What does Law mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
νόμου anything established 63
νόμον anything established 53
νόμος anything established 32
νόμῳ anything established 31
תּוֹרַ֣ת law 16
תּוֹרַ֖ת law 11
הַתּוֹרָ֥ה law 9
בְּתוֹרַ֥ת law 7
תּוֹרַ֥ת law 6
הַתּוֹרָ֔ה law 6
חֹתֵ֣ן to become a son-in-law 5
הַתּוֹרָ֑ה law 5
בְּתוֹרַ֣ת law 5
הַתּוֹרָֽה law 4
הַתּוֹרָ֣ה law 4
בַּתּוֹרָ֑ה law 3
הַתּוֹרָ֖ה law 3
תּוֹרָ֥ה law 3
תּוֹרָ֖ה law 3
תּוֹרַ֤ת law 3
הַתּוֹרָה֙ law 3
הַתּוֹרָ֛ה law 3
πενθερὰ mother-in-law 3
כַּלָּת֔וֹ bride 3
חֹתֵ֥ן to become a son-in-law 3
תּוֹרָ֣ה law 3
הַתּוֹרָ֗ה law 2
תּוֹרָתִ֖י law 2
תוֹרָ֔ה law 2
לְהִתְחַתֵּ֖ן to become a son-in-law 2
חֲמוֹתָֽהּ mother-in-law 2
תּוֹרָ֔ה law 2
בַּתּוֹרָֽה law 2
תּוֹרַת֙ law 2
חָמִ֖יהָ father-in-law 2
חֹֽתְנ֗וֹ to become a son-in-law 2
חָתָ֖ן son-in-law 2
כְּדָת־ decree 2
תּוֹרָתִ֣י law 2
תּֽוֹרַת־ law 2
תּוֹרָתִ֑י law 2
νομοδιδάσκαλοι a teacher and interpreter of the law: among the Jews. 2
νύμφην a betrothed woman 2
בְּת֣וֹרָתִ֔י law 2
בְּדָ֥ת decree 2
הַתּוֹרָֽה־ law 2
הַתּוֹרָ֤ה law 2
תּוֹרָתֶֽךָ law 2
וְכַתּוֹרָ֣ה law 1
תוֹרָה֙ law 1
בְּתוֹרָתֽוֹ law 1
וּלְתוֹרָת֖וֹ law 1
בְּתֽוֹרַת־ law 1
וְתוֹרָתְךָ֖ law 1
תּֽוֹרָתִ֑י law 1
וְהַתּוֹרָ֤ה law 1
בְּתוֹרָתִ֖י law 1
תּ֣וֹרָתֶ֔ךָ law 1
בְּתוֹרַת֙ law 1
הַתּוֹרָ֜ה law 1
בְּתוֹרַ֖ת law 1
וְכַתּוֹרָ֖ה law 1
וְתוֹרָה֙ law 1
תוֹרָתִי֮ law 1
וְהַתּוֹרָה֙ law 1
לְתוֹרָ֖ה law 1
הַ֨תּוֹרָ֔ה law 1
ἀνόμοις destitute of (the Mosaic) law. / departing from the law 1
תּוֹרָ֜ה law 1
תּֽ֝וֹרָתְךָ֗ law 1
וְת֣וֹרָה law 1
וְ֝תוֹרָתִ֗י law 1
וּֽבְתוֹרָת֥וֹ law 1
מִתּוֹרָתֶֽךָ law 1
וְֽתוֹרָתְךָ֥ law 1
תֽוֹרָתֶ֗ךָ law 1
תוֹרָתְךָ֥ law 1
מִ֝תּֽוֹרָתְךָ֗ law 1
תּוֹרָתְךָ֥ law 1
וְתֽוֹרַת־ law 1
תֽוֹרַת־ law 1
תֽ֝וֹרָתְךָ֗ law 1
כְתוֹרָתֶֽךָ law 1
תּ֘וֹרַ֤ת law 1
וְ֝ת֥וֹרָתְךָ֗ law 1
וְתוֹרָה֮ law 1
וּ֝בְתוֹרָת֗וֹ law 1
וּֽמִתּוֹרָתְךָ֥ law 1
תּוֹרָֽה law 1
תּֽ֝וֹרָתִ֗י law 1
תּוֹרָ֑ה law 1
תּֽוֹרָתִי֙ law 1
תּוֹרַ֨ת law 1
(וּבְתוֹרָתְךָ֣) law 1
בְתֽוֹרָתִי֙ law 1
וּבְתֹרָת֧וֹ law 1
וְתוֹרָתִ֖י law 1
וְתוֹרַ֥ת law 1
וּבַתּוֹרָה֙ law 1
הַתּוֹרָ֨ה law 1
הַתּוֹרָה֮ law 1
תּוֹרַ֔ת law 1
תּ֭וֹרָה law 1
הַתּוֹרָ֞ה law 1
לַתּוֹרָ֑ה law 1
תּוֹרַ֧ת law 1
תּוֹרָֽתְךָ֙ law 1
תּוֹרָתֶ֗ךָ law 1
תּוֹרָתֶ֑ךָ law 1
תּוֹרָ֤ה law 1
ת֭וֹרָה law 1
ת֝וֹרָ֗ה law 1
תּ֣וֹרָתִ֔י law 1
הַמִּצְוָ֥ה commandment. 1
כְּתוֹרַ֖ת law 1
בַּחֲמֹתָ֑הּ mother-in-law 1
דָת֙ decree 1
וְדָ֔ת decree 1
דָּתָ֜א decree 1
דָּתָא֙ decree 1
דָּתָ֣א decree 1
וְדָתָא֙ decree 1
חָמִ֛יךְ father-in-law 1
חָמִ֙יהָ֙ father-in-law 1
לַחֲמוֹתָ֔הּ mother-in-law 1
דָּתוֹ֙ decree 1
חֲמוֹתֵ֔ךְ mother-in-law 1
חֲמוֹתָ֖הּ mother-in-law 1
חֲמוֹתָ֜הּ mother-in-law 1
לַחֲמוֹתָ֗הּ mother-in-law 1
חֲמוֹתָ֑הּ mother-in-law 1
חֲמוֹתָ֔הּ mother-in-law 1
חֲמוֹתֵֽךְ mother-in-law 1
לְחֹק֩ statute 1
כַדָּ֔ת decree 1
דָּת֙ decree 1
؟ חֹֽק statute 1
νόμον⧽ anything established 1
ἀνόμους destitute of (the Mosaic) law. / departing from the law 1
ἀνόμως without the law 1
ἔννομος bound to the law. / bound by the law 1
κρίνεσθαι to separate 1
κρίνεται to separate 1
νομικὰς pertaining to the law 1
νομοδιδάσκαλος a teacher and interpreter of the law: among the Jews. 1
νενομοθέτηται to enact laws. / to sanction by law 1
νύμφη a betrothed woman 1
כְּדָת֙ decree 1
παρανομῶν to act contrary to the law 1
πενθεράν mother-in-law 1
πενθερᾶς mother-in-law 1
πενθερὰν mother-in-law 1
πενθερὸς father-in-law 1
(דָּ֖ת) fiery law 1
אֶת־ sign of the definite direct object 1
כַדָּ֖ת decree 1
דָּ֥ת decree 1
חֹ֑ק statute 1
מְחֻקָּ֑ק to cut out 1
בַּתּוֹרָ֡ה law 1
וְכַלֹּתֶ֔יהָ bride 1
יְבִמְתֵּֽךְ sister-in-law 1
וְכַלָּת֣וֹ bride 1
כַּלָּת֖וֹ bride 1
כַּלָּת֜וֹ bride 1
כַלָּת֖וֹ bride 1
כַּלָּתֶ֔ךָ bride 1
כַּלָּֽתְךָ֖ bride 1
כַּלָּ֖ה bride 1
כַלֹּתֶ֖יהָ bride 1
יַבְּמִֽי (Piel) to perform levirate marriage 1
כַלֹּתֶ֔יהָ bride 1
כַלָּתָהּ֙ bride 1
לְכַלָּתָ֗הּ bride 1
כַּלָּתָ֑הּ bride 1
כַלָּתֵ֤ךְ bride 1
ἄνομος destitute of (the Mosaic) law. / departing from the law 1
מִשְׁפַּ֤ט judgment 1
מִ֝שְׁפָּ֗ט judgment 1
תוֹרָֽה law 1
יְבִמְתֵּ֔ךְ sister-in-law 1
וְיִבְּמָֽהּ (Piel) to perform levirate marriage 1
תִּתְחַתֵּ֥ן to become a son-in-law 1
חֹתֵ֨ן to become a son-in-law 1
הִתְחַתֵּ֥ן to become a son-in-law 1
הִתְחַתֵּ֣ן to become a son-in-law 1
חֹֽתַנְתּ֑וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
חֹתֶנְךָ֥ to become a son-in-law 1
לְחֹ֣תְנ֔וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
לְחֹתְנ֑וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
חֹתְנ֑וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
חֹתְנ֖וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
חֹֽתְנוֹ֙ to become a son-in-law 1
חָתָ֥ן son-in-law 1
חֹתְנ֔וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
חֹתְנ֣וֹ to become a son-in-law 1
וַחֲתַ֥ן son-in-law 1
חֲתַ֥ן son-in-law 1
חָתָן֙ son-in-law 1
חֲתָנָ֣יו ׀ son-in-law 1
חֲתָנָֽיו son-in-law 1
חֲתַ֣ן son-in-law 1
חֲתָנ֗וֹ son-in-law 1
וְתוֹרָ֖ה law 1

Definitions Related to Law

G3551


   1 anything established, anything received by usage, a custom, a Law, a command.
      1a of any Law whatsoever.
         1a1 a Law or rule producing a state approved of God.
            1a1a by the observance of which is approved of God.
         1a2 a precept or injunction.
         1a3 the rule of action prescribed by reason.
      1b of the Mosaic Law, and referring, acc.
      to the context.
      either to the volume of the Law or to its contents.
      1c the Christian religion: the Law demanding faith, the moral instruction given by Christ, esp.
      the precept concerning love.
      1d the name of the more important part (the Pentateuch), is put for the entire collection of the sacred books of the OT.
      

H8451


   1 Law, direction, instruction.
      1a instruction, direction (human or divine).
         1a1 body of prophetic teaching.
         1a2 instruction in Messianic age.
         1a3 body of priestly direction or instruction.
         1a4 body of legal directives.
      1b Law.
         1b1 Law of the burnt offering.
         1b2 of special Law, codes of Law.
      1c custom, manner.
      1d the Deuteronomic or Mosaic Law.
      

H2859


   1 to become a son-in-Law, make oneself a daughter’s husband.
      1a (Qal) wife’s father, wife’s mother, father-in-Law, mother-in- Law (participle).
      1b (Hithpael) to make oneself a daughter’s husband.
      

G3994


   1 mother-in-Law, a wife’s mother.
   

G459


   1 destitute of (the Mosaic) Law.
      1a of the Gentiles.
   2 departing from the Law, a violator of the Law, lawless, wicked.
   

H3618


   1 bride, daughter-in-Law.
      1a daughter-in-Law.
      1b bride, young wife.
      

G3565


   1 a betrothed woman, a bride.
   2 a recently married woman, young wife.
   3 a young woman.
   4 a daughter-in-Law.
   

G3547


   1 a teacher and interpreter of the Law: among the Jews.
      1a of those who among Christians went about as champions and interpreters of the Mosaic Law.
      

H2545


   1 mother-in-Law, husband’s mother.
   

H2994


   1 sister-in-Law, brother’s wife, brother’s widow.
   

H1882


   1 decree, Law.
      1a a decree (of the king).
      1b Law.
      1c Law (of God).
      

H2860


   1 son-in-Law, daughter’s husband, bridegroom, husband.
   

G460


   1 without the Law, without the knowledge of the Law.
   2 to sin in ignorance of the Mosaic Law.
   3 live ignorant of Law and discipline.
   

H2524


   1 father-in-Law, husband’s father.
   

G3544


   1 pertaining to the Law, one learned in the Law.
   2 in the NT an interpreter and teacher of the Mosaic Law.
   

H2710


   1 to cut out, decree, inscribe, set, engrave, portray, govern.
      1a (Qal).
         1a1 to cut in.
         1a2 to cut in or on, cut upon, engrave, inscribe.
         1a3 to trace, mark out.
         1a4 to engrave, inscribe (of a Law).
      1b (Poel).
         1b1 to inscribe, enact, decree.
         1b2 one who decrees, lawgiver (participle).
      1c (Pual) something decreed, the Law (participle).
      1d (Hophal) to be inscribed.
      

G1772


   1 bound to the Law.
   2 bound by the Law, lawful.
   3 lawful, regular.
   

G2919


   1 to separate, put asunder, to pick out, select, choose.
   2 to approve, esteem, to prefer.
   3 to be of opinion, deem, think, to be of opinion.
   4 to determine, resolve, decree.
   5 to judge.
      5a to pronounce an opinion concerning right and wrong.
         5a1 to be judged, i.e. summoned to trial that one’s case may be examined and judgment passed upon it.
      5b to pronounce judgment, to subject to censure.
         5b1 of those who act the part of judges or arbiters in matters of common life, or pass judgment on the deeds and words of others.
   6 to rule, govern.
      6a to preside over with the power of giving judicial decisions, because it was the prerogative of kings and rulers to pass judgment.
   7 to contend together, of warriors and combatants.
      7a to dispute.
      7b in a forensic sense.
         7b1 to go to Law, have suit at Law.
         

H2706


   1 statute, ordinance, limit, something prescribed, due.
      1a prescribed task.
      1b prescribed portion.
      1c action prescribed (for oneself), resolve.
      1d prescribed due.
      1e prescribed limit, boundary.
      1f enactment, decree, ordinance.
         1f1 specific decree.
         1f2 Law in general.
      1g enactments, statutes.
         1g1 conditions.
         1g2 enactments.
         1g3 decrees.
         1g4 civil enactments prescribed by God.
         

H4941


   1 judgment, justice, ordinance.
      1a judgment.
         1a1 act of deciding a case.
         1a2 place, court, seat of judgment.
         1a3 process, procedure, litigation (before judges).
         1a4 case, cause (presented for judgment).
         1a5 sentence, decision (of judgment).
         1a6 execution (of judgment).
         1a7 time (of judgment).
      1b justice, right, rectitude (attributes of God or man).
      1c ordinance.
      1d decision (in Law).
      1e right, privilege, due (legal).
      1f proper, fitting, measure, fitness, custom, manner, plan.
      

G3995


   1 father-in-Law, a wife’s father.
   

G3891


   1 to act contrary to the Law, to break the Law.
   

H1881


   1 decree, Law, edict, regulation, usage.
      1a decree, edict, commission.
      1b Law, rule.
      

H799


   1 fiery Law, fire of a Law, fire was a Law (meaning uncertain).
   

H2992


   1 (Piel) to perform levirate marriage, perform the duty of a brother-in-Law.
      1a the duty due to a brother who died childless—to marry his widow and have a son for his name.
      

H4687


   1 commandment.
      1a commandment (of man).
      1b the commandment (of God).
      1c commandment (of code of wisdom).
      

G3549


   1 to enact laws.
      1a laws are enacted or prescribed for one, to be legislated for, furnished with laws.
   2 to sanction by Law, enact.
   

Frequency of Law (original languages)

Frequency of Law (English)

