What does Lebanon mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
הַלְּבָנוֹן֙ a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 6
לְבָנ֖וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 5
הַלְּבָנֽוֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 5
הַלְּבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 5
לְבָנ֑וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 5
בַּלְּבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 4
בַּלְּבָנ֗וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 3
הַלְּבָנ֑וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 3
לְבָנֽוֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 3
כַּלְּבָנֽוֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 2
הַלְּבָנ֖וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 2
מִלְּבָנוֹן֙ a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 2
בַּלְּבָנוֹן֙ a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 2
הַלְּבָנ֗וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 2
וּבַלְּבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 2
כַּלְּבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
מִלְּבָנ֣וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
בַּלְּבָנ֣וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
כַּלְּבָנ֣וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
לְבָנ֥וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
לְ֝בָנ֗וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
הַלְּבָנ֞וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וְהַלְּבָנ֨וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וְהַלְּבָנ֖וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וּלְבָנ֕וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וְהַלְּבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
הַלְּבָנ֜וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
לְבָנ֗וֹנָה a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
לְבָנוֹן֙ a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
בַלְּבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
לְבָנ֔וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
מֵֽהַלְּבָנוֹן֒ a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וְהַלְּבָנֽוֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וְהַלְּבָנ֜וֹן a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1
וּלְבָנוֹן֙ a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel. 1

Definitions Related to Lebanon

H3844


   1 a wooded mountain range on the northern border of Israel.
   Additional Information: Lebanon = “whiteness”.
   

Frequency of Lebanon (original languages)

Frequency of Lebanon (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Lebanon
(Semitic root, laban)
Mountain, Syria, so called from the snow which covers the highest peaks during almost the entire year, or from the limestone which glistens white in the distance. It is the center of the great mountain range of central Syria, which is about 95 miles long, and consists of two parallel mountain chains of the same formation; the western, or Lebanon proper, and the eastern, or Antilibanus. In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5).
Holman Bible Dictionary - House of the Forest of Lebanon
A designation for a great hall Solomon constructed as part of his palace complex in Jerusalem (1 Kings 7:2-5 ), so called because of the extensive use of cedar for the pillars, beams, and roofing material. In this hall were stored 300 shields of gold and vessels of gold (1 Kings 10:17-21 ). See Hall .
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Lebanon
White
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Lebanon
White, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Joshua 11:17 ) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a, "the valley," a prolongation of the valley of the Jordan. Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, "the entering of Hamath" (Numbers 34:8 ; 1 Kings 8:65 ), in all about 90 geographical miles in extent. The average height of this range is from 6,000 to 8,000 feet; the peak of Jebel Mukhmel is about 10,200 feet, and the Sannin about 9,000. The highest peaks are covered with perpetual snow and ice. In the recesses of the range wild beasts as of old still abound (2 Kings 14:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ). The scenes of the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Psalm 29:5,6 ; 72:16 ; 104:16-18 ; Song of Solomon 4:15 ; Isaiah 2:13 ; 35:2 ; 60:13 ; Hosea 14:5 ). It is famous for its cedars (Song of Solomon 5:15 ), its wines (Hosea 14:7 ), and its cool waters (Jeremiah 18:14 ). The ancient inhabitants were Giblites and Hivites (Joshua 13:5 ; Judges 3:3 ). It was part of the Phoenician kingdom (1 Kings 5:2-6 ).
The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or "Lebanon towards the sunrising," runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the south. The height of this range is about 5,000 feet. Its highest peak is Hermon (q.v.), from which a number of lesser ranges radiate.
Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary of Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:7 ; 11:24 ). It was assigned to Israel, but was never conquered (Joshua 13:2-6 ; Judges 3:1-3 ).
The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about 300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Lebanon
"exceeding white", namely, with snow, as Mont Blanc. In Hebrew Lebanon, related to "alp". The double mountain range N. of Palestine, running in parallel lines from S.W. to N.E., having between the fertile valley anciently called Coelosyria, now El Beka'a (where are the grand ruins of the temple of the sun), about six or seven miles wide, "the valley of Lebanon" (Joshua 11:17). The range is about 80 miles long, 15 broad. It forms the northern head of the Jordan valley and the southern head of the Orontes valley. (See HAMATH.) The western range is the region of the Hivites and Giblites (Joshua 13:5; Judges 3:3). (See GIBLITES.) The eastern range was Antilibanus, or "Lebanon toward the sunrising." The wady et Teim separates the southern part of Antilibanus from Lebanon and also from the Galilee hills. The river Leontes (Litany) sweeps round its southern end, and drains Coelo-Syria, falling into the Mediterranean five miles N. of Tyre.
Lebanon runs parallel to the coast in the plain of Emesa opening from the Mediterranean, in Scripture "the entering in (i.e. entrance) of Hamath" (1 Kings 8:75). The river Eleutherus (nahr el Kebir) here sweeps round its northern end. The average height is 7,000 ft. But one peak, Dhor el Khodib, N. of the cedars, is 10,051 ft.; and Hermon in Antilebanon is 10,125 ft.. Lebanon is of grey limestone, with belts of recent sandstone along the western slopes. Eastward in the glens of Antilibanus flow toward Damascus Abana (Barada) and Pharpar (nahr el Awaj). All that now represents Hiram's cedar forests is the cluster called "the cedars," 6,172 ft. above the sea, in the center of the vast recess or semicircle formed by the highest summits of Lebanon above the deep valley of the sacred river Kadisha. (See CEDARS.) Odorous flowers and aromatic shrubs and vines still yield" the smell of Lebanon" wafted by the mountain breeze (Song of Solomon 4:11).
The line of cultivation runs at the height of 6,000 ft. Every available space is utilized for figtrees, vines, mulberry trees, and olives. Numerous villages nestle amidst the rocks. The trees striking their roots into the fissures of rocks illustrate Hosea 14:5, "Israel shall strike forth his roots as Lebanon." Lebanon is a delightful retreat from the sultry heat of the plains and of Palestine, cooled as it is by the snows which crown its peaks. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 18:14) asks, "will a man leave the snow of Lebanon which cometh from the rock of the field (a poetical name for Lebanon towering above the surrounding plain)? Or shall the cold flowing waters that come from another place (from the distant rocks) be forsaken?" None. Yet Israel forsakes Jehovah the living fountain, ever near, for broken cisterns. Hyaenas, panthers, jackals, wolves, and bears still haunt its glens and peaks (compare Song of Solomon 4:8; 2 Kings 14:9).
The river Adonis (nahr Ibrahim) springs from a cave beneath the high peak Sunnin. The plain of Phoenicia, two miles wide, runs at the base of Lebanon between it and the sea. The eastern slopes are less abrupt and fertile than the western. Maronite Christians people the northern part of the range; Druses abound more in the southern. Lebanon was assigned to Israel, but never conquered (Joshua 13:2-6; Judges 3:1-3). It was under the Phoenicians in Solomon's time and subsequently (1 Kings 5:2-6; Ezra 3:7). Antilibanus is less peopled than Lebanon, and has more wild beasts: Song of Solomon 4:8, "look from the top of Amana, from ... Shenir and Hermon ... the lions' den ... the mountains of the leopards," referring to the two higher peaks, Hermon, and that near the fountain of Abana, where panthers still are found. "The tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus" is Hermon (Song of Solomon 7:4).
Holman Bible Dictionary - Forest of Lebanon, House of
See House of the Forest of Lebanon .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Lebanon
(lihb' uh nuhn) Place name meaning “white” or perhaps “white mountain.” A small country at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea and the western end of Asia. It has long been a world center of transportation and trade. The proper noun literally means the “White” (mountain), probably derived from the snow-capped Mount Hermon, also known as Sirion (Psalm 29:6 ). Hermon is often covered with snow, and its white crown offers a majestic and impressive view. The constant snow-coverage is contrasted with the fickleness and apostasy of Israel (Jeremiah 18:1 ).
Sandy beaches lie along its Mediterranean coast. Rugged mountains rise in the interior. The country itself is dominated by two mountain ridges, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains. Both ranges run parallel to the coast. The Lebanon range extends for about 105 miles along the coast, from modern-day Tripoli in the north to Tyre in the south.
The mountain ranges are about 6,230 feet high. Some summits reach a height of more than 11,000 feet: the highest peak is el-Qurnat el-Sawda (11,024 ft.). Between the higher parts of the range lie valleys and ravines.
The Holy Valley, which collects the water from the Mountain of the Cedars, is one of the most important valleys. It was in this region that the Maronites found refuge in the beginning of their history. This Holy Valley has retained its significance throughout the ages. Ain Qadisha (Spring of the Holy Valley) is highly revered. It gushes forth in the heart of a cedar forest and mountainside near Bsherrih. Another famous valley is the Valley of Adonis, through which the River of Adonis flows; and to where the pilgrimage of Adonis took place in the spring of the year. See Gods, Pagan .
In the Bible, Lebanon is celebrated in various capacities. It is frequently featured in the Old Testament, in a general way, as the northern boundry of Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:24 ; Joshua 1:4 ), dividing it from Phoenicia and Syria. Its imposing rage was emblematic of natural strength and solidarity, therefore a perfect poetic foil to the majesty of God revealed in a thunderstorm so powerful that it “maketh them to skip like a calf” (Psalm 29:6 ). It was a proverbially lush land, noted for its magnificent forests (Isaiah 60:13 ), especially the “cedars of Lebanon” (Judges 9:15 ; Isaiah 2:13 ). For the tree-poor Palestinians, Lebanon's cedars symbolized the ultimate in natural wealth and beauty. The psalmist calls these ancient and beautiful cedars the “trees of the Lord which He hath planted” (Psalm 104:16 ). It is said that some of the cedars remaining in Lebanon are at least 2,500 years old. They share with the famous redwoods of California the distinction of being the oldest living things on earth.
Cedars, as well as other woods of Lebanon, were used in great abundance in the construction of David's palace and Solomon's Temple and palace buildings (1 Kings 5:10-18 ; 1 Kings 7:2 ). Cedar was obtained also for the building of the second Temple or the Temple of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:7 ).
The forests of Lebanon have been victims of human greed and irresponsibility. They were exploited by Egypt and Mesopotamia long before biblical times, and they continued to supply precious timber well into the Roman Era. Under the Ottoman Empire (A.D. 1516), the forest almost entirely disappeared. Today there is not much left of the cedar woods; almost all of them are gone. The olive tree also played an important part in ancient times and is still cultivated.
Tyre to which Ezekiel 27-28 is devoted, was one of the most famous cities of the ancient world. Along with the older port of Sidon, it was one of the centers of Phoenician civilization. See Ezekiel 27-28 .
Many foreign powers have controlled the Phoenician city-states. They include, in order of rule, the Egyptians, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians. In 332 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered Lebanon. The region came under the control of the Roman Empire in 64 B.C.
Philip Lee
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Lebanon
LEBANON , now Jebel Lebnân , is mentioned more than 60 times in the OT. The name, from the root lâbân (‘white’), was probably given on account of the mountain’s covering of snow. The snow of Lebanon is mentioned in Jeremiah 18:14 . Many passages refer to its beauty, particularly in relation to its cedars and other trees (see Psalms 72:16 , Song of Solomon 4:11 , Hosea 14:5 ; Hosea 14:7 ). From Lebanon was obtained wood for building the first ( 2 Chronicles 2:8 ) and the second ( Ezra 3:7 ) Temple. Lebanon was famous for its fruitfulness ( Psalms 72:16 ) and its wine ( Hosea 14:7 ).
The term ‘Lebanon’ may be considered in most places as referring to the whole mountain mass, more correctly distinguished as Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ( Libanus and Antilibanus of Jdt 1:7 ). The two ranges traverse N. Syria, running roughly parallel, from S.W. to N.E., and are separated by a deep valley the biq‘ah of Joshua 11:17 ; Joshua 12:7 known to-day as el-Buqa . The western range, Lebanon proper, is nearly 100 miles long, but the eastern, if Hermon is deducted as a separate entity, is only 65 miles long. The former range is divided from the mountains of Galilee by the deep chasm made by the Litâni river in its passage seawards. In the N. a somewhat similar gorge formed by the Nahr el-Kebîr , the ancient Eleutherus, divides it from the Jebel Nusairiyeh . The summits of the range rise in height from south to north. In the S. a few points attain to almost 7000 feet; in the centre, E. of Beyrout, Jebel Kuneiseh is 6960 feet, and Jebel Sannîn 8554 feet; further N., to the S.E. of Tripoli, is a great semicircular group of mountains, sometimes known as the ‘Cedar group,’ on account of the famous group of these trees in their midst, where the highest point, Jebel Mukhmal , reaches 10, 207 feet, and several other points are almost as lofty. Geologically the Lebanon is built of three main groups of strata. Lowest comes a thick layer of hard limestone, named after its most characteristic fossil ( Cidaris glandaria ) Glandaria limestone; above this are strata of Nubian sandstone, yellow and red in colour, and in places 1500 feet thick, overlaid and interlaced with strata of limestone containing fossil echinoderms and ammonites; and thirdly, above this group, and forming the bulk of the highest peaks, is another layer, many thousand feet thick in places, of a limestone containing countless fossils known as hippurites, radiolites, and such like. The sandstone strata are most important, for where they come to the surface is the richest soil and the most plentiful water, and here flourish most luxuriantly the pines which are such a characteristic feature of W. Lebanon scenery. A great contrast exists between the W. and E. slopes. The former are fertile and picturesque, while down their innumerable valleys course numberless mountain streams to feed the many rivers flowing seawards. The E. slopes are comparatively barren, and, except at one point, near Zahleh , there is no stream of importance. Of the Lebanon rivers besides the Nahr Litâni (Leontes) and the Nahr el-Kebîr (Eleutherus), the following may be enumerated from S. to N. as the more important: Nahr ez-Zaherani, Nahr el-‘Auwali (Bostrenus), Nahr Beirût (Magoras), Nahr el-Kelb (Lycus), Nahr Ibrahîm (Adonis), and the Nahr Qadîsha or ‘holy river,’ near Tripoli.
The Lebanon is still fairly well wooded in a few places, though very scantily compared with ancient times, when Hiram, king of Tyre, supplied Solomon with ‘cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees out of Lebanon’ (1 Kings 5:6 , 2 Chronicles 2:8 ). In regard to cultivation there has been a very great improvement in recent years, and the terraced lower slopes of the mountain are now covered with mulberry, walnut, and olive trees as well as vines. Many of the views in the Lebanon are of most romantic beauty, and the climate of many parts is superb. Wild animals are certainly scarcer than in olden days. In the time of Tiglath-pileser 1. the elephant was hunted here, but it has long been extinct. Jackals, gazelles, hyænas, wolves, bears, and panthers (in order of commonness) are found and, inland from Sidon, the coney ( Hyrax ) abounds.
Politically the Lebanon rejoices in a freer and better government than any other part of Syria, as, since the massacres of 1860, a Christian governor, appointed with the approval of the European Powers, rules on behalf of the Sultan. The district, except in the N., is now extensively supplied with excellent carriage roads, and the range is crossed by the French railway from Beyrout to Damascus, the highest point traversed being 4880 feet above sea-level.
Between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon is the great hollow known to the Greeks as Cœle-Syria , and to-day called Buqa‘ el-‘Azîz . Considered geologically, this wide valley is a product of the same great ‘fault’ as produced the deep Jordan valley. It is now a great, fertile, but little cultivated, plain, from 3 to 6 miles wide, and in its rise, not far from Baalbek, two famous rivers, the Litâni (Leontes), which flows S., and the Nahr el-Asi or Orontes, which flows N., and enters the sea near Antioch. This hollow plain, besides being crossed transversely by the Damascus railway and road, is traversed over more than half its length by the new line past Baalbek, Homs, and Hamath to Aleppo Some part of this plain, ‘the valley of the Lebanon, would appear to have been conquered by the Israelites ( Joshua 11:17 ).
The Anti-Lebanon is to-day known as Jebel esh-Sherki or ‘the east mountain,’ the equivalent of ‘Lebanon towards the sun-rising’ of Joshua 13:5 . In Song of Solomon 7:4 it is referred to as ‘the tower of Lebanon that looketh towards Damascus.’ In Deuteronomy 1:7 ; Deuteronomy 3:25 ; Deuteronomy 11:24 , Joshua 1:4 ; Joshua 9:1 , the Heb. ‘Lebanon’ is in the LXX [1] tr. [2] ‘Anti-Lebanon.’ Anti-Lebanon is somewhat arbitrarily divided from Hermon, which is structurally its S. extremity, by a, pass (along which the French diligence road runs), and especially by the Wady Barada . In the N. it terminates in the plain around Homs. Its highest point is Tâla’ at Mûsa (8755 feet), but several other peaks are almost as lofty. A valley, like the Buqa‘ in miniature, traverses the S. part of the range from N. to S., and in this rises the Nahr Yafûfeh , which empties its waters down the Wady Yafûfeh to join the Litâni ; and the Nahr Barada , which, after rising in a beautiful pool at the S.W. extremity of this plain, runs down the Wady Barada to Damascus. The N. part of this range is very bare and wild.
