What does Laodicea mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
λαοδικείᾳ a city of Phrygia 4
λαοδικείας a city of Phrygia 1
λαοδίκειαν a city of Phrygia 1

Definitions Related to Laodicea

G2993


   1 a city of Phrygia, situated on the river Lycus not far from Colosse.
   It was destroyed by an earthquake in 66 A.
   D.
   and rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius.
   It was the seat of the Christian church.
   Additional Information: Laodicea = “justice of the people”.
   

Frequency of Laodicea (original languages)

Frequency of Laodicea (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Laodicea
City in Phrygia, Asia MinOcr, one of the seven churches in Asia to whose bishop Saint John was commanded to write an epistle (Apocalypse 3).
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Laodicea, Epistle From
(Colossians 4:16 ), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Laodicea
The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Revelation 3:14 ), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period it became one of the chief seats of Christianity (Colossians 2:1 ; 4:15 ; Revelation 1:11 , etc.). It is now a deserted place, called by the Turks Eski-hissar or "old castle."
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Laodicea
A city of Phrygia. Originally Diospolis, then Rheas, then Laodicea. Site of one of the seven churches addressed by Christ through John (Revelation 1:11; Revelation 3:14). In Paul's epistle to the COLOSSIANS (Colossians 4:13-16) Laodicea is associated with Colossae and Hierapolis, which exactly accords with its geographical position, 18 miles W. of Colossae, six miles S. of Hierapolis. It lay in the Roman province "Asia," a mile S. of the river Lycus, in the Maeander valley, between Colossae and Philadelphia. A Seleucid king, Antiochus II, Theos, named it from Laodice his wife. Overthrown often by earthquakes. It was rebuilt by its wealthy citizens, without state help, when destroyed in A.D. 62 (Tacitus, Annals 14:27). This wealth (arising from its excellent wools) led to a self satisfied "lukewarm" state in spiritual things, which the Lord condemns as more dangerous than positive icy coldness (Revelation 3:14-21).
The two churches most comfortable temporally are those most reproved, Sardis and Laodicea; those most afflicted of the seven are the most commended, Smyrna and Philadelphia. Subsequently the church was flourishing, for it was at a council at Laodicea, A.D. 361, that the Scripture canon was defined. "The epistle from Laodicea" (Colossians 4:16) is Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans which the Colossians were to apply to them for. Not the epistle to the Ephesians, for Paul was unlikely to know that his letter to the Ephesians would have reached Laodicea at or near the time of the arrival of his letter to the Colossians. In 1 Corinthians 5:9 similarly an epistle is alluded to, no longer extant, the Holy Spirit not designing it for further use than the local and temporary wants of a particular church. The apostle's epistles were publicly read in the church assemblies, being thus put on a level with the Old Testament and Gospels, which were similarly read.
The angel of the Laodicean church is supposed to be Archippus whom Paul 30 years before had warned to be diligent in fulfilling his ministry (Colossians 4:17). The "lukewarm" state, if the transitional stage to a warmer, is desirable (for a little religion, if real, is better than none), but fatal when an abiding state, for it is mistaken for a safe state (Revelation 3:17). The danger is of disregarded principle; religion enough to lull the conscience, not to save the soul; halting between two opinions (1 Kings 18:21; 2 Kings 17:41; Ezekiel 20:39; Matthew 6:24). The hot (at Hierapolis) and cold springs near Laodicea suggested the simile. As worldly poverty favors poverty of spirit (Matthew 5:3, compare Luke 6:20), so worldly riches tend to spiritual self sufficiency (Hosea 12:8).
Paul's epistle to the neighbouring Colossae was designed for Laodicea also, though Paul had not seen the Christians there at the time (Colossians 2:1; Colossians 2:3; Colossians 4:6); it tells Laodicea "in whom" to find "hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge," whereas she thought she had all sufficiency in herself, "because thou sayest I am rich," etc. He endured a sore conflict, striving in anxious prayer in behalf of the churches of Ephesus and Laodicea that they might be delivered from Judaizing teachers, who blended Eastern theosophy and angel worship with Jewish asceticism and observance of new moons and sabbaths, professing a deeper insight into the world of spirits and a nearer approach to heavenly purity and intelligence than the simple gospel afforded (Colossians 2:8-9; Colossians 2:16-23). A few arches and part of an amphitheater are all the remains left of Laodicea Now Denishu.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Laodicea
(lay ahd ih cee' uh) A city in southwest Asia Minor on an ancient highway running from Ephesus to Syria ten miles west of Colossae and six miles south of Hierapolis. Christian communities existed in all three cities (Colossians 2:1 ; Colossians 4:13-16 ), though the one in Colossae is the best known. Paul wrote a letter to the Laodiceans (Colossians 4:16 ) which has not survived, though some scholars have attempted to identify this missing letter with either of the Books of Ephesians or Philemon.
Laodicea was well known in the ancient world for its wealth. The extent of its wealth is illustrated by the fact that Laodicea was rebuilt without the financial help of Rome after the disastrous earthquake of A.D. 60. Laodicea earned its wealth in the textile industry in the production of black wool and in the banking industry. Laodicea was also known for its medical school which concocted a spice nard for the treatment of ears and an eyesalve. The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. This need was met by bringing water six miles north from Denizli through a system of stone pipes (another sign of Laodicea's wealth).
Laodicea is best known today to readers of Revelation where Jesus criticized Laodicea, using imagery drawn from its daily life (Revelation 3:14-22 ). First, Jesus said Laodicea is neither cold (like the cold, pure waters of Colossae) nor hot (like the therapeutic hot springs of Hierapolis). Laodicea is lukewarm and provides neither refreshment for the spiritually weary nor healing for the spiritually sick (Revelation 3:15-16 ). Despite their apparent spiritual uselessness, the Laodiceans were claiming a spiritual wealth equal to their material wealth; and further, they were claiming to have acquired both by their own efforts. In reality, however, the Laodiceans, while they may have had material wealth, were spiritually poor, blind, and naked (Revelation 3:17 )—an obvious reference to the textile and banking industry and medical school of Laodicea. According to Jesus, what the Laodiceans needed more than anything else was the true gold, white (not black) garments, and eyesalve that only Christ could give (Revelation 3:18 ). A true spiritual foundation is laid only in Christ, not human effort.
The letter of the risen Christ to the church at Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22 ) contains numerous allusions to conditions in the city. A five-mile-long aqueduct supplied the city with tepid water that served as an image for “lukewarm” Christianity (Revelation 3:15-16 ). The Laodicean claim to be rich and prosperous reflects the self-reliant refusal of this city to accept Roman aid for rebuilding after an earthquake of about A.D. 60 (Revelation 3:17 ). The charge that the Laodicean Christians were naked, blind, and in need of clothing and eyesalve (Revelation 3:17-18 ) reflects the city's well-known school of ophthalmology and its fine garments of raven-black wool of local sheep.
Phil Logan
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Laodicea
LAODICEA was situated in the valley of the Lycus, a tributary of the Mæander in Asia Minor. It was founded by Antiochus ii. about the middle of the 3rd cent. b.c. It was planted in the lower Lycus glen, Colossæ being situated in the upper. The Lycus glen was the most frequented path of trade from the interior of the country to the west, and the great road passed right through Laodicea. The city was nearly square, and strongly fortified, but dependent for its water supply on an acqueduct 6 miles long. It played a comparatively small part in the dissemination of Greek culture. Its prosperity advanced greatly under the Romans. It was an important manufacturing centre, for instance, for a soft glossy black wool, which was made into garments of various kinds (cf. Revelation 3:18 ). In connexion with the temple of the Phrygian god Men Karou (13 miles W. of Laodicea), there grew up a celebrated school of medicine. Its most famous medicines were an ointment made from spice nard, which strengthened the ears, and Phrygian powder, obtained by crushing Phrygian stone, which was used for the eyes ( Revelation 3:18 ). There were many Jewish inhabitants of Laodicea, and the population as a whole was of very mixed race. There is a want of Individuality about the life of this city, which has been called ‘the city of compromise.’ The church there was not founded by St. Paul, but probably by one of his coadjutors, perhaps Epaphras (cf. Colossians 4:13 ). It was no doubt one of the cities which received the ‘Epistle to the Ephesians’ ( Colossians 4:16 ), as well as the Epistle to the Colossians ( Colossians 4:16 ). It was one of the ‘seven churches’ of the Apocalypse ( Revelation 3:14-22 ). Its condemnation is perhaps the severest of all.
A. Souter.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Laodicea
(א has Λαοδικία everywhere. B has this form of the word in Colossians 2:1, Revelation 1:11; Revelation 3:14, but Λαοδίκεια in Colossians 4:13; Colossians 4:15-16 [1]; Lat. Laodicea [2]).-Laodicea was an important seat of commerce in the Roman province of Asia, one of three cities in the Lycus valley which were evangelized about the same time. It was 11 miles W. of Colossae and 6 miles S. of Hierapolis. Founded probably by the Seleucid king Antiochus ii. (261-246 b.c.), and named after his wife Laodice, it was known as ‘Laodicea on the Lycus’ (Λαοδικία ἡ πρὸς [3] τῷ Λυκῷ, Laodicea ad Lycum). Being some distance east of ‘the Gate of Phrygia,’ it is classed by Polybius (v. 57) and Strabo (xii. viii. 13) among Phrygian cities, while Ptolemy sets it down as Carian. It stood on a small plateau about 2 miles S. of the Lycus, and had behind it to the S. and S.W. the snow-capped mountains Salbakos and Kadmos, each over 8,000 ft. above sea-level. Designed, like the other Seleucid foundations in Asia Minor, to be at once a strong garrison city and a centre of Hellenic civilization, it occupied a strategic position on the great eastern trade-route, where the narrow Lycus gorge opens into the broad Maeander plain. ‘Formerly a small town’ (Strabo, xii. viii. 16), its prosperity dated from the peaceful time which followed the Roman occupation (133 b.c.).
‘The country around Laodicea breeds excellent sheep, remarkable not only for the softness of their wool, in which they surpass the Milesian sheep, but for their dark or raven colour. The Laodiceans derive a large revenue from them, as the Colosseni do from their flocks, of a colour of the same name’ (Strabo, xii. viii. 16).
