 13:3-9 ; Mark 4:3-9 ; Luke 8:4-8 )
Leaves (2) - —The tree is often used in NT as a symbol of the Life of a man. Leaves are the indication of the existence of Life in the tree
Man (Second) - All those who belong to CHRIST JESUS have come to Him for the beginning of a new Life, and have received that new Life, are like Him in some respects and will eventually be fully conformed to His image
Barren - That unfortunate situation will not exist in the Life of one who walks with the Lord and yields to the Holy Spirit. ...
1 Samuel 2:5 (b) Hannah is telling us in this figure that those whose hearts are right with GOD, and who desire the glory of GOD will find that the Life which has been barren will now become unusually fruitful
Lose - Matthew 10:39 (a) The Lord uses this word to describe the results of a wasted Life in which there is no profit to GOD and no profit to the man for eternity. That Life is said to be one that is lost
Suretiship - " Christ is the "surety (enguos ) of a better testament" (Hebrews 7:22; Hebrews 9:11-15); Jeremiah 30:21, "who is this that engaged his heart to approach unto Me?" literally, pledged his Life, a thing unique: Messiah alone made His Life responsible for ours
Extinguishment - If my tenant for Life makes a lease to A for Life, remainder to B and his heirs, and I release to A this release operates as an extinguishment of my right to the reversion
Pharisee - The Pharisees believed in Life after death, the resurrection, the existence of angels and demons, and that the way to God was through keeping the law. "According to Josephus, the Pharisees were the group most influential with the people, were noted for their accurate and therefore authoritative interpretations of Jewish law, and had their own traditions and way of Life to which they were faithful
Iddo - " We know nothing particularly concerning the Life of this prophet. It is probable that he likewise wrote some prophecies against Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, 2 Chronicles 9:29 , wherein part of Solomon's Life was included
Immortality - Christ "hath brought Life and immortality to light through the gospel," 2 Timothy 1:10 : the immortal blessedness of Christians, including the resurrection of the body, is by virtue of their union with Christ, Joshua 14:15 . The everlasting woe of the wicked, the punishment of their sins, runs parallel with the eternal Life of the redeemed, Matthew 25:46
Vianney, John Baptist Mary, Saint - Persons of all ranks and conditions of Life sought his advice and in 1855 the number of pilgrims to Ars had reached 20,000 a year. He led a Life of extreme mortification and performed numerous miracles
Jairus - A ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus restored to Life (Mark 5:22 ; Luke 8:41 ). , "Maid, arise," and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straightway; and "at once to strengthen that Life which had come back to her, and to prove that she was indeed no ghost, but had returned to the realities of a mortal existence, he commanded to give her something to eat" (Mark 5:43 )
Termer - ) One who has an estate for a term of years or for Life
Autumnal - ) Past the middle of Life; in the third stage
Christianity - ) Practical conformity of one's inward and outward Life to the spirit of the Christian religion...
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Born - ) Brought forth, as an animal; brought into Life; introduced by birth
Nether - Deuteronomy 24:6 (c) We are warned by the Lord not to destroy the usefulness of another man's Life
Advanced - ) Far on in Life or time
Peril - ) To expose to danger; to hazard; to risk; as, to peril one's Life
Quickness - ) The condition or quality of being quick or living; Life
Basilius, Friend of Chrysostom - Basilius , the intimate friend of Chrysostom, with whom he resolved on the adoption of an ascetic Life, and whose consecration to the episcopate he secured by a strange deception
Nain - City near to which the Lord raised to Life the widow's son
Animism - (Latin: anima, soul) ...
The doctrine that an immaterial principle is the basis of Life; in ethnology, a ghost-theory of the origin of religion; the theory that all external bodies are animated by a soul like that of man
Endanger - We dread any thing that endangers our Life, our peace or our happiness
Organism - ) An organized being; a living body, either vegetable or animal, compozed of different organs or parts with functions which are separate, but mutually dependent, and essential to the Life of the individual
Odly - ) Pious; reverencing God, and his character and laws; obedient to the commands of God from love for, and reverence of, his character; conformed to God's law; devout; righteous; as, a godly Life
Well - Out of the Life of the godly man there should emanate the blessings of helpfulness, sympathy and kindness which enrich the lives of others. ...