Dictionary

Webster's Dictionary - ag Law
A law or ruling prohibiting proper or free debate, as in closure.
Webster's Dictionary - Brother-in-Law
(n.) The brother of one's husband or wife; also, the husband of one's sister; sometimes, the husband of one's wife's sister.
Webster's Dictionary - Brothers-in-Law
(pl.) of Brother-in-law
Webster's Dictionary - Joule's Law
(1):
The law that the rate at which heat is produced in any part of an electric circuit is measured by the product of the square of the current into the resistance of that part of the circuit. If the current (i) is constant for an interval of time (t), the energy (H) in heat units equals i2Rt, R being resistance.
(2):
The law that there is no change of temperature when a gas expands without doing external work and without receiving or rejecting heat.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law of Guarantees
(Italian: La Legge delle Guarentigie)
A law passed by the Italian Parliament, May 13, 1871, granting certain prerogatives to the pope, and outlining the relations between the Italian State and the Church consequent to the occupation of Rome by the Piedmontese troops, September 20, 1870. Some of its provisions were: inviolability of the Pope's person, an annuity of three and a quarter million lire ($622,425), extra-territoriality of the Vatican and Lateran Palaces and Castel Gandolfo. This law was never accepted by Pius IX and his successors because, amongst other reasons, it presupposed the subjection of the pope to the Italian ruler, a status which could never be admitted by one whose supreme spiritual authority extends to the Universal Church.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law
(Latin: legere, to gather; eligere, to choose; or ligure, to bind)
Law is defined as "a certain norm or measure of acts according to which any one is induced to act or is restrained from acting. "It is an ordination of reason for the common good promulgated by him invested with the care of the community" (Saint Thomas, I-II, V:90, a. 4.). Ordination in regard to law means imposition of order, which consists:
in disposing things to a due end;
through proportionate means.
This disposition or imposition, is the principle of all order. The nature of the means used is determined by the end sought, e.g., the placement of a saw is determined by the section or part to be sawed. Law may be considered in a twofold sense:
essentially, in the one regulating and commanding;
participatively, in the one regulated.
The supreme law is the eternal law, which is the fount of all other laws and precepts. The eternal law is manifested to us through the evolution of reason (natural or moral law), or through a certain sensible sign or positive act of the legislator (positive law). Positive law is either imposed on us immediately by the authority of God (Divine positive law, e.g., Revelation), or it is imposed mediately on us by the authority of man (human positive law). Human law regards either the end of religious society (ecclesiastical law), or the end of civilsociety (civil law). Law is moral, penal, or mixed, in so far as it obliges under a fault alone, or under a penalty alone, or under fault and penalty at the same time.
Law must be designed:
for the common good, which is realized through a just political community, one that is productive and conservative of happiness and special kinds of happiness;
to produce and conserve happiness and particular kinds of happiness, i.e.,whatever leads directly to happiness, as virtues, or indirectly, as riches, honors, etc., by reference to the political community to which the enactment of law is directed.
Law is imposed on others as a rule and standard. That law may oblige effectively it must be known to those who are subject to its requirements; such application is effected through promulgation. Promulgation of a law, however, is not the same thing as "due knowledge of the law." A promulgated law always obliges, but it is not required that it be always known, since a person invincibly ignorant of the law is immune from guilt because his ignorance is an impediment, excusing him accidentally (in actu secundo) from the law's obligation. If a person, however, through invincible ignorance performs an act pronounced illicit by law, his act will be illicit in spite of his ignorance. Hence, law which is unknown is not thereby entirely stripped of its effectiveness.
According to the nature of law and human acts which are related to it, law has four distinct acts, viz., to command, to forbid, to permit, to punish. Human acts are threefold:
good acts which are commanded;
bad acts which are forbidden;
indifferent acts which are permitted.
To punish is added because through fear of punishment lawe command obedience. Law is affirmative or negative, i.e.,preceptive or prohibitive. Negative law obliges always and at all times, in every place, and under all circumstances, e.g., "Thou shalt not commit adultery." Affirmative law obliges always, but only at the time it should be fulfilled, e.g., "Keep holy the Sabbath Day." A negative law may be merely prohibitive or repealing or nullifying, e.g., when it not only prohibits an act but also invalidates that act. A repealing law sometimes pronounces an act to be null and void, or merely rescinds an act. Law ought to be possible, integral, useful, just, permanent or stable, reasonable, respectful of personal rights, civic,and religious. A law is said to be abrogated when it is completely taken away; it is derogated when only part of the law has been taken away. Law also must have sanction; no law is definitely established unless reward be given to those who observe its requirements, and punishment inflicted on those who violate it. Sanction may be natural or positive; complete or incomplete.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law, Mendel's
A law of heredity which is the basic law of genetics. It was advanced by Gregor Johann Mendel, a Catholic priest, Abbot of Brünn, Moravia, as a result of his experiments with the behavior of plants under hybridization. He experimented particularly with garden peas. By tracing two opposed characters through a series of progeny, he concluded that the offspring of the peas behave, in regard to the peculiarities of the parent peas, in a well-defined manner which may be reduced to the terms of a "natural law." For example, the offspring of tall and dwarf varieties of crossed sweet peas were of the tall type to the exclusion of the dwarf, the tall trait being known as dominant; while the self-fertilized seeds of the tall generation produced specimens of each in a definite ratio of 3:1, the temporarily obscured trait, dwarfishness, known as recessive. The self-fertilized seed of the specimens of those exhibiting dominant characters produced both tall and dwarf, some of which bred pure, others of which produced mixed types. The generation which exhibited recessive traits, however, bred pure. Mendel's Law gave a final blow to the theory of natural selection, and has exercised an enormous influence on biology and scientific breeding.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law of Abstinence
Regards only quality of food, is binding on all those who have completed their seventh year, and forbids the eating of flesh-meat or soup made from meat, but not the use of eggs, milk, butter, cheese, or of condiments made from animal fat. The prohibition against eating fish and flesh at the same meal has been abolished. The regulations do not affect special indults, or obligations imposed by vow or by the rules of religious or of communities not bound by vow. Local ordinaries may appoint a special day of abstinence for their own territories. They and parish priests can for just reasons dispense from abstinence persons or families subject to them, and also travelers who happen to be within their territories. An ordinary can dispense the entire diocese or a particular locality for reasons of public health. Abstinence is obligatory in English-speaking countries on the days mentioned below.
United States: Fridays; ember-days; vigils of Pentecost, Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas; Ash Wednesday; Saturdays of Lent. The obligation is suspended on Holy Saturday at noon and on all feasts of precept, except those falling on week-days in Lent; and on vigils which fall on a Sunday, there is no abstinence on the Sunday or on the preceding Saturday.
Canada: Fridays, except those on which may occur the feasts of Circumcision, Epiphany, All Saints, Immaculate Conception, and Christmas; ember-days; those vigils which are also fast days; Wednesdays of Lent; and Holy Saturday until noon.
England and Wales: Fridays, except holy days of obligation and December 26,; Wednesdays in Lent; ember Saturday in Lent; ember Wednesdays; vigils of Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, except when these feasts fall on a Sunday or Monday.
Scotland: Fridays; ember Wednesdays; vigils of Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, except when they fall on a Saturday or Sunday; Ash Wednesday; ember Saturday in Lent; up to noon on Holy Saturday. Except in Lent a holy day of obligation is never a day of abstinence.
Ireland: Fridays; ember-days; Ash Wednesday; Saturdays of Lent; eves of Christmas, Pentecost, Assumption, and All Saints.
Bishops may transfer the abstinence from Saturday to Wednesday during Lent. Flesh-meat is allowed at the principal meal on ember Saturdays, outside of Lent, and on vigils which immediately precede or follow a Friday or other day of abstinence. On Holy Saturday the obligation of abstinence ceases at midday. If a holy day of obligation falls on a day of abstinence, outside of Lent, the obligation of abstinence is removed. On Saint Patrick's Day the obligation of abstinence is also removed.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Influence of the Church on Civil Law
Since Christianity is an ethical religion it must influence the rules of human conduct. Ecclesiastics have assisted in legislation, government, and the administration of justice from the beginning of the Christian Era. They aided in framing laws for barbarians, e.g., the Lex Romana Visigothorum; dispensed justice in civiland criminal matters; and advised rulers, e.g., the lord chancellor of England was usually an ecclesiastic. The Church revolutionized legislation in regard to slavery, marriage, paternal authority, and legal procedure. The right of sanctuary and the "Truce of God" were innovations by the Church; and trial by ordeal was condemned by the following popes: Nicholas I (858-867), Stephen V (VI) (885-891), Alexander II (1061-1073), Celestine III (1191-1198), Innocent III (1198-1216), and Honorius III (1216-1218).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law, Influence of the Church on Civil Law
Since Christianity is an ethical religion it must influence the rules of human conduct. Ecclesiastics have assisted in legislation, government, and the administration of justice from the beginning of the Christian Era. They aided in framing laws for barbarians, e.g., the Lex Romana Visigothorum; dispensed justice in civiland criminal matters; and advised rulers, e.g., the lord chancellor of England was usually an ecclesiastic. The Church revolutionized legislation in regard to slavery, marriage, paternal authority, and legal procedure. The right of sanctuary and the "Truce of God" were innovations by the Church; and trial by ordeal was condemned by the following popes: Nicholas I (858-867), Stephen V (VI) (885-891), Alexander II (1061-1073), Celestine III (1191-1198), Innocent III (1198-1216), and Honorius III (1216-1218).
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - New Code of Canon Law
The authentic compilation of the disciplinary laws of the Catholic Church which was officially promulgated by Pope Benedict XV, May 27, 1917, and became binding throughout the Western Church May 19, 1918. The Church has from Christ the power to legislate. She has exercised this in the course of centuries according to the varying conditions of society. In the 13th century especially canon law became the object of scientific study and different compilations were made by the Roman pontiffs. The most important of these were the Five Books of the Decretals of Gregory IX and the Sixth of Boniface VIII. Legislation grew with time. Some of it became obsolete and contradictions crept in so that it became difficult in recent times to discover what was of obligation and where to find the law on a particular question. When the Vatican Council met in 1869 a number of bishops of different countries petitioned for a new compilation of church law that would be clear and easily studied. The council never finished its work and no attempt was made to bring the legislation up to date. Finally, Pope Pius X in his Letter, March 19, 1904, announced his intention of revising the unwieldy mass of past legislation and appointed a commission of cardinals and learned consultors to undertake this difficult work. The Catholic universities of the world and the bishops of all countries were asked to cooperate. The scholars began the work and a copy of the first draft was sent to the bishops for suggestions. In 1916 the New Code was completed and on Pentecost Sunday, 1917, officially promulgated. In order however to grant sufficient time for the study of the New Code the pope allowed a respite of a year. On Pentecost Sunday, May 19, 1918, it became operative.
The New Code is divided into five books. The first treats of general rules; the second of ecclesiastical persons; the third of sacred things such as sacramentals, altars, etc.; the fourth of canonical trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. The whole work contains 2414 canons. For the most part past legislation has been retained; in some cases the law modified, and in others entirely new. As the Code is not always easy of interpretation, Pope Benedict XV, in 1917, established a special commission with authority to interpret it. This body alone can give the authentic interpretation. The Code is universal in binding power in the Latin Church; it is authentic and the only source of universal legislation. It clears up many disputed points and has in view order, peace, and sanctity of life.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law, New
The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - New Law
The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Old Law
The Mosaic dispensation, the "Old Covenant"; also the books of the Old Testament; the institutions, laws, religious rites, and traditional customs which prevailed among the Jews, prior to the coming of Christ.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Medicine And Canon Law
The practise of medicine and surgery is forbidden to the clergy, except by Apostolic indult. This prohibition embraces all grades of the clergy, as well as all religious and their novices. A cleric would not infringe on the law, however, were he, in case of necessity, to use knowledge that he has, nor would he be considered to be practising if he were to suggest some simple remedies. Even though one receives an indult to practise medicine, a special permission is needed to practise surgery. Religious charged with the care of hospitals have permission to practise medicine through the approval of their rule.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law, Canon
The statutes and regulations enacted by the highest Church authorities for the government of ecclesiastical affairs.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Natural Law
The sum total of the ethical precepts implanted by God in the rational nature of man, through the observance of which he, as a free intelligent being, might attain his natural destiny. It is that universal, unchangeable, eternal law which Saint Paul says is indelibly written by the Creator in our hearts or in our very nature, urging us to observe the moral order, to do good, and avoid evil. The ultimate basis and source of the natural law is the eternal law or Divine reason ordering and directing all things in accordance with their natural inclinations to their proper acts and ends. The expression or participation of this eternal law in free rational creatures is the natural law which may be summed up in the general prescription to do good and avoid evil, to live in conformity with right rational nature, or to observe the moral order as Divinely constituted and sanctioned. The conduct of all men is subject to the moral law which, as to its primary or general principles at least, is naturally promulgated or known through human reason. Because of the consequences of original sin, Revelation alone can provide complete knowledge of its secondary and especially of its remote principles as applied to the complexities of life. The due regulation of our free actions in conformity with its prescriptions secures their right ordering in which consists the natural perfection of our rational nature, and which at the same time constitutes a necessary condition for supernatural perfection, for, according to Saint Thomas, "Just as grace presupposes nature, the Divine Law presupposes the natural law."
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Law, Natural
The sum total of the ethical precepts implanted by God in the rational nature of man, through the observance of which he, as a free intelligent being, might attain his natural destiny. It is that universal, unchangeable, eternal law which Saint Paul says is indelibly written by the Creator in our hearts or in our very nature, urging us to observe the moral order, to do good, and avoid evil. The ultimate basis and source of the natural law is the eternal law or Divine reason ordering and directing all things in accordance with their natural inclinations to their proper acts and ends. The expression or participation of this eternal law in free rational creatures is the natural law which may be summed up in the general prescription to do good and avoid evil, to live in conformity with right rational nature, or to observe the moral order as Divinely constituted and sanctioned. The conduct of all men is subject to the moral law which, as to its primary or general principles at least, is naturally promulgated or known through human reason. Because of the consequences of original sin, Revelation alone can provide complete knowledge of its secondary and especially of its remote principles as applied to the complexities of life. The due regulation of our free actions in conformity with its prescriptions secures their right ordering in which consists the natural perfection of our rational nature, and which at the same time constitutes a necessary condition for supernatural perfection, for, according to Saint Thomas, "Just as grace presupposes nature, the Divine Law presupposes the natural law."
Holman Bible Dictionary - Daughter-in-Law
The wife of one's son. Famous daughters-in-law include Sarah, daughter-in-law of Terah (Genesis 11:31 ); Tamar, daughter-in-law of Judah (Genesis 38:11 ,Genesis 38:11,38:16 ; 1 Chronicles 2:4 ); and Ruth, daughter-in-law of Naomi (Ruth 2:20 ,Ruth 2:20,2:22 ; Ruth 4:15 ). Daughters-in-law might be addressed simply as daughter (Ruth 2:2 ,Ruth 2:2,2:8 ,Ruth 2:8,2:22 ). Marriage made them an integral member of the family. Ruth was hailed as more to Naomi than seven sons (Ruth 4:15 ). The breakdown of the relationship between mother-in-laws and daughters-in-law illustrated the collapse of moral society (Micah 7:6 ). In the New Testament, differing responses to the gospel created the same breakdown of relationship (Matthew 10:35 ; Luke 12:53 ). Jewish law prohibited incest between a man and his daughter-in-law (Leviticus 18:15 ). This crime was punishable by death (Leviticus 20:12 ). In Ezekiel 22:11 this crime illustrates the moral decline of the nation. See Family .
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Law
A rule of action.
The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by natural light (Romans 1:20 ; 2:14,15 ). This law binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the moral relations of things.
The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the rites and ceremonies of worship. This law was obligatory only till Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his work (Hebrews 7:9,11 ; 10:1 ; Ephesians 2:16 ). It was fulfilled rather than abrogated by the gospel.
The Judicial Law, the law which directed the civil policy of the Hebrew nation.
The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human conduct, binding on all men to the end of time. It was promulgated at Sinai. It is perfect (Psalm 19:7 ), perpetual (Matthew 5:17,18 ), holy (Romans 7:12 ), good, spiritual (14), and exceeding broad (Psalm 119:96 ). Although binding on all, we are not under it as a covenant of works (Galatians 3:17 ). (See COMMANDMENTS .)
Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of God. They are right because God commands them.
Moral positive laws are commanded by God because they are right.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Levirate Law
From Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Genesis 38:8 ; Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ; Compare Ruth 3 ; 4:10 ). Its object was "to raise up seed to the departed brother."
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
Is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1 Kings 2:3 ; 2 Kings 23:25 ; Ezra 3:2 ). It is called by way of eminence simply "the Law" (Heb. Torah, Deuteronomy 1:5 ; 4:8,44 ; 17:18,19 ; 27:3,8 ). As a written code it is called the "book of the law of Moses" (2 Kings 14:6 ; Isaiah 8:20 ), the "book of the law of God" (Joshua 24:26 ). The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is essentially theocratic; i.e., it refers at once to the commandment of God as the foundation of all human duty.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Ceremonial Law
See Law
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Law, New Code of
The authentic compilation of the disciplinary laws of the Catholic Church which was officially promulgated by Pope Benedict XV, May 27, 1917, and became binding throughout the Western Church May 19, 1918. The Church has from Christ the power to legislate. She has exercised this in the course of centuries according to the varying conditions of society. In the 13th century especially canon law became the object of scientific study and different compilations were made by the Roman pontiffs. The most important of these were the Five Books of the Decretals of Gregory IX and the Sixth of Boniface VIII. Legislation grew with time. Some of it became obsolete and contradictions crept in so that it became difficult in recent times to discover what was of obligation and where to find the law on a particular question. When the Vatican Council met in 1869 a number of bishops of different countries petitioned for a new compilation of church law that would be clear and easily studied. The council never finished its work and no attempt was made to bring the legislation up to date. Finally, Pope Pius X in his Letter, March 19, 1904, announced his intention of revising the unwieldy mass of past legislation and appointed a commission of cardinals and learned consultors to undertake this difficult work. The Catholic universities of the world and the bishops of all countries were asked to cooperate. The scholars began the work and a copy of the first draft was sent to the bishops for suggestions. In 1916 the New Code was completed and on Pentecost Sunday, 1917, officially promulgated. In order however to grant sufficient time for the study of the New Code the pope allowed a respite of a year. On Pentecost Sunday, May 19, 1918, it became operative.
The New Code is divided into five books. The first treats of general rules; the second of ecclesiastical persons; the third of sacred things such as sacramentals, altars, etc.; the fourth of canonical trials; and the last of crimes and punishments. The whole work contains 2414 canons. For the most part past legislation has been retained; in some cases the law modified, and in others entirely new. As the Code is not always easy of interpretation, Pope Benedict XV, in 1917, established a special commission with authority to interpret it. This body alone can give the authentic interpretation. The Code is universal in binding power in the Latin Church; it is authentic and the only source of universal legislation. It clears up many disputed points and has in view order, peace, and sanctity of life.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Law, Medicine And
The practise of medicine and surgery is forbidden to the clergy, except by Apostolic indult. This prohibition embraces all grades of the clergy, as well as all religious and their novices. A cleric would not infringe on the law, however, were he, in case of necessity, to use knowledge that he has, nor would he be considered to be practising if he were to suggest some simple remedies. Even though one receives an indult to practise medicine, a special permission is needed to practise surgery. Religious charged with the care of hospitals have permission to practise medicine through the approval of their rule.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Canon Law
The statutes and regulations enacted by the highest Church authorities for the government of ecclesiastical affairs.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Daughter, Daughter-in-Law
1: θυγάτηρ (Strong's #2364 — Noun Feminine — thugater — thoo-gat'-air ) "a daughter," (etymologically, Eng., "daughter" is connected), is used of (a) the natural relationship (frequent in the Gospels); (b) spiritual relationship to God, 2 Corinthians 6:18 , in the sense of the practical realization of acceptance with, and the approval of, God (cp. Isaiah 43:6 ), the only place in the NT where it applies to spiritual relationship; (c) the inhabitants of a city or region, Matthew 21:5 ; John 12:15 ("of Zion"); cp. Isaiah 37:22 ; Zephaniah 3:14 (Sept.); (d) the women who followed Christ to Calvary, Luke 23:28 ; (e) women of Aaron's posterity, Luke 1:5 ; (f) a female descendant of Abraham, Luke 13:16 .
2: θυγάτριον (Strong's #2365 — Noun Neuter — thugatrion — thoo-gat'-ree-on ) a diminutive of No. 1, denotes "a little daughter," Mark 5:23 ; 7:25 .
3: παρθένος (Strong's #3933 — Noun Feminine — parthenos — par-then'-os ) "a maiden, virgin," e.g., Matthew 1:23 , signifies a virgin-daughter in 1 Corinthians 7:36-38 (RV); in Revelation 14:4 , it is used of chaste persons. See VIRGIN.
4: νύμφη (Strong's #3565 — Noun Feminine — numphe — noom-fay' ) Eng. "nymph", denotes "a bride," John 3:29 ; also "a daughter-in-law," Matthew 10:35 ; Luke 12:53 . See BRIDE.
Note: In 1 Peter 3:6 , teknon, "a child," is translated "daughters" (AV), "children" (RV).
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Father-in-Law
1: πενθερός (Strong's #3995 — Noun Masculine — pentheros — pen-ther-os' ) "a wife's father" (from a root signifying "a bond, union"), is found in John 18:13 .
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Gospel, a Law
It has been disputed whether the Gospel consists merely of promises, or whether it can in any sense be called a law. The answer plainly depends upon adjusting the meaning of the words Gospel and law: if the Gospel be taken for the declaration God has made to men by Christ, concerning the manner in which he will treat them, and the conduct he expects from them, it is plain that this includes commands, and even threatenings, as well as promises; but to define the Gospel so, as only to express the favourable part of that declaration, is indeed taking the question for granted, and confining the word to a sense much less extensive than it often has in Scripture: compare Romans 2:16 . 2 Thessalonians 1:8 . 1 Timothy 1:10-11 .; and it is certain, that, if the Gospel be put for all the parts of the dispensation taken in connection one with another, it may well be called, on the whole, a good message. In like manner the question, whether the Gospel be a law or not, is to be determined by the definition of the law and of the Gospel, as above. If law signifies, as it generally does, the discovery of the will of a superior, teaching what he requires of those under his government, with the intimation of his intention of dispensing rewards and punishments, as this rule of their conduct is observed or neglected; in this latitude of expression, it is plain, from the proposition, that the Gospel, taken for the declaration made to men by Christ, is a law, as in Scripture it is sometimes called, James 1:25 . Ron. 4: 15. Romans 8:2 . But if law be taken in the greatest rigour of the expression, for such a discovery of the will of God, and our duty, as to contain in it no intimation of our obtaining the Divine favour otherwise than by a perfect and universal conformity to it, in that sense the Gospel is not a law.
See NEONOMIANS. Witsius on Cov. vol.iii. ch. 1; Doddridge's Lect. lect. 172; Watts's Orthodoxy and Charity, essay 2.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Remedial Law
See LAW; and article JUSTIFICATION.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Law
The whole history of the Jews is a riddle if Moses' narrative is not authentic. If it is authentic, he was inspired to give the law, because he asserts God's immediate commission. Its recognized inspiration alone can account for the Israelites' acquiescence in a burdensome ritual, and for their intense attachment to the Scriptures which condemn them as a stiffnecked people. A small, isolated people, no way distinguished for science or art, possessed the most spiritual religion the world has ever seen: this cannot have been of themselves, it must be of God. No Israelite writer hints at the possibility of fraud. The consentient belief of the rival kingdoms northern Israel and Judah, the agreement in all essential parts between the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Pentateuch of the Jews who excommunicated the Samaritans as schismatics, accords with the divine origination of the Mosaic law. Even Israel's frequent apostasies magnify the divine power and wisdom which by such seemingly inadequate instruments effected His purpose of preserving true religion and morality, when all the philosophic and celebrated nations sank deeper and deeper into idolatry and profligacy.
Had Egypt with its learning and wisdom, Greece with its philosophy and refinement, or Rome with its political sagacity, been the medium of revelation, its origination would be attributed to man's intellect. As it is, the Mosaic law derived little of its influence from men of mere human genius, and it was actually opposed to the sensual and idolatrous inclinations of the mass of the people. Nothing short of its origin being divine, and its continuance effected by divine interposition, can account for the fact that it was only in their prosperity the law was neglected; when adversity awakened them to reflection they always cried unto God and returned to His law, and invariably found deliverance (Graves, Pent. ii. 3, section 2). Unlike the surrounding nations, the Jews have their history almost solely in the written word.
No museum possesses sculptured figures of Jewish antiquities such as are brought from Egypt, Nineveh, Babylon, Persepolis, Greece, and Rome. The basis of Israel's polity was the Decalogue, the compendium of the moral law which therefore was proclaimed first, then the other religions and civil ordinances. The end of Israel's call by the holy God was that they should be "a holy nation" (Leviticus 19:2), a meadiatorial kingdom between God and the nations, witnessing for Him to them (Isaiah 43:10-12), and between them and Him, performing those sacrificial ordinances through the divinely constituted Aaronic priests, which were to prefigure the one coming Sacrifice, through whom all the Gentile nations were to be blessed. Thus, Israel was to be "a kingdom of priests," each subject a priest (though their exercise of the sacrificial functions was delegated to one family as their representative), and God was at once civil and spiritual king; therefore all the theocratic ordinances of the Sinaitic legislation were designed to minister toward holiness, which is His supreme law.
Hence, the religious ordinances had a civil and judicial sanction annexed and the civil enactments had a religious bearing. Both had a typical and spiritual aspect also, in relation to the kingdom of God yet to come. While minute details are of temporary and local application their fundamental principle is eternal, the promotion of God's glory and man's good. It is because of this principle pervading more or less all the ordinances, civil and ceremonial alike, that it is not always easy to draw a line between them. Even the moral law is not severed from but intimately bound up with both. The moral precepts are eternally obligatory, because based on God's own unchangeable character, which is reflected in the enlightened conscience; their positive enactment is only to clear away the mist which sin has spread over even the conscience.
The positive precepts are obligatory only because of enactment, and so long as the divine Legislator appointed them to remain in force. This is illustrated in Hosea 6:6, "I desired mercy and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings." God did desire "sacrifices" (for He instituted them), but moral obedience more: for this is the end for which positive ordinances, as sacrifices, were instituted; i.e., sacrifices and positive ordinances, as the sabbath, were to be observed, but not made the plea for setting aside the moral duties, justice, love, truth, obedience, which are eternally obligatory. Compare 1 Samuel 15:22; Psalms 50:8-9; Psalms 51:16-17; Isaiah 1:11-12; Micah 6:6-8; Matthew 23:23; Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7. Torah ("law") means strictly a directory. Authoritative enactment is implied.
The elements of the law already existed, but scattered and much obscured amidst incongruous usages which men's passions had created. The law "was added because of the transgressions" of it, i.e., not to remove all transgressions, for the law rather stimulates the corrupt heart to disobedience (Romans 7:13), but to bring them out into clearer view (Galatians 3:19; Romans 3:20 end, Romans 4:15; Romans 5:13; Romans 7:7-9), to make men more conscious of their sins as being transgressions of the law, so to make them feel need and longing for the promised Saviour (Galatians 3:17-24), "the law was our "schoolmaster" (paidagoogos , rather guardian-servant leading us to school), to bring us to Christ." The law is closely connected with the promise to Abraham, "in thy seed shall all families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 12:3).
It witnessed to the evil in all men, from which the promised Seed should deliver men, and its provisions on the other hand were the chief fence by which Israel was kept separate from surrounding pagandom, the repository of divine revelation for the future good of the world, when the fullness of the time should come. The giving of the law marked the transition of Israel from nonage to full national life. The law formally sanctioned, and grouped together, many of the fragmentary ordinances of God which existed before. The sabbath, marriage, sacrifices (Genesis 2; Genesis 4; Exodus 16:23-29), distinction of clean and unclean (Genesis 7:2), the shedding of blood for blood (Genesis 9:6), circumcision (Genesis 17), the penalty for fornication, and the Levirate usage (a brother being bound to marry and raise up seed by a deceased brother's widow, Genesis 38:8; Genesis 38:24) were some of the patriarchal customs which were adopted with modifications by the Mosaic code. In some cases, as divorce, it corrected rather than sanctioned objectionable existing usages, suffering their existence at all only because of the hardness of their hearts (Matthew 19:7-8).
So in the case of a disobedient son (Deuteronomy 21:18-21), severe as is the penalty, it is an improvement upon existing custom, substituting a judicial appeal to the community for arbitrary parental power of life and death. The Levirate law limited rather than approved of existing custom. The law of the avenger of involuntarily-shed blood (Deuteronomy 19:1-13; Numbers 35) mercifully restrained the usage which was too universally recognized to admit of any but gradual abolition. It withdrew the involuntary homicide from before the eyes of the incensed relatives of the deceased. No satisfaction was allowed for murder; the murderer had no asylum, but could be dragged from the altar (Exodus 21:14; 1 Kings 2:28-34). The comparative smallness of that portion of the Sinaitic law which concerns the political constitution harmonizes with the alleged time of its promulgation, when as yet the form of government was not permanently settled.
The existing patriarchal authorities in the family and tribe are recognized, while the priests and Levites are appointed to take wholly the sacred functions and in part also the judicial ones. The contingency of a kingly government is provided for in general directions (Deuteronomy 17:14-20). The outline of the law is given in Exodus 20-23; the outline of the ceremonial law is given in Exodus 25-31. The Decalogue (a term first found in Clement of Alexandria's Pedag. iii. 12) is the heart of the whole, and therefore was laid up in the ark of the covenant beneath the "mercy-seat" or "propitiatory" (hilasteerion ), intimating that it is only as covered over by divine atoning mercy that the law could be the center of the (Romans 3:25-26) covenant of God with us. The law is the reflection of the holy character of the God of the covenant, the embodiment of the inner spirit of the Mosaic code. "The ten commandments" (Hebrew words, Exodus 34:28) are frequently called "the testimony," namely, of Jehovah against all who should transgress (Deuteronomy 31:26-27).
By the law came "the knowledge of sin" (Romans 3:20; Romans 7:7). Conscience (without the law) caused only a vague discomfort to the sinner. But the law of the Decalogue, when expressed definitely, convicted of sin and was therefore "a ministration of condemnation" and "of death written and engraven on stones" (Psalms 16:8-11; 2 Corinthians 3:9). Its preeminence is marked by its being the first part revealed; not like the rest of the code through Moses, but by Jehovah Himself, with attendant angels (Deuteronomy 33:2; Acts 7:53; Galatians 3:19; Ecclesiastes 12:13-14); written by God's finger, and on stone tables to mark its permanence. The number ten expresses completeness, perfection (Psalms 19:7; Exodus 27:12 1 Kings 7:27; Matthew 25:1). They were "the tables of the covenant," and the ark, because containing them, was called "the ark of the covenant" (Deuteronomy 4:13; Joshua 3:11). The record in Deuteronomy 5:6-21 is a slight variation of Exodus 20:2-17.
The fourth commandment begins with "keep" instead of "remember," the reason for its observance in Deuteronomy is Israel's deliverance from Egypt instead of God's resting from creation. Deuteronomy is an inspired free repetition of the original in Exodus, suited to Moses' purpose of exhortation; hence he refers to the original, in the fifth commandment adding "as the Lord thy God commanded thee." "And" is inserted as suited to the narrative style which Deuteronomy combines with the legislative. "Desire" is substituted for "covet" in the tenth. None but Moses himself would have ventured to alter an iota of what Moses had ascribed to God in Exodus. The special reason for the fourth, applying to the Israelites, does not interfere with the earlier and more universal reason in Exodus, but is an additional motive for their observing the ordinance already resting on the worldwide basis. Coveting the house in Exodus precedes, but in Deuteronomy succeeds, coveting the wife; evidently all kinds of coveting are comprised in the one tenth commandment.
As the seventh and eighth forbid acts of adultery and theft, so the tenth forbids the desire and so seals the inner spirituality of all the commandments of the second table. The claims of God stand first. The love of God is the true spring of the love of our fellow men. Josephus (contra Apion ii. 17) says: "Moses did not (as other legislators) make religion part of virtue, but all other virtues parts of religion." The order of the ten indicates the divine hand; God's being, unity, exclusive deity, "have no other gods before My face" (Hebrews 4:13); His worship as a Spirit without idol symbol; His name; His day; His earthly representatives, parents, to be honoured; then regard for one's neighbour's life; for his second self, his wife; his property; character; bridling the desires, the fence of duty to one's neighbour and one's self. As deed is fenced by the sixth, seventh, and eighth, so speech by the ninth, and the heart by the tenth. It begins with God, ends with the heart. The fourth and fifth have a positive form, the rest negative.
It is a witness against man's sin, rather than a giver of holiness. Philo and Josephus (Ant. 3:6, section 5) comprise the first five in the first table, the last five in the second. Augustine, to bring out the Trinity, made our first and second one, and divided our tenth into coveting the wife and coveting the rest; thus, three in the first table, seven in the second. But the command to have only one God is quite distinct from the prohibition to worship Him by an image, and coveting the wife and the other objects falls under one category of unlawful desire. Love to God is expressly taught in the second commandment, "mercy to thousands in them that love Me and keep My commandments." The five and five division is the best. Five implies imperfection; our duty to God being imperfect if divorced from duty to our neighbour. Five and ten predominate in the proportions of the tabernacle. Piety toward the earthly father is closely joined to piety towards the heavenly (Hebrews 12:9; 1 Timothy 5:4; Mark 7:11). Special sanctions are attached to the second, third, fourth, and fifth commandments.
Paul (Romans 13:8; Romans 13:9) makes the second table, or duty to our neighbour, comprise the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth, but not the fifth commandment. Spiritual Jews penetrated beneath the surface, and so found in the law peace and purity viewed in connection with the promised Redeemer (Psalms 1:2; Psalms 1:19; Psalms 1:119; Psalms 1:15; Psalms 1:24; Isaiah 1:10-18; Romans 2:28-29). As (1) the Decalogue gave the moral tone to all the rest of the law, so (2) the ceremonial part taught symbolically purity, as required by all true subjects of the kingdom of God. It declared the touch of the dead defiling, to remind men that sin's wages is death. It distinguished clean from unclean foods, to teach men to choose moral good and reject evil. The sacrificial part (3) taught the hope of propitiation, and thus represented the original covenant of promise, and pointed on to Messiah, through whom the sense of guilt, awakened by the moral law which only condemns men through their own inability to keep it, is taken away, and peace with God is realized.
Two particulars are noticeable: (1) Moses does not inculcate as sanctions of his laws the rewards and punish. merits of a future life; (2) he does use as a sanction God's declaration that He visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and fourth generation of them that fear Him, and shows mercy unto thousands (to the thousandth generation) of them that love Him and keep His commandments" (Exodus 20:5-6). The only way we can account for the omission of a future sanction, which all other ancient lawgivers deemed indispensable (Warburton, Div. Legation), is the fact established on independent proofs, namely, that Israel's government was administered by an extraordinary providence, distributing reward and punishment according to obedience or disobedience severally.
But while not sanctioning his law by future rewards or punishments, Moses shows both that he believed in them himself, and sets forth such proofs of them as would suggest themselves to every thoughtful and devout Israelite, though less clearly than they were revealed subsequently under David, Solomon, and the prophets, when they became matter of general belief. Christ shows that in the very title, "the God of Abraham," etc., in the Pentateuch the promise of the resurrection is by implication contained (Matthew 22:31-32). (See RESURRECTION.) Scripture (Hebrews 4:2; Galatians 3:8) affirms the gospel was preached unto Abraham and to Israel in the wilderness, as well as unto us. The Sinai law in its sacrifices was the bud, the gospel was the flower and the ripened fruit. The law was the gospel in miniature, which Jesus the Sun of righteousness expanded.
So David (Psalm 32; Romans 4:6). On the hope of a future life being held by those under the law see Numbers 23:10; Daniel 7:13-14; Psalms 17:15; Psalms 21:4; Psalms 73:24; Psalms 49:14-15; Isaiah 26:19; Isaiah 25:8; Isaiah 57:1-2; Daniel 7:9-10; 2 Corinthians 3:7; Daniel 12:2. The sense of Psalms 139:24 is "see if there be any way of "idolatry" (otseb , as in Isaiah 48:5; the Hebrew also means pain which is the sure issue of idolatry) in me, and lead me in the way everlasting" promised to David and his seed in Messiah (compare 1 John 5:21; Hebrews 2:2; Proverbs 12:28; Proverbs 14:32; Proverbs 21:16; Proverbs 24:11; Ecclesiastes 8:11-12; Ecclesiastes 11:9; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Proverbs 8:35; 2 Kings 2:11-12; Law
(1):
(n.) A local or subordinate law; a private law or regulation made by a corporation for its own government.
(2):
(n.) A law that is less important than a general law or constitutional provision, and subsidiary to it; a rule relating to a matter of detail; as, civic societies often adopt a constitution and by-laws for the government of their members. In this sense the word has probably been influenced by by, meaning secondary or aside.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Roman Law
The broad category of Roman law stands behind an adequate understanding of the New Testament and its world. The might of the Roman Empire dominated the Ancient Near East, including Palestine and the Mediterranean world in which Christianity was born. Roman law developed over a period of one thousand years, from the publication of the XII Tables in 451-50 B.C. to Emperor Justinian's codification in A.D. 529-34. The points of major relevance of Roman law for interpreting the New Testament cluster around several categories, particularly Roman citizenship, the influence of Roman law upon family life and roles, and Roman criminal jurisprudence.
Roman Citizenship The Book of Acts depicts Paul as a Roman citizen from birth (Acts 22:28 ) whose citizenship proved advantageous during his missionary travels. Roman citizenship could be obtained by one of several means, the most preferred of which was by inheriting it at birth from parents who were citizens. The New Testament is silent as to how Paul's family had acquired citizenship. The state could grant citizenship for one of several types of service to the empire, either civil or military, particularly the latter. Citizenship could be obtained by purchase (Acts 22:28 ).
The evidence is unclear as to how citizens were able to document their citizenship. Presumably they carried the ancient equivalent of the modern-day passport, a certificate made either of metal or wood. False claims to citizenship were punishable by death. In Acts 22:27 , Paul's merely claiming citizenship seems to have sufficed without having to produce official papers.
Citizenship bestowed certain rights. These included the right to vote for magistrates, the right to be elected as a magistrate, the right to contract a legal marriage, the right to hold property in the Roman community, and the right to appeal to the people, and in later times to the emperor, against the sentences passed by magistrates or other officials of rank.
Paul's citizenship surfaced in several details of his missionary activity in Acts. Acts 16:39 records the consternation of either the lictors or magistrates in Philippi upon discovering that Paul was a Roman citizen. They realized that they had punished him without trial. By law, citizens could not be bound or scourged (compare Acts 22:24-29 ). Most important of all is the right of “appeal to Caesar” and trial at Rome (Acts 25:10-12 ).
Roman Law and Family Life The New Testament “House Codes” (Ephesians 5:21-6:9 ; Colossians 3:18-4:1 ; and 1 Peter 2:18-3:7 ) should be interpreted against the background of the status of the family and the power of the head of the household in Roman society. If Greek society looked to belonging in one's city as the chief unit of society, Roman society, both legally and culturally, looked to the family as the primary unit of society. In early Roman law, and to a significant though diminishing extent throughout the Roman period, the paterfamilias (head of the household) was the only fully legal person in the family. The “family” included what today would be termed the “extended” family, crossing generational lines and including the wife, all unmarried sons and daughters, married sons and their families, those persons adopted into the family, and slaves. All of these persons lived under the patria potestas , or “absolute power,” of the patriarchal head of the household. The patria potestas of the paterfamilias extended even to matters of life and death, limited only by the constraints of the habit of consulting a family council or by the restraints of certain laws. The father, for example, was the person who decided whether or not to allow a newborn infant to die. That such power flourished in the New Testament era is born out by the fact that one father had his son executed for his part in the Catiline Conspiracy of 62 B.C. In early Roman times fathers could sell their children just as they could any other property. This absolute power of the Roman father included not only the persons directly descended from him but also their personal property. Persons living under another's patria potestas in actuality owned nothing. Upon their marriage, daughters passed into the power of another family's patria potestas . Upon the death of the paterfamilias , as many new families were created as there had been sons living under his power (or grandsons, in the event their fathers had died).
Against such a background, Paul's command to be subject to one another (Ephesians 5:21 ) was a revolutionary word spoken to a society in which all were subject to the paterfamilias.
Roman Jurisprudence While Roman civil law relates to the New Testament only in incidental ways, Roman criminal law casts much light upon the trial of Jesus. The representative and executor of Roman law in the Gospels is, of course, Pontius Pilate, who served as the Roman procurator, or governor, of Judea during the years A.D. 26-36. Procurators, while lacking the full status and prestige of a Roman proconsul or imperial legate, were Roman “knights” of nonsenatorial rank and were invested with the same powers of higher officials. In modern-day terminology, Pilate was a “military governor” overseeing a province known as a seed-bed of rebellion.
As the chief Roman administrator in the province, Pilate held the imperium , the supreme, administrative life-or-death power over the subjects in a province. The imperium extended particularly over the peregrini , or non-Roman citizens such as Jesus living in an occupied state. While Roman citizens possessed the right of appeal to Caesar, provincial subjects had little to protect them against abuses of the life and death power wielded by proconsuls and lesser governors such as Pilate. Pilate would have held the total power of Roman administration, jurisdiction, defense, and maintenance of law and order in the province of Judea. In the eyes of his superiors, Pilate's first priority was public order, not the execution of justice. They would not have categorized his conduct of the trial of Jesus as irresponsible. If an innocent Galilean peasant was the focal point of a civil disturbance, the quelling of the disturbance, and not justice for the peregrinus involved, was the uppermost concern for Roman officials fearful of revolts in occupied provinces.
Roman governors normally looked to a number of detailed statutes to define major offenses or felonies against persons, society, and government. The entire system, known as the ordo iudiciorum publicoum , perhaps is best translated as “the list of national courts.” This ordo contained a list of crimes and punishments with the maximum and minimum penalties that could be exacted against Roman citizens. A Roman citizen who felt that the ordo was misapplied could appeal to Caesar. Common offenses, and rare ones such as arson, were dealt with by magistrates extra ordinem (“outside the list”). In any case involving a peregrinus , a Roman governor such as Pilate would have been free to proceed based upon his imperium and his own good judgment. He functioned as prosecuting attorney, judge, and jury. He would have been free to adopt the rules and guidelines of the ordo if appropriate, but he would also have been free to be as harsh and arbitrary as he preferred. A good first century procurator would, however, have tended more and more to judge a peregrinus by the ordo .
Roman trial proceedings were public, before the tribune (compare Matthew 27:19 ). Interested parties brought formal charges, which had to be specific (compare Matthew 27:12 ). In the Gospels, Jesus was charged before Pilate with a political crime. The Romans would never execute someone simply on religious grounds. Roman criminal trials included the cognitio , or the questioning of the accused. After A.D. 50 enlightened officials gave accused persons three opportunities to respond to charges made against them. Interestingly enough, Pilate does this very thing in the trial account as we find it in John (compare John 18:33 ,John 18:33,18:35 ,John 18:35,18:37 ), following the most enlightened possible juridical rules of the day. Failure to respond to the charges resulted in conviction by default. When Jesus remained silent and made no defense, under the Roman system, Pilate had no other option but to convict. Following the cognitio , the governor would then render his verdict in the form of a sentence to a particular punishment.
The trial of Jesus in the Gospels conforms in many of its particulars to the fine points of Roman criminal procedure. For example, it was not unknown to transfer jurisdiction to the accused's place of origin (compare Pilate's sending Jesus to Herod in Luke 23:6-7 ). Similarly, according to John 18:28 , the trial of Jesus took place early in the day, an odd hour to modern minds, but precisely at the time when ancient Roman officials were the busiest, ordinarily arising early to work even before breakfast. To modern thought, it might also seem strange that Pilate consulted with his wife (Matthew 27:19 ) concerning Jesus. Far from some unseemly intrusion by her into official affairs of state, Roman women normally shared the responsibilities of husbands serving as career diplomats. They often were the husband's best advisor.
The Roman system of criminal justice distinguished between public and private penalties. The private penalty consisted of a sum of money paid to the person wronged as a substitute for private retaliation. Public penalties ranged from light beatings to the infliction of the death penalty, which could take various forms, with decapitation, gallows or crucifixion, burning, and drowning in a sack being the most common. Imprisonment as a penalty for a crime was unknown in Roman times. In the later empire, banishment to hard labor in mines or public works projects appeared as a penalty for wrongdoing.
The appearances of Paul before governmental officials and his trials in Acts also accord with what we know elsewhere of Roman trial procedure and custom. Perhaps most notable is the fact that in Acts 24:18-19 Jews make the original charges against Paul, but later disappear from the case. Before Felix ( Acts 24:19 ), Paul objected that his accusers ought to be present. Roman law was strongly inclined against persons who made accusations and then abandoned them. Acts closes (Acts 28:30 ) by giving the tantalizing detail that Paul remained under “house arrest” in Rome for two years awaiting trial. This perplexing delay could be explained by a congested court list, the failure of his accusers to appear to lodge their charges, or the upheaval that characterized Nero's reign. Also noteworthy is the fact that Acts twice links Paul with Roman proconsuls (Sergius Paulus on Cyprus in Acts 13:6-12 and Annius Gallio at Corinth in Acts 18:12-17 ). See Trial of Jesus ; Citizen, Citizenship ; Marriage and Family; and Pilate, Pontius .
Mike Fuhrman
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Trial-at-Law
1. Primitive justice.-The earliest form of justice was personal redress. An injury sustained by any primitive tribe, or individual member of the tribe, must be requited by those to whom the honour of the tribe was sacred. No account was taken of the motive; nor was it necessary to bring home crimes like murder to the actual perpetrator of the deed, still less to mete out vengeance by the exact measure of the wrong. The whole family or tribe of the criminal was held as guilty as himself, and had often to pay ten-fold the price of blood. Among the heathen Arabs the most honoured tribes were such as could boast, ‘Never is blood of us poured forth without vengeance’ (Hamâsa, ed. F. Rückert, Berlin, 1846, p. 15), and ‘Never shall the avengers cease without their fifty’ (ib., p. 328). But murder was not the only crime that called for vengeance in blood. Everything that prejudiced the honour of the tribe-adultery, insult, wounds, and even robbery-was an offence worthy of death. The sensitive tribesman would not hesitate to shed blood ‘but for the shoe’s latchet’ of his friend (C. J. Lyall, Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry, London, 1885, p. 6f.).
In this system of reprisals there were at least the germs of social justice; for the very ferocity of the vengeance deterred men from wrong-doing. But, once set in motion, tribal feuds were the source of interminable bloodshed. Thus society was driven in self-defence to seek a way out of them. It was hardly possible, indeed, to restrain the avenger of blood from exacting the due penalty of deliberate wrong. But compensation might be made for unpremeditated crimes by their price in cattle or money. Thus arose the widespread custom of submitting such cases to an arbiter or umpire chosen by the parties, with the full approval of the people. A suggestive example is found in the well-known picture on the shield of Achilles (Homer, Il. xviii. 497ff.), where two men are represented ‘striving about the blood-price of a man slain,’ the one maintaining that he has paid the price in full, the other refusing to take aught (for to him there is no case for compensation), but both desirous of placing the issue in the hand of a daysman, and to this end demanding judgment of the elders, having first deposited in the midst the two talents of gold ‘to give to him among them that spake the justest doom’ (cf. Leaf’s note sub loco).
We are still at the stage where the reference of a cause to an arbiter is purely voluntary, and neither party is legally bound by the decision given. But the force of public opinion was exerted increasingly on the side of law and order. The actual execution of justice was left to the injured party, and in the case of ‘manifest’ crimes like open murder and house-breaking ancient codes interposed no check on summary vengeance; but where the least doubt existed, and the accused claimed the privilege of trial, society demanded clear evidence of his guilt, at the same time seeking to control the fierce impulses of the avenger by limiting punishment to the responsible wrong-doer, and making the penalty correspond as nearly as possible to the gravity of the offence; in other words, replacing the principle of unrestricted vengeance by the ius talionis-‘an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.’ This higher platform of justice is represented by the simple courts that survive to the present day among the Arabs of the desert, and in the primitive village communities of Southern Russia. The suspected offender is haled before the council of elders, presided over by the local sheikh or village headman. As the result of a sharp canvassing of the facts and testing of evidence, often supported by oath, and in earlier times by the ordeal of battle, fire, or water, a decision is arrived at, inspired by that swift instinct for justice so characteristic of the primitive mind, which the condemned party can evade only at the cost of expulsion from his kindred and tribe.
2. Hebrew procedure.-The roots of Hebrew justice are embedded in the primeval principle of reprisals. Thus the patriarchal legends of Israel claim among that people’s ancestors the Bedouin chieftain Lamech, whose standard of vengeance was a life for a bruise, and seventy-and-seven lives for one (Genesis 4:23 f.). But from the very dawn of national history the principle was restricted by the ius talionis, while summary execution was forbidden, except in the case of the red-handed criminal (Exodus 21:12 ff., Deuteronomy 19:11 ff.), or the son who defied his parents’ authority (Deuteronomy 21:18 ff.). Disputed cases were brought before the headman or leader of the people, who, in his combined capacity of priest and judge, submitted them to God (for decision by oracle, oath, or ordeal), and in His name gave authoritative sentence (cf. Exodus 18:13 ff.). Such resort to the ‘ordeal’ of Divine judgment continued to be made in difficult questions (cf. Exodus 22:8 ff., Numbers 5:11 ff., Joshua 7:16 ff; Joshua 7 :1 Samuel 14:37 ff.); but ordinary cases were decided by the ‘elders’ (i.e. the heads of families) seated as a formal court of justice. The institution of judgment by wise and able ‘elders’ is by the Elohistic writer ascribed to Moses, acting on the advice of his father-in-law Jethro (Exodus 18:17 ff.), and appears in full force with the settlement of the people in Palestine. The procedure before these ‘courts’ was much the same as among other primitive nations. A formal charge or complaint must first be lodged by the injured party in the case, who forthwith summoned, or forcibly dragged, the offender before the elders. In grave matters of blasphemy or notorions crime, the person accused might be openly denounced by ‘witnesses’ in presence of the people (cf. 1 Kings 21:13). At a later date accusations were, occasionally at least, presented in writing (cf. Job 31:35). The case was debated before the elders seated in judgment, usually in the market-place in front of the city gate, and therefore in full audience of the citizens. In times of social disorder, as the prophets lament so frequently, justice could be bought and sold for money (cf. Amos 6:12, Isaiah 5:23, etc.); but as a rule judicial procedure in Israel was marked by a stern regard for right. Each party was allowed the fullest freedom to present his case (רִיב) before the judges. The strongest emphasis was placed on the character of the evidence given by each. If tangible proofs were not forthcoming, the presence of competent witnesses was encouraged by every means. A solemn adjuration was laid upon the eye-witness; and he that refused to tell what he had seen or heard was accounted a criminal (Leviticus 5:1, Proverbs 29:24). The defendant’s rights were carefully safeguarded. In the précis of rules laid down in Deuteronomy, no doubt as the formulation of ancient practice, the testimony of two witnesses at least is required for condemnation. ‘One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be established’ (Deuteronomy 19:15). Even the evidence of two or three witnesses must not be accepted without proof. The judge is to examine their testimony as they stand ‘before the Lord’ (i.e., doubtless, on oath administered by the priest), and to carry out on the person of the false witness ‘as he had thought to do unto his brother,’ thus putting away such evils from the midst of the people (Deuteronomy 19:16 ff.). Later laws excluded the evidence of women and slaves, that of the former, according to Josephus, ‘on account of the levity and boldness of their sex,’ and of the latter ‘on account of the ignobility of their soul’ (Ant. IV. viii. 15).
Judgment was pronounced orally in the presence of both parties, and immediate effect was given to the sentence. Civil injuries were compensated, as a rule, by the exact equivalent of the loss sustained, though in the case of theft by two-, four-, or five- fold the amount (cf. the scale of damages in the Book of the Covenant, Exodus 22:1 ff.). More serious crimes were punished by scourging, mutilation, or death by stoning. In the last case the witnesses cast the first stones, the rest of the people carrying through the execution, and thus sharing responsibility for the act of justice (Deuteronomy 17:7).
Though the old district courts survived till at least the age of Ezra, the establishment of the monarchy imposed limits on their authority. As supreme judge, the king not merely acted as a final court of appeal, but exercised independent powers as well. Thus David sat by the gate, in person or through his deputy, to hear the suits that came to him for judgment (2 Samuel 14:4; 2 Samuel 15:1 ff.), while Solomon had a judgment-hall attached to his palace, where he tried such cases as baffled the ordinary judge (e.g. 1 Kings 3:16 ff.), and matters generally affecting the welfare of the people. The judgment of kings like David and Solomon was naturally influenced by regard for the best interests of the people; but in the hands of more reckless monarchs this judicial absolutism was the source of grave perversions of justice, such as the suborning of false witnesses to compass the death of the innocent (1 Kings 21:8 ff.), or the removal by banishment or imprisonment of good citizens whose presence was obnoxious to the king (e.g. Jeremiah 32:2 ff.).
A certain safeguard against injustice was found in the growing influence of the priesthood. As administrators of the oath, and keepers of the sacred lot (the Urim and Thummim), they had long enjoyed special authority in the courts. To them was further entrusted the codifying of legal decisions (מִשְׁפֶטִים). They thus acquired a definite position as judicial advisers (cf. Deuteronomy 17:9; Deuteronomy 19:17). On the fall of the monarchy they assumed the full responsibilities of justice. The high priest was the virtual king of the new spiritual community, with the lower priests as a council of assessors to confer with him in judgment. Thence was evolved the court of the Sanhedrin, the institution of which dates probably from the beginning of the Greek era. The name is sometimes used of the local courts of seven that now finally superseded the original councils of elders. It was technically applied, however, to the Great Sanhedrin of Jerusalem, the 71 members of which decided all cases of appeal from the lower courts, as well as the graver questions of law and conduct. The rules of procedure are codified in the Mishna Sanhedrin (circa, about a.d. 200), and show how strongly the passion for justice still possessed the Jewish mind-although gross miscarriages of justice may sometimes have occurred in practice-and how closely mercy is linked with judgment. Even in civil suits the principle is laid down that ‘the court shall not listen to the claims of one party in the absence of the other’ (i. 1); proof is required of every claim, however slight a bearing it may have on the main issue; the evidence of relatives and other interested persons, also of gamblers, usurers, and those ‘vicious in money matters’ (though not necessarily ‘in heavenly matters’), is disallowed; and judgment must be given for the defendant if the case fails of proof (iv. 1 ff.). Far more stringent rules are prescribed for the conduct of criminal charges where life is at stake. Each witness must be carefully examined, after the most solemn adjuration to tell the truth, in the name of ‘the Holy and the Blessed.’ In the event of discrepancies, the accused was allowed the benefit of the doubt. Expert students of the law were likewise permitted to speak on his behalf, but not against him. In civil cases the judges might pronounce their opinions in any order; in criminal trials those in favour of acquittal must speak first. For acquittal a bare majority was sufficient, while for condemnation a majority of two at least was required; and, whereas a judge who had voted for guilt might change his mind, a vote for acquittal was irrevocable. If the accused was found innocent, the case was dismissed before nightfall; otherwise, judgment was deferred till the following day, the court meanwhile conferring together, ‘eating little meat, and drinking no wine during that whole day.’ On the morrow they voted afresh on the case, with the same precautions as before. Even after sentence of death was finally passed, the court remained sitting, to receive any evidence that might yet be brought in the criminal’s favour; and he would be recalled, at a given signal, from the very place of execution (v. 5, vi. 1).
3. Procedure in Roman courts.-The judicial procedure of the Romans shows a decided advance in legal precision. There are still, indeed, survivals of primitive justice. Thus the technical term for joinder of issue-manus consertio-recalls the physical struggle for possession which originally took the place of judgment, while ‘the magistrate carefully simulated the demeanour of a private arbitrator casually called in’ (H. S. Maine, Ancient Law, p. 383 f.). The earlier method of decision, too, was by the sacramentum or oath taken before the pontiffs. But the religious administration of oaths soon yielded to a purely secular process. Clear distinctions were drawn between cases civil and criminal, separate courts being assigned to each. By the strict division between procedure in iure (before the magistrate) and that in iudicio (before the judge), the first bold steps also were taken towards the modern system of trial by jury.
In civil cases, the principal form of action was the Legis actio sacramento, a survival of the trial by oath before the pontiffs. Proceedings were invariably begun by the plaintiff, who found his man, summoned him by word of mouth to accompany him before the magistrate, haling him by force (manus iniectio) if he refused, or poinding his goods (pignoris capio) if he shut himself up in his house. The plaintiff stated his ground of complaint before the magistrate (king, consul, or praetor), and a date was fixed for further procedure, both parties engaging to present themselves, and the defendant offering securities (vades). On the day appointed, each appeared in court with a staff (festuca), the symbol of ownership, by which he laid claim (vindicatio) to the person or property in question. Issue being thus joined, both took the sacramentum (now secularized into a mere staking of money against defeat), and the case was referred to a special iudex or arbiter, before whom proceedings passed in iudicium. The formal question to be here decided was, ‘Is the sacramentum of N. N. just or unjust?’ This, however, raised the whole question afresh. According to ancient custom, the persona or res in dispute must be present in court. If the res were immoveable, the court adjourned to the place, and vindicatio was made there, though at a later date some turf or stone taken from the spot was accepted in lieu of the property. The claim being made and disputed, probation was led before the iudex, and judgment given always in view of the specific charge, any failure to make good the full claim being regarded as a ground for acquittal.
The cumbrous methods and insecurity of the sacramental process led to the gradual adoption of the ‘formular’ system so widely in vogue during the Ciceronian age. Under this system the praetor (who from 367 b.c. presided over Roman justice as a whole), on hearing the claims of both parties in iure, drew up a judicial formula, embodying a brief statement of the case in dispute (demonstratio), the plaintiff’s claim (intentio), a request to the judge to adjudicate the person or property as he thought most fitting (adjudicatio), and instructions to condemn the accused or dismiss the case as the evidence warranted (condemnatio). The formula being accepted by both parties and their respective witnesses (litis contestatio), it was forwarded to a index, to be tried on a day fixed by the court. The hearing before the judge was always in public, the judge being usually accompanied by a board of assessors (concilium), and the parties by skilled lawyers and orators (advocati and patroni), who helped them in their pleadings. The charge was presented by plaintiff or his counsel, the defence following with the counter-plea, a sharp altercatio or cross-examination usually terminating this part of the proceedings. Evidence was produced and commented on during the pleadings. In civil cases witnesses appeared voluntarily, their evidence being taken on oath (that of slaves under torture, but only in default of other witness). Written documents and declarations (tabulae, codices, or instrumenta) might also be produced; and the opinions of juris-consults were often laid before the judge. The burden of proof rested, as a rule, on the pursuer; but the judge was allowed a wide discretion, subject only to the instructions given in the formula. On the full hearing of the case, the judge retired in consilium, to discuss the evidence with his assessors and arrive at an equitable decision. Judgment was delivered orally, without reasons given, in presence of both parties. Execution of judgment was left to the winner; but strong judicial pressure was brought to bear on a recalcitrant debtor. Appeal was allowed, either by a simple Appello in court, or by application for a dimissory letter to the judge of appeal, the letter stating the fact of the appeal and the names of parties and judge. The appeal involved a rehearing of the whole case, new facts and witnesses being freely allowed. Final judgment was arrived at through the evidence submitted to the higher court; and an unsuccessful appellant was made liable for four-fold his rival’s costs in appeal.
Criminal cases were originally tried before the king in person; but at an early date special duumviri perduellionis and quaestores parricidii were appointed for charges of treason and murder. Appeal to the people against the death sentence (provocatio ad populum) was allowed as a right from the first year of the Republic; thus criminal cases came more and more to be tried directly before the comitia populi. Proceedings here began with an inquisitio or preliminary investigation, conducted by the magistrate in presence of a contio, or informal gathering of the people, which sat for three days, and heard evidence on both sides. The result of each day’s investigation was embodied in a tentative accusatio, which could be modified or expanded by subsequent evidence. On the third day the charge was definitely formulated; and after an interval of three market-days (24 days), as a quarta accusatio, backed by a fresh contio of the people, it was brought before the comitia in the shape of a Bill (inrogatio) to be passed or rejected by vote of the assembly. The case against the accused was formally presented by the magistrate; defence was made in person, or by friends of the accused (the assistance of advocates being permitted in the later period of the Republic); witnesses were heard and examined as in civil suits; the comitia then voted as in the regular legislative proceedings of the assembly, and sentence was pronounced by the magistrate in terms of the vote. Execution was forthwith carried out by officials of the court, unless the accused had previously made good his escape and become an exile.
The multiplicity of criminal cases under the Republic suggested the institution of special courts (quaestiones), which Maine has aptly compared with the Committees of the House of Commons (Ancient Law, p. 391). The 1st cent. b.c. saw a vast development of this system in the shape of the quaestiones perpetuae, or Standing Committees, which dealt with all the more serious crimes. The institution of these courts was ‘in some sort a fusion of the processes of civil jurisdiction with those of the old criminal courts’ (A. H. J. Greenidge, The Legal Procedure of Cicero’s Time, p. 415). Here, however, the old distinction between ius and iudicium was abolished, the praetor presiding during the whole progress of the case. A criminal charge was likewise opened by a personal postulatio or request to the praetor for permission to institute proceedings. This might be made by any citizen (except an official), but must be supported by an oath of good faith. After some interval the nominis (or criminis) delatio-a more precise specification of the charge-was presented to the magistrate, usually in presence of the accused. A brief interrogatio or oral examination of the accused satisfied the praetor whether a prima facie case existed for further proceedings or the charge was the result of mere malice, and exposed the accuser to action for calumnia. If the case was allowed, the praetor drew up a written statement of the charge (inscriptio), which was signed by the prosecutor and his supporters (subscriptores), and formally accepted by the praetor (nominis receptio). The court was summoned to meet on a certain date, not earlier than ten days from the delatio. Parties were cited by herald, and witnesses for the prosecution by a denuntiatio or mandate from the magistrate. Jurors were empanelled-originally from the senatorial order, but afterwards in equal numbers from the Senate, equites, and tribuni aerarii-and sworn. The praetor acted as president of the jury, sitting with them on the tribunal, he on his sella curulis and they on benches (subsellia) around him, while the parties with their advocates and witnesses occupied places in front of the tribunal. As under the older system of public hearings, the case was opened by plaintiff’s counsel and followed up by defendant’s, in set speeches (perpetuae orationes), calculated to appeal not merely to the reason, but even more strongly to the feelings of the court. The effect of this appeal was heightened by the appearance of the accused (now a reus), who sat in court often in mourning, and with the deepest marks of grief on his face. At the close of the speeches evidence was taken, that of personal witnesses under oath, and written statements and testimonials to character (laudationes) when duly signed and attested. Evidence for the prosecution was obligatory, that for the defence voluntary. On both sides it was carefully sifted, and a written précis made in court. The case was finally closed by the reply of the prosecution and the rejoinder of defence, no longer in set speeches, but in the form of brief questions and answers by the respective advocates (altercatio). In the consideration of the verdict the praetor still sat with the jury, discussing the case with them, and thus helping them to reach a just decision. This was arrived at mainly on the evidence. Conviction was never allowed on the unsupported testimony of one witness. The character and standing of the witnesses were likewise taken into account. Judgment was given by ballot, and the verdict pronounced by the praetor in accordance with the vote of the majority. A verdict of ‘not proven’ (non liquet) resulted in a re-hearing of the case; but no appeal was allowed against a clear verdict (except on technical points), though sentence might be reversed through a subsequent decision of quaestio or people (in integrum restitutio).
In the free cities of Italy judicial procedure was modelled upon that of Rome, while the Roman coloniae and municipia were governed by prefects under jurisdiction of the praetor. The over-seas provinces, on the other hand, were subject to the unfettered imperium of the governor. The provincial magistrate was really a king in his own domain. He and his delegates (legati) were responsible for the whole judicial administration of his province. As holder of the imperium, he had full powers of coercion by imprisonment, scourging, or death; and no appeal could be made, except by a Roman citizen, against his decisions. In practice, however, his judicial freedom was carefully restricted. A wise governor respected the customary laws of his province, allowing minor offences to be tried before the local courts, and even in graver crimes directing the proceedings of the national councils with a view to securing full Roman justice, rather than suppressing their former prerogatives. As a rule, too, he sought the assistance of a consilium of advisers, composed partly of Roman citizens and partly of his personal attendants (the cohors praetoria). Cases of grave moment or difficulty might even be sent to Rome. Though the provincials had no direct appeal against the arbitrary acts of an unjust governor like Verres, they could successfully impeach him before the Roman courts, and secure his condemnation and recall.
Imperial government introduced a change in the spirit rather than in the form of justice. The popular comitia, indeed, passed out of existence; but the quaestiones remained as the regular courts for criminal procedure till almost the close of the 2nd cent. a.d. The praetors, too, maintained their position as presidents of the law-courts, their number being actually increased to sixteen. But the real threads of justice were increasingly gathered into the Emperor’s own hand. He had not merely the absolute power of repeal or reversal of the judgments of the regular courts, but in cases involving grave matters of State, or the life and honour of persons in high rank, he held extraordinary jurisdiction, while the right of private complaint in criminal cases passed over to the infamous delator, who was too often a mere creature in the Emperor’s power. Thus the old Roman principles of freedom and equality before the law yielded to the most unblushing absolutism.
4. Trials in the NT.-The trial of Jesus conformed to the letter, at least, of Roman law by its final appeal to Pilate. In the trials of the earlier Christians no such sanction was sought. The case against Peter and John was too vague to warrant criminal proceedings, and the Sanhedrists contented themselves with the scourging usual in minor breaches of the peace (Acts 5:40). The bolder outlook and speech of Stephen rendered him liable to the same charge of blasphemy as his Master had faced; but so infuriated were his judges by the aggressive tone of his defence that they hurried him out to execution without even the semblance of a formal condemnation (Acts 7:57 f.). The proceedings of king Herod were still more summary, the ignominious death of James and imprisonment of Peter being carried through apparently without either accusation or trial (Acts 12:1 ff.). Even the apostle Paul had to endure persecution and stoning apart from the regular forms of trial (Acts 9:23 ff., Acts 14:5 f., 19, etc.). But in his case Roman justice came definitely athwart the hot passions of Jewish prejudice; for the main sphere of his activity lay within the direct administration of Rome, and he himself enjoyed the privileges of a free-born Roman citizen.
His first appearance before a Roman magistrate was in the colonia of Philippi, soon after his landing in Macedonia. The charge levelled against him and Silas was the serious one of ‘impiety’-introducing customs which Roman citizens could neither acknowledge nor observe. In the exercise of their official coercitio, the magistrates (στρατηγοί, praetores) stripped and beat the accused, leaving them in prison till the case might be formally tried, or the riot otherwise quelled. But the public scourging of Roman citizens, without trial, was a scandal that might involve the magistrates themselves in a criminal prosecution, and Paul and Silas were released with honour (Acts 16:19 ff.). At Thessalonica a similar charge of impiety, combined with the suggestion of treason against the Emperor, was brought by jealous Jews; but here the case was disposed of by the simple course of taking securities from the leading Christians of the city, while Paul and Silas went free (Acts 17:5 ff.). A renewed charge of illegal worship brought against Paul by the Jews of Corinth recoiled on their own heads; for the philosophic proconsul, Gallio, not merely resolved the accusation into a mere matter of ‘words and names’ and questions affecting their own law, but calmly permitted the mob to seize and beat Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, before the very tribunal (Acts 18:12 ff.). At Ephesus, again, the Apostle was saved from the fanatical violence of the mob by the sanity of the town-clerk (ὁ γραμματεύς, the city scribe or secretary), who reminded them that the courts were open and the proconsuls (ἀνθύπατοι, plur. of category) ready to hear all matters of public order and justice (Acts 19:35 ff.).
The final long-drawn trial of Paul affords the mo
Charles Spurgeon's Illustration Collection - Sin: Aroused by the Law
A contended citizen of Milan, who had never passed beyond its walls during the course of sixty years, being ordered by the governor not to stir beyond its gates, became immediately miserable, and felt so powerful an inclination to do that which he had so. long contentedly neglected, that on his application for a release from this restraint being refused, he became quite melancholy, and at last died of grief. How well this illustrates the apostle's confession that he shad not known lust, unless the law had said unto him, 'Thou shalt not covet!' 'Sin,' saith he, 'taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence.' Evil often sleeps in the soul, until the holy command of God is discovered, and then the enmity of the carnal mind rouses itself to oppose in every way the will of God. 'Without the law,' says Paul, 'sin was dead.' How vain to hope for salvation from the law, when through the perversity of sin, it provokes our evil hearts to rebellion, and works in us neither repentance nor love.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Mosiac Law
Or the law of Moses, is the most ancient that we know of in the world, and is of three kinds; the moral law, the ceremonial law, and the judicial law.
See LAW. Some observe, that the different manner in which each of these laws was delivered may suggest to us a right idea of their different natures. The moral law, or ten commandments, for instance, was delivered on the top of the mountain, in the face of the whole world, as being of universal influence, and obligatory on all mankind. The ceremonial was received by Moses in private in the tabernacle, as being of peculiar concern, belonging to the Jews only, and destined to cease when the tabernacle was down, and the veil of the temple rent. As to the judicial law, it was neither so publicly nor so audibly given as the moral law, nor yet so privately as the ceremonial; this kind of law being of an indifferent nature, to be observed or not observed, as its rites suit with the place and government under which we live. The five books of Moses called the Pentateuch, are frequently styled, by way of emphasis, the law. This was held by the Jews in such veneration, that they would not allow it to be laid upon the bed of any sick person lest it should be polluted by touching the dead.
See LAW.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Roman Law in the nt
The student of Christian origins cannot neglect the influence which the law of the Roman Empire had on the infant Church. The marvellous talent of the Roman authorities for organization, and especially their wise adaptability, which saved them from enforcing a rigid uniformity in legal details in all the countries which they conquered, were to a large degree instrumental, under Divine providence, in furthering Christianity throughout the Empire, Though the Emperors and their officials became, at a comparatively late date (see below, 4) persecutors, yet there can be no doubt that the Roman system of law and organization was a most powerful help to the apostles in preaching the gospel. In this article we may trace the various direct and indirect allusions to that system in the Christian literature of the apostolic period.
1. Administrators of the law.-The greater part of the Roman world was divided into provinces, which were either senatorial, i.e. under the rule of the Roman Senate, or imperatorial, i.e. under the direct rule of the Emperor. The older and settled provinces usually came under the former head, and those in which there was danger from external enemies usually under the latter; but there were not infrequent exchanges between Emperor and Senate, and a province might be at one date senatorial and at another imperatorial. It is therefore a good test of accuracy in a historical writer to examine whether he names the Roman governor rightly in any given incident (see below).