E. W. G. Masterman.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Lebanon
A mountain famous in Scripture, and highly celebrated: it separates Syria from Palestine. The name in Hebrew is Leban, and signities white,—probably so called from the everlasting snow covering the summit or it. The cedars of Lebanon, and the streams from Lebanon, are spoken of in highly figurative language, to intimate the blessings in Christ. Hence the spouse in the Canticles speaks of Jesus as "a fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and streams from Lebanon." (Song of Song of Solomon 4:15) And the idea is as beautiful as the figure is just and correct: for as the cold flowing waters which descend from the mountain of Lebanon refresh the earth, and cool the hot climate, and are very copious, and run with rapidity; so the grace of God in Christ Jesus, like the water of life, runs freely, graciously, and abundantly, to make "glad the city of God." So Christ himself is said to be "as rivers of water in a dry place, and as the shadow of a great rock in a weary land." (Isaiah 32:2) Hence the prophet, exclaiming against the folly of Israel's leaving the Lord, saith, "Will a man leave the snow of Lebanon which cometh from the rock of the field; or shall the cold flowing waters that come from another place be forgotten?" (Jeremiah 18:14)
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Lebanon
Isaiah 40:16 (b) This wonderful picture tells a remarkable story of the inability of the best efforts of the sinner. Lebanon was a mountain about six miles wide, and about fifty miles long. It was covered with beautiful, magnificent, stately cedar trees. There were also the pine, the box, the fir and other trees. There were bushes, vines and grasses. In the midst of all this tangled forest, there were many wild animals of many varieties. It was a hunter's paradise. The Lord is telling us by this figure that though a sinner in his desire to obtain forgiveness should gather together in one pile all the burnable material on this huge mountain, and then kill all the animals that lived on that huge mountain, that sacrifice would not be sufficient to put away one sin. GOD is telling us by this wonderful figure that man's best and greatest efforts are not sufficient, and do not avail for the putting away of any evil or any sin in a human life. Only the Blood of JESUS is sufficient.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Lebanon, Tower of
Only mentioned symbolically in Song of Solomon 7:4 : it is supposed to refer to mount Hermon.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Anti-Lebanon
See LEBANON.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Lebanon
The mountain range in the north of Palestine.Its name signifies 'white,' and may have arisen from some of its peaks being always covered with snow, or from the whiteness of its limestone cliffs. It is mentioned as the northern boundary of Palestine. Deuteronomy 1:7 ; Deuteronomy 11:24 ; Joshua 1:4 . There are two ranges bearing this name, the southern terminus of both being about 33 23' N. They run N.E. nearly parallel with the Mediterranean; a fertile valley, from five to eight miles wide, running between them. This is mentioned in Joshua 11:17 . Its modern name is El Bukeiah. The valley may be considered as being prolonged southward in the Jordan valley.
The western range is the Lebanon generally referred to in scripture and the one from whence Solomon obtained cedar and fir trees for the temple. 1 Kings 5:8,9 ; Psalm 29:5 ; Isaiah 14:8 . Of the cedars only a few remain. There are many villages situated on the small plains on the mountains, with patches of grain growing here and there; vines also are cultivated from which excellent wine is made. Hosea 14:7 . Firs grow, clinging as it were to the bare rock, yet quite secure. Hosea 14:5 . Olives, figs, and mulberries also abound, and a number of aromatic shrubs, which perfume the air, as alluded to in Song of Solomon 4:11 . Wild beasts still inhabit the glens and peaks as they did in O.T. times. 2 Kings 14:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Habakkuk 2:17 . Its modern name is Jebel Libnan.
The eastern range is often called ANTI-LEBANON, but in scripture it is alluded to as 'Lebanon toward the sun-rising.' Joshua 13:5 . Its modern name is Jebel esh Shurky. Mount Hermon is its southern point. The road from Beyrout [1] to Damascus crosses both the mountains of Lebanon.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Lebanon
or LIBANUS, signifying white, from its snows,—the most elevated mountain or mountain chain in Syria, celebrated in all ages for its cedars; which, as is well known, furnished the wood for Solomon's temple. This mountain is the centre, or nucleus, of all the mountain ridges which, from the north, the south, and the east, converge toward this point; but it overtops them all. This configuration of the mountains, and the superiority of Lebanon, are particularly striking to the traveller approaching both from the Mediterranean on the west. and the desert on the east. On either side, he first discovers, at a great distance, a clouded ridge, stretching from north to south, as far as the eye can see; the central summits of which are capped with clouds, or tipped with snow. This is Lebanon, which is often referred to in Holy Writ for its streams, its timber, and its wines; and at the present day the seat of the only portion of freedom of which Syria can boast.
The altitude of Lebanon is so considerable, that it appears from the reports of travellers to have snow on its highest eminences all the year round. Volney says, that it thus remains toward the north-east, where it is sheltered from the sea winds and the rays of the sun. Maundrell found that part of the mountain which he crossed, and which in all probability was by no means the highest, covered with deep snow in the month of May. Dr. E. D. Clarke, in the month of July, saw some of the eastern summits of Lebanon, or Anti-Libanus, near Damascus, covered with snow, not lying in patches, as is common in the summer season with mountains which border on the line of perpetual congelation, but do not quite reach it, but with that perfect white, smooth, and velvet-like appearance, which snow only exhibits when it is very deep,—a striking spectacle in such a climate, where the beholder, seeking protection from a burning sun, almost considers the firmament to be on fire. At the time this observation was made, the thermometer, in an elevated situation near the sea of Tiberias, stood at 102½ in the shade. Sir Frederic Henniker passed over snow in July; and Ali Bey describes the same eastern ridge as covered with snow in September. Of the noble cedars which once adorned the upper parts of this mountain but few now remain, and those much decayed. Burckhardt, who crossed Mount Libanus in 1810, counted about thirty-six large ones, fifty of middle size, and about three hundred smaller and young ones: but more might exist in other parts of the mountain. The wine, especially that made about the convent of Canobin, still preserves its ancient celebrity; and is reported by travellers, more particularly by Rauwolff, Le Bruyn, and De la Roque, to be of the most exquisite kind for flavour and fragrance. The rains which fall in the lower regions of Lebanon, and the melting of the snow in the upper ones, furnish an abundance of perennial streams, which are alluded to by Solomon, Song of Solomon 4:15 . On the declivities of the mountain grew the vines which furnished the rich and fragrant wine which Hosea celebrated, Hosea 14:7 , and which may still be obtained by proper culture.
The cedar of Lebanon has, in all ages, been reckoned as an object of unrivalled grandeur and beauty in the vegetable kingdom. It is, accordingly, one of the natural images which frequently occur in the poetical style of the Hebrew prophets; and is appropriated to denote kings, princes, and potentates of the highest rank. Thus, the Prophet Isaiah, whose writings abound with metaphors and allegories of this kind, in denouncing the judgments of God upon the proud and arrogant, declares that "the day of the Lord of Hosts shall be upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan," Isaiah 2:13 . The king of Israel used the same figure in his reply to the challenge of the king of Judah: "The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, Give thy daughter to my son to wife: and there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, and trod down the thistle," 2 Kings 14:9 . The spiritual prosperity of the righteous man is compared by the Psalmist to the same noble plant: "The righteous shall flourish as the palm- tree; he shall grow as the cedar in Lebanon." To break the cedars, and shake the enormous mass on which they grow, are the figures that David selects to express the awful majesty and power of Jehovah: "The voice of the Lord is powerful; the voice of the Lord is full of majesty. The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars: yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon. He maketh them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young unicorn," Psalms 29:4-6 . This description of the divine majesty and power possesses a character of awful sublimity.
The stupendous size, the extensive range, and great elevation of Libanus; its towering summits capped with perpetual snow, or crowned with fragrant cedars; its olive plantations; its vineyards, producing the most delicious wines; its clear fountains, and cold-flowing brooks; its fertile vales, and odoriferous shrubberies,—combine to form in Scripture language, "the glory of Lebanon." But that glory, liable to change, has, by the unanimous consent of modern travellers, suffered a sensisible decline. The extensive forests of cedar, which adorned and perfumed the summits and declivities of those mountains, have almost disappeared. Only a small number of these "trees of God, planted by his almighty hand," which, according to the usual import of the phrase, signally displayed the divine power, wisdom, and goodness, now remain. Their countless number in the days of Solomon, and their prodigious bulk, must be recollected, in order to feel the force of that sublime declaration of the prophet: "Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering,"
Isaiah 40:16 . Though the trembling sinner were to make choice of Lebanon for the altar; were to cut down all its forests to form the pile; though the fragrance of this fuel, with all its odoriferous gums, were the incense; the wine of Lebanon pressed from all its vineyards, the libation; and all its beasts, the propitiatory sacrifice; all would prove insufficient to make atonement for the sins of men; would be regarded as nothing in the eyes of the supreme Judge for the expiation of even one transgression. The just and holy law of God requires a nobler altar, a costlier sacrifice, and a sweeter perfume,—the obedience and death of a divine Person to atone for our sins, and the incense of his continual intercession to secure our acceptance with the Father of mercies, and admission into the mansions of eternal rest. The conversion of the Gentile nations from the worship of idols and the bondage of corruption, to the service and enjoyment of the true God, is foretold in these beautiful and striking terms: "The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad for them: and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon: they shall see the glory of the Lord. and the excellency of our God." Isaiah 35:4 .
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Mount Lebanon
See Lebanon.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Lebanon
Lebanon (lĕb'a-non), exceeding white. A double mountain range to the north of Palestine, consisting of a western chain, Lebanon proper, and an eastern. "Lebanon toward the sun-rising," Joshua 13:5, called by classic writers Anti-Libanus, and enclosing a valley from five to eight miles broad—" the valley of Lebanon," Joshua 11:17; called by classic writers Cœlo-Syria. The western range, the Lebanon proper, begins on the north near the banks of the Eleutherus, which passes through the plain of Emesa, the "entrance of Hamath," Numbers 34:8, to the Mediterranean, and runs for a distance of 90 geographical miles, in the direction from northeast to southwest, parallel with the Mediterranean, to the banks of the Litany, the ancient Leontes, which, draining Cœlo-Syria and breaking through the Lebanon by a wild gorge, enters the Mediterranean a few miles north of Tyre. The average height of this range is from 6000 to 8000 feet. "The smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon." Song of Solomon 4:11. The eastern chain, the Anti-Lebanon, runs nearly parallel with the western. Its highest point is Mount Hermon. Its western descent toward CœloSyria is abrupt and steep; to the east it gradually sinks into the plains of the desert. Its general aspect is bleak and barren, the abode of wild beasts and birds of prey. From both ranges numerous rivers descend—the Eleutherus, Leontes, Jordan, Abana, and Pharpar (which see); and the cold-flowing waters of the springs and streams of Lebanon were and are still proverbial.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Lebanon
White, a long chain of mountains on the north of Palestine, so named from the whitish limestone of which they are composed and in part perhaps from their snowy whiteness in winter. It consists of two main ridges running northeast and southwest, nearly parallel with each other and with the coast of the Mediterranean. See view in Joshua 11:17 , at present Bukkah. It opens towards the north, but is exceedingly narrow towards the south, where the river Litany, anciently Orontes, issues form the valley and flows west to the sea, north of Tyre. The western ridge is generally higher than the eastern, and several of its peaks are thought to be towards, 10,000 feet high. One summit, however, in the eastern range, namely, Mount Hermon, now called Jebel-esh-Sheikh, is higher still, and rises nearly into the region of perpetual ice. See HERMON . An Arab poet says of the highest peak of Lebanon, "The Sannin bears winter on his head, spring upon his shoulders, and autumn in his bosom, while summer lies sleeping at his feet."
The Hebrew writers often allude to this sublime mountain range, Isaiah 10:34 35:2 , rising like a vast barrier on their north, Isaiah 37:24 . They speak of its sea of foliage agitated by the gales, Psalm 72:16 ; of its noble cedars and other trees, Isaiah 60:13 Jeremiah 22:23 ; of its innumerable herds, the whole of which, however, could not atone for one sin, Isaiah 40:16 ; its snow-cold streams, Jeremiah 18:14 , and its balsamic perfume, Hosea 14:5 . Moses longed to enter the Holy Land, that he might "see that goodly mountain and Lebanon," Deuteronomy 3:24,25 ; and Solomon says of the Beloved, the type of Christ, "his countenance is as Lebanon," Song of Song of Solomon 5:15 . "The tower of Lebanon which looketh towards Damascus," Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 , is brought to recollection by the accounts given by modern travelers of the ruins of ancient temples, built of stones of vast size. Many such ruinous temples have been discovered in different parts of Lebanon, several of them on conspicuous points, high up in the mountains, where the labor of erecting them must have been stupendous.
At present, Lebanon is inhabited by a hardy and turbulent race of mountaineers. Its vast wilderness of mountains forms almost a world by itself. Its western slopes particularly, rising by a succession of terraces from the plain of the coast, are covered with vines, olives, mulberries, and figs; and occupied, as well as the valleys among the mountains, by numberless villages. Anti-Lebanon are Drues and Maronites; the former Mohammedan mystics, and the latter bigoted Romanists. Among them are interspersed many Greeks and Armenians.
For "cedar of Lebanon," see CEDAR .
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Lebanon
Lebanon was the name of a mountain range north of Israel between Phoenicia and Syria. It ran parallel to the coast, leaving only a narrow coastal plain for the Phoenician cities, most important of which were Tyre and Sidon (see PHOENICIA). The range gave its name to much of the surrounding territory, and even today the nation that occupies this region is called Lebanon.
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Lebanon - Lebanon (lĕb'a-non), exceeding white. A double mountain range to the north of Palestine, consisting of a western chain, Lebanon proper, and an eastern. "Lebanon toward the sun-rising," Joshua 13:5, called by classic writers Anti-Libanus, and enclosing a valley from five to eight miles broad—" the valley of Lebanon," Joshua 11:17; called by classic writers Cœlo-Syria. The western range, the Lebanon proper, begins on the north near the banks of the Eleutherus, which passes through the plain of Emesa, the "entrance of Hamath," Numbers 34:8, to the Mediterranean, and runs for a distance of 90 geographical miles, in the direction from northeast to southwest, parallel with the Mediterranean, to the banks of the Litany, the ancient Leontes, which, draining Cœlo-Syria and breaking through the Lebanon by a wild gorge, enters the Mediterranean a few miles north of Tyre. "The smell of thy garments is like the smell of Lebanon. The eastern chain, the Anti-Lebanon, runs nearly parallel with the western. From both ranges numerous rivers descend—the Eleutherus, Leontes, Jordan, Abana, and Pharpar (which see); and the cold-flowing waters of the springs and streams of Lebanon were and are still proverbial
Hamath - The city of Hamath was situated in the north of Lebanon, at the end of the Lebanon ranges and on the edge of the Syrian plain. ...
At the northern end of the Lebanon ranges was a prominent gap known as ‘the entrance of Hamath’, where Lebanon opened on to the plains of Syria. (For further details see Lebanon
Forest - See Lebanon...
Anti-Lebanon - See Lebanon
Mount Lebanon - See Lebanon
Mizar - Smallness, a summit on the eastern ridge of Lebanon, near which David lay after escaping from Absalom (Psalm 42:6 ). It may, perhaps, be the present Jebel Ajlun, thus named, "the little", in contrast with the greater elevation of Lebanon and Hermon
Lebanon - In Hebrew Lebanon, related to "alp". , having between the fertile valley anciently called Coelosyria, now El Beka'a (where are the grand ruins of the temple of the sun), about six or seven miles wide, "the valley of Lebanon" (Joshua 11:17). ) The eastern range was Antilibanus, or "Lebanon toward the sunrising. " The wady et Teim separates the southern part of Antilibanus from Lebanon and also from the Galilee hills. ...