The native religion of the district was the cult of Carian Men, whom the Hellenists of Laodicea identified with Zeus. His temple was at Attuda, 13 miles W. from Laodicea. In connexion with it, but probably in Laodicea itself, was ‘a large Herophilian school of medicine under the direction of Zeuxis, and afterwards of Alexander Philalethes’ (Strabo, xii. viii. 20). The physicians of Laodicea were skilful oculists, and a preparation for weak eyes, called ‘Phrygian powder’ (τέφρα φρυγία), was well known. Nearly the whole basin of the Maeander was subject to earthquakes (ib. 17). Imperial funds were usually given for the restoration of cities thus injured, and Laodicea accepted a grant from Tiberius after such a calamity, but of a later visitation Tacitus writes: ‘The same year [4] Laodicea, one of the most famous cities of Asia, having been prostrate by an earthquake, recovered herself by her own resources (propriis opibus revaluit), and without any relief from us’ (Ann. xiv. xxvii.). She had long been rich and increased in goods, and had need of nothing (Revelation 3:17). More than a century before (in 51 b.c.), Cicero proposed to cash his treasury Bills of Exchange at a Laodicean bank (Ep. ad Fam. iii. 5).
Such a thriving commercial centre had great attractions for a colony of Jews. If the first settlers were sent thither by the founder of the city, or by Antiochus the Great, who is said to have planted 2,000 Jewish families in Phrygia and Lydia (Jos. Ant. xii. iii. 4), they would enjoy equal rights of citizenship with the Greeks. When Flaccus, Roman governor of Asia (62 b.c.), forbade the Jews to send contributions of money to Jerusalem, he seized as contraband twenty pounds weight in gold in the district of which Laodicea was the capital (Cicero, pro Flacco, 28). Calculated at the rate of a half-shekel for each man, this sum represents a Jewish population of more than 11,000 adult freemen, women and children being exempted. Josephus preserves a letter from ‘the magistrates of the Laodiceans to Caius Rubilius’ (circa, about 48 b.c.), guaranteeing religious liberty to the Jews of the city (Ant. xiv. x. 20).
The details of the founding of the Church of Laodicea have to be pieced together from allusions in the Acts and Epistles. St. Paul was not directly the founder. His words in Colossians 2:1, ‘I strive for … them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh,’ imply that he had not personally laboured in the Lycus valley. In his third missionary tour he did not go to Ephesus by the ordinary route of commerce, which would have brought him to the Lycus cities, but passed through ‘the upper country’ (τὰ ἀνωτερικὰ μέρη, Acts 19:1), probably by Seiblia and the Cayster valley. His influence in the former region was indirect. During his three years’ residence in Ephesus ‘all they who dwell in Asia heard the word’ (19:10). The truths which he proclaimed in the metropolis were quickly repeated all over the province, and especially in the cities along the great roads. His evangelist of the Lycus glen was Epaphras, whom St. Paul regarded as his deputy (Colossians 1:7 [5], reading ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν instead of ὑμῶν), and whose labour on behalf of the three communities evoked a warm encomium (Colossians 4:12-13). The close relations subsisting between the churches of Laodicea and Colossae are indicated by the injunction that the Epistle to Colossians should be read in the Church of the Laodiceans, and that the Colossians should read ‘the Epistle from Laodicea.’ The latter was perhaps the canonical ‘Epistle to the Ephesians,’ which Marcion expressly names the Epistle ‘to the saints who are at Laodicea.’
The last of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia is addressed to Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22). The severity of the prophet’s rebuke has made ‘Laodicean’ for ever suggestive of lukewarmness in religion. Once fervent, Laodicea became so tepid that her condition excited a feeling of moral nausea. Each of the Seven Epistles is of course concerned with a Christian church rather than with a city, but the Christians were citizens, and the spirit of the city could not be kept out of the church. The allusions to the circumstances and character of Laodicea are unmistakable. The famous commercial and banking city, too proud to accept an Empire’s aid, is invited to come to the poor man’s market and buy from the Sender of the letter (παρʼ ἐμοῦ is emphatic) gold refined by fire (Revelation 3:17-18). She who has innumerable flocks on her Phrygian hills, and whose fine black woollen fabrics are prized everywhere, has need of white garments to cover her own moral nakedness (Revelation 3:18). Her aesculapian school of medicine has no Phrygian powder for the healing of her spiritual blindness, which requires the eye-salve (collyrium) of another Physician (Revelation 3:18). Rich Laodicea, well-clothed, and well-fed, self-reliant and self-satisfied, is in danger of being rejected with loathing. Yet her absent Lord loves her, and writes her so incisively only because He hopes to find her chastened and penitent when He returns and knocks at her door (Revelation 3:19-20).
Little is known about the post-apostolic history of Laodicea. Traditions regarding Archippus, Nymphas (Colossians 4:15), and Diotrephes (3 John 1:9) are worthless. The so-called ‘Epistle to the Laodiceans’ (in Latin) is a forgery. The subscription of 1 Tim., ‘written from Laodicea, which is the chiefest city of Phrygia Pacatiana,’ has no authority. The ruins of Laodicea are many but not impressive.
Literature.-W. M. Ramsay, The Letters to the Seven Churches, 1904, pp. 413-430; W. J. Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, Pontus, Armenia, 1842, i. 515f.; W. M. Leake, Journal of Tour in Asia Minor, 1824, p. 251f.; Murray’s Handbook to Asia Minor, 1895.
James Strahan.
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Laodicea
A city rendered famous from its connection with Scripture history. (See Colossians 2:1; Col 4:16. See also Revelation 1:11; Rev 3:14-22.) What an awful consideration, that not a vestige of this church remains, but the place where it stood is now inhabited by infidels!
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria Prima
Anatolius , bp. of Laodicea in Syria Prima (Eus. H. E. vii. 32). He had been famous at Alexandria for proficiency in the liberal arts, while his reputation for practical wisdom was so great that when the suburb of Brucheium was besieged by the Romans during the revolt of Aemilianus, A.D. 262, the command of the place was assigned to him. Provisions having failed, and his proposition of making terms with the besiegers having been indignantly rejected, Anatolius obtained leave to relieve the garrison of all idle mouths, and by a clever deception marched out all the Christians, and the greater part of the rest, many disguised as women. Having passed over to Palestine, he was ordained by Theotecnus, bp. of Caesarea, as bishop-coadjutor, with the right of succession. But going to Antioch to attend the synod against Paul of Samosata, on his way through Laodicea, which had just lost its bishop, his old friend Eusebius, he was detained and made bishop in his room, A.D. 269.
Eusebius speaks of him as not having written much, but enough to show at once his eloquence and manifold learning. He specially mentions a work on the Paschal question, published in a Latin version by Bucherius (Doct. Temp. , Antv. 1634). Some fragments of his mathematical works were pub. at Paris, 1543, and by Fabricius (Bibl. Graec. iii. 462; Hieron. Sc. Eccl. c. 73). For an Eng. trans. of his extant works see Ante-Nicene Lib. (T. & T. Clark).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea
Apollinaris the Younger , bp. of Laodicea, flourished in the latter half of the 4th cent., and was at first highly esteemed, even by Athanasius and Basil, for his classical culture, piety, and adhesion to the Nicene Creed during the Arian controversy, until he introduced a Christological heresy which is called after him, and which in some respects prepared the way for Monophysitism. He assisted his father in rewriting the Christian Scriptures in imitation of the style of Homer, Menander, etc., mentioned in the preceding article. He also wrote in defence of Christianity against Julian and Porphyry; of orthodoxy against the Manicheans, Arians, Marcellus, Eunomius, and other heretics; Biblical commentaries, and other works, of which only fragments remain. Jerome enjoyed his instruction, A.D. 374. He did not secede from the communion of the church and begin to form a sect of his own till 375. He died about 392. After his death his followers, who were not numerous, were divided into two parties, the Polemians and Valentinians. His doctrine was condemned by a synod of Alexandria (not naming him), by two synods at Rome under Damasus (377 and 378), and by the second oecumenical council (381). Imperial decrees prohibited the public worship of the Apollinarists (388, 397, 428), until during the 5th cent. they were absorbed partly by the orthodox, partly by the Monophysites. But the peculiar Christology of Apollinaris has reappeared from time to time, in a modified shape, as an isolated theological opinion.
Apollinaris was the first to apply the results of the Nicene controversy to Christology proper and to call the attention of the church to the psychical and pneumatic element in the humanity of Christ; but in his zeal for the true deity of Christ and fear of a double personality he fell into the error of a partial denial of His true Humanity. Adopting the psychological trichotomy of Plato (σῶμα ψυχή πνεῦμα) for which he quoted 1Th_5:23 and Gal_5:17 he attributed to Christ a human body (σῶμα) and a human soul (the ψυχὴ ἄλογος the anima animans which man has in common with the animal) but not a rational spirit (νοῦς πνεῦμα ψυχὴ λογική anima rationalis) and put in the place of the latter the divine Logos. In opposition to the idea of a mere connexion of the Logos with the man Jesus he wished to secure an organic unity of the two and so a true incarnation; but he sought this at the expense of the most important constituent of man. He reached only a θεός σαρκοφόρος as Nestorianism only an ἄνθρωπος θεοφόρος instead of the proper θεάνθρωπος. He appealed to the fact that the Scripture says "the Word was made flesh"—not spirit; "God was manifest in the flesh," etc. To which Gregory Nazianzen justly replied that in these passages the term σάρξ was used by synecdoche for the whole human nature. In this way Apollinaris established so close a connexion of the Logos with human flesh that all the divine attributes were transferred to the human nature and all the human attributes to the divine and the two merged in one nature in Christ. Hence he could speak of a crucifixion of the Logos and a worship of His flesh. He made Christ a middle being between God and man in Whom as it were one part divine and two parts human were fused in the unity of a new nature. He even ventured to adduce created analogies of mixtures in nature. Christ said he is οὔτε ἄνθρωπος ὅλος οὔτε θεός ἀλλὰ θεοῦ καὶ ἀνθρώπου μίξις. On the other hand he regarded the orthodox view of a union of full humanity with a full divinity in one person—of two wholes in one whole—as an absurdity in a similar category with the mythological figure of the Minotaur. But the Apollinarian idea of the union of the Logos with a truncated human nature might be itself more justly compared with this monster. Starting from the Nicene homoousion as to the Logos but denying the completeness of Christ's humanity he met Arianism half-way which likewise put the divine Logos in the place of the human spirit in Christ. But he strongly asserted Christ's unchangeableness while Arians taught His changeableness (τρεπτότης).