(a) Senatorial provinces.-Such a province was governed by a proconsul (ἀνθύπατος, Acts 13:7 f., Acts 13:12, Acts 19:38; cf. Acts 18:12, ἀνθυπατεύοντος). St. Luke rightly calls Sergius Paulus in Cyprus a proconsul (Acts 13:7), for shortly before St. Paul visited the island it became a senatorial province, though it ceased soon afterwards to be such. An inscription found in N. Cyprus by Cesnola has ‘in the proconsulship of Paulus’ (Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen, p. 74, who quotes D. G. Hogarth, Devia Cypria, London, 1889, p. 114). St. Luke also rightly speaks of Gallio as proconsul of Achaia (Acts 18:12). This province had gone through many changes: having been at one time a separate province, at other times joined to Macedonia, it had from a.d. 15 been a joint imperatorial province, but in a.d. 44, before St. Paul came to Corinth, had again been disjoined from Macedonia and had become senatorial (Ramsay, Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) i. 23). The senatorial provinces mentioned in the NT are: Macedonia (senatorial after the time of Claudius); Achaia; Asia (the western part of Asia Minor); Bithynia-Pontus, a united province in NT times (part of ancient Pontus was joined to Galatia, part given to the Polemonian kingdom; see below, c); Cyprus (see above); Crete-Cyrene, a joint province. In Acts 19:38 the plural ἀνθύπατοι is used; the meaning is not that there were more than one proconsul at Ephesus at a time, or that the proconsul’s counsellors were called by this name (a conjecture for which there is no evidence), but that ‘there are such things as proconsuls.’
(b) Imperatorial provinces.-Such a province was ordinarily governed by a propraetor (in full, legatus Augusti pro praetore; in Greek, ἀντιστράτηγος or πρεσβευτής), Neither of these Greek names is found in the NT, but several imperatorial provinces are there named: Syria-Cilicia-Phenice, a joint province; [1] Galatia; Illyricum (Ἰλλυρικόν), [2] N.W. of Macedonia and W. of the provinces of Mcesia Superior and Thracia, which are not referred to in the NT, and do not contain any of the places there mentioned; Pamphylia; Lycia. (The last two were joined together in a.d. 74: Lycia is mentioned in Acts 27:5 as a separate province [3]; Patara [4] was within it.)
Some imperatorial provinces were governed by procurators, such as Judaea (when it was not a dependen kingdom) and Cappadocia, though Judaea was not perhaps strictly a ‘province’; the governor of Egypt was called a prefect. Both these names are used in other senses. A procurator (ἐπίτροπος or διοικητής, in the NT more loosely ἡγεμών, Matthew 27:2, Acts 23:24; Acts 24:1; Acts 26:30, etc., and so Josephs, Ant. XVIII. iii. 1, though this word is used generally of Roman governors [5] as contrasted with semi-independent ‘kings’ in Mark 13:9 and Matthew 10:16, Luke 21:12; cf. 1 Peter 2:14) was of a rank inferior to that of a propraetor. He was in most respects vested with full power, but was in some degree in a subordinate relation to a neighbouring governor; thus, Judaea was more or less under Syria, Cappadocia under Galatia.
(c) Subject kingdoms, etc.-In addition to the Roman provinces, there were in apostolic times a considerable number of semi-independent kingdoms, and also of petty princedoms or ‘tetrarchies’-this word having lost its original meaning of ‘rule over a fourth part.’ Of the former class we notice the dominions of Herod the Great and of his grandson Herod Agrippa I. (who died a.d. 44, Acts 12:23); these were kings of all Palestine. Another such kingdom was that of Polemo (Πολέμων) to the east of Pontus; this kingdom existed up to a.d. 63; one of the Polemos married Berenice or Bernice (Acts 25:13). A third such kingdom was Lycaonia Antiochi (between Galatia and Cilicia), which is indirectly alluded to in Acts 18:23, where St. Paul is said to have gone through τὴν Γαλατικὴν χώραν καὶ Φρυγίαν, i.e. he visited first that part of Lycaonia which was not part of the subject kingdom but was incorporated in the province Galatia, and then he went through Phrygia or ‘the Phrygian’ [6] (ct. 161861144379 Acts 16:6, τὴν Φρυγίαν καὶ Γαλατικὴν χώραν, which by the grammatical construction must mean ‘the region which was both Phrygian and Galatic,’ i.e. that part of Phrygia which was incorporated in the province Galatia; cf. Ramsay, St. Paul, p. 210). Herod Agrippa II. was king (or tetrarch) of Chalcis in CCEle-Syria (the Lebanon), and afterwards of Northern Palestine; in Acts 25:13 he is called ‘Agrippa the king,’ and the word ‘king’ is emphasized in these chapters; he died a.d. 100. Herod Antipas was also popularly called ‘king’ (Mark 6:25, Matthew 14:9), but he was really tetrarch (Matthew 14:1) of Galilee (Luke 3:1, τετρααρχοῦντος) and Peraea (Jos. Ant. XVII. viii. 1). Archelaus succeeded his father Herod the Great in Judaea and Samaria as ‘ethnarch,’ without the title of king, though St. Matthew uses the verb βασιλεύειν of him (Acts 2:22). Herod Philip was tetrarch of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias of Abilene (Luke 3:1). The existence of these kings and tetrarchs was due to the wise tolerance of the Romans, and it paved the way for direct Roman rule, and indirectly for the spread of Christianity.
Against the decisions of both governors and kings there lay an appeal to the Emperor. That of St. Paul is recorded in Acts 25:11 f. (cf. Acts 28:19), but it is disputed whether it was from the Sanhedrin to the Roman tribunal or from Festus to Caesar. The latter view seems best to suit the circumstances of the case. The appeal need not necessarily have boon granted; but as we see from Agrippa’s remark in Acts 26:32, once it was allowed, the prisoner could not be released.
(d) In Acts 19:31 the Asiarchs, officials in the province of Asia, are mentioned. But the Asiarch was not, strictly speaking, an administrator of the law. In the provinces there were organized associations of cities, having to a great extent a religious character, though having also some relation to the law. Such an association was called ‘commune’ (τὸ κοινόν). Each ‘commune’ was presided over by an officer named after the province; thus he was called Asiarch in Asia, Galatiarch in Galatia, etc. He was president of the games, and had an undefined influence in civil affairs. The plural ‘Asiarchs’ in Acts 19:31 perhaps implies that past holders of the office retained the title. For these offices see the Martyrdom of Polycarp, xii., and Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, pt. ii., ‘Ignatius’2, London, 1889, iii. 404 ff.
2. Administration of the law.-The Romans did not enforce a rigid uniformity of law throughout the Empire. When they conquered a country and incorporated it as a Roman province, they found in many cases an excellent system of law in force, and they retained much of it. This was especially the case in Greek cities, and above all in Asia Minor, where the people were particularly tenacious of old customs. Just as the Romans did not force the Latin language on Greek countries, but recognized the Greek language and made use of it, reserving Latin for State occasions, so they used much of pre-existing Greek law and custom. Thus at Ephesus, a ‘free’ city, we find, in addition to the Roman proconsulship, a Greek constitution. There was a senate (βουλή), and also the popular assembly (δῆμος, Acts 19:30; also called ἐκκλησία, Acts 19:32; Acts 19:41) which met regularly three times a month and (when inquired) in extraordinary session; and this popular assembly had its clerk (γραμματεύς), a very important official, whose influence over it was great, as this chapter shows (Acts 19:35-41). Inscriptions of Roman date in Greek cities show the continuance of Greek institutions (for these statements see Rackham, Acts, p. 362 ff., and Ramsay, St. Paul, p. 131 ff., Gal., pp. 132 ff., 181 f.). At Athens, also a ‘free’ city, we find a Greek institution, the court of the Areopagus (Acts 17:19; Acts 17:22), the members of which were called ‘Areopagites’ (Acts 17:34). This, however, was not a court of law, and St. Paul was not on his trial before it on a criminal charge. It was rather a University court, ‘in the midst of’ which (Acts 17:22) the Apostle made his defence as a teacher. The scene has been token by F. C. Conybeare (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) i. 144) and others, with the Authorized Version text in Acts 17:22 (but not AVm [8] ), to have been on Mars’ Hill outside the city, whence the court derived its name, but Ramsay with more probability (St. Paul, p. 244 f.) places it in the city itself, in or near the Agora or market-place. ‘In the midst of Mars’ Hill’ as a topographical expression would hardly be possible.
In non-Greek countries which passed under Roman rule, Roman law and organization were more speedily adopted, as there was less of previous civilization to withstand them. But in Palestine, as in the Hellenized districts, local law survived to a considerable extent, even when Roman procurators had displaced native kings. Power was left to the Sanhedrin in Judaea , and, though that body had no jurisdiction in Galilee and Samaria, local synagogues outside Judaea were allowed by the civil authorities to exercise a good deal of authority over their members (C. Bigg, International Critical Commentary , ‘St. Peter and St. Jude,’ Edinburgh, 1901, p. 25). This Sanhedrin could not inflict capital punishment without leave of the procurator (John 18:31), but the latter often applied Jewish law, and this seems to be the meaning of Festus’ proposal to send St. Paul to Jerusalem, to be tried in his presence indeed, but by Jewish law (Acts 25:9). The sentence would be the procurator’s, and the appeal would be from him to the Emperor (see above, 1 (c)). The stoning of Stephen was no doubt an illegal murder (Acts 7:58), and other deaths of Christians would fall under the same head (Acts 5:33, Acts 22:4, Acts 26:10); but the Sanhedrin could arrest persons, and inflict imprisonment and flogging (Acts 5:18; Acts 5:40, Acts 22:4, Acts 26:10; cf. 2 Corinthians 11:24 f., Matthew 5:22). In Acts 9:2, Acts 26:13 the synagogue at Damascus is requested by the Sanhedrin to exercise its powers (cf. Acts 22:19, Mark 13:9). In the semi-independent kingdoms Roman law found its way less speedily, and only as the local kings deemed it practicable to spread Western ideas. The position of Herod the Great in this respect is well drawn by Ramsay (Was Christ born at Bethlehem?, London, 1898, ch. ix.), who suggests that the king was allowed to carry out the enrolment which took place at the time of our Lord’s birth in such a way as to conciliate Jewish prejudices, by giving it a tribal character which it did not possess in the other parts of the Empire.
On the other hand, the Romans founded colonies in various parts of the Empire, chiefly for military reasons; their inhabitants were Roman citizens, and Roman law was observed in them more strictly; the city officials were named in Roman fashion duoviri, quaestores, CEdiles, praetores (the magistrates in Greek cities were called στρατηγοί or ἄρχοντες, and in Acts 16:20; Acts 16:22; Acts 16:35 f. St. Luke gives the former as the translation of ‘praetores’ at Philippi, a Roman colony), in colonies there was no Senate (βουλή), but there were decuriones (Ramsay, Gal., pp. 117, 182); the language used in the municipal deeds is shown by inscriptions to have been Latin (ib.). The colonics mentioned in the NT are; Antioch of Pisidia (Acts 13:14), Lystra (Acts 14:6), Philippi (Acts 16:12, where alone of NT passages κολωνία is found), Corinth (Acts 18:1), Ptolemais (Acts 21:7). Iconium (Acts 13:51) did not become a colony till Hadrian’s time (Ramsay, Gal., pp. 123, 218). Here it may he remembered that Roman law gave special privileges to ‘citizens.’ Citizenship (πολιτεία, Acts 22:28) was not conferred on all the inhabitants of the Empire till a.d. 212. Even the inhabitants of ‘free’ cities were not Roman citizens, or ‘Romans,’ as citizens proudly and tersely called themselves (Acts 16:21, Acts 22:25 ff.); but citizenship might be acquired by purchase, in the corrupt times of the Emperor Claudius, though at a high price (Acts 22:28), or by birth, as in St. Paul’s case (ib.). The law protected citizens from flogging, and St. Paul asserts this right in Acts 16:37, Acts 22:25; it exempted Jews who were also Roman citizens from the jurisdiction of the Sanhedrin and of the synagogues, though St. Paul did not always assert his exemption (2 Corinthians 11:24 f.), and it gave them an appeal from a death sentence by a provincial governor (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) iv. 292). In Acts 16:37; Acts 22:25 the word ἀκατάκριτος (‘uncondemned’) does not imply that the Apostle could have been flogged after trial, which is not the case; the want of trial merely suggests the possible excuse of ignorance which the officials might have urged: St. Paul says that they ought to have investigated. Ramsay (St. Paul, p. 225) suggests that the Apostle spoke in Latin and used the phrase re incognita (‘without investigating our case’), and that St. Luke rendered it loosely by ἀκατάκριτος.
3. Illustrations in the NT drawn from Roman or Roman-Greek law.-The following illustrations have been gathered from Galatians by Ramsay, though his conclusions have not in all cases been universally accepted. In particular, his deductions from a Roman-Syrian law-book of the 5th cent, of our era have been objected to, because of its date. But the deductions agree well with the NT, and it is highly probable that the law-book, which is of the nature of a compilation, re-echoes in a large degree the old Seleucid law.
(a) Roman and Greek wills.-The Greek will once properly executed and recorded-the recording took place in the testator’s lifetime-was irrevocable, and so it is in Galatians 3:15, where St. Paul applies the custom to the Jewish covenant or testament, while at that time a Roman will was revocable by the testator, for it was a secret document and was not recorded (Lightfoot denies that a will is intended in Galatians 3:15, and translates ‘covenant’). In Hebrews 9:16 f. the will is of the Roman kind; it can take effect only after the death of the testator. The inference is that among those to whom Galatians is addressed the Romans left the older local (Greek) law on the subject untouched, and that the persons addressed therefore lived in a district that was highly Hellenized; while the persons addressed in Hebrews (Jewish Christians in Palestine, or possibly in Rome?) had received Roman, law in this respect (Ramsay, Gal., pp. 350ff., 364 ff.). See also Adoption, 2; Heir, 2.
(b) Law as to coming of age.-Here, again, Greek and Roman law differed. In Galatians 4:2 the father names the date at which the heir comes of age. In Roman law a child was under a ‘tutor’ till he was 14 years old, when he could make a will and dispose of his own property; then under a ‘curator,’ who managed the properly, till he was 25. The distinction was not known at Athena, but it is found in provincial Greek cities. In Galatians 4:2 the ‘tutor’ (ἐπίτροπος) and the ‘curator’ (οἰκονόμος) are both mentioned. But though in this respect Galatia followed Rome, it did not do so in the other respect, for the father is said to appoint (i.e. by will) the term during which these officers should have authority over his son (Ramsay, Gal., p. 391 ff.). See Heir, 2.
(c) Law as to the position of children.-In this matter the Greek and the Roman law agreed, but they differed from the Hebrew law. A son of the master of the house by a slave mother was, by Greek and Roman law alike, a slave; but, according to Hebrew law, the status of the father ennobled the child, who was free. Thus Dan and Asher were not slaves, though their mothers were. Hence the illustration of Galatians 4:21-31 about the two sons of Abraham, the son of Hagar being born ‘unto bondage,’ would appeal to the Galatians, who lived under Roman-Greek law, while it would not appeal in the same way to one who was brought up without reference to that law (Ramsay, Gal., p. 434).
4. Attitude of the law to the Christian Church.-The Roman law recognized Judaism, though it was not the State religion, as a religio licita; it was tolerated, and no one could be punished for being a Jew. But no religion which was not recognized by the State was lawful, and as Christianity had never been so recognized it was from that fact a religio illicita. It has, however, been disputed when the Roman law in this respect was first actively put into force. Many writers, especially in Germany, treat Trajan as the first real persecutor, maintaining that before his time Christianity was confused with Judaism, and that Nero and Domitian were merely capricious persecutors of individuals. A damaging indictment of this view is made by Lightfoot (op. cit. i. 1-17). There is no doubt that at the very first Christians were looked upon merely as Jews (e.g. Acts 16:20). At Corinth Gallio treats the question before him as one of Jewish law (Acts 18:15). St. Paul could hardly have held his favourable view of the State organization and of its power for furthering the gospel had it been otherwise. But it seems highly probable, if not certain, that at least from the time of Nero Christianity was looked upon as a distinct sect, and therefore as illegal. Tacitus (Ann. xv. 44) clearly treats it as having been a distinct religion in the time of Nero; he mentions its followers as ‘those whom the common people used to call Christians’-the use of the imperfect ‘appellabat’ shows that he is not, as has been alleged, projecting the ideas of his own time into that of the middle of the 1st cent. (he himself was born c. [9] a.d. 55). Suetonius, who was a few years younger than Tacitus, calls Christianity ‘a novel and malignant superstition’ (Nero, 16). Even had there been confusion between the two religions in Nero’s time, by the time of Domitian, when Emperor-worship was enthusiastically pressed, and the Imperial policy thus became directly antagonistic to Christianity, there could be no possibility of confusing the two. The Jews themselves were active in making the distinction manifest to the authorities. In Acts 19:33 the Jews put forward Alexander for this very purpose. And it is inconceivable that they would allow a confusion so injurious to themselves to continue. It was not necessary that a distinct edict against Christianity should have been put out, and it is quite possible that no such edict was issued until Trajan’s time; the very fact that Christianity had never been recognized by the State made it unlawful. Nor is this argument weakened by the fact that there was not a continuous persecution of the Christians on the part of the Roman authorities in the 1st century. The law was there, though it was not always enforced. The same thing happened in th
Holman Bible Dictionary - Levirate Law
From the Latin levir meaning “husband's brother.” A widespread practice in the ancient Near East assigning family responsibility to the husband's brother in case of disaster. The Mosaic law provided for the continuation of a man's name should he die before fathering a male child. According to Deuteronomy 25:5-10 , the deceased's brother was to marry the widow. The first male child born to this union was to carry the name of the dead man.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Law
LAW (IN OT). 1 . That the ‘law was given by Moses’ ( John 1:17 ) represents the unanimous belief both of the early Christians and of the Chosen Nation. He was their first as well as their greatest law-giver; and in this matter religious tradition is supported by all the historical probabilities of the case. The Exodus and the subsequent wanderings constitute the formative epoch of Israel’s career: it was the period of combination and adjustment between the various tribes towards effecting a national unity. Such periods necessitate social experiments, for no society can hold together without some basis of permanent security; no nation could be welded together, least of all a nation in ancient times, without some strong sense of corporate responsibilities and corporate religion. It therefore naturally devolved upon Moses to establish a central authority for the administration of justice, which should be universally accessible and universally recognized. There was only one method by which any such universal recognition could be attained; and that was by placing the legal and judicial system upon the basis of an appeal to that religion, which had already been successful in rousing the twelve tribes to a sense of their unity, and which, moreover, was the one force which could and did effectually prevent the disintegration of the heterogeneous elements of which the nation was composed.
2 . We see the beginning and character of these legislative functions in Exodus 18:16 , where Moses explains how ‘the people come unto me to inquire of God: when they have a matter they come unto me; and I judge between a man and his neighbour, and make them know the statutes of God, and his laws ( tôrôth ).’ Originally tôrah (the usual word in the OT for ‘law’) meant, as in this passage, oral instruction or direction. This kind of tôrah survived for long in Israel. It was a ‘method strictly practical and in precise conformity with the genius and requirements of primitive nations,’ W. R. Smith ( OTJC [1] 2 339). Cases of exceptional difficulty were brought to the sanctuary, and the decisions there given were accepted as emanating from the Divine Judge of Israel (cf. 1 Samuel 2:25 ; and, for the use of ‘Elohim’ to signify the judges speaking in Jehovah’s name, cf. Exodus 21:6 ; Leviticus 22:1-333 ). The cases thus brought ‘before God’ may be divided into three classes, as they dealt respectively with (1) matters of moral obligation, (2) civil suits, (3) ritual difficulties. We read that Moses found it necessary to devolve some of this administrative work upon various elders, whom he associated with himself in the capacity of law-givers.
In this connexion it is important to remember that
( a ) These decisions were orally given. ( b ) Although binding only on the parties concerned, and in their case only so far as they chose to submit to the ruling of the judge, or as the latter could enforce his authority, yet with the increasing power of the executive government such decisions soon acquired the force of consuetudinary law for a wider circle, until they affected the whole nation. ( c ) Such oral direction in no sense excludes the idea of any previous laws, or even of a written code. The task of the judges was not so much to create as to interpret. The existence and authority of a law would still leave room for doubt in matters of individual application, ( d ) As social life became more complex, the three divisions of the tôrah became more specialized; civil suits were tried by the judge; the prophets almost confined themselves to giving oral direction on moral duties; the priests were concerned mainly with the solution of ritual difficulties. Cf. Justice (II.).
Here, then, we can trace the character of Hebrew legislation in its earliest stages. Law ( tôrah ) means oral direction, gradually crystallizing into consuetudinary law, which, so far from excluding, may almost be said to demand, the idea of a definite code as the basis of its interpretative function. Finally, when these directions were classified and reduced to writing (cf. Hosea 8:12 ), tôrah came to signify such a collection; and ultimately the same word was used as a convenient and comprehensive term for the whole Pentateuch, in which all the most important legal collections were carefully included.
3 . The tôrah of the Prophets was moral, not ceremonial. The priests, while by their office necessarily much engaged in ceremonial and ritual actions, nevertheless had boundless opportunities for giving the worshippers true direction on the principles underlying their religions observances; and it is for their neglect of such opportunities, and not, as is often crudely maintained, on account of any inherently necessary antagonism between priestly and prophetical ideals, that the prophets so frequently rebuke the priests, not because of the fulfilment of their priestly ( i.e . ceremonial) duties, but because of the non-fulfilment of their prophetical ( i.e . moral) opportunities. For the priests claimed Divine sanction for their worship, and tradition ascribed the origin of all priestly institutions to Mosaic (or Aaronic) authorship. This the prophets do not deny; but they do deny that the distinctive feature of the Sinaitic legislation lay in anything but its moral excellence. In this connexion the words of Jeremiah cannot be quoted too often: ‘I spake not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices; but this thing I commanded them, saying Hear my voice, … and walk ye in the way that I command you’ ( Jeremiah 7:21-22 ). The correct interpretation of Amos 5:24-26 corroborates Jeremiah’s contention. It is wholly unwarrantable to say that the prophets condemned the sacrificial system, or denied its worth and Divine sanction; but, on the other hand, we are justified in asserting that the tôrah of Jehovah, ‘the law of the Lord,’ meant to the prophets something wholly different from the punctilious observance of traditional ceremonies; and what is more, they appeal without fear of contradiction to the contents of the Mosaic legislation as completely establishing their conviction that it was in the sphere of morality, rather than in the organizing of worship, that the essence of Jehovah’s law was to be found.
4 . With this test (as well as with the considerations proposed in § 1 ) the character of the Decalogue is found to be in complete agreement. Its Mosaic origin has indeed been questioned, on the ground that such an ethical standard is wholly at variance with the ‘essentially ritualistic character’ of primitive religions. To this it may be replied: we cannot call the prophets as witnesses for the truth of two mutually contradictory propositions. Having already cited the prophets in disproof of the Mosaic authorship of the Levitical legislation, on the ground that the latter is essentially ritualistic (and therefore does not correspond to the prophets’ view of the Law of Moses), it is monstrously unfair to deny the Sinaitic origin of what is left in conformity with the prophetical standard, on the ground that it ought to be ‘essentially ritualistic’ also, and is not. We have rightly had our attention called to the witness of the prophets. But the weight of their evidence against the early elaboration of the ceremonial law is exactly proportioned to the weight attached to their evidence for the existence and authenticity of the moral code.
A more serious difficulty, however, arises from the fact that we have apparently three accounts of the Decalogue, exhibiting positively astounding divergences (Exodus 20:1-26 , Deuteronomy 5:1-33 , and Exodus 34:1-35 ). The differences between Exodus 20:1-26 and Deuteronomy 5:1-33 are not hard to explain, as the Ten Words themselves are in each case identical, and it is only in the explanatory comments that the differences are marked. Stylistic peculiarities, as well as other considerations, seem to show that these latter are subsequent editorial additions, and that originally the Decalogue contained no more than the actual commandments, without note or explanation. It is, however, most instructive to observe that no theory of inspiration or literary scruples prevented the editors from incorporating into their account of the Ten Words of God to Moses, the basis of all Hebrew legislation, such comments and exhortations as they considered suitable to the needs of their own times. The difficulty with regard to Exodus 34:1-35 , where a wholly different set of laws seems to be called ‘The Ten Words,’ has not been solved. Hypotheses of textual displacement abound (cf. OTJC [1] 2 336), others confidently assert that the author ‘manifestly intends to allude to the Decalogue’ (Driver, LOT [3] 6 39), while some scholars have suggested, with much force and ingenuity, that we have in Exodus 20:1-26 ; Exodus 21:1-36 ; Exodus 22:1-31 ; Exodus 23:1-33 ; Exodus 34:1-35 a series of abbreviations, re-arrangements, and expansions of ten groups of ten laws each. No final solution has yet been reached; but we may hold with confidence that the traditional account of the Decalogue is correct, and that the Ten Commandments in their original and shorter form were promulgated by Moses himself. On this basis the law of Israel rests, and in the Pentateuch we can distinguish the attempts made from time to time to apply their principles to the life of the people.
5. The Book of the Covenant ( Luke 11:37-4174 to Exodus 23:33 ) is a collection of ‘words’ and ‘judgments’ arising out of the needs of a very simple community. The frequent mention of the ox, the ass, and the sheep proves that this code of law was designed for an agricultural people. The state of civilization may be inferred from the fact that the principles of civil and criminal justice are all comprehended under the two heads of retaliation and pecuniary compensation (cf. OTJC [1] 2 340). Religious institutions also are in an undeveloped and archaic stage. The laws, however, recognize, and even insist upon, the claims of humanity and justice. It is possible that the original code may have been promulgated at Sinai; but if so, it has received considerable expansions to suit the agricultural requirements, which first became part of Israel’s daily life in the early years of the occupation of Canaan.
6. The Law of Deuteronomy shows a civilization far in advance of that contemplated in the preceding code. Life is more complex; and religious problems unknown to an earlier generation demand and receive full treatment. It is not difficult to fix its approximate date. In the year b.c. 621, king Josiah inaugurated a national reformation resulting from the discovery of a Book of the Law in the Temple. All the evidence points to this book being practically identical with Deuteronomy; all the reforms which Josiah inaugurated were based upon laws practically indistinguishable from those we now possess in the Deuteronomic Code; in fact, no conclusion of historical or literary criticism has been reached more nearly approaching to absolute certainty than that the Book of the Law brought to light in 621 was none other than the fifth book of the Pentateuch.
But was it written by Moses? (i.) The book itself nowhere makes such a claim, (ii.) The historical situation (suiting the times of the later monarchy) is not merely anticipated, but actually presupposed, (iii.) The linguistic evidence points to ‘a long development of the art of public oratory.’ (iv.) The religious standpoint is that of, e.g ., Jeremiah rather than Isaiah. (v.) Some of its chief provisions appear to have been entirely unknown before 600; even the most fervid champions of prophetism before that date seem to have systematically violated the central law of the one sanctuary, (vi.) While subsequent writers show abundant traces of Deuteronomic influence, we search in vain for any such traces in earlier literature. On the contrary, Deut. is itself seen to be an attempt to realize in a legal code those great principles which had been so emphatically enunciated by Hosea and Isaiah.
The laws of Deuteronomy are, however, in many instances much earlier than the 7th century. The Book of the Covenant supplies much of the groundwork; and the antiquity of others is independently attested. It is not so much the substance (with perhaps the exception of ( a ) below) as the expansions and explanations that are new. A law-book must be kept up to date if it is to have any practical value, and in Deuteronomy we have ‘a prophetic re-formulation and adaptation to new needs of an older legislation’ ( LOT [3] 6 91).
The main characteristics of Deut. are to be found in
( a ) The Law of the one Sanctuary , which aimed at the total extinction of the worship of the high places. By confining the central act of worship, i.e . the rite of sacrifice, to Jerusalem, this law certainly had put an end to the syncretistic tendencies which constituted a perpetual danger to Israelitish religion; but while establishing monotheism, it also somewhat impoverished the free religious life of the common people, who had aforetime learned at all times and in all places to do sacrifice and hold communion with their God.
( b ) The wonderful humanity which is so striking a feature of these laws. The religion of Jehovah is not confined to worship, but is to be manifested in daily life: and as God’s love is the great outstanding fact in Israel’s history, so the true Israelite must show love for God, whom he has not seen, by loving his neighbour, whom he has seen. Even the animals are to be treated with consideration and kindness.
( c ) The evangelical fervour with which the claims of Jehovah upon Israel’s devotion are urged. He is so utterly different from the dead heathen divinities. He is a living, loving God, who cannot be satisfied with anything less than the undivided heart-service of His children.
It is not surprising that Deuteronomy should have been especially dear to our Lord (cf. Matthew 4:1-25 ), or that He should have ‘proclaimed its highest word as the first law no longer for Judah, but for the world’ ( Matthew 12:28-30 , Deuteronomy 6:4-5 ) [6].
7. The Law of Holiness ( Leviticus 17:1-16 ; Leviticus 18:1-30 ; Leviticus 19:1-37 ; Leviticus 20:1-27 ; Leviticus 21:1-24 ; 1618611443_55 ; Leviticus 23:1-44 ; Leviticus 24:1-23 ; Leviticus 25:1-55 ; Leviticus 26:1-46 ) is a short collection of laws embedded in Leviticus. The precepts of this code deal mainly with moral and ceremonial matters, and hardly touch questions of civil and criminal law. We should notice especially the prominence of agricultural allusions, the multiplication of ritual regulations, the conception of sin as impurity, and, again, the predominance of humanitarian principles.
8. The Priestly Code , comprising the concluding chapters of Exodus, the whole of Leviticus, and other portions of the Hexateuch, probably represents a determined attempt to give practical effect to the teaching of Ezekiel. We may approximately fix its date by observing that some of its fundamental institututions are unknown to, and even contradicted by, the Deuteronomic legislation. On the other hand, the influence of Ezekiel is prominent. The Priestly editor, or school, lays special stress on the ceremonial institutions of Israelite worship. We must not, however, conclude that they are therefore all post-exilic. On the contrary, the origin of a great number is demonstrably of high antiquity; but their elaboration is of a far more modern date. It is sometimes customary to sneer at the Priestly Code as a mass of ‘Levitical deterioration.’ It would be as justifiable to quote the rubrics of the Prayer Book as a fair representation of the moral teaching of the Church of England. As a matter of fact, P [7] does not profess to supplant, or even to supplement, all other laws. The editor has simply collected the details of ceremonial legislation, and the rubrics of Temple worship, with some account of their origin and purpose. In later history, the expression of Israel’s religion through Temple services acquired an increased significance. If the national life and faith were to be preserved, it was absolutely essential that the ceremonial law should be developed in order to mark the distinctive features of the Jewish creed. It is argued that such a policy is in direct contradiction to the universalistic teaching of the earlier prophets. That may be so, but cosmopolitanism at this stage would have meant not the diffusion but the destruction of Jewish religion. It was only by emphasizing their national peculiarities that they were able to concentrate their attention, and consequently to retain a firm hold, upon their distinctive truths. Ezekiel’s ideal city was named ‘Jehovah is there’ ( Ezekiel 48:35 ). P [7] seeks to realize this ideal. All the laws, all the ceremonies, are intended to stamp this conviction indelibly upon Israel’s imagination, ‘Jehovah is there.’ Therefore the sense of sin must be deepened, that sin may be removed: therefore the need of purification must be constantly proclaimed, that the corrupting and disintegrating influences of surrounding heathenism may not prevail against the remnant of the holy people: therefore the ideal of national holiness must be sacramentally symbolized, and, through the symbol, actually attained.
9 . It must be plain that such stress on ritual enactments inevitably facilitated the growth of formalism and hypocrisy. We know that in our Lord’s time the weightier matters of the law were systematically neglected, while the tithing of mint, anise, and cummin, together with similar subtleties and refinements, occupied the attention of the lawyer and exhausted the energies of the zealous. But our Lord did not abrogate the law either in its ceremonial or in its moral injunctions. He came to fulfil it, that is, to fill it full, to give the substance, where the law was only a shadow of good things to come. He declared that not one jot or tittle should pass away till all things were accomplished; that is to say, until the end for which the law had been ordained should be reached. It took people some time to see that by His Incarnation and the foundation of the Christian Church that end had been gained; and that by His fulfilment He had made the law of none effect not merely abrogating distinctions between meats, but transferring man’s whole relation to God into another region than that of law .
10 . ‘The law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.’ The impossibility of ever fulfilling its multitudinous requirements had filled the more earnest with despair. There it remained confronting the sinner with his sin; but its pitiless ‘Thou shalt’ and ‘Thou shalt not’ gave him no comfort and no power of resistance. The law was as cold and hard as the tables on which it was inscribed. It taught the meaning of sin, but gave no help as to how sin was to be overcome. The sacrificial system attempted to supply the want; but it was plain that the blood of bulls and goats could never take away sin. In desperation the law-convicted sinner looked for a Saviour to deliver him from this body of death, and that Saviour he found in Christ. The law had been his ‘pedagogue,’ and had brought him to the Master from whom he could receive that help and grace it had been powerless to bestow. But Christianity not merely gave power; it altered man’s whole outlook on the world. The Jews lived under the law : they were the unwilling subjects of an inexorable despotism; the law was excellent in itself, but to them it remained something external; obedience was not far removed from bondage and fear. The prophets realized the inadequacy of this legal system: it was no real appeal to man’s highest nature; it did not spring from the man’s own heart; and so they prophesied of the New Covenant when Jehovah’s laws should be written in the heart, and His sin-forgiving grace should remove all elements of servile fear (cf. esp. Jeremiah 31:31-34 ); but it was only the hard discipline of the law that made them realize the necessity and superiority of a more spiritual covenant between man and his God.
11. A word may be said about the giving of the law . Whatever physical disturbances may have accompanied its original proclamation, it is not upon such natural phenomena that its claims to the homage of mankind are based. It is, in a manner, far more miraculous that God should at that early age, among those half-civilized tribes, have written these laws by His spirit on man’s conscience and understanding, than that amid thunder and flame He should have inscribed them with His own fingers upon two tables of stone. The Old Testament itself teaches us that we may look in vain for God among the most orthodox manifestations of a thenphany, and yet hear Him speaking in the still, small voice. Miracle is not the essence of God’s revelation to us, though it may accompany and authenticate His message. The law stands because the Saviour, in laying down for us the correct lines of its interpretation has sealed it with the stamp of Divine approval, but also because the conscience and reason of mankind have recognized in its simplicity and comprehensiveness a sublime exposition of man’s duty to his God and to his neighbour; because ‘by manifestation of the truth it has commended itself to every man’s conscience in the sight of God’ (cf. 2 Corinthians 4:2 ).
Ernest Arthur Enghill.
LAW (IN NT). This subject will be treated as follows: (1) the relation of Jesus Christ to the OT Law; (2) the doctrine of law in St. Paul’s Epistles; (3) the complementary teaching of Hebrews; (4) the attitude of St. James representing primitive Jewish Christianity.
1 . Our Lord stated His position in the saying of Matthew 5:17 : ‘I did not come to destroy the law or the prophets, but to fulfil.’ The expression covers the whole contents of Divine Scripture (sometimes, for brevity, spoken of simply as ‘the law’; see John 10:34 ; John 12:34 ; John 15:25 ), which He does not mean to invalidate in the least ( Matthew 5:18 ), as the novelty of His teaching led some to suppose (see Matthew 7:28 f.), but will vindicate and complete. But His ‘fulfilment’ was that of the Master, who knows the inner mind and real intent of the Scripture He expounds. It was not the fulfilment of one who rehearses a prescribed lesson or tracks out a path marked for him by predecessors, but the crowning of an edifice already founded, the carrying forward to their issue of the lines projected in Israelite revelation, the fulfilment of the blade and ear in ‘the full corn.’ Jesus penetrated the shell to reach the kernel of OT representations; and He regarded Himself His Person, sacrifice, salvation, Kingdom as the focus of manifold previous revelations (see Luke 4:17-21 ; Luke 16:16 ; Luke 24:27 , John 1:17 ; John 6:45 ). The warning of Matthew 5:17-20 was aimed at the Jewish legists, who dissolved the authority of the law, while jealously guarding its letter, by casuistical comments and smothering traditions, who put light and grave on a like footing, and blunted the sharpness of God’s commands in favour of man’s corrupt inclinations. The Corban formula, exposed in Mark 7:7-13 , was a notorious instance of the Rabbinical quibbling that our Lord denounced. It is a severer not a laxer ethics that Jesus introduces, a searching in place of a superficial discipline; ‘Your righteousness,’ He says, ‘must exceed that of the scribes and Pharisees.’
Our Lord’s fulfilment of ‘the law’ i.e . in the stricter sense, the body of Mosaic statutes regulating Israelite life and worship included ( a ) the personal and free submission to it, due to His birth and circumcision as a son of Israel ( Galatians 4:4 ; cf. Matthew 3:15 ; Matthew 8:4 ; Matthew 15:24 ; Matthew 17:27 , Luke 2:21 ff.).
His fulfilment included ( b ) the development of its unrecognized or partially disclosed principles . Thus Jesus asserted, in accordance with views already advanced among the scribes, that ‘the whole law and the prophets hang on the two commandments’ of love to God and to our neighbour ( Matthew 22:34-40 , Luke 10:25-37 ) the parable of the Good Samaritan gives to the second command an unprecedented scope. His distinction between ‘the weightier matters’ of ‘justice, mercy, fidelity,’ and the lighter of tithes and washings, was calculated to revolutionize current Judaism.
(c) A large part of the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:21-48 ) is devoted to clearing the law from erroneous glosses and false applications : on each point Jesus sets His ‘I say unto you’ against what ‘was said to the ancients’ mere antiquity goes for nothing; nor is He careful to distinguish here between the text of the written law and its traditional modifications. With each correction the law in His hands grows morestringent; its observance is made a matter of inoer disposition, of intrinsic loyalty, not of formal conduct; the criterion applied to all law-keeping is that it shall ‘proceed out of the heart.’
( d ) Further, our Lord’s fulfilment of the law necessitated the abrogation of temporary and defective statutes . In such instances the letter of the old precept stood only till it should be translated into a worthier form and raised to a higher potency ( Matthew 5:18 ), by the sweeping away of limiting exceptions (as with the compromise in the matter of wedlock allowed to ‘the hard-heartedness’ of Israelites, Matthew 19:3-9 ), or by the translation of the symbolic into the spiritual, as when cleansing of hands and vessels is displaced by inner purification ( Mark 7:14-23 , 1618611443_1 ; cf. Colossians 2:18 f., Hebrews 9:9 f.). Our Lord’s reformation of the marriage law is also a case for ( b ) above: He rectifies the law by the aid of the law; in man’s creation He finds a principle which nullifies the provisions that facilitated divorce. The abolition of the distinction of ‘meats’ ( Mark 7:19 ), making a rift in Jewish daily habits and in the whole Levitical scheme of life, is the one instance in which Jesus laid down what seemed to be a new principle of ethics. The maxim that ‘what enters into the man from without cannot defile,’ but only ‘the things that issue out of the man,’ was of far-reaching application, and supplied afterwards the charter of Gentile Christianity. Its underlying principle was, however, implicit in OT teaching, and belonged to the essence of the doctrine of Jesus. He could not consistently vindicate heart-religion without combating Judaism in the matter of its ablutions and food-regulations and Sabbath-keeping.
( e ) Over the last question Jesus came into the severest-conflict with Jewish orthodoxy; and in this struggle He revealed the consciousness, latent throughout His dealings with OT legislation, of being the sovereign, and not a subject like others, in this realm. Our Lord ‘fulfilled the law’ by sealing it with His own final authority . His ‘I say unto you,’ spoken in a tone never assumed by Moses or the prophets, implied so much and was so understood by His Apostles ( 1 Corinthians 7:10 , Law, Ten Commandments, Torah
Law refers both to the revelation of the will of God in the Old Testament and to the later elaboration on the law referred to as the “traditions of the elders” in the New Testament (for example, Mark 7:5 ).
Law is one of the primary concepts in the Bible. The specific translation of the term law is varied. It may be used for a commandment, a word, a decree, a judgment, a custom, or a prohibition. The first five books of the Bible (the Pentateuch) are known as books of the Law because they are based on the commandments which God revealed to Moses.
The Hebrew term most frequently translated “law” in the Old Testament is torah , used more than 200 times. The central idea of torah is that of instruction received from a superior authority on how to live. Torah in the Old Testament came to mean the way of life for faithful Israelites. The Torah is more than just “laws”; it includes the story of God's dealing with humankind and with Israel.
The concept of torah is closely linked to that of covenant in the Old Testament. The covenant agreement between God and His people at Mount Sinai provided the foundation for all of Israel's laws. God, the deliverer of the Israelites from Egypt, set forth His instructions for His people. They were to obey God's laws because of what He had done for them in saving them from Egypt ( Exodus 20:2 ). The laws found in Exodus, Deuteronomy, Numbers, and Leviticus cover all areas of community life. The Torah is a gift of God to His people. Obeying the Torah would result in His blessing (Exodus 19:5-6 ). Following the Law would provide for the health and wholeness of the covenant community. The Ten Commandments are a summary of the Law (Exodus 20:2-17 ; Deuteronomy 5:6-21 ).
Later development in Israel's history gave an expanded meaning to torah . By New Testament times torah meant not only the Old Testament Scriptures (the written Law), but also the oral law (unwritten law) of Israel as well. The religious leaders developed in applying the written Law to new life situations. This oral law is sometimes referred to as “the tradition of the elders” in the New Testament (compare Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:5 ; Galatians 1:14 ).
Two kinds of laws can be found in the Old Testament. First are broad categorical laws which set forth general principles. These laws do not specify how they are to be enforced or what penalties are to be invoked. The Ten Commandments are representative of this kind of law. They are basic policy statements for life in a covenant community with God.
Second are case laws. These laws often begin with an “if” or a “when,” usually deal with very specific situations. Many times they indicate a punishment for breaking the law (e.g., Exodus 21:2-3 ,Exodus 21:2-3,21:4 ; Exodus 22:1-2 ,Exodus 22:1-2,22:4-5 ,Exodus 22:4-5,22:25 ).
The Ten Commandments are prohibitions (except for Commandments 4,5 in Exodus 20:8-11 ,Exodus 20:8-11,20:12 ). These ten laws define negatively the heart of the covenant relationship between God and Israel. The first four Commandments are related to one's relationship with God. The next six Commandments have to do with human relationships. It is important to note that right relationships with others follow being rightly related to God. Being rightly related to God compels one towards right relationships to one's neighbors. Here one can see the wonderful balance that is maintained in the Law. Duties to God and to other human beings are not separated.
The Ten Commandments were not given only for the Hebrew people but are abiding laws for all people. Some of the laws of the Bible seem to apply only to specific times, places, and persons, but the Ten Commandments have an abiding quality about them. They convey duties for everyone and reveal to us the basic morality required by God. While the Ten Commandments have universal validity, they are truly significant only when persons are committed to the God behind them. What makes the Ten Commandments unique is the character of the God who gave them. Without God, the Commandments lose their distinctiveness.
Jesus certainly knew the Law and often referred to it. It is possible to say that Jesus was both a critic of the Law and a supporter of it. He was critical of the law of one means “the tradition of the elders” or the oral laws that had grown up around the written Law. The enemies of Jesus frequently accused Him of violating the Law. It is clear that keeping the letter of the Law had become more important to some of the Jews than the purpose behind the Law.
On several occasions Jesus set His own teachings over against those of the elders (Matthew 5:21-6:48 ). The Pharisees accused Jesus and His disciples of not following the law with regard to “unclean” things (Matthew 15:1-20 ), and they accused Him of eating with tax-gatherers and sinners (Matthew 9:11 ). Jesus' greatest conflict came over the sabbath. He rejected their interpretation of the sabbath Law and said that the Son of man is Lord of the sabbath (Matthew 12:8 ); that the sabbath was made for man and not man for the sabbath (Mark 2:27 ); and He taught that it was permissible to do good on the sabbath (Mark 3:4 ).
Jesus inaugurated a new era in which the Law as understood by the Jews of His day would no longer be the guiding principle for the Kingdom of God (Luke 16:16 ). Nevertheless, Jesus claimed not to have come to destroy the Law, but to fulfill it (Matthew 5:17-20 ). That is, Jesus moved the understanding of the Law from its external, legalistic meaning to its spiritual one. Moving from outward observance to inward motivation and intention is Jesus' concern (Matthew 5:21-22 ,Matthew 5:21-22,5:27-28 ). He pushes the Law out to its ultimate meaning (thus filling it full). In this sense Jesus affirmed the heart and the spirit of the Law. He moved to a deeper level of meaning, to the spirit behind the Law which God had intended from the beginning.
Jesus did not give us a new law. When Jesus was asked which commandment is the greatest, He said, “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul and with all thy mind,” (Matthew 22:36-37 ). Jesus said the second commandment is like the first, “Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself” (Matthew 22:39 ). Then He said, “On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets” (Matthew 22:40 ). Incredibly, Jesus summed up the whole Law and the teaching of the prophets with these two commandments. Behind all of the Law had stood these two great principles of love for God and neighbor. It is important for us to remember that love can never be adequately portrayed in rules or in teachings. It can be seen in the life, death, and resurrection of our Lord. The commandments to love had been there all along; Jesus simply emphasized them in a way that would forever change how we should look at them.
Paul had a lifelong struggle with the Law. By the term “law,” Paul meant the Law of God as contained in the Old Testament. He also spoke of a kind of natural law which existed in human beings (Romans 7:23 ,Romans 7:23,7:25 ). The “law of sin” meant conduct determined by sin. Paul also used law in this sense when he referred to the “law of faith”—that is, conduct determined by faith in God (Romans 3:27-28 ).
Paul's attitude toward the Mosaic Law can be summarized under several main points. First of all, he recognized that the Law had been given for a good purpose; it was holy, just and good (Romans 7:12 ,Romans 7:12,7:14 ; 1 Timothy 1:8 ). The demands of the Law were not evil, but had the effect of pointing out the sin of human beings (Romans 7:7 ). Because of man's sinfulness, the Law became a curse instead of a blessing (Galatians 3:10-13 ).
Second, Paul believed the Law was given for a good purpose, but it could not save (Galatians 3:11 ; Romans 3:20 ). If persons were to become children of God, it would be by means other than keeping the Law. The third theme we find in Paul is that Christ freed us from the requirements of the Law by His death and resurrection (Romans 8:3-4 ). Therefore, Christ has become the end of the Law for Christians (Romans 10:4 ), and it is faith that saves and not Law (Ephesians 2:8-9 ).
Paul, like Jesus, saw the Law fulfilled in the command to love (Romans 13:8 ; Galatians 5:13 ). Only with the aid of the Spirit of God can we meet the requirement to love which fulfills the Law (Galatians 5:16 ; Romans 8:1 ). Paul saw the Law as no longer to be viewed legalistically. Nevertheless, it is still the revelation of God, and it helps us to understand the nature of our life in Christ (Romans 8:3 ; Romans 13:8-10 ; Galatians 3:24 ).
D. Glenn Saul
Holman Bible Dictionary - Ceremonial Law
Laws which pertained to the festivals and cultic activities of the Israelites. See Festivals ; Laws; Priests and Levites; Sacrifices and Offerings; Worship .
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Levirate Law
LEVIRATE LAW. See Marriage, § 4.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Law, Administration of
See Court System; Judges; Sanhedrin .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Moses, Law of
See Law of Moses .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
See Law, Moses.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Law, Roman
See Roman Law .
Holman Bible Dictionary - Levirate Law, Levirate Marriage
The legal provision requiring a dead man's brother (levirate) to marry his childless widow and father a son who would assume the dead man's name and inherit his portion of the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 25:5-10 ). The practice is an important element in the story of Ruth (Ruth 2:20 ; Ruth 3:2 ,Ruth 3:2,3:9-13 ; Ruth 4:1-11 ). The Sadduccees appealed to levirate law in asking Jesus a question about the resurrection (Matthew 22:23-33 ).
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Law
The Nature of Biblical Law . The usual Hebrew term translated as "law" is tora [ Exodus 20:17 ; 23:4-5 ); is silent about state enforcement (Exodus 21:2-6 ); or specifies God rather than the state as the enforcer (Exodus 22:21-27 ). In addition, the label "law" seems inappropriate for certain ceremonial instructions.
Biblical civil laws differ from the "positive law" of modern jurisprudence, which tries to legislate in exhaustive detail. Biblical laws are insufficiently comprehensive to be considered a "law-code, " but served as paradigmatic illustrations (not rigid rules) of justice that a judge could apply or modify according to circumstances. For example, whereas capital offenses state the maximum penalty for certain crimes, extenuating factors could lead a judge, legitimately, not to execute the offender. This is stated explicitly in the case of murder (Exodus 21:12-14 ), and is implicit elsewhere. Thus, although Matthew 5:17-20 states "Whoever strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death" (NASB), it would be absurd to apply this rule to an angry toddler.
Many biblical precepts are expressed as broad principles without legalistic detail. For example, "work" is prohibited on the sabbath yet is never defined legally. This ambiguity, which allowed for some flexibility, was considered a liability by Pharisaic Judaism. In an attempt to make sure the command proper was never violated, the rabbis created secondary, rigid rules which, if followed, would theoretically prevent a person from ever violating the biblical command itself. This was known as "putting a fence around the law." Such nonbiblical rules (e.g., the sabbath day's journey) are prescribed exhaustively in the Talmud, but this burdensome "tradition" is contrary to the spirit of biblical law (Matthew 15:3 ; 23:4 ).
An important law is the lex talionis, "life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exodus 21:22-25 ; Leviticus 24:19-20 ; Deuteronomy 19:15-21 ), which is sometimes misunderstood as a barbaric justification of personal vengeance and maiming. On the contrary, it expresses the just principle that judicial punishments should fit the crime, thereby limiting permissible punishment. One who is responsible for the loss of another's eye deserves, in principle, to give up his own eye. In practice, however, the offender ordinarily would placate the aggrieved party by paying an amount proportional to the degree of the maiming to substitute for the infliction of literal talion . Note how such "ransoming" operates in Exodus 21:29-30 , and how literal talion fails to occur in 21:18-19,21:26-27 where it might be expected. The availability of ransom seems to be so prevalent that it must be explicitly prohibited to exclude it ( Numbers 35:31 ). Jesus, in accord with 2 Timothy 3:16-179 , teaches patient suffering instead of the misapplication of lex talionis for personal revenge (Matthew 5:38-42 ).
Legal Corpora in the Old Testament . The laws (traditionally 613 in number) are concentrated in certain passages in the Pentateuch. Some of these are given special names.
The Decalog was given at Mount Sinai (Exodus 20:1-17 ) and repeated in Moses' sermon over forty years later (Deuteronomy 5:6-21 ). The formulation in the Decalogue (the traditional "thou shalt/shalt not") is apodictic, that is, unqualified; God as King imposes demands upon his subjects. These commandments represent the minimum moral and religious requirements for those in covenant relationship with God.
The Book of the Covenant (Exodus 20:22-23:33 , ; partially repeated in 34:10-26) consists of cultic, humanitarian, and civil regulations. Most of its civil regulations follow the casuistic formulation of cuneiform laws: "If X happens (protasis), then Y will be the legal consequences (apodosis )."
Deuteronomy has many regulations. Chapters 5-11 emphasize the general requirement to obey God; chapters 12-25 offer specifics in various areas of life (worship, festivals, officials of the theocratic state, manslaughter, warfare, sexuality, etc.). The structure of Deuteronomy follows that of second-millennium covenant treaties in which the laws correspond to stipulations within the covenant. The topical units of chapters 12-25 are arranged according to the order of the Ten Commandments.
Cultic laws concerning the tabernacle, sacrifices, priests, ritual purity, festivals, and ethical and ritual holiness (especially in sexual and social matters; cf. Leviticus 18-26 , the so-called Holiness Code) are scattered throughout Genesis through Numbers, Leviticus consisting almost entirely of this kind of material. Some call these laws the Priestly Code on the dubious assumption that they once existed as an independent collection.
Biblical and Cuneiform Laws . Scholars commonly compare biblical civil laws with contemporary laws found by archaeologists in the ancient Near East. Extrabiblical laws include those by Ur-Nammu of Ur (ca. 2112-2095 b.c.), Lipit-Ishtar of Isin (ca. 1925 b.c.), some ten Sumerian Laws (ca. 1800 b.c.) of unknown provenance, the Laws of Eshnunna (ca. 1800 b.c.), the Laws of Hammurapi (ca. 1750 b.c.), the Edict of Ammisaduqa (ca. 1650 b.c.), Middle Assyrian Laws (ca. 1100 b.c.), Hittite Laws (before ca. 1200 b.c.), and Neo-Babylonian Laws (seventh century b.c.).
Biblical civil laws resemble extrabiblical laws in topics covered and formulation. For example, cases of striking pregnant women resulting in miscarriage (presumably an unusual circumstance) occur in HL 17, Sumerian Laws 1-2, LH 209-214, MAL A 21,50-52 as well as Exodus 21:22-25 . There are general parallels with laws on slaves and goring oxen, and in one (but only one ) case, a cuneiform law's reading is identical with a biblical one: LE 53 and Exodus 21:35 . The parallels are insufficient to suppose biblical laws were simply borrowed from ancient Near Eastern ones. On the other hand, the parallels seem too close for chance. It is best to say that the Bible shows awareness of extrabiblical laws and often deliberately chooses type cases from such laws on which to make moral comment. Where an existing law is just, the Bible can happily adopt it (e.g., Exodus 21:35 ). Accordingly, comparison with cuneiform law is useful; nonetheless, the contrasts with cuneiform laws are usually more telling than the similarities.
These contrasts reflect differences in ideology between Israel and Mesopotamia. Cuneiform laws are overwhelmingly secular whereas the Bible freely mixes moral, civil, and cultic laws, and more often includes religious motivations for compliance. It is true that Hammurapi receives authority to rule from the god Shamash, but Shamash is custodian of impersonal cosmic truth that Hammurapi uses to make his own laws that are only indirectly attributable to deity. In the Bible, however, the laws are directly from God; Moses is only a mediator. Biblical law is designed to educate the public, to mold the national character, and to glorify Yahweh as a just lawgiver; cuneiform laws are meant to glorify the kings who created them and lack pedagogic application, being placed in a temple outside public view in a script (cuneiform) only academics could read.
Contrasting ideology is reflected in biblical law's setting limits on the authority of kings (Deuteronomy 17:14-20 ), cuneiform laws reflect the unlimited authority of the king. Biblical laws elevate human life over property to a greater degree than do cuneiform laws. Hence, cuneiform laws required up to thirtyfold restitution for theft and the execution of the thief who could not pay (LH 8,265; HL 57-59,63, 67,69); biblical law limits restitution to no more than fivefold and prohibits the execution of a thief (Exodus 22:1-4 ). Similarly, cuneiform laws make no sharp distinction between cases involving an ox goring a slave, and that of an ox goring an ox, both being property (LE 53-55); biblical law deliberately separates these cases (Exodus 21:28-31,35-36 ), expressing by its structure the ideology that cases involving humans are of an entirely different category than those involving animals.
Cuneiform law agrees with biblical law in condemning murder, adultery, and incest (LH 1,129, 157); however, biblical law differs by making many religious sins, so-called victimless crimes, and crimes against family capital offenses.
"Law" and "Covenant." All biblical laws are placed in the context of God's covenant with Israel. Covenant, not law-keeping, establishes a relationship, just as signing a contract, rather than doing the specified Job, establishes an employment relationship. The covenant in Genesis 15 was not established by "law" but by God's gracious offer accompanied by Abram's faith (although he later in some sense kept "the law, " Genesis 26:5 ). Nor did Israel establish a relationship with God by keeping "law." The commandments are given to a people who are already "saved" (Exodus 20:2 ) through a covenant relationship based on God's gracious love and despite Israel's lack of merit (Deuteronomy 7:7-9 ; 9:4-6 ). "Legalism" that makes "law-keeping" a means of salvation is not taught in the Old Testament.
The role of law is to administrate the covenant. Laws prohibit things destructive to a relationship with God (e.g., worshiping other gods). The law gives direction to what a loving response to God should be, and tells how to reap the full benefits of the relationship. Viewed from one perspective, the promises formalized by covenant were unconditional; but from an individual's perspective, benefits could be forfeited by disobedience. Disobedience does not automatically invalidate a covenant, any more than a husband's rudeness to a wife he vowed to cherish invalidates his marriage covenant. Yet disobedience mars the relationship, and may reduce its benefits. In the desert a whole generation of Israelites forfeited their covenant benefits (the promised land) through disobedience, yet the covenant continued.
The Law under the New Covenant . The New Testament's statements about Old Testament law are difficult to harmonize. On the one hand, some New Testament statements indicate that under the new covenant the whole law is in some sense abrogated (Romans 6:14 , "you are not under law" Romans 10:4 , "Christ is the end of the law" ). Direct application of cultic laws is clearly excluded in the New Testament. Food laws, circumcision, sacrifices, temple, and priesthood have been superseded (Mark 7:19 ; 1 Corinthians 7:19 ; Hebrews 7:11-19,28 ; 8:13 ; 10:1-9 ). Christ has abolished in his flesh the commandments and regulations that separated Jew from Gentile (Ephesians 2:15 ). Dispensationalism concludes from these statements that Christians are under no Mosaic laws, not even the Decalogue, but are instead under the law of Christ (Galatians 6:2 ; 1 Corinthians 9:21 ).
On the other hand, the law cannot be altogether invalid since the New Testament affirms its abiding applicability. "All Scripture is useful" (1618611443_71 ), including Old Testament laws. Jesus came not to abolish the law, but to fulfill it (Exodus 21:15 ). The law is the embodiment of truth that instructs (Romans 2:18-19 ). It is "holy" and "spiritual, " making sin known to us by defining it; therefore, Paul delights in it (Romans 7:7-14,22 ). The law is good if used properly (1 Timothy 1:8 ), and is not opposed to the promises of God (Galatians 3:21 ). Faith does not make the law void, but the Christian establishes the law (Romans 3:31 ), fulfilling its requirements by walking according to the Spirit (Romans 8:4 ) through love (Romans 13:10 ). When Paul states that women are to be in submission "as the Law says" (1 Corinthians 14:34 ) or quotes parts of the Decalogue (Romans 13:9 ), and when James quotes the law of love (2:8 from Leviticus 19:18 ) or condemns partiality, adultery, murder, and slander as contrary to the law (2:9,11; 4:11), and when Peter quotes Leviticus, "Be holy, because I am holy" (1 Peter 1:16 ; from Leviticus 19:2 ), the implication is that the law, or at least part of it, remains authoritative.
Part of the problem is that not all the "laws" are of the same order. Jesus designates justice, mercy, and faithfulness as "more important" matters in the law (Matthew 23:23 ). A similar distinction was made by the prophets who indicate that cultic observance was less important than treating people decently, and ritual without repentance was ineffective. That these cultic regulations were, even in the Old Testament, considered of secondary value, prepares the way for their elimination in Christ.
Covenant theologians have traditionally divided laws into three categories: moral, civil, and ceremonial. Moral laws (e.g., the Decalogue), based on the unchanging character of God, are eternally binding. Civil laws (e.g., Exodus 21-23 ), although they may illustrate moral law, were limited historically to the theocratic state of Israel and are not binding on the church. Ceremonial laws (e.g., sacrifices) were intended to prefigure Christ, and ceased to be applicable upon his first advent. A problem with this approach is that the categories "moral, civil, and ceremonial" are artificial. There is often a mixture of these categories: the ceremonial sabbath among "moral" laws (Exodus 20:8 ), ceremonial food regulations among "civil" laws (Exodus 21:28 ; 22:31 ), "moral" motivations in civil laws (Exodus 22:21,26-27 ) and in cultic laws (Exodus 20:26 ). There is considerable subjectivity in labeling laws as "moral, " "civil, " or "ceremonial."
Another approach is that of theonomy or Christian reconstructionism. Theonomists wish to work toward a theocratic state where Mosaic civil laws can again be instituted into modern society. However, this approach takes insufficient account of the new theological and cultural setting of the new covenant. Some laws became impractical and unenforceable if applied literally even in Old Testament times. The Year of Jubilee regulations, requiring the return of property to original families every forty-nine years, seem never to have been enforced as law because (among other reasons) by the time Israel controlled the land, there were no records of the original owners. Moreover, although Jubilee was a practical solution for a tribal, agricultural society, this model would already be somewhat antiquated under Israel's urbanization during the monarchy, and is certainly impractical in modern, mobile, urban societies. Some laws assume the existence of conditions such as debt slavery ( Exodus 21:2-11 ), specific species of animals (Exodus 29:22 -fat; tail sheep ), or the climate of Palestine (feast held at end of harvest season, Leviticus 23:33-39 ), which make these laws inapplicable in other cultural environments. Some laws seem tied to the specific theological context of the Old Testament. The death penalty for cultic offenses was based on the special holiness of Israel with the tabernacle of God among them. Violation could bring immediate wrath upon the people. However, the church is not a nation, and does not camp around the tabernacle.
Usage of Old Testament laws suggests that biblical authors sought out and applied the inherent religious and moral principles in the laws even when changed historical, cultural, and theological settings made literal application inappropriate. Ezra applied a law prohibiting marriage to Canaanites, who had ceased to exist historically, broadly to marriage with non-Canaanite foreigners, because in that situation the same principle (marriage to foreigners leads to religious assimilation) applied, even though the letter of the law could not ( Ezra 9:1-2 ; cf. Deuteronomy 7:1-5 ).
The New Testament writers also apply the principles in the law. From Deuteronomy 25:4 ("Do not muzzle an ox while it is treading out grain"), Paul derives a principle that workers ought to be rewarded for their labors and applies that principle in the case of Christian workers ( 1 Corinthians 9:9-14 ). In 1 Timothy 5:18 , Paul again quotes Deuteronomy 25:4 , this time in parallel with a saying of Jesus (Matthew 10:10 ) as if both are equally authoritative. Likewise, the principle of establishing truth by two or three witnesses (Deuteronomy 19:15 ), originally limited to courts, is applied more broadly to a church conference (2 Corinthians 13:1 ). The principle that believers are not to be unequally yoked together with unbelievers is derived from a law concerning the yoking animals (2 Corinthians 6:14 ; cf. Deuteronomy 22:10 ).
In 1 Corinthians 5:1-5,13 , Paul affirms on the basis of Leviticus 18:29 that incest, a capital offense in the Old Testament, is immoral and deserves punishment. A person practicing incest in the church must be excommunicated to maintain the church's practical holiness. Paul maintains the law's moral principle, yet in view of the changed redemptive setting, makes no attempt to apply the law's original sanction.
The Law and the Christian Today . Mosaic law is of value for the Christian in several ways.
The Law Prepares Sinners for the Gospel . No one can receive eternal salvation by works of the law (Galatians 2:16 ) because none perfectly keeps the law (Romans 3:23 ), and violation of any part of it makes one guilty of the whole (Leviticus 19:18 ; cf. Romans 2:25 ; Galatians 3:10 ). Instead, salvation is a gift obtained by faith, not works (Romans 4:4-5 ; Ephesians 2:8-10 ;
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Law of Christ
The phrase "the law of Christ" appears only in Galatians 6:2 , although it is implied by the wording of 1 Corinthians 9:21 as well. In both places, its precise meaning is difficult to fix. In Galatians, Paul argues vigorously that the law given at Sinai makes no claim on those who believe in Christ, whether Gentile or Jew (2:15-21; 3:10-14,23-26; 4:4-5; 4:21-5:6). He then appeals to the Galatians to engage in ethical behavior by walking in the Spirit (5:16), being lead by the Spirit (5:18), and fulfilling "the law of Christ" ( ho nomos tou Christou ) through bearing one another's burdens (6:2). In 1 Corinthians 9 Paul demonstrates how Christians should, out of love for the weaker brother or sister, refrain from demanding their rights. By way of illustration Paul says in verses 19-23 that he adopts certain Jewish customs when among Jews, although he is not under the Jewish law, and that he adopts some Gentile customs when among Gentiles, although he is not without the law of God but rather "in the law of Christ" ( ennomos Christou ).
It seems fairly clear from these two texts that Paul uses the phrase to mean something other than the law given to Israel at Sinai and considered by most Jews to be their special possession.
Help is found in the prophets. In Isaiah 42:1-4 we read that God's chosen servant will one day establish justice throughout the earth and that "the coastlands will wait expectantly for His law" (NASB). If we take this passage to refer to the Messiah, then we could paraphrase it by saying that the Christ, when he comes, will teach God's law to the Gentiles ("the coastlands"). Jeremiah 31:31-34 similarly predicts the coming of a time in which disobedient Israel will receive a new covenant, consisting of a law written on the heart and therefore obeyed (cf. Ezekiel 36:26-27 ).
Jesus' teaching, although standing in continuity with the law given at Sinai, nevertheless sovereignly fashions a new law. In some instances Jesus sharpens commandments (Matthew 5:17-48 ) and in others considers them obsolete (Mark 7:17-19 ). On one occasion, having been asked to identify the greatest commandment, Jesus concurs with the Jewish wisdom of his time (Mark 12:32-33 ) that the greatest commandments are to love God supremely and to love one's neighbor as oneself (Mark 12:28-31 ). He breaks with tradition, however, by defining the term "neighbor" to mean even the despised Samaritan (Luke 10:29-37 ).
Paul believed that the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ marked the beginning point of God's new covenant (2 Corinthians 3:1-18 ; Galatians 4:21-31 ; cf. Romans 8:2 ). Like Isaiah, he believed that this covenant included the Gentiles (Galatians 3:7-20 ), and like Jeremiah he believed that it offered Israel a remedy for the curse that the old Sinaitic covenant pronounced on Israel's disobedience (Galatians 3:10-13 ). In light of this, Paul may have understood the teaching of Christ as a new law. If so, then the correspondence between the ethical teaching of Jesus and Paul on many points (e.g., 1 Corinthians 7:10-11 /Mark 7:10-11/10:2-9 ; 1 Corinthians 9:14 /Luke 9:14/10:7 ; Romans 14:1-23 /Mark 14:1-23/7:18-19 ) is a matter of Paul's intention rather than happy accident. Paul's own admonition to fulfill the law of Christ by bearing one another's burdens provides both a pithy restatement of Jesus' summary of the law and an indication that Jesus' teaching fulfills prophetic expectations.Frank Thielman
See also Galatians, Theology of ; Paul the Apostle
Bibliography . C. H. Dodd, More New Testament Studies ; R. N. Longenecker, Paul, Apostle of Liberty ; W. D. Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism ; S. Westerholm, Israel's Law and the Church's Faith .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Law
1. Introductory.-The subject of the Law formed one of the main problems, if not indeed the main problem, of the Apostolic Church, inasmuch as it involved the fundamental relation of primitive Christianity to Judaism on the one hand and heathenism on the other. Later Judaism, on its Pharisaic side, had carried legalism to extremes, and thus accentuated the separation between Israel and the Gentiles. The primitive Christian community, on the other hand, had been taught by its Founder to rank the freedom of Divine grace higher than human merit (cf. e.g. Matthew 9:9-13 ||s and, generally, the attitude of Jesus to publicans and sinners), and to regard faith as of more importance than the distinction between Jew and Gentile (cf. Matthew 8:5-13 ||s, Matthew 15:21-28 ||). In the evangelical record, moreover, the early Church had preserved the recollection of its Lord’s outspoken utterances regarding the merely relative validity of the Jewish ceremonial Law (e.g. of the Sabbath, Matthew 12:1-14 ||s; of cleanness, Matthew 15:10-20 ||s)-or, at all events, of the interpretations recognized in the Synagogue (‘the traditions of the elders,’ Matthew 15:2 ff. ||). Still, the same record showed that in principle the attitude of Jesus to the Law as a whole was an avowedly conservative one (Matthew 5:17-20, Luke 16:17), even as He had lived His life within the confines of the Law (cf. Galatians 4:4 : γενόμενος ὑπὸ νόμον); His supreme aim, indeed, was to bring out with full clearness and force the will of God made known in the Law. We thus see that, with regard to the Law, the evangelical tradition seemed capable of a double construction, or, at least, that it did not supply the means for deciding a question that soon became urgent. It is therefore easy to understand why the early Christian community in Jerusalem assumed at first a rigidly conservative attitude towards the Law, and regarded the faithful observance of it as praiseworthy (Acts 21:20; cf. Acts 2:46; Acts 3:1; Acts 15:1-5,8; Acts 10:14; Acts 22:12). St. Peter, e.g., required a special revelation before he would enter the house of the uncircumcised Cornelius and admit the first Gentile convert into the Church by baptism (Acts 10:1-48)-a step which did not fail to arouse opposition on the part of those who ‘were of the circumcision’ (cf. Acts 11:1-18).
2. The view of St. James.-The principal representative of this zeal for the Law in the infant Church was St. James, the brother of the Lord, who, according to Acts, as also to the Pauline Epistles, occupied a leading position therein (Acts 15:13-21; Acts 21:18-26, Galatians 2:9; cf. Galatians 1:19). St. James, by reason of his righteous life, is said to have been esteemed scarcely less highly by non-Christians than by believers (Hegesippus, in Eus. HE [1] ii. 23). His great concern was to smooth the way by which Israel might come to Jesus Christ, and to put no stumbling-block before his people. From this point of view his attitude to the question concerning the Gentile Christians discussed at the Apostolic Council becomes readily intelligible. Here he shows himself to be a genuine disciple of Jesus in recognizing, after the example of Peter, the supremacy of grace, and in refusing to put the yoke of the Law upon the Gentile Christians, whom rather he receives as brethren, while he acknowledges St. Paul as the Apostle of the Circumcision (Acts 15:13-21; cf. Acts 15:11, Galatians 2:9). He thus came into direct conflict with the Pharisaic group of Jewish Christians-those who asserted that the salvation of the Gentiles depended upon their being circumcised and their acceptance of the Law (1618611443_49 Galatians 2:1-5). It was probably only for the sake of brotherly intercourse between circumcised and uncircumcised Christians that James proposed the restrictions to Gentile Christian liberty which were laid down in the so-called Apostolic Decree (Acts 15:20 f., Acts 15:28f.). The reason given for the proposal (Acts 15:21 : ‘For Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath’) probably means simply that the four prohibitions in question-which formed the kernel of the so-called Noachian commandments, and correspond to the laws for proselytes-had come to be so impressed upon the minds of the Jews that they could not countenance any disobedience to them if their intercourse with their Gentile brethren in the Church was to be unconstrained. In formulating the injunctions of the Apostolic Decree St. James was in reality only following the practice of the Synagogue with regard to proselytes of the narrower class (‘the God-fearing,’ οἱ φοβούμενοι [2] τὸν θεόν), just as that practice no doubt had already prepared the way in the Christian mission to the Gentiles; for the fact that St. Paul makes no mention of the Apostolic Decree in Galatians 2:9 f. probably signifies that he had observed its provisions on his own initiative (so, in substance, A. Ritschl, B. Weiss, H. H. Wendt, etc.; cf., further, article Moses). But the question regarding the Gentiles was in no sense solved, as soon appeared in what occurred at Antioch (Galatians 2:11-14). If, for the sake of Christian fellowship, St. Peter had in that city ignored the Jewish regulations about food, and had eaten in the company of Gentile Christians, this did not coincide with the views of those who ‘came from James.’ These men took offence at St. Peter’s practice-just as the Jewish Christians at Jerusalem had resented his action at Caesarea (Acts 10; cf. Acts 11:2 f.)-manifestly assuming that Jewish Christians, as the circumcised, were under an absolute obligation to the Mosaic Law, and that they ought not, even for the sake of Christian fellowship, to make any concession whatever to the liberty of the converted heathen. If concessions were to be made at all, they must come from the Gentile, not the Jewish, side. Whether this point of view is to be traced directly to St. James himself, or rather merely coincided with his position, is a much-debated question. It is probable, however, that in his view of the matter his concern for Israel bulked more largely than his regard for the Gentiles, and that accordingly he would have preferred to surrender the possibility of perfect Christian communion between Jewish and Gentile Christians rather than grant the former a dispensation from their regulations regarding food. Perhaps we may, with B. Weiss, see a suggestion of this point of view in what St. James says in Acts 15:14 regarding the mission to the Gentiles, viz. that God had taken out of them a people for His name-i.e. a new people of God, in addition to the old.
To this type of Jewish Christianity corresponds generally the religious standpoint of the Epistle which is ascribed to St. James. The letter shows so little of a distinctively Christian character, that Spitta has in all seriousness hazarded the theory of its being in reality a Jewish work in which the name of Jesus has been inserted here and there. As a matter of fact, however, the writer shows clearly that he is a Christian, not merely in his reference to Jesus Christ in his address (James 1:1; cf. James 2:1), but also in his giving expression to specifically Christian ideas, as e.g. when he speaks of the regeneration of his readers by the word of truth (James 1:18) and of the saving word as implanted in their hearts (James 1:21). He betrays his Jewish Christian mode of thought, however, when, in enjoining his readers to be doers, and not merely hearers, of the word (James 1:22), he presently replaces ‘word’ by ‘law,’ although ‘the perfect law of liberty’ means the law as given to, or as fulfilled in, human freedom. He thus shows that for him the central element in Christianity consists in fulfilment of the Law (cf. James 1:22-25 with James 2:12). It is true that St. James’s conception of the substance of the Law likewise shows the influence of Jesus, as he ranks the law of love to one’s neighbour above the others (James 2:8), and, generally, urges the pre-eminence of the commandments enjoining love and mercy (James 2:1-13; James 2:15 f., James 1:26 f., James 4:11, etc.), just as he specially denounces such sins as judging one’s neighbour (cf. Matthew 7:1) and swearing (cf. Matthew 5:34-37), and condemns hatred as murder (James 4:2). His commendation of the practice of mercy and of keeping oneself unspotted from the world as the true worship of God (James 1:26) is also wholly in the spirit of Jesus (cf. e.g. Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7), while he is silent regarding all outward service and ceremony. It is quite unnecessary to follow modern criticism in regarding this spiritual and ethical conception of the Law as pointing to a post-apostolic date of composition, any more than the attack upon the doctrine of justification through faith alone (James 2:14-26) need be regarded as post-Pauline. St. James’s view of the Law, in fact, coincides on the whole with the view urged by Jesus: in substance the new Law does not differ from that of the OT, and in James 2:9-12 he finds his examples in the latter (the Decalogue and Deuteronomy 1:17); while there is no difficulty in seeing why he never makes the slightest reference to the ceremonial Law-for readers such as his it was quite unnecessary to insist upon that side of the old religion, nor, for that matter, did Jesus Himself lay any emphasis upon it. Further, if the Epistle was addressed to Jewish Christians who had not as yet broken off relations with the Synagogue (cf. e.g. James 2:1 ff.), it may be confidently assumed that they were not neglectful of the ceremonial Law. What they required rather was to be reminded of the ethical aspect of the Law, and above all, to be warned against the common Jewish delusion that hearing and speaking the word could take the place of doing it. In James 2:14 the reference is not to ‘the works of the Law,’ but solely to works in the ethical sense. Moreover, as the theologians of the Synagogue had already turned their minds to the passage Genesis 15:6 (cf. A. Schlatter, Der Glaube im NT2, Calw and Stuttgart, 1896, pp. 29ff. 45ff.), the antithesis of faith and works, and the contrast between a justification by faith and a justification by works, may quite well have been formulated in an age prior to St. Paul.
3. The view of St. Peter.-Besides St. James, the most outstanding representative of the Jewish Christian position in the primitive Church was St. Peter. But just as, according to Acts 10, he had been led by a Divine revelation to enter the house of an uncircumcised man, and to eat with the Gentiles (cf. Acts 11:3), we may infer also, from his speech in the Apostolic Council, and especially from his behaviour in the Gentile Christian community at Antioch, that he had a much clearer view than St. James of the merely relative obligation of the Law even for Jewish Christians. In certain circumstances he thought himself justified, for the sake of brotherly intercourse with Gentile Christians, in disregarding the rigour of the Law, since, after all, salvation did not depend upon the Law, whose yoke, indeed, neither the fathers nor the Jews then living were able to bear, but Jew and Gentile alike could look for salvation only to the grace of Jesus Christ, and to faith in Him (cf. Acts 15:7-11, Galatians 2:12 a). Hence St. Paul takes for granted that the subsequent vacillation of St. Peter at Antioch (Galatians 2:12 b) was nothing but dissimulation, as it was due, not to any change of conviction, but simply to fear of the Jews. In principle St. Peter recognized the religious freedom of the Jewish Christians, not merely as regards the more general intercourse with their Gentile brethren sanctioned by the Apostolic Decree, but also as regards the closer intimacy involved in eating with them (cf. the Agapae). In other words, he had, according to St. Paul, actually acknowledged that the Jewish Christians had the right to accommodate themselves to the freedom of the Gentiles. Only we must bear in mind that St. Peter was, in a much greater degree than St. Paul, a man of moods, and was therefore not always so consistent in his thinking.
It is remarkable that the two Epistles bearing the name of Peter do not refer to the Law. The Second Epistle obviously dates from a time when the question regarding the Law had given place to other controversies, and, at all events, it is concerned with a libertinism and a doctrine that lie beyond the purview of Jewish legalism. It is a striking fact that even the First Epistle, the authenticity of which is open to no decisive objection, does not so much as mention the Law, but speaks from a quite unstudied and non-legalistic point of view. As the writer implies that, e.g. the OT conception of the priesthood was first properly realized in the NT Church, and describes the latter as the true Temple of God (1 Peter 2:5 ff.), it would seem that the OT legal system as a whole had for him only a typological value. This would certainly be strange if the Epistle was written, as B. Weiss and Kühl suppose, to Jewish Christians, i.e. prior to the time of St. Paul, but is quite intelligible if it was addressed to Gentile Christian, Pauline communities, and written under the influence of Pauline Epistles, as Romans and Ephesians-a hypothesis to which, in view of the editorial collaboration of Silvanus, the follower of St. Paul, no exception can be taken.
4. The view of St. Paul.-In point of fact, the first to decide the question of the Law upon grounds of principle was the Apostle Paul himself, though others had already pointed the way. In conformity with what has been said of St. Peter’s views, it is perfectly credible that, as related in Acts, St. Peter was the first to baptize a heathen, and that he should make reference thereto in his address to the Apostolic Council (Acts 15:7-9). Here, however, the most outstanding name is that of the martyr St. Stephen, who anticipated St. Peter in divining the essentially non-legalistic character of the gospel. St. Stephen, as a Hellenist, could of course more easily than St. Peter discern the merely relative validity of the Jewish legal system, and especially of the Temple ritual; and although his adversaries, in charging him with having in his preaching attacked the Holy Place and the Law, were undoubtedly doing him an injustice, yet the accusation was not altogether unfounded. His trenchant speech (Acts 7) not only attacks the Jews for their persistent rejection of the Prophets, but also pointedly criticizes their over-estimation of the Temple: ‘the Most High dwelleth not in houses made with hands’ (Acts 7:47-50). His general plea is that Divine revelation is independent of any particular holy place, and be honours Moses less as the Law-giver than as the prototype of Jesus, and as the one who foretold His coming (cf. Acts 7:35 ff.). The very Law to which the Jews appealed they had not kept (Acts 7:53).
It was no mere accident that in particular the personality and preaching of St. Stephen should have wrought powerfully on the young Pharisee Saul (7:58). Saul probably belonged to the Cilician synagogue, whose members had disputed with St. Stephen, and in any case the latter’s great vindicatory speech must have still further opened the eyes of the zealous Pharisee to the inherently non-legal nature of the gospel, and rekindled his persecuting zeal against the followers of Jesus (cf. 6:9f.).
Even before his conversion Saul must have been sensible of the great alternative which he sets forth in Galatians 2:15-21 : either righteousness is through the Law, and Christ died for nought; or else the Crucified Jesus is truly the Christ, and righteousness is to be attained through faith alone. It need, therefore, occasion no surprise that in his conversion Saul had become convinced of the universality of Christianity, or that thereafter he maintained that the Law was not in a religious sense binding upon either Gentile or Jewish Christians (Galatians 1:2).
According to Galatians 1:15 f. St. Paul saw at once that he was called to be a missionary among the heathen, and he seems to have laboured as such for a time without any interference whatever-a circumstance which will hardly seem strange when we remember that certain Hellenists who had been driven out in consequence of the persecution connected with Stephen had preached the gospel in Antioch even to the Gentiles, and that the numerous converts whom they had won from heathendom were recognized as brethren by the community in Jerusalem (Acts 11:20-24). Nor does the Apostle make the slightest reference to the question of the Law in his earliest Epistles, 1 and 2 Thessalonians. It was in reality the aggression of certain Christian Pharisees-Judaizers (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5, Galatians 2:4)-that forced him into a thorough-going discussion of the significance of the Law, and this is his special theme in his Epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans. In seeking to delineate here the Pauline doctrine of the Law, however, we must also draw upon the Epistles of the Imprisonment and the Pastorals.
(a) His use of the term ‘Law.’-In discussing the Pauline conception of the Law, we note that the Apostle uses the term νόμος in somewhat different senses. It may mean the whole Pentateuch-the Torah in the wider sense-as in Romans 3:21 (the Law and the Prophets), Galatians 4:21, 1 Corinthians 14:34, and even the entire OT, which might be thus designated a parte potiori, as in Romans 3:19 (the Psalms also included under the term), 1 Corinthians 14:21 (Isaiah 28:11 f.). As a rule, however, νόμος is applied by St. Paul to the Law delivered by Moses, as recorded in the Mosaic Books from Exodus to Deuteronomy (cf. Romans 5:13-14 : ἄχρι νόμου = μέχρι Μωσέως, Galatians 3:17 : the Law given 430 years after the promise). Further, St. Paul sometimes uses the term with, sometimes without, the definite article, and the distinction must not be ignored. It is true that νόμος, even without the article, may mean the historically-given Law of Moses, the possession of which was the special prerogative of the Jews as distinguished from the Gentiles (Romans 2:12-14; Romans 3:20 f., Romans 5:13 f., 20). The omission of the article, however, generally points rather to ‘law’ as a principle; thus what is so said of ‘law’ would hold good of any other positive ordinance of God-if such existed at all (cf. Romans 2:13-15 : ‘For not the hearers of law are just before God, but the doers of law shall be justified; for when Gentiles who have not law do by nature the things of the law, these having no law are law to themselves,’ etc., and Romans 5:13 : ‘For prior to law sin was already in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law’). In both of these passages it is obvious that νόμος and ὁ νόμος equally refer to the Mosaic Law, but it is no less obvious that they assert principles, not merely historical facts; cf. also Galatians 5:18; Galatians 5:23, 1 Timothy 1:8 f. (‘The law is good, if a man use it lawfully, knowing that law is not made for a righteous man’). On the other hand, when St. Paul wishes to make a historical statement regarding the Law of Moses, he uses the phrase ὁ νόμος. The extent to which he can abstract from the concrete historical sense of νόμος, however, is seen in the fact that he occasionally uses νόμος, virtually as a purely formal concept, as equivalent to norma, ‘rule’: Romans 3:27 (the law of faith, i.e. the Divine ordinance which enjoins faith, not works; cf. Romans 1:5, Romans 9:31, Romans 10:3, Romans 16:26), Romans 7:23 (the law of sin), Romans 8:2 (the law of life = natural law), Galatians 6:2; cf. 1 Corinthians 14:21 (the law of Christ).
As regards the proper signification of the term, however, the Law may be defined as the positive revelation of the Divine ordinance to the Israelites, who therein, as in the covenants, the promises, and the Temple service (Romans 9:4), had a sacred privilege unshared by other peoples (cf. Romans 2:12, Romans 3:19). The law of God, which in the heathen was but an inward and therefore vague surmise, was for the Jews formulated objectively and unmistakably in the written Law (Romans 2:17-20; cf. 2 Corinthians 3:7), and the Jews, even if they broke that Law (Romans 2:21 ff.), could yet boast of a moral advantage over the heathen (Galatians 2:15).
The Law, however, is a revelation not only of the Divine requirements, but also of the Divine promises and threats attached thereto. The Law, in short, contains a judicial system, in that it determines the relation between man and God by man’s obedience to, or transgression of, the Divine commandments. If man keeps the whole Law, he is rewarded with ‘life’ (Galatians 3:12 = Leviticus 18:5), and this is bestowed not of grace, but of debt (Romans 4:4 : κατὰ ὀφείλημα); while if he does not keep the Law in its entirety, he is accursed (Galatians 3:10 = Deuteronomy 27:26), and passes into the power of death (Romans 6:23; Romans 7:10, 1 Corinthians 15:56).
The Law demands, not faith, but works (Galatians 3:11 f.), and hence St. Paul speaks repeatedly of the ‘works of the law’ (ἔργα νόμου, ‘works prescribed by the law’; cf. Romans 3:20, Galatians 2:16). By ‘works of the law,’ however, he means, not simply the externally legal actions in which the heart is not implicated, but no less the morally irreproachable fulfilment of the commandments, which claim the obedience of the soul as well as of the body, and forbid sinful desire as well as sinful action-just as, indeed, the requirement of the whole Law is summed up in the commandments of love (Romans 13:9 f., Galatians 5:14). It is no doubt the case that for St. Paul outward rites and ceremonies are included in the characteristic ordinances of the Law (Galatians 2:12; Galatians 4:10; cf. Romans 9:4; Romans 14:5). The Law as a whole consists of particular commandments of a statutory nature (τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασι, Ephesians 2:15; cf. Colossians 2:14).* [3] In Gal. it is especially the ceremonial or ritual ordinances of the Law that are referred to, as St. Paul is here dealing mainly with the question of circumcision (cf. Galatians 2:12 ff; Galatians 4:3-10; Galatians 5:2 ff. also Colossians 2:13 f., Colossian
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Law of God
LAW OF GOD.—We are not entitled to gather from the teaching of Jesus in the Gospels that He made any formal distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of God. His mission being not to destroy but to fulfil the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17), so far from saying anything in disparagement of the Law of Moses or from encouraging His disciples to assume an attitude of independence with regard to it, He expressly recognized the authority of the Law of Moses as such, and of the Pharisees as its official interpreters (Matthew 23:1-3).
One great aim of His teaching being, however, to counteract the influence of the Pharisaism of the time, under which zeal for the Law had degenerated into a pedantic legalism, which made outward conformity to the letter all-important and caused the true interests of religion and morality to be lost sight of amid the Shibboleths of national ritualism, He sought to concentrate the attention of His hearers upon the true meaning of the Law. In doing this He practically ignored the distinctions of the scribes between greater and lesser commandments of the Law, and between the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms (or ‘the Writings’), and insisted upon the authority of Scripture as the word of God. What God says in Scripture, the inspired record of Revelation, is for Jesus the final court of appeal. ‘The Scripture cannot be broken’ (John 10:35) is a principle never once lost sight of in any controversy.
At the same time, as Jesus Himself taught as One who had authority (Matthew 7:29 || Mark 1:22), quietly but none the less emphatically asserting His right to explain the spirit and meaning of the Divine word, He did distinguish and teach His disciples to distinguish between letter and spirit, that which was permanent and universal in the Law and that which was partial and temporary. It is therefore possible, and even almost necessary, with a view to a clear understanding of Christ’s attitude towards the Law, to distinguish between the Law of God, meaning by the term that which is of universal validity, and those elements in the Law of Moses which are merely associated with a particular dispensation, a temporary manifestation of God’s will.
1. A typical illustration of the propriety of such a distinction is found in that passage in which Jesus, dealing with the question of marriage and divorce, treats the Mosaic law on the subject as an instance of accommodation to an imperfect state of society (Matthew 19:3-8 || Mark 10:2-9). ‘For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept. But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female, etc. (Mark 10:5-6 ff.). Here we see at once a distinction made between the Mosaic precept and the Divine law. The former allowed divorce upon certain well-understood grounds. The Pharisees put their own lax interpretation upon this precept, and multiplied the causes of divorce to an extent far beyond what the precept actually justified. Christ’s reply to the question of His adversaries on this point was simply to remind them of the original Divine ordinance, according to which the marriage bond was made indissoluble. The Law of Moses permitted divorce, but the Law of God maintained the sanctity of the marriage bond, and this represented the point of view from which the whole question ought to be regarded. ‘They twain shall be one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together let not man put asunder.’ In this connexion the Law of God and the Law of Moses are to one another in the relation of the spirit to the letter. This typical instance illustrates the principle upon which Jesus proceeded in His interpretation of the Divine law. His aim throughout was to call attention to the true spirit and purpose of the Law, to that in it which was of essential and permanent value. That the spirit of the Law, of which the letter is but the necessarily inadequate expression, is the Law of God, the manifestation of the Father’s will for the moral and spiritual good of His children.
2. The attitude which Jesus adopted towards the whole question of the Law, considered as the Law of God, is well exemplified in the Sermon on the Mount, and in particular in those words which may be fitly taken as the motto of His teaching: ‘Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil’ (Matthew 5:17; see preced. art.). In the contrast between what ‘was said by them of old time’ and His own emphatic ‘But I say unto you,’ we find the distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of God. In the latter case He clearly speaks as God’s representative, and we are reminded of John the Baptist’s illustration of the difference between Christ and himself, the last of the Prophets: ‘He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God; for God giveth not the Spirit by measure [1]’ (John 3:34). In the one case, the statute which Jesus quotes, we have to do with the letter of the Law, that with which alone the scribes occupied themselves and upon which they founded their casuistical refinements. In the other case, the words ‘But I say unto you’ bid us go behind the letter and get at the root of the matter, ‘for the letter killeth, but the Spirit giveth life’ (2 Corinthians 3:6). Thus, in proceeding to apply the principle which He has just laid down (Matthew 5:17), Jesus starts with the comprehensive statement of Matthew 5:20 ‘For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.’
From this point He goes on to deal with typical instances of the difference between letter and spirit in the Law. He begins with a commandment of the Decalogue, the Sixth, coupled with a corresponding passage from the Mosaic legislation, ‘and whosoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment’ (Matthew 5:21). He says in effect, ‘The spirit of the commandment is this: Anger is murder. I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother … shall be in danger of the Judgment’ (Matthew 5:22). And then, as if still further to emphasize the point that the Law is not satisfied by negative or formal obedience, Jesus shows that brethren at variance must give effect to the positive law of love before they can render acceptable worship at God’s altar (Matthew 5:23-26). Nor is this enough. At a later point in His discourse, in connexion with the law of retaliation, He returns to the subject and insists upon the Divine principle of love, showing that the aim of God’s Law is to make man resemble God Himself. The law of love leaves no room for enemies. A Christian has no enemies; for by loving and praying for them he makes them friends (Matthew 5:38-45).
So again, in another place, Jesus shows that the neighbour to whom the Law of God refers is any one in need whom one can help (Luke 10:29-37). Again Jesus takes up the Seventh Commandment. According to the letter it forbids the sin of unchastity, unchaste actions, unlawful intercourse between the sexes. The spirit of the commandment has a far higher aim. It is only one aspect of the grand law of purity. It demands purity of heart. Every impure thought, every unchaste look, are transgressions of this law of God (Matthew 5:27-32). Jesus deals with the Ninth Commandment upon the same principle. According to the letter, it forbids false swearing. According to the spirit, it is just a form of the law of sincerity and truthfulness. Its real meaning is that God desireth truth in the inward parts (Matthew 5:33-37).
Proceeding (Matthew 6:1 ff.) to the subject of religious exercises, Jesus shows that questions of ritual and outward form, upon which the Pharisees founded their ideas of ‘righteousness’ (δικαιοσύνην … ποιεῖν, Matthew 6:1) and meritorious service, are of trifling importance in comparison with the question of the heart’s approach to God. Religion is not a performance, to be judged by what men can see and pronounce their opinions upon, and involving such trivial points as ritual, excellency of speech, propriety of form, reverence and decorum of posture. It is a matter of communion of spirit with spirit, needy souls, humbly conscious of their needs, confessing their wants and desires to One who seeth in secret, the poor in spirit hungering and thirsting after righteousness, and so convinced of their entire dependence upon the forgiveness and compassion of the All-Merciful as to feel that for them to claim the mercy and grace of God is to bind themselves by the law of love to the duty of forgiving as they would themselves be forgiven. From this point of view the essence of worship is prayer,—not sacrifice and offering—the humble, fervent outpouring of contrite hearts (cf. Luke 18:10-14), and cordial surrender to the will of God—not questions of posture or of such material things as rich gifts (Luke 21:3-4, John 4:23-24). Prayer is the kernel; all external ordinances, whole burnt-offerings, sacrifices and the like, are but the husk (Matthew 6:1-18). So the prayers even of the Gentiles are of infinitely more consequence than the temple offerings, and God’s house is a house of prayer for all people (Matthew 21:12 ff. || Mark 11:17 || Luke 19:45-46, cf. John 2:14-16).
In connexion with Christ’s teaching on the subject of heart religion and morality, and the true meaning of the Law considered as the Law of God, an interesting case suggests itself, in which Jesus seems to anticipate the abrogation of the Old Covenant with its laws and ordinances. It is that of His controversy with the Pharisees with reference to the ceremonial ablutions which the disciples were accused of neglecting (Matthew 15:1-20 || Mark 7:1-23). Jesus defends His disciples by turning the tables upon the Pharisees, whom He taxes with setting their traditions above the express commandments of God Himself, and with neglecting in the interest of mere technicalities the weightier matters of the Law (cf. His denunciation of Pharisaic scrupulosity in Matthew 23:4-30 || Luke 11:37-47), and cites as an instance their treatment of the Fifth Commandment and the law of filial affection. But what calls for notice is, in particular, the circumstance that what specially offended the Pharisees, and startled even Christ’s own disciples, was His pronouncement upon the point immediately in dispute, the question of ceremonial ablutions, and the whole Levitical legislation on the subject of the clean and the unclean. In view of the fact that a large portion of the Mosaic law is taken up with and deals minutely with these very points, in view also of the fact that the controversies in the Early Church itself between Jewish and Gentile Christians turned upon these things, our Lord’s treatment of the question is very remarkable, and illustrates clearly the nature of the distinction which, in His revision of the Law, He emphasized between letter and spirit. He practically teaches that the principle of those Levitical precepts is simply the Divine law of holiness. Rightly understood, they only restate in another form the command, ‘Be holy, as the Lord your God is holy’; and they are truly obeyed only by those whose hearts are renewed in every thought by the Spirit of God. The scribes who, forgetting the teaching of the prophets (for here Jesus made no essential addition to Jeremiah’s doctrine of the New Covenant or Ezekiel’s doctrine of the renewed heart and the washing of regeneration, Jeremiah 31:31 ff., Ezekiel 36:25-27), made the external ritual everything, and took no account of heart-religion, were on that account compared to those who should cleanse the outside of the cup and the platter, and be utterly careless as to the condition of the inside. If, on the other hand, the heart were purged from evil thoughts and wicked inclinations, then the life would correspond, as the tree is known by its fruit, and God’s law would be fulfilled in the spirit of it. The Law of God appeared thus as the perfect law of liberty, the worship of God in spirit and in truth. In a word, true religion and true morality, the teaching of which in all their particulars is the grand purpose of the Law of God, are from first to last a matter of the heart. Let the heart be pure. Let it be truly turned to God, in simple faith casting aside every care and anxious thought of the world and things of time, and trusting that God will deny His children no good thing, temporal or spiritual, of which, as their Father, He knows them to stand in need, and there is the secret of the fulfilling of the Law. All else follows from that. The pure in heart see God, the poor in spirit are already inheritors of the Kingdom of heaven (Matthew 6:19-34; Matthew 7:15-27).
Jesus taught essentially the same truth when, in controversy with the Pharisees, He summarized the teaching of the Law and the Prophets. So far from repudiating as a mere matter of Pharisaic casuistry the question often agitated among the scribes as to whether there were any commandments which in themselves summed up the teaching of the whole Law, He was ready to discuss such questions with them; and when, in response to His definition of love to God and one’s neighbour as the essential commandment of the Law, a scribe commended His answer, and said that such love was ‘more than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices,’ He declared that he was not far from the Kingdom of God (Mark 12:28-34).
On the same principle, Jesus at once defended His disciples against the charge of Sabbath-breaking, and vindicated His right to perform works of beneficence on the Sabbath day, by appealing to the spirit of the ordinance. Like other parts of the Law, He showed that this was only an expression of God’s beneficent will for the good of man, a provision for his temporal and spiritual welfare. Therefore in the case of the cripple at Bethesda, He declared that, as God’s providential government of the world recognized no distinction between the Sabbath and other days, so Christ Himself, as Son of God, must, like the Father, seek man’s benefit even on the Sabbath. Again, as Son of Man, He no less emphatically asserted His right to interpret the Sabbath law in the interest of man, for whose benefit it was framed (John 5:17 ff., Matthew 12:1-8 || Mark 2:23-28 || Luke 6:1-5). See also artt. Accommodation, Authority of Christ, Law, etc.
Literature.—Cremer, Bib.-Theol. Lex. s.v. νόμος; Grimm, Lex. Novi Testamenti, s.v. νόμος; Comm. of Meyer and Alford; Wendt, The Teaching of Jesus, i. 261–313, ii. 3–26; H. J. Holtzmann, Lehrbuch der NT Theol. 1. 29–45, 116–146; Beyschlag, NT Theology, i. 37–40, 97–129; Weiss, Ribl. Theol. of NT, i. 107–120; Briggs, Ethical Teaching of Christ, 143; Gore, Sermon on Mount; Bruce, Kingdom of God, 63–84; Dykes, Manifesto of the King [2], 203–329; cf. also Literature at end of preceding article.
Hugh H. Currie.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Law (2)
LAW.—The question of Christ’s relation to the Jewish law is one of fundamental importance for the origin of Christianity, but at the same time one of peculiar difficulty. The difficulty arises, to some extent, from the fact that His own teaching marks a period of transition, when the old was already antiquated, while the new was still unborn. A further difficulty is created by the relation in which the actual conduct of Jesus stood to the principles which He laid down. Moreover, the question arises whether His attitude remained the same through the whole course of His ministry, or whether He came to realize that His fundamental principles carried Him further than He had at first anticipated. Lastly, when we remember how bitter was the strife which this very question aroused in the primitive Church, the misgiving is certainly not unreasonable, that this may have been reflected back into the life of the Founder, and sayings placed in His mouth endorsing one of the later partisan views. Our present subject is that of the Ceremonial Law.
It must be clearly recognized that the distinction between moral and ceremonial law is not one sanctioned in the Law itself. All its parts alike were the command of God. The distinction has maintained its vitality in virtue of a praiseworthy ethical interest. The antinomianism of St. Paul seemed to endanger morality, and those who could not rise to his point of view, that it was precisely in this way that morality was secured, turned Christianity into a new legalism, and explained his doctrine that the Law was abolished to mean that Christians were no longer compelled to practise Jewish ceremonies. This was, of course, to reduce much that he said to the unmeaning. It is precisely the moral law that St. Paul had chiefly in mind. The Decalogue is described as ‘the ministration of death written and engraven on stones’ (2 Corinthians 3:7 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ); and, to illustrate the sin-producing effects of the Law, St. Paul quotes one of the Ten Commandments (Romans 7:7). His doctrine was unquestionably that the Law as a whole was done away for all who were in Christ, inasmuch as they had crucified the flesh, which was the home of sin, and thus had lost everything to which the Law could appeal as provocation to sin, while they had escaped into the freedom of the Spirit, and could therefore no longer be under the constraint of the Law. But even St. Paul was forced to recognize that his magnificent idealism was not milk for babes, hence moral exhortation found a large place in his Epistles, side by side with the loftiest assertions of a Christian’s freedom from sin, flesh, and the Law. But St. Paul is quite explicit that this freedom is to be strenuously maintained in the sphere of Jewish ceremonies, especially circumcision, and sacred days and seasons. On the other hand, a party in the Early Church insisted passionately on the permanent validity of the Law, and especially of circumcision, as essential to salvation. It lies beyond our limits to trace the history of this controversy, but a reference to it is necessary for the reason already indicated.
Jesus was Himself born into a Jewish home, and the rites prescribed by the Jewish law were scrupulously fulfilled in His case. His parents did not belong to the ranks of the Pharisees, hence His early training was healthier than that of St. Paul; but He, like His great Apostle, was born under the Law (Galatians 4:4), and initiated by circumcision into the Covenant on the eighth day (Luke 2:21). His mother presented Him as her firstborn male child to the Lord in the Temple, and offered the sacrifice of purification prescribed in the Law (Luke 2:22-24), and thus ‘accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord’ (Luke 2:39). Joseph and Mary went up each year to the feast of the Passover at Jerusalem (Luke 2:41). So far as we can see, Jesus Himself was a strict observer of the Law. Whatever His attitude towards it during His ministry, we may assume without question that, till He was conscious of His Messianic vocation, His obedience to the Law was scrupulously and heartily rendered. It lay in the nature of the case, however, that the old bottles of Judaism should be unfit to receive the new wine of the Kingdom with which He knew Himself to be intrusted. The question whether this was clear to Him from the first, or whether it became clear only in the course of His controversy with the scribes, cannot be answered with certainty, in view of the doubt which hangs over the chronology of the ministry. And His conduct here was regulated by much the same need for reserve as He practised in reference to His self-revelation as Messiah. A premature declaration would have created an extremely difficult situation. All He could do was to utter His principles and leave the practical inferences to be drawn, when the time was ripe, by those who shared His spirit.
On one great branch of this question, however, Jesus expressed Himself clearly and without compromise. The morbid anxiety of the scribes to make a hedge about the Law so that all possible approaches to its violation might be blocked, added to the hair-splitting casuistry in which moralists of their type delighted, and the lawyer’s instinct for precise and exhaustive definition, had led to the elaboration of the precepts in the Law into a vast system of tradition. Moreover, the heavier the burden grew, the greater grew the temptation to find a literal fulfilment which should be an escape from the spirit. All this apparatus of piety demanded leisure to master and perform, such leisure as no man with his daily bread to earn could command; hence arose a morality unfitted for the normal human life. Against all this tradition Jesus entered an emphatic protest. His attitude towards it was wholly different from that which He assumed towards the written Law. The scribes made void by their tradition the word of God, and every plant which His heavenly Father had not planted He said should be rooted up. Nevertheless, in vindicating the Law against the tradition, He enunciated principles which pointed forward to the abolition of both. The points on which He came into conflict with Jewish ceremonialism were Fasting, the law of Uncleanness, the Temple service, and the cancelling of primary human duties by feigned respect for duties to God.
1. If the order of incidents in the Gospel of St. Mark could be accepted as chronological, the first collision of Jesus with the representatives of the tradition was occasioned by His eating with publicans and sinners at the house of Levi (Mark 2:15 ff.). Although stress cannot be laid on the order in which the incidents are narrated, this furnishes us with an excellent illustration of the way in which the fundamental ideas of Jesus brought Him into conflict with the religious prejudices of His time. His doctrine of the Fatherhood of God and of the incomparable value of the human soul were fundamental convictions. To this was added the consciousness of His own mission to restore the lost children to their Father. Hence He met the criticism of His conduct in associating with the degraded by the explanation that He was a physician, and where was the physician’s place but in the midst of the sick? There is indeed a terrible irony in the words, for there were none whose moral and religious health was, to the eyes of Jesus, in a more desperate condition than that of His critics. But scandalized as they might be by conduct so unprofessional on the part of a teacher, there was an obvious conclusiveness in the reply of Jesus which could have been evaded only by the assertion that the salvation of such people was not desirable. The two types of holiness emerge in clear contradiction—the type which seeks to avoid all contact with the contaminating in order that personal purity may not be compromised, and the type that is entirely forgetful of self in its zeal for the regeneration of others. It is in connexion with a similar accusation that St. Luke relates the parables of the Lost Sheep, the Lost Drachma, and the Lost Son (Luke 15). Similarly Christ’s lodging with Zacehaeus the publican gave rise to criticism; and here again Jesus explained His action by His mission: ‘The Son of Man came to seek and to save that which was lost’ (Luke 19:10).
2. The second point in which the new type displayed a contrast with the old was in the matter of Fasting. Wonder was excited that, while the Pharisees and the disciples of the Baptist fasted, the disciples of Jesus neglected this religious exercise. The Pharisees fasted twice in the week, on Monday and Thursday. What fasts were observed by the disciples of John we do not know. But the distinction was not one simply between disciples, it went back to the leaders. The Baptist was an ascetic, clothed in camel’s hair and a leathern girdle, with locusts and wild honey for his food; his congenial home was the desert, his message one of judgment to come, the axe already lying at the root of the tree. He came neither eating nor drinking, and this unsociable disposition called forth the charge that he had a devil. Jesus, on the other hand, was no aseetic; so little of an ascetic, in fact, that His enemies taxed Him with over-indulgence: ‘The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a gluttonous man and a winebibber, a friend of publicans and sinners’ (Matthew 11:19). Jesus defends His disciples against the criticism implied in the question, ‘Why do John’s disciples and the disciples of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?’ (Mark 2:18) by the answer, ‘Can the sons of the bride-chamber fast while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them they cannot fast.’ The principle underlying this is that the external practice must be a spontaneous expression of the inward feeling. Fasting is out of place in their present circumstances, they have the bridegroom with them, therefore all is joy and festivity. It would be a piece of unreality to introduce into their present religious life an element so incongruous. But He proceeds: ‘The days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then will they fast in that day.’ The reference is to His own death; and possibly the foreboding expressed should lead us to assign this incident to His later ministry, after the declaration of Messiahship had been made and the prediction of death had been uttered. On the other hand, the veiled allusion makes it possible that those who heard it would not catch His meaning, and we can, in that case, assign it to a late date only if we are clear that Jesus Himself became conscious at a comparatively late period in His ministry of the death that awaited Him. The incident itself rather makes the impression that it belongs to the earlier period of Christ’s activity. This was one of the respects in which failure to conform to conventional piety would early attract attention.
Wellhausen regards the incident as unauthentic. He points to the curious fact that the question is one between the disciples of the Baptist and of Jesus, and draws the inference that it is a justification for the deviation of the later practice of Christ’s followers from that of Jesus Himself, who in practice conformed strictly to the Judaism of His time. He confirms this by pointing out that as a matter of fact the bridegroom is not taken away from wedding festivities, and here therefore the choice of expression has been determined by the actual fact of Christ’s removal by death. However plausible this suggestion may be, the sayings bear rather the stamp of Jesus than of the early Apostolic Church. The criticism of the disciples rather than of Jesus has its parallel in the incident of the plucking of the ears of corn on the Sabbath and the disciples eating with unwashed hands, and the temper of the Master was much freer than that of the timidly legalistic disciples.
In the Sermon on the Mount fasting is recognized as a fitting religious exercise; but, as in the case of prayer and almsgiving, it is essential, for its true religious quality to be preserved, that it should be practised without ostentation. The religious self-advertisement which characterized the Pharisees eviscerated these exercises of all their value. They were to be a secret between a man and his God. In the most rigorous fasts washing and anointing were forbidden (Taanith, i. 6), while they were allowed in the less severe (ib. i. 4 f.). Jesus bids His followers anoint the head and wash the face when they fast, that no one may be able to detect that they are fasting (Matthew 6:16-18). See Fasting.
Immediately following the defence of the disciples for not fasting, we have in all the Synopties (Matthew 9:16 f., Mark 2:21 f., Luke 5:36 f.) the sayings about the undressed cloth and the new wine in the old wineskins. The parables are difficult; the lesson taught is clearly the incompatibility of the new with the old, and the disaster that will inevitably follow any attempt to combine them. But it is by no means clear with what ‘old’ and ‘new’ should be identified, nor again can we assume that both parables express the same truth. It is possible, though improbable, that Jesus may intend by ‘the old’ the ancient piety of the Old Testament, and by ‘the new’ the new-fangled regulations of the scribes, His sense being that the old Divinely-given mode of life is being ruined by the tradition of men. But it is more likely that the usual view is right, according to which ‘the old’ is Judaism and ‘the new’ is the gospel. Even so, however, various interpretations are possible. Usually it has been thought that in both sayings Jesus is defending the attitude of His disciples: you cannot expect the new spirit of the gospel to be cast in the old moulds or Judaism; the new spirit must create new forms for itself. Weiss, however, considers that both parables constitute a defence of the attitude of John’s disciples, they cannot be expected to combine the spirit of the Gospel with their legalist and ascetic habit of life (Bibl. Theol. of NT, i. 112). It is possible, however, that Beysehlag is correct in thinking that the parable of the undressed cloth on the old garment is a justification of John’s disciples in fasting, while the parable of the new wine in the old bottles is a justification of the disciples of Jesus for refusing to follow their example (NT Theol. i. 114). The two sayings are connected by ‘and,’ it is true, but this conjunction has in the Synoptics a wider range of meaning than in English. Wellhausen finds the sayings difficult. He is not disposed to question their authenticity, though, as already mentioned, he strikes out the sayings immediately preceding.
3. Another point in which Jesus came into confliet with the tradition was that of Ablutions (Mark 7:1 ff. ||). To secure that nothing ceremonially unclean should be eaten, the Jews were very scrupulous in washing the hands before meals. The laws of cleanness and uncleanness touch life so much more closely than any others, that the casuistry of the scribes naturally finds in this matter a large field of exercise. The largest of the six books of the Mishna is given up to this topic. The purification of vessels alone occupies thirty chapters of this book. The Pentateuch itself exhibits more than the usual tendency to casuistry in this matter, but the tradition left the Law out of sight in the elaborateness of its regulations. In the time of Jesus tradition had become very strict with reference to the washing of the hands. The practice originated with the Pharisees, but was adopted by almost all the Jews. Even when the hands were ceremonially clean it was necessary to wash them, no doubt to guard against the possibility of unconscious defilement. If they were known to be unclean, they had to be washed twice before a meal; they were also washed after food; and some Pharisees washed even between the courses. The hands were held with the lingers up, so that the uncleanness might be washed down from them; and for the ceremony to be effectual it was necessary that the water should run down to the wrist (though we should probably not translate πυγμῇ, Mark 7:3, ‘to the wrist’; see Swete, ad loc.). In John 2:6 we read of the six stone water-pots for the water of purification at the marriage in Cana; and the same Gospel tells us how the Jews purified themselves for the Passover (John 11:55), or took precautions against defilement which would disqualify them from eating it (John 18:28).
It was therefore natural that the neglect of some of the disciples should evoke criticism; and this criticism was uttered by officials from Jerusalem who had come down to watch the new movement (Mark 7:1). No mention is made here of any violation of the tradition on the part of Jesus Himself; though in Luke 11:38 we are told that the Pharisee, at whose house Jesus was eating, was surprised that He neglected this ceremony. Jesus defended His disciples by a complete repudiation of the tradition. He pointed out that its effect was to nullify the Law rather than to establish it; and He illustrated this from the practice of dedicating to God that which ought to have been used by a man for the support of his parents. To this point it will be necessary to return. But in connexion with the question of hand-washing Jesus enunciated a principle of far-reaching importance which not only set aside the tradition, but even abrogated a large section of the Law. He asserted that not that which is without a man can, by going into him, defile him, but the things which proceed out of the man. The heart is the essential thing, food cannot come into contact with that; but it is in it that evil thoughts, words, or actions have their rise, and it is these that make a man unclean. Not what a man eats, but what he is, determines the question of his purity. Thus Jesus lifted the whole conception of cleanness and uncleanness out of the ceremonial into the ethical domain. But it is plain that this carried with it revolutionary conclusions, not only as to the tradition, but as to the Law; for much of the Law was occupied precisely with the uncleanness created by external things, and it is not improbable that St. Mark has definitely drawn this inference in his Gospel.
It is possible that the usual view taken of the passage, according to which the words ‘making all meats clean’ (Mark 7:19) are the concluding words of Jesus, should be accepted. This involves, however, a grammatical irregularity, and we ought perhaps to adopt the view taken by Origen, Gregory Thaumaturgus, and Chrysostom, ably defended by Field (Notes on the Translation of the NT, pp. 31, 32) and adopted by Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 , Weizsäcker, Swete, Gould, Salmond, that they are the comment of the Evangelist, and that we should translate ‘this he said, making all meats clean.’ On the other hand, the notes of Menzies and Wellhausen on the passage may be consulted.
The evasion of the Law by the Tradition here asserted by Jesus has been affirmed by some Jewish scholars not to have existed. (The reader may consult an appendix on ‘Legal Evasions of the Law,’ by Dr. Schechter in Montefiore’s Hibbert Lectures, pp. 557–563; an article by Monteflore on ‘Jewish Scholarship and Christian Silence’ in the Hibbert Journal for Jan. 1903; the rejoinder to this by Menzies in July 1903, with a further rejoinder by Monteflore in Oct. 1903.) It is urged that the reference in the Jewish treatise Nedarim does not confirm the statement in St. Mark about Corban. Dr. Menzies accepts this; but when that is said, the matter is by no means ended. To the present writer it seems that the evidence of St. Mark is quite good evidence for the contemporary Judaism. If the assertion about Corban is untrue, of course it cannot be ascribed to Jesus, who could not have quoted, as a conclusive proof that the Jews cancelled the Law by their tradition, an example which His hearers would know to have no existence. Accordingly, if the statement is mistaken, it would have to be put down to the account of the Evangelist, though how he should have hit upon it unless such a custom was actually in vogue would be difficult to understand. In forming our judgment on a question of this kind certain leading principles must be kept in mind. The contemporary Judaism is most imperfectly known to us, and the documents which we have to use as our sources of information are, in many instances, centuries later than the rise of Christianity. Further, the stereotyping of Judaism must not be blindly accepted as if it guaranteed that doctrines or practices for which we have only late literary attestation were already developed in the time of Christ. We must remember that Judaism did not live in an intellectual vacuum, but in an atmosphere saturated with Christian germs. Especially, we cannot forget that controversy went on between Jews and Christians; and under its pressure it is by no means unreasonable to believe that Judaism may have undergone a considerable modification, above all, in the elimination of matter which proved susceptible to criticism. In the light of these principles the present writer has no hesitation in regarding the statement in St. Mark as good evidence for the existence of the practice of Corban in the time of Christ.
4. The next question touches Christ’s relation to the Temple. His personal attitude towards it was that of a loyal Jew. Not only did He as a boy of twelve years recognize it as His Father’s house (Luke 2:49), but, after He had entered on His ministry, He cleansed it by driving out the money-changers, and overturning the stalls of the traders (Matthew 21:12 ff. ||). According to the Fourth Gospel, His visits to Jerusalem were largely connected with the feasts. In His Sermon on the Mount He assumes that His disciples will offer sacrifice, and only requires that, before he offers, a man shall be reconciled to his brother (Matthew 5:23 f.). In His great indictment of the scribes and Pharisees He rebukes them for their ruling that an oath by the temple or by the altar counts for nothing, while an oath by the gold of the temple, or a gift at the altar, is binding. The temple is greater than its gold, and makes it holy; and similarly it is by the altar that the gift is sanctified. To swear by the altar is to swear not only by it, but by the offering placed upon it; while to swear by the temple is to swear not only by it and all that it contains, but by Him who dwells therein (Matthew 23:16 ff. ||). But all this loyal recognition of the place filled by the temple and the honour due to it was combined with an inward detachment from it, which was a presage of the ultimate deliverance of Christianity from its connexion with it. This comes out very clearly in the story of the stater in the fish’s mouth (Matthew 17:24 ff.). The very doubt which was implied in the question whether Jesus paid the half-shekel which was levied as a temple-tax is most significant as to the drift towards freedom, which was already detected in His teaching. That He had not repudiated the toll, Peter is aware; but the reason for His obedience comes out plainly in the conversation He has with Peter on the subject. Taxes are taken by monarchs not from their sons, but from strangers. Therefore, since Jesus knows that He and His disciples are not aliens to God, but His children, the inference is that no payment of the tax can be legitimately expected from the children of the Kingdom. Jesus, however, bids Peter pay the tax for both, to avoid giving offence. In other words, Jesus regarded Himself and members of His Kingdom as released from every obligation to pay the half-shekel for the service of the temple, even if, in tender concession to the feelings of others, they did not avail themselves of their liberty. The temple-due in question was not definitely commanded in the Law, though it was a not unnatural deduction from Exodus 30:13, which was itself a development of the rule of Nehemiah that there should be an annual payment of a third of a shekel for the temple service (Nehemiah 10:32-33). The temple itself, Christ predicted, would be destroyed. However we may explain the saying, ‘Destroy this temple, and I will build it up in three days’ (John 2:19), He certainly foretold in His eschatological discourse (Matthew 24:2) the overthrow of the literal temple, and therewith naturally the cessation of the Jewish cultus.
It is not improbable that the saying, ‘Destroy this temple,’ should be similarly interpreted. The authenticity of the utterance is guaranteed by the use made of it in the trial of Jesus (Mark 14:58), and the similar accusation at the trial of Stephen (Acts 6:14), as well as the taunt addressed to Jesus on the cross (Mark 15:29). It is true that the author of the Fourth Gospel interprets the saying as a reference to the body of Christ, fulfilled in the death and the resurrection. But this interpretation did not at the time occur either to the Jews or to the disciples. The retort of the former showed that they understood the reference to be to the literal temple, while the Evangelist expressly says that the interpretation he adopts occurred to the disciples only after the resurrection. It is, in fact, very difficult to believe that the saying referred to the death and resurrection of Jesus. In its connexion with the desecration and cleansing of the actual temple the allusion could naturally be nothing less than to its destruction, unless Jesus made His meaning clear by pointing to His body. But in that case the misunderstanding on the part of the Jews and the disciples would have been impossible, even if we leave aside the objection that so unveiled an allusion to His death and resurrection at this early period is most unlikely. Moreover, the contrast with the temple made with hands (Mark 14:58) does not at all suit the human body. A difficulty, however, is raised by the Johannine version of the saying. We may, perhaps, assume that the latter is to be preferred to the version of the witnesses at the trial, in that it refers the work of destruction not to Jesus Himself, but to the Jews. Their present course of desecration, if they persist in it, will lead to the destruction of the temple. But it is not easy to believe that Jesus can have said that He would rebuild the temple that had been destroyed. Here the version of the witnesses is intrinsically the more credible, that He would build another temple in its place. And the contrast between the temple made with hands and the temple made without hands bears also the stamp of authenticity; the new is not simply to be a reproduction of the old, it is to be not a material, but a spiritual, structure. We may therefore conclude with some confidence that Jesus definitely anticipated the destruction of the centre of Jewish worship and the substitution of a spiritual temple in its place.
In the conversation with the woman of Samaria (John 4), Jesus is represented as dealing specifically with the question of the legitimate sanctuary as against the Samaritan temple (John 4:20-24). He gives His verdict in favour of the temple at Jerusalem, but He asserts that the hour has already come for both sanctuaries to lose whatever exclusive legitimacy they may possess. The true worship of God transcends all local limitations; for God is spirit, and as such cannot be localized; and the worship He desires is a worship in spirit and in truth. There is no reason whatever for supposing that here the Evangelist is putting his own doctrine into the mouth of Jesus. The pregnant aphoristic form and penetrating insight of the saying stamp it as authentic. Moreover, it is quite in the line of the other teachings of Jesus with reference to the temple. He recognizes that the temple is His Father’s house, and yet looks forward to its destruction; and similarly here He asserts the legitimacy of the Jewish as against the Samaritan temple, and yet looks forward to the speedy termination of worship in it.
5. It is certainly a very striking fact, in view of the immense importance attached in Judaism to the rite, that Jesus nowhere raises the question of the permanence of Circumcision. Had He pronounced upon it, the bitter controversy excited by the question in the primitive Church could hardly have arisen. But, naturally, occasion for discussing it did not so readily arise, and it was part of the method of Jesus to leave questions of practice to be settled by His disciples under the guidance of the Spirit and in the light of principles with which He had imbued them. There can be no reasonable doubt that St. Paul drew the true Christian inference. The great principle, that the external was unimportant in comparison with the inward, expressed in the abolition by Jesus of the Levitical laws as to unclean food, and in His doctrine that for worship in the material temple there was to be substituted worship in spirit and in truth, carried with it the conclusion that as a purely external rite circumcision could have no place in the religion of the spirit. Moreover, it was the sign of the Old Covenant; but Jesus knew that His blood consecrated a New Covenant. This implied the abolition of the Old Covenant, and naturally the abolition of circumcision, which was its sign. Indeed, the Old Testament itself was on the way to this, not simply in Jeremiah’s prediction (Jeremiah 31:31 ff.) of the New Covenant, but in the prophetic demand for a circumcision of the heart (Jeremiah 4:4; Jeremiah 9:26; cf. Ezekiel 44:7, Leviticus 26:41). Here, as elsewhere, the attitude of Jesus linked itself closely to that previousl
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Levirate Law
LEVIRATE LAW (Lat. levir, ‘a husband’s brother’) regulated the marriage of a man with his dead brother’s widow. In the story of Tamar and Judah (Genesis 38) there is record of a marriage of this type, and at certain stages of civilization the Levirate marriage was a widespread custom.† [1] Among the Jews the law was laid down that ‘if brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no child (son), the wife of the dead shall not marry without unto a stranger: her husband’s brother … shall take her to him to wife’ (Deuteronomy 25:5). It almost seems, however, that the Levirate custom was not permitted by later legislation (Leviticus 18:16; Leviticus 20:21); but it has been suggested (1) that the forbidden marriage of that legislation was one between a man and the wife of his living brother;* [2] and (2) that the custom consecrated in Dt. was the exception to the general law set forth in Leviticus.† [3] The object of the Levirate marriage (Deuteronomy 25:6) was to secure that the firstborn of the new union should succeed in the name of the dead brother, whose name thereby might not be blotted out from Israel. In the earlier ages of Judaism there was no clear conception of personal immortality; and the Levirate law was doubtless framed so that there might be the survival through posterity of the name of the representative of a family.
For the statement of a problem regarding the resurrection, propounded to Jesus (Matthew 22:23-33, Mark 12:18-27, Luke 20:27-38), the Levirate law was used by the Sadducees, who are described by the Synoptists as saying that there is no resurrection, and by Josephus (Ant. xviii. i. 4) as holding ‘that souls die with the bodies.’ Regarding as obligatory only those observances which are found in the written word, they rejected those derived from the traditions of their forefathers. The Pharisees, on the other hand, accepted such traditions, and with them a belief in the doctrine of the resurrection (cf. Josephus Ant. xiii. x. 6). This doctrine, taught clearly in Daniel 12, was made popular in Jewish theological discussions by the Book of Enoch,‡ [4] and suggested the problem set forth by the Sadducees, who evidently sought by the authority of Moses to discredit a doctrine held by the Pharisees and taught by Jesus. In stating their problem they brought forward a case of seven brothers who one after the other married the same woman. It is not necessary to take the case as one of actual fact, since the phrase παρ ̓ ἡμῖν in Mt. may have been used merely for literary effect.
In each of the Synoptics the setting forth of the problem is prefaced by a statement of the Levirate law as spoken or written by Moses (Mt. has Μωϋσῆς εἶπε, but in Mk. and Lk. it is Μωϋσῆς ἔγραψεν ἡμῖν). In none of the three statements are the ipsissima verba of Deuteronomy 25:5 used, and Mt. borrows the words ἐπιγαμβρεύσει καὶ ἀναστήσει σπἐρμα from the LXX Septuagint version of Genesis 38:8.
The problem propounded by the Sadducees may be thus stated:—The Levirate law was enacted by Moses, and there was a case of seven brothers who in obedience to it married, one after the other, the same woman, who herself died after the death of the last of the seven. In the resurrection, since they all had her, whose wife shall she be of the seven? Jesus in His answer to the Sadducees did not discuss the justice or injustice of the Levirate law, or examine the purpose of Moses in decreeing it; but, asserting that they had erred, not knowing the Scriptures or the power of God, He showed them that in the resurrection men neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven; and then He proceeded to declare that belief in immortality is involved in our consciousness of the being of God.
J. Herkless.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Morality, Moral Law
MORALITY, MORAL LAW.—See Ethics, and Law.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Son of the Law
SON OF THE LAW.—See Boyhood and Education.
Webster's Dictionary - Valued-Policy Law
A law requiring insurance companies to pay to the insured, in case of total loss, the full amount of the insurance, regardless of the actual value of the property at the time of the loss.
Webster's Dictionary - Sister-in-Law
(n.) The sister of one's husband or wife; also, the wife of one's brother; sometimes, the wife of one's husband's or wife's brother.
Webster's Dictionary - Daughter-in-Law
(n.) The wife of one's son.
Webster's Dictionary - Daughters-in-Law
(pl.) of Daughter-in-law
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Guarantees, Law of
(Italian: La Legge delle Guarentigie)
A law passed by the Italian Parliament, May 13, 1871, granting certain prerogatives to the pope, and outlining the relations between the Italian State and the Church consequent to the occupation of Rome by the Piedmontese troops, September 20, 1870. Some of its provisions were: inviolability of the Pope's person, an annuity of three and a quarter million lire ($622,425), extra-territoriality of the Vatican and Lateran Palaces and Castel Gandolfo. This law was never accepted by Pius IX and his successors because, amongst other reasons, it presupposed the subjection of the pope to the Italian ruler, a status which could never be admitted by one whose supreme spiritual authority extends to the Universal Church.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Law
See Testimony.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Ceremonial Law
CEREMONIAL LAW.—See Law.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Daughter-in-Law
DAUGHTER-IN-LAW (νύμφη).—The Greek word is presumably derived from the lost root νύβω, Lat nubo, ‘to cover,’ inasmuch as the bride was brought veiled to her bridegroom. Although the word applies to married women in general, its associated idea is that of youth. Hence its antithesis with πενθερά, the mother-in-law (Matthew 10:35, (Luke 12:53). The son usually brought his bride to his father’s house, where she was subject to the father’s wife, as was the son to the father and the daughter to the mother (Matthew 10:35, Luke 12:53).
Henry E. Dosker.
Webster's Dictionary - Boyle's Law
See under Law.
Webster's Dictionary - Coulomb's Law
The law that the force exerted between two electric or magnetic charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely to the square of the distance between them.
Webster's Dictionary - Father-in-Law
(n.) The father of one's husband or wife; - correlative to son-in-law and daughter-in-law.
Webster's Dictionary - Frank-Law
(n.) The liberty of being sworn in courts, as a juror or witness; one of the ancient privileges of a freeman; free and common law; - an obsolete expression signifying substantially the same as the American expression civil rights.
Webster's Dictionary - Fathers-in-Law
(pl.) of Father-in-law
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Associations Law
Enacted by the French Government, 1901, providing that no religious congregation of men or of women could be formed without a legislative act, which should determine the functions of such a congregation. This enactment was part of the scheme laid down previously by the Grand Orient Freemasons, by which the Catholic Church and Catholics as such in France were to be deprived of their rights. Further attempts to this effect were made in 1905, but, though the Church was seriously hampered in its activities for a while, it succeeded in carrying on until in 1928 these restrictions and others became inoperative.
CARM Theological Dictionary - Law
The Law is God's instructions concerning the moral, social, and spiritual behavior of His people found in the first five books of the Bible. The Law is the very reflection of the nature of God because God speaks out of the abundance of what is in Him. Therefore, since God is pure, the Law is pure. Since God is holy, the Law is holy. The Law consists of the 10 commandments (Exodus 20:1-26), rules for social life (Exodus 21:1-36; Exo 22:1-31; Exo 23:1-33), and rules for the worship of God (Exodus 25:1-40; Exo 26:1-37; Exo 27:1-21; Exo 28:1-43; Exo 29:1-46; Exo 30:1-38; Exo 31:1-18Exodus 25:1-40; Exo 26:1-37; Exo 27:1-21; Exo 28:1-43; Exo 29:1-46; Exo 30:1-38; Exo 31:1-18Exodus 25:1-40; Exo 26:1-37; Exo 27:1-21; Exo 28:1-43; Exo 29:1-46; Exo 30:1-38; Exo 31:1-18). It was a covenant of works between God and man and was (and is) unable to deliver us into eternal fellowship with the Lord because of Man's inability to keep it. The Law is a difficult taskmaster because it requires that we maintain a perfect standard of moral behavior. And then when we fail, the Law condemns us to death. We deserve death even if we fail to keep just one point of the law: "For whoever keeps the whole law and yet stumbles in one point, he has become guilty of all" (James 2:10).
The law made nothing perfect (Hebrews 7:19). That is why the Law has shown us our need for Jesus and the free gift we receive through Him (Galatians 3:24).
CARM Theological Dictionary - Law of Non-Contradiction
The Law of non-contradiction is the law that something cannot be both true and not true at the same time when dealing with the same context. For example, the chair in my living room, right now, cannot be made of wood and not made of wood at the same time. In the law of non-contradiction, where we have a set of statements about a subject, we cannot have any of the statements in that set negate the truth of any other statement in that same set. For example, we have a set of two statements about Judas. 1) Judas hung himself. 2) Judas fell down and his bowels spilled out. Neither statement about Judas contradicts the other. That is, neither statement makes the other impossible because neither excludes the possibility of the other. The statements can be harmonized by stating: Judas hung himself and then his body fell down and his bowels spilled out.
In order to make the set of statements contradictory, we would have something like: 1) Judas hung himself. 2) Judas did not hang himself. Since either statement excludes the possibility of the other, we would then have a contradiction.
Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Works of the Law
The term erga nomou ("works of the Law") is used by Paul to denote deeds prescribed by the Mosaic Law ( Romans 2:15 ; 3:20,27 , 28 ; Galatians 2:16 ; 3:2,5 , 10 ). Although not found in the Old Testament or later rabbinic literature, this phrase appears in Qumran literature (maase torah,4QFlor 1:1-7; cf. 1QS 6:18; 1QpHab 7:11). At times Paul shortens the phrase and uses erga, "works" (Romans 4:2,6 ; 9:11,32 ; 11:6 ), referring to a mode of relationship to the Law and set in contrast to faith in Christ.
Various interpretations of this phrase include: "good works, " in the sense of humankind's striving for self-achievement apart from God; observances of Mosaic Law that seek to earn God's favor; and distinctive Jewish identity markers (i.e., circumcision, dietary regulations, and Sabbath observance). Judaism was "nomistic, " observing the Law not as a means of justification but as a response to a gracious God, who Acts on behalf of his people and requires that they in turn identify themselves as his people by keeping his ordinances (covenantal nomism). In this context, the performance of "works of the law" does not refer to an individual's striving for moral improvement, but to a religious mode of existence, marked out by certain religious practices that demonstrate the individual's covenant relationship. Paul's polemical argument in Galatians, however, is concerned with the inherent legalism of the Judaizers, who required Gentile converts to observe Jewish traditions in order to qualify as members of God's covenant people. Thus, when Paul uses erga nomou, he is not just referring to nomistic practices, but to merit-amassing observance of the Law as well.
The nonattainability of righteousness by keeping the Law is attested to by Paul in Philippians 3:4-9 . The works of the Law the apostle was "blameless" in performing actually were hindrances to true righteousness, found only in Christ. Any attempt to justify oneself before God based on meritorious action is counted as "loss" or "refuse." Trusting in one's ability to keep the Law is a reliance on the "flesh" (Philippians 3:3 ) and an attempt to establish one's "own righteousness" (Romans 10:3 ). Thus, the cross of Christ, as the sole basis of justification, becomes an "offense, " because it repudiates any other means of obtaining righteousness (1 Corinthians 1:23 ; Galatians 5:11 ; cf. Romans 9:33 ).
R. David Rightmire
See also Galatians, Theology of ; Grace ; Judaizers ; Law
Bibliography . G. Bertram, TDNT, 2: 635-55; F. F. Bruce, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 57 (1974-75): 259-79; C. E. B. Cranfield, Scottish Journal of Theology 17 (1964): 43-68; W. D. Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism ; J. D. G. Dunn, Jesus, Paul and the Law ; J. A. Fitzmyer, Paul and His Theology ; D. P. Fuller, WTJ 38 (1975): 28-42; R. H. Gundry, Biblica 66 (1985): 1-38; H. C. Hahn, NIDNTT, 3: 1147-51; R. Heiligenthal, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament, 2:49-50; R. N. Longenecker, Galatians ; idem, Paul: Apostle of Liberty ; H. Ridderbos, Paul: An Outline of His Theology ; E. P. Sanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism ; idem, Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People ; S. Westerholm, Israel's Law and the Church's Faith: Paul and His Recent Interpreters .
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Law
A rule of action; a precept or command coming from a superior authority, which an inferior is bound to obey. The manner in which God governs rational creatures is by a law, as the rule of their obedience to him, and which is what we call God's moral government of the world. He gave a law to angels, which some of them kept, and have been confirmed in a state of obedience to it; but which others broke, and thereby plunged themselves into destruction and misery. He gave, also, a law to Adam, and which was in the form of a covenant, and in which Adam stood as a covenant head to all his posterity, Romans 5:1-21 : Genesis 2:1-25 : But our first parents soon violated that law, and fell from a state of innocence to a state of sin and misery, Hosea 6:7 . Genesis 3:1-24 :
See FALL. Positive laws, are precepts which are not founded upon any reasons known to those to whom they are given. Thus in the state of innocence God gave the law of the Sabbath; or abstinence from the fruit of the tree of knowledge, &c. Law of nature is the will of God relating to human actions, grounded in the moral differences of things, and, because discoverable by natural light, obligatory upon all mankind, Romans 1:20 ; Romans 2:14-15 . This law is coeval with the human race, binding all over the globe, and at all times; yet, through the corruption of reason, it is insufficient to lead us to happiness, and utterly unable to acquaint us how sin is to be forgiven, without the assistance of revelation. Ceremonial law is that which prescribed the rites of worship used under the Old Testament.
These rites were typical of Christ, and were obligatory only till Christ had finished his work, and began to erect his Gospel church, Hebrews 7:9 ; Hebrews 7:11 . Hebrews 10:1 . Ephesians 2:16 . Colossians 2:14 . Galatians 5:2-3 . Judicial law was that which directed the policy of the Jewish nation, as under the peculiar dominion of God as their Supreme magistrate, and never, except in things relative to moral equity, was binding on any but the Hebrew nation. Moral law is that declaration of God's will which directs and binds all men, in every age and place, to their whole duty to him. It was most solemnly proclaimed by God himself at Sinai, to confirm the original law of nature, and correct men's mistakes concerning the demands of it. It is denominated perfect, Psalms 19:7 . perpetual, Matthew 5:17-18 . holy, Romans 7:12 . good, Romans 7:12 . spiritual, Romans 7:1-25 . exceeding broad, Psalms 119:96 . Some deny that it is a rule of conduct to believers under the Gospel dispensation; but it is easy to see the futility of such an idea; for as a transcript of the mind of God, it must be the criterion of moral good and evil. It is also given for that very purpose, that we may see our duty, and abstain from every thing derogatory to the divine glory. It affords us grand ideas of the holiness and purity of God: without attention to it, we can have no knowledge of sin.
Christ himself came not to destroy, but to fulfil it; and though we cannot do as he did, yet we are commanded to follow his example. Love to God is the end of the moral law, as well as the end of the Gospel. By the law, also, we are led to see the nature of holiness, and our own depravity, and learn to be humbled under a sense of our imperfection. We are not under it, however, as a covenant of works, Galatians 3:13 . or as a source of terror, Romans 8:1 . although we must abide by it, together with the whole preceptive word of God, as the rule of our conduct, Romans 3:31 Laws, directive, are laws without any punishment annexed to them. Laws, penal, such as have some penalty to enforce them. All the laws of God are and cannot but be penal, because every breach of his law is sin, and meritorious of punishment. Law of honour is a system of rules constructed by people of fashion, and calculated to facilitate their intercourse with one another, and for no other purpose. Consequently nothing is adverted to by the law of honour but what tends to incommode this intercourse. Hence this law only prescribes and regulates the duties betwixt equals, omitting such as relate to the Supreme Being, as well as those which we owe to our inferiors. In fact, this law of honour, in most instances, is favourable to the licentious indulgence of the natural passions.
Thus it allows of fornication, adultery, drunkenness, prodigality, duelling, and of revenge in the extreme, and lays no stress upon the virtues opposite to these. Laws, remedial, a fancied law, which some believe in, who hold that God, in mercy to mankind, has abolished that rigorous constitution or law that they were under originally, and instead of it has introduced a more mild constitution, and put us under a new law, which requires no more than imperfect sincere obedience, in compliance with our poor, infirm, impotent circumstances since the fall. I call this a fancied law, because it exists no where except in the imagination of those who hold it.
See NEONOMIANS, and JUSTIFICATION. Laws of nations, are those rules which by a tacit consent are agreed upon among all communities, at least among those who are reckoned the polite and humanized part of mankind. Gill's Body of Div. vol. 1: p. 454, oct. 425, vol. 3: ditto; Paley's Mor. Phil. vol. 1: p. 2; Cumberland's Law of Nature; Grove's Mor. Phil. vol. 2: p. 117. Booth's Death of Legal Hope; Inglish and Burder's Pieces on the Moral Law; Watts's Works, vol. 1: ser. 49. 8vo. edition, and vol. 2: p. 443. &c. Scott's Essays.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Law
Also called testimony, commandments, statutes, precepts, judgments, the Word, and words.
Called "Law of Moses" 1 Kings 2:3
Called "Law of the Lord" 2 Kings 10:31
Called "Law of God" Romans 7:22
Called "Law of the Spirit" Romans 8:2
Called "Law of Righteousness" Romans 9:31
Called "Law of Liberty" James 2:12
James 2:12 (a) This is the law that operates when there is no restraint nor hindrance. We judge a lion by the way he would act if free, and not by the way he acts in the cage. So GOD will judge people by the way they act when they are free to do as they please, and no one sees or knows of their actions.
GOD's law is like a light Psalm 119:130
GOD's law is like a lamp Psalm 119:105
GOD's law is like a hammer Jeremiah 23:29
GOD's law is like a fire Jeremiah 23:29
GOD's law is like a seed Luke 8:11
GOD's law is like water Ephesians 5:26
GOD's law is like a sword Hebrews 4:12
Webster's Dictionary - Verner's Law
A statement, propounded by the Danish philologist Karl Verner in 1875, which explains certain apparent exceptions to Grimm's law by the original position of the accent. Primitive Indo-European k, t, p, became first in Teutonic h, th, f, and appear without further change in old Teutonic, if the accent rested on the preceding syllable; but these sounds became voiced and produced g, d, b, if the accent was originally on a different syllable. Similarly s either remained unchanged, or it became z and later r. Example: Skt. sapta (accent on ultima), Gr. 'e`pta, Gothic sibun (seven). Examples in English are dead by the side of death, to rise and to rear.
Webster's Dictionary - Sisters-in-Law
(pl.) of Sister-in-law
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Abstinence, Law of
Regards only quality of food, is binding on all those who have completed their seventh year, and forbids the eating of flesh-meat or soup made from meat, but not the use of eggs, milk, butter, cheese, or of condiments made from animal fat. The prohibition against eating fish and flesh at the same meal has been abolished. The regulations do not affect special indults, or obligations imposed by vow or by the rules of religious or of communities not bound by vow. Local ordinaries may appoint a special day of abstinence for their own territories. They and parish priests can for just reasons dispense from abstinence persons or families subject to them, and also travelers who happen to be within their territories. An ordinary can dispense the entire diocese or a particular locality for reasons of public health. Abstinence is obligatory in English-speaking countries on the days mentioned below.
United States: Fridays; ember-days; vigils of Pentecost, Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas; Ash Wednesday; Saturdays of Lent. The obligation is suspended on Holy Saturday at noon and on all feasts of precept, except those falling on week-days in Lent; and on vigils which fall on a Sunday, there is no abstinence on the Sunday or on the preceding Saturday.
Canada: Fridays, except those on which may occur the feasts of Circumcision, Epiphany, All Saints, Immaculate Conception, and Christmas; ember-days; those vigils which are also fast days; Wednesdays of Lent; and Holy Saturday until noon.
England and Wales: Fridays, except holy days of obligation and December 26,; Wednesdays in Lent; ember Saturday in Lent; ember Wednesdays; vigils of Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, except when these feasts fall on a Sunday or Monday.
Scotland: Fridays; ember Wednesdays; vigils of Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, except when they fall on a Saturday or Sunday; Ash Wednesday; ember Saturday in Lent; up to noon on Holy Saturday. Except in Lent a holy day of obligation is never a day of abstinence.
Ireland: Fridays; ember-days; Ash Wednesday; Saturdays of Lent; eves of Christmas, Pentecost, Assumption, and All Saints.
Bishops may transfer the abstinence from Saturday to Wednesday during Lent. Flesh-meat is allowed at the principal meal on ember Saturdays, outside of Lent, and on vigils which immediately precede or follow a Friday or other day of abstinence. On Holy Saturday the obligation of abstinence ceases at midday. If a holy day of obligation falls on a day of abstinence, outside of Lent, the obligation of abstinence is removed. On Saint Patrick's Day the obligation of abstinence is also removed.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Law
The subject of 'law' is not restricted in scripture to the law given by Moses. God gave a commandment (or law) to Adam, which made Adam's subsequent sin to be transgression. Where there is no law there is no transgression (Romans 4:15 ), though there may be sin, as there was from Adam to Moses: "until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed [1] when there is no law." Romans 3:20-246 . This doubtless signifies that specific acts were not put to account as a question of God's governmental dealings, when there was no law forbidding them. Men sinned, and death reigned, though they "had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression" (Romans 5:14 ), for no definite law had been given to them. The nations that had not the law were however a law unto themselves, having some sense of good and evil, and their conscience bore witness accordingly. It is not a true definition of sin, to say that it is "the transgression of the law," as in the A.V. of 1 John 3:4 . The passage should read "Sin is lawlessness:" that is, man doing his own will, defiant of restraint, and regardless of his Creator and of his neighbour.
'Law' may be considered as a principle in contrast to 'grace,' in which sense it occurs in the N.T., the word 'law' being often without the article (though the law of Moses may at times be alluded to in the same way). In this sense it raises the question of what man is for God, and hence involves works. "The doers of [2] law shall be justified," Romans 2:13 ; but if, on the other hand, salvation be "by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace." Romans 11:6 . The conclusion is that "by the deeds of [2] law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight." None can be saved on that principle. In opposition to it "the righteousness of God without [2] law is manifested." The believer is "justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus." 1618611443_7 . 'Law' a principle stands also in scripture in contrast to 'faith.' "The just shall live by faith: and the law is not of faith; but the man that doeth them shall live in them." Galatians 3:11 .
The word 'law' is also used for a fixed and unvarying principle such as 'a law of nature:' thus we read of the 'law of faith,' 'law of sin,' 'law of righteousness,' 'law of the Spirit of life,' etc.; cf. Romans 7:21 .
The term 'law' is occasionally used in the N.T. as a designation of other parts of the O.T. besides the Pentateuch. The Lord said, "Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods ?" when the quotation was from the Psalms. John 10:34 : similarly 1 Corinthians 14:21 .
The LAW OF LIBERTY, James 1:25 ; Romans 5:138 , implies that, the nature being congruous, the things enjoined, instead of being a burden, are a pleasure. Doing the commandments of the Lord is the fruit of the divine nature: they are therefore both law and liberty.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of OT Words - Law
A. Noun.
Tôrâh (תֹּרָה, Strong's #8451), “law; direction; instruction.” This noun occurs 220 times in the Hebrew Old Testament.
In the wisdom literature, where the noun does not appear with a definite article, tôrâh signifies primarily “direction, teaching, instruction”: “The law of the wise is a fountain of life, to depart from the snares of death” (Prov. 13:14), and “Receive, I pray thee, the law from his mouth, and lay up his words in thine heart” (Job 22:22). The “instruction” of the sages of Israel, who were charged with the education of the young, was intended to cultivate in the young a fear of the Lord so that they might live in accordance with God’s expectations. The sage was a father to his pupils: “Whoso keepeth the law is a wise son: but he that is a companion of riotous men shameth his father” (Prov. 28:7; cf. 3:1; 4:2; 7:2). The natural father might also instruct his son in wise living, even as a Godfearing woman was an example of kind “instruction”: “She openeth her mouth with wisdom; and in her tongue is the law of kindness” (Prov. 31:26).
The “instruction” given by God to Moses and the Israelites became known as “the law” or “the direction” (ha-tôrâh), and quite frequently as “the Law of the Lord”: “Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord” (Ps. 119:1), or “the Law of God”: “Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, [1] read in the book of the law of God” (Neh. 8:18), and also as “the Law of [2] Moses”: “Remember ye the law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel …” (Mal. 4:4). The word can refer to the whole of the “law”: “For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children” (Ps. 78:5), or to particulars: “And this is the law which Moses set before the children of Israel …” (Deut. 4:44).
God had communicated the “law” that Israel might observe and live: “And what nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?” (Deut. 4:8). The king was instructed to have a copy of the “law” prepared for him at his coronation (Deut. 17:18). The priests were charged with the study and teaching of, as well as the jurisprudence based upon, the “law” (Jer. 18:18). Because of rampant apostasy the last days of Judah were times when there were no teaching priests (2 Chron. 15:3); in fact, in Josiah’s days the “law” (whether the whole Torah, or a book or a part) was recovered: “And Hilkiah … said to Shaphan the scribe, I have found the book of the law in the house of the Lord” (2 Chron. 34:15).
The prophets called Israel to repeat by returning to the tôrâh (“instruction”) of God (Isa. 1:10). Jeremiah prophesied concerning God’s new dealing with His people in terms of the New Covenant, in which God’s law is to be internalized, God’s people would willingly obey Him: “But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people” (Jer. 31:33). The last prophet of the Old Testament reminded the priests of their obligations (Mal. 2) and challenged God’s people to remember the “law” of Moses in preparation for the coming Messiah (Mal. 4:4).
The Septuagint gives the following translations: nomos (“law; rule”); nomimos (“conformable to law; lawful”); entole (“command[3]; order”); and prostagma (“order; commandment; injunction”).
B. Verb.
Yârâh (יָרָא, Strong's #3384), “to throw, cast, direct, teach, instruct.” The noun yârâh is derived from this root. The meaning “to cast” appears in Gen. 31:51: “And Laban said to Jacob, Behold this heap, and behold this pillar, which I have cast betwixt me and thee.” Yârâh means “to teach” in 1 Sam. 12:23: “… but I will teach you the good and the right way.”
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
The law was like a straight edge given by God to make manifest the crookedness of man. "[1] law entered that the offence might abound " (Romans 5:20 ), that is, not to increase sin, but to show its offensiveness, and to bring it home to the soul. "By [2] law is the knowledge of sin." Romans 3:20 . The apostle said that he would not have known lust had not the law said, "Thou shalt not covet." Romans 7:7 . The object of the law therefore was to evince the heinousness of sin, while it was a test of the obedience of man to God. It was given to Israel only, the one nation which was under God's special dealings, and in which He was trying man in the flesh. The heading of the ten commandments is "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage," and this could apply only to the Israelites. Again, God says, "You only have I known of all the families of the earth: therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities." Amos 3:2 . The Gentiles are described as not having the law, Romans 2:14 , though they had the work of the law written in their hearts, and a conscience which bore witness when they did wrong. As the Gentiles became associated with Israel, and heard what God required morally of man, they doubtless became more or less responsible according to the light received. But greater light having come in, the Galatian Christians are sharply rebuked for putting themselves under law, where, as Gentiles, they never had been. Some things forbidden in the law were wrong intrinsically, such as theft, murder, etc.; but other things were wrong only because God had forbidden them, such as the command to abstain from eating certain creatures called 'unclean.'
The law in its enactment of sacrifices and feasts was essentially typical and foreshadowed what was to be fulfilled in Christ. In accordance with this, Paul, as a Jew, could say, "The law was our schoolmaster unto Christ;" and the Lord said, "Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me." John 5:46 . This is an important point, for the passage that speaks of the law as the schoolmaster goes on to say that it was in order that they "might be justified by faith." After that faith was come believers were no longer under a schoolmaster. Galatians 3:25 . A converted Jew was no longer under the law — how much less a Gentile believer whom God had never put under the law! See SCHOOLMASTER.
This is often construed to mean that while the Christian is not under the law for justification, he is under it for walk, as a rule of life. This theory is however opposed to scripture, which says, "sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the law, but under grace." Romans 6:14 . A Christian has died with Christ and lives unto God, beyond the jurisdiction of law, which applies to man in the flesh, man 'in Adam.' Christianity is not in its true power apart from death and resurrection. See also Galatians 5:18 .
Many contend that the ceremonial law is abrogated, but that the moral law is binding upon all. This distinction between the ceremonial and the moral law can only be true in so far as the law is the embodiment of moral principles, which must ever be the rule of conduct for an intelligent being as such. So the righteous requirements of the law are fulfilled now in those who walk after the Spirit — while they are said to have become dead to the law by the body of Christ. Scripture speaks only of 'the law.' The law engraven on stones (the ten commandments) is called "the ministration of death ," not the law of life to a Christian. 2 Corinthians 3:7 . Law gives no power over sin; indeed, no sooner does a law say that a particular thing must not be done, than a desire arises to do it. Scripture does not say a word about the Christian being ruled by law; but it says that grace teaches him how to walk (Titus 2:11,12 ), and because he is under grace sin will not have dominion over him. The law depicted what a righteous man should be for the earth. It was perfect for the purpose for which it was given, but as seen in the question of divorce (Mark 10:4 ) it permitted what God had not intended for man at the beginning, and to this Christ bore witness. In Matthew 5:21-48 the Lord mentions five particulars, which they had heard in old time, in contrast to which He legislates in accordance with the new order of things that He was bringing in. The law did not come up to the responsibilities of Christianity. The Christian has a higher standard, even Christ Himself. He is to walk 'worthy of the Lord' unto all pleasing. Having received Christ Jesus the Lord, he is to walk in Him , Colossians 1:10 ; Colossians 2:6 ; and to walk also 'worthy of God,' 1 Thessalonians 2:12 ; indeed his aim should be to say, with Paul, "To me to live is Christ." Philippians 1:21 .
Man naturally clings to law because it recognises him as alive in the flesh. And though the curse follows the not keeping it in all points, yet he is not willing to give up that ground. Christ glorified is the One whom God now recognises — He only suits God's glory. Hence every one that is not 'in Christ' is a sinner already condemned by the light that has come in.
Webster's Dictionary - Mendel's Law
A principle governing the inheritance of many characters in animals and plants, discovered by Gregor J. Mendel (Austrian Augustinian abbot, 1822-84) in breeding experiments with peas. He showed that the height, color, and other characters depend on the presence of determinating factors behaving as units. In any given germ cell each of these is either present or absent.
Webster's Dictionary - Mariotte's Law
See Boyle's law, under Law.
Webster's Dictionary - Lynch Law
The act or practice by private persons of inflicting punishment for crimes or offenses, without due process of law.
Webster's Dictionary - Marconi's Law
The law that the maximum good signaling distance varies directly as the square of the height of the transmitting antenna.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Law
a rule of action; a precept or command, coming from a superior authority, which an inferior is bound to obey. The manner in which God governs rational creatures is by a law, as the rule of their obedience to him, and this is what we call God's moral government of the world. The term, however, is used in Scripture with considerable latitude of meaning; and to ascertain its precise import in any particular place, it is necessary to regard the scope and connection of the passage in which it occurs. Thus, for instance, sometimes it denotes the whole revealed will of God as communicated to us in his word. In this sense it is generally used in the book of Psalms, Psalms 1:2 ; Psalms 19:7 ; Psalms 119; Isaiah 8:20 ; Isaiah 42:21 . Sometimes it is taken for the Mosaical institution distinguished from the Gospel, John 1:17 ; Matthew 11:13 ; Matthew 12:5 ; Acts 25:8 . Hence we frequently read of the law of Moses as expressive of the whole religion of the Jews, Hebrews 9:19 ; Hebrews 10:28 . Sometimes, in a more restricted sense, for the ritual or ceremonial observances of the Jewish religion. In this sense the Apostle speaks of "the law of commandments contained in ordinances."
Ephesians 2:15 ; Hebrews 10:1 ; and which, being only "a shadow of good things to come," Christ Jesus abolished by his death, and so in effect destroyed the ancient distinction between Jew and Gentile, Galatians 3:17 . Very frequently it is used to signify the decalogue, or ten precepts which were delivered to the Israelites from Mount Sinai. It is in this acceptation of the term that the Lord Jesus declares he "came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it," Matthew 5:17 ; and he explains its import as requiring perfect love to God and man Luke 10:27 . It is in reference to this view that St. Paul affirms, "By the deeds of the law shall no flesh living be justified; for by the law is the knowledge of sin,"
Romans 3:20 . The language of this law is, "The soul that sinneth it shall die," and "Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things that are written," or required, "in the book of the law, to do them," Galatians 3:10 . To deliver man from this penalty, "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being himself made a curse for us," Galatians 3:13 . The law, in this sense, was not given that men should obtain righteousness or justification by it, but to convince them of sin, to show them their need of a Saviour, to shut them up, as it were, from all hopes of salvation from that source, and to recommend the Gospel of divine grace to their acceptance, Galatians 3:19-25 . Again, the law often denotes the rule of good and evil, or of right and wrong, revealed by the Creator and inscribed on man's conscience, even at his creation, and consequently binding upon him by divine authority; and in this respect it is in substance the same with the decalogue. That such a law was connate with, and, as it were, implanted in, man, appears from its traces, which, like the ruins of some noble building, are still extant in every man. It is from those common notions, handed down by tradition, though often imperfect and perverted, that the Heathens themselves distinguished right from wrong, by which "they were a law unto themselves, showing the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience bearing witness," Romans 2:12-15 , although they had no express revelation.
The term law, is, however, eminently given to the Mosaic law; on the principles and spirit of which, a few general remarks may be offered. The right consideration of this divine institute, says Dr. Graves, will surround it with a glory of truth and holiness, not only worthy of its claims, but which has continued to be the light of the world on theological and moral subjects, and often on great political principles, to this day. If we examine the Jewish law, to discover the principle on which the whole system depends, the primary truth, to inculcate and illustrate which is its leading object, we find it to be that great basis of all religion, both natural and revealed, the self-existence, essential unity, perfections, and providence of the supreme Jehovah, the Creator of heaven and earth. The first line of the Mosaic writings inculcates this great truth: "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth." When the lawgiver begins to recapitulate the statutes and judgments he had enjoined to his nation, it is with this declaration: "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord,"
Deuteronomy 6:4 ; or, as it might be more closely expressed, Jehovah our Elohim, or God, is one Jehovah. And at the commencement of that sublime hymn, delivered by Moses immediately before his death, in which this illustrious prophet sums up the doctrines he had taught, the wonders by which they had been confirmed, and the denunciations by which they were enforced, he declares this great tenet with the sublimity of eastern poetry, but at the same time with the precision of philosophic truth: "Give ear," says he, "O ye heavens, and I will speak: and hear, O earth, the words of my mouth. My doctrine shall drop rain: my speech shall distil as the dew, as the small rain upon the tender herb and as the showers upon the grass," Deuteronomy 32:1 , &c. What, is that doctrine so awful, that the whole universe is thus invoked to attend to it? so salutary as to be compared with the principle whose operation diffuses beauty and fertility over the vegetable world? Hear the answer: "Because I will publish the name of Jehovah; ascribe ye greatness unto our God. He is the rock, his work is perfect: a God of truth, and without iniquity, just and right is he."
This, then, is one great leading doctrine of the Jewish code. But the manner in which this doctrine is taught displays such wise accommodation to the capacity and character of the nation to whom it is addressed, as deserves to be carefully remarked. That character by which the supreme Being is most clearly distinguished from every other, however exalted; that character from which the acutest reasoners have endeavoured demonstratively to deduce, as from their source, all the divine attributes, is self-existence. Is it not then highly remarkable, that it is under this character the Divinity is described on his first manifestation to the Jewish lawgiver? The Deity at first reveals himself unto him as the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob; and therefore the peculiar national and guardian God of the Jewish race. Moses, conscious of the degeneracy of the Israelites, their ignorance of, or their inattention to, the true God, and the difficulty and danger of any attempt to recall them to his exclusive worship, and to withdraw them from Egypt, seems to decline the task; but when absolutely commanded to undertake it, he said unto God, "Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name? what shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I am that I am: and he said, Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I Am hath sent me unto you,"
Exodus 3:13-14 . Here we observe, according to the constant method of the divine wisdom, when it condescends to the prejudices of men, how in the very instance of indulgence it corrects their superstition. The religion of names arose from an idolatrous polytheism; and the name given here directly opposes this error, and in the ignorance of that dark and corrupted period establishes that great truth, to which the most enlightened philosophy can add no new lustre, and on which all the most refined speculations on the divine nature ultimately rest, the self-existence, and, by consequence, the eternity and immutability, of the one great Jehovah.
But though the self-existence of the Deity was a fact too abstract to require its being frequently inculcated, his essential unity was a practical principle, the sure foundation on which to erect the structure of true religion, and form a barrier against the encroachments of idolatry: for this commenced not so frequently in denying the existence, or even the supremacy, of the one true God, as in associating with him for objects of adoration inferior intermediate beings, who were supposed to be more directly employed in the administration of human affairs. To confute and resist this false principle was, therefore, one great object of the Jewish scheme. Hence the unity of God is inculcated with perpetual solicitude; it stands at the head of the system of moral law promulgated to the Jews from Sinai by the divine voice, heard by the assembled nation, and issuing from the divine glory, with every circumstance which could impress the deepest awe upon even the dullest minds: "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; thou shalt have no others gods beside me," Exodus 20:2-3 . And in the recapitulation of the divine laws in Deuteronomy, It is repeatedly enforced with the most solemn earnestness: "Hear, O Israel, The Lord our God is one Lord,"
Deuteronomy 6:4 . And again: "Unto thee it was showed, that thou mightest know that the Lord he is God; there is none else beside him. Know, therefore, this day, and consider it in thine heart, that the Lord he is God in heaven above, and in the earth beneath: there is none else,"
Deuteronomy 4:35 ; Deuteronomy 4:39 .
This self-existent, supreme and only God is moreover described as possessed of every perfection which can be ascribed to the Divinity: "Ye shall be holy," says the Lord to the people of the Jews; "for I the Lord your God am holy," Leviticus 19:2 . "Ascribe ye," says the legislator, "greatness unto our God; he is the rock; his work is perfect; a God of truth, and without iniquity, just and right is he," Deuteronomy 32:4 . And in the hymn of thanksgiving on the miraculous escape of the Israelites at the Red Sea, this is its burden: "Who is like unto thee, O Lord, among the gods? who is like unto thee, glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders?" Exodus 15:11 . And when the Lord delivered to Moses the two tables of the moral law, he is described as descending in the cloud, and proclaiming the name of the Lord: "And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity, transgression, and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty," Exodus 34:6-7 .
But to teach the self-existence, the unity, the wisdom, and the power of the Deity, nay, even his moral perfections of mercy, justice, and truth, would have been insufficient to arrest the attention, and command the obedience of a nation, the majority of which looked no farther than mere present objects, and at that early period cherished scarcely any hopes higher than those of a temporal kind,—if, in addition to all this, care had not been taken to represent the providence of God as not only directing the government of the universe by general laws, but also perpetually superintending the conduct and determining the fortune of every nation, of every family, nay, of every individual. It was the disbelief or the neglect of this great truth which gave spirit and energy, plausibility and attraction to the whole system of idolatry. While men believed that the supreme God and Lord of all was too exalted in his dignity, too remote from this sublunary scene, to regard its vicissitudes with an attentive eye, and too constantly engaged in the contemplation of his own perfections, and the enjoyment of his own independent and all-perfect happiness, to interfere in the regulation of human affairs, they regarded with indifference that supreme Divinity who seemed to take no concern in their conduct, and not to interfere as to their happiness. However exalted and perfect such a Being might appear to abstract speculation, he was to the generality of mankind as if he did not exist; as their happiness or misery were not supposed to be influenced by his power, they referred not their conduct to his direction. If he delegated to inferior beings the regulation of this inferior world; if all its concerns were conducted by their immediate agency, and all its blessings or calamities distributed by their immediate determination; it seemed rational, and even necessary, to supplicate their favour and submit to their authority; and neither unwise nor unsafe to neglect that Being, who, though all-perfect and supreme, would, on this supposition appear, with respect to mankind, altogether inoperative. In truth, this fact of the perpetual providence of God extending even to the minutest events, is inseparably connected with every motive which is offered to sway the conduct of the Jews, and forcibly inculcated by every event of their history. This had been manifested in the appointment of the land of Canaan for the future settlement of the chosen people on the first covenant which God entered into with the Patriarch Abraham; in the prophecy, that for four hundred years they should be afflicted in Egypt, and afterward be thence delivered; in the increase of their nation, under circumstances of extreme oppression, and their supernatural deliverance from that oppression. The same providence was displayed in the destruction of the Egyptians in the Red Sea; the travels of the thousands of Israel through the wilderness, sustained by food from heaven; and in their subsequent settlement in the promised land by means entirely distinct from their own strength. Reliance on the same providence was the foundation of their civil government, the spirit and the principle of their constitution. On this only could they be commanded to keep the sabbatic year without tilling their land, or even gathering its spontaneous produce; confiding in the promise, that God would send his blessing on the sixth year, so that it should bring forth fruit for three years, Leviticus 25:21 . The same faith in Divine Providence alone could prevail on them to leave their properties and families exposed to the attack of their surrounding enemies; while all the males of the nation assembled at Jerusalem to celebrate the three great festivals, enjoined by divine command, with the assurance that no man should desire their land when they went up to appear before the Lord their God thrice in the year, Exodus 34:24 . And, finally, it is most evident, that, contrary to all other lawgivers, the Jewish legislator renders his civil institutions entirely subordinate to his religious; and announces to his nation that their temporal adversity or prosperity would entirely depend, not on their observance of their political regulations; not on their preserving a military spirit, or acquiring commercial wealth, or strengthening themselves by powerful alliances; but on their continuing to worship the one true God according to the religious rites and ceremonies by him prescribed, and preserving their piety and morals untainted by the corruptions and vices which idolatry tended to introduce.
Such was the theology of the Jewish religion, at a period when the whole world was deeply infected with idolatry; when all knowledge of the one true God, all reverence for his sacred name, all reliance on his providence, all obedience to his laws, were nearly banished from the earth; when the severest chastisements had been tried in vain; when no hope of reformation appeared from the refinements of civilization or the researches of philosophy; for the most civilized and enlightened nations adopted with the greatest eagerness, and disseminated with the greatest activity, the absurdities, impieties, and pollutions of idolatry. Then was the Jewish law promulgated to a nation, who, to mere human judgment, might have appeared incapable of inventing or receiving such a high degree of intellectual and moral improvement; for they had been long enslaved to the Egyptians, the authors and supporters of the grossest idolatry; they had been weighed down by the severest bondage, perpetually harassed by the most incessant manual labours; for the Egyptians "made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field," Exodus 1:14 . At this time, and in this nation, was the Mosaic law promulgated, teaching the great principles of true religion, the self- existence, the unity, the perfections, and the providence of the one great Jehovah; reprobating all false gods, all image worship, all the absurdities and profanations of idolatry. At this time, and in this nation, was a system of government framed, which had for its basis the reception of, and steady adherence to, this system of true religion; and establishing many regulations which would be in the highest degree irrational, and could never hope to be received, except from a general and thorough reliance on the superintendence of Divine Providence, controlling the course of nature, and directing every event, so as to proportion the prosperity of the Hebrew people, according to their obedience to that law which they had received as divine.
It is an obvious, but it is not therefore a less important remark, that to the Jewish religion we owe that admirable summary of moral duty, contained in the ten commandments. All fair reasoners will admit that each of these must be understood to condemn, not merely the extreme crime which it expressly prohibits, but every inferior offence of the same kind, and every mode of conduct leading to such transgression; and, on the contrary, to enjoin opposite conduct, and the cultivation of opposite dispositions. Thus, the command, "Thou shalt not kill," condemns not merely the single crime of deliberate murder, but every kind of violence, and every indulgence of passion and resentment, which tends either to excite such violence, or to produce that malignant disposition of mind, in which the guilt of murder principally consists: and similarly of the rest. In this extensive interpretation of the commandments, we are warranted, not merely by the deductions of reason, but by the letter of the law itself. For the addition of the last, "Thou shalt not covet," proves clearly that in all, the dispositions of the heart, as much as the immediate outward act, is the object of the divine Legislator; and thus it forms a comment on the meaning, as well as a guard for the observance, of all the preceding commands. Interpreted in this natural and rational latitude, how comprehensive and important is this summary of moral duty! It inculcates the adoration of the one true God, who "made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is;" who must, therefore, be infinite in power, and wisdom, and goodness; the object of exclusive adoration; of gratitude for every blessing we enjoy; of fear, for he is a jealous God; of hope, for he is merciful. It prohibits every species of idolatry; whether by associating false gods with the true, or worshipping the true by symbols and images. Commanding not to take the name of God in vain, it enjoins the observance of all outward respect for the divine authority, as well as the cultivation of inward sentiments and feelings suited to this outward reverence; and it establishes the obligation of oaths, and, by consequence, of all compacts and deliberate promises; a principle, without which the administration of laws would be impracticable, and the bonds of society must be dissolved. By commanding to keep holy the Sabbath, as the memorial of the creation, it establishes the necessity of public worship, and of a stated and outward profession of the truths of religion, as well as of the cultivation of suitable feelings; and it enforces this by a motive which is equally applicable to all mankind, and which should have taught the Jew that he ought to consider all nations as equally creatures of that Jehovah whom he himself adored; equally subject to his government, and, if sincerely obedient, entitled to all the privileges his favour could bestow. It is also remarkable, that this commandment, requiring that the rest of the Sabbath should include the man-servant, and the maid-servant, and the stranger that was within their gates, nay, even their cattle, proved that the Creator of the universe extended his attention to all his creatures; that the humblest of mankind were the objects of his paternal love; that no accidental differences, which so often create alienation among different nations, would alienate any from the divine regard; and that even the brute creation shared the benevolence of their Creator, and ought to be treated by men with gentleness and humanity.
When we proceed to the second table, comprehending more expressly our social duties, we find all the most important principles on which they depend clearly enforced. The commandment which enjoins, "Honour thy father and mother," sanctions the principles, not merely of filial obedience, but of all those duties which arise from our domestic relations; and, while it requires not so much any one specific act, as the general disposition which should regulate our whole course of conduct in this instance, it impresses the important conviction, that the entire law proceeds from a Legislator able to search and judge the heart of man. The subsequent commands coincide with the clear dictates of reason, and prohibit crimes which human laws in general have prohibited as plainly destructive of social happiness. But it was of infinite importance to rest the prohibitions, "Thou shalt not kill," "Thou shalt not commit adultery," "Thou shalt not steal," "Thou shalt not bear false witness," not merely on the deductions of reason, but also on the weight of a divine authority. How often have false ideas of public good in some places, depraved passions in others, and the delusions of idolatry in still more, established a law of reputation contrary to the dictates of reason, and the real interests of society. In one country we see theft allowed, if perpetrated with address; in others, piracy and rapine honoured, if conducted with intrepidity. Sometimes we perceive adultery permitted, the most unnatural crimes committed without remorse or shame; nay, every species of impurity enjoined and consecrated as a part of divine worship. In others, we find revenge honoured as spirit, and death inflicted at its impulse with ferocious triumph. Again, we see every feeling of nature outraged, and parents exposing their helpless children to perish for deformity of body or weakness of mind; or, what is still more dreadful, from mercenary or political views; and this inhuman practice familiarized by custom, and authorized by law. And, to close the horrid catalogue, we see false religions leading their deluded votaries to heap the altars of their idols with human victims; the master butchers his slave, the conqueror his captive; nay, dreadful to relate, the parent sacrifices his children, and, while they shriek amidst the tortures of the flames, or in the agonies of death, he drowns their cries by the clangour of cymbals and the yells of fanaticism. Yet these abominations, separate or combined, have disgraced ages and nations which we are accustomed to admire and celebrate as civilized and enlightened,—Babylon and Egypt, Phenicia and Carthage, Greece and Rome. Many of these crimes legislators have enjoined, or philosophers defended. What, indeed, could be hoped from legislators and philosophers, when we recollect the institutions of Lycurgus, especially as to purity of manners, and the regulations of Plato on the same subject, in his model of a perfect republic; when we consider the sensuality of the Epicureans, and immodesty of the Cynics; when we find suicide applauded by the Stoics, and the murderous combats of gladiators defended by Cicero, and exhibited by Trajan. Such variation and inconstancy in the rule and practice of moral duty, as established by the feeble or fluctuating authority of human opinion, demonstrates the utility of a clear divine interposition, to impress these important prohibitions; and it is difficult for any sagacity to calculate how far such an interposition was necessary, and what effect it may have produced by influencing human opinions and regulating human conduct, when we recollect that the Mosaic code was probably the first written law ever delivered to any nation; and that it must have been generally known in those eastern countries, from which the most ancient and celebrated legislators and sages derived the models of their laws and the principles of their philosophy.
But the Jewish religion promoted the interests of moral virtue, not merely by the positive injunctions of the decalogue; it also inculcated clearly and authoritatively the two great principles on which all piety and virtue depend, and which our blessed Lord recognised as the commandments on which hang the law and the prophets,—the principles of love to God and love to our neighbour. The love of God is every where enjoined in the Mosaic law, as the ruling disposition of the heart, from which all obedience should spring, and in which it ought to terminate. With what solemnity does the Jewish lawgiver impress it at the commencement of his recapitulation of the divine law: "Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might," Deuteronomy 6:4-5 . And again: "And now, Israel, what doth the Lord thy God require of thee, but to fear the Lord thy God, to walk in all his ways, and to love him and to serve the Lord thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul?" Deuteronomy 10:12 . Nor is the love of our neighbour less explicitly enforced: "Thou shalt not," says the law, "avenge, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the Lord,"
Leviticus 19:18 . The operation of this benevolence, thus solemnly required, was not to be confined to their own countrymen; it was to extend to the stranger, who, having renounced idolatry, was permitted to live among them, worshipping the true God, though without submitting to circumcision or the other ceremonial parts of the Mosaic law: "If a stranger," says the law, "sojourn with thee in your land, ye shall not vex him. But the stranger that dwelleth with you shall be unto you as one born among you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am the Lord thy God," Leviticus 19:33-34 .
Thus, on a review of the topics we have discussed, it appears that the Jewish law promulgated the great principles of moral duty in the decalogue, with a solemnity suited to their high preeminence; that it enjoined love to God with the most unceasing solicitude, and love to our neighbour, as extensively and forcibly, as the peculiar design of the Jewish economy, and the peculiar character of the Jewish people, would permit; that it impressed the deepest conviction of God's requiring, not mere external observances, but heart-felt piety, well regulated desires, and active benevolence; that it taught sacrifice could not obtain pardon without repentance, or repentance without reformation and restitution; that it described circumcision itself, and, by consequence, every other legal rite, as designed to typify and inculcate internal holiness, which alone could render men acceptable to God; that it represented the love of God as designed to act as a practical principle, stimulating to the constant and sincere cultivation of purity, mercy, and truth; and that it enforced all these principles and precepts by sanctions the most likely to operate powerfully on minds unaccustomed to abstract speculations and remote views, even by temporal rewards and punishments; the assurance of which was confirmed from the immediate experience of similar rewards and punishments, dispensed to their enemies and to themselves by that supernatural Power which had delivered the Hebrew nation out of Egypt, conducted them through the wilderness, planted them in the land of Canaan, regulated their government, distributed their possessions, and to which alone they could look to obtain new blessings, or secure those already enjoyed. From all this we derive another presumptive argument for the divine authority of the Mosaic code; and it may be contended, that a moral system thus perfect, promulgated at so early a period, to such a people, and enforced by such sanctions as no human power could undertake to execute, strongly bespeaks a divine original.
2. The moral law is sometimes called the Mosaic law, because it was one great branch of those injunctions which, under divine authority, Moses enjoined upon the Israelites when they were gathered into a political community under the theocracy. But it existed previously as the law of all mankind; and it has been taken up into the Christian system, and there more fully illustrated. As the obligation of the moral law upon Christians has, however, been disputed by some perverters of the Christian faith, or held by others on loose and fallacious grounds, this subject ought to be clearly understood. It is, nevertheless, to be noticed, that the morals of the New Testament are not proposed to us in the form of a regular code. Even in the books of Moses, which have the legislative form to a great extent, not all the principles and duties which constituted the full character of "godliness," under that dispensation, are made the subjects of formal injunction by particular precepts. They are partly infolded in general principles, or often take the form of injunction in an apparently incidental manner, or are matters of obvious inference. A preceding code of traditionary moral law is all along supposed in the writings of Moses and the prophets, as well as a consuetudinary ritual and a doctrinal theology, both transmitted from the patriarchs. This, too, is eminently the case with Christianity. It supposes that all who believed in Christ admitted the divine authority of the Old Testament; and it assumes the perpetual authority of its morals, as well as the truth of its fundamental theology. The constant allusi
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Tables of the Law
Those that were given to Moses upon Mount Sinai were written by the finger of God, and contained the decalogue or ten commandments of the law, as they are rehearsed in Exodus 20. Many questions have been started about these tables; about their matter, their form, their number, him who wrote them, and what they contained. Some oriental authors make them amount to ten in number, others to seven; but the Hebrews reckon but two. Some suppose them to have been of wood, and others of precious stones. Moses observes, Exodus 32:15 , that these tables were written on both sides. Many think they were transparent, so that they might be read through; on one side toward the right, and on the other side toward the left. Others will have it, that the lawgiver only makes this observation, that the tables were written on both sides, because generally in writing tables they only wrote on one side. Others thus translate the Hebrew text: "They were written on the two parts that were contiguous to each other;" because, being shut upon one another, the two faces that were written upon touched one another, so that no writing was seen on the outside. Some think that the same ten commandments were written on each of the two tables, others that the ten were divided, and only five on one table, and five on the other. The words which intimate that the tables were written by the finger of God, some understand simply and literally; others, of the ministry of an angel; and others explain them merely to signify an order of God to Moses to write them. The expression, however, in Scripture always signifies immediate divine agency. See DECALOGUE .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Law
A — 1: νόμος (Strong's #3551 — Noun Masculine — nomos — nom'-os ) akin to nemo, "to divide out, distribute," primarily meant "that which is assigned;" hence, "usage, custom," and then, "law, law as prescribed by custom, or by statute;" the word ethos, "custom," was retained for unwritten "law," while nomos became the established name for "law" as decreed by a state and set up as the standard for the administration of justice.
In the NT it is used (a) of "law" in general, e.g., Romans 2:12,13 , "a law" (RV), expressing a general principle relating to "law;" Romans 2:14 , last part; Romans 3:27 , "By what manner of law?" i.e., "by what sort of principle (has the glorying been excluded)?;" Romans 4:15 (last part); Romans 5:13 , referring to the period between Adam's trespass and the giving of the Law; Romans 7:1 (1st part, RV marg., "law"); against those graces which constitute the fruit of the Spirit "there is no law," Galatians 5:23 ; "the ostensible aim of the law is to restrain the evil tendencies natural to man in his fallen estate; yet in experience law finds itself not merely ineffective, it actually provokes those tendencies to greater activity. The intention of the gift of the Spirit is to constrain the believer to a life in which the natural tendencies shall have no place, and to produce in him their direct contraries. Law, therefore, has nothing to say against the fruit of the Spirit; hence the believer is not only not under law, Galatians 5:18 , the law finds no scope in his life, inasmuch as, and in so far as, he is led by the Spirit;" * [1]
(b) of a force or influence impelling to action, Romans 7:21,23 (1st part), "a different law," RV; (c) of the Mosaic Law, the "law" of Sinai, (1) with the definite article, e.g., Matthew 5:18 ; John 1:17 ; Romans 2:15,18,20,26,27 ; 3:19 ; 4:15 ; 7:4,7,14,16,22 ; 8:3,4,7 ; Galatians 3:10,12,19,21,24 ; 5:3 ; Ephesians 2:15 ; Philippians 3:6 ; 1 Timothy 1:8 ; Hebrews 7:19 ; James 2:9 ; (2) without the article, thus stressing the Mosaic Law in its quality as "law," e.g., Romans 2:14 (1st part); 5:20; 7:9, where the stress in the quality lies in this, that "the commandment which was unto (i.e., which he though would be a means of) life," he found to be "unto (i.e., to have the effect of revealing his actual state of) death;" 10:4; 1 Corinthians 9:20 ; Galatians 2:16,19,21 ; 3:2,5,10 (1st part),11,18,23; 4:4,5,21 (1st part); 5:4,18; 6:13; Philippians 3:5,9 ; Hebrews 7:16 ; 9:19 ; James 2:11 ; 4:11 ; (in regard to the statement in Galatians 2:16 , that "a man is not justified by the works of the Law," the absence of the article before nomos indicates the assertion of a principle, "by obedience to law," but evidently the Mosaic Law is in view. Here the Apostle is maintaining that submission to circumcision entails the obligation to do the whole "Law." Circumcision belongs to the ceremonial part of the "Law," but, while the Mosaic Law is actually divisible into the ceremonial and the moral, no such distinction is made or even assumed in Scripture. The statement maintains the freedom of the believer from the "law" of Moses in its totality as a means of justification);
(d) by metonymy, of the books which contain the "law," (1) of the Pentateuch, e.g., Matthew 5:17 ; 12:5 ; Luke 16:16 ; 24:44 ; John 1:45 ; Romans 3:21 ; Galatians 3:10 ; (2) of the Psalms, John 10:34 ; 15:25 ; of the Psalms, Isaiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, John 12:34 ; the Psalms and Isaiah, Romans 3:19 (with vv. 10-18); Isaiah, 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; from all this it may be inferred that "the law" in the most comprehensive sense was an alternative title to "The Scriptures."
The following phrases specify "laws" of various kinds; (a) "the law of Christ," Galatians 6:2 , i.e., either given by Him (as in the Sermon on the Mount and in John 13:14,15 ; 15:4 ), or the "law" or principle by which Christ Himself lived (Matthew 20:28 ; John 13:1 ); these are not actual alternatives, for the "law" imposed by Christ was always that by which He Himself lived in the "days of His flesh." He confirmed the "Law" as being of Divine authority (cp. Matthew 5:18 ): yet He presented a higher standard of life than perfunctory obedience to the current legal rendering of the "Law," a standard which, without annulling the "Law," He embodied in His own character and life (see, e.g., Matthew 5:21-48 ; this breach with legalism is especially seen in regard to the ritual or ceremonial part of the "Law" in its wide scope); He showed Himself superior to all human interpretations of it; (b) "a law of faith," Romans 3:27 , i.e., a principle which demands only faith on man's part; (c) "the law of my mind," Romans 7:23 , that principle which governs the new nature in virtue of the new birth; (d) "the law of sin," Romans 7:23 , the principle by which sin exerts its influence and power despite the desire to do what is right; "of sin and death," Romans 8:2 , death being the effect; (e) "the law of liberty," James 1:25 ; 2:12 , a term comprehensive of all the Scriptures, not a "law" of compulsion enforced from without, but meeting with ready obedience through the desire and delight of the renewed being who is subject to it; into it he looks, and in its teaching he delights; he is "under law (ennomos, "in law," implying union and subjection) to Christ," 1 Corinthians 9:21 ; cp., e.g., Psalm 119:32,45,97 ; 2 Corinthians 3:17 ; (f) "the royal law," James 2:8 , i.e., the "law" of love, royal in the majesty of its power, the "law" upon which all others hang, Matthew 22:34-40 ; Romans 13:8 ; Galatians 5:14 ; (g) "the law of the Spirit of life," Romans 8:2 , i.e., the animating principle by which the Holy Spirit acts as the imparter of life (cp. John 6:63 ); (h) "a law of righteousness," Romans 9:31 , i.e., a general principle presenting righteousness as the object and outcome of keeping a "law," particularly the "Law" of Moses (cp. Galatians 3:21 ); (i) "the law of a carnal commandment," Hebrews 7:16 , i.e., the "law" respecting the Aaronic priesthood, which appointed men conditioned by the circumstances and limitations of the flesh. In the Epistle to the Hebrews the "Law" is treated of especially in regard to the contrast between the Priesthood of Christ and that established under the "law" of Moses, and in regard to access to God and to worship. In these respects the "Law" "made nothing perfect," Hebrews 7:19 . There was "a disannulling of a foregoing commandment ... and a bringing in of a better hope." This is established under the "new Covenant," a covenant instituted on the basis of "better promises," Hebrews 8:6 .
Notes: (1) In Galatians 5:3 , the statement that to receive circumcision constitutes a man a debtor to do "the whole Law," views the "Law" as made up of separate commands, each essential to the whole, and predicates the unity of the "Law;" in Galatians 5:14 , the statement that "the whole law" is fulfilled in the one commandment concerning love, views the separate commandments as combined to make a complete "law." (2) In Romans 8:3 , "what the law could not do," is lit., "the inability (adunaton, the neuter of the adjective adunatos, 'unable,' used as a noun) of the Law;" this may mean either "the weakness of the Law" or "that which was impossible for the Law;" the latter is preferable; the significance is the same in effect; the "Law" could neither give freedom from condemnation nor impart life. (3) For the difference between the teaching of Paul and that of James in regard to the "Law," see under JUSTIFICATION. (4) For Acts 19:38 , AV, "the law is open" (RV, "courts," etc.) see COURT , No. 1. (5) For nomodidaskaloi, "doctors of the law," Luke 5:17 , singular in Acts 5:34 , "teachers of the law," 1 Timothy 1:7 , see DOCTOR.
A — 2: νομοθεσία (Strong's #3548 — Noun Feminine — nomothesia — nom-oth-es-ee'-ah ) denotes "legislation, lawgiving" (No. 1, and tithemi, "to place, to put"), Romans 9:4 , "(the) giving of the law." Cp. B, No. 1.
B — 1: νομοθετέω (Strong's #3549 — Verb — nomotheteo — nom-oth-et-eh'-o ) (a) used intransitively, signifies "to make laws" (cp. A, No. 2, above); in the Passive Voice, "to be furnished with laws," Hebrews 7:11 , "received the law," lit., "was furnished with (the) law;" (b) used transitively, it signifies "to ordain by law, to enact;" in the Passive Voice, Hebrews 8:6 . See ENACT.
B — 2: κρίνω (Strong's #2919 — Verb — krino — kree'-no ) "to esteem, judge," etc., signifies "to go to law," and is so used in the Middle Voice in Matthew 5:40 , RV, "go to law" (AV, "sue ... at the law"); 1 Corinthians 6:1,6 . See ESTEEM.
Note: In 1 Corinthians 6:7 , the AV, "go to law," is a rendering of the phrase echo krimata, "to have lawsuits," as in the RV.
B — 3: παρανομέω (Strong's #3891 — Verb — paranomeo — par-an-om-eh'-o ) "to transgress law" (para, "contrary to," and nomos), is used in the present participle in Acts 23:3 , and translated "contrary to the law," lit., "transgressing the law."
C — 1: νομικός (Strong's #3544 — Adjective — nomikos — nom-ik-os' ) denotes "relating to law;" in Titus 3:9 it is translated "about the law," describing "fightings" (AV, "strivings"); see LAWYER.
C — 2: ἔννομος (Strong's #1772 — Adjective — ennomos — en'-nom-os ) (a) "lawful, legal," lit., "in law" (en, "in," and nomos), or, strictly, "what is within the range of law," is translated "lawful" in Acts 19:39 , AV (RV, "regular"), of the legal tribunals in Ephesus; (b) "under law" (RV), in relation to Christ, 1 Corinthians 9:21 , where it is contrasted with anomos (see No. 3 below); the word as used by the Apostle suggests not merely the condition of being under "law," but the intimacy of a relation established in the loyalty of a will devoted to his Master. See LAWFUL.
C — 3: ἄνομος (Strong's #459 — Adjective — anomos — an'-om-os ) signifies "without law" (a, negative) and has this meaning in 1 Corinthians 9:21 (four times). See LAWLESS , TRANSGRESSOR , UNLAWFUL , WICKED.
D — 1: ἀνόμως (Strong's #460 — Adverb — anomos — an-om'-oce ) "without law" (the adverbial form of C, No. 3), is used in Romans 2:12 (twice), where "(have sinned) without law" means in the absence of some specifically revealed "law," like the "law" of Sinai; "(shall perish) without law" predicates that the absence of such a "law" will not prevent their doom; the "law" of conscience is not in view here. The succeeding phrase "under law" is lit., "in law," not the same as the adjective ennomos (C, No. 2), but two distinct words.
Webster's Dictionary - Law-Abiding
(a.) Abiding the law; waiting for the operation of law for the enforcement of rights; also, abiding by the law; obedient to the law; as, law-abiding people.
Webster's Dictionary - Law-Fall
(n.) Depression of the jaw; hence, depression of spirits.
Webster's Dictionary - Mother-in-Law
(n.) The mother of one's husband or wife.
Webster's Dictionary - Law
(1):
(n.) The Jewish or Mosaic code, and that part of Scripture where it is written, in distinction from the gospel; hence, also, the Old Testament.
(2):
(n.) Legal science; jurisprudence; the principles of equity; applied justice.
(3):
(n.) Collectively, the whole body of rules relating to one subject, or emanating from one source; - including usually the writings pertaining to them, and judicial proceedings under them; as, divine law; English law; Roman law; the law of real property; insurance law.
(4):
(n.) Any edict, decree, order, ordinance, statute, resolution, judicial, decision, usage, etc., or recognized, and enforced, by the controlling authority.
(5):
(interj.) An exclamation of mild surprise.
(6):
(v. t.) Same as Lawe, v. t.
(7):
(n.) An oath, as in the presence of a court.
(8):
(n.) Trial by the laws of the land; judicial remedy; litigation; as, to go law.
(9):
(n.) In philosophy and physics: A rule of being, operation, or change, so certain and constant that it is conceived of as imposed by the will of God or by some controlling authority; as, the law of gravitation; the laws of motion; the law heredity; the laws of thought; the laws of cause and effect; law of self-preservation.
(10):
(n.) An organic rule, as a constitution or charter, establishing and defining the conditions of the existence of a state or other organized community.
(11):
(n.) In arts, works, games, etc.: The rules of construction, or of procedure, conforming to the conditions of success; a principle, maxim; or usage; as, the laws of poetry, of architecture, of courtesy, or of whist.
(12):
(n.) In matematics: The rule according to which anything, as the change of value of a variable, or the value of the terms of a series, proceeds; mode or order of sequence.
(13):
(n.) In general, a rule of being or of conduct, established by an authority able to enforce its will; a controlling regulation; the mode or order according to which an agent or a power acts.
(14):
(n.) In morals: The will of God as the rule for the disposition and conduct of all responsible beings toward him and toward each other; a rule of living, conformable to righteousness; the rule of action as obligatory on the conscience or moral nature.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Law
Law, The. This term is applied in the New Testament to the old covenant and revelation, in distinction from the new; the dispensation under the law in distinction from the dispensation under the gospel; that by Moses and the prophets in distinction from the dispensation by Christ. John 1:17; Acts 25:8; Hebrews 10:1-18. It was the title applied by the Jews to the first five books of the Bible. The law, the prophets, and the psalms, Luke 24:27; Luke 24:44; Acts 13:15, thus designate the entire Old Testament. The term often refers more specially to the Mosaic legislation, including the moral, Matthew 6:17, the ceremonial, Ephesians 2:15, and the political, but particularly the first. Sometimes Paul uses the word "law" (without the article) in a wider sense—of principle, rule of moral conduct—and speaks of the heathen as having such a law written on their conscience or being a law to themselves. Romans 2:14-15.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Law
In the Bible, signifies sometimes the whole word of God, Psalm 19:7-11 119:1-176 Isaiah 8:20 ; sometimes the Old Testament, John 10:34 15:25 , and sometimes the five books of Moses, which formed the first of the three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures, Luke 24:44 Acts 13:15 . The Pentateuch was probably "the law," a copy of which every king was to transcribe for himself and study, and which was to be made known to young and old, in public and in private, Deuteronomy 6:7 17:18,19 31:9-19,26 . In other places the Mosaic institutions as a whole are intend by "the law," in distinction from the gospel, John 1:17 Acts 25:8 .
When the word refers to the Law of Moses, careful attention to the context is sometimes requisite to judge whether the civil, the ceremonial, or the moral law is meant. The ceremonial or ritual laws, concerning the forms of worship, sacrifices, priests, purifications, etc., were designed to distinguish the Jewish nation from the heathen, and to foreshadow the gospel dispensation. They were annulled after Christ's ascension, Genesis 3:24 Ephesians 2:15 Hebrews 9:1-28 10:1-22 . The civil laws, Acts 23:2 24:6 , were for the government of the Jews as a nation, and included the Ten Commandments. The whole code was adapted with consummated wisdom to the condition of the Jews, and has greatly influenced all wise legislation in later years. Its pious, humane, and just spirit should characterize every code of human laws. The moral law, Deuteronomy 5:22 Matthew 5:17,18 Luke 10:26,27 , is more important than the others, from its bearings on human salvation. It was written by the Creator on the conscience of man, and sin has never fully erased it, Romans 1:19 2:12-15 . It was more fully taught to the Hebrews, especially at Mount Sinai, in the Ten Commandments, and is summed up by Christ in loving God supremely and our neighbor as ourselves, Matthew 22:37-40 . It was the offspring of love to man, Romans 7:10,12 ; required perfect obedience, Galatians 3:10 James 2:10 ; and is of universal and perpetual obligation. Christ confirmed and enforced it, Matthew 5:17-20 , showing its demands of holiness in the heart, applying it to a variety of cases, and supplying new motives to obedience, by revealing heaven and hell more clearly, and the gracious guidance of the Holy Spirit. Some have argued from certain passages of Scripture that this law is no longer binding upon Christians; that they "are not under the law, but under grace," Romans 6:14,15 7:4,6 Galatians 3:13,25 5:18 ; and the perversion of these passages leads men to sin and perish because grace abounds. Rightly understood, they harmonize with the declarations of the Savior, Matthew 5:17 . To the soul that is in Christ, the law is no longer the arbiter of doom; yet is still comes to him as the divinely appointed teacher of that will of God in which he now delights, Psalm 119:97 Matthew 5:48 11:30 .
The word "law" sometimes means an inward guiding and controlling power. The "law in the mind" and the "law in the members," mean the holy impulses of a regenerated should and the perverse inclinations of the natural heart, Romans 7:21-23 . Compare also Romans 8:2 9:31 James 1:25 2:12 .
King James Dictionary - Law
LAW, n. L. lex from the root of lay. See lay. A law is that which is laid, set or fixed, like statute, constitution, from L. statuo.
1. A rule, particularly an established or permanent rule, prescribed by the supreme power of a state to its subjects, for regulating their actions, particularly their social actions. Laws are imperative or mandatory, commanding what shall be done prohibitory, restraining from what is to be forborn or permissive, declaring what may be done without incurring a penalty. The laws which enjoin the duties of piety and morality, are prescribed by God and found in the Scriptures. Law is beneficence acting by rule.
2. Municipal law, is a rule of conduct prescribed by the supreme power of a state, commanding what its subjects are to do, and prohibiting what they are to forbear a statute. Municipal or laws are established by the decrees, edicts or ordinances of absolute princes, as emperors and kings, or by the formal acts of the legislatures of free states. Law therefore is sometimes equivalent to decree, edict, or ordinance.
3. Law of nature, is a rule of conduct arising out of the natural relations of human beings established by the Creator, and existing prior to any positive precept. Thus it is a law of nature, that one man should not injure another, and murder and fraud would be crimes, independent of any prohibition from a supreme power. 4. Laws of animal nature, the inherent principles by which the economy and functions of animal bodies are performed, such as respiration, the circulation of the blood, digestion, nutrition, various secretions, &c. 5. Laws of vegetation, the principles by which plats are produced, and their growth carried on till they arrive to perfection. 6. Physical laws, or laws of nature. The invariable tendency or determination of any species of matter to a particular form with definite properties, and the determination of a body to certain motions, changes, and relations, which uniformly take place in the same circumstances, is called a physical law. These tendencies or determinations, whether called laws or affections of matter, have been established by the Creator, and are, with a peculiar felicity of expression, denominated in Scripture, ordinances of heaven. 7. Laws of nations, the rules that regulate the mutual intercourse of nations or states. These rules depend on natural law, or the principles of justice which spring from the social state or they are founded on customs, compacts, treaties, leagues and agreements between independent communities. By the law of nations, we are to understand that code of public instruction, which defines the rights and prescribes the duties of nations, in their intercourse with each other.
8. Moral law, a law which prescribes to men their religious and social duties, in other words, their duties to God and to each other. The moral law is summarily contained in the decalogue or ten commandments, written by the finger of God on two tables of stone, and delivered to Moses on mount Sinai. Exodus 20 .
9. Ecclesiastical law, a rule of action prescribed for the government of a church otherwise called canon law. 10. Written law, a law or rule of action prescribed or enacted by a sovereign, and promulgated and recorded in writing a written statute, ordinance, edict or decree. 11. Unwritten or common law, a rule of action which derives its authority from long usage, or established custom, which has been immemorially received and recognized by judicial tribunals. As this law can be traced to no positive statutes, its rules or principles are to be found only in the records of courts, and in the reports of judicial decisions. 12. By-law, a law of a city, town or private corporation. See By. 13. Mosaic law, the institutions of Moses, or the code of laws prescribed to the Jews, as distinguished from the gospel. 14. Ceremonial law, the Mosaic institutions which prescribe the external rites and ceremonies to be observed by the Jews, as distinct from the moral precepts, which are of perpetual obligation. 15. A rule of direction a directory as reason and natural conscience. These, having not the law, as a law to themselves. Romans 2 .
16. That which governs or has a tendency to rule that which has the power of controlling. But I see another law in my members warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. Romans 7 .
17. The word of God the doctrines and precepts of God, or his revealed will. But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and night. Psalms 1 .
18. The Old Testament. Is it not written in your law, I said, ye are gods? John 10 .
19. The institutions of Moses, as distinct from the other parts of the Old Testament as the law and the prophets. 20. A rule or axiom of science or art settled principle as the laws of versification or poetry. 21. Law martial, or martial law, the rules ordained for the government of an army or military force. 22. Marine laws, rules for the regulation of navigation, and the commercial intercourse of nations. 23. Commercial law, law-merchant, the system of rules by which trade and commercial intercourse are regulated between merchants. 24. Judicial process prosecution of right in courts of law. Tom Touchy is a fellow famous for taking the law of every body.
Hence the phrase, to go to law, to prosecute to seek redress in a legal tribunal.
25. Jurisprudence as in the title, Doctor of Laws. 26. In general, law is a rule of action prescribed for the government of rational beings or moral agents, to which rule they are bound to yield obedience, in default of which they are exposed to punishment or law is a settled mode or course of action or operation in irrational beings and in inanimate bodies. Civil law, criminal law. See Civil and Criminal.
Laws of honor. See Honor.
Law language, the language used in legal writings and forms, particularly the Norman dialect or Old French, which was used in judicial proceedings from the days of William the conqueror to the 36th year of Edward III.
Wager of law, a species of trial formerly used in England, in which the defendant gave security that he would, on a certain day, make his law, that is, he would make oath that he owed nothing to the plaintiff, and would produce eleven of his neighbors as compurgators, who should swear that they believed in their consciences that he had sworn the truth.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Doctor of the Law
May perhaps be distinguished from Luke 2:46 . It implies one learned in the divine law. Doctors of the law were mostly of the sect of the Pharisees, but are distinguished from that sect in Luke 5:17 , where it appears that the novelty of our Savior's teaching drew together a great company both of Pharisees and doctors of the law.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Law of Moses
It will be the object of this article to give a brief analysis of the substance of this law, to point out its main principles, and to explain the position which it occupies in the progress of divine revelation. In order to do this the more clearly, it seems best to speak of the law, 1st. In relation to the past; 2d. In its own intrinsic character.
(a) In reference to the past , it is all-important, for the proper understanding of the law, to remember its entire dependence on the Abrahamic covenant. See ( Galatians 3:17-24 ) That covenant had a twofold character. It contained the "spiritual promise" of the Messiah; but it contained also the temporal promises subsidiary to the former. (b) The nature of this relation of the law to the promise is clearly pointed out. The belief in God as the Redeemer of man, and the hope of his manifestation as such int he person of the Messiah, involved the belief that the Spiritual Power must be superior to all carnal obstructions, and that there was in man spiritual element which could rule his life by communion with a spirit from above. But it involved also the idea of an antagonistic power of evil, from which man was to be redeemed, existing in each individual, and existing also in the world at large. (c) Nor is it less essential to remark the period of the history at which it was given. It marked and determined the transition of Israel from the condition of a tribe to that of a nation, and its definite assumption of a distinct position and office in the history of the world. (d) Yet, though new in its general conception, it was probably not wholly new in its materials. There must necessarily have been, before the law, commandments and revelations of a fragmentary character, under which Israel had hitherto grown up. So far therefore as they were consistent with the objects of the Jewish law, the customs of Palestine and the laws of Egypt would doubtless be traceable in the Mosaic system. (e) In close connection with, and almost in consequence of, this reference to antiquity, we find an accommodation of the law to the temper and circumstances of the Israelites, to which our Lord refers int he case of divorce, ( Matthew 19:7,8 ) as necessarily interfering with its absolute perfection. In many cases it rather should be said to guide and modify existing usages than actually to sanction them; and the ignorance of their existence may lead to a conception of its ordinances not only erroneous, but actually the reverse of the truth. (f) In close connection with this subject we observe also the gradual process by which the law was revealed to the Israelites. In Exodus 20-23 , in direct connection with the revelation from Mount Sinai, that which may be called the rough outline of the Mosaic law is given by God, solemnly recorded by Moses, and accepted by the people. In Exodus 25-31 , there is a similar outline of the Mosaic ceremonial. On the basis of these it may be conceived that the fabric of the Mosaic system gradually grew up under the requirements of the time. The first revelation of the law in anything like a perfect form is found in the book of Deuteronomy. yet even then the revelation was not final; it was the duty of the prophets to amend and explain it in special points, (Ezekiel 18:1 ) ... and to bring out more clearly its great principles.
In giving an analysis of the substance of the law , it will probably be better to treat it, as any other system of laws is usually treated, by dividing it into-- I. Laws Civil; II. Laws Criminal: III. Laws Judicial and Constitutional; IV. Laws Ecclesiastical and Ceremonial. I. LAWS CIVIL.
LAW OF PERSON S. (a) FATHER AND SON . --the power of a father to be held sacred; cursing or smiting, ( Exodus 21:15,17 ; Leviticus 20:9 ) and stubborn and willful disobedience, to be considered capital crimes. But uncontrolled power of life and death was apparently refused to the father, and vested only in the congregation. (21:18-21) Right of the first-born to a double portion of the inheritance not to be set aside by partiality. (21:15-17) Inheritance by daughters to be allowed in default of sons, provided, ( Numbers 27:6-8 ) comp. Numb 36:1 ... that heiresses married in their own tribe. Daughters unmarried to be entirely dependent on their father. ( Numbers 30:3-5 ) (b) HUSBAND AND WIFE . --the power of a husband to be so great that a wife could never be sui juris , or enter independently into any engagement, even before God. ( Numbers 30:6-15 ) A widow or a divorced wife became independent, and did not against fall under her father's power. ver. (Numbers 30:9 ) Divorce (for uncleanness) allowed, but to be formal and irrevocable. (24:1-4) Marriage within certain degrees forbidden. ( Leviticus 25:25-27 ) ... etc. A slave wife, whether bought or captive, not to be actual property, nor to be sold; if illtreated, to be ipso facto free. ( Exodus 21:7-9 ; 21:10-14) Slander against a wife's virginity to be punished by fine,a nd by deprived of power of divorce; on the other hand, ante-connubial uncleanness in her to be punished by death. (22:13-21) the raising up of seed (Levirate law) a formal right to be claimed by the widow, under pain of infamy, with a view to preservation of families. (25:5-10) (c) MASTER AND SLAVE . --Power of master so far limited that death under actual chastisement was punishable, ( Exodus 21:20 ) and maiming was to give liberty ipso facto . vs. ( Exodus 21:26,27 ) The Hebrew slave to be freed at the sabbatical year, and provided with necessaries (his wife and children to go with only if they came to his master with him), unless by his own formal act he consented to be a perpetual slave. ( Exodus 21:1-6 ; 15:12-18) In any case, it would seem, to be freed at the jubilee, (Leviticus 25:10 ) with his children. If sold to a resident alien, to be always redeemable, at a price proportioned to the distance of the jubilee. (Leviticus 25:47-54 ) Foreign slaves to be held and inherited as property forever, ( Leviticus 25:45,46 ) and fugitive slaves from foreign nations not to be given up. (23:15) (d) STRANGERS. --These seem never to have been sui juris , or able to protect themselves, and accordingly protection and kindness toward them are enjoined as a sacred duty. ( Exodus 22:21 ; Leviticus 19:33,34 )
LAW OF THINGS. (a) LAWS OF LAND (AND PROPERTY).-- (1) All land to be the property of God alone , and its holders to be deemed his tenants. ( Leviticus 25:23 ) (2) All sold land therefore to return to its original owners at the jubilee, and the price of sale to be calculated accordingly; and redemption on equitable terms to be allowed at all times. ( Leviticus 18:1 ) A house sold to be redeemable within a year; and if not redeemed, to pass away altogether, ch. ( Leviticus 25:29,30 ) But the houses of the Levites , or those in unwalled villages, to be redeemable at all times, in the same way as land; and the Levitical suburbs to be inalienable. ch. ( Leviticus 25:31-34 ) (3) Land or houses sanctified , or tithes, or unclean firstlings, to be capable of being redeemed, at six-fifths value (calculated according to the distance from the jubilee year by the priest); if devoted by the owner and unredeemed, to be hallowed at the jubilee forever, and given to the priests; if only by a possessor, to return to the owner at the jubilee. ( Leviticus 27:14-34 ) (4) Inheritance . (b) LAWS OF DEBT. -- (1) All debts (to an Israelite) to be released at the seventh (sabbatical year; a blessing promised to obedience, and a curse on refusal to lend. (15:1-11) (2) Usury (from Israelites) not to be taken. ( Exodus 22:25-27 ; 23:19,20) (3) Pledges not to be insolently or ruinously exacted. (24:6,10-13,17,18) (c) TAXATION. -- (1) Census-money , a poll-tax (of a half shekel), to be paid for the service of the tabernacle. ( Exodus 30:12-16 ) All spoil in war to be halved; of the combatants' half, one five-hundreth, of the people's, one fiftieth, to be paid for a "heave offering" to Jehovah. (2) Tithes .-- (a) Tithes of all produce to be given for maintenance of the Levites. ( Numbers 18:20-24 ) (Of this one tenth to be paid as a heave offering for maintenance of the priests. vs. (Numbers 18:24-32 ) ) (b) Second tithe to be bestowed in religious feasting and charity, either at the holy place or (every third year) at home. (14:22-28) (c) First-fruits of corn, wine and oil (at least one sixtieth, generally one fortieth, for the priests) to be offered at Jerusalem, with a solemn declaration of dependence on God the King of Israel. ( Numbers 18:12,13 ; 26:1-15) Firstlings of clean beasts; the redemption money (five shekels) of man and (half shekel, or one shekel) of unclean beasts to be given to the priests after sacrifice. ( Numbers 18:15-18 ) (3) Poor laws. -- (a) Gleanings (in field or vineyard) to be a legal right of the poor. ( Leviticus 19:9,10 ; 24:19-22) (b) Slight trespass (eating on the spot) to be allowed as legal. (23:24,25) (c) Wages to be paid day by day. (24:15) (4) Maintenance of priests. ( Numbers 18:8-32 ) (a) Tenth of Levites' tithe . (See 2a.) (b) The heave and wave offerings (breast and right shoulder of all peace offerings). (c) The meat and sin offerings , to be eaten solemnly and only in the holy place. (c) First-fruits and redemption money. (See 2c.) (e) Price of all devoted things , unless specially given for a sacred service. A man's service, or that of his household, to be redeemed at 50 shekels for man, 30 for woman, 20 for boy and 10 for girl. II. LAWS CRIMINAL.
OFFENCES AGAINST GOD (of the nature of treason.) 1Command. Acknowledgment of false gods , ( Exodus 22:20 ) as e.g. Molech, (Leviticus 20:1-5 ) and generally all idolatry . (13; 17:2-5) 2Command. Witchcraft and false prophecy. ( Exodus 22:18 ; 18:9-22; Leviticus 19:31 ) 3Command. Blasphemy . ( Leviticus 24:15,16 ) 4Th Command. Sabbath-breaking . ( Leviticus 23:26-32 ) Punishment in all cases, death by stoning . Idolatrous cities to be utterly destroyed.
OFFENCES AGAINST MAN . 5Th Command. Disobedience to or cursing or smiting of parents , ( Exodus 21:15,17 ; Leviticus 20:9 ; 21:18-21) to be punished by death by stoning, publicly adjudged and inflicted; so also of disobedience to the priests (as judges) or the Supreme Judge. Comp. (1 Kings 21:10-14 ) (Naboth); (2 Chronicles 24:21 ) (Zechariah). 6Th Command. (1) Murder to be punished by death without sanctuary or reprieve, or satisfaction. ( Exodus 21:12,14 ; 19:11-13) Death of a slave, actually under the rod, to be punished. (Exodus 21:20,21 ) (2) Death by negligence to be punished by death. ( Exodus 21:28-30 ) (3) Accidental homicide : the avenger of blood to seek safety by flight to a city of refuge, there to remain till the death of the high priest. ( Numbers 35:9-28 ; 4:41-43; 19:4-10) (4) Uncertain murder to be expiated by formal disavowal and sacrifice by the elders of the nearest city. (21:1-9) (5) Assault to be punished by lex talionis , or damages. ( Exodus 21:18,19,22-25 ; Leviticus 24:19,20 ) 7Th Command. (1) Adultery to be punished by death of both offenders; the rape of a married or betrothed woman, by death of the offender. (22:13-27) (2) Rape or seduction of an unbetrothed virgin to be compensated by marriage, with dowry (50 shekels), and without power of divorce; or, if she be refused, by payment of full dowry. ( Exodus 22:16,17 ; 22:28,29) (3) Unlawful marriages (incestuous, etc.) to be punished, some by death, some by childlessness. ( Leviticus 20:1 ) ... 8Th command. (1) Theft to be punished by fourfold or double restitution; or nocturnal robber might be slain as an outlaw. ( Exodus 22:1-4 ) (2) Trespass and injury of things lent to be compensated. ( Exodus 23:5-15 ) (3) Perversion of justice (by bribes, threats, etc.), and especially oppression of strangers, strictly forbidden. ( Exodus 22:9 ) etc. (4) Kidnapping to be punished by death. (24:7) 9Th Command. False witness to be punished by lex talionis . ( Exodus 23:1-3 ; 19:16-21) Slander of a wife's chastity, by fine and loss of power of divorce. (22:18,19) A fuller consideration of the tables of the Ten Commandments is given elsewhere. [1] III. LAWS JUDICIAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL.
JURISDICTION. (a) Local judges (generally Levites as more skilled in the law) appointed, for ordinary matters, probably by the people with approbation of the supreme authority (as of Moses in the wilderness), ( Exodus 18:25 ; 1:15-18) through all the land. (16:18) (b) Appeal to the priests (at the holy place), or to the judge ; their sentence final, and to be accepted under pain of death. See (17:8-13) comp. appeal to Moses, ( Exodus 18:26 ) (c) Two witnesses (at least) required in capital matters. ( Numbers 35:30 ; 17:6,7) (d) Punishment , except by special command, to be personal, and not to extend to the family. (24:16) Stripes allowed and limited, (25:1-3) so as to avoid outrage on the human frame. All this would be to a great extent set aside --1st. By the summary jurisdiction of the king, see ( 1 Samuel 22:11-19 ) (Saul); (2 Samuel 12:1-5 ; 14:4-11 ; 1 Kings 3:16-28 ) which extended even to the deposition of the high priest. (Exodus 29:38-42 ; 1 Kings 2:26,27 ) The practical difficulty of its being carried out is seen in (2 Samuel 15:2-6 ) and would lead of course to a certain delegation of his power. 2Nd. By the appointment of the Seventy, (Numbers 11:24-30 ) with a solemn religious sanction. In later times there was a local sanhedrin of twenty-three in each city, and two such in Jerusalem, as well as the Great Sanhedrin, consisting of seventy members, besides the president, who was to be the high priest if duly qualified, and controlling even the king and high priest. The members were priest, scribes (Levites), and elders (of other tribes). A court of exactly this nature is noticed as appointed to supreme power by Jehoshaphat. See (2 Chronicles 19:8-11 )
ROYAL POWER. The king's power limited by the law, as written and formally accepted by the king; and directly forbidden to be despotic. (Military conquest discouraged by the prohibition of the use of horses. See ( Joshua 11:6 ) For an example of obedience to this law see (2 Samuel 8:4 ) and of disobedience to it see (1 Kings 10:26-29 ) (17:14-20) comp. 1 Samuel 10:25 Yet he had power of taxation (to one tenth) and of compulsory service, ( 1 Samuel 8:10-18 ) the declaration of war, (1 Samuel 11:1 ) ... etc. There are distinct traces of a "mutual contract," (2 Samuel 5:3 ) a "league," (2 Kings 11:17 ) the remonstrance with Rehoboam being clearly not extraordinary. (1 Kings 13:1-6 ) The princes of the congregation . --The heads of the tribes, see ( Leviticus 22:1-9 ) seem to have had authority under Joshua to act for the people, comp. (1 Chronicles 27:16-22 ) and in the later times "the princes of Judah" seem to have had power to control both the king and the priests. See (Jeremiah 26:10-24 ; 38:4,5 ) etc.
ROYAL REVENUE. (1) Tenth of produce. (2) Domain land. ( 1 Chronicles 27:26-29 ) Note confiscation of criminal's land. (1 Kings 21:15 ) (3) Bond service , ( 1 Kings 5:17,18 ) chiefly on foreigners. (1 Kings 9:20-22 ; 2 Chronicles 2:16,17 ) (4) Flocks and herds. ( 1 Chronicles 27:29-31 ) (5) Tributes (gifts) from foreign kings. (6) Commerce ; especially in Solomon's time. ( 1 Kings 10:22,29 ) etc. IV. ECCLESIASTICAL AND CEREMONIAL LAW.
LAW OF SACRIFICE (considered as the sign and the appointed means of the union with God, on which the holiness of the people depended). A. ORDINARY SACRIFICES. (a) The whole burnt offering, ( Leviticus 1:1 ) ... of the herd or the flock; to be offered continually, (Leviticus 6:1-7 ) and the fire on the altar never to be extinguished. (Leviticus 6:8-13 ) (b) The meat offering, ( Leviticus 2 ; 6:14-23 ) of flour, oil and frankincense, unleavened and seasoned with salt. (c) The peace offering, ( Leviticus 3:1 ; Leviticus 7:11-21 ) of the herd or the flock; either a thank offering or a vow or free-will offering. (d) The sin offering or trespass offering . Leviticus 4,5,6 (A) For sins committed in ignorance. Leviticus 4 (B) For vows unwittingly made and broken, or uncleanness unwittingly contracted. Levi 5 (C) For sins wittingly committed. ( 1 Samuel 22:17,18 ) b. EXTRAORDINARY SACRIFICES. (a) At the consecration of priests. Leviticus 8,9 (b) At the purification of women. Leviticus 12 (c) At the cleansing of lepers. Leviticus 13,14 (d) On the great day of atonement. Leviticus 16 (e) On the great festivals. Leviticus 23
LAW OF HOLINESS (arising from the union with God through sacrifice). a. HOLINESS OF PERSONS. (1) Holiness of the whole people as "children of God," ( Exodus 19:5,6 ; Leviticus 11-15,17,18 ; 14:1-21) shown in (a) The dedication of the first-born, (Exodus 13:2,12,13 ; 22:29,30 ) etc.; and the offering of all firstlings and first-fruits. Deuteronomy 26 , etc. (b) Distinction of clean and unclean food. Levi 11; Deuteronomy 14 . (c) Provision for purification. Levi 12,13,14,15; (23:1-4) (d) Laws against disfigurement. (Leviticus 19:27 ; 14:1) comp. (25:3) against excessive scourging. (e) Laws against unnatural marriages and lusts. Leviticus 18,20 (2) Holiness of the priests (and Levites) . (a) Their consecration. Leviticus 8,9 ; Exodus 29 (b) Their special qualifications and restrictions. ( Leviticus 21:1 ; Joshua 9:15 ) (c) Their rights, (18:1-6; Numbers 18:1 ) ... and authority. (17:8-13) b. HOLINESS OF PLACES AND THINGS. (a) The tabernacle with the ark, the vail, the altars, the laver, the priestly robes, etc. Exodus 25-28,30 . (b) The holy place chosen for the permanent erection of the tabernacle, (12:1; 14:22-29) where only all sacrifices were to be offered and all tithes, firstfruits, vows, etc., to be given or eaten. c. HOLINESS OF TIMES. (a) The Sabbath. ( Exodus 20:9-11 ; 23:12 ) etc. (b) The sabbatical year. ( Exodus 23:10,11 ; Leviticus 25:1-7 ) etc. (c) The year of jubilee. ( Leviticus 25:8-16 ) etc. (d) The passover. ( Exodus 12:3-27 ; Leviticus 23:4,5 ) (e) The feast of weeks (pentecost). ( Leviticus 23:15 ) etc. (f) The feast of tabernacles . ( Leviticus 23:33-43 ) (g) The feast of trumpets. ( Leviticus 23:23-25 ) (h) The day of atonement . ( Numbers 15:32,36 ) etc. Such is the substance of the Mosaic law. The leading principle of the whole is its THEOCRATIC CHARACTER, its reference, that is, of all action and thoughts of men directly and immediately to the will of God. It follows from this that it is to be regarded not merely as a law, that is, a rule of conduct based on known truth and acknowledged authority, but also as a revelation of God's nature and his dispensations. But this theocratic character of the law depends necessarily on the belief in God , as not only the creator and sustainer of the world, but as, by special covenant, the head of the Jewish nation. This immediate reference to God as their king is clearly seen as the groundwork of their whole polity. From this theocratic nature of the law follow important deductions with regard to (a) the view which it takes of political society; (b) the extent of the scope of the law; (c) the penalties by which it is enforced; and (d) the character which it seeks to impress on the people. (a) The Mosaic law seeks the basis of its polity, first, in the absolute sovereignty of God; next, in the relationship of each individual to God, and through God to his countrymen. It is clear that such a doctrine, while it contradicts none of the common theories, yet lies beneath them all. (b) The law, as proceeding directly from God and referring directly to him, is necessarily absolute in its supremacy and unlimited in its scope. It is supreme over the governors, as being only the delegates of the Lord, and therefore it is incompatible with any despotic authority in them. On the other hand, it is supreme over the governed, recognizing no inherent rights in the individual as prevailing against or limiting the law. It regulated the whole life of an Israelite. His actions were rewarded and punished with great minuteness and strictness --and that according to the standard, not of their consequences but of their intrinsic morality. (c) The penalties and rewards by which the law is enforced are such as depend on the direct theocracy. With regard to individual actions, it may be noticed that, as generally some penalties are inflicted by the subordinate and some only the supreme authority, so among the Israelites some penalties came from the hand of man, some directly from the providence of God. (d) But perhaps the most important consequence of the theocratic nature of the law was the peculiar character of goodness which it sought to impress on the people. The Mosaic law, beginning with piety as its first object, enforces most emphatically the purity essential to those who, by their union with God, have recovered the hope of intrinsic goodness, while it views righteousness and love rather as deductions from these than as independent objects. The appeal is not to any dignity of human nature, but to the obligations of communion with a holy God. The subordination, therefore, of this idea also to the religious idea is enforced; and so long as the due supremacy of the latter was preserved, all other duties would find their places in proper harmony.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Law
The word is properly used, in Scripture as elsewhere, to express a definite commandment laid down by any recognized authority; but when the word is used with the article, and without any words of limitation, it refers to the expressed will to God, and in nine cases out of ten to the Mosaic law, or to the Pentateuch of which it forms the chief portion. The Hebrew word torah (law) lays more stress on its moral authority, as teaching the truth and guiding in the right way; the Greek nomos (law), on its constraining power as imposed and enforced by a recognized authority. The sense of the word, however, extends its scope and assumes a more abstracts character in the writings of St. Paul. Nomos , when used by him with the article, still refers in general to the law of Moses; but when used without the article, so as to embrace any manifestation of "law," it includes all powers which act on the will of man by compulsion, or by the pressure of external motives, whether their commands be or be not expressed in definite forms. The occasional use of the word "law" (as in ( Romans 3:27 ) "law of faith") to denote an internal principle of action does not really mitigate against the general rule. It should also be noticed that the title "the Law" is occasionally used loosely to refer to the whole of the Old Testament, as in ( John 10:34 ) referring to (Psalm 82:6 ) in (John 15:25 ) referring to (Psalm 35:19 ) and in (1 Corinthians 14:21 ) referring to (Isaiah 28:11,12 )
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Mother-in-Law
1: πενθερά (Strong's #3994 — Noun Feminine — penthera — pen-ther-ah' ) the feminine of pentheros ("a father-in-law"), occurs in Matthew 8:14 ; 10:35 ; Mark 1:30 ; Luke 4:38 ; 12:53 (twice).
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Law
The word ‘law’ is used in many ways in the Bible. It may be used of commandments or instructions in general, whether given by God, civil administrators, teachers or parents (Genesis 26:5; Exodus 18:20; Proverbs 3:1; Proverbs 6:20; see also GOVERNMENT). Frequently it is used of the written Word of God (Psalms 119:18-20; Psalms 119:57-61), sometimes applying to the Old Testament as a whole and sometimes to part of the Old Testament, such as the five books of Moses (Matthew 5:17; Luke 24:44; John 1:45; John 15:25; see PENTATEUCH). Occasionally it means a principle of operation (Romans 7:21; Romans 7:23; Romans 8:2). The most common usage of the term, however, concerns the law of God given to Israel through Moses at Mt Sinai (Exodus 24:12; Deuteronomy 4:44; Ezra 7:6; John 1:17; Galatians 3:17; Galatians 3:19). This meaning of ‘law’ is the chief concern of the present article.
God’s covenant with Israel
In his grace God made a covenant with Abraham to make his descendants into a great nation and to give them Canaan as their national homeland (Genesis 17:1-8). Over the next four hundred years God directed the affairs of Abraham’s descendants so that their numbers increased and they became a distinct people. They were then ready to be formally established as a nation and to receive the land God had promised them. At Mt Sinai God confirmed the covenant made previously with Abraham, this time making it with Abraham’s descendants, the nation Israel (Exodus 24:7-8; see COVENANT).
God had chosen Israel to be his people, saved them from slavery in Egypt, and taken them into a close relationship with himself, all in fulfilment of his covenant promise made to Abraham. Everything arose out of the sovereign grace of God (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 3:16; Exodus 6:6-8). But if the people were to enjoy the blessings of that covenant, they had to respond to God’s grace in faithful obedience. The people understood this and promised to be obedient to all God’s commands (Exodus 24:7-8).
The law that God gave to the people of Israel at Sinai laid down his requirements for them. Through obedience to that law the people would enjoy the life God intended for them in the covenant relationship (Leviticus 18:5; cf. Romans 7:10; Romans 10:5; Exodus 21:23-240). The ten commandments were the principles by which the nation was to live, and formed the basis on which all Israel’s other laws were built (Exodus 20:1-17).
Characteristics of Israelite law
No part of the lives of the Israelites was outside the demands of the covenant. The law applied to the whole of their lives and made no distinction between moral, religious and civil laws. Laws may have been in the form of absolute demands that allowed no exceptions (e.g. ‘You shall not steal’; Exodus 20:15), or in the form of guidelines concerning what to do when various situations arose (e.g. ‘If a person borrows anything and it is hurt or dies . . .’; Exodus 22:14), but the two kinds were equally binding.
Israel’s law-code was suited to the customs of the time and was designed to administer justice within the established culture. Unlike some ancient law-codes, it did not favour the upper classes, but guaranteed a fair hearing for all. It protected the rights of people who were disadvantaged or defenceless, such as orphans, widows, foreigners, slaves and the poor (Galatians 4:4-5; Matthew 22:36-40; Exodus 23:9; Exodus 23:12). The penalties it laid down were not brutal or excessive, as in some nations, but were always in proportion to the crime committed (1618611443_91).
Jesus’ attitude to the law
The covenant made with Israel at Sinai and the law that belonged to that covenant were not intended to be permanent. They were part of the preparation for the coming of Jesus Christ, through whom God would make a new and eternal covenant (Galatians 3:19; Galatians 3:24; Hebrews 9:15).
Jesus was born under the law (Galatians 4:4) and was brought up according to the law (Luke 2:21-24; Luke 2:42). He obeyed the law (Matthew 17:27; John 2:13) and he commanded others to obey the law (Matthew 8:4; Matthew 23:1-3; Matthew 23:23). Jesus did not oppose the law, though he certainly did oppose the false interpretations of the law that the Jewish leaders of his time taught. He upheld and fulfilled the law by demonstrating its true meaning (Matthew 5:17-19; Matthew 5:21; Matthew 5:27; Matthew 5:31; Matthew 5:33; Matthew 5:38; Matthew 5:43).
Frequently Jesus pointed out that the law was good and holy and that God gave it for people’s benefit (Matthew 22:36-40; Luke 10:25-28; cf. Romans 7:12; Romans 7:14). By contrast the Jewish leaders used the law to oppress people, adding their own traditions and forcing people to obey them. In so doing they forgot, or even opposed, the purpose for which God gave the law (Matthew 23:4; Mark 7:1-9; see TRADITION). Jesus knew that the law, as a set of regulations, was part of a system that was about to pass away (Matthew 9:16-17; cf. Hebrews 8:13). His death and resurrection would mark the end of the old covenant and the beginning of the new (Hebrews 9:15).
Under the new covenant people still have to respond to God’s covenant grace with obedience, but the expression of that obedience has changed. Instead of being bound by a set of rules, they have inner spiritual power to do God’s will. Instead of having to offer sacrifices repeatedly, they have their sins taken away once and for all. Instead of having to approach God through priests, they have direct fellowship with God (Jeremiah 31:31-34; Hebrews 8:8-13; Hebrews 10:1-4; Hebrews 10:16-18).
Salvation apart from the law
People have never received forgiveness of sins through keeping the law. Under the old covenant, as under the new, they were saved only through faith in the sovereign God who, in his grace, forgave them and accepted them. Abraham, David and Paul lived respectively before, during and after the period when the old covenant and its law-code operated in Israel, but all three alike were saved by faith (Genesis 15:6; Romans 3:28; Romans 4:1-16; Romans 4:22; Galatians 3:17-18; Ephesians 2:8; 1 Timothy 1:14-16). Salvation depended upon God’s promise, not upon human effort. It was a gracious gift received by faith, not a reward for keeping the law (Galatians 3:18; Galatians 3:21-22; see PROMISE).
Contrary to popular Jewish opinion, the law was not given as a means of salvation (Romans 9:31-32). It was given to show the standard of behaviour God required from his covenant people. As a set of official regulations, it was given solely to the nation Israel and was in force for the period from Moses to Christ. But as an expression of the character and will of God, it operated on principles that are relevant to people of all nations and all eras. It expressed in a legal code for one nation the principles that are applicable to people in general (Romans 2:12-16; Romans 13:8-10). Through the law given to Israel, God showed the righteous standards that his holiness demanded.
At the same time the law showed the extent of people’s sinfulness, for their behaviour repeatedly fell short of the law’s standards. The law therefore showed up human sin; but when sinners acknowledged their sin and turned in faith to God, God in his grace forgave them (Romans 3:19-20; Romans 3:31; Romans 5:20; Romans 7:7; Galatians 3:11; Galatians 3:19). (Concerning the rituals of the law for the cleansing of sin see SACRIFICE.)
Those who broke the law were under the curse and condemnation of the law (Deuteronomy 27:26; Galatians 3:10). Jesus Christ, however, lived a perfect life according to the law, and then died to bear the law’s curse. By his death he broke its power to condemn those who take refuge in him. Believers in Jesus are freed from the law’s curse. They have their sins forgiven and are put right with God (Romans 7:6; Romans 8:1-3; Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:13; Ephesians 2:15; Colossians 2:14).
Jesus Christ is the true fulfilment of the law. The law prepared the way for him and pointed to him. Before his coming, the people of Israel, being under the law, were like children under the control of a guardian. With his coming, the law had fulfilled its purpose; the guardian was no longer necessary. Believers in Jesus are not children under a guardian, but full-grown mature children of God (Galatians 3:23-26; Exodus 22:22; cf. Romans 10:4; see ADOPTION).
Christian life apart from the law
It was some time before Jewish Christians in the early church understood clearly that the law was no longer binding upon them. They still went to the temple at the set hours of prayer and possibly kept the Jewish festivals (Acts 2:1; Acts 2:46; Acts 3:1). Stephen seems to have been the first Christian to see clearly that Christianity was not part of the Jewish system and was not bound by the Jewish law (Acts 6:13-14). Then Peter had a vision through which he learnt that Jewish food laws no longer applied. He was harshly criticized by certain Jews in the Jerusalem church when they found he had been eating freely with the Gentiles (Acts 10:15; Acts 11:2-3).
These Jews later tried to force Gentile converts to keep the law of Moses (Acts 15:1), and argued so cleverly that Peter tended to follow them, until Paul corrected him (Galatians 2:11-16). When some of the leading Christians met at Jerusalem to discuss the matter, they agreed that Gentiles were not to be put under the law of Moses (Acts 15:19). It was now becoming clear, and Paul’s teaching soon made it very clear, that there was no difference between Jews and Gentiles concerning requirements for salvation and Christian living. People were saved by faith alone, not by the law, and they lived their Christian lives by faith alone, not by the law (Romans 3:21-31; Galatians 3:28).
When he met opposition to his teaching, Paul pointed out the impossibility of being saved through keeping the law (Romans 9:30-32; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 5:4; Philippians 3:9). An equal impossibility was to grow in maturity and holiness through keeping the law, or even selected parts of it (Galatians 3:2-5; Galatians 5:1-3; James 2:10-11).
The actions of Paul in occasionally observing Jewish laws were not for the purpose of pursuing personal holiness. They were for the purpose of gaining him acceptance among Jewish opponents whom he wanted to win for Christ. Such actions were purely voluntary on Paul’s part (1 Corinthians 9:19-23; cf. Acts 15:19-21; Acts 16:3; Acts 21:20-26). If people tried to force Paul to keep the law, he would not yield to them under any circumstances (Galatians 2:3-5).
Paul explained the uselessness of trying to grow in holiness through placing oneself under the law. He pointed out that the more the law forbids a thing, the more the sinful human heart wants to do it (Romans 7:7-11). This does not mean that there is anything wrong with the law. On the contrary, the law is holy, just and good. The fault lies rather with sinful human nature (Romans 7:12-14; see FLESH).
Free but not lawless
Although the law aims at righteous behaviour, people cannot produce righteous behaviour by keeping the law. They can produce it only by claiming true Christian liberty and living by the inner spiritual power of the Holy Spirit (Romans 6:14; Romans 8:3-4; Galatians 5:13-23; see FREEDOM; HOLY SPIRIT). But the same Holy Spirit who empowers inwardly has given clear guidelines for behaviour in the written Word. It is not surprising, then, to find that those guidelines contain quotations from the law of Moses to indicate the sort of character and conduct that a holy God requires (Exodus 23:6; Romans 7:12; Romans 13:8-10; Ephesians 6:2; Hebrews 8:10; James 2:8-12).
Christians are not under law but under grace. Yet they are not lawless (Romans 6:15). They have been freed from the bondage of the law and are now bound to Christ (Romans 7:1-4). The law of Christ is a law of liberty, one that Christians obey not because they are forced to but because they want to. The controlling force in their lives is not a written code but a living person (1 Corinthians 9:21; Galatians 6:2; James 1:25; James 2:12).
As Jesus demonstrated his love for the Father by keeping the Father’s commandments, so those who truly love Jesus will keep his commandments (John 14:15; John 14:21; John 15:10; 1 John 2:3-4; 1 John 2:7; 1 John 5:3). And in so doing they will practise love, which itself is the fulfilment of the law (John 13:34; Romans 13:8-10; Galatians 5:14; 1 John 5:2-3).

Sentence search

Lex - ) Law; as, lex talionis, the Law of retaliation; lex terrae, the Law of the land; lex fori, the Law of the forum or court; lex loci, the Law of the place; lex mercatoria, the Law or custom of merchants
Law-Abiding - ) Abiding the Law; waiting for the operation of Law for the enforcement of rights; also, abiding by the Law; obedient to the Law; as, Law-abiding people
Jurist - ) One who professes the science of Law; one versed in the Law, especially in the civil Law; a writer on civil and international Law
Lawful - Law'FUL, a. Agreeable to Law conformable to Law allowed by Law legal legitimate. That is deemed Lawful which no Law forbids, but many things are Lawful which are not expedient. Constituted by Law rightful as the Lawful owner of lands
Law - ...
Called "Law of Moses" 1 Kings 2:3...
Called "Law of the Lord" 2 Kings 10:31...
Called "Law of God" Romans 7:22...
Called "Law of the Spirit" Romans 8:2...
Called "Law of Righteousness" Romans 9:31...
Called "Law of Liberty" James 2:12...
James 2:12 (a) This is the Law that operates when there is no restraint nor hindrance. ...
GOD's Law is like a light Psalm 119:130...
GOD's Law is like a lamp Psalm 119:105...
GOD's Law is like a hammer Jeremiah 23:29...
GOD's Law is like a fire Jeremiah 23:29...
GOD's Law is like a seed Luke 8:11...
GOD's Law is like water Ephesians 5:26...
GOD's Law is like a sword Hebrews 4:12...
Halachah - (Torah Law): (lit. �the pathway�); (a) the body of Jewish Law; (b) a single Law ...
Din - judgement: (judgement), the attribute of Divine judgment...
Din Law: (law), a particular Torah Law or ruling...
Birlaw - ) A Law made by husbandmen respecting rural affairs; a rustic or local Law or by-law
Law - (Latin: legere, to gather; eligere, to choose; or ligure, to bind) ...
Law is defined as "a certain norm or measure of acts according to which any one is induced to act or is restrained from acting. Ordination in regard to Law means imposition of order, which consists: ...
in disposing things to a due end;
through proportionate means. Law may be considered in a twofold sense: ...
essentially, in the one regulating and commanding;
participatively, in the one regulated.
The supreme Law is the eternal Law, which is the fount of all other Laws and precepts. The eternal Law is manifested to us through the evolution of reason (natural or moral Law), or through a certain sensible sign or positive act of the legislator (positive Law). Positive Law is either imposed on us immediately by the authority of God (Divine positive Law, e. , Revelation), or it is imposed mediately on us by the authority of man (human positive Law). Human Law regards either the end of religious society (ecclesiastical Law), or the end of civilsociety (civil Law). Law is moral, penal, or mixed, in so far as it obliges under a fault alone, or under a penalty alone, or under fault and penalty at the same time. ...
Law must be designed: ...
for the common good, which is realized through a just political community, one that is productive and conservative of happiness and special kinds of happiness;
to produce and conserve happiness and particular kinds of happiness, i. , by reference to the political community to which the enactment of Law is directed.
Law is imposed on others as a rule and standard. That Law may oblige effectively it must be known to those who are subject to its requirements; such application is effected through promulgation. Promulgation of a Law, however, is not the same thing as "due knowledge of the Law. " A promulgated Law always obliges, but it is not required that it be always known, since a person invincibly ignorant of the Law is immune from guilt because his ignorance is an impediment, excusing him accidentally (in actu secundo) from the Law's obligation. If a person, however, through invincible ignorance performs an act pronounced illicit by Law, his act will be illicit in spite of his ignorance. Hence, Law which is unknown is not thereby entirely stripped of its effectiveness. ...
According to the nature of Law and human acts which are related to it, Law has four distinct acts, viz.
To punish is added because through fear of punishment Lawe command obedience. Law is affirmative or negative, i. Negative Law obliges always and at all times, in every place, and under all circumstances, e. " Affirmative Law obliges always, but only at the time it should be fulfilled, e. " A negative Law may be merely prohibitive or repealing or nullifying, e. A repealing Law sometimes pronounces an act to be null and void, or merely rescinds an act. Law ought to be possible, integral, useful, just, permanent or stable, reasonable, respectful of personal rights, civic,and religious. A Law is said to be abrogated when it is completely taken away; it is derogated when only part of the Law has been taken away. Law also must have sanction; no Law is definitely established unless reward be given to those who observe its requirements, and punishment inflicted on those who violate it
Law - A — 1: νόμος (Strong's #3551 — Noun Masculine — nomos — nom'-os ) akin to nemo, "to divide out, distribute," primarily meant "that which is assigned;" hence, "usage, custom," and then, "law, Law as prescribed by custom, or by statute;" the word ethos, "custom," was retained for unwritten "law," while nomos became the established name for "law" as decreed by a state and set up as the standard for the administration of justice. ...
In the NT it is used (a) of "law" in general, e. , Romans 2:12,13 , "a Law" (RV), expressing a general principle relating to "law;" Romans 2:14 , last part; Romans 3:27 , "By what manner of Law?" i. , "by what sort of principle (has the glorying been excluded)?;" Romans 4:15 (last part); Romans 5:13 , referring to the period between Adam's trespass and the giving of the Law; Romans 7:1 (1st part, RV marg. , "law"); against those graces which constitute the fruit of the Spirit "there is no Law," Galatians 5:23 ; "the ostensible aim of the Law is to restrain the evil tendencies natural to man in his fallen estate; yet in experience Law finds itself not merely ineffective, it actually provokes those tendencies to greater activity. Law, therefore, has nothing to say against the fruit of the Spirit; hence the believer is not only not under Law, Galatians 5:18 , the Law finds no scope in his life, inasmuch as, and in so far as, he is led by the Spirit;" * [1] ...
(b) of a force or influence impelling to action, Romans 7:21,23 (1st part), "a different Law," RV; (c) of the Mosaic Law, the "law" of Sinai, (1) with the definite article, e. , Matthew 5:18 ; John 1:17 ; Romans 2:15,18,20,26,27 ; 3:19 ; 4:15 ; 7:4,7,14,16,22 ; 8:3,4,7 ; Galatians 3:10,12,19,21,24 ; 5:3 ; Ephesians 2:15 ; Philippians 3:6 ; 1 Timothy 1:8 ; Hebrews 7:19 ; James 2:9 ; (2) without the article, thus stressing the Mosaic Law in its quality as "law," e. , to have the effect of revealing his actual state of) death;" 10:4; 1 Corinthians 9:20 ; Galatians 2:16,19,21 ; 3:2,5,10 (1st part),11,18,23; 4:4,5,21 (1st part); 5:4,18; 6:13; Philippians 3:5,9 ; Hebrews 7:16 ; 9:19 ; James 2:11 ; 4:11 ; (in regard to the statement in Galatians 2:16 , that "a man is not justified by the works of the Law," the absence of the article before nomos indicates the assertion of a principle, "by obedience to Law," but evidently the Mosaic Law is in view. Here the Apostle is maintaining that submission to circumcision entails the obligation to do the whole "Law. " Circumcision belongs to the ceremonial part of the "Law," but, while the Mosaic Law is actually divisible into the ceremonial and the moral, no such distinction is made or even assumed in Scripture. The statement maintains the freedom of the believer from the "law" of Moses in its totality as a means of justification); ...
(d) by metonymy, of the books which contain the "law," (1) of the Pentateuch, e. 10-18); Isaiah, 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; from all this it may be inferred that "the Law" in the most comprehensive sense was an alternative title to "The Scriptures. " ...
The following phrases specify "laws" of various kinds; (a) "the Law of Christ," Galatians 6:2 , i. , either given by Him (as in the Sermon on the Mount and in John 13:14,15 ; 15:4 ), or the "law" or principle by which Christ Himself lived (Matthew 20:28 ; John 13:1 ); these are not actual alternatives, for the "law" imposed by Christ was always that by which He Himself lived in the "days of His flesh. " He confirmed the "Law" as being of Divine authority (cp. Matthew 5:18 ): yet He presented a higher standard of life than perfunctory obedience to the current legal rendering of the "Law," a standard which, without annulling the "Law," He embodied in His own character and life (see, e. , Matthew 5:21-48 ; this breach with legalism is especially seen in regard to the ritual or ceremonial part of the "Law" in its wide scope); He showed Himself superior to all human interpretations of it; (b) "a Law of faith," Romans 3:27 , i. , a principle which demands only faith on man's part; (c) "the Law of my mind," Romans 7:23 , that principle which governs the new nature in virtue of the new birth; (d) "the Law of sin," Romans 7:23 , the principle by which sin exerts its influence and power despite the desire to do what is right; "of sin and death," Romans 8:2 , death being the effect; (e) "the Law of liberty," James 1:25 ; 2:12 , a term comprehensive of all the Scriptures, not a "law" of compulsion enforced from without, but meeting with ready obedience through the desire and delight of the renewed being who is subject to it; into it he looks, and in its teaching he delights; he is "under Law (ennomos, "in Law," implying union and subjection) to Christ," 1 Corinthians 9:21 ; cp. , Psalm 119:32,45,97 ; 2 Corinthians 3:17 ; (f) "the royal Law," James 2:8 , i. , the "law" of love, royal in the majesty of its power, the "law" upon which all others hang, Matthew 22:34-40 ; Romans 13:8 ; Galatians 5:14 ; (g) "the Law of the Spirit of life," Romans 8:2 , i. John 6:63 ); (h) "a Law of righteousness," Romans 9:31 , i. , a general principle presenting righteousness as the object and outcome of keeping a "law," particularly the "Law" of Moses (cp. Galatians 3:21 ); (i) "the Law of a carnal commandment," Hebrews 7:16 , i. , the "law" respecting the Aaronic priesthood, which appointed men conditioned by the circumstances and limitations of the flesh. In the Epistle to the Hebrews the "Law" is treated of especially in regard to the contrast between the Priesthood of Christ and that established under the "law" of Moses, and in regard to access to God and to worship. In these respects the "Law" "made nothing perfect," Hebrews 7:19 . ...
Notes: (1) In Galatians 5:3 , the statement that to receive circumcision constitutes a man a debtor to do "the whole Law," views the "Law" as made up of separate commands, each essential to the whole, and predicates the unity of the "Law;" in Galatians 5:14 , the statement that "the whole Law" is fulfilled in the one commandment concerning love, views the separate commandments as combined to make a complete "law. " (2) In Romans 8:3 , "what the Law could not do," is lit. , "the inability (adunaton, the neuter of the adjective adunatos, 'unable,' used as a noun) of the Law;" this may mean either "the weakness of the Law" or "that which was impossible for the Law;" the latter is preferable; the significance is the same in effect; the "Law" could neither give freedom from condemnation nor impart life. (3) For the difference between the teaching of Paul and that of James in regard to the "Law," see under JUSTIFICATION. (4) For Acts 19:38 , AV, "the Law is open" (RV, "courts," etc. (5) For nomodidaskaloi, "doctors of the Law," Luke 5:17 , singular in Acts 5:34 , "teachers of the Law," 1 Timothy 1:7 , see DOCTOR. ...
A — 2: νομοθεσία (Strong's #3548 — Noun Feminine — nomothesia — nom-oth-es-ee'-ah ) denotes "legislation, Lawgiving" (No. 1, and tithemi, "to place, to put"), Romans 9:4 , "(the) giving of the Law. ...
B — 1: νομοθετέω (Strong's #3549 — Verb — nomotheteo — nom-oth-et-eh'-o ) (a) used intransitively, signifies "to make Laws" (cp. 2, above); in the Passive Voice, "to be furnished with Laws," Hebrews 7:11 , "received the Law," lit. , "was furnished with (the) Law;" (b) used transitively, it signifies "to ordain by Law, to enact;" in the Passive Voice, Hebrews 8:6 . , signifies "to go to Law," and is so used in the Middle Voice in Matthew 5:40 , RV, "go to Law" (AV, "sue . at the Law"); 1 Corinthians 6:1,6 . ...
Note: In 1 Corinthians 6:7 , the AV, "go to Law," is a rendering of the phrase echo krimata, "to have Lawsuits," as in the RV. ...
B — 3: παρανομέω (Strong's #3891 — Verb — paranomeo — par-an-om-eh'-o ) "to transgress Law" (para, "contrary to," and nomos), is used in the present participle in Acts 23:3 , and translated "contrary to the Law," lit. , "transgressing the Law. " ...
C — 1: νομικός (Strong's #3544 — Adjective — nomikos — nom-ik-os' ) denotes "relating to Law;" in Titus 3:9 it is translated "about the Law," describing "fightings" (AV, "strivings"); see LawYER. ...
C — 2: ἔννομος (Strong's #1772 — Adjective — ennomos — en'-nom-os ) (a) "lawful, legal," lit. , "in Law" (en, "in," and nomos), or, strictly, "what is within the range of Law," is translated "lawful" in Acts 19:39 , AV (RV, "regular"), of the legal tribunals in Ephesus; (b) "under Law" (RV), in relation to Christ, 1 Corinthians 9:21 , where it is contrasted with anomos (see No. 3 below); the word as used by the Apostle suggests not merely the condition of being under "law," but the intimacy of a relation established in the loyalty of a will devoted to his Master. See LawFUL. ...
C — 3: ἄνομος (Strong's #459 — Adjective — anomos — an'-om-os ) signifies "without Law" (a, negative) and has this meaning in 1 Corinthians 9:21 (four times). See LawLESS , TRANSGRESSOR , UNLAWFUL , WICKED. ...
D — 1: ἀνόμως (Strong's #460 — Adverb — anomos — an-om'-oce ) "without Law" (the adverbial form of C, No. 3), is used in Romans 2:12 (twice), where "(have sinned) without Law" means in the absence of some specifically revealed "law," like the "law" of Sinai; "(shall perish) without Law" predicates that the absence of such a "law" will not prevent their doom; the "law" of conscience is not in view here. The succeeding phrase "under Law" is lit. , "in Law," not the same as the adjective ennomos (C, No
Ceremonial Law - CEREMONIAL Law. —See Law
Lawful - ) Constituted or authorized by Law; rightful; as, the Lawful owner of lands. ) Conformable to Law; allowed by Law; legitimate; competent
Law - The subject of 'law' is not restricted in scripture to the Law given by Moses. God gave a commandment (or Law) to Adam, which made Adam's subsequent sin to be transgression. Where there is no Law there is no transgression (Romans 4:15 ), though there may be sin, as there was from Adam to Moses: "until the Law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed [1] when there is no Law. This doubtless signifies that specific acts were not put to account as a question of God's governmental dealings, when there was no Law forbidding them. Men sinned, and death reigned, though they "had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression" (Romans 5:14 ), for no definite Law had been given to them. The nations that had not the Law were however a Law unto themselves, having some sense of good and evil, and their conscience bore witness accordingly. It is not a true definition of sin, to say that it is "the transgression of the Law," as in the A. The passage should read "Sin is Lawlessness:" that is, man doing his own will, defiant of restraint, and regardless of his Creator and of his neighbour. ...
'Law' may be considered as a principle in contrast to 'grace,' in which sense it occurs in the N. , the word 'law' being often without the article (though the Law of Moses may at times be alluded to in the same way). "The doers of [2] Law shall be justified," Romans 2:13 ; but if, on the other hand, salvation be "by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. The conclusion is that "by the deeds of [2] Law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight. In opposition to it "the righteousness of God without [2] Law is manifested. 'Law' a principle stands also in scripture in contrast to 'faith. ' "The just shall live by faith: and the Law is not of faith; but the man that doeth them shall live in them. ...
The word 'law' is also used for a fixed and unvarying principle such as 'a Law of nature:' thus we read of the 'law of faith,' 'law of sin,' 'law of righteousness,' 'law of the Spirit of life,' etc. ...
The term 'law' is occasionally used in the N. The Lord said, "Is it not written in your Law, I said, Ye are gods ?" when the quotation was from the Psalms. ...
The Law OF LIBERTY, James 1:25 ; James 2:12 , implies that, the nature being congruous, the things enjoined, instead of being a burden, are a pleasure. Doing the commandments of the Lord is the fruit of the divine nature: they are therefore both Law and liberty
Mariotte's Law - See Boyle's Law, under Law
Juridical - ) Pertaining to a judge or to jurisprudence; acting in the distribution of justice; used in courts of Law; according to Law; legal; as, juridical Law
Morality, Moral Law - MORALITY, MORAL Law. —See Ethics, and Law
Unlawful - UNLAW'FUL, a. Not Lawful contrary to Law illegal not permitted by Law. ...
Unlawful assembly, in Law, the meeting of three or more persons to commit an unlawful act
Enact - 1: νομοθετέω (Strong's #3549 — Verb — nomotheteo — nom-oth-et-eh'-o ) "to ordain by Law, to enact" (nomos, "a Law," tithemi, "to put"), is used in the Passive Voice, and rendered "enacted" in Hebrews 8:6 , RV, for AV, "established;" in Hebrews 7:11 , used intransitively, it is rendered "received the Law. " See ESTABLISH , Law
Enactment - ) The passing of a bill into a Law; the giving of legislative sanction and executive approval to a bill whereby it is established as a Law. ) That which is enacted or passed into a Law; a Law; a decree; a statute; a prescribed requirement; as, a prohibitory enactment; a social enactment
Unlaw - ) To put beyond protection of Law; to outlaw. ) To deprive of the authority or character of Law. ) Any transgression or offense against the Law. ) A fine imposed as a penalty for violation of the Law
Lawyer - Law'YER, n. that is Lawer, contracted from Law-wer, Law-man. ...
One versed in the Laws, or a practitioner of Law one whose profession is to institute suits in courts of Law, and to prosecute or defend the cause of clients
Abrogation - In Law, the total abolition of a Law, right, or privilege
Mechutan: - the father of one�s son-in-law or daughter-in-law...
Law - Law, n. A Law is that which is laid, set or fixed, like statute, constitution, from L. Laws are imperative or mandatory, commanding what shall be done prohibitory, restraining from what is to be forborn or permissive, declaring what may be done without incurring a penalty. The Laws which enjoin the duties of piety and morality, are prescribed by God and found in the Scriptures. Law is beneficence acting by rule. Municipal Law, is a rule of conduct prescribed by the supreme power of a state, commanding what its subjects are to do, and prohibiting what they are to forbear a statute. Municipal or Laws are established by the decrees, edicts or ordinances of absolute princes, as emperors and kings, or by the formal acts of the legislatures of free states. Law therefore is sometimes equivalent to decree, edict, or ordinance. Law of nature, is a rule of conduct arising out of the natural relations of human beings established by the Creator, and existing prior to any positive precept. Thus it is a Law of nature, that one man should not injure another, and murder and fraud would be crimes, independent of any prohibition from a supreme power. Laws of animal nature, the inherent principles by which the economy and functions of animal bodies are performed, such as respiration, the circulation of the blood, digestion, nutrition, various secretions, &c. Laws of vegetation, the principles by which plats are produced, and their growth carried on till they arrive to perfection. Physical Laws, or Laws of nature. The invariable tendency or determination of any species of matter to a particular form with definite properties, and the determination of a body to certain motions, changes, and relations, which uniformly take place in the same circumstances, is called a physical Law. These tendencies or determinations, whether called Laws or affections of matter, have been established by the Creator, and are, with a peculiar felicity of expression, denominated in Scripture, ordinances of heaven. Laws of nations, the rules that regulate the mutual intercourse of nations or states. These rules depend on natural Law, or the principles of justice which spring from the social state or they are founded on customs, compacts, treaties, leagues and agreements between independent communities. By the Law of nations, we are to understand that code of public instruction, which defines the rights and prescribes the duties of nations, in their intercourse with each other. Moral Law, a Law which prescribes to men their religious and social duties, in other words, their duties to God and to each other. The moral Law is summarily contained in the decalogue or ten commandments, written by the finger of God on two tables of stone, and delivered to Moses on mount Sinai. Ecclesiastical Law, a rule of action prescribed for the government of a church otherwise called canon Law. Written Law, a Law or rule of action prescribed or enacted by a sovereign, and promulgated and recorded in writing a written statute, ordinance, edict or decree. Unwritten or common Law, a rule of action which derives its authority from long usage, or established custom, which has been immemorially received and recognized by judicial tribunals. As this Law can be traced to no positive statutes, its rules or principles are to be found only in the records of courts, and in the reports of judicial decisions. By-law, a Law of a city, town or private corporation. Mosaic Law, the institutions of Moses, or the code of Laws prescribed to the Jews, as distinguished from the gospel. Ceremonial Law, the Mosaic institutions which prescribe the external rites and ceremonies to be observed by the Jews, as distinct from the moral precepts, which are of perpetual obligation. These, having not the Law, as a Law to themselves. But I see another Law in my members warring against the Law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the Law of sin which is in my members. But his delight is in the Law of the Lord, and in his Law doth he meditate day and night. Is it not written in your Law, I said, ye are gods? John 10 . The institutions of Moses, as distinct from the other parts of the Old Testament as the Law and the prophets. A rule or axiom of science or art settled principle as the Laws of versification or poetry. Law martial, or martial Law, the rules ordained for the government of an army or military force. Marine Laws, rules for the regulation of navigation, and the commercial intercourse of nations. Commercial Law, Law-merchant, the system of rules by which trade and commercial intercourse are regulated between merchants. Judicial process prosecution of right in courts of Law. Tom Touchy is a fellow famous for taking the Law of every body. ...
Hence the phrase, to go to Law, to prosecute to seek redress in a legal tribunal. Jurisprudence as in the title, Doctor of Laws. In general, Law is a rule of action prescribed for the government of rational beings or moral agents, to which rule they are bound to yield obedience, in default of which they are exposed to punishment or Law is a settled mode or course of action or operation in irrational beings and in inanimate bodies. Civil Law, criminal Law. ...
Laws of honor. ...
Law language, the language used in legal writings and forms, particularly the Norman dialect or Old French, which was used in judicial proceedings from the days of William the conqueror to the 36th year of Edward III. ...
Wager of Law, a species of trial formerly used in England, in which the defendant gave security that he would, on a certain day, make his Law, that is, he would make oath that he owed nothing to the plaintiff, and would produce eleven of his neighbors as compurgators, who should swear that they believed in their consciences that he had sworn the truth
Mosiac Law - Or the Law of Moses, is the most ancient that we know of in the world, and is of three kinds; the moral Law, the ceremonial Law, and the judicial Law. ...
See Law. Some observe, that the different manner in which each of these Laws was delivered may suggest to us a right idea of their different natures. The moral Law, or ten commandments, for instance, was delivered on the top of the mountain, in the face of the whole world, as being of universal influence, and obligatory on all mankind. As to the judicial Law, it was neither so publicly nor so audibly given as the moral Law, nor yet so privately as the ceremonial; this kind of Law being of an indifferent nature, to be observed or not observed, as its rites suit with the place and government under which we live. The five books of Moses called the Pentateuch, are frequently styled, by way of emphasis, the Law. ...
See Law
Enactor - ) One who enacts a Law; one who decrees or establishes as a Law
Lawgiver - Law'GIVER, n. Law and give. One who makes or enacts a Law a legislator
Dulcinists - He taught that the Law of the Father, which had continued till Moses, was a Law of grace and wisdom; but that the Law of the Holy Ghost, which began with himself in 1307, was a Law entirely of love, which would last to the end of the world
d.c.l. - Doctor Civilis Legis (Doctor of Civil Law) ...
- or - ...
Doctor Canonicæ Legis (Doctor of Canon Law) ...
j.c.d. - = Juris Canonici Doctor (Doctor of Canon Law); or Juris Civilis Doctor (Doctor of Civil Law) ...
Jurisprudent - ) One skilled in Law or jurisprudence. ) Understanding Law; skilled in jurisprudence
Lawmonger - ) A trader in Law; one who practices Law as if it were a trade
b.c.l. - = Baccalwureus Civilis Legis (Bachelor of Civil Law); or Baccalaureus Canonicre Legis (Bachelor of Canon Law)
Mishnah - The first compilation of the oral Law, authored by Rabbi Yehudah HaNasi (approx. ); the germinal statements of Law elucidated by the Gemara, together with which they constitute the Talmud; also, a single statement of Law from this work
Daughter-in-Law - Famous daughters-in-law include Sarah, daughter-in-law of Terah (Genesis 11:31 ); Tamar, daughter-in-law of Judah (Genesis 38:11 ,Genesis 38:11,38:16 ; 1 Chronicles 2:4 ); and Ruth, daughter-in-law of Naomi (Ruth 2:20 ,Ruth 2:20,2:22 ; Ruth 4:15 ). Daughters-in-law might be addressed simply as daughter (Ruth 2:2 ,Ruth 2:2,2:8 ,Ruth 2:8,2:22 ). The breakdown of the relationship between mother-in-laws and daughters-in-law illustrated the collapse of moral society (Micah 7:6 ). Jewish Law prohibited incest between a man and his daughter-in-law (Leviticus 18:15 )
Canonist - ) A professor of canon Law; one skilled in the knowledge and practice of ecclesiastical Law
Reenactment - ) The enacting or passing of a Law a second time; the renewal of a Law
Father-in-Law - ) The father of one's husband or wife; - correlative to son-in-law and daughter-in-law
Delict - ) An offense or transgression against Law; (Scots Law) an offense of a lesser degree; a misdemeanor
Tora - ) A Law; a precept. ) The Pentateuch or "Law of Moses
Droit - ) A right; Law in its aspect of the foundation of rights; also, in old Law, the writ of right
Lawfully - Law'FULLY, adv. Legally in accordance with Law without violating Law. We may Lawfully do what the Laws do not forbid
by-Law - ) A local or subordinate Law; a private Law or regulation made by a corporation for its own government. ) A Law that is less important than a general Law or constitutional provision, and subsidiary to it; a rule relating to a matter of detail; as, civic societies often adopt a constitution and by-laws for the government of their members
Lawless - Law'LESS, a. Not subject to Law unrestrained by Law as a Lawless tyrant Lawless men. Contrary to Law illegal unauthorized as a Lawless claim. He needs no indirect nor Lawless course. Not subject to the ordinary Laws of nature uncontrolled. He, meteor-like, flames Lawless through the void
Law - The Law is God's instructions concerning the moral, social, and spiritual behavior of His people found in the first five books of the Bible. The Law is the very reflection of the nature of God because God speaks out of the abundance of what is in Him. Therefore, since God is pure, the Law is pure. Since God is holy, the Law is holy. The Law consists of the 10 commandments (Exodus 20:1-26), rules for social life (Exodus 21:1-36; Exo 22:1-31; Exo 23:1-33), and rules for the worship of God (Exodus 25:1-40; Exo 26:1-37; Exo 27:1-21; Exo 28:1-43; Exo 29:1-46; Exo 30:1-38; Exo 31:1-18Exodus 25:1-40; Exo 26:1-37; Exo 27:1-21; Exo 28:1-43; Exo 29:1-46; Exo 30:1-38; Exo 31:1-18Exodus 25:1-40; Exo 26:1-37; Exo 27:1-21; Exo 28:1-43; Exo 29:1-46; Exo 30:1-38; Exo 31:1-18). The Law is a difficult taskmaster because it requires that we maintain a perfect standard of moral behavior. And then when we fail, the Law condemns us to death. We deserve death even if we fail to keep just one point of the Law: "For whoever keeps the whole Law and yet stumbles in one point, he has become guilty of all" (James 2:10). ...
The Law made nothing perfect (Hebrews 7:19). That is why the Law has shown us our need for Jesus and the free gift we receive through Him (Galatians 3:24)
Illegitimacy - (Latin: in, not; legem, Law) ...
Not according to the Law, the condition of one who is born out of wedlock
Pentateuch - ) The first five books of the Old Testament, collectively; - called also the Law of Moses, Book of the Law of Moses, etc
Lawgiver - 1: νομοθέτης (Strong's #3550 — Noun Masculine — nomothetes — nom-oth-et'-ace ) "a Lawgiver" (see Law , A, No. 1), occurs in James 4:12 , of God, as the sole "Lawgiver;" therefore, to criticize the Law is to presume to take His place, with the presumption of enacting a better Law
Law - ...
Tôrâh (תֹּרָה, Strong's #8451), “law; direction; instruction. ...
In the wisdom literature, where the noun does not appear with a definite article, tôrâh signifies primarily “direction, teaching, instruction”: “The Law of the wise is a fountain of life, to depart from the snares of death” ( Law from his mouth, and lay up his words in thine heart” (Job 22:22). The sage was a father to his pupils: “Whoso keepeth the Law is a wise son: but he that is a companion of riotous men shameth his father” ( Law of kindness” ( Law” or “the direction” (ha-tôrâh), and quite frequently as “the Law of the Lord”: “Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the Law of the Lord” ( Law of God”: “Also day by day, from the first day unto the last day, [1] read in the book of the Law of God” ( Law of [2] Moses”: “Remember ye the Law of Moses my servant, which I commanded unto him in Horeb for all Israel …” ( Law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children” ( Law which Moses set before the children of Israel …” ( Law, which I set before you this day?” ( Law in the house of the Lord” ( Law is to be internalized, God’s people would willingly obey Him: “But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the Lord, I will put my Law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people” (
The Septuagint gives the following translations: nomos (“law; rule”); nomimos (“conformable to Law; Lawful”); entole (“command[3]; order”); and prostagma (“order; commandment; injunction”)
Doctor - ...
2: νομοδιδάσκαλος (Strong's #3547 — Noun Masculine — nomodidaskalos — nom-od-id-as'-kal-os ) "a teacher of the Law" (nomos, "a Law," and No. 1), with reference to the teachers of the Mosaic Law, is used in the same sense as No. 1, Luke 5:17 ; Acts 5:34 ; also of those who went about among Christians, professing to be instructors of the Law, 1 Timothy 1:7 . See under Law
Legalist - ) One who practices or advocates strict conformity to Law; in theology, one who holds to the Law of works
Law, Ten Commandments, Torah - Law refers both to the revelation of the will of God in the Old Testament and to the later elaboration on the Law referred to as the “traditions of the elders” in the New Testament (for example, Mark 7:5 ). ...
Law is one of the primary concepts in the Bible. The specific translation of the term Law is varied. The first five books of the Bible (the Pentateuch) are known as books of the Law because they are based on the commandments which God revealed to Moses. ...
The Hebrew term most frequently translated “law” in the Old Testament is torah , used more than 200 times. The Torah is more than just “laws”; it includes the story of God's dealing with humankind and with Israel. The covenant agreement between God and His people at Mount Sinai provided the foundation for all of Israel's Laws. They were to obey God's Laws because of what He had done for them in saving them from Egypt ( Exodus 20:2 ). The Laws found in Exodus, Deuteronomy, Numbers, and Leviticus cover all areas of community life. Following the Law would provide for the health and wholeness of the covenant community. The Ten Commandments are a summary of the Law (Exodus 20:2-17 ; Deuteronomy 5:6-21 ). By New Testament times torah meant not only the Old Testament Scriptures (the written Law), but also the oral Law (unwritten Law) of Israel as well. The religious leaders developed in applying the written Law to new life situations. This oral Law is sometimes referred to as “the tradition of the elders” in the New Testament (compare Matthew 15:2 ; Mark 7:5 ; Galatians 1:14 ). ...
Two kinds of Laws can be found in the Old Testament. First are broad categorical Laws which set forth general principles. These Laws do not specify how they are to be enforced or what penalties are to be invoked. The Ten Commandments are representative of this kind of Law. ...
Second are case Laws. These Laws often begin with an “if” or a “when,” usually deal with very specific situations. Many times they indicate a punishment for breaking the Law (e. These ten Laws define negatively the heart of the covenant relationship between God and Israel. Here one can see the wonderful balance that is maintained in the Law. ...
The Ten Commandments were not given only for the Hebrew people but are abiding Laws for all people. Some of the Laws of the Bible seem to apply only to specific times, places, and persons, but the Ten Commandments have an abiding quality about them. ...
Jesus certainly knew the Law and often referred to it. It is possible to say that Jesus was both a critic of the Law and a supporter of it. He was critical of the Law of one means “the tradition of the elders” or the oral Laws that had grown up around the written Law. The enemies of Jesus frequently accused Him of violating the Law. It is clear that keeping the letter of the Law had become more important to some of the Jews than the purpose behind the Law. The Pharisees accused Jesus and His disciples of not following the Law with regard to “unclean” things (Matthew 15:1-20 ), and they accused Him of eating with tax-gatherers and sinners (Matthew 9:11 ). He rejected their interpretation of the sabbath Law and said that the Son of man is Lord of the sabbath (Matthew 12:8 ); that the sabbath was made for man and not man for the sabbath (Mark 2:27 ); and He taught that it was permissible to do good on the sabbath (Mark 3:4 ). ...
Jesus inaugurated a new era in which the Law as understood by the Jews of His day would no longer be the guiding principle for the Kingdom of God (Luke 16:16 ). Nevertheless, Jesus claimed not to have come to destroy the Law, but to fulfill it (Matthew 5:17-20 ). That is, Jesus moved the understanding of the Law from its external, legalistic meaning to its spiritual one. He pushes the Law out to its ultimate meaning (thus filling it full). In this sense Jesus affirmed the heart and the spirit of the Law. He moved to a deeper level of meaning, to the spirit behind the Law which God had intended from the beginning. ...
Jesus did not give us a new Law. Then He said, “On these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets” (Matthew 22:40 ). Incredibly, Jesus summed up the whole Law and the teaching of the prophets with these two commandments. Behind all of the Law had stood these two great principles of love for God and neighbor. ...
Paul had a lifelong struggle with the Law. By the term “law,” Paul meant the Law of God as contained in the Old Testament. He also spoke of a kind of natural Law which existed in human beings (Romans 7:23 ,Romans 7:23,7:25 ). The “law of sin” meant conduct determined by sin. Paul also used Law in this sense when he referred to the “law of faith”—that is, conduct determined by faith in God (Romans 3:27-28 ). ...
Paul's attitude toward the Mosaic Law can be summarized under several main points. First of all, he recognized that the Law had been given for a good purpose; it was holy, just and good (Romans 7:12 ,Romans 7:12,7:14 ; 1 Timothy 1:8 ). The demands of the Law were not evil, but had the effect of pointing out the sin of human beings (Romans 7:7 ). Because of man's sinfulness, the Law became a curse instead of a blessing (Galatians 3:10-13 ). ...
Second, Paul believed the Law was given for a good purpose, but it could not save (Galatians 3:11 ; Romans 3:20 ). If persons were to become children of God, it would be by means other than keeping the Law. The third theme we find in Paul is that Christ freed us from the requirements of the Law by His death and resurrection (Romans 8:3-4 ). Therefore, Christ has become the end of the Law for Christians (Romans 10:4 ), and it is faith that saves and not Law (Ephesians 2:8-9 ). ...
Paul, like Jesus, saw the Law fulfilled in the command to love (Romans 13:8 ; Galatians 5:13 ). Only with the aid of the Spirit of God can we meet the requirement to love which fulfills the Law (Galatians 5:16 ; Romans 8:1 ). Paul saw the Law as no longer to be viewed legalistically
Law of Moses - The Law was like a straight edge given by God to make manifest the crookedness of man. "[1] Law entered that the offence might abound " (Romans 5:20 ), that is, not to increase sin, but to show its offensiveness, and to bring it home to the soul. "By [2] Law is the knowledge of sin. The apostle said that he would not have known lust had not the Law said, "Thou shalt not covet. The object of the Law therefore was to evince the heinousness of sin, while it was a test of the obedience of man to God. The Gentiles are described as not having the Law, Romans 2:14 , though they had the work of the Law written in their hearts, and a conscience which bore witness when they did wrong. But greater light having come in, the Galatian Christians are sharply rebuked for putting themselves under Law, where, as Gentiles, they never had been. Some things forbidden in the Law were wrong intrinsically, such as theft, murder, etc. '...
The Law in its enactment of sacrifices and feasts was essentially typical and foreshadowed what was to be fulfilled in Christ. In accordance with this, Paul, as a Jew, could say, "The Law was our schoolmaster unto Christ;" and the Lord said, "Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me. This is an important point, for the passage that speaks of the Law as the schoolmaster goes on to say that it was in order that they "might be justified by faith. A converted Jew was no longer under the Law — how much less a Gentile believer whom God had never put under the Law! See SCHOOLMASTER. ...
This is often construed to mean that while the Christian is not under the Law for justification, he is under it for walk, as a rule of life. This theory is however opposed to scripture, which says, "sin shall not have dominion over you: for ye are not under the Law, but under grace. A Christian has died with Christ and lives unto God, beyond the jurisdiction of Law, which applies to man in the flesh, man 'in Adam. ...
Many contend that the ceremonial Law is abrogated, but that the moral Law is binding upon all. This distinction between the ceremonial and the moral Law can only be true in so far as the Law is the embodiment of moral principles, which must ever be the rule of conduct for an intelligent being as such. So the righteous requirements of the Law are fulfilled now in those who walk after the Spirit — while they are said to have become dead to the Law by the body of Christ. Scripture speaks only of 'the Law. ' The Law engraven on stones (the ten commandments) is called "the ministration of death ," not the Law of life to a Christian. Law gives no power over sin; indeed, no sooner does a Law say that a particular thing must not be done, than a desire arises to do it. Scripture does not say a word about the Christian being ruled by Law; but it says that grace teaches him how to walk (Titus 2:11,12 ), and because he is under grace sin will not have dominion over him. The Law depicted what a righteous man should be for the earth. The Law did not come up to the responsibilities of Christianity. ...
Man naturally clings to Law because it recognises him as alive in the flesh
Mithredath - (See Ezra 4:7) His name seems to be derived from Thur, Law, and is meant to convey an idea of one studying the Law
Legality - ) A conformity to, and resting upon, the letter of the Law. ) The state or quality of being legal; conformity to Law
Letter - The "oldness of the letter" (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward obedience to the Law as a system of mere external rules of conduct. In 2 Corinthians 3:6 , "the letter" means the Mosaic Law as a written Law
Lynch - ) To inflict punishment upon, especially death, without the forms of Law, as when a mob captures and hangs a suspected person. See Lynch Law
Wickedly - ) In a wicked manner; in a manner, or with motives and designs, contrary to the divine Law or the Law of morality; viciously; corruptly; immorally
Legal - ) Governed by the rules of Law as distinguished from the rules of equity; as, legal estate; legal assets. ) According to the old or Mosaic dispensation; in accordance with the Law of Moses. ) According to the Law of works, as distinguished from free grace; or resting on works for salvation. ) Created by, permitted by, in conformity with, or relating to, Law; as, a legal obligation; a legal standard or test; a legal procedure; a legal claim; a legal trade; anything is legal which the Laws do not forbid
Rogation - ) The demand, by the consuls or tribunes, of a Law to be passed by the people; a proposed Law or decree
Hobab - ” Father-in-law of Moses (Numbers 10:29 ; Judges 4:11 ). Some uncertainty exists concerning the identity of Moses' father-in-law. Jethro (Exodus 3:1 ; Exodus 18:2 ) and Reuel (Exodus 2:16 ) are also given as names for the father-in-law of the great Lawgiver. Some say different groups within Israel handed down the story of Moses in oral tradition with different names for his father-in-law. Others say Reuel and Jethro were different names for the same person, while Hobab was the son of Reuel or Raguel (Numbers 10:29 ) and thus the brother-in-law of Moses. Others say that the Hebrew term for father-in-law really has the more general meaning of “related by marriage
Law - Law, The. This term is applied in the New Testament to the old covenant and revelation, in distinction from the new; the dispensation under the Law in distinction from the dispensation under the gospel; that by Moses and the prophets in distinction from the dispensation by Christ. The Law, the prophets, and the psalms, Luke 24:27; Luke 24:44; Acts 13:15, thus designate the entire Old Testament. Sometimes Paul uses the word "law" (without the article) in a wider sense—of principle, rule of moral conduct—and speaks of the heathen as having such a Law written on their conscience or being a Law to themselves
Equity - In practice, equity is the impartial distribution of justice, or the doing that to another which the Laws of God and man, and of reason, give him a right to claim. In Law, an equitable claim. In jurisprudence, the correction or qualification of Law, when too severe or defective or the extension of the words of the Law to cases not expressed, yet coming within the reason of the Law. Hence a court of equity or chancery, is a court which corrects the operation of the literal text of the Law, and supplies its defects, by reasonable construction, and by rules of proceeding and deciding, which are not admissible in a court of Law. Equity then is the Law of reason, exercised by the chancellor or judge, giving remedy in cases to which the courts of Law are not competent. Equity of redemption, in Law, the advantage, allowed to a mortgager, of a reasonable time to redeem lands mortgaged, when the estate is of greater value than the sum for which it was mortgaged
Doctor of the Law - It implies one learned in the divine Law. Doctors of the Law were mostly of the sect of the Pharisees, but are distinguished from that sect in Luke 5:17 , where it appears that the novelty of our Savior's teaching drew together a great company both of Pharisees and doctors of the Law
Bigamy - In criminal Law, formally contracting a marriage while a former one remains undissolved; in ecclesiastical Law, the contracting of a valid marriage after the death of a first spouse
Usucaption - ) The acquisition of the title or right to property by the uninterrupted possession of it for a certain term prescribed by Law; - the same as prescription in common Law
Law of Moses - It is called by way of eminence simply "the Law" (Heb. As a written code it is called the "book of the Law of Moses" (2 Kings 14:6 ; Isaiah 8:20 ), the "book of the Law of God" (Joshua 24:26 ). The great leading principle of the Mosaic Law is that it is essentially theocratic; i
Lawless - The word is ἄνομος, and is translated 'without Law' in 1 Corinthians 9:21 ; it is applied to those who, regardless of all Law, do their own will. A kindred word is translated 'transgression of the Law' in 1 John 3:4 , which as a definition of sin is a serious error: it should be 'sin is Lawlessness,' and this term is equally applicable to those who never had the Law
Attorney-General - ) The chief Law officer of the state, empowered to act in all litigation in which the Law-executing power is a party, and to advise this supreme executive whenever required
Kosher - ) Ceremonially clean, according to Jewish Law; - applied to food, esp. to meat of animals slaughtered according to the requirements of Jewish Law. ) To prepare in conformity with the requirements of the Jewish Law, as meat
Doctors - Literally Teachers: otherwise called DOCTORS OR TEACHERS OF THE Law. Those who devoted themselves to the study and teaching of the Jewish Law
Transgression - ) The act of transgressing, or of passing over or beyond any Law, civil or moral; the violation of a Law or known principle of rectitude; breach of command; fault; offense; crime; sin
Transgress, Transgression - 1, primarily "a going aside," then, "an overstepping," is used metaphorically to denote "transgression" (always of a breach of Law): (a) of Adam, Romans 5:14 ; (b) of Eve, 1 Timothy 2:14 ; (c) negatively, where there is no Law, since "transgression" implies the violation of Law, none having been enacted between Adam's "transgression" and those under the Law, Romans 4:15 ; (d) of "transgressions" of the Law, Galatians 3:19 , where the statement "it was added because of transgressions" is best understood according to Romans 4:15 ; 5:13 ; 5:20 ; the Law does not make men sinners, but makes them "transgressors;" hence sin becomes "exceeding sinful," Romans 7:7,13 . Conscience thus had a standard external to itself; by the Law men are taught their inability to yield complete obedience to God, that thereby they may become convinced of their need of a Savior; in Romans 2:23 , RV, "transgression (of the Law)," AV, "breaking (the Law);" Hebrews 2:2 ; 9:15 . ...
B — 2: παρανομία (Strong's #3892 — Noun Feminine — paranomia — par-an-om-ee'-ah ) "lawbreaking" (para, "contrary to, nomos, "law"), is rendered "transgression" in 2 Peter 2:16 , RV (AV, "iniquity"). ...
Note: In 1 John 3:4 (1st part), AV, poieo, "to do," with anomia, "lawlessness," is rendered "transgresseth . the Law" (RV, "doeth . Lawlessness"); in the 2nd part anomia alone is rendered "transgression of the Law," AV (RV, "lawlessness")
Antinomy - ) An opposing Law or rule of any kind. ) Opposition of one Law or rule to another Law or rule
Perez - ” One of the twins born to the illicit affair between Judah and his daughter-in-law, Tamar (Genesis 38:1 ). After she was widowed and her brother-in-law, Onan, refused to fulfill his duties in levirate marriage (designed to carry on the name of the deceased through a son), she tricked her father-in-law, Judah, into an affair (Genesis 38:13-30 )
Sin - A voluntary transgression of the Law of God. The Law of God, which sin contravenes, comprises not only the natural and the Divine positive Law, but also the just precepts of all legitimately constituted authority
Transgress - In a moral sense, to overpass any rule prescribed as the limit of duty to break or violate a Law, or moral. To transgress a divine Law, is sin. Legislators should not transgress Laws of their own making. TRANSGRESS', To offend by violating a Law to sin
Angers, University of, France - Probably developed from the cathedral school; famous as a Law school c1364Faculties of theology, medicine, and arts were added by Pope Eugene IV, 1432. Today it has faculties of theology, Law, arts, and science
University of Angers, France - Probably developed from the cathedral school; famous as a Law school c1364Faculties of theology, medicine, and arts were added by Pope Eugene IV, 1432. Today it has faculties of theology, Law, arts, and science
Canon of Scripture - The Law, i. The Psalms, divided into five books to correspond with it, begin, "Blessed is the man" whose "delight is in the Law of the Lord; and in His Law will he meditate day and night. " In Joshua (Joshua 1:8) similarly the Lord saith, "this book of the Law shall not depart out of thy mouth, but thou shalt meditate therein day and night. " Moses directed the Levites, "Take this book of the Law, and put it in the side of the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God" (Deuteronomy 31:25-26). ...
Hilkiah "found the book of the Law in the house of the Lord," where it had lain neglected during the reigns that preceded godly Josiah's reign (2 Kings 22:8; 2 Chronicles 34:14), "the Law of the Lord by (the hand of) Moses. " Joshua under inspiration added his record, "writing these words in the book of the Law of God" (Joshua 24:26). Isaiah (Isaiah 8:20) as representative of the prophets makes the Law the standard of appeal: "to the Law and to the testimony: if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them
Disposition - diatasso, "to appoint, ordain"), is rendered "disposition" in Acts 7:53 ; RV, "as it (the Law) was ordained by angels" (marg. Angels are mentioned in connection with the giving of the Law of Moses in Deuteronomy 33:2 . In Galatians 3:19 ; Hebrews 2:2 the purpose of the reference to them is to show the superiority of the Gospel to the Law. In Acts 7:53 Stephen mentions the angels to stress the majesty of the Law
Civilian - ) One skilled in the civil Law. ) A student of the civil Law at a university or college
Law - The word ‘law’ is used in many ways in the Bible. The most common usage of the term, however, concerns the Law of God given to Israel through Moses at Mt Sinai (Exodus 24:12; Deuteronomy 4:44; Ezra 7:6; John 1:17; Galatians 3:17; Galatians 3:19). This meaning of ‘law’ is the chief concern of the present article. ...
The Law that God gave to the people of Israel at Sinai laid down his requirements for them. Through obedience to that Law the people would enjoy the life God intended for them in the covenant relationship (Leviticus 18:5; cf. The ten commandments were the principles by which the nation was to live, and formed the basis on which all Israel’s other Laws were built (Exodus 20:1-17). ...
Characteristics of Israelite Law...
No part of the lives of the Israelites was outside the demands of the covenant. The Law applied to the whole of their lives and made no distinction between moral, religious and civil Laws. Laws may have been in the form of absolute demands that allowed no exceptions (e. ...
Israel’s Law-code was suited to the customs of the time and was designed to administer justice within the established culture. Unlike some ancient Law-codes, it did not favour the upper classes, but guaranteed a fair hearing for all. ...
Jesus’ attitude to the Law...
The covenant made with Israel at Sinai and the Law that belonged to that covenant were not intended to be permanent. ...
Jesus was born under the Law (Galatians 4:4) and was brought up according to the Law (Luke 2:21-24; Luke 2:42). He obeyed the Law (Matthew 17:27; John 2:13) and he commanded others to obey the Law (Matthew 8:4; Matthew 23:1-3; Matthew 23:23). Jesus did not oppose the Law, though he certainly did oppose the false interpretations of the Law that the Jewish leaders of his time taught. He upheld and fulfilled the Law by demonstrating its true meaning (Matthew 5:17-19; Matthew 5:21; Matthew 5:27; Matthew 5:31; Matthew 5:33; Matthew 5:38; Matthew 5:43). ...
Frequently Jesus pointed out that the Law was good and holy and that God gave it for people’s benefit (Matthew 22:36-40; Luke 10:25-28; cf. By contrast the Jewish leaders used the Law to oppress people, adding their own traditions and forcing people to obey them. In so doing they forgot, or even opposed, the purpose for which God gave the Law (Matthew 23:4; Mark 7:1-9; see TRADITION). Jesus knew that the Law, as a set of regulations, was part of a system that was about to pass away (Matthew 9:16-17; cf. ...
Salvation apart from the Law...
People have never received forgiveness of sins through keeping the Law. Abraham, David and Paul lived respectively before, during and after the period when the old covenant and its Law-code operated in Israel, but all three alike were saved by faith (Genesis 15:6; Romans 8:3-4; Romans 4:1-16; Romans 4:22; Galatians 3:17-18; Ephesians 2:8; 1 Timothy 1:14-16). It was a gracious gift received by faith, not a reward for keeping the Law (Galatians 3:18; Galatians 3:21-22; see PROMISE). ...
Contrary to popular Jewish opinion, the Law was not given as a means of salvation (Romans 9:31-32). Through the Law given to Israel, God showed the righteous standards that his holiness demanded. ...
At the same time the Law showed the extent of people’s sinfulness, for their behaviour repeatedly fell short of the Law’s standards. The Law therefore showed up human sin; but when sinners acknowledged their sin and turned in faith to God, God in his grace forgave them (Romans 3:19-20; Romans 3:31; Romans 5:20; Romans 7:7; Galatians 3:11; Galatians 3:19). (Concerning the rituals of the Law for the cleansing of sin see SACRIFICE. )...
Those who broke the Law were under the curse and condemnation of the Law (Deuteronomy 27:26; Galatians 3:10). Jesus Christ, however, lived a perfect life according to the Law, and then died to bear the Law’s curse. Believers in Jesus are freed from the Law’s curse. ...
Jesus Christ is the true fulfilment of the Law. The Law prepared the way for him and pointed to him. Before his coming, the people of Israel, being under the Law, were like children under the control of a guardian. With his coming, the Law had fulfilled its purpose; the guardian was no longer necessary. ...
Christian life apart from the Law...
It was some time before Jewish Christians in the early church understood clearly that the Law was no longer binding upon them. Stephen seems to have been the first Christian to see clearly that Christianity was not part of the Jewish system and was not bound by the Jewish Law (Acts 6:13-14). Then Peter had a vision through which he learnt that Jewish food Laws no longer applied. ...
These Jews later tried to force Gentile converts to keep the Law of Moses (Acts 15:1), and argued so cleverly that Peter tended to follow them, until Paul corrected him (Galatians 2:11-16). When some of the leading Christians met at Jerusalem to discuss the matter, they agreed that Gentiles were not to be put under the Law of Moses (Acts 15:19). People were saved by faith alone, not by the Law, and they lived their Christian lives by faith alone, not by the Law (Romans 3:21-31; Galatians 3:28). ...
When he met opposition to his teaching, Paul pointed out the impossibility of being saved through keeping the Law (Romans 9:30-32; Galatians 2:16; Galatians 5:4; Philippians 3:9). An equal impossibility was to grow in maturity and holiness through keeping the Law, or even selected parts of it (Galatians 3:2-5; Galatians 5:1-3; James 2:10-11). ...
The actions of Paul in occasionally observing Jewish Laws were not for the purpose of pursuing personal holiness. If people tried to force Paul to keep the Law, he would not yield to them under any circumstances (Galatians 2:3-5). ...
Paul explained the uselessness of trying to grow in holiness through placing oneself under the Law. He pointed out that the more the Law forbids a thing, the more the sinful human heart wants to do it (Romans 7:7-11). This does not mean that there is anything wrong with the Law. On the contrary, the Law is holy, just and good. ...
Free but not Lawless...
Although the Law aims at righteous behaviour, people cannot produce righteous behaviour by keeping the Law. It is not surprising, then, to find that those guidelines contain quotations from the Law of Moses to indicate the sort of character and conduct that a holy God requires (Matthew 22:36-40; Romans 7:12; 1618611443_84; Ephesians 6:2; Romans 10:5; James 2:8-12). ...
Christians are not under Law but under grace. Yet they are not Lawless (Romans 6:15). They have been freed from the bondage of the Law and are now bound to Christ (Romans 7:1-4). The Law of Christ is a Law of liberty, one that Christians obey not because they are forced to but because they want to. And in so doing they will practise love, which itself is the fulfilment of the Law (John 13:34; Romans 13:8-10; Galatians 5:14; 1 John 5:2-3)
Crime - ) Any violation of Law, either divine or human; an omission of a duty commanded, or the commission of an act forbidden by Law. ) Gross violation of human Law, in distinction from a misdemeanor or trespass, or other slight offense
Repeal - ) Revocation; abrogation; as, the repeal of a statute; the repeal of a Law or a usage. ) To recall, as a deed, will, Law, or statute; to revoke; to rescind or abrogate by authority, as by act of the legislature; as, to repeal a Law
Righteousness - The righteousness of Christ denotes, not only his absolute perfection, but, is taken for his perfect obedience unto death, and his suffering the penalty of the Law in our stead. The righteousness of the Law is that obedience which the Law requires
Law -
The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by natural light (Romans 1:20 ; 2:14,15 ). This Law binds all men at all times. ...
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The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testament the rites and ceremonies of worship. This Law was obligatory only till Christ, of whom these rites were typical, had finished his work (Hebrews 7:9,11 ; 10:1 ; Ephesians 2:16 ). ...
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The Judicial Law, the Law which directed the civil policy of the Hebrew nation. ...
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The Moral Law is the revealed will of God as to human conduct, binding on all men to the end of time. ) ...
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Positive Laws are precepts founded only on the will of God. ...
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Moral positive Laws are commanded by God because they are right
Corporation - ) A body politic or corporate, formed and authorized by Law to act as a single person, and endowed by Law with the capacity of succession; a society having the capacity of transacting business as an individual
Audacious - ) Contemning the restraints of Law, religion, or decorum; bold in wickedness; presumptuous; impudent; insolent. ) Committed with, or proceedings from, daring effrontery or contempt of Law, morality, or decorum
Vis Major - A superior force which under certain circumstances is held to exempt from contract obligations; inevitable accident; - a civil-law term used as nearly equivalent to, but broader than, the common-law term act of God (which see)
Locus - ) The line traced by a point which varies its position according to some determinate Law; the surface described by a point or line that moves according to a given Law
Doctors - or TEACHERS, of the Law, a class of men in great repute among the Jews. They had studied the Law of Moses in its various branches, and the numerous interpretations which had been grafted upon it in later times; and, on various occasions, they gave their opinion on cases referred to them for advice. Nicodemus, himself a doctor (διδασκαλος , teacher ) of the, Law, comes to consult Jesus, whom he compliments in the same terms as he was accustomed to receive from his scholars: "Rabbi, we know that thou art διδασκαλος , a competent teacher from God. "...
Doctors of the Law were chiefly of the sect of the Pharisees; but they are sometimes distinguished from that sect, Luke 5:17
Legalism - While it is now used metaphorically in all areas of human life, it appears to have had a theological origin in the seventeenth century, when Edward Fisher used it to designate "one who bringeth the Law into the case of Justification" (The Marrow of Modern Divinity, 1645). In Judaism the entire Old Testament could be called the Law—a usage reflected in the New Testament (John 10:34 ; 1 Corinthians 14:21 ; Galatians 4:21-22 ). The narrative setting of the Law is essentially an account of God's choosing of Israel to be his people (Genesis 12:1-3 ; Deuteronomy 1:1-4:49 ), while the Law itself is both a prescriptive statement of the life God expects his people to lead as well as a picture of the kind of life that leads to joy and fulfillment. In short, the Law is part of the covenant, and constitutes both God's gracious gift to his people and the vehicle of their grateful response to him (Exodus 19:3-6 ; Deuteronomy 7:1-16 ; 26:1-19 ). This explains the positive picture of the Law in the Old Testament. It is made equally clear that the Law could be abused and subverted. For with the disappearance of the kingdom, the Law became the focal point of national life, and conformity to it the mark of belonging to the people of God. The grounding of the Law in the covenant grace of God was never wholly forgotten (Ezra 9:5-7 ), any more than was the sense of authentic piety (Psalm 119 , passim ) or the awareness that mere performance apart from genuine piety was worthless (Proverbs 15:8-9 ; 21:3 ). However, it was easy for the Law to assume independent significance and its observance to be viewed as the condition of God's grace rather than the response to it. Jeremiah had seen earlier that the corruption of the human heart apart from inward renewal made compliance with the Law impossible in any case (Jeremiah 31:31-34 ). The increased focus on the Law during the postexilic era intensified the danger confronted by the earlier prophets: concentration on the latter at the expense of the spirit. This persisted in the Judasim of the first Christian century even though it was recognized that mere conformity to the Law was not enough (M. Yet it seems clear that criticism of attitudes to the Law describable as legalistic constitutes a significant element in New Testament teaching. This posed a challenge to the most distinctive features of Jewish religion: the identity of the chosen people, the temple, and the life of piety, all of which found their focus in the Law. Jesus both affirmed and critiqued the Law. While attending the synagogue regularly (Luke 4:16 ) he did not hesitate to break the purity Laws (Mark 3:13-17 ) or rigid interpretations of Sabbath Law (Mark 3:1-6 ). His interpretation of the Law exhibited an incisiveness that pierced to the Law's intent beyond its surface meaning (Matthew 5:21-48 ). The forms were much the same as in Jesus' day: association with sinners, observance of the ceremonial Law, and, above all, acceptance of the ritual mark of the people of Godcircumcision. However, the issue was more acute: Was salvation possible for Gentiles apart from Law observance (Acts 11:3 ; 15:1 )? The Jerusalem Council affirmed that it was (Acts 15:11,13-14 ) and sought to resolve the practical difficulties arising from this decision (Acts 15:28-29 ), though with what success is not clear. While Paul can speak positively of the Law (Romans 7:7,12,14 ), including circumcision (Romans 3:1-2 ; 4:10-12 ), he also speaks of it negatively. Moreover, continued attachment to it is not only fruitless, but dangerous since the Law demands total obedience of which none is capable (Galatians 3:10-12 ). Law observance is thus both futile and fatal. This picture of the Law as occasioning legalism has been hotly contested. However, there is evidence of a vein of Judaism in which "the works of the Law" were seen as a pathway to righteousness (e. There is likewise evidence in the literature of the Second Temple period that sin was defined in terms of the Law, and divine intervention in the eschaton was seen as the only cure. While Paul's use of the term "works" exhibits a wide range of meaning from good to bad (see the double use in Ephesians 2:8-10 ), the significant phrase "the works of the Law" often stands in explicit contrast with faith in Christ as the means of salvation (Romans 3:20-22,28 ; Galatians 2:16 ; 3:2,5 , 10 ). Confidence in him alone, who, by his death fulfilled the Law, is the sole means of deliverance from the Law's demands, and so of avoiding legalism. Deasley...
See also James, Theology of ; Justification ; Works of the Law ...
Bibliography . Schreiner, The Law and Its Fulfillment: A Pauline Theology of Law ; F. Thielman, From Plight to Solution: A Jewish Framework for Understanding Paul's View of the Law in Romans and Galatians ; idem, Paul and the Law, A Contextual Approach ; J
Ceremonial Law - See Law ...
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Ten Commandments - See Law
India - Praise; Law
Antinomianism - See Law
Law, New - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
New Law - The Law enacted by Christ as found in the New Testament in the Gospels and the letters of the Apostles, and in the traditions of the Church, in contradistinction to the Old Law as found in the Old Testament
Fraternal Charity - The love of one's neighbor, though a universal Law, must vary in its practical obligation, according as human relations vary. When these are so intimate as to become similar to natural brotherhood, the Law is termed the Law of fraternal charity
Charity, Fraternal - The love of one's neighbor, though a universal Law, must vary in its practical obligation, according as human relations vary. When these are so intimate as to become similar to natural brotherhood, the Law is termed the Law of fraternal charity
Torah - (toh' ruh) Hebrew word normally translated “law” which eventually became a title for the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament. ...
Old Testament Though universally translated “law” in the KJV, torah also carries the sense of “teaching” or “instruction,” as reflected in more recent translations ( Job 22:22 ; Psalm 78:1 ; Proverbs 1:8 ; Proverbs 4:2 ; Proverbs 13:14 ; Isaiah 30:9 ). The meaning, Law , is certainly present in the Old Testament. Subsequent Old Testament writings continue to speak of Torah as “The Law” in this sense (Isaiah 5:24 ; Jeremiah 32:23 ; Jeremiah 44:10 ; Daniel 9:11 ), often as “the book of the Law,” the “law of Moses,” or a combination (Joshua 1:8 ; Joshua 8:31-32 ,Joshua 8:31-32,8:34 ; 2 Kings 14:6 ). The “book of the Law” found in the Temple which fueled Josiah's reforms (2 Kings 22:8-13 ) is often regarded to be roughly equivalent to the Book of Deuteronomy. By the time of Ezra and Nehemiah “the book of the Law of Moses” (Nehemiah 8:1 ) included more material than the Deuterohynomic code. Ezra cited the “law which the Lord had commanded by Moses” concerning the feast of booths, which is prescribed in Leviticus (Leviticus 23:33-43 ). The Jews began to think of their Scriptures as consisting of three sections: the Torah (Law), the Prophets, and the Writings (compare Luke 24:44 ). The books of Moses were considered “law” despite the fact that a considerable amount of their material is not legalistic in nature. The will of God was seen as embodied in the observance of the Law. The traditions of the Pharisees went far beyond the bounds of the Law as spelled out in the Torah. These traditions became for them the oral Torah, considered given to Moses at Mount Sinai to accompany the written Law. Jesus scathingly denounced the Pharisees' placing their tradition above the intent of the Law (Mark 7:8-13 ). Jesus never denied the authority of the Torah, but denounced the elevation of ritual concerns above “weightier matters of the Law: justice and mercy and faith” (Matthew 23:23 NRSV). Some of the precepts of the Law, according to Jesus, were provided because of humanity's nature and fall short of God's perfect will ( Matthew 5:33-37 ; Matthew 19:8-9 ). For true believers, Jesus demanded a commitment which went far beyond the supposed righteousness gained by keeping the Law (Luke 18:18-23 ). ...
The apostle Paul preached justification by faith rather than by the keeping of the Law. The effect of the Law has been to manifest a knowledge of sin and bring about its increase (Romans 3:20 ; Romans 5:20 ; Romans 7:5 ,Romans 7:5,7:7-11 ; 1 Corinthians 15:56 ). For Paul, Torah epitomized the old covenant, with the Law written on stone (2 Corinthians 3:7 ). In the superior new covenant, the Law is in the Spirit (2 Corinthians 3:6 ), written on the hearts of believers (compare Jeremiah 31:33 ). Believers are not subject to the Torah (Galatians 5:18 ), but by walking “in the Spirit” (Romans 8:4 ; Galatians 5:16 ) they produce fruits which transcend (Galatians 5:22-25 ) and fulfill the essence of the Law (Romans 13:8-10 ; Galatians 5:14 ; compare Matthew 22:37-40 ). See Law; Pentateuch
Natural Law - It is that universal, unchangeable, eternal Law which Saint Paul says is indelibly written by the Creator in our hearts or in our very nature, urging us to observe the moral order, to do good, and avoid evil. The ultimate basis and source of the natural Law is the eternal Law or Divine reason ordering and directing all things in accordance with their natural inclinations to their proper acts and ends. The expression or participation of this eternal Law in free rational creatures is the natural Law which may be summed up in the general prescription to do good and avoid evil, to live in conformity with right rational nature, or to observe the moral order as Divinely constituted and sanctioned. The conduct of all men is subject to the moral Law which, as to its primary or general principles at least, is naturally promulgated or known through human reason. The due regulation of our free actions in conformity with its prescriptions secures their right ordering in which consists the natural perfection of our rational nature, and which at the same time constitutes a necessary condition for supernatural perfection, for, according to Saint Thomas, "Just as grace presupposes nature, the Divine Law presupposes the natural Law
Law, Natural - It is that universal, unchangeable, eternal Law which Saint Paul says is indelibly written by the Creator in our hearts or in our very nature, urging us to observe the moral order, to do good, and avoid evil. The ultimate basis and source of the natural Law is the eternal Law or Divine reason ordering and directing all things in accordance with their natural inclinations to their proper acts and ends. The expression or participation of this eternal Law in free rational creatures is the natural Law which may be summed up in the general prescription to do good and avoid evil, to live in conformity with right rational nature, or to observe the moral order as Divinely constituted and sanctioned. The conduct of all men is subject to the moral Law which, as to its primary or general principles at least, is naturally promulgated or known through human reason. The due regulation of our free actions in conformity with its prescriptions secures their right ordering in which consists the natural perfection of our rational nature, and which at the same time constitutes a necessary condition for supernatural perfection, for, according to Saint Thomas, "Just as grace presupposes nature, the Divine Law presupposes the natural Law
Law - The word is properly used, in Scripture as elsewhere, to express a definite commandment laid down by any recognized authority; but when the word is used with the article, and without any words of limitation, it refers to the expressed will to God, and in nine cases out of ten to the Mosaic Law, or to the Pentateuch of which it forms the chief portion. The Hebrew word torah (law) lays more stress on its moral authority, as teaching the truth and guiding in the right way; the Greek nomos (law), on its constraining power as imposed and enforced by a recognized authority. Nomos , when used by him with the article, still refers in general to the Law of Moses; but when used without the article, so as to embrace any manifestation of "law," it includes all powers which act on the will of man by compulsion, or by the pressure of external motives, whether their commands be or be not expressed in definite forms. The occasional use of the word "law" (as in ( Romans 3:27 ) "law of faith") to denote an internal principle of action does not really mitigate against the general rule. It should also be noticed that the title "the Law" is occasionally used loosely to refer to the whole of the Old Testament, as in ( John 10:34 ) referring to (Psalm 82:6 ) in (John 15:25 ) referring to (Psalm 35:19 ) and in (1 Corinthians 14:21 ) referring to (Isaiah 28:11,12 )
Infamy - Canonically there are two kinds, infamia juris (infamy of or by Law) and infamia facti (infamy of or by fact). Infamy of Law is that resulting from an explicit pronouncement of the Law, as a penalty for certain crimes, such as apostasy, heresy, schism. Canon Law enumerates the grave effects of infamy, such as irregularity, disqualification for ecclesiastical office, exclusion from the Holy Eucharist, etc. Infamy of Law ceases only by dispensation of the Holy See; infamy of fact, by penance and amendment, causing reestablishment of lost reputation, in the judgment of the bishop
Malice - (Latin: malum; malitium, evil, evil intent) ...
The evil of a conscious and deliberate transgression of the Law of God; contempt of the Divine Author of the Law; a denying God the reverence and service due Him; the real essence of sin
Anaiah - ” Ezra's assistant when Ezra read the Law to the post-exilic community (Nehemiah 8:4 ). He or another man of the same name signed Nehemiah's covenant to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:22 )
Catholic University of America - Washington, DC; founded, 1889; conducted by the bishops of the United States; schools of philosophy, letters, sciences, Law, sacred sciences, canon Law; summer school; professors, 114; students (including Sisters College, Trinity College, and Summer School), 2,245; degrees conferred in 1929,237
Moses, Books of - See Pentateuch ; Law
Law of Moses - See Law, Moses
Law, Roman - See Roman Law
Boyle's Law - See under Law
Mithredath - Breaking the Law
Dothan - The Law; custom
Compurgation - ) The act or practice of justifying or confirming a man's veracity by the oath of others; - called also wager of Law. See Purgation; also Wager of Law, under Wager
Lawless - ) Contrary to, or unauthorized by, Law; illegal; as, a Lawless claim. ) Not subject to the Laws of nature; uncontrolled. ) Not subject to, or restrained by, the Law of morality or of society; as, Lawless men or behavior
Levitical - Belong to the Levites, or descendants of Levi as the levitical Law, the Law given by Moses, which prescribed the duties and rights of the priests and Levites, and regulated the and religious concerns of the Jews
Epikeia - (Greek: epieikes, reasonable) ...
An indulgent and benign interpretation of Law, which regards a Law as not applying in a particular case because of circumstances unforeseen by the Lawmaker. The Lawmaker cannot foresee all possible cases that may come under the Law, and it is therefore reasonably presumed that were the present circumstances known to the legislator he would permit the act, e. Epikeia is not permitted, however, no matter how grave the inconvenience, if violation of the Law would render an act null and void, e
Six Articles - Law of
Moses, Law of - See Law of Moses
Jeduthun - His Law; giving praise
Cleanness - —See Law, Purification
Deuteronomy - Repetition of the Law
Appeal - See Trial-At-Law
Accusation - See Trial-At-Law
Widow - Among the Hebrews, even before the Law, a widow who had no children by her husband was to marry the brother of her deceased spouse, in order to raise up children who might inherit, his goods and perpetuate his name and family. We find the practice of this custom before the Law in the person of Tamar, who married successively Er and Onan, the sons of Judah, and who was likewise to have married Selah, the third son of this patriarch, after the two former were dead without issue, Genesis 38:6-11 . The Law that appoints these marriages is Deuteronomy 25:5 , &c. Two motives prevailed to the enacting of this Law. This Law was not confined to brothers-in-law only, but was extended to more distant relations of the same kind; as we see in the example of Ruth, who married Boaz after she had been refused by a nearer kinsman
Hobab - In Judges 4:11 , the word rendered "father-in-law" means properly any male relative by marriage (Compare Genesis 19:14 , "son-in-law," A. ), and should be rendered "brother-in-law," as in the RSV His descendants followed Israel to Canaan (Numbers 10:29 ), and at first pitched their tents near Jericho, but afterwards settled in the south in the borders of Arad (Judges 1:8-11,16 )
Law of Christ - The phrase "the Law of Christ" appears only in Galatians 6:2 , although it is implied by the wording of 1 Corinthians 9:21 as well. In Galatians, Paul argues vigorously that the Law given at Sinai makes no claim on those who believe in Christ, whether Gentile or Jew (2:15-21; 3:10-14,23-26; 4:4-5; 4:21-5:6). He then appeals to the Galatians to engage in ethical behavior by walking in the Spirit (5:16), being lead by the Spirit (5:18), and fulfilling "the Law of Christ" ( ho nomos tou Christou ) through bearing one another's burdens (6:2). By way of illustration Paul says in verses 19-23 that he adopts certain Jewish customs when among Jews, although he is not under the Jewish Law, and that he adopts some Gentile customs when among Gentiles, although he is not without the Law of God but rather "in the Law of Christ" ( ennomos Christou ). ...
It seems fairly clear from these two texts that Paul uses the phrase to mean something other than the Law given to Israel at Sinai and considered by most Jews to be their special possession. In Isaiah 42:1-4 we read that God's chosen servant will one day establish justice throughout the earth and that "the coastlands will wait expectantly for His Law" (NASB). If we take this passage to refer to the Messiah, then we could paraphrase it by saying that the Christ, when he comes, will teach God's Law to the Gentiles ("the coastlands"). Jeremiah 31:31-34 similarly predicts the coming of a time in which disobedient Israel will receive a new covenant, consisting of a Law written on the heart and therefore obeyed (cf. ...
Jesus' teaching, although standing in continuity with the Law given at Sinai, nevertheless sovereignly fashions a new Law. In light of this, Paul may have understood the teaching of Christ as a new Law. Paul's own admonition to fulfill the Law of Christ by bearing one another's burdens provides both a pithy restatement of Jesus' summary of the Law and an indication that Jesus' teaching fulfills prophetic expectations. Westerholm, Israel's Law and the Church's Faith
Brothers-in-Law - ) of Brother-in-law...
Canonist - An authority on ecclesiastical Law
Remedial Law - See Law; and article JUSTIFICATION
Testimony - See Martyr, Trial-at-Law
Ten Commandments - See Law, Ten Commandments, Torah
Hammedatha - He that troubles the Law
Levirate Law - LEVIRATE Law
Daughters-in-Law - ) of Daughter-in-law...
Fathers-in-Law - ) of Father-in-law...
Sisters-in-Law - ) of Sister-in-law...
Dispensation - (Latin: dispensatio, originally distribution or management) ...
A relaxation of the Law in a particular case. It is not an abrogation of the Law nor an excuse from it but a release from its observance, granted by competent authority for good reasons. The pope can dispense from all purely ecclesiastical Laws no matter by whom they were passed; other authorities in the Church can dispense from the Laws they themselves or their predecessors established. From Laws passed by a higher superior, only those can dispense who are granted the power either by provisions in the general Law of the Church or by a special delegation. Those who dispense from their own Law can do so validly even without a proportionate cause, though they, too, usually demand one; but inferiors cannot validly dispense from Law of their superiors except for a just reason
Guilt - Criminality that state of a moral agent which results from his actual commission of a crime or offense, knowing it to be a crime, or violation of Law. To constitute guilt there must be a moral agent enjoying freedom of will, and capable of distinguishing between right and wrong, and a wilful or intentional violation of a known Law, or rule of duty. The guilt of a person exists, as soon as the crime is committed but to evince it to others, it must be proved by confession, or conviction in due course of Law. Guilt renders a person a debtor to the Law, as it binds him to pay a penalty in money or suffering. Guilt may proceed either from a positive act or breach of Law, or from voluntary neglect of known duty
Sentence - (Latin: sententia, judgment) ...
In canon Law the decision of the court upon any issue brought before it. Canon Law, as opposed to civil,draws a unique distinction between penalties inflicted latae sententiae and ferendae sententiae, two expressions indicating the manner in which guilt is declared and a penalty contracted. A penalty given latae sententiae is one attached by Law to the mere fact of commission of a crime, or violation of a Law or precept. Penalties are never cohsidered to be latae sententiae unless explicitly expressed in the Law
Trial - See Suffering, Temptation, Trial-at-Law
Anomy - ) Disregard or violation of Law
Preterlegal - ) Exceeding the limits of Law
Criminally - ) In violation of Law; wickedly
Criminalist - ) One versed in criminal Law
Beit din - "house of Law"); rabbinical court...
Works of the Law - The term erga nomou ("works of the Law") is used by Paul to denote deeds prescribed by the Mosaic Law ( Romans 2:15 ; 3:20,27 , 28 ; Galatians 2:16 ; 3:2,5 , 10 ). At times Paul shortens the phrase and uses erga, "works" (Romans 4:2,6 ; 9:11,32 ; 11:6 ), referring to a mode of relationship to the Law and set in contrast to faith in Christ. ...
Various interpretations of this phrase include: "good works, " in the sense of humankind's striving for self-achievement apart from God; observances of Mosaic Law that seek to earn God's favor; and distinctive Jewish identity markers (i. Judaism was "nomistic, " observing the Law not as a means of justification but as a response to a gracious God, who Acts on behalf of his people and requires that they in turn identify themselves as his people by keeping his ordinances (covenantal nomism). In this context, the performance of "works of the Law" does not refer to an individual's striving for moral improvement, but to a religious mode of existence, marked out by certain religious practices that demonstrate the individual's covenant relationship. Thus, when Paul uses erga nomou, he is not just referring to nomistic practices, but to merit-amassing observance of the Law as well. ...
The nonattainability of righteousness by keeping the Law is attested to by Paul in Philippians 3:4-9 . The works of the Law the apostle was "blameless" in performing actually were hindrances to true righteousness, found only in Christ. " Trusting in one's ability to keep the Law is a reliance on the "flesh" (Philippians 3:3 ) and an attempt to establish one's "own righteousness" (Romans 10:3 ). David Rightmire...
See also Galatians, Theology of ; Grace ; Judaizers ; Law ...
Bibliography . Dunn, Jesus, Paul and the Law ; J. Sanders, Paul and Palestinian Judaism ; idem, Paul, the Law, and the Jewish People ; S. Westerholm, Israel's Law and the Church's Faith: Paul and His Recent Interpreters
Forum - The Law of the forum is the Law of the place where a suit is to be tried. In canon Law, internal forum, the realm of conscience, is contrasted with the external or outward forum; thus, a marriage might be null and void in the internal forum, but binding outwardly, i
Adversary - An opponent or antagonist, as in a suit at Law, or in single combat an opposing litigant. In Law, having an opposing party, as an adversary suit in distinction from an application, in Law or equity, to which no opposition is made
Lawyer - One learned in the Law. He who is called a Lawyer in Matthew 22:35 is called a "scribe" in Mark 12:28, what we should call a "divine. " A "doctor of the Law" is the highest title (Acts 5:34)
Uilt - ) The criminality and consequent exposure to punishment resulting from willful disobedience of Law, or from morally wrong action; the state of one who has broken a moral or political Law; crime; criminality; offense against right
Torah - See Law (in OT), §§ 2, 3
Tradition - See Law (in NT), § 1
Sue - * For SUE see Law , B, No
Heteronomous - ) Subject to the Law of another
Levari Facias - A writ of execution at common Law
Lego-Literary - ) Pertaining to the literature of Law
Days, Fast - Days when the Law of fasting is in force, namely: ember days, the vigils of Pentecost, the Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, and all days of Lent up to noon of Easter Saturday. The Law never binds, however, on Sundays nor on feast-days of precept (except feast-days in Lent)
Fast Days - Days when the Law of fasting is in force, namely: ember days, the vigils of Pentecost, the Assumption, All Saints, and Christmas, and all days of Lent up to noon of Easter Saturday. The Law never binds, however, on Sundays nor on feast-days of precept (except feast-days in Lent)
Collusion - ) An agreement between two or more persons to defraud a person of his rights, by the forms of Law, or to obtain an object forbidden by Law
Law - The manner in which God governs rational creatures is by a Law, as the rule of their obedience to him, and which is what we call God's moral government of the world. He gave a Law to angels, which some of them kept, and have been confirmed in a state of obedience to it; but which others broke, and thereby plunged themselves into destruction and misery. He gave, also, a Law to Adam, and which was in the form of a covenant, and in which Adam stood as a covenant head to all his posterity, Romans 5:1-21 : Genesis 2:1-25 : But our first parents soon violated that Law, and fell from a state of innocence to a state of sin and misery, Hosea 6:7 . Positive Laws, are precepts which are not founded upon any reasons known to those to whom they are given. Thus in the state of innocence God gave the Law of the Sabbath; or abstinence from the fruit of the tree of knowledge, &c. Law of nature is the will of God relating to human actions, grounded in the moral differences of things, and, because discoverable by natural light, obligatory upon all mankind, Romans 1:20 ; Romans 2:14-15 . This Law is coeval with the human race, binding all over the globe, and at all times; yet, through the corruption of reason, it is insufficient to lead us to happiness, and utterly unable to acquaint us how sin is to be forgiven, without the assistance of revelation. Ceremonial Law is that which prescribed the rites of worship used under the Old Testament. Judicial Law was that which directed the policy of the Jewish nation, as under the peculiar dominion of God as their Supreme magistrate, and never, except in things relative to moral equity, was binding on any but the Hebrew nation. Moral Law is that declaration of God's will which directs and binds all men, in every age and place, to their whole duty to him. It was most solemnly proclaimed by God himself at Sinai, to confirm the original Law of nature, and correct men's mistakes concerning the demands of it. Love to God is the end of the moral Law, as well as the end of the Gospel. By the Law, also, we are led to see the nature of holiness, and our own depravity, and learn to be humbled under a sense of our imperfection. although we must abide by it, together with the whole preceptive word of God, as the rule of our conduct, Romans 3:31 Laws, directive, are Laws without any punishment annexed to them. Laws, penal, such as have some penalty to enforce them. All the Laws of God are and cannot but be penal, because every breach of his Law is sin, and meritorious of punishment. Law of honour is a system of rules constructed by people of fashion, and calculated to facilitate their intercourse with one another, and for no other purpose. Consequently nothing is adverted to by the Law of honour but what tends to incommode this intercourse. Hence this Law only prescribes and regulates the duties betwixt equals, omitting such as relate to the Supreme Being, as well as those which we owe to our inferiors. In fact, this Law of honour, in most instances, is favourable to the licentious indulgence of the natural passions. Laws, remedial, a fancied Law, which some believe in, who hold that God, in mercy to mankind, has abolished that rigorous constitution or Law that they were under originally, and instead of it has introduced a more mild constitution, and put us under a new Law, which requires no more than imperfect sincere obedience, in compliance with our poor, infirm, impotent circumstances since the fall. I call this a fancied Law, because it exists no where except in the imagination of those who hold it. Laws of nations, are those rules which by a tacit consent are agreed upon among all communities, at least among those who are reckoned the polite and humanized part of mankind. 2; Cumberland's Law of Nature; Grove's Mor. Booth's Death of Legal Hope; Inglish and Burder's Pieces on the Moral Law; Watts's Works, vol
Thief - See Crimes and Punishment; Law, Ten Commandments, Torah
Son of the Law - SON OF THE Law
Excussion - ) The act of excusing; seizure by Law
Sheriat - ) The sacred Law of the Turkish empire
Mendelian - to Mendel, or to Mendel's Law
Lawbreaker - ) One who disobeys the Law; a criminal
Orpah - A Moabitess, sister of Ruth and daughter-in-law of Naomi. When the latter was returning to her own country, Orpah, following Naomi’s advice, elected to go back to her own people and to her god (or gods), while her sister went with her mother-in-law ( Ruth 1:4-14 )
Transgress - ) To offend against the Law; to sin. ) Hence, to overpass, as any prescribed as the /imit of duty; to break or violate, as a Law, civil or moral
Rue - Our Saviour reproaches the Pharisees with their superstitious affectation of paying the tithe of rue, which was not in reality subject to the Law of tithe, while they neglected the more essential parts of the Law, Luke 11:42
Divorce - The dissolution of the marriage tie was regulated by the Mosaic Law (Deuteronomy 24:1-4 ). The Jews, after the Captivity, were reguired to dismiss the foreign women they had married contrary to the Law (Ezra 10:11-19 ). These precepts given by Christ regulate the Law of divorce in the Christian Church
Pocket Veto - The retention by the President of the United States of a bill unsigned so that it does not become a Law, in virtue of the following constitutional provision (Const. 2): "If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a Law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a Law
Vitilitigate - ) To contend in Law litigiously or cavilously
Theft - See Crimes and Punishment; Ethics ; Law, Ten Commandments, Torah
Administrable - ) Capable of being administered; as, an administrable Law
Crimeful - ) Criminal; wicked; contrary to Law, right, or dury
Thetical - ) Laid down; absolute or positive, as a Law
Lawing - ) Going to Law; litigation
Naomi - ) Mother-in-law of Ruth. ) Ruth her daughter in Law returned with her to Israel, and married Boaz
Zenas - A pious Lawyer, and a friend of Paul, who, writing from Nicopolis during the last year of his life, commends him and Apollos, then at Crete on a journey, to the kind offices of Titus, Titus 3:13 . His name is Greek, and his profession may have been Greek civil Law, rather than Jewish Law
Unrighteousness - Injustice a violation of the divine Law, or of the plain principles of justice and equity wickedness. ...
Every transgression of the Law is unrighteousness
Law of God - LAW OF GOD. —We are not entitled to gather from the teaching of Jesus in the Gospels that He made any formal distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of God. His mission being not to destroy but to fulfil the Law and the Prophets (Matthew 5:17), so far from saying anything in disparagement of the Law of Moses or from encouraging His disciples to assume an attitude of independence with regard to it, He expressly recognized the authority of the Law of Moses as such, and of the Pharisees as its official interpreters (Matthew 23:1-3). ...
One great aim of His teaching being, however, to counteract the influence of the Pharisaism of the time, under which zeal for the Law had degenerated into a pedantic legalism, which made outward conformity to the letter all-important and caused the true interests of religion and morality to be lost sight of amid the Shibboleths of national ritualism, He sought to concentrate the attention of His hearers upon the true meaning of the Law. In doing this He practically ignored the distinctions of the scribes between greater and lesser commandments of the Law, and between the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms (or ‘the Writings’), and insisted upon the authority of Scripture as the word of God. ...
At the same time, as Jesus Himself taught as One who had authority (Matthew 7:29 || Mark 1:22), quietly but none the less emphatically asserting His right to explain the spirit and meaning of the Divine word, He did distinguish and teach His disciples to distinguish between letter and spirit, that which was permanent and universal in the Law and that which was partial and temporary. It is therefore possible, and even almost necessary, with a view to a clear understanding of Christ’s attitude towards the Law, to distinguish between the Law of God, meaning by the term that which is of universal validity, and those elements in the Law of Moses which are merely associated with a particular dispensation, a temporary manifestation of God’s will. A typical illustration of the propriety of such a distinction is found in that passage in which Jesus, dealing with the question of marriage and divorce, treats the Mosaic Law on the subject as an instance of accommodation to an imperfect state of society (Matthew 19:3-8 || Mark 10:2-9). Here we see at once a distinction made between the Mosaic precept and the Divine Law. The Law of Moses permitted divorce, but the Law of God maintained the sanctity of the marriage bond, and this represented the point of view from which the whole question ought to be regarded. ’ In this connexion the Law of God and the Law of Moses are to one another in the relation of the spirit to the letter. This typical instance illustrates the principle upon which Jesus proceeded in His interpretation of the Divine Law. His aim throughout was to call attention to the true spirit and purpose of the Law, to that in it which was of essential and permanent value. That the spirit of the Law, of which the letter is but the necessarily inadequate expression, is the Law of God, the manifestation of the Father’s will for the moral and spiritual good of His children. The attitude which Jesus adopted towards the whole question of the Law, considered as the Law of God, is well exemplified in the Sermon on the Mount, and in particular in those words which may be fitly taken as the motto of His teaching: ‘Think not that I am come to destroy the Law or the prophets. In the contrast between what ‘was said by them of old time’ and His own emphatic ‘But I say unto you,’ we find the distinction between the Law of Moses and the Law of God. In the one case, the statute which Jesus quotes, we have to do with the letter of the Law, that with which alone the scribes occupied themselves and upon which they founded their casuistical refinements. ’...
From this point He goes on to deal with typical instances of the difference between letter and spirit in the Law. And then, as if still further to emphasize the point that the Law is not satisfied by negative or formal obedience, Jesus shows that brethren at variance must give effect to the positive Law of love before they can render acceptable worship at God’s altar (Matthew 5:23-26). At a later point in His discourse, in connexion with the Law of retaliation, He returns to the subject and insists upon the Divine principle of love, showing that the aim of God’s Law is to make man resemble God Himself. The Law of love leaves no room for enemies. ...
So again, in another place, Jesus shows that the neighbour to whom the Law of God refers is any one in need whom one can help (Luke 10:29-37). According to the letter it forbids the sin of unchastity, unchaste actions, unlawful intercourse between the sexes. It is only one aspect of the grand Law of purity. Every impure thought, every unchaste look, are transgressions of this Law of God (Matthew 5:27-32). According to the spirit, it is just a form of the Law of sincerity and truthfulness. It is a matter of communion of spirit with spirit, needy souls, humbly conscious of their needs, confessing their wants and desires to One who seeth in secret, the poor in spirit hungering and thirsting after righteousness, and so convinced of their entire dependence upon the forgiveness and compassion of the All-Merciful as to feel that for them to claim the mercy and grace of God is to bind themselves by the Law of love to the duty of forgiving as they would themselves be forgiven. ...
In connexion with Christ’s teaching on the subject of heart religion and morality, and the true meaning of the Law considered as the Law of God, an interesting case suggests itself, in which Jesus seems to anticipate the abrogation of the Old Covenant with its Laws and ordinances. Jesus defends His disciples by turning the tables upon the Pharisees, whom He taxes with setting their traditions above the express commandments of God Himself, and with neglecting in the interest of mere technicalities the weightier matters of the Law (cf. His denunciation of Pharisaic scrupulosity in Matthew 23:4-30 || Luke 11:37-47), and cites as an instance their treatment of the Fifth Commandment and the Law of filial affection. In view of the fact that a large portion of the Mosaic Law is taken up with and deals minutely with these very points, in view also of the fact that the controversies in the Early Church itself between Jewish and Gentile Christians turned upon these things, our Lord’s treatment of the question is very remarkable, and illustrates clearly the nature of the distinction which, in His revision of the Law, He emphasized between letter and spirit. He practically teaches that the principle of those Levitical precepts is simply the Divine Law of holiness. If, on the other hand, the heart were purged from evil thoughts and wicked inclinations, then the life would correspond, as the tree is known by its fruit, and God’s Law would be fulfilled in the spirit of it. The Law of God appeared thus as the perfect Law of liberty, the worship of God in spirit and in truth. In a word, true religion and true morality, the teaching of which in all their particulars is the grand purpose of the Law of God, are from first to last a matter of the heart. Let it be truly turned to God, in simple faith casting aside every care and anxious thought of the world and things of time, and trusting that God will deny His children no good thing, temporal or spiritual, of which, as their Father, He knows them to stand in need, and there is the secret of the fulfilling of the Law. ...
Jesus taught essentially the same truth when, in controversy with the Pharisees, He summarized the teaching of the Law and the Prophets. So far from repudiating as a mere matter of Pharisaic casuistry the question often agitated among the scribes as to whether there were any commandments which in themselves summed up the teaching of the whole Law, He was ready to discuss such questions with them; and when, in response to His definition of love to God and one’s neighbour as the essential commandment of the Law, a scribe commended His answer, and said that such love was ‘more than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices,’ He declared that he was not far from the Kingdom of God (Mark 12:28-34). Like other parts of the Law, He showed that this was only an expression of God’s beneficent will for the good of man, a provision for his temporal and spiritual welfare. Again, as Son of Man, He no less emphatically asserted His right to interpret the Sabbath Law in the interest of man, for whose benefit it was framed (John 5:17 ff. Accommodation, Authority of Christ, Law, etc
Obedience of Christ - Hebrews 8:1-13 : He was subject to the Law of God. "He was made under the Law;" the judicial or civil Law of the Jews: the ceremonial Law, and the moral Law, Matthew 17:24 ; Matthew 17:27 . He was obedient to the Law of nature; he was in a state of subjection to his parents; and he fulfilled the commands of his heavenly Father as it respected the first and second table
Discharged - 2 the meaning is that the death of a woman's first husband makes void her status as a wife in the eyes of the Law; she is therefore "discharged" from the prohibition against remarrying; the prohibition is rendered ineffective in her case. 6, with the believer in relation to the Law, he has been made dead to the Law as a means of justification and life. It is not the Law that has died (AV), but the believer (see the RV), who has been "discharged," through being put to death, as to the old nature, in identification with the death of Christ, that he might have life in Christ
Causationist - ) One who believes in the Law of universal causation
Laodicean - (Law uhd i ce uhn) Citizen of Laodicea
Enactive - ) Having power to enact or establish as a Law
Eunomy - ) Equal Law, or a well-adjusted constitution of government
Peccable - ) Liable to sin; subject to transgress the divine Law
Abrogative - ) Tending or designed to abrogate; as, an abrogative Law
Legist - ) One skilled in the Laws; a writer on Law
Legislate - ) To make or enact a Law or Laws
Putiel - The father-in-law of Eleazar ( Exodus 6:25 )
Tradition - Thus the Jews pretended that, besides their written Law contained in the Old Testament, Moses had delivered an oral Law, which had been conveyed down from father to son; and thus the Roman Catholics are said to value particular doctrines, supposed to have descended from the apostolic times by tradition
Antinomian - ) Of or pertaining to the Antinomians; opposed to the doctrine that the moral Law is obligatory. ) One who maintains that, under the gospel dispensation, the moral Law is of no use or obligation, but that faith alone is necessary to salvation
Effendi - ) Master; sir; - a title of a Turkish state official and man of learning, especially one learned in the Law. to a state official or man of learning, as one learned in the Law, but often simply as the courtesy title of a gentleman
Outlaw - ) A person excluded from the benefit of the Law, or deprived of its protection. ) To deprive of the benefit and protection of Law; to declare to be an outlaw; to proscribe. ) To remove from legal jurisdiction or enforcement; as, to outlaw a debt or claim; to deprive of legal force
Ordinance - ) A rule established by authority; a permanent rule of action; a statute, Law, regulation, rescript, or accepted usage; an edict or decree; esp. , a local Law enacted by a municipal government; as, a municipal ordinance
Fundamental - Hence: Essential, as an element, principle, or Law; important; original; elementary; as, a fundamental truth; a fundamental axiom. ) A leading or primary principle, rule, Law, or article, which serves as the groundwork of a system; essential part, as, the fundamentals of the Christian faith
Lawyers - Lawyers, Luke 7:30, called also "doctors of the Law," Luke 5:17, among the Hebrews, were not pleaders before a court, but expounders of the Mosaic and priestly Law, and copied it, so that it is not certain what was the difference between a Lawyer and a scribe
Transgression - The act of passing over or beyond any Law or rule of moral duty the violation of a Law or known principle of rectitude breach of command
Lawyer - In Israel the activities of the Lawyer were limited by the Torah, or Law of Moses. His functions were three-fold: to study and interpret the Law (and the traditions arising from it), to hand it down by teaching, and to apply it in the Courts of Justice. The Lawyers played an important part in the proceedings of the Sanhedrin, not only voting, but also speaking, if they saw fit, on either side of a case, though in criminal charges solely on behalf of the accused (Mishn. The Roman Lawyers, were more secular in their interests, and applied themselves more directly to the practical aspects of jurisprudence. Their work in the Law-courts covered a wide range. The most general representative of Law was the cognitor, or attorney, whose place (in Gaius’s time) was partially filled by the procurator litis, or legal agent; but in court the case was pleaded by the patronus or orator, the skilled counsel of whom Cicero is so illustrious an example, often assisted by the advocatus, or legal adviser. The opinion of jurisconsulti, or professional students of Law, could also be laid before the judges. See Trial-at-Law. ...
In the NT Lawyers appear as νομικοί, ‘jurists’ (freq. , but elsewhere only in Matthew 22:35 and Titus 3:13), or νομοδιδάσκαλοι, ‘doctors of the Law’ (only in Luke 5:17, Acts 5:34, and 1 Timothy 1:7); but they are clearly identical with the γραμματεῖς, ‘scribes,’ who are mentioned so often in the Gospels and Acts. These Lawyers are all of the Jewish type. The Roman Lawyer appears, however, in the ῥήτωρ or ‘orator’ Tertullus, who pleaded the cause of St. -On Jewish Lawyers cf. Roby, Roman Private Law in the Times of Cicero and of the Antonines, 1902, ii. ; and other authorities cited in article Trial-at-Law
Law - ) Collectively, the whole body of rules relating to one subject, or emanating from one source; - including usually the writings pertaining to them, and judicial proceedings under them; as, divine Law; English Law; Roman Law; the Law of real property; insurance Law. ) Same as Lawe, v. ) Trial by the Laws of the land; judicial remedy; litigation; as, to go Law. ) In philosophy and physics: A rule of being, operation, or change, so certain and constant that it is conceived of as imposed by the will of God or by some controlling authority; as, the Law of gravitation; the Laws of motion; the Law heredity; the Laws of thought; the Laws of cause and effect; Law of self-preservation. : The rules of construction, or of procedure, conforming to the conditions of success; a principle, maxim; or usage; as, the Laws of poetry, of architecture, of courtesy, or of whist
Lawyer - In Israel the activities of the Lawyer were limited by the Torah, or Law of Moses. His functions were three-fold: to study and interpret the Law (and the traditions arising from it), to hand it down by teaching, and to apply it in the Courts of Justice. The Lawyers played an important part in the proceedings of the Sanhedrin, not only voting, but also speaking, if they saw fit, on either side of a case, though in criminal charges solely on behalf of the accused (Mishn. The Roman Lawyers, were more secular in their interests, and applied themselves more directly to the practical aspects of jurisprudence. Their work in the Law-courts covered a wide range. The most general representative of Law was the cognitor, or attorney, whose place (in Gaius’s time) was partially filled by the procurator litis, or legal agent; but in court the case was pleaded by the patronus or orator, the skilled counsel of whom Cicero is so illustrious an example, often assisted by the advocatus, or legal adviser. The opinion of jurisconsulti, or professional students of Law, could also be laid before the judges. See Trial-at-Law. ...
In the NT Lawyers appear as νομικοί, ‘jurists’ (freq. , but elsewhere only in Matthew 22:35 and Titus 3:13), or νομοδιδάσκαλοι, ‘doctors of the Law’ (only in Luke 5:17, Acts 5:34, and 1 Timothy 1:7); but they are clearly identical with the γραμματεῖς, ‘scribes,’ who are mentioned so often in the Gospels and Acts. These Lawyers are all of the Jewish type. The Roman Lawyer appears, however, in the ῥήτωρ or ‘orator’ Tertullus, who pleaded the cause of St. -On Jewish Lawyers cf. Roby, Roman Private Law in the Times of Cicero and of the Antonines, 1902, ii. ; and other authorities cited in article Trial-at-Law
Regular - * For REGULAR, Acts 19:39 , RV, see Law , C, No
Tim'Nite, the, - Samson's father-in-law, a native of Timnathah
Shulchan aruch harav - the Code of Jewish Law compiled by the Alter Rebbe (1770)...
Tref - ) Ceremonially unclean, according to the Jewish Law; - opposed to kosher
Feudist - ) A writer on feuds; a person versed in feudal Law
de Jure - By right; of right; by Law; - often opposed to de facto
Medico-Legal - ) Of or pertaining to Law as affected by medical facts
Legalism - ) Strictness, or the doctrine of strictness, in conforming to Law
Naomi - Wife of Elimelech, and mother-in-law of Ruth
Irregularity - (Latin: in, not; regula, rule; not according to rule) ...
An impediment introduced by ecclesiastical Law preventing one from entering the clerical state, or from the exercise of any orders already received. The new Code of Canon Law limits once for all the number and kind of irregularities as pertaining to the common Law of the Church
Disorderly - Lawless contrary to Law violating or disposed to violate Law and good order as disorderly people disorderly assemblies. In a manner violating Law and good order in a manner contrary to rules or established institutions
Inner Man - ; INWARD MAN The component of human personality responsive to the requirements of the Law. According to Paul's understanding (Romans 7:22-23 ), human personality has three components: (1) the inmost self where the Law dwells; Paul equated this with reason (nous , Romans 7:23 ); the inmost self approximates the rabbinic yeser hatob (inclination to good); (2) the members or the flesh that is responsive to desire; the flesh approximates the rabbinic yeser harah (inclination to evil); and (3) the conscious I which is aware of both reason and desire. In rabbinic thought, the Law served to tip the balance in favor of the good inclination. Paul, however, rejected this optimistic view of the Law
ag Law - A Law or ruling prohibiting proper or free debate, as in closure
Placitory - ) Of or pertaining to pleas or pleading, in courts of Law
Hashbadana - One who assisted Ezra when he read the Law
Edictal - ) Relating to, or consisting of, edicts; as, the Roman edictal Law
Themis - ) The goddess of Law and order; the patroness of existing rights
Revocability - ) The quality of being revocable; as, the revocability of a Law
Mendelian Character - A character which obeys Mendel's Law in regard to its hereditary transmission
Levirate Marriage - The Hebrews express the Law by the specific term Yibbem. A dispensation from the Law was made possible by a rite, which they call halizah. Both the ordinance and the mode of being dispensed from the Law are described in the New Testament (Deuteronomy 25). The object of the Law was to keep the inheritance in the same family, and prevent the extinction of heads of families. To be held by this Law, the levir must be unmarried
Marriage, Levirate - The Hebrews express the Law by the specific term Yibbem. A dispensation from the Law was made possible by a rite, which they call halizah. Both the ordinance and the mode of being dispensed from the Law are described in the New Testament (Deuteronomy 25). The object of the Law was to keep the inheritance in the same family, and prevent the extinction of heads of families. To be held by this Law, the levir must be unmarried
Lawyer - 1: νομικός (Strong's #3544 — Adjective — nomikos — nom-ik-os' ) an adjective, "learned in the Law" (see Titus 3:9 , under Law, C, No. 1), is used as a noun, "a Lawyer," Matthew 22:35 ; Luke 7:30 ; 10:25 ; 11:45,46,52 (ver. As there is no evidence that he was one skilled in Roman jurisprudence, the term may be regarded in the usual NT sense as applying to one skilled in the Mosaic Law. ...
The usual name for a scribe is grammateus, a man of letters; for a doctor of the Law, nomodidaskalos (see DOCTOR). The scribes were originally simply men of letters, students of Scripture, and the name first given to them contains in itself no reference to the Law; in course of time, however, they devoted themselves mainly, though by no means exclusively, to the study of the Law. Some would doubtless devote themselves more to one branch of activity than to another; but a 'lawyer' might also be a 'doctor,' and the case of Gamaliel shows that a 'doctor' might also be a member of the Sanhedrin, Acts 5:34 " (Eaton, in Hastings' Bib Dic
Gospel, a Law - It has been disputed whether the Gospel consists merely of promises, or whether it can in any sense be called a Law. The answer plainly depends upon adjusting the meaning of the words Gospel and Law: if the Gospel be taken for the declaration God has made to men by Christ, concerning the manner in which he will treat them, and the conduct he expects from them, it is plain that this includes commands, and even threatenings, as well as promises; but to define the Gospel so, as only to express the favourable part of that declaration, is indeed taking the question for granted, and confining the word to a sense much less extensive than it often has in Scripture: compare Romans 2:16 . In like manner the question, whether the Gospel be a Law or not, is to be determined by the definition of the Law and of the Gospel, as above. If Law signifies, as it generally does, the discovery of the will of a superior, teaching what he requires of those under his government, with the intimation of his intention of dispensing rewards and punishments, as this rule of their conduct is observed or neglected; in this latitude of expression, it is plain, from the proposition, that the Gospel, taken for the declaration made to men by Christ, is a Law, as in Scripture it is sometimes called, James 1:25 . But if Law be taken in the greatest rigour of the expression, for such a discovery of the will of God, and our duty, as to contain in it no intimation of our obtaining the Divine favour otherwise than by a perfect and universal conformity to it, in that sense the Gospel is not a Law
Seizin - It may be either in deed or in Law; the former when there is actual possession, the latter when there is a right to such possession by construction of Law
Bondage - In ancient English Law, villenage. In scripture, spiritual subjection to sin and corrupt passions, or to the yoke of the ceremonial Law servile fear
Enact - ) To decree; to establish by legal and authoritative act; to make into a Law; especially, to perform the legislative act with reference to (a bill) which gives it the validity of Law
Fetwah - ) A written decision of a Turkish mufti on some point of Law
Mala - ) Evils; wrongs; offenses against right and Law
Levitically - ) After the manner of the Levites; in accordance with the levitical Law
Routously - ) With that violation of Law called a rout
Recovering - Regaining obtaining in return or by judgment in Law regaining health
Law - -The subject of the Law formed one of the main problems, if not indeed the main problem, of the Apostolic Church, inasmuch as it involved the fundamental relation of primitive Christianity to Judaism on the one hand and heathenism on the other. In the evangelical record, moreover, the early Church had preserved the recollection of its Lord’s outspoken utterances regarding the merely relative validity of the Jewish ceremonial Law (e. Still, the same record showed that in principle the attitude of Jesus to the Law as a whole was an avowedly conservative one (Matthew 5:17-20, Luke 16:17), even as He had lived His life within the confines of the Law (cf. James 2:9-12 : γενόμενος ὑπὸ νόμον); His supreme aim, indeed, was to bring out with full clearness and force the will of God made known in the Law. We thus see that, with regard to the Law, the evangelical tradition seemed capable of a double construction, or, at least, that it did not supply the means for deciding a question that soon became urgent. It is therefore easy to understand why the early Christian community in Jerusalem assumed at first a rigidly conservative attitude towards the Law, and regarded the faithful observance of it as praiseworthy (Acts 21:20; cf. -The principal representative of this zeal for the Law in the infant Church was St. Here he shows himself to be a genuine disciple of Jesus in recognizing, after the example of Peter, the supremacy of grace, and in refusing to put the yoke of the Law upon the Gentile Christians, whom rather he receives as brethren, while he acknowledges St. He thus came into direct conflict with the Pharisaic group of Jewish Christians-those who asserted that the salvation of the Gentiles depended upon their being circumcised and their acceptance of the Law (Acts 15:1-5, Galatians 2:1-5). The reason given for the proposal (Acts 15:21 : ‘For Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath’) probably means simply that the four prohibitions in question-which formed the kernel of the so-called Noachian commandments, and correspond to the Laws for proselytes-had come to be so impressed upon the minds of the Jews that they could not countenance any disobedience to them if their intercourse with their Gentile brethren in the Church was to be unconstrained. )-manifestly assuming that Jewish Christians, as the circumcised, were under an absolute obligation to the Mosaic Law, and that they ought not, even for the sake of Christian fellowship, to make any concession whatever to the liberty of the converted heathen. He betrays his Jewish Christian mode of thought, however, when, in enjoining his readers to be doers, and not merely hearers, of the word (James 1:22), he presently replaces ‘word’ by ‘law,’ although ‘the perfect Law of liberty’ means the Law as given to, or as fulfilled in, human freedom. He thus shows that for him the central element in Christianity consists in fulfilment of the Law (cf. James’s conception of the substance of the Law likewise shows the influence of Jesus, as he ranks the Law of love to one’s neighbour above the others (James 2:8), and, generally, urges the pre-eminence of the commandments enjoining love and mercy (James 2:1-13; James 2:15 f. It is quite unnecessary to follow modern criticism in regarding this spiritual and ethical conception of the Law as pointing to a post-apostolic date of composition, any more than the attack upon the doctrine of justification through faith alone (James 2:14-26) need be regarded as post-Pauline. James’s view of the Law, in fact, coincides on the whole with the view urged by Jesus: in substance the new Law does not differ from that of the OT, and in Galatians 4:4 he finds his examples in the latter (the Decalogue and Deuteronomy 1:17); while there is no difficulty in seeing why he never makes the slightest reference to the ceremonial Law-for readers such as his it was quite unnecessary to insist upon that side of the old religion, nor, for that matter, did Jesus Himself lay any emphasis upon it. ), it may be confidently assumed that they were not neglectful of the ceremonial Law. What they required rather was to be reminded of the ethical aspect of the Law, and above all, to be warned against the common Jewish delusion that hearing and speaking the word could take the place of doing it. In James 2:14 the reference is not to ‘the works of the Law,’ but solely to works in the ethical sense. James of the merely relative obligation of the Law even for Jewish Christians. In certain circumstances he thought himself justified, for the sake of brotherly intercourse with Gentile Christians, in disregarding the rigour of the Law, since, after all, salvation did not depend upon the Law, whose yoke, indeed, neither the fathers nor the Jews then living were able to bear, but Jew and Gentile alike could look for salvation only to the grace of Jesus Christ, and to faith in Him (cf. ...
It is remarkable that the two Epistles bearing the name of Peter do not refer to the Law. The Second Epistle obviously dates from a time when the question regarding the Law had given place to other controversies, and, at all events, it is concerned with a libertinism and a doctrine that lie beyond the purview of Jewish legalism. It is a striking fact that even the First Epistle, the authenticity of which is open to no decisive objection, does not so much as mention the Law, but speaks from a quite unstudied and non-legalistic point of view. -In point of fact, the first to decide the question of the Law upon grounds of principle was the Apostle Paul himself, though others had already pointed the way. Peter discern the merely relative validity of the Jewish legal system, and especially of the Temple ritual; and although his adversaries, in charging him with having in his preaching attacked the Holy Place and the Law, were undoubtedly doing him an injustice, yet the accusation was not altogether unfounded. His general plea is that Divine revelation is independent of any particular holy place, and be honours Moses less as the Law-giver than as the prototype of Jesus, and as the one who foretold His coming (cf. The very Law to which the Jews appealed they had not kept (Acts 7:53). ...
Even before his conversion Saul must have been sensible of the great alternative which he sets forth in Galatians 2:15-21 : either righteousness is through the Law, and Christ died for nought; or else the Crucified Jesus is truly the Christ, and righteousness is to be attained through faith alone. It need, therefore, occasion no surprise that in his conversion Saul had become convinced of the universality of Christianity, or that thereafter he maintained that the Law was not in a religious sense binding upon either Gentile or Jewish Christians (Galatians 1:2). Nor does the Apostle make the slightest reference to the question of the Law in his earliest Epistles, 1 and 2 Thessalonians. It was in reality the aggression of certain Christian Pharisees-Judaizers (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5, Galatians 2:4)-that forced him into a thorough-going discussion of the significance of the Law, and this is his special theme in his Epistles to the Galatians, Corinthians, and Romans. In seeking to delineate here the Pauline doctrine of the Law, however, we must also draw upon the Epistles of the Imprisonment and the Pastorals. ...
(a) His use of the term ‘Law. ’-In discussing the Pauline conception of the Law, we note that the Apostle uses the term νόμος in somewhat different senses. It may mean the whole Pentateuch-the Torah in the wider sense-as in Romans 3:21 (the Law and the Prophets), Galatians 4:21, 1 Corinthians 14:34, and even the entire OT, which might be thus designated a parte potiori, as in Romans 3:19 (the Psalms also included under the term), 1 Corinthians 14:21 (Isaiah 28:11 f. Paul to the Law delivered by Moses, as recorded in the Mosaic Books from Exodus to Deuteronomy (cf. Galatians 6:2 : ἄχρι νόμου = μέχρι Μωσέως, Galatians 3:17 : the Law given 430 years after the promise). It is true that νόμος, even without the article, may mean the historically-given Law of Moses, the possession of which was the special prerogative of the Jews as distinguished from the Gentiles (Romans 2:12-14; Romans 3:20 f. The omission of the article, however, generally points rather to ‘law’ as a principle; thus what is so said of ‘law’ would hold good of any other positive ordinance of God-if such existed at all (cf. Romans 2:13-15 : ‘For not the hearers of Law are just before God, but the doers of Law shall be justified; for when Gentiles who have not Law do by nature the things of the Law, these having no Law are Law to themselves,’ etc. , and Romans 5:13 : ‘For prior to Law sin was already in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no Law’). In both of these passages it is obvious that νόμος and ὁ νόμος equally refer to the Mosaic Law, but it is no less obvious that they assert principles, not merely historical facts; cf. (‘The Law is good, if a man use it Lawfully, knowing that Law is not made for a righteous man’). Paul wishes to make a historical statement regarding the Law of Moses, he uses the phrase ὁ νόμος. The extent to which he can abstract from the concrete historical sense of νόμος, however, is seen in the fact that he occasionally uses νόμος, virtually as a purely formal concept, as equivalent to norma, ‘rule’: Romans 3:27 (the Law of faith, i. Romans 1:5, Romans 9:31, Romans 10:3, Romans 16:26), Romans 7:23 (the Law of sin), Romans 8:2 (the Law of life = natural Law), 1618611443_56; cf. 1 Corinthians 14:21 (the Law of Christ). ...
As regards the proper signification of the term, however, the Law may be defined as the positive revelation of the Divine ordinance to the Israelites, who therein, as in the covenants, the promises, and the Temple service (Romans 9:4), had a sacred privilege unshared by other peoples (cf. The Law of God, which in the heathen was but an inward and therefore vague surmise, was for the Jews formulated objectively and unmistakably in the written Law (Acts 3:1; cf. 2 Corinthians 3:7), and the Jews, even if they broke that Law (Romans 2:21 ff. ...
The Law, however, is a revelation not only of the Divine requirements, but also of the Divine promises and threats attached thereto. The Law, in short, contains a judicial system, in that it determines the relation between man and God by man’s obedience to, or transgression of, the Divine commandments. If man keeps the whole Law, he is rewarded with ‘life’ (Galatians 3:12 = Leviticus 18:5), and this is bestowed not of grace, but of debt (Romans 4:4 : κατὰ ὀφείλημα); while if he does not keep the Law in its entirety, he is accursed (Galatians 3:10 = Deuteronomy 27:26), and passes into the power of death (Romans 6:23; Romans 7:10, 1 Corinthians 15:56). ...
The Law demands, not faith, but works (Galatians 3:11 f. Paul speaks repeatedly of the ‘works of the Law’ (ἔργα νόμου, ‘works prescribed by the Law’; cf. By ‘works of the Law,’ however, he means, not simply the externally legal actions in which the heart is not implicated, but no less the morally irreproachable fulfilment of the commandments, which claim the obedience of the soul as well as of the body, and forbid sinful desire as well as sinful action-just as, indeed, the requirement of the whole Law is summed up in the commandments of love (Romans 13:9 f. Paul outward rites and ceremonies are included in the characteristic ordinances of the Law (Galatians 2:12; Galatians 4:10; cf. The Law as a whole consists of particular commandments of a statutory nature (τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασι, Ephesians 2:15; cf. * Timnite - Samson's father-in-law is so styled (Judges 15:6 )
Portmote - ) In old English Law, a court, or mote, held in a port town
Fecial - ) Pertaining to heralds, declarations of war, and treaties of peace; as, fecial Law
Ukase - ) In Russia, a published proclamation or imperial order, having the force of Law
Offender - ) One who offends; one who violates any Law, divine or human; a wrongdoer
Trampler - ) One who tramples; one who treads down; as, a trampler on nature's Law
Limitive - ) Involving a limit; as, a limitive Law, one designed to limit existing powers
Midrash - ) A talmudic exposition of the Hebrew Law, or of some part of it
Lawgiver - ) One who makes or enacts a Law or system of Laws; a legislator
Litigation - ) The act or process of litigating; a suit at Law; a judicial contest
Mint - The Law did not oblige the Jews to give the tithe of this sort of herbs; it only required it of those things which could be comprehended under the name of income or revenue. But the Pharisees, desirous of distinguishing themselves by a more scrupulous and literal observance of the Law than others, gave the tithes "of mint, anise, and cummin," Matthew 23:23 . Christ reproved them because that, while they were so precise in these lesser matters, they neglected the more essential commandments of the Law, and substituted observances, frivolous and insignificant, in the place of justice, mercy, and truth
Lessons, the - 103-164, as follows: "The Apostleshave taught, as they learned themselves, first the Law and then theGospel; for what is the Law but the Gospel foreshadowed; or what isthe Gospel but the Law fulfilled
Heritage - Inheritance an estate that passes from an ancestor to an heir by descent or course of Law that which is inherited. In Scot's Law, it sometimes signifies immovable estate, in distinction from movable
Elements - (Galatians 4:9): "weak and beggarly" rudiments; the elementary symbols of the Law, powerless to justify, in contrast to the justifying power of faith (Galatians 3:24; Hebrews 7:18); beggarly, in contrast with the riches of the believer's inheritance in Christ (Ephesians 1:18). The child (Galatians 4:1-3) under the Law is "weak," not having attained manhood
Decretal - ) An authoritative order or decree; especially, a letter of the pope, determining some point or question in ecclesiastical Law. The decretals form the second part of the canon Law
Lawyers - Men who devoted themselves to the study and explanation of the Jewish Law, particularly of the traditionary or oral Law
Bilgai - (bihl' gaw i) Priest who sealed Nehemiah's covenant to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:8 )
Brocard - ) An elementary principle or maximum; a short, proverbial rule, in Law, ethics, or metaphysics
Portgrave - In old English Law, the chief magistrate of a port or maritime town
Antiquated - Hence: Bygone; obsolete; out of use; old-fashioned; as, an antiquated Law
Tefach - a unit of length used in Jewish Law, corresponding to the width of a fist...
Innocence - Acting in perfect consonance to the Law, without incurring guilt or consequent punishment
Salic - ) Of or pertaining to the Salian Franks, or to the Salic Law so called
Talmud - ) The body of the Jewish civil and canonical Law not comprised in the Pentateuch
Canonical Adoption - Under Roman Law legal relationship was established, based on the natural relationship, and it was a bar to marriage. The Church, receiving this Law as her own, recognized adoption as a diriment impediment of marriage. The modification of the Roman Law by the compilation of new codes led to discussions as to what extent this diriment impediment of legal relationship still exists in the eyes of the Church, and the principle was laid down by Benedict XIV that, wherever the elements of the Roman Law are retained in the new codes, the Church recognizes this relationship as a diriment impediment. In Great Britain and the United States legal adoption in the sense of the Roman Law does not exist. In the United States it is regulated by State statutes and is generally accomplished by mutual obligations assumed in the manner prescribed by Law
Adoption, Canonical - Under Roman Law legal relationship was established, based on the natural relationship, and it was a bar to marriage. The Church, receiving this Law as her own, recognized adoption as a diriment impediment of marriage. The modification of the Roman Law by the compilation of new codes led to discussions as to what extent this diriment impediment of legal relationship still exists in the eyes of the Church, and the principle was laid down by Benedict XIV that, wherever the elements of the Roman Law are retained in the new codes, the Church recognizes this relationship as a diriment impediment. In Great Britain and the United States legal adoption in the sense of the Roman Law does not exist. In the United States it is regulated by State statutes and is generally accomplished by mutual obligations assumed in the manner prescribed by Law
Decree - The decision of a court of equity is called a decree that of a court of Law, a judgment. In the Law, a determination or judgment of the emperor on a suit between parties. An edict or Law made by a council for regulating any business within their jurisdiction as the decrees of ecclesiastical councils. In general, an order, edict or Law made by a superior as a rule to govern inferiors. Established Law, or rule
Antinomians - Strictly, those opposed to the inculcation of good works from a perverted view of the doctrines of grace; but the term is also falsely applied to those who know themselves free through the death of Christ fromthe Law as given by Moses. One has but to read carefully the epistle to the Galatians to see that for Gentile believers to place themselves under the Law is to fall from grace; and Paulexhorted them to be as he was, for he was (though a Jew by birth) as free from the Law by the death of Christ as they were as Gentiles. To go back to the Law supposes that man has power to keep it. See Law
Law - The Nature of Biblical Law . The usual Hebrew term translated as "law" is tora [ Exodus 20:17 ; 23:4-5 ); is silent about state enforcement (Exodus 21:2-6 ); or specifies God rather than the state as the enforcer (Exodus 22:21-27 ). In addition, the label "law" seems inappropriate for certain ceremonial instructions. ...
Biblical civil Laws differ from the "positive Law" of modern jurisprudence, which tries to legislate in exhaustive detail. Biblical Laws are insufficiently comprehensive to be considered a "law-code, " but served as paradigmatic illustrations (not rigid rules) of justice that a judge could apply or modify according to circumstances. This was known as "putting a fence around the Law. , the sabbath day's journey) are prescribed exhaustively in the Talmud, but this burdensome "tradition" is contrary to the spirit of biblical Law (Matthew 15:3 ; 23:4 ). ...
An important Law is the lex talionis, "life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exodus 21:22-25 ; Leviticus 24:19-20 ; Deuteronomy 19:15-21 ), which is sometimes misunderstood as a barbaric justification of personal vengeance and maiming. The Laws (traditionally 613 in number) are concentrated in certain passages in the Pentateuch. Most of its civil regulations follow the casuistic formulation of cuneiform Laws: "If X happens (protasis), then Y will be the legal consequences (apodosis ). The structure of Deuteronomy follows that of second-millennium covenant treaties in which the Laws correspond to stipulations within the covenant. ...
Cultic Laws concerning the tabernacle, sacrifices, priests, ritual purity, festivals, and ethical and ritual holiness (especially in sexual and social matters; cf. Some call these Laws the Priestly Code on the dubious assumption that they once existed as an independent collection. ...
Biblical and Cuneiform Laws . Scholars commonly compare biblical civil Laws with contemporary Laws found by archaeologists in the ancient Near East. Extrabiblical Laws include those by Ur-Nammu of Ur (ca. ), some ten Sumerian Laws (ca. ) of unknown provenance, the Laws of Eshnunna (ca. ), the Laws of Hammurapi (ca. ), Middle Assyrian Laws (ca. ), Hittite Laws (before ca. ), and Neo-Babylonian Laws (seventh century b. ...
Biblical civil Laws resemble extrabiblical Laws in topics covered and formulation. For example, cases of striking pregnant women resulting in miscarriage (presumably an unusual circumstance) occur in HL 17, Sumerian Laws 1-2, LH 209-214, MAL A 21,50-52 as well as Exodus 21:22-25 . There are general parallels with Laws on slaves and goring oxen, and in one (but only one ) case, a cuneiform Law's reading is identical with a biblical one: LE 53 and Exodus 21:35 . The parallels are insufficient to suppose biblical Laws were simply borrowed from ancient Near Eastern ones. It is best to say that the Bible shows awareness of extrabiblical Laws and often deliberately chooses type cases from such Laws on which to make moral comment. Where an existing Law is just, the Bible can happily adopt it (e. Accordingly, comparison with cuneiform Law is useful; nonetheless, the contrasts with cuneiform Laws are usually more telling than the similarities. Cuneiform Laws are overwhelmingly secular whereas the Bible freely mixes moral, civil, and cultic Laws, and more often includes religious motivations for compliance. It is true that Hammurapi receives authority to rule from the god Shamash, but Shamash is custodian of impersonal cosmic truth that Hammurapi uses to make his own Laws that are only indirectly attributable to deity. In the Bible, however, the Laws are directly from God; Moses is only a mediator. Biblical Law is designed to educate the public, to mold the national character, and to glorify Yahweh as a just Lawgiver; cuneiform Laws are meant to glorify the kings who created them and lack pedagogic application, being placed in a temple outside public view in a script (cuneiform) only academics could read. ...
Contrasting ideology is reflected in biblical Law's setting limits on the authority of kings (Deuteronomy 17:14-20 ), cuneiform Laws reflect the unlimited authority of the king. Biblical Laws elevate human life over property to a greater degree than do cuneiform Laws. Hence, cuneiform Laws required up to thirtyfold restitution for theft and the execution of the thief who could not pay (LH 8,265; HL 57-59,63, 67,69); biblical Law limits restitution to no more than fivefold and prohibits the execution of a thief (Exodus 22:1-4 ). Similarly, cuneiform Laws make no sharp distinction between cases involving an ox goring a slave, and that of an ox goring an ox, both being property (LE 53-55); biblical Law deliberately separates these cases (Exodus 21:28-31,35-36 ), expressing by its structure the ideology that cases involving humans are of an entirely different category than those involving animals. ...
Cuneiform Law agrees with biblical Law in condemning murder, adultery, and incest (LH 1,129, 157); however, biblical Law differs by making many religious sins, so-called victimless crimes, and crimes against family capital offenses. ...
"Law" and "Covenant. " All biblical Laws are placed in the context of God's covenant with Israel. Covenant, not Law-keeping, establishes a relationship, just as signing a contract, rather than doing the specified Job, establishes an employment relationship. The covenant in Genesis 15 was not established by "law" but by God's gracious offer accompanied by Abram's faith (although he later in some sense kept "the Law, " Genesis 26:5 ). Nor did Israel establish a relationship with God by keeping "law. "Legalism" that makes "law-keeping" a means of salvation is not taught in the Old Testament. ...
The role of Law is to administrate the covenant. Laws prohibit things destructive to a relationship with God (e. The Law gives direction to what a loving response to God should be, and tells how to reap the full benefits of the relationship. ...
The Law under the New Covenant . The New Testament's statements about Old Testament Law are difficult to harmonize. On the one hand, some New Testament statements indicate that under the new covenant the whole Law is in some sense abrogated (Romans 6:14 , "you are not under Law" Romans 10:4 , "Christ is the end of the Law" ). Direct application of cultic Laws is clearly excluded in the New Testament. Food Laws, circumcision, sacrifices, temple, and priesthood have been superseded (Mark 7:19 ; 1 Corinthians 7:19 ; Hebrews 7:11-19,28 ; 8:13 ; 10:1-9 ). Dispensationalism concludes from these statements that Christians are under no Mosaic Laws, not even the Decalogue, but are instead under the Law of Christ (Galatians 6:2 ; 1 Corinthians 9:21 ). ...
On the other hand, the Law cannot be altogether invalid since the New Testament affirms its abiding applicability. "All Scripture is useful" (2 Timothy 3:16-17 ), including Old Testament Laws. Jesus came not to abolish the Law, but to fulfill it (Matthew 5:17-20 ). The Law is the embodiment of truth that instructs (Romans 2:18-19 ). The Law is good if used properly (1 Timothy 1:8 ), and is not opposed to the promises of God (Galatians 3:21 ). Faith does not make the Law void, but the Christian establishes the Law (Romans 3:31 ), fulfilling its requirements by walking according to the Spirit (Romans 8:4 ) through love (Romans 13:10 ). When Paul states that women are to be in submission "as the Law says" (1 Corinthians 14:34 ) or quotes parts of the Decalogue (Romans 13:9 ), and when James quotes the Law of love (2:8 from Leviticus 19:18 ) or condemns partiality, adultery, murder, and slander as contrary to the Law (2:9,11; 4:11), and when Peter quotes Leviticus, "Be holy, because I am holy" (1 Peter 1:16 ; from Leviticus 19:2 ), the implication is that the Law, or at least part of it, remains authoritative. ...
Part of the problem is that not all the "laws" are of the same order. Jesus designates justice, mercy, and faithfulness as "more important" matters in the Law (Matthew 23:23 ). ...
Covenant theologians have traditionally divided Laws into three categories: moral, civil, and ceremonial. Moral Laws (e. Civil Laws (e. , Exodus 21-23 ), although they may illustrate moral Law, were limited historically to the theocratic state of Israel and are not binding on the church. Ceremonial Laws (e. There is often a mixture of these categories: the ceremonial sabbath among "moral" Laws (Exodus 20:8 ), ceremonial food regulations among "civil" Laws (Exodus 21:28 ; 22:31 ), "moral" motivations in civil Laws (Exodus 22:21,26-27 ) and in cultic Laws (Exodus 20:26 ). There is considerable subjectivity in labeling Laws as "moral, " "civil, " or "ceremonial. Theonomists wish to work toward a theocratic state where Mosaic civil Laws can again be instituted into modern society. Some Laws became impractical and unenforceable if applied literally even in Old Testament times. The Year of Jubilee regulations, requiring the return of property to original families every forty-nine years, seem never to have been enforced as Law because (among other reasons) by the time Israel controlled the land, there were no records of the original owners. Some Laws assume the existence of conditions such as debt slavery ( Exodus 21:2-11 ), specific species of animals (Exodus 29:22 -fat; tail sheep ), or the climate of Palestine (feast held at end of harvest season, Leviticus 23:33-39 ), which make these Laws inapplicable in other cultural environments. Some Laws seem tied to the specific theological context of the Old Testament. ...
Usage of Old Testament Laws suggests that biblical authors sought out and applied the inherent religious and moral principles in the Laws even when changed historical, cultural, and theological settings made literal application inappropriate. Ezra applied a Law prohibiting marriage to Canaanites, who had ceased to exist historically, broadly to marriage with non-Canaanite foreigners, because in that situation the same principle (marriage to foreigners leads to religious assimilation) applied, even though the letter of the Law could not ( Ezra 9:1-2 ; cf. ...
The New Testament writers also apply the principles in the Law. The principle that believers are not to be unequally yoked together with unbelievers is derived from a Law concerning the yoking animals (2 Corinthians 6:14 ; cf. Paul maintains the Law's moral principle, yet in view of the changed redemptive setting, makes no attempt to apply the Law's original sanction. ...
The Law and the Christian Today . Mosaic Law is of value for the Christian in several ways. ...
The Law Prepares Sinners for the Gospel . No one can receive eternal salvation by works of the Law (Galatians 2:16 ) because none perfectly keeps the Law (Romans 3:23 ), and violation of any part of it makes one guilty of the whole (James 2:10 ; cf
Custodian - Paul spoke of the Law as the custodian of God's people until Christ came (Galatians 3:23-26 ). The Law could not save; but it could bring us to the point where we could have faith in Christ by showing us our unrighteousness (Galatians 3:19 ; compare Romans 7:7-12 ). Of course, the Law was not nullified by Christ's death nor by becoming Christians. We are still expected to live according to the moral principles found in the Law (Romans 7:12 ,Romans 7:12,7:16 ; compare Matthew 5:17-20 ,Matthew 5:17-20,5:21-48 )
Bier - According to the Levitical Law, contact with a dead body was forbidden as a source of defilement (Numbers 19:11-14). In raising to life the widow’s son at Nain, Jesus, by touching the bier only, avoided any infringement of the letter of the Law. But the miracle, prompted by that same intense sympathy with human sorrow which He so strikingly manifested on another occasion (John 11:35), pointed to a higher and more authoritative Law—that Divine eternal Law of compassion which received its freest and fullest expression for the first time in His own life, and which forms one of the most distinctive features of His Gospel
Gamaliel - A celebrated Pharisee in the generation after Christ, a doctor of the Law, and member of the Sanhedrin. The Talmundists say that he was the son of Rabbi Simeon, and grandson of Hillel, the celebrated teacher of the Law, and that upon his death the glory of the Law departed. The apostle Paul thought it a high honor to have been one of his pupils, Acts 22:3 , and no doubt received from him not only a zealous enthusiasm for the Jewish Law, but many lessons of candor, impartiality, and liberality
Transgression - Image of sin as overstepping the limits of God's Law
Parshandatha - An interpreter of the Law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7 )
Hashbadana - Consideration in judging, stood at Ezra's left hand when he read the Law (Nehemiah 8:4 )
Punitive - ) Of or pertaining to punishment; involving, awarding, or inflicting punishment; as, punitive Law or justice
Deuteronomy - ) The fifth book of the Pentateuch, containing the second giving of the Law by Moses
Kitzur shulchan aruch - part of the Code of Jewish Law as abbreviated by R
Unifier - ) One who, or that which, unifies; as, a natural Law is a unifier of phenomena
Mores - , customs conformity to which is more or less obligatory; customary Law
Rescued - Delivered from confinement or danger or forcibly taken from the custody of the Law
Johann Reiffenstuel - He taught philosophy at Freising, Landshut, and Munich, and canon Law at Freising. His works on moral theology and canon Law give him first rank among the canonists of his time, and have gone through numerous editions, with additions by other authors
Eruv - �merging�); one of several rabbinically-instituted procedures, executed before Shabbat or a holiday, for the purpose of: (a) permitting people to carry in certain areas where it would otherwise be forbidden by rabbinic Law; (b) extending the normal boundaries, to permit one to walk distances that would otherwise be forbidden by rabbinic Law; (c) permitting one to cook for the following Shabbat day, when the festival day falls on Friday ...
Servile Work - Protestantism, denying the authoritative visible Church, accepts necessarily, without observing it, the Jewish Law. The Church distinguishes between the Divine Law of worship, and the mode of observance determinable by legitimate authority, and forbids in general works characteristic of servile condition, to which others are added, specifically indicating secular business and publicity as the norm of determining what is forbidden
Work, Servile - Protestantism, denying the authoritative visible Church, accepts necessarily, without observing it, the Jewish Law. The Church distinguishes between the Divine Law of worship, and the mode of observance determinable by legitimate authority, and forbids in general works characteristic of servile condition, to which others are added, specifically indicating secular business and publicity as the norm of determining what is forbidden
Reiffenstuel, Johann Georg - He taught philosophy at Freising, Landshut, and Munich, and canon Law at Freising. His works on moral theology and canon Law give him first rank among the canonists of his time, and have gone through numerous editions, with additions by other authors
Tradition (2) - In the Talmud it was written that ‘Moses received the oral Law from Sinai and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua delivered it to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets to the men of the Great [2] ...
By some it was held that the oral or traditional Law was even superior to the written, because the latter was dependent for its authority upon the oral testimony of Moses. A large portion of it was simply a repetition of the written Law, with elaborations of detail and embellishments. As a reiteration of the Mosaic Law, it was called Mishna (repetition). As a series of questionings into or investigations of the meaning of the Law, it was called Midrâsh (Midrâshîm). In fact, for the average layman it was an impossibility; hence the rise of a class of men who devoted themselves to the work of studying it, and informing inquirers about it (see Scribes, Lawyers). But this method raised the interpreters of the Law to a place of authority. Interpretations of the Law were accepted as binding, because they said so, not because the Law was seen to involve them. The Law was obeyed not because its Divine origin was perceived, but upon the authority of men. On the one side, it massed together man-made rules and representations of God’s thought; on the other side, it wrought out man-made interpretations of the Law which truly came from God. For the former a direct Divine authority was claimed in the teaching that they were actually delivered to Moses on Sinai; some corroboration for each separate precept thus brought down was sought for in the written Law. He denied first of all the Pharisaic teaching that tradition was of equal weight with the Law. As against the Pharisees, He taught that the Law of God could not come in conflict with itself, whereas between the traditions current and the Law there were conflicts. In many cases traditional prescriptions did stand in the way of the right observance of the Law (Mark 7:11 ff. As contrasted with the Divine Law, He calls the tradition ‘your tradition
Decay - Hebrews 8:13 (b) The Lord uses this strange word to describe the condition of the Old Testament plan and method of dealing with men according to "the Law of Moses. Men could not, would not, and did not keep the Law. The rebellion in their hearts and the sinfulness of their natures prevented the Law from doing for them what should have been done
Sloane, Charles William - Educated at Saint Francis Xavier's College, and Columbia Law School, he was admitted to the New York Bar in 1871. He wrote a Treatise on the Law of Landlord and Tenant (New York, 1884), and was a frequent contributor to Law journals and historical magazines. He was a nephew of Charles O'Conor, the famous Lawyer and candidate for the Presidency
Seal of Confession - This obligation arises from the natural Law, the positive Law of Christ, and the Law of the Church
Mamzer - ) A person born of relations between whom marriage was forbidden by the Mosaic Law; a bastard
Hobab - Son of Jethro, and brother-in-law to Moses, His name signifies, beloved, from Chabab, to love
Canonicals - The vestments or ecclesiastical garments ordered by church Law to be worn by the clergy while officiating
Sanctions - DIVINE, are those acts or Laws of the Supreme Being which render any thing obligatory. ...
See Law
Shulchan aruch - "set table"); standard code of Jewish Law, compiled by R
R. shmaryahu gurary (rashag) - Rav Shemaryahu Gurary; 1897-1989; eldest son-in-law of Rabbi Joseph Yitzchak, the sixth Chabad Rebbe ...
Scots - ) Of or pertaining to the Scotch; Scotch; Scottish; as, Scots Law; a pound Scots (1s
Prohibitory - ) Tending to prohibit, forbid, or exclude; implying prohibition; forbidding; as, a prohibitory Law; a prohibitory price
Adlai - (ad' Law i) Personal name of father of one of David's chief shepherds (1 Chronicles 27:29 )
Sinaitic - ) Of or pertaining to Mount Sinai; given or made at Mount Sinai; as, the Sinaitic Law
Justly - ) In a just manner; in conformity to Law, justice, or propriety; by right; honestly; fairly; accurately
Trespassing - Entering another man's inclosure injuring or annoying another violating the divine Law or moral duty
Law - The Pentateuch was probably "the Law," a copy of which every king was to transcribe for himself and study, and which was to be made known to young and old, in public and in private, Deuteronomy 6:7 17:18,19 31:9-19,26 . In other places the Mosaic institutions as a whole are intend by "the Law," in distinction from the gospel, John 1:17 Acts 25:8 . ...
When the word refers to the Law of Moses, careful attention to the context is sometimes requisite to judge whether the civil, the ceremonial, or the moral Law is meant. The ceremonial or ritual Laws, concerning the forms of worship, sacrifices, priests, purifications, etc. The civil Laws, Acts 23:2 24:6 , were for the government of the Jews as a nation, and included the Ten Commandments. Its pious, humane, and just spirit should characterize every code of human Laws. The moral Law, Deuteronomy 5:22 Matthew 5:17,18 Luke 10:26,27 , is more important than the others, from its bearings on human salvation. Some have argued from certain passages of Scripture that this Law is no longer binding upon Christians; that they "are not under the Law, but under grace," Romans 6:14,15 7:4,6 Galatians 3:13,25 5:18 ; and the perversion of these passages leads men to sin and perish because grace abounds. To the soul that is in Christ, the Law is no longer the arbiter of doom; yet is still comes to him as the divinely appointed teacher of that will of God in which he now delights, Psalm 119:97 Matthew 5:48 11:30 . ...
The word "law" sometimes means an inward guiding and controlling power. The "law in the mind" and the "law in the members," mean the holy impulses of a regenerated should and the perverse inclinations of the natural heart, Romans 7:21-23
Hobab - ) the father-in-law of Moses is uniformly named Jethro . ]'>[2] ) speaks of ‘Hobab the son of Reuel the Midianite Moses’ father-in-law’ ( hôthçn ). It is uncertain how this should be punctuated, and whether Hobab or Reuel was Moses’ father-in-law. ]'>[3] in Judges 1:16 ; Judges 4:11 attempts to harmonize the two by rendering hôthçn ‘brother-in-law. ]'>[2] ) are the names of Moses’ father-in-law, and Reuel is Hobab’s father. A Mohammedan tradition identifies Sho’ aib (perhaps a corruption of Hobab), a prophet sent to the Midianites, with Moses’ father-in-law
Kelita - Dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the Law to the people (Nehemiah 8:7 ; 10:10 )
Palaetiology - ) The science which explains, by the Law of causation, the past condition and changes of the earth
Wreck-Master - ) A person appointed by Law to take charge of goods, etc
Receiptor - ) One who receipts; specifically (Law), one who receipts for property which has been taken by the sheriff
Gamaliel - Paul's teacher of the Law
Leviable - ) Fit to be levied; capable of being assessed and collected; as, sums leviable by course of Law
Rescission - ) The act of rescinding, abrogating, annulling, or vacating; as, the rescission of a Law, decree, or judgment
Defilement - Under the Law, many were those blemishes of person and conduct, which were considered as defilements: some were voluntary, others involuntary; some were inevitable, and the effect of nature itself, others arose from personal transgression. The ceremonial uncleannesses of the Law are superseded as religious rites; though many of them claim attention as usages of health, decency, and civility
Animal - The Levitical Law divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Genesis 7:2 ). The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical Law (Deuteronomy 14:3-20 ; Leviticus 11 )
Freedom - The Law of Moses pointed out the cases in which the servants of the Hebrews were to receive their freedom (Exodus 21:2-4,7,8 ; Leviticus 25:39-42,47-55 ; Deuteronomy 15:12-18 ). Under the Roman Law the "freeman" (ingenuus) was one born free; the "freedman" (libertinus) was a manumitted slave, and had not equal rights with the freeman (Acts 22:28 ; Compare Acts 16:37-39 ; 21:39 ; 22:25 ; 25:11,12 )
Usury - The violation of this Law was viewed as a great crime (Psalm 15:5 ; Proverbs 28:8 ; Jeremiah 15:10 ). After the Return, and later, this Law was much neglected (Nehemiah 5:7,10 )
Equity - ) A system of jurisprudence, supplemental to Law, properly so called, and complemental of it. ) Equality of rights; natural justice or right; the giving, or desiring to give, to each man his due, according to reason, and the Law of God to man; fairness in determination of conflicting claims; impartiality
Estoppel - ) The agency by which the Law excludes evidence to dispute certain admissions, which the policy of the Law treats as indisputable
Regeneration - In theology, new birth by the grace of God that change by which the will and natural enmity of man to God and his Law are subdued, and a principle of supreme love to God and his Law, or holy affections, are implanted in the heart
Joule, James Prescott - Formulated the important "Joule's Law" and made researches in the mechanical equivalent of heat
Rashag - Acronym for Rav Shemaryahu Gurary; 1897-1989; eldest son-in-law of Rabbi Joseph Yitzchak, the sixth Chabad Rebbe ...
James Joule - Formulated the important "Joule's Law" and made researches in the mechanical equivalent of heat
Hashabnah - ” Signer of Nehemiah's covenant to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:25 )
Rabbi - ) Master; lord; teacher; - a Jewish title of respect or honor for a teacher or doctor of the Law
Adulterine - Hence: Spurious; without the support of Law; illegal
Theocrat - ) One who lives under a theocratic form of government; one who in civil affairs conforms to divine Law
Tortious - ) Imploying tort, or privat injury for which the Law gives damages; involing tort
Lynch Law - The act or practice by private persons of inflicting punishment for crimes or offenses, without due process of Law
Jurisconsult - ) A man learned in the civil Law; an expert in juridical science; a professor of jurisprudence; a jurist
Tal'Mud - doctrine , from the Hebrew word "to learn") is a large collection of writings, containing a full account of the civil and religious Laws of the Jews. It was a fundamental principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, that by the side of the written Law, regarded as a summary of the principles and general Laws of the Hebrew people, there was an oral Law, to complete and to explain the written Law. The classical subject is the following in the Mishna on this wing: "Moses received the (oral) Law from Sinai, and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets and the prophets to the men of the Great Synagogue. " This oral Law, with the numerous commentaries upon it, forms the Talmud.
The MISHNA, or "second Law," which contains a compendium of the whole ritual Law, was reduced to writing in its present form by Rabbi Jehuda the Holy, a Jew of great wealth and influence, who flourished in the second century of the Christian era
Affinity - There are several degrees of affinity, wherein marriage was prohibited by the Law of Moses: thus the son could not marry his mother, nor his father's wife, Leviticus 18:7 , &c. The father-in-law could not marry his daughter-in-law; nor the brother the wife of his brother, while living; nor even after the death of his brother, if he left children. ...
It is true the patriarchs, before the Law, married their sisters, as Abraham married Sarah, who was his father's daughter by another mother; and two sisters together, as Jacob married Rachel and Leah; and their own sisters, both by father and mother, as Seth and Cain. But these cases are not to be proposed as examples; because in some they were authorized by necessity; in others, by custom; and the Law as yet was not in being. If some other examples may be found, either before or since the Law, the Scripture expressly disapproves of them; as Reuben's incest with Balah, his father's concubine; and the action of Ammon with his sister Tamar; and that of Herod Antipas, who married Herodias, his sister-in-law, his brother Philip's wife, while her husband was yet living; and that which St
Kid - The Mosaic Law forbade to dress a kid in the milk of its dam, a Law which is thrice repeated (Exodus 23:19 ; 34:26 ; Deuteronomy 14:21 ). Among the various reasons assigned for this Law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which regards it as "a protest against cruelty and outraging the order of nature
Inn - In England, a college of municipal or common Law professors and students formerly, the town-house of a nobleman, bishop or other distinguished personage, in which he resided when he attended the court. Inns of court, colleges in which students of Law reside and are instructed. ...
Inns of chancery, colleges in which young students formerly began their Law studies
Transgressor - ...
Note: Hamartolos, "a sinner, one who misses the mark," is applicable to all men without distinction; parabates stresses the positive side of sin, and is applicable to those who received the Law. ...
2: ἄνομος (Strong's #459 — Adjective — anomos — an'-om-os ) "without Law" (a, negative), is translated "transgressors" in Luke 22:37 (in some texts, Mark 15:28 ), in a quotation from Isaiah 53:12 . See Law , C, No. 3, LawLESS, A
Impurity - IMPURE, IMPURITY...
Under the Law of Moses, we find many circumstances spoken of respecting legal impurity. Thus touching a dead body, or any creature deemed unclean by the Law: touching a living person when under uncleanness; a leper, or one with a running sore, and the like; or garments unclean, etc. And the Law which pointed to these acts of impurity, prescribed the modes of cleansing; some by bathing, others by sacrifice. But what blessed views ought all true believers in Christ to have of these things, when reading at any time the Law of Moses, in beholding the whole done away in the person, work, and finished salvation of Jesus
Hashabniah - ...
One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the Law to the people (Nehemiah 9:5 )
Hagiographa - , the Law, the Prophets, and the Psalms
Hashum - ...
Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the Law (Nehemiah 8:4 )
Fracture - The Law of retribution limited retaliation to “fracture for fracture
Zealot - An ancient sect of the Jews, so called from their pretended zeal for God's Law, and the honour of religion
Charte - ) The constitution, or fundamental Law, of the French monarchy, as established on the restoration of Louis XVIII
Punishable - ) Deserving of, or liable to, punishment; capable of being punished by Law or right; - said of person or offenses
Efficacious - ) Possessing the quality of being effective; productive of, or powerful to produce, the effect intended; as, an efficacious Law
Marconi's Law - The Law that the maximum good signaling distance varies directly as the square of the height of the transmitting antenna
Past - Enacted having received all the formalities necessary to constitute a Law
Christianity - ) The Law and Mosaic system, though distinct from the gospel, yet clearly contemplates the new dispensation as that for which itself was the preparation. shall all families of the earth be blessed" (Genesis 12:3; Genesis 22:16), still awaited its fulfillment, and the Law came in as the parenthesis between the promise of grace and its fulfillment in Christ the promised "seed. " 2 Corinthians 3:3-185; "the Law entered (as a parenthesis, incidentally, Greek) that the offense might abound. " Galatians 3:8-25; "the Law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith; but after that, faith is come we are no longer under a schoolmaster. ) announces the coming of another Lawgiver like him, about to promulgate God's new Law; for to be like Moses He must be a Lawgiver, and to be so He must have a new Law, a fuller development of God's will, than Moses' Law, its germ. ...
The Law was the type; the gospel was the antitype (Hebrews 10:1-10)
Statute Bloody - Or the Law of the six articles; a Law enacted in the reign of Henry VIII. which denounced death against all those who should deny the doctrine of transubstantiation; or maintain the necessity of receiving the sacrament in both kinds, or affirm that it was Lawful for priests to marry, that vows of celibacy might be broken, that private masses were of no avail, and that auricular confession to a priest was not necessary to salvation
Proselyte - Among the Hebrews, proselytes were distinguished into two sorts: the first called proselytes of the gate, because suffered to live among them, and were those who observed the moral Law only, and the rules imposed on the children of Noah; the second were called proselytes of justice, who engaged to receive circumcision, and the whole Law of Moses, and enjoyed all the privileges of a native Hebrew
Talmud - Talmud, The: the basic compendium of Jewish Law and thought; its tractates mainly comprise the discussions collectively known as the Gemara, which elucidate the germinal statements of Law (mishnayot) collectively known as the Mishnah; when unspecified refers to the Talmud Bavli, the edition developed in Babylonia, and edited at the end of the fifth century C
Pelaiah - ...
...
A Levite who expounded the Law (Nehemiah 8:7 )
Poskim - �deciders�); (a) the halachic authorities following the Talmudic era; (b) the works of applied Jewish Law authored by these authorities
Prejudical - ) Of or pertaining to the determination of some matter not previously decided; as, a prejudical inquiry or action at Law
Poacher - ) One who poaches; one who kills or catches game or fish contrary to Law
Disposition of Angels, - The ordered ministry of angels in connection with the dispensation of Law
Lawlessness - LAWLESSNESS. This liberty cannot therefore be a licence for Lawlessness. Augustine’s maxim, ‘Love, and do as you like,’ derives its truth from the principle that love is not the abolition but the recapitulation of all the Divine Law for mankind. The love of God and the love of man constitute the essence of the Law’s demands and the Prophets’ promises (Matthew 22:40). It is not the Law which Christ denounces, but traditional excrescences and empty forms (Mark 7:13). The exponents of the Law were erring, yet the Law itself stood as a Divine ordinance (Matthew 23:3, Luke 16:17). Nay, not one tittle can pass away from the Law (Matthew 5:18). So there is a paradox, the solution of which lies in the recapitulation of the entire Law as consisting in the love of God and the love of one’s fellow-man. The revelation of the guiding principle summing up the Law renders light a burden which the Pharisees made heavy (Luke 11:46). Yet the legalists took advantage of these to charge Him with Lawlessness (John 9:16). Nevertheless, He came fulfilling all righteousness (Matthew 3:15), and appealing to the Law in the face of temptation (Matthew 4:4-10). There was no Lawlessness in His pattern life of perfect obedience to God (John 15:10). Lawless efforts at good, however strenuous, are not acceptable (John 10:1). John sums up the matter in the words, ‘Sin is Lawlessness’ (1 John 3:4). ‘Law (in NT)’; Bruce, Training of the Twelve, pp
Audacity - ) Reckless daring; presumptuous impudence; - implying a contempt of Law or moral restraints
Beninu - ” A Levite who sealed the covenant Nehemiah made to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:13 )
Satisfaction - Theory explaining Christ's atonement as satisfying demands of God's holy Law and thus satisfying demands of God's wrath
Pleadable - ) Capable of being pleaded; capable of being alleged in proof, defense, or vindication; as, a right or privilege pleadable at Law
Actionable - ) That may be the subject of an action or suit at Law; as, to call a man a thief is actionable
Twinned - ) Composed of parts united according to a Law of twinning
Compurgator - See Purgation; also Wager of Law, under Wager
Halacha - ) The general term for the Hebrew oral or traditional Law; one of two branches of exposition in the Midrash
Obrogate - ) To annul indirectly by enacting a new and contrary Law, instead of by expressly abrogating or repealing the old one
Mobocracy - ) A condition in which the lower classes of a nation control public affairs without respect to Law, precedents, or vested rights
Saint Ignatius' College, California - Consists of a preparatory school, schools of arts and sciences, commerce, and Law
Wrongfully - Unjustly in a manner contrary to the moral Law or to justice as, to accuse one wrongfully to suffer wrongfully
Constant - ) Remaining unchanged or invariable, as a quantity, force, Law, etc. ) A number whose value, when ascertained (as by observation) and substituted in a general mathematical formula expressing an astronomical Law, completely determines that Law and enables predictions to be made of its effect in particular cases
Scribe - ) A writer and doctor of the Law; one skilled in the Law and traditions; one who read and explained the Law to the people
Tradition - The Jews had really contradicted God's Law by their traditions, which they pretended were of equal or even superior authority. They attached more importance to their traditionary exposition of the Law than to the Law itself, calling the latter water, the tradition the wine that must be mingled with it
Wicked - Evil in principle or practice deviating from the divine Law addicted to vice sinful immoral. This is a word of comprehensive signification, extending to every thing that is contrary to the moral Law, and both to persons and actions. ...
The wicked, in Scripture, persons who live in sin transgressors of the divine Law all who are unreconciled to God, unsanctified or impenitent
Memucan - One of the seven princes who "saw the king's face and sat first in the kingdom" (Esther 1:13-14); "wise men who knew the times and Law and judgment. " Ahasuerus accordingly consulted them, "what shall we do unto Vashti according to Law?" Memucan as president of the council owing to his wisdom and age, or else as an obsequious courtier knowing his master's mind, gave his opinion first, that Vashti should be disgraced; and his counsel the king followed
Code - ) A body of Law, sanctioned by legislation, in which the rules of Law to be specifically applied by the courts are set forth in systematic form; a compilation of Laws by public authority; a digest
Ark of the Covenant Person - A title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary to signify her Divine motherhood, that as the ark of old, made of incorruptible wood and adorned with pure gold, contained the precious treasures of the Divine Law and the manna from heaven, so she, the true ark, bore within her not merely the Law but the Lawgiver, not merely the Divine presence as manifested over the ark of the covenant, but the Divine One Himself, and the Living Bread from heaven
Disorderly - ) In a disorderly manner; without Law or order; irregularly; confusedly. ) Not complying with the restraints of order and Law; tumultuous; unruly; Lawless; turbulent; as, disorderly people; disorderly assemblies
Enclosure - Present canon Law requires every convent or monastery of regulars, on its completion, to be encloistered. The houses where only two or three religious dwell permanently and observe their rule as they can, are subject to this Law
Banns of Marriage - The publishing of the Banns in theChurch of England is required by Law. In the American Prayer Book,provision is made for the publishing of the Banns of Marriage, butas it is not required by Law the custom has fallen into disuse
Dalton, John - Author of the atomic theory in its modern application, of atomic symbols, and of the Law of greatest simplicity
Isaac Newton - Discovered the Law of universal gravitation
Newton, Isaac - Discovered the Law of universal gravitation
Raguel - ), Exodus 2:18 , the father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro (q
Azaniah - ” Father of Levite who signed Nehemiah's covenant to obey God's Law (Nehemiah 10:9 )
Postage - ) The price established by Law to be paid for the conveyance of a letter or other mailable matter by a public post
Overweight - ) Weight over and above what is required by Law or custom
Exogamy - ) The custom, or tribal Law, which prohibits marriage between members of the same tribe; marriage outside of the tribe; - opposed to endogamy
Lawsuit - ) An action at Law; a suit in equity or admiralty; any legal proceeding before a court for the enforcement of a claim
Written - ...
Written Laws, statutes Laws enacted by the supreme power and recorded as contradistinguished from unwritten or common Law
or'Pah - (a gazelle ), a Moabite woman wife of Chilion son of Naomi, and thereby sister-in-law to Ruth
Mount Sinai - This place will be always memorable, from the Law having been delivered from it accompanied with thunderings and lightnings, and all the other awful demonstrations of the divine presence. It was a mount, Paul saith, that "burned, with fire, and blackness, and darkness, and tempest intimating the dread which must ever fill the soul at the delivery of the Law, when the soul is filled with a conscious sense of having broken that Law, and stands under the conviction of it, as yet unconscious of Christ. Hence the apostle Paul (to the Galatian church, who seemed ignorant of this trembling of soul, who seemed ignorant from not having been sufficiently humbled under a sense of sin; and were running back to a covenant of works for justification,) cries out, "Tell me, ye that desire to be under the Law, do ye not hear the Law?" (Galatians 4:21. ) As if he had said, do ye not hear the awful threatenings to disobedience, and the total impossibility of being justified by the Law? Such was, and is, and ever must be, mount Sinai in the church
Scribe - In the later times of the Old Testament, especially after the captivity, and in the New Testament, a scribe is a person skilled in the Jewish Law, a teacher or interpreter of the Law. So Ezra was "a ready scribe in the Laws of Moses," Ezra 7:6 1 Chronicles 27:32 . They had the charge of transcribing them, of interpreting the more difficult passages, and of deciding in cases which grew out of the ceremonial Law, Matthew 2:4 , and were especially skilled in those glosses and traditions by which the Jews made void the Law, Matthew 15:1-6 . Jewish writers speak of them as the schoolmasters of the nation; and one mode in which they exercised their office was by meeting the people from time to time, in every town, for the purpose of holding familiar discussions, and raising questions of the Law for debate. The same persons who are termed scribes, are in parallel passages sometimes called Lawyers and doctors of the Law, Matthew 22:35 Mark 12:28
Deuteronomy - (Greek: deuteros, second; nomos, Law) ...
The fifth Book of the. The name is a misnomer, since the book does not contain any new Laws, but is a partial repetition of the foregoing legislation, with an urgent exhortation to be faithful to it. It is made up principally of three discourses, the contents of which are as follows: ...
The first discourse, comprising chapters 1-4, is a review of the events which followed the promulgation of the Law (1-3), and an exhortation to keep it (4).
The second discourse forms the bulk of the book (5-26) and rehearses the whole Covenant in two parts:
(a) a general discourse concerning the duties of the Hebrews towards God (5-11);
(b) a special discourse in which fundamental points of the Law are rehearsed, concerning duties towards God, God's representatives, and the neighbor (12-26).
The third discourse (27-30) contains new exhortations to keep the Law; chapters 27,28 (renewal of the alliance, blessings, and curses) are extremely dramatic
Law, Mendel's - A Law of heredity which is the basic Law of genetics. By tracing two opposed characters through a series of progeny, he concluded that the offspring of the peas behave, in regard to the peculiarities of the parent peas, in a well-defined manner which may be reduced to the terms of a "natural Law. Mendel's Law gave a final blow to the theory of natural selection, and has exercised an enormous influence on biology and scientific breeding
Mendel's Law - A Law of heredity which is the basic Law of genetics. By tracing two opposed characters through a series of progeny, he concluded that the offspring of the peas behave, in regard to the peculiarities of the parent peas, in a well-defined manner which may be reduced to the terms of a "natural Law. Mendel's Law gave a final blow to the theory of natural selection, and has exercised an enormous influence on biology and scientific breeding
Lawgiver - LawGIVER. mĕchôqçq , which it translates, is from a root meaning to ‘cut’ or ‘engrave,’ and hence to ‘enact’ a Law, afterwards to be engraved on the public archives. ]'>[2] gives ‘ruler,’ and in Isaiah 33:22 , where the parallelism shows the meaning ‘Jehovah is our judge, Jehovah is our Lawgiver. ’...
In the NT the word ‘lawgiver’ (Gr. nomothetçs ) is found once only ( James 4:12 ); there it is applied to God as ‘the Lawgiver and judge,’ who is regarded as the Supreme Source of all Law. words are used, have a reference to the Law of Moses, or, to be more exact, the Law of Israel
Execution - In Law, the carrying into effect a sentence or judgment of court the last act of the Law in completing the process by which justice is to be done, by which the possession of land or debt, damages or cost, is obtained, or by which judicial punishment is inflicted. The last act of the Law in the punishment of criminals capital punishment death inflicted according to the forms of Law
Antinomianism - The word comes from the Greek anti, against, and nomos, Law. It is wrong because even though as Christians we are not under the Law (Romans 6:14), we still fulfill the Law in the Law of love (Romans 13:8; Rom 13:10; Galatians 5:14; Gal 6:2)
Impute - ...
2: ἐλλογέω (Strong's #1677 — Verb — ellogao[1] — el-log-eh'-o ) (the -ao termination is the one found in the Koine, the language covering the NT period), denotes "to charge to one's account, to lay to one's charge," and is translated "imputed" in Romans 5:13 , of sin as not being "imputed when there is no Law. " This principle is there applied to the fact that between Adam's trangression and the giving of the Law at Sinai, sin, though it was in the world, did not partake of the character of transgression; for there was no Law. The Law of conscience existed, but that is not in view in the passage, which deals with the fact of external commandments given by God
Ottawa, University of - Faculties of theology, Law, philosophy, and arts
Tob-Adonijah - Good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people of Judah in the Law (2 Chronicles 17:8 )
Putiel - ” Father-in-law of the priest Eliezar (Exodus 6:25 )
Cypres - ) A rule for construing written instruments so as to conform as nearly to the intention of the parties as is consistent with Law
Naham - ” Either the brother (KJV, REB) or brother-in-law (NAS, NIV, NRSV) of Hodiah (1 Chronicles 4:19 )
Finding - In Law, the return of a jury to a bill a verdict
Sheriffs - The word is tiphtaye : Fürst translates it 'judges,' and Gesenius 'those learned in the Law': the word occurs only in Daniel 3:2,3
Zenas - A believer and a 'lawyer' (probably one skilled in the Law of Moses), whom Titus was to help on his journey
Anaiah - One who stood beside Ezra when he read the Law to the people
Litigant - ) A person engaged in a Lawsuit. ) Disposed to litigate; contending in Law; engaged in a Lawsuit; as, the parties litigant
University of Ottawa - Faculties of theology, Law, philosophy, and arts
University, Georgetown - Washington, DC, founded 1189; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce or foreign service, Law, medicine, dentistry, graduate school
Georgetown University - Washington, DC, founded 1189; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce or foreign service, Law, medicine, dentistry, graduate school
ho'Bab - This name is found in two places only ( Numbers 10:29 ; Judges 4:11 ) Hobab was brother-in-law to Moses
Joule's Law - (1):...
The Law that the rate at which heat is produced in any part of an electric circuit is measured by the product of the square of the current into the resistance of that part of the circuit. ...
(2):...
The Law that there is no change of temperature when a gas expands without doing external work and without receiving or rejecting heat
Mishna - (Hebrews: repetition) ...
A collection of precepts which forms the basis of the Talmud, and embodies the contents of the oral Law, as opposed to the written Law, the Pentateuch
Meat - As related to the Law of the Church, the flesh of animals and birds, inasmuch as flesh is eaten by man. In the Law of the Church, as it stands now, the restriction regarding meat is much lessened as to the number of days on which it is not allowed
Foreigner - Such as resided among the Hebrews were required by the Law to be treated with kindness (Exodus 22:21 ; 23:9 ; Leviticus 19:33,34 ; 23:22 ; Deuteronomy 14:28 ; 16:10,11 ; 24:19 ). They enjoyed in many things equal rights with the native-born residents (Exodus 12:49 ; Leviticus 24:22 ; Numbers 15:15 ; 35:15 ), but were not allowed to do anything which was an abomination according to the Jewish Law (Exodus 20:10 ; Leviticus 17:15,16 ; 18:26 ; 20:2 ; 24:16 , etc
Incur - Thus, a thief incurs the punishment of the Law by the act of stealing, before he is convicted, and we have all incurred the penalties of God's Law
Affirmation - ) A solemn declaration made under the penalties of perjury, by persons who conscientiously decline taking an oath, which declaration is in Law equivalent to an oath. ) Confirmation of anything established; ratification; as, the affirmation of a Law
Mint - The Pharisees, desiring to distinguish themselves by a most scrupulous and literal observation of the Law, gave tithes of mint, anise, and cummin, Matthew 23:23 . Our Savior does not censure this exactness, but complains, that while they were so precise in these lesser matters, they neglected the essential commandments of the Law-making their punctiliousness about easy and external duties an excuse for disregarding their obligations to love God supremely, to be regenerated in heart, and just and beneficent in life
Neonomianism - so called from the Greek νεος , new, and νομος , Law. This is not the appellation of a separate sect, but of those both among Arminians and Calvinists who regard Christianity as a new Law, mitigated in its requisitions for the sake of Christ. One opinion is, that the new covenant of grace which, through the medium of Christ's death, the Father made with men, consists, according to this system, not in our being justified by faith, as it apprehends the righteousness of Christ; but in this, that God, abrogating the exaction of perfect legal obedience, reputes or accepts of faith itself, and the imperfect obedience of faith, instead of the perfect obedience of the Law, and graciously accounts them worthy of the reward of eternal life. Williams's "Gospel Truth Stated," &c: "To supply the room of the moral Law, vacated by him, he turns the Gospel into a new Law, in keeping of which we shall be justified for the sake of Christ's righteousness, making qualifications and acts of ours a disposing subordinate righteousness, whereby we become capable of being justified by Christ's righteousness. Whether the Gospel be a new Law in the Socinian, popish, or Arminian sense. Whether the Gospel be a Law more new than is implied in the first promise to fallen Adam, proposed to Cain, and obeyed by Abel, to the differencing him from his unbelieving brother. Nor whether the Gospel be a Law that allows sin, when it accepts such graces as true, though short of perfection, to be the conditions of our personal interest in the benefits purchased by Christ. Nor whether the Gospel be a Law, the promises whereof entitle the performers of its conditions to the benefits as of debt. Is the Gospel a Law in this sense; namely, God in Christ thereby commandeth sinners to repent of sin, and receive Christ by a true operative faith, promising that thereupon they shall be united to him, justified by his righteousness, pardoned, and adopted; and that, persevering in faith and true holiness, they shall be finally saved; also threatening that if any shall die impenitent, unbelieving, ungodly, rejecters of his grace, they shall perish without relief, and endure sorer punishments than if these offers had not been made to them?...
2. ...
It does not appear to have been a question in this controversy, whether God in his word commands sinners to repent, and believe in Christ, nor whether he promises life to believers, and threatens death to unbelievers; but whether it be the Gospel under the form of a new Law that thus commands or threatens, or the moral Law on its behalf, and whether its promises to believing render such believing a condition of the things promised. In another controversy, however, which arose about forty years afterward among the same people, it became a question whether God did by his word, call it Law or Gospel, command unregenerate sinners to repent and believe in Christ, or do any thing also, which is spiritually good. Of those who took the affirmative side of this question, one party maintained it on the ground of the Gospel being a new Law, consisting of commands, promises, and threatenings, the terms or conditions of which were repentance, faith, and sincere obedience. But those who first engaged in the controversy, though they allowed the encouragement to repent and believe to arise merely from the grace of the Gospel, yet considered the formal obligation to do so as arising merely from the moral Law, which, requiring supreme love to God, requires acquiescence in any revelation which he shall at any time make known
Decree - ) An edict or Law made by a council for regulating any business within their jurisdiction; as, the decrees of ecclesiastical councils. ) An order from one having authority, deciding what is to be done by a subordinate; also, a determination by one having power, deciding what is to be done or to take place; edict, Law; authoritative ru// decision. ) To determine judicially by authority, or by decree; to constitute by edict; to appoint by decree or Law; to determine; to order; to ordain; as, a court decrees a restoration of property
de Paul University - Founded, 1898; conducted by the Vincentian Fathers; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, music, Law, shorthand; graduate, special, and correspondence schools; summer school
Lawyer - The title "lawyer" is generally supposed to be equivalent to the title "scribe. " The scribe expounded the Law in the synagogues and schools
Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois - Founded, 1869; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, Law, medicine, dentistry; correspondence school; summer school
Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana - Founded, 1904; conducted by the Jesuits; colleges of arts and sciences, Law, dentistry, pharmacy; graduate, special, and extension schools; summer school
Trial, - Information on the subject of trials under the Jewish Law will be found in the articles on JUDGES and SANHEDRIN , and also in JESUS CHRIST
Plebiscitum - ) A Law enacted by the common people, under the superintendence of a tribune or some subordinate plebeian magistrate, without the intervention of the senate
Bondman - In old English Law, a villain, or tenant in villenage
Parashah - ) A lesson from the Torah, or Law, from which at least one section is read in the Jewish synagogue on every Sabbath and festival
Transgressor - ) One who transgresses; one who breaks a Law, or violates a command; one who violates any known rule or principle of rectitude; a sinner
Unrighteous - ) Contrary to Law and equity; unjust; as, an unrighteous decree or sentence
Legitimacy - ) The state, or quality, of being legitimate, or in conformity with Law; hence, the condition of having been Lawfully begotten, or born in wedlock
Charger - In Scots Law, one who charges another in a suit
University, Loyola, Chicago, Illinois - Founded, 1869; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, Law, medicine, dentistry; correspondence school; summer school
University, de Paul - Founded, 1898; conducted by the Vincentian Fathers; preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, commerce, music, Law, shorthand; graduate, special, and correspondence schools; summer school
University, Loyola, New Orleans, Louisiana - Founded, 1904; conducted by the Jesuits; colleges of arts and sciences, Law, dentistry, pharmacy; graduate, special, and extension schools; summer school
Gemara - The rabbins call the Pentateuch the Law, without any addition. Next to this they have the Talmud, which is divided into two parts: the first is only an application of the Law to particular cases, with the decision of the ancient rabbins, and is called mishnah, or "second Law:" the other part, which is a more extensive application of the same Law, is a collection of determinations by rabbins, later than the mishnah . This last is termed gemara, "perfection," "finishing," because they consider it as a conclusive explanation of the Law, to which no farther additions can be made
Impossible - A — 1: ἀδύνατος (Strong's #102 — Adjective — adunatos — ad-oo'-nat-os ) from a negative, and dunatos, "able, strong," is used (a) of persons, Acts 14:8 , "impotent;" figuratively, Romans 15:1 , "weak;" (b) of things, "impossible," Matthew 19:26 ; Mark 10:27 ; Luke 18:27 ; Hebrews 6:4,18 ; 10:4 ; 11:6 ; in Romans 8:3 , "for what the Law could not do," is, more lit. , "the inability of the Law;" the meaning may be either "the weakness of the Law," or "that which was impossible for the Law;" the latter is perhaps preferable; literalism is ruled out here, but the sense is that the Law could neither justify nor impart life
Traversable - ) Deniable; specifically (Law), liable to legal objection; as, a traversable presentment
Hiddur mitzvah - �enhancement of the mitzvah� or "beautification of the mitzvah); enhancement or meticulous observance of a mitzvah (divine commandment) beyond the formal demands of the Law
Deuterogamy - ) A second marriage, after the death of the first husband of wife; - in distinction from bigamy, as defined in the old canon Law
Warrantable - ) Authorized by commission, precept, or right; justifiable; defensible; as, the seizure of a thief is always warrantable by Law and justice; falsehood is never warrantable
Robber - ) One who robs; in Law, one who feloniously takes goods or money from the person of another by violence or by putting him in fear
Antinomianism - (Greek: anti, against; nomos, Law) ...
A term made familiar by the heresy of Antinomianism preached by Johannes Agricola as a deduction of Luther's teaching on justification by faith alone. If good works, argued Agricola, do not help to salvation so evil ones do not hinder it and therefore justified Christians are not bound to observe the Law
Obedience - (Latin: ob, near; audio, hear) ...
Submission to the will or Law of one who exercises authority; to the Will or Law of God, to the Laws of the Church; to a Lawfully constitutes superior, civilor religious
Leviticus - It may be divided as follows: ...
the rites of the sacrifices (1-7)
consecration and installation of the priests (8-10)
the Laws of purity (11-16)
the Law of holiness (17-22)
religious institutions (23-26)
blessings and curses (26), forcibly illustrating the character of the Mosaic Law of fear
Diblaim - Some Bible students see Hosea's father-in-law so named; others, his mother-in-law
Antinomianism - (Greek: anti, against; nomos, Law) ...
A term made familiar by the heresy of Antinomianism preached by Johannes Agricola as a deduction of Luther's teaching on justification by faith alone. If good works, argued Agricola, do not help to salvation so evil ones do not hinder it and therefore justified Christians are not bound to observe the Law
Antinomy - (Greek: anti, against; nomos, Law) ...
A term made familiar by the heresy of Antinomianism preached by Johannes Agricola as a deduction of Luther's teaching on justification by faith alone. If good works, argued Agricola, do not help to salvation so evil ones do not hinder it and therefore justified Christians are not bound to observe the Law
Condemnation - For the Law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the Law of sin and of death" (Romans 8:1-2)
Sinai - Galatians 4:25 (a) This mountain represents the stern realities of the Law. GOD appeared there in thunder and fire and thick darkness, for the Law demands absolute obedience, or else punishment. The condition of Jerusalem at that time, with its wickedness, sin and the destruction wrought by its enemies was just a plain evidence of the tragedy that follows the broken Laws of Sinai
Ecclesiastical Privileges - General concessions made by the pope, who alone can grant something against the common Law. Such are, properly speaking, only those mentioned in the Code of Canon Law, viz
Captivity - But I see another Law in my members--bringing me into captivity to the Law of sin
Hammuel - (ham' myoo ehl) Personal name meaning, “El is my father-in-law” or “God is hot with anger
Handwriting - The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the Law which we had broken
Mahlah - Disease, one of the five daughters of Zelophehad (Numbers 27:1-11 ) who had their father's inheritance, the Law of inheritance having been altered in their favour
Shabbethai - Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the Law and investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews (Ezra 10:15 ; Nehemiah 8:7 ; 11:16 )
Sifri - a treatise on the derivation of Torah Law from the exegesis of the verses of Numbers and Deuteronomy, written during the time of the Mishnah by Rav...
Naturalism - The belief that all of human experience can be described through natural Law
Trade-Mark - ) A peculiar distinguishing mark or device affixed by a manufacturer or a merchant to his goods, the exclusive right of using which is recognized by Law
Kelaiah, Kelita - He assisted Ezra in explaining the Law and sealed the covenant
Time, Paschal - In canon Law, period during which every Catholic must receive Holy Communion
Bach - Yoel Sirkis (1561-1640) in Poland; one of the classic works of Jewish Law...
Vows - Israel, on hearing the Law, did not hesitate to say, "all that the Lord hath said we will do;" but they alas, miserably failed. The Law made vows binding, and gave directions as to exceptional cases where it was impossible to perform them. According to the Law the final shaving must be at the tabernacle or temple
Error - If the error concerns the existence of some particular fact, it is factual; if it regards a precept of Law, it is legal. An error of quality or accidental error does not itself annul the act, unless expressly stated in the Law. The Law protects common error concerning jurisdiction
Reading - The Jews had their weekly readings of the Law. A commentary or gloss on a Law, text or passage. In Congress and in the state legislatures, a bill must usually have three several readings on different days, before it can be passed into a Law
Scribe - A writer and a doctor of the Law a man of learning one skilled in the Law one who read and explained the Law to the people
Clean And Unclean - Terms often used in the Bible in a ceremonial sense; assigned to certain animals, and to men in certain cases, by the Law of Moses, Leviticus 11:1-15:33 Numbers 19:1-22 Deuteronomy 14:1-29 . The Mosaic Law was not merely arbitrary, but grounded on reasons connected with animal sacrifices, with health, with the separation of the Jews from other nations, and their practice of moral purity, Leviticus 11:43-45 20:24-26 Deuteronomy 14:2,3,21 . The ritual Law was still observed in the time of Christ, but under the gospel is annulled, Acts 10:9-16
Barrister - ) Counselor at Law; a counsel admitted to plead at the bar, and undertake the public trial of causes, as distinguished from an attorney or solicitor
Base-Court - ) An inferior court of Law, not of record
Hodijah -
One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the Law (Nehemiah 8:7 ; 9:5 )
Tob-Adoni'Jah - (Adonijah the good ), one of the Levites sent by Jehoshaphat through the cities of Judah to teach the Law to the people
Glebe - Land or soil, used in poetry; a farm; in Law, land permanently assigned for the maintenance of a parish incumbent
Gonzaga University - Spokane, Washington, founded 1887; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; college of arts and sciences; schools of Law, commerce, and finance; Saturday courses; correspondence, graduate, and summer schools
Sherif - ) A member of an Arab princely family descended from Mohammed through his son-in-law Ali and daughter Fatima
Bravo - ) A daring villain; a bandit; one who sets Law at defiance; a professional assassin or murderer
Excuss - ) To seize and detain by Law, as goods
Hashbaddanah - One of the men who stood on the left hand of Ezra at the reading of the Law ( Nehemiah 8:4 ): called in 1Es 9:44 Nabarias
Torah - teaching) (a) The Five Books of Moses (The Bible); (b) the overall body of Jewish religious teachings encompassing the whole body of Jewish Law, practice and tradition ...
Kenites - Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, was of this people
Jurisprudence - ) The science of juridical Law; the knowledge of the Laws, customs, and rights of men in a state or community, necessary for the due administration of justice
Merchet - ) In old English and in Scots Law, a fine paid to the lord of the soil by a tenant upon the marriage of one the tenant's daughters
Libellee - ) The party against whom a libel has been filed; - corresponding to defendant in a common Law action
Saint Mary's College, California - Consists of a preparatory school; schools of arts and sciences, engineering, commerce, education, music, Law, medicine
University, Gonzaga - Spokane, Washington, founded 1887; conducted by the Jesuits; preparatory school; college of arts and sciences; schools of Law, commerce, and finance; Saturday courses; correspondence, graduate, and summer schools
Associations Cultuelles - Designation given to certain "moral persons" or associations which, by Law of Separation of the Churches and the State, 1905, the French Republic, without any previous understanding with the Holy See, wished to call into existence in each diocese and parish, for religious worship, to receive as proprietors church properties and revenues, with responsibility of taking care of them. Pope Pius X in the encyclical Gravissimo officii, 1906, gave it as his judgment that this Law, made without his assent, threatened to intrude lay authority into the natural operation of the ecclesiastical organization; the Encyclical prohibited the formation not only of associations cultuelles, but of any form of association whatsoever "so long as it should not be certainly and legally evident that the Divine constitution of the Church, the immutable rights of the Roman pontiff and of the bishops, such as their authority over the necessary property of the Church, particularly the sacred edifices, would, in the said associations, be irrevocably and fully secure. " This Law was modified by that of January 2, 1907, permitting exercise of religious worship in churches purely on sufferance and without any legal title; and further by a Law passed March 28, 1907, classifying assemblages for religious worship as public meetings, and abolishing in respect of all public meetings the anticipatory declaration required by the Law of 1881 which the Church refused to make
Epistle to the Hebrews - Its purpose is to encourage the Christians to perseverance in the faith, and to warn them against apostasy to Judaism; to accomplish this purpose, it sets forth the excellence of Jesus Christ and the superiority of the New Law. The epistle is divided: ...
the dogmatic part (1:1 - 10:17), in which is shown the Dignity of Christ who, as the Son of God, is far superior to the Angels and Moses through whom the Old Law was given (1:1 - 4:13), the eternal Priesthood of Christ, which is infinitely superior to the priesthood of the Old Law (4:14 - 7:28), and the Sacrifice of the New Law which possesses an excellence and efficacy far superior to the sacrifices of the Old Law (8:1 - 10:18) ...
the Moral Part (10:19 - 13:17), in which the Christians are exhorted to perseverance in the faith and to Christian life according to the faith
Deuteronomy - Deuteronomy (deû'ter-ŏn'o-my), or the Second Law (so called from its repeating the Law), is the fifth book of the Bible, and, except the last chapter, was probably written by Moses. The second address, Deuteronomy 5:1 to Deu_26:19, contains a recapitulation, with a few additions and alterations, of the Law given on Sinai. " After these three addresses, in chapter 31 there follows the delivery of the Law to Joshua and Moses' speech on the occasion, containing a command to read the Law every seven years
Hebrews, Epistle to the - Its purpose is to encourage the Christians to perseverance in the faith, and to warn them against apostasy to Judaism; to accomplish this purpose, it sets forth the excellence of Jesus Christ and the superiority of the New Law. The epistle is divided: ...
the dogmatic part (1:1 - 10:17), in which is shown the Dignity of Christ who, as the Son of God, is far superior to the Angels and Moses through whom the Old Law was given (1:1 - 4:13), the eternal Priesthood of Christ, which is infinitely superior to the priesthood of the Old Law (4:14 - 7:28), and the Sacrifice of the New Law which possesses an excellence and efficacy far superior to the sacrifices of the Old Law (8:1 - 10:18) ...
the Moral Part (10:19 - 13:17), in which the Christians are exhorted to perseverance in the faith and to Christian life according to the faith
Galatians, Letter to the - ...
Purpose of the letter...
Paul was disturbed when certain Jews from the church in Jerusalem came to Antioch teaching that Gentile converts had to be circumcised and keep the Law of Moses (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). They argued so persuasively that even mature Christians such as Peter stopped eating with the Gentile Christians, fearing that they might break the Jewish food Laws. In it Paul pointed out that there was only one gospel, the one he preached, and that the Law of Moses has no authority over believers in Jesus Christ. Though free from the Jewish Law they are not Lawless, but under the direction of the indwelling Spirit of Christ. ...
The central portion of the letter shows how Law-keeping has no place in Christianity. Abraham was saved by believing the promise of God, not by keeping the Law of Moses (3:6-14). The Law was never intended to be a way of salvation, though in showing people their sin it helped prepare the way for the Saviour (3:15-4:7). Paul is concerned that the Galatians are being led into Law-keeping (4:8-20), for this will lead only to bondage (4:21-31). Law-keeping makes true Christianity impossible (5:1-12), but freedom under the direction of the Spirit produces Christian character (5:13-26). After some reminders of Christian responsibilities to others (6:1-10), Paul concludes by emphasizing again that the cross of Christ, not the Law of Moses, is the basis of the gospel (6:11-18)
Scribes - During the captivity there had been a renewal of interest in the Law of Moses, and this increased after the return to Jerusalem. The result was a greater demand for copies of the Law, and consequently greater prominence for the scribes (Nehemiah 8:1-4; Nehemiah 8:8; Nehemiah 9:3). ...
Because scribes had developed special skills in copying the details of the Law exactly, people regarded them as experts on matters of the Law (Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:10). Although the priests were supposed to be the teachers in Israel (Deuteronomy 33:10; Malachi 2:7), people now went to the scribes, rather than the priests, when they had problems of the Law that they wanted explained. They were also known as teachers of the Law, Lawyers and rabbis (Matthew 22:35; Matthew 23:2-7). ...
Power of the scribes...
The increased interest in the Law produced not only the scribes as a class of teachers, but also the synagogues as places of worship (see SYNAGOGUE). )...
There was, however, a great difference between Ezra’s explanations of the Law and the expositions of the scribes of Jesus’ time. Over the intervening centuries, the scribes had produced a system of their own, which consisted of countless Laws to surround the central Law of Moses. These new Laws may have grown out of legal cases that the scribes had judged or traditions that had been handed down. The scribes then forced the Jewish people to obey these Laws, till the whole Lawkeeping system became a heavy burden (Matthew 15:1-9; Matthew 23:2-4; see TRADITION). By AD 200, the scribes (now better known as rabbis) had put into writing the oral traditions that earlier scribes had built up around the Law. The Mishnah and the Gemara together made up the Talmud, which has remained the authoritative Law for orthodox Jews ever since
Tittle - ...
On the lips of Jesus the saying, ‘One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass away from the Law till all be fulfilled’ (Matthew 5:18), is startling; and a number of modern critical scholars are inclined to meet the exegetical difficulty by denying the genuineness of the logion—regarding it as an answer of the Evangelist himself to the Pauline anti-legalism, or even as a later Jewish-Christian insertion Certainly, if the saying stood by itself, unqualified and uninterpreted in any way, there might be some warrant for such criticism, even although on textual grounds there is nothing to be said against the verse, which, moreover, reappears in Luke, though in a shorter form. But the very fact that our Lord proceeds in what follows to repeal the old Law at various points, and to substitute for its enactments precepts of His own (Matthew 5:31 f. ), suggests that Matthew 5:18, so far from being likely on His lips to mislead His hearers utterly, would be understood easily enough as nothing more than an emphatic affirmation, in the Master’s own characteristic style, of the rounded perfection of the ideal Law. The objection that the reference to the jot and the tittle implies the written Law, and not the ideal Law, has little force. ...
When we remember that Jesus was constantly charged by His enemies with being a Law-breaker (Mark 2:16; Mark 2:18; Mark 2:24 etc. ’ And elsewhere He affirms that the Pharisaic and Rabbinic legalism led to a positive dishonouring of the Divine Law in the interests of a human tradition (Mark 7:8-9; Mark 7:13). There were thus two reasons why on polemical grounds Jesus should assert the claims of the OT Law in the strongest possible way: (1) Because His enemies themselves continually dishonoured it: (2) because they falsely accused Him of being indifferent to it. And apart from polemics altogether, there was this positive reason why He should ‘magnify the Law and make it honourable’—He knew (Mark 7:17) that the very purpose of His coming was, not to destroy it, but to fulfil. And so in the striking language of paradox and even of hyperbole that He was wont to use when He felt strongly and desired to speak strongly, He exclaimed, ‘For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass away from the Law, till all be fulfilled. He comes, indeed, to repeal much in the old Law. The jots and tittles, be it observed, are to pass away when the Law is fulfilled. His ‘royal Law,’ as St. James calls it (James 2:8), the Law of liberty and love, is an abrogation of the Divine Law that went before only in the sense in which the blossom abrogates the bud and the flower the blossom. Law, § 6
Huldah - The prophetess consulted by Josiah when Hilkiah found the Law
Headnote - ) A note at the head of a page or chapter; in Law reports, an abstract of a case, showing the principles involved and the opinion of the court
Prohibition - ) Specifically, the forbidding by Law of the sale of alcoholic liquors as beverages
Laban - He employed his son-in-law Jacob for twenty years and was a notoriously unscrupulous and dishonest individual
Unconstitutional - ) Not constitutional; not according to, or consistent with, the terms of a constitution of government; contrary to the constitution; as, an unconstitutional Law, or act of an officer
Odfend - ) To transgress the moral or divine Law; to commit a crime; to stumble; to sin
Mufti - ) An official expounder of Mohammedan Law
Moratorium - such a period granted, as to a bank, by a moratory Law
Karaite - ) A sect of Jews who adhere closely to the letter of the Scriptures, rejecting the oral Law, and allowing the Talmud no binding authority; - opposed to the Rabbinists
Saint John's College - Consists of a preparatory school, schools of arts and sciences, Law, accountancy, and finance, graduate, extension, and summer schools
Hashbad'Ana - (considerate judge ), one of the men (probably Levites) who stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the Law to the people in Jerusalem
Wife's Mother - 1: πενθερά (Strong's #3994 — Noun Feminine — penthera — pen-ther-ah' ) denotes "a mother-in-law," Matthew 8:14 ; 10:35 ; Mark 1:30 ; Luke 4:38 ; 12:53 (twice)
Scribes - —The Scribes were a class of learned Jews who devoted themselves to a scientific study of the Law, and made its exposition their professional occupation. , ‘lawyers’ (νομικοί) and ‘doctors of the Law’ (νομοδιδάσκαλοι). See Lawyer. —(1) After the return from the Exile the Jewish community was organized under Ezra and Nehemiah on the basis of the regulations of the so-called Mosaic Law. At a great gathering of the people, of which an account is given in Nehemiah 8-10, the