Lebanon runs parallel to the coast in the plain of Emesa opening from the Mediterranean, in Scripture "the entering in (i. ; and Hermon in Antilebanon is 10,125 ft. Lebanon is of grey limestone, with belts of recent sandstone along the western slopes. above the sea, in the center of the vast recess or semicircle formed by the highest summits of Lebanon above the deep valley of the sacred river Kadisha. ) Odorous flowers and aromatic shrubs and vines still yield" the smell of Lebanon" wafted by the mountain breeze (Song of Solomon 4:11). The trees striking their roots into the fissures of rocks illustrate Hosea 14:5, "Israel shall strike forth his roots as Lebanon. " Lebanon is a delightful retreat from the sultry heat of the plains and of Palestine, cooled as it is by the snows which crown its peaks. Jeremiah (Jeremiah 18:14) asks, "will a man leave the snow of Lebanon which cometh from the rock of the field (a poetical name for Lebanon towering above the surrounding plain)? Or shall the cold flowing waters that come from another place (from the distant rocks) be forsaken?" None. The plain of Phoenicia, two miles wide, runs at the base of Lebanon between it and the sea. Lebanon was assigned to Israel, but never conquered (Joshua 13:2-6; Judges 3:1-3). Antilibanus is less peopled than Lebanon, and has more wild beasts: Song of Solomon 4:8, "look from the top of Amana, from . "The tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus" is Hermon (Song of Solomon 7:4)
Antilibanus - See Lebanon
Forest of Lebanon, House of - See House of the Forest of Lebanon
Mash - (massh) A son of Aram (Genesis 10:23 ) in Table of Nations and thus original ancestor of Syrian tribal group, possibly from Mount Masius (Tur Abdin) in Northern Mesopotamia or the Mashu mountains of the Gilgamesh epic, probably the Lebanon and anti-Lebanon mountains
Algum - " Brought from Ophir, and from Lebanon. The cedars and firs came from Lebanon, but the almug trees from Ophir, an Arabian mart on the Red Sea, for eastern produce intended for Tyre and the W. The algums would come with the firs and cedars cut from Lebanon, and so all would be described collectively as "from Lebanon
Sinites - A Canaanite tribe, probably near Mount Lebanon, Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:15
Lebanon - It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. Lebanon proper, Jebel es-Sharki, commences at its southern extremity in the gorge of the Leontes, the ancient Litany, and extends north-east, parallel to the Mediterranean coast, as far as the river Eleutherus, at the plain of Emesa, "the entering of Hamath" (Numbers 34:8 ; 1 Kings 8:65 ), in all about 90 geographical miles in extent. The scenes of the Lebanon are remarkable for their grandeur and beauty, and supplied the sacred writers with many expressive similes (Psalm 29:5,6 ; 72:16 ; 104:16-18 ; Song of Solomon 4:15 ; Isaiah 2:13 ; 35:2 ; 60:13 ; Hosea 14:5 ). ...
The eastern range, or Anti-Lebanon, or "Lebanon towards the sunrising," runs nearly parallel with the western from the plain of Emesa till it connects with the hills of Galilee in the south. ...
Lebanon is first mentioned in the description of the boundary of Palestine (Deuteronomy 1:7 ; 11:24 ). ...
The Lebanon range is now inhabited by a population of about 300,000 Christians, Maronites, and Druses, and is ruled by a Christian governor. The Anti-Lebanon is inhabited by Mohammedans, and is under a Turkish ruler
Bether - Dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in Song of Solomon 2:17 ; probably near Lebanon
Bether - Probably near the Lebanon range
Lebanon - The cedars of Lebanon, and the streams from Lebanon, are spoken of in highly figurative language, to intimate the blessings in Christ. Hence the spouse in the Canticles speaks of Jesus as "a fountain of gardens, a well of living waters, and streams from Lebanon. " (Song of Song of Solomon 4:15) And the idea is as beautiful as the figure is just and correct: for as the cold flowing waters which descend from the mountain of Lebanon refresh the earth, and cool the hot climate, and are very copious, and run with rapidity; so the grace of God in Christ Jesus, like the water of life, runs freely, graciously, and abundantly, to make "glad the city of God. " (Isaiah 32:2) Hence the prophet, exclaiming against the folly of Israel's leaving the Lord, saith, "Will a man leave the snow of Lebanon which cometh from the rock of the field; or shall the cold flowing waters that come from another place be forgotten?" (Jeremiah 18:14)...
Lebanon - Lebanon , now Jebel Lebnân , is mentioned more than 60 times in the OT. The snow of Lebanon is mentioned in Jeremiah 18:14 . From Lebanon was obtained wood for building the first ( 2 Chronicles 2:8 ) and the second ( Ezra 3:7 ) Temple. Lebanon was famous for its fruitfulness ( Psalms 72:16 ) and its wine ( Hosea 14:7 ). ...
The term ‘Lebanon’ may be considered in most places as referring to the whole mountain mass, more correctly distinguished as Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ( Libanus and Antilibanus of Jdt 1:7 ). The western range, Lebanon proper, is nearly 100 miles long, but the eastern, if Hermon is deducted as a separate entity, is only 65 miles long. Geologically the Lebanon is built of three main groups of strata. Lebanon scenery. Of the Lebanon rivers besides the Nahr Litâni (Leontes) and the Nahr el-Kebîr (Eleutherus), the following may be enumerated from S. ...
The Lebanon is still fairly well wooded in a few places, though very scantily compared with ancient times, when Hiram, king of Tyre, supplied Solomon with ‘cedar trees, fir trees, and algum trees out of Lebanon’ (1 Kings 5:6 , 2 Chronicles 2:8 ). Many of the views in the Lebanon are of most romantic beauty, and the climate of many parts is superb. ...
Politically the Lebanon rejoices in a freer and better government than any other part of Syria, as, since the massacres of 1860, a Christian governor, appointed with the approval of the European Powers, rules on behalf of the Sultan. ...
Between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon is the great hollow known to the Greeks as Cœle-Syria , and to-day called Buqa‘ el-‘Azîz . This hollow plain, besides being crossed transversely by the Damascus railway and road, is traversed over more than half its length by the new line past Baalbek, Homs, and Hamath to Aleppo Some part of this plain, ‘the valley of the Lebanon, would appear to have been conquered by the Israelites ( Joshua 11:17 ). ...
The Anti-Lebanon is to-day known as Jebel esh-Sherki or ‘the east mountain,’ the equivalent of ‘Lebanon towards the sun-rising’ of Joshua 13:5 . In Song of Solomon 7:4 it is referred to as ‘the tower of Lebanon that looketh towards Damascus. ‘Lebanon’ is in the LXX [2] ‘Anti-Lebanon. ’ Anti-Lebanon is somewhat arbitrarily divided from Hermon, which is structurally its S
Lysanias - Tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1 ), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus
Abilene - Tetrarchy in Syria, east of Lebanon, mentioned by Luke as being governed by Lysanias at the birth of Christ
Zaanannim - Joshua 19:33 , a town in the north of Naphtali, near Kedesh and the foot of Anti-Lebanon, Judges 4:11
Cedar Tree - The cedar tree of Lebanon, forms an interesting object in holy Scripture, and merits attention. (See Leviticus 14:4) One of the kings of Israel called himself by the name of the Cedar of Lebanon, 2 Kings 14:9. (Song of Song of Solomon 1:17) And the state of individual believers in the church is more than once spoken of, as resembled by the flourishing nature of the cedar of Lebanon. Taught by such an infallible Teacher methinks I would never read of the Cedar of Lebanon, without connecting with it some sweet resemblance to be discovered in his people, which he saith himself are the branch of his planting, and which are so, that they might be called trees of righteousness, "the planting of the Lord, that he might be glorified. " (Isaiah 60:21; Isa 61:3) And if Jesus himself, be in the view of JEHOVAH, and in his church's view, "the plant of renown," (Ezekiel 34:29) surely, it is blessed to know, that the church is in Jesus's view, the Cedar of Lebanon. And in how many ways do they bear resemblance to the glory of Lebanon, when made comely, from the comliness Jesus puts upon them! Is there any tree of the wood so graceful, or so lovely, as the Cedar of Lebanon? Neither is there any lily among the thorns so fair, and white, and fragrant, as Jesus's love is among the daughters. (Song of Song of Solomon 2:2) Do any trees out-top the Cedar of Lebanon, spread wider, or cast their branches with more luxuriancy farther than this fair one? Neither do any grow more upright, extend their usefulness in equal direction for general good, as the disciples of the Lord. And as the Cedar of Lebanon is deep-rooted, ever-green, and ever-fragrant, so believers in Christ are deep-rooted in him, always flourishing in him, however unprofitable in themselves; and as the prophet describes the church, "their branches shall spread, and their beauty be as the olive tree, and their smell like Lebanon. " (Hosea 14:6) Such, and many more of the like nature, open to our view, while considering the church in Jesus's esteem, as the Cedar of Lebanon
Lebanon - An Arab poet says of the highest peak of Lebanon, "The Sannin bears winter on his head, spring upon his shoulders, and autumn in his bosom, while summer lies sleeping at his feet. Moses longed to enter the Holy Land, that he might "see that goodly mountain and Lebanon," Deuteronomy 3:24,25 ; and Solomon says of the Beloved, the type of Christ, "his countenance is as Lebanon," Song of Song of Solomon 5:15 . "The tower of Lebanon which looketh towards Damascus," Song of Song of Solomon 7:4 , is brought to recollection by the accounts given by modern travelers of the ruins of ancient temples, built of stones of vast size. Many such ruinous temples have been discovered in different parts of Lebanon, several of them on conspicuous points, high up in the mountains, where the labor of erecting them must have been stupendous. ...
At present, Lebanon is inhabited by a hardy and turbulent race of mountaineers. Anti-Lebanon are Drues and Maronites; the former Mohammedan mystics, and the latter bigoted Romanists. ...
For "cedar of Lebanon," see CEDAR
Algum Trees, Almug Trees - 2 Chronicles 2:8 presents a difficulty, for it seems to say that algum trees came from Lebanon, and the same trees could scarcely be indigenous to places so dissimilar as Lebanon and Ophir. In the last passage the several trees sent by Huram may be named together without meaning that they were all cut from Lebanon
Forest - The forest of Lebanon. ...
The context shows that these passages do not refer to the forest at Lebanon; but that Solomon had a house at Jerusalem built of the trees from Lebanon, and called it 'the house of the forest of Lebanon. ' The actual forest at Lebanon is often referred to for its noble trees
Mount Hermon - (Hebrew: sacred) ...
Group of mountains in Palestine forming the southern extremity of Anti-Lebanon, marking on the east of the Jordan the northern boundary of Israel
Sin'Ite, - a tribe of Canaanites, (Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:15 ) whose position is to be sought for in the northern part of the Lebanon district
Hermon, Mount - (Hebrew: sacred) ...
Group of mountains in Palestine forming the southern extremity of Anti-Lebanon, marking on the east of the Jordan the northern boundary of Israel
Amana - ” Mountain peak in Anti-lebanon mountains where lovers meet and then descend (Song of Song of Solomon 4:8 )
Aphek - A city in Lebanon, assigned to the tribe of Asher, Joshua 13:4 ; 19:30 ; but not subdued, Judges 1:31 . Its site may be still found in Mount Lebanon, called Aphka
Baal Gad - "Under mount Hermon, in the valley of Lebanon," still retaining the Hebrew name for "the valley," 'el buka , between Lebanon and Antilebanon
Fir - Βerosh (from barash , "to cut up into planks") and beroth ; including the Scotch fir, Ρi inus silvestris ; the lurch, the cypress: all found in Lebanon, according to the Imperial Dictionary. But Smith's Bible Dictionary Appendix (from Septuagint arkeuthos) and kedros) ) identifies berowsh with the tall fragrant juniper of Lebanon, and denies that the lurch and Scotch fir exist in Syria or Palestine
Baal Gad - "Under mount Hermon, in the valley of Lebanon," still retaining the Hebrew name for "the valley," 'el buka , between Lebanon and Antilebanon
Hermon - Mount Hermon was in the far north of Palestine, at the southern end of the Lebanon Range. The ancient Amorites called it Mt Senir (Deuteronomy 3:9; see also Lebanon)
Amana - Probably one of the peaks of the Anti-lebanon range, or a mountain near
Hul - ( Genesis 10:23 ) The strongest evidence is in favor of the district about the roots of Lebanon
Cedar - This celebrated tree is not peculiar to mount Lebanon, but grows also upon mounts Amanus and Taurus in Asia Minor, and in other parts of the Levant, but does not elsewhere reach the size and height of those on Lebanon. The palace of Persepolis, the temple at Jerusalem, and Solomon's palace, were all in this way built with cedar; and "the house of the forest of Lebanon," was perhaps so called from the quantity of this wood used in its construction, 1 Kings 7:2 10:17 . ...
Of the forests of cedars which once covered Lebanon, comparatively few are now left, Isaiah 2:13 10:19 ; though there are still many scattered trees in various parts, resembling the genuine cedar. The largest and most ancient trees, generally thought to be the only ones, are found in a grove, lying a little off from the road which crosses mount Lebanon from Baalbek to Tripole, at some distance below the summit of the mountain on the western side, at the foot indeed of the highest summit or ridge of Lebanon. See Lebanon . ...
Besides the true cedar of Lebanon, the word cedar in the Bible appears to mean sometimes the juniper and sometimes the pine
Amana - ) A mountain near Lebanon, perhaps the southern top of Antilibanus (Song of Solomon 4:8)
Sinite - In the Lebanon district Strabo mentions Sinna (16:2, section 18); Jerome that near Area was Sinum, Sini (Quaest,
Libanus - ) name Lebanon (wh
Amana - Probably the mountains near the river Abana or Amana, being connected with Hermon and Lebanon; or else Mount Amanus in the north of Syria
Amana - The southern part or summit of Anti-Lebanon, adjacent to and north of Hermon, from which the river Amana or Abana poured down towards Damascus, Song of Song of Solomon 4:8
Arkite - (Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:15 ), a designation of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon
Sidon - Ancient Phenician seaport, 67 miles from Caesarea, between Mount Lebanon and the Mediterranean, where Saint Paul stopped on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27)
Lebanon - This configuration of the mountains, and the superiority of Lebanon, are particularly striking to the traveller approaching both from the Mediterranean on the west. This is Lebanon, which is often referred to in Holy Writ for its streams, its timber, and its wines; and at the present day the seat of the only portion of freedom of which Syria can boast. ...
The altitude of Lebanon is so considerable, that it appears from the reports of travellers to have snow on its highest eminences all the year round. Clarke, in the month of July, saw some of the eastern summits of Lebanon, or Anti-Libanus, near Damascus, covered with snow, not lying in patches, as is common in the summer season with mountains which border on the line of perpetual congelation, but do not quite reach it, but with that perfect white, smooth, and velvet-like appearance, which snow only exhibits when it is very deep,—a striking spectacle in such a climate, where the beholder, seeking protection from a burning sun, almost considers the firmament to be on fire. The rains which fall in the lower regions of Lebanon, and the melting of the snow in the upper ones, furnish an abundance of perennial streams, which are alluded to by Solomon, Song of Solomon 4:15 . ...
The cedar of Lebanon has, in all ages, been reckoned as an object of unrivalled grandeur and beauty in the vegetable kingdom. Thus, the Prophet Isaiah, whose writings abound with metaphors and allegories of this kind, in denouncing the judgments of God upon the proud and arrogant, declares that "the day of the Lord of Hosts shall be upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan," Isaiah 2:13 . The king of Israel used the same figure in his reply to the challenge of the king of Judah: "The thistle that was in Lebanon sent to the cedar that was in Lebanon, saying, Give thy daughter to my son to wife: and there passed by a wild beast that was in Lebanon, and trod down the thistle," 2 Kings 14:9 . The spiritual prosperity of the righteous man is compared by the Psalmist to the same noble plant: "The righteous shall flourish as the palm- tree; he shall grow as the cedar in Lebanon. The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars: yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon. He maketh them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young unicorn," Psalms 29:4-6 . ...
The stupendous size, the extensive range, and great elevation of Libanus; its towering summits capped with perpetual snow, or crowned with fragrant cedars; its olive plantations; its vineyards, producing the most delicious wines; its clear fountains, and cold-flowing brooks; its fertile vales, and odoriferous shrubberies,—combine to form in Scripture language, "the glory of Lebanon. Their countless number in the days of Solomon, and their prodigious bulk, must be recollected, in order to feel the force of that sublime declaration of the prophet: "Lebanon is not sufficient to burn, nor the beasts thereof sufficient for a burnt-offering,"...