Isaiah 12:3 (a) There are unlimited treasures found in the Christian Life. Faith is prominent and greatly enriches the Life. Fruitfulness also is present and the Life becomes radiant with usefulness. When He is acknowledged and given the place of Lordship in the heart and Life, He will make His presence felt. ...
2 Peter 2:17 (b) This type beautifully represents the ungodly leader or teacher who has a religious message, but with no power from Heaven, and no Life for those who listen
Tree - It has been thought so by some writers, and there is reason for the opinion; and when we consider how God the Holy Ghost, from the description of the garden of Eden, in the very opening of the Bible, to the closing the canon of Scripture, in the description of the Paradise of God, makes use of the several names of "the tree of Life, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil," which were evidently symbolical and sacramental, I cannot but pause over the several elegantly and highly finished representations which the whole Book of God abounds with, more or less, from beginning to end, and accept them as such. Hence, in this point of view, are the "trees of the garden and of the forest, the trees of righteousness, and of the Lord's right hand planting;" but chiefly and above all in beholding that most striking and lovely representation of Jesus, under the similitude of the tree of Life. (Revelation 22:2) Amidst a thousand beauties included in this lovely figure, how blessed is it to see that in his person, the Life, the fruit, the healing, the shadow of his branches, the everlasting root, the verdure of his leaves, all, and every one, are beautifully described as figurative of temporal, spiritual, and eternal blessings in Jesus. And it is not the least of the beauty of this similitude, that this tree of Life is said to be in the midst of the street, and on either side of the river. For as the church of Jesus, though but one, and the only one of her mother, (Song of Song of Solomon 6:9) is in both worlds, the river of Jordan only separating in place, but not in union; Jesus is equally the Life of both, and gives blessedness to the body below as well as happiness to the society above. Hail! thou everlasting and eternal tree of Life! Cause me to sit down under thy shadow with great delight this side the river, until thou shalt bring me home to the everlasting rest and enjoyment of thy fulness, in the paradise of God above
Josephus, Flavius - (joh ssee' fuhss, flay' vee uhss) Early historian of Jewish Life and our most important source for the history of the Jews in the Roman period. 93), Life (an autobiographical appendix to The Antiquities ), and Against Apion , penned shortly after The Antiquities . The Antiquities, Life , and Against Apion were all written in Rome. Josephus' Life focuses primarily upon the six-month period in which he was commander of Jewish forces in the Galilee and refutes the charge made by Justus of Tiberias that Josephus had organized the revolt in the Galilee
Fir (Tree) - The fir tree is a type of the happy Life of a believer. It is a picture of joy particularly when found in the Life of a leader. ...
Hosea 14:8 (c) By this figure is represented a happy Christian Life, a Life of usefulness for the Lord, and a happy situation
Honey - Exodus 3:8 (b) Honey and milk are the products of Life. The land of Canaan represents that place in the Christian's Life wherein by utter consecration he begins to receive his richest blessings from the living Lord on the throne. ...
Judges 14:9 (c) The lion represents the Lord JESUS and the honey represents the lovely and delightful sweetness which the believer enjoys as he comes and takes out of CHRIST's heart and Life the blessings which are so freely given. ...
Job 20:17 (b) This evidently refers to an abundance of comforts, the luxuries of Life, things over and above the natural blessings
Water - For as water is essentially necessary to animal Life, so is the blessed Spirit to spiritual Life. Hence he is called the "water of Life, a well of water springing up in the soul to everlasting Life
Deicolus, Saint - He accompanied Saint Columbanus on his missionary journey to Gaul, and late in Life founded an abbey under the Rule of Columbanus at Lure where his memory is still revered
Dichuil, Saint - He accompanied Saint Columbanus on his missionary journey to Gaul, and late in Life founded an abbey under the Rule of Columbanus at Lure where his memory is still revered
Dogmatic Theology - Concerns itself with the truths which come from God, explaining them, tracing them to Scripture and tradition, answering difficulties, and objections brought against them, and pointing out how they fit in with our rational knowledge and spiritual Life
Pallotti, Vincent Mary, Saint - He devoted his Life especially to the poor and penitents, and started the special observance at Rome of the Octave of the Epiphany
Austere - ...
