What does Language mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
διαλέκτῳ conversation 6
שְׂפַ֣ת lip 2
שָׂפָ֣ה lip 2
כִּלְשׁוֹנ֑וֹ tongue. 2
αἰσχρολογίαν foul speaking 1
שְׂפָתָ֑ם lip 1
וְשָׂפָ֤ה lip 1
סֵ֖פֶר book. / missive 1
וְלִשָּׁ֗ן tongue 1
לְשֹׁנ֣וֹת tongue. 1
וְכִלְשׁ֖וֹן tongue. 1
לְשֹׁנ֔וֹ tongue. 1
לָשׁ֔וֹן tongue. 1
לִלְשֹׁנ֑וֹ tongue. 1
לָשׁ֖וֹן tongue. 1
וְכִלְשׁוֹנָֽם tongue. 1
כִּלְשֹׁנ֑וֹ tongue. 1
כִּלְשׁ֥וֹן tongue. 1
לְשֹׁנֽוֹ tongue. 1
לֹעֵֽז (Qal) to speak indistinctly 1
דְּבָרִ֑ים speech 1
אַשְׁדּוֹדִ֔ית language of Ashdod. 1
אֲרָמִֽית the language of Aram 1
שְׂפַ֖ת lip 1

Definitions Related to Language

G1258


   1 conversation, speech, discourse, Language.
   2 the tongue or Language peculiar to any people.
   

H3956


   1 tongue.
      1a tongue (of men).
         1a1 tongue (literal).
         1a2 tongue (organ of speech).
      1b Language.
      1c tongue (of animals).
      1d tongue (of fire).
      1e wedge, bay of sea (tongue-shaped).
      

H762


   1 the Language of Aram, Aramaic.
   Additional Information: Aramaic = “Language”.
   

H8193


   1 lip, Language, speech, shore, bank, brink, brim, side, edge, border, binding.
      1a lip (as body part).
      1b Language.
      1c edge, shore, bank (of cup, sea, river, etc).
      

G148


   1 foul speaking, low and obscene speech.
   

H1697


   1 speech, word, speaking, thing.
      1a speech.
      1b saying, utterance.
      1c word, words.
      1d business, occupation, acts, matter, case, something, manner (by extension).
      

H3937


   1 (Qal) to speak indistinctly, speak unintelligibly.
   

H5612


   1 book.
   2 missive, document, writing, book.
      2a missive.
         2a1 letter (of instruction), written order, commission, request, written decree.
      2b legal document, certificate of divorce, deed of purchase, indictment, sign.
      2c book, scroll.
         2c1 book of prophecies.
         2c2 genealogical register.
         2c3 law-book.
         2c4 book (of poems).
         2c5 book (of kings).
         2c6 books of the canon, scripture.
         2c7 record book (of God).
      2d book-learning, writing.
         2d1 be able to read (after verb ‘to know’).
         

H797


   1 Language of Ashdod.
   Additional Information: Ashdodites = “I will spoil”.
   

H3961


   1 tongue, Language.
      1a tongue, Language.
      1b people (fig.
      ).
      

Frequency of Language (original languages)

Frequency of Language (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Language in Liturgy
A liturgical language is one used in the official public services of any Church or Rite. It may or may not be the language spoken by the people. Sometimes it is an older, and at times, an almost unintelligible form of the vernacular. However each liturgical language was first chosen precisely because it was the language of the faithful. In the Eastern Churches there is no uniform liturgical language such as is used in the West. The universality of Latin in the West is due to the fact that Latin was the only language of culture until far into the Middle Ages. In the East, Greek, while quite common, was never the sole language of culture. Side by side with it were other languages of almost equal importance and dignity, e.g., Coptic, and Syriac. It was only natural that the Liturgy should have been translated into those languages for the people speaking them. As the faith spread the liturgy was put into the language of almost every new people evangelized. The liturgical languages used by Catholic Churches other than those of the Roman Rite are: Greek, Arabic (by Melchites), Slavonic, Georgian, Rumanian, all of the Byzantine Rite; Syriac, in the Syrian, Maronite, Chaldean, and Malabar Rites; Coptic, in the Coptic Rites; Armenian in all Churches of that Rite. In the Western Church, for the first two centuries, at least, the liturgical language at Rome was Greek. From the third century Latin became the ordinary language of the Christians at Rome; however, when it displaced Greek as the liturgical language is disputed. The change was gradual, but once effected Latin remained the liturgical language of the West. Two exceptions are to be noted: Slavonic has been used since the 11th century in Churches of Roman Rite along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, and on rare occasions Mass is said in Greek at Rome. The Church has many valid reasons for retaining the Latin in her services. Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead language, is not subject to change as are modern tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of language would destroy the sacred music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past. There are translations into almost every language of the parts of the liturgy in which the laity participate. Moreover it should be kept in mind that liturgy is public worship, in which the people have a part as well as the priest, and that language is only one element of worship, the ceremonial being by far the most important element.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Liturgy, Language in
A liturgical language is one used in the official public services of any Church or Rite. It may or may not be the language spoken by the people. Sometimes it is an older, and at times, an almost unintelligible form of the vernacular. However each liturgical language was first chosen precisely because it was the language of the faithful. In the Eastern Churches there is no uniform liturgical language such as is used in the West. The universality of Latin in the West is due to the fact that Latin was the only language of culture until far into the Middle Ages. In the East, Greek, while quite common, was never the sole language of culture. Side by side with it were other languages of almost equal importance and dignity, e.g., Coptic, and Syriac. It was only natural that the Liturgy should have been translated into those languages for the people speaking them. As the faith spread the liturgy was put into the language of almost every new people evangelized. The liturgical languages used by Catholic Churches other than those of the Roman Rite are: Greek, Arabic (by Melchites), Slavonic, Georgian, Rumanian, all of the Byzantine Rite; Syriac, in the Syrian, Maronite, Chaldean, and Malabar Rites; Coptic, in the Coptic Rites; Armenian in all Churches of that Rite. In the Western Church, for the first two centuries, at least, the liturgical language at Rome was Greek. From the third century Latin became the ordinary language of the Christians at Rome; however, when it displaced Greek as the liturgical language is disputed. The change was gradual, but once effected Latin remained the liturgical language of the West. Two exceptions are to be noted: Slavonic has been used since the 11th century in Churches of Roman Rite along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, and on rare occasions Mass is said in Greek at Rome. The Church has many valid reasons for retaining the Latin in her services. Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead language, is not subject to change as are modern tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of language would destroy the sacred music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past. There are translations into almost every language of the parts of the liturgy in which the laity participate. Moreover it should be kept in mind that liturgy is public worship, in which the people have a part as well as the priest, and that language is only one element of worship, the ceremonial being by far the most important element.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Language of the nt
LANGUAGE OF THE NT . The object of this article is to give a general non-technical account of the Greek in which the NT is written. It should be stated at the outset that the standpoint of scholarship in regard to this subject has materially altered since Prof. Thayer wrote his excellent article in vol. iii. of the DB [1] . We shall therefore briefly state the nature of our change in view, and then describe the NT Greek as we now regard it, without further reference to older theories.
1. The old view . In every age of NT study, scholars have been struck by the fact that its Greek to a large extent stands alone. It differs immensely from the language of the great classics of the period which was closed some four centuries earlier, and not much less from that of post-classical writers of its own time, even when those writers were Palestinian Jews, as was Josephus. During the 17th cent. the ‘Purist’ school sought to minimize these differences, holding that deviation from the ‘purity’ of classic standards was a flaw in the perfection of the inspired Book, which must at all costs be cleared away. But, except for such eccentricities of learning, the efforts of scholars in general were steadily directed towards the establishment of some rationale for this isolation of what Rothe called the ‘language of the Holy Ghost.’ Two excellent reasons were found for the peculiarities of NT Greek. (1) NT writers were steeped in the language of the Greek OT, a translation which largely followed the Hebrew original with slavish literalness. A special religious phraseology was thus created, which not only contributed a large number of forms for direct quotation, but also supplied models for the general style of religious writing, much as the style of modern sermons or devotional books is modelled upon the English of the Bible. (2) The writers were mostly Jews who used Aramaic (a language closely related to Hebrew) in their daily life. When, therefore, they thought and wrote in Greek, they were prone to translate literally from their native tongue; and ‘Aramaisms’ thus infected the Greek, side by side with the ‘Hebraisms’ which came from the LXX [2] . The degree to which either of these classes of Semitism was admitted to affect particular words or grammatical constructions in the Greek NT naturally differed in the judgment of different writers; but even Thayer, who wrote after the new lights had already begun to appear, shows no readiness to abandon the general thesis that the NT Greek lies outside the stream of progress in the development of the Greek language, and must be judged by principles of its own.
2. Newer views . The credit of initiating a most far-reaching change of view, the full consequences of which are only beginning to be realized, belongs to a brilliant German theologian, Adolf Deissmann. His attention having been accidentally called to a volume of transcripts from the Egyptian papyri recently added to the Berlin Museum, he was immediately struck by their frequent points of contact with the vocabulary of NT Greek. He read through several collections of papyri, and of contemporary Greek inscriptions, and in 1895 and 1897 published the two volumes of his Bible Studies (Eng. tr. [3] in one volume, 1901). Mainly on the ground of vocabulary, but not without reference to grammar and style, he showed that the isolation of NT Greek could no longer be maintained. Further study of the papyri he used, and of the immense masses of similar documents which have been published since, especially by the explorers of Oxford and Berlin, confirms his thesis and extends it to the whole field of grammar. To put the new views into two statements (1) The NT is written in the spoken Greek of daily life , which can be proved from inscriptions to have differed but little, as found in nearly every corner of the Roman Empire in the first century. (2) What is peculiar in ‘Biblical Greek’ lies in the presence of boldly literal translations from Hebrew OT or Aramaic ‘sources’: even this, however, seldom goes beyond clumsy and unidiomatic, but perfectly possible, Greek, and is generally restricted to the inordinate use of correct locutions which were rare in the ordinary spoken dialect. The Egyptian non-literary papyri of the three centuries before and after Christ, with the inscriptions of Asia Minor, the Ægæan islands and Greece during the same period, though these must be used with caution because of the literary element which often invades them, supply us therefore with the long desiderated parallel for the language of the NT, by which we must continually test an exegesis too much dominated hitherto by the thought of classical Greek or Semitic idiom.
3. History and diffusion of the Greek language . At this point, then, we should give a history of the world-Greek of NT times. A sister-language of Sanskrit, Latin, Slavonic, German, and English, and most other dialects of modern Europe, Greek comes before us earliest in the Homeric poems, the oldest parts of which may go hack to the 10th cent. b.c. Small though the country was, the language of Greece was divided into more dialects, and dialects perhaps more widely differing, than English in the reign of Alfred. Few of these dialects gave birth to any literature; and the intellectual primacy of Athens by the end of the classical period (4th cent. b.c.) was so far above dispute that its dialect, the Attic, became for all future time the only permitted model for literary prose. When Attic as a spoken language was dead, it was enforced by rigid grammarians as the only ‘correct’ speech for educated people. Post-classical prose accordingly, while varying in the extent to which colloquial elements invade the purity of its artificial idiom, is always more or less dominated by the effort to avoid the Greek of daily life; while in the NT, on the contrary, it is only two or three writers who admit even to a small extent a style differing from that used in common speech. Meanwhile the history of Greece, with its endless political independence and variation of dialect between neighbouring towns, had entered a new phase. The strong hand of Philip of Macedon brought Hellas under one rule; his son, the great Alexander, carried victorious Hellenism far out into the world beyond. Unification of speech was a natural result, when Greeks from different cities became fellow-soldiers in Alexander’s army, or fellow-colonists in his new towns. Within about one generation we suddenly find that a compromise dialect, which was based mainly on Attic, but contained elements from all the old dialects, came to be established as the language of the new Greek world. This ‘Common’ Greek, or Hellenistic, once brought into being, remained for centuries a remarkably homogeneous and slowly changing speech over the larger part of the Roman Empire. In Rome itself it was so widely spoken and read that St. Paul’s letter needed no translating, and a Latin Bible was first demanded far away from Latium. In Palestine and in Lycaonia the Book of Acts gives us clear evidence of bilingual conditions. The Jerusalem mob ( Acts 21:40 ; Acts 22:2 ) expected St. Paul to address them in Greek; that at Lystra ( Acts 14:11 ) similarly reverted with pleasure to their local patois, but had been following without difficulty addresses delivered in Greek. It was the one period in the history of the Empire when the gospel could he preached throughout the Roman world by the same missionary without interpreter or the need of learning foreign tongues. The conditions of Palestine demand a few more words. It seems fairly clear that Greek was understood and used there much as English is in Wales to-day. Jesus and the Apostles would use Aramaic among themselves, and in addressing the people in Judæa or Galilee, but Greek would often he needed in conversation with strangers. The Procurator would certainly use Greek (rarely Latin) in his official dealings with the Jews. There is no reason to believe that any NT writer who ever lived in Palestine learned Greek only as a foreign language when he went abroad. The degree of culture in grammar and idiom would vary, but the language itself was always entirely at command.
4. NT Greek . We find, as we might expect, that ‘NT Greek’ is a general term covering a large range of individual divergence. The author of Hebrews writes on a level which we might best characterize by comparing the pulpit style of a cultured extempore preacher in this country a spoken style, free from artificiality and archaisms, but free from anything really colloquial. The two Lukan books show similar culture in their author, who uses some distinctively literary idioms. But St. Luke’s faithful reproduction of his various sources makes his work uneven in this respect. St. Paul handles Greek with the freedom and mastery of one who probably used it regularly all his life, except during actual residence in Jerusalem. He seems absolutely uninfluenced by literary style, and applies the Greek of common intercourse to his high themes, without stopping a moment to polish a diction the eloquence of which is wholly unstudied. Recent attempts to trace formal rhetoric and laws of rhythm in his writings have completely failed. At the other end of the scale, as judged by Greek culture, stands the author of the Apocalypse , whose grammar is very incorrect, despite his copious vocabulary and rugged vigour of style. Nearly as unschooled is St. Mark , who often gives us very literal translations of the Aramaic in which his story was first wont to be told; there seems some reason to suspect that in the oldest form of his text this occurred more frequently still. The other main Gospel ‘source,’ the ‘ Sayings of Jesus ,’ shows likewise the traces of processes of translation. Space forbids any attempt to distinguish the position of all the NT writers, but we may note that the papyri supply parallels in degrees of culture to compare with them in turn, except so far as sheer translation comes in.
5. Help derived from Modern Greek, and from reconstructed Aramaic originals . We must now return to the development-history of Greek to observe that its later stages, even up to the present day, are full of important contributions to our study of the NT. The ‘Common’ or Hellenistic Greek, described above, is the direct ancestor of the vernacular of modern Greece and the Greek-speaking districts of Turkey. We are daily learning more of the immense significance of this despised patois for interpreting the sacred language. Here the student must carefully eliminate the artificial ‘Modern Greek’ of Athenian newspapers and books, which is untrustworthy for this purpose, just as is the Greek of Plutarch or Josephus. The genuine vernacular with its dialects, based on inconsiderable local variations in Hellenistic, which may have no small weight ere long even in our NT criticism may be placed by the side of modern folk-ballads and mediæval popular stories and saint legends, to take us back to the papyri and inscriptions, as our latest-found tools for NT study. The literature, classical and post-classical, will of course retain the place it has always held, when modern methods have taught us how to check its testimony. And Comparative Philology, with lights on the meaning of cases and tenses and moods, may be added to the equipment with which purely linguistic science may now help forward the interpretation of Scripture. All this is on the side of the student of Greek itself. But the other side of NT language must naturally not be forgotten. Contributions of great value have recently been made to our knowledge of the Aramaic, in which nearly all the sayings of Christ must have been uttered, and in which Papias (as usually understood) shows they were first written down. The possibility of reconstructing to some extent the original of our Greek Gospel sources is drawing nearer; and the co-operation of Greek and Semitic scholars promises marked advances in our knowledge of the very kernel of the NT (cf. next art.).
6. Characteristics of NT Greek . A few concluding words may be given to the general characteristics of the language which had so providentially become the language of the civilized world just at the time when the gospel began its advance. It used to be frequently contrasted unfavourably with the classical Attic, which is undeniably the most perfect language the world has ever seen, for the clearness, subtlety, and beauty with which it can express thought. In Hellenistic Greek the subtlety, the sense of rhythm, and the literary delicacy have largely disappeared. But the old clearness is only enhanced by a greater simplicity; and the boundless resourcefulness of the language impresses us powerfully when in the NT for the first and (practically) last time the colloquial dialect of the people was enshrined in literature, the authors of which were nearly always unconscious that they were creating literature at all. The presentation of Christianity to the Western world as a system of thought could never have been accomplished in Hebrew, even if that language had attained universal currency. In Greek we are always conscious of a wealth of suggestiveness which no translation can convey, an accuracy and precision of thought which repay the utmost exactness of study. This is in no sense lost even when the simpler grammar of the later language becomes the tool of men who had no inheritance of Greek culture. A comparatively elementary knowledge of this simpler Greek, which can be attained without touching the complex structure of the classical language, will constantly reveal important elements in the writer’s meaning that are beyond the reach of our language to convey directly. In our own time at last this language is being studied for its own sake; and even classical scholars are beginning to allow that the renewed youth of Greek, under conditions which make it largely a new language, produced a literature which the philologist, and not merely the theologian, can admire.
James Hope Moulton.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Greek Language
The Greek language has had a long and illustrious history and continues to this day as a vital and viable language. In contrast, Latin survives only in the current romance languages. Greek was the language of Homer, Plato, and Aristotle. It is also the language of modern day Greece. Like English, Greek is classified as a part of the Indo-European family of languages. It is a more highly inflected language than English. These inflections identify the uses and functions of the words in a sentence. The stems of Greek words are modified by the addition of prefixes, by the changing of the endings of words, and by the insertion of a letter or letters in the midst of words. In the hands of a skilled writer, the Greek language is able to communicate the nuances of philosophy and the deep emotional feelings of a Sophoclean tragedy.
The origins of the Greek language are buried in antiquity. Its development centered in the Greek mainland and the coastal areas around the Aegean Sea. Prior to the time of Alexander the Great, there was no central form of government which held power over all Greek-speaking people. Their territory, for the most part, was comprised of a series of independent city-states. Because these city-states were relatively isolated a variety of Greek dialects developed. The major literary dialects were Attic, Ionic, Doric, and Aeolic. In time the Attic dialect became dominant. The less influential dialects did continue to be used in many parts of the land.
The extant literature which represents the earliest form of literary Greek begins with Homer and the Iliad and Odyssey . These epic poems reflect the richness of the language from ancient times. Homer used the Greek language to portray the heroic portions of humanity. On the other hand, Hesiod, who lived about a century later, left a different type of poetic literature. In his Works and Days , Hesiod pictured the daily human struggle to survive. Although these writers used different dialects, they both wrote in the same basic language known as Greek.
The Golden Age of Greece differs from the other periods in two ways. It spanned a relatively brief period of time, lasting less than a century. In addition, the literary brilliance of the period was limited primarily to the Attic Greek dialect and to Athens. Its influence, however, has been far reaching. The tragic and comic playwrights left an indelible imprint on the theater of succeeding generations. Similarly Plato, Aristotle, and other writers from the Golden Age of Greece have influenced modern philosophy, logic, ethics, and even science.
The Golden Age of Greece was followed by the Hellenistic Greek period. This period lasted from about 300 B.C. to A.D. 600. It was succeeded by the Byzantine period with its political and ecclesiastical separation between East and West. The Greek Orthodox Church began during this period. Later, the fall of Constantinople ushered in the Modern Greek Period.
Of all of the linguistic periods in the development of the Greek language, the Hellenistic period is of particular importance. During this time Greek became the universal language of the “known” world. The Greek language had already spread to the West through the colonies which had been sent out from the Greek mainland. It spread to the East as a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great. His conquering armies carried with them the Attic dialect from their Greek homeland in Macedonia and Achaia to the West as far as India.
Although Rome was the dominant military and political force throughout Europe and Asia Minor during the Hellenistic period, Greek rather than Latin maintained its domination as the language of the people. Latin was the language of the Roman government; Greek was the language of the Empire, the lingua franca . Popularly, it has been referred to as koine Greek. The word “ koine ” is a transliteration of the Greek word which means “common.” The word itself had reference to that which was everyday, that which was of ordinary people, that which was “vulgar” or common.
Biblical scholars have long known that the Greek of the New Testament is considerably different from the Greek of the Golden Age. The differences were explained by referring to the New Testament Greek as “Biblical Greek” or “Holy Ghost Greek.” This implied that, although the roots of the New Testament were in the Greek language, its style and form differed sharply from the literary Attic Greek with which scholars were familiar.
Toward the close of the nineteenth century, archeologists began to find fragments of papyri, the “paper” of the ancient world. Much of this papyri was found in Egypt in the garbage heaps of some of the major cities. Adolph Deissmann, one of the important scholars of the day, realized that much of the Greek which he was finding in the papyri was similar to that found in the Greek New Testament. He published the results of his investigation in a work called Light from the Ancient East . This work along with that of others revolutionized biblical study. Scholars were able to demonstrate that the Greek found in the New Testament was the same as that found in other writings of the day. It was not some special dialect or Holy Ghost language. The New Testament was written in the universal language of the Empire.
The understanding of the New Testament has been enhanced by the discovery of secular texts which were written during the Hellenistic period. These texts include the papyri, pieces of broken pottery called “ostraca,” inscriptions on monuments, as well as a number of formal works by such authors as Josephus, Epictetus, Philo, and Plutarch. A study of this material has revealed a wide variation in literary skills and style of the writers. They ranged from the semiliterate to the highly stylized. The latter attempted to imitate style and form of the Golden Age of Greece and were called Atticists. As should be expected, the literary style of the writers of the New Testament falls somewhere between these two extremes. Consequently, the average citizen who lived in Alexandria (Egypt), in Jerusalem, or in Rome could have easily understood the writings found in the Greek of the New Testament.
W. Ray Ellis
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Hebrew Language
The language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. In the Old Testament it is only spoken of as "Jewish" (2 Kings 18:26,28 ; Isaiah 36:11,13 ; 2 Chronicles 32:18 ). This name is first used by the Jews in times subsequent to the close of the Old Testament. It is one of the class of languages called Semitic, because they were chiefly spoken among the descendants of Shem.
When Abraham entered Canaan it is obvious that he found the language of its inhabitants closely allied to his own. (Isaiah 19:18 ) calls it "the language of Canaan." Whether this language, as seen in the earliest books of the Old Testament, was the very dialect which Abraham brought with him into Canaan, or whether it was the common tongue of the Canaanitish nations which he only adopted, is uncertain; probably the latter opinion is the correct one. For the thousand years between Moses and the Babylonian exile the Hebrew language underwent little or no modification. It preserves all through a remarkable uniformity of structure. From the first it appears in its full maturity of development. But through intercourse with Damascus, Assyria, and Babylon, from the time of David, and more particularly from the period of the Exile, it comes under the influence of the Aramaic idiom, and this is seen in the writings which date from this period. It was never spoken in its purity by the Jews after their return from Babylon. They now spoke Hebrew with a large admixture of Aramaic or Chaldee, which latterly became the predominant element in the national language.
The Hebrew of the Old Testament has only about six thousand words, all derived from about five hundred roots. Hence the same word has sometimes a great variety of meanings. So long as it was a living language, and for ages after, only the consonants of the words were written. This also has been a source of difficulty in interpreting certain words, for the meaning varies according to the vowels which may be supplied. The Hebrew is one of the oldest languages of which we have any knowledge. It is essentially identical with the Phoenician language. (See MOABITE STONE .) The Semitic languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean. The rounded form of the letters, as seen in the Moabite stone, was probably that in which the ancient Hebrew was written down to the time of the Exile, when the present square or Chaldean form was adopted.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Hebrew Language
Called "the language of Canaan" (Isaiah 19:18), as distinguished from that of Egypt; "the Jewish" as distinguished from Aramean (2 Kings 18:26; 2 Kings 18:28). (See HEBREW above.) Internal evidence also favors its Palestinian origin; as yam "the sea," in oldest documents used for the west. It is Semitic, as distinguished from the Indo-Germanic, Indo-European, Aryan, or Japhetic languages. The Semitic includes Aramaean or Chaldee and Syriac on the N.E., the Arabic on the S., the Ethiopic between the Hebrew and Arabic, the Hebrew, and kindred Phoenician or Canaanite. In Hebrew and the other Semitic languages gutturals preponderate. Consonants are not grouped round one vowel, yet a consonant always begins a syllable. The Semitic languages are less matured and polished, and more impulsive than deliberative. The roots have three letters. The conjugations of verbs are threefold:
1. Expressing intensity or repetition by a change within the root.
2. Reflexiveness or causation by addition to the root.
3. Passives by "u" or "a" in the first syllable. Modifications of the root idea are marked by changes within the root, not by additions. The a sound marks activity; the "e" and "o" sounds rest or passiveness. Intensity and repeated action are expressed by doubling the consonant. The neuter gender is unknown, because Semitic imagination endows with life every object in nature and makes it male or female. Mental qualities are represented by physical members: strength by the "hand" or "arm"; anger by the "nostril" (aph ); favor by the "shining face"; displeasure by the "falling of the countenance." Go, way, walk, course express spiritual motion. Tenses or times of verbs are twofold (not three as with us, past, present, future).
What the mind realizes is put in the past, even though it may be future; what the mind regards as about to be, or being, realized is put in the future; so that the future may be used of the historic past, and the preterite of the prophetic future. The vowels were not originally written; latterly they were put as points under the consonants, which are read from right to left. The particles are few; hence subtle reasonings cannot be expressed. The Greek is the language of philosophy; the Hebrew of imagination and intuition. The sentences are a succession of coordinate propositions, not of propositions molded by interdependence and mutual subordination into complete periods. The style is pictorial: "Behold!" is of frequent occurrence; and the process of doing, as well as the act, is stated, as "he arose and went," "he put forth his hand and took," "he lifted up his voice and wept."
Symbolical phrases are frequent: "incline the ear"; "stiffen the neck," i.e. to be perverse; "to uncover the ear," i.e. to reveal. Adam, Eve, Abel, etc., are pictorial names, possibly Hebrew equivalents for the original names. The fall has among its evil effects caused a severance between names and things. The Bible retains some of the original connection, all the ancient names being significant of things. The choice of essentially the same language as that of commercial Sidon and Tyre for the divine revelation was a providential arrangement for diffusing the knowledge of His law widely among the Gentiles. There may be a Hamitic element in Hebrew, considering that the Canaanites who spoke it when Abram entered Canaan were Hamites; even though they probably acquired it from earlier Semitic occupants of Canaan, they would infuse a Hamitic element themselves.
The vocabulary of the oldest Babel monuments is Hamitic. The Aramaic is decidedly Semitic, and was Abraham's original tongue. The Hamites and Nimrod took the lead in building Babel, which entailed the confusion of tongues; their tongue accordingly is found more confounded into endless varieties of dialect than the Semitic and Japhetic, whose dialects bear a nearer resemblance among themselves than the Turanian and other Hamitic dialects. As Hebrew sprang from the confusion of Babel, it cannot have been the language of Adam and the whole earth when there was but one speech; still, though an offshoot like the rest, it may retain most of the primitive type, a view which the Hebrew Bible names favor, though these be modified from the original form.
The Shemites and Japhetites have had a higher moral civilization, and so a purer language. The Hebrew terms for SIN; ATONEMENT; GOD; JEHOVAH , and many such theological ideas, must have conveyed to the Gentiles, wherever fragments of the Hob. revelation reached, many fruitful germs of divine truth. The sacred books of Moses gave a fixity to the language, so that no essential change of language is observable in the books of different ages until the Babylonian captivity; thenceforward Chaldee became largely mixed with Hebrew (See Nehemiah 8:8.)
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Language of Christ
LANGUAGE OF CHRIST . The records of our Lord’s words and discourses have descended to us in four Greek Gospels. Some early Christian writers assert that St. Matthew wrote in Hebrew; but the Greek St. Matthew has universally, and from the first, been accepted as an authoritative and inspired document. It is not improbable that the writer published his book in the two languages, and that the Greek edition alone has survived. Josephus, who wrote in Greek, prepared a Semitic edition of his Wars for the benefit of those who understood only their vernacular.
At the present day, perhaps, most scholars would admit that the vernacular of Palestine in the time of our Lord was Semitic, and not Greek; but a difference is observed between their theory and their practice; for in all kinds of theological writings, critical as well as devotional, the references to the text of the Gospels constantly assume that the Greek words are those actually uttered by our Lord. But if Greek was not commonly spoken in the Holy Land, it is improbable that He who ministered to the common people would have employed an uncommon tongue. It follows that the Greek words recorded by the Evangelists are not the actual words Christ spoke. We may think we have good grounds for believing that they accurately represent His utterances; but to hear the original sounds we must recover, if that be possible, the Semitic vernacular which underlies the traditional Greek.
The evidence as to the nature of the Palestinian vernacular may be thus stated. In the first century of the Christian era the Holy Land was peopled by men of more than one race and nationality, but there is no reason to suppose they had been fused into one people, with Greek for their common tongue. Most of the inhabitants of Judæa were Jews, being descendants of the returned exiles. In Galilee there was a mixture of races; but the name ‘Galilee of the Gentiles’ was a survival of the description of an earlier condition. The Syrian and Assyrian in vaders of the Northern Kingdom had passed, though leaving their mark, and a period of Jewish ascendency had followed, created by the victories of the Maccabees. The Idumæan princes, though Inclined to alliance with Rome, sought to pose as Judaizers. Herod the Great, while in sympathy with Hellenism, was famous as the builder of the third Temple. The strict, orthodox Jews, who were opposed to Hellenism, and compassed sea and land to make one proselyte, would lose no opportunity of re-occupying their fatherland, from Jerusalem in the south to the north of Galilee, and would take with them the ancient customs and the ancestral tongue. Samaria, however, preserved its integrity as a foreign colony, with its own Semitic dialect. Beyond the Jordan, and in the border lands of the south, there was some mingling with the neighbouring Moabite, Idumæan, and Arab tribes, and probably many dialects were spoken, the records of which have perished for ever. Yet the Hebrew of the Jerusalem Pharisee, the language of the Samaritans, the speech of the men of Galilee, and the patois of the borderers, were all Semitic dialects. No place is found for the alien speech of Greece. Yet it must not be forgotten that Greek was the language of trade and literature. It would be heard in the seaports, and in the neighbourhood of the great roads by which communication was kept up through Palestine between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. It was spoken by many in the Roman garrisons, and was the adopted tongue of the Jews of the Dispersion, who cultivated Hellenism, and brought their foreign customs to Jerusalem, when they came to worship or for temporary residence (see Acts 6:1 ). But the language of the Palestinian home, of the Palestinian synagogue, of farmers, artisans, and labourers, as well as of educated Jews, who cultivated the ancient ways, was Hebrew, using that, term for the moment in a somewhat extended sense. Very significant is the reference to the vernacular in Acts 1:19 , and the obvious inference is confirmed by the description of the title on the cross. Besides the official notice in Làtin, which probably few could read, the accusation was written in Greek and in Hebrew. If the majority of the passers by would understand the former, the latter was superfluous. Even if the Hebrew was added only to please the mob, this fact would prove that the lower classes were partial to their vernacular, and were at least bilinguists, and not in the habit of using Greek exclusively (cf. Acts 22:2 ).
The story of Peter’s denial incidentally adds another confirmation. He conversed in a language which was understood by the servants and others of the same class assembled round the fire, but he was recognized as a northerner by his accent. There is no evidence that the Galilæans pronounced Greek differently from the Judæans, but it is known that their pronunciation of some of the Hebrew letters differed from that of the southerners. Peter and the servants had a Semitic vernacular in common, though with dialectic differences of pronunciation, and possibly of vocabulary.
In the Syrian Church historical documents have been handed down which, whatever be the dates of the existing works, undoubtedly represent very ancient traditions, and depend on documents such as would have been preserved amongst the archives of Edessa. In the Doctrine of Addai this remarkable statement occurs: ‘Him whose Gospel has been spread abroad by the signs which his disciples do, who are Hebrews, and only know the tongue of the Hebrews, in which they were born.’ In the same Church there was a tradition that their national version of the NT was rather a second record than a translation, and dated from Apostolic times. Such a view (whether true or false matters not now) depends on an assumption that some language related to Syriac, if not Syriac itself, was the vernacular of the Apostles.
The greater part of the NT consists of writings intended for the benefit of Jews who resided outside Palestine, and of converts from heathenism. For such readers the vernacular of Palestine would have been unsuitable; and those of the writers who were not familiar with Greek could employ a translator. St. Peter is said to have been attended by Mark in this capacity. We have already referred to the tradition that Matthew, who wrote for the benefit of his countrymen, composed a Gospel in Hebrew. That some one should have undertaken a work of that nature is highly probable; but the circulation would be limited, for the native Jewish Church did not long retain the position of importance it possessed at first (Acts 21:20 ), and the collection of sacred writings into a Canon was the work of Greek-speaking Christians. The Epistle of St. James is one of the earliest books of the NT, but though intended for Jewish Christians it was written in Greek, as a literary vehicle. An apparent, though not a real, difficulty is presented by the style of certain pieces included in the sacred narratives. The Magnificat, Nunc Dimittis , and Lord’s Prayer, for example, which must be translations, in accordance with our view of the use of a Semitic vernacular, are thought to savour rather of original composition than of translation. But it should be remembered that the ancient idea of a version was different from ours. Literal rendering often (though not always) yielded to the demands of commentary. Perhaps (to take another, and, as some think, crucial instance), the angel could not have saluted Mary in the native dialect with the famous alliteration Chaire kecharitômenç ; and yet the Evangelist may have recorded the ‘ Hail! highly favoured ’ in that form, influenced by the style of OT diction, in which play on words is a marked feature.
The majority of the quotations in the Gospels appear to be derived from some form of the Septuagint Greek text of the OT. It does not follow that the speakers habitually used Greek. All we can safely infer is that the Evangelists, when writing in Greek, employed a version which had acquired considerable authority by usage, to express the quotations they recorded.
It has been thought that the conversations between our Lord and the woman of Samaria and the Syrophœnician woman must have been carried on in Greek as a common language. It is forgotten that Syriac, Samaritan, and the so-called Hebrew of Palestine, were nearly related. Many to whom one or other of these was the vernacular, would have some slight acquaintance with the others. However, the object of this article is not to deny that Christ knew, and sometimes spoke, Greek, but to reinforce the arguments by which we conclude that the vernacular of Palestine was Semitic, and that therefore Christ’s teachings were, for the most part, delivered in a different tongue from that in which they have come to us in the Greek Gospels.
By far the greater number of personal and place names connected with Palestine in the NT are of Semitic derivation, but they afford no evidence in relation to our inquiry. The preservation and use of such names would be consistent with a change in the vernacular. Place names are practically permanent; personal names are often sentimentally borrowed from a dead ancestral tongue. Nor would we lay stress on the occurrence of Semitic words, as rabbi, korban, pascha (‘passover’), in the Greek text. The men of our Lord’s day, whatever dialect they spoke, were the heirs of a religious and social system which had its roots in Hebraism, and of which there were constant reminiscences in the daily use of words belonging to the ancient terminology. But other non-Greek expressions are recorded in connexions which lend them a much greater significance. In Acts 1:19 we are informed that the Semitic name Akeldama , which was given to a certain field, was in the ‘proper tongue’ of ‘the dwellers at Jerusalem.’ Our Lord’s words on two occasions are given in Semitic, Talîtha kûmi ( Mark 5:41 ), and Ephphatha ( Mark 7:34 ). On the cross He uttered a cry which might have been a quotation from Psalms 22:1 ; but the form preserved in Mark 15:34 varies dialectically from the Hebrew of the opening words of that psalm.
These and other Semitic remains preserved in the pages of the NT, even when account has been taken of all place and personal names and single words, as well as of the few phrases, afford but limited evidence, and are only a few specimens of the Palestinian vernacular. Yet they suffice to show that the dialect was neither ancient Hebrew nor the classical Syriac. It had arisen through corruption of the ancestral tongue, under the influence of surrounding languages, especially Aramaic. Probably it varied considerably in different parts of the Holy Land, and there were ‘dialects’ rather than ‘a dialect’ of Palestine. But all the evidence tends to the conviction that Christ habitually employed some form of the vernacular in His discourses, and not the alien language of Greece.
G. H. Gwilliam.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Language of ot And Apocrypha
LANGUAGE OF OT AND APOCRYPHA . See Text Versions and Languages of OT.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Language, Confusion of
See Babel ; Pentecost .
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Language of Christ
LANGUAGE OF CHRIST.—Recent historical and critical research has narrowed the ground which it is necessary to cover in the discussion of the question as to the language spoken by Christ. It has ruled Hebrew out of court. The practically unanimous verdict of recent scholars is that, considerably before the time of Christ, though when is uncertain, Hebrew had ceased to be spoken in Palestine, and its place as the vernacular had been taken by Aramaic, the language represented in OT by Ezra 4:8-16; Ezra 7:12-26, Jeremiah 10:11, and Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28, and mistakenly named ‘Chaldee.’
The transition from Hebrew to Aramaic involved no great linguistic revolution, as it was simply a transition from one Semitic language to another, and that a closely cognate one. It was, however, only very gradually effected, and was chiefly due to the predominance to which Aramaic attained in Western Asia during the Persian period, coming, as it did, to be, with dialectical differences, the lingua communis from the Euphrates to the Mediterranean. While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascendency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the language of sacred literature, the language in which Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures. It is, therefore, quite possible that Christ possessed a knowledge of Hebrew, and had thus access to the Scriptures in the original.
With Alexander the Great, however, there came a fresh disturbance of the linguistic situation. Thenceforward Greek entered into competition with Aramaic. And though, as a non-Semitic language, the adoption of Greek could not come so readily to the Jews as Aramaic, yet the circumstances were such as to tend in no small degree to counterbalance the disadvantage under which Greek thus lay. For not only was it the official language alike of the Lagid, Seleucid, and, after the Maccabaean interregnum, of the Idumaean Roman rulers to whom the Jews were successively subject; but its cause was furthered by the Hellenizing policy which these rulers generally followed, and by the existence, more or less, all through of a party among the Jews themselves favourable to that policy. The result on the linguistic situation of the political conditions thus obtaining cannot be certainly determined from the historical data bearing directly thereon. It is, however, clear that whatever headway Greek may have made before the Maccabaean revolt,—which was a revolt against the Hellenizing policy referred to, as pushed to extremes by Antiochus Epiphanes,—it suffered a decided set-back, and was practically expelled the country during the Maccabaean régime. And though it had again made considerable progress by the time of Christ, and especially through the influence of Herod the Great, who particularly affected Greek culture, there is nothing to show that the political conditions were such as to secure for it the ascendency claimed by some scholars, and notably by Dr. Roberts in his book, Greek the Language of Christ and His Apostles.
At the time of Christ, then, Palestine was bilingual, Greek as well as Aramaic being, to some extent at least, spoken. The question, therefore, to be answered is, Which of these languages did Christ speak, or, if He knew and spoke both, which of them did He mainly, if not exclusively, employ as the vehicle of His teaching? Consideration need be given to the question only in its latter form. For, as undoubtedly spoken by some of the Palestinian Jews, as the language of perhaps the great majority of His countrymen scattered throughout the Roman world, as the predominant language of the representatives of the Gentile world in Palestine and of that Gentile world itself, which, though wide, was not yet wider than He conceived the scope of His mission to be, and as, besides, the language of the Septuagint Version of the OT, which had no doubt acquired considerable popularity, it may reasonably be assumed that Christ would acquire some knowledge of Greek, and be able, in some measure at least, to speak it. Was it, then, Aramaic or Greek that Christ habitually employed in His public ministry? The question resolves itself into that of the relative prevalence of the two languages in the country at the time, so far as that can be determined by such evidence, direct and indirect, as is available. And this evidence, though somewhat meagre, is decisive for Aramaic. That furnished by the reported words of Christ Himself does not go very far, but yet goes some length towards that conclusion. All that it certainly establishes is that Christ knew Aramaic, and, apart from His employment of Aramaic terms and proper names, on which perhaps little stress is to be laid, as these terms and proper names may have formed part of the ordinary vocabulary of Greek-speaking Jews, expressed Himself in Aramaic on three different occasions. The three expressions are: (1) ταλειθὰ κούμ, the Gr. transliteration of the Aram. Aramaic טַלִיֽתָא or טָלִיחָא קוּם Mark 5:41; (2) ἐφφαθά, euphonic for the Aram. Aramaic אִתְפַתַּח Mark 7:34; and (3) ἠλεὶ ἠλεὶ λαμὰ σαβαχθανεί (Matthew 27:46), or according to Mark 15:34 ἐλωί, ἐλωί, λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί, the Aram. Aramaic אֵלִחִי אֳלָהִי לִמָא שְׁבַקחַּנִי or אֵלי אֵלי. How these three Aramaic expressions alone came to be preserved is matter of conjecture. An obvious explanation is that they alone were preserved because they were exceptional, Greek being the language for the most part used by Christ. That, however, is not the only possible explanation. More probable is it that they alone were preserved because associated with moments of exceptional emotion on Christ’s part, and therefore felt to be exceptionally precious. The cry upon the cross was peculiarly a cry de profundis. In the case of the deaf and dumb man, Christ, for some reason or other, was unwontedly moved, for it is said that ‘he looked up to heaven and sighed.’ And, though it is not stated, the spectacle of Jairus’ child-daughter lying cold yet beautiful in death, was calculated to touch profoundly the heart of the great Child-Lover.
The two main sources of direct evidence conclusively proving the predominance of Aramaic as the popular language, are the Book of Acts and the Works of Josephus.
1. In Acts 1:19 it is said with reference to the suicide of Judas in the field which he had purchased ‘with the reward of iniquity,’ ‘And it was known unto all the dwellers at Jerusalem; insomuch as that field is called in their own tongue (τῇ διαλέκτῳ αὐτῶν) Akeldama.’ Now Akeldama is the Aram. Aramaic חֲקל דּֽמָא, and points not only to the fact that Aramaic had superseded Hebrew as the vernacular, but that at the time of Christ it was the popular language, even of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. Equally conclusive on the latter point are two other passages in the Acts. In describing his conversion to Agrippa, St. Paul said, ‘And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying, in the Hebrew tongue’ (τῆ Ἑβραΐδι διαλέκτῳ), Acts 26:14. By ‘Hebrew’ St. Paul undoubtedly meant Aramaic. The terms Ἑβραΐδι and Ἐβραϊστί, as is generally admitted, are used both in the NT and by Josephus when not Hebrew but Aramaic is meant. Thus in John 19:13 it is said that ‘Pilate sat down in the judgment-seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew Gabbatha’ (Ἐβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθά); and Γαββαθά is not Hebrew, but Aramaic. That the ascended Christ should have spoken to Saul in Aramaic is unintelligible except on the supposition that that had been the language which He had spoken when on earth, and that it was the prevailing language of Palestine.
Quite as significant is the circumstance mentioned in Acts 22:2 that Paul addressed the infuriated Jerusalemites in Aramaic, and that when they ascertained from his opening words that he was to speak to them in that language, ‘they kept the more silence’ (μᾶλλον παρέσχον ἡσυχίαν), the reference being to the fact that Paul had not attempted to speak until by a gesture indicative of his desire to be heard he had stilled the uproar, and, as it is said, ‘there was made a great silence.’ It does not necessarily follow, as has been maintained, that the people expected Paul to address them in Greek, and that the fact that they were prepared to give him a hearing when they expected him to speak in that language, proves that they were familiar with it. The simple fact that, as his gesture indicated, Paul was going to address them was in itself sufficient to secure their quiet attention. And in any case, even though they had expected to be addressed in Greek, the deeper silence into which they settled when they found that they were to be addressed in Aramaic, proves that they were more familiar with the latter language than the former, and that the latter was the language generally spoken by them.
2. The evidence of Josephus is as direct and conclusive as that furnished by the Acts of the predominance of Aramaic. In BJ v. vi. 3, Josephus records how during the siege of Jerusalem the Jewish watchmen warned their compatriots of the discharge of the Roman missiles by crying out in their native tongue (τῇ πατρίῳ γλώσσῃ), ὁ ἰὸς ἔρχεται. In the same work, vi. ii. 1, he tells how in his capacity of intermediary during the same siege he communicated the proposals of Titus to the besieged in their native tongue (τῇ πατρίῳ γλώσσῃ). In the preface to BJ he records how that work was at first written in Aramaic and afterwards translated into Greek.
The passage runs: ‘I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate these books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the language of our own country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians,’ i.e. to the Aramaic-speaking peoples, whom he describes in the following paragraph as ‘the Parthians, Babylonians, the remotest Arabians, and those of our nation beyond Euphrates, with the Adiabeni.’
That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine. Suggestive also in this connexion, and giving added weight to the case for Aramaic, is Josephus’ own confession of the difficulty he experienced in acquiring such mastery of Greek as that which he ultimately attained. In the preface to his Antiquities he tells how he found the writing of that work a hard and wearisome task, ‘it being,’ as he says, ‘a large subject, and a difficult thing to translate our history into a foreign and to us unaccustomed language’ (εἰς ἀλλοδαπὴν ἡμῖν καὶ ξένην διαλέκτου συνήθειαν), and how he was able to continue and accomplish the task only by the encouragement and help of a friend, Epaphroditus. To the same difficulty he refers in the closing paragraphs of the Antiquities:
‘I am so bold as to say, now that I have completed the task set before me, that no other person, either Jew or Greek, with whatever good intentions, would have been able to set forth this history to the Greeks as accurately as I have done; for I am acknowledged by my countrymen to excel them far in our national learning. I also did my best to obtain a knowledge of Greek by practising myself in the grammar, though native habit prevented me from attaining accuracy in its use.’
Josephus’ difficulty with Greek is very significant. For if that difficulty obtained with him, what of his countrymen generally? Stress has been laid, as, e.g., by Dr. Roberts, upon the attainments in Greek of such men as Peter and James and John, as shown in the speeches or writings attributed to them, and it has been argued there from that a knowledge of Greek must have been common among the rank and file. But even though Peter and James and John were the authors of the speeches and writings referred to and did speak or write such Greek as is found therein, which is open to question, they cannot fairly be regarded as representative of the people generally in this respect. The very fact of their not only being of the number of the Twelve, but forming the inner group of that favoured circle, differentiates them from the crowd. ‘Unlearned and ignorant men,’ the Council at Jerusalem dubbed them (Acts 4:13); but the contemptuous epithets were but the expression of a twofold prejudice, the prejudice of antagonism and the prejudice of the Schools. In virtue of their discipleship, Peter and James and John have to be placed in a different category from the mass of the people of their social rank, who, as compared with them, must have been ‘unlearned and ignorant’ in the broader sense of the terms.
3. The case for Aramaic as the prevailing language of Palestine in the time of Christ, and the language, therefore, which Christ must necessarily have employed generally in His teaching, is thus incontestably established by the direct evidence of the Acts and of Josephus. And though less direct and certain, there is other evidence to the same effect to which reference may be made, and specially that furnished by the Targums and what is known as The Aramaic Gospel.
(a) The Targums are Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the OT books, and cover the whole of those books with the exception of Daniel, Ezra, and Nehemiah. The two principal Targums are (1) that on the Pentateuch, known as the Targum of Onkelos, which is characterized by its almost slavish literalism; and (2) that of Jonathan ben-Uzziel on the Prophets, i.e. the Historical books and the Prophets properly so called, which is largely paraphrastic. The dates of these Targums are uncertain, and by scholars they have been made to range from the end of the 1st to that of the 4th cent. a.d. The important point, however, is that they undoubtedly embody material from a much earlier time, and were the outcome of the practice, originating in the gradual disuse of Hebrew as the vernacular, of translating the synagogue readings of the OT into Aramaic for the benefit of the people generally. Written Targums were at first forbidden. The translation was required to be oral, the translator (מְהֻדְנְּבָן) giving his translation after each verse of the Pentateuch and every three verses of the Prophets. Whether the rule which forbade written Targums had fallen into desuetude by the time of Christ cannot be definitely determined. Probably it had. But even though it had not, and there were no written Targums till a later date, yet the existence of written Targums at that later date points conclusively to the prevalence of the practice of the oral translation of the synagogue lessons into Aramaic, and therefore to the prevalence of that language as the vernacular.
As against this, the supporters of Greek hold that the Septuagint version was in such general use that it may be described as the ‘People’s Bible.’ The special arguments in favour of this theory are: (1) that copies of the Septuagint could be had at a much smaller cost than Hebrew or Aramaic Manuscripts , that indeed the price of the latter was prohibitive so far as the people generally were concerned; and (2) that the OT quotations in the NT point to a very general familiarity with the Septuagint, inasmuch as the majority of them are verbatim or practically verbatim, or show unmistakable traces of the Septuagint, and particularly as in some cases the Septuagint is followed when it differs from the Hebrew. The price argument scarcely deserves notice, and very little weight is to be attached to the quotation argument. For while it must be admitted that those who were responsible for the quotations were familiar with the Septuagint, it by no means follows that such familiarity obtained with the people generally. And while it was to be expected that the writers of the NT books would not only be familiar with the Septuagint, but in quoting from the OT would take advantage of a translation ready to hand, it is yet a significant fact that that translation was not always taken advantage of, not a few of the quotations showing an entire independence of the Septuagint.
(b) The question of an Aramaic Gospel (Ur-Evangelium), while important chiefly in connexion with the Synoptic problem, bears closely upon that of the language spoken by Christ. If Christ spoke Aramaic, such a Gospel was to be expected, and at the same time its existence would furnish weighty proof at once of the prevalence of Aramaic and of the use of that language by our Lord. And the labours of recent critical scholars, if they have not conclusively established the existence of an Aramaic Ur-Evangelium, have at least made it much less open to question. Of special interest in this connexion is the series of articles in the Expositor (Ser. iv.), by Professor Marshall, on ‘The Aramaic Gospel.’ The theory which Professor Marshall in these articles works out with great ability and skill is that the variant Greek words in parallel passages of the Synoptic Gospels can be traced to one original Aramaic word; and the result of the application of his theory is that the Aramaic Gospel contained, speaking generally, the ministry of Christ in Galilee. That Professor Marshall’s theory will ever find anything like general acceptance is perhaps unlikely. But whether or not it may be possible by his or any other method to recover with certainty and to any extent the precise Aramaic words used by our Lord, there can be no doubt that Aramaic had the supreme honour of being the language in which He gave expression to His imperishable thoughts.
Literature.—Pfannkuche, Language of Palestine, Clark’s Cabinet Library, vol. ii.; Roberts, Greek the Language of Christ and His Apostles, 1888; W. H. Simcox, Language of the NT, 1889; T. K. Abbott, Essays chiefly on the Original Texts of OT and NT, 1891, p. 129; A. Meyer, Jesu Mutter-sprache, 1896; Dalman, The Words of Jesus, English translation 1902; Schultze, Gram, der Aram. Aramaic Muttersprache Jesu, 1899; Marshall, Expositor, Ser. iv. ii. 69 ff., iii. 1 ff., 109 ff., 205 ff., 275 ff., 375 ff., 452 ff., iv. 208 ff., 373 ff., 435 ff., vi. 81 ff., viii. 176 ff.; Exp. Times, iv. 260; Schürer, HJP [1] i. i., ii. ii.
James Young.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Chaldean Language
At Babylon Daniel and his companions had to acquire 'the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans,' that is, their ancient literature and language. Daniel 1:4 . The question is what was that language? In Daniel 2:4 we find that the wise men answered the king in the Syriac language, that is Aramaic: cf. Ezra 4:7 . The Hebrew language is held to be closely related to the Aramaic: that the two are not the same is evident from Isaiah 36:11 , where the Jewish leaders asked Rabshakeh to speak in the Syrian language, and not in the Jews' language, that the Jews generally should not understand what was said. There must be some reason why in Daniel it is said the wise men answered the king in 'Aramaic:' this is held to be not the learned and court language, but the common language of the people; and the wise men may have used it that all who heard it might judge of the reasonableness of what they said, though the king might condemn them. The language spoken at court would be different and has been judged by some to be a branch of the Aryan dialect, the ancient language of Central Asia; or perhaps it may have been the ancient Accadian.
As to the writing , the inscriptions found at Assyria, Babylon, and Persia are cut in stone or stamped on bricks in the cuneiform (that is, wedge-shaped) characters. It is known that there was an earlier mode of writing by hieroglyphics which could easily be painted upon papyrus, but which could not without great labour be cut in hard stone, and it is probable that this led to the adoption of the wedge-shaped characters, in which there are no curves: by the variation in position, and number of short and long wedges every sound could be represented, and every proper name spelled. Darius is thus represented on a Persian inscription at Behistun.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Chaldee Language
Employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old Testament, viz., Daniel 2:4-7,28 ; Ezra 4:8-6:18 ;; 7:12-26 ; Genesis 31:46 ; Jeremiah 10:11 . It is the Aramaic dialect, as it is sometimes called, as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect. It was the language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia, and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular language of Palestine. It is called "Syrian" in 2 Kings 18:26 . Some isolated words in this language are preserved in the New Testament (Matthew 5:22 ; 6:24 ; 16:17 ; 27:46 ; Mark 3:17 ; 5:41 ; 7:34 ; 14:36 ; Acts 1:19 ; 1 Corinthians 16:22 ). These are specimens of the vernacular language of Palestine at that period. The term "Hebrew" was also sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had become the language of the Hebrews (John 5:2 ; 19:20 ).
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Language
It is plain from Scripture, that in the early ages of the world, "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." (Genesis 11:1) The diversity arose as a punishment for the building of Babel. It hath been a subject of more curiosity than profit to enquirers from whence arose the first communication of thought by speech, and who taught men the use of language, or the power to diversify sound for conveying ideas. Some have gone so far, in order to ascertain what would be the first articulation of a child untaught by hearing others so as to express his own thoughts, that infants have been kept from all hearing of conversation, purposely to discover what the first sounds of speech would be. But while men have thus employed their time and attention to the discovery of what, even if it could have been attained, would not have profited, the word of God teaches the cause of speech in the great Giver of all good, and the diversity of speech when the entrance of sin into the world had made man rebellious. But what a decided proof is this, among may, of the overruling power of God to cause good to spring out of evil, that as sin induced a confusion of languages, grace rendered this very confusion a means for the greater display of the riches of mercy in the confirmation of the truth of the gospel; for by the confusion at Babel, and the diversity of languages that followed, what a blessed opportunity was thereby afforded, when at the day of Pentecost, the poor, ignorant, and unlearned disciples of Jesus gave testimony of the truth by conversing with the greatest fluency in no less than fifteen different languages to the different nations of the earth then assembled at Jerusalem. So the Lord overruled the sin of Babel to his own glory. (See Acts 2:1-11)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Greek Language
God so ordained it that by the rise of the Greek empire this language was spread over Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and countries adjacent, and it is a language still understood by the learned of all nations. It is acknowledged to be a remarkably flexible language, capable of forming new theological terms with delicate shades of meaning, and of expressing ideas with precision. It was therefore, on all accounts, the most suitable language in which to make known the gospel of God, and the truths needed for the building up of the saints. Not only was the New Testament written in Greek, but the O.T. was also translated into the same language, and that version was quoted by both the Lord and His apostles. The chief captain at Jerusalem, though a Roman, asked Paul if he could speak Greek, supposing him to be an Egyptian. Acts 21:37 . The inscription placed over the Lord at His crucifixion was written in Greek as well as in Hebrew and Latin: all the world must be informed who it was that hung upon that cross. Luke 23:38 ; John 19:20 . The name and character of the angel of the bottomless pit was also proclaimed in Hebrew and Greek. Revelation 9:11 .
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Hebrew Language
See ARAMAIC.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Canaan, the Language of
Mentioned in Isaiah 19:18 , denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of the Phoenician language which still survive, which show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the language of the "Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babylon, as well as the Babylonian language, was taught in the Canaanitish schools, and the clay tablets of Babylonian literature were stored in the Canaanitish libraries. Even the Babylonian divinities were borrowed by the Canaanites.
Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Language
In general, denotes those articulate sounds by which men express their thoughts. Much has been said respecting the invention of language. On the one side it is observed, that it is altogether a human invention, and that the progress of the mind, in the invention and improvement of language, is, by certain natural gradations, plainly discernible in the composition of words. But on the other side it is alleged, that we are indebted to divine revelation for the origin of it. Without supposing this, we see not how our first parents could so early hold converse with God, or the man with his wife. Admitting, however, that it is of divine original, we cannot suppose that a perfect system of it was all at once given to man. It is much more natural to think that God taught our first parents only such language as suited their present occasion, leaving them, as he did in other things, to enlarge and improve it, as their future necessities should require.
Without attempting, however, to decide this controversy, we may consider language as one of the greatest blessings belonging to mankind. Destitute of this we should make but small advancements in science, be lost to all social enjoyments, and religion itself would feel the want of such a power. Our wise Creator, therefore, has conferred upon us this inestimable privilege: let us then be cautious that our tongues be not the vehicle of vain and useless matter, but used for the great end of glorifying him, and doing good to mankind. What was the first language taught man, is matter of dispute among the learned, but most, think it was the Hebrew. But as this subject, and the article in general, belongs more to philology than divinity, we refer the reader to Dr. Adam Smith's Dissertation on the Formation of Languages; Harris's Hermes; Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses, vol. 3: Traite de la Formation Mechanique des Langues, par le President de Brosses; Blair's Rhetoric, vol. 1: lect. 6: Gregory's Essays, ess. 6. Lord Monboddo on the Origin and Progress of Language.
Webster's Dictionary - Sea Language
The peculiar language or phraseology of seamen; sailor's cant.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Hebrew Language
called also absolutely Hebrew, is the language spoken by the Hebrews, and in which all the books of the Old Testament are written; whence it is also called the holy or sacred language. It is said to have been preserved in the midst of the confusion at Babel, in the family of Heber, or Eber, who, as it is alleged, was not concerned in the building of Babel, and, consequently, did not share in the punishment inflicted on the actual transgressors. The Jews, in general, have been of opinion, that the Hebrew was the language of Heber's family, from whom Abraham sprung. On the other hand, it has been maintained that Heber's family, in the fourth generation after the dispersion, lived in Chaldea, where Abraham was born, Genesis 11:27-28 , and that there is no reason to think they used a different language from their neighbours around them. It appears, moreover, that the Chaldee, and not the Hebrew, was the language of Abraham's country, and of his kindred, Genesis 24:4 ; Genesis 31:46-47 ; and it is probable that Abraham's native language was Chaldee, and that the Hebrew was the language of the Canaanites, which Abraham and his posterity learned by travelling among them. It is surprising that this adoption of the Phenician language by the patriarchs should have escaped the notice of several intelligent readers of the Bible. Jacob and Laban, it is clear, by the names they gave to the cairn, or memorial of stones, spoke two different dialects; and it is nearly equally evident, that the language of Laban was the dialect of Ur of the Chaldees, the original speech of the Hebrew race. As the patriarchs disused the true Hebrew dialect, it is manifest that they had conformed to the speech of Canaan; and that this conformity was complete, is proved by the identity between all the remains of Canaanitish names. At the same time, it must be remarked, that the Phenician and the Chaldean were merely different dialects of the same primitive language which had been spoken by the first ancestors of mankind.
2. There is no work in all antiquity written in pure Hebrew, beside the books of the Old Testament; and even some parts of those are in Chaldee. The Hebrew appears to be the most ancient of all the languages in the world; at least it is so with regard to us, who know of no older. Dr. Sharpe adopts the opinion, that the Hebrew was the original language; not indeed that the Hebrew is the unvaried language of our first parents, but that it was the general language of men at the dispersion; and, however it might have been improved and altered from the first speech of our first parents, it was the original of all the languages, or almost all the languages, rather dialects, that have since arisen in the world. Arguments have also been deduced from the nature and genius of the Hebrew language, in order to prove that it was the original language, neither improved nor debased by foreign idioms. The words of which it is composed are short, and admit of very little flexion. The names of places are descriptive of their nature, situation, accidental circumstances, &c. The compounds are few, and inartificially conjoined; and it is less burdened with those artificial affixes which distinguish other cognate dialects, such as the Chaldean, Syrian, Arabian, Phenician, &c.
The period, from the age of Moses to that of David, has been considered the golden age of the Hebrew language, which declined in purity from that time to the reign of Hezekiah or Manasseh, having received several foreign words, particularly Aramean, from the commercial and political intercourse of the Jews and Israelites with the Assyrians and Babylonians. This period has been termed the silver age of the Hebrew language. In the interval between the reign of Hezekiah and the Babylonish captivity, the purity of the language was neglected, and so many foreign words were introduced into it, that this period has not ineptly been designated its iron age. During the seventy years' captivity, though it does not appear that the Hebrews entirely lost their native tongue, yet it underwent so considerable a change from their adoption of the vernacular languages of the countries where they had resided, that afterward, on their return from exile, they spoke a dialect of Chaldee mixed with Hebrew words. On this account it was, that, when the Scriptures were read, it was found necessary to interpret them to the people in the Chaldean language; as, when Ezra the scribe brought the book of the law of Moses before the congregation, the Levites are said to have caused the people to understand the law, because "they read in the book, in the law of God, distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading," Nehem. Genesis 8:8 . Some time after the return from the great captivity, Hebrew ceased to be spoken altogether; though it continued to be cultivated and studied by the priests and Levites, as a learned language, that they might be enabled to expound the law and the prophets to the people, who, it appears from the New Testament, were well acquainted with their general contents and tenor: this last mentioned period has been called the leaden age of the language.
The present Hebrew characters, or letters, are twenty-two in number, and of a square form; but the antiquity of these letters is a point that has been most severely contested by many learned men. From a passage in Eusebius's Chronicle, and another in St. Jerom, it was inferred by Joseph Scaliger, that Ezra, when he reformed the Jewish church, transcribed the ancient characters of the Hebrews into the square letters of the Chaldeans; and that this was done for the use of those Jews who, being born during the captivity, knew no other alphabet than that of the people among whom they had been educated. Consequently, the old character, which we call the Samaritan, fell into total disuse. This opinion Scaliger supported by passages from both the Talmuds, as well as from rabbinical writers, in which it is expressly affirmed that such characters were adopted by Ezra. But the most decisive confirmation of this point is to be found in the ancient Hebrew coins, which were struck before the captivity, and even previously to the revolt of the ten tribes. The characters engraven on all of them are manifestly the same with the modern Samaritan, though with some trifling variations in their forms, occasioned by the depredations of time.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Greek Language
It was because of the wide diffusion of this language that the New Testament was written in Greek. Its diction is not, however, that of the classical Greek, but it was chosen, no doubt, with a view to greater usefulness. In the age which succeeded Alexander the Great, the Greek language underwent an internal change of a double nature. In part, a prosaic language of books was formed, η κοινη
διαλεκτος , which was built on the Attic dialect, but was intermixed with not a few provincialisms; but a language of popular intercourse was also formed, in which the various dialects of the different Grecian tribes, heretofore separate, were more or less mingled together, while the Macedonian dialect was peculiarly prominent. The latter language constitutes the basis of the diction employed by the LXX, the writers of the Apocrypha, and of the New Testament. The style of the New Testament has a considerable affinity with that of the Septuagint version which was executed at Alexandria, although it approaches somewhat nearer to the idiom of the Greek language; but the peculiarities of the Hebrew phraseology are discernible throughout: the language of the New Testament being formed by a mixture of oriental idioms and expressions with those which are properly Greek. Hence it has, by some philologers, been termed Hebraic Greek, and (from the Jews having acquired the Greek language, rather by practice than by grammar, among the Greeks, in whose countries they resided in large communities) Hellenistic Greek. The propriety of this appellation was severely contested toward the close of the seventeenth, and in the early part of the eighteenth, century; and numerous publications were written on both sides of the question, with considerable asperity, which, together with the controversy, are now almost forgotten. The dispute, however interesting to the philological antiquarian, is after all a mere "strife of words;" and as the appellation of Hellenistic or Hebraic Greek is sufficiently correct for the purpose of characterizing the language of the New Testament, it is now generally adopted. A large proportion, however, of the phrases and constructions of the New Testament is pure Greek; that is to say, of the same degree of purity as the Greek which was spoken in Macedonia, and that in which Polybius wrote his Roman history. It should farther be noticed, that there occur in the New Testament words that express both doctrines and practices which were utterly unknown to the Greeks; and also words bearing widely different interpretations from those which are ordinarily found in Greek writers. It contains examples of all the dialects occurring in the Greek language, as the AEolic, Boeotic, Doric, Ionic, and especially of the Attic; which, being most generally in use on account of its elegance, pervades every book of the New Testament.
2. A variety of solutions has been given to the question, why the New Testament was written in Greek. The true reason is, that it was the language most generally understood both by writers and readers; being spoken and written, read and understood, throughout the Roman empire, and particularly in the eastern provinces. To the universality of the Greek language, Cicero, Seneca, and Juvenal bear ample testimony: and the circumstances of the Jews having long had political, civil, and commercial relations with the Greeks, and being dispersed through various parts of the Roman empire, as well as their having cultivated the philosophy of the Greeks, of which we have evidence in the New Testament, all sufficiently account for their being acquainted with the Greek language. And if the eminent Jewish writers, Philo and Josephus, had motives for preferring to write in Greek, there is no reason, at least there is no general presumption, why the first publishers of the Gospel might not use the Greek language. It is indeed probable, that many of the common people were acquainted with it; though it is also certain the Christian churches being in many countries composed chiefly of that class of persons, some did not understand Greek. But in every church, says Macknight, there were persons endowed with the gift of tongues, and of the interpretation of tongues, who could readily turn the Apostles' Greek epistles into the language of the church to which they were sent. In particular, the president or the spiritual man, who read the Apostle's Greek letter to the Hebrews in their public assemblies, could without any hesitation render it into the Hebrew language, for the edification of those who did not understand Greek. And with respect to the Jews in the provinces, Greek being the native language of most of them, this epistle was much better calculated for their use, written in the Greek language, than if it had been written in the Hebrew, which few of them understood. Farther, it was proper that all the apostolical epistles should be written in the Greek language, because the different doctrines of the Gospel being delivered and explained in them, the explanation of these doctrines could with more advantage be compared so as to be better understood, being expressed in one language, than if, in the different epistles, they had been expressed in the language of the churches and persons to whom they were sent. Now what should that one language be, in which it was proper to write the Christian revelation, but the Greek, which was then generally understood, and in which there were many books extant; that treated of all kinds of literature, and on that account were likely to be preserved, and by the reading of which Christians, in after ages, would be enabled to understand. the Greek of the New Testament? This advantage none of the provincial dialects used in the Apostles' days could pretend to. Being limited to particular countries, they were soon to be disused; and few (if any) books being written in them which merited to be preserved, the meaning of such of the Apostles' letters as were composed in the provincial languages could not easily have been ascertained.
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Language
the faculty of human speech, concerning the origin of which there have been entertained different opinions among philosophers and learned men. The Mosaic history, which gives us an account of the formation and first occupations of man, represents him as being immediately capable of conversing with his Maker; of giving names to the various tribes and classes of animals; and of reasoning consecutively, and in perfectly appropriate terms, concerning his own situation, and the relation he stood in to the other creatures. As in man's first attempt at speech, according to this account, there appear no crudeness of conception, no barrenness of ideas, and no inexpressive or unappropriate terms, we must certainly infer, that God who made and endued him with corporeal and mental powers perfectly suited to his state and condition in life, endued him, also, not only with the faculty of speech, but with speech or language itself; which latter was as necessary to his comfort, and to the perfection and end of his being, as any other power or faculty which his Creator thought proper to bestow upon him.
Among the antediluvians there was but one language; and even now the indications that the various languages of the earth have had one common source are very convincing. Whether this primitive language was the same with any of the languages of which we have still any remains, has been a subject of much dispute. That the primitive language continued at least till the dispersion of mankind, consequent upon the building of Babel, there seems little reason to doubt. When, by an immediate interposition of divine power, the language of men was confounded, we are not informed to what extent this confusion of tongues prevailed. Under the article Confusion of Tongues some reasons are given to show that the primitive language was not lost at that event, but continued in the form of the Hebrew.
There are, however, other opinions on the oft disputed subject as to the primitive language. The Armenians allege, that as the ark rested in their country, Noah and his children must have remained there a considerable time, before the lower and marshy country of Chaldea could be fit to receive them; and it is therefore reasonable to suppose they left their language there, which was probably the very same that Adam spoke. Some have fancied the Greek the most ancient tongue, because of its extent and copiousness. The Teutonic, or that dialect of it which is spoken in the Lower Germany and Brabant, has found a strenuous patron in Geropius Becanus, who endeavours to derive even the Hebrew itself from that tongue. The pretensions of the Chinese to this honour have been allowed by several Europeans. The patrons of this opinion endeavour to support it, partly, by the great antiquity of the Chinese, and their having preserved themselves so many ages from any considerable mixture or intercourse with other nations. It is a notion advanced by Dr. Allix, and maintained by Mr. Whiston, with his usual tenacity and fervour, that the Chinese are the posterity of Noah, by his children born after the flood; and that Fohi, the first king of China, was Noah. As for those which are called the oriental languages, they have each their partisans. The generality of eastern writers allow the preference to the Syriac, except the Jews, who assert the antiquity of the Hebrew with the greatest warmth; and with them several Christian writers agree, particularly Chrysostom, Austin, Origen, and Jerome, among the ancients; and among the moderns, Bochart, Heidegger, Selden, and Buxtorf. The Sanscrit has also put in its claims; and some have thought that the Pali bears the character of the highest antiquity. All these are however useless speculations. The only point worth contending for is, that language was conveyed at once to the first pair in sufficient degree for intellectual intercourse with each other, and devotional intercourse with God; and that man was not left, as infidel writers have been pleased to say, to form it for himself out of rude and instinctive sounds. On this subject the remarks of Delaney are conclusive: "That God made man a sociable creature, does not need to be proved; and that when he made him such, he withheld nothing from him that was in any wise necessary for his well being in society, is a clear consequence from the wisdom and goodness of God; and if he withheld nothing any way necessary to his well being, much less would he withhold from him that which is the instrument of the greatest happiness a reasonable creature is capable of in this world. If the Lord God made ‘Adam a help meet for him,' because ‘it was not good for man to be alone,' can we imagine he would leave him unfurnished with the means to make that help useful and delightful to him? If it was not good for him to be alone, certainly neither was it good for him to have a companion to whom he could not readily communicate his thoughts, with whom he could neither ease his anxieties, nor divide or double his joys, by a kind, a friendly, a reasonable, a religious conversation; and how he could do this in any degree of perfection, or to any height of rational happiness, is utterly inconceivable without the use of speech.
"If it be said, that the human organs being admirably fitted for the formation of articulate sounds, these, with the help of reason, might in time lead men to the use of language. I own it imaginable that they might: but still, till that end were attained in perfection, which possibly, might not be in a series of many generations, it must be owned that brutes were better dealt by, and could better attain all the ends of their creation. And if that be absurd to be supposed, certainly the other is not less absurd to be believed. Nay, I think it justly doubtful, whether, without inspiration from God in this point, man could ever attain the true ends of his being; at least, if we may judge in this case, by the example of those nations who, being destitute of the advantages of a perfect language, are, in all probability, from the misfortune of that sole defect, sunk into the lowest condition of barbarism and brutality. And as to the perfection in which the human organs are framed and fitted for the formation of articulate sounds, this is clearly an argument for believing that God immediately blessed man with the use of speech, and gave him wherewithal to exert those organs to their proper ends; for this is surely as credible, as that when he gave him an appetite for food, and proper organs to eat and to digest it, he did not leave him to seek painfully for a necessary supply, (till his offence had made such a search his curse and punishment,) but placed him at once in the midst of abundant plenty. The consequence from all which is, that the perfection and felicity of man, and the wisdom and goodness of God, necessarily required that Adam should be supernaturally endowed with the knowledge and use of language. And therefore, as certain as it can be, that man was made perfect and happy, and that God is wise and good; so certain is it, that, when Adam and Eve were formed, they were immediately enabled by God to converse and communicate their thoughts, in all the perfection of language necessary to all the ends of their creation. And as this was the conduct most becoming the goodness of God, so we are assured from Moses, that it was that to which his infinite wisdom determined him; for we find that Adam gave names to all the creatures before Eve was formed; and, consequently, before necessity taught him the use of speech."
It is true that many languages bear marks of being raised to their improved state from rude and imperfect elements, and that all are capable of being enriched and rendered more exact; and it is this which has given some colour to those theories which trace all language itself up from elemental sounds, as the necessities of men, their increasing knowledge, and their imagination led to the invention of new words and combinations. All this is, however, consistent with the Scripture fact, that language was taught at first by God to our first parents. The dispersion of mankind carried many tribes to great distances, and wars still farther scattered them, and often into wide regions where they were farther dispersed to live chiefly by the chase, by fishing, or at best but an imperfect agriculture. In various degrees we know they lost useful arts; and for the same reasons they would lose much of their original language; those terms being chiefly retained which their immediate necessities, and the common affairs of a gross life, kept in use. But when civilization again overtook these portions of mankind, and kingdoms and empires were founded among them, or they became integral parts of the old empires, then their intercourse with each other becoming more rapid, and artificial, and intellectual, their language was put into a new process of improvement, and to the eye of the critic would exhibit the various stages of advancement; and in many it would be pushed beyond that perfection which it had when it first began to deteriorate. See LETTERS .
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Language
1: διάλεκτος (Strong's #1258 — Noun Feminine — dialektos — dee-al'-ek-tos ) primarily "a conversation, discourse" (akin to dialegomai, "to discourse or discuss"), came to denote "the language or dialect of a country or district;" in the AV and RV of Acts 2:6 it is translated "language;" in the following the RV retains "language," for AV, "tongue," Acts 1:19 ; 2:8 ; 21:40 ; 22:2 ; 26:14 . See TONGUE. In the Sept., Esther 9:26 .
Webster's Dictionary - Language
(1):
(n.) A race, as distinguished by its speech.
(2):
(v. t.) To communicate by language; to express in language.
(3):
(n.) The forms of speech, or the methods of expressing ideas, peculiar to a particular nation.
(4):
(n.) The characteristic mode of arranging words, peculiar to an individual speaker or writer; manner of expression; style.
(5):
(n.) The suggestion, by objects, actions, or conditions, of ideas associated therewith; as, the language of flowers.
(6):
(n.) The inarticulate sounds by which animals inferior to man express their feelings or their wants.
(7):
(n.) The expression of ideas by writing, or any other instrumentality.
(8):
(n.) Any means of conveying or communicating ideas; specifically, human speech; the expression of ideas by the voice; sounds, expressive of thought, articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth.
(9):
(n.) The vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or department of knowledge; as, medical language; the language of chemistry or theology.
King James Dictionary - Language
LAN'GUAGE, n. L. lingua, the tongue, and speech.
1. Human speech the expression of ideas by words or significant articulate sounds, for the communication of thoughts. Language consists in the oral utterance of sounds, which usage has made the representatives of ideas. When two or more persons customarily annex the same sounds to the same ideas, the expression of these sounds by one person communicates his ideas to another. This is the primary sense of language, the use of which is to communicate the thoughts of one person to another through the organs of hearing. Articulate sounds are represented by letters, marks or characters which form words. Hence language consists also in 2. Words duly arranged in sentences, written, printed or engraved, and exhibited to the eye. 3. The speech or expression of ideas peculiar to a particular nation. Men had originally one and the same language, but the tribes or families of men, since their dispersion, have distinct languages. 4. Style manner of expression. Others for language all their care express.
5. The inarticulate sounds by which irrational animals express their feelings and wants. Each species of animals has peculiar sounds, which are uttered instinctively, and are understood by its own species, and its own species only. 6. Any manner of expressing thoughts. Thus we speak of the language of the eye, a language very expressive and intelligible. 7. A nation, as distinguished by their speech. Daniel 3 .
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Language
One of the distinguishing gifts of God to man, essential to all high enjoyment and improvement in social life, and to be prized and used in a manner worthy of its priceless value for the glory of God and the benefit of mankind. The original language was not the growth of a mere faculty of speech in man, but a creation of gift of God. Adam and Eve when created knew how to converse with each other and with the Creator. For some two thousand years, "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech," Genesis 11:1 . But about one hundred years after the flood, according to the common chronology, and later according to others, God miraculously "confounded the language" of the Cushite rebels at Babel; and peopling the earth by these scattered families of diverse tongues, He frustrated the designs and promoted his own. There are now several hundreds of languages and dialects spoken on the earth, and infidels have hence taken occasion to discredit the Bible doctrine of the unity of the human race. It is found, however, that these languages are distributed in several great classes, which have striking affinities with each other; and as comparative philology extends its researches, it finds increasing evidence of the substantial oneness of the human race and of the truth of Scripture.
The miracle performed at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost was the reverse of that at Babel, Acts 2:1-18 , and beautifully illustrated the tendency of the gospel to introduce peace and harmony where sin has brought discord, and to reunite all the tribes of mankind in one great brotherhood.
To the student of the Bible, one of the most important subjects is the character and history of the original languages in which that holy book was written. In respect to the original Greek of the New Testament, some remarks have been made under the article GREECE. The Hebrew language, in which the Old Testament was written, is but one of the cluster of cognate languages, as belonging particularly to the descendants of Shem. A proper knowledge of the Hebrew, therefore, implies also an acquaintance with these of the kindred dialects.
The Shemitic languages may be divided into three principal dialects, namely, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, and the Arabic. 1. The Aramaean, spoken in Syria, Mesopotamia, and Babylonia, is subdivided into the Syriac and Chaldee dialects sometimes called also the West and East Aramaean. 2. The Hebrew or Canaanites dialect, Isaiah 19:18 , was spoken in Palestine, and probably with little variation in Phoenicia and the Phoenician colonies, as for instance, at Carthage and other places. The remains of the Phoenician and Punic dialects are too few and too much disfigured to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively these languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine. 3. The Arabic, to which the Ethiopic bears a special resemblance, comprises, in modern times, a great variety of dialects as a spoken language, and is spread over a vast extent of country; but so far as we are acquainted with its former state, it appears more anciently to have been limited principally to Arabia and Ethiopia.
These languages are distinguished from European tongues by several marked peculiarities: they are all, except the Ethiopic, written from right to left, and their books begin at what we should call the end; the alphabet, with the exception of the Ethiopic which is syllabic, consists of consonants only, above or below which the vowel-points are written; they have several guttural consonants very difficult of pronunciation to Europeans; the roots of the language are, in general, verbs of three letters, and pronounced, according to the various dialects, with one or more vowels; the verbs have but two tenses, the past and the future; and the pronouns in the oblique cases are generally untied in the same word with the noun or verb to which they have a relation. These various dialects form substantially one language, of which the original home was Western Asia. That they have all diverged from one parent stock is manifest, but to determine which of them has undergone the fewest changes would be a difficult question. The language of Noah and his son Shem was substantially that of Adam and all the antediluvians. Shem and Heber were contemporary with Abraham, and transmitted, as we have good reason to believe, their common tongue to the race of Israel; for it is not to be assumed that at the confusion of Babel no branch of the human family retained the primitive language. It does not appear that the descendants of Shem were among the builders of Babel, Genesis 10:8-10 .
The oldest records that are known to exist are composed in the Hebrew language. It flourished in its purest form in Palestine, among the Phoenicians and Hebrews, until the period of the Babylonish exile; soon after which it declined, and finally was succeeded by a kind of Hebraeo-Aramaean dialect, such as was spoken in the time of our Savior among the Jews. The West Aramaean had flourished before this for a long time in the east and north of Palestine; but it now advanced farther west, and during the period that the Christian churches of Syria flourished, it was widely extended. It is at present almost a dead language, and has been so for several centuries. The Hebrew may be regarded as having been a dead language, except among a small circle of literati, for about the space of two thousand years. Our knowledge of Arabic literature extends back very little beyond the time of Mohammed. But the followers of this pretended prophet have spread the dialect of the Koran over vast portions of the world. Arabic is now the vernacular language of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in a great measure of Palestine and all the northern coast of Africa; while it is read and understood wherever the Koran has gone, in Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary.
The remains of the ancient Hebrew tongue are contained in the Old Testament and in the few Phoenician and Punic words and inscriptions that have been here and there discovered. The remains of the Aramaean are extant in a variety of books. In Chaldee, we have a part of the books of Daniel and Ezra, Daniel 2:4-7:28 Ezra 4:8-6:18 7:12-26 , which are the most ancient of any specimens of this dialect. The Targum of Onkelos, that is, the translation of the Pentateuch into Chaldee, affords the next and purest specimen of that language. The oldest specimen of this language that we have is contained in the Peshito, or Syriac version of the Old and New Testament, made perhaps within a century after the time of Christ. A multitude of writers in this dialect have flourished, many of whose writings are probably still extant, although but few have been printed in Europe. In Arabic, there exists a great variety of manuscripts and books, historical, scientific, and literary. A familiar knowledge of this and its kindred dialects throws much valuable light on the Old Testament Scriptures.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Slavonic Language And Liturgy
Slavonic holds second place, numerically, among the liturgical languages in which the Mass and the Divine Office are said. About 866 Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius translated the liturgy of the Byzantine Church into old Slavonic, written in the Cyrillic alphabet for the benefit of their Slavic converts. Shortly afterwards, the Roman Mass was translated into Slavonic and written in an older alphabet called Glagolitic. The Greek, or Byzantine, Rite in this ancient language is now used among Slavs, whether Catholic or Orthodox, and the Roman liturgy in Slavonic is still celebrated in Dalmatia and Croatia.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Language
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Smith's Bible Dictionary - he'Brew Language
The books of the Old Testament are written almost entirely in the Hebrew language. It is a branch of the Shemitic language, one of the three great divisions into which all languages have been reduced. It is one of the earliest of known languages, and some suppose that it was the original language of man.
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jews' Language
The Hebrew language, common to the Jews. Rab-shakeh was asked to speak in the Syrian language (the Aramaic); but he, wishing the people of Jerusalem to understand him, spoke in Hebrew. 2 Kings 18:28 ; Nehemiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 36:13 .