Isaiah 40:16 . Though the trembling sinner were to make choice of Lebanon for the altar; were to cut down all its forests to form the pile; though the fragrance of this fuel, with all its odoriferous gums, were the incense; the wine of Lebanon pressed from all its vineyards, the libation; and all its beasts, the propitiatory sacrifice; all would prove insufficient to make atonement for the sins of men; would be regarded as nothing in the eyes of the supreme Judge for the expiation of even one transgression. It shall blossom abundantly, and rejoice even with joy and singing; the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it, the excellency of Carmel and Sharon: they shall see the glory of the Lord
Baalgad - Place at the foot of Mount Hermon in the valley of Lebanon, the northern limit of Joshua's conquest
Pine Tree - A tree that grew on Mount Lebanon, but of what sort is uncertain
Eleutherus - Nahr el-Kebîr or ‘Great River,’ which divides the Lebanon in two north of Tripoli
Maronite - ) One of a body of nominal Christians, who speak the Arabic language, and reside on Mount Lebanon and in different parts of Syria
am'Ana - (a covenant ), apparently a mountain in or near Lebanon
Helbon - The village is in a wild glen, high up the Anti-Lebanon, and is still celebrated for its luxurious grapes
Druse - ) One of a people and religious sect dwelling chiefly in the Lebanon mountains of Syria
Abilene - a small province in Coelo-Syria, between Lebanon and Antilibanus
Hiram - As king of Tyre in Lebanon, Hiram (or Huram) had always enjoyed good relations with the Israelite kings to the south. He lent Solomon money, in payment of which Solomon offered to give him a large section of Israel’s northern territory (which bordered Lebanon) (1 Kings 9:10-14). He was a highly skilled craftsman, also from Lebanon, whom Hiram the king sent to Jerusalem to do the bronze work and other decorations for Solomon’s temple (1 Kings 7:13-14; 1 Kings 7:40-46; 2 Chronicles 2:7; 2 Chronicles 2:13-14)
Baal-Gad - This was another of the heathen idols, and as we learn from the book of Joshua, (Joshua 11:17) was set up in the valley of Lebanon
Cedar - Moreover the deodara cedar (the tree of God, Psalms 104:16, the sacred tree of the Hindus, of which they construct their temples) has the durability wanting in our modern cedar of Lebanon. ...
The Nineveh inscriptions state that the palaces were in part constructed of cedar; this proves on microscopic examination to be yew; so that by "cedar of Lebanon" the wood of more than one tree is meant, the pine cedar, Scotch fir, yew, deodara. In a hollow of Lebanon, where no other trees are near, about 400 cedars of Lebanon stand alone, 3,000 feet below the summit and 6,400 above the sea. Sennacherib had desired to "go up to the sides of Lebanon and cut down the tall cedars thereof" (2 Kings 19:23), but was baffled by the interposition of Jehovah. The cedar of Lebanon is an evergreen, its leaves remaining on for two years, and every spring contributing a fresh supply
Mearah - This may be the cave of Jezzin in Lebanon, 10 miles east of Sidon, on the Damascus road; or probably, as others think, Mogheirizeh, north-east of Sidon
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Diocese of - Embraces the counties of Dauphin, Lebanon, Lancaster, York, Adams, Franklin, Cumberland, Perry, Juniata, Mifflin, Snyder, Northumberland, Union, Montour, and Columbia; area, 7660 square miles
Leb'Anon, - The name Lebanon signifies white, and was applied either on account of snow which, during a great part of the year, cover its whole summit, or on account of the white color of its limestone cliffs and peaks. Lebanon is represented in Scripture as lying upon the northern border of the land of Israel. The western range is the "Libanus" of the old geographers and the Lebanon of Scripture. The eastern range was called "Anti-Libanus" by geographers, and "Lebanon toward the sunrising" by the sacred writers. ( Joshua 13:5 )
Lebanon --the western range-- commences on the south of the deep ravine of the Litany , the ancient river Leontes, which drains the valley of Cole-Syria, and falls into the Mediterranean five miles north of Tyre. Lebanon also abounds in olives, figs and mulberries; while some remnants exist of the forests of pine, oak and cedar which formerly covered it. (2 Kings 14:9 ; Song of Solomon 4:8 ); Habb 2:17 Along the base of Lebanon runs the irregular plain of Phoenicia --nowhere more than two miles wide, and often interrupted by bold rocky spurs that dip into the sea. The main ridge of Lebanon is composed of Jura limestone, and abounds in fossils. Lebanon was originally inhabited by the Hivites and Giblites. (1 Kings 5:2-6 ; Ezra 3:7 ) From the Greek conquest until modern times Lebanon had no separate history. Anti-Libanus is only once distinctly mentioned in Scripture, where it is accurately described as "Lebanon toward the sunrising
Hethlon - The "way of Hethlon" (Ezekiel 47:15 ; 48:1 ) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q
Chamois - (pronounced often shame), the translation of the Hebrew zemer in (14:5) But the translation is incorrect; for there is no evidence that the chamois have ever been seen in Palestine or the Lebanon
Mount, Mountain - Gerizim, Ebal, Zion and Olivet, and for ranges, such as Lebanon
Lebanon - It is the center of the great mountain range of central Syria, which is about 95 miles long, and consists of two parallel mountain chains of the same formation; the western, or Lebanon proper, and the eastern, or Antilibanus. In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Libanus - It is the center of the great mountain range of central Syria, which is about 95 miles long, and consists of two parallel mountain chains of the same formation; the western, or Lebanon proper, and the eastern, or Antilibanus. In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Mountain, White - It is the center of the great mountain range of central Syria, which is about 95 miles long, and consists of two parallel mountain chains of the same formation; the western, or Lebanon proper, and the eastern, or Antilibanus. In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Ituraea - It was located northeast of Galilee between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains, though its precise boundaries are almost impossible to determine
White Mountain - It is the center of the great mountain range of central Syria, which is about 95 miles long, and consists of two parallel mountain chains of the same formation; the western, or Lebanon proper, and the eastern, or Antilibanus. In the latter, Mount Hermon reaches the height of 9300 feet Lebanon is often mentioned poetically in the Old Testament (Osee 14; Nahum 1), and is noted for its abundance of wood, especially the cedar (Zachariah 11; 1 Esdras 3), which was used by Solomon in building the Temple (3Kings 5)
Lebanon - The country itself is dominated by two mountain ridges, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains. The Lebanon range extends for about 105 miles along the coast, from modern-day Tripoli in the north to Tyre in the south. ...
In the Bible, Lebanon is celebrated in various capacities. It was a proverbially lush land, noted for its magnificent forests (Isaiah 60:13 ), especially the “cedars of Lebanon” (Judges 9:15 ; Isaiah 2:13 ). For the tree-poor Palestinians, Lebanon's cedars symbolized the ultimate in natural wealth and beauty. It is said that some of the cedars remaining in Lebanon are at least 2,500 years old. ...
Cedars, as well as other woods of Lebanon, were used in great abundance in the construction of David's palace and Solomon's Temple and palace buildings (1 Kings 5:10-18 ; 1 Kings 7:2 ). ...
The forests of Lebanon have been victims of human greed and irresponsibility. Alexander the Great conquered Lebanon
Arkites - Descendants of Canaan, of the Zidonian branch, who settled a town, called Arka, at the northwest foot of Mount Lebanon, Genesis 10:17 ; 1 Chronicles 1:15
Hethlon - end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean coast to the plain of Hamath, i
Hammon - It may be modern Umm el-awamid near the Mediterranean coast in Lebanon about five miles northeast of Rosh ha-niqra
Baal-Hermon - ...
...
A mountain east of Lebanon (Judges 3:3 )
Amana - A ridge or peak of the Lebanon range, in which the river Amana or Abana has its source
Leopard - namer ) is invariably given by the Authorized Version as the translation of the Hebrew word, which occurs in the seven following passages: ( Song of Solomon 4:8 ; Isaiah 11:6 ; Jeremiah 5:6 ; 13:23 ; Daniel 7:6 ; Hosea 13:7 ); Habb 1:8 Leopard occurs also in Sirach 28:23 and in ( Revelation 13:2 ) From (Song of Solomon 4:8 ) we learn that the hilly ranges of Lebanon were in ancient times frequented by these animals. They are now not uncommonly seen in and about Lebanon and the southern maritime mountains of Syria
Baal-Gad' - A city in the valley of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon; the northernmost point, to which the wars of Joshua reached, Joshua 11:17 ; 12:7 ; 13:5
Heth'Lon - ( Ezekiel 47:15 ; 48:1 ) In all probability the "way of Hethlon" is the pass at the northern end of Lebanon, and is thus identical with "the entrance of Hamath" in (Numbers 34:8 ) etc
Zemarite - The designation of one of the Phoenician tribes (Genesis 10:18 ) who inhabited the town of Sumra, at the western base of the Lebanon range
Ituraea - Its boundaries cannot be well defined, but it reached toward Damascus and embraced the southern slopes of Anti-Lebanon
Algum - A rare wood Solomon imported from Lebanon for the Temple (2 Chronicles 2:8 )
Fir Tree - Probably the Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis), which is almost as large as the cedar, is now found on Lebanon, and was formerly doubtless abundant through Palestine
Phenice, Phenicia - The same as PHOENICE, the coast of Northern Syria, extending south of Tyre, and north of Sidon, being a narrow strip of land in the south, but reaching to the Lebanon range in the N. Phoenice later formed a part of the Turkish Empire, it is now part of the state of Lebanon
Cedar - The finest of the trees of Lebanon, the principal constituent of its ‘glory’ ( Isaiah 35:2 ; Isaiah 60:13 ); it was noted for its strength ( Psalms 29:5 ), its height ( 2 Kings 19:23 ) and its majesty ( 1 Kings 4:33 , 2 Kings 14:9 , Zechariah 11:1-2 ). In all these respects the ‘cedar of Lebanon’ ( Cedrus Libani ) answers to the requirements. The great region of this cedar is now the Cilician Taurus Mountains beyond Mersina, but small groves survive in places in the Lebanon. The reference in Numbers 24:6 to ‘cedar trees beside the waters’ can hardly apply to the Lebanon cedar, which flourishes best on bare mountain slopes
Lebanon - ...
The western range is the Lebanon generally referred to in scripture and the one from whence Solomon obtained cedar and fir trees for the temple. ...
The eastern range is often called ANTI-LEBANON, but in scripture it is alluded to as 'Lebanon toward the sun-rising. The road from Beyrout [1] to Damascus crosses both the mountains of Lebanon
Zabadaeans - Perhaps Zebedâni , on the Anti-Lebanon, about 20 miles on the way from Damascus to Baalbek, represents the ancient name
Coal - Mineral coal is now procured in mount Lebanon, eight hours from Beirut; but we have no certainty that it was known and used by the Jews
Levy - of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon
Abilene - A plain, a district lying on the east slope of the Anti-Lebanon range; so called from its chief town, Abila (Luke 3:1 ), which stood in the Suk Wady Barada, between Heliopolis (Baalbec) and Damascus, 38 miles from the former and 18 from the latter
mi'Zar - (It is probably a summit of the eastern ridge of Lebanon, not far from Mahanaim, where David lay after escaping from the rebellion of Absalom
Cedar - Special reference is made to it in scripture, as "the trees of the Lord are full of sap; the cedars of Lebanon which he hath planted. It cannot be considered as one of the trees of Palestine proper, but is constantly connected in scripture with Lebanon, where it still grows in a group of some 300, a few being very old, and with no others near: the neighbouring people regard them with reverence. The cedar is used as a symbol of strength and stability: the righteous shall grow up as a cedar of Lebanon
Syria - Excepting the Lebanon range, it is for the most part a level country. ...
The valley between the ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon was called Coele-Syria and Phoenicia were subject to the king of Babylon, and they afterwards were tributary to the Persian monarchs
Mount Amana - It was from hence Christ called his Spouse the church--"Come with me from Lebanon, (my spouse) with me from Lebanon: look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir and Hermon, from the lions' den, from the mountains of the leopards;" (Song of Song of Solomon 4:8
Vale - Bikʾah, properly a "cleft," but applied to a broader space than a cleft or valley, and meaning sometimes a "plain," as that between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon and Megiddo
Valley - Bikʾah, properly a "cleft," but applied to a broader space than a cleft or valley, and meaning sometimes a "plain," as that between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon and Megiddo
Baal-Gad - ” Town representing northern limit of Joshua's conquests (Joshua 11:17 ) in Valley of Lebanon at foot of Mount Hermon
Helbon - A Syrian city celebrated for its wine, Ezekiel 27:18, and formerly identified with Aleppo, but later with Halbûn, in a wild glen high up in the Anti-Lebanon
Baal-Gad - A place under Hermon, in the valley of Lebanon, referred to only as the northern limit of the country conquered by Joshua ( Joshua 11:17 ; Joshua 12:7 ; Joshua 13:5 )
Bear - ]'>[1] dûbb ) is still fairly common in Hermon and the Anti-Lebanon, and is occasionally found in the Lebanon and east of the Jordan; it is practically extinct in Palestine
Nose - Among the rest he saith, "her nose is as the tower of Lebanon, which looketh towards Damascus. " (Song of Song of Solomon 7:4) It is a beautiful metaphor, intimating the quickness of discernment by smell of all that is fragrant in Jesus, and his redemption in mount Lebanon, his gospel church
Tibhath - The site of Tibhath is unknown, but it was possibly on the eastern slopes of Anti-Lebanon
Calamus - " A scented cane is said to have been found in a valley of Lebanon, reedlike, much jointed, and very fragrant when bruised
Towers - Used as parts of city walls, or separate, as EDAR, Lebanon, etc
Zemarites - (zehm' uh ritess) Canaanites inhabiting the area north of Lebanon between Arvad and Tripolis (Genesis 10:18 ; 1 Chronicles 1:16 )
Aven - It seems to be a "plain" or valley in Lebanon, where Baalbek is situated, still called el Bukâʾa
Saron - (Hebrew: sharon, plain) ...
(1) a maritime plain 55 miles long between Jaffa and Mount Carmel in Judea, ranked with Carmel and Lebanon for its luxuriant vegetation (Isaiah 35) ...
(2) the country between Mount Thabor and the Lake of Tiberias; Saint Peter visited here and cured a man sick eight years with the palsy (Acts 9) ...
(3) region east of the Jordan, near Galaad (1Par 5) ...
Pine - Several varieties of pines abound upon Mount Lebanon, the largest of which is the sunobar kubar; also found on several sandy plains of Palestine
Mount - West of Jordan the mountains stretch from Lebanon far down into Galilee, terminating in Carmel. East of the Jordan the Anti-Lebanon, stretching south, terminates in the hilly district called Jebel Heish, which reaches down to the Sea of Gennesareth
Abilene - Abilene was located about eighteen miles northwest of Damascus in the Anti-Lebanon mountain range
Abilene - The name of a district of country on the eastern declivity of Anti-Lebanon, from twelve to twenty miles north-west of Damascus, towards Heliopolis, or Baalbek; so called from the city of ABILA, and also called Abilene of Lysanias, to distinguish it from others
Helbon - It has been usually identified with the modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the river Barada (Abana)
Pine Tree - This is probably the cypress; or it may be the stone-pine, which is common on the northern slopes of Lebanon
Towers - Of Babel (Genesis 11:4 ), Edar (Genesis 35:21 ), Penuel (Judges 8:9,17 ), Shechem (9:46), David (Song of Solomon 4:4 ), Lebanon (7:4), Syene (Ezekiel 29:10 ), Hananeel (Zechariah 14:10 ), Siloam (Luke 13:4 )
Helbon - of Damascus, high up in a wild glen of Anti-Lebanon; still famed for the finest grapes, also a depot for wool through its trade with the Bedouin shepherds
Giblites - Of Gebal on the sea coast, at the foot Of the northern slopes of Lebanon (margin 1 Kings 5:18; Psalms 83:7; Ezekiel 27:9)
Abanah - It is identified with the Barada , a river rising on the eastern slope of the Anti-Lebanon, which runs first southward, then westward, through the Wady Barada and the plain of Damascus
Cedar - It grew very abundantly in Palestine, and particularly on Lebanon, of which it was "the glory" (Isaiah 35:2 ; 60:13 ). Hiram supplied Solomon with cedar trees from Lebanon for various purposes connected with the construction of the temple and the king's palace (2 Samuel 5:11 ; 7:2,7 ; 1 Kings 5:6,8,10 ; 6:9,10,15,16,18,20 ; 7:2,3,7,11,12 ; 9:11 , etc. ...
Of the ancient cedars of Lebanon there remain now only some seven or eight
Hamath - Fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Numbers 13:21 ; 34:8 ), at the foot of Hermon (Joshua 13:5 ) towards Damascus (Zechariah 9:2 ; Jeremiah 49:23 ). ...