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Severe in modes of judging, or living, or acting; rigid; rigorous; stern; as, an austere man, look, Life
Architecture - ) The art or science of building; especially, the art of building houses, churches, bridges, and other structures, for the purposes of civil Life; - often called civil architecture
Allies, Mary Helen - Among her works are "Life of Pius VII," "History of the Church in England," and "Thomas William Allies
Alb - It was formerly worn, at least by clerics, in daily Life
Betimes - To measure Life learn thou betimes
Book of Life - Those who names are not in the book of Life are cast into hell (Revelation 20:15)
Tabitha - " She was raised to Life by Peter
Trachystomata - The external gills are persistent through Life
Phylogeny - ) The history of genealogical development; the race history of an animal or vegetable type; the historic exolution of the phylon or tribe, in distinction from ontogeny, or the development of the individual organism, and from biogenesis, or Life development generally
Fugacious - ) Fleeting; lasting but a short time; - applied particularly to organs or parts which are short-lived as compared with the Life of the individual
Upstart - ) One who has risen suddenly, as from low Life to wealth, power, or honor; a parvenu
Pertain - ; to appertain; as, saltness pertains to the ocean; flowers pertain to plant Life
Jointure - ) An estate settled on a wife, which she is to enjoy after husband's decease, for her own Life at least, in satisfaction of dower
Theology, Dogmatic - Concerns itself with the truths which come from God, explaining them, tracing them to Scripture and tradition, answering difficulties, and objections brought against them, and pointing out how they fit in with our rational knowledge and spiritual Life
Hadadrimmon - A place in the valley of Megiddo, where the good king Josiah lost his Life in a battle with the Ethiopians, 2 Kings 23:29 2 Chronicles 35:20-25
Vincent Pallotti - He devoted his Life especially to the poor and penitents, and started the special observance at Rome of the Octave of the Epiphany
Tranquillity - We speak of the tranquillity of public affairs, of the state, of the world, the tranquillity of a retired Life, the tranquillity of mind proceeding from conscious rectitude
eu'Tychus - Paul was discoursing, fell from the third story, and being taken up dead, was miraculously restored to Life by the apostle
Renunciation - The cares of this world and the deceitfulness of riches and the lusts of other things (Mark 4:19), that check the Life of the soul as weeds choke the growth of the grain, may be said to indicate them in the reverse order. The Life is a far greater thing than the material means of sustenance, the body by which we live is much more important than its protecting garment. ‘A man’s Life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth. Men feed the outward Life and starve the soul, or they adorn the body and disregard its real dignity. The things surrendered may be possessions, kindred, or even Life (Luke 18:29). The first reflexion here is that formal is not real excellence; that not the outward Life only, but the heart, and soul, and spirit are to be judged. Paul, who attained to the mind of Christ, and for the sake of the higher Life counted all things but loss. In a religion which begins with the requirement of repentance and renovation of Life, and which in all aspects exalts the spiritual, subordinating the temporal and earthly, nothing is more fitting than the childlike spirit; the graces of humility, meekness, and gentleness belong to the new conception of the beautiful; while the strain of public duty requires the propelling motive of philanthropy and the ready acceptance of self-sacrifice. He who subordinates the self-regarding virtues to the altruistic, who abandons rights and possessions while he cherishes the love of God and of man, will find even in this Life ‘manifold more. ’ Sharing the Life of others, he will receive from them more than he gives. By the frustration of false developments the basis of his personal Life is strengthened; and by fellowship and service his Life becomes richer, nobler, more blessed. Thus is realized the paradox (Mark 8:35) that the Christian loses his Life to save it. ...