Sentence search

Languaged - ) Having a Language; skilled in Language; - chiefly used in composition. ) of Language...
Amharic - ) The Amharic Language (now the chief Language of Abyssinia). ) Of or pertaining to Amhara, a division of Abyssinia; as, the Amharic Language is closely allied to the Ethiopic
Aryanize - ) To make Aryan (a Language, or in Language)
Mahrati - ) The Language of the Mahrattas; the Language spoken in the Deccan and Concan
Canaan, the Language of - Mentioned in Isaiah 19:18 , denotes the Language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine. The Language of the Canaanites and of the Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of the Phoenician Language which still survive, which show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the Language of the "Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babylon, as well as the Babylonian Language, was taught in the Canaanitish schools, and the clay tablets of Babylonian literature were stored in the Canaanitish libraries
Ibberish - ) Unmeaning; as, gibberish Language. ) Rapid and inarticulate talk; unintelligible Language; unmeaning words; jargon
Coptic - The Afro-Asiatic Language of the Copts, which survives only as a liturgical Language of the Coptic Church
Danish - ) Belonging to the Danes, or to their Language or country. ) The Language of the Danes
Vernacular - ) The vernacular Language; one's mother tongue; often, the common forms of expression in a particular locality. ) Belonging to the country of one's birth; one's own by birth or nature; native; indigenous; - now used chiefly of Language; as, English is our vernacular Language
Idiom - ) The syntactical or structural form peculiar to any Language; the genius or cast of a Language. ) An expression conforming or appropriate to the peculiar structural form of a Language; in extend use, an expression sanctioned by usage, having a sense peculiar to itself and not agreeing with the logical sense of its structural form; also, the phrase forms peculiar to a particular author. ) Dialect; a variant form of a Language
Obloquy - ) Censorious speech; defamatory Language; Language that casts contempt on men or their actions; blame; reprehension
Russian - ) Of or pertaining to Russia, its inhabitants, or Language. ) A native or inhabitant of Russia; the Language of Russia
he'Brew Language - The books of the Old Testament are written almost entirely in the Hebrew Language. It is a branch of the Shemitic Language, one of the three great divisions into which all Languages have been reduced. It is one of the earliest of known Languages, and some suppose that it was the original Language of man
Language in Liturgy - A liturgical Language is one used in the official public services of any Church or Rite. It may or may not be the Language spoken by the people. However each liturgical Language was first chosen precisely because it was the Language of the faithful. In the Eastern Churches there is no uniform liturgical Language such as is used in the West. The universality of Latin in the West is due to the fact that Latin was the only Language of culture until far into the Middle Ages. In the East, Greek, while quite common, was never the sole Language of culture. Side by side with it were other Languages of almost equal importance and dignity, e. It was only natural that the Liturgy should have been translated into those Languages for the people speaking them. As the faith spread the liturgy was put into the Language of almost every new people evangelized. The liturgical Languages used by Catholic Churches other than those of the Roman Rite are: Greek, Arabic (by Melchites), Slavonic, Georgian, Rumanian, all of the Byzantine Rite; Syriac, in the Syrian, Maronite, Chaldean, and Malabar Rites; Coptic, in the Coptic Rites; Armenian in all Churches of that Rite. In the Western Church, for the first two centuries, at least, the liturgical Language at Rome was Greek. From the third century Latin became the ordinary Language of the Christians at Rome; however, when it displaced Greek as the liturgical Language is disputed. The change was gradual, but once effected Latin remained the liturgical Language of the West. Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead Language, is not subject to change as are modern tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of Language would destroy the sacred music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of Language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past. There are translations into almost every Language of the parts of the liturgy in which the laity participate. Moreover it should be kept in mind that liturgy is public worship, in which the people have a part as well as the priest, and that Language is only one element of worship, the ceremonial being by far the most important element
Liturgy, Language in - A liturgical Language is one used in the official public services of any Church or Rite. It may or may not be the Language spoken by the people. However each liturgical Language was first chosen precisely because it was the Language of the faithful. In the Eastern Churches there is no uniform liturgical Language such as is used in the West. The universality of Latin in the West is due to the fact that Latin was the only Language of culture until far into the Middle Ages. In the East, Greek, while quite common, was never the sole Language of culture. Side by side with it were other Languages of almost equal importance and dignity, e. It was only natural that the Liturgy should have been translated into those Languages for the people speaking them. As the faith spread the liturgy was put into the Language of almost every new people evangelized. The liturgical Languages used by Catholic Churches other than those of the Roman Rite are: Greek, Arabic (by Melchites), Slavonic, Georgian, Rumanian, all of the Byzantine Rite; Syriac, in the Syrian, Maronite, Chaldean, and Malabar Rites; Coptic, in the Coptic Rites; Armenian in all Churches of that Rite. In the Western Church, for the first two centuries, at least, the liturgical Language at Rome was Greek. From the third century Latin became the ordinary Language of the Christians at Rome; however, when it displaced Greek as the liturgical Language is disputed. The change was gradual, but once effected Latin remained the liturgical Language of the West. Some of them are: the formulae used are most ancient and are approved expressions of Catholic Faith; Latin, being a dead Language, is not subject to change as are modern tongues; the beauty and harmony of liturgical compositions would be lost if translated; a change of Language would destroy the sacred music which was written for Latin meter and cadence; Latin is "a witness of antiquity for the Mass; it provides an atmosphere of home for the traveler in every land; and unity of Language throughout the patriarchate is a bulwark of unity of government and faith, a protection against nationalistic tendencies which have proved such a scourge in the past. There are translations into almost every Language of the parts of the liturgy in which the laity participate. Moreover it should be kept in mind that liturgy is public worship, in which the people have a part as well as the priest, and that Language is only one element of worship, the ceremonial being by far the most important element
Billingsgate - ) A market near the Billings gate in London, celebrated for fish and foul Language. ) Coarsely abusive, foul, or profane Language; vituperation; ribaldry
Manks - ) Of or pertaining to the Language or people of the of Man. ) The Language spoken in the Isle of Man
Finnish - ) A Northern Turanian group of Languages; the Language of the Finns. ) Of or pertaining to Finland, to the Finns, or to their Language
Ribaldry - ) The talk of a ribald; low, vulgar Language; indecency; obscenity; lewdness; - now chiefly applied to indecent Language, but formerly, as by Chaucer, also to indecent acts or conduct
Romaic - ) Of or relating to modern Greece, and especially to its Language. ) The modern Greek Language, now usually called by the Greeks Hellenic or Neo-Hellenic
Latin - Pertaining to the Latins, a people of Latium, in Italy Roman as the Latin Language. ...
Latin church, the western church the christian church in Italy, France, Spain and other countries where the Latin Language was introduced, as distinct from the Greek or eastern church. The Language of the ancient Romans
Quintano, Augustin - Mastered the difficult Language of the Mixe Indians of southern Oaxaca, Mexico, and wrote a grammar and a series of religious articles in that Language
Augustin Quintano - Mastered the difficult Language of the Mixe Indians of southern Oaxaca, Mexico, and wrote a grammar and a series of religious articles in that Language
Translator - , one who renders into another Language; one who expresses the sense of words in one Language by equivalent words in another
Lappish - ) The Language spoken by the Lapps in Lapland. It is related to the Finnish and Hungarian, and is not an Aryan Language
Aramaic - This word occurs 2 Kings 18:26 ; Ezra 4:7 ; and Isaiah 36:11 , where it is translated 'the Syrian Language' or 'tongue;' also in Daniel 2:4 , where it is 'Syriack. ' Aramaic is the Language of Aram, and embraces the Language of Chaldee and that of Syria. In Ezra 4:7 the letter sent to Artaxerxes was written in Aramaic, and interpreted in Aramaic, that is, the copy of the letter and what follows as far as Ezra 6:18 is in that Language and not in Hebrew. ...
In Daniel 2:4 the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic, the popular Language of Babylon, and what follows to the end of chap. 7: is in that Language, though commonly called Chaldee. This must not be confounded with the 'learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans' in Daniel 1:4 , which is the Aryan dialect and literature of the Chaldeans, and probably the ordinary Language which Daniel spoke in the court of Babylon. ...
This Language differs from the Hebrew in that it avoids the sibilants. ...
When the ten tribes were carried away, the colonists, who took their place, brought the Aramaic Language with them. The Jews also who returned from Babylon brought many words of the same Language. And, though it doubtless underwent various changes, this was the Language commonly spoken in Palestine when our Lord was on earth, and is the Language called HEBREWin the N. In the ninth century the Language in Palestine gave way to the Arabic, and now Aramaic is a living tongue only among the Syrian Christians in the district around Mosul
Manx - ) Of or pertaining to the Isle of Man, or its inhabitants; as, the Manx Language. ) The Language of the inhabitants of the Isle of Man, a dialect of the Celtic
Chaldean Language - At Babylon Daniel and his companions had to acquire 'the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans,' that is, their ancient literature and Language. The question is what was that Language? In Daniel 2:4 we find that the wise men answered the king in the Syriac Language, that is Aramaic: cf. The Hebrew Language is held to be closely related to the Aramaic: that the two are not the same is evident from Isaiah 36:11 , where the Jewish leaders asked Rabshakeh to speak in the Syrian Language, and not in the Jews' Language, that the Jews generally should not understand what was said. There must be some reason why in Daniel it is said the wise men answered the king in 'Aramaic:' this is held to be not the learned and court Language, but the common Language of the people; and the wise men may have used it that all who heard it might judge of the reasonableness of what they said, though the king might condemn them. The Language spoken at court would be different and has been judged by some to be a branch of the Aryan dialect, the ancient Language of Central Asia; or perhaps it may have been the ancient Accadian
Johann Schleyer - Priest; inventor of the auxiliary Language Volapük. In 1879 he introduced Volapük, an international Language based on the Romance and Germanic Languages. It aroused considerable interest for ten years with numerous books and periodicals in and about the Language, but passed out of general use aout 1890. Material about the Language, including lessons and literature, can be easily found online
Schleyer, Johann Martin - Priest; inventor of the auxiliary Language Volapük. In 1879 he introduced Volapük, an international Language based on the Romance and Germanic Languages. It aroused considerable interest for ten years with numerous books and periodicals in and about the Language, but passed out of general use aout 1890. Material about the Language, including lessons and literature, can be easily found online
Zend - ) Properly, the translation and exposition in the Huzv/resh, or literary Pehlevi, Language, of the Avesta, the Zoroastrian sacred writings; as commonly used, the Language (an ancient Persian dialect) in which the Avesta is written
Semiotic - ) Relating to signs or indications; pertaining to the Language of signs, or to Language generally as indicating thought
Siamese - ) Of or pertaining to Siam, its native people, or their Language. ) The Language of the Siamese
Pali - ) A dialect descended from Sanskrit, and like that, a dead Language, except when used as the sacred Language of the Buddhist religion in Farther India, etc
Aramaic - See Language
Speech - See Language
Chaldee - See Language
Aramaic - ) The Aramaic Language. ) Pertaining to Aram, or to the territory, inhabitants, Language, or literature of Syria and Mesopotamia; Aramaean; - specifically applied to the northern branch of the Semitic family of Languages, including Syriac and Chaldee
Aelic - to the Celtic Highlanders of Scotland; as, the Gaelic Language. ) The Language of the Gaels, esp
Lexicon - ) A vocabulary, or book containing an alphabetical arrangement of the words in a Language or of a considerable number of them, with the definition of each; a dictionary; especially, a dictionary of the Greek, Hebrew, or Latin Language
Language - 1: διάλεκτος (Strong's #1258 — Noun Feminine — dialektos — dee-al'-ek-tos ) primarily "a conversation, discourse" (akin to dialegomai, "to discourse or discuss"), came to denote "the Language or dialect of a country or district;" in the AV and RV of Acts 2:6 it is translated "language;" in the following the RV retains "language," for AV, "tongue," Acts 1:19 ; 2:8 ; 21:40 ; 22:2 ; 26:14
Chaldee Language - It was the Language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia, and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular Language of Palestine. Some isolated words in this Language are preserved in the New Testament (Matthew 5:22 ; 6:24 ; 16:17 ; 27:46 ; Mark 3:17 ; 5:41 ; 7:34 ; 14:36 ; Acts 1:19 ; 1 Corinthians 16:22 ). These are specimens of the vernacular Language of Palestine at that period. The term "Hebrew" was also sometimes applied to the Chaldee because it had become the Language of the Hebrews (John 5:2 ; 19:20 )
Language - ) To communicate by Language; to express in Language. ) The suggestion, by objects, actions, or conditions, of ideas associated therewith; as, the Language of flowers. ) The vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or department of knowledge; as, medical Language; the Language of chemistry or theology
Aramaic (2) - —See Language
Language - Language consists in the oral utterance of sounds, which usage has made the representatives of ideas. This is the primary sense of Language, the use of which is to communicate the thoughts of one person to another through the organs of hearing. Hence Language consists also in 2. Men had originally one and the same Language, but the tribes or families of men, since their dispersion, have distinct Languages. Others for Language all their care express. Thus we speak of the Language of the eye, a Language very expressive and intelligible
Scurrilous - ) Using the low and indecent Language of the meaner sort of people, or such as only the license of buffoons can warrant; as, a scurrilous fellow. ) Containing low indecency or abuse; mean; foul; vile; obscenely jocular; as, scurrilous Language
Icelandic - ) The Language of the Icelanders. It is one of the Scandinavian group, and is more nearly allied to the Old Norse than any other Language now spoken
Ethiopic - ) The Language of ancient Ethiopia; the Language of the ancient Abyssinian empire (in Ethiopia), now used only in the Abyssinian church
Oe - a diphthong, employed in the Latin Language, and thence in the English Language, as the representative of the Greek diphthong oi
Tupi - Also, their Language, which is the basis of the Indian trade Language of the Amazon
Tamil - ) The Tamil Language, the most important of the Dravidian Languages. ) Of or pertaining to the Tamils, or to their Language
Jews' Language - The Hebrew Language, common to the Jews. Rab-shakeh was asked to speak in the Syrian Language (the Aramaic); but he, wishing the people of Jerusalem to understand him, spoke in Hebrew
Lingo - ) Language; speech; dialect
Hindustani - ) Of or pertaining to the Hindoos or their Language. ) The Language of Hindostan; the name given by Europeans to the most generally spoken of the modern Aryan Languages of India
Jargon - ) Confused, unintelligible Language; gibberish; hence, an artificial idiom or dialect; cant Language; slang
Lingua Franca - (1):...
Any hybrid or other Language used over a wide area as a common or commercial tongue among peoples of different speech. ...
(2):...
The commercial Language of the Levant, - a mixture of the Languages of the people of the region and of foreign traders
Highfaluting - ) High-flown, bombastic Language
Cryptology - ) Secret or enigmatical Language
Ledden - ) Language; speech; voice; cry
Persian - ) Of or pertaining to Persia, to the Persians, or to their Language. ) The Language spoken in Persia
Revile - ...
To reproach to treat with opprobrious and contemptuous Language. Reproach contumely contemptuous Language
Bengali - ) The Language spoken in Bengal
Cabalize - ) To use cabalistic Language
Railingly - ) With scoffing or insulting Language
Languaging - ) of Language...
Black-Mouthed - ) Using foul or scurrilous Language; slanderous
Arabism - ) An Arabic idiom peculiarly of Language
Urdu - ) The Language more generally called Hindustanee
Languageless - ) Lacking or wanting Language; speechless; silent
Saxonist - ) One versed in the Saxon Language
Hebrew - ) The Language of the Hebrews; - one of the Semitic family of Languages. ) Of or pertaining to the Hebrews; as, the Hebrew Language or rites
Lettic - ) The Language of the Lettic race, including Lettish, Lithuanian, and Old Prussian. ) The Language of the Letts; Lettish
Collingual - ) Having, or pertaining to, the same Language
Cymric - ) The Welsh Language
Sinological - ) Relating to the Chinese Language or literature
Foul-Spoken - ) Using profane, scurrilous, slanderous, or obscene Language
Neve, Felix Jean Baptiste Joseph - Professor of Greek and Latin literature at the University of Louvain for 36 years, and at the same time gave a course of studies in the Sanskrit Language and literature. Learned in the Armenian Language and literature, and published important translations and commentaries on all these subjects
Barbarism - ) An offense against purity of style or Language; any form of speech contrary to the pure idioms of a particular Language
Philology - ) The study of Language, especially in a philosophical manner and as a science; the investigation of the laws of human speech, the relation of different tongues to one another, and historical development of Languages; linguistic science. ) A treatise on the science of Language
Latin - ) Of or pertaining to Latium, or to the Latins, a people of Latium; Roman; as, the Latin Language. ) Of, pertaining to, or composed in, the Language used by the Romans or Latins; as, a Latin grammar; a Latin composition or idiom. ) The Language of the ancient Romans
Geez - Ancient Language of Ethiopia, Semitic in origin with an intermingling of Arabic and Greek, the literary Language of Abyssinia up to the 16th century, and at present used as a liturgical Language
Scoff - But I do not find the word in the English and Greek sense, in any modern Language except the English. ...
To treat with insolent ridicule, mockery or contumelious Language to manifest contempt by derision with at. Derision, ridicule, mockery or reproach, expressed in Language of contempt expression of scorn or contempt
Bombastry - ) Swelling words without much meaning; bombastic Language; fustian
Blackguardism - ) The conduct or Language of a blackguard; ruffianism
Circumcursation - ) The act of running about; also, rambling Language
Francic - ) Pertaining to the Franks, or their Language; Frankish
Foul-Mouthed - ) Using Language scurrilous, opprobrious, obscene, or profane; abusive
Hebraist - ) One versed in the Hebrew Language and learning
Sea Language - The peculiar Language or phraseology of seamen; sailor's cant
Wendish - ) Of or pertaining the Wends, or their Language
Abusively - ) In an abusive manner; rudely; with abusive Language
Recism - ) An idiom of the Greek Language; a Hellenism
Opprobrium - ) Disgrace; infamy; reproach mingled with contempt; abusive Language
Lexiphanicism - ) The use of pretentious words, Language, or style
Reviled - Reproached treated with opprobrious or contemptuous Language
Scythian - ) The Language of the Scythians. ) Of or pertaining to Scythia (a name given to the northern part of Asia, and Europe adjoining to Asia), or its Language or inhabitants
Railing - Clamoring with insulting Language uttering reproachful words. Reproachful or insolent Language
Latin - The vernacular Language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20 )
Philologize - ) To study, or make critical comments on, Language
Hebraistic - ) Pertaining to, or resembling, the Hebrew Language or idiom
Translatable - ) Capable of being translated, or rendered into another Language
Raillery - ) Pleasantry or slight satire; banter; jesting Language; satirical merriment
Revilement - ) The act of reviling; also, contemptuous Language; reproach; abuse
Misconstruable - ) Such as can be misconstrued, as Language or conduct
Allah - Arabic name of God, used by Mohammedans, whatever their Language
Saxonism - ) An idiom of the Saxon or Anglo-Saxon Language
Tongues, Confusion of - The descendants of Noah built a tower to prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their Language" (Genesis 11:1-8 ), and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till this time "the whole earth was of one Language and of one speech
Basquish - ) Pertaining to the country, people, or Language of Biscay; Basque...
Latinly - ) In the manner of the Latin Language; in correct Latin
Ido - ) An artificial international Language, selected by the "Delegation for the Adoption of an Auxillary International Language" (founded at Paris in 1901), made public in 1907, and subsequently greatly revised and extended by a permanent committee or "Academy. " The word "Ido" means in the Language itself "offspring
Prose - ) Hence, Language which evinces little imagination or animation; dull and commonplace discourse. ) The ordinary Language of men in speaking or writing; Language not cast in poetical measure or rhythm; - contradistinguished from verse, or metrical composition
Version - ) The act of translating, or rendering, from one Language into another Language. ) A translation; that which is rendered from another Language; as, the Common, or Authorized, Version of the Scriptures (see under Authorized); the Septuagint Version of the Old Testament
Greek Language - It was because of the wide diffusion of this Language that the New Testament was written in Greek. In the age which succeeded Alexander the Great, the Greek Language underwent an internal change of a double nature. In part, a prosaic Language of books was formed, η κοινη...
...
διαλεκτος , which was built on the Attic dialect, but was intermixed with not a few provincialisms; but a Language of popular intercourse was also formed, in which the various dialects of the different Grecian tribes, heretofore separate, were more or less mingled together, while the Macedonian dialect was peculiarly prominent. The latter Language constitutes the basis of the diction employed by the LXX, the writers of the Apocrypha, and of the New Testament. The style of the New Testament has a considerable affinity with that of the Septuagint version which was executed at Alexandria, although it approaches somewhat nearer to the idiom of the Greek Language; but the peculiarities of the Hebrew phraseology are discernible throughout: the Language of the New Testament being formed by a mixture of oriental idioms and expressions with those which are properly Greek. Hence it has, by some philologers, been termed Hebraic Greek, and (from the Jews having acquired the Greek Language, rather by practice than by grammar, among the Greeks, in whose countries they resided in large communities) Hellenistic Greek. The dispute, however interesting to the philological antiquarian, is after all a mere "strife of words;" and as the appellation of Hellenistic or Hebraic Greek is sufficiently correct for the purpose of characterizing the Language of the New Testament, it is now generally adopted. It contains examples of all the dialects occurring in the Greek Language, as the AEolic, Boeotic, Doric, Ionic, and especially of the Attic; which, being most generally in use on account of its elegance, pervades every book of the New Testament. The true reason is, that it was the Language most generally understood both by writers and readers; being spoken and written, read and understood, throughout the Roman empire, and particularly in the eastern provinces. To the universality of the Greek Language, Cicero, Seneca, and Juvenal bear ample testimony: and the circumstances of the Jews having long had political, civil, and commercial relations with the Greeks, and being dispersed through various parts of the Roman empire, as well as their having cultivated the philosophy of the Greeks, of which we have evidence in the New Testament, all sufficiently account for their being acquainted with the Greek Language. And if the eminent Jewish writers, Philo and Josephus, had motives for preferring to write in Greek, there is no reason, at least there is no general presumption, why the first publishers of the Gospel might not use the Greek Language. But in every church, says Macknight, there were persons endowed with the gift of tongues, and of the interpretation of tongues, who could readily turn the Apostles' Greek epistles into the Language of the church to which they were sent. In particular, the president or the spiritual man, who read the Apostle's Greek letter to the Hebrews in their public assemblies, could without any hesitation render it into the Hebrew Language, for the edification of those who did not understand Greek. And with respect to the Jews in the provinces, Greek being the native Language of most of them, this epistle was much better calculated for their use, written in the Greek Language, than if it had been written in the Hebrew, which few of them understood. Farther, it was proper that all the apostolical epistles should be written in the Greek Language, because the different doctrines of the Gospel being delivered and explained in them, the explanation of these doctrines could with more advantage be compared so as to be better understood, being expressed in one Language, than if, in the different epistles, they had been expressed in the Language of the churches and persons to whom they were sent. Now what should that one Language be, in which it was proper to write the Christian revelation, but the Greek, which was then generally understood, and in which there were many books extant; that treated of all kinds of literature, and on that account were likely to be preserved, and by the reading of which Christians, in after ages, would be enabled to understand. Being limited to particular countries, they were soon to be disused; and few (if any) books being written in them which merited to be preserved, the meaning of such of the Apostles' letters as were composed in the provincial Languages could not easily have been ascertained
Cufic - ) Of or pertaining to the older characters of the Arabic Language
Persic - ) The Persian Language
Celticism - ) A custom of the Celts, or an idiom of their Language
Language of ot And Apocrypha - Language OF OT AND APOCRYPHA . See Text Versions and Languages of OT
Hispanic - ) Of or pertaining to Spain or its Language; as, Hispanic words
Allophylian - ) Pertaining to a race or a Language neither Aryan nor Semitic
Hebraically - ) After the manner of the Hebrews or of the Hebrew Language
Discourtesy - ) Rudeness of behavior or Language; ill manners; manifestation of disrespect; incivility
Wendic - ) The Language of the Wends
Railer - One who scoffs, insults, censures or reproaches with opprobrious Language
Greek Language - God so ordained it that by the rise of the Greek empire this Language was spread over Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and countries adjacent, and it is a Language still understood by the learned of all nations. It is acknowledged to be a remarkably flexible Language, capable of forming new theological terms with delicate shades of meaning, and of expressing ideas with precision. It was therefore, on all accounts, the most suitable Language in which to make known the gospel of God, and the truths needed for the building up of the saints. was also translated into the same Language, and that version was quoted by both the Lord and His apostles
Hellenist - ) One skilled in the Greek Language and literature; as, the critical Hellenist. , a person of Jewish extraction who used the Greek Language as his mother tongue, as did the Jews of Asia Minor, Greece, Syria, and Egypt; distinguished from the Hebraists, or native Jews (Acts vi
Hebrew - The Hebrew Language. Pertaining to the Hebrews as the Hebrew Language or rites
Brokenly - ) In a broken, interrupted manner; in a broken state; in broken Language
Assyriology - ) The science or study of the antiquities, Language, etc
Lycaonian - (lihc ay oh' ni uhn) Citizen of or Language of Lycaonia
Heraldic - ) Of or pertaining to heralds or heraldry; as, heraldic blazoning; heraldic Language
Frenchism - ) A French mode or characteristic; an idiom peculiar to the French Language
Euphuism - ) An affectation of excessive elegance and refinement of Language; high-flown diction
Euphuize - ) To affect excessive refinement in Language; to be overnice in expression
Romansch - ) The Language of the Grisons in Switzerland, a corruption of the Latin
Retranslate - ) To translate anew; especially, to translate back into the original Language
Malagasy - ), the Language
Latinization - ) The act or process of Latinizing, as a word, Language, or country
High-Flown - ) Turgid; extravagant; bombastic; inflated; as, high-flown Language
Pasilaly - ) A form of speech adapted to be used by all mankind; universal Language
Sinologue - ) A student of Chinese; one versed in the Chinese Language, literature, and history
Amerikanski Slovenec - Daily newspaper, founded, 1891, published in the Slovenian Language in Chicago, Illinois through 1946
Hebraic - ) Of or pertaining to the Hebrews, or to the Language of the Hebrews
Argot - ) A secret Language or conventional slang peculiar to thieves, tramps, and vagabonds; flash
Foreignism - ) Anything peculiar to a foreign Language or people; a foreign idiom or custom
Railer - ) One who rails; one who scoffs, insults, censures, or reproaches with opprobrious Language
Abusiveness - ) The quality of being abusive; rudeness of Language, or violence to the person
Profaneness - ) The quality or state of being profane; especially, the use of profane Language
Romany - ) The Language spoken among themselves by the gypsies
Chaldee - The Language or dialect of the Chaldeans
Slovenec, Amerikanski - Daily newspaper, founded, 1891, published in the Slovenian Language in Chicago, Illinois through 1946
Blackguard - one who uses scurrilous Language, or treats others with foul abuse; a scoundrel; a rough. ) To revile or abuse in scurrilous Language. ) Scurrilous; abusive; low; worthless; vicious; as, blackguard Language
Rammar - ) A treatise on the principles of Language; a book containing the principles and rules for correctness in speaking or writing. ) The science which treats of the principles of Language; the study of forms of speech, and their relations to one another; the art concerned with the right use aud application of the rules of a Language, in speaking or writing
Humility (2) - The whole Roman Language, even with all the improvements of the Augustan age, does not afford so much as a name for humility (the word from whence we borrow this, as is well known, bearing in Latin a quite different meaning), no, nor was one found in all the copious Language of the Greeks, till it was made by the great Apostle
Humility (2) - The whole Roman Language, even with all the improvements of the Augustan age, does not afford so much as a name for humility (the word from whence we borrow this, as is well known, bearing in Latin a quite different meaning), no, nor was one found in all the copious Language of the Greeks, till it was made by the great Apostle
Basque - ) The Language spoken by the Basque people. ) Pertaining to Biscay, its people, or their Language
Dialect - ) Means or mode of expressing thoughts; Language; tongue; form of speech. ) The form of speech of a limited region or people, as distinguished from ether forms nearly related to it; a variety or subdivision of a Language; speech characterized by local peculiarities or specific circumstances; as, the Ionic and Attic were dialects of Greece; the Yorkshire dialect; the dialect of the learned
Esperanto - ) An artificial Language, intended to be universal, devised by Dr. The vocabulary is very largely based upon words common to the chief European Languages, and sounds peculiar to any one Language are eliminated
Coptic - ) The Language of the Copts
Sinology - ) That branch of systemized knowledge which treats of the Chinese, their Language, literature, etc
Abjuration - Denial or disavowal under oath; in canonical Language, the renunciation of apostasy, heresy, or schism
Monosyllabic - ) Being a monosyllable, or composed of monosyllables; as, a monosyllabic word; a monosyllabic Language
Linguistical - ) Of or pertaining to Language; relating to linguistics, or to the affinities of Languages
Abominably - In vulgar Language, extremely, excessively
Malayan - ) The Malay Language
Hebrew Language - called also absolutely Hebrew, is the Language spoken by the Hebrews, and in which all the books of the Old Testament are written; whence it is also called the holy or sacred Language. The Jews, in general, have been of opinion, that the Hebrew was the Language of Heber's family, from whom Abraham sprung. On the other hand, it has been maintained that Heber's family, in the fourth generation after the dispersion, lived in Chaldea, where Abraham was born, Genesis 11:27-28 , and that there is no reason to think they used a different Language from their neighbours around them. It appears, moreover, that the Chaldee, and not the Hebrew, was the Language of Abraham's country, and of his kindred, Genesis 24:4 ; Genesis 31:46-47 ; and it is probable that Abraham's native Language was Chaldee, and that the Hebrew was the Language of the Canaanites, which Abraham and his posterity learned by travelling among them. It is surprising that this adoption of the Phenician Language by the patriarchs should have escaped the notice of several intelligent readers of the Bible. Jacob and Laban, it is clear, by the names they gave to the cairn, or memorial of stones, spoke two different dialects; and it is nearly equally evident, that the Language of Laban was the dialect of Ur of the Chaldees, the original speech of the Hebrew race. At the same time, it must be remarked, that the Phenician and the Chaldean were merely different dialects of the same primitive Language which had been spoken by the first ancestors of mankind. The Hebrew appears to be the most ancient of all the Languages in the world; at least it is so with regard to us, who know of no older. Sharpe adopts the opinion, that the Hebrew was the original Language; not indeed that the Hebrew is the unvaried Language of our first parents, but that it was the general Language of men at the dispersion; and, however it might have been improved and altered from the first speech of our first parents, it was the original of all the Languages, or almost all the Languages, rather dialects, that have since arisen in the world. Arguments have also been deduced from the nature and genius of the Hebrew Language, in order to prove that it was the original Language, neither improved nor debased by foreign idioms. ...
The period, from the age of Moses to that of David, has been considered the golden age of the Hebrew Language, which declined in purity from that time to the reign of Hezekiah or Manasseh, having received several foreign words, particularly Aramean, from the commercial and political intercourse of the Jews and Israelites with the Assyrians and Babylonians. This period has been termed the silver age of the Hebrew Language. In the interval between the reign of Hezekiah and the Babylonish captivity, the purity of the Language was neglected, and so many foreign words were introduced into it, that this period has not ineptly been designated its iron age. During the seventy years' captivity, though it does not appear that the Hebrews entirely lost their native tongue, yet it underwent so considerable a change from their adoption of the vernacular Languages of the countries where they had resided, that afterward, on their return from exile, they spoke a dialect of Chaldee mixed with Hebrew words. On this account it was, that, when the Scriptures were read, it was found necessary to interpret them to the people in the Chaldean Language; as, when Ezra the scribe brought the book of the law of Moses before the congregation, the Levites are said to have caused the people to understand the law, because "they read in the book, in the law of God, distinctly, and gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading," Nehem. Some time after the return from the great captivity, Hebrew ceased to be spoken altogether; though it continued to be cultivated and studied by the priests and Levites, as a learned Language, that they might be enabled to expound the law and the prophets to the people, who, it appears from the New Testament, were well acquainted with their general contents and tenor: this last mentioned period has been called the leaden age of the Language
Catholic Daily Tribune - Newspaper, the only Catholic daily in the English Language; published at Dubuque, Iowa; founded, 1920; circulation, 18,022
Chaldaic - ) The Language or dialect of the Chaldeans; Chaldee
Arabic - ) The Language of the Arabians
Rabbinic - ) The Language or dialect of the rabbins; the later Hebrew
Livinian - ) A native or an inhabitant of Livonia; the Language (allied to the Finnish) of the Livonians
Translated - Conveyed from one place to another removed to heaven without dying rendered into another Language
Lat'in, - the Language spoken by the Romans, is mentioned only in (John 19:20 ) and Luke 23:38
Ave Maria Slovenian Publication - Magazine published twice monthly in the Slovenian Language at Lemont, Illinois by the Slovenian Franciscan Fathers; established, 1910
Euphemize - ) To express by a euphemism, or in delicate Language; to make use of euphemistic expressions
Linguist - ) A master of the use of Language; a talker. ) A person skilled in Languages
Lettish - ) The Language spoken by the Letts
Sitjar, Buenaventura - Compiled a vocabulary of the Telame Indian Language, with the pronunciation and Spanish explanations
Mene - This sentence, which appeared on the wall of Belshazzar's banqueting-hall to warn him of the impending destruction of Babylon, is in the Chaldee Language. " "Peres," in the original Language, is the same word with "Upharsin," but in a different case or number
Greek Language - The Greek Language has had a long and illustrious history and continues to this day as a vital and viable Language. In contrast, Latin survives only in the current romance Languages. Greek was the Language of Homer, Plato, and Aristotle. It is also the Language of modern day Greece. Like English, Greek is classified as a part of the Indo-European family of Languages. It is a more highly inflected Language than English. In the hands of a skilled writer, the Greek Language is able to communicate the nuances of philosophy and the deep emotional feelings of a Sophoclean tragedy. ...
The origins of the Greek Language are buried in antiquity. These epic poems reflect the richness of the Language from ancient times. Homer used the Greek Language to portray the heroic portions of humanity. Although these writers used different dialects, they both wrote in the same basic Language known as Greek. ...
Of all of the linguistic periods in the development of the Greek Language, the Hellenistic period is of particular importance. During this time Greek became the universal Language of the “known” world. The Greek Language had already spread to the West through the colonies which had been sent out from the Greek mainland. ...
Although Rome was the dominant military and political force throughout Europe and Asia Minor during the Hellenistic period, Greek rather than Latin maintained its domination as the Language of the people. Latin was the Language of the Roman government; Greek was the Language of the Empire, the lingua franca . ” This implied that, although the roots of the New Testament were in the Greek Language, its style and form differed sharply from the literary Attic Greek with which scholars were familiar. It was not some special dialect or Holy Ghost Language. The New Testament was written in the universal Language of the Empire
Katolyckyj Provid - , in the Ukrainian Language by the Ukrainian Catholic bishop; founded 1927
Chrestomathy - , to be used in acquiring a Language; as, a Hebrew chrestomathy
Cimbric - ) The Language of the Cimbri
Semi-Saxon - ) Half Saxon; - specifically applied to the Language intermediate between Saxon and English, belonging to the period 1150-1250
Alemannic - ) The Language of the Alemanni
Versus - ) Against; as, John Doe versus Richard Roe; - chiefly used in legal Language, and abbreviated to v
Revile - ) To address or abuse with opprobrious and contemptuous Language; to reproach
Mealy-Mouthed - ) Using soft words; plausible; affectedly or timidly delicate of speech; unwilling to tell the truth in plain Language
Lappic - ) The Language of the Lapps
Latin - In such provinces as Judæa the Latin Language alone had place in official acts and Roman courts. Throughout Palestine, while Latin was the Language of the administration, Greek was the main Language of commerce, and Aramaic the Language of common intercourse among Jews. Hence we find all three Languages used for the superscription on the cross ( Luke 23:38 )
Catalan - ) A native or inhabitant of Catalonia; also, the Language of Catalonia
Cleanness - ) Purity of life or Language; freedom from licentious courses
Arabist - ) One well versed in the Arabic Language or literature; also, formerly, one who followed the Arabic system of surgery
Coarseness - ) The quality or state of being coarse; roughness; inelegance; vulgarity; grossness; as, coarseness of food, texture, manners, or Language
Rabbinical - ) Of or pertaining to the rabbins or rabbis, or pertaining to the opinions, learning, or Language of the rabbins
Scurrile - ) Such as befits a buffoon or vulgar jester; grossly opprobrious or loudly jocose in Language; scurrilous; as, scurrile taunts
Flowery - ) Highly embellished with figurative Language; florid; as, a flowery style
Alman - ) The German Language
Volapuk - ) Literally, world's speech; the name of an artificial Language invented by Johan Martin Schleyer, of Constance, Switzerland, about 1879
Lossology - ) The science of Language; comparative philology; linguistics; glottology
Slovensky Svet - A weekly newspaper published in the Slovak Language in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by the Catholic American Publishing Company; founded in 1927
Kehrein, Joseph - Author of numerous works on the German Language and on the history of German literature
Joseph Kehrein - Author of numerous works on the German Language and on the history of German literature
Celtic - ) The Language of the Celts
Diatribe - ) A prolonged or exhaustive discussion; especially, an acrimonious or invective harangue; a strain of abusive or railing Language; a philippic
Aramean - ) Of or pertaining to the Syrians and Chaldeans, or to their Language; Aramaic
Adoptive - ) Pertaining to adoption; made or acquired by adoption; fitted to adopt; as, an adoptive father, an child; an adoptive Language
Slavonic - ) Of or pertaining to the Slavs, or their Language
Hiberno-Celtic - ) The native Language of the Irish; that branch of the Celtic Languages spoken by the natives of Ireland
Ostic - ) Pertaining to, or applied to, the Language of the Tuscaroras, Iroquois, Wyandots, Winnebagoes, and a part of the Sioux Indians
Targum - ) A translation or paraphrase of some portion of the Old Testament Scriptures in the Chaldee or Aramaic Language or dialect
Maieutical - : Aiding, or tending to, the definition and interpretation of thoughts or Language
Bruising - In popular Language, a beating or boxing
Italian - The Language used in Italy, or by the Italians
Samaritan - ) A native or inhabitant of Samaria; also, the Language of Samaria
Ermanism - ) An idiom of the German Language
Glasilo k.s.k. Jednote - A weekly paper published in Cleveland, Ohio, in the Slovenian Language as the organ of the Slovenian Catholic Fraternal Union; founded 1915
Brethren - It is used almost exclusively in solemn and scriptural Language,in the place of brothers
Circumlocution - ) The use of many words to express an idea that might be expressed by few; indirect or roundabout Language; a periphrase
Purism - ) Rigid purity; the quality of being affectedly pure or nice, especially in the choice of Language; over-solicitude as to purity
Transliteration - ) The act or product of transliterating, or of expressing words of a Language by means of the characters of another alphabet
Yakut - ) The Turkish Language of the Yakuts, a Mongolian people of northeastern Siberia, which is lingua franca over much of eastern Siberia
Opprobrious - ) Expressive of opprobrium; attaching disgrace; reproachful; scurrilous; as, opprobrious Language
Kickapoos - ) A tribe of Indians which formerly occupied the region of Northern Illinois, allied in Language to the Sacs and Foxes
Magyar - ) The Language of the Magyars
Metagraphy - ) The art or act of rendering the letters of the alphabet of one Language into the possible equivalents of another; transliteration
Moriscos - They remained the implacable enemies of their conquerors with whom they differed in religion, dress, Language, etc. Philip II tried to make them renounce their dress and Language, whereupon they revolted and engaged in a bloody struggle against Spain, 1567-1570
Bawdry - ) Obscenity; filthy, unchaste Language
Chaffing - ) The use of light, frivolous Language by way of fun or ridicule; raillery; banter
Bowwow - ) Onomatopoetic; as, the bowwow theory of Language; a bowwow word
Calmucks - ), the Language of the Calmucks
Dutch - ) The Language spoken in Holland
Equipollency - ) Sameness of signification of two or more propositions which differ in Language
Idiomatical - ) Of or pertaining to, or conforming to, the mode of expression peculiar to a Language; as, an idiomatic meaning; an idiomatic phrase
Languages of the Bible - ...
Characteristics of Hebrew Hebrew is a Semitic Language related to Phoenician and the dialects of ancient Canaan. Semitic Languages have the ability to convey abundant meaning through few words. It began as the Language of Syria and was gradually adopted as the Language of international communication. , it replaced Hebrew as the spoken Language of Palestine. Hebrew then continued as the religious Language of the Jews, but the Aramaic alphabet was borrowed for writing it. ...
Characteristics of Greek Greek belongs to the Indo-European Language group. Paul no doubt knew all three biblical Languages, and Latin as well
Chaldee - ) The Language or dialect of the Chaldeans; eastern Aramaic, or the Aramaic used in Chaldea
Assyrian - ) A native or an inhabitant of Assyria; the Language of Assyria
Agrostis - ) A genus of grasses, including species called in common Language bent grass
Refined - ) Freed from impurities or alloy; purifed; polished; cultured; delicate; as; refined gold; refined Language; refined sentiments
French - ) The Language spoken in France
Rabbinism - ) A rabbinic expression or phraseology; a peculiarity of the Language of the rabbins
Czech - ) The Language of the Czechs (often called Bohemian), the harshest and richest of the Slavic Languages
Flemish - ) The Language or dialect spoken by the Flemings; also, collectively, the people of Flanders
Hlas - A Catholic paper published twice a week in Saint Louis, Missouri, in the Bohemian (Czech) Language by the Bohemian Literary Society, Inc
Anquetil-Duperron, Abraham Hyacinthe - Journeyed to India to study the Language of the Parsees and wrote the first translation of the Avesta
Satirical - ) Censorious; severe in Language; sarcastic; insulting
Turkish - ) The Language spoken by Turks, esp
Abraham Anquetil-Duperron - Journeyed to India to study the Language of the Parsees and wrote the first translation of the Avesta
Hebrew Language - The Language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. It is one of the class of Languages called Semitic, because they were chiefly spoken among the descendants of Shem. ...
When Abraham entered Canaan it is obvious that he found the Language of its inhabitants closely allied to his own. (Isaiah 19:18 ) calls it "the Language of Canaan. " Whether this Language, as seen in the earliest books of the Old Testament, was the very dialect which Abraham brought with him into Canaan, or whether it was the common tongue of the Canaanitish nations which he only adopted, is uncertain; probably the latter opinion is the correct one. For the thousand years between Moses and the Babylonian exile the Hebrew Language underwent little or no modification. They now spoke Hebrew with a large admixture of Aramaic or Chaldee, which latterly became the predominant element in the national Language. So long as it was a living Language, and for ages after, only the consonants of the words were written. The Hebrew is one of the oldest Languages of which we have any knowledge. It is essentially identical with the Phoenician Language. ) The Semitic Languages, to which class the Hebrew and Phoenician belonged, were spoken over a very wide area: in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Arabia, in all the countries from the Mediterranean to the borders of Assyria, and from the mountains of Armenia to the Indian Ocean
Coptic - Whatever may be the origin of Copt, the adjective Coptic now refers to the people called Copts, who are Christians, and to their Language. The Language of the Copts
Slang - ) Low, vulgar, unauthorized Language; a popular but unauthorized word, phrase, or mode of expression; also, the jargon of some particular calling or class in society; low popular cant; as, the slang of the theater, of college, of sailors, etc. ) To address with slang or ribaldry; to insult with vulgar Language
Mahratta - Also, the Language of the Mahrattas; Mahrati. ) A Sanskritic Language of western India, prob
Barbarian, Barbarous - " Hence it signified one who speaks a strange or foreign Language. It then came to denote any foreigner ignorant of the Greek Language and culture. "Berber" stood similarly in the Language of the Egyptians for all non-Egyptian peoples
Magyarok Vasarnapja - The official weekly organ of the various Magyar (Hungarian) Catholic parishes in the United States, published in Cleveland, Ohio, in the Magyar Language; founded, 1900
Scottish - ) Of or pertaining to the inhabitants of Scotland, their country, or their Language; as, Scottish industry or economy; a Scottish chief; a Scottish dialect
Idiotism - ) An idiom; a form, mode of expression, or signification, peculiar to a Language
Talitha Cumi - Words in the Aramaic Language, signifying 'Damsel, arise
Oscan - ) The Language of the Osci
Manchu - ) A native or inhabitant of Manchuria; also, the Language spoken by the Manchus
Moesogothic - ) The Language of the Moesogoths; - also called Gothic
Aram - ...
Aramaic...
One of the greatest influences the Arameans had was through their Language, Aramaic. The Aramaic Language spread far and wide, and from the time of Israel’s monarchy onwards was the Language most commonly used throughout south-west Asia (2 Kings 18:26). In the Persian Empire (539-333 BC) Aramaic was the official Language (Ezra 4:7). With the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Greek Language spread throughout his empire and became the official Language. But in south-western Asia, Aramaic was still the most commonly used Language, in spite of the increasing use of Greek. Aramaic was the Language that Jesus and his disciples usually spoke (Mark 5:41; Mark 7:34; Mark 15:34), though they also spoke and wrote Greek, the Language in which the New Testament is written
Della Crusca - A shortened form of Accademia della Crusca, an academy in Florence, Italy, founded in the 16th century, especially for conserving the purity of the Italian Language
Yiddish - ) A Language used by German and other Jews, being a Middle German dialect developed under Hebrew and Slavic influence
Abused - Ill-used used to a bad purpose treated with rude Language misemployed perverted to bad or wrong ends deceived defiled violated
Egyptian - ) A native, or one of the people, of Egypt; also, the Egyptian Language
Russ - ) The Language of the Russians
Latinism - ) A Latin idiom; a mode of speech peculiar to Latin; also, a mode of speech in another Language, as English, formed on a Latin model
Labialism - ) The quality of being labial; as, the labialism of an articulation; conversion into a labial, as of a sound which is different in another Language
Metaphrase - ) A verbal translation; a version or translation from one Language into another, word for word; - opposed to paraphrase
Beschi, Costanzo Giuseppe - He labored about 40 years on the Madura mission and became famous for linguistic and literary work in the Tamil Language. His classic "Tembavani" (Unfading Garland) is the noblest epic poem in honor of Saint Joseph in any Language; "Paramartaguru Kadey" (Adventures of the teacher Paramarta) is a delightful, witty satire, the most fascinating book in Tamil
Devil - A very wicked person, and in ludicrous Language, an great evil. In profane Language, it is an expletive expressing wonder, vexation, &c
Saxon - ) The Language of the Saxons; Anglo-Saxon. ) Of or pertaining to the Saxons, their country, or their Language
Parthians - They came from northern Iran, and their Language or dialect greatly affected the cultivated speech of the empire, which was known as Pahlavi during their régime. But the exact form of the Language of the Jews or proselytes who came to Jerusalem from Parthia, referred to in Acts 2:9 , cannot be ascertained
Translation - The act of turning into another Language interpretation as the translation of Virgil or Homer. That which is produced by turning into another Language a version
Englishism - ) A form of expression peculiar to the English Language as spoken in England; an Anglicism
Franciska Poslaniec sw - A monthly magazine published in the Polish Language in Pulaski, Wisconsin, at the Franciscan Monastery, for the members of the Third Order of Saint Francis; founded 1915
Anglicism - ) An English idiom; a phrase or form Language peculiar to the English
Causticily - ) Severity of Language; sarcasm; as, the causticity of a reply or remark
Latin - (la' tihn) Language of ancient Italy and the Roman Empire and thus one of Languages in which the inscription over Christ's cross was written (John 19:20 )
Hebraism - ) A Hebrew idiom or custom; a peculiar expression or manner of speaking in the Hebrew Language
Preciosity - in Language; specif
Latin - (la' tihn) Language of ancient Italy and the Roman Empire and thus one of Languages in which the inscription over Christ's cross was written (John 19:20 )
Burmese - ), the Language of the Burmans
Pleonasm - ) Redundancy of Language in speaking or writing; the use of more words than are necessary to express the idea; as, I saw it with my own eyes
Agglutinative - ) Formed or characterized by agglutination, as a Language or a compound
Acerbity - ) Harshness, bitterness, or severity; as, acerbity of temper, of Language, of pain
Proven/al - ) The Provencal Language
Earing - In seamen's Language, a small rope employed to fasten the upper corner of a sail to its yard
Tropist - ) One who deals in tropes; specifically, one who avoids the literal sense of the Language of Scripture by explaining it as mere tropes and figures of speech
Melzar - The government of the person of Daniel and his companions when captives in Babylon, (Daniel 1:16) The word Melzar is of the Chaldean Language, and signifies steward
Language - Much has been said respecting the invention of Language. On the one side it is observed, that it is altogether a human invention, and that the progress of the mind, in the invention and improvement of Language, is, by certain natural gradations, plainly discernible in the composition of words. It is much more natural to think that God taught our first parents only such Language as suited their present occasion, leaving them, as he did in other things, to enlarge and improve it, as their future necessities should require. ...
Without attempting, however, to decide this controversy, we may consider Language as one of the greatest blessings belonging to mankind. What was the first Language taught man, is matter of dispute among the learned, but most, think it was the Hebrew. Adam Smith's Dissertation on the Formation of Languages; Harris's Hermes; Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses, vol. Lord Monboddo on the Origin and Progress of Language
Lip - ” This Hebrew word is related to cognate Languages where a similar word signifies “lip” or “edge” (cf. Śâphâh has undergone little change in the history of the Hebrew Language. The use of śâphâh is similar to that of |lashon“tongue,” in that both words denote speech and also human Language. Śâphâh with the meaning of human Language occurs in the phrase “the Language of Canaan” ( Language as “deeper speech than thou canst perceive” (literally, “depths of lip”; 33:19). ...
The Septuagint translation is cheilos (“lip; shore; bank”); and the KJV has these translations: “lip; bank; brim; edge; Language; shore; and speech
Atticism - ) The style and idiom of the Greek Language, used by the Athenians; a concise and elegant expression
Rail - KJV term meaning, “revile,” “deride,” “cast contempt upon,” or “scold using harsh and abusive Language” (1 Samuel 25:14 ; 2 Chronicles 32:17 ; Mark 15:29 ; Luke 23:39 )
Madecassee - ) A native or inhabitant of Madagascar, or Madecassee; the Language of the natives of Madagascar
Lofty - : Elevated in character, rank, dignity, spirit, bearing, Language, etc
Breton - ) A native or inhabitant of Brittany, or Bretagne, in France; also, the ancient Language of Brittany; Armorican
Wallachian - ) An inhabitant of Wallachia; also, the Language of the Wallachians; Roumanian
Purist - in the choice of Language
Though - ) However; nevertheless; notwithstanding; - used in familiar Language, and in the middle or at the end of a sentence
Che'Bel - (cord ), one of the singular topographical terms in which the ancient Hebrew Language abounded
Jot - This refers to the Hebrew letter yod , the smallest letter in the Language
Eliphaz - His Language is uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the other two, although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause of his present sufferings. He states with remarkable force of Language the infinite purity and majesty of God (4:12-21; 15:12-16)
Sanskrit - ) The ancient Language of the Hindoos, long since obsolete in vernacular use, but preserved to the present day as the literary and sacred dialect of India. It is nearly allied to the Persian, and to the principal Languages of Europe, classical and modern, and by its more perfect preservation of the roots and forms of the primitive Language from which they are all descended, is a most important assistance in determining their history and relations
Pundit - , a Brahman versed in the Sanskrit Language, and in the science, laws, and religion of the Hindoos; in Cashmere, any clerk or native official
Alphabet, Cyrillic - The special alphabet accredited to Saint Cyril, Apostle of the Slavs, in order to express the sounds of the Slavonic Language as spoken by the Bulgars and Moravians of his time
Hellenist - During the last three centuries BC, Greek culture and Language spread across the whole of the eastern Mediterranean region (see GREECE). Many Jews no longer spoke their native Language, Hebrew, nor the related Language, Aramaic, that had largely replaced it. The Language they spoke was Greek, and because of this they were known as Hellenists (from the word hellas, meaning Greece)
Ambiguity - ) The quality or state of being ambiguous; doubtfulness or uncertainty, particularly as to the signification of Language, arising from its admitting of more than one meaning; an equivocal word or expression
Extravaganza - ) An extravagant flight of sentiment or Language
Bowels - The bowels are in Biblical Language the seat of the emotions
Hellenize - ) To use the Greek Language; to play the Greek; to Grecize
Emblematical - ) Pertaining to, containing, or consisting in, an emblem; symbolic; typically representative; representing as an emblem; as, emblematic Language or ornaments; a crown is emblematic of royalty; white is emblematic of purity
Homeliness - ) Coarseness; simplicity; want of refinement; as, the homeliness of manners, or Language
Scurrility - ) That which is scurrile or scurrilous; gross or obscene Language; low buffoonery; vulgar abuse
Chaldees - These men cultivated the ancient Cushite Language of the original inhabitants of the land, for they had a "learning" and a "tongue" (1:4) of their own. The common Language of the country at that time had become assimilated to the Semitic dialect, especially through the influence of the Assyrians, and was the Language that was used for all civil purposes
Akkad (Accad), Akkadians - It was probably in consequence of this that it gave its name to Northern Babylonia, the Semitic Language of which came to be known as Akkadu or ‘Akkadian. ’ In the early days of cuneiform decipherment ‘Akkadian’ was the name usually applied to the non-Semitic Language of primitive Babylonia, but some cuneiform texts published by Bezold in 1889 ( ZA p. 434) showed that this was called by the Babylonians themselves ‘the Language of Sumer’ or Southern Babylonia, while a text recently published by Messerschmidt ( Orient
Translate - To interpret to render into another Language to express the sense of one Language in the words of another. The Old Testament was translated into the Greek Language more than two hundred years before Christ. The Scriptures are now translated into most of the Languages of Europe and Asia
Euphuist - ) One who affects excessive refinement and elegance of Language; - applied esp
Syriac, Syrian Tongue - The Language that was spoken in Syria was substantially the same as Chaldee
Martinet - ) In military Language, a strict disciplinarian; in general, one who lays stress on a rigid adherence to the details of discipline, or to forms and fixed methods
Interpreter - A translator one who renders the words of one Language in words of corresponding signification in another
Confusion of Tongues - A memorable event which happened in the one hundred and first year, according to the Hebrew chronology, and the four hundred and first year by the Samaritan, after the flood, at the overthrow of Babel, Genesis 11:1-32 : Until this period there had been but one common Language, which formed a bond of union that prevented the separation of mankind into distinct nations. Some think that no new Languages were formed; but that this event was accomplished by creating a misunderstanding and variance among the builders without any immediate influence on their Language; and that a distinction is to be made between confounding a Language and forming new ones. Others account for this event by the privation of all Language, and by supposing that mankind were under a necessity of associating together, and of imposing new names on things by common consent. ...
Some, again, ascribe the confusion to such an indistinct remembrance of the original Language which they spoke before, as made them speak it very differently: but the most common, opinion is, that God caused the builders actually to forget their former Language, and each family to speak a new tongue; whence originated the various Languages at present in the world
Ermanize - ) To make German, or like what is distinctively German; as, to Germanize a province, a Language, a society
Bramble - They are armed with prickles hence in common Language, any rough, prickly shrub
Exhortation - ) Language intended to incite and encourage; advice; counsel; admonition
Visayan - ) A member of the most numerous of the native races of the Philippines, occupying the Visayan Islands and the northern coast Mindanao; also, their Language
Mongrel - ) Of mixed kinds; as, mongrel Language
Vulgarity - ) Grossness or clownishness of manners of Language; absence of refinement; coarseness
Anglo-Saxon - ) The Language of the English people before the Conquest (sometimes called Old English). ) Of or pertaining to the Anglo-Saxons or their Language
Othic - ) The Language of the Goths; especially, the Language of that part of the Visigoths who settled in Moesia in the 4th century
Interpret - To explain the meaning or words to a person who does not understand them to expound to translate unintelligible words into intelligible ones as, to interpret the Hebrew Language to an Englishman. To define to explain words by other words in the same Language
Lycaonia - Although the local people spoke Greek, the chief Language of the Roman Empire, they continued to use their own Lycaonian Language (Acts 14:11)
Curse - In Scripture Language it signifies the just and lawful sentence of God's law, condemning sinners to suffer the full punishment of their sin, Galatians 3:10
Diction - ; mode of expression; Language; as, the diction of Chaucer's poems
Maronite - ) One of a body of nominal Christians, who speak the Arabic Language, and reside on Mount Lebanon and in different parts of Syria
Kolushan - Their Language bears some affinity to Mexican tongues
Seventy - The Septuagint or seventy translators of the Old Testament into the Greek Language
Terse - ) Elegantly concise; free of superfluous words; polished to smoothness; as, terse Language; a terse style
Greek - The Language of Greece
Walloons - ) A Romanic people inhabiting that part of Belgium which comprises the provinces of Hainaut, Namur, Liege, and Luxembourg, and about one third of Brabant; also, the Language spoken by this people
Japanese - ) The Language of the people of Japan
Bushman - ) One of a race of South African nomads, living principally in the deserts, and not classified as allied in race or Language to any other people
Platitude - ) The quality or state of being flat, thin, or insipid; flat commonness; triteness; staleness of ideas of Language
Morisco - ) A thing of Moorish origin; as: (a) The Moorish Language
Lithuanian - ) A native, or one of the people, of Lithuania; also, the Language of the Lithuanian people
Chirology - ) The art or practice of using the manual alphabet or of communicating thoughts by sings made by the hands and fingers; a substitute for spoken or written Language in intercourse with the deaf and dumb
Word - ) Talk; discourse; speech; Language. ) Language considered as implying the faith or authority of the person who utters it; statement; affirmation; declaration; promise. ) The spoken sign of a conception or an idea; an articulate or vocal sound, or a combination of articulate and vocal sounds, uttered by the human voice, and by custom expressing an idea or ideas; a single component part of human speech or Language; a constituent part of a sentence; a term; a vocable
Chaff - ) To use light, idle Language by way of fun or ridicule; to banter. ) To make fun of; to turn into ridicule by addressing in ironical or bantering Language; to quiz
Bohemian - ) The Language of the Czechs (the ancient inhabitants of Bohemia), the richest and most developed of the dialects of the Slavic family. ) Of or pertaining to Bohemia, or to the Language of its ancient inhabitants or their descendants
Refine - ) To affect nicety or subtilty in thought or Language. ) To purify from what is gross, coarse, vulgar, inelegant, low, and the like; to make elegant or exellent; to polish; as, to refine the manners, the Language, the style, the taste, the intellect, or the moral feelings
Tongue - For the tongue or Language that is spoken in any country, Deuteronomy 28:49 . ( See Language