The faith of the church revolted against such a mutilated and stunted humanity of Christ, which necessarily involved also a merely partial redemption. The incarnation is an assumption of the entire human nature, sin only excluded. The ἐνσάρκωσις is ἐνανθρώπησις . To be a full and complete Redeemer, Christ must be a perfect man (τέλειος ἄνθρωπος ). The spirit or rational soul is the most important element in man, the seat of intelligence and freedom, and needs redemption as well as the soul and the body; for sin has corrupted all the faculties.
Athanasius, the two Gregories, Basil, and Epiphanius combated the Apollinarian error, but were unprepared to answer duly its main point, that two integral persons cannot form one person. The later orthodox doctrine surmounted this difficulty by teaching the impersonality of the human nature of Christ, and by making the personality of Christ to reside wholly in the Logos.
Apollinarianism opened the long line of Christological controversies, which resulted in the Chalcedonian symbol.
Literature.—Of the writings of Apollinaris, περὶ σαρκώσεως, περὶ πίστεως, περὶ ἀναστάσεως, κατὰ κεφάλειον and other polemical and exegetical works and epistles, only fragments remain in the answers of Gregory of Nyssa and Theodoret, in Leontius Byzant. in the Catenae, and in Angelo Mai's Nova Bibliotheca Patrum, tom. vii. (Rom 1854) pt. ii. pp. 82–91. Against Apollinaris are directed Athanasius's Contra Apollinarium, or rather περὶ σαρκώσεως τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰ. Χ . ( Opera , ed. Bened. tom. i. pt. ii. pp. 921–955), written about 372 without naming Apollinaris; Gregory of Nyssa, Λόγος, ἀντιῤῥητικὸς πρὸς τὰ Ἀπολλιναρίου , first edited by Zaccagni, Rom 1698, and then by Gallandi, Bibl. Vet. Patr. vi. 517–577; Basilius M., Ep. 265 ( Opera, ed. Ben. t. iii. pt. ii. 591 sqq.); Epiph. Haer. lxxvii.; Theod. Fabulae Haer. iv. 8, v. 9. Of the later literature, cf. especially Petavius, de Incarnatione Verbi, i. c. 6; Dorner, History of Christology , i. 974–1080; Neander, History, i. 334–338; Schaff, History of the Christian Church, iii. 708–714; Harnack, Dogmengesch. (1909), ii. 324–334; Thomasius, Dogmengesch. (1889), 314 f.; Schwane, Dogmengesch. (1895), 277–283; G. Voisin, L’Apollinarisme (Paris, 1901).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Georgius (3), Bishop of Laodicea
Georgius (3) bp. of Laodicea ad mare in Syria Prima (335–347) who took part in the Trinitarian controversies of the 4th cent. At first an ardent admirer of the teaching of Arius and associated with Eusebius of Nicomedia he subsequently became a semi-Arian but seems ultimately to have united with the Anomoeans whose uncompromising opponent he had once been and to have died professing their tenets (Newman Arians pt. ii. p. 275). He was a native of Alexandria. In early life he devoted himself with considerable distinction to the study of philosophy (Philost. H. E. viii. 17). He was ordained presbyter by Alexander bp. of Alexandria (ib.; Eus. Vit. Const. iii. 62). Having gone to Antioch he endeavoured to mediate between Arius and the Catholic body. To the Arians he shewed how by a sophistical evasion based on 1Co_11:12 (τὰ δὲ πάντα ἐκ τοῦ Θεοῦ) they might accept the orthodox test Θεὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ (Socr. H. E. ii. 45; Athan. de Synod. p. 887). The attempt at reconciliation completely failed and resulted in his deposition and excommunication by Alexander on the ground of false doctrine and of the open and habitual irregularities of his life (Athan. ib. p. 886; Apol. ii. p. 728; de Fug. p. 718; Theod. H. E. ii. 9). Athanasius styles him "the most wicked of all the Arians," reprobated even by his own party (de Fug. 718). After his excommunication at Alexandria he sought admission among the clergy of Antioch but was steadily rejected by Eustathius (Athan. Hist. Arian. p. 812). On this he retired to Arethusa where he acted as presbyter and on the expulsion of Eustathius was welcomed back to Antioch by the dominant Arian faction. He was appointed bp. of Laodicea on the death of the Arian Theodotus (Athan. de Synod. p. 886; Or. i. p. 290; Soz. H. E. vi. 25). As bishop he took a leading part in the successive synods summoned by the Arian faction against Athanasius. He was at the councils of Tyre and Jerusalem in 335 (Athan. Apol. ii. p. 728; Eus. Vit. Const. iv. 43) and that of the Dedication at Antioch in 341 (Soz. H. E. iii. 5). Fear kept him from the council of Sardica in 347 where the bishops unanimously deposed him and many others as having been previously condemned by Alexander and as holding Arian opinions (Theod. H. E. iii. 9; Labbe Concil. ii. 678; Athan. Apol. ii. p. 765; de Fug. p. 718). Of this deposition George took no heed and in 358 when Eudoxius the newly appointed bp. of Antioch openly sided with Aetius and the Anomoeans George earnestly appealed to Macedonius of Constantinople and other bishops who were visiting Basil at Ancyra to consecrate a newly erected church to lose no time in summoning a council to condemn the Anomoean heresy and eject Aetius. His letter is preserved by Sozomen (H. E. iv. 13; Labbe Concil. ii. 790). At Seleucia in 359 when the semi-Arian party was split into two George headed the more numerous faction opposed to that of Acacius and Eudoxius whom with their adherents they deposed (Socr. H. E. ii. 40). On the expulsion of Anianus from the see of Antioch George was mainly responsible for the election of Meletius believing him to hold the same opinions as himself. He was speedily undeceived for on his first entry into Antioch Meletius startled his hearers by an unequivocal declaration of the truth as laid down at Nicaea. Indignant at being thus entrapped George and his fellows lost no time in securing the deposition and expulsion of a bishop of such uncompromising orthodoxy (Theod. H. E. ii. 31; Philost. H. E. v. 1; Socr. H. E. ii. 44; Soz. H. E. iv. 28). Gregory Nyssen mentions a letter by George relating to Arius (in Eunom. i. 28) and Socrates quotes a panegyric composed by him on the Arian Eusebius of Emesa who was his intimate friend and resided with him at Laodicea after his expulsion from Emesa and by whose intervention at Antioch he was restored to his see (Socr. H. E. i. 24 ii. 9). He was also the author of some treatises against heresy especially that of the Manicheans (Theod. Haer. Fab. i. 28 ; Phot. Bibl. c. 85; Niceph. H. E. vi. 32).
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Hitchcock's Bible Names - Laodicea
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Morrish Bible Dictionary - Laodicea
An important city in the district of Phrygia in Asia Minor. It forms a triangle with Hierapolis and Colosse. Its ancient name was Diospolis, but when Antiochus Theos rebuilt it he called it Laodicea, after the name of his wife. It became a wealthy city: on one occasion when it was destroyed by an earthquake the inhabitants were able to rebuild it without asking aid from the state: cf. Revelation 3:17 . Its destruction has been complete: its ruins are called Eski-hissar.
There is no account of Paul having visited this city, but it is evident that the church there was on his heart and that he sought its welfare. All that is known of the state of the Laodicean church is gathered from the address sent to it through the apostle John (see REVELATION).Colossians 2:1 ; Colossians 4:13,15,16 ; Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 3:11 .
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Elpidius (8), Bishop of Laodicea
Elpidius (8) , bp. of Laodicea in Syria at the close of the 4th cent. and opening of the 5th. He was originally a priest of Antioch under Meletius, whose confidence he enjoyed and with whom he resided (σύσκηνος ) (Theod. H. E. v. 27). He shared in his master's sufferings under Valens, and accompanied by Flavian, attended him at the council of Constantinople a.d. 381 (Labbe, ii. 955). We next find him as bishop at a council at Constantinople a.d. 394 (Labbe, ii. 1151), and again at Constantinople at the close of a.d. 403, as a member of the council summoned by Chrysostom's enemies, and issuing in his deposition. Elpidius had been an intimate friend of Chrysostom at Antioch, and now lent the weight of his age and well-deserved reputation to the defence of his old associate. When the validity of the canons of the council of Antioch, of suspected orthodoxy, used by Chrysostom's enemies as an instrument to secure their object, came into question before the emperor, Elpidius adroitly turned the tables on Acacius and his party by proposing that the advocates of the canons should declare themselves of the same faith with those who had promulgated them (Pallad. Dial. c. 9, p. 80). After Chrysostom's deposition and exile, Elpidius exerted himself strenuously in his behalf, dispatching letters to bishops and faithful laity in all parts of the world, exhorting them to remain true to Chrysostom, and encouraging them to bear up against persecution. Chrysostom wrote to Elpidius shortly after his arrival at Cucusus in 404, thanking him most warmly, and giving him information concerning the place of his banishment, his companions, and his health (Chrys. Ep. 114). Four other letters from Chrysostom to Elpidius are extant, all written from Cucusus ( Epp. 25, 138, a.d. 405; Ep. 131, a.d. 406; Ep. 142, a.d. 407).
Elpidius suffered for his fidelity to his friend in the persecution against the Joannite party under Atticus and Porphyry. In 406 he was deposed from his see, and was closely imprisoned in his house for three years (Pallad. Dial. p. 195). In 414 Alexander, succeeding Porphyry as bp. of Antioch, restored Elpidius to his see in a manner which testified deep reverence for his character, and pope Innocent heard of it with extreme satisfaction (Baron. 408 §§ 35, 37; Tillem. xi. 274).
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A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea
Eusebius (48) , bp. of Laodicea, in Syria Prima; a native and deacon of Alexandria. In the persecution under Valerian, a.d. 257, when the venerable bp. Dionysius had been banished from Alexandria, Eusebius remained, ministering to those in prison and burying the martyrs, a faithful service gratefully commemorated in a letter of Dionysius (apud Eus: H. E. vii. 11). During the civil strife at the death of Valerian, when Alexandria was in revolt, a.d. 262, Aemilianus, who had assumed the purple, was driven into the strong quarter of the city called Bruchium, and besieged. Eusebius without, and his friend Anatolius within, the besieged quarter secured escape for all useless hands, including a large number of Christians, whom Eusebius received kindly, supplying them with food and medicine, and carefully tending the sick. To the synod of Antioch, a.d. 264, summoned to deal with Paul of Samosata, Dionysius bp. of Alexandria, being unable to be present through age, sent Eusebius as his representative. The see of Laodicea was then vacant, and the Laodiceans demanded Eusebius for their bishop, taking no refusal. As bp. of Laodicea he sat at the synod when Paul of Samosata was deposed, a.d. 270. He was succeeded by his old friend Anatolius. Eus. H. E. vii. 11, 32; Tillem. Mém. Eccl. iv. 304; Le Quien, Or. Christ. ii. 792; Neale, Patriarchate of Alex. i.77.