These principles derive strength from a study of Christ’s own Life. The model Life was at all points a Life of renunciation; a Life, too, of uncomplaining endurance of wrong. Victory through cross-bearing, Life through death, became the final maxims of duty. The theorem ‘die to live’ involves on the one hand absolute surrender of self and of every good to the Father of spirits, and on the other hand restoration in another form through the possession of an enlarged Life filled with deeper and wider interests. The surrender of a Life as a sacrifice to a cause tends to give a universal value to the Life so sacrificed. Its essential manifestation is in the lust of power and pride of Life, though every other selfish gratification may be included. But it is equally true that where such egotism has flourished spiritual Life has died
Eternal Sin - ...
‘Eternal sin’ finds its contrast and opposite in ‘eternal Life,’ which is not simply or characteristically endless Life, but essential, perfect Life, ‘the Life which is Life indeed’ (1 Timothy 6:19 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885), the Life of the Kingdom of God (cf. Mark 9:43; Mark 9:45; Mark 9:47 and John 3:3; John 3:5; John 3:15) the Life of God (1 John 1:2 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885). Yet there is much in the teaching of Jesus and in human Life to justify the fear that this possibility may become an actual fact. The hardening of the heart which follows all unfaithfulness is the witness in human Life to what must inevitably result if unfaithfulness is persisted in, a fixed state of spiritual blindness and insensibility. ...
The doom of the finally impenitent is here negatively told: ‘hath never forgiveness’; but that includes the uttermost penalty, exclusion from the Kingdom of the Father, loss of the ‘eternal Life. ’ This is sin’s last stage and uttermost working; it cuts the soul off from God, its source and Life
Spring - If he does so, then the product of his Life is only evil and injurious to others. There should be flowing from the church of GOD constantly spiritual blessings that will bring light, Life and peace to the multitudes. It is also true that in a typical sense the Lord does take the weary, worn and dried up Christian and sends into his Life the Holy Spirit of GOD who is the Living Water, so that the Life becomes radiant, fruitful and beautiful. He shows forth the loveliness of his Lord, and lives a constantly beautiful Life
Emilianus (8), Solitary - The only original source of information about him is his Life by St. ...
He began Life as a shepherd, and while following his flock over the mountains had the dream which caused his conversion. For 40 years he lived a hermit's Life there, mostly on or near the peak of La Cogolla (according to the tradition of the monastery; there is no mention of the Cogolla of St. Braulio's Life), whence the after-name of the monastery which commemorated him—San Millan de la Cogolla. Thus released from an unwelcome office, Emilianus passed the rest of his Life at an oratory near Vergegium
Adolescence - ) The state of growing up from childhood to manhood or womanhood; youth, or the period of Life between puberty and maturity, generally considered to be, in the male sex, from fourteen to twenty-one
High-Pressure - : Urgent; intense; as, a high-pressure business or social Life
Descent From the Cross in Art - Among the masters who have represented this subject are: Baroccio, Bartolommeo, Campana, Campi, Canova, Annibale, Caracci, Carducci, Charpentier, Cima da Conegliano, Delacroix, Fra Angelico, Ghirlandajo, Master of the Life of Mary, Perugino, Rembrandt, Rubens, Sarto, Van der Weyden, Van de Velde, Veronese, Volterra
Optatus, Saint - A converted rhetorician, he wrote a valuable treatise against the Donatists, in reply to Parmenian of Carthage, c366 Nothing further is known of his Life
James Nugent - He was a social reformer in Lancashire, devoting his Life to the welfare of prisoners, homeless boys, and fallen women
Christian Socialism - Any theory or system that aims to combine the teachings of Christ with the teachings of socialism in their applications to Life; Christianized socialism; esp
Nugent, James - He was a social reformer in Lancashire, devoting his Life to the welfare of prisoners, homeless boys, and fallen women
Shehecheyanu - blessing (�who has granted us Life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this season�) recited at the advent of festivals, at a fortuitous occasion, when eating new fruit, wearing new clothing, or performing a mitzvah for the first time that season