Confusion of Tongues - Until this period, there had been one common Language, which formed a bond of union, that prevented the separation of mankind into distinct nations. Some learned men, prepossessed with the notion that all the different idioms now in the world did at first arise from one original Language, to which they may be reduced, and that the variety among them is no more than must naturally have happened in a long course of time by the mere separation of the builders of Babel, have maintained, that there were no new Languages formed at the confusion; but that this event was accomplished by creating a misunderstanding and variance among the builders, without any immediate influence on their Language. It has been justly remarked, that unanimity of sentiment, and identity of Language, are particularly distinguished from each other, in the history: "The people is one, and they have all one Language," Genesis 11:6 . Others have imagined, that this was brought about by a temporary confusion of their speech, or rather of their apprehensions, causing them, while they continued together and spoke the same Language, to understand the words differently: Scaliger is of this opinion. Others again account for this event, by the privation of all Language, and by supposing that mankind were under a necessity of associating together, and of imposing new names on things by common consent. Another opinion ascribes the confusion to such an indistinct remembrance of the original Language which they spoke before, as made them speak it very differently; so that by the various inflections, terminations, and pronunciations of divers dialects, they could no more understand one another, than they who understand Latin can understand those who speak French, Italian, or Spanish, though all these Languages arise out of it. Wotton, &c, not satisfied with either of the foregoing methods of accounting for the diversity of Languages among mankind, have recourse to an extraordinary interposition of divine power, by which new Languages were framed and communicated to different families by a supernatural infusion or inspiration; which Languages have been the roots and originals from which the several dialects that are, or have been, or will be, spoken, as long as this earth shall last, have arisen, and to which they may with ease be reduced. It is, however, unnecessary to suppose, that the primitive Language was completely obliterated, and entire new modes of speech at once introduced. The radical stem of the first Language might therefore remain in all, though new dialects were formed, bearing among themselves a similar relation with what we find in the Languages of modern Europe, derived from the same parent stem, whether Gothic, Latin, or Sclavonian. In the midst of these changes, it is reasonable to suppose that the primitive Language itself, unaltered, would still be preserved in some one at least of the tribes or families of the human race. Upon these grounds, therefore, we may probably conclude, that the Language spoken by Abraham, and by him transmitted to his posterity, was in fact the primitive Language, modified indeed and extended in the course of time, but still retaining its essential parts far more completely than any other of the Languages of men. Whether this ancient Hebrew more nearly resembled the Chaldean, the Syrian, or what is now termed the Hebrew, it is unnecessary here to inquire; these Languages, it has never been denied, were originally and radically the same, though, from subsequent modifications, they appear to have assumed somewhat different aspects
Recize - ) To render Grecian; also, to cause (a word or phrase in another Language) to take a Greek form; as, the name is Grecized
Aramaic - (ar uh may' ihc) A North Semitic Language similar to Phoenician and Hebrew was the Language of the Arameans whose presence in northwestern Mesopotamia is known from about 2000 B. ...
Old Testament Although the Arameans never founded a great national state or empire, by the eleventh century they had established several small states in Syria, and their Language came to be known from Egypt to Persia. This was a dialect known from documents from Assyria and known best from documents from the Persian empire, for which Aramaic had become the official court Language. Aramaic had begun to supplant Akkadian as the Language of commerce and diplomacy (2 Kings 18:26 ). ...
Characteristics Hebrew and Aramaic, as cognates or closely related Languages, share several formal and phonological characteristics, including the predominance of basic root words with three consonants, the position of word accent, the use of pronominal suffixes, and the use of verbal stems or conjugations to indicate simple, intensive, and causative actions. However, the differences in the two Languages show that they are not merely dialectical variations; each Language has its own character and integrity
Grace, Means of - ...
But in popular Language the expression is used in a wider sense to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the Word, meditation, self-examination, Christian conversation, etc
Moabites - Their origin and race is that of the Ammonites; their Language practically a Hebrew dialect; their religion, polytheistic
Prakrit - ) Any one of the popular dialects descended from, or akin to, Sanskrit; - in distinction from the Sanskrit, which was used as a literary and learned Language when no longer spoken by the people
Silken - : Soft; delicate; tender; smooth; as, silken Language
Obscene - ...
(2):...
(a/) Offensive to chastity or modesty; expressing of presenting to the mind or view something which delicacy, purity, and decency forbid to be exposed; impure; as, obscene Language; obscene pictures
Recian - ) One well versed in the Greek Language, literature, or history
Taunt - ) Upbraiding Language; bitter or sarcastic reproach; insulting invective
Roumanian - ) An inhabitant of Roumania; also, the Language of Roumania, one of the Romance or Romanic Languages descended from Latin, but containing many words from other Languages, as Slavic, Turkish, and Greek
Refiner - An improver in purity and elegance as a refiner of Language
Rite, Ruthenian - It is said in the old Slavonic Language, the ancient tongue of the Ruthenians
Ruthenian Rite - It is said in the old Slavonic Language, the ancient tongue of the Ruthenians
Hebrew - (hee' brew) The Language in which the canonical books of the Old Testament were written, except for the Aramaic sections in Ezra 4:8-6:18 ; Ezra 7:12-26 ; Daniel 2:4-7:28 ; Jeremiah 10:11 , and a few other words and phrases from Aramaic and other Languages. The Language is not called “Hebrew” in the Old Testament. Rather, it is known as “the Language (literally, lip) of Canaan” (Isaiah 19:18 ) or as “Judean” (NAS), that is the Language of Judah (Nehemiah 13:24 ; Isaiah 36:11 ). The word “Hebrew” for the Language is first attested in the prologue to Ecclesiasticus in the Apocrypha. ...
Biblical or classical Hebrew belongs to the Northwest Semitic branch of Semitic Languages which includes Ugaritic, Phoenician, Moabite, Edomite, and Ammonite. ...
The distinguishing characteristics of Hebrew are for the most part those shared by one or more of the other Semitic Languages. Classical Hebrew is a verb oriented Language rather than a noun oriented or abstract Language. The Language is quite concrete in expression. Books written toward the close of the Old Testament period, such as Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles, and Ecclesiastes, show the Hebrew Language undergoing a number of significant changes due primarily to Aramaic influence. To these may be added the Moabite Stone (Stele of Mesha, ninth century) and the Ammonite stele (ninth century) which contain inscriptions in Languages very similar to classical Hebrew. ...
There has probably not been a time since its inception when Hebrew has not been in use, even if mainly as a scholarly or literary Language. Classical Hebrew was followed by Mishnaic Hebrew, the Language of the Mishnah, which reflects Hebrew as it was known from around 200 B. 500 Mishnaic Hebrew was the Language of the academy where the Scriptures were interpreted and where the oral interpretations of the sages were passed down. The Language differs from the classical idiom in several important respects, including a greatly expanded vocabulary with the addition of words from Aramaic, Greek, and Latin, the use of new particles, idioms, and patterns of speech, and especially extensive development of the verbal stems. 500 Rabbinic Hebrew was used as a literary Language by the scholars who spoke different vernaculars. The nineteenth and twentieth centuries have witnessed the development of modern Hebrew into a vital, living Language as suitable for the sciences and literature as for everyday use, but this Language represents a vast development and change from classical Hebrew of the Bible, particularly in the verbal system. See Aramaic ; Semitic Languages; Mishnah ; Moabite ; Hebrew Inscriptions
Acrimony - ) Sharpness or severity, as of Language or temper; irritating bitterness of disposition or manners
Argia - (Greek: inactivity) ...
In ecclesiastical Language, abstention from: ...
servile work on Sundays and Holy Days;
recitation of the canonical hours by monks on certain days;
some repasts (suppressed by the exceptional severity of certain fasts);
ecclesiastical functions (in the case of unworthy clerics)
Erse - ) Of or pertaining to the Celtic race in the Highlands of Scotland, or to their Language
Teutonic - ) Of or pertaining to any of the Teutonic Languages, or the peoples who speak these Languages. ) The Language of the ancient Germans; the Teutonic Languages, collectively
Tagal - ) The Language of the Tagals; Tagalog
Racy - ) Hence: Exciting to the mental taste by a strong or distinctive character of thought or Language; peculiar and piquant; fresh and lively
Thine - ) A form of the possessive case of the pronoun thou, now superseded in common discourse by your, the possessive of you, but maintaining a place in solemn discourse, in poetry, and in the usual Language of the Friends, or Quakers
Affectionate - ) Proceeding from affection; indicating love; tender; as, the affectionate care of a parent; affectionate countenance, message, Language
Rune - ) A letter, or character, belonging to the written Language of the ancient Norsemen, or Scandinavians; in a wider sense, applied to the letters of the ancient nations of Northern Europe in general
Thomas Buston - Wrote a grammar of the Language spoken in Canara, a district on the Malabar coast of India, and various instructions in Christianity (written in Portuguese) which are the earliest writings known to have been printed in Hindustan
Jew - "Hebrew" on the other hand expressed their Language and nationality, in contrast to "Hellenists," i. "The Jews' Language" signifies both the Hebrew (2 Kings 18:26) and the Aramaic Hebrew acquired in the captivity (Nehemiah 13:24), "the Language (lip) of Canaan" (Isaiah 19:18). (See HEBREW Language
Chinese - ) The Language of China, which is monosyllabic
Armorican - ) The Language of the Armoricans, a Celtic dialect which has remained to the present times
Atticize - ) To conform or make conformable to the Language, customs, etc
Church, Latin or Western - Comprehends all the churches of Italy, Portugal, Spain, Africa, the north, and all other countries whither the Romans carried their Language
Anthropography - ) That branch of anthropology which treats of the actual distribution of the human race in its different divisions, as distinguished by physical character, Language, institutions, and customs, in contradistinction to ethnography, which treats historically of the origin and filiation of races and nations
Barbarous - ) Contrary to the pure idioms of a Language
Himyaritic - ) Pertaining to Himyar, an ancient king of Yemen, in Arabia, or to his successors or people; as, the Himjaritic characters, Language, etc
Villainy - ) Abusive, reproachful Language; discourteous speech; foul talk
e'li, e'li, Lama Sabachthani - , is the Syro-Chaldaic (the common Language in use by the Jews in the time of Christ) of the first words of the twenty-second Psalm; they mean "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?"
Language - The original Language was not the growth of a mere faculty of speech in man, but a creation of gift of God. For some two thousand years, "the whole earth was of one Language and of one speech," Genesis 11:1 . But about one hundred years after the flood, according to the common chronology, and later according to others, God miraculously "confounded the Language" of the Cushite rebels at Babel; and peopling the earth by these scattered families of diverse tongues, He frustrated the designs and promoted his own. There are now several hundreds of Languages and dialects spoken on the earth, and infidels have hence taken occasion to discredit the Bible doctrine of the unity of the human race. It is found, however, that these Languages are distributed in several great classes, which have striking affinities with each other; and as comparative philology extends its researches, it finds increasing evidence of the substantial oneness of the human race and of the truth of Scripture. ...
To the student of the Bible, one of the most important subjects is the character and history of the original Languages in which that holy book was written. The Hebrew Language, in which the Old Testament was written, is but one of the cluster of cognate Languages, as belonging particularly to the descendants of Shem. ...
The Shemitic Languages may be divided into three principal dialects, namely, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, and the Arabic. The remains of the Phoenician and Punic dialects are too few and too much disfigured to enable us to judge with certainty how extensively these Languages were the same as the dialect of Palestine. The Arabic, to which the Ethiopic bears a special resemblance, comprises, in modern times, a great variety of dialects as a spoken Language, and is spread over a vast extent of country; but so far as we are acquainted with its former state, it appears more anciently to have been limited principally to Arabia and Ethiopia. ...
These Languages are distinguished from European tongues by several marked peculiarities: they are all, except the Ethiopic, written from right to left, and their books begin at what we should call the end; the alphabet, with the exception of the Ethiopic which is syllabic, consists of consonants only, above or below which the vowel-points are written; they have several guttural consonants very difficult of pronunciation to Europeans; the roots of the Language are, in general, verbs of three letters, and pronounced, according to the various dialects, with one or more vowels; the verbs have but two tenses, the past and the future; and the pronouns in the oblique cases are generally untied in the same word with the noun or verb to which they have a relation. These various dialects form substantially one Language, of which the original home was Western Asia. The Language of Noah and his son Shem was substantially that of Adam and all the antediluvians. Shem and Heber were contemporary with Abraham, and transmitted, as we have good reason to believe, their common tongue to the race of Israel; for it is not to be assumed that at the confusion of Babel no branch of the human family retained the primitive Language. ...
The oldest records that are known to exist are composed in the Hebrew Language. It is at present almost a dead Language, and has been so for several centuries. The Hebrew may be regarded as having been a dead Language, except among a small circle of literati, for about the space of two thousand years. Arabic is now the vernacular Language of Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and in a great measure of Palestine and all the northern coast of Africa; while it is read and understood wherever the Koran has gone, in Turkey, Persia, India, and Tartary. The Targum of Onkelos, that is, the translation of the Pentateuch into Chaldee, affords the next and purest specimen of that Language. The oldest specimen of this Language that we have is contained in the Peshito, or Syriac version of the Old and New Testament, made perhaps within a century after the time of Christ
Nation - As such we are to trade together, promote the welfare of each other, and speak the same Language
Picturesque - ) Forming, or fitted to form, a good or pleasing picture; representing with the clearness or ideal beauty appropriate to a picture; expressing that peculiar kind of beauty which is agreeable in a picture, natural or artificial; graphic; vivid; as, a picturesque scene or attitude; picturesque Language
Etymology - ) That part of grammar which relates to the changes in the form of the words in a Language; inflection
Goddess - In the Language of love, a woman of superior charms or excellence
Vocabulary - ) A list or collection of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained; a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole Language, a single work or author, a branch of science, or the like; a word-book
Apharsites - The verse is difficult to read in the original Language, and no satisfactory interpretation has been offered
Wight - ) A human being; a person, either male or female; - now used chiefly in irony or burlesque, or in humorous Language
Dimon - It may be that transcription of a Moabite name into the Hebrew Language or the development of the Language resulted in a change of pronunciation, so that the two names represent one place
Lorenzo Hervas y Panduro - On the suppression of the Jesuits he returned to Europe from America, where he was a missionary, and wrote in Italian an extensive treatise in several volumes on cosmography, in which he investigates the development and ethnological relationship of the different nations on the basis of Language, and also the origin of Language
Hervas y Panduro, Lorenzo - On the suppression of the Jesuits he returned to Europe from America, where he was a missionary, and wrote in Italian an extensive treatise in several volumes on cosmography, in which he investigates the development and ethnological relationship of the different nations on the basis of Language, and also the origin of Language
Seven Liberal Arts - Forming two groups, the liberal arts embrace: ...
the tridium: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, or the sciences of Language, oratory, and logic
the quadridium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music
The Language branches are considered as the lower, the mathematical branches as the intermediate, and science properly so called as the uppermost grade of studies
Wink - ’ It is a good example of the colloquial Language of the English Versions
Babylonish - Like the Language of Babel mixed confused
Reek - ) A native, or one of the people, of Greece; a Grecian; also, the Language of Greece
Hellenism - ) A phrase or form of speech in accordance with genius and construction or idioms of the Greek Language; a Grecism
Reek - ) A native, or one of the people, of Greece; a Grecian; also, the Language of Greece
Ladino - ) The mixed Spanish and Hebrew Language spoken by Sephardim
Barbarian - The Septuagint or earliest Greek translation translated Psalm 114:1 using barbarian for “a people of strange Language. The more common use of “barbarian” seems related to those who spoke a foreign Language, especially other than Greek. With the rise of the Greek empire there was the tendency to include all who were not privy to this Language and culture as barbarians
Cethites - Little is known of their Language and religion
Armenian - ) A native or one of the people of Armenia; also, the Language of the Armenians
Non - This word is used in the English Language as a prefix only, for giving a negative sense to words as in non-residence, non-performance, non-existence, non-payment, non-concurrence, non-admission, non-appearance, non-attendance, non-conformity, non-compliance, non-communion, and the like
Poetry - ) Imaginative Language or composition, whether expressed rhythmically or in prose
Abut - The word is chiefly used in describing the bounds or situation of land, and in popular Language, is contracted into but, as butted and bounded
Aloft - In seamen's Language, in the top at the mast head or on the higher yards or rigging
Magicians - In Scripture Language, the word means a pretender to curious arts
Eloquence - ) Fluent, forcible, elegant, and persuasive speech in public; the power of expressing strong emotions in striking and appropriate Language either spoken or written, thereby producing conviction or persuasion
Hethites - Little is known of their Language and religion
Turgid - ) Swelling in style or Language; vainly ostentatious; bombastic; pompous; as, a turgid style of speaking
Tagalog - ) The Language of the Tagalogs. It belongs to the Malay family of Languages and is one of the most highly developed members of the family
Rhetoric - ) Hence, artificial eloquence; fine Language or declamation without conviction or earnest feeling
Accursed - In Scripture Language, this means, being separated from, and under the curse of God
Mile - Our translators of the Bible have, however, very properly, rendered the measurement by the English standard; so that a mile, in our Language, corresponds to two thousand cubits, and a furlong is the eighth part of a mile
Tart - : Sharp; keen; severe; as, a tart reply; tart Language; a tart rebuke
Jaw - In vulgar Language, scolding, wrangling, abusive clamor
Unto - a compound of un, on, and to of no use in the Language, as it expresses no more than to
Babel - And our English Language; in the strong term of bablers, has very happily borrowed from the Scripture babel or babbel, to express confusion. By the confusion at Babel, in a diversity of tongues, and which ever since hath distinguished nations; the Lord rendered that miracle at Pentecost, of his poor servants speaking in every Language then under heaven in a moment, and with the greatest fluency, a full proof of "the Lord speaking in them, and by them. " But for this diversity of Language the glory of this miracle would have been wanting; since, had all nations, as before the confusion at the tower of Babel they did, spoken but one Language; the disciples of Jesus would have needed the use of no other
Son - The term "son" is used in Scripture Language to imply almost any kind of descent or succession, as ben shanah , "son of a year," i
Berber - Also, the Language spoken by this people
Injurious - In the Language of the AV Description - ) A sketch or account of anything in words; a portraiture or representation in Language; an enumeration of the essential qualities of a thing or species
Dictionary - ) A book containing the words of a Language, arranged alphabetically, with explanations of their meanings; a lexicon; a vocabulary; a wordbook
Cleanness - Exactness purity justness correctness used of Language or style as, cleanness of expression
Crowning - In marine Language, the finishing part of a knot, or interweaving of the strands
Ashes - In the Language of Scripture, ashes are sometimes spoken of to denote great humility and contrition of heart
Arm of the Lord - In the Language of Scripture, this is one of the names of Christ
Liturgy - In the Roman Catholic Church it includes all forms and services in any Language, in any part of the world, for the celebration of Mass
Loftily - With elevation of Language, diction or sentiment sublimely
Grecian - In the New Testament this refers to Jews who had adopted the Greek culture and Language
Haahashtari - (hay' uh hassh' tuh ri) Personal and national name in Persian Language meaning, “kingdom
Raca - (rah' cuh) Word of reproach meaning, “empty” or “ignorant” that the Hebrew writers borrowed from the Aramaic Language
Erman - ) The German Language
Coarse - ) Not refined; rough; rude; unpolished; gross; indelicate; as, coarse manners; coarse Language
Douay Bible - A translation of the Scriptures into the English Language for the use of English-speaking Roman Catholics; - done from the Latin Vulgate by English scholars resident in France
Foolahs - Fulah is also used adjectively; as, Fulah empire, tribes, Language
Elegancy - ) The state or quality of being elegant; beauty as resulting from choice qualities and the complete absence of what deforms or impresses unpleasantly; grace given by art or practice; fine polish; refinement; - said of manners, Language, style, form, architecture, etc
Girl - In familiar Language, any young unmarried woman
Decent - ) Suitable in words, behavior, dress, or ceremony; becoming; fit; decorous; proper; seemly; as, decent conduct; decent Language
Traduction - ) Translation from one Language to another
Maronites - They use the rite of Saint James in the ancient Aramaic Language, which was the Language of Our Lord
Language of Christ - LANGUAGE OF CHRIST. —Recent historical and critical research has narrowed the ground which it is necessary to cover in the discussion of the question as to the Language spoken by Christ. The practically unanimous verdict of recent scholars is that, considerably before the time of Christ, though when is uncertain, Hebrew had ceased to be spoken in Palestine, and its place as the vernacular had been taken by Aramaic, the Language represented in OT by Ezra 4:8-16; Ezra 7:12-26, Jeremiah 10:11, and Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28, and mistakenly named ‘Chaldee. ’...
The transition from Hebrew to Aramaic involved no great linguistic revolution, as it was simply a transition from one Semitic Language to another, and that a closely cognate one. While, however, Aramaic thus gradually superseded Hebrew as the living tongue of Palestine, and by the time of Alexander the Great had probably reached a position of ascendency, if it had not gained entire possession of the field, yet Hebrew remained, though with some loss of its ancient purity, the Language of sacred literature, the Language in which Prophet and Psalmist wrote, and as the Language of the books ultimately embraced in the OT Canon, continued to be read, with an accompanying translation into Aramaic, in the synagogues, and to be diligently studied by the professional interpreters of the Scriptures. And though, as a non-Semitic Language, the adoption of Greek could not come so readily to the Jews as Aramaic, yet the circumstances were such as to tend in no small degree to counterbalance the disadvantage under which Greek thus lay. For not only was it the official Language alike of the Lagid, Seleucid, and, after the Maccabaean interregnum, of the Idumaean Roman rulers to whom the Jews were successively subject; but its cause was furthered by the Hellenizing policy which these rulers generally followed, and by the existence, more or less, all through of a party among the Jews themselves favourable to that policy. Roberts in his book, Greek the Language of Christ and His Apostles. The question, therefore, to be answered is, Which of these Languages did Christ speak, or, if He knew and spoke both, which of them did He mainly, if not exclusively, employ as the vehicle of His teaching? Consideration need be given to the question only in its latter form. For, as undoubtedly spoken by some of the Palestinian Jews, as the Language of perhaps the great majority of His countrymen scattered throughout the Roman world, as the predominant Language of the representatives of the Gentile world in Palestine and of that Gentile world itself, which, though wide, was not yet wider than He conceived the scope of His mission to be, and as, besides, the Language of the Septuagint Version of the OT, which had no doubt acquired considerable popularity, it may reasonably be assumed that Christ would acquire some knowledge of Greek, and be able, in some measure at least, to speak it. Was it, then, Aramaic or Greek that Christ habitually employed in His public ministry? The question resolves itself into that of the relative prevalence of the two Languages in the country at the time, so far as that can be determined by such evidence, direct and indirect, as is available. An obvious explanation is that they alone were preserved because they were exceptional, Greek being the Language for the most part used by Christ. ...
The two main sources of direct evidence conclusively proving the predominance of Aramaic as the popular Language, are the Book of Acts and the Works of Josephus. Aramaic חֲקל דּֽמָא, and points not only to the fact that Aramaic had superseded Hebrew as the vernacular, but that at the time of Christ it was the popular Language, even of the inhabitants of Jerusalem. That the ascended Christ should have spoken to Saul in Aramaic is unintelligible except on the supposition that that had been the Language which He had spoken when on earth, and that it was the prevailing Language of Palestine. ...
Quite as significant is the circumstance mentioned in Acts 22:2 that Paul addressed the infuriated Jerusalemites in Aramaic, and that when they ascertained from his opening words that he was to speak to them in that Language, ‘they kept the more silence’ (μᾶλλον παρέσχον ἡσυχίαν), the reference being to the fact that Paul had not attempted to speak until by a gesture indicative of his desire to be heard he had stilled the uproar, and, as it is said, ‘there was made a great silence. ’ It does not necessarily follow, as has been maintained, that the people expected Paul to address them in Greek, and that the fact that they were prepared to give him a hearing when they expected him to speak in that Language, proves that they were familiar with it. And in any case, even though they had expected to be addressed in Greek, the deeper silence into which they settled when they found that they were to be addressed in Aramaic, proves that they were more familiar with the latter Language than the former, and that the latter was the Language generally spoken by them. ...
The passage runs: ‘I have proposed to myself, for the sake of such as live under the government of the Romans, to translate these books into the Greek tongue, which I formerly composed in the Language of our own country, and sent to the Upper Barbarians,’ i. ’...
That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the Language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that Language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine. In the preface to his Antiquities he tells how he found the writing of that work a hard and wearisome task, ‘it being,’ as he says, ‘a large subject, and a difficult thing to translate our history into a foreign and to us unaccustomed Language’ (εἰς ἀλλοδαπὴν ἡμῖν καὶ ξένην διαλέκτου συνήθειαν), and how he was able to continue and accomplish the task only by the encouragement and help of a friend, Epaphroditus. The case for Aramaic as the prevailing Language of Palestine in the time of Christ, and the Language, therefore, which Christ must necessarily have employed generally in His teaching, is thus incontestably established by the direct evidence of the Acts and of Josephus. But even though it had not, and there were no written Targums till a later date, yet the existence of written Targums at that later date points conclusively to the prevalence of the practice of the oral translation of the synagogue lessons into Aramaic, and therefore to the prevalence of that Language as the vernacular. ...
(b) The question of an Aramaic Gospel (Ur-Evangelium), while important chiefly in connexion with the Synoptic problem, bears closely upon that of the Language spoken by Christ. If Christ spoke Aramaic, such a Gospel was to be expected, and at the same time its existence would furnish weighty proof at once of the prevalence of Aramaic and of the use of that Language by our Lord. But whether or not it may be possible by his or any other method to recover with certainty and to any extent the precise Aramaic words used by our Lord, there can be no doubt that Aramaic had the supreme honour of being the Language in which He gave expression to His imperishable thoughts. —Pfannkuche, Language of Palestine, Clark’s Cabinet Library, vol. ; Roberts, Greek the Language of Christ and His Apostles, 1888; W. Simcox, Language of the NT, 1889; T
Classic - ) A work of acknowledged excellence and authority, or its author; - originally used of Greek and Latin works or authors, but now applied to authors and works of a like character in any Language
Marcin Bielski - A prolific writer, he is called the father of Polish prose, as he was the first author to use that Language
Marcin Wolski - A prolific writer, he is called the father of Polish prose, as he was the first author to use that Language
Abba - When the Jews came to speak Greek, this word may have been retained from their ancient Language, as being easier to pronounce, especially for children, than the Greek pater
Bernardino de Sahagun - He also compiled a grammar and dictionary of the Aztec Language
Duvernay, Ludger - He founded the Society of Saint John the Baptist for the purpose of preserving the religion, institutions, and Language of the French Canadians
He - See Hebrew Language; Writing
Bielski, Marcin - A prolific writer, he is called the father of Polish prose, as he was the first author to use that Language
Hope (2) - It is reported that in the Tamul Language there is no word for hope
Ludger Duvernay - He founded the Society of Saint John the Baptist for the purpose of preserving the religion, institutions, and Language of the French Canadians
Church, Greek or Eastern - Comprehends the churches of all the countries anciently subject to the Greek or Eastern empire, and through which their Language was carried; that is, all the space extended from Greece to Mesopotamia and Persia, and thence into Egypt
Parody - ) A writing in which the Language or sentiment of an author is mimicked; especially, a kind of literary pleasantry, in which what is written on one subject is altered, and applied to another by way of burlesque; travesty
Scoff - ) To show insolent ridicule or mockery; to manifest contempt by derisive acts or Language; - often with at
Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of North - They are congregational in government, and the German Language prevails in the Synodical Conference
Wolski, Marcin - A prolific writer, he is called the father of Polish prose, as he was the first author to use that Language
Reasonably - If we can be industry make our deaf and dumb persons reasonably perfect in the Language -...
Gen'Tiles - This use of the word seems to have arisen from the almost universal adaption of the Greek Language
Language of the nt - Language OF THE NT . It differs immensely from the Language of the great classics of the period which was closed some four centuries earlier, and not much less from that of post-classical writers of its own time, even when those writers were Palestinian Jews, as was Josephus. But, except for such eccentricities of learning, the efforts of scholars in general were steadily directed towards the establishment of some rationale for this isolation of what Rothe called the ‘language of the Holy Ghost. (1) NT writers were steeped in the Language of the Greek OT, a translation which largely followed the Hebrew original with slavish literalness. (2) The writers were mostly Jews who used Aramaic (a Language closely related to Hebrew) in their daily life. The degree to which either of these classes of Semitism was admitted to affect particular words or grammatical constructions in the Greek NT naturally differed in the judgment of different writers; but even Thayer, who wrote after the new lights had already begun to appear, shows no readiness to abandon the general thesis that the NT Greek lies outside the stream of progress in the development of the Greek Language, and must be judged by principles of its own. The Egyptian non-literary papyri of the three centuries before and after Christ, with the inscriptions of Asia Minor, the Ægæan islands and Greece during the same period, though these must be used with caution because of the literary element which often invades them, supply us therefore with the long desiderated parallel for the Language of the NT, by which we must continually test an exegesis too much dominated hitherto by the thought of classical Greek or Semitic idiom. History and diffusion of the Greek Language . A sister-language of Sanskrit, Latin, Slavonic, German, and English, and most other dialects of modern Europe, Greek comes before us earliest in the Homeric poems, the oldest parts of which may go hack to the 10th cent. Small though the country was, the Language of Greece was divided into more dialects, and dialects perhaps more widely differing, than English in the reign of Alfred. When Attic as a spoken Language was dead, it was enforced by rigid grammarians as the only ‘correct’ speech for educated people. Within about one generation we suddenly find that a compromise dialect, which was based mainly on Attic, but contained elements from all the old dialects, came to be established as the Language of the new Greek world. There is no reason to believe that any NT writer who ever lived in Palestine learned Greek only as a foreign Language when he went abroad. The degree of culture in grammar and idiom would vary, but the Language itself was always entirely at command. We are daily learning more of the immense significance of this despised patois for interpreting the sacred Language. But the other side of NT Language must naturally not be forgotten. A few concluding words may be given to the general characteristics of the Language which had so providentially become the Language of the civilized world just at the time when the gospel began its advance. It used to be frequently contrasted unfavourably with the classical Attic, which is undeniably the most perfect Language the world has ever seen, for the clearness, subtlety, and beauty with which it can express thought. But the old clearness is only enhanced by a greater simplicity; and the boundless resourcefulness of the Language impresses us powerfully when in the NT for the first and (practically) last time the colloquial dialect of the people was enshrined in literature, the authors of which were nearly always unconscious that they were creating literature at all. The presentation of Christianity to the Western world as a system of thought could never have been accomplished in Hebrew, even if that Language had attained universal currency. This is in no sense lost even when the simpler grammar of the later Language becomes the tool of men who had no inheritance of Greek culture. A comparatively elementary knowledge of this simpler Greek, which can be attained without touching the complex structure of the classical Language, will constantly reveal important elements in the writer’s meaning that are beyond the reach of our Language to convey directly. In our own time at last this Language is being studied for its own sake; and even classical scholars are beginning to allow that the renewed youth of Greek, under conditions which make it largely a new Language, produced a literature which the philologist, and not merely the theologian, can admire
Articulate - ) To form, as the elementary sounds; to utter in distinct syllables or words; to enunciate; as, to articulate letters or Language. ) To utter articulate sounds; to utter the elementary sounds of a Language; to enunciate; to speak distinctly
Boast - ) To display in ostentatious Language; to speak of with pride, vanity, or exultation, with a view to self-commendation; to extol. ) To speak in exulting Language of another; to glory; to exult
English - ) The Language of England or of the English nation, and of their descendants in America, India, and other countries. ) To translate into the English Language; to Anglicize; hence, to interpret; to explain
Heber - But others have suggested, with greater probability, that Abraham and his family were thus called, because they came from the other side of the Euphrates into Canaan; Heber signifying in the Hebrew Language one that passes, or, a passage, that is, of the river Euphrates. Such were Abraham and his family among the Canaanites; and his posterity, learning and using the Language of the country, still retained the appellation originally given them, even when they became possessors and settled inhabitants
Reproach - To charge with a fault in severe Language. Censure mingled with contempt or derision contumelious or opprobrious Language towards any person abusive reflections as foul-mouthed reproach
Language - As in man's first attempt at speech, according to this account, there appear no crudeness of conception, no barrenness of ideas, and no inexpressive or unappropriate terms, we must certainly infer, that God who made and endued him with corporeal and mental powers perfectly suited to his state and condition in life, endued him, also, not only with the faculty of speech, but with speech or Language itself; which latter was as necessary to his comfort, and to the perfection and end of his being, as any other power or faculty which his Creator thought proper to bestow upon him. ...
Among the antediluvians there was but one Language; and even now the indications that the various Languages of the earth have had one common source are very convincing. Whether this primitive Language was the same with any of the Languages of which we have still any remains, has been a subject of much dispute. That the primitive Language continued at least till the dispersion of mankind, consequent upon the building of Babel, there seems little reason to doubt. When, by an immediate interposition of divine power, the Language of men was confounded, we are not informed to what extent this confusion of tongues prevailed. Under the article Confusion of Tongues some reasons are given to show that the primitive Language was not lost at that event, but continued in the form of the Hebrew. ...
There are, however, other opinions on the oft disputed subject as to the primitive Language. The Armenians allege, that as the ark rested in their country, Noah and his children must have remained there a considerable time, before the lower and marshy country of Chaldea could be fit to receive them; and it is therefore reasonable to suppose they left their Language there, which was probably the very same that Adam spoke. As for those which are called the oriental Languages, they have each their partisans. The only point worth contending for is, that Language was conveyed at once to the first pair in sufficient degree for intellectual intercourse with each other, and devotional intercourse with God; and that man was not left, as infidel writers have been pleased to say, to form it for himself out of rude and instinctive sounds. ...
"If it be said, that the human organs being admirably fitted for the formation of articulate sounds, these, with the help of reason, might in time lead men to the use of Language. Nay, I think it justly doubtful, whether, without inspiration from God in this point, man could ever attain the true ends of his being; at least, if we may judge in this case, by the example of those nations who, being destitute of the advantages of a perfect Language, are, in all probability, from the misfortune of that sole defect, sunk into the lowest condition of barbarism and brutality. The consequence from all which is, that the perfection and felicity of man, and the wisdom and goodness of God, necessarily required that Adam should be supernaturally endowed with the knowledge and use of Language. And therefore, as certain as it can be, that man was made perfect and happy, and that God is wise and good; so certain is it, that, when Adam and Eve were formed, they were immediately enabled by God to converse and communicate their thoughts, in all the perfection of Language necessary to all the ends of their creation. "...
It is true that many Languages bear marks of being raised to their improved state from rude and imperfect elements, and that all are capable of being enriched and rendered more exact; and it is this which has given some colour to those theories which trace all Language itself up from elemental sounds, as the necessities of men, their increasing knowledge, and their imagination led to the invention of new words and combinations. All this is, however, consistent with the Scripture fact, that Language was taught at first by God to our first parents. In various degrees we know they lost useful arts; and for the same reasons they would lose much of their original Language; those terms being chiefly retained which their immediate necessities, and the common affairs of a gross life, kept in use. But when civilization again overtook these portions of mankind, and kingdoms and empires were founded among them, or they became integral parts of the old empires, then their intercourse with each other becoming more rapid, and artificial, and intellectual, their Language was put into a new process of improvement, and to the eye of the critic would exhibit the various stages of advancement; and in many it would be pushed beyond that perfection which it had when it first began to deteriorate
Barbarian - The word לעז (rendered barbarian; LXX, βαρβαρος ,) in the Hebrew sense of it, signifies a stranger; one who knows neither the holy Language nor the law. In 1 Corinthians 14:11 , he says, that if he who speaks a foreign Language in an assembly be not understood by those to whom he discourses, with respect to them he is a barbarian; and, reciprocally, if he understand not those who speak to him, they are to him barbarians. Barbarian, therefore, is used for every stranger or foreigner who does not speak our native Language, and includes no implication whatever of savage nature or manners in those respecting whom it is used
Bombast - : High-sounding words; an inflated style; Language above the dignity of the occasion; fustian
Labbe, Philippe - Among his principal works are Tirocinium Lingure Graecae, noviceship in the Greek Language, La Geographie royale, Royal Geography, and Sacrosancta concilia ad regiam editionem exacta, Royal edition of the sacred councils
Incantation - The Language of the formula generally differs from that of daily life
Madai - Modern ethnology has found that in physical type and Language the Medes belong to the Indo Germanic family of mankind, comprising the Celts, Greeks, Romans, etc
Money-Changers - The Lord's Language to such, when He drove them out of the temple, seems to imply that they took unfair advantage in the exchanges
o'Growney, Eugene - As editor of the "Gaelic Journal" and one of the founders of the Gaelic League, he played a leading part in the movement to save the Irish Language from extinction, especially through a valuable series of "Simple Lessons in Irish
Poem - ) A composition, not in verse, of which the Language is highly imaginative or impassioned; as, a prose poem; the poems of Ossian
Shield - (Genesis 15:1; Psalms 5:12; Psa 84:11) And most blessedly, with an eye to Christ, do the sacred writers speak in this Language
Flexible - ) Capable or being adapted or molded; plastic,; as, a flexible Language
Huge - In colloquial Language, very great enormous as a huge feeder
Babel - In Genesis 11:1-9, it is the location where the entire world spoke a single Language and worked together to build a tower into the heavens. God confused their Languages
Keithians - This party were also called Quaker Baptists, because they retained the Language, dress, and manner of the Quakers
Purana - ) One of a class of sacred Hindoo poetical works in the Sanskrit Language which treat of the creation, destruction, and renovation of worlds, the genealogy and achievements of gods and heroes, the reigns of the Manus, and the transactions of their descendants
Welsh - ) The Language of Wales, or of the Welsh people
Temperate - ) Not marked with passion; not violent; cool; calm; as, temperate Language
Eugene o'Growney - As editor of the "Gaelic Journal" and one of the founders of the Gaelic League, he played a leading part in the movement to save the Irish Language from extinction, especially through a valuable series of "Simple Lessons in Irish
Chaste - In Language, pure genuine uncorrupt free from barbarous words and phrases, and from quaint, affected, extravagant expressions
Herewith - Indeed some of these words seem to be almost indispensable in technical law Language
Silk - The well-known classical name of the substance does not occur in the Hebrew Language
Orator - Paul as a Roman citizen was tried with Roman judicial forms (Acts 25:9-10), the Roman lawyer pleading in Latin, as Norman French was formerly the Language of law proceedings in England in Norman times
Teraphim - A word in the Hebrew Language which has much exercised the ingenuity of the critics
Rhegium - Rhegium was settled by Greek colonists and retained Greek Language and institutions into the first century
le Moyne, Simon - Sent to Canada in 1638, he acquired a thorough knowledge of the Huron-Iroquois Language, and the Indian character, and diplomacy
Nicely - In colloquial Language, well cleverly dextrously handsomely in the best manner as, a feat is nicely done
Presentable - ) Capable or admitting of being presented; suitable to be exhibited, represented, or offered; fit to be brought forward or set forth; hence, fitted to be introduced to another, or to go into society; as, ideas that are presentable in simple Language; she is not presentable in such a gown
Friesic - ) The Language of the Frisians, a Teutonic people formerly occupying a large part of the coast of Holland and Northwestern Germany
Translation - The translation of the Holy Scriptures into our English Language is among the highest instances of divine mercy
Dingdong Theory - The theory which maintains that the primitive elements of Language are reflex expressions induced by sensory impressions; that is, as stated by Max Muller, the creative faculty gave to each general conception as it thrilled for the first time through the brain a phonetic expression; - jocosely so called from the analogy of the sound of a bell induced by the stroke of the clapper
Abba - It has no perfect equivalent in our Language. It has passed into European Languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot
Apprehend - In the Language of Scripture, this word is peculiarly significant
Ephphatha - This is more of Syriac than the Hebrew Language
Latin - The Language of the Romans
Tares - Travellers describe the process of pulling up this grass and separating it from the genuine grain, and their descriptions perfectly accord with the Language of our Saviour in the parable
Baegert, Johann Jakob - In 1773 he published a work on Lower California, which gives an account of the topography, the Indian customs and Language, and the history of the mission
Salvation - (Latin: salvare, to save) ...
In scriptural Language, the transference from straitened circumstances and other evils into a state of freedom and security
Parting - In seamen's Language, the breaking of a cable by violence
Kir'Iah, - It may be compared to the word "burg" or "bury" in our own Language
Corrupt - , to a worse state; vitiated; depraved; debased; perverted; as, corrupt Language; corrupt judges. ) To debase or render impure by alterations or innovations; to falsify; as, to corrupt Language; to corrupt the sacred text
Woe - Is sometimes used in our Bibles where a softer expression would be at least equally proper: "Woe to such a one!" is in our Language a threat or imprecation of some calamity, natural or judicial, to befall a person; but this is not always the meaning of the word in Scripture. We find the expression, "Woe is me!" that is, Alas for my sufferings! And, "Woe to the women with child, and those who give suck!" that is, Alas for their redoubled sufferings in times of distress! If in the denunciatory Language of Christ, we should read, "Alas for thee, Chorazin! Alas for thee, Bethsaida!" we should do not injustice to the general sentiments of the passage
Cognate - ) Of the same or a similar nature; of the same family; proceeding from the same stock or root; allied; kindred; as, a cognate Language
Antinomy - ) A contradiction or incompatibility of thought or Language; - in the Kantian philosophy, such a contradiction as arises from the attempt to apply to the ideas of the reason, relations or attributes which are appropriate only to the facts or the concepts of experience
Challenge - To ‘challenge’ in the Language of AV Indians, Illinois - To Father Gravier we owe the first grammar and dictionary of the Language
Lycaonia - The "speech of Lycaonia" (Acts 14:11 ) was probably the ancient Assyrian Language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words
Musselman - Or MUSYMAN, a title by which the Mahometans distinguish themselves; signifying in the Turkish Language "true believer, or orthodox
Canter - ) One who makes hypocritical pretensions to goodness; one who uses canting Language
Illinois Indians - To Father Gravier we owe the first grammar and dictionary of the Language
Ae - of Ae...
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A diphthong in the Latin Language; used also by the Saxon writers
Explicit - ) Not implied merely, or conveyed by implication; distinctly stated; plain in Language; open to the understanding; clear; not obscure or ambiguous; express; unequivocal; as, an explicit declaration
Fox - In seaman's Language, a seizing made by twisting several rope-yarns together
Endlicher, Stephan Ladislaus - Besides publishing a number of writings on botanical subjects and two works dealing with the Chinese Language and geography, he collaborated with other botanists
Lucifer - In popular Language Lucifer is regarded as an appellation of Satan
Heliand, the - (German: Heiland, Saviour) ...
The oldest complete work of German literature, an epic poem on the life of Christ, composed in the Saxon Language, c
Stephan Endlicher - Besides publishing a number of writings on botanical subjects and two works dealing with the Chinese Language and geography, he collaborated with other botanists
Damnation - This is now the sense of the word damnation, in our Language; but at the time when the Bible was translated, it signified the same as condemnation
Ashtoreth, Ashtaroth - In the Hebrew Language, Ashtaroth was the plural form of Ashtoreth
Accad - The Semitic Babylonians ("the white race"), or, as some scholars think, first the Cushites, and afterwards, as a second immigration, the Semites, invaded and conquered this country; and then the Accadian Language ceased to be a spoken Language, although for the sake of its literary treasures it continued to be studied by the educated classes of Babylonia. A large portion of the Ninevite tablets brought to light by Oriental research consists of interlinear or parallel translations from Accadian into Assyrian; and thus that long-forgotten Language has been recovered by scholars. It belongs to the class of Languages called agglutinative, common to the Tauranian race; i
Tongue - Lâshôn (לְשֹׁנָה, Strong's #3956), “tongue; Language; speech. ...
A further extension of meaning is “language. ” In Hebrew both sapah and lâshôn denote a foreign “language”: “For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people” ( Language evokes the representation of a tongue (as an organ of the body) together with a tongue (of fire). ...
The Septuagint translation is glossa (“tongue; Language”)
Narantsouac, Maine - The chapel and village were destroyed by the English during Queen Anne's War, 1705, and a dictionary of the Abnaki Language, now at Harvard College, was carried off
Maillard, Antoine Simon - He was the first white man to master the Micmac tongue, and composed an alphabet, grammar, and dictionary of the Language in addition to writing several devotional works in it
Highway - Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the Language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah (Isaiah 11:16 ; 35:8 ; 40:3 ; 62:10 ) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march
Autumn - " Astronomically, it begins in the northern temperate zone at the autumnal equinox, about September 23, and ends at the winter solstice, about December 23; but in popular Language, autumn, in America, comprises September, October, and November
Norridgewock, Maine - The chapel and village were destroyed by the English during Queen Anne's War, 1705, and a dictionary of the Abnaki Language, now at Harvard College, was carried off
Cahenslyism - Cahensly, a member of the German parliament, to divide the foreign-born population of the United States, for ecclesiastical purposes, according to European nationalities, and to appoint bishops and priests of like race and speaking the same Language as the majority of the members of a diocese or congregation
Peeped - Also, the Language they use is not familiar
Fluent - ) Ready in the use of words; voluble; copious; having words at command; and uttering them with facility and smoothness; as, a fluent speaker; hence, flowing; voluble; smooth; - said of Language; as, fluent speech
Explosion - ) A violent outburst of feeling, manifested by excited Language, action, etc
Aforehand - Hence in popular Language, amply provided well supplied with the means of living having means beyond the requirements of necessity moderately wealthy
Amorrhites - While the origin of this race is disputed, its Language, religion, and institutions are Semitic
Antoine Maillard - He was the first white man to master the Micmac tongue, and composed an alphabet, grammar, and dictionary of the Language in addition to writing several devotional works in it
Vicious - ) Not correct or pure; corrupt; as, vicious Language; vicious idioms
Overcharge - Our Language is overcharged with consonants
Hellenistic And Biblical Greek - -The term ‘Biblical Greek’ denotes the Language of the Greek versions of the OT, and more especially the Septuagint , as also that of the NT, with which may be associated the Apocrypha and the works of the Apostolic Fathers. This group of writings, however, is separated from the world of Hellenic culture not so much by any peculiarity of Language as by the ideas which find expression in them. In point of fact, Biblical Greek is a deposit of the widely-diffused Hellenistic Language-the so-called Koine. Language in its development from the time of Alexander the Great to the close of the ancient period, excluding, of course, the older dialects so far as they survived at all, and excluding also the Language of the Atticists (2nd-5th cent. In designating the common Language of the Hellenistic period by the single word ‘Koine,’ we are but following the usage of the ancient grammarians, who employed the expression ἡ κοινὴ διάλεκτος to differentiate the Language used by all from Attic, Ionic, Doric, and aeolic. The literary Koine, of which Polybius may be called the most typical representative, is a compromise between the spoken Koine and the older literary Language. the grammarians, such as Moeris, who taught the rules of correct Attic, usually distinguished such words and forms of the Koine as they rejected, by the term Ἕλληνες, as contrasted with the Ἀττικοί, the linguistic forms they approved of; and hence ἑλληνίζειν means ‘to speak the Hellenistic Language,’ and the Ἐλληνισταί of Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29 are ‘Hellenistic-speaking Jews’ (possibly applied also to other Orientals). Even in the Roman Imperial period Asia Minor was almost entirely Greek, and dominated by Greek civilization; nor is this contravened by the fact that the old indigenous Languages, such as Phrygian, Cappadocian, etc. Lycaonian is referred to as a spoken Language not only in Acts 14:11,* [6] But they succeeded in arresting the movement that from the time of Xenophon and Aristotle had been tending to bring the literary Language into line with the cosmopolitan development of Attic, that is to say, with the Koine, a development which had been followed even by the New Attic Comedy. The Language of Polybius is closely akin to that of contemporary inscriptions; he does justice to the demands which the spoken tongue in its development laid upon literary diction. Detailed investigation of their Language has made remarkable progress in recent years. ...
(3) Excellent witnesses to the nature of the vernacular are to be found also in the Graeco-Latin conversation-books or colloquial guides (ἐρμηνεύματα) and glossaries used for the purpose of learning either Language, as e. ] The abundant Greek material found in the Corpus glossariorum latinorum still awaits expert investigation; it yields much fresh information regarding the vocabulary of the colloquial Language. The object of these writings was to formulate rules for the correct use of classical Attic, and they contrast the latter with the ‘common’ Language. ...
(5) We have another source in the Greek elements which have found their way into Latin, Gothic, Ecclesiastical Slavonic, and Oriental Languages. These elements exhibit the features of the Language current at the time of their adoption. The Greek elements preserved in the Oriental sources are, as we should expect, of special importance for the study of Biblical Greek; but so far Armenian alone has been thoroughly studied in its bearings on the history of the Greek Language. For the other Languages, cf. For the student of the Koine, and therefore also for the investigator of Biblical Greek, a knowledge of Modern Greek is as necessary as a knowledge of the Romance Languages for the investigator of vernacular Latin. With the help of the modern Language we may reconstruct its Hellenistic basis and thereby supplement in many points the knowledge derived from the contemporary Hellenistic texts. The character of the Koine as a whole is in fact to be inferred from the character of Modern Greek; for, since the dialects of the latter are to be traced, not to the various types of the ancient Language, such as Doric, aeolic, and Ionic, but to the Koine, the Koine, the direct deposit of which we find in the inscriptions and the papyri, must have supplanted the ancient dialects, and must have been a common Language in the proper sense, i. a Language spoken by all, as is affirmed by the ancient grammarians. And what holds good also of the Language as a whole, holds good of its elements in detail. But it was in reality the conquests of Alexander and the institution of kingdoms by his successors that diffused the new idiom throughout the Oriental world, and made it the universal Language of Hellenism. It is nevertheless quite wrong to assert that this Language was created by the Macedonians. That the use of ρρ was not due to the influence of the literary Language is shown by Mod. Crete and Rhodes, the gradual subsidence of dialectic forms which is traceable in the inscriptions reflects the changes in the living Language. Bœotia, the inscriptions reveal a marked linguistic break, thus indicating either that the local dialect, though no longer spoken, was kept alive for a time as a literary Language, or that the Koine had been introduced as a written Language before the dialect had entirely disappeared. ; Mahaffy, The Progress of Hellenism in Alexander’s Empire, Chicago, 1905; on the Language or Jesus see, most recently, Moulton, op
Hebrew Language - Called "the Language of Canaan" (Isaiah 19:18), as distinguished from that of Egypt; "the Jewish" as distinguished from Aramean (2 Kings 18:26; 2 Kings 18:28). It is Semitic, as distinguished from the Indo-Germanic, Indo-European, Aryan, or Japhetic Languages. In Hebrew and the other Semitic Languages gutturals preponderate. The Semitic Languages are less matured and polished, and more impulsive than deliberative. The Greek is the Language of philosophy; the Hebrew of imagination and intuition. The choice of essentially the same Language as that of commercial Sidon and Tyre for the divine revelation was a providential arrangement for diffusing the knowledge of His law widely among the Gentiles. As Hebrew sprang from the confusion of Babel, it cannot have been the Language of Adam and the whole earth when there was but one speech; still, though an offshoot like the rest, it may retain most of the primitive type, a view which the Hebrew Bible names favor, though these be modified from the original form. ...
The Shemites and Japhetites have had a higher moral civilization, and so a purer Language. The sacred books of Moses gave a fixity to the Language, so that no essential change of Language is observable in the books of different ages until the Babylonian captivity; thenceforward Chaldee became largely mixed with Hebrew (See Nehemiah 8:8
Mortal - In colloquial Language, a mortal foe is an inveterate foe. ...
It is often used in ludicrous and colloquial Language
Abuse - To treat rudely, or with reproachful Language to revile. Rude speech reproachful Language addressed to a person contumely reviling words
Abuse - ) Improper treatment or use; application to a wrong or bad purpose; misuse; as, an abuse of our natural powers; an abuse of civil rights, or of privileges or advantages; an abuse of Language. ) Vituperative words; coarse, insulting speech; abusive Language; virulent condemnation; reviling
Sentence - In technical Language, sentence is used only for the declaration of judgement against the convicted of a crime. In Language not technical, a determination or decision given, particularly a decision that condemns, ar an unfavorable determination
Tongues, Confusion of - Unity of Language is assumed by the sacred historian apparently as a corollary of the unity of race. The project was defeated by the interposition of Jehovah, who determined to "confound their Language, so that they might not understand one another's speech. The desired object would be equally attained by a miraculous forestallment of those dialectical differences of Language which are constantly in process of production. The elements of the one original Language may have remained, but so disguised by variations of pronunciation and by the introduction of new combinations as to be practically obliterated. The divergence of the various families into distinct tribes and nations ran parallel with the divergence of speech into dialects and Languages, and thus the tenth chapter of Genesis is posterior in historical sequence to the events recorded in the eleventh chapter
Mat'Thew, Gospel of - ...
Its original Language . --The testimony of the early Church is unanimous that Matthew wrote originally in the Hebrew Language. On the otherhand doubt is thrown over this opinion, both statements of by an examination of the fathers and by a consideration of peculiar forms of Language employed in the Gospel itself. The Greek Gospel which we now possess was it is almost certain, written in Matthew's lifetime; and it is not at all improbable that he wrote the Gospel in both the Greek and Hebrew Languages. It is almost certain that our Lord spoke in Greek with foreigners, but with his disciples and the Jewish people in Aramaic (a form of Language closely allied to the Hebrew)
Cancer de Barbastro, Luis - He composed many religious hymns in the Zapote Language
Luis Cancer de Barbastro - He composed many religious hymns in the Zapote Language
Chatter - ) To utter sounds which somewhat resemble Language, but are inarticulate and indistinct
Agreement - ) The Language, oral or written, embodying reciprocal promises
Filiation - ) Descent from, or as if from, a parent; relationship like that of a son; as, to determine the filiation of a Language
Aramaic - (from Aram, a country in southwestern Asia) A Semitic Language, used in Babylonia, Mesopotamia, Syria, etc
Bald - In popular Language, open, bold, audacious
Bribe - It is not used in a good sense, unless in familiar Language
Identical - in the form identic), precisely agreeing in sentiment or opinion and form or manner of expression; - applied to concerted action or Language which is used by two or more governments in treating with another government
Paraphrase - ) To express, interpret, or translate with latitude; to give the meaning of a passage in other Language
Testament - ) One of the two distinct revelations of God's purposes toward man; a covenant; also, one of the two general divisions of the canonical books of the sacred Scriptures, in which the covenants are respectively revealed; as, the Old Testament; the New Testament; - often limited, in colloquial Language, to the latter
Unction - ) That quality in Language, address, or the like, which excites emotion; especially, strong devotion; religious fervor and tenderness; sometimes, a simulated, factitious, or unnatural fervor
Belial - (1 Samuel 25:25) In the Language of the New Testament, Belial is another name for Satan
Our Own - , "each in his own Language of us
Southwark, England, Archdiocese of - Saint Augustine of Canterbury landed on the coast of Kent in 597, and there Christianity was first preached in the Saxon Language by him
Lucifer - " In the figurative Language of Scripture, a brilliant star denoted an illustrious prince, Numbers 24:17
Communion - In present-day Language, ‘fellowship’ is the word usually used to indicate communion (Acts 2:42; for further discussion see FELLOWSHIP)
Polonaise - ) The Polish Language
Joseph Marcoux - Father Marcoux translated into Iroquois, Father De Ligny's "Life of Christ," and published in that Language a collection of prayers, hymns, and canticles, a catechism; calendar of Catholic ritual, and a number of sermons
Marcoux, Joseph - Father Marcoux translated into Iroquois, Father De Ligny's "Life of Christ," and published in that Language a collection of prayers, hymns, and canticles, a catechism; calendar of Catholic ritual, and a number of sermons
Secure - To be secure, in the Language of AV Barbarian - In 1 Corinthians 14:11 , it simply refers to one speaking a different Language
Rabshakeh - See the speech he delivered, in the Hebrew Language, in the hearing of all the people, as he stood near the wall on the north side of the city (2 Kings 18:17-37 )
Formula - ) A rule or principle expressed in algebraic Language; as, the binominal formula
Plum - ) A handsome fortune or property; formerly, in cant Language, the sum of �100,000 sterling; also, the person possessing it
Foreign - ) Not native or belonging to a certain country; born in or belonging to another country, nation, sovereignty, or locality; as, a foreign Language; foreign fruits
Energy - ) Strength of expression; force of utterance; power to impress the mind and arouse the feelings; life; spirit; - said of speech, Language, words, style; as, a style full of energy
Detach - ) To separate for a special object or use; - used especially in military Language; as, to detach a ship from a fleet, or a company from a regiment
Armenian Rite - Originally, the Language was Syriac, but it is now ancient Armenian
Melchites - They celebrate mass in the Arabian Language
Reader - ) A book containing a selection of extracts for exercises in reading; an elementary book for practice in a Language; a reading book
Babbler - ‘The Language of such persons,’ says Bp
Rite, Armenian - Originally, the Language was Syriac, but it is now ancient Armenian
Septuagint - After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, the Greek Language spread throughout Alexander’s empire and within a short time was the most commonly spoken Language. In New Testament times most of the Christians were Greek-speaking, even those of Jewish background, and the Septuagint provided them with a ready-made translation of the Old Testament in their own Language