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Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Laodicea
There were several cities of this name, but the Scripture. speaks only of that in Phrygia, upon the river Lycus, near Colosse. Its ancient name was Diospolis: it was afterward called Rhoas. Lastly, Antiochus, the son of Stratonice, rebuilt it, and called it Laodicea, from the name of his wife Laodice. It became the mother church of sixteen bishoprics. Its three theatres, and the immense circus, which was capable of containing upward of thirty thousand spectators, and spacious remains of which (with other ruins buried under ruins), are yet to be seen, give proof of the greatness of its ancient wealth and population; and indicate too strongly that in that city where Christians were rebuked, without exception, for their lukewarmness, there were multitudes who were lovers of pleasure more than lovers of God. The amphitheatre was built after the Apocalypse was written, and the warning of the Spirit had been given to the church of the Laodiceans to be zealous and repent. There are no sights of grandeur, nor scenes of temptation around it now. Its own tragedy may be briefly told. It was lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot; and therefore it was loathsome in the sight of God. And it has been blotted from the world. It is now as desolate as its inhabitants were destitute of the fear and love of God. It is, as described in his Travels by Dr. Smith, "utterly desolated, and without any inhabitants except wolves, and jackals, and foxes." It can boast of no human inhabitants, except occasionally when wandering Turcomans pitch their tents in its spacious amphitheatre. The finest sculptured fragments are to be seen at a considerable depth, in excavations which have been made among the ruins. And Colonel Lake observes, "There are few ancient cities more likely than Laodicea to preserve many curious remains of antiquity beneath the surface of the soil. Its opulence, and the earthquakes to which it was subject, render it probable that valuable works of art were often there buried beneath the ruins of the public and private edifices."
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Laodicea
Laodicea (la-ŏd-i-sç'ah), the old city (Greek Diospolis), stood on the banks of the Lycus, a branch of the Meander, a few miles distant from Colosse and Hierapolis, in the Roman province of Asia, in Asia Minor. Seleucus II. enlarged it, and named it after his wife Laodicea. A Christian church was early established here, probably from Ephesus, and to this church Paul sent a salutation when writing to the Colossians, Colossians 4:15; it is also mentioned in Revelation 1:11; Revelation 3:14. From Colossians 4:16 it appears that Paul wrote a letter to the Laodiceans, which some think is the same as the Epistle to the Ephesians.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Laodicea
A large and opulent city of Asia Minor, the metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana. It was situated on the river Lycus, not far above its junction with the Meander, and in the vicinity of Colosse and Hierapolis. Its earlier name was Diopolis; but after being enlarged by Antiochus II, it was called Laodicea, from his wife Lodice. About A. D. 65 or 66, this city, together with Hieropolis and Colosse, was destroyed by an earthquake, but was quickly rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius. It is now in ruins, and the place is called Eskihissar, or the old castle. A Christian church was early gathered here. It was addressed by Paul in his letter to Colosse, and in another now lost, Colossians 2:1 4:13-16 , though some think the "Epistle to the Ephesians" is the one alluded to. The church at Laodicea was probably visited by Paul, A. D. 63, and is one of the seven which received special messages from Christ after his ascension, Revelation 1:11 3:14-22 . We know little of its after-history, except that an important council was held there near the middle of the fourth century, and that some form of Christianity lingered there until the time of the Turks.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Laodicea
Like Colossae and Hierapolis, Laodicea was situated in a fertile valley east of Ephesus in the Roman province of Asia. It was an important educational, commercial and administrative centre.
Although Paul was the first to take the gospel to Asia, there is no indication that he visited the town during his missionary travels recorded in Acts (Colossians 2:1). The church was probably founded at the time of Paul’s lengthy stay in Ephesus during his third missionary journey, when the zealous Ephesian converts took the gospel throughout the surrounding countryside (Acts 19:8-10; Colossians 4:12-13). (For map and other details see ASIA.)
When Paul wrote to the church in Colossae, he wrote also to the church in Laodicea. He wanted the two churches to exchange their letters, so that both churches could read both letters (Colossians 4:16). This letter to the Laodiceans was never collected as part of the sacred writings.
Another letter to the Laodicean church has been preserved, this one written towards the end of the first century (Revelation 3:14). The letter is Christ’s message to the church and is largely one of criticism. The citizens of Laodicea in general were prosperous and self-satisfied, and this spirit of self-satisfaction carried over into the church.
The Laodiceans prided themselves that they had all they needed, and even believed that their material prosperity had resulted from their spiritual goodness. Because of their reliance on material things they could not exercise true faith in God, and their lives could not demonstrate that Christ brings complete satisfaction. Jesus condemned their comfortable spiritual pride and tried to make them see themselves as he saw them – poor, blind and naked. They had to realize that Christ alone could produce truly spiritual qualities in their lives, and he could do this only when they turned from their sin and humbly sought his help (Revelation 3:15-22).
A Dictionary of Early Christian Biography - Theodotus, Bishop of Laodicea
Theodotus (11) , bp. of Laodicea in Syria Prima, claimed as a zealous advocate of Arian doctrines by Arius in writing to Eusebius of Nicomedia (Theod. H. E. i. 5; v. 7). Eusebius gives him a high character for skill as a physician of both body and soul, remarkable for kindness, sympathy, sincerity, and zeal to help all who needed aid, reinstating the church in its prosperity which had suffered much by the cowardice of its last bishop, Stephen, who seems to have renounced the faith in the persecution of Diocletian (Eus. H. E. vii. 32). Theodotus was at the council of Nicaea in 325 (Labbe, ii. 51); before which he is coupled by Athanasius with the Eusebian party (Athan. de Synod. c. i. § 17, p. 886). On the visit of Eusebius of Nicomedia to Jerusalem in 330 or 331, ostensibly to see the newly built church, he formed one of the Arian cabal which, proceeding to Antioch, succeeded in deposing Eustathius (Theod. H. E. i. 21) and electing Eusebius of Caesarea in his room (Eus. Vit. Const. iii. 62). He also took part in the council of Tyre in 335 (Labbe, ii. 436) and of the Dedication at Antioch in 341 ( ib. 560), and is mentioned by Athanasius as having been at Seleucia in 359 (Athan. de Synod. c. i. § 12, p. 880). The two Apollinarii, father and son, were excommunicated by Theodotus for being present at the recitation of a hymn in honour of Bacchus, composed by a sophist of Laodicea with whom he had interdicted an intercourse. He restored them on their repentance (Soz. H. E. vi. 25; Socr. H. E. ii. 46). Gelasius of Cyzicus (bk. iii. c. 3) gives a letter from the emperor Constantine to Theodotus, warning him to return to the orthodox faith (Labbe, ii. 284). It is quoted as genuine by Benignus of Heraclea at the fifth general council ( ib. v. 481). According to Gams, Theodotus was bishop 30 years.
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Sentence search

Laodicean - (Law uhd i ce uhn) Citizen of Laodicea. See Laodicea
Laodicean - ) Of or pertaining to Laodicea, a city in Phrygia Major; like the Christians of Laodicea; lukewarm in religion
Laodiceans - Inhabitants of Laodicea
Laodice'Ans, - the inhabitants of Laodicea
Lap'Idoth - (torches ), the inhabitants of Laodicea
Laodicea - Paul wrote a letter to the Laodiceans (Colossians 4:16 ) which has not survived, though some scholars have attempted to identify this missing letter with either of the Books of Ephesians or Philemon. ...
Laodicea was well known in the ancient world for its wealth. The extent of its wealth is illustrated by the fact that Laodicea was rebuilt without the financial help of Rome after the disastrous earthquake of A. Laodicea earned its wealth in the textile industry in the production of black wool and in the banking industry. Laodicea was also known for its medical school which concocted a spice nard for the treatment of ears and an eyesalve. The major weakness of Laodicea was its lack of a water supply. This need was met by bringing water six miles north from Denizli through a system of stone pipes (another sign of Laodicea's wealth). ...
Laodicea is best known today to readers of Revelation where Jesus criticized Laodicea, using imagery drawn from its daily life (Revelation 3:14-22 ). First, Jesus said Laodicea is neither cold (like the cold, pure waters of Colossae) nor hot (like the therapeutic hot springs of Hierapolis). Laodicea is lukewarm and provides neither refreshment for the spiritually weary nor healing for the spiritually sick (Revelation 3:15-16 ). Despite their apparent spiritual uselessness, the Laodiceans were claiming a spiritual wealth equal to their material wealth; and further, they were claiming to have acquired both by their own efforts. In reality, however, the Laodiceans, while they may have had material wealth, were spiritually poor, blind, and naked (Revelation 3:17 )—an obvious reference to the textile and banking industry and medical school of Laodicea. According to Jesus, what the Laodiceans needed more than anything else was the true gold, white (not black) garments, and eyesalve that only Christ could give (Revelation 3:18 ). ...
The letter of the risen Christ to the church at Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22 ) contains numerous allusions to conditions in the city. The Laodicean claim to be rich and prosperous reflects the self-reliant refusal of this city to accept Roman aid for rebuilding after an earthquake of about A. The charge that the Laodicean Christians were naked, blind, and in need of clothing and eyesalve (Revelation 3:17-18 ) reflects the city's well-known school of ophthalmology and its fine garments of raven-black wool of local sheep
Laodice'a - Built, or rather rebuilt, by one of the Seleucid monarchs, and named in honor of his wife, Laodicea became under the Roman government a place of some importance. Christianity was introduced into Laodicea, not, however, as it would seem, through the direct agency of St. We have good reason for believing that when, in writing from Rome to the Christians of Colossae, he sent a greeting to those of Laodicea, he had not personally visited either place. But the preaching of the gospel at Ephesus, ( Acts 18:19 ; Acts 19:41 ) must inevitably have resulted in the formation of churches in the neighboring cities, especially where Jews were settled; and there were Jews in Laodicea. The Mohammedan invaders destroyed it, and it is now a scene of utter desolation, as was prophesied in (Revelation 3:14-22 ) and the extensive ruins near Denislu justify all that we read of Laodicea in Greek and Roman writers. Another biblical subject of interest is connected with Laodicea. Ussher's view is that it was the same as the Epistle to the Ephesians, which was a circular letter sent to Laodicea among other places
Latakia - ) A superior quality of Turkish smoking tobacco, so called from the place where produced, the ancient Laodicea
Colossae - COLOSSÆ was an ancient city of Phrygia (Roman province Asia), at one time of great importance, but dwindling later as its neighbour Laodicea prospered. It was situated in the upper part of the valley of the Lycus, a tributary of the Mæander, about 10 miles from Laodicea, and 13 from Hierapolis. It has been suggested with great probability that in Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 3:14 the single church of Laodicea must represent the other churches of the Lycus valley also. If, as seems certain, ‘the epistle from Laodicea’ ( Colossians 4:16 ) is our ‘Epistle to the Ephesians,’ it also was read in the church at Colossæ
Laodicea - Laodicea [2]). -Laodicea was an important seat of commerce in the Roman province of Asia, one of three cities in the Lycus valley which were evangelized about the same time. ), and named after his wife Laodice, it was known as ‘Laodicea on the Lycus’ (Λαοδικία ἡ πρὸς [3] τῷ Λυκῷ, Laodicea ad Lycum). ...