Biology - ) The science of Life; that branch of knowledge which treats of living matter as distinct from matter which is not living; the study of living tissue
Artifact - ) A structure or appearance in protoplasm due to death or the use of reagents and not present during Life
Animation - ) The act of animating, or giving Life or spirit; the state of being animate or alive
Eocene - ) Pertaining to the first in time of the three subdivisions into which the Tertiary formation is divided by geologists, and alluding to the approximation in its Life to that of the present era; as, Eocene deposits
Breathing - Exhibiting to the Life as breathing paint
Discrete - ) Disjunctive; containing a disjunctive or discretive clause; as, "I resign my Life, but not my honor," is a discrete proposition
Bread - ) Food; sustenance; support of Life, in general
Dwelling - Continuance residence state of Life
Jonathan - Helped David escape Saul’s designs on his Life
Shod - Ephesians 6:15 (a) This is symbolical of the act of the Christian who puts on the graces of Heaven which makes his Life so attractive that it prepares the way for the message from his lips
December - : With reference to the end of the year and to the winter season; as, the December of his Life
Abase - ) To cast down or reduce low or lower, as in rank, office, condition in Life, or estimation of worthiness; to depress; to humble; to degrade
Nain - a city of Palestine, in which Jesus Christ restored the widow's son to Life, as they were carrying him out to be buried
Votary - ) One devoted, consecrated, or engaged by a vow or promise; hence, especially, one devoted, given, or addicted, to some particular service, worship, study, or state of Life
Unfruitful - Not producing good effects or works as an unfruitful Life
Venomous - Poisonous noxious to animal Life as, the bite of a serpent may be venomous
Nain - Where Christ performed one of his chief miracles, in raising to Life a widow's only son, Luke 7:11-17 , was a small village in Galilee, three miles south by west of Mount Tabor: It is now a petty hamlet, called Nein
Adonijah - Toward the end of David's Life, Adonijah proclaimed himself his father’s successor–an act that was immediately countermanded by David
Heart, Heartily - ), the chief organ of physical Life ("for the Life of the flesh is in the blood," Leviticus 17:11 ), occupies the most important place in the human system. In other words, the heart is used figuratively for the hidden springs of the personal Life. "The Bible describes human depravity as in the 'heart', because sin is a principle which has its seat in the center of man's inward Life, and then 'defiles' the whole circuit of his action, Matthew 15:19,20 . ...
As to its usage in the NT it denotes (a) the seat of physical Life, Acts 14:17 ; James 5:5 ; (b) the seat of moral nature and spiritual Life, the seat of grief, John 14:1 ; Romans 9:2 ; 2 Corinthians 2:4 ; joy, John 16:22 ; Ephesians 5:19 ; the desires, Matthew 5:28 ; 2 Peter 2:14 ; the affections, Luke 24:32 ; Acts 21:13 ; the perceptions, John 12:40 ; Ephesians 4:18 ; the thoughts, Matthew 9:4 ; Hebrews 4:12 ; the understanding, Matthew 13:15 ; Romans 1:21 ; the reasoning powers, Mark 2:6 ; Luke 24:38 ; the imagination, Luke 1:51 ; conscience, Acts 2:37 ; 1 John 3:20 ; the intentions, Hebrews 4:12 , cp. ...
2: ψυχή (Strong's #5590 — Noun Feminine — psuche — psoo-khay' ) the soul, or Life, is rendered "heart" in Ephesians 6:6 (marg
Eternal Life, Eternality, Everlasting Life - This relates especially to the quality of Life in this age, and to both the quality and duration of Life in the age to come. A prominent segment of modern biblical scholarship would concur that in Israel there was no belief in Life after death. The numerous Old Testament references to the Lord's future and thus to the future of those who trust in him leave little room for insisting that the Old Testament contains no inkling of a Life beyond the present world. This understanding has had great influence on Western theology and on the way many Christians even today understand "eternity" and "eternal Life" when they encounter them in the Bible. True, it speaks of a coming age from which evil will be banished and for which God's Life and glory will be determinative for all that exists and takes place. And eternity, while it lies chronologically beyond temporal Life in the here and now, is not in all respects qualitatively remote and aloof from it. To live responsively before him means to gain understanding, indeed induction, into "eternal Life. "...