Firmament - Others argue that such interpretations are unsound, in that they confuse poetic and figurative Language with literal prose. Others say Israel's inspired writers used Language of experience and appearance rather than Language of precise scientific description
Greece - Alexander was the chief agent in the spread of the Greek civilization, manners, Language, and culture over these countries. , the Greek Language was already firmly established in the East. When, about three centuries after Alexander’s death, practically all his former dominions had become Roman provinces, Greek was the one Language which could carry the traveller from the Euphrates to Spain. The Empire had two official Languages, Latin for Italy and all provinces north, south-west, and west of it; Greek for all east and south-east of Italy. Thus it came about that Christianity was preached in Greek, that our NT books were written in Greek, and that the Language of the Church, according to all the available evidence, remained Greek till about the middle of the 2nd cent. ...
As Galilee was thickly planted with Greek towns, there can be little doubt that Jesus knew the Language, and spoke it when necessary, though it is probable that He commonly used Aramaic, as He came first to ‘the lost tribes of Israel. The Jews were amongst the chief spreaders of the Language. It is not meant that Greek killed the native Languages of the provinces: these had their purpose and subsisted
Tongues, Gift of - The gift was exhibited in a special way on the day of Pentecost, when people of many lands heard the wonderful things of God each in his own Language. ' At Pentecost it was shown that the gift of 'tongues' was in a person speaking a Language which he had never learnt, but which was at once understood by those who knew it
Grecia - But the term Greek admits of a larger interpretation, and applies not only to the inhabitants of Greece Proper, but to those of Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt, over nearly the whole of the former of which countries, and great part of the two latter, Grecian colonies and the Grecian Language had extended themselves. Greece was certainly intended by the Prophet Daniel under the symbol of the single-horned goat; and it is probable that when he calls Greece Chittim, he spoke the Language of the Hebrew nation, rather than that of the Persian court. The Roman power, superseding the Grecian establishments, yet left traces of Greek Language, customs, &c, to the days of the Herods, when the Gospel history commences. Paul, the Gospel was propagated in those countries which used the Grecian dialects: hence, we are interested in the study of this Language
Chaldean Rite - The Language is old Syriac
Catechism of Saint Peter Canisius - Through his catechisms Saint Canisius became the "mallet of heretics"; they were translated into every Language in Europe and reprinted in countless editions, so that the name Canisius became synonymous with catechism
Barbarian, - In 1 Corinthians 14:11 , a person hearing another speak in a Language he did not understand would account him and be accounted a foreigner
Eliathah - Many scholars of the Hebrew Language think the names of the last nine sons of Heman in 1 Chronicles 25:4 originally formed a verse of a Hebrew psalm in which Eliathah would have meant, “My God are you
Carmonians - They are said to have resembled the Medes and Persians in customs and Language
Barbarian - The Greeks and Romans denominated most foreign nations barbarians and many of these were less civilized than themselves, or unacquainted with their Language, laws and manners
Filthy - Colossians 3:8 (a) The word here describes lewd Language, contaminating conversation, "racy" stories, and all evil communications
Hailstones - By this poetic Language the Psalmist is describing the power and fierce anger of GOD in judgment
Aspirations - It is always applied to very short a prayers, containing lofty sentiments, expressed in choice Language, sometimes in rhyme, similar to proverbs, e
Assyrian Rite - The Language is old Syriac
Embassador - In ludicrous Language, a messenger
Jot - It has a numerical value of ten and is used in the Hebrew Language both as a letter and as a number and also as an article by which the value and meaning of another letter is changed
Traduce - ) To translate from one Language to another; as, to traduce and compose works
East Syrian Rite - The Language is old Syriac
Advocate - This use of the word is derived from the fact that the Jews, being largely ignorant of the Roman law and the Roman Language, had to employ Roman advocates in their trials before Roman courts
Saint Peter Canisius, Catechism of - Through his catechisms Saint Canisius became the "mallet of heretics"; they were translated into every Language in Europe and reprinted in countless editions, so that the name Canisius became synonymous with catechism
Interpretation - The act of interpreting explanation of unintelligible words in Language that is intelligible
Barbarian - Indeed, "barbarian" is used in Scripture for every stranger or foreigner who does not speak the native Language of the writer, Psalm 114:1 , and includes no implication whatever of savage nature or manners in those respecting whom it is used
Rite, Chaldean - The Language is old Syriac
Thou - Psalms 23 ...
Thou is used only in the solemn style, unless in very familiar Language, and by the Quakers
Samaritan - The Language of Samaria, a dialect of the Chaldean
Contempt - ) Disobedience of the rules, orders, or process of a court of justice, or of rules or orders of a legislative body; disorderly, contemptuous, or insolent Language or behavior in presence of a court, tending to disturb its proceedings, or impair the respect due to its authority
Corruption - ) The act of changing, or of being changed, for the worse; departure from what is pure, simple, or correct; as, a corruption of style; corruption in Language
Liturgy, Maronite - The liturgical Language is Syriac, or Aramaic, although Arabic written in Syriac characters (Karshuni), is used almost always for the Epistle, Gospel, Creed, and Pater Noster
Maronite Liturgy - The liturgical Language is Syriac, or Aramaic, although Arabic written in Syriac characters (Karshuni), is used almost always for the Epistle, Gospel, Creed, and Pater Noster
Name of Mary - The Irish Language has a special word, "Muire," which is never given to any Mary but the Mother of God
Phrygia - Some of the Phrygians were present in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost and heard the gospel in their native Language (Acts 2:10 ; compare Acts 16:6 ; Acts 18:23 )
Mary, Name of - The Irish Language has a special word, "Muire," which is never given to any Mary but the Mother of God
Aryan - ) Of or pertaining to the people called Aryans; Indo-European; Indo-Germanic; as, the Aryan stock, the Aryan Languages. ) The Language of the original Aryans
Burlesque - ) To ridicule, or to make ludicrous by grotesque representation in action or in Language
Bluster - ) Noisy and violent or threatening talk; noisy and boastful Language
Verschorists - His disciples and followers were call Hebrews, on account of the zeal and assiduity with which they all, without distinction of age or sex, applied themselves to the study of the Hebrew Language
Absent - In familiar Language, not at home as, the master of the house is absent
Attire - This Language is now obsolete
Bright - In popular Language, ingenious possessing an active mind
Spain - The Iberian Language (from whence the country derived one of its names and its river Iberus or Ebro was designated) was the original of the Basque
Eject - ) To expel; to dismiss; to cast forth; to thrust or drive out; to discharge; as, to eject a person from a room; to eject a traitor from the country; to eject words from the Language
Ice - Water or other fluid congealed, or in a solid state a solid, transparent, brittle substance, formed by the congelation of a fluid, by means of the abstraction of the heat necessary to preserve its fluidity, or to use Language, congealed by cold
Wool - ' In the figurative Language of Isaiah 1:18 undyed wool represents the state resulting from the removal of sin by Jehovah from His people; the sin being compared to that which had been dyed crimson
Ypsy - ) The Language used by the gypsies
Purify - ) To free from improprieties or barbarisms; as, to purify a Language
Reproach - ) The act of reproaching; censure mingled with contempt; contumelious or opprobrious Language toward any person; abusive reflections; as, severe reproach
Most High - The latter of them, except with an eye to him, would be a breach of grammar, but becomes beautiful, in compounding two superlatives, in reference to the Lord JEHOVAH, of whom it must be truly said, without exceeding the bounds of Language, as one of the sacred writers expresseth it, "There is no end of his greatness
Affront - ) To offend by some manifestation of disrespect; to insult to the face by demeanor or Language; to treat with marked incivility
Pharaoh - He adds, that, in the Egyptian Language, the word Pharaoh means king, and that these princes did not assume the name until they ascended the throne, at which time they quitted their former name
Shibboleth - The Greeks, says Hartley, have not the sound sh in their Language: hence they are liable to be detected, like the Ephraimites
Indebted - The inspired Language provides us with both, as intended by the Lord
Jeer - ) To utter sarcastic or scoffing reflections; to speak with mockery or derision; to use taunting Language; to scoff; as, to jeer at a speaker
Chaff - In common Language, the word is applied to the husks when separated from the corn by thrashing, riddling or winnowing
Abba - Abba was a common word in the Aramaic and Hebrew Languages, and meant ‘father’. It was a warm and informal term used in the everyday Language of family life
Aram - The Aramaean Language, nearly resembling the Hebrew, gradually supplanted the latter as a spoken Language, and was in use in Judea at the time of Christ
Indians, Maya - They number about 2,000,000 and have preserved the Maya Language. Much attention has been given to the Maya Language
Maya Indians - They number about 2,000,000 and have preserved the Maya Language. Much attention has been given to the Maya Language
Admiration - In Scripture Language, somewhat more is meant by those words than we annex to them, in our ordinary discourse. But if this be supposed to imply any surprise wrought on the mind of Christ, this would be a mistake, and a perversion of Language
Deacon - " For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred Language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian Language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew
After - In marine Language, more aft, or towards the stern of the ship as, the after sails after hatchway. In common Language, later in time as, an after period of life
Firmament - Raqi'ah , "the expanse stretched out as a curtain" over the earth (Isaiah 40:22; Psalms 104:2), resting on the mountains as its pillars (the Language is phenomenal, as indeed necessarily is that of even men of science often): Job 26:11. Otherwise, how could birds fly in a solid? The Language is figurative and phenomenal
Hebrew Bible - ...
It is now well established that the Hebrew Language was originally written without vowel points. While the Hebrew was a living Language the vowel points were not needed. There can be no doubt in studying Hebrew as a dead Language the vowel points give great help and precision
Akkadian - describes the first known Semitic invaders of Mesopotamia and the Language they spoke. ...
Akkadian is also the ancient name of the Semitic Language used in the cuneiform inscriptions and documents modern archaeologists have discovered. Akkadian was the international Language of diplomacy and commerce in the Near East before 1000 B
Analogy - ) Conformity of words to the genius, structure, or general rules of a Language; similarity of origin, inflection, or principle of pronunciation, and the like, as opposed to anomaly
Huzzab - Otherwise, the term is describing Nineveh in figurative Language, perhaps referring to deportation of dressed-up idols defeated in war
Flea - David at the cave of Adullam thus addressed his persecutor Saul (1 Samuel 24:14 ): "After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea?" He thus speaks of himself as the poor, contemptible object of the monarch's pursuit, a "worthy object truly for an expedition of the king of Israel with his picked troops!" This insect is in Eastern Language the popular emblem of insignificance
Dove's Dung - Compare also the Language of Rabshakeh to the Jews (2 Kings 18:27 ; Isaiah 36:12 )
Derbe - The residents of Derbe and Lystra spoke a different Language from the people to the north in Iconium
Mensa - In ecclesiastical Language, it is that portion of the property of a church which is set aside to defray the expenses of the prelate or the community which serves that church
Mensal Revenue - In ecclesiastical Language, it is that portion of the property of a church which is set aside to defray the expenses of the prelate or the community which serves that church
Female - Female rhymes, double rhymes, so called from the French, in which Language they end in e feminine
Scotch - ) Of or pertaining to Scotland, its Language, or its inhabitants; Scottish
Composite - ) Made up of distinct parts or elements; compounded; as, a composite Language
Contempt - This word is one of the strongest expressions of a mean opinion which the Language affords
Manners - Without some one of these defects no man will behave himself ill for want of experience; or of what, in the Language of some, is called knowing the world
Point-Blank - ) Hence, direct; plain; unqualified; - said of Language; as, a point-blank assertion
Revenue, Mensal - In ecclesiastical Language, it is that portion of the property of a church which is set aside to defray the expenses of the prelate or the community which serves that church
Branch - As trees denote, in figurative Language, great men and princes, so branches, boughs, and plants denote their offspring
Slavonic Language And Liturgy - Slavonic holds second place, numerically, among the liturgical Languages in which the Mass and the Divine Office are said. The Greek, or Byzantine, Rite in this ancient Language is now used among Slavs, whether Catholic or Orthodox, and the Roman liturgy in Slavonic is still celebrated in Dalmatia and Croatia
Yhwh - The written Hebrew Language did not include vowels, only the consonants were used; thus readers supplied the vowels as they read (this is true even today in Hebrew newspapers). From the study of the structure of the Hebrew Language most scholars today believe that YHWH was probably pronounced Yahweh (Yah' weh )
Fool - See also the Language of Tamar to her brother Amnon: "Do not this folly; for whither shall I cause my shame to go? And as for thee, thou shalt be as one of the fools in Israel," 2 Samuel 13:13 ; that is, Thou wilt be accounted a very wicked person. " But the whole verse shows the meaning to be, that when any one of his professed disciples indulges a temper and disposition of mind contrary to charity, or that peculiar love which the brethren of Christ are bound by his law to have toward each other, John 13:34 , not only showing anger against another without a cause, but also treating him with contemptuous Language, and that with malicious intent, he shall be in danger of eternal destruction
Jude, Epistle of - (Jude 1:22,23 ) and commending them to the power of God in Language which forcibly recalls the closing benediction of the epistle to the Romans. (Jude 1:3-16 ) is almost identical in Language and subject with a part of the Second Epistle of Peter
Chaldaea - in wandering "bands" (Job 1:17) before they became a settled empire, but their Cushite Language disproves this. The remains found of their Language correspond to that of the modern Galla of Abyssinia, the ancient Language of Ethiopia. The Semitic Language prevailed over the Cushite in Assyrian and later Babylonian times, and was used for all civil purposes; but for sacred and mystic lore the Cushite Language was retained as a learned Language. ...
The Cushite Chaldee had become a dead Language to the mass of the people who had become Semitized by the Assyrians. The Aramaean and the Hebrew are sister Languages. Some think the seeming Hebraisms in it are remnants of an older form of the Language than that found in the targums
Daniel, Book of - Its style is simple, clear, and concise, and many of the prophecies are delivered in Language so plain and circumstantial, that some infidels have asserted that they were written after the events they described had taken place. As to the internal evidence, the style, the Language, the manner of writing, perfectly agree with the age; and especially, he is proved to have been a prophet by the exact fulfilment of his predictions. This book, like that of Ezra, is written partly in Hebrew, and partly in Chaldee, the prevailing Language of the Babylonians
Melchites - Since the 12th century they have used the Byzantine Rite, mostly in the Arabic Language
Mission, Sarayacu - Withdrawal of government support and establishment of other missions led to its abandonment in 1863, but the town continued as the chief port of the Ucayali with a mixed Spanish and Indian population, using the Quichua Language as the medium
Ice - In picturesque Language, ice is frozen by the “breath of God” (Job 37:10 )
Introduction to the Devout Life - It has been translated into nearly every Language and has gone through innumerable editions
Cambrensis, Giraldus - A topography and a history of the conquest, long regarded as authoritative, were severely criticized by Dr Lynch in his "Cambrensis Eversus," 1662, who meets his charges against the Irish people, impeaches his ignorance of their Language, unfamiliarity with the country, disregard of chronology, and credulity in accepting popular rumors and unauthenticated narratives
Imputation - Thus in doctrinal Language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i
Caraites - Those who maintained the Talmud being almost all rabbins, were called rabbinists; and the others, who rejected traditions, were called Caraites, or Scripturists, from the word cara, which in the Babylonish Language signifies Scripture
Targum - (tar' guhm) Early translations of the Bible into Aramaic, the native Language of Palestine and Babylon in the first century A
Melkites - Since the 12th century they have used the Byzantine Rite, mostly in the Arabic Language
Illuminator, Gregory the - On returning he made use of the national Language in preaching and in the Liturgy; Christianity was made the official faith, and was soon embraced by the populace, so that Armenia became the first Christian state
Consciousness - We must not confound the terms consciousness and conscience; for though the Latin be ignorant of any such distinction, including both in the word conscientia, yet there is a great deal or difference between them in our Language
Accommodation - ) The application of a writer's Language, on the ground of analogy, to something not originally referred to or intended
Giraldus Cambrensis - A topography and a history of the conquest, long regarded as authoritative, were severely criticized by Dr Lynch in his "Cambrensis Eversus," 1662, who meets his charges against the Irish people, impeaches his ignorance of their Language, unfamiliarity with the country, disregard of chronology, and credulity in accepting popular rumors and unauthenticated narratives
Gregory the Illuminator, Saint - On returning he made use of the national Language in preaching and in the Liturgy; Christianity was made the official faith, and was soon embraced by the populace, so that Armenia became the first Christian state
Barry, Gerald de - A topography and a history of the conquest, long regarded as authoritative, were severely criticized by Dr Lynch in his "Cambrensis Eversus," 1662, who meets his charges against the Irish people, impeaches his ignorance of their Language, unfamiliarity with the country, disregard of chronology, and credulity in accepting popular rumors and unauthenticated narratives
Habakkuk - Bishop Lowth says, "This anthem is unequalled in majesty and splendor of Language and imagery
Caiaphas - His Language was unconscious prophecy
Sarayacu Mission - Withdrawal of government support and establishment of other missions led to its abandonment in 1863, but the town continued as the chief port of the Ucayali with a mixed Spanish and Indian population, using the Quichua Language as the medium
Kill - To quell to appease to calm to still as, in seamen's Language, a shower of rain kills the wind
Gerald de Barry - A topography and a history of the conquest, long regarded as authoritative, were severely criticized by Dr Lynch in his "Cambrensis Eversus," 1662, who meets his charges against the Irish people, impeaches his ignorance of their Language, unfamiliarity with the country, disregard of chronology, and credulity in accepting popular rumors and unauthenticated narratives
Patriarchs - This name is not of the Hebrew, but Greek Language
Tongue - , Mark 7:33 ; Romans 3:13 ; 14:11 ; 1 Corinthians 14:9 ; Philippians 2:11 ; James 1:26 ; 3:5,6,8 ; 1 Peter 3:10 ; 1 John 3:18 ; Revelation 16:10 ; (3) (a) "a Language," coupled with phule, "a tribe," laos, "a people," ethnos, "a nation," seven times in the Apocalypse, Revelation 5:9 ; 7:9 ; 10:11 ; 11:9 ; 13:7 ; 14:6 ; 17:15 ; (b) "the supernatural gift of speaking in another Language without its having been learnt;" in Acts 2:4-13 the circumstances are recorded from the viewpoint of the hearers; to those in whose Language the utterances were made it appeared as a supernatural phenomenon; to others, the stammering of drunkards; what was uttered was not addressed primarily to the audience but consisted in recounting "the mighty works of God;" cp. ...
A — 2: διάλεκτος (Strong's #1258 — Noun Feminine — dialektos — dee-al'-ek-tos ) "language" (Eng. See Language
Torment (2) - Christ addressed the startling Language of this parable to men who were hurting their souls by covetousness. To pierce the hard crust of complacency born of wealth He used the heaviest strokes of threatening; and, choosing Language that was most fitted to cause a smart to the softness of their luxury, He spoke of torture, agony, and fire
Corrupt - To debase or render impure, by alterations or innovations as, to corrupt Language. Debased rendered impure changed to a worse state as corrupt Language
Cup - " (Isaiah 51:17) And as this, no doubt, under the Language of prophecy, referred to Christ, so in open Language the Lord Jesus himself, speaking of his soul-exercises, calls it a cup
Fool - The term fool in Scripture Language differs from what is understood in the general acceptation of the word among men. So again, that pride and haughtiness of men, which prompts them to reject Christ, this in Scripture Language is called folly
Athanasians - And since every sect was willing to adopt the Language of Scripture, it was thought necessary to adopt scholastic terms, in order to fix the sense of Scripture Language
Thing - ...
In learning French, choose such books as will teach you things as well as Language. Genesis 1 This application of the word is improper, but common in popular and vulgar Language
John of Montecorvino - At the same time he familiarized himself with the Chinese Language and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into that tongue
Montecorvino, John of - At the same time he familiarized himself with the Chinese Language and translated the New Testament and the Psalms into that tongue
Nationalism - The consciousness of oneness among a people based on a common heritage of traditions and customs, and often also of Language
Binding And Loosing - Whatever be the primary signification of this metaphor in the Aramaic Language, these words as used by Christ, as is evident from the context and from Christian tradition, meant that He was to confer upon the rulers of His Church the power to bind the faithful to the observance of laws and to loose them from impediments to eternal happiness, especially from sin and its consequent debt of punishment
Ordain - Though a common word in the traditional Language of the church, ‘ordain’ is not common in the Bible
Blazon - ) The art or act of describing or depicting heraldic bearings in the proper Language or manner
Loosing, Binding And - Whatever be the primary signification of this metaphor in the Aramaic Language, these words as used by Christ, as is evident from the context and from Christian tradition, meant that He was to confer upon the rulers of His Church the power to bind the faithful to the observance of laws and to loose them from impediments to eternal happiness, especially from sin and its consequent debt of punishment
Chinnereth - Chinnereth was probably an ancient Canaanitish name adopted by the Israelites into their Language
Contrite - This word signifies beaten or bruised, as with hard blows, or an heaver burden; and so in Scripture Language imports one whose heart is broken and wounded for sin, on opposition to the heart of stone, Is
Barbarian - word which does not at all connote savagery, but means simply ‘foreign,’ ‘speaking an unintelligible Language
Mightily - ...
Admissible in colloquial and familiar Language
Potsherd - The Lord is describing in figurative Language the way He would suffer on Calvary, be broken, and apparently have no value to GOD or to men
Disguise - ) Artificial Language or manner assumed for deception; false appearance; counterfeit semblance or show
Adorn - ...
To set off to advantage to add ornaments to to embellish by any thing external or adventitious as, to adorn a speech by appropriate action, sentiments with elegance of Language, or a gallery with pictures
Allowance - That which is allowed a portion appointed a stated quantity, as of food or drink hence, in seamen's Language, a limited quantity of meat and drink, when provisions fall short
Blend - In chimical Language, it is a sulphuret of zink
Integrity - Purity genuine, unadulterated, unimpaired state as the integrity of Language
Walking - In the Language of Scripture, this is frequently made use of to denote the state of the soul before God
Footed - If we walk well in a path of separation, but our conversation and Language does not honor the Lord, we will not be accepted by GOD
Eve - In the Chickasaw Language of America, a wife is called awah, says Adair
Honey - The king hath found ...
Matter against him, that forever mars ...
The honey of his Language
Spark - ...
Job 41:19 (c) Probably this is just poetical Language to describe the terrible hatred and anger that exists in this case
Verse - ) Metrical arrangement and Language; that which is composed in metrical form; versification; poetry
Translation - ) The act of rendering into another Language; interpretation; as, the translation of idioms is difficult
Simplicity - ) Freedom from artificial ornament, pretentious style, or luxury; plainness; as, simplicity of dress, of style, or of Language; simplicity of diet; simplicity of life
Babylonia - Semitic in Language and civilization, and founded c
Temperate - Cool calm not marked with passion not violent as a temperate discourse or address temperate Language
Wilt - This is a legitimate word, for which there is no substitute in the Language
Gift - We cannot adduce a more remarkable proof of the important part which presents play in the social life of the East than the fact that the Hebrew Language possesses no less than fifteen different expressions for the one idea
Voice - ) Language; words; speech; expression; signification of feeling or opinion. ) Command; precept; - now chiefly used in scriptural Language
Bible - ) The Book by way of eminence, - that is, the book which is made up of the writings accepted by Christians as of divine origin and authority, whether such writings be in the original Language, or translated; the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments; - sometimes in a restricted sense, the Old Testament; as, King James's Bible; Douay Bible; Luther's Bible
Whore - ...
Revelation 17:1 (a) GOD spares no Language in exposing the wickedness of the great false religions of the world, and particularly that cruel, voracious one that has its seat and headquarters in Rome
Wormwood - In the symbolical Language of the Apocalypse ( Revelation 8:10,11 ) a star is represented as falling on the waters of the earth, causing the third part of the water to turn wormwood
Life: the Hidden - Joyous may be the inner Language of those wires, swift as the lightning, far- reaching and full of meaning, but a stranger intermeddles not therewith
Minister: Self-Dissatisfaction of - He projects himself far beyond his Language
Plan - ) A scheme devised; a method of action or procedure expressed or described in Language; a project; as, the plan of a constitution; the plan of an expedition
Polish - ) The Language of the Poles
Act - But in this sense, it is most frequent in popular Language as, how the man acts or has acted
Boldness - Prominence the quality of exceeding the ordinary rules of scrupulous nicety and caution applied to style, expression, and metaphors in Language and to figures in painting, sculpture and architecture
Crucify - In scriptural Language, to subdue to mortify to destroy the power or ruling influence of
Abomination - In the Language of Scripture, the word abomination for the most part means idolatry
Bushel - In popular Language, a large quantity indefinitely
Rude - ) Not finished or complete; inelegant; lacking chasteness or elegance; not in good taste; unsatisfactory in mode of treatment; - said of literature, Language, style, and the like
Lisp - ) To utter with imperfect articulation; to express with words pronounced imperfectly or indistinctly, as a child speaks; hence, to express by the use of simple, childlike Language
Elihu - The soothing, yet faithful and honest, discourse of Elihu is finely contrasted with the sharp and severe Language of the other three; and especially are his wisdom, piety, and benevolence admirable, when we consider his youth, and the character and standing of those whom he addressed
Firmament - Teaching religion, not astronomy of physics, it does not anticipate modern discoveries, but speaks of natural objects and occurrences in the common Language of men everywhere
Parthians - Some Parthians were among those in Jerusalem on the Day of Pentecost who heard the gospel in their own Language (Acts 2:9-11 )
Yearn - ...
--Anticlus, unable to control, spoke loud the Language of his yearning soul
Hellenists - Scaliger is represented in the Scaligerana as asserting the Hellenists to be the Jews who lived in Greece and other places, and who read the Greek Bible in their synagogues, and used the Greek Language in sacris; and thus they were opposed to the Hebrew Jews, who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; and in this sense St. a Hebrew both by nation and Language
Rabshakeh - This is favored by his familiarity with the Hebrew Language, in which he addresses fluently (to the annoyance of Hezekiah's officers sent to meet him) the Jews on the wall, and with Isaiah's prophecy (Isaiah 8:7-8; Isaiah 10:5-6): "am I now come up without the Lord to destroy it? The Lord said, Go up against this land" (2 Kings 18:25). "...
Rabshakeh was a zealous pleader for his master, reckless of truth, glossing over the real miseries of deportation by Assyria (Isaiah 36:16-17), pretending to have Jehovah on his side, yet classing Jehovah with the idols of other lands overthrown by Assyria (Isaiah 36:18-20, liars need to have good memories), trying to rob the godly of their one only but sure trust in trouble, misrepresenting Hezekiah's faithful act in removing forbidden high places to Jehovah, as though he thereby had dishonored and so forfeited the favor of Jehovah (Isaiah 36:7), boasting of Assyria's might, as if, because Judah could not supply 2,000 riders if even Assyria supplied the horses, it were impossible the Jews could repel one of the least of Assyria's captains (Isaiah 36:8-9); in filthy and blasphemous Language he threatens to reduce them to eat their own excrement in the extremity of famine (Isaiah 36:12; 2 Chronicles 32:11): a sample of the true nature of the pagan attack on Jerusalem, at once arrogant, blasphemous, and reckless of all decency
Drag - In seamens Language, to drag an anchor, is to draw or trail it along the bottom when loosened, or when the anchor will not hold the ship. In sea-language, a machine consisting of a sharp square frame of iron, encircled with a net, used to take the wheel off from the platform or bottom of the decks
Abba - It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say 'Father' in his own Language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the Language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places
Samaritan Pentateuch - the generality of divines hold, that the Samaritan Pentateuch, and that of the Jews, are one and the same work, written in the same Language, only in different characters; and that the difference between the two text is owing to the inadvertency and inaccuracy of transcribers, or to the affectation of the Samaritans, by interpolating what might promote their interests and pretensions; that the two copies were originally the very same, and that the additions were afterwards inserted. Besides the Pentateuch in Phoenician characters, there is another in the Language which was spoken at the time that Manasseh, first high priest of the temple of Gerizim, and son-in-law of Sanballat, governor of Samaria, under the king of Persia, took shelter among the Samaritans. The Language of this last is a mixture of chaldee, Syriac, and Phoenician
Hebrew - In Israel's bondages in the time of the judges they never lost their Language; but in the 70 years' captivity in Babylon their Language became in a great degree Aramaic or Chaldee, and they adopted the present Hebrew alphabet. Thus it is proved the Israelites spoke the Languages of the surrounding peoples. In New Testament the contrast is between "Hebrew" and those having foreign characteristics, as especially the Greek or any Gentile Language (Acts 6:1; Philippians 3:5 (See GREEK; GRECIAN), 2 Corinthians 11:22; Luke 23:38)
Profane - ) Irreverent in Language; taking the name of God in vain; given to swearing; blasphemous; as, a profane person, word, oath, or tongue
Sepharvaim - and his predecessor from their agents in Palestine, proves that in the century before the Exodus an active literary intercourse was carried on between these nations, and that the medium of the correspondence was the Babylonian Language and script
Patter - ) The Language or oratory of a street peddler, conjurer, or the like, hence, glib talk; a voluble harangue; mere talk; chatter; also, specif
Declare - ) To make known by Language; to communicate or manifest explicitly and plainly in any way; to exhibit; to publish; to proclaim; to announce
Pronounce - ) To utter articulately; to speak out or distinctly; to utter, as words or syllables; to speak with the proper sound and accent as, adults rarely learn to pronounce a foreign Language correctly
Afore - In seaman's Language, toward the head of the ship further forward, or nearer the stem as, afore the windlas
Ditch - —The parabolic Language of our Lord in the first two parallel passages is suggested by the frequency of danger from unguarded wells, quarries, and holes
Esther, Book of - Theodotian translated them from that Language
Chaff - But in Scripture Language, it is used figuratively, to denote the uselessness and folly of a name to live, while virtually dead before God
Bind - By binding and loosing, in the Language of the Jews, is understood, likewise, permitting and forbidding; or declaring any thing in a judicial manner to be permitted or forbidden; and on the promotion of their doctors, they put the keys into their hands with these words, "Receive the power of binding and loosing
Sophonias - The Language of the prophecy is graphic; e
Gomer - Traces of his name and parentage are also found in the Cymbri, Umbri, and Cambri of historians, in Kumero and Kumeraeg, the names of the Welsh people and Language, and among various nations of Europe
Elders - In the Presbyterian Church the term includes the clergy, called the "teaching elders" but in ordinary Language it is restricted to the "lay" or "ruling elders" who are chosen in each congregation to assist the minister in the management of church affairs
Temptation - In colloquial Language, an allurement to any thing indifferent, or even good
Throat - In seamen's Language, that end of a gaff which is next the mast
ca'Naanites, the, - Their Language was very similar to the Hebrew
he'Brew - The latter was accepted by the Jews in their external relations; and after the general substitution of the word Jew, it still found a place in that marked and special feature of national contradistinction, the Language
Symbol - While the word symbol does not appear in the Bible, both the Old and New Testaments are rich in symbolism and symbolic Language. Jesus used symbolic Language in talking about Himself and His relationship to persons: Bread of life, Light of the world, Good Shepherd, Water of life, and the Door. ...
The apocalyptic writings of the Bible, Ezekiel, Daniel, and Revelation are rich in symbolic Language
Chabanel, Noel, Saint - In spite of the difficulty of learning the Language, of overcoming his natural repulsion for the savages, and of adjusting himself to the mode of life, he persisted and even bound himself by a sacred vow to remain with them until death
Noel Chabanel, Saint - In spite of the difficulty of learning the Language, of overcoming his natural repulsion for the savages, and of adjusting himself to the mode of life, he persisted and even bound himself by a sacred vow to remain with them until death
Nation - It often happens that many nations are subject to one government in which case, the word nation usually denotes a body of people speaking the same Language, or a body that has formerly been under a distinct government, but has been conquered, or incorporated with a larger nation
Cadence - ) Rhythmical flow of Language, in prose or verse
Feminine - words are said to be of the feminine gender, when they denote females, or have the terminations proper to express females in any given Language
Phenice, Phenicia - ...
The Language of the ancient Phoenicians may be said to be only a different dialect from the Hebrew, as shown by ancient inscriptions; and according to Herodotus, the Phoenicians taught the Greeks 'letters
Vials - Golden bowls, mentioned in the symbolical Language of the Revelation as ...
1
Gomer - Among the descendants of the ancient inhabitants of this island, namely, the Welsh, the words Kumero and Kumeraeg, the names of the people and the Language, sufficiently point out their origin
Abba - This is probably due to the fact that, abba having practically become a proper name, Greek-speaking Jews added the Greek word pater, "father," from the Language they used
Rabshakeh - He was the chief spokesman; and from the fact of his being able to speak in the Jews' Language, he is supposed to have been either a proselyte or an apostate Jew
Parcel - To parcel a seam, in seamen's Language, to lay canvas over it and daub it with pitch
Translation - It is also used for the version of a book or writing into a different Language from that in which it was written. From the poverty (as appears) of their native Language. These divines were profoundly skilled in the learning as well as in the Languages of the East; whilst some of those who have presumed to improve their version, seem not to have possessed a critical knowledge of the Greek tongue, to have known still less of the Hebrew, and to have been absolute strangers to the dialect spoken in Judea in the days of our Saviour, as well as to the manners, customs, and peculiar opinions of the Jewish sects
Language - It is plain from Scripture, that in the early ages of the world, "the whole earth was of one Language and of one speech. It hath been a subject of more curiosity than profit to enquirers from whence arose the first communication of thought by speech, and who taught men the use of Language, or the power to diversify sound for conveying ideas. But what a decided proof is this, among may, of the overruling power of God to cause good to spring out of evil, that as sin induced a confusion of Languages, grace rendered this very confusion a means for the greater display of the riches of mercy in the confirmation of the truth of the gospel; for by the confusion at Babel, and the diversity of Languages that followed, what a blessed opportunity was thereby afforded, when at the day of Pentecost, the poor, ignorant, and unlearned disciples of Jesus gave testimony of the truth by conversing with the greatest fluency in no less than fifteen different Languages to the different nations of the earth then assembled at Jerusalem
Tongue - ) A people having a distinct Language. ) A Language; the whole sum of words used by a particular nation; as, the English tongue
Letter - Hence a letter is the first element of written Language, as a simple sound is the first element of spoken Language or speech
Voice - Language words expression. Language tone mode of expression
Word - An articulate or vocal sound, or a combination of articulate and vocal sounds, uttered by the human voice, and by custom expressing an idea or ideas a single component part of human speech or Language. Language living speech oral expression
Mustard - It is an error, for which the Language of Scripture is not accountable, to assert that the passage implies that birds "built their nests" in the tree: the Greek word has no such meaning; the word merely means "to settle or rest upon" anything for a longer or shorter time; nor is there any occasion to suppose that the expression "fowls of the air" denotes any other than the smaller insessorial kinds--linnets, finches, etc. The Lord in his popular teaching," says Trench ("Notes on Parables", 108), "adhered to the popular Language;" and the mustard-seed was used proverbially to denote anything very minute; or may mean that it was the smallest of all garden seeds, which it is in truth
Analogue - ) A word in one Language corresponding with one in another; an analogous term; as, the Latin "pater" is the analogue of the English "father
Firmament - The Language of Scripture is not scientific but popular, and hence we read of the sun rising and setting, and also here the use of this particular word
Gift of Tongues - An ability given to the apostles of readily and intelligibly speaking a variety of Languages which they had never learnt. Middleton, to understand it as merely an occasional gift, so that a person might speak a Language most fluently one hour, and be entirely ignorant of it in the next; which neither agrees with what is said of the abuse of it, nor would have been sufficient to answer the end proposed
Life: Explains Religion - There is no Language in the world so eloquent as a holy life
Articulation - ) The utterance of the elementary sounds of a Language by the appropriate movements of the organs, as in pronunciation; as, a distinct articulation
Rhyme - ) An expression of thought in numbers, measure, or verse; a composition in verse; a rhymed tale; poetry; harmony of Language
Alphaeus - Others think the Language problems between Greek and Hebrew make the equation impossible so that two different Marys are meant
Bitter - In marine Language, a turn of the cable which is round the bitts
Er - " Pata, in the Burman Language, signifies to kill but it is probable that this is really the English beat
Forbid - Good manners also forbid us to use profane Language
Variation - ) The act of varying; a partial change in the form, position, state, or qualities of a thing; modification; alternation; mutation; diversity; deviation; as, a variation of color in different lights; a variation in size; variation of Language
Abyssinian Church - The liturgical Language, Geez, shows a mixture of Greek and Arabic
Kill - ) To cause to cease; to quell; to calm; to still; as, in seamen's Language, a shower of rain kills the wind
Enoch - There is an apocryphal book bearing the name of Enoch, in which similar Language occurs
Semites - The tribes which inhabited these territories show in their Language, traits, and character a sharply defined individuality which separates them distinctly from other peoples. Their Languages are closely related to one another, being dialects of a single linguistic group, the purest form being found in Arabia; and from this and other circumstances it has been concluded that Arabia is the original home of the Semitic race
Creation - Its purpose is not to teach scientific theories, but to give a short simple account of the beginning of things, and in Language that people of any era or any background can understand. ...
The Language of the creation story, like that of the rest of the Bible, is not the technical Language of the scientist, but the everyday Language of the common people (cf. The pictorial Language of the Bible is different from the technical Language of science, but the two are not necessarily in conflict
Ferdinand Brunetiere - " For several years he held the position of professor of French literature and Language at the Ecole Normale, being dropped from the list of professors, owing to his conversion to Catholicism, when the school was reorganized in 1905
Monk - The word monk seldom occurs in the official Language of the Church
Tongues, Gift of - But the words of Luke (Acts 2:9 ) clearly show that the various peoples in Jerusalem at the time of Pentecost did really hear themselves addressed in their own special Language with which they were naturally acquainted (Compare Joel 2:28,29 )
Riddle - An enigmatic or puzzling statement, often based on the clever use of the ambiguities of Language
o'Curry, Eugene - Self-taught scholar of the Irish Language, from which he translated numerous volumes, and by means of which he obtained a far-reaching knowledge of the literature of Ireland
Hara - ) Here still is a town bearing the old name Harran, whose people retained until lately the Chaldean Language and idols; upon the Belilk (in ancient times, Bilichus), an affluent of the Euphrates
Mustard - The words "the least of all seeds" are used comparatively to the increase, not absolutely; Christ used the popular Language
Walls - ...
In scriptural Language a wall is a symbol of salvation (Isaiah 26:1 ; Isa, Isaiah 60:18 ), of the protection of God (Zechariah 2:5 ), of those who afford protection (1 Samuel 25:16 ; Isaiah 2:15 ), and of wealth of the rich in their own conceit (Proverbs 18:11 )
Preaching: Best Manner of - You could not think of playing the orator, of studying your emphases, cadences, and gestures, you would be yourself, and the interesting nature of your subject, impressing your heart, would furnish you with the most natural tone of voice, the most proper Language, the most engaging features, and the most suitable and graceful gestures
Enius - ) Peculiar character; animating spirit, as of a nation, a religion, a Language
Proposition - ) A complete sentence, or part of a sentence consisting of a subject and predicate united by a copula; a thought expressed or propounded in Language; a from of speech in which a predicate is affirmed or denied of a subject; as, snow is white
Expression - ; significant and impressive indication, whether by Language, appearance, or gesture; that manner or style which gives life and suggestive force to ideas and sentiments; as, he reads with expression; her performance on the piano has expression
Flirt - ) To utter contemptuous Language, with an air of disdain; to jeer or gibe
Along - ...
Along side, in seamen's Language, that is, by the length or in a line with the side, signifies side by side, as by another ship or by the side of a wharf
Greek Rites - ,the form or arrangement of liturgical services, derived from the rites or liturgies originally celebrated in Greek in Antioch and Alexandria, regardless of the Language in which it is now used
Prison - In the common acceptation of the word, we generally understand by a prison a place of confinement for the body; but in Scripture Language there is added to this view of a prison a state of captivity to the soul
Sanctuary - The psalmist celebrates this in one of the loftiest strains of sacred poetry: "When" (Psalms 114:1-8) "Israel came out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange Language, Judah was his sanctuary, and Israel his dominion
Coal - In the Language of chimists, any substance containing oil, which has been exposed to a fire in a close vessel, so that its volatile matter is expelled, and it can sustain a red heat without further decomposition
Contest - Leave all noisy contests, all immodest clamors, and brawling Language
Gender - But although this was the original design of different terminations, yet in the progress of Language, other words having no relation to one sex or the other, came to have genders assigned them by custom. Words expressing males are said to be of the masculine gender those expressing females, of the feminine gender and in some Languages, words expressing things having no sex, are of the neuter or neither gender
Augustine Schoeffler, Saint - Arriving at Tonkin in the midst of a terrible persecution, he occupied himself with the study of the Language and fulfilling the duties of the ministry throughout the province of Sudoa
Tongues, Confusion of - " God nullified their design by so confounding their Language that they could not understand one another's speech. The gift of tongues at Pentecost in no way rescinded this, though by the miraculous power of the Holy Spirit those from a distance of various Languages heard, each in his own tongue, the same gospel. The apostles had never spoken those Languages before. The learned have devoted much labour in the endeavour to discover the links that exist in all known Languages; but it would require divine power to remove in any practical sense the divergencies
Eugene o'Curry - Self-taught scholar of the Irish Language, from which he translated numerous volumes, and by means of which he obtained a far-reaching knowledge of the literature of Ireland
Amos - His Language indicates an acquaintance with things that would be familiar to one leading an agricultural life: cf
Will, Be Willing - ” Common throughout the history of the Hebrew Language, this word occurs in the Hebrew Bible just over 50 times
Forget - ” The common word meaning “to forget” appears in all periods of the Hebrew Language; this term is also found in Aramaic
Avims - The metamorphoses of the companions of Cadmus into serpents is founded upon the signification of the name of Hivites, which, in the Phoenician Language, signifies serpents
Night - I need not stay to remark, for I presume the sense of the expression is generally understood, that night in Scripture Language is sometimes figuratively used for darkness in divine things
Lion - The Language not improbably recalls that of Psalm 22:21 ; Daniel 6:20
Needle - This mars the figure without materially altering the meaning, and receives no justification from the Language and traditions of Palestine
Large - ) Unrestrained by decorum; - said of Language
William Cobbett - His vigorous Language brought him several arraignments for libel, and finally a two-years' imprisonment
Schoeffler, Augustine, Blessed - Arriving at Tonkin in the midst of a terrible persecution, he occupied himself with the study of the Language and fulfilling the duties of the ministry throughout the province of Sudoa
Rites, Greek - ,the form or arrangement of liturgical services, derived from the rites or liturgies originally celebrated in Greek in Antioch and Alexandria, regardless of the Language in which it is now used
Seize - In seaman's Language, to fasten two ropes or different parts oof one rope together with a cord
Vengeance - ...
With a vengeance, in familiar Language, signifies with great violence or vehemence as, to strike one with a vengeance
You - In familiar Language, it is applied to an individual, as thou is in the solemn style
Christian - The Language spoken in Antioch was Greek, and therefore the believers in that town spoke of Jesus not by the Hebrew word ‘Messiah’, but by the equivalent Greek word ‘Christ’
Hebrews - Lardner we find the following remark: "It is evident that this epistle was generally received in ancient times by those Christians who used the Greek Language, and lived in the eastern parts of the Roman empire. The opinion of Jerom was, that the sentiments are the Apostle's, but the Language and composition that of some one else, who committed to writing the Apostle's sense, and, as it were, reduced into commentaries the things spoken by his master. Paul dictated the epistle in Hebrew, and another, who was a great master of the Greek Language, immediately wrote down the Apostle's sentiments in his own elegant Greek; but who this assistant of the Apostle was, is altogether unknown. Clement, of Alexandria, Eusebius, and Jerom, thought that this epistle was originally written in the Hebrew Language; but all the other ancient fathers who have mentioned this subject speak of the Greek as the original work; and as no one pretends to have seen this epistle in Hebrew, as there are no internal marks of the Greek being a translation, and as we know that the Greek Language was at this time very generally understood at Jerusalem, we may accede to the more common opinion, both among the ancients and moderns, and consider the present Greek as the original text. They seem to have been native Jews, inhabitants of Judea, the Language of which country was Hebrew, and therefore they were called Hebrews, in contradistinction to those Jews who, residing commonly in other countries, although they occasionally came to Jerusalem, used the Greek Language, and were therefore called Grecians. To obviate the impression which any reasoning of this sort might make upon the converts to Christianity, the writer of this epistle begins with declaring to the Hebrews, that the same God who had formerly, upon a variety of occasions, spoken to their fathers by means of his prophets, had now sent his only Son for the purpose of revealing his will; he then describes, in most sublime Language, the dignity of the person of Christ, Hebrews 1; and thence refers the duty of obeying his commands, the divine authority of which was established by the performance of miracles, and by the gifts of the Holy Ghost; he points out the necessity of Christ's incarnation and passion, Hebrews 2; he shows the superiority of Christ to Moses, and warns the Hebrews against the sin of unbelief, Hebrews 3; he exhorts to steadfastness in the profession of the Gospel, and gives an animated description of Christ as our high priest, Hebrews 4-7; he shows that the Levitical priesthood and the old covenant were abolished by the priesthood of Christ, and by the new covenant, Hebrews 8; he points out the efficacy of the ceremonies and sacrifices of the law, and the sufficiency of the atonement made by the sacrifice of Christ, Hebrews 9, 10; he fully explains the nature, merit, and effects of faith, Hebrews 11; and in the last two chapters he gives a variety of exhortations and admonitions, all calculated to encourage the Hebrews to bear with patience and constancy any trials to which they might be exposed. ) As to the Language in which the epistle was originally written, there has been a difference of opinion among critics, both in ancient and modern times. Paul wrote to the Hebrews in the Hebrew Language, and that St. Eusebius in the same manner says, that Paul wrote to the Hebrews in his vernacular Language, and that, according to report, either Luke or Clement translated it. By the Hebrew Language, no one can reasonably doubt, that these fathers meant the Jerusalem dialect, which was spoken in the days of the Apostles, and not the ancient Hebrew, which had long ceased to be a vernacular Language. It was very natural to draw such a conclusion; for would not an epistle addressed to Hebrews in all probability be more acceptable, if written in their own vernacular Language? Moreover, St. Paul was well acquainted with that Language, for he was brought up at Jerusalem, and "at the feet of Gamaliel;" and when he had visited that city, he had addressed the Jewish multitude, who were excited against him, in their native tongue, Acts 22:1-2 . On the other hand, Bolton, a sharp-sighted critic, and well acquainted with the Aramean Language, who has gone through with the New Testament, and found almost every where marks, as he thinks, of translation from Aramean documents, confesses, that, in respect to this epistle, he finds not a single vestige of incorrect translation from an Aramean original, and no marks that there ever was such an original. ) The principal arguments in favour of a Hebrew original are deduced from two sources: That Hebrews are addressed in our epistle, to whom the Hebrew Language would have been more acceptable and intelligible, and many of whom, indeed, could not understand Greek, certainly could not read it: That the diversity of style in the Epistle to the Hebrews is so great, when compared to that of St. Paul did address it to the church at Caesarea, it is altogether probable that he wrote in Greek, as Greek was the principal Language of that city. Even if he did not, it was not necessary that he should write in Hebrew; for in every considerable place in Palestine, there were more or less who understood the Greek Language. Paul understood the Latin Language, which is no where affirmed, and he had not resided, when he wrote this epistle, in any of the countries where it was commonly used, still he understood Greek so much better that he would of course prefer writing in it. For a similar reason, if no other could he given, one may regard it as more probable, that he would write the Epistle to the Hebrews in the Greek Language. Is it any wonder, then, that, after twenty-five years' incessant labour or preaching, conversing, and writing, in this Language, he should have preferred writing in it? Indeed, can it be probable, that, under circumstances like these, he still possessed an equal facility of writing in his native dialect of Palestine? I cannot think it strange, therefore, that although the Epistle to the Hebrews was in all probability directed to some part of Palestine, yet it was written by St
Pay - To pay,or pay over, in seamen's Language, to daub or besmear the surface of any body, to preserve it from injury by water or weather. ...
PAY, To pay off,in seamen's Language, is to fall to leeward, as the head of a ship
Matthew, Gospel According to - " ...
As to the Language in which this Gospel was written there is much controversy. Though Matthew wrote mainly for the Jews, yet they were everywhere familiar with the Greek Language. It must be remembered that Matthew was a tax-gatherer for the Roman government, and hence in contact with those using the Latin Language
Imagery - Figurative Language. Scripture prefers to convey truths by pictorial representations rather than through abstract Language. ...
The challenge of theology (“talk about God”) is to express truths about God in human Language
Tongue - This vivid Language is not adequately characterized by saying, with Mayor, ‘The tongue is of course merely the innocent instrument employed by the free will of man’ (The Epistle of St. That which seems to us to be ‘odd and exaggerated’ in the Language of St. (= Language)
Kenosis - As a hymn, it utilizes poetic Language, which is highly figurative in nature. The ancient and modern reader alike would understand that figurative Language was being used and not intended to be taken literally. One must decide if the Language used here is literal or figurative
Targum - It was made professedly because the Jews who returned from exile knew that Language well. ...
The Language agrees with the Chaldaic or Aramaic parts of Daniel and Ezra. , their Language being the only one understood by the greater part of the Jews even in Palestine. This latter is of much later date, as far as dates are known, and has words of other Languages here and there
Tongue - This vivid Language is not adequately characterized by saying, with Mayor, ‘The tongue is of course merely the innocent instrument employed by the free will of man’ (The Epistle of St. That which seems to us to be ‘odd and exaggerated’ in the Language of St. (= Language)
Lamb - In the symbolical Language of Scripture the lamb is the type of meekness and innocence (Isaiah 11:6 ; 65:25 ; Luke 10:3 ; John 21:15 )
Ant - The Language of Solomon, Proverbs 6:6 , commends them for toiling as soon and as long as the season permits and rewards their labor, and bids us make the same diligent use of life and opportunities, Proverbs 30:24,25
John Viii, Pope - He confirmed the permission granted by Adrian II to Saint Methodius to use the Slavonic Language in the liturgy of the Church; endeavored to restore the Bulgarians to the jurisdiction of the Holy See; and condemned the schismatic Photius
Habakkuk, Prophecies of - It is "unequalled in majesty and splendour of Language and imagery
Salutation - In modern times the ordinary mode of address current in the East resembles the Hebrew Es-selam aleykum , "Peace be on you," and the term "salam," peace, has been introduced into our own Language to describe the Oriental salutation
Shield - (1 Kings 10:17 ) In the metaphorical Language of the Bible the shield generally represents the protection of God: e
Disguise - To hide by a counterfeit appearance to cloke by a false show, by false Language, or an artificial manner as, to disguise anger, sentiments or intentions
Many - In low Language, preceded by too, it denotes powerful or much as, they are too many for us
Acceptance - In mercantile Language, a bill of exchange accepted as a merchant receives another's acceptance in payment
Boast - ...
BOAST, To display in ostentatious Language to speak of with pride, vanity or exultation, with a view to self-commendation
Mandrakes - There doth not seem to be any determined fruit meant by those mandrakes; and some have concluded, that they were flowers, such as the jessamine or violet; and the Language of the church in saying, that they gave a smell, seems to favour this opinion
Respect - By respect to persons or things, in Scripture Language, is meant the preferring one to another
Washing - In Scripture Language the act of washing carries with it an interest in the service for which it is observed
Discourse - ) To treat of; to expose or set forth in Language
Evening - But in customary Language, the evening extends to bed-time, whatever that time may be
Gird - In popular Language, a severe stroke of a stick or whip
Skip - The heart cannot express itself in ordinary Language when talking about our love for the mighty GOD, the wonderful Father, or the precious Saviour
Birthday - Γενέσια, which in Attic Greek means ‘the commemoration of the dead,’ is in the later Language interchangeable with γενέθλια (birthday celebrations), and there seems no reason why the translation of Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 and Authorized Version should not be right (see Swete on Mark 6:21, and Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, s
Bow - The bow, in Scripture Language meaneth much more than the instrument called the bow, used in war
Alexandria - in Greek, a Language with which most of them were familiar
Bury - To bury the hatchet, in the striking metaphorical Language of American Indians, is to lay aside the instruments of war, forget injuries, and make peace
Gift of Tongues - an ability given to the Apostles and others of readily and intelligibly speaking a variety of Languages which they had never learned. Middleton, to understand it as merely an occasional gift, so that a person might speak a Language most fluently one hour, and be entirely ignorant of it the next; which neither agrees with what is said of the abuse of it, nor would it have been sufficient to answer the end proposed, Acts 2
Rephaim - It is commonly thought that they were descended from one called Rephah or Rapha; but others imagine that the word Rephaim properly signifies giants, in the ancient Language of this people
Mother - ) Received by birth or from ancestors; native, natural; as, mother Language; also acting the part, or having the place of a mother; producing others; originating
Sauce - ) To treat with bitter, pert, or tart Language; to be impudent or saucy to
Large - In seamen's Language, the wind is large when it crosses the line of a ship's course in a favorable direction, particularly on the beam or quarter
Shibboleth - This incident should mot be passed over without observing, that it affords proof of dialectical variations among the tribes of the same nation, and speaking the same Language, in those early days
Tradition - Thus children derive their vernacular Language chiefly from tradition
Vomit - It is followed often by up or out, but without necessity and to the injury of the Language
Lycao'Nia - Whether the Language was some Syrian dialect or a corrupt form of Greek has been much debated
Moon - (4:19) In the figurative Language of Scripture, the moon is frequently noticed as presaging events of the greatest importance through the temporary or permanent withdrawal of its light
Everlasting Punishment - Though one can find expressions of individual guilt, punishment and forgiveness in the Psalms, and though one can find the Language of universal judgment in the prophets—that is, that unfaithful Israel and all the nations of the world will be historically punished—it is not until after the Old Testament that the notions of “eternal punishment” or “everlasting judgment” are developed. ” The Language paints a picture of endless suffering, loss, doom and separation from the presence of God
Pastor - The grammatical link between the two words in the original Language indicates that they refer to the same people, pastor-teachers. ...
Another point that is clearer in the original Language than in English is the connection between the words ‘pastor’, ‘shepherd’ and ‘flock’
Everlasting Punishment - Though one can find expressions of individual guilt, punishment and forgiveness in the Psalms, and though one can find the Language of universal judgment in the prophets—that is, that unfaithful Israel and all the nations of the world will be historically punished—it is not until after the Old Testament that the notions of “eternal punishment” or “everlasting judgment” are developed. ” The Language paints a picture of endless suffering, loss, doom and separation from the presence of God
Daniel (2) - says was made in "Syriac," the Language changes to Aramaic, and this is retained till the close of the seventh chapter or Daniel 2:4-7. The personal introduction of Daniel as the writer of the text, 8:1, is marked by a change of the Language again back to the Hebrew, which continues to the close of the book
Isaiah, the Book of - ...
It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present; and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and Language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and Language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to be drawn from it. ...
Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the Language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian origin
Text, Versions, And Languages of ot - TEXT, VERSIONS, AND LanguageS OF OT...
1 . Languages of the OT. The OT, except certain small sections, was written in Hebrew , and it has been preserved in its original Language. But Jeremiah 10:11 , Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 , Ezra 4:8 to Ezra 6:18 ; Ezra 7:12-26 are in Aramaic , though it is disputed in the case of Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 whether this was the original Language, or that of an Aramaic version which has replaced a Hebrew original. Hebrew and Aramaic alike belong to the group of Languages known as Semitic, of which Assyrian (or the Language of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians) and Arabic are also important members. The Hebrew Language: Character and History . Hebrew is closely allied to Phœnician, to the Language of the Moabites represented by Mesha’s inscription ( c
Other Languages besides Aramaic contributed to the vocabulary of Hebrew: Assyrian , indirectly through the Canaanites from the earliest times to an extent not easily to be defined, and later directly; Persian , after the Persian conquest of Babylon in 538; Greek , after the time of Alexander (332 b. , and written under, over, or in the consonants of the ancient text; (2) the Greek versions, which transliterate a large number of Hebrew words, especially, but by no means only, the proper names; (3) the Assyrian texts: these, being written in a Language which expressed in writing vowel sounds as well as consonantal, give us the vowels of such Hebrew names as they cite. The colloquial Language of the Samaritans, like that of the later Jews, was different from that in which the Scripture was written. They owe their origin to the custom of explaining the Hebrew passages of Scripture read in the synagogues in the Language spoken by the people, which was Aramaic
Blood - The next verse shows that eating “blood and flesh” is powerful metaphorical Language for sharing in the life that Jesus bestows—”so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me” (John 6:57 ). The New Testament seeks to express this meaning in two ways: (1) in the Language of sacrifice, and (2) in Language pertaining to the sphere of law. This sacrificial Language and legal Language provide helpful analogies. Sometimes, both legal and sacrificial Language are found together. ...
In the Language of sacrifice we have “expiation” (removal of sins, Romans 3:25 ); “sprinkling of the blood of Jesus” (1 Peter 1:1-2 ); “redeemed by precious blood as of a lamb without spot and without blemish” (1 Peter 1:19 ); “blood of His Son cleanses us from all sin” (1 John 1:7 ); “blood that cleanses the conscience” (Hebrews 9:14 ); and “blood of an eternal covenant” (Hebrews 13:20 ). In legal Language we have “justification” (Romans 5:9 ); “redemption” (Ephesians 1:7 ); been redeemed to God by His blood (Revelation 5:9 )