‘The country around Laodicea breeds excellent sheep, remarkable not only for the softness of their wool, in which they surpass the Milesian sheep, but for their dark or raven colour. The Laodiceans derive a large revenue from them, as the Colosseni do from their flocks, of a colour of the same name’ (Strabo, xii. ...
The native religion of the district was the cult of Carian Men, whom the Hellenists of Laodicea identified with Zeus. from Laodicea. In connexion with it, but probably in Laodicea itself, was ‘a large Herophilian school of medicine under the direction of Zeuxis, and afterwards of Alexander Philalethes’ (Strabo, xii. The physicians of Laodicea were skilful oculists, and a preparation for weak eyes, called ‘Phrygian powder’ (τέφρα φρυγία), was well known. Imperial funds were usually given for the restoration of cities thus injured, and Laodicea accepted a grant from Tiberius after such a calamity, but of a later visitation Tacitus writes: ‘The same year [4] Laodicea, one of the most famous cities of Asia, having been prostrate by an earthquake, recovered herself by her own resources (propriis opibus revaluit), and without any relief from us’ (Ann. ), Cicero proposed to cash his treasury Bills of Exchange at a Laodicean bank (Ep. ), forbade the Jews to send contributions of money to Jerusalem, he seized as contraband twenty pounds weight in gold in the district of which Laodicea was the capital (Cicero, pro Flacco, 28). Josephus preserves a letter from ‘the magistrates of the Laodiceans to Caius Rubilius’ (circa, about 48 b. ...
The details of the founding of the Church of Laodicea have to be pieced together from allusions in the Acts and Epistles. His words in Colossians 2:1, ‘I strive for … them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh,’ imply that he had not personally laboured in the Lycus valley. The close relations subsisting between the churches of Laodicea and Colossae are indicated by the injunction that the Epistle to Colossians should be read in the Church of the Laodiceans, and that the Colossians should read ‘the Epistle from Laodicea. ’ The latter was perhaps the canonical ‘Epistle to the Ephesians,’ which Marcion expressly names the Epistle ‘to the saints who are at Laodicea. ’...
The last of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia is addressed to Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22). The severity of the prophet’s rebuke has made ‘Laodicean’ for ever suggestive of lukewarmness in religion. Once fervent, Laodicea became so tepid that her condition excited a feeling of moral nausea. The allusions to the circumstances and character of Laodicea are unmistakable. Rich Laodicea, well-clothed, and well-fed, self-reliant and self-satisfied, is in danger of being rejected with loathing. ...
Little is known about the post-apostolic history of Laodicea. The so-called ‘Epistle to the Laodiceans’ (in Latin) is a forgery. , ‘written from Laodicea, which is the chiefest city of Phrygia Pacatiana,’ has no authority. The ruins of Laodicea are many but not impressive
Laodicea - Originally Diospolis, then Rheas, then Laodicea. In Paul's epistle to the COLOSSIANS (Colossians 4:13-16) Laodicea is associated with Colossae and Hierapolis, which exactly accords with its geographical position, 18 miles W. ...
The two churches most comfortable temporally are those most reproved, Sardis and Laodicea; those most afflicted of the seven are the most commended, Smyrna and Philadelphia. Subsequently the church was flourishing, for it was at a council at Laodicea, A. "The epistle from Laodicea" (Colossians 4:16) is Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans which the Colossians were to apply to them for. Not the epistle to the Ephesians, for Paul was unlikely to know that his letter to the Ephesians would have reached Laodicea at or near the time of the arrival of his letter to the Colossians. ...
The angel of the Laodicean church is supposed to be Archippus whom Paul 30 years before had warned to be diligent in fulfilling his ministry (Colossians 4:17). The hot (at Hierapolis) and cold springs near Laodicea suggested the simile. ...
Paul's epistle to the neighbouring Colossae was designed for Laodicea also, though Paul had not seen the Christians there at the time (Colossians 2:1; Colossians 2:3; Colossians 4:6); it tells Laodicea "in whom" to find "hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge," whereas she thought she had all sufficiency in herself, "because thou sayest I am rich," etc. He endured a sore conflict, striving in anxious prayer in behalf of the churches of Ephesus and Laodicea that they might be delivered from Judaizing teachers, who blended Eastern theosophy and angel worship with Jewish asceticism and observance of new moons and sabbaths, professing a deeper insight into the world of spirits and a nearer approach to heavenly purity and intelligence than the simple gospel afforded (Colossians 2:8-9; Colossians 2:16-23). A few arches and part of an amphitheater are all the remains left of Laodicea Now Denishu
Laodicea, Epistle From - It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea
Apollinarian - ) A follower of Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea in the fourth century, who denied the proper humanity of Christ
hi-Erap'Olis - (holy city ), a city of Phrygia, situated above the junction of the rivers Lycus and Maeander, near Colossae and Laodicea mentioned only in ( Colossians 4:13 ) as the seat of a church probably founded by Epaphras
Laodicea - Laodicea (la-ŏd-i-sç'ah), the old city (Greek Diospolis), stood on the banks of the Lycus, a branch of the Meander, a few miles distant from Colosse and Hierapolis, in the Roman province of Asia, in Asia Minor. enlarged it, and named it after his wife Laodicea. From Colossians 4:16 it appears that Paul wrote a letter to the Laodiceans, which some think is the same as the Epistle to the Ephesians
Spew - , "emetic"), is used in Revelation 3:16 , figuratively of the Lord's utter abhorrence of the condition of the church at Laodicea
Lukewarm - The city of Laodicea received its water from an aqueduct several miles long
Laodicea - Laodicea was situated in the valley of the Lycus, a tributary of the Mæander in Asia Minor. The Lycus glen was the most frequented path of trade from the interior of the country to the west, and the great road passed right through Laodicea. of Laodicea), there grew up a celebrated school of medicine. There were many Jewish inhabitants of Laodicea, and the population as a whole was of very mixed race
Eusebius (48), Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea, in Syria Prima; a native and deacon of Alexandria. The see of Laodicea was then vacant, and the Laodiceans demanded Eusebius for their bishop, taking no refusal. of Laodicea he sat at the synod when Paul of Samosata was deposed, a
Archippus, Saint - (1century) Companion of Saint Paul; possibly of Colossae or of Laodicea
Archippus - Martyred, according to tradition, at Chonse, near Laodicea. Archippus with some reason is supposed to be the angel of Laodicea, whom the Lord, like Paul, reproves (Revelation 3:14-21)
Phrygia - The towns of Antioch in Pisidia (Acts 13:14 ), Colosse, Hierapolis, Iconium, and Laodicea were situated in it
Seven Churches in Asia - They are Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamus, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, mentioned in Apocalypse, 1-3, where Saint John, on the island of Patmos, was commanded to send to their bishops instructions and admonitions, in which the Church is praised or blamed with reference to past trials and told of a greater one to come in connection with the coming of Christ
Archippus - immediately after a reference to Laodicea; (2) the alleged unlikelihood of Archippus being addressed in Colossians 4:17 indirectly instead of directly, if he were himself an official of the Church to which St. 46) that Archippus became ‘bishop,’ or presiding presbyter, of Laodicea. Lightfoot infers that Archippus fulfilled his ministry at Laodicea, which was not many miles from Colossae: and the mention of him in Philem. Paul (through Tychicus, the bearer of his letter to Philemon) might have suggested that Onesimus should be employed not in the city where he had lived as a slave, but in the Laodicean Church under Archippus. ) to imply a rebuke, as if Archippus had been remiss or unfaithful in the discharge of official duty; and Lightfoot, believing that Archippus held office at Laodicea, compares the admonition to him with the censure on account of lukewarmness administered in Revelation 3 to the angel and church of the Laodiceans. 22) as having been stoned to death, along with Philemon, at Chonae, near Laodicea. His alleged eventual ‘episcopate’ or presiding presbyterate at Laodicea is at least possible, and even probable; but the inclusion of his name in the pseudo-Dorothean list (6th cent
Colosse - A city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, a branch of the Mæander, and twelve miles above Laodicea
Phrygia - Under the Roman administration the western part of Phrygia, which included the towns of Colossae, Laodicea and Hierapolis, fell within the province of Asia
Colos'se, - Hierapolis and Laodicea were in its immediate neighborhood
Apollinarianism - heresy begun by Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea, c
Lukewarm - The following verses (Revelation 3:17-18, for the local references of which see article ‘Laodicea’ in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) ) suggest that this condition of tepid religion in Laodicea had been fostered by an excess of material prosperity. The Laodiceans had become so comfortable as not to need God, nor ought God to expect much more than patronage from go consequential a community
Epaphras - He was a native of Colosse whose ministry especially involved Colosse, Laodicea, and Hierapolis
Apollinarianism - Apollinarianism was the heresy taught by Apollinaris the Younger, bishop of Laodicea in Syria about 361
Hierapolis - A city in Proconsular Asia, Colossians 4:13, near the river Lycus, and in sight of Laodicea, which was about 5 miles to the south
Laodicea - Like Colossae and Hierapolis, Laodicea was situated in a fertile valley east of Ephesus in the Roman province of Asia. )...
When Paul wrote to the church in Colossae, he wrote also to the church in Laodicea. This letter to the Laodiceans was never collected as part of the sacred writings. ...
Another letter to the Laodicean church has been preserved, this one written towards the end of the first century (Revelation 3:14). The citizens of Laodicea in general were prosperous and self-satisfied, and this spirit of self-satisfaction carried over into the church. ...