The kingdom of Hamath comprehended the great plain lying on both banks of the Orontes from the fountain near Riblah to Assamea on the north, and from Lebanon on the west to the desert on the east. The "entrance of Hamath" (Numbers 34:8 ), which was the north boundary of Palestine, led from the west between the north end of Lebanon and the Nusairiyeh mountains
Laurel - NRSV and TEV find a reference to the towering cedars of Lebanon
Mearah - of Sidon, in the steep of Lebanon, a hiding place of the Druses at the present time
Cypress - up Lebanon, but not at the top, which is 10,500 ft
Abana - It rises in a cleft of the Anti-Lebanon range, about 23 miles north-west of Damascus, and after flowing southward for a little way parts into three smaller streams, the central one flowing through Damascus, and the other two on each side of the city, diffusing beauty and fertility where otherwise there would be barrenness
Bear - During the summer months these bears keep to the snowy parts of Lebanon, but descend in winter to the villages and Gardens
Coele-Syria - between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges ( 1Es 4:48 ; Strabo, xvi
Trees - It grew in Lebanon and was the most beautiful, enduring and expensive timber available (Isaiah 2:12-13; Isaiah 10:34; Isaiah 35:2; Isaiah 60:13; see Lebanon)
Adoniram - A receiver of tributes under David and Solomon, and director of the thirty thousand men sent to Lebanon to cut timber, 1 Kings 5:14
Arkites - of Phoenicia, called subsequently Caesarea Libani (at the base of Lebanon) from being Alexander Severus' birthplace; well known to the crusaders
Adoniram - Son of Abda; over the tribute for about 47 years under David, Solomon, and Rehoboam; also over Solomon's levy of 30,000 sent by ten thousands monthly to cut timber in Lebanon (1 Kings 4:6)
Erasmus, Saint - Tradition holds that he was transported by an angel from Mount Lebanon whence he had fled from the persecution, to Lake Lucrino in Italy, but was seized there and taken to Campania, where he was tortured and put to death
Baal-Gad - Lord of fortune, or troop of Baal, a Canaanite city in the valley of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon, hence called Baal-hermon (Judge 3:3; 1 Chronicles 5:23 ), near the source of the Jordan (Joshua 13:5 ; 11:17 ; 12:7 )
Claudius - Herod Agrippa I: used his influence in favour of Claudius being chosen as emperor, and in return for these efforts the emperor added to Agrippa's territories Judaea, Samaria, and some parts of Lebanon
Lofty - See lofty Lebanon his head advance
Orontes River - The Orontes, modern Asi (Turkish), Nahr el Assi (Arabic), rises near Heliopolis (Bealbek) in the Beka's valley of Lebanon, and flows north some 250 miles through Syria and Turkey before turning southwest through the great city of Antioch to reach the coast just south of ancient Seleucia, the seaport of Antioch
Fir, Fir-Tree, - It came from Lebanon, and was used in the construction of houses, and for musical instruments
Eden, House of - slope of Lebanon
Hethlon - Some see the word as a scribe's Hebrew abbreviation for mountain of Lebanon
Box-Tree - teashshur), mentioned in Isaiah 60:13 ; 41:19 , was, according to some, a species of cedar growing in Lebanon
Sycamine Tree - The rearing of them is one of the chief industries of the peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land
Tower - ; the tower of Lebanon
Hor, Mount - Probably one of the peaks of Lebanon, but not identified
Calamus - It is the calamus odoratus, a reed growing in India and Arabia, and which is said to have been found in the valley of Lebanon
Rehob - A Levitical city in Asher, Joshua 19:28 ; 21:31 , on the northern border of the Holy Land, called also Beth-rehob, and lying in a valley south of Anti-Lebanon, not far north of Dan, Numbers 13:21 ; Judges 18:28
Riblah - Its site is probably found in the modern village Ribleh, on the river Orontes, at the northern end of the great valley of Lebanon, El-Bukaa
Bear - The species known in Syria resembles the common brown bear; it is sill met in the recesses of Lebanon
Forest - ...
The valuable cedars of Lebanon were imported from Tyre by Solomon for his extensive building projects in Jerusalem (1 Kings 5:8-10 ). Solomon's palace, “The house of the forest of Lebanon,” was so named for its extensive use of these cedars (1 Kings 7:2 )
Hamath, Hemath - The district lay north of the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon, but perhaps extended southward, as the northern border of Israel is spoken of as 'the entering in of Hamath
Druzes - A Mohammedan sect in Syria opposed to the Maronite Catholics dwelling on the slopes of the Lebanon
Fable - Thus we have (1) the fable of Jotham, in which the trees are spoken of as choosing a king (Judges 9:8-15 ); and (2) that of the cedars of Lebanon and the thistle as Jehoash's answer to Amaziah (2 Kings 14:9 )
Mulberry Trees - Mulberries they cannot be; for though plentiful to-day in Palestine, and still more so in the Lebanon, these trees were introduced to the land later than OT times
Fir - As the term "cedar" is in all probability applicable to more than one tree, so also "fir" in the Authorized Version represents probably one or other of the following trees:
Pinus sylvestris , or Scotch fir; ...
Larch; ...
Cupressus sempervirens , or cypress, all which are at this day found in the Lebanon
Coney - It is found on Lebanon and in the Jordan and Dead Sea valleys
Plains - ) Βiqu'ah , the great, plain Coele ("hollow") Syria between Lebanon and Antilebanon; Βikath Αven , Amos 1:5; "the valley (Βiqa'ath ) of Lebanon" (Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7), Βiqua'ath Μizpeh (Joshua 11:8); still called el Bekaa, 60 miles long, five broad
Forest - We read also of the forest of Bethel (2 Kings 2:23,24 ), and of that which the Israelites passed in their pursuit of the Philistines (1 Samuel 14:25 ), and of the forest of the cedars of Lebanon (1 Kings 4:33 ; 2 Kings 19:23 ; Hosea 14:5,6 ). "The house of the forest of Lebanon (1 Kings 7:2 ; 10:17 ; 2 Chronicles 9:16 ) was probably Solomon's armoury, and was so called because the wood of its many pillars came from Lebanon, and they had the appearance of a forest
Cedar - A tree grown especially in Lebanon and valued as building material (probably Cedrus libani )
Senir - it appears, like Hermon and Sirion, to designate the whole of Anti-Lebanon
Almug - This tree was imported by Solomon from Ophir ( 1 Kings 10:11-12 ) and from Lebanon ( 2 Chronicles 2:8 ) for staircases, balustrades, and musical instruments
Antioch, Syria - Ancient Greek capital on the Orontes river in Asia Minor, at the junction of the Lebanon and Taurus ranges, founded 300 B
Abilene - It was situated in the Anti-Lebanon, and its capital was Abila, a town whose ruins are found to-day on the northern bank of the river Barada, near a village called Sûk Wady Barada
Asher - A territory extending from Carmel to Lebanon, about 60 miles long and ten to twelve wide, having 22 cities with their villages
hi'Vites - (Joshua 9:7 ; 11:19 ) The main body of the Hivites were at this time living in the northern confines of western Palestine-- "under Hermon, in the land of Mizpeh," (Joshua 11:3 ) --"in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal Hermon to the entering in of Hamath
Thyine Wood - Like the cedars of Lebanon, it is disappearing from the forests of Palestine
Aven - Probably the great plain of Lebanon, Coele-Syria (included in the Scripture designation, "Syria of Damascus"), in which the idol temple of Baalbek or Heliopolis, the city of the sun god Baal, stood
Baalbec - , "the city of the sun", because of its famous Temple of the Sun, has by some been supposed to be Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" (1 Kings 7:2 ; 10:17 ; 2 Chronicles 9:16 ); by others it is identified with Baal-gad (q
Snow - The snow on the tops of the Lebanon range is almost always within view throughout the whole year
Mountain - , and ranges as Lebanon
Cypress - The Hebrew word indicates a tree with hard-grained wood, not the cypress, but probably the Syrian juniper which grows wild upon Lebanon, is meant, as the cypress never does in the Holy Land
Orontes - (oh rahn tehss) The principle river of Syria which originates east of the Lebanon ridge and flows 250 miles north before turning southwest into the Mediterranean south of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Antakya)
Sheba - Being pursued, and besieged in Abel-beth-maachah, near the southern part of Lebanon, he was beheaded by the people of the city, 2 Samuel 20:1-26
Helbon - But recently a valley has been found on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the Barada, called Helbon, from on of its principal villages
Hivites - They lived mainly in the mountain country of northern Palestine and Lebanon (Joshua 11:3; Judges 3:3; 2 Samuel 24:6-7), though some lived in Shechem and others as far south as Gibeon (Genesis 34:2; Joshua 9:3; Joshua 9:7; Joshua 11:19)
Galilee, Sea of - To the north are the snow-covered Lebanon mountains. Fed chiefly by the Jordan River, which originates in the foothills of the Lebanon Mountains, the sea of Galilee is thirteen miles long north and south and eight miles wide at its greatest east-west distance
Oak - of Lebanon, where the living tree is no longer to be seen. , growing on the eastern sides of Lebanon and the hills of Galilee; its gall-nuts, formed by the puncture of an insect, contain tannin and gallic acid used for dyeing and ink
Coal - As a mineral, coal does not exist in Palestine except in the Wâdy Hummanâ in the Lebanon, and was mined there only during the rule of Muhammad Ali about 1834 (Thomson, The Land and the Book, 1886, iii. ...
The geological survey of Palestine reveals its uniformly cretaceous formation, extending from the Lebanon ranges to the plateau of Hebron
Hamath - " "The entering in of Hamath" is the northern part of the valley which leads up to it from Palestine, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, Numbers 13:21 ; 1 Kings 1:53
Plains - The great plain or valley of Coele-Syria, the "hollow land" of the Greeks, which separates the two ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon is the most remarkable of them all
Sharon, Plain of - Isaiah 35:2 parallels Sharon with Lebanon, which was known for its trees
Hivites - We also find the Hivites in the north in mount Lebanon, and Israel was beguiled into making marriage contracts with them
Horn - Among the Druses upon Mount Lebanon the married women wear silver horns on their heads
Gebal - Their land and all Lebanon were assigned to the Israelites, but never fully possessed, Joshua 13:5
Frost - "At the present day frost is entirely unknown in the lower portions of the valley of the Jordan, but slight frosts are sometimes felt on the sea-coast and near Lebanon
Aphik - The ruins of the temple, "magnificent ruins" in a "spot of strange wildness and beauty", are still seen at Afka, on the north-west slopes of Lebanon, near the source of the river Adonis (now Nahr Ibrahim), 12 miles east of Gebal
Hivites - The main body of the Hivites were then living on the northern confines of western Palestine—"under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh," Joshua 11:3; "in Mount Lebanon, from Mount Baal-hermon unto the entering in of Hamath
Zido'Nians, - They were among the nations of Canaan; left to give the Israelites practice in the art of war, (Judges 3:3 ) and colonies of them appear to have spread up into the hill country from Lebanon to Misrephothmaim, (Joshua 13:4,6 ) whence in later times they hewed cedar trees for David and Solomon
Gilead - The mountains of Gilead were part of that ridge of mountains which extend from Mount Lebanon southward, on the east of the Holy land; they gave their name to the whole country which lies on the east of the sea of Galilee, and included the mountainous region called in the New Testament Trachonitis
Tammuz - From tamzuwz , "melted down," referring to the river Adonis fed by the melted snows of Lebanon, also to the sun's decreasing heat in winter, and to Venus' melting lamentations for Adonis. The idea fabled was spring's beauties and the river's waters destroyed by summer heat (the river Adonis or nahr Ibrahim in spring becomes discolored with the heavy rains swelling the streams from Lebanon, which discoloration superstition attributed to Tammuz' blood); or else the earth clothed with beauty in the half year while the sun is in the upper hemisphere, and losing it when he descends to the lower (Ezekiel 8:14)
Cedar - It is called, "the glory of Lebanon,"...
Isaiah 60:13 . Gabriel Sionita, a very learned Syrian Maronite, who assisted in editing the Paris Polyglott, a man worthy of all credit, thus describes the cedars of mount Lebanon, which he had examined on the spot: "The cedar grows on the most elevated part of the mountain, is taller than the pine, and so thick, that five men together could scarcely encompass one
Hivites - Hivites are found in Gibeon (Joshua 9:7 ; Joshua 11:19 ), Shechem (Genesis 34:2 ), below Hermon in the land of Mizpah (Joshua 11:3 ), and in the Lebanon mountains (Judges 3:3 )
Fir - ), a lofty tree (Isaiah 55:13 ) growing on Lebanon (37:24)
Laish (2) - ) Laish being near its haunt, the wooded slopes of Bashan, Hermon, and Lebanon, and the jungles of Lake Merom (see Deuteronomy 33:22, "Dan
Fir - It was a tree of large growth ( 2 Kings 19:23 , Ezekiel 31:8 ); evergreen ( Hosea 14:8 ); a chief element in the glory of Lebanon ( Isaiah 60:13 ); associated with cedars ( Psalms 104:16-17 , Isaiah 14:8 , Zechariah 11:2 )
Coal - Mineral coal is now known to exist in the Lebanon range, but was unknown in Biblical times
Fountain - " (John 7:38) Hence the church sings so blessedly concerning her Beloved, calling him "a fountain of gardens; a well of living waters; and streams from Lebanon
Aphek - Identified with Afka at the foot of the Lebanon between Baalbek and Byblus
Joppa - Timber was cut in Lebanon and brought in 'floats' by sea to Joppa, for the temple at Jerusalem
Marble - " The marble of Solomon's architectural works may have been limestone from near Jerusalem, or from Lebanon, or possibly white marble from Arabia
Mulberry - The aspen, whose long leaf-stalks cause the leaves to tremble with every breath of wind, unites with the willow and the oak to overshadow the watercourses of the Lebanon, and with the oleander and the acacia to adorn the ravines of Southern Palestine" (Kitto)
Head-Dress - keren) mentioned in 1 Samuel 2:1 is the head-dress called by the Druses of Mount Lebanon the tantura
Fable - In this story a thistle thinks that it is equal to the giant cedars of Lebanon and gets trampled by a wild beast of the forest
Hermon - A noble mountain on the north-east border of Palestine, forming the highest part of the Anti-Lebanon range
Hermon - It is a part of the great Anti-Lebanon Range; at the point where an eastern and lower arm branches off, a little south of the latitude of Damascus, and runs in a southerly direction terminating east of the head of the sea of Galilee
Horn - The married women among the Druses of mount Lebanon still wear on their heads silver horns, as in the accompanying cut; the other head is that of an Abyssinian chief
Snow - Snow from Anti-Lebanon is still sold at Damascus and Beyroot in the simmer, and even conveyed to Egypt
Thunder - ...
The voice of the Lord breaketh the cedars;...
Yea, the Lord breaketh the cedars of Lebanon," etc
Syria - Under the Ottoman system Syria denotes no more than the district of Damascus, for the vilayets of Aleppo and Beyrout, as well as the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, form separate areas. Casius and Lebanon, and broadens out into the table-land of Galilee, Samaria, and Judaea . Between Lebanon and the sea is the plain of Phcenicia, which has only a few torrent-streams. From the high lacustrine district of Ccelesyria, between Lebanon and Anti-Libanus, the Orontes flows northward, the Litâny and Jordan southward
Hor - Perhaps it is one of the peaks of Lebanon
Snow - (Psalm 147:16 ; 148:8 ) The snow lies deep in the ravines of the highest ridge of Lebanon until the summer is far advanced and indeed never wholly disappears; the summit of Hermon also perpetually glistens with frozen snow
Leopard - "The mountains of the leopard" (Song of Solomon 4:8), namely, Lebanon and Hermon, where still they are found; "the mountains of prey" (Psalms 76:4), symbolizing the rapacious world kingdoms
Hermon - high), a spur of the Anti-Lebanon
Hivites - Their abode was about Hermon and Lebanon (Joshua 11:3, "under Hermon in the land of Mizpeh"; Judges 3:3, "from mount Baalhermon unto the entering in of Hamath"); toward Tyre (2 Samuel 24:7), and Sichem or Shechem (Genesis 34:11), and Gibeon (Joshua 9:1; Joshua 9:7)
Claudius - 19:2, section 1, 3, 4), whose territory therefore he enlarged by adding Judaea, Samaria, and part of Lebanon
Lebanon - Lebanon was a mountain about six miles wide, and about fifty miles long
Aphek - A city of Asher, Joshua 19:30, in the north of Palestine, near Sidon, Joshua 13:4; supposed to be the same as Aphik, Judges 1:31, and the classical Aphaca, noted in later history for its temple of Venus; now Afka, near Lebanon
Fable - Of the fable, as distinguished from the parable [1], we have but two examples in the Bible: ...
That of the trees choosing their king, addressed by Jotham to the men of Shechem, (Judges 9:8-15 ) ...
That of the cedar of Lebanon and the thistle, as the answer of Jehoash to the challenge of Amaziah
Joppa - ...
When timber was brought from Lebanon to be used in the construction of Solomon’s temple, it was floated down from Tyre and Sidon in rafts, received at Joppa, and then taken to Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 2:16)
Vale - ...