Syria - Many of these tablets are in Eblaite, an ancient Language similar to Hebrew and promise to aid in biblical study. Excavations at the latter yielded alphabetic cuneiform tablets in Ugaritic (a Language similar to Hebrew) which have shed much light on the nature of Canaanite religion. The most enduring contribution of the Arameans was their Language which became the Language of commerce and diplomacy by the Persian period. By New Testament times, Aramaic was the Language commonly spoken in Palestine and probably used by Jesus
Colors - To illustrate, Old Testament writers, writing predominantly in the Hebrew Language, chose to describe objects not with reference to their colors but with reference to their appearances or likenesses. Many scholars have attributed this Hebrew way of expression to a lack of diversity in the Language. Hebrew was not a particularly complex or highly developed Language. This is all the more remarkable in that the writers of the New Testament had access to the extensive color vocabulary of the Greek Language. Color symbolism became for the writers of apocalyptic literature (Daniel, Revelation) an appropriate tool for expressing various truths in hidden Language
Scorpion - ‘Scorpion’), that the Language of our Lord in Luke 11:12 is suggested by the egg-like form of the ‘scorpion’ when at rest
Hebrew of the Hebrews - It is more probable that a Hebrew of the Hebrews signifies a Hebrew both by nation and Language, which many of Abraham's posterity, in those days, were not; or one of the Hebrew Jews who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; for such were reckoned more honourable than the Jews born out of Judea, and who spoke the Greek tongue
Charles Herbermann - Graduated from the College of Saint Francis Xavier, New York, he was professor of Latin Language and literature at the College of the City of New York, 1869-1914, and from 1873 also librarian
Par'Thians - The Parthians spoke the Persian Language
Fade - " It is found in various writings in the Language of the Koine, e
Candour - "True candour is different from that guarded, inoffensive Language, and that studied openness of behaviour, which we so frequently meet with among men of the world
Gospel: to be Preached Simply - May we shrewdly guess that if they had any secret to tell they should put it in intelligible Language, and that their pompous involved sentences are only a screen for their utter ignorant of the matter? When we hear preachers talking of div things in a style savoring more of metaphysical subtile than of gospel plainness; when the seeking sinner cam find out the way of salvation because of their philosophic jargon, may we not with justice suspect that the preach does not know the gospel, and conceals his culpable ignorant behind the veil of rhetorical magniloquence? Surely if a man understood a matter so important to all his hearers the way of salvation, he would feel constrained to tell it all in words which all might comprehend
Eternity - They do not bear the least imaginable proportion to it; for these will come to an end, as certainly as a day; but eternity will never, never, never, come to an end! It is a line without end! It is an ocean without a shore! Alas! what shall I say of it! it is an infinite, unknown something, that neither human thought can grasp, nor human Language describe!" Orton on Eternity; Shower on ditto: Davis's Sermons, ser
Ignorance: of Oneìs Own Heart - ' Such was the Language of a prosperous worldling
Lightning - In poetic Language God's voice is identified with the thunder (Job 37:3-5 )
Month - ...
In popular Language, four weeks are called a month, being nearly the length of the lunar month
Doublet - ) One of two or more words in the same Language derived by different courses from the same original from; as, crypt and grot are doublets; also, guard and ward; yard and garden; abridge and abbreviate, etc
Fling - ) To cast in the teeth; to utter abusive Language; to sneer; as, the scold began to flout and fling
Addition - In popular Language, an advantage, ornament, improvement that is, an addition by way of eminence
Cherub, Cherubim - In the Accadian Language they were termed kirubu, and were thought to preserve the places from the entrance of evil spirits
Corruption - Impurity depravation debasement as a corruption of Language
Herbermann, Charles George - Graduated from the College of Saint Francis Xavier, New York, he was professor of Latin Language and literature at the College of the City of New York, 1869-1914, and from 1873 also librarian
Family - In popular Language, an order, class or genus of animals or of other natural productions, having something in common, by which they are distinguished from others as, quadrupeds constitute a family of animals, and we speak of the family or families of plants
Swelling - ...
2 Peter 2:18 (a) The reference evidently is to the boastful Language used by great religious leaders whose tongues are larger than their hands
Orion - , canst thou loose the bonds by which he is chained to the sky?...
The Language is adapted to the current conceptions (just as we use the mythological names of constellations without adopting the myths), but with this significant difference that whereas those pagan nations represented Orion glorified in the sky the Hebrew view him as a chained rebel, not with belt, but in "bands
Six - This number is arrived at by adding together the numerical values of the letters in the Greek Language which compose his name
Romance - ) The Languages, or rather the several dialects, which were originally forms of popular or vulgar Latin, and have now developed into Italian. (called the Romanic Languages). ) Of or pertaining to the Language or dialects known as Romance
Vein - ) A narrow mass of rock intersecting other rocks, and filling inclined or vertical fissures not corresponding with the stratification; a lode; a dike; - often limited, in the Language of miners, to a mineral vein or lode, that is, to a vein which contains useful minerals or ores
Nehushtan - In our English Language we have numberless instances of the kind
Letter - ) A mark or character used as the representative of a sound, or of an articulation of the human organs of speech; a first element of written Language
Loose - ) Containing or consisting of obscene or unchaste Language; as, a loose epistle
Walter Scott, Sir - His short songs and lyrics are among the finest in the Language
Scott, Sir Walter - His short songs and lyrics are among the finest in the Language
Rap - In the popular Language of the United States, it is often pronounced rip, to rip out an oath L
Rebuke - In low Language, any kind of check
Kind - In technical Language, kind answers to genus
Thine - In familiar and common Language, your and yours are always used in the singular number as well as the plural
Sad - I have not found the word in the English sense, in any other Language
Patara - ...
Lycia was never definitely colonized by Greeks, and the Lycians spoke a non-Aryan Language
South Dakota - In 1843 he printed, at Prairie du Chien, a devotional book in their own Language for the Sioux Indians
Weather - In seamens Language, to sail to the windward of something else as, to weather a cape to weather another ship
Judae'a, - " (Matthew 19:1 ; Mark 10:1 ) Judea was, in strict Language, the name of the third district, west of the Jordan and south of Samaria
Evangelist - In later liturgical Language the word was applied to the reader of the gospel for the day
Chalde'Ans, - It appears that while, both in Assyria and in later Babylonia, the Shemitic type of speech prevailed for civil purposes, the ancient Cushite dialect was retained, as a learned Language for scientific and religious literature
Almond Tree; Almond - It is curious to observe, in connection with the almond bowls of the golden candlestick, that, in the Language of lapidaries, almonds are pieces of rock crystal, even now used in adorning branch candlesticks
Peter, Festival of Saint - His original name was Simon or Simeon, which was changedinto Cephas, which in the Syrian Language, signifies a stone orrock; from this it was derived into the Greek Petros, and sotermed by us Peter
Theognostus, a Priest of Alexandria - He used Language in bk
Basilius, Bishop of Seleucia - But at the "Robbers' Synod" held at Ephesus a few months later his courage gave way, and he acquiesced in the rehabilitation of Eutyches, and retracted his obnoxious Language. Basil's homilies shew much oratorical power and skill in the use of figurative Language
Barbarian - The Greeks of the age of independence divided mankind into two classes-Hellenes or Greeks, and Barbarians, the latter term having a special reference to those who did not speak the Greek Language and were thus unintelligible to the inhabitants of Hellas. By and by the word came to be used as descriptive of all the defects which the Greeks thought foreign to themselves and natural to all other peoples, but the first and the main idea conveyed by the term is that of difference of Language
Commodianus - ), and the Language of § lii. ), though utterly valueless as literature, are of considerable interest in the history of the Latin Language as showing that the change had already commenced which resulted in the formation of the Romance Languages
Ninevites - They would thus be allied in blood and in Language to the Hebrews. A learned Assyrian studied Accadian as a dead Language, as Latin is now studied by educated people
Babel - Confusion, the name of a lofty tower, begun to be built by the descendants of Noah among who Nimrod was a leader, about one hundred and twenty years after the flood; so called because God there confounded the Language of those who were employed in the undertaking, Genesis 10:10 11:9 . Their object in building the city and tower, was to concentrate the population and the dominion at that spot; and as this was contrary to the divine purpose of replenishing the earth with inhabitants, and betrayed an ungodly and perhaps idolatrous disposition, God frustrated their designs by miraculously giving to different portions of the people different Languages, or different modes of pronunciation and divergent dialects of the original Language of man, thus causing them to disperse over the globe
Lucanus (1) - Origen's Language ( οἶμαι ) implies that he had no very intimate knowledge of the teaching of Lucanus; he will not speak positively as to whether Lucanus tampered with the Gospels. 189) interprets this to mean that Lucanus held that the ψυχή would perish and the πνεῦμα alone be immortal; and possibly this may be so, though Tertullian's Language would lead us to attribute to Lucanus a theory more peculiar to himself than this would be
Man of Sin - They are also generally agreed in the view that the two magnitudes which underlay the Apostle’s cryptic Language in regard to the man of lawlessness and the restrainer are to be found in Judaism and the Roman Empire as represented by its ruler. But at this point opinion divides into two exactly contradictory theories, each of which is able to point to some favouring considerations in the Language used by the Apostle. ), certainly afford a very direct explanation of the Language of v. On the contrary, the Language in which he describes its treatment of Christ and the gospel, and his denunciation of the wrath of God upon it (1 Thessalonians 2:15 f. But this is to overlook the fact that we have to do here with an apocalyptic picture coloured with the Language of an OT apocalypse (cf. His familiarity with it may be traced not only in the Language of Daniel 11:4, but in the references to the Beliar-Satan conception which are present in the passage
Remnant - Canonically one may find Language of remnant in the Pentateuch, in historical books (e. Theologically, remnant Language clusters in several Old Testament books, the authors of which lived at some hinge point in history: Isaiah (37:31-32) and Micah (4:7; 7:18) near the time of Israel's collapse; Jeremiah (11:23; 50:20) and Zephaniah (2:7-9) near the time of Judah's fall; and Paul near the time of the emergence of the church (Romans 11:5 ). Remnant Language is associated with both judgment and salvation. The Language of remnant in announcements of judgment was used to emphasize the totality of the judgment—whether of non-Israelites or Israelitesso that no trace, no remnant would in the end remain. For Israel especially Language of remnant was also invoked to disabuse any who might consider themselves exceptions to the predicted casualties. In the prophet's mouth, remnant Language for Israel is hope-engendering. ...
Because the criterion is not ethnicity but righteousness, the Scripture applies "remnant" Language to peoples other than Israel
Language of Christ - Language OF CHRIST . It is not improbable that the writer published his book in the two Languages, and that the Greek edition alone has survived. Yet the Hebrew of the Jerusalem Pharisee, the Language of the Samaritans, the speech of the men of Galilee, and the patois of the borderers, were all Semitic dialects. Yet it must not be forgotten that Greek was the Language of trade and literature. But the Language of the Palestinian home, of the Palestinian synagogue, of farmers, artisans, and labourers, as well as of educated Jews, who cultivated the ancient ways, was Hebrew, using that, term for the moment in a somewhat extended sense. He conversed in a Language which was understood by the servants and others of the same class assembled round the fire, but he was recognized as a northerner by his accent. Such a view (whether true or false matters not now) depends on an assumption that some Language related to Syriac, if not Syriac itself, was the vernacular of the Apostles. ...
It has been thought that the conversations between our Lord and the woman of Samaria and the Syrophœnician woman must have been carried on in Greek as a common Language. It had arisen through corruption of the ancestral tongue, under the influence of surrounding Languages, especially Aramaic. But all the evidence tends to the conviction that Christ habitually employed some form of the vernacular in His discourses, and not the alien Language of Greece
Bible, Translations - The Old Testament was written in Hebrew and Aramaic and the New Testament in Greek, the Languages both of the writers and of those who were expected to read the books in the first instance. The complete Bible has been translated into 293 Languages and dialects, the New Testament into 618 additional ones, and individual books into 918 more Languages. The process of translation is ongoing in the effort to make God's Word available to all in Languages which everyone can understand. ...
The evangelistic thrust of the early church gave impetus for many translations to impart the gospel to peoples in diverse Language areas of the Roman empire. Most of the modern Languages of Europe had printed translations made at that time: German, 1466; Italian, 1471; Spanish, 1478; and French, 1487. 1382) who are given credit for having first given the English the complete Bible in their own Language. ...
English Bible Translations in the Twentieth Century At the turn of the century Adolf Deissmann, using study of the papyri from Egypt, persuaded scholars that the New Testament was in the common Language (the Koine) of the first century, giving impetus to an effort to present the Bible in the Language of the twentieth century. Wider knowledge of the nature of the biblical and related Languages has been gained, making for more accurate definitions. Besides these matters is the simple fact that the English Language continually changes so that what is understandable at one period becomes less so at a later one. This is a “halfway house” for those who know that something needs to replace the KJV but who are not willing to have a translation which represents the current state of knowledge and which uses current Language. ...
An effort to meet the needs of those who have English as a second Language or those who have a limited knowledge of English is Today's English Version (TEV), also known as the Good News Bible (1976). Recasting of Language, consolidation of statements, and paraphrasing have all been employed in the effort to make the message simple enough to be grasped by the reader
Bible - ...
These sections were divided into verses; of which division, if Ezra was not the author, it was introduced not long after him, and seems to have been designed for the use of the Targumists, or Chaldee interpreters; for after the return of the Jews from the Babylonish captivity, when the Hebrew Language ceased to be their mother tongue, and the Chaldee grew into use instead of it, the custom was, that the law should be first read in the original Hebrew, and then interpreted to the people in the Chaldee Language; for which purpose these shorter sections were very convenient. ...
It is thought that Ezra published the Scriptures in the Chaldee character, for, that Language being generally used among the Jews, he thought proper to change the old Hebrew character for it, which hath since that time been retained only by the Samaritans, among whom it is preserved to this day. Josephus seems surprised to find such slight footsteps of the Scripture history interspersed in the Egyptian, Chaldean, Phoenician, and Grecian history, and accounts for it hence; that the sacred books were not as yet translated into Greek, or other Languages, and consequently not known to the writers of those nations. ) Both Old and New Testaments were afterwards translated into Latin by the primitive Christians; and while the Roman empire subsisted in Europe, the reading of the Scriptures in the Latin tongue, which was the universal Language of that empire, prevailed every where; but since the face of affairs in Europe has been changed and so many different monarchies erected upon the ruins of the Roman empire, the Latin tongue has be degrees grown into disuse; whence has arisen a necessity of translating the Bible into the respective Languages of each people; and this has produced as many different versions of the Scriptures in the modern Languages as there are different nations professing the Christian religion. The Bohemians have a Bible translated by eight of their doctors, whom they had sent to the schools of Wirtemberg, and Basil on purpose to study the original Languages: it was printed in Moravia in 1539. A translation of the New Testament into the Croatian Language was published by Faber Creim, and others, in 1562 and 1563. A few years ago, a version of the Bible in the Gaelic or Ersc Language was published at Edinburgh, where the Gospel is preached regularly in that Language in two chapels, for the benefit of the natives of the Highlands. The inhabitants of Georgia, in Asia, have long had a translation of the Bible in their ancient Language; but that Language having now become almost obsolete, and the Georgians in general being very ignorant, few of them can either read or understand it. A translation of the Bible into the Language of the Grisons, in Italy, was completed by Coir, and published in 1720. The inhabitants of Iceland have a version of the Bible in their Language, which was translated by Thoriak, and published in 1584. A Translation of the Bible into the North America Indian Language, by Elliot, was published in quarto, at Cambridge, in 1685. About the middle of the sixteenth century, Bedell, bishop of Kilmore, set on foot a translation of the Old Testament into the Irish Language, the New Testament and the Liturgy having been before translated into that Language: the bishop appointed one King to execute this work, who, not understanding the oriental Languages, was obliged to translate it from the English. Ziegenbald and Grindler, two Danish missionaries, published a translation of the New Testament in the Malabrian Language, after which they proceeded to translate the Old Testament. About 1670, Sir Robert Boyle procured a translation of the New Testament into the Malayan Language, which he printed, and sent the whole impression to the East Indies. If we enquire into the versions of the Bible of our own country, we shall find that Adelm, bishop of Sherburn, who lived in 709, made an English Saxon version of the Psalms; and that Edfrid, or Ecbert, bishop of Lindisferne, who lived about 730, translated several of the books of Scripture into the same Language. The first printed Bible in our Language was that translated by W. ) Notwithstanding, however, the excellency of this translation, it must be acknowledged that our increasing acquaintance with oriental customs and manners, and the changes our Language has undergone since king James's time, are very powerful arguments for a new translation, or at least a correction of the old one. The Ethiopians have also translated the Bible into their Language
Lucifer - The Language is primarily drawn from that of Satan himself, the spirit that energized the pagan world power Babylon, that now energizes the apostate church, and shall at last energize the last secular antichrist (the fourth kingdom little horn) and his champion, the false prophet (the third kingdom little horn), the harlot's successor, who shall oppress Israel, as the fourth kingdom little horn oppresses the Gentile world: Daniel 7:8-26 (Chaldee); Daniel 8:9-11 (Hebrew); Revelation 13:4; Revelation 16:13-14; 2 Thessalonians 2:9
Three - in any other Language contains it, nor is it quoted by any of the Greek or Latin "Fathers" in their writings on the Trinty
Coney - " It is described as "chewing the cud" (Leviticus 11:5; Deuteronomy 14:7), in phenomenal Language, because the motion of its jaws is like that of ruminating animals; so also the hare
Detraction - 19, ) that it differs from slander, which involves an imputation of falsehood; from reviling, which includes bitter and foul Language; and from censuring, which is of a more general purport, extending indifferently to all kinds of persons, qualities, and laudable actions, the reputation of which it aimeth to destroy
Deep - Language is used as though the abyss were in the lowest depth of our earth
Togarmah - The Phrygians, the race that overspread Asia Minor, probably migrated from Armenia, their Language resembled the Armenian (Eudoxus, in Steph
Tribe - The promise to the Twelve Apostles that they should judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28 || Luke 22:30) may be regarded as an instance of the way in which Jesus sometimes expressed His teaching in the Language of popular apocalyptic conceptions of the Kingdom of God (cf
Post-Impressionism - They tend to, and sometimes reach, a condition in which both representation and traditional decoration are entirely abolished and a work of art becomes a purely subjective expression in an arbitrary and personal Language
Babel - The word 'Babel' occurs but twice: in Genesis 10:10 it is the name of the first place mentioned as the beginning of the kingdom of Nimrod; and in Genesis 11:9 the tower and city are called 'Babel,' because there the Language of man was confounded so that they did not understand one another
Empty - ) Destitute of effect, sincerity, or sense; - said of Language; as, empty words, or threats
Correction - In scriptural Language, whatever tends to correct the moral conduct, and bring back from error or sin, as afflictions
Husband - In seaman's Language, the owner of a ship who manages its concerns in person
Mene - Parsin, or Upharsin, is Hebrew, and signifies the Persians—and Paresin, in the Chaldean Language, signifies dividing
Gospel - The word itself, as used in modern Language, means the proclamation of pardon, mercy, and peace, in and through Jesus Christ our Lord
Access - This, in Scripture Language, means, the drawing nigh to a throne of grace, and having a nearness, and audience with God in Christ
Wither - ” This term is found throughout the development of the Hebrew Language and a few other Semitic Languages
Laz'Arus - The Language of (John 11:1 ) implies that the sisters were the better known
Earth - is used for that gross element which sustains and nourishes us by producing plants and fruits; for the continent as distinguished from the sea, "God called the dry land earth," Genesis 1:10 ; for the terraqueous globe, and its contents, men, animals, plants, metals, waters, &c, "The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof," Psalms 24:1 ; for the inhabitants of the earth, or continent, "The whole earth was of one Language," Genesis 11:1 ; for Judea, or the whole empire of Chaldea and Assyria
School - The chief studies were their own Language and literature; the chief school-book the Holy Scriptures
Burden - In common Language, that which is often repeated a subject on which one dwells
Though - It is used in familiar Language, at the end of a sentence
Impute - ...
2: ἐλλογέω (Strong's #1677 — Verb — ellogao[1] — el-log-eh'-o ) (the -ao termination is the one found in the Koine, the Language covering the NT period), denotes "to charge to one's account, to lay to one's charge," and is translated "imputed" in Romans 5:13 , of sin as not being "imputed when there is no law
Dispersion - ...
By New Testament times many of these Jews had lived in foreign countries so long that they had little or no knowledge of Palestinian Languages such as Hebrew and Aramaic. Instead they spoke Greek, the common Language of the Roman Empire, and so became known as Hellenists (from the word hellas, meaning ‘Greece’)
Mouth - —In conformity with Oriental usage, ‘mouth,’ considered as the organ of speech, is used in the NT, as in the OT, in the sense of ‘language,’ ‘utterance,’ etc
Sabina, Poppaea - She was almost certainly a Jewish proselyte, as the Language of Josephus, Θεοσεβὴς γὰρ ἦν ( Ant
Hebrew - (Concerning Hebrew as the Language of the Old Testament see MANUSCRIPTS
Joel - His style is almost classic; his thoughts are gracefully woven together; his Language is clear, fluent, elegant. The interpretation, however, is quite difficult; not in consequence of the Language, but of the things expressed
Earth - This substance being considered, by ancient philosophers, as simple, was called an element and in popular Language, we still hear of the four elements, fire, air,earth, and water. The whole earth was of one Language
Lamp - Thus, in the Language of Jeremiah, to extinguish the light in an apartment is a convertible phrase for total destruction; and nothing can more properly and emphatically represent the total destruction of a city than the extinction of the lights: "I will take from them the light of a candle, and this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment. " Job describes the destruction of a family among the Arabs, and the desolation of their dwellings, in the very Language of the prophet: "How oft is the candle of the wicked put out, and how oft cometh their destruction upon them!" Job 21:17
Humour - He had lived among men, worked, played, and talked with men from infancy to manhood, and was familiar with the Language of men and with their habits of mind. Hence it may be noticed that in speaking to men He uses the Language of reality and experience. He is a man speaking to men in the Language of men, and pathos, contrast, humour, and spontaneity are the natural and pleasant marks of that Language
Phoeni'ce, Phoenic'ia - Language and race . --The Phoenicians spoke a branch of the Semitic Language so closely allied to Hebrew that Phoenician and Hebrew, though different dialects, may practically be regarded as the same Language. 89, they said of themselves in his time that they came in days of old from the shores of the Red Sea and in this there would be nothing in the slightest degree improbable as they spoke a Language cognate to that of the Arabians, who inhabited the east coast of that sea
Doctrine - With all the limitations of human Language, we still attempt to reflect upon what we have heard through God's Word of revelation in history, Scripture, and the Christ. Human teaching about God has to be stated anew for each generation in the Language that generation speaks. The key to flexibility of Christian doctrine is the watchful conservation of the biblical/theological intent while at the same time seeking Language that will translate such into the contemporary milieu. The human intellect tests experience of personal life, church, and culture by the truth of Scripture to describe the church's beliefs in current Language. Scripture must be interpreted in Language appropriate to present experience and in categories shaped by human intellect
Old Testament (ii. Christ as Student And Interpreter of). - Much more care has also been expended on the study of the OT, both In Hebrew and in Greek, and, consequently, the influence of the latter version upon the Language of the NT has been rendered clearer. Much study has also been given to the Language of the NT, so that we are better able to tell when the LXX Septuagint influences it, and when the vocabulary is less that of the OT than it is of the common contemporary speech. The discoveries of recent years among the papyri of Egypt have given us much insight into the ordinary Greek of the period, so that many words formerly supposed to belong exclusively to the LXX Septuagint are now known to belong to the everyday Language of the market-place. The various Apocalypses in particular exerted an immense influence upon the generation to which our Lord belonged, and much of their Language and ideas can be traced in the pages of the Gospels. All these are indications of how thoroughly modern scholars realize the importance of setting forth the presence of OT Language in the text of the NT. —Fascinating as this study is, it is beset with many peculiar difficulties, (a) First among these is the question of Language. It is now generally recognized that the Language our Lord spoke was Aramaic, the then current colloquial speech of Palestine. This is, as is well known, revealed in certain expressions in that Language quoted in the Gospels, as, for example, the words upon the Cross and those spoken at the raising of Jairus’ daughter. The fact that our Lord commonly spoke Aramaic implies, of course, that all the reports of His speeches and conversations are translations, and this at the outset necessarily complicates the question we wish to investigate, for the references that are clearly obvious to the OT or other writings may be the work of the translator; and, on the other hand, many traces of OT Language present in the original address may now be lost sight of. ] but, of course, it is impossible to tell whether in any one individual case a knowledge of the sacred Language might not in some way have been acquired. Again, in Proverbs 4:21 the LXX Septuagint , instead of ‘Let them not depart from thine eyes,’ reads ‘in order that thy fountains may not fail thee,’ using a metaphor which recurs frequently in the pages of the book (see Proverbs 18:4; Proverbs 14:27; Proverbs 16:22), and is frequently employed by our Lord Himself in His Language with reference to the ‘water of life’ (cf. The Scriptures were not only read in these services, but were paraphrased into the popular Language of the people. It is at least permissible to think that Jesus may Himself have played this part many times in the quiet of the Nazareth synagogue, and by the exquisite appropriateness of His Language have already shown Himself capable of making the word of God an attractive message to the common people. ...
It is almost certain that our Lord would have another advantage in gaining a familiar knowledge of the OT, and in enabling Him to use that knowledge for the benefit of His countrymen, the advantage, namely, of being familiar with another Language that was then the common speech of the civilized world, namely, Greek. Language of Christ), He would have the immense advantage that belongs to any one who grows up able to speak and think in two Languages almost indifferently. The people will always read a book like the Bible by preference in their own tongue, and its Language will naturally be most familiar to them in that form, but they can at will translate it into English, though that English may not, and very likely will not, agree verbally with the version in use. Paul, but probably also of his correspondents; and consequently his Language and imagery would not only be familiar and intelligible, but would have the authority of Christ behind it. Passages from the Psalms were apparently not only frequently upon His lips, but He used their Language on various occasions to describe the real significance of His mission, as when He refers (Matthew 21:42 ||) to the ‘stone which the builders rejected’ as being significant of Himself, and so consecrated the passage to the later usage of the Church. That He used the Psalms to strengthen His own spiritual life, is pretty clear from various instances in His recorded Language of their phraseology underlying His own forms of expression; but most clearly from His words upon the cross, where it seems that one of the Psalms, the 22nd, was the subject of His reflexion in that supreme hour
Hittites And Hivites - ...
Languages of the Hittite World Records of the Assyrian trade colonies in the “Land of Hatti” suggest an earlier sub-stratum of linguistic and cultural development in the vicinity of Kanesh. This non-Indo-European Language also found in texts from the Boghazkoy archives has been called “Hattic. ” It appears to have been at least one of the Languages spoken in central Anatolia before the coming of the Hittite-Luwian branch of Indo-Europeans. As a result, “cuneiform” Hittite became the “official” Language of the empire (about 1600-1200 B. It was a spoken Language only within the vicinity of Hattusas, the capital and center of Hittite officialdom. ...
Speakers of an Indo-European Language appear to have arrived in Anatolia from the north shortly before 4000 B. The impression in Central Anatolia is of a generally peaceful spread of influence and Language from the south and to a lesser extent from the west of Indo-Europeans whose ancestors recently had arrived from southeastern Europe. much of Anatolia was occupied by various Indo-European elements who spoke closely related Languages that included Hittite and Luwian (the Arzawans). Their Language, by this time clearly an archaic form of Hittite, was written in a hieroglyphic script. Hieroglyphic Hittite continued as the principal spoken Language throughout the imperial and neo-Hittite periods to about 700 B
Joseph ii, Emperor - In order to weld the different peoples of his kingdom he made German the official Language and united the administrations of the provinces into one central council in Vienna
Josephinism - In order to weld the different peoples of his kingdom he made German the official Language and united the administrations of the provinces into one central council in Vienna
Belong - In common Language, to have a settled residence to be domiciliated
Astronomy - The Bible does not aim to teach the science of astronomy, but speaks of the sun, moon, and stars in the familiar Language of mankind in all ages
Talapoins - They dress in a very mean garb, and go bare- headed, and bare-footed; and no person is admitted among them who is not well skilled in the Baly Language
Door - In familiar Language, a house often in the plural, doors
Seven Words From the Cross - He uttered the cry of desolation, quoting Psalm 22:1 in the Aramaic Language ( Matthew 27:46 ; Mark 15:34 ), expressed His thirst, (John 19:28 ) and issued the cry of victory, “It is finished” (John 19:30 )
Gall - their poison, contained in a sac in the mouth; Scripture uses popular Language when no moral truth is thereby endangered
Bat - I have not found this word in any European Language, except in English
Lebanon - The cedars of Lebanon, and the streams from Lebanon, are spoken of in highly figurative Language, to intimate the blessings in Christ
Cloud - I have not found this word in any other Language
Confound - Let us go down, and there confound their Language
Dwell - ...
They stand at a distance, dwelling on his looks and Language, fixed in amazement
Accad - It became eventually the learned Language of the kingdom, as Latin became in the West
Abide - To abide, in the Language of Scripture, means somewhat more than merely the remaining in one place
Following - 28:11, 'achêr defines tongue or Language; hence it should be understood as “foreign”: " For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people
Lot - ” This word is attested 77 times and in all periods of the Language (if a traditional view of the formation of the canon is accepted)
Sacristan Emperor - In order to weld the different peoples of his kingdom he made German the official Language and united the administrations of the provinces into one central council in Vienna
Liberal - ) Not strict or rigorous; not confined or restricted to the literal sense; free; as, a liberal translation of a classic, or a liberal construction of law or of Language
Lash - ) To ply the whip; to strike; to utter censure or sarcastic Language
King - ...
KING, In ludicrous Language, to supply with a king, or to make royal to raise to royalty
Verse - Poetry metrical Language
Regeneration - A baptizedChristian may repeatedly fall from Grace, and by repentance, byamendment of life and by forgiveness he may be again restored,(this is Conversion), but he cannot be said to be again regeneratewithout a grievous misapprehension of the Language of the Bible anda total departure from the Doctrine of the Primitive Church
Edom - After an existence as a people for above seventeen hundred years, they have utterly disappeared, and their Language even is forgotten for ever. " ...
The Edomites were Semites, closely related in blood and in Language to the Israelites
Interpret, Interpretation, Interpreter - , "hermeneutics"), and is used of explaining the meaning of words in a different Language, John 1:38 (in some mss. ...
A — 3: μεθερμηνεύω (Strong's #3177 — Verb — methermeneuo — meth-er-mane-yoo'-o ) "to change or translate from one Language to another (meta, implying change, and No
Evil Speaking - The using Language either reproachful or untrue respecting others, and thereby injuring them. It may be necessary, upon some emergent occasions, with some heat of Language, to express disapprobation of notorious wickedness, Acts 8:23
Simeon (1) - The Language of Hegesippus (H. Such an interpretation of Hegesippus's Language is very unnatural and at variance with the statement of Epiphanius that Simeon was the cousin—ἀνεψιός—of James the Just (Epiph
Redeem, Redemption, Redeemer - Numbers 18:15-17 shows how religious practice adopted such Language. Religious redemption Language grows out of the custom of buying back something which formerly belonged to the purchaser but for some reason had passed into the ownership of another. ...
In other ways and Language the centrality of redemption through the death of Jesus Christ is expressed throughout the New Testament from the Lamb of God who lifts up and carries away the sin of the world (John 1:29 ) to the redeeming Lamb praised by a multitude because He was slain and by His blood redeemed unto God's people of every kindred, tongue, and nation (Revelation 5:8-14 )
Spain - 15) says that the southern Spaniards, ‘especially those who dwell about the Baetis (Guadalquiver), have been so entirely converted to the Roman mode of life as even to have forgotten their own Language. … Like the Roman dress, the Roman Language was largely diffused even among those Spaniards who had not Italian burgess-rights, and the government favoured the de facto Romanising of the land’ (T. Paul ever reached this goal, he must have made Latin for a time his missionary Language, for even when half the population of Rome was speaking Greek, Spain was never in any degree Hellenized
Learning - ...
The New Testament, being written in Greek, caused Christians to apply themselves also to the study of that Language. In the third century the Latin Language was much upon the decline, but the Christians preserved it from sinking into absolute barbarism. If Christianity had been suppressed at its first appearance, it is extremely probable that the Latin and Greek tongues would have been lost in the revolution of empires, and the irruptions of barbarians in the east and in the west; for the old inhabitants would have had no conscientious and religious motives to keep up their Language; and then, together with the Latin and Greek tongues, the knowledge of antiquities and the ancient writers would have been destroyed. To whom for grammars and dictionaries of the learned Languages?...
to Christians
Greece - Wherever he went, he left colonies that became dispensers of Greek Language and culture, known as Hellenism. When Christianity arose, it had Greek, which many linguists call the most flexible Language ever devised, as a vehicle to spread its concepts. Koine, the Greek of the streets, is the Language of the New Testament. All the other books in the New Testament are written in the Greek Language
Hebrews - In the period immediately before Christ, an artificial interest in the past and a revival of ancient learning, coupled with the exaggerated reverence for Abraham ‘the Hebrew,’ led to a revival in the use of this term, and to the Language of the race being designated thereby, although Philo calls the Language of the OT, Chaldee (de Vita Mosis, ii. ...
The Hebrew Language is on several occasions referred to in the NT. Robertson Smith, article ‘Hebrew Language and Literature’ in Encyclopaedia Britannica 9 xi
Hellenism - -The reign of Alexander the Great marks a period in Greek history, not only by reason of the expansion of Greek influence but also owing to the rise of a new spirit which affected Language, literature, art, philosophy, science, civilization in general, and religion. ...
(a) Language. A common Language, the so-called ‘Koine,’ combining in its vocabulary and its grammatical forms elements from various dialects, took the place of the local dialects, and succeeded even in robbing the Attic of its dominating position in literature. ...
Most of these changes can be explained from the point of view of the evolution of the Greek Language itself. A Language is always growing and changing, and the Koine marks only a step in a long process from the Greek of Homer’s time to modern Greek. ...
Moreover, it is evident that an admixture of Oriental elements also influenced the Greek Language. Many of the grammatical and syntactical phenomena may be explained more readily by reference to the parallels in these Languages. Many Hellenistic writers show a special interest in strange countries, peoples, Languages, and customs. , succeeded in imposing on their respective dominions a veneer of Greek culture: the Greek Language was used at the court, in the army, on the coinage, in inscriptions, and as the common Language in many of the colonies and towns founded by these kings; Greek law was used-with local modifications; Greek cults were officially introduced beside the native ones; Greek artists constructed the palaces and public buildings, and decorated them in the Greek style with sculptures and pictures. We have already seen how it influenced Greek Language, literature, art, science, etc. To learn the Greek Language, to be in touch with the Western culture, was still an aim of most cultured Jews. All the time, until the destruction of Jerusalem, two tendencies were at work side by side: the tendency to isolate Judaism by prohibiting all relations with Hellenistic surroundings, and the tendency to give Judaism more influence by encouraging Jewish boys to learn the Greek Language and to assimilate Greek ideas. They not only spoke the Greek Language in addition to their vernacular; it was their vernacular: they used it in Divine service, when they gathered in the synagogues to worship the God of Israel; they had the Holy Scriptures, the Law of their God, translated into Greek; they had writers among themselves who had as great a mastery of the Greek Language as any Greek author; they produced poems on the history of the Jewish people in the style of Homer, and even dramatized the Scriptures after the model of Euripides. The Language of this book was, of course. Here the term seems to point primarily to the difference of Language, but we remark a feeling of solidarity, a certain party-spirit, among these Hellenists as opposed to the Hebrews. Aramaic) Language (Acts 21:40; Acts 22:2)
Elam - They were divided into several branches, speaking different dialects of the same agglutinative Language
Ararat - This part of Armenia was inhabited by a people who spoke a Language unlike any other now known, though it may have been related to the modern Georgian
Fullness of Time - The sending of Christ in the fullness of time refers not so much to world conditions in the sense that the prevalence of Greek as a common spoken Language, Roman roads, and the Roman enforced peace made the rapid spread of the gospel possible
Composition - ) The act of writing for practice in a Language, as English, Latin, German, etc
Correct - Correct Language is agreeable to established usage
Horse - In seamen's Language, a rope extending from the middle of a yard to its extremity, to support the sailors while they loose, reef or furl the sails, also, a thick rope extended near the mast for hoisting a yard or extending a sail on it
Tongue - ...
Revelation 5:9 (a) The tongue is used for Language in its general aspect
Render - ) To translate from one Language into another; as, to render Latin into English
Depart - ” Found throughout the development of the Hebrew Language, this root is also found in ancient Akkadian
Achaicus - His Language suggests that their coming somewhat reassured him after the disquieting news brought by Chloe’s household, and other ugly rumours (1 Corinthians 5:1)
Blasphemy - Irreverent or insulting Language fn regard to God
Esther (2) - The Language of the book contains several Persian words, translated "satrap," "post," "edict," "royal" (not "camel;" 8:10, and 14 read "swift steeds that were used in the king's service, bred of the stud," R
Bride, Bridechamber, Bridegroom - When John the Baptist speaks of "the friend of the Bridegroom," he uses Language according to the customs of the Jews
Mute - ) One who, from deafness, either congenital or from early life, is unable to use articulate Language; a deaf-mute
Ruth, Book of - , judges, chiefly from the Language of the book, that it dates from after the Exile
Jez'Ebel - The body was left in that open space called in modern eastern Language "the mounds," where offal is thrown from the city walls
River - Unfortunately our Language does not contain any single word which has both the meanings of the Hebrew nachal and its Arabic equivalent wady which can be used at once for a dry valley and for the stream which occasionally flows through it
Myrrh - It was used as a perfume, Psalm 45:8 , where the Language is symbolic of the graces of the Messiah; Proverbs 7:17 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:13 ; 5:5 ; it was one of the ingredients of the "holy anointing oil" for the priests, Exodus 30:23 (RV, "flowing myrrh"); it was used also for the purification of women, Esther 2:12 ; for embalming, John 19:39 ; as an anodyne see B); it was one of the gifts of the Magi, Matthew 2:11
Foreknowledge - Human Language uses the word ‘foreknowledge’ in relation to God because it is the most convenient word available to indicate knowledge of events that human beings sees as future
Publius, a Solitary - At first all his fellow-coenobites were Greeks; but the native Syrians having expressed a desire to join the society, he built another house for them, and between the two erected a church common to both, where each might attend matins and evensong, singing alternately in their own Language
Apocalyptic - describes: (1) writings from God that employ symbolic Language to tell of a divine intervention soon to take place; (2) the doctrinal system explicit in these writings; and (3) the movement(s) that produced the writings and doctrines. ” The italicized expressions illustrate the fundamental features of the genre of apocalyptic: these writings claim to originate from God ; they most frequently tell of a divine intervention soon to take place; their authors often use sign Language—i. they “sign-ify,” employing pictorial Language which is also parabolic; an angelic intermediary commonly explains to the prophet the meaning of the message conveyed to him; and the prophet makes known to others his visions (“all that he saw”). The best known of the extra-biblical apocalyptic books are 1Enoch (often called “Ethiopic Enoch,” since it survives in that Language), 2Enoch, 4Ezra, and 2Baruch. The creation myths of the Semitic world supplied quarries for the picture Language employed by the prophets and apocalyptists
Catholic Indian Missions of Canada - ...
Among the missionaries who labored in Canada were: the Jesuits Bressani, Chaumonot, Massé, Brébeuf, Chabanel, Daniel, Garnier, Lalemant, Labrosse, Nobili, and Du Rancquet; the Recollects Jamay, Dolbeau, Le Caron, who prepared a dictionary of the Huron Language; Sagard, the historian of the early Catholic missions in Canada, and Hennepin; the Sulpicians De Queylus, Souart, Picquet, Mathevet, who prepared a dictionary of the Abenaki Language; Thavenet, Guichart, and Cuocq; the Oblates of Mary Immaculate Durocher, Tache, Faraud, Grollier, called the Apostle of the Arctic Circle; Grandin, and D'Herbomez; and the secular priests Brabant, Nicoloye, and Demers
Mouth - Proverbs 9 ...
A smooth mouth, soft and flattering Language. Psalms 73 ...
MOUTH, To utter with a voice affectedly big or swelling as, to mouth words or Language
Wisdom, the, of Solomon, - Style and Language . --The theological teaching of the book offers, in many respects, the nearest approach to the Language and doctrines of Greek philosophy that is found in any Jewish writing up to the time of Philo
Olivet Discourse, the - The discourse (Matthew 24-25 ; Mark 13:1 ), is in part an apocalypse because it uses symbolic, visionary Language that makes it a difficult passage to understand. ...
The Second Coming of Christ (Matthew 24:26-25:46 ) Jesus spoke in veiled Language about His coming
Naked - NAKED, NAKEDNESS...
In Scripture Language, these terms mean somewhat more than the mere uncovering of the body; they have peculiar respect to the soul. A sinner unawakened, unregenerated, hath nothing to clothe him against the calamities of the rain, and storm, and tempest of divine wrath; hence the whole of their corruption must appear; and how then, independent of every other consideration, can such an one enter the kingdom of God? "Here shall in no wise enter into it" (saith the decided Language of the word of God when describing the glories of heaven, and the characters that dwell there) "any thing that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abomination, or maketh a lie
Daniel, Book of - 40 prediction begins, and the Language no longer corresponds with the facts of history. Language, Unity, Theology . ( c ) The author introduced the ‘Chaldees’ as speaking what he supposed was their Language, and then continued to write it because it was more familiar than Heb. , the sacred Language
Mouth - ...
2 Kings 4:34 (c) We should learn by this figure that we are to talk to others in the Language and in a manner which they can understand. ...
Job 41:19 (a) GOD is describing in poetic Language the tremendous strength and fierce power of this animal which may have been one of the prehistoric monsters whose skeletons have been discovered. ...
Isaiah 6:7 (c) Here we find that which may be used as a description of the cleansing power of GOD on the speech, the Language and the conversation of men who trust in Him. ...
Daniel 7:8 (b) The proud and boastful Language of the Roman emperors is thus described by this figure
Maccabees - It was written originally in the Chaldee Language, of the Jerusalem dialect and was extant in this Language in the time of Jerom, who had seen it. The third book of the Maccabees contains the history of the persecution of Ptolomy Philopater against the Jews in Egypt, and their sufferings under it; and seems to have been written by some Alexandrian Jew in the Greek Language, not long after the time of Siracides. It is extant in Syriac, though the translator did not seem to have well understood the Greek Language
Isaiah - —There are seven instances recorded in the Gospels in which Jesus quotes from the prophecies of Isaiah, besides numerous other cases in which His Language is more or less manifestly reminiscent of expressions in the book. ...
In addition to these more direct references, there are many expressions in the discourses of Jesus in which we have echoes of Isaiah’s Language. John (Matthew 8:17) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the Language of Isaiah 42:1
Apolinaris, or Apolinarius Claudius - In support of the former view is urged the similarity of the Language of these fragments with that of Clement of Alexandria and of Hippolytus, who advocated the Western practice; and also the fact that Apolinaris is not claimed as a Quartodeciman by Polycrates, bp. On the other side it is urged that Apolinaris speaks of his antagonists as "some who raise contention through ignorance," Language which would rather convey the impression that Apolinaris was writing against the opinions of some small sect than that he was combating the belief of the whole church of Asia Minor to which he belonged; and it is further urged that if Apolinaris had been the first to defend in the East the practice which ultimately prevailed, it is incredible that neither Eusebius nor any early writer mentions this early champion of the Catholic practice. may be inferred from the Language in which he is described in the letter of Serapion written about that time (Κλαυδίου Ἀπολιναρίου τοῦ μακαριωτάτου γενομένου ἐν Ιεραπόλει τῆς Ἀσίας ἐπισκόπου )
Per'Sia - ...
Language . --The Persian Language was closely akin to the Sanskrit, or ancient Language of India
Isaiah - —There are seven instances recorded in the Gospels in which Jesus quotes from the prophecies of Isaiah, besides numerous other cases in which His Language is more or less manifestly reminiscent of expressions in the book. ...
In addition to these more direct references, there are many expressions in the discourses of Jesus in which we have echoes of Isaiah’s Language. John (John 12:38-41) quotes Isaiah 53:1; Isaiah 6:10 in reference to the rejection of Christ by the people; and the Synoptists all record the voice heard at the Baptism and the Transfiguration as using the Language of Isaiah 42:1
Evolution - It is also applied to explain the existence and growth of institutions, manners, Language, civilization, and every product of human activity
Ostrich - Scripture must, of course, be composed in popular Language; and the meaning here is evidently not that the bird is through stupidity unfaithful to its instinct, but that that instinct is of a kind which seems to imply want of forethought and natural care
Nazarene - ...
2) A follower of Christ, often applied in contempt; a Judaizing sect of early Christians, who have a text of Matthew's Gospel in the Aramaic Language
Decree - Any translator using “decree” is interpreting the meaning of a more general Hebrew or Greek term, resulting in each translation using “decree” for several different words of the original Language
Moabite Stone - With the exception of a very few variations, the Moabite Language in which the inscription is written is identical with the Hebrew
Forehead - ...
The biblical writers used the Language of metaphors to describe the shameless apostasy and faithlessness of Israel (Jeremiah 3:3 ; Ezekiel 3:8-9 )
Babel, Tower of - But God interposed and defeated their design by condounding their Language, and hence the name Babel, meaning "confusion
Bull - ) A grotesque blunder in Language; an apparent congruity, but real incongruity, of ideas, contained in a form of expression; so called, perhaps, from the apparent incongruity between the dictatorial nature of the pope's bulls and his professions of humility
Manna - " Now it would be strange Language to say, put an homer full of what, or what is it
Battle - It is usually applied to armies or large bodies of men but in popular Language, the word is applied to an encounter between small bodies, between individuals, or inferior animals
Wine - His Language is: "Eat, O friends: drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved!" (Song of Song of Solomon 5:1)...
Galatia - ...
Their Language was partly Gallic, partly Greek, hence they were called Gallo-Graeci
Couch - ) To put into some form of Language; to express; to phrase; - used with in and under
Home - To haul home the top-sail sheets, in seamen's Language, is to draw the bottom of the top-sail close to the yard-arm by means of the sheets
Simple - ) Direct; clear; intelligible; not abstruse or enigmatical; as, a simple statement; simple Language
Represent - ) To exhibit to another mind in Language; to show; to give one's own impressions and judgement of; to bring before the mind; to set forth; sometimes, to give an account of; to describe
Gadarenes - "Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways!" (Job 21:14) And awful to say, but too true to be questioned, such is the Language of every man's heart by nature
Hireling - In Scripture Language, our nature is frequently spoken of as an hireling
City - They all speak the same Language, all wear the same garment, Christ's righteousness, all love the same Lord, and his Zion, and prefer her interests above their chief joy
Moderate - ) Limited in degree of activity, energy, or excitement; reasonable; calm; slow; as, moderate Language; moderate endeavors
Earthquake - An earthquake signifies also, in prophetic Language, the dissolution of governments and the overthrow of states
Oath - The Language of the Apostle Paul, e
Balaam - So far from cursing, he was led to pronounce a prophetic blessing on the Hebrews, in Language which, for eloquence and force, is hardly surpassed in the whole range of Hebrew poetry
Jew - , which was the correlative of Hellenist [1], and marked a division of Language subsisting within the entire body, and at the same time less expressive than Israelite , which brought out with especial clearness the privileges and hopes of the children of Jacob
Wrong, Wrongdoer, Wrongdoing - Revelation 22:11 (see UNRIGHTEOUSNESS , B); (b) transitively, "to wrong," Matthew 20:13 ; Acts 7:24 (Passive Voice),26,27; 25:10; 2 Corinthians 7:2,12 (2nd part; Passive Voice); Galatians 4:12 , "ye did (me no) wrong," anticipating a possible suggestion that his vigorous Language was due to some personal grievance; the occasion referred to was that of his first visit; Colossians 3:25 (2nd part), lit
Jude, Saint - He is sometimes called the Jeremiah of the New Testament, as hewrote to the Church in "solemn and rugged Language of present perilsand coming storms
Stagirus, Friend of Chrysostom - Nilus highly commends his piety, humility, and contrition, but uses Language which indicates that his attacks did not entirely pass away (Nilus, Epp
Remnant - ...
The prophetic Language in the Psalms is not that of the mass of Israel, but of the remnant, in whom the Spirit of Christ speaks; and it is in the Psalms that the remnant is first seen as distinguished from the ungodly nation
Canaanites - It appears from Deuteronomy 3:9 that the Language of the Canaanites differed only dialectically from that of the Amorites. In Isaiah 19:18 Hebrew is called ‘the Language of Canaan,’ a statement which is substantiated by the Moabite Stone, the Phœnician inscriptions, and the Hebrew idioms in the el-Amarna tablets
Moon - Language which must have been derived from the appearance of the moon during eclipses is used by the prophets. The moon is to be darkened or turned into blood ( Joel 2:10 ; Joel 2:31 ) before ‘the day of the Lord’; and similar Language is used by our Lord ( e
Job, Book of - From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and Language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Psalm 88,89 ), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the Language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [1] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way
Septuagint - It prepared the way for his coming, and afterwards greatly promoted the setting up of his kingdom in the world; for hitherto the Scriptures had remained locked up from all other nations but the Jews, in the Hebrew tongue, which was understood by no other nation; but now it was translated into the Greek Language, which was a Language commonly understood by the nations of the world
Rhetoric - The use of Language for effective communication, especially the biblical literary techniques used to communicate God's Word. ...
Rhetorical study includes the examination of tropes (literary devices to make Language more colorful) and consideration of schemes (structural devices which aid memory and persuasion)
Rhegium - lost the Language and manners of their mother-country (VI. The alternative reading in אB-περιελόντες, ‘casting loose’-was probably due to copyists who were not at home in the Language of men of the sea
Ephphatha - We infer, therefore, that in the Semitic Language, which lies behind our Greek Test. had been the basal Language of the Gospels, we could not have had such forms as Βαρθολομαῖος from בַר תּוֹלמַי and Βηθφαγή from בִּיח פָאני
Hard - A people of hard Language. Hard-a-lee, in seamen's Language, an order to put the helm close to the lee side of the ship, to tack or keep her head to the wind also, that situation of the helm
I - The vowel in French, and in most European Languages, has the long fine sound which we express by e in me, or ee in seen, meek. This sound we retain in some foreign words which are naturalized in our Language, as in machine, intrigue. We often hear in popular Language the phrase it is me, which is now considered to be ungrammatical, for it is I
Antioch - The Language of the city was Greek, as inscriptions and public records show, but the Language of the peasantry around this mighty city was Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic
Allegory - The word is derived from the Greek ἀλληγορία, used of a mode of speech which implies more than is expressed by the ordinary meaning of the Language. When ideas of a primitive age were no longer tenable, respect for the ancient literature which embodied these ideas was maintained by disregarding the ordinary import of the Language in favour of a hidden meaning more in harmony with contemporary notions
Phoenicia - For centuries the people had been gradually adopting the Language, manners, and customs of Greece. Greek and Phcenician characters sometimes appear together on coins, while Latin was the Language of government and law
Hutchinsonians - For this reason the Scripture is found to have a Language of its own, which does not consist of words, but of signs or figures taken from visible things: in consequence of which the world which we now see becomes a sort of commentary on the mind of God, and explains the world in which we believe. ...
The doctrines of the Christian faith are attested by the whole natural world: they are recorded in a Language which has never been confounded; they are written in a text which shall never be corrupted. That the Hebrew Language was formed under divine inspiration, either all at once, or at different times, as occasion required; and that the Divine Being had a view in constructing it, to the various revelations which he in all succeeding times should make in that Language: consequently, that its words must be the most proper and determinate to convey such truths as the Deity, during the Old Testament dispensation, thought fit to make known to the sons of men. Farther than this: that the inspired penmen of those ages at least were under the guidance of heaven in the choice of words for recording what was revealed to them: therefore that the Old Testament, if the Language be rightly understood, is the most determinate in its meaning of any other book under heaven
Fulness of the Time - The main factors usually recognized as contributing to this result were: (1) the peculiar condition which the Jewish people had reached; (2) the dissemination of the Greek Language, culture, and commercial activity; and (3) the unifying influence of Rome. The dissemination of the Greek Language, culture, and commercial activity. ...
But while thus stimulating intellectual receptiveness everywhere, the most important contribution of the Greeks in the preparation for Christianity was the universal prevalence they gained for their rich and expressive Language, inasmuch as by this they supplied a common vehicle of intercourse, calculated to be of immense advantage in the announcement and promulgation of the Christian Evangel. As the barriers of Language had been demolished through the influence of the Greeks, so through the influence of the Romans the barriers of nationality had been broken down. ...
It is worthy of note also that the little country of Palestine, where the Founder of Christianity was to appear, lay at the very centre of the then known world; and in view of the fact that through the provision of a common Language and free means of movement and intercourse the avenues of access were opened to every land, it becomes clear that the most signal facilities were afforded for the dissemination of a faith that was destined to wield a world-wide power
Matthew - There has also of late been great difference of opinion concerning the Language in which this Gospel was originally written. Matthew in Hebrew, that is, in the Language then spoken in Palestine; and indeed Dr. After the destruction of Jerusalem, the Language of the Jews, and every thing which belonged to them, fell into great contempt; and the early fathers, writing in Greek, would naturally quote and refer to the Greek copy of St. There being no longer any country in which the Language of St. Matthew's original Gospel was commonly spoken, that original would soon be forgotten; and the translation into Greek, the Language then generally understood, would be substituted in its room
Bible, Texts And Versions - Basic problems in using a translation to seek to study the earlier wording of the Hebrew text are: the difficulty of determining the exact readings of the Hebrew text(s) used by the original translators because of the innate differences in all Languages, the difficulties in establishing the original readings of the Greek translation by studying the many manuscripts of it, and uncertainty concerning the quality of the translation itself. ...
Not only manuscripts written in Greek, the Language of the New Testament, but also Christian writings which quote from the Greek New Testament furnish evidence for the text of the New Testament. We have less than a dozen words of Jesus preserved in Aramaic, the Language which He spoke. The accusation written over the cross was written in the three Languages used in Palestine: Latin, Hebrew (probably Aramaic), and Greek. From the third century on followed translations into the various dialects of the Egyptian Languages, the Languages of Armenia, Georgia, Ethiopia, Arabia, Nubia, and the areas of Europe. ...
In the West, Latin became the major Language of the church. Among the Eastern Orthodox, Greek remained the official Language of the Scriptures. Without textual criticism no modern Bibles in any Language would be possible. Even so, the KJV was a magnificent achievement and did much not only for Bible reading in the English world but for the stability and beauty of the English Language. ...
There are three reasons why no translation in any Language will ever be completely satisfactory for the people of succeeding generations. 1) All Languages are in a constant state of change. ...
The need to speak the message of the Bible in clear and understandable modern Language has never been greater. The missionary demand of Jesus requires that the process of translation go forward in all Languages in which those for whom Christ died daily seek to communicate. The number of Languages that have received Scripture is now over 1900, but the goal must be to include eventually every dialect of the human race
Voice - Prophecy is superior to glossolalia because it conveys a spiritual message in Language that can be understood. The Apostle adds, ‘There are ever so many kinds of Language (γένη φωνῶν) in the world, every one of them meaning something’ (v. Paul includes both the speech of the human voice in its many Languages and the notes of musical instruments. It is easy to understand how the Language of the senses-especially seeing and hearing-came to be metaphorically employed in all religious literatures to express the spiritual apprehension of the Divine and the Infinite
Pharisees - Christ denounced the Pharisees in the strongest Language; see Matthew 15:1-8; Matthew 23:13-25; Mark 7:5-6; Luke 11:42-44
Poetry - But beside these, large portions of other books are in poetic Language
Darius - Aramaic was decreed as the official Language of the empire
Man - Not by the natural law of evolution, but by the Creator's special interposition, man came into the world, the priest of nature, to interpret her inarticulate Language and offer conscious adoration before God
Speech - Lycaonia was a large country in the center and south of the plateau of Asia Minor; the villages retained the native Language, but cities like Lystra probably had a Seleucid tone in their laws and customs (Ramsay on Galatians)
Sobriety - The general Language of Scripture, 1 Peter 5:8
Revelation, Book of - In both the Jewish dispensation is the preparation for the gospel, and the warfare and triumph of the Christ is described in Language saturated with the Old Testament
Rahab, Rachab - (the Greek Language having no letter H, a CH [1] is substituted)
Captain - In modern military Language it means especially the commander of a company of infantry, numbering about 100 to 110 men, and is quite unsuitable as a translation
Horn - In the OT the word ‘horn’ is figuratively used in poetical and allegorical Language: (a) for abstract notions of strength (Numbers 23:22, Psalms 89:17-24), and hence of dignity (Psalms 112:9) or pride (Psalms 75:4 ff
Express - by Language; to declare; to utter; to tell