The Laodiceans prided themselves that they had all they needed, and even believed that their material prosperity had resulted from their spiritual goodness
Laodicea - Its earlier name was Diopolis; but after being enlarged by Antiochus II, it was called Laodicea, from his wife Lodice. The church at Laodicea was probably visited by Paul, A
Hierapolis - The city was twelve miles northwest of Colossae and six miles north of Laodicea on the Lycus River a short way above its junction with the Meander River
Phrygia - The area remained relatively undefined but contained Antioch of Pisidia, Laodicea, and at times, Iconium
Sub Deacon - They were so subordinate to the superior rules of the church, that, by a canon of the council of Laodicea, they were forbidden to sit in the presence of a deacon without his leave
Colosse - A city of Phrygia, situated on a hill near the junction of the Lycus with the Meander, and not far from the cities Hierapolis and Laodicea, Colossians 2:1 4:13,15
Colosse, or Colassae - Colosse had been a place of importance, but declined on the rise of Hierapolis and Laodicea
Seven Churches - The assemblies were at Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, places comparatively near together in the west of Asia Minor
Anatolius, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria Prima - of Laodicea in Syria Prima (Eus. But going to Antioch to attend the synod against Paul of Samosata, on his way through Laodicea, which had just lost its bishop, his old friend Eusebius, he was detained and made bishop in his room, A
Colosse - a city of Phrygia Minor, which stood on the river Lyceus, at an equal distance between Laodicea and Hierapolis. Laodicea, Hierapolis, and Colosse, were at no great distance from each other; which accounts for the Apostle Paul, when writing to his Christian brethren in the latter of these places, mentioning them all in connection with each other, Colossians 4:13 . Of these cities, however, Laodicea was the greatest, for it was the metropolis of Phrygia, though Colosse is said to have been a great and wealthy place. This opinion rests principally upon the following passage: "For I would that ye knew what great conflict I have for you, and for them at Laodicea, and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh," Colossians 2:1 ; but these words, if they prove any thing upon this question, prove that St. Paul had never been either at Laodicea or Colosse; but surely it is very improbable that he should have travelled twice into Phrygia for the purpose of preaching the Gospel, and not have gone either to Laodicea or Colosse, which were the two principal cities of that country; especially as in the second journey into those parts it is said, that he "went over all the country of Gallatia and Phrygia, strengthening all the disciples;" and moreover, we know that it was the Apostle's practice to preach at the most considerable places of every district into which he went. Paul assures them, that since he had heard of their faith in Christ Jesus, and of their love to all Christians, he had not ceased to return thanks to God for them, and to pray that they might increase in spiritual knowledge, and abound in every good work; he describes the dignity of Christ, and declares the universality of the Gospel dispensation, which was a mystery formerly hidden, but now made manifest; and he mentions his own appointment, through the grace of God, to be the Apostle of the Gentiles; he expresses a tender concern for the Colossians and other Christians of Phrygia, and cautions them against being seduced from the simplicity of the Gospel, by the subtlety of Pagan philosophers, or the superstition of Judaizing Christians; he directs them to set their affections on things above, and forbids every species of licentiousness; he exhorts to a variety of Christian virtues, to meekness, veracity, humility, charity, and devotion; he enforces the duties of wives, husbands, children, fathers, servants, and masters; he inculcates the duty of prayer, and of prudent behaviour toward unbelievers; and after adding the salutations of several persons then at Rome, and desiring that this epistle might be read in the church of their neighbours the Laodiceans, he concludes with a salutation from himself, written, as usual, with his own hand
Archippus - ’ He had been entrusted with some important office in the Church, whether at Colossæ, or, as Lightfoot, in view of the preceding context, more probably supposes, at the neighbouring town of Laodicea; and, considering the spiritual atmosphere of the place ( Revelation 3:14-19 ), one is not surprised that the Apostle should have thought it needful to exhort him to zeal in his ministry
Laodicea - It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II
Apollinarians - This sect derived its name from Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea
Hierapolis - A city of Phrygia, situated on its western border, near the junction of the rivers Lycus and Meander, and not far from Colosses and Laodicea
Apollinaris, the Elder, of Alexandria - 335, to Laodicea, of which church he was made presbyter. of Laodicea. of Laodicea, but restored upon their subsequent repentance (Socr
Colossae - It was about 12 miles above Laodicea, and near the great road from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and was consequently of some mercantile importance
Phrygia - The Phrygia meant in Scripture is the southern portion (called "greater Phrygia") of the region above, and contained Laodicea, Hierapolis, Colosse, and Iconium
Love - The love feasts were forbidden to be held in churches by the Council of Laodicea, a
Timothy, First Epistle to - Paul in this epistle speaks of himself as having left Ephesus for Macedonia (1:3), and hence not Laodicea, as mentioned in the subscription; but probably Philippi, or some other city in that region, was the place where this epistle was written
Theodotus, Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea in Syria Prima, claimed as a zealous advocate of Arian doctrines by Arius in writing to Eusebius of Nicomedia (Theod. The two Apollinarii, father and son, were excommunicated by Theodotus for being present at the recitation of a hymn in honour of Bacchus, composed by a sophist of Laodicea with whom he had interdicted an intercourse
Laodicea - Its ancient name was Diospolis, but when Antiochus Theos rebuilt it he called it Laodicea, after the name of his wife. All that is known of the state of the Laodicean church is gathered from the address sent to it through the apostle John (see REVELATION)
Garment - " (Isaiah 61:10) And this corresponds to what the Lord Jesus counselled the church of Laodicea to buy of him "white raiment, that she might be clothed
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The ablest modern critics are not agreed as to the church to whom it was addressed, whether to that in Ephesus, that in Laodicea, or to both of these in connection with the other churches in that region
Laodicea - Lastly, Antiochus, the son of Stratonice, rebuilt it, and called it Laodicea, from the name of his wife Laodice. The amphitheatre was built after the Apocalypse was written, and the warning of the Spirit had been given to the church of the Laodiceans to be zealous and repent. And Colonel Lake observes, "There are few ancient cities more likely than Laodicea to preserve many curious remains of antiquity beneath the surface of the soil
Eusebius Emesenus, Bishop of Emesa - of Laodicea, was famous for its magnificent temple of Elagabalus, the Syrophoenician sun-god. of Laodicea. 101), and his funeral oration by George of Laodicea ascribed to him miraculous powers
Anti-Libanus - The Hebrew text never mentions Antilibanus; but uses the general name Libanus: and the coins struck at Laodicea and Hierapolis, have the inscription, "cities of Libanus," though they belong rather to Antilibanus
Epaphras - The fact of his prayerful zeal for Laodicea and Hierapolis suggests his having brought the faith to these cities also ( Colossians 4:13 )
Miserable, Miserably, Misery - A — 1: ἐλεεινός (Strong's #1652 — Adjective — eleeinos — el-eh-i-nos' ) "pitiable, miserable" (from eleos, "mercy, pity;" see MERCY), is used in Revelation 3:17 , in the Lord's description of the church at Laodicea; here the idea is probably that of a combination of "misery" and pitiableness
Seleucia - It was one of the cities which formed the Syrian Tetrapolis, the others being Antioch, Apameia, and Laodicea. Of the others, Apameia had its name from his wife Apama, and Laodicea from his mother’ (Strabo, XVI
Georgius (3), Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea ad mare in Syria Prima (335–347) who took part in the Trinitarian controversies of the 4th cent. of Laodicea on the death of the Arian Theodotus (Athan. 28) and Socrates quotes a panegyric composed by him on the Arian Eusebius of Emesa who was his intimate friend and resided with him at Laodicea after his expulsion from Emesa and by whose intervention at Antioch he was restored to his see (Socr
Stephanus i., Patriarch of Antioch - Zeno yielded, and a synod was called for the Syrian Laodicea (Labbe, iv
Apollinarians - or Apollinarists, or, as they are called by Epiphanius, Dimaritae, a sect who derive their principal name from Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea, in the fourth century
Hierapolis - HIERAPOLIS (‘holy city’) is mentioned in the Bible only in Colossians 4:13 , in association with the neighbouring towns Laodicea and Colossæ
Colossae - ...
Colossae was one of three sister cities which received the gospel about the same time (Colossians 4:13), Laodicea lying about 10 miles farther down the Lycus valley, and facing Hierapolis, which was picturesquely seated on a plateau 6 miles to the north. Behind Colossae and Laodicea rose the mighty snow-capped range of Cadmus (Baba Dagh, ‘Father of mountains’), over 8000ft. But as Laodicea and Hierapolis grew in importance, Colossae waned, and in the beginning of the first century Strabo reckons it as no more than a πόλισμα (xii. One of the canons (the 35th) of the Council of Laodicea (held probably about a
Asia Minor, Cities of - Cities of Asia Minor important to the New Testament accounts included Alexandria Troas, Assos, Ephesus, Miletus, Patara, Smyrna, Pergamum, Sardis, Thyatira, Philadelphia, Laodicea, Colassae, Attalia, Antioch, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, and Tarsus. In the center of the valley sat Laodicea . As the chief city of the wealthy province of Phrygia, Laodicea boasted of a large number of banks. The great wealth of Laodicea allowed it to finance its own rebuilding after a destructive earthquake in A. Laodicea served as home to a medical school renowned for production of collyrium, an eye salve. John's description of “white garments” to cover their nakedness contrasts the Laodicean preference for “home-grown” black wool, a symbol of worldly prosperity (Revelation 3:14-18 ). ...
Eleven miles south of Laodicea lay Colossae. The establishment of Laodicea, however, led to the decline of Colassae's prosperity
Sardis - In Sardis and Laodicea alone of the seven addressed in Revelation 2; 3; there was no conflict with foes within or without. Sardis and Laodicea, the most wealthy, receive little besides censure
Amen - The impression created by this idiom may have influenced the title of ‘the Amen’ given to the Lord in the Epistle to Laodicea ( Revelation 3:14 )
Thyati'ra, - Dyeing apparently formed an important part of the industrial activity of Thyatira, as it did of that of Colossae and Laodicea
Eye - ’ In Revelation 3:18 eye-salve or collyrium is a Phrygian powder mentioned by Galen, for which the medical school at Laodicea seems to have been famous
Apochrypha - The Protestants acknowledge such books of scripture only to be canonical as were esteemed to be so in the first ages of the church; such as are cited by the earliest writers among the Christians as of divine authority, and after the most diligent enquiry were received and judged to be so by the council of Laodicea
Philemon, Epistle to - The similarity of the salutations to those found in the Epistle to the Colossians, and the reference to Onesimus in that epistle, leads to the conclusion that Philemon dwelt somewhere in the direction of Colosse (probably at Laodicea, Archippus being mentioned in Colossians 4:17 , and Philippians 2 ), and that both epistles were sent from Rome about A
Colossians, Epistle to the - Colossae was at this time a small town of declining importance, overshadowed by Its great neighbours, Laodicea and Hierapolis, some 10 miles down-stream. It was evidently closely connected with the Church at Laodicea (Colossians 2:1; Colossians 4:18), and it is even possible that the work in the latter place was in charge of Archippus, the son of Philemon of Colossae (Colossians 4:17, Philemon 1:2). the house of Aquila and Priscilla at Rome, Romans 16:5 (if, indeed, Romans 16 was not addressed to Ephesus), that of Philemon (Philemon 1:2) in Colossae, that of Nymphas, or Nympha, in Laodicea (Colossians 4:15). The Jewish trader had doubtless reached Colossae, but there is no sign of any permanent settlement of Jews there such as was made by the Seleucid kings at Laodicea or Tarsus. And the Jews of Laodicea, together with any who may have dwelt at Colossae, were doubtless, like most of the Jews of the Diaspora, largely affected both by local tendencies of thought and by the wider influences which centred in Alexandria. Both at Colossae and at Laodicea (Colossians 4:16) a new and dangerous form of teaching was abroad. ...