Eternal Life . A dominant theme of the New Testament, though not without Old Testament grounding, is eternal (or everlasting) Life. Eternal Life is therefore one of the unifying themes of the New Testament. ...
John's Gospel is rich with references to eternal Life. Jesus likewise speaks of eternal Life during his brief early ministry in Samaria. He assures the woman at the well that trust in him will slake the thirst of her soul; she will receive "a spring of water welling up" within her "to eternal Life" (4:14; Life. In the present it means a crossing over "from death to Life" (5:24). Eternal Life is available through study of the Scriptures as they relate to Jesus Christ (5:39). ...
Jesus urges a crowd by Galilee's shores not to "work for food that spoils, but for food that endures to eternal Life, which the Son of Man will give you (6:27). God wills that "everyone who looks to the Son and believes in him shall have eternal Life. Jesus' difficult statement that everyone "who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal Life" (6:54) is a summons for sinners to make the Father's will their meat and drink, by trusting in the Son, just as the Son made the Father's will his own daily fare (4:34). ...
The Christocentric nature of eternal Life is underscored by Jesus' own words in prayer on the night he was betrayed. First, he reminds the heavenly Father that he gave the Son "authority over all people that he might give eternal Life to all those you have given him" (17:2). Next he furnishes a succinct description of what eternal Life involves: "Now this is eternal Life: that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom you have sent" (17:3). ...
Eternal Life as presented in John's Gospel forms a solid core within apostolic preaching and teaching in the decades subsequent to Jesus' death and resurrection. In Paul's earliest extant epistle he avows that whoever "sows to please the Spirit" will also "reap eternal Life from the Spirit" (
Galatians 6:8 ). The Epistle to the Romans reveals that God grants eternal Life "to those who by persistence in doing good seek glory, honor, and immortality" (2:7). Yet eternal Life is won not by human effort but by divine self-sacrifice as Christ undoes the woe that Adam's fall helped unleash on the human race (5:12-21). Through Christ grace reigns "through righteousness to bring eternal Life through Jesus Christ our Lord" (5:21; Life as a rudimentary or unimportant matter, in Paul's last extant letter he is still extolling its glories. "The hope of eternal Life" is in fact foundational to faith in and knowledge of God (Titus 1:1-2 ). Paul, originally the arch-enemy of Christ, tells Timothy that his conversion serves "as an example for those who would believe on [5] and receive eternal Life" (1 Timothy 1:16 ). He exhorts Timothy "to take hold of the eternal Life" to which he was called (1 Timothy 6:12 ). It may have been in the same general span of time late in the apostolic era that Jude encouraged his readers, "Keep yourselves in God's love as you wait for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to bring you to eternal Life" (Jude 21 ). ...
If in Jude eternal Life seems to be a future possession, many other references speak of it as a present reality. Eternal Life has both an "already" and a "not yet" dimension. Biblical statements taken in their entirety counsel careful regard for both aspects of a two-sided truth: eternal Life is a present possession in terms of its reality, efficacy, and irrevocability (John 10:28 ). Yet its full realization awaits Life with the Lord in the age to come. Further, Paul uses this figure of speech to underline the temporary nature of Life, not to speak of the Platonic release of the soul from captivity in the body. In this sense reflection on eternality and eternal Life is never complete without sober contemplation of ethical corollaries. In keeping with the sober historical integrity of the four Gospels and Acts, the accounts of Jesus' Life and ministry are not studded with lofty ascriptions of praise to Christ. " Other Epistles imply the same praise by extolling the Lord's eternal rewards: "a crown that will last forever" (1 Corinthians 9:25 ); Life "with the Lord forever" (1 Thessalonians 4:17 ; cf. Yet happier prospects await all who have received the grace of the eternal God through his Son in this present Life: in worshiping the eternal King "they will reign for ever and ever" (22:5). Ratzinger, Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life ; O
Blood - For Life. The priests were established by God to judge between blood and blood; that is, in criminal matters, and where the Life of man is at stake;—to determine whether the murder be casual, or voluntary; whether a crime deserve death, or admit of remission, &c. For when the grant of animal food was made to Noah, in those comprehensive words, "Even as the green herb have I given you all things," it was add