Water - In the Language of Scripture, this word hath numberless applications made of it, but in a peculiar manner is principally made use of in relation to the person, work, and offices of God the Holy Ghost
Enough - This word, in vulgar Language, is sometimes placed before its noun, like most other adjectives
Foundation - But in Scripture Language it means Christ, the foundation God hath laid in Zion, and on which JEHOVAH hath built his church; and against which the gates of hell can never prevail
Finish - This is a blessed word in Scripture Language in application to the Lord Jesus Christ
Counsel, To - ” Used throughout the history of the Hebrew Language, this verb occurs in the Hebrew Old Testament approximately 80 times
Cleave, Split - ” This word occurs in all the periods of the Hebrew Language and is also found in ancient Ugaritic or Canaanite
Proselyte - The first were called "proselytes of the gate," and were foreigners, either bond or free, who lived among the Jews and conformed to their customs in regard to what the rabbins call "the seven precepts of Noah;" that is, they abstained from injurious Language in respect to God, from idolatry, homicide, incest, robbery, resistance to magistrates, and from eating blood, or the flesh of animals killed without shedding their blood
Seeing - Here seeing refers to I, or according to the Language of syntax, agrees or accords with I
Peter, Second Epistle of - (2 Peter 1:14-21 ) The danger of being misled by false prophets is dwelt upon with great earnestness throughout the second chapter, which is almost identical in Language and subject with the Epistle of Jude
Horn - In the OT the word ‘horn’ is figuratively used in poetical and allegorical Language: (a) for abstract notions of strength (Numbers 23:22, Psalms 89:17-24), and hence of dignity (Psalms 112:9) or pride (Psalms 75:4 ff
Poetry - ...
Perhaps one of the two most distinguishing features of Old Testament poetry is the presence of figurative Language. Of course, both formal prose and casual conversation are well sprinkled with figurative Language. ...
When one encounters a text where figurative Language might be present, two issues arise. One of the biggest misunderstandings at this point is the notion that figurative Language cannot be interpreted as accurately as can nonfigurative expressions. Figures can be interpreted with as much accuracy as can nonfigurative Language. ...
Finally, one should note that poetry is inherently esthetic, particularly with its extensive utilization of figurative Language. Caird, The Language and Imagery of the Bible ; G
Papyri And Ostraca - Published in great collections, and utilized by scholars of all civilized countries, they have given new life to all branches of the study of antiquity, to history in the widest sense of the word, and in particular to the history of States, law, economics, Language, and religion. On the contrary, the habit has arisen more and more of bringing ‘Biblical’ or ‘New Testament’ Greek into relation with popular Late Greek, and it has come to be realized that the Greek Bible is itself the grandest monument of that popular Language. ...
The clearest distinctive features of a living Language fall within the province of phonology and accidence. The hundreds of morphological details that strike the philologist accustomed only to classical Attic, when he begins to read the Greek Bible, are found also in the contemporary records of the ‘profane’ popular Language, especially in the papyri and ostraca. The Septuagint was produced in Egypt, and naturally employed the Language of its surroundings; the Egyptian papyri are therefore magnificent as parallel texts, especially as we possess a great abundance of texts from the Ptolemaic period, i. Formerly, when the NT used to be ‘isolated’ far too much, the question was generally answered in such a way that the influence of the so-called ‘genius’ of the Hebrew or Aramaic Language, especially on the Primitive Christians, was greatly exaggerated. It was forgotten that the NT and the Septuagint are for the most part documents of the popular Language, and that the popular Language in Greek and in Semitic has much in common. Men of the people themselves, they spoke as the people spoke, and in the Gospels, for example, they for the first time introduced the Language of the people with vigour into literature. By reason of its popular character, the Language of the first Apostles is pre-eminently a missionary Language, and this Language it was that really enabled Christianity to rise to a world-religion
Amen - The lack of a common Language has always been a barrier to the mutual knowledge and intercourse of the great nations of mankind, all the more that the days when the educated men of all European nations were wont to converse in Latin have long since passed away. The Latin of the Roman Catholic missal, which seems so unintelligible to the mass of the worshippers that a sign Language (of ritual) is largely the medium by which they follow the services when not absorbed in the reading of devotional manuals in their own mother tongue, is but a caricature of such a general medium of interpretative forms of worship. It is, therefore, a matter of great interest to study the use of those few words of ancient origin which have taken root in the religions Language of so many great Christian nations, and have come to convey, in all the services where they are used, the same or a similar meaning. Here it is perhaps a conscious archaic form, brought in to add to the mysterious Language of the vision, which may originally, like the Book of Enoch or Noah, have been ascribed to some earlier seer. The Language of St. One relic of the Gospel Language is retained in the Bishops’ Oath of Supremacy, which commences almost in the style of one of Christ’s famous declarations
Convert - ) To turn into another Language; to translate
Logic - (Greek: logos, speech, reason) ...
In ordinary Language, refers to sound reasoning
Jonas, Book of - Moreover the quotations of psalms in the canticle of Jonas, and the Language of the book, which contains Aramaisms, would rather indicate a date about 450 BC
Christendom - In the 12th century the ecclesiastical body became a real society, cosmopolitan through the universal Language, Latin; and the papacy was the head in temporal as well as spiritual things
Title - Aramaic (which was spoken ordinarily by the people of Jerusalem and the pilgrims from Palestine), Latin (the official Language), and Greek (the lingua franca of the world). The Evangelist sees, in this announcement in the three Languages of the Roman Empire, a symbol of the proclamation to the world of the Messiahship of Jesus, notwithstanding the efforts of the Jews to cover Him with ignominy
Virgin - A modern view holds that Isaiah was adopting the Language of a current mythological tradition, and intended the word to convey the idea of a divine mother (note ‘ the virgin,’ RVm Jude, Epistle of - The style of the epistle is that of an "impassioned invective, in the impetuous whirlwind of which the writer is hurried along, collecting example after example of divine vengeance on the ungodly; heaping epithet upon epithet, and piling image upon image, and, as it were, labouring for words and images strong enough to depict the polluted character of the licentious apostates against whom he is warning the Church; returning again and again to the subject, as though all Language was insufficient to give an adequate idea of their profligacy, and to express his burning hatred of their perversion of the doctrines of the gospel
ir-ha-Heres - "Five cities shall speak the Language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts
People - , Matthew 27:25 ; Luke 1:21 ; 3:15 ; Acts 4:27 ; (b) "a people of the same race and Language," e
Equal, Equality - It was apparently due at first to the fact that the Latin Language had no adequate mode of representing the exact form and meaning of the Greek
Ashdod - ...
In Nehemiah's time Ashdod still retained its distinctive Language and race, and ensnared by marriages the Jews returned from Babylon, after vainly striving to prevent the walls of Jerusalem being built (Nehemiah 4:7-8; Nehemiah 13:23-24)
Flee - ” Some scholars see this word, which is used throughout the history of the Hebrew Language, reflected in ancient Ugaritic as well
Medicine - Ecclesiastes (Ecclesiastes 12:6) uses Language which under the Spirit (whatever Solomon knew or did not know) expresses scientific truth: "the silver cord" is the spinal marrow, white and precious as silver, attached to the brain which is "the golden bowl
Temptation of Christ - Is it not best always to adhere as close as possible to the Language of inspiration, without glossing it with fancies of our own? And, after all, what is there so inconsistent with reason in this account? That, when our Lord retired to the interior part of the wilderness, the enemy of mankind should assume a disguise (whether human or angelic is not important, ) and present the most plausible temptation to our Redeemer, under these trying circumstances, is perfectly consisted with the malevolence of his character; but how far he was permitted to exert his power in forming them, is not necessary to be inquired
Hare - But hares retain the cropped food within the hollows of their cheeks and masticate it at leisure, which in phenomenal Language is "chewing the cud," and is so described by even so close an observer of nature as the poet Cowper
Robbers of Churches - The Revised Version substitutes the word ‘temples’ for ‘churches,’ but this is also a mis-translation, and there is strong evidence in favour of Ramsay’s view that the passage should be translated thus-‘guilty neither in act nor in Language of disrespect to the established religion of the city
Babel - ...
To bring the people's monumental task to an end, God confused their Language. The inspired writer apparently considered this to be the basis for the origin of the different human Languages
Mercy - In this sense, there is perhaps no word in our Language precisely synonymous with mercy
Violence - Likewise, do violent men lay siege to the kingdom, or do “forceful men lay hold of it” (NIV)? Though the NIV interpretation fits well with Luke's parallel (Luke 16:16 ), it appears too much like an effort to tone down the real harshness of Matthew's Language
Alpha - ...
The Language of the Dibon stone, and the Hebrew of the Bible, most closely agree
Lunatic - Such became a lively emblem of every sinner; for the Language of every man by nature is the same as we find the lunatic used: "What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? I beseech thee torment me not
Bind - ” This word is a common Semitic term, found in both ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic, as well as throughout the history of the Hebrew Language
Assyria - Their religion and civilization were in many respects identical with that of Babylonia, their Language belonged to the Semitic family, closely related to the Hebrew, and they had a cuneiform (Latin: cuneus, wedge) system of writing
Express - To write or engrave to represent in written words or Language
Foul - Impure scurrilous obscene or profane as foul words foul Language
Read - ) To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of Language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to read a discourse; to read the letters of an alphabet; to read figures; to read the notes of music, or to read music; to read a book
Aramean - Although the political influence of the Arameans was relatively unimportant, they made a lasting contribution with their Language
Epistle to the Hebrews - The unbroken testimony of the Eastern Fathers, the perfect accord in the Western Church since the 4th century, the decrees of popes and councils, the constant practise of the universal Church, the similarity and harmony existing between this and other epistles of Saint Paul prove that he is its author; the differences in style and Language are perhaps due to one of Saint Paul's disciples who put it in the form in which it now stands (Biblical Commission, June 24, 1914)
Banner - In a figurative Language, Christ is said to be an ensign, or standard, to his people
Hell - Some apply it to the grave; but the most general acceptation of it, according to Scripture Language, is a place of torment
Friend - The word friend in the Language of Scripture is very general; but eminently so when spoken of Christ
Abednego - The Hebrew, and the Chaldee Language were very similar
Chrysologus, Petrus, Archbishop of Ravenna - They are very short, written in brief simple sentences; his meaning is always clear, and his Language natural; but there is nothing in them calculated to touch the heart or move the affections
Medes, Media - The Medes and Persians are considered to have been branches of the Aryan race and were one in origin, Language, religion, etc
Mouth - ) Speech; Language; testimony
Catholic - For this we find a proof even in the most ancient ecclesiastical Language
Old - In vulgar Language, crafty cunning
Ethiopia - The gospel gained adherents among them; and early in the forth century the entire Bible was translated into the ancient Ethiopic Language, from the Greek
Buy - ...
In popular Language, to buy is to pay dear for, as in Chaucer
Lot - That which, in human speech, is called chance, hazard, fortune but in strictness of Language, is the determination of Providence as, the land shall be divided by lot
Gardens - Are often mentioned in Scripture, though in a sense somewhat peculiar; for in the Language of the Hebrews, every place where plants and trees were cultivated with greater care than in the open field, was called a garden
Land - To make the land, ...
To make land, In seaman's Language, is to discover land from sea, as the ship approaches it
Talk - Jeremiah 12 ...
To talk to, in familiar Language, to advise or exhort or to reprove gently
Reserve - Reserve your kind looks and Language for private hours
Ride - ...
To ride easy, in seaman's Language, is when a ship does not labor or feel a great strain on her cables
Hebrews, Epistle to the - The unbroken testimony of the Eastern Fathers, the perfect accord in the Western Church since the 4th century, the decrees of popes and councils, the constant practise of the universal Church, the similarity and harmony existing between this and other epistles of Saint Paul prove that he is its author; the differences in style and Language are perhaps due to one of Saint Paul's disciples who put it in the form in which it now stands (Biblical Commission, June 24, 1914)
Earth - The Hebrew Language discriminates between these two by the use of separate terms, adamah for the former, erets for the latter
Sisinnius, Bishop of Novatianists - He published a treatise warmly controverting Chrysostom's impassioned Language as to the efficacy of repentance and the restoration of penitents to communion, de Poenitentia (Socr
Valerius - Valerius, better acquainted with Greek than with Latin, was rejoiced to have one so able as Augustine to teach and preach in the Latin Language
Day of the Lord - The Old Testament Language of the day of the Lord is thus aimed at warning sinners among God's people of the danger of trust in traditional religion without commitment to God and to His way of life. It is Language that could be aimed at judging Israel or that could be used to promise deliverance from evil enemies (Isaiah 13:6 ,Isaiah 13:6,13:9 ; Ezekiel 30:3 ; Obadiah 1:15 )
Righteousness - The words ‘righteous’ and ‘righteousness’ are found much more in biblical Language than in everyday Language
Vengeance - It borrows the Language of private revenge just as the love of God borrows the Language of sensuous affection
Fine - In general, fine, in popular Language, expresses whatever is excellent, showy or magnificent. This word is the basis of finance, but I have not found it, in its simple form, in any modern Language, except the English
All - This word, not only in popular Language, but in the scriptures, often signifies, indefinitely, a large portion or number, or a great part. ...
All in the wind, in seamen's Language, is a phrase denoting that the sails are parallel with the course of the wind, so as to shake
Aphraat (Aphrahat, Farhad - The Language is Syriac, the quotations from the O. Writing 20 years after the council of Nicaea, he expresses himself in a way impossible for any one who had heard of the Arian controversy, whatever his sympathies in it; with him we are back in the indefiniteness of an earlier age, when an orthodox writer might use on one page the Language of psilanthropism (Hom
Exchange - In commerce, to give one thing or commodity for another to alienate or transfer the property of a thing and receive in compensation for it something of supposed equal value to barter and in vulgar Language, to swap to truck. In mercantile Language, a bill drawn for money is called exchange, instead of a bill of exchange
High - The governor made himself merry with his high and threatening Language. ...
High Dutch, is the German Language, as distinguished from Low Dutch or Belgic, or the cultivated German, as opposed to the vulgar dialects
Daniel - Part of this book is written in the Chaldaic Language, namely, from the fourth verse of the second chapter to the end of the seventh chapter; these chapters relate chiefly to the affairs of Babylon, and it is probable that some passages were taken from the public registers. " Nor is the internal less powerful and convincing than the external evidence; for the Language, the style, the manner of writing, and all other internal marks and characters, are perfectly agreeable to that age; and finally, he appears plainly and undeniably to have been a prophet by the exact accomplishment of his prophecies
Mark, Gospel of - ...
In what Language. --As to the Language in which it was written, there never has been any reasonable doubt that it was written in Greek
Mustard - Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), it is to be remembered that, when Jesus spoke to the multitude, it was in popular Language. Enough, as before, that the Language is not absolute and scientific
Hell - Some insist that the fire spoken of must be literal fire, so to interpret the Language as figurative means to do away with the reality of future punishment. ...
Language about hell seeks to describe for humans the most awful punishment human Language can describe to warn unbelievers before it is too late
Tongues, Gift of - " Then "the multitude were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own Language; and they marveled saying, Behold are not all these which speak Galileans? and how hear we every man in our own tongue wherein we were born, the wonderful works of God?" This proves that as Babel brought as its penalty the confusion of tongues, so the Pentecostal gift of tongues symbolizes the reunion of the scattered nations. ...
Tongues were not at their command whenever they pleased to teach those of different Languages. to express in appropriate Language Peter's thought, so that the gift of tongues cannot have been in Papias' view a continuous gift with that apostle. Aramaic Hebrew, Greek, and Latin (the three Languages over the cross) were the general media of converse throughout the civilised world, owing to Alexander's empire first, then the Roman. In the first instance (Acts 2) the tongues were used in doxology; but when teaching followed it was in ordinary Language, understood by the Jews, that Peter spoke. Their three characteristics were:...
(1) all ecstatic state of comparative rapt unconsciousness, the will being acted on by a power from above;...
(2) words uttered, often unintelligible;...
(3) Languages spoken which ordinarily the speaker could not speak. "Tongues of men" and "divers kinds of tongues" (1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28; 1 Corinthians 13:1) imply diversity, which applies certainly to Languages, and includes also the kind of tongues which was a spiritual Language unknown to man, uttered in ecstasy (1 Corinthians 14:2). a foreigner in Language to the hearer
Versions of the Scripture, Ancient - It has been judged that the version was made from the Greek, but by one who did not well understand that Language. ...
The AEthiopic New Testament was printed at Rome in the years 1548-9, but it was incorrect, the printers being altogether ignorant of the Language. This was, however, abandoned, and Miesrob, with two or three others, resorted to Alexandria to learn more perfectly the Greek Language. Of these there are two, probably being both dialects of the Ancient Egyptian Language. A missionary from Thessalonica, named Cyril, visited these tribes, learnt their Language, and then invented an alphabet that he might translate into their vernacular tongue the word of God. ...
All these various translations into different Languages are a marked contrast to the policy of Rome with regard to the scriptures. ...
From that time, translations have rapidly increased: missionaries all over the world have no sooner obtained a footing and learnt the Language, than they have constructed a grammar, and proceeded to translate portions of scripture for those whose salvation they seek
Fire - But in Scripture Language it is used upon many occasions. Moses introduces the Lord as speaking in this Language. " (Deuteronomy 32:22) And Isaiah, as if in contemplation of the horrors of this eternal fire, exclaims: "The sinners in Zion are afraid; fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites: who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings?" (Isaiah 33:14) And our blessed Lord adopts the same Language in allusion to the same awful destruction of the wicked. The plain, the sure, the unalterable Language of the word of God on this momentous point, is summed up in a few words
Shem - SEMITIC or SHEMITIC LanguageS. Ethnologists, from the facts of Language, divide the Semitic into five main branches, the Aramaean, the Hebrew, the Phoenician, the Assyrian or Assyro Babylonian, and the Arabian. Aryan races subsequently occupied the places respectively assigned them by Providence in Canaan and elsewhere; but the Semitics were probably (as the Semitic Melchizedek exemplifies) in Canaan originally, and the Hamite Canaanites acquired their Language. The dead Languages of the Semitic are Ethiopic and Himyaritic (inscriptions), both related to Arabic dialects; Hebrew, Samaritan, Carthaginian Phoenician (inscriptions); Chaldee, Syriac, Assyrian (cuneiform inscriptions). ...
Triliteral or bi-syllabic stems or roots are a distinctive mark of Semitic Languages. The Arabic is now the richest of the Semitic Languages; but Hebrew possesses in the bud all the contrivances which, if they had been duly developed, would have made it a rival of the present Arabic. Semitic lacks the Japhetic power of creating compound words, also the delicate shades and gradations of meaning observable in the latter class of Languages. divine wisdom shows itself in choosing as the vehicle for the Old Testament revelation a Language so solid, self contained, immovable, and reflective as Hebrew
Bible, Hermeneutics - The literary task begins with the task of translation of the Scripture from the ancient Hebrew and Greek into the Language best understood by the interpreter. If you cannot do a good job of translating Greek and Hebrew into English (or whatever your Language is), then you must rely upon good translations of the Bible. Here, the interpreter seeks to determine what kind of rhetoric, or Language, the ancient writer was using. Such figures of speech must be interpreted in their symbolic sense rather than as literal, descriptive Language. Portions of the Bible are written in apocalyptic Language, a well-known literary style often used in the ancient world, but hardly known to us today
Bible - Original Languages . Hebrew is the Israelite dialect of the Canaanite Language, which belongs to the Semitic family, and is closely allied to Aramaic. documents in Ezra 4:7 to Ezra 6:18 and Ezra 7:12-26 , Daniel 2:4 to Daniel 7:28 and a few scattered words and phrases elsewhere) are in Aramaic, the Language of Syria, which was widely known, being found in Babylonia, Egypt, and Arabia. After the Exile, since Aramaic then became the everyday Language of the Jews, Hebrew was relegated to a position of honourable neglect as the Language of literature and the Law, and Aramaic came into general use. Probably the earliest writings which are embodied in the NT were in this Language. Since Jesus taught in Aramaic, it is not likely that His discourses were translated into the more archaic Language; it is more probable that they were written down in the very Language in which they were spoken. Abbott in allowing that Aramaic writings are to be detected beneath and behind our Gospels, it cannot be held that any of these Gospels, or any other NT books, are translations from that Language. 150, is remarkable for its pedantic literalness, the Hebrew being rendered word for word into Greek, regardless of the essential differences between the two Languages in grammar and construction. and probably in North Africa, where Latin was the Language commonly used, while Greek was then the Language of Christian literature at Rome. The NT was early translated into Coptic, and it appeared in three dialects of that Language. This work may be considered the first literary product in a Teutonic Language. The British and Foreign Bible Society now produces the Scriptures in over 400 Languages and versions
Reduce - ; to bring under rules or within certain limits of descriptions and terms adapted to use in computation; as, to reduce animals or vegetables to a class or classes; to reduce a series of observations in astronomy; to reduce Language to rules
Cuneiform - ...
The cuneiform system of writing was adapted and developed to suit the requirements of several other Languages, including Akkadian, Hurrian, Hittite, Elamite, and Eblaite. Unlike any other cuneiform writing, Ugaritic consists of thirty-one signs or characters used to record documents in a Language similar to Phoenician and Hebrew
Immanuel - The Hebrew Language apparently indicates that the prophet and king expected an immediate fulfillment
Stoics - The approximation, however, is in Language rather than in reality
Arabia - Their Language is the most developed and the richest of all the Semitic Languages, and is of great value to the student of Hebrew
Adjure - This word in Scripture Language is much more striking and significant than is generally considered
Satan - ...
"Satan" is not simply the personification of evil influences in the heart, for he tempted Christ, in whose heart no evil thought could ever have arisen (John 14:30,2 Corinthians 5:21 ; Hebrews 4:15 ); moreover his personality is asserted in both the OT and the NT, and especially in the latter, whereas if the OT Language was intended to be figurative, the NT would have made this evident
Diotrephes - But John (3 John 1:10) uses Language implying his own unquestionable power of restraining Diotrephes's "prating" opposition: such as none but an apostle could properly have employed, an indirect confirmation of the Johannine authorship of the epistle
Blasphemy - Campbell, properly denotes calumny, detraction, reproachful or abusive Language, against whomsoever it be vented
Table of Nations - The names which appear in each of the families are names which come from several different categories: racial descent, geographical location, Language differences, or political units
Tongue - The organ of speech and then the Language spoken (Jeremiah 5:15 ) and the people or nation speaking (Isaiah 66:18 )
Schools - The chief studies were their own Language and literature the chief school-book the Holy Scriptures; and there were special efforts to impress lessons of morality and chastity
Dispensation - In this dispensation the Gospel or covenant of grace is revealed more perfectly and plainly than ever before; not in obscure expressions, in types and carnal metaphors, but in its own proper form and Language
Beersheba - Seven ancient wells exist here, and it has been suggested that these gave its name to the locality; the suffixed numeral being perhaps due to the influence of the syntax of some pre-Semitic Language, as in Kiriath-arba (‘Tetrapolis’)
Jealousy - The Language is based upon the relationship of husband and wife and is frequently associated with Israel's unfaithfulness to God
Government Governor - This word is the most general term in this connexion in the Greek Language (=Lat
Hill - ’ Language like that of Luke 23:30 is used in hyperbole to-day by Easterns, of preparing a highway for royalty through a practically roadless country
Jot - ]'>[1] ), the yod being more distinctively the smallest, provides an argument in favour of those who regard Aramaic as the Language of Jesus
Ethiopian Eunuch - ]'>[3] from the Gentile world; but the fact that he was returning front worship at Jerusalem, and was reading Isaiah 53:7-8 in the Septuagint version, which here differs somewhat from the Hebrew text, shows that he was acquainted with the Greek Language and had been drawn to the religion of the Jews, although he was not very deeply versed in the Scriptures (v
Flourish - ) To use florid Language; to indulge in rhetorical figures and lofty expressions; to be flowery
Arise - See Rise, another form of this verb, which has the same signification, and is more generally used in popular Language
Play - By play we understand pastime, or sport, or diversions; but this is not always the case in Scripture Language
Scorpion - And as the scorpion had two eyes at each extremity, and one species of scorpions possessed wings like the locusts, what could be more formidable to the traveller through the hot, sultry, unwatered wilderness!...
What a sweet thought is it to the church of Christ, that as this as a figure of the present life, it is Jesus that now speaks to his people in the same gracious Language, while they are going home through their eventful pilgrimage! What scorpions, what fiery flying serpents, do they meet with in every part of their warfare! "Behold, (saith the Lord Jesus) I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy, and nothing shall by any means hurt you
Hegesippus, Author - He also speaks of the triumphs of the Romans in "Scotia" and in "Saxonia," using Language strikingly similar to that of Claudian (c
Power - 2 is often translated 'power' where some other word would convey the sense better; but there is no single word in the English Language that exactly answers to the Greek, and which would suit in all places
Aretas - ]'>[1] Charethath ) of several kings of the Nahatæan Arabs whose capital was Petra (Sela), and whose Language for purposes of writing and commerce was an Aramaic dialect, as is seen from the existing inscriptions
Clean - This use of clean is not now elegant, and not used except in vulgar Language
Court - A place in front of a house, inclosed by a wall or fence in popular Language, a court-yard
FALSE - Not agreeable to rule or propriety as false construction in Language
Heaven - "Thus saith the Lord, The heaen is my throne, and the earth is my footstool: where is the house that ye build unto me? and where is the place of my rest?" (Isaiah 66:1) But Solomon breaks out in an expression, as one overwhelmed with surprise and wonder in the contemplation: "But will God indeed (said he) dwell on the earth? behold, the heaven, and the heaven of heavens cannot contain thee!" (1 Kings 8:27) But what would this mighty monarch have said, had he lived to have seen the Lord of heaven and earth tabernacling in the substance of our flesh?...
But, though, according to the Language of Scripture, we call that place heaven which John saw opened, and where the more immediate presence of the Lord is gloriously displayed, yet it were to limit the Holy One of Israel to suppose, that JEHOVAH dwelleth in any place, to the exclusion of his presence or glory elsewhere
Isaiah - Who can read the prophecy of Isaiah without the most profound admiration! It is not only unequalled in point of Language, but it contains so much of Christ, that it looks more like an history than a prophecy
Touch - ” Common throughout the history of the Hebrew Language, this word is also found in Aramaic
Mel'Ita - It was a settlement of the Phoenicians at an early period, and their Language in a corrupted form, was still spoken there in St
he'Brews, Epistle to the - Much of the theology and the Language are similar to Paul's, but the authorship of the epistle ia still disputed
Samuel First And Second Books of - The date of composition was not later than Solomon's time, as the Language proves
Stephen - " He seems from his name to have been a Hellenistic Jew, (see GRECIANS,) and to have been chosen in part as being familiar with the Language, opinions, and customs of the Greeks, Acts 6:1-6
Rail - ...
To utter reproaches to scoff to use insolent and reproachful Language to reproach or censure in opprobrious terms followed by at or against, formerly by on
Refine - To purify, as Language, by removing vulgar words and barbarisms
Kingdom of Heaven - The Jews, overlooking the spiritual import of this Language, expected the Messiah to appear as a temporal king, exercising power over his enemies, restoring the throne of David to all its splendor, subduing the nations, and rewarding his friends and faithful servants in proportion to their fidelity and services
Visit - To visit in mercy, in Scriptural Language, to be propitious to grant requests to deliver from trouble to support and comfort
na'Hum - The Language employed in ch
Mark - As to the origin of the figure, it was indeed customary for a master to brand his slaves, but this Language does not suggest that the Apostle had been branded by His Master
Marcus, Surnamed Eremita - ...
(10) εἰς τὸν Μελχισεδέκ , against heretics who argued from the Language of Hebrews that Melchizedek was the Son of God
Offerings - Speaking to Jews He uses Language appropriate to their condition, and illustrates the truth He would teach from their everyday life
Letters - The next and most difficult step would be the alphabet so formed as to express all the sounds of the Language, by convenient combination. In China the Language is a complete system of abbreviated pictures, emblems, or symbols; and there is no proper alphabet to this day. ...
It may, indeed, be asked, How then is it that in other nations we can so accurately trace the progress from the picture to the symbol, and thence on to the alphabet; as for instance in Egypt? We answer, that if this were allowed, and it might be, and probably was, a part of the divine procedure with reference to the preservation of the true religion, that the knowledge of letters should be early given to the Abrahamic family, or, at least, preserved among them, while many others of the more dispersed branches of the human race becoming barbarous, as stated under the article Language, might lose it; because picture writing was easily convertible to idolatrous purposes, and in reality was greatly encouraged from that source. In these early ages, "the position of mankind after the flood," he observes, "was such as to preclude the possibility of supposing that they had many ideas and many wants; therefore we may reasonably conclude, that their Language consisted of words only which were intended to express the things most necessary to life, and consequently contained a small number of words. " We know, indeed, that it is the notion of many infidel writers, that the original race or races of mankind were a sort of savages; and that a state of society gradually increased the ideas, and enriched the Language of those who at first were capable of uttering but a few simple articulate sounds; but that any person should talk in a similar strain, who professes to receive the Mosaic history, is absurd. Men were not then, as many moderns have supposed, a race of babies, able only to ask for what they needed to eat and drink, or childishly to play with; and we may therefore rest assured that they had a Language so copious, and enunciations of ideas so various in their respective tongues, that picture writing neither was nor could be adequate to their full expression. The true origin of hieroglyphic writing is still unexplained; and will, after all, probably, remain inexplicable: but it has little claim to be considered as the first mode of expressing the sounds of Language. As for the Chinese Language, it is evident that it cannot be urged in proof of alphabetical writing having in all eases passed through the process above mentioned; for to this day the Chinese have no alphabet. As a Language it is indeed peculiar, as being wholly monosyllabic; and we must be better acquainted with the early circumstances of that people before we can account for either
Luke, Gospel According to - In many instances all three use identical Language. ...
That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew, and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same things in very similar Language
Tongues - When the Bible says that people spoke in tongues (‘other tongues’ or ‘strange tongues’), it means that their speech was in words that were not of their own Language and that they did not understand, unless someone interpreted them. On that occasion the disciples spoke in tongues that people from other linguistic groups understood as their native Languages (Acts 2:4-11). ...
There are only two other places in Acts where the writer records that people spoke in tongues, but in neither case is it clear whether the tongues were Languages already in use or something completely different (Acts 10:44-46; Acts 19:1-6). People were to use the gift publicly only if someone could interpret the words in the normal Language of the worshippers, so that all present could benefit. ...
It seems that the Languages spoken in these cases (i. in the church) were different from any known Languages
Despondency - Peter’s Language) to bear our sins in His own body (1 Peter 2:24), or (in St. At one of the stages of His approach to that event, and of His own inward acceptance of it, namely after the dismissal of Judas, this joyful anticipation was expressed by Him in Language even of exultation—‘Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him’ (John 13:31)
Japheth - And, in later times, the Tartars in the east have repeatedly invaded and subdued the Hindoos and Chinese; while the warlike and enterprising genius of the British isles has spread their colonies, their arms, their arts, and their Language, and, in some measure, their religion, from the rising to the setting sun. The Scripture says, that they peopled the isles of the Gentiles, and settled in different countries, each according to his Language, family, and people, Genesis 10:5
Work - In a general sense, to move, or to move one way and the other to perform as in popular Language it is said, a mill or machine works well. To work double tides, in the Language of seamen, to perform the labor of three days in two a phrase taken from the practice f working by the night tide as well as by the day
Macarius Magnus, Magnes, a Writer - The blows against Christianity are dealt with such hearty goodwill and with so little restraint of Language that a Christian would certainly have regarded it as blasphemous to invent such an attack. There is also a clear difference in style between the Language of the objector and of the respondent. It has therefore been inferred that Macarius reproduces the Language as well as the substance of the arguments of a heathen, and then arises the question, "Does the dialogue record a real viva voce discussion with a heathen objector, or are the heathen objections from a published work against Christianity, and if so, whose?"...
The earliest Christian apologists defended their religion against men who had a very vague knowledge of it. We are ourselves inclined to believe that while no doubt Macarius or the heathen philosophers whom he encountered drew the substance of their arguments, and even in some cases their Language, from previous heathen writings, yet on the whole the wording is Macarius's own. Gregory the Great commenting on Job_41:1 uses Language strikingly like that of Macarius; but the common source of Macarius and the rest was Origen's Comm. In a question of Language which became the subject of much dispute in the East he sides with those who speak of τριῶν ὑποστάσεων ἐν οὐσίᾳ μιᾷ
Will - Their psychological equipment for doing this-if the adjective can be used at all-was the Language of the OT and the simple categories common to the conversation of plain but thoughtful men. On the other hand, the Language of the NT writers on this subject-like their use, e. The choice of words is determined as much on subconscious as on conscious levels; we employ one expression and reject another instinctively; and in cases like the present, where a system or a belief is implicit rather than explicit, Language yields some of our best evidence. The Language of the OT suggests three manifestations of will: (a) desire and aversion-the latter perhaps more often actually expressed terms which can all be applied either to man or to God; (b) satisfaction in a certain state of things, real or contemplated-, with the cognate noun, a; these again are equally applicable to man and to God; (c) a continued and persistent purpose, or the phrase -; the former is more commonly used of man; the latter suggests the familiar connexion between will and attention, -being always regarded by the Hebrews as the seat of thoughts rather than of emotions. At the same time, NT Language shrinks from the idea that God could actually deliberate. Thus the main distinction recognized by the Language is religious rather than psychological; it is drawn between the will as manifested in man and in God rather than between the greater and less identification with the self. Very similar Language is used by St. The whole Church may receive an illumination from the Holy Spirit, yet it will use Language that implies co-operation rather than passivity (Acts 15:28)
Song of Solomon, Theology of - How then could Rabbi Akiba call this book the Bible's "Holy of Holies"?...
The way chosen by many during the history of interpretation was to suppress the obviously sexual Language of human love in the book by allegorizing it. ...
The Song serves an important canonical function with its explicit Language of love. White, A Study of the Language of Love in the Song of Songs and Ancient Near Eastern Poetry
Praise - ...
The word hâlal is the source of “Hallelujah,” a Hebrew expression of “praise” to God which has been taken over into virtually every Language of mankind. Christian hymnody certainly would be greatly impoverished if the term “Hallelujah” were suddenly removed from our Language of praise. ” A common Hebrew word in all its periods, this verb is an important word in the Language of worship
Tongues, Gift of - glotta , or glossa , the word employed throughout the New Testament for the gift now under consideration, is used-- (1) for the bodily organ of speech; (2) for a foreign word imported and half-naturalized in Greek; (3) in Hellenistic Greek, for "speech" or "language. The promise of our Lord to his disciples, "They shall speak with new tongues," (Mark 16:17 ) was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost, when cloven tongues like fire sat upon the disciples, and "every man heard them speak in his own Language. What views have men actually taken of a phenomenon so marvellous and exceptional? The prevalent belief of the Church has been that in the Pentecostal gift the disciples received a supernatural knowledge of all such Languages as they needed for their work as evangelists. Paul, who "spake with tongues more than all," was at Lystra, there is no mention made of his using the Language of Lycaonia. Aramaic, Greek, Latin, the three Languages of the inscription on the cross were media, of intercourse throughout the empire. What then, are, the facts actually brought before us? What inferences may be legitimately drawn from them? (a) The utterance of words by the disciples, in other Languages than their own Galilean Aramaic, is distinctly asserted. ...
The "tongues," however, must be regarded as real Languages. " (1 Corinthians 12:28 ) the "tongues of men," ( 1 Corinthians 13:1 ) point to differences of some kind and it is easier to conceive of these as differences of Language than as belonging to utterances all equally mild and inarticulate
Arnobius - ...
Of God , he speaks in the noblest and fullest Language of adoration. ...
Of the Lord Jesus Christ he uses the most glowing Language. Some doubt may, perhaps, be thrown over the extent of these ascriptions of deity by the vague Language with which Arnobius speaks of the gods (see below). ...
On the nature and efficacy of prayer he uses perplexing Language
Daemoniac - It is much more consistent with common sense and sound philosophy to suppose that our Saviour and his apostles wisely, and with that condescension to the weakness and prejudices of those with whom they conversed, which so eminently distinguished the character of the Author of our holy religion, and must always be a prominent feature in the character of the true Christian, adopted the vulgar Language in speaking of those unfortunate persons who were groundlessly imagined to be possessed with daemons, though they well knew the notions which had given rise to such modes of expression to be ill founded, than to imagine that diseases which arise at present from natural causes, were produced in days of old by the intervention of daemons, or that evil spirits still continue to enter into mankind in all cases of madness, melancholy, or epilepsy. The daemons displayed a degree of knowledge and malevolence which sufficiently distinguished them from human beings: and the Language in which the daemoniacs are mentioned, and the actions and sentiments ascribed to them in the New Testament, show that our Saviour and his apostles did not consider the idea of daemoniacal possession as being merely a vulgar error concerning the origin of a disease or diseases produced by natural causes. The more enlightened cannot always avoid the use of metaphorical modes of expression; which though founded upon error, yet have been so established in Language by the influence of custom, that they cannot be suddenly dismissed. Should any person, in compliance with popular opinions, talk in serious Language of the existence, dispositions, declarations, and actions of a race of beings whom he knew to be absolutely fabulous, we surely could not praise him for integrity: we must suppose him to be either exulting in irony over the weak credulity of those around him, or taking advantage of their weakness, with the dishonesty and selfish views of an impostor. It is mentioned in the New Testament in such Language, and such narratives are related concerning it, that the Gospels cannot be well regarded in any other light than as pieces of imposture, and Jesus Christ must be considered as a man who took advantage of the weakness and ignorance of his contemporaries, if this doctrine be nothing but a vulgar error; it teaches nothing inconsistent with the general conduct of Providence; in short, it is not the caution of philosophy, but the pride of reason that suggests objections against this doctrine
Psalms, Book of - The book is distinctly prophetic in character, the period covered by the Language of the Psalms extending from the rejection of Christ (Psalm 2 ; Acts 4:25-28 ) to the Hallelujahs consequent on the establishment of the kingdom. And yet their Language is not simply what they felt, but that of the Spirit of Christ that spoke in them, as taking part in the afflictions, the griefs, and the joys of God's people in every phase of their experience. This accounts for Christ being found throughout the Psalms: some refer exclusively to Him, as Psalm 22 ; in others (though the Language is that of the remnant of His people), Christ takes His place with them, making their sufferings His sufferings, and their sorrows His sorrows. These holy experiences are to be preserved and cherished; but who has not felt the difficulty of calling on God to destroy his enemies? What Christian can take up as his own Language such a sentence as "Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little ones against the stones. The writers were not Christians, and could not express christian experience; though their piety, their confidence in God , and the spirit of praise may often be the Language of a Christian, and even put a Christian to shame
Hellenists - It is therefore a much more probable sense, that a Hebrew of the Hebrews signifies a Hebrew both by nation and Language, which multitudes of Abraham's posterity, in those days, were not; or one of the Hebrew Jews, who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; for such were reckoned more honourable than the Hellenistic Jews, who in their dispersion having, in a manner, lost the Hebrew, used the Greek Language in sacris, and read the Scripture out of the Septuagint version. The former were Greeks by nation, and as such distinguished from Jews, Acts 16:1 ; Acts 19:10 ; and the Greek empire having been rendered by Alexander in a manner universal, and their Language being then the most common and general, the appellation Greeks is sometimes given to the whole Heathen world, or to all who were not Jews, Romans 1:16 ; Romans 2:9 . There is a distinction made between Jews and proselytes, Acts 2:10 ; but none between Hebrews and proselytes, because a proselyte might be either a Hebrew or a Hellenist, according to the Language in which he performed public worship. Upon the whole, the ‘Ελληνισται , or Grecians being Jews, who used the Greek tongue in their sacred exercises, the Hebrew Jews and Grecian Jews were distinguished in those days, in like manner as the Portuguese and Dutch Jews are among us, not so much by the place of their birth, (many being born in England, others abroad,) as by the Language they use in their public prayers and sermons
Horn - Horns budding or sprouting is a figurative Language indication of a sign of revival of a nation or power
Tiberias - " In its original form, and in all manuscripts, the Hebrew is written without vowels; hence, when it ceased to be a spoken Language, the importance of knowing what vowels to insert between the consonants
Daniel, Book of - Certain portions (Daniel 2:4 ; 7 ) are written in the Chaldee Language; and the portions written in Hebrew are in a style and form having a close affinity with the later books of the Old Testament, especially with that of Ezra
Euraquilo - Luke avoids the correct Greek term, characteristically preferring the vivid Language which he had doubtless heard the mariners themselves use
Florentius, a Chief Minister of State at Constantinople - But his efforts to induce Eutyches to acknowledge the two natures in Christ or to adopt Language which might satisfy the council were fruitless, and the interests of orthodoxy compelled him to assent to his condemnation (Labbe, 507, 517)
Ammonite - They were of Semitic origin, and closely related to the Hebrews in blood and Language
Preface - This book, like most of my books, began life in the Thai Language when I lived with my wife and family in Bangkok
Pillar - In this figurative Language, Job is describing the mighty power of GOD
Foul - ) Scurrilous; obscene or profane; abusive; as, foul words; foul Language
Bottom - In the Language of jockeys, stamina, native strength as a horse of good bottom
Alsace-Lorraine - Readjustments in finance, education, and Language were difficult problems of administration
Amphilochius, Bishop of Sida - At this same council we find him assenting to Cyril's letter, and subscribing in very strong Language to the condemnation and deposition of Nestorius ( ib
Zephaniah, the Book of - The style is graphic and vivid, and the Language pure and free from Aramaisms
Fountain - ...
Thus to Palestine peculiarly of eastern lauds the psalmist's Language is appropriate, "He sendeth the springs into the valleys which run among the hills" (Psalms 104:10)
Ophir - Gold from Ophir was apparently highly valued, the phrase becoming a stock descriptive term in Ancient Near Eastern commercial Language (Isaiah 13:12 ; Job 22:24 ; Job 28:16 ; Psalm 45:10 )
Country - He spoke in his country Language
Gross - Coarse, in a figurative sense rough mean particularly, vulgar obscene indelicate as gross Language gross jests
Gulf - Indeed, signs are not lacking that on this occasion He employs the Language of metaphor in order to guard against placing His imprimatur on useless and materialistic speculations
Step - Biblical occurrences of this word number about 117 and appear in every period of the Language
Keep, Oversee - ” Used throughout the history of the Hebrew Language, this root is used in the noun sense in modern Hebrew to mean “eternity, perpetuity
Burn - ” A common Semitic term, this word is found in ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic, as well as throughout the history of the Hebrew Language
Clothe - ” A common Semitic term, this word is found in ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic, in Aramaic, and throughout the history of the Hebrew Language
Dance - Just as impassioned Language became "poetry," and song broke forth from the lips, so among Oriental peoples the limbs partook of the excitement, Psalms 35:10, and joy was exhibited in dancing
Offend - We are offended by rudeness, incivility and harsh Language
Reductions of Paraguay - The last named is famous for his history of the Paraguay mission, and his vocabulary, grammar, and catechism in the Guarani Language
Dan'Iel, the Book of, - Aramaic) answer of the Chaldeans, the Language changes to Aramaic, and this is retained till the close of the seventh chapter (2:4 b-7)
Profane - ‘profane Language
Protevangelium - , on the contrary, uses παροιμία in the sense of ‘figurative Language, allegory’ (John 10:6), or ‘dark saying’ (John 16:26; John 16:29) rather than ‘proverb’; perhaps, ‘figure’ best represents his use of the word
Targum - But though the custom of making these sorts of expositions in the Chaldee Language, be very ancient among the Hebrews, yet they have no written paraphrases or Targums before the aera of Onkelos and Jonathan, who lived about the time of our Saviour. His style is a very corrupt Chaldee, with a great mixture of words from foreign Languages. And some of them, with the phraseologies, idioms, and peculiar forms of speech, which we find in them, do, in many instances, help as much for the better illustration and better understanding of the New Testament, as of the Old; the Jerusalem Chaldee dialect, in which they are written, being the vulgar Language of the Jews in our Saviour's time
Caesarius, Bishop of Chrysostom - Le Quien also urged that Language is used which is not heard of until employed by Cyril of Alexandria in controversy with Nestorius. Montfaucon, however, has produced precedents for much of this Language from Athanasius, and has clearly proved that the letter was directed not against Eutychianism, but against Apollinarianism; and with much probability he identifies the work assailed with a work of Apollinarius quoted by Eulogius (ap
Antichrist - The Language of Daniel 8:8-25 and Daniel 11:36-39, partially fulfilled by Antiochus, is exhaustively fulfilled only in the last Antichrist. , outwardly resembling Christ or Messiah (Revelation 13:11); sitting in God's temple as God, apparently restored Israel's persecutor, whence the sacred Hebrew is the Language of Daniel 8-12, wherein the little horn from the East is a leading subject, whereas the world's Language, Chaldee, is that of Daniel 7 wherein the Romish little horn is described. The Greek letters of Lateinos (Irenaeus), Rome's Language in all official acts, amount to 666. The forced unity marked by Rome's ritual being everywhere in Latin is the premature counterfeit of the true unity, only to be realized when Christ, God's true Vicar on earth, shall appear, and all the earth shall "in a pure Language serve the Lord with one consent" (Zephaniah 3:9)
Manuscripts - ...
Although the original writings were written by ordinary people in ordinary human Language, they were at the same time written under the special direction of the Spirit of God. ...
Old Testament manuscripts...
The Language of the Old Testament, Hebrew, reads from right to left and was written originally with consonants only. But with the spread of the Aramaic Language and then Greek during the latter centuries BC (see ARAM; GREECE), Hebrew had become less widely known in Palestine in New Testament times. This decline continued, till Hebrew ceased to be a commonly spoken Language
Macedonia - At the same time, Macedonia came increasingly under the influence of Greek culture and Language (the original Macedonian Language was probably a different Hellenic dialect). While the general Language of Macedonia remained Greek, the official Language of the Roman colonies was Latin (until after A
Abba (2) - ...
We may first take as a supposition that our Lord, praying in Gethsemane, used the Aramaic Language, and therefore said ‘Abba’ only, and that ὁ πατήρ is the Evangelist’s explanation, for Greek readers, of the Aramaic word. The strongest argument for ὁ πατήρ being an addition of the Evangelist is that, whatever view we take of our Lord’s having made use of Greek in ordinary speech, it is extremely unlikely that His prayers were in that Language; and if He prayed in Aramaic, He would only say ‘Abba. ’ It is the common experience of bilingual countries that though the acquired Language may be in constant use for commerce or the ordinary purposes of life, the native tongue is tenaciously retained for devotion and prayer. The Aramaic shorter form would begin with Abba, for the Greek begins with Πάτερ; and the hypothesis is that the early Christians in the intensity of their devotion repeated the first word of the prayer in either Language. A somewhat similar phenomenon is seen in the repetitions for emphasis in Revelation 9:11; Revelation 12:9; Revelation 20:2, where the names are given in both Languages
Tongues, Gift of - Relying chiefly on the passages of Acts, most of the Fathers (as Origen, Chrysostom, Theodoret, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus) understand the gift as being for purposes of evangelization, as if the disciples received a miraculous endowment of foreign Languages to enable them to preach; Gregory of Nyssa and others take the gift as a miracle of hearing , the disciples speaking in their own Language, but the people understanding their speech each in his own tongue. This view starts with the doubtless true idea that ‘tongue’ means ‘language’ here. , where the utterances are often unintelligible even to the utterer, are clearly repugnant to this interpretation, and we have no proof that the Apostles ever preached in any Language but Greek and Aramaic, even to the ‘barbarous’ heathen, such as the Lycaonians or Maltese. ( b ) It has been suggested that we are to understand ‘tongues,’ not as ‘languages,’ but as ‘poetic or symbolic speech,’ not readily understood by the unlearned. ( c ) The Languages required by Acts 2:1-47 are actually only two Greek and Aramaic. is of countries, not of Languages. This is a difficulty in interpreting the narrative, which gives us the impression of a large number of different Languages. ...
To sum up, it seems probable that the gift of tongues was an ecstatic utterance of praise, not only in poetic and symbolic speech, but also in Languages or dialects not ordinarily spoken by those who had the gift; a power given at a time of great enthusiasm and excitement, at a critical period of the world’s history, but not meant to be a permanent gift for the Church, and not ranking so high as other charismata , especially not so high as prophecy
Version - After the return from the Captivity, the Jews, no longer familiar with the old Hebrew, required that their Scriptures should be translated for them into the Chaldaic or Aramaic Language and interpreted. "This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest interest, (a) as preserving evidence for the text far more ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts; (b) as the means by which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought; (c) as the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old Testament by writers of the New Testament. ; two Egyptian versions, about the fourth century, the Memphitic, circulated in Lower Egypt, and the Thebaic, designed for Upper Egypt, both from the Greek; the Gothic, written in the German Language, but with the Greek alphabet, by Ulphilas (died A
Wisdom of Solomon - The Language. 1-9) in which the Hebrew parallelism is observed indicates that Greek is not the original Language in which the work was composed; for those Israelites who composed original works in Greek naturally adopted Hellenic literary styles, the tragedian Ezekiel (Clem. That the original Language was Hebrew is made certain by the preservation in the Jewish Oral Tradition (Genesis Rabba, 96, and Jer. ...
The work is otherwise used by the Oral Tradition, yet perhaps not in such a way as to permit of any inference with regard to its Language, In Exodus Rabba, 25, the manna is described as ‘having in it all sorts of tastes, so that each Israelite was tasting what he wished’; this represents Wisdom of Solomon 16:20, πρὸς πᾶσαν ἡδονὴν ἱσχύοντα καὶ πρὸς πᾶσαν ἁρμόνιον γεῦσιν, but the correspondence is not quite literal. The Oral Tradition employs it for a different purpose; if its phrase - be the original of εἰκόνα ποιήσας, the Language must have already been affected by Greek. ...
The text of 14:22 appears to contain an indication of the Language in which the book was written, but it is not easy to interpret. ...
The notion that Greek is the original Language of the book is probably due to its containing paragraphs which, both in style and in content, bear little resemblance to the OT. There can be little doubt that it is quoted in the Pauline Epistles; yet this would not necessarily imply that it was earlier than Philo, to whose Language and even style it occasionally shows some resemblance. ...
The character of the Language is probably in agreement with the date thus indicated, i
Demoniac - ...
By the one party, the Language of holy writ was interpreted literally; and by the other it was considered as figurative, and used in the way of accommodation to the existing opinions. Our Lord and his Apostles adapted their instructions to this prevailing notion, and used the Language which had been formed upon it; just as Moses, in his account of the creation, adapts himself to the popular astronomy of his time, instead of laying before us the true system of the heavenly bodies. Occasionally, too, say those who contend against the reality of demoniacal possessions, the Language of the sacred books confirms the explanation which has just been given. With regard to the more specific question of demoniacal possessions, they answer, that though God has often been pleased to accommodate himself to our apprehension by adopting the current Language of the countries, where the revelation was first published; yet the account of the creation given by Moses is not altogether an instance in point. Beside, as various instances are recorded in Scripture, and as several cases are given at considerable length, might we not expect, if possessions were really nothing more than ordinary diseases, that the truth would be somewhere told or hinted at? that, within the compass of the sacred canon, something would be said, or something insinuated, which would lead us to understand that the Language, though inaccurate and improper, was used in accommodation to the popular belief? Might we not expect that Christ himself would have declared, in one unequivocal affirmation, or in some intelligible way, the exact truth of the case? Or, at all events, when the Holy Ghost had descended upon the Apostles on the day of pentecost, and when the full disclosure of the revelation appears to have been made, might it not reasonably have been looked for that the popular error would have been rectified, and the Language reduced from its figurative character to a state of simple correctness? What conceivable motive could influence our Saviour, or his Apostles, to sanction the delusion of the multitude? And does it not strike at the root of the Christian religion itself, to have it thought, for a single moment, that its "Author and Finisher," who came to enlighten and to reform the world, should have, on so many occasions, not only countenanced, but confirmed, an opinion which he must have known to be "the reverse of the truth?"...
Let us then, say they, beware how we relinquish the literal sense of holy writ, in search of allegorical or figurative interpretations. And it is on this supposition alone that we can explain the Language of Christ in that remarkable declaration which he makes to the Pharisees and rulers of the Jews, and which we find recorded in the twelfth chapter of the Gospel by St
Poetry - To apply to it the same principles of exegesis as are applied to prose is highly absurd; for in attempting to mark the differences between prose and poetry we must go below the form of Language, and note that there is a distinctly poetic mode of thought and range of ideas. There is not a commanding tradition of the pronunciation of the Language, whether we think of vowels, syllables, or accent. The Hebrew Language was indeed dominated by tradition, which made it difficult to alter established practice; but in case the tradition was one of freedom on the part of the writer to construct his poem as he chose, it naturally operated to keep him free from the complicated rules which spring up in the later periods of the life of a Language. ...
Until the contrary is shown on other grounds, it must be assumed that the Hebrew accent system, differing traditionally from Arabic and Syriac, differed from them actually; and as the traditional grammatical forms depend largely upon the accent, the natural Inference is that it is an important feature of the Language. The smallest group the couplet or distich exhibits the most characteristic feature of the poetry of the Language, namely Parallelism , a name given by Lowth in 1753. Rhyme and assonance are known in the Language, but are not used persistently throughout a poem, and cannot be anticipated or reduced to rule when present
Job, Book of - The original Language was Hebrew with perhaps an Aramaic foundation
Arabia Felix - Their Language also is still spoken with great purity; and as it is near akin to the Hebrew, it furnishes invaluable aid in the study of the Old Testament
Friendship - Solomon exhorts us in Language so energetic, as at once shews it to be our duty to cultivate it
Bow - The Language in Genesis gives no reason for supposing the writer ignorant of the natural cause of the rainbow, as if he made God then for the first time setting it in the sky
Hachilah, the Hill - There is an undesigned coincidence between David's Language in Psalms 11:1, "how say ye to my soul, Flee as a bird to your mountain," and the independent history (1 Samuel 26:20)," the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains," a confirmation of the genuineness of both psalm and history
Stumbling Block - In the figurative Language of the Bible, a stumbling block is some kind of obstacle that either causes people to fall or hinders them in doing what they should
Eternity of God - If his duration were successive, or proceeded by moments, days, and years, then there must have been some first moment, day, and year, when he began to exist, which is incompatible with the idea of his eternity; and, besides, one day would be but one day with him, and not a thousand, contrary to the express Language of Scripture, 2 Peter 3:8
Natural - Native vernacular as ones natural Language
Abomination - The same Language is employed in Daniel 9:27 (Compare Matthew 24:15 ), where the reference is probably to the image-crowned standards which the Romans set up at the east gate of the temple (A
Jebus - )...
The Language in 2 Samuel 24:23 admits, though it does not require, that Araunah should be regarded as the fallen "king" of the Jebusites; he certainly exhibited a true kingly spirit
Shall - It is also employed in the Language of prophecy; as, "the day shall come when
Matthew - He spoke the local Aramaic Language as well as Greek
Flat - Depression of thought or Language
Angle - ...
In popular Language, the point where two lines meet, or the meeting of two lines in a point a corner
Chaldeans, Chaldees - The earlier inhabitants had an agglutinative Language, such as the descendants of Cush would have: whereas the Chaldeans spoken of in the O
Anastasius, a Presbyter of Antioch - " These words, eagerly caught up by the enemies of Nestorius, caused much excitement among clergy and laity, which was greatly increased when the archbishop by supporting and defending Anastasius adopted the Language as his own (Socr
Septuagint, the - , make it evident that it was then in common use, and its Language in a great measure influenced that employed in the N
Sychar - "A city of Samaria called Sychar" is Language not likely to be used of the metropolis Shechem; moreover the name Sychem occurs Acts 7:16
Bend - In marine Language, that part of a rope which is fastened to another or to an anchor
Convert - To turn into another Language
Fool - In common Language, a person who is somewhat deficient in intellect, but not an idiot or a person who acts absurdly one who does not exercise his reason one who pursues a course contrary to the dictates of wisdom
Hit - To move by jerks, or with stops as, in colloquial Language, to hitch along
Ill - ...
ILL, prefixed to participles of the present tense, and denoting evil or wrong, may be considered as a noun governed by the participle, or as making a part of a compound word as an meaning man, an designing man, an boding hour that is, a man meaning an hour boding It is more consonant, however, to the genius of our Language, to treat these and similar words as compounds
Meekness - In the Greek Language it is quasi, facilis, sasiness of spirit, and thus it may be justly called; for it accommodates the soul to every occurrence, and so makes a man easy to himself, and to all about him
Chamber - (2 Kings 9:2; Mark 14:1-72) But the sweetest sense of the word chambers, in Scripture Language, is in reference to those endearing views of Jesus, when he brings his church into the chambers of his grace, to make himself known unto them, otherwise than he doeth unto the world
Fat - In Scripture Language there is something of great importance in this word
Herod - (Matthew 2:1) His name, according to the Greek Language, signified the glory of the skin
Sick, To Be - ” This verb is common in all periods of the Hebrew Language and occurs approximately 60 times in the Hebrew Bible
Take, Handle - ” Found in various Semitic Languages, including ancient Akkadian, this word is a common one throughout the stages of the Hebrew Language
Image - The introduction of images into places of Christian worship, dates its origin soon after the times of Constantine the Great, but the earlier Christians reprobated every species of image worship in the strongest Language
Libation - This word is used in sacrificial Language, to express an affusion of liquors, poured upon victims to be sacrificed to the Lord
Testator - 48, says: "There can be little doubt that the word (diatheke) must be invariably taken in this sense of 'covenant' in the NT, and especially in a book so impregnated with the Language of the Sept
Openly - In Galatians 3:1 , however, "it is probably used in another sense, unexampled in the Scriptures but not uncommon in the Language of the day, == 'proclaimed,' 'placarded,' as a magistrate proclaimed the fact that an execution had been carried out, placarding his proclamation in a public place
Jehovah - Jerom, and Eusebius, testify that in their time the Jews left the name of Jehovah written in their copies in Samaritan characters, instead of writing it in the common Chaldee or Hebrew characters; which shows their veneration for this holy name: and the fear they were under, lest strangers, who were not unacquainted with the Chaldee letters and Language, should discover and misapply it
Roman Rite - The Language of the Roman Rite is Latin except for a few churches along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, where Slavonic is used, and on rare occasions, Greek at Rome
Rite, Roman - The Language of the Roman Rite is Latin except for a few churches along the eastern coast of the Adriatic, where Slavonic is used, and on rare occasions, Greek at Rome
Year - In popular Language, year is often used for years
Thorn, Thorns - , in Numbers 33:55 ; Ezekiel 28:24 ; Hosea 2:6 ), 2 Corinthians 12:7 , of the Apostle's "thorn in the flesh;" his Language indicates that it was physical, painful, humiliating; it was also the effect of Divinely permitted Satanic antagonism; the verbs rendered "that I should (not) be exalted overmuch" (RV) and "to buffet" are in the present tense, signifying recurrent action, indicating a constantly repeated attack
Atonement - The word does not occur in most versions of the New Testament, but it is used broadly in the Language of theology in relation to the sacrificial death of Christ
Maximianus, a Donatist - 24, 394, at which he himself presided, the supporters of Maximian, of whom none were present, were condemned in most opprobrious Language
Teach - ” This common Semitic term is found throughout the history of the Hebrew Language and in ancient Akkadian and Ugaritic. ” Found in all periods of the Hebrew Language, this root is also found in ancient Ugaritic with the sense of “to shoot”; modern Hebrew uses the word to express the firing of a gun
Sep'Tuagint - [1] The Jews of Alexandria had probably still less knowledge of Hebrew than their brethren in Palestine their familiar Language was Alexandrian Greek. Wherever, by the conquests of Alexander or by colonization, the Greek Language prevailed wherever Jews were settled and the attention of the neighboring Gentiles was drawn to their wondrous history and law there was found the Septuagint, which thus became, by divine Providence the means of spreading widely the knowledge of the one true God and his promises of it Saviour to come, throughout the nations
Nag Hammadi - While the documents are written in the Coptic Language, an ancient Language of Egypt, they are probably translations of Greek originals
Ara'Bia - Language . -- Arabic the Language of Arabia, is the most developed and the richest of Shemitic Languages, and the only one of which we have an extensive literature; it is, therefore, of great importance to the study of Hebrew
Hardening - ...
Critical exegesis makes no attempt to soften or evade the natural meaning of this Language, which affirms, not that God merely permits (as Origen and Grotius thought), or that He foreknows, but that He effects, the hardening of the heart. 131), and all apparently predestinarian Language is meant to be moralized. ’ This prophet’s Language is quoted with approval by our Lord in Mark 4:12, Luke 8:10; and with an important modification in Proverbs 29:1. The process is, in Western Language, natural and inevitable. ...
There is, however, always a danger in the dialectical use of the Language of absolutism
Games - ...
This being the case, it is all the more surprising to find that metaphors and similes drawn from the sphere of athletics should, enter so largely into the Language of the NT, in particular into the letters of St. It has been customary to explain this feature of the Apostle’s writings as the outcome of his experience and from his actual presence at great athletic assemblies, but now the idea is gaining ground that he drew rather upon the word-treasury of past generations, and used such figures of speech because they had become stereotyped in Language and arose naturally to the mind. Light-foot has called attention to the striking similarity in this respect, as in many others, between the Language of St. ...
Thus far the Language is suggestive of the stadium, particularly of the foot-race, although it is not forbidden to think of the hippodrome and of chariot-racing. Considerable uncertainty attaches to the Language of Hebrews 12:4 : ‘Ye have not yet resisted unto blood,’ in which it is tempting to see a repetition of St
Citizenship - Peter describes Christians in the same Language used to describe Abraham in the Septuagint
Ebionites - Origen takes them to have been so called from the Hebrew word ebion, which in that Language signifies poor; because, says he, they were poor in sense, and wanting understanding
Cush (2) - Massive architectural remains, and a religion of nature worship from the highest to the lowest (fetish) kind, are found in all the Mizraite and Cushite settlements; and the Language is partly Turanian, partly Semitic
Cup - Joseph's preserving his disguise by Language adapted to his supposed character before his brethren, "Wot ye not that such a man as I can certainly divine?" is inconsistent with his disclaiming all knowledge except what God revealed (Genesis 41:16), but was the act of a good but erring man
Redemption - Gill, is from the Latin tongue, and signifies buying again; and several words in the Greek Language of the New Testament, are used in the affair of our redemption, which signify the obtaining of something by paying a proper price for it: sometimes the simple verb, to buy, is used: so the redeemed are said to be bought unto God by the blood of Christ, and to be bought from the earth, and to be bought from among men, and to be bought with a price; that is, with the price of Christ's blood
Medes, Media - in Acts 2:9 the Medes are vaguely mentioned, where the reference is to Jews or proselytes living in Media and using the Language of the country
Earrings - But the Language in Deuteronomy and in Exodus 13:9; Exodus 13:16 is rightly taken by the Karaite Jews as proverbial, not literal; as is apparent from the reason added, "that the law of Jehovah may be in thy mouth"; for it is by receiving the law into the heart, and by keeping it, that it would be naturally on the tongue continually
Fool - Language is rich in words which express various kinds of folly
Caterpillar - Obviously such Language is not fully appropriate for the first stage of the animal, showing that the various terms became synonyms and could be used interchangeably to describe typical activities of the grasshopper or locust
Innocents - Adopting the Language of Jeremiah 31:15, the Evangelist represents Rachel, the ancestral mother of the people of Israel, as weeping over the cruel death of her children
Legion - The conclusion is that, if Aramaic is behind the passages where the word occurs, the expression was imported into that Language from Greek, and reveals the great impression made on the minds of Orientals by the vast organized unity of the Roman army, with which they had become acquainted since the Roman occupation of Syria by Pompey (b
Groaning - Its highest yearnings, though known to the Searcher of hearts, have no Language but a painful cry
Anchor - In seamen's Language, the anchor comes home, when it is dislodged from its bed, so as to drag by the violence of the wind, sea or current
Sceptre - This word in Scripture Language seems to be intended for much more than is generally annexed to the term in ordinary speech
Tree - We meet with the names of a great variety of trees in Scripture, but if we may give credit to ancient writers, there was nothing in the Hebrew Language less determined than the special names of trees
Gelasius (13), an Author From Cyzicus - "There is neither order in his narrative, nor exactness in his observations, nor elegance in his Language, nor judgment m his selection of facts, nor good sense in his judgments
Poetry - It appears clear that the lines did not end with corresponding sounds , and it cannot be discovered in what the rhythm consists, the ancient pronunciation of the Language being lost
Flourish - To use florid Language to make a display of figures and lofty expressions to be copious and flowery
Astrology - (This appears to be the only sense in which the popular and picturesque Language of Matthew 2:9 can be understood)
Accursed - ...
According to the idiom of the Hebrew Language, accursed and crucified were synonymous terms
Galatia - The Celtic Language continued to be spoken by their descendants at least until the time of Jerome, six hundred years after the migration; and these Gauls of Asia also retained much of the mercurial and impulsive disposition of the Gallic race
Think - In these expressions, me is actually in the dative case almost the only instance remaining in the Language
Warp - In seamens Language, to two or move with a line or warp, attached to buoys, to anchors or to other ships, &c
na'Bal - (1 Samuel 26:22 ) At this moment, as it would seem, Abigail appeared, threw herself on her face before him, and poured forth her petition in Language which in both form and expression almost assumes the tone of poetry
Joab - Though David on this occasion needed to be reminded that his life and throne had been saved, yet Joab's arrogant and threatening Language to the king was unjustifiable; and Amasa was made captain of the host in the room of Joab
Blasphemy - Bad or insulting Language directed at a person or thing is usually referred to as a curse
Interpretation - Turning again to the history of Joseph, we find there an incidental remark which leads us to believe that there was an official interpreter, or a body of interpreters, whose work it was to translate foreign Languages into the Language of the court (cf. That prominent politicians and statesmen had this means of international communication at their disposal is seen in the translation by the Persian nobles of their letter from their own Language into Aramaic ( Ezra 4:7 )
Struggles of Soul - —The Gospels use varied Language in describing the conflicting emotions of Jesus. The Language He used shows that He felt as temptations to turn from His Divinely appointed path, His mother’s appeal at Cana (John 2:4), and Peter’s remonstrance at Caesarea Philippi (Matthew 16:23); and even the request of the Greeks for an interview (John 12:27)
Nimrod - ...
Though Arabic is Semitic, the Mahras' Language in southern Arabia is non-Semitic, and is the modern representative of the ancient Himyaric whose empire dates as far back as 1750 B. The Mahras is akin to the Abyssinian Galla Language, representing the Cushite or Ethiopic of old; and the primitive Babylonian Sir H
Raise - In seamen's Language, to elevate, as an object by a gradual approach to it to bring to be seen at a greater angle opposed to laying as, to raise the land to raise a point. To raise a purchase, in seamen's Language, is to dispose instruments or machines in such a manner as to exert any mechanical force required
Gospel - The unanimous testimony of ancient writers is in favor of a Hebrew original, that is, that it was written in the Language of Palestine and for the use of the Hebrew Christians. But, on the other hand, the definiteness and accuracy of this testimony is drawn into question; there is no historical notice of a translation into Greek; and the present Greek gospel bears many marks of being an original; the circumstances of the age, too, and the prevalence of the Greek Language in Palestine, seem to give weight to the opposite hypothesis
Pre-Existence - A similar conclusion might be drawn from the Language of the parable of the Wicked Husbandmen (see esp. The Language of the Apocalypse is strictly parallel (Revelation 1:17; Revelation 3:14; Revelation 21:6; Revelation 22:13)
Exodus - Some argue that the military Language in the account indicates that the event was a military skirmish. Such Language may be the Language of holy war
Sign - ...
1 Corinthians 14:22 (a) The gift of tongues was a gift in which the servants of GOD were enabled to instantly speak in a different Language from the one they knew. Those who today claim to have that "gift" must always learn the Language of the country to which they go as missionaries. If today those from this country could go to China or Russia and immediately speak freely and fluently in the Language of those countries, though they had never learned those Languages, that would be a sign to the natives of that country that GOD was working
Galilee - The Language of these regions differed considerably from that of Judea; as did various customs, in which each followed its own mode. Hence, we find Peter detected by his Language, probably by his phraseology, as well as his pronunciation, Mark 14:70 . A storm of this description is plainly denoted by the Language of the evangelist, in recounting one of our Lord's miracles: "There came down a storm of wind on the lake, and they were filled with water, and were in jeopardy
Daniel, Book of - They present visions of God and His future acts, describing in figurative Language the future of peace and victory rising out of current troubles. ...
The visions and angelic figures of Daniel along with its strongly figurative, symbolic Language tie it closely to the apocalyptic. ...
Daniel uses two Languages—Aramaic (Daniel 2:4-7:28 ) and Hebrew (Daniel 1:2-2:4 ; Daniel 8:1-12:13 )—plus loan words from Persian and Greek to write the complex work of prophecy, wisdom, and apocalyptic writing. This is apparently a combination of the Language of worship (Hebrew) and the Language of daily life (Aramaic). The two Languages combine to form two distinctly separate sections of the book (1–6; 7–12), the first told in narrative form about Daniel and his friends with a historical conclusion (Daniel 6:28 ) and the second told in form of Daniel's visions. ...
The Book of Daniel acts as a unit despite these differences in Languages used and types of literature employed
Heaven - Whether there shall be a diversity of Languages in heaven, as there is on earth? This we cannot pretend to determine. Some think that there shall; and that, as persons of all nations and tongues shall make up that blessed society, so they shall praise God in the same Language which they before used when on earth; and that this worship may be performed with the greatest harmony, and to mutual edification, all the saints shall, by the immediate power and providence of God, be able to understand and make use of every one of those different Languages, as well as their own. But though the apostle speaks by a metonymy of different tongues, that is, persons who speak different Languages being subject to Christ, he probably means thereby persons of different nations, whether they shall praise him in their own Language in heaven, or no. Therefore some conjecture that the diversity of Languages shall then cease, inasmuch as it took its first rise from God's judicial hand, when he confounded the speech of those who presumptuously attempted to build the city and tower of Babel; and this has been ever since attended with many inconveniences. that is, the present variety of Languages. ...
Moreover, since the gift of tongues was bestowed on the apostles for the gathering and building up the church in the first ages thereof, which end, when it was answered, this extraordinary dispensation ceased; in like manner it is probable that hereafter the diversity of Languages shall cease. Ridgley, "there are some who object to this, that the saints understanding all Languages, will be an addition to their honour, glory, and happiness. But to this it may be answered, that though it is, indeed, an accomplishment, in this world, for a person to understand several Languages, that arises from the subserviency thereof to those valuable ends that are answered thereby; but this would be entirely removed, if the diversity of Languages be taken away in heaven, as some suppose it will. " "There are some, who, it may be, give too much scope to a vain curiosity, when they pretend to enquire what this Language shall be, or determine, as the Jews do, and with them some of the fathers, that it shall be Hebrew, since their arguments for it are not sufficiently conclusive, which are principally these, viz. ...
That this was the Language with which God inspired man at first in paradise, and that which the saints and patriarchs spake; and the church generally made use of in all ages till our Saviour's time; and that it was this Language which he himself spake while here on earth; and since his ascension into heaven, he spake to Paul in the Hebrew tongue, Acts 26:14
Tongues, Confusion of - The sacred writer at once states the fact of the great multiplicity of Languages, and also the resemblance and connection between what at first sight seem distinct tongues. It is the only theory of ethnology which harmonizes with and accounts for the facts of Language, as comparative philology reveals them to us. ...
This is his superiority to brutes; hence to mature Adam's intellectual powers and to teach him the use of Language God brought the animals to him to name (Genesis 2:19-20). Nouns are the simplest and earliest elements of Language; and animals by their appearance, movements, and cries, suggest names for themselves. A substratum of significant monosyllabic roots is at the base of all Languages. The inflecting Languages must have been once agglutinative, and the agglutinative once isolating. Outward circumstances, position, and disposition, all combined, have modified Language. African Languages were sub-Semitic; the inelastic Semitic remained within the limits assigned in the Bible, owing to being hemmed in by the superior expansiveness of the Aryans and Turanians. "The Slavonians and Teutons were the first to leave the common home of the Indo European race, and Slavo Teutonic was the earliest deviation from the common Language. The Languages of the aboriginal races who preceded the Aryans in India were Turanian. The Languages of Oceania are thought to be Malay. The polysynthetic Languages of N
Most High - The word, then, does not belong to the Language of everyday life: it is reserved for poetry and elevated style, and it seems by its origin to have suggested something archaic and mysterious, whether it referred to the lofty dwelling-place or to the majestic nature and attributes of God
Lamentations, Book of - The spirit, tone, Language, and subject-matter are in accord with the testimony of tradition in assigning it to him
Michael - " This Language suits an archangel rather than the divine Son
Lycaonia - ...
The name of the Lycaonins is not mentioned in the Bible, but their Language is in Acts 14:11 : it was no doubt prevalent in the villages and smaller towns
Inwards, Inward Parts - Here, too, lie hidden the springs of active wickedness ( Psalms 5:9 ), and deceitful Language ( Psalms 62:4 AVm School - This involved the learning of Hebrew, since Aramaic had long before replaced Hebrew as the everyday Language of the people
Union to Christ - It is represented in the Scripture by the strongest expressions Language can admit of, and even compared to the union between the Father and the Son, John 17:11 ; John 17:21 , &c
Sign - ) Hence, one of the gestures of pantomime, or of a Language of a signs such as those used by the North American Indians, or those used by the deaf and dumb
Element - ) One of the ultimate parts which are variously combined in anything; as, letters are the elements of written Language; hence, also, a simple portion of that which is complex, as a shaft, lever, wheel, or any simple part in a machine; one of the essential ingredients of any mixture; a constituent part; as, quartz, feldspar, and mica are the elements of granite
Figure - ) A mode of expressing abstract or immaterial ideas by words which suggest pictures or images from the physical world; pictorial Language; a trope; hence, any deviation from the plainest form of statement
Amos - Its arrangement is simple and artistic, its Language plain but forceful, its wealth of imagery delightful and amazing
Confidence - They both belong to the Language of deep personal feeling, and it is not surprising that they appear more frequently in 2 Cor
Affliction - In the Hebrew Language as many as eleven words can be translated “affliction
Gain - ...
To gain the wind, in sea Language, is to arrive on the windward side of another ship
Salt - ...
Colossians 4:6 (a) It is symbolical of the character of good Language, wherein the thoughts expressed, the words spoken, and the attitude of heart in the conversation bring a sweet influence and a preserving power in the lives of those to whom we speak
Galilee - ...
It is probable that the Galilaeans had a different manner of pronunciation, or the Language spoken in Galilee was not so refined as that spoken at Jerusalem, which led to Peter being detected by his speech
Bath, Bathing - Our Lord’s Language in John 13:10 turns on the distinction between bathing (the whole person) and washing (the feet)
Pour, Flow - ” Commonly used throughout the history of the Hebrew Language, this word occurs in ancient Ugaritic with the same nuances as in the Old Testament
Grace - For certain gifts of God, which he bestows freely, when, where, and on whom, he pleases; such are the gifts of miracles, prophecy, Languages, &c, Romans 15:15 ; 1 Corinthians 15:10 ; Ephesians 3:8 , &c. In theological Language grace also signifies divine influence upon the soul; and it derives the name from this being the effect of the great grace or favour of God to mankind
Stork - Its very name in the Hebrew Language, chasida, signifies mercy or piety: and its English name is taken, if not directly, yet secondarily, through the Saxon, from the Greek word στοργη , which is often used for natural affection
Range - Corrupted in popular Language to rung
Reason - Reason, in the English Language, is sometimes taken for true and clear principles sometimes for clear and fair deductions sometimes for the cause, particularly the final cause
Burn - Hence, in popular Language, to burn a kiln of wood, is to char the wood
War - In poetical Language, instruments of war
e'Gypt - This name signifies, in the ancient Language and in Coptic, "black," on account of the blackness of its alluvial soil
Moses of Khoren - Mesrob in translating the Bible into his native Language, a work which was accomplished between 407 and 433
Petrus, Bishop of Apamea - Evidence is given of insulting Language and overbearing conduct toward his clergy, acts of violence and grossness, and intercourse with females of loose character
Murmuring - Even here the Language of the Apostles (Acts 6:2; Acts 6:4) may hint censure
Victor, Claudius Marius - The style of the poem and its Language are in no way remarkable; its versification is generally tolerable, but there are instances of wrong quantities of syllables
Above And Below - But these wider views of the Universe should help us to realize that all Language involving conceptions of time and space is utterly inadequate to express spiritual realities. We transfer, and we must transfer, the Language of earth, the imagery of succession in time and space, to an order of being to which, as far as we know, it is wholly inapplicable
Reproach - So far as the Revised Version rendering of the apostolic writings is concerned, this word represents the Greek ὀνειδισμός, It occurs twice in the Pauline Epistles and three times in Hebrews, and affords interesting instances of references to OT thought and employment of OT Language. ...
It is not improbable that the Language of Psalms 89:50-51 underlies both of these passages in Hebrews (Septuagint Ps 88:51, 52), μνήσθητι κύριε, τοῦ ὀνειδισμοῦ τῶν δούλων σου … οὖ ὠνείδισαν τὸ ἀντάλλαγμα τοῦ Χριστου σου
ir-ha-Heres - In Isaiah 19:18 the name to be given in the ideal future to one of the ‘five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the Language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah of hosts’; AV Nature, Natural - The Hebrew Language has no word for "nature" equivalent to the Greek word physis [1]. Hebrew thought and Language were essentially concrete
Abba - ]'>[1]...
Lightfoot on Galatians 4:6 argues that the bilingual expression is a liturgical formula originating with Hellenistic Jews, who, while clinging to the original word which was consecrated by long usage, added to it the Greek equivalent; but he supports an alternative theory that it took its rise among Jews of Palestine after they had become acquainted with the Greek Language, and is simply an expression of importunate entreaty, and an example of that verbal usage whereby the same idea is conveyed in different forms for the sake of emphasis. Thus Sanday-Headlam on Romans 8:15 (International Critical Commentary , 1902) remark:...
‘It seems better to suppose that our Lord Himself, using familiarly both Languages, and concentrating into this word of all word such a depth of meaning, found Himself Impelled spontaneously to repeat the word, and that some among His disciples caught and transmitted the same habit. 10), combating Zahn’s theory that Aramaic was the Language of St
Pseudo-Chrysostomus - ...
When the controversial passages had been expurgated, there was nothing to excite orthodox suspicions in our writer's Language about our Lord's divinity. Accordingly our writer uses very high Language concerning our Lord, speaks of Him as "our great God and Saviour," as does also Maximinus, whose doctrine is in accurate accordance with that of the present work. " Some hard Language concerning women will be found (24, 135). ...
It has been questioned whether the original Language of this commentary were Greek or Latin but it appears to us that it was certainly Latin. A translator may conceivably indeed have modified the Language "Jesse Latino sermone refrigerium appellatur" (p. In favour of the late date there is the use of the medieval word "bladum" for corn, though we do not know the exact date when such words crept into popular Language
Alexander, of Alexandria - Ultimately he asserted in strong terms the co-equality of the Son; whereupon Arius criticized his Language as savouring of the Sabellian error [2] which had "confounded the Persons. 16) in the name of "the presbyters and deacons" who had been excommunicated, to Alexander, giving a statement of their views, and professing that they had been learned from Alexander himself; the fact being, probably, as Möhler thinks, that Alexander had formerly used vague Language in an anti-Sabellian direction. 4; in which, while using some Language which in strictness must be called inaccurate, he gives an exposition of texts which became watchwords of the orthodox in the struggle (A
Origen - It must be remembered, however, that he was the first to wrestle with many of the intricate problems involved therein, before theological Language had acquired precision; that many of his assertions were based on hypotheses, which he at other times rejects or leaves open to discussion
Philistines - It would therefore appear that they were not of the Semitic race, though after their establishment in Canaan they adopted the Semitic Language of the country
Babel, Tower of - The character of the Language in the earliest Babylonian monuments, as far back as 2800 B. This mixed character is not so observable in other early Languages
Samuel, Books of, - In prose it holds the same place which Joel and the undisputed prophecies of Isaiah hold in poetical or prophetical Language
Subscription, Clerical - All Language is more or less ambiguous, so that it is difficult always to understand the exact sense, or the animus imponintis, especially when creeds have been long established
Remnant - ...
The Apostle is expressing, in Language adapted from the OT, his conviction that only a remnant of the Jews will be saved, a conviction forced upon him by the repeated experiences of his missionary journeys
Ethiopia - Inscriptions exist written in a peculiar character and in the native Language, as yet undeciphered; others are in a debased form of Egyptian hieroglyphic
Eunuch - 8) relates how Origen misunderstood the figurative Language of Matthew 19:12 ; Origen’s own comment on the passage shows that he afterwards regretted having taken it literally and acted on it
Kenosis - The Language of the NT appears to warrant the conclusion that the Incarnation was not a mere addition of a manhood to the Godhead, but that ‘the Son of God, in assuming human nature, really lived in it under properly human conditions, and ceased from the exercise of those Divine functions, including the Divine omniscience, which would have been incompatible with a truly human experience
Letters - There are convincing indications, however, that Jesus was to some extent familiar with the literature studied in the schools, both from His direct reference to passages contained in it, and from striking parallelisms in Language and thought between various sayings of His and maxims of uncanonical books such as Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon
Lip - ...
But whatever be the implied allusion or exact meaning of the words here, this much is certain, that our Lord in speaking to His own contemporaries said, ‘This prophecy of Isaiah was concerning you’—language that would seem to require us to interpret the passage so as to make it include and describe the unbelieving Jews of His day, and, probably, all people of all times who were, or are, or will yet be, guilty of offering to God a worship in which they do not draw near to Him in heart
Euphrates - In the allegorical Language of the period, as Egypt was the type of bodily life, so was Mesopotamia of spiritual (cf
Part - ) A particular character in a drama or a play; an assumed personification; also, the Language, actions, and influence of a character or an actor in a play; or, figuratively, in real life
Anastasius Sinaita - Fresh charges were brought against Anastasius of profuse expenditure of the funds of his see, and of intemperate Language and action in reference to the consecration of John, bp
Brimstone - ...
The prophetic writer of Revelation naturally retains the old picturesque Language with its dread suggestion
Amorites - From Deuteronomy 3:9 it appears that their Language differed only dialectically from Canaanite, which was Hebrew
Countenance - ...
Hence in scriptural Language, the light of Gods countenance is his smiles or favorable regards, his favor and grace and to hide his face or countenance is to manifest his displeasure, and withdraw his gracious aids
Alms - ...
Old Testament Although the Hebrew Language apparently had no technical term to refer to “alms” or “almsgiving,” the practice of charitable giving, especially to the poor, became a very important belief and practice within Judaism
Heave - This is a common use of the word in popular Language, and among seamen as, to heave the lead
Isaacus i, Catholicos of the Church of Greater Armenia, Saint - His long patriarchate is remarkable for the invention of the Armenian characters by Mesrob, the translation of the Scriptures into the Armenian Language, and the commencement of the golden age of Armenian literature; for the revision of the Armenian liturgy, first translated from the Greek by Gregory, which has continued unaltered ever since in the Armeno-Gregorian church; and for the destruction of the independence of Armenia
Sharp - ) Cutting in Language or import; biting; sarcastic; cruel; harsh; rigorous; severe; as, a sharp rebuke
Ear - In Scripture Language, to uncover the ear, (1 Samuel 20:2; 1Sa 20:13) as it is rendered in the margin of the Bibles, is to reveal somewhat particularly to a certain person, or persons, which, in general, to others, is not made known
Tomorrow - Mâchâr appears as a noun or an adverb about 52 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods of the Language
Woman - It appears about 781 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods of the Language
Sign - It occurs 78 times in biblical Hebrew and in all periods of the Language
Lunatics - Their Language was, "What hast thou to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Art thou come to torment us before the time?" "I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God:" "thou art the Christ, the Son of God, the Son of the most high God," Matthew 8:29 ; Mark 1:24 ; Mark 3:11 ; Luke 4:34-41
Arabia - Of all peoples, the Arabs have spread farthest over the globe, and in all their wanderings have preserved their Language, manners, and peculiar customs more perfectly than any other nation
Loose - Containing unchaste Language as a loose epistle
Salt - So also good men are "the salt of the earth," Matthew 5:13 ; and grace, or true wisdom, is the salt of Language, Mark 9:50 Colossians 4:6
Brimstone - ...
The prophetic writer of Revelation naturally retains the old picturesque Language with its dread suggestion
Curse - Cursing in the ancient Hebrew world was not a burst of bad Language as it usually is in the world of today
Noetus, a Native of Smyrna Noetus - From its Language and tone, we conclude that Noetus was then dead, a view which Epiphanius ( Haer
Abounding - Paul exhausts the power of Language in urging his converts to allow the Divine energies of salvation to have their way with them. This is the Language of a man who enjoys all the resources of the God-head in his inner life, and who can, therefore, be careless of poverty, misfortune, sickness, and even the prospect of an untimely end
Foreigner - The tower of Babel incident (11:1-9) is the reason for these divisions, as God confuses the Language and disperses the human race. There would be one humanity (Isaiah 19:23-25 ), speaking a purified Language (Zephaniah 3:9 )
Borrow - (Exodus 3:22)...
And might there not be somewhat typical in the thing itself, in reference to the future call (as was all along intended) of the Gentile church? I beg the reader to read that sweet passage of the prophet Exodus 3:22,; and see the rich promises of the call of Egypt with Assyria, when the Lord shall set up the New Testament altar, even the Lord Jesus Christ, in the midst of the land of Egypt; and five cities shall speak the Language of Canaan, even the gospel Language of salvation by the blood and righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ
Gospel - Although “gospel” translates a Greek word from the New Testament, the concept of good news itself finds its roots in the Hebrew Language of the Old Testament. ” Unlike the English Language, Hebrew is able to convey the subject of the proclamation in the verb's root; no direct object was needed with the verb bisar to make clear that the subject of an announcement was “good news. until after the time of Christ, Greek was the dominant Language of the biblical world. The Greek Language crossed geographic and cultural barriers to provide a common tongue for government and commerce. However, because the Greek Language now allowed the content of their proclamation to be separated from the idea of proclamation itself, writers of the New Testament could also say the good news was confessed, taught, spoken, told, announced, and witnessed. The simple structure, terse Language, and sometimes poor grammar give the impression that this book was composed in a hurry
Hermogenes (1), a Teacher of Heretical Doctrine - " Tertullian's Language may imply that Hermogenes had also endeavoured to prove from Scripture that a second marriage was not unlawful. ...
With regard to the doctrines of Hermogenes, the Language of Hippolytus suggests that he denied the physical possibility of creation from nothing; but in the representation of Tertullian no stress is laid on the philosophic maxim, "Nihil ex nihilo," and the eternal existence of matter seems only assumed to account for the origin of evil. This apparently included the ideas of shapelessness and disorderly motion, so that all the sensible world could not, as in our modern Language, be described as material. Tertullian acutely remarks that this Language about God's drawing near to matter as well as the use of the words above and below with reference to the relative position of God and matter cannot be reconciled with the doctrine of Hermogenes as to the infinity of matter
Devil - It speaks of an opposing, personal power of evil in only a few places and uses diverse Language to refer to this evil power. ...
The Old Testament uses other Language to talk about evil influencing human actions. Such Language maintains the unique claim of God to be the only God and testifies to His sovereign rule over all earthly activities
Reproach (2) - —The Language of rebuke (ἐπιτιμάω) is several times ascribed to Jesus (see art. Rebuke), but seldom the Language of reproach. ὀνειδίζω employed to describe the Language of Jesus, and both times Authorized Version renders ‘upbraid,’ which Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 rather inconsistently retains
Septuagint - Philadelphus was advised by his librarian Demetrius Phalereus to procure from Jerusalem copies of the Hebrew Scriptures, and men learned in the Hebrew and Greek Languages to translate them. Dispersion), yet one and all had lost the knowledge of the classical Hebrew of the Scriptures, with the exception of the learned—the priests and Rabbis—of whom the original Language of the OT was almost the exclusive property. It may be realized, therefore, what a blessing was conferred upon the Jewish race by Alexandria when she gave them their own Scriptures in the universal Language of the day. It is difficult to gauge the extent to which religious conceptions were affected by the results which ensued from the wedding of the Greek Language to Hebrew thought
Interpretation - OT Language and thought are frequently appropriated by the NT writers. ...
OT Language serves other important purposes in the Gospels, God speaks in this Language at Jesus’ Baptism, and again at His Transfiguration; it is used in the conversation between Jesus and Satan; and it furnishes phraseology for some of Jesus most forceful and solemn pronouncements, where sometimes the sound of Holy Writ seems to be prized above perspicuity (e
Proverbs, the Book of - So Balaam's "parable" is prophecy in figurative Language (Numbers 23:7-10; 1 Samuel 10:12; Ezekiel 12:22-23; Ezekiel 17:2-3; Ezekiel 18:2; Ezekiel 20:49; Ezekiel 24:3; Luke 4:23). A cautious and mournful tone is thought to mark the Language as to rulers, instead of the joy and reverence of the middle and older division; the, state of the nation under Hezekiah at the close of the eighth century B. The Language of the first division rises from a general exhortation, and then a particular one to youth to follow wisdom, to the sublimest and most universal strain at the close (Proverbs 6:20-9:18)
Philistia - )...
The objection to the Mizraite origin of the Philistines from their Language is answered by the supposition that the Philistine or Caphtorim invaders adopted the Language of the Avim whom they conquered (Deuteronomy 2:23). Their speech differed from the Jews' Language (Nehemiah 13:23-24)
Figure - In rhetoric, a mode of speaking or writing in which words are deflected from their ordinary signification, or a mode more beautiful and emphatical than the ordinary way of expressing the sense the Language of the imagination and passions as, knowledge is the light of the mind the soul mounts on the wings of faith youth is the morning of life
Baptists - They have liberally contributed, however, towards the translation of the Scriptures into the Bengalee Language, which some of the Baptist brethren are now accomplishing in the East
Blasphemy - In Exodus 22:28, "thou shalt not curse the gods" (elohim ) refers to disrespectful Language toward magistrates
Sycamine - One of the marked charms of His teaching is the gift He had of making the commonplaces of earth speak the Language of heaven
Unity - The primeval unity of humanity (“one LanguageGenesis 11:1 ) was likewise disrupted as a result of sinful pride (Genesis 11:4-8 )
Pastor - It will not only direct us in the choice of our subjects, but of the Language, too, in which we dress and deliver them to our people
Stealing - ...
That theft was not confined to the slave class is clear from the Language of both St
Canon of Scripture - The books were written in the Jews' Language — the Hebrew — with which the Apocrypha never had a place
Anthropomorphitae - The former is heretical the latter Scriptural and necessarily arises from the imperfection of human Language and human knowledge of God
Root - ) A primitive form of speech; one of the earliest terms employed in Language; a word from which other words are formed; a radix, or radical
Mount - " And the gospel itself, with all its blessings, is described under the figurative Language of a rich feast in the Lord's holy mountain
Amen - (Revelation 3:14) And the meaning of it, in the original Language, shews the great blessedness of it, as it concerns his people, in the Lord Jesus condescending to do so
Interpreter - It means, in our present use of the term, merely a person who explains to each party between whom he acts what each saith, because they do not understand one another's Language, and this interpreter understands both
Destructionists - ...
One thing is also certain and indisputable: the strong Language of Scripture is intended to deter men from sin; and whoever attempts to remove the barrier, offers insult to the divine wisdom, and trifles with his own destiny
Tare - As this Gospel was first written in Syriac, it is probably a word belonging to that Language
Pattern - But as the impression on the wax reproduces the engraving on the seal, and the coin or medal the device on the die, the word comes to be transferred, by a familiar process in the history of Language, from the effect to the cause, and so is used not only of the copy but of the example or pattern from which the copy is made
Monoimus - But there is a common source of this Language in the Ἀπόφασις μεγάλη of Simon, this passage also being clearly the original of the description given by Monoimus of the contradictory attributes of his first principle
Names - Many of the Jews mentioned in the Gospels are known to us only by Greek names, so widespread had the influence of that Language become; cf
Child - In biblical Language, ‘to be a child of’ sometimes means ‘to have the character of’ (1 Kings 21:13; Luke 7:35; Ephesians 2:2; Ephesians 5:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:5) or ‘to be the subject of’ (Ephesians 2:3; 2 Peter 2:14)
Platter - Paul on one occasion remonstrated with his fellow-Apostle Peter for complying with it to the detriment of the gospel, and added, in Language of personal compliment while condemning the dissimulation, that even Barnabas was carried away with it (Galatians 2:13 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 )
Vitalius - At first Vitalius's Language appeared perfectly orthodox
Heart - All of these are functions of the mind, but are connected with the heart in biblical Language. In fact, the Hebrew Language had no word for conscience, so the word heart was often used to express this concept: “my heart shall not reproach me so long as I live” (Job 27:6 )
Water (2) - The phrase ‘water and spirit’ has been regarded as an instance of hendiadys, and interpreted as ‘spiritual water’ (Neil, Figurative Language in the Bible). 459; Neil, Figurative Language in the Bible; Expos
Redeem, Redemption - Redemption Language is merged with substitutionary Language in these verses and applied to Jesus' death
Temptation, Test - The Language of the "evil inclination" is not prominent in the New Testament in connection with temptation, although the idea is not absent (1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 1 Timothy 1:20 ; James 1:14-15 ). Other terms such as "flesh" carry that sense, but in speaking of temptation the New Testament writers appear to prefer apocalyptic over anthropological Language
Faustus (11), Sometimes Called the Breton - which is entitled Gentes Deum Naturaliter Sapuisse Faustus calls attention to the Language of Daniel towards Nebuchadnezzar and his censure of Belshazzar as a heathen recognition of God (Daniel 4 5 ). He also appeals for the same purpose to the first chapter of Jonah the repentance of the Ninevites (Jonah 3 ) and the Language of Jeremiah (18:7-10)
Ephesus - Overjoyed with the account which their messenger brought him of the steadfastness of their faith, and the ardency of their love to all the saints, Ephesians 1:15 ; and, transported with the consideration of the unsearchable wisdom of God displayed in the work of man's redemption, and of his amazing love toward the Gentiles, in introducing them, as fellow-heirs with the Jews, into the kingdom of Christ, he soars into the most exalted contemplation of those sublime topics, and gives utterance to his thoughts in Language at once rich and varied. Grotius remarks that it expresses the sublime matters contained in it in terms more sublime than are to be found in any human Language; to which Macknight subjoins this singular but striking observation, that no real Christian can read the doctrinal part of the Epistle to the Ephesians, without being impressed and roused by it, as by the sound of a trumpet
Love to God - When it regards him relatively, it fixes upon the ceaseless emanations of his goodness to us all in the continuance of the existence which he at first bestowed; the circumstances which render that existence felicitous; and, above all, upon that "great love wherewith he loved us," manifested in the gift of his Son for our redemption, and in saving us by his grace; or, in the forcible Language of St. It chooses God as the chief good of the soul, the enjoyment of which assures its perfect and eternal interest and happiness: "Whom have I in heaven but thee? and there is none upon earth that I desire beside thee," is the Language of every heart, when its love of God is true in principle and supreme in degree
Law - ...
Law Language, the Language used in legal writings and forms, particularly the Norman dialect or Old French, which was used in judicial proceedings from the days of William the conqueror to the 36th year of Edward III
Bible - The latter was wholly written in Greek, which was the Language most generally understood in Judea and the adjacent countries first visited by the gospel. The fact that God gave the inspired writings to men in the Languages most familiar to the mass of the people who received them, proves that he intended they should be read not by the learned alone, but by all the people, and in their own spoken Language. " During the first fifty years of this society, it printed or assisted in printing the Scriptures in 148 Languages, in about sixty of which they had never before been printed, and issued upwards of 29,000,000 copies of the sacred writings. The Scriptures have now been published in about 220 different Languages and dialects
Lord's Supper - They had been prepared for Language that would otherwise have been so startling, by the teaching of John ch. It will be convenient to anticipate the Language and the thoughts of a somewhat later date, and to say that, apparently, they thus united every day the Agape or feast of love with the celebration of the Eucharist
Luke - ]'>[1] ) is probable, but cannot be regarded as quite so certain as that of the earlier Epistles; there is a difference between the group Colossians-Ephesians and the group Corinthians-Galatians-Romans which extends to thought as well as to Language, and raises the suggestion that the former group is either un-Pauline or has been much edited. ...
(3) That Luke was a physician is argued by Harnack-following up and greatly improving on the methods of Hobart-on the ground of his use of medical Language. It is beyond doubt that Luke frequently employs Language which can be illustrated from Galen and other medical writers. The weak point is that no sufficient account has been taken of the fact that much of this Language can probable be shown from the pages of Lucian, Dion of Prusa, etc. The truth seems to be that, if we accept on the ground of tradition the view that the Gospel and Acts were written by a physician, there is a certain amount of corroborative detail in the Language; but if we are not inclined to accept this view, the ‘medical’ Language is insufficient to show that the writer was a physician, or used a more medical phraseology than an educated man might have been expected to possess. Paul’s life, and in places claiming that the writer was an eye-witness by the use of the first person, it would be not unnatural for the redactor carefully to preserve these important indications of the value of his source, while at the same time rewriting or touching up the rest of the Language
Angels of the Seven Churches - The idea of angels was suggested, no doubt, by the later Jewish beliefs on the subject, but it is used in a figurative manner which suits the whole figurative treatment, where the glorified Jesus walks among the golden candlesticks, and sends to the churches messages that are couched in highly metaphorical Language
Tongues, Confusion of - The belief that the world, after the Flood, was re-populated by the progeny of a single family, speaking one Language, is reconciled in the Bible with the existing diversity of tongues by a story which relates how the descendants of Noah, in the course of their wanderings, settled in the plain of Shinar, or Babylonia, and there built of brick a city, and a tower high enough to reach heaven, as a monument to preserve their fame, and as a centre of social cohesion and union. Among these was the prevalence in the world of different Languages, which contributed so greatly to produce between the various peoples, who were thus unintelligible to one another, feelings of mutual suspicion and fear (cf. The question whether the various Languages of mankind have really been derived from one common tongue cannot be separated from the question (into which it is unnecessary to enter here) whether the various races of men have sprung from a single stock, i. ’ It may be said, however, that philological research has proved that the numerous existing Languages are members of a comparatively small number of families of speech (such as the Indo-European, the Semitic, etc. At the same time, all Languages must have arisen from certain faculties and instincts common to human nature; and the presence, in Languages belonging to distinct families, of onomatopoetic, or imitative, words serves to illustrate the essential similarity of human tendencies in the sphere of speech all the world over
Bible - " The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came gradually into use in our English Language. The Bible consists of sixty-six different books, composed by many different writers, in three different Languages, under different circumstances; writers of almost every social rank, statesmen and peasants, kings, herdsmen, fishermen, priests, tax-gatherers, tentmakers; educated and uneducated, Jews and Gentiles; most of them unknown to each other, and writing at various periods during the space of about 1600 years: and yet, after all, it is only one book dealing with only one subject in its numberless aspects and relations, the subject of man's redemption
Sun - (2 Kings 23:11 ) In the metaphorical Language of Scripture the sun is emblematic of the law of God, (Psalm 19:7 ) of the cheering presence of God, (Psalm 84:11 ) of the person of the Saviour, (John 1:9 ; Malachi 4:2 ) and of the glory and purity of heavenly beings
Joseph - Though he was an Egyptian governor, speaking the Egyptian Language, and married to an Egyptian wife, he was at heart an unchanged Hebrew, and his dying eyes beheld the land from which he had been exiled as a boy, the homeland of every true Israelite
Fashion - "Men saw in Christ a human form, bearing, Language, action, mode of life
Ur - The illustration here given represents his cuneiform inscription, written in the Sumerian Language, and stamped upon every brick of the temple in Ur
Dance - David says, "All my bones shall say, Lord, who is like unto Thee?" the very Language that the Israelites, while the women danced to the Lord, uttered as their song after the Red Sea deliverance (Exodus 15:11)
Rejection - Peter (1 Peter 2:8), who points out also, in Language as strong as St
Schoolmaster - His status was that of a slave for the most part, but the most respected and trustworthy of the household; and care was taken that he should be correct in his Language and should not tell stories to his charges likely to corrupt or deprave their morals
Nation - Most of these have arisen out of commonly held interests or characteristics such as race, Language, homeland culture, religion and law-code
Agony - There is a beautiful progression in the subjecting of His will to the Father's: "O My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me, nevertheless not as I will, but as Thou wilt" (Matthew 26:39): "Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee," (lest His previous IF should harbor a doubt of the Father's power) "take away this cup from Me, nevertheless not what I will but what Thou wilt" (Mark 14:86): "Father, if Thou be willing" (marking His realizing the Father's will as defining the true limits of possibility), remove this cup from Me, nevertheless not My will, but Thine be done" (Luke 22:42): "Oh My Father, if (rather since) this cup may (can) not pass away from Me except I drink it, (now recognizing that it is not the Father's will to take the cup away), Thy will be done" (Matthew 26:42): lastly, the Language of final triumph of faith over the sinless infirmity of His flesh, "The cup which My Father hath given Me shall I not drink it?" (John 18:11
Sidon - And, while their wealth was apparently almost as great as ever, they added a new interest to life by learning the Language and assimilating the culture of Greece
Joseph - "The story of his father's fondness, of his protest against sin among his brothers, of their jealous hostility and his prophetic dreams, of his sale by his brethren to Midianites and by them to Potiphar in Egypt, of the divine favor on his pure and prudent life, his imprisonment for three to twelve years for virtue's sake, his wonderful exaltation to power and his wise use of it for the good of the nation, of his tender and reverent care of his father, his magnanimity to his brethren, and his faith in the future of God's chosen people, is one of the most pleasing and instructive in the Bible, and is related in Language inimitably natural, simple, and touching
Scriptures - So that when reading the one fulfilled in the other, we may say; in Language similar to what the disciples did after Jesus was glorified—"These things they understood not at the first but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things, were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him
Door - ...
Matthew 25:10 (b) This solemn warning is to inform us in plain Language that the opportunity to be saved has been ended
Preparation - To prepare any person or thing may be easily understood in fitting and qualifying, in disposing or making ready; but in Scripture Language the whole of the work, both in fitting and qualifying, in disposing or making ready, is of the Lord
Brook - , some tree resembling a cedar was called by a similar name in at least the later Language (see exx
Ai - Ai means “ruin” (or possibly “heap”) in the Hebrew Language
Course - The direction of motion line of advancing point of compass, in which motion is directed as, what course shall the pilot steer? In technical Language, the angel contained between the nearest meridian and that point of compass on which a ship sails in any direction
Fly - In common Language, fly is the house fly, of the genus Musca
Grace - That in manner, deportment or Language which renders it appropriate and agreeable suitableness elegance with appropriate dignity
Hang - In seamen's Language, to hold fast without belaying to pull forcibly
Bill - The alteration of the old bond is suggested, though not absolutely demanded, by the Language of the passage, and would be, according to Edersheim, in accordance with the probabilities of the case
Isaacus Antiochenus, a Priest of Antioch in Syria - Here Isaacus seems to fall into the opposite heresies, failing to distinguish Nature from Person; but elsewhere he uses Language unmistakably orthodox
Worship - The Language of the Psalms therefore is hardly fitting for Christian worship, because of the nearness into which the believer is brought
Whip - ) To apply that which hurts keenly to; to lash, as with sarcasm, abuse, or the like; to apply cutting Language to
Empire, Byzantine - In 610 Heraclius overthrew the usurper Phocas and in 622 crushed the Persians, and during the 7th century Greek became the Language of the empire
Rebel - ” The meaning of “being rebellious” is limited to the Hebrew Language, as the meaning of this verb in other Semitic Languages differs: “to make angry” (Aramaic), “to contend with” (Syriac), and “to dispute with” (Arabic)
Nation - So gôy represents a group of individuals who are considered as a unit with respect to origin, Language, land, jurisprudence, and government
Flock - In Hebrew, tsô'n kept its meaning in all stages of the development of the Language
Sion - On this account it is, that this hill is so frequently styled in the Psalms the "holy hill;" and, by way of excellence, is used in the poetical Language of Scripture to denote the whole city of Jerusalem
Mount Zion - ) Who but must exclaim, in the Language of inspiration, "Praise waiteth for thee, O Lord, in Zion: and unto thee shall the vow be performed!" (Psalms 65:1
Outcasts - " And agreeably to this, the prophet Isaiah was commissioned to tell the church that in that day, meaning the gospel-day, "five cities in Egypt should speak the Language of Canaan
Alexandria - The Alexandrian Greek dialect, known as Hellenistic Greek, was the Language used by the early Christian fathers, and is still the study of the biblical scholar In the pages of the New Testament
Antichrist - But the Language of the apostles is obscure, and this obscurity has been deepened by the conflicting interpretations of expositors
Servant - Joshua was Moses' attendant, Exodus 24:13; Exodus 33:11—clerk or secretary we might in modern Language say—it being understood that the designation in the last-named passage does not define Joshua's age
Joseph - His history is one of the most pleasing and instructive in the Bible; and is related in Language inimitably natural, simple, and touching
Solomon's Song - Its majestic style, its power on men's conscience to promote holiness and purity the harmony of its Language with that of Christ's parables and the books of Revelation, the sincerity of the bride in acknowledging her faults, and its general reception by the Jewish and Christian church, sufficiently prove it inspired of God
Media - And in general it would seem, as we may gather from the ancient Zend writings, that the Medes, Persians, and Bactraians were originally the same people, having in common one Language, the Zend, and one religion, the worship of Ormuzd, the highest being, under the symbol of fire
Low - Not elevated or sublime not exalted in thought or diction as a low comparison a low metaphor low Language
Lift - In seamen's Language, a rope descending from the cap and mast-head to the extremity of a yard
Soul of the Church - This distinction, implicitly contained in the teaching of Saint Paul, in Saint Augustine, comparing the action of the Holy Ghost on the Church to that of the soul on the human body, and in subsequent theologians who adopted the same Language, is formally expressed by Bellarmine in his study on the members of the Church
Babylonia - ...
The Babylonians belonged to the Shemitic branch of the descendants of Noah, and their Language had an affinity with the Arabic and Hebrew, nearly resembling what is now called Chaldee
Wind - ...
In the winds eye, in seamens Language, towards the direct point from which the wind blows
Kings, First And Second Books of, - The Jewish tradition which ascribes them to Jeremiah is borne out by the strongest internal evidence, in addition to that of the Language
Luke, Gospel of, - ...
Language and style of the Gospel
Pammachius, a Roman Senator - He bought up the copies and wrote to Jerome asking him to moderate his Language
Lamentations - ...
So here he writes "lamentations" on the overthrow of the Jewish city and people, as Septuagint expressly state in a prefatory verse, embodying probably much of the Language of his original elegy on Josiah (2 Chronicles 35:25), and passing now to the more universal calamity, of which Josiah's sad death was the presage and forerunner. " The Language, true of good Josiah, is too favorable to apply to Zedekiah personally; it is as royal David's representative, and type of Messiah, and Judah's head, that he is viewed. Here he uses Language typical of Messiah (Lamentations 3:8; Lamentations 3:14; Lamentations 3:30; Lamentations 3:54; Psalms 69:22; Isaiah 1:6)
Ebla - Their Northwest Semitic Language is different from the Old Akkadian and Amorite of the same period. ” The scribes of Ebla not only adapted the cuneiform writing invented by the Sumerians, but they used the Sumerian Language as well. The oldest collection of texts in the Northwest Semitic Language prior to 1974 was the Ugaritic tablets written between 1400,1200 B. The many bilingual lexical texts provide an unusual opportunity for the comparative study of Semitic Languages, especially Eblaite and Old Akkadian in the third millennium B. , and more recent Northwest Semitic Languages
Mediator, Mediation - People use interpreters to mediate the metaphorical distance between them created by a foreign Language (Genesis 42:23 ) and envoys to mediate the real distance created by the geography of the region (2 Chronicles 32:31 ). ...
Paul echoes the new covenant Language of the Old Testament when he tells us that believers have peace with God (Romans 5:1 ), have experienced the outpouring of God's love in their hearts through the Holy Spirit (Romans 5:5 ), and have been reconciled to God (Romans 5:10-11 ; cf. It provides an excellent example of how God has stooped to our weakness and used Language readily intelligible in any culture to describe his holiness, our sin, and his gracious provision of Christ as the "one mediator" of our salvation
Dead, the - ’ We are not, however, to allow a literal interpretation of His Language in this connexion to dominate our appreciation of what the Gospels afford as regards belief concerning the state of the dead. Jesus in His encounter with the Sadducees uses the Language of His time, and speaks of the resurrection as a transition and crisis awaiting the dead (Mark 12:25, Matthew 22:30). And evideutly it is not immediately attained at death, according to the Language of Jesus
Ebla - Their Northwest Semitic Language is different from the Old Akkadian and Amorite of the same period. ” The scribes of Ebla not only adapted the cuneiform writing invented by the Sumerians, but they used the Sumerian Language as well. The oldest collection of texts in the Northwest Semitic Language prior to 1974 was the Ugaritic tablets written between 1400,1200 B. The many bilingual lexical texts provide an unusual opportunity for the comparative study of Semitic Languages, especially Eblaite and Old Akkadian in the third millennium B. , and more recent Northwest Semitic Languages
Greece, Religion And Society of - The Greek Language became the world Language for commerce, communication, and literature. Within a short time the Pentateuch of the Hebrew Scriptures was translated into the Greek Language. Alexander carried with him not only soldiers, commerce, and Language, but also the totality of the Greek way of life. The Greek Language and culture intensely affected the course of civilization in this part of the world for almost a thousand years—until the coming of Islam in the seventh century A
Sacrifices - Thus there was in the Mosaic law of sacrifice a Language being prepared that would be intelligible to all men, and that was fitted to be the vehicle of a world-wide revelation of God. This fact makes the use of sacrificial Language in regard to the death of Christ to be of very much greater significance than if sacrifice had merely provided Christ and His Apostles with an illustration that lay to hand. As the slaying of animals, according to a well-understood Language, gave sacredness to the older covenant, so the dying of the Saviour gave greater sacredness to a greater covenant. Moreover, the words, ‘Take, eat,’ ‘Drink ye all of it,’ taken along with John 6:53-57, introduce in sacrificial Language the thought of fellowship with God. Even while the Apostles are setting aside the sacrifices of the OT, they can express the work of Christ in no other than sacrificial Language
Confession (of Christ) - John 6:69), shows a great extension of spiritual content in the confession of Christ, as our Lord’s Language on the occasion plainly implies. The Apostle’s Language seems to enfold, in germ at least, the doctrine of Christ’s divinity; and it formed the high-water mark of Apostolic faith and profession in the pre-Resurrection days. Peter’s Language, the thrill of glad surprise which seems to have shot through Him and which quivers through the benediction into which He burst, the great benediction itself,—these things show the supreme worth He attached to this confession of His strong Apostle. In 1 Timothy he commends the young minister of the Church in Ephesus because be had ‘confessed the good confession in the sight of many witnesses’ (1 Timothy 6:12), and finds in this matter the perfect example for Christian imitation in the ‘good confession’ which Christ Jesus Himself witnessed before Pontius Pilate (1 Timothy 6:13); while in 2 Timothy we have an evident re-echo of the Lord’s own Language in the warning, ‘If we shall deny him, he also will deny us’ (2 Timothy 2:12). It is to the psychological experiences that were naturally attendant on the public confession of Christ that we must attribute much of the Language used in the NT with regard to the effect of baptism upon the soul (Acts 22:16, Romans 6:3 ff
Brotherhood (2) - It probably underlies Christ’s argument about the Sabbath (Mark 2:27 and parallels), and also such Language as is found in Luke 15:11-32; Luke 16:25. They narrowed the term ‘neighbour,’ as His Language in Matthew 5:44 plainly implies. Hence the appropriateness of the strong Language of this early record in the most spiritual of the four Gospels. What was there taught in the veiled Language of sign is taught plainly and explicitly in Matthew 12:46-50 and Mark 3:31-35
Septuagint - Hence it is uniformly cited by the early fathers, whether Greek or Latin; and from this version all the translations into other Languages which were anciently approved by the Christian church were executed, with the exception of the Syriac; as the Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Gothic, and old Italic or the Latin version in use before the time of Jerom; and to this day the Septuagint is exclusively read in the Greek and most other oriental churches. For this purpose, it is reported, that he sent Aristeas and Andreas, two distinguished officers of his court, to Jerusalem, on an embassy to Eleazar, then high priest of the Jews, to request of the latter a copy of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that there might also be sent to him seventy-two persons, six chosen out of each of the twelve tribes, who were equally well skilled in the Hebrew and Greek Languages. It is well known, that, at the period above noticed, there was a great number of Jews settled in Egypt, particularly at Alexandria: these, being most strictly observant of the religious institutions and usages of their forefathers, had their sanhedrim or grand council composed of seventy or seventy-two members, and very numerous synagogues, in which the law was read to them on every Sabbath; and as the bulk of the common people were no longer acquainted with Biblical Hebrew, the Greek Language alone being used in their ordinary intercourse, it became necessary to translate the Pentateuch into Greek for their use. Next to the Pentateuch, for ability and fidelity of execution, ranks the translation of the book of Proverbs, the author of which was well skilled in the two Languages: Michaelis is of opinion that, of all the books of the Septuagint, the style of the Proverbs is the best, the translator having clothed the most ingenious thoughts in as neat and elegant Language as was ever used by a Pythagorean sage, to express his philosophical maxims. ...
The Septuagint version, though originally made for the use of the Egyptian Jews, gradually acquired the highest authority among the Jews of Palestine, who were acquainted with the Greek Language, and subsequently also among Christians: it appears, indeed, that the legend above confuted, of the translators having been divinely inspired, was invented in order that the LXX might be held in the greater estimation. Their example was followed by the earlier fathers and doctors of the church, who, with the exception of Origen and Jerom, were unacquainted with the Hebrew: notwithstanding their zeal for the word of God, they did not exert themselves to learn the original Language of the sacred writings, but acquiesced in the Greek representation of them, judging it, no doubt, to be fully sufficient for all the purposes of their pious labours
Gospels - ]'>[6] also says that the Language of ch. Moreover, it was one thing for the Church to value an Apocalypse placed in the mouth of the Ascended Christ; it would have been quite another matter for it at a date when, as the Third and Fourth Gospels show, the tendency was rather to diminish than to enhance the apocalyptic element in the Lord’s words, to accept a Gospel in which (according to the theory) there were placed wholesale in His month during His earthly life sayings couched in technical apocalyptic Language which He never used. A Gospel so judaized, as would be the First Gospel on this theory, in idea and in Language, would have been recognized as alien to the true tradition of Christ’s life, and would have stood little chance of being received as an apostolic writing. ) are certainly early, for they are couched in Language in which the Jewish colouring is very remarkable. If written at Jerusalem, the Gospel would naturally have been composed in Aramaic, and there is much in its style and Language to suggest this. Hobart,† [15] argues that the style and Language of Gospel and Acts, including the ‘we’ sections, decisively prove that both works were written by one person and that he was a physician
Heaven - This is the Language of human observation and description, but it is more. It is the Language of faith describing God in action in and for His world (Jeremiah 14:22 )
Medes - Both races being of the same Aryan or Iranic source, the same religion and Language, naturally all but coalesced. Their Language belongs to the great Indo Germanic family, which Japheth's sons starting from Armenia spread N
Versions, Ancient, of the Old And New Testaments, - In treating of the ancient versions that have come down to us, in whole or in part, they will be described in the alphabetical order of the Languages. Its Language is Chaldee, closely approaching in purity of idiom to that of Ezra and Daniel. As an ancient monument of the Gothic Language the version of Ulphilas possesses great interest; as a version the use of which was once extended widely through Europe, it is a monument of the Christianization of the Goths; and as a version known to have been made in the fourth century, and transmitted to us in ancient MSS
Conflagration - 360, 000; pleading that this is the Language used in other parts of the Revelation. It is probable that the earth will survive its fiery trial, and become the everlasting abode of righteousness, as part of the holy empire of God; but, seeing the Language used in Scripture, and especially in the book of Revelation, is often to be considered as figurative rather than literal, it becomes us to be cautious in our conclusions
Galatia - It has been noted that he, as a Roman citizen and a statesman, invariably uses geographical terms in the Roman sense, and that he even does violence to the Greek Language by forcing the Latin names for ‘Philippians’ ( Philippians 4:15 ) and ‘Illyricum’ ( Romans 15:19 ) into Greek, and passes by the proper Greek term in each case. In Acts 16:6 the rules of the Greek Language require us to translate: ‘the Phrygo-Galatic region’ or ‘the region which is both Phrygian and Galatian’; that is, ‘the region which according to one nomenclature is Phrygian, and according to another is Galatian
Alexander - The Greek Language, that most perfect medium of human thought, became widely diffused, so that a Greek version of the Old Testament was needed and made (the Septuagint) for the Greek speaking Jews at Alexandria and elsewhere in a succeeding generation; and the fittest lingual vehicle for imparting the New Testament to mankind soon came to be the Language generally known by the cultivated of every land
Cosmopolitanism - ...
Jewish exclusiveness was apparently endorsed by Christ Himself (Matthew 5:47 ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885) 6:7, 32); the Twelve are forbidden to go into any way of the Gentiles (Matthew 10:5); and the Syrophœnician woman is at first addressed in thoroughly Jewish Language (Matthew 15:21, Mark 7:24). It is noteworthy that the ground of marriage fidelity is carried back from Moses to the Creation (Matthew 19:4, Mark 10:6), and the Sadducees are referred, on the subject of the resurrection, to God’s Language to the pre-Mosaic patriarchs (Mark 12:18, Luke 20:37); still Christ regards as final a combination of Deuteronomy 6:4 and Leviticus 19:18 (Mark 12:28 ff
Ammon, Ammonites - Perhaps, like the Hebrews, they adopted the Language of the people in whose land they settled, thus later speaking a Canaanite dialect. 5) uses the same Language of the Moabites and Ammonites, though elsewhere (XIV
Philosophy - After the captivity, the Language in which the sacred books were written was no longer vernacular. These interpreters learned the Hebrew Language at the schools
Nebuchadnezzar - He took away several persons from Jerusalem; among others, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, all of the royal family, whom the king of Babylon caused to be carefully educated in the Language and learning of the Chaldeans, that they might be employed at court, 2 Kings 24:1 2 Chronicles 36:6 Daniel 1:1 . Al the gates were of brass, which agrees with the Language used by Isaiah in predicting the capture of Babylon by Cyrus, Isaiah 45:25
bi'Ble - There are at least thirty-six different authors, who wrote in three continents, in many countries, in three Languages, and from every possible human standpoint. ORIGINAL LanguageS. --The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, a Shemitic Language, except that parts of the books of Ezra ( Ezra 5:8 ; 6:12 ; 7:12-26 ) and of Daniel (Daniel 2:4-7,28 ) and one verse in Jeremiah (Jeremiah 10:11 ) were written in the Chaldee Language. It has been translated, in its entirety or in part, into more than a thousand Languages and dialects and various systems for the blind
Ptolemae'us, - It is enough now to observe the greatness of the consequences involved in the union of Greek Language with Jewish thought. In the strong Language of Daniel "The robbers of the people exalted themselves to establish the vision
Creation - Even destroying the tower of Babel, confusing the people's Language, and scattering them over the face of the earth did not stop the spread of sin (Genesis 11:1 ). ...
The Language of Genesis 1:1 pictures God at a distance speaking humans into existence. The Language of Genesis 2:1 portrays God with a “hands on” closeness shaping Adam and Eve like a potter forming a clay vessel
Lord's Prayer, the - The first two, “Hallowed be thy name; thy kingdom come,” echo the Language of the Jewish prayer, the Kaddish. ...
If the Language of the Lord's Prayer and that of various Jewish prayers is similar, the meaning must be determined from Jesus' overall message. The concern about the shift of the ages in the prayer sets it apart from the Jewish prayers whose Language was so similar
Immanuel - In both cases we ask why the Language is so needlessly ambiguous. Now at the moment when that house is attacked and its representative proves himself unworthy, Isaiah announces in oracular Language the immediate coming of that king. The value of the supposition that he was working on the lines of popular beliefs ready to his hand, is that it explains how his hearers would be prepared to understand his oracular Language, and suggests that much that is obscure to us may have been clear to them
Apostolic Fathers - Luke's Language (Act_14:14). are not quoted by name fragments of most of the canonical Epistles lie embedded in the writings of these Fathers whose Language is thoroughly leavened with the Apostolic diction. (5) Lastly though the Language of the Canonical Gospels is frequently not quoted word for word yet there is no distinct allusion to any apocryphal narrative
Song of Solomon - The song is prophetic, but does not reach to Christ and the church, though, when its right interpretation is seen, the Christian can apply some of its Language as his own to the same Lord, who will also be manifested as the Bridegroom of the church. This agrees with the Language in many parts: for instance, "Draw me, we will run after thee. (Some believe Song of Solomon 4:6 to be the Language of the bride
Optatus, Bishop of Milevis - Optatus finds fault with Parmenian for his inconsiderate Language about our Lord's baptism, to the effect that His flesh required to be "drowned in the flood" of Jordan to remove its impurity. A want of clearness in the Language of Optatus renders his meaning here somewhat doubtful. Thanking Parmenian for his Language about the church which however he claims as applicable to the Catholic church alone he challenges him to point out any act of persecution on its part
Transubstantiation - The questions, however, what was the nature of that presence? and what were the physical consequences as to the bread and the wine? however much we may conceive these points to have been involved in the opinion actually held, or the Language actually used, seem not to have been for a long period much agitated, or, at all events, not authoritatively decided, although the Roman Catholic writers gladly and triumphantly bring forward the expressions that were so often used from the earliest age, in support of the tenet which their church at length espoused. Among these was the celebrated Johannes Scotus, who laid the axe to the root of the tree, and, shaking off all that figurative Language which had been so sadly abused, distinctly and powerfully stated, that the bread and wine used in the eucharist were the signs or symbols of the absent body and blood of Christ. In other countries, too, he saw many adhering to what he had taught, and carrying to as great length as it could be carried what, under his system, must be termed the allegorical Language which he recommended. " Knox, who revered Calvin, carried into Scotland the opinions of that reformer; and in the original Scottish confessions, similar Language, though somewhat more guarded than that which has been just quoted, is used: "We assuredly believe that in the supper rightly used, Christ Jesus is so joined with us, that he becometh the very nourishment and food of our souls. " This strong Language is, however, in the same article, so modified, as to show that all which was intended by it was to represent the spiritual influence conveyed through the Lord's Supper; for it is taught, "that the body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the supper, only after a heavenly and spiritual manner
Soul - ...
"The Language of Hebrews 4:12 suggests the extreme difficulty of distinguishing between the soul and the spirit, alike in their nature and in their activities
Singing - But on the other side, it is remarked, that nothing should be done in or about God's worship without example or precept from the New Testament; that, instead of aiding devotion, it often tends to draw off the mind from the right object; that it does not accord with the simplicity of Christian worship; that the practice of those who lived under the ceremonial dispensation can be no rule for us; that not one text in the New Testament requires or authorises it by precept or example, by express words or fair inference; and that the representation of the musical harmony in heaven is merely figurative Language, denoting the happiness of the saints
Thessalo'Nians, First Epistle to the, - It is interesting, therefore, to compare the Thessalonian epistles with the later letters, and to note the points of These differences are mainly
In the general style of these earlier letters there is greater simplicity and less exuberance of Language
Darkness - In Scripture Language it also signifies sin, John 3:19
Blasphemy - In the former it is narrower in its scope than in the latter, being almost universally confined to Language or deeds ( 1M Malachi 2:6 ) derogating from the honour of God and His claims to the over-lordship of men ( Leviticus 24:10-16 , cf
Melita - But the population remains very mixed, the race and the native Language retaining much of the Arabic element
Lycaonia - ...
Nothing remains of the Lycaonian Language except some place-names; but the Christian inscriptions found in Lycaonia are very numerous, and show how widely diffused the new religion was in the 3rd cent
on (2) - In Isaiah 19:18, "five cities in Egypt shall speak the Language of Canaan, and swear to the Lord of hosts; one shall be called the 'city of destruction' " (Ηa-Ηeres )
Arise - " This word occurs in nearly every Semitic Language, including biblical Hebrew and Aramaic
Gennadius (10), Bishop of Constantinople - ...
Gennadius died in 471, and stands out as an able and successful administrator, for whom no historian has anything but praise, if we except the criticism naturally aroused by his attack in his younger days against Cyril of Alexandria, an attack which the unmeasured Language of Cyril perhaps excuses
Gennadius (11) Massiliensis, Presbyter of Marseilles - The Language of Gennadius is here not quite Augustinian; but neither is it Pelagian, and the work was long included among those of St
Carnal - The Language he uses in Galatians 5:19 ff
Book With the Seven Seals - ...
And the thought, as has been said, is worthy of its setting, for this sealed book is the book of destiny, the prophetic history of the world as foreknown in the purpose of God; and the fact that the Lion of the tribe of Judah alone prevails to open the book is the symbolic expression of what would be described in modern Language as the central significance of Christ in history
Anger - All anger is by no means sinful; it was designed by the Author of our nature for self-defense; nor is it altogether a selfish passion, since it is excited by injuries offered to others as well as ourselves, and sometimes prompts us to reclaim offenders from sin and danger, Ephesians 4:26 ; but it becomes sinful when conceived upon trivial occasions or inadequate provocations; when it breaks forth into outrageous actions; vents itself in reviling Language, or is concealed in our thoughts to the degree of hatred
Isaacus, Donatist Martyr - Augustine's birth, and had not been repeated in his time, and that thus he was no witness either to the truth or falsehood of the narratives; (2) the behaviour and Language of Isaac remind us more of an angry partisan than a Christian martyr; (3) the glaring faults of the narrative in style and temper do not extenuate the treatment which, after every allowance for exaggeration, the sufferers must have endured
Darkness - In Scripture Language the word darkness is variously used
Hear - ” This word occurs throughout the Semitic Languages including biblical Hebrew and Aramaic. 11:7, in which we are told that God planned to confuse human Language, “that they may not understand one another’s speech
Caius, Ecclesiastical Writer - 25) asserts that some of his predecessors had maintained that the Apocalypse is the work of Cerinthus, and describes their views in Language strongly resembling that of Caius
Christ - " The article, in such expressions as occur in Acts 17:3 ; Acts 18:5 ; Acts 18:28 , adds considerable light to them, and yet no more than what the words of the historian manifestly convey to every reader who understands his Language
Carmel - Carmel is not only expressly mentioned in Scripture as excelling other districts in that respect; but, every place possessed of the same kind of excellence obtained from it the same appellation in the Language both of the prophets and the people
Romania - The foundations of Rumanian culture were laid, and the Rumanian Language began to replace the Old Slavonic
Rumania - The foundations of Rumanian culture were laid, and the Rumanian Language began to replace the Old Slavonic
Under - ...
Under way, in seamen's Language, moving in a condition to make progress
Egyptians - Thus did Satan delude these cultivated descendants of Ham !...
Their mode of writing, or rather drawing, their Language was by hieroglyphics
Purification - That which we cannot put into words, but which has written itself in history, in Language, in religion, in instinctive humanity, He is and does
Paronomasia - In the former of these passages the words Ναζωραῖος (=an inhabitant of Nazareth) κληθήσεται are not found in any prophet, but it seems not unlikely that they contain an allusion to the Language of Isaiah 11:1 where Messiah is called נֵצֶר (= a branch), and possibly also to the word נָצַר (to preserve); cf
Petrus, Bishop of Sebaste - The Language and style of this letter shew Peter as not intellectually inferior to the more celebrated members of his family (Tillem
Liturgy - At the time of theReformation the Liturgy after many revisions was first setforth in the English Language on Whitsun Day, 1549
Nestorius And Nestorianism - " Such Language was more enthusiastic than wise. Not only did he exaggerate and misrepresent the Language of his antagonist, but he tried to involve him in charges of Apollinarianism [4] and Pelagianism [5]. Great confusion, it should be remarked in passing, has been caused by the inaccurate translation of θεοτόκος into modern Languages by the words Mother of God. He complained that the unfortunate Language of Nestorius had reached Celestine of Rome, and was thus throwing the whole church into confusion. The affected moderation of his Language did not deceive Nestorius, who defended himself with spirit and moderation, and maintained that χριστότοκος would be a more suitable appellation for the Virgin than θεοτόκος . (Socrates, however, says that Nestorius attended one meeting, and left it after having expressed himself in somewhat unfortunate Language. This letter was read by Cyril to the bishops of his party, but Nestorius replied that it had only been obtained by gross perversions of his Language. The historian Evagrius, who loses no opportunity of loading his memory by the use of opprobrious Language and represents his fate as a judgment of God analogous to that which befel Arius, gives us a sketch of a second and most pathetic letter addressed by Nestorius to the prefect and known as his "Tragedy. But his Language is often violent, and he is credulous as regards the miraculous
Ezra, the Book of - The Language of Darius' edict on finding it accords with his character and circumstances. Two portions of Ezra are in Chaldee (Ezra 4:8 - 6:18; ), for in those portions he embodies extracts from state documents m that Language; of course he would be as fluent in Chaldee, the Language of his captivity, as in Hebrew, the Language of his nation
Unpardonable Sin - Now, such Language regarding Jesus strikes us, first of all, as blasphemy against the Son of Man Himself—and this it undoubtedly was. —The unpardonableness of such blasphemy as this, Jesus affirms in Language that can hardly be mistaken. ’s Language left us in any doubt as to the absoluteness of His meaning, the doubt would disappear when we turn to Mk. It seems evident that there is a reference here to our Lord’s Language in Matthew 12:31 f
James, Epistle of - More will be said in the rest of the article on the subject; but attention must be called to the remarkable coincidence in Language between this Epistle and the speech of James in Acts 15:1-41 . ) see ‘no resemblance in style sufficient to prove literary connexion’; there are no parallels in order, and similarities of Language can mostly be explained from OT and LXX Job - A farther evidence of the remote antiquity of this book is the Language of Job and his friends; who, being all Idumeans, or at least Arabians of the adjacent country, yet conversed in Hebrew. This carries us up to an age so early as that in which all the posterity of Abraham, Israelites, Idumeans, and Arabians, yet continued to speak one common Language, and had not branched into different dialects. To which may be added, that the style of Job, as Bishop Lowth has remarked, is materially different from the poetical style of Moses; for it is much more compact, concise, or condensed, more accurate in the poetical conformation of the sentences; as may be observed also in the prophecies of Balaam the Mesopotamian, a foreigner, indeed, with respect to the Israelites, but not unacquainted either with their Language, or with the worship of the true God. It is a work unrivalled for the magnificence of its Language and for the beautiful and sublime images which it presents
Prophecy, Prophet - In present-day Language the words ‘prophecy’ and ‘prophet’ are usually used in relation to foretelling events; a prophet is one who predicts (for example, a weather prophet). ...
The prophet may therefore speak of events in Language of future, present or even past tense (Isaiah 9:6-7; Isaiah 53:1-9; Jeremiah 51:52-57). ...
The Language of prophecy...
Early prophets such as Deborah, Samuel, Nathan, Ahijah, Elijah and Elisha have left little or no record of their prophecies
Nathanael - ’...
It is right to allow for the possibility that in Nathanael’s confession (John 1:49), and in that of the Baptist (John 1:34), the Evangelist may be putting into the months of others Language which had become natural to himself, but was not actually Used by them. But Psalms 2:6-7 will suffice to explain the Language which the Evangelist attributes to the Baptist and to Nathanael. But here again we must allow for the possibility that the Evangelist is wording Christ’s reply according to Language which he had often heard from His lips, but which was not used quite so early in the ministry as this
Babel - because the Lord did there confound the Language of all the earth," in order to counteract their attempt by a central city and tower to defeat God's purpose of the several tribes of mankind being "scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth," and to constrain them, as no longer "understand one another's speech," to dispel The Talmud says, the site of tower of Babel is Borsippa, the Bits Nimrud, 7 1/2 miles from Hillah, and 11 from the northern ruins of Babylon. (in condescension to human Language), Jehovah took judicial cognizance of their act: their "go to, let us," etc. ...
The cause of the division of Languages lies in an operation performed upon the human mind, by which the original unity of feeling, thought, and will was broken up. The one primitive Language is now lost, dispersed amidst the various tongues which have severally appropriated its fragments, about to rise again with reunited parts in a new and heavenly form when Jehovah will "turn to the people a pure Language, that they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve Him with one consent" (Zephaniah 3:9). The fact that the Bible names in Genesis 1-10 are Hebrew does not prove it the primitive tongue, for with the change of Language the traditional names were adapted to the existing dialect, without any sacrifice of truth. " The confusion of tongues was not at random, but a systematic distribution of Languages for the purpose of a systematic distribution of man in emigration. Traces appear in the Babylonian inscriptions of all the four great dialects, Hamitic, Semitic, Aryan, and Turanian, which show that here the original one Language existed before the confusion of tongues. How appropriate the Language assigned to him in Daniel 4:29-30, as he walked in the palace of the kingdom of Babylon, possibly on the highest terrace of the hanging gardens: "Is not, this great Babylon that I have built for the house of the kingdom, by the might of my power and for the honor of my majesty?" Evil Merodach, his son, succeeded in 561 B
Hilarius (7) Pictaviensis, Saint - Although his presence was of great service in explaining the true state of things in Gaul, the Language of the Acacians so shocked him that he retired from the assembly. " For the Language in other passages of this book and on Pss. " Dom Coutant points out similar confusion of Language in Tertullian and Lactantius and even in St. This seems very doubtful; nevertheless, the Language of his later books, e. Hilary appears to have laid aside his usual self-restraint, perhaps to have lost his temper, and to have forgotten his usual respectfulness and charity of Language. The entire letter shews that Hilary had lost all hope of any aid to the faith being granted by Constantius, and it is at least just to give its due weight to the remark of Mohler that, "if we drive men to despair, we ought to be prepared to hear them speak the Language of despair. It must be remembered, in palliation of Hilary's strong Language respecting the bp
Koran - Some say that it is punishable even with death, in a Christian, to touch it; others, that the veneration of the Mussulmans leads them to condemn the translating it into any other Language, as a profanation: but these seem to be exaggerations. The Mahometans have taken care to have their Scripture translated into the Persian, the Javan, the Malayan, and other Languages; though, out of respect to the original, these versions are generally, if not always, interlineated. In the Language of Arabia, a Language extremely loved and diligently cultivated by the people to whom it was vernacular, Mahomet found advantages which were never enjoyed by any former or succeeding impostor. It requires not the eye of a philosopher to discover in every soil and country a principle of national pride: and if we look back for many ages on the history of the Arabians, we shall easily perceive that pride among them invariably to have consisted in the knowledge and improvement of their native Language. Of that description of men who first composed the adherents of Mahomet, and to whom the Koran was addressed, few, probably, were able to pass a very accurate judgment on the propriety of the sentiments, or on the beauty of the diction: but all could judge of the military abilities of their leader; and in the midst of their admiration, it is not difficult to conceive that they would ascribe to his compositions every imaginary beauty of inspired Language. ...
His compositions were not to his followers the works of man, but the genuine Language of Heaven which had sent him. With a Language thus hallowed in their imaginations, they were too well satisfied either to dispute its elegance, or improve its structure
Moab, Moabites - That they really were such, their Language, religion, and customs, so far as known to us, also testify. ...
The Language of the Moabites was, as the Moabite Stone shows, identical with that of Israel
Cross, Crucifixion - ...
Not only is the Language of the cultus used in Romans 3 , but also the Language of justification (the law court) and redemption (the slave market)
Arabia - ...
The Arabic Language is the most developed of the Semitic Languages. the Semitic Languages differed much less than in later times. The Himyeritic is a mixture with an African Language, as appears from the inscriptions; the Ekhili is its modern phase. The Arabic is one of the most widely spoken Languages
Thyatira - John uses the scathing Language of indignant scorn, the piercing invective of wounded love. The union of the Christian Church with the pagan association is nothing less than treason to Christ; in the Language of Hebrew and Christian Puritanism, it is fornication or adultery (Revelation 2:20-22)
Phoenice - The Language is Semitic (from Shem), and was acquired by the Hamitic settlers in Canaan from the original Semitic occupants; it probably has a Hamitic element too (these Semitics were related by common Noachic descent to the Hamites, hence the Languages too are related). Abram originally spoke the Language of Ur of the Chaldees, Aramaic, as did Laban (Genesis 11:31; Genesis 31:47); but soon his descendants, as Jacob, spoke the Canaanite or Phoenician Hebrew as their own tongue, compare Deuteronomy 26:5
Body of Christ - That body of Christ Language could apply both to the local congregation (1 Corinthians 12:27 ) and to something more universal (1 Corinthians 12:13 ) not only attests to the flexibility of the metaphor but also reflects an important element in Paul's ecclesiology: the local church is a localized manifestation of the church universal (1 Corinthians 1:2 ; 2 Corinthians 1:1 ). Luke's description of Paul's experience outside Damascus ( Acts 9:4-5 ) suggests a close association between the exalted Jesus and his followers on earth, but actual "body" Language is entirely absent
Death - It is styled, in Scripture Language, a departure out of this world to another, 2 Timothy 4:7 . As the subject, however, of all others, is the most important to the Christian, a brief abstract of what has been said on it, from a sermon allowedly one of the best in the English Language, shall here be given
Thankfulness, Thanksgiving - Early in the Old Testament both the Language and the concept of thanksgiving are conspicuous by their absence. ...
Despite the paucity of the Language of thanksgiving, gratitude or something akin to it was foundational for covenant life in the Old Testament
Care - 353), while in modern Language care, and especially its compounds ‘careful’ and ‘carefulness,’ are often used in a sense which indicates no trouble, but the well-directed effort of the mind in relation to present affairs and future prospects. ’...
The argument of Jesus against care is clothed in Language of rare geniality and felicitousness
Psalms, the Book of - Not a few of these are alluded to in the New Testament; and it is unquestionable that the Language and structure of many others not quoted were intended to bear witness to the Son of God. Luther, in his prefaces to the Psalter, has the following beautiful Language; "Where canst thou find nobler words of joy, than in the psalms of praise and thanksgiving? There thou mayest look into the hearts of all good men, as into beautiful and pleasant gardens, yea, as into heaven itself
Star of the Magi - ’ But we may take it that the Language here is of the same character as that which we constantly use about the sun or moon rising and setting
Bethsaida - Julias, however, was situated in Gaulonitis, which district was, for deep political reasons, divided from Galilee; but the ordinary Language of the time asserted its own opinion, and still reckoned the Gaulonitish province in Galilee
Consolation - ...
It is this prophetic Language that underlies Luke 2:25
Good, Goodness - In 1 Peter 2:3 Peter echoes the Language of Psalm 34:8 : "Taste and see that the Lord is good!"'...
Although we might discuss God's goodness in some abstract philosophical sense, in Scripture his goodness appears most clearly in his dealings with people
Zebulun - The Language of Genesis is such as no forger would from after history put as a prophecy
Directions (Geographical) - For the Hebrew Language north is the left and south is the right
Tyre - At the end of a week of fellowship, ‘they all, with wives and children,’-the Language still suits a small company of converts-escorted Paul and his comrades outside the city
Circoncelliones - They were illiterate savage peasants, who understood only the Punic Language
Verily - John, reproducing not merely His Language but His spirit, reiterated the asseveration, very much as a modern writer might underline the word, or as the Hebrew idiom expressed plurality or magnitude by repetition; e
Grafting - The Language of St
Man - ...
Will reckons he should not have been the man he is, had he not broke windows-- ...
So in popular Language, it is said, he is no man
Understanding - This can be seen in references to the understanding of a foreign Language (Isaiah 33:19 ) and Daniel's understanding of all the subjects in which he was interrogated by Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 1:20 )
Hagar - ...
To affirm that the Jews, who were went to say that ‘all Israel are the children of kings,’ were the sons of Hagar the bondwoman, was to use Language which could not but be regarded as insulting and offensive
Earthquake - On the assumption that the predictions were uttered by Jesus, account should be taken of the fact that they are clothed in the Language of current Messianic expectation
Gain - ...
In all three classes of passages the Language is that of the market-place where men get gain by bargaining or labouring; but it is immensely sublimated and purified of all selfishness and greed
Universalists - The Scripture Language concerning the reduced or restored, in consequence of the mediatory interposition of Jesus Christ, is such as leads us into the thought, that it is comprehensive of mankind universally, Revelation 5:13
Advocate - He is the Advocate of sinners up in heaven, pleading their cause with God, and, in the Language of St
Vagabond - ...
Whether the conjecture be, or be not well founded, certain it is that in Scripture Language a vagabond carries with it a high degree of odium, and ought not to be brought into use in common life, as it is too often is done to describe the persons of wandering poor
Derbe - As in Lystra, the educated natives were no doubt bilingual, speaking Lycaonian (Λυκαονιστί, Acts 14:11) among themselves, but using Greek as the Language of commerce and culture
Nahum - Compare the insulting Language of Rab-shakeh, the general of the king of Assyria: at first he said that Jehovah had sent him, and then treated the God of Israel as no better than the heathen gods, who had not been able to protect their worshippers
Evil Spirits - The nearest approach to this is perhaps in Exodus 12:13 ; Exodus 12:23 , where Jehovah and the destroyer are apparently identified, though the Language admits equally of the view that the destroyer is the agent of Jehovah’s will (cf
Fierceness - ...
Of recorded deeds the incident of the driving out of the vendors and money-changers from the temple precincts (Matthew 21:12, Mark 11:15, John 2:15) is the most notable: but it is in the vigour of His Language that the possibilities of fierceness in Him are most revealed
Unperfect - It might be, and indeed it was unperfect, because unfinished: that is, as it was to be finished in the full manifestation of Christ in substance of our flesh in what is called in Scripture Language, the fulness of time
Anchor - ) as a pattern of heaven itself where Christ appears before God on our behalf (Hebrews 9:24), the figurative faultiness of the Language is more than atoned for by its rich suggestiveness as to the Christian’s grounds of hope with regard to the world to come
Soul; Self; Life - ” This is a very common term in both ancient and modern Semitic Languages. The problem with the English term “soul” is that no actual equivalent of the term or the idea behind it is represented in the Hebrew Language
Death - In the poetic Language, mâveth is used more often than in the historical books: Job-Proverbs (about 60 times), Joshua-Esther (about 40 times); but in the major prophets only about 25 times
Drink - ” This verb appears in nearly every Semitic Language, although in biblical Aramaic it is not attested as a verb (the noun form michetteh does appear)
Tadmor - Nothing relating to the Jews is seen in the Greek inscriptions; and the Palmyrenian inscriptions are entirely unknown, as well as the Language and the character of that country
Galatia - And as a proof of this, it is mentioned by Jerom, that when the Apostle Paul preached the Gospel among them, and for many ages afterward, they continued to speak the Language of the country from whence they came out
Friend - "Ointment and perfume rejoice the heart, so does the sweetness of a man's friend by hearty counsel:" by such counsel as comes from his very heart and soul, and is the Language of his inward and most serious thoughts
Ezekiel - The middle part of the book is in some measure poetical, and contains even some perfect elegies, though his thoughts are in general too irregular and uncontrolled to be chained down to rule, or lettered by Language
Brahmins - or BRACHMINS, the highest caste of Hindoos, to whom is confined the priesthood, and, in general, all their ancient learning, which is locked up in their sacred Language, called the Sanscrit
Roman Empire - " ( Galatians 4:4 ) The general peace within the limits of the empire the formation of military roads, the suppression of piracy, the march of the legions, the voyages of the corn fleets, the general in crease of traffic, the spread of the Latin Language in the West as Greek had already spread in the East, the external unity of the empire, offered facilities hitherto unknown for the spread of a world-wide religion
Philistines - They appear to have been of the race of Shem, their Language being akin to the Hebrew, yet distinct from it, Nehemiah 13:24
Pheoenix - Luke is faithfully reproducing the peculiar Language of men of the sea
Earthquake - On the assumption that the predictions were uttered by Jesus, account should be taken of the fact that they are clothed in the Language of current Messianic expectation
Officer (2) - Such terms of ancient administration as ἀπόστολος (commissioner) and ἐπίσκοπος (inspector) were received into modern Languages, not by translation into an equivalent, but by a process of adoption and adaptation. ’ Of such terms, and of the term ‘officer’ as representing the servants of the Sanhedrin, the interest pertains merely to the study of Language
Heaven - They are merely using the only Language available to them to try to illustrate and describe life as it will be in an entirely new order of existence (Matthew 22:30; Matthew 26:29; John 14:2; Hebrews 12:22-23; 1 John 3:2)
Symmachus, Bishop of Rome - Symmachus replied in a letter entitled "Apologetica adversus Anastasii imperatoris libellum famosum," and in strong and indignant Language rebutted the charges against himself, and retorted that of heresy on the emperor; he accuses him of presuming on his temporal position to think to trample on St
Pride - The pride of overmastering Language is definitely brought out in the use of ἀλαζόνεια in such passages as James 4:16 (AV_ ‘boastings,’ RV_ ‘vauntings’) and 1 Clem
Tichonius, an African Donatist - Its main heads are: (1) The church is the Lord's body indivisible from Him so that in Scripture Language applicable to Him is applied also to the church
History - ...
Hints for Historical Interpretation (1) Language, historical Language included, is multi-purposeful. For example, biblical Language often intends to report (about history) but it also seeks to evoke faith (John 20:21 )
Reward - Paul’s Language tends to disappear. Paul’s Language about rewards as a piece of earlier Judaism persisting in his Christian teaching, in which it forms an intractable and contradictory element. ...
It remains to say a word about the Language of Hebrews at this point
James, Theology of - While Jews sometimes used this Language about the law of Moses, the context of James suggests that he intends something different. Liberation theologians have seized on this Language to support their own radical political agenda, but an understanding of the background of James' Language shows how unwarranted this use is
Ephesus - It was a call to repentance and faith (Acts 20:21); and, though no frontal attack was made upon the established religion of Ephesus, and no Language used which could fairly be construed as offensive (Acts 19:37), yet it soon became apparent that the old order and the new could not thrive peacefully side by side. Latin was the Language of the courts, and ἀγοραῖοι ἄγονται is the translation of conventus aguntur. to the Ephesians uses the Language of profound admiration:...
‘I ought to be trained for the contest by you in faith, in admonition, in endurance in long-suffering (§ 3); ‘for ye all live according to the truth and no heresy hath a home among you; nay, ye do not so much as listen to any one if he speak of aught else save concerning Jesus Christ in truth’ (§ 6); ‘you were ever of one mind with the Apostles in the power of Jesus Christ’ (§ 11)
Imagination - They are expressed in Language that is rich, musical, and full of verbal colour and rhythmic phrases. ...
The imaginative side of our Lord’s mind is seen, finally, in the artistic use of Language. Matthew 25:31-46), show a mastery over the resources of Language to which only a poet whose natural gift had been carefully disciplined to high uses could attain
Death - He makes no use of the conception of ‘the angel of death,’ so characteristic of the latter, and traceable perhaps in Language such as that of 1 Corinthians 15:26 , Hebrews 2:14 , and Revelation 20:13-14 . The corresponding Language of 1 Ep. ( d ) The expression ‘ eternal death ’ is found nowhere in NT, common as its use is in religious and theological Language
Nimrod - But pass we on, nor wasteOur words; for so each Language is to him,And his to others, understood by none. 'Go to, let us go down, and there confound their Language, that they may not understand one another's speech. ...
Philo Judæus, the father of allegorical interpretation, has a beautiful tract entitled The Confusion of Languages. Let us get into the truly intellectual, truly moral, and truly religious habit of asking ourselves, and insisting on an answer from ourselves, What is that name, nickname, by-word, that I am casting abroad about my brother so loudly and so loosely? What is the original root of it in Language, and in me? What does it connote, as the schools say, first in my own mind, and then in its true content, and then in my hearer's or reader's capacity? Is it fair to use such a name and nickname? Is it just? Is it true? Would I like such and such names and nicknames to be attached to me by those who are opposed to me? It is very annoying, and, indeed, exasperating, to be pulled up in that way when our eloquence and our indignation and our denunciation are in full flood
History - ...
Hints for Historical Interpretation (1) Language, historical Language included, is multi-purposeful. For example, biblical Language often intends to report (about history) but it also seeks to evoke faith (John 20:21 )
Paul as an Evangelical Mystic - Goodwin, that so mystical and so evangelical Puritan, says that all the "apostolical and primitive Language was at once mystical and experimental. " But there is a more primitive and a more experimental and a more mystical Language than even the apostolical. That is to say, in simple and plain Language, He dwells in our hearts by faith and love on our part, and by mystical incorporation on His part. "Vigour and efficacy" may not have been associated in many minds with the great mystical saints, and yet that is the very Language that is used concerning them by no less an authority than Dr
Little Ones - Thus the interpretation suggested of the passage in Matthew is confirmed by the very Language of the passage in Mark. But this Language in Matthew 10:41 settles the meaning also of the phrases in the succeeding verse. ...
The only other passage in which the phrase occurs, Luke 17:2, is parallel in its assertion with Matthew 10:417 and Mark 9:42, and repeats in effect their Language. ) of the closing verse: and the pressing of this Language literally is not free from difficulties of its own. Similarly His Language with reference to them was full of hypocoristies
Metaphor - It is only in modern Languages that the various forms of figurative speech have become sharply distinguished. ’...
Not only are there no parables outside the Synoptists, but the use of metaphorical Language is both more complicated and more extended. Many of these expressions, too, have since so become part of ordinary theological Language that we do not always at first see that they are metaphors at all. ‘A Hebrew of the Hebrews’ who had sat at the feet of Gamaliel, a student who had absorbed much of the intellectual culture of the Greek world of his day, and a citizen of the Roman Empire, it is not surprising that all the sides of his personality have left their mark on his Language. We must now pass to some less clear aspects of his figurative Language, and this will take us rather deeper into his theology. Thus his Language in Romans 5:12, ‘as through one man sin entered into the world and death through sin,’ and Romans 5:14, ‘death reigned from Adam until Moses,’ is something more than metaphor
Jesus Christ - The Language of the New Testament, and compare it with the state of the Pagan world at the time of its publication. To effect this purpose, it was absolutely necessary for these founders of Christianity to avoid confusion and obscurity of Language, and to express their ideas in a cool and cautious style. If the writers intended to affirm the divinity of Jesus Christ, these are words of truth and soberness; if not, the Language is incautious and unwarrantable; and to address it to men prone to idolatry, for the purpose of destroying idolatry, is a strong presumption against their inspiration. It is remarkable, also, that the richest words in the Greek Language are made use of to describe Jesus Christ. This Language, which is very copious, would have afforded lower terms to express an inferior nature; but it could have afforded none higher to express the nature of the Supreme God
Sermon - Flavel says, "The devil is very busy with ministers in their studies, tempting them to lofty Language, and terms of art, above their hearers capacities. That a man may preach, and do good, without knowing much of grammar, is not to be doubted; but certainly it cannot be pleasing to hear a man, who sets himself up as a teacher of others, continually violating all the rules of grammar, and rendering himself a laughing-stock to the more intelligent part of the congregation; "and yet, " says one, "I have heard persons, who could scarce utter three sentences without a false construction, make grammatical criticisms not only on the English Language, but on Latin, Greek, and Hebrew
Pseudepigrapha - ...
First Enoch has been preserved in the Ethiopic Language. ...
Second Enoch is also an apocalypse preserved primarily in the Slavonic Language
Jehoiachin - "Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren about the time they were carried away to Babylon," fixing his birth to the time of Nebuchadnezzar's invasion (2 Kings 24:1), namely, three years after Jehoiakim's accession, and eight before his reign ended and Jehoiachin succeeded; but Matthew's Language hardly justifies this; Jeremiah's Language implies Jehoiachin was a "man," and capable of having a "child" (2 Kings 22:28; 2 Kings 22:30)
Esther, Book of - The Language of Esther points unmistakably to a late date; it shows signs, among other things, of an attempt to assimilate itself to classical Hebrew; the artificiality herein betrayed stamps the writer as one who was more familiar with Aramaic than with Hebrew. Xerxes, king of the Medes and Persians, gives a great feast to the nobles and princes of the 127 provinces over which he rules; the description of the decorations in the palace garden on this occasion recalls the Language of the Arabian Nights
Friend, Friendship - Seven times in 1John the writer addresses his readers as "dear children, " using the Language of family to express this deep affection (1 John 2:1,12 , 28 ; 3:7,18 ; 4:4 ; 5:21 ). ...
Paul expresses this loyal and affectionate relationship when he refers to or addresses several individuals with the Language of family love
Gentiles (2) - The very wide diffusion of the Greek Language after the conquests of Alexander the Great was the reason that in our Lord’s day ‘Greek’ was often used as an equivalent for ‘Gentile. And, finally, at the end of His ministry, in the allegory of the sheep and the goats, spoken exclusively with reference to Gentiles, He applies to those on the right hand the word ‘righteous,’ which in the Jewish Language was so often the technical term to designate only the chosen people (Matthew 25:37)
Learning - Jews of the Dispersion were at home in the Greek Language, and had more immediate access to Greek literature. Greek was the Language of the Hellenistic Jews, and the Septuagint was their Bible
Heathen - ...
The healing of the Syrophœnician’s daughter is another occasion on which our Lord appears to speak the Language of His time. Here, however, the severity of the words, ‘It is not meet to take the children’s bread and cast it to the dogs’ (Mark 7:27), is intentionally mitigated by the use of the diminutive κυνάρια, which is just ‘doggies’ in our Language-no word of scorn, but one of affection and tenderness
Arabia, Arabs - In the first case a man knows only his own tribe, and regards even the neighbouring tribe, which speaks the same Language, as strange. But the wide wanderings of the Arab nomads, due to the nature of their country, brought them readily into contact with peoples of other Language and other customs, and this could awaken in them the consciousness of their own nationality
Anathema - The personal passage is Romans 9:3, where there is no serious difficulty to those who do not look for strict reasoning in the Language of the heart. The case he imagines is one that would warrant extreme indignation, though the Language is that of justifiable passion and not to be interpreted literally
Arians - Whether this circumstance had any influence on his opinions, it is impossible to say; but one day, when his rival (Alexander) had been addressing the clergy in favour of the orthodox doctrine, and maintaining, in strong and pointed Language, "that the Son of God was co-eternal, co- essential, and co-equal with the Father," Arius considered this as a species of Sabellianism, and ventured to say, that it was inconsistent and impossible, since the Father, who begat, must be before the Son, who was begotten: the latter, therefore, could not be absolutely eternal. Both parties were willing to subscribe to the Language of the Scriptures, but each insisted on interpreting for themselves
Simplicius, Bishop of Rome - The Language used by the emperor in his edict—styling the church of Constantinople "the Mother of his Piety, and of all Christians, and of the orthodox faith"—confirms the supposition that an idea was even entertained of the new seat of empire superseding the old one in ecclesiastical prerogative as well as temporal rank. His letter to Basiliscus expresses horror at the doings of Aelurus, of whom he speaks in no measured Language
Basilides, Gnostic Sect Founder - Yet his Language about Carpocrates a few lines further on suggests a doubt whether he had any better evidence than a fallacious inference from their order in Irenaeus. The other references to "Basilides" are likewise of a distinctly ethical character, while several of the passages containing the plural name abound in technical Language. His sphere being thus distinct from theirs, the marked coincidences of Language that we do find between him and Hippolytus afford a strong presumption that, if the one account is authentic, the other is so likewise. ...
It may yet be asked, Did Hippolytus consult the work of Basilides himself, or did he depend on an intermediate reporter? His own Language, though not absolutely decisive, favours the former alternative. But in this case the most natural translation is borne out by some of the Language quoted. If it was quoted as an authority in the Exegetica, the Language of Hippolytus is justified. He uses every device of Language to express absolute nonentity
Hippolytus Romanus - unquestionably the most learned member of the Roman church, and a man of very considerable literary activity; his works were very numerous, and their circulation spread from Italy to the East, some having been translated into Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, and perhaps other Languages. Further, the inscription is in Greek, and the early Roman church contained a large section, if not a majority, of foreigners, whose habitual Language was Greek. This inscription must have been placed before that section had disappeared and Latin had become the exclusive Language of the church. to the 19th are so great, that if we knew of any other way of satisfactorily explaining the Language of Hippolytus we should adopt it in preference. This may account for the faintness of the impression which his schismatic Language produced and for the facility with which it was pardoned. That the arrogance and intemperance of Language which he displayed did not deprive him of permanent honour in the Roman church is to be accounted for by the leniency with which men treat the faults of one who has real claims to respect. 2), when telling how the prophets treated not only of the past but of the present and the future, he uses Language in some respects verbally coinciding with what is said in the Elenchus (x. On the other hand, Zephyrinus is described as Victor's successor, Language not likely to be used if Zephyrinus were at the time bishop, or even the last preceding bishop
Catholic Indian Missions of the United States - Father White wrote an account of this tribe, an Indian catechism, and a grammar of their Language
Ten Commandments - God, and not man was speaking to the Israelites in those terrors, and yet, in the Language of later inspired teachers, other instrumentality was not excluded
Enoch - The Language "Enoch prophesied, saying," favors tradition rather than the Book of Enoch being the source from whence Jude drew
Jonah - Its Hebrew Language is marked by Aramaic features, some of which can be paralleled only in Imperial Aramaic, current in the Persian period
Levi - ...
Moses subsequently speaks in very different Language of Levi (Deuteronomy 33:8 ff), as was appropriate after Levi's accession to the priestly honour: "let Thy Right (thummim) and Thy Light (urim) be with Thy holy one (Levi, representing the whole tribe
Temptation - In the original Languages of the Bible, the words commonly translated ‘temptation’ had a range of meanings. In today’s Language, ‘temptation’ is usually used in the latter sense, and it is this sense that is the subject of the present article
Heathen - The Old Testament was translated into Greek, the most common Language of the heathen; and a rumour of the Saviour's appearance in the flesh was spread far and wide among them
Desert - The Hebrew Language distinguishes with several words what English describes as desert or wilderness
Talmud - ...
Apart from haggadic passages that are mostly Hebrew, it was written in Eastern Aramaic, the Language of Babylon at the time
Samar'Itans - " The priest came accordingly, and henceforth, in the Language of the sacred historian, they "Feared the Lord, and served their graven images, both their children and their children's children: as did their fathers, so do the unto this day
Wisdom Literature - At times they taught by giving direct instruction and asking questions (Proverbs 1:2; Proverbs 1:5; Proverbs 5:1; Ecclesiastes 1:3; Ecclesiastes 1:10; Ecclesiastes 2:22; Ecclesiastes 3:9; Ecclesiastes 3:21-22); other times they used proverbs, picture Language and riddles (Proverbs 1:6; Proverbs 8:1; Proverbs 10:1)
Rest - It is quite possible that the treatment here may be influenced by the thought and Language of Hebrews 4:1-11
Nahum - How could God allow such inhumanity to go unanswered? Nahum responded to Assyrian tyranny with a message marked by its vivid Language
Pride - Using Language largely from the Old Testament, Mary tells how God will scatter the proud—possibly a reference to a specific group in society and political life
Sodom - The two former He compares with Tyre and Sidon; and to the latter He uses somewhat similar Language in referring to Sodom: ‘for if in Sodom had been done the mighty works (δυνάμεις) which are being done in thee [2], it would be remaining until to-day
Adoption - ...
Some of the details of the procedure are said to be reflected in the Language of St
Atone - ” This root is found in the Hebrew Language at all periods of its history, and perhaps is best known from the term Yom Kippur, “Day of Atonement
Curse - It may be added that profanity, in the special form of self-cursing, seems to have adopted Language derived from this ban; see Matthew 26:74, Mark 14:71 (καταθεματίζειν and ἀναθεματίζειν)
Blood - ” This is a common Semitic word with cognates in all the Semitic Languages. ...
In judicial Language, “to stand against one’s blood” means to stand before a court and against the accused as a plaintiff, witness, or judge: “Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people: neither shalt thou stand against the blood Septuagint - ...
Of 350 quotations of the Old Testament in the New Testament only 50 differ materially from Septuagint Its Language molded the conceptions of the New Testament writers and preachers
Persia, Persians - According to the Language of scripture it had 'devoured much flesh
Bear - In common mercantile Language,it often signifies or implies, to bear a good or high price
Teeth - He therefore tells in this poetical Language how richly GOD will supply all the needs of Judah
Prepare - ” This verb occurs in nearly every Semitic Language (not in biblical Aramaic)
Epiphanius, Patriarch of Constantinople - His excuse for the bishops of Pontes, Asia, and the East is composed in very beautiful Language
Power - The Language of God’s “strength” is highly metaphorical
Alpha And Omega - This idea of the Deity, further emphasized in Isaiah 41:4; Isaiah 43:10; Isaiah 44:6, is expressed in the Language of the Apocalypse by the Greek phrase ‘Α and Ω,’ which corresponds to a common Heb
Nestorians - Upon this new Chaldean patriarch's return to his own country, Julius sent with him several persons skilled in the Syriac Language, to assist him in establishing and extending the papal empire among the Nestorians; and from that time, that unhappy people have been divided into two factions, and have often been involved in the greatest dangers and difficulties, by the jarring sentiments and perpetual quarrels of their patriarchs
Lucian - But hear his own Language: "The wretched people have persuaded themselves that they are altogether immortal, and will live for ever; therefore they despise death, and many of them meet it of their own accord
Apocrypha - None of them are extant in Hebrew; all of them are in the Greek Language, except the fourth book of Esdras, which is only extant in Latin
Mystery - And when he who spake in an unknown tongue is said to "speak mysteries,"...
1 Corinthians 14:2 , it is plain, that these mysteries, however unintelligible to others on account of the Language in which they were spoken, were yet understood by the person himself, because he hereby "edified himself," 1 Corinthians 14:4 ; Acts 2:11 ; Acts 10:46
Asleep, Sleep - katheudo, as at 1 Thessalonians 5:6 ) in the dust of the earth,' Language inapplicable to the spiritual part of man; moreover, when the body returns whence it came, Genesis 3:19 , the spirit returns to God who gave it, Ecclesiastes 12:7
Proselyte - In the Language of the Jews, those were called by this name who came to dwell in their country, or who embraced their religion, being not Jews by birth
Captivity - The Jewish character and Language were changed by their sojourn for so long a time among foreigners, Nehemiah 8:8; and it is noteworthy that we hear little of idols or idolatry among them after the captivity
Church - The figurative Language which is employed by Christ, himself, as well as by his apostles, to denote the nature of his relations to the church (as composed of all true believers), and its relations to him, is of the most significant character
Parable - The parabolical, enigmatical, figurative, and sententious way of speaking, was the Language of the Eastern sages and learned men, Luke 6:41-421 78:2 ; and nothing was more insupportable than to hear a fool utter parables, Proverbs 26:7
Clouds - ...
Thus we see that the word “clouds” in the parabolic Language of the Bible makes spiritual contexts clear
Maximus, Bishop of Turin - In some of these he uses very decided Language on the supremacy of St
Mesrobes - >From the introduction of Christianity Syriac had become the dominant Language, a knowledge of it being deemed a necessary qualification for holy orders (cf
Mourning - This Language suggests a comparison with the customs of commemorative mourning for the dead (cf
Paradise (2) - Like most words with sufficient impetus to find their way into another Language, it brings with it something of the character of the race from which it comes
Petilianus, a Donatist Bishop - (4) Language of Scripture and of the church perverted
Prayer - ...
These meetings should be attended with regularity; those who engage should study simplicity, brevity, Scripture Language, seriousness of spirit, and every thing that has a tendency to edification. This will direct us to the choice of proper thoughts and Language for every part of prayer. " ...
As to expression in prayer, it may be observed, that though prayer be the proper work of the heart, yet in this present state, in secret as well as in social prayer, the Language of the lips is an excellent aid in this part of worship. Hereby we shall gain a large treasure of Language to clothe our thoughts and affections. Our Language should be grave and decent, which is a medium between magnificence and meanness; we should avoid all glittering Language and affected style
Text of the Gospels - Those who translated it into modern Languages have left us in their work something of their own life and spirit. ’ It would be as logical to argue that because the gospel was given to the world in the Greek Language, therefore Jesus must have spoken in the same Language. Miller, who edited and completed many of Burgon’s papers after his death, adopted a more temperate tone; but so much of Burgon’s Language is incorporated, that the subject is still treated rather after the fashion of a polemical controversy than of a critical investigation, Moreover, Burgon’s contention was that the ‘Traditional Text’ is the only one that has any claim to be regarded as the true text; all documents that differ from it are treated as of practically no value. , far more naturally takes the ἐξελθών to mean ‘having landed,’ and thus the only objection that Hort could find to the Language of the fuller reading falls to the ground: the crowd were the first to reach the spot whither Jesus and His disciples were going, they ran together on the beach to meet Him; and as He landed He saw them, and realized that He could not secure the quiet He sought. ...
The case of Fathers writing in a Language other than Greek presents further difficulties, because it is often impossible to say how far the form of the quotation is due to a knowledge of the original Greek, and how far to familiarity with the version in their own Language
Eucharist - The Language employed does not indeed exclude the possibility that this action, and the partaking by those present of the bread so broken, may have taken place during a meal which was held about midnight. Paul’s Language to the Corinthians makes it certain that he must have given similar teaching to his converts elsewhere, and indeed the account of the ‘breaking of bread’ at Troas, when read in the light of the passage in 1 Cor. It is the Language of sacrifice which is here employed. Paul s Language clearly implies that the bread and the wine are not merely symbols. In fact, the Language of 1 Corinthians 11:23-349 where it is said that at Troas St. Some of his Language suggests that they thought that communion would benefit them mechanically, and that their dispositions did not much matter
Clement of Rome, Epistle of - 3); (c) the Language used of the Roman envoys ‘who have walked among us from youth unto old age unblameably’ (lxiii. Similarly the Language of Irenaeus (circa, about a. Yet it must be admitted that there is nothing in the Language of any of these three writers to exclude the possibility of believing that they regarded Clement as the author of the Epistle. -The terms in which the Epistle speaks of God are unmistakably borrowed from the Language of the OT and the Jewish synagogue. ...
So much might have been said by a conscientious Jew; but in two passages at least, the Language of the Epistle passes beyond the mere monotheism of Judaism: ‘Have we not one God and one Christ and one Spirit of grace that was shed upon us?’ (xlvi. In this way the writer of the Epistle co-ordinates the divergent Language of St
Arius the Heresiarch - But the charge is somewhat vague in itself; it is unsupported by other authority, and Alexander's Language, like that of most controversialists in past days, is not a little violent. of Alexandria, had used much the same Language as Arius afterwards held, and a correspondence is extant in which Dionysius of Rome blames his brother of Alexandria for using such Language. For so far as we can understand his Language—on a subject which even Athanasius seems to have admitted to have been beyond his power thoroughly to comprehend—he taught that the Logos was changeable in Essence, but not in Will. Yet Arius undoubtedly derived some support from the dangerous Language of Origen, who had ventured to represent the Logos as a δεύτερος (or δευτερεύων ) θεός . The majority of the bishops came from the East, but there was, nevertheless, an imposing display of men of various races and Languages. But Eusebius emphatically condemned the Language of Arius, and there is no reason whatever to suspect his sincerity in so doing
Church - ...
(e) The Macedonian conquest had made men familiar with a type of civilization which seemed to be adaptable to the whole world, and had supplied a Language which was still more adaptable. Greek was the Language of culture and of commerce even in Rome. It was also the sacred Language of the world-wide worship of Isis. Hardly at any other period has the civilized world had a nearer approach to a universal Language. Judaism is obsolete: the Christian Church has taken its place and succeeded to all its privileges, Hence the lofty enthusiasm of the first Christians, whose Language often assumes a rhythmic strain when the Church is spoken of (Ephesians 4:4, Colossians 1:18, 1 Timothy 3:15, Hebrews 12:22, 1 Peter 2:9, Matthew 16:18). Paul-‘a Hebrew of Hebrews’-whose Jewish birth and training moulded his thoughts and Language, but never induced him to sacrifice the freedom of the gospel to the bondage of the law, the break with Judaism became absolute, and, as Gentile converts increased, the restrictions of Judaism were almost forgotten
Victorinus Afer - Language about Eucharist below); and in this humanity—spirit, soul, and body—which Christ took, He is glorified and exalted (iv. ...
Victorinus uses suggestive Language about the sacraments and ministry of the church in relation to the communication to us of the life of Christ, e. " Now, a good deal of Victorinus's Language, in which he seeks to express the relation of the Λόγος to the Father, is based on Plotinus's Language about the relation of the νοῦς to the One. Indeed, he uses very strongly solifidian Language and (by anticipation) very strongly anti-Pelagian Language
Justification (2) - Only thus can we explain the remarkable interchange of Language which the Apostle uses with respect to the two sides of the correlation. ...
What, then, is the essential point in the Pauline presentation of justification as forensic? It is, to use philosophic Language, that justification is a synthetic, not an analytic judgment. Paul with a clear sense of the paradox involved, as the deliberate opposition of Language to the OT shows (cf. Paul’s Language is determined by this form in which he found the problem of acceptance with God stated; his meaning simply is that God accepts the sinner on the ground of His mere grace, apart from all question of merit. Paul’s, therefore, touch nowhere except in Language; in thought they are altogether apart
Birth of Christ - In the same manner Chase has illustrated many points of contact between these Canticles and the Language of the Eighteen Prayers of the synagogue. But in this case we have to assume that the Greek Luke, or some unknown writer, was able to transfer himself in thought to a time when Jewish national hopes, which were shattered by the ate of the capital, were still vividly cherished in Jewish circles, and that he was able to express those hopes in the popular Language current at the date of our Lord’s birth with a marked absence of any later Christian conceptions. ’ Here again we have Language closely resembling that of the Psalms of Solomon, e. ]'>[5] But we are asked to believe that into the midst of this Jewish Language some Christian writer wished to introduce a statement of our Lord’s virgin birth, and that he did so by the interpolation of the next two verses, Luke 1:34-35. Let us suppose for a moment that this is so; and if so we cannot but contrast the Language with that of the Protevangelium Jacobi, with its fantastic and prurient details, or even with that portion of the Ascension of Isaiah, viz
Luke, Gospel According to - Yet the Pauline influence on Luke is very great, not only in his ideas but in his Language. Yet the special characteristics of Language run through both the books, and their integrity and common authorship, is becoming more and more certain. The author’s interests are many his sympathy with women, his ‘domestic tone’ shown by the social scenes which he describes, his medical Language and descriptions of cures (a large number of technical phrases used by Greek medical writers and by Luke have been collected), and his frequent references to angels, are clearly marked in both books. The argument from Language, on the other side, scarcely deserves serious refutation; the common use of the LXX Inspiration - Some think, that in the choice of words they were left to their own discretion, and that the Language is human, though the matter be divine; while others believe, that in their expressions, as well as in their sentiments, they were under the infallible direction of the Spirit. ...
Let a man try to think upon any subject, moral or religious, without the aid of Language, and he will either experience a total cessation of thought, or, as this seems impossible, at least while we are awake, he will feel himself constrained, notwithstanding his utmost endeavours, to have recourse to words as the instrument of his mental operations. Besides, every person who hath reflected upon the subject, is aware of the importance of a proper selection of words in expressing our sentiments; and knows how easy it is