There has been much discussion whether a fourth letter, to Laodicea, accompanied the other three, based on the command to the Colossians that they should read the Epistle ‘from Laodicea. ’ The old hypothesis of Theodore of Mopsuestia and Calvin that this was a letter written from the Laodicean Church to St. In 1844 Wieseler suggested that Philemon really lived at Laodicea, and that the lost letter is our Epistle to Philemon. This would certainly make it easier to account for the apparent connexion of Archippus with Laodicea, but otherwise the theory has little point and has not met with any acceptance. If this was a circular letter, intended for all the Asiatic churches, it would naturally come to Colossae as a letter brought by Tychicus from Laodicea (see article Ephesians). If this identification is rejected the letter to the Laodiceans is lost beyond recall. In several Manuscripts the words ‘written from Laodicea’ were added at the end of 1 Timothy. the Council of Laodicea found it necessary to condemn angel-worship
Hymns - In theThird and Fourth Centuries the Christian Religion began to growlargely in the number of its followers, in wealth and position;magnificent churches were built under Constantine the Emperor, andthen it came to pass that choirs were instituted definitely by theCouncil of Laodicea, A
Elpidius (8), Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea in Syria at the close of the 4th cent
Basilius of Ancyra, Bishop of Ancyra - He and George of Laodicea were now the recognized leaders of the semi-Arian party (Epiph. 358, when a number of bishops had assembled at Ancyra for the dedication of a new church that Basil had built, Basil received letters from George of Laodicea speaking with great alarm of the spread of Anomoean doctrines, and entreating him to avail himself of the opportunity to obtain a synodical condemnation of Aetius and Eunomius
the Angel of the Church of the Laodiceans - THE Archippus who is so remonstrated with in the Epistle to the Colossians concerning his neglected ministry, may very well have lived on to be the lukewarm angel of the Church in Laodicea. As a matter of fact, there is both internal and external evidence that the angel of the Church in Laodicea was none other than this same inculpated Archippus now grown old in his unfulfilled ministry. We call a man a Laodicean. But ever since this so scornful Epistle was written, all that, and more than all that, has been collected up into this one supremely scornful word,-thou art a Laodicean! And thus it is that to all time the angel of the Church in Laodicea will stand forth as the spiritual father of all such spiritual sons. And this Epistle now open before us is a divinely fashioned looking-glass, as James the Lord's brother would have called it, in which all Laodicean ministers and people are intended to see themselves. "...
Among all the terrible things here threatened against this miserable minister of Laodicea, his "nakedness," and "the shame of his nakedness," is surely the most terrible. For as He stood that night at Archippus's door in Laodicea, so will He stand at all ministers' doors in Edinburgh this night
Colossians, Epistle to the - After friendly greetings (10-14), he bids them interchange this letter with that he had sent to the neighbouring church of Laodicea
Ephesians, Letter to the - Paul’s letter to the church in Laodicea may have been another copy of this letter (Colossians 4:16). ...
The false teaching that affected the Ephesus area also affected neighbouring towns such as Laodicea and Colossae
Temptation - "As many as I love I rebuke and chasten, said Jesus to the church of Laodicea
Fulgentius (4) Ferrandus, , Disciple And Companion of Ruspe - ), a collection and digest of 232 canons of the earliest councils, Nicaea, Laodicea, Sardica, Constantinople, Carthage, etc
Phrygia - Hierapolis was apparently once Lydian, and Laodicea Carian; but in the Roman period all the cities of the Lycus Valley were regarded as Phrygian. ‘The Gate of Phrygia’ was below the junction of the Lycus and Maeander; Polemon of Laodicea was known as ‘the Phrygian’; and ‘Phrygian powder’ was a Laodicean preparation
Eustathius (3), Bishop of Berrhoea - Among those whom he refused to receive were Stephen Leontius ὁ ἀπὸκοπος and Eudoxius (who successively occupied his episcopal seat after his deposition) George of Laodicea Theodosius of Tripolis and Eustathius of Sebaste (Athan. Their inspection of the sacred buildings over Eusebius returned to Antioch with a large cortège of partisan bishops—Aetius of Lydda Patrophilus of Scythopolis Theodotus of Laodicea and Eusebius of Caesarea
Ephesians, Book of - The case for Caesarea has been posited on speculative questions such as: (1) Would it be easier for Paul to get letters to the three places involved (Ephesus, Colosse, and Philippi) from Caesarea or from Rome? (2) Would it be easier for the runaway slave, Onesimus, to meet Paul in a prison in faraway Rome or the much closer Caesarea?...
A third opinion has grown out of Colossians 4:16 in which Paul urged the church at Colosse to exchange letters with the church at neighboring Laodicea so both might get the benefit of both letters. This opinion, which was never widely held, took the position that Paul was writing from an imprisonment in Ephesus and that the “Laodicean” letter was what we have as “Ephesians. Unlike neighboring Laodicea, Colosse was never built back. As the epistle was read in the churches, the public reader would insert the name of that church; such as, at Laodicea, at Hierapolis, at Colosse, etc. Indeed one manuscript of about the middle of the second century had “at Laodicea” in that place. See Colossians 2:1 ; Ephesians 1:3-34 for Paul's reference to his love for the church at Laodicea and his having sent a letter to them
Naked - (Genesis 2:25) Whereas, when the soul is without grace, unwashed in the blood of Christ, and unclothed with the robe of Jesus's righteousness, this is a state of spiritual nakedness; hence Christ describes the church of Laodicea in this awful state, and yet unconscious of it
Colosse - So as to "them at Laodicea" (Ephesians 4:2-42). In the 4th century the council of Laodicea (in the same region) in its 35th canon prohibited calling upon angels
Epaphras - (shortened probably from Epaphroditus, but not to be identified with the evangelist so named)...
Epaphras was a native or citizen of Colossae (Colossians 4:12), the founder, or at least an early and leading teacher of the Church there (Colossians 1:7, where καί, ‘also,’ is omitted in the oldest Manuscripts ), who had special relations with the neighbouring churches of Laodicea and Hierapolis (Colossians 4:13)
Smyrna - Good "works," "tribulation," "poverty" owing to "spoiling of goods," while she was "rich" in grace (contrast Laodicea, "rich" in her own eyes and the world's, poor before God), were her marks
Hierapolis - side, 6 miles away, Laodicea was plainly visible, while Colossae lay hidden from view 12 miles to the S
Syria - Antioch remained the capital of Syria till the time of Septimius Severus, who gave the honour to Laodicea (now Latakia), making it a colonia
Colossians, Epistle to the - The epistle was to be read to the church of the Laodiceans, and some epistle coming to them from Laodicea was to be read at Colosse
Philemon, the Epistle to - ), the council of Laodicea (A
Apocrypha - They are not mentioned in the catalogue of inspired writings made by Melito, bishop of Sardis, who flourished in the second century, nor in those of Origen in the third century, of Athanasius, Hilary, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Gregory Nazianzen, Amphilochius, Jerom, Rufinus, and others of the fourth century; nor in the catalogue of canonical books recognised by the council of Laodicea, held in the same century, whose canons were received by the catholic church; so that as Bishop Burnet well observes, we have the concurring sense of the whole church of God in this matter
Apocalypse - The second and third chapters contain seven epistles to the seven churches in Asia; namely, of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamus, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea, which relate chiefly to their then respective circumstances and situation
Anoint, Anointing - ...
A — 3: ἐγχρίω (Strong's #1472 — Verb — enchrio — eng-khree'-o ) primarily, "to rub in," hence, "to besmear, to anoint," is used metaphorically in the command to the church in Laodicea to "anoint" their eyes with eyesalve, Revelation 3:18
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - 174) has given good reason for thinking that the Apollinaris intended is the younger Apollinaris, of Laodicea; since Jerome speaks of Irenaeus and Apollinaris as the first and the last of the Greek Millenarians (lib
Dionysius (19), Monk in Western Church - His own was a corrected edition of that earlier version, so far as regards the canons of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neo-Caesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, and Constantinople—165 in all—together with 27 of Chalcedon: all originally published in Greek, and all, except the Laodicean, already translated in the Prisca Versio. The Laodicean, unlike the rest, are given in an abbreviated form, and the chronological order is interrupted to place the Nicene canons first
Colossians - Hierapolis and Laodicea were situated only a few miles away. Notable in this final section are (1) the mention of Onesimus (Colossians 4:9 ), which links this letter with Philemon, (2) the mention of a letter at Laodicea (Colossians 4:16 ), which may have been Ephesians, and (3) Paul's concluding signature which indicates that the letter was prepared by an amanuensis (secretary) (Colossians 4:18 )
Canon - Paul not now extant, is that in Colossians 4:16 : "And when this epistle is read among you, cause also that it be read in the church of the Laodiceans, and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea. Paul ever wrote an epistle to the Laodiceans? The text on which this opinion has been founded, in ancient and modern times, correctly interpreted, has no such import. The words in the original are, και την εκ Λαοδικειας ινα και υμεις...
...
αναγνωτε , "and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea,"...