Νachal , a wady or wide stream bed in winter filled by a torrent, but in summer dry and strewed with water worn stones and shrubs; KJV translated it also "brook," "river," "stream"; Βiqu'ah , a plain wider than a valley, the wide plain between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon is still called Bequa'a (Joshua 11:17; Joshua 12:7), and Megiddo (Zechariah 12:11)
Cedar - But ordinarily, the cedar of Lebanon (the still famous tree of that name, Cedrus Libani) is meant. This tree, there is reason to believe, once quite covered the mountains of Lebanon between the heights of 3000 and 7000 feet
Damascus - It stands on the river Barada, the ancient Chrysorrhoas, in a beautiful and fertile plain on the east and south east of Anti-Lebanon. The region around and north of Damascus, including probably the valley between the ridges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, is called in the Scriptures, "Syria of Damascus," 2 Samuel 8:5 , and by Strabo, Coelesyria
Brass - Copper is not found in Palestine proper, but in the Lebanon and Hermon (possibly the ‘mountains of brass’ of Zechariah 6:1 )
Aphek - slopes of Lebanon; mentioned in company with Baal-Gad, the other northern sanctuary
Coals - True coal is not found in Syria except in one part of Lebanon, where it was mined for a short time about 1834 (C
Abana - Robinson says, "it rises in the high plain south of Zebdany on Anti-Lebanon, and rushes in a south-easterly course down the mountain till it issues at Mezzeh from its chasm upon the plain
Leopard - " The spouse in the Canticles speaks of the mountains of the leopards, Song of Song of Solomon 4:8 ; that is to say, such as Lebanon and Hermon, where wild beasts dwelt
Mizpah - The valley of Mizpeh, Joshua 11:3; Joshua 11:8, whither the confederate hosts were pursued by Joshua; perhaps the modern Bukaʾa, the great country of Cœle-Syria, between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon
Naphtali - It lay in a rich and fertile portion of Northern Palestine, partly along the Lebanon range, called "the mount of Naphtali" Joshua 19:32-39; Joshua 20:7, R
Hivites - In Joshua 11:3 and Judges 3:3 they seem to be located near Hermon in the Lebanon, but ‘Hivite’ is probably here a corruption of ‘Hittite’ (cf
Abana, And Pharpar - It is a clear, cold, and swift mountain stream, rising in Anti-Lebanon, north east of Hermon, flowing south east into the plain, and near Damascus turning eastward, skirting the northern wall of the city, and terminating 20 miles east in one of three large lakes
Hiram - He entered into an alliance with David, and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon (2 Samuel 5:11 ; 1 Chronicles 14:1 )
Coney - A pachydermatous animal, gregarious, greybacked, white on the belly, with long hair, short tail, and round ears; common on the ridges of Lebanon; living in caves and clefts; the Hyrax Syriacus, not the rabbit or coney
Naphtali - ...
The tribe of Naphtali, called Nephtalim in Matthew 4:15 , were located in a rich and fertile portion of northern Palestine; having Asher on the west, the upper Jordan and part of the sea of Tiberias on the east; and running north into the Lebanon range, some lower offshoots of which prolonged to the south formed the "mountains of Naphtali," Joshua 19:32-39 20:7
Mediterranean Sea, the - The Mediterranean Sea is an inland ocean extending about 2,200 miles from Gibraltar to the Lebanon coast and varies in width from one hundred to six hundred miles. Timber was brought on rafts from Lebanon to Joppa (2 Chronicles 2:16 )
Discalced Carmelite Order - Its mother-house is in Rome and is established in Spain, Italy, England, Ireland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Malta, Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Persia, British India (in the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin), Egypt, the United States, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia
Order of Discalced Carmelites - Its mother-house is in Rome and is established in Spain, Italy, England, Ireland, Portugal, France, Belgium, Germany, Holland, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, Malta, Palestine, Syria, Mount Lebanon, Mesopotamia, Persia, British India (in the Kingdoms of Travancore and Cochin), Egypt, the United States, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia
Coney - Conies are very plentiful along the rocky shores of the Dead Sea, and also in the Lebanon, especially above Sidon; they can, however, be seen as a rule only between sunset and sunrise
Burnt Offering - ...
Isaiah 40:16 (c) If all the thousands of animals on the broad slopes of Lebanon were gathered together to make a burnt offering to GOD, this tremendous sacrifice would not be sufficient to put away one sin, nor would it equal the offering of the Lord JESUS CHRIST for our sins
Agrippa ii - Being only 17 years old at his father's death, the emperor Claudius sent him to rule over the principality of Chalcis in the slopes of Lebanon until he should come of a age
Antioch in Syria - It stood on a beautiful spot on the river Orontes, where it breaks through between the mountains Taurus and Lebanon
Pine Tree - La Roche, describing a valley near to Mount Lebanon, has this observation: "La continuelle verdure des pins et des chenes verds fait toujours sa beaute
Bashan - The oaks of Bashan are mentioned in connection with the cedars of Lebanon, Isaiah 2:13
Amorites - 1400 we learn from the el-Amarna tablets that the great valley between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges, which was afterwards called Cœle-Syria, was inhabited by Amorites, whose prince was Aziru (cf
Phoenicia - To the north of Palestine, along the narrow coastal strip between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Range, was the land known in Bible times as Phoenicia. Today the land falls largely within the country known as Lebanon, though the Bible most commonly refers to it by the names of its chief towns, Tyre and Sidon (Ezra 3:7). The wealth of the Phoenicians came partly from their fleets of merchant ships and partly from the large forests of cedar trees in the Lebanon Range (see Lebanon)
Nazareth - The town of Galilee where the Blessed Virgin dwelt and where Christ lived the first 30 years of his life, situated in a hollow plateau between the hills of Lebanon, the ancient town occupying the triangular hillock in the north
Midian - The people traded with Palestine, Lebanon, and Egypt
Bear, - They are now comparatively scarce in Palestine, but may still be seen on the mountains of Lebanon, and occasionally farther south
Shem - ...
ARAM — the name of Syria, but more especially, referring to the high land of Lebanon
Aphek - This may be modern Afqa, fifteen miles east of ancient Byblos and 23 miles north of Beirut, Lebanon
Aphek - This may be modern Afqa, fifteen miles east of ancient Byblos and 23 miles north of Beirut, Lebanon
Her'Mon - (a peak, summit ), a mountain on the northeastern border of Palestine, (3:8; Joshua 12:1 ) over against Lebanon, (Joshua 11:17 ) adjoining the plateau of Bashan
Canaan (2) - The boundaries of Canaan were Mount Lebanon on the north, the wilderness of Arabia on the south, and the Arabian desert on the east. The modern name of Palestine, or the land of the Philistines, was originally applied to the region lying along the coast of the Mediterranean, southwest of the Land of Promise, but in its present usage denotes the whole country bounded by the Jordan on the east the Mediterranean on the west, Arabia on the south, and Lebanon on the north
Palace - The principal building situated within the palace was, as in all eastern palaces, the great hall of state and audience, called "the house of the forest of Lebanon," apparently from the four rows of cedar pillars by which it was supported. Next in importance was the hall or "porch of judgment," a quadrangular building supported by columns, as we learn front Josephus, which apparently stood on the other side of the great court, opposite the house of the forest of Lebanon
Quarries - The supposition that the polished blocks of stone for Solomon's temple were sent by Hiram from Lebanon or Tyre is not supported by any evidence (Compare 1 Kings 5:8 )
Hermon - A peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean
Hermon - —A mountain on the north-eastern border of Palestine, the culminating point of the range of Anti-Lebanon, rising to an elevation of 9200 ft
Hittites - This was near or at Hebron in the south of Palestine, whereas other passages speak of them in the north, between the Lebanon and the Euphrates, which was probably where they originally settled, Joshua 1:4 ; and there are intimations that they continued a powerful and warlike race after Palestine was possessed by Israel
Jordan - Jordan (jôr'dan), the descender, called "the river," Genesis 31:21; Joshua 1:11, has a course of little more than 200 miles, from the foot of Anti-Lebanon to the head of the Dead sea—136 miles in a straight line. The rains and the melting of the snows on Lebanon caused it to rise and flood the valley
Plain - ’ It generally designates a broad vale between hills; among the localities to which it was applied the most notable are the pass between Lebanon and Hermon (‘the valley of Lebanon,’ Joshua 11:17 ; Joshua 12:7 ), and the plain of Esdraelon (‘the valley of Megiddo,’ 2 Chronicles 35:22 , Zee 12:11)
Geology of Palestine - The Western Table-land extends from Lebanon to the northern border of Sinai: the headland of Carmel is an intrusion from this division on to the preceding. It runs from the base of Lebanon to the Dead Sea, where it is 1292 feet below the level of the Mediterranean; thence it rises to 640 feet above the same plane at er-Rishi , whence it descends by a gentle slope to the Gulf of ‘Akabah. In the glacial epoch there were extensive glaciers in Lebanon, which have left traces in a number of moraines
Joppa - To this place also the wood cut in Lebanon by Hiram's men for Solomon was brought in floats (2 Chronicles 2:16 ); and here the material for the building of the second temple was also landed (Ezra 3:7 )
Commerce - He supplied provisions for the workmen in Lebanon, while the Phoenicians brought the timber by sea to Joppa (1 Kings 5:6; 1 Kings 5:9)
Sidon And Tyre - (ssi' dahn, teere) Phoenician cities located on the coastal plain between the mountains of Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea (Genesis 10:15 )
Gebal - "The Giblites" in Joshua 13:5 were from the region of Lebanon; the Septuagint term them Biblians, namely, of Byblus, on the Phoenician borders, N
Abel-Beth-Maacha - of Jordan under Lebanon
Hor - This Mount Hor is the great chain of Lebanon itself
Valley - bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deuteronomy 8:7 ; 11:11 ; Psalm 104:8 ; Isaiah 41:18 ); also a low plain bounded by mountains, as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources of the Jordan (Joshua 11:17 ; 12:7 ), and the valley of Megiddo (2 Chronicles 35:22 )
Hall - It is unclear whether this hall was a separate building or the entrance to the House of the Forest of Lebanon or even the whole palace complex
Rahab - " After five days they returned, having swum across the river, which at this season, the month Abib, overflowed its banks from the melting of the snow on Lebanon
Coal - " Mineral coal protrudes through the strata to the surface of parts of Lebanon, at Cornale, eight miles from Beirut, the coal seams are three feet thick; but it seems not to have been anciently known as fuel
Ituraea - ’ They seem to have migrated originally from the desert to the vicinity of Southern Lebanon and Cœle-Syria
Levelling - When Ibrahim Pasha proposed to visit certain places in Lebanon, the emirs and sheikhs sent out a general proclamation commanding the people to prepare the way
Yale, Valley - biqah, 'valley or plain,' which is the word used for the valleys or plains of Aven, Jericho, Lebanon, Megiddo, Mizpeh, and Ono
Abila - Capital of ABILENE, the tetrarchy of Lysanias (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Lebanon, in a region fertilized by the river Barada (Abana). Abila stood in the Suk ("a market") wady Barada, a gorge where the river breaks down through the mountain Antilebanon toward the plain, with a semicircular background of cliffs three or four hundred feet high, between Heliopolis (Baalbec), 32 miles off; and Damascus,...
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Flowers - As is the land so is its flora, which at the one extreme, amid the heights of Lebanon, is Alpine in its character, and at the other extreme, in the gorge of the Dead Sea, tropical
Chariot - (2 Kings 2:12) So again, in the book of the Songs, (Song of Song of Solomon 3:9) Solomon is said to have made a chariot of the wood of Lebanon; the pillars silver, the bottom of gold, the covering purple, and the midst thereof paved with love, for the daughters of Jerusalem
Antioch - This city was about 300 miles north of Jerusalem, on the left bank of the river Orontes, 16½ miles from the Mediterranean, in a deep pass between the Lebanon and the Taurus ranges of mountains
Hor - This Mount Hor is the great chain of Lebanon itself
Hermon, Mount - ...
The Hermon range is the southern spur of the Anti-Lebanon chain of mountains which runs parallel to the Lebanon range being separated from it by the valley of Beqaa
Hermon - of Palestine (Joshua 12:1), over against Lebanon (Joshua 11:17), adjoining Bashan (1 Chronicles 5:23). Lebanon means the "white" mountain, the Mont Blanc of Palestine
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - (land of palm trees ) a tract of country, of which Tyre and Sidon were the principal cities, to the north of Palestine, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea bounded by that sea on the west, and by the mountain range of Lebanon on the east. Phoenicia, thus defined is estimated to have been about 120 miles in length; while its breadth, between Lebanon and the sea, never exceeded 20 miles, and was generally much less. The havens of Tyre and Sidon afforded water of sufficient depth for all the requirements of ancient navigation, and the neighboring range of the Lebanon, in its extensive forests, furnished what then seemed a nearly inexhaustible supply of timber for ship-building
Phoenicia - ” The narrow land between the Mediterranean Sea and the Lebanon Mountains between Tyre in the south and Arvad in the north
Galilee - The tribes of Naphtali, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dan occupied the territory which covered approximately the forty-five-mile stretch between the Litani River in Lebanon and the Valley of Jezreel in Israel north to south and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Jordan River west to east
Hor - The name Hor is applied to the whole western crest of Lebanon, 80 miles long from the E
Apple - On the other hand, it is a substantial difficulty that the apple does not grow well in Palestine proper, as distinguished from the Lebanon
Mizpah, Mizpeh - Probably the extensive valley on the east of Mount Lebanon
Brass - In Bible lands it was mined in the region of Lebanon, in Edom, in the Sinaitic peninsula, where the great Egyptian mines were located, and in the isle of Cyprus
Tower - The tower of Lebanon was evidently a lookout tower, facing Syria where the watchman could discern quickly the coming of the enemy
Hittites - But there are some remarkable notices of Hittites, Judges 1:26; 1 Kings 10:29; 2 Kings 7:6; 2 Chronicles 1:17, which point to a people, a branch of the great family, or the descendants of those expelled from Palestine, who were settled independently beyond Lebanon, and it may be on the southeastern frontier towards Arabia
Conversations - We are informed by the traveller Aryda, that this is the prevailing mode of a person's expressing his assent or affirmation to this day, in the vicinity of Mount Lebanon, especially where he does not wish to assert any thing in express terms
na'Hum - On the other hand, the imagery of his prophecy is such lie would be natural to an inhabitant of Palestine, ( Nahum 1:4 ) to whom the rich pastures of Bashan the vineyards of Carmel and the blossoms of Lebanon were emblems of all that was luxuriant and fertile
Joppa - It was by way of Joppa that Hiram sent to Solomon the timber from Lebanon for the temple; also Cyrus for Zerubbabel's temple (2 Chronicles 2:16; Ezra 3:7)
Berenice, Bernice - On the death of Marcus, Berenice was given by her father to his brother and her uncle, Herod, king of Chalcis, in the Lebanon
Batanists - This chief, from his exalted residence on Mount Lebanon, was called the old man of the mountain; who, like a vindictive deity, with the thunderbolt in his hand, sent inevitable death to all quarters, so that even kings trembled at his sanguinary power
Vine, Vineyard - the industry has in some measure revived under the influence of the German and Jewish colonists in Palestine, and the French in the Lebanon
Plane Tree - Jesus is all this, and infinitely more; for like the wide spreading branches of some rich and fruitful tree of the desert, he forms every thing that is lovely to our view, and both shelters from the heat, and refresheth our thirst by his fruit in this desert of our nature, when from under his shadow "we revive as the corn, and grow as the vine, and his scent is more fragrant than the wine of Lebanon
Jotham - Easily catching fire, it can set on fire the noblest trees of Lebanon; the worthless can cause fatal hurt to the noblest (Exodus 22:5)
Flock - Hence Jesus is represented as calling to his church in those sweet words: "Come with me from Lebanon, my spouse, with me from Lebanon; look from the top of Amana, from the top of Shenir, and Hermon, from the lions' dens, and from the mountains of the leopards
Phoenicia, phNicians - Phœnicia was the strip of coast land between Lebanon and the hills of Galilee and the Mediterranean Sea. In his earlier campaigns that king conquered the region between the Lebanon ranges. These kings were in constant feud with one another, with the people of Arvad, and with the Amorites beyond the Lebanon. In the reign of his successor Merenptah the cities from the Lebanon to Ashbelon revolted. 1113) a certain Wenamon was despatched to Phœnicia for cedar from the Lebanon forests; and Dor, Tyre, and Gebal, the towns at which he touched, were not only independent but had small respect for a representative of Pharaoh (Breasted, ib
Gad - There was a Baal-Gad in the valley of Lebanon
Naphtali, Tribe of - It lay in the north-eastern corner of the land, bounded on the east by the Jordan and the lakes of Merom and Galilee, and on the north it extended far into Coele-Syria, the valley between the two Lebanon ranges
Hamath - "The entering in of Hamath," indicates that it (the long valley between Lebanon and Antilebanon) was the point of entrance into the land of Israel for any invading army, as the Assyrians and Babylonians, from the N
Reed - He will raise the bruised reed to a great tree, like the cedar of Lebanon, and he will kindle a flame in the smoking flax, that by his perpetual quickening shall burn with great power and brightness for ever
Golgotha - If Moses with such earnestness desired to see the goodly mountain, and Lebanon, as he tells us he did, (Deuteronomy 3:24-25) because, that there he knew He whose "good will he had begun to enjoy at the bush," would go through the whole of redemption work, and finish it; what may be supposed the favoured contemplations of the faithful now at Gethsemane and Golgotha where they know Jesus did, indeed, according to the most sure prophecies concerning him, complete the salvation of his people! Here would my soul delight to wander, and often review the sacred ground
Sheep - "I have seen many in Lebanon so heavy," says Dr
Shepherd - "I have seen many in Lebanon so heavy," says Dr
Joppa - Here the materials for building both the first and the second temple, sent from Lebanon and Tyre, were landed, 2 Chronicles 3:16 Ezra 3:7
Naz'Areth - It is situated among the hills which constitute the south ridges of Lebanon,just before they sink down into the plain of Esdraelon, (Mr
Nazareth - In a basin among hills descending into Esdraelon from Lebanon, and forming a valley which runs in a wavy line E. ...