Colossians 4:16 . Paul to the Laodiceans, which he desired might be read in the church at Colosse. Paul's epistle to the Laodiceans is now lost. " And their opinion is favoured by the Latin Vulgate, where we read, eamque Laodicensium, "that which is of the Laodiceans;" but even these words admit of another construction. Paul here refers to the epistle to the Ephesians, which they think he sent to the Laodiceans, and that the present inscription is spurious. Paul could not, with any propriety of speech, have called an epistle written by himself, and sent to the Laodiceans, an epistle from Laodicea. He certainly would have said, προς Λαοδικειαν , [1] or some such thing. Paul refer? It seems safest in such a case, where testimony is deficient, to follow the literal sense of the words, and to believe that it was an epistle written by the Laodiceans, probably to himself, which he had sent to the Colossians, together with his own epistle, for their perusal
Roads And Travel - ’ There was a well-recognized, important, and ancient route to Ephesus by Apollonia, Apamea-Celaenae, the Lyeus valley, Colossae, Laodicea, the Maeander valley, Antioch, and Tralles. Paul purposely avoided this route, probably because of fatigue, and thus never visited either Colossae or Laodicea (cf. He proceeded along the great road already mentioned, and reached Tralles (27th July), Laodicea (arrived 31st July, departed 3rd August, early). Laodicea was the first city of the province on the west. At Laodicea Combusta he left the great road and took the branch to the right for Iconium (reached
Sardis - No one of the Seven Churches of the province of Asia, not even Laodicea, is so severely rebuked as Sardis
Amos - Philo, Josephus, the Talmud, Justin Martyr, the catalogues of Melito, Jerome, and the council of Laodicea, confirm the canonicity of Amos
Pontus - from the family of Mithridates to Polemon of Laodicea, the founder of a new dynasty of Pontic kings, which lasted till a
Apollinaris the Younger, Bishop of Laodicea - of Laodicea, flourished in the latter half of the 4th cent
Ephesus - The alternative was the main road through Colossæ and Laodicea neither of which St
Incarnation - ...
The Council of Constantinople met to clarify and refute the christology of Apollinarius, Bishop of Laodicea
Colossians, Epistle to the - Then follow a warm commendation of Tychicus, greetings from Luke and Demas, instructions for exchanging letters with the neighbouring Church of Laodicea, and a final message for Archippus, who had apparently succeeded, in Epaphras’ absence, to the supervision of the Colossian Church
New Testament - that of Laodicea (c
Paul - It possessed a splendid harbour, in which was concentrated the traffic of the sea which was then the highway of the nations; and as Liverpool has behind her the great towns of Lancashire, so had Ephesus behind and around her such cities as those mentioned along with her in the epistles to the churches in the book of Revelation, Smyrna, Pergamos, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea. His fellow-labourers aided him in his work, carrying the gospel to Colosse and Laodicea and other places which they could reach
Peter, the Epistles of - The churches of Laodicea were Hierapolis and Colesse (having as members Philemon and Onesimus, and leaders Archippus and Epaphras). ...
If Peter were not the author the epistle would be false, as it expressly claims to be his; then the canon of the council of Laodicea, A
Revelation of John, the - ...
Papias, John's hearer and Polycarp's associate and bishop of Hierapolis near Laodicea (one of the seven churches), attests its canonicity and inspiration (according to a scholium of Andreas of Cappadocia). Revelation was omitted by the council of Laodicea from its list of books to be read publicly, doubtless because of its prophetic obscurity. The 60th canon (if genuine) of the Laodicean council (fourth century A
Church - Many that were admitted members in the churches of Judea, Corinth, Philippi, Laodicea, Sardis, &c
Revelation, the Book of - ...
Letters to the Seven Churches (2:1–3:22) The letters to the churches of Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and Laodicea have a fairly consistent format. The church at Philadelphia (Revelation 3:7-13 ) is promised, in the face of persecution by the local synagogue, that faith in Jesus will assure access into the eternal kingdom; and the church at Laodicea (Revelation 3:14-22 ) is told to turn from her self-deception and repent of her lukewarmness
Feasts - Hence the lovefeasts were afterward separated from the Lord's supper, and in the fourth century forbidden by the Council of Laodicea A
Jacobus Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa - A considerable number of Monophysite bishops from all parts of the East, including Theodosius of Alexandria, Anthimus the deposed patriarch of Constantinople, Constantius of Laodicea, John of Egypt, Peter, and others, who had come to Constantinople in the hope of mitigating the displeasure of the emperor and exciting the sympathies of Theodora, were held by Justinian in one of the imperial castles in a kind of honourable imprisonment
Bible, Canon of the - ...
Paul refers to a previous letter he wrote to Corinth (1 Corinthians 5:9 ) and to a letter to the Laodiceans (Colossians 4:16 ), neither of which the early church preserved in its canon. ...
Evidence of a collection of Paul's letters is found as early as 2 Peter 3:16 , and Paul instructed the churches in Colossae and Laodicea to exchange his letters to them for public reading
Thessalonians, the Epistles to the - This epistle is in the Muratorian Canon, that of Marcion, and Laodicea, A
Antioch - Possessed with a mama for building cities and calling them after himself or his relatives, he founded no fewer than 37, of which 4 are mentioned in the NT (1) Antioch of Syria ( Acts 11:19 ), (2) Seleucia ( Acts 13:4 ), (3) Antioch of Pisidia ( Acts 13:14 ; Acts 14:21 , 2 Timothy 3:11 ), and (4) Laodicea ( Colossians 4:13-16 , Revelation 1:11 ; Revelation 3:14 )
Eustathius, Bishop of Sebaste - Eustathius was one of the prelates at the semi-Arian synod summoned at Ancyra by George of Laodicea, before Easter a
Canon of the New Testament - Then it has Acts, which it ascribes to Luke, and it acknowledges 13 Epistles of Paul admitting the Pastorals, but excluding Hebrews, though it subsequently refers to ‘an Epistle to the Laodiceans,’ and another ‘to the Alexandrians forged under the name of Paul,’ as well as ‘many others’ which are not received in the Catholic Church ‘because gall ought not to be mixed with honey. As representing the East we have a Canon attributed to the Council of Laodicea ( c Revelation, Book of - It does not appear in the lists of the Synod of Laodicea, the Apostolic Constitutions , Gregory of Nazianzus, Chrysostom, the Chronography of Nicephorus, the ‘List of the Sixty Books,’ or in the Peshitta version of the NT
Apocrypha, New Testament - This may be the motivation behind the Third Epistle to the Corinthians (to provide some of the missing correspondence between Paul and the Corinthian church) and the Epistle to the Laodiceans (to supply the letter referred to in Colossians 4:16 ). The Latin Epistle to the Laodiceans is a gathering of Pauline phrases probably motivated by Colossians 4:16 where Paul makes mention of an “epistle from Laodicea
Clementine Literature - Simon, in alarm, flees to Laodicea, and there meeting Faustinianus, who had come to visit their common friends, Apion (or, as our author spells it, Appion) and Anubion, transforms by his magic the features of Faustinianus into his own, that Faustinianus may be arrested in his stead. , the main disputation between Peter and Simon takes place after the recognitions, and is held at Laodicea, Clement's father (whose name according to H
Eunomius, Bishop of Cyzicus - ...
The bold front displayed by the Arians at this council, and the favour shewn to the flagrant blasphemies of Aetius and Eunomius, who did not scruple to assert the absolute unlikeness (ἀνόμοιον ) of the Son to the Father, excited the strong opposition of the semi-Arian party, of which George of Laodicea, Basil of Ancyra, and Macedonius of Constantinople, were the highly respectable leaders
Simon Magus - Thus, the Homilies represent the final disputation between Peter and Simon to have occurred at Laodicea; but we must believe that the original form laid it at Antioch, where took place the collision between Peter and Paul (Galatians 2 )
Heresy - As late even as the fourth century, the synod at Laodicea was obliged to institute severe laws against the worship of angels against magic, and against incantations
Church - the ecclesia of the Thessalonians ( 1 Thessalonians 1:1 ), of Laodicea ( Galatians 3:27-28 ), of Corinth ( 1 Corinthians 1:2 ); cf
Psalms of Solomon - ...
Rather earlier indirect external evidence of the existence of the Psalms has sometimes been sought elsewhere; but it is at least doubtful whether the fifty-ninth canon of the Council of Laodicea (c
Joannes, Bishop of Antioch - of Laodicea, Macarius, entreating him not to plunge the church into discord on account of a word to which the Christian ear had become accustomed, and which was capable of being interpreted in his own sense
Novatianus And Novatianism - 9268) we find at Laodicea in Lycaonia an inscription on a tombstone erected by one Aurelia Domna to her husband Paul, deacon of the holy church of the Novatianists, while even towards the end of the preceding century St
Physician - Themison of Laodicea (born c
Aristion (Aristo) - ’ But Jerome, he holds, obtained his version indirectly, through his teacher Apollinaris of Laodicea
Galatia - And just as he includes the Phrygian churches of the Lycus valley-Colossae, Laodicea, and Hierapolis (Colossians 1:2; Colossians 2:1)-the Church of Troas (Acts 20:6-12), and the Churches of the Apocalypse (Revelation 1:11), in the province of ‘Asia,’ so he reckons the Churches founded by St
Lord's Day - ...
Considerable light on this point is incidentally gained from the 29th Canon or the Council of Laodicea (4th cent
John, Epistles of - by the Council of Laodicea and the Third Council of Carthage
Papias, Bishop of Hierapolis - 16; a physician at Laodicea (Fabric
Revelation, the - Laodicea
New Testament - Then Paul's epistles in Eusebius, in the Latin church, and in Jerome's Vulgate (oldest manuscripts) But the uncial manuscripts A, B, C, also Athanasius, Cyril of Jerusalem, and the council of Laodicea (A
Eusebius (60), Bishop of Nicomedia - ]'>[2] Arius boasts that Eusebius of Caesarea Theodotus of Laodicea Paulinus of Tyre Athanasius of Anazarbus Gregory of Berytus Aetius of Lydda and all the bishops of the East if he is condemned must be condemned with him (Theod
Simon Magus - They met again in Laodicea, where the disputes were renewed
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia - Not long after his return George of Laodicea arrived at Caesarea as an emissary of Constantius, bringing with him that creed for signature
Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch - Ignatius did not, as was usual, pass through Magnesia and Ephesus, but left the great road at Sardis and came by Laodicea, Hierapolis, Philadelphia, and perhaps Colossae, as he had certainly visited Philadelphia and met there the false teachers from Ephesus (Zahn, 258 seq
Eusebius of Caesarea - The cause of Arius was taken up also by two neighbouring bishops, Theodotus of Laodicea and Paulinus of Tyre
Bible - "We have no knowledge," says the above author, "of any interference of authority in the question before the council of Laodicea, in the year 363