On a hill behind is the tomb of neby Ismail, commanding one of the most lovely prospects in the world, Lebanon and snowy Hermon on the N
Canaan - ...
Canaan was bounded on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, north by mount Lebanon and Syria, east by Arabia Deserta; and south by Edom and the desert of Zin and Paran. These included the bordering nations on the east, far into Arabia Deserta; thence north to Tipsah on the Euphrates, with all Syria between Lebanon and the Euphrates. The principal mountains are Lebanon, Carmel, Tabor, Gilead, Herman, the mount of Olives, etc. The northern boundary is at the lofty mountains of Lebanon and Hermon, some peaks of which are ten thousand feet high
Forest - ) "The house of the forest of Lebanon" (1 Kings 7:2) was so-called as being fitted up with cedar, and probably with forest-like rows of cedar pillars
Riblah - of Lebanon and the coast to Palestine and Egypt, or through the Bekaa and Jordan valley to the center of Palestine
Leopard - nâmçr) is still found round the Dead Sea, in Gilead and Bashan, and also occasionally in Lebanon and the wooded districts of the west; but, judging from the numerous allusions in the OT and the occurrence of the word in place-names (e
Antioch - Built where Lebanon running N
Rock - Toward Lebanon, the mountains are high, but covered in many places with as much earth as fits them for cultivation
an'Tioch - --This metropolis was situated where the chain of Lebanon, running northward, and the chain of Taurus, running eastward
Doors - ...
Zechariah 11:1 (a) The Lord is telling us that the enemy will be able to enter Lebanon freely and without opposition, as one would enter a house through an open door
Silver - As a precious metal “silver” was not as valuable as gold—probably because it is not so rare: “And all king Solomon’s drinking vessels were of gold, and all the vessels of the house of the forest of Lebanon were of pure gold; none were of silver: it was nothing accounted of in the days of Solomon” (1 Kings 10:21)
Canaan, Land of - In Deuteronomy 1:7 the borders are named as between 'the mount of the Amorites,' near the Dead Sea on the south, to 'Lebanon and the river Euphrates' on the north. Parallel with the plain is a zone of hill country from Lebanon to the south, varying in height, and with some mountains
Lebanon - Lebanon was the name of a mountain range north of Israel between Phoenicia and Syria. The range gave its name to much of the surrounding territory, and even today the nation that occupies this region is called Lebanon
Poetry of the Hebrews - The two most remarkable mountains of the country were Lebanon and Carmel; the former noted for its height, and the woods of lofty cedars that covered it; the latter, for its beauty and fertility, the richness of its vines and olives. Hence, with the greatest propriety, Lebanon is employed as an image of whatever is great, strong, or magnificent; Carmel, of what is smiling and beautiful. "The glory of Lebanon shall be given to it, and the excellency of Carmel," Isaiah 35:2 . Lebanon is often put metaphorically for the whole state or people of Israel, for the temple, for the king of Assyria; Carmel, for the blessings of peace and prosperity. "His countenance is as Lebanon," says Solomon, speaking of the dignity of a man's appearance; but when he describes female beauty, "Thine head is like Mount Carmel,"...
Song of Solomon 5:15 ; Song of Solomon 7:5 . The palm trees, and the cedars of Lebanon, are ever rising in our view. " That noted sublime passage in the book of Isaiah, which describes the fall of the king of Assyria, is full of personified objects; the fir trees and cedars of Lebanon breaking forth into exultation on the fall of the tyrant; hell from beneath stirring up all the dead to meet him at his coming; and the dead kings introduced as speaking and joining in the triumph
Philistines - They were a branch of the primitive race which spread over the whole district of the Lebanon and the valley of the Jordan, and Crete and other Mediterranean islands
Chaldea - Their conquests extended to Elam on the one side, and to the Lebanon on the other
Last - When applied elsewhere, the word means “western”: “Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost [1] sea shall your coast be” ( Asher - Their allotment was the rich sea coast between Carmel and Lebanon, N
Cyprus - , 148 miles long, about 40 broad for the most part, facing Phoenicia and Lebanon on the E
Fable - (2) Joash's sarcastic answer to Amaziah's challenge, by a fable, the sarcasm being the sharper for the covert form it assumes, namely, the cedar of Lebanon and the thistle (2 Kings 14:9)
Canaanites - They thence "spread to the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of Taurus
Iron (2) - Traces of ironworks are found on Lebanon
Stream - The streams from the mountain of Lebanon are cold, clear and life giving
Amaziah - Joash answered him by the fable of the cedar of Lebanon, and the thistle trodden down by a beast, 2 Kings 14:8-9
Palace - His palace complex included the “house of the forest of Lebanon” (1 Kings 7:2 ), an immense hall featuring 45 cedar pillars and Solomon's golden shields (1 Kings 10:16-18 ), the “porch of pillars” (1 Kings 7:6 ), the “Hall of Justice” (1 Kings 7:7 NRSV), featuring an ivory and gold throne ( 1 Kings 10:18-20 ), and private dwellings for both king and Pharoah's daughter (1 Kings 7:8 )
River - Among the other streams and mountain torrents in Palestine there are the Kishon, which drains Galilee westward; the Yarmuk and the Jabbok, which carry the waters of Bashan and Gilead into the Jordan; the Leontes and Orontes, which rise in CCEle-Syria and drain the great basin between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and the Euphrates, greatest of All, forming the boundary of Palestine on the N
Nazareth - ...
Nazareth is situated among the southern ridges of Lebanon, on the steep slope of a hill, about 14 miles from the Sea of Galilee and about 6 west from Mount Tabor
Sidon - ...
No details are given of our Lord’s visit to Sidon, though it is definitely stated that He came through it, or at least its surrounding territory (reading διά not καί in Mark 7:31, with the best Manuscripts ), on His way to Decapolis, which He probably reached by the highway over the Lebanon to Damascus (see H
Arabia - ...
In the northern portion of Arabia the mountains of the Anti-Lebanon, the Transjordanian Highlands, and the mountains of Edom flank the desert on the west
Wing - This is best expressed in Ezekiel’s parable of the two eagles and the vine: “And say, Thus saith the Lord God; A great eagle with great wings, longwinged, full of feathers, which had divers colors, came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar: he cropped off the top of his young twigs, and carried it into a land of traffic; he set it in a city of merchants” ( zi'Don, - It is situated in the narrow plain between the Lebanon and the sea
Wine - ...
Hosea 14:7 , mentions the wine of Lebanon
Coney - This curious animal is found in Ethiopia, and in great numbers on Mount Lebanon, &c
Carmel - The prospect from the summit of the mountain out over the gulf of Acre and its fertile shores, to the blue heights of Lebanon and to the White cape, is enchanting
Phoenicia - Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea, was about 120 miles in length and rarely more than 12 in breadth
Galilee - "A circle" or "circuit" around Kedesh Naphtali, in which lay the 20 towns given by Solomon to Hiram, king of Tyre, in payment for his having conveyed timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem (Joshua 20:7; 1 Kings 9:11). " The ravine of the Leonres separates the mountain range of upper Galilee from Lebanon, of which it is a southern prolongation
Damascus - It lies in a plain east of the Anti-Lebanon, famous for its beauty and fertility, and watered by the Barada River, the Abanah (wh. The writer of Canticles, in his appreciation of the sensuous beauty of scenery, has not forgotten Damascus: the nose of the Shulammite is compared to the ‘tower of Lebanon which looketh toward Damascus’ ( Song of Solomon 7:4 )
Palestine - ( b ) The second strip is the mountainous ridge of Judæa and Samaria, on the summit of which are Hebron, Jerusalem, and other important towns and villages; and which, with the single interruption of the piain of Esdraelon, runs continuously from the south border of the country to join the system of the Lebanon. On the one hand, the summits of Hermon and of certain peaks of the Lebanon are covered with snow for the greater part of the year; on the other hand, the tremendous depression, in the bottom of which lies the Dead Sea, is practically tropical, both in climate and in vegetation. The north wind, which blows from over the Lebanon snows, is always cold, often piercingly so. and of the Jordan Valley resemble those found in Abyssinia or in Nubia: those of the upper levels of Lebanon are of the kinds peculiar to snow-clad regions. The bear is now confined to Hermon, and possibly one or two places in Lebanon; the cheetah is rare, and the lion ( 1 Samuel 17:34 , 1 Kings 13:24 etc. Lebanon, where a Syriac dialect survives
Canaan - of Jordan are given from "the entrance of Hamath" between Lebanon and Antilebanon on the N. of Lebanon, were once the home of the Hittites, Jebusites, and Amorites (Numbers 13:29); the cities are enumerated in Joshua 15:48-60. of Carmel between Lebanon and the sea. "the sterile place ") originally (Deuteronomy 2:8, where "the plain" is the ARABAH; compare Deuteronomy 1:1) comprehended the whole valley from Lebanon to the gulf of Akabah. " The long valley between the ranges of Lebanon, the valley of El Bukaa, leading to "the entering in of (i
Rivers And Waterways in the Bible - Orontes and Litani High within the Beqa valley that forms the rift between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountain ranges, a watershed (about 3,770 feet above sea level) forms the headwaters of the Orontes and Litani Rivers. The rains and snow on the mountain summits at heights of over 11,000 feet course down into the 6–10 mile-wide Beqa which is a part of the great Rift (“Valley of Lebanon,” Joshua 11:17 ). Jordan River A series of springs and tributaries, resulting from the rains and snows on the heights of Mount Hermon (up to 9,100 feet above sea level) at the southern end of the Anti-Lebanon mountains east of the Rift Valley, converge in Lake Huleh to form the headwaters of the Jordan River. Though anchorages and small harbors, such as tel Qasile, a Philistine town, were established along its course and the cedar timbers from Lebanon were floated inland to Aphek for transport to Jerusalem for the construction of Solomon's palace and Temple, the Yarkon historically formed a major barrier to north-south traffic because of the extensive swamps that formed along its course
Palestine - In length it is about 140 miles, in average breadth not more than 40 between the Mediterranean westward, and the deep Jordan valley to the east, while to the north it is closed in by Lebanon and Anti-libanus, and bordered on the south by the desert
Joppa - As it had been in Solomon's day, Joppa became the port that received cedar logs from Lebanon, now for the rebuilding of the Temple under the leadership of Zerubbabel
Esarhaddon - , marching from Asshur (Kileh Sherghat) to Tyre, besieged Bahal its king who was in league with Tirhakah, thence he marched to Aphek at the foot of Lebanon, then to Raphia S
Solomon - The Temple complex in Jerusalem was composed of several buildings including Solomon's palace, the “house of the forest of Lebanon,” the “hall or porch of pillars,” the “hall or porch of the throne,” and a palace for one of his wives, the daughter of the pharaoh of Egypt (1 Kings 7:1 )
Ahab - It is not improbable also that common measures of defence were planned against the Assyrians, who were showing hostile intentions in the region of the Lebanon
Sennacherib - He erected memorial tablet at the mouth of the nahr el Kelb on the Syrian coast, beside an inscription recording Rameses the Great's conquests six hundred years before; this answers to his boast that "he had come up to the height of the mountains, to the sides of Lebanon
Sidon - An ancient mercantile city of Phoenicia, in the narrow plain between Lebanon and the Mediterranean, where the mountains recede two miles from the sea; 20 miles N
Palace - The great hall of state was "the house of the forest of (pillars of cedar of) Lebanon," 150 ft
Carmel - Lebanon raises to heaven a summit of naked and barren rocks, covered for the greater part of the year with snow; but the top of Carmel, how naked and sterile soever its present condition, was clothed with verdure which seldom was known to fade
Gal'Ilee - This name, which in the Roman age was applied to a large province, seems to have been originally confined to a little "circuit" of country round Kedesh-Naphtali, in which were situated the twenty towns given by Solomon to Hiram king of Tyre as payment for his work in conveying timber from Lebanon to Jerusalem
Jor'Dan - (the descender ), the one river of Palestine, has a course of little more than 200 miles, from the roots of Anti-Lebanon to the head of the Dead Sea
Johanan - Eighth of the lion faced Gadite warriors who joined David during Jordan's overflow (when it is dangerous to cross) in the spring, the river being swollen by the melted snows of Lebanon; and put to flight all Saul's adherents among the valley dwellers eastward and westward (1 Chronicles 12:12)
Mining And Metals - Deuteronomy 33:25 ), though inapplicable to Palestine proper, may hold good of the Lebanon district or (as has been suggested by some) of the Sinaitic region. Its ores are found in the Lebanon district, in the region of Sinai, and sparsely in Egypt
Lion - Lions haunted dens in Lebanon and Hermon (Song of Solomon 4:8)
Euphrates - of Lebanon preventing its reaching that sea, it turns S
Burn - Lebanon is a mountain six miles wide and fifty miles long
Solomon - Its lofty roof was supported by forty-five cedar pillars, so that the hall was like a forest of cedar wood, and hence probably it received the name of "The House of the Forest of Lebanon. And he spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes" (1 Kings 4:32,33 )
Sea, the Salt, - It is the deepest portion of that very deep natural fissure which runs like a furrow from the Gulf of Akabah to the range of Lebanon, and from the range of Lebanon to the extreme north of Syria
Naphtali - The ravine of the Leontes (Litany) and the valley between Lebanon and Antilebanon was on the N
Sea - The Great Sea is the Mediterranean: “From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the Great Sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast” ( Tyre - Hiram co-operated with David in the erection of the latter’s palace in Jerusalem, sending cedars from Lebanon ( 1 Chronicles 14:1 ). , the founder of the Persian Empire, ordered Tyrian workmen to assist with Lebanon cedars in the re-building of the Jewish Temple ( Ezekiel 3:7 )
Jordan - As the cave Panion lies at the foot of Mount Lebanon, in the northern extremity of Canaan, and the lake Asphaltites extends to the southern extremity, the river Jordan pursues its course through the whole extent of the country from north to south. It may be said to have two banks, of which the inner marks the ordinary height of the stream; and the outer, its ancient elevation during the rainy season, or the melting of the snows on the summits of Lebanon
Mari - By about 1800, no fewer than four trading routes converged on the city; the city's geographical and commercial horizons stretched from Iran in the east to the Mediterranean and Aegean in the west, including Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, and the Arabian desert
Garden - The "streams from Lebanon" imply that the fountain is lowly, the source lofty
Love - 13:6) 'âhab (or 'âhêb) signifies those with whom one has made or intends to make love: “Go up to Lebanon, and cry; and lift up thy voice in Bashan, and cry from the passages: for all thy lovers are destroyed” ( Wine - The only wines of which we have special notice belonged to Syria; these were the wine of Helbon, Ezekiel 27:18, and the wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma
Wine - It resembled the "wine of Lebanon," famous for its excellence and fragrance, Hosea 14:7
Zedeki'ah - The king's party were overtaken near Jericho and carried to Nebuchadnezzar, who was then at Riblah, at the upper end of the valley of Lebanon
Palestine - Lebanon, Antilebanon, and the Litany ravine at their feet form the northern bound. The rival empires, Egypt and Babylon-Assyria, could march against one another only along the maritime western plain of Palestine and the Lebanon plain leading toward and from the Euphrates. The range of Lebanon and Hermon crosses this valley between its northern portion, the valley of the Orontes. There is a remarkable variety of climate and natural aspect, due to the differences of level between the different parts, and also to the vicinity of snowy Hermon and Lebanon on the N. It is an offshoot from Lebanon, much raised above the sea, with partial interruptions from tertiary and basaltic deposits
Palesti'na - On the north it is shut in by the high ranges of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and by the chasm of the Litany. The rivals road by which the two great rivals of the ancient world could approach one another --by which alone Egypt could get to Assyria and Assyria to lay along the broad hat strip of coast which formed the maritime portion of the holy land, and thence by the plain of the Lebanon to the Euphrates. The bareness and dryness which prevail more or less in Judea are owing partly to the absence of wood, partly to its proximity to the desert, sad partly to a scarcity of water arising from its distance from the Lebanon. A species of squirrel the which the term orkidaun "the leaper," has been noticed on the lower and middle parts of Lebanon
Solomon - On Lebanon he built lofty towers (2 Chronicles 8:6; Song of Solomon 7:4) "looking toward Damascus" (1 Kings 9:19). 10,000 a month, the other 20,000 having two months' relief, cut timber in Lebanon; 70,000 bore loads; 80,000 hewed stone in the mountains and under the rock, where the mason's Phoenician marks have been found; chiefly Canaanites, spared on conforming to Judaism; 3,300 officers were over these workmen. It consisted of...
(1) the house of the forest of Lebanon, built of a forest of cedar pillars, and serving also as an armory (1 Kings 10:17), 1 Kings 10:100 cubits long, 50 broad, 30 high, on four rows of cedar pillars and hewn cedar beams over the pillars. ...
(2) The pillar hall with the porch (1 Kings 7:6) lying between the house of the forest of Lebanon and...
(3) The throne room and judgment hall (1 Kings 7:7)
Naphtali - The territory reached on the north almost to the Lebanon
Lie - The trees of Lebanon are personified and say concerning the king of Babylon: “Since thou art laid down, no feller [6] is come up against us” ( Mountains - So Mount Hor, Nebo, Lebanon, and Gilboa have been signalized by striking events; mount Zion, Moriah, and Olivet are covered with precious memories; and the mountains about Jerusalem and all other "everlasting hills" are sacred witnesses of the eternal power and faithfulness of God
Sennacherib - Crossing the upper part of Mount Lebanon, he appears to have conquered Tyre and all the cities south of it on the seacoast to Askelon
Paula, a Roman Lady - With him she braved the winter's journey through Lebanon to Palestine [1] and Egypt, from whence returning the whole party settled in Bethlehem in the autumn of 386
Sol'Omon - They tell of one who was, in the eyes of the men of his own time, "fairer than the children of men," the face "bright, and ruddy" as his father's, (Song of Solomon 5:10 ; 1 Samuel 17:42 ) bushy locks, dark as the raven's wing, yet not without a golden glow, the eyes soft as "the eyes of cloves," the "countenance as Lebanon excellent as the cedars," "the chiefest among ten thousand, the altogether lovely. " One hundred and fifty-three thousand, with wives and children in proportion, were torn from their homes and sent off to the quarries and the forests of Lebanon
Garden - "A fountain of gardens is my beloved, said the church, a well of living water, and streams from Lebanon
Parable - There is, however, a species of parable, the intent of which is only to illustrate the subject; such is that remarkable one of the cedar of Lebanon, Ezekiel 31; than which, if we consider the imagery itself, none was ever more apt or more beautiful; or the description and colouring, none was ever more elegant or splendid; in which, however, the poet has occasionally allowed himself to blend the figurative with the literal description, Ezekiel 31:11 ; Ezekiel 31:14-17 ; whether he has done this because the peculiar nature of this kind of parable required it, or whether his own fervid imagination alone, which disdained the stricter rules of composition, was his guide, our learned author can scarcely presume to determine
Moses - All the religious institutions of Moses pointed to Christ; and he himself, on the mount, two thousand years after his death, paid his homage to the Prophet he had foretold, Deuteronomy 18:15-19 , beheld "that goodly mountain and Lebanon," Deuteronomy 3:25 , and was admitted to commune with the Savior on the most glorious of themes, the death He should accomplish at Jerusalem, Luke 9:31
Galilee - It was a mountainous region that extended from the Lake of Galilee north to the Lebanon Ranges and west to the coastal plain
Palestine - Actually, the rugged terrain running the length of the land is a continuation of the more clearly defined Lebanon Mountains to the north. The fault is part of a system that extends north to form the valley between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon chains, also extending south to form the Dead Sea, the dry Arabah Valley, the Gulf of Aqabah, and, eventually, the chain of lakes on the African continent
Jordan - 200 miles long from its source at Antilebanon to the head of the Dead Sea. The northernmost near Hasbeya between Hermon and Lebanon; the stream is called Hasbany. Indeed Anti-Lebanon abounds in gushing streams, which all make their way into the swamp between Bahias and Huleh and become part of the Jordan
Glory - Phrases such as ‘the glory of Lebanon’ ( Isaiah 35:2 ), i
Manasseh - It was bounded on the south by Mahanaim, and extended north to the foot of Lebanon
Palestine - The natural boundaries of the land were the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Jordan River in the east, the Lebanon Range in the north and the Sinai Desert in the south
Lysanias - The elder Lysanias inherited from his father a kingdom including Chalkis on the Lebanon
Transjordan - This valley represents a huge geographical fault line which is prominent also in Lebanon, where it creates the Beqa'a Valley, continues southward from Palestine to form the Red Sea, and extends even as far as Mozambique in east Africa
Temple, Solomon's - , king of Tyre, for the supply of whatever else was needed for the work, particularly timber from the forests of Lebanon, which was brought in great rafts by the sea to Joppa, whence it was dragged to Jerusalem (1 Kings 5 )
Syria - ...
Name and Geography Syria is most properly a geographical term for the northwestern Mediterranean region situated between Palestine and Mesopotamia, roughly equal to the modern states of Syria and Lebanon with small portions of Turkey and Iraq
Wine - The only wines of which we have special notice belonged to Syria these were the wine of Helbon (Ezekiel 27:18 ) and the wine of Lebanon, famed for its aroma
Honey - 3; Urquhart, The Lebanon, 1860, i
Zerubbabel - In the second year of their coming, in the second month, having by Cyrus' decree timber, (including cedars from Lebanon brought by sea to Joppa,) and stone for the building, and money for the builders (Ezra 6:4), they laid the temple foundations with sounding of trumpets by the priests, and of cymbals by the Levites, and mingled shouts of joy and of noise of weeping in remembrance of the past (Ezra 3:7-13)
Philistines - When Wenamon made his expedition to Lebanon for a king of the XXIst dynasty (c Honey - 3; Urquhart, The Lebanon, 1860, i
Joram - It begins as a continuation of the Bekaʽa (Cœle-Syria), that valley which stretches between the Lebanon on the west and the Anti-Lebanon on the east, but whose waters run towards the north. The result of it was the formation of the parallel chains of Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, and further south that of the two ranges of hills which skirt the Jordan valley
Nineveh - long by 300 broad, with man lions at the gateways, and by a canal brought the Zab waters to Calah; he was "lord from the upper Tigris to Lebanon and the great sea. However Zephaniah 2:14 mentions "the cedar work," cedars from Lebanon may have reached from wall to wall with openings for light
Nineveh - Now foreign merchants flock into Nineveh, bringing with them the most valuable productions from all countries, gold and perfume from South Arabia and the Chaldean Sea, Egyptian linen and glass-work, carved enamels, goldsmiths' work, tin, silver, Phoenician purple; cedar wood from Lebanon, unassailable by worms; furs and iron from Asia Minor and Armenia" (Ancient Egypt and Assyria, by G
Solomon - He built a magnificent palace, which took a further thirteen years (1 Kings 7:1; 1 Kings 9:10), a military headquarters called the House of the Forest of Lebanon (1 Kings 7:2; 1 Kings 10:17), an auditorium called the Hall of Pillars (1 Kings 7:6), a central law court called the Hall of Judgment (1 Kings 7:7) and a separate palace for his Egyptian queen (1 Kings 7:8)
Hosea - He specifies Ephraim, Mizpah, Tabor, Gilgal, Bethel or Bethaven, Jezreel, Gibeah, Ramah, Gilead, Shechem, Lebanon, Arbela
Maronites - Mosheim informs us, that the Monothelites, condemned and exploded by the council of Constantinople, found a place of refuge among the Mardaites, signifying in Syriac rebels, a people who took possession of Lebanon, A
Vine - The Scriptures celebrate the vines of Sibmah and Eshcol; and profane authors mention the excellent wines of Gaza, Sarepta, Lebanon, Sharon, Ascalon, and Tyre
Palm Tree - The Psalmist hath said, (Psalms 92:12) that "the righteous shall flourish like the palm tree; he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon
Ships And Boats - Under the direction, and with the co-operation, of the Phœnicians, cedar and cypress timbers from Lebanon were cut and floated down the rivers to the coast and formed into rafts (AV Phoenice - ...
Tyre and Sidon were havens sufficient in water depth for the requirements of ancient ships; and Lebanon adjoining supplied timber abundant for shipbuilding
Galilee - Upper Galilee had Mount Lebanon and the countries of Tyre and Sidon on the north; the Mediterranean Sea on the west; Abilene, Ituraea, and the country of the Decapolis, on the east; and Lower Galilee on the south
Joshua, the Book of - The promise, Joshua 1:2-5, is fulfilled (Joshua 2-12), the conquest of the land by Jehovah's mighty help, "from the wilderness and this Lebanon unto
Solomon - Timber from Lebanon was brought by sea to Joppa, together with skilled workmen from Tyre, especially the Gebalites ( 2 Samuel 5:18 , cf. 2 Samuel 20:24 ) with numerous subordinates ( 1 Kings 5:16 , 1 Kings 9:23 ); 30,000 men were sent to Lebanon, 10,000 a month; there were carriers and hewers ( 2 Samuel 5:15 ), and the aborigines were used as helots ( 1 Kings 9:20 , Ezra 2:55 mentions their descendants)
Agriculture - It was to this system that districts such as Lebanon, Carmel, and Gilboa owed the wonderful fertility that formerly characterized them. In the highest lying parts, as Lebanon, there is a considerable fall of
Palestine - This vast empire was the Promised Land; but Palestine was only a part of it, terminating in the north at the southern extremity of the Lebanon range, and in the south in the wilderness of Paran, thus extending in all to about 144 miles in length
Habakkuk, Theology of - God is equally concerned about the exploitation of natural resources such as cedars of Lebanon used in Nebuchadnezzar's building program and the animals that he ruthlessly hunted down (2:17)
Zedekiah - He was taken for judgment to Riblah at the upper end of Lebanon; there Nebuchadnezzar first killed his sons before his eyes, then caused the eyes of Zedekiah to be "dug out" (Jeremiah 39; Jeremiah 52:4-11)
Moses - After this Moses besought the Lord saying "I pray thee, let me go over, and see the good land that is beyond Jordan, that goodly mountain, and Lebanon
Tomb, Grave, Sepulchre - In Lebanon the present writer saw a tomb which had been excavated in the rock-face from a point below the normal level of the soil
Wine - The wine of Helbon near Damascus was especially prized (Ezekiel 27:18), and that of Lebanon for its bouquet (Numbers 14:7)
Armour, Arms - Solomon’s armoury was ‘the house of the forest of Lebanon’ ( 1 Kings 10:17 , Isaiah 22:8 )
Solomon - The palace in which he generally resided was called the house of the forest of Lebanon; probably because of the great quantity of cedar used in it
Corner-Stone - ’ In explanation of this the story is told of a Lebanon prince who engaged a master-mason to build a large bridge of one arch over the river Adônis, and agreed to defray all costs and give the master a certain sum when the work was done
Judaea - In its present condition it is the most rugged and desolate section of the Lebanon range
David - He left a compact and united state, stretching from the frontier of Egypt to the foot of Lebanon, from the Euphrates to the sea
Judaea - In its present condition it is the most rugged and desolate section of the Lebanon range
Jerusalem - ...
The ranges of Lebanon and Antilebanon pass on southwards in two lower parallel ranges separated by the Ghor or Jordan valley, and ending in the gulf of Akabah. Rehoboam at once surrendered all the treasures of Jehovah's house, and of the palace, including Solomon's 300 golden shields (three pounds in each) in the house of the forest of Lebanon (1 Kings 10:17), for which Rehoboam substituted brazen shields
Isaiah - How forcible, says Bishop Lowth, is this imagery, how diversified, how sublime! How elevated the diction, the figures, the sentiments! The Jewish nation, the cedars of Lebanon, the ghosts of departed kings, the Babylonish monarch, the travellers who find his corpse, and last of all Jehovah himself, are the characters which support this beautiful lyric drama
Canaan - ...
The hills of Judea frequently rise into mountains; the most considerable of which are those of Lebanon and Hermon, on the north; those which surround the sea of Galilee, and the Dead Sea, also attain a respectable elevation. This country was once adorned with woods and forests: as we read of the forest of cedars in Lebanon, the forest of oaks in Bashan, the forest or wood of Ephraim, and the forest of Hareth in the tribe of Judah
Wine And Strong Drink - The Lebanon ( Hosea 14:7 ) and Helbon ( Ezekiel 27:18 ), to the N
God - Some Hebrew phrases in the Psalms associated 'êl with impressive natural features, such as the cedar trees of Lebanon ( Monophysitism - The Maronites of the Lebanon have remained apart from the Orthodox church of the East up to the present time, but the French political influence in the Lebanon since 1860 has caused a considerable number of them to join the church of Rome
Galilee (2) - ’ These inhabitants seem to have been Amorites and Hivites from the Lebanon
Egypt - to the copper and turquoise mines in the peninsula of Sinai, and cedar wood was probably then already obtained from Lebanon by sea. The pitiful report of a certain Unamun, sent from Thebes to obtain wood from Lebanon, shows how completely Egypt’s influence in Syria and the Levant had passed away at the beginning of this dynasty
Palestine - The long ranges of Lebanon throw off their southern spurs in Galilee, and the range ends suddenly in the line of steep mountain-side which runs along the northern edge of the Plain of Esdraelon. Hermon is the one great mountain which Anti-Lebanon rises to, standing off to the south, and detached from the continuous range by the deep-cut gorge of the Abana, but sending on the ridge again unbroken, though rugged in outline, past the Sea of Merom on the eastern side, to the shores of the Sea of Galilee
Assur - , when Moab had revolted from Israel and the league of Syria and Israel was dissolved, Shalmaneser attacked Hazael, Benhadad's successor, at the mountains of Saniru (Shenir) in Lebanon, and completely defeated him
Antioch - -About 20 miles from the Mediterranean, the Orontes, turning abruptly westward, enters a fertile plain, 10 miles long and 5 wide, which separates the great Lebanon range from the last spurs of the Taurus
Joshua - to Kadesh Barnea and Gaza, then the northern confederated kings under Jabin, at Merom, and the country even unto Baalgad in the valley of Lebanon under Mount Hermon and unto "great Zidon
Song of Songs - And there is no proof that the writer was specially connected with the North; if he mentions Lebanon, Amana, Shenir, Hermon, Tirzah, he also knows En-gedi, Heshbon, the wilderness (of Judah), the ‘daughters of Jerusalem
Temple - House of Lebanon
Solomon - Bacon also spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon, even to the hyssop that springeth out of the wall
Ships, Sailors, And Navigation - Pictorial representations in paintings, reliefs, and models indicate that Nile rivercraft primarily constructed of Asia Minor and Lebanon cedar dramatically grew in size and diversity
Roman Law in the nt - was king (or tetrarch) of Chalcis in CCEle-Syria (the Lebanon), and afterwards of Northern Palestine; in Acts 25:13 he is called ‘Agrippa the king,’ and the word ‘king’ is emphasized in these chapters; he died a
Bethlehem - Says Dean Stanley: ‘The long double lines of Corinthian pillars, the faded mosaics, the rough ceiling of beams of cedar from Lebanon still preserve the outlines of the church, once blazing with gold and marble, in which Baldwin was crowned, and which received its latest repairs from our own English Edward iv
Canon - And he spake of trees, from the cedar in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes
Animals - Known for its gracefulness and speed, it was common in Palestine in Old Testament times, especially in the forests of Lebanon, but is seldom found there now
Animals - Flocks of goats are most frequent in hilly districts from Hebron to Lebanon, where their habit of browsing on young trees tends to deforest the country
Temple - The interior was lined with cedar of Lebanon, and the floors and ceiling with cypress (berosh ; KJV "fir" not so well)
Terah - His childhood spent in ancient Chaldea; his very crossing of the flood Euphrates on such an errand; the snows of Lebanon; the oaks of Bashan; Damascus; Salem; the Nile; the pyramids; the great temples; the famous schools and schoolmasters of Egypt, at whose feet Moses was to sit in after days,-all that, and much more that we neither know nor can imagine
Moses - How severely Moses felt his deprivation, appears from his humble, and it should seem repeated, supplications to the Lord to reverse the sentence: "O Lord of gods, thou hast begun to show thy servant thy greatness, and thy mighty hand; for what god is there in heaven or in earth that can do according to thy works, and according to thy might? I pray thee let me go over and see the good land beyond Jordan, even that goodly mountain Lebanon," or the whole breadth of the land
Archaeology And Biblical Study - Today, this is the land forming the countries of Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan