What does Job mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
אִיּ֗וֹב a patriarch 12
אִ֭יּוֹב a patriarch 6
אִיּ֣וֹב a patriarch 5
אִיּ֑וֹב a patriarch 5
אִיּ֖וֹב a patriarch 5
אִיּֽוֹב a patriarch 5
אִיּוֹב֙ a patriarch 4
אִיּ֥וֹב a patriarch 3
אִיּ֔וֹב a patriarch 3
לְאִיּ֖וֹב a patriarch 1
וְאִיּ֣וֹב a patriarch 1
וְ֭אִיּוֹב a patriarch 1
כְּאִיּ֑וֹב a patriarch 1
ἰὼβ a man known for his piety and 1
לְאִיּ֣וֹב a patriarch 1
בְּ֭אִיּוֹב a patriarch 1
וְאִיּ֑וֹב a patriarch 1
אִיּוֹב֒ a patriarch 1
וְאִיּוֹב֮ a patriarch 1
וְי֥וֹב the 3rd son of Issachar also called ‘Jashub’. 1

Definitions Related to Job

H347


   1 a patriarch, the subject of the book of Job.
   Additional Information: Job = “hated”.
   

H3102


   1 the 3rd son of Issachar also called ‘Jashub’.
   Additional Information: Job = “persecuted”.
   

G2492


   1 a man known for his piety and, consistency and fortitude in the endurance of trials.
   His experiences are related in the OT book bearing his name.
   Additional Information: Job = “the cry of woe” or “I will exclaim”.
   

Frequency of Job (original languages)

Frequency of Job (English)

Dictionary

1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Job
A dweller in Hus, east of Palestine; not an Israelite, but an upright man who is suddenly the victim of weighty affiictions, losing his goods, and his children and becoming a prey to leprosy. For a time he is patience exemplified. Three of his friends come to comfort him, but their conduct and utterances are so maladroit that his patience gives way and he bemoans his lot and longs for death. The comforters, "Job's comforters," to use the expression they occasioned, insist that he must have provoked God's punishment by his sins. Job protests his innocence. After eight dialogues between them and Job another appears as arbiter, insisting that no one is sinless in the sight of God, that suffering is not necessarily a visitation on account of sin, that it is permitted by God to preserve man from pride and its consequent sins. God Himself intervenes to warn Job that he has not appreciated God's providence in ruling men in His own way, and to rebuke the would-be consolers for their lack of judgment and their harshness. The Book, in 42 chapters, is a revelation of the mystery of suffering. Job is a type of all the faithful, and also of the Redeemer. Many of his utterances have become proverbial. His testimony to immortality as the mainstay of his patience is the climax of the prayers of the Church in the services over the departed.
1910 New Catholic Dictionary - Job, Book of
First of the poetic didactic books of the Old Testament in the Vulgate. The author and period of composition are still matters of conjecture, though the evidence for the post-exilic era is insufficient. The original language was Hebrew with perhaps an Aramaic foundation. Containing 42 chapters, it presents an investigation into the causes of evil and human adversity experienced by the just, and inculcates the lesson that man should not attempt a close scrutiny of the ways of Providence; secondarily it depicts Job as a model of faith, fortitude, and patience. Quite apart from the prologue (1:2), as well as the epilogue (42:7-16), three parts may be distinguished:
three discussions of Job with his friends and two monologues (3-31)
four discourses of Eliu, rebuking Job and his friends for some of their views, and extolling the wisdom and justice of God (32-38)
utterances of God Himself teaching that His ways are not matters for the curious searching of human intellect (38-42:6)
Composed in the highest style of Hebrew poetry, it indicates great technical skill on the part of the author, and is embellished with rich oriental imagery. Its Divinely inspired character is acknowledged in the Old and New Testaments (Ezechiel 14:14-20; James 5:11); it is found from the beginning in the canons of the synagogue and the Church. Correct exegesis satisfactorily explains difficulties in some of the utterances, viz., God's statements and those approved by Him must be regarded as Divinely inspired in themselves; with regard to the rest, it is Divinely inspired that the remarks and sentiments were expressed, but the doctrine contained therein is not thereby approved. The book furnishes Divine consolation and possesses marked dogmatic importance because of the doctrine concerning the Resurrection of the Body (19:25-27). There are significant passages concerning God's supremacy, passing human comprehension (38:39), and Job's humble confession (42:1-6). In the Roman Breviary lessons from this book are read in the Office for the Dead and in the nocturne of Matins during the first two weeks of September. Although sources and descriptions such as the Babylonian poem "Subsimesri-Nergal" may have been utilized the book must be regarded as the work of one person acting under Divine inspiration.
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Job, Book of
A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Psalm 88,89 ), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22 ). He had opportunities in Midian for obtaining the knowledge of the facts related. But the authorship is altogether uncertain. As to the character of the book, it is a historical poem, one of the greatest and sublimest poems in all literature. Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious. It is "one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, a heavenly-repleished storehouse of comfort and instruction, the patriarchal Bible, and a precious monument of primitive theology. It is to the Old Testament what the Epistle to the Romans is to the New." It is a didactic narrative in a dramatic form.
This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, B.C. 600 (Ezekiel 14:14 ). It formed a part of the sacred Scriptures used by our Lord and his apostles, and is referred to as a part of the inspired Word (Hebrews 12:5 ; 1 Corinthians 3:19 ).
The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. It exhibits the harmony of the truths of revelation and the dealings of Providence, which are seen to be at once inscrutable, just, and merciful. It shows the blessedness of the truly pious, even amid sore afflictions, and thus ministers comfort and hope to tried believers of every age. It is a book of manifold instruction, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, and for instruction in righteousness (2 Timothy 3:16 ).
It consists of,
An historical introduction in prose (ch. 1,2).
The controversy and its solution, in poetry (ch. 3-42:6).). Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. The first course gives the commencement of the controversy (ch. 4-14); the second the growth of the controversy (15-21); and the third the height of the controversy (22-27). This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly.
The third division is the historical conclusion, in prose (42:7-15). Sir J. W. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [1] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters."
Easton's Bible Dictionary - Job
Persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for one hundred and forty years, and died in a good old age, an example to succeeding generations of integrity (Ezekiel 14:14,20 ) and of submissive patience under the sorest calamities (James 5:11 ). His history, so far as it is known, is recorded in his book.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Job, the Book of
(johb) Job apparently lived in the patriarchal or prepatriarchal days, for not only does he not mention the Law or the Exodus, but he is pictured as a wealthy nomad (Job 1:3 ; Job 42:12 ) who is still offering sacrifices himself (Job 23:1-24 ; Job 42:8 ). Undoubtedly, Job was a most respected man, for not only did the prophet Ezekiel refer to him as one of the greatest of Israel's ancestors (Ezekiel 14:14 ), but even James used him as an excellent example of patient and persistent faith (James 5:11 ). The Book of Job presents many problems concerning the person, time, and nature of its composition. First, the text does not indicate in any way its author. The text never speaks of Job as its author, just its subject. Thus, many have concluded that Job was written by Elihu, one of the three friends, or simply some anonymous writer of that or some other age. Second, though most will agree that the character Job lived in patriarchal times, many believe that the book was written many years later. The dates of such a composition will vary from the time of Abraham to that of the Greek Empire. Third, to further complicate the issue, many believe that Job is a compilation of several different stories coming from several different ages. As one can readily see, the question of date and authorship is a very complex issue that cannot yet be settled with certainty; however, the fact that one cannot identify the human agent in no way means that the book if not inspired, for it is God's Word and is a unit as it now stands.
Job is a Perfect Illustration of True Faith. Through the years, many purposes have been suggested for the book. Perhaps the one that has been mentioned more often than any other is that of answering the question of why the righteous suffer. Certainly this question was prominent in Job's day, for ancient society believed that human suffering was the result of one's sin or at least a god's displeasure. Even the meaning of the name Job (the persecuted one) seems to support this suggestion, but that may not be all that is involved in the book. Another popular suggestion is that the book has been preserved to illustrate for us the nature of true faith both from the point of view of people and of God. For humans, it is trusting in God as the Creator and Sustainer of life even when all is not going well and when He is not visibly present to help us. From God's point of view, the story proves His faithfulness to His creatures despite their weaknesses and inability to understand what is happening. Another, and much less frequently suggested purpose, is that of a parable concerning the nation Israel. In this case, Job becomes the nation Israel. Though this approach is possible, it seems unlikely for most parables have some type of interpretation close by which helps to explain them. Thus, perhaps it is best just to take the book as an illustration of the nature of God and His justice in dealing with humankind, a justice people often cannot recognize and never fully understand.
Job Is Unique in World Literature. Though Job shows many similarities with other Ancient Near Eastern texts, none come near to Job's beauty and message. Because the three friends have Edomite backgrounds, some have speculated that Job may have been an Edomite and that the setting for the book may have been Edom. However, there is not enough Edomite material available at this point to make any conclusions. Others have seen similarities between Job and the Egyptian poems concerning “The Protest of the Eloquent Peasant” and “A Dispute Over Suicide” or the Babylonian poems of “The Babylonian Theodicy” and “I Will Praise the Lord of Wisdom.” In each of these cases, what similarities exist seem minor, indeed, and deal more with the topic than its content or form. Still others have suggested that Job is written in the form of a court room trial. No doubt, many legal terms appear in the book; yet we still know too little about ancient legal procedure to make any such conclusions. Thus, it is best to simply take the book as a unique work depicting the life of one man and his efforts to understand his God and his own situation in life.
Job's Encounter with Life Brought Him Face to Face with God. The Book of Job is most frequently pictured as a drama with a prologue (1–2) and an epilogue (Job 42:7-17 ) enclosing three cycles of poetic speeches between Job and his three friends (3–27), a beautiful wisdom poem from Job (28), Job's concluding remarks (29–31), the mysterious Elihu speeches (32–37), and God's whirlwind speeches (Job 38:1-42:6 ).
The prologue describes the setting for the ensuing drama. Job was a very wealthy and religious man who seemed to have life under control (Job 1:1-5 ). However, unknown to him, Satan challenged his righteousness. God allowed the challenge, but limited Satan's power to Job's possessions (Job 1:6-12 ). In quick succession, Satan destroyed all of Job's possessions including even his children. However, Job did not blame God nor question His integrity (Job 1:13-22 ). Satan then challenged God to let him attack Job's personal health. God agreed, but warned him not to kill Job (Job 2:1-6 ). Without warning, a loathsome disease fell upon Job; yet he still refused to blame God (Job 2:7-10 ). Job's friends were shocked and dismayed, but nevertheless came to encourage him and offer their help (Job 2:11-13 ). To this point Job displayed a traditional faith accepting suffering as inevitable and patiently enduring it.
After the traditional time of mourning had passed, Job cried out wondering why he was ever born or allowed to reach maturity (Job 3:1-26 ). Job's faith turned to a challenging, seeking faith, confronting God, demanding escape and explanation. In all the bitter questioning, faith lived, for Job turned only and always to God for answers. At this point, Job's friends could remain silent no longer and thus began to speak. The first to speak was Eliphaz who told Job that he must have sinned for God was surely punishing him. However, there was still hope if he would confess his sin and turn to God (Job 4:1-5:27 ). Suffering did not have to endure always. Job was stunned and assured his friends that he was ready to meet God and work out any problem that he might have (Job 6:1-7:21 ). Bildad added that if Job had not sinned it must have been his children, for obviously God was punishing him for some wrong. However, he, too, held out hope if Job would just confess (Job 8:1-22 ). Job was deeply hurt and wondered aloud whether or not he could get a hearing before God (Job 9:1-10:22 ). Zophar, the most brash of the friends, called upon God to meet with Job, for he was sure that when the two met, Job would see the error of his ways and repent (Job 11:1-20 ). Job held to his integrity, but continued to seek an audience with God so that he could come to understand what was happening and why (Job 12:1-14:22 ).
Job's friends were not satisfied, so Eliphaz spoke again and reminded him that all people (including Job) had sinned and needed to repent. Thus, if he would just repent, God would forgive him (Job 15:1-35 ). Job realized that he was getting nowhere with his friends, so he called upon the rest of creation to witness to his integrity (Job 16:1-17:16 ). Bildad reminded Job of the many proverbs which spoke of the fate of the wicked. In so doing, he was implying that what had happened to Job was the result of his sin (Job 18:1-21 ). Job was becoming increasingly frustrated, for his friends and family seemed to have abandoned him; yet he was unwilling to give up on God. Thus, in a most beautiful way he affirmed that he would be vindicated, if not in this world, then in the world to come (Job 19:1-29 ). Zophar was hurt, for he and his friends were being ignored, if not toally disagreed with. Thus, he declared that the wicked would suffer great pain and anguish and that all the forces of nature would turn against them. No doubt, Zophar included Job in this group (Job 20:1-29 ). Job turned to Zophar and harshly said, “No”; for as he observed, sometimes the wicked did prosper. However, that did not mean that God was not in control or that He would not one day bring about real justice (Job 21:1-34 ).
Though they listened to him patiently, Job's friends were also becoming increasingly frustrated. Thus, Eliphaz intensified his charge that Job's suffering was the result of his own sinfulness by listing the various sins of which he thought Job was guilty. Then he called upon Job to repent (Job 22:1-30 ). By this time Job was in such pain that he all but ignored Elipaz's comments and cried out for relief (Job 23:1-24:25 ). Bildad, not to be outdone, reminded Job again to consider the nature and character of God, for since He was not unjust, Job surely must have sinned (Job 25:1-6 ). Job, in sarcastic tones, asked the friends where they got their wisdom and then pleaded with them to look to God for real understanding and faith (Job 26:1-27:23 ). Apparently, at this point, the three friends, having exhausted their arguments, once again became silent.
Job then turned and reflected both upon the true nature of wisdom and his own place in existence. In one of the most beautiful descriptions of wisdom found in the entire Bible, Job concluded that real wisdom (or meaning to life) can only be found in a proper faith relationship with God (“the fear of the Lord”) (Job 28:1-28 ). Though Job knew this was true and though he sought to live a righteous life, he was still hurting and did not understand why. Thus, in a beautiful soliloquy he cried out unto God, reminding God of how he had lived faithfully in the past and had been respected for it (Job 29:1-25 ), but now when he was suffering everyone had turned against him, and death seemed very near (Job 30:1-31 ). Thus, Job issued a final plea for God to vindicate him (Job 31:1-40 ). With this, Job's case was made. He paused to await an answer from God.
At this point, a young man named Elihu rose to speak. Though most of what he had to say had already been said, he gave four speeches, each of which sought to justify God's actions. First, Elihu contended that God speaks to all people, and thus, even though he was a young man, he had every right to speak and even had the understanding to do so (Job 32:1-33:33 ). Second, he reiterated the view that God was just and thus what had happened to Job was well deserved (Job 34:1-37 ). Third, he sought to show that God honored the righteous and condemned the prideful, just like He had Job (Job 35:1-16 ). Fourth, he then pleaded with Job to accept what had happened to him as an expression of God's discipline and to humbly repent and seek His forgiveness (Job 36:1-37:24 ). Finally, Elihu realized that Job really was not listening, and so he stopped speaking.
Suddenly, out of the midst of a whirlwind, God began to speak. Basically, God said two things. First, He described the marvels of creation and then asked Job if he could have done any better (Job 38:1-40:2 ). Job quickly responded that he could not for he, too, was just a creature (Job 40:3-5 ). Second, God described how He controlled the world and everything in it and then asked Job if he could do a better job (Job 40:6-41:34 ). Job admitted that he could not and that he did not need to for now he had seen God and clearly realized that God had everything well under control (Job 42:1-6 ).
God was apparently very pleased with Job and his responses. However, He rebuked the three friends and commanded that they ask Job to seek intercession for them (Job 42:7-9 ). Then, God restored all Job's fortunes and even gave him more children (Job 42:10-17 ). In the end Job found meaningful life, not in intellectual pursuits or even in himself, but in experiencing God and his faith relationship to Him.
Job's Message Is Still Relevant for Us Today. The Book of Job thus wrestles with issues all people eventually face. Such issues do not admit of easy answers. The different speakers in Job address the issues from different perspectives, forcing us to admit the complexity of the issue before we accept simple answers. Two important issues are the cause and effect of suffering and the justice and care of God. Job begins by accepting suffering as a part of human life to be endured through trust in God in good and bad times. He moves to questioning, facing the theological issues head on. He illustrates human frustration with problems for which we cannot find answers. Yet, he refuses to accept his wife's perspective of giving up on God and life. Rather, he constantly confronts God with cries for help and for answers. He shows faith can be more than simple acceptance. Faith can be struggling in the dark for answers, but struggling with God not with other people. Eliphaz notes that suffering will not last forever, especially not for the innocent. Bildad notes that Job's punishment is not as bad as it could have been; after all, his children died. Being alive means Job's sin is not unforgiveable and his suffering can be endured.
Zophar emphasizes Job's sin but notes that he could suffer even more. He should give God credit for mercy in not making him endure all the pain his sin deserves. Elihu pleaded for Job to listen to God's word in the experience, for his suffering should become a means of seeing God's will and God's way in the situation. This should lead Job to confess his sin and praise God. Job's complaint is that he cannot find God. He wants to present his case to God but cannot do so, for he is unequal to God. He cannot present his claims of innocence and get his name cleared and his body healed.
God's appearance shows that God cares, that He still controls the world, even a world with unexplainable suffering, and that His creative acts and the mysterious creatures He has created only prove that humans must live under God's control. The human mind cannot control all knowledge nor understand all situations. People must be content with a God who speaks to them. They cannot demand that God give all the answers we might want. God can be trusted in the worst of circumstances as well as in the best. See Wisdom; Suffering ; Faith .
Outline
I. Prologue: A Righteous Man Can Endure Injustice Without Sinning (Job 1:1-2:10 ).
II. First Round: Will a Just God Answer a Righteous Sufferer's Questions? (Job 2:11-14:22 ).
A. Job: Why must a person be born to a life of suffering? (Job 2:11-3:26 ).
B. Eliphaz: Do not claim to be just, but seek the disciplining God, who is just (Job 4:1-5:27 ).
C. Job: Death is the only respite for a just person persecuted by God (Job 6:1-7:21 ).
D. Bildad: A just God does not punish the innocent (Job 8:1-22 ).
E. Job: Humans cannot win an argument in court against the Creator (Job 9:1-10:22 ).
F. Zophar: Feeble, ignorant humans must confess sins (Job 11:1-20 ).
G. Job: An intelligent person demands an answer from the all-powerful, all-knowhying God, not from other humans (Job 12:1-14:22 ).
III. Second Round: Does the Fate of the Wicked Prove the Mercy and Justice of God? (Job 15:1-21:34 ).
A. Eliphaz: Be quiet, admit your guilt, and accept your punishment (Job 15:1-35 ).
B. Job: Oh that an innocent person might plead my case with the merciless God (Job 16:1-17:16 ).
C.Bildad: Wise up and admit you are suffering the just fate of the wicked (Job 18:1-21 ).
D. Job: In a world without justice or friends, a just person must wait for a Redeemer to win his case (Job 19:1-29 ).
E. Zophar: Your short-lived prosperity shows you are a wicked oppressor (Job 20:1-29 ).
F. Job: Lying comforters do not help my struggle against the injustice of God (Job 21:1-34 ).
IV. Third Round: Can the Innocent Sufferer Ever Know God's Ways and Will? (Job 22:1-28:28 ).
A. Eliphaz: You wicked sinner, return to Almighty God and be restored (Job 22:1-30 ).
B. Job: I cannot find God, but evidence shows He pays undue attention to me but gives no attention to the wicked (Job 1:5:25 ).

Job, Theology of

Introduction . The reader who desires to unlock the rich theological treasures contained in the Book of Job should assume its literary unity. Also he or she must interpret each part in light of its whole.
Although the Book of Job is a complex work composed of many different speeches, its almost architectonic symmetry argues for a literary unity. The prose framework (prologue [1] and epilogue [2]) encloses the intricate poetic body (3:1-42:6). After Job's initial monologue (chap. 3) a dialogue of three cycles occurs between Job and his three friends, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar (chapt. 4:27). Since Job's response to each friend is always longer than the corresponding speech, the short speech by Bildad (chap. 25) and the absence of Zophar's speech in the final cycle may indicate Job's verbal victory over his friends, who fail to refute him (see Elihu's remarks in 32:3,5). Chapter 28, a wisdom interlude between the three cycles of dialogue and the three monologues by Job, Elihu, and the Lord, marks the futility of dialogue as long as Job and his friends rely on human reasoning (see vv. 12-13,20-22). Job's closing monologues (chaps. 29-31) ignore the friends and appeal to God for legal vindication (see 31:35-37). Elihu's speeches (chap. 32-37) foreshadow theological concepts in and prepare the way for the Lord's speeches (chap. 38-41).
Critics interpret the inconsistency between the "patient Job" who never complains (see 1:21-22) and the "impatient Job" of the poetic body who curses the day of his birth (chap. 3) and considers God an enemy (6:4; 16:10-14) as indicating "sloppy editing" by the final author. It is better to view these two contrasting portraits of Job as intentionally displaying that Job was no "plaster saint" who suffered stoically. Rather, he was a real person struggling with emotions and feelings believers still have today.
Since most of the Book of Job contains human reasoning, one must interpret each individual unit within the contest of the book as a whole and of the main purpose of the book. The reader must pay special attention to the prologue (chap. 1-2) and the Lord's speeches (38:1-42:6) to avoid erroneous conclusions. The former notifies the reader (like the narrator in a dramatic production) that Job is innocent and that Satan is the instigator of Job's sufferings. The latter is the most determinative part, since God himself addresses Job.
Though many suppose that the main purpose of the Book of Job is to explain the mystery of the suffering of the righteous, it does not provide a definitive answer to this matter (and neither do the Lord's speeches address it directly); therefore, it must not be the main issue. Rather, the problem of innocent suffering serves as a catalyst for the question of the proper motive for man to relate to God (see 1:9). Thus the main purpose of the book seems to be to show that the proper relationship between God and humankind (in all circumstances) is based solely on God's sovereign grace and the human response of faith and submissive trust.
The Doctrine of God (in the human speeches). The Friends' Doctrine of God . Though the three friends basically have an orthodox view of God, they often misapply the doctrine to Job's situation. Eliphaz acknowledges that God does great and inscrutable deeds in governing the world (5:9). God utilizes his power and wisdom to bring about social justice, whether delivering the lowly or thwarting the schemes of crafty criminals (5:10-16). Sometimes he disciplines humans through suffering (5:17). Eliphaz accuses Job of possessing a distorted view of God's transcendence (22:12-14)—that he is so lofty in heaven that he cannot see what is happening on earth.
Bildad emphasizes that God is just because he never rejects an innocent man (8:3,20-22) but punishes the wicked (18:5-21). He lauds God's sovereign power and awe-inspiring rule over the cosmos (25:2-3).
Zophar agrees with Eliphaz that God is wise and inscrutable to man (11:6-9), and states that he is omnipotent (11:10).
Wrongly assuming that Job's condition indicates some secret sin, all three friends urge him to repent so God can deliver him (5:8,18-20; 8:5; 11:13-14; 22:21-24).
Job's View of God . Job possesses an ambivalent view of his Maker. Having carefully constructed him and infused him with life, the Almighty used to watch over him and his family (29:2-5). Now he believes that God has turned against him (10:8,17; 30:11) and treats him as an enemy (6:4; 13:24-28; 16:9-14; 19:8-12). This belief affects Job's understanding of God's attributes and actions.
Although Job acknowledges that God is wise and so mighty in strength (9:4-6; 12:13) that he is omnipotent (9:12; 23:13; 42:2), he seems to abuse his power in an arbitrary way (9:13-24; 12:14-25; cf. 30:18-20). The Almighty uses his power indiscriminately to mistreat innocent Job (6:4; 27:2) or to punish the wicked who deserve it (21:15,30; 27:10,11, 15). Also Job portrays God as unjust Judge (9:22-24) who is cruel (30:21-22) and unfair to him (19:6-22) and to many innocent victims of social injustice (24:1-12). Job depicts the Lord as an angry God who punishes him harshly (9:13-24; 10:17; 16:9-14; 19:11-22). On the other hand, he perceives God as a hidden and invisible Judge (9:11,15; 23:7-9) who would listen fairly to his case if he could be found (23:3-7; cf. 13:3,15-24).
On a positive note, Job agrees with his friends that God is sovereign Creator and Ruler who has done unsearchable things (9:10) in the creation and control of the cosmos (9:5-9; 26:7-14). He realizes that all things are in God's hand (12:9), including Job's persecution (30:21) and his disease (19:21). Job has believed from the outset that God is responsible for his circumstances (see 1:21). Yet the prologue reveals that this was only God's permissive will since he had given limited authority over Job into Satan's hand (1:12; 2:6). Since the life and breath of all humankind are in God's hand (12:10) he is ultimately responsible for all things, including calamities (12:16-25) and the prosperity of the wicked (whose circumstances are not in their own hand(s) [3]). Thus, Job trusts that god's hand controls the elements of chaos in creation such as the sea, the storm cloud, and the cosmic sea monster Rahab (26:12-13).
Elihu's View of God . Preparing the way for the Lord's appearance, Elihu presents a more balanced view of God and his relationship to humankind. He corrects Job's view of God's hiddenness by arguing that God reveals himself in mysterious ways (including dreams, pain and illness, and angels) (33:13-23). Supplementing Eliphaz's teaching about pain and suffering, he mentions a preventive purpose (to help keep a person from sinning and himself — 33:17-18,30a) as well as a disciplinary and educational objective (33:16,19-22,30b; cf. 36:10). Elihu calls God the sovereign Teacher (36:22) who will instruct Job (chaps. 38-41) with dozens of rhetorical questions. God uses affliction to get man's attention concerning pride (33:17; 36:8-10). Although Elihu errs in assuming Job has had pride from the beginning of his suffering, the speeches of Job and of the Lord reveal the subsequent pride of Job.
Elihu states that the Almighty does not pervert justice (34:12) but is a sovereign (v. 13), immanent (vv. 14-15), just (vv. 17-18), and impartial Ruler (vv. 19-20) who does not reward on man's terms (v. 33). As omniscient Judge who sees all the ways of humankind, he often brings judgment (34:21-28) but must not be questioned when he does not decree speedy retribution (34:29-30). One reason God seems cruel in ignoring cries of the afflicted is that he does not hear the insincere cries of the proud (35:9-13). God's transcendence means that he is not affected by a man's righteousness or sin (35:5-6). However, this does not mean that he is impersonal (36:7). Anticipating the Lord's teaching of 41:11, Elihu states that a person (no matter how righteous) cannot put God under obligation (35:7; cf. 34:33).
Elihu corrects Job's theology by arguing that God is mighty but not arbitrary in his power (36:5-6). He is the exalted and sovereign Teacher whom Job should not try to correct; rather Job should magnify his strength and power through song (36:21-24) and meditate reverently on his awesome majesty and wonderful works in nature (37:1-2,14-18,22-24). God is great beyond understanding in the mighty thunderstorm and snowstorm (36:26-37:13). He is the great and sovereign Warrior who commands the thunderstorm as he dispenses lightning (like arrows) from his hands (36:32). He lifts up his majestic voice in thunder (37:2-5). This metaphorical description of God counteracts the pagan myths, which depicted the Canaanite storm-god Baal-Hadad and the Mesopotamian counterpart Adad holding a flash of lightning as a weapon. The clouds and lightning obey the sovereign command of the true God (37:11-12).
The Lord reinforces this teaching (38:22-30,34-38) by demonstrating his unique sovereignty over the weather. Only the Lord (not any so-called god, much less any human) can lift up his voice to command the thunderclouds and to dispatch the lightning (38:34-38).
Elihu emphasizes the divine attributes of omnipotence. Three times he states that God is "mighty" or "great" (34:17; 36:5 [2]0). A half-dozen times he utilizes the divine title "Almighty" (32:8; 33:4; 34:10,12; 35:13; 37:23). This epithet is used in the Book of Job by all the characters in the poetic body for a total of thirty-one times in contrast to seventeen times in the rest of the Old Testament. Though its etymology is disputed, the Septuagint translation (pantokrator [27:2,13; 33:4; 34:10,12; 35:13) support the traditional translation "Almighty."
Lord's View of Himself and His Relationship to Humankind . Because of his omnipotent work of creating and sustaining the order of the universe, Yahweh alone is its sovereign and benevolent Lord who relates to finite humankind only on the basis of his own sovereign grace and man's joyous trust in him.
Ignoring Job's cries for a verdict of innocent or an indictment of specific charges, the Lord confronts Job with his ignorance of Yahweh's ways in governing the universe (38:2). Utilizing dozens of rhetorical questions, he documents human ignorance of and impotence in controlling each domain of inanimate (38:4-38) and animate (38:39-39:30) creation, which are under the sovereign care of the all-knowing Lord. Almost all the rhetorical questions beginning with "who?" (Heb. mi [ 38:5,6, 25,28, 29,36, 37,41; 39:5 — which expect the answer "none but Yahweh" ) emphasize the incomparable sovereignty of Yahweh as ruler of the uNIVerse. No human or any so-called god can usurp his role. Questions beginning with "where?" (38:4,19, 24), "on what?" (38:6), and sentence questions including the pronoun "you" or "your" (38:12,16, 17,18, 22,31, 32,33, 34,35, 39; 39:1,2, 9,10, 11,12, 19,20, 26,27; 40:8,9) expose Job's impotence and finiteness in light of God's sovereignty and infinite greatness. Since God is nobody's equal, Job's audacious attempt to subpoena God (31:35) and to wage a "lawsuit" to enforce his rights (40:2) is absurd.
The Lord demonstrates his wise and sovereign control over things humankind has considered chaotic or evil. He has restricted the chaotic sea with its proud waves (38:8-11) yet provides the precise amount of rain to inhibit the encroachment of the desert (38:26-27,37-38). By daily commanding the sun to rise (38:12-15), he limits darkness and the wicked who operate at night. Thus he has assigned places for both light and darkness (38:19-20) and sovereignly controls the dark underworld (38:16-17). He is master of the wild animals, which man can seldom tame and often fears (38:39-39:30). He benevolently provides food for the mightiest carnivore (the lion ) to the weakest carrion-eating raven (38:39-41). The Lord's dominion allows room for chaotic forces (cf. 4:7-11, where Eliphaz employs the lion as a symbol of the wicked ). But the Lord also protects the weak and vulnerable deer and mountain goat (the prey of the lion — 39:1-4). He has created vultures with the instinct to feed on the wounded (including humans slain in battle — 39:30) to help prevent the spread of disease. Since Yahweh wisely supervises the balance of nature, which includes chaotic forces, humankind should trust him to restrict properly the chaotic and evil forces in society.
Yahweh confronts Job's prideful questioning of his justness as ruler of the universe (see 40:8-14). He ironically challenges him to clothe himself in the divine attributes of kingship (vv. 10-12) in order to subdue Behemoth and Leviathan (40:15-41:34), which represent the proud and wicked elements in the cosmos (see 40:11-13; 41:34). Since Job does not dare rouse Leviathan (41:1-10a), how much more absurd that he has challenged the authority of Yahweh, the maker and ruler of Leviathan (41:10b-11).
Fundamental Issues Concerning God's Relationship to Humankind . Theology of Retribution . One common denominator between the theology of Job and his friends is a belief in the retribution dogma, a simplistic understanding of the principle of divine retribution: God (without exception) punishes the wicked and rewards the righteous. Since the righteous are always blessed and the wicked always receive God's judgment, Job must be a sinner since God has removed his physical blessings. Because God never punishes the godly man or preserves the evildoer, all three friends contend that Job's suffering is a sign of hidden sin (4:7-11; 5:8-16; 8:11-22; 11:4-6,14-20; 18:5-21). Eliphaz implies (4:11 —see the context of vv. 7-10) and Bildad (8:4) states that Job's children were killed as punishment for their sins. In the second cycle of speeches, all three friends emphasize God's certain punishment of the wicked. Both Eliphaz (15:17-35) and Zophar (20:4-29) explain Job's initial prosperity by the prevailing idea that the wicked many enjoy temporary prosperity before God metes out retributive judgment.
Job denies the accusations of his three friends that he is being punished for sin and openly questions the validity of the retribution dogma by citing counterexamples of the prosperity of the wicked (21:7-16,31). Furthermore, he properly challenges the corollary that God punishes children for the sins of their parents (21:19-21; see also Deuteronomy 24:16 ). Yet, when Job accuses God of unjustly punishing him for sin (in order to maintain his own innocence — 9:20-23; 40:8), he unconsciously retains the dogma of divine retribution.
Even Elihu argues that God operates according to retribution so that he ought not be accused of perverting justice (34:11-12).
The purpose of the Book of Job (negatively stated) involves the refutation of this retribution dogma, which assumes an automatic connection between one's material and physical prosperity and one's spirituality. Both Job and his friends unknowingly restrict God's sovereignty by their assumption that he must always act according to their preconceived dogma. Because of this dogma, Job impugns God's justice in order to justify himself (see 40:8). Though divine retribution is a valid principle (see Deuteronomy 28 ) the error is making it an unconditional dogma by which one can predetermine God's actions and judge a person's condition before him. God is not bound by this man-made dogma but normally will bless the righteous and punish the wicked.
The Book of Job also refutes the corollary that God is obligated to bless man if he obeys. This issue surfaces in the prologue, when Satan claims that Job serves God only for profit (1:9-11). After Job's numerous possessions are removed, Job demands that God give him a fair trial in court (10:2). Because God does not answer his plea to specify charges against him, Job dares to challenge the sovereign power of the Almighty by trying (as it were) to subpoena him for testimony (31:35). He accuses God of oppressive tactics (10:3), including apparently the forcible removal of what rightfully belongs to him. When Job assumes that God owes him physical blessing since he has been obedient to Him, he was imbibing a concept that undergirded ancient Near Eastern religions—that the human relationship to the gods was like a business contract of mutual claims that was binding in court. The Book of Job shows the absurdity of demanding that God operate in this manner since he is obligated to no one: "Who has a claim against me that I must pay? Everything under heaven belongs to me" (41:11). Thus, God's free sovereignty is independent of all human rules, including those imposed by any religion.
Need of a Mediator . Since Job perceives of God as unjust and inaccessible, he expresses a desire for an impartial mediator (9:33—Heb. mokiah, the probable term for the ancient Near Eastern judge who functioned like a modern arbitrator) between God and himself.
The identity of Job's "witness" or "legal advocate" (16:19) in heaven is disputed. Job's appeal to God (17:3) to act as his advocate by laying down a pledge (i.e., to provide the bail or surety needed in his desired court case) may support that Job refers to God in 16:19. However, Job's wish for an impartial "mediator" between God and himself (9:33) and the context of 16:21 suggest that Job is using a legal metaphor for an advocate who would plead for him with God. Since he believes strongly in his innocence, there must be someone pleading his case in the heavenly court just as in an earthly court. This anticipates the role Christ now plays as intercessor (see Hebrews 7:25 ) and advocate (1 John 2:1 ).
In 19:25 Job expresses his confidence in his living redeemer. Although he may be referring to God (see mention of "God" in v. 26 and the prior context of 17:3), the context of 9:33 (his desire for a neutral party) and of 16:19-21 implies that Job more likely refers to someone other than God. By again using the legal metaphor, Job expresses his conviction that he would be vindicated as innocent (which in an earthly lawsuit would require a vindicator or legal advocate). Job believes that surely there is a legal advocate in his "lawsuit" against God. Though Job probably uses a legal metaphor for someone other than God, his longing for a "vindicator" is eventually fulfilled in God (see 42:7, where God says his servant Job spoke what was right about him ). One must not assume that Job had any knowledge of Christ as his Redeemer (a truth revealed only in the New Testament); nonetheless the paramount fulfillment of Job's need for a mediator and legal advocate has now been found in the person of Jesus Christ.
Concepts of Death and the Grave . Job longs for death as an escape from God and the unrelenting trouble that God has caused him (3:10-13,20-22; 7:15,19-21). At first Job perceives of the grave as a place of rest and quiet (3:11-13,17) in contrast to life (3:26) and as freedom from bondage (3:18-19) and as separation from God (7:21). He compares death to sleep (14:12) and wishes that the grave could hide him from God's wrath (14:13). Yet Job stresses that it is dark, gloomy, and without order (10:18-22).
Sheol is a land of no return (10:21) and a place without hope (17:15-16). The dead person is oblivious to life on earth (14:21), and those on earth quickly forget him (18:27). Job portrays Sheol as a house (or home — 17:13) and a meeting house appointed for all the living (30:23). He realizes that in the grave the pit and the worm (17:13-14) would become deadly relatives, consuming both the righteous and the sinner (17:13-14; 24:19). Bildad portrays disease as the "firstborn of death" (18:13) and death as "the king of terrors" (18:14).
Though Sheol is very deep and far away (11:8), dark (10:21-22), and sealed up (7:9-10), Job believes that Sheol is not concealed from God's purview (26:5-6). Though he has wished that he could hide from God there, he acknowledges the reality that even the dead are not immune from God's all-pervasive sovereignty. The Lord confirms this truth (38:16-20).
Thus, Job expresses confidence of seeing God after death (19:26). Interpretation of the difficult phrase (Heb. mibbesari ) "from [5] my flesh" determines whether Job conceives of bodily resurrection or merely conscious awareness of God after death.
Conclusion . Practical Theology . The Book of Job presents a lofty view of God as One worthy of our worship and trust no matter how enigmatic our circumstances. A person ought to trust God even when his ways are inscrutable (42:2-3; cf. 5:9; 9:10-12; 11:6-9). Yet the book also teaches that we may ask honest questions of God when we do not understand "why?" (3:11-20; 10:18; 13:24; 24:1-12) or even express strong emotions such as bitterness (7:11; 10:1) or anger. The Lord does not give a direct answer to Job's question "why?", but communicates that when things seem chaotic and senseless he himself is still in charge. The book as a whole teaches that God is ultimately the author of pain and suffering (5:18), which he may use for various purposes (see 5:17; 23:10; 33:16-30). Since Satan cannot inflict suffering without God's express permission (1:12; 2:6), believers can find strength from the assurance that God sovereignly limits Satan's evil activities.
The heated debate between the impatient Job and his dogmatic "friends" must not overshadow Job's overall example of practical holiness and ethical purity. Job's model of a blameless servant fearing God (1:1,8; 2:3; 42:2-6,7-8) and the message of the book demonstrate that reverential submission is always the proper response for believers—whether in prosperity or tragedy. Job's blameless record as a neighbor and city official (29:12-17; 31:16-23), including pure inward motivations (31:1-2,24-25,33-34) and attitudes (see 31:1,7,9,26-27,29-30) toward God and neighbor, are lofty ethical standards to emulate. This example is unique and unparalleled until the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5-7 ).
Greg W. Parsons
See also Israel ; Suffering
Bibliography . G. L. Archer, Jr., The Book of Job: God's Answer to the Problem of Undeserved Suffering ; E. Dhorme, A Commentary on the Book of Job ; J. E. Hartley, The Book of Job ; G. W. Parsons, BibSac 138 (1981): 139-57; R. B. Zuck, A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament, pp. 207-55.
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Job
(Ἰώβ)
Job is named by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20)-in the 6th cent. b.c., probably about two centuries before the writing of the Book of Job-along with Noah and Daniel as a proverbially righteous man. After the publication of the great drama, it was natural that he should be regarded rather as a model of patience in affliction (ὑπόδειγμα τῆς κακοπαθείας καὶ μακροθυμίας, James 5:10-11). While the profound speculations of the book regarding the problems of pain and destiny, as well as the theological doctrine which the poet intended to teach, might be beyond the grasp of the ordinary reader, the moral appeal of the simple opening story came home to all suffering humanity. ‘Ye have heard of the patience (τὴν ὑπομονήν) of Job’ (Job 5:11). Similarly the conclusion of the tale, which revealed God’s final purpose in regard to His servant (τὸ τέλος κυρίου), proving Him to be full of pity and merciful (πολύ σπλαγχνος καὶ οἰκτίρμων), presented a situation which all readers might be asked to observe. The imperative ἴδετε, which is as well supported as εἴδετε, calls their attention to a surprising fact, which they might well mark, learn, and inwardly digest. The Qur’ân repeats the admonition and the lesson. ‘And remember Job; when he cried unto the Lord, saying, Verily evil hath afflicted me: but thou art the most merciful of all those who show mercy. Wherefore we [1] heard him and relieved him from the evil which was upon him, and we restored unto him his family,’ etc. (sûra 21). ‘Verily we found him a patient person: how excellent a servant was he’ (sûra 38).
James Strahan.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Job
Job (jôb). 1. The patriarch, from whom one of the poetical books of the Old Testament is named. He lived in the land of Uz and belonged to the Aramean race, which had settled in the lower part of Mesopotamia (probably to the south or south-east of Palestine, in Idumean Arabia), adjacent to the Sabeans and Chaldeans. The opinions of Job and his Mends are thus interesting as showing a phase of patriarchal religion outside of the family of Abraham, and not controlled by the legislation of Moses. The form of worship is similar to the early patriarchal type; with little of ceremonial ritual, without a separate priesthood. Job is represented as a chieftain of immense wealth and high rank, blameless in all the relations of life, subjected to special trials, which he endured with humility, and finally was rewarded by marked blessings and great prosperity. 2. Son of Issachar, called Jashub. Genesis 46:13; 1 Chronicles 7:1.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Job (2)
Job, Book of. This is an historical poem, as is shown by the narrative prologue and epilogue in prose. Some ascribe its authorship to Moses in Midian, others bring it down to the age of Solomon. It is written in pure Hebrew, and shows intimate acquaintance with both Egyptian and Arabian scenery and usages. Its theme is the problem of evil, why the righteous suffer and the wicked prosper in this world. After the outbreak of Job's despair, chap. 3, there are three series of controversies, in which each of Job's friends makes an address, to which Job replies—save that in the 32d series Zophar is silent. Chaps 4-26. Then Job makes a closing address to all three, 27, 28, followed by a striking soliloquy, 29-31. Elihu utters four discourses, 32-37, after which Jehovah speaks out of the whirlwind, 38-41, and Job is humbled and yet vindicated. The best critics of every age count this poetical book as one of the immortal master-pieces of genius. Carlyle said that "there is nothing written of equal literary merit." But it is no less estimable for its religious and ethical worth, setting forth as it does the being and perfections of Jehovah, the apostasy and guilt of evil spirits and of mankind, the sovereignty of divine providence, the mercy of God on the basis of sacrifice and penitence, the disciplinary nature of his people's sorrows, the wisdom of submission to his will, and the assurance, in view of his infinite power and wisdom, that all shall be well with his followers in the end. The Book of Job may be better understood by reading it in the Revised English Version.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Job
He that weeps or cries
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Job
JOB
1. The man Job . Job is referred to in the OT in the book bearing his name, and in Ezekiel 14:12-20 , where he is mentioned as a conspicuous example of righteousness; in the Apocr [1] in Sir 49:9 [2], and the Vulg. [3] of Tob 2:12 ; and in the NT in James 5:11 , the last two passages alluding to his patience. The reference in Ezk. shows that righteous Job was a familiar figure in some Jewish circles in the 6th cent. b.c. On the assumption that the Job of the book is sketched, as to the main outlines, after ancient tradition, probably the same in substance as that known to Ezk., we have to think of him as a Gentile living in patriarchal times either in the Hauran or on the confines of Idumæa and Arabia (see Uz), and his friends also must be regarded as Gentiles.
This conclusion is supported by the names of God generally employed in the poem. The Tetragrammaton, which is used 31 times by the writer in the prose parts, occurs only once in the poetic portions (Job 12:9 ), and is ascribed to Job only in one verse in the Prologue ( Job 1:21 ). Adonai is also met with once ( Job 28:28 ). God is usually referred to by Job and his associates by names not distinctively Jewish: Et , 55 times; Etoah , 41 times out of 57 in the whole OT; and Shaddai , 31 times out of 48 in OT; Etohim is comparatively rare in the poem. The entire absence of distinct allusions to Israelitish history points to the same conclusion. The great word torah , ‘law,’ is used only once ( Job 22:22 ), and then in the general sense of ‘instruction.’ According to a lost work, ‘Concerning the Jews,’ by one Aristeas, cited by Euseb. ( Ev. Praep . ix. 25), and the appendix in the LXX [4] , said to be taken from a Syriac book but standing in some relation to Aristeas, Job is to be identified with Jobab, king of Edom ( Genesis 36:33 ). This identification, which appears also in the Testament of Job , a work probably containing an ancient Jewish nucleus, although critically worthless, is not without interest and value, as possibly preserving a fragment of old tradition. The name Job , which probably belongs to the traditional story, is in Heb. ’Iyyôb . The apparently similar name Job (AV [5] ) of Genesis 46:13 , a son of Issachar, is differently spelt (in Heb. Yôb ), and is therefore given in the RV [6] as Iob. Jobab , which is met with in several connexions ( Genesis 10:29 Joktanite; Genesis 36:33 Edomite; Job 33:19-289 Canaanite; 1 Chronicles 8:9 Benjamite), seems to be quite distinct, although Cheyne remarks (in EBi [7] ) that the possibility of a connexion must be admitted. The meaning of ’Iyyôb is extremely uncertain. If explained from the Heb., it means either ‘attacked’ or ‘attacker’ (Siegfried in JE [8] ). If explained with the help of the Arabic ’ayyûb , it means ‘returning,’ ‘penitent.’ In all probability it was a foreign name taken over with the story, which seems in the first instance to have been of foreign origin. The name Aiab , which was current in the north of Palestine c [9] . b.c. 1400 (Tell el-Amarna Letters, No. 237 Winckler [10]), may be a Canaanitish equivalent, but no stress can be laid on the similarity. It has also been noticed that aiabu in Bab. [11] meant ‘enemy’ ( ib. 50 Winckler [12]), but this cannot be regarded at present as more than a coincidence.
2. The Book of Job
(1) Place in the Canon . Except in the Syriac Bible, which locates it between the Pentateuch and Joshua, on account of its supposed great antiquity, the book is always reckoned as one of the Kethubim or Hagiographa , and is often given the third place. It is usually grouped with Ps. and Prov., with which it is associated by the use of a special system of accentuation (except in the Prologue and Epilogue), but the order of the three books varies.
In a baraitha in the Bab. [11] Talm. ( Baba bathra 14 b ), which probably gives the most ancient order (Ryle, Canon of OT , 232), it comes after Ruth and Ps.; in many Heb. MSS, especially Spanish, and in the Massorah, after Ch. and Ps.; in the German MSS, which have been followed in most printed editions, after Ps. and Proverbs. Of the LXX [4] MSS Codex B has the remarkable order: Ps., Pr., Ec., Ca., Job, Wis., Sir.; A has Ps., Job, Proverbs. In printed editions of the LXX [4] and Vulg. [3] Job usually comes first, and this order is generally adopted in European versions, owing no doubt to the influence of the Latin Bible.
(2) Text . The Heb. text of Job was long regarded as excellent, but has been much questioned in recent years, some critics resorting very largely to emendation with the help of the Versions and free conjecture. The reaction against the earlier view has probably led some scholars too far. When the difficulty of the theme, its bold treatment in many places, and the large number of words, forms, and uses not met with elsewhere (according to Friedrich Delitzsch, 259) are duly taken into account, the condition of the text is seen to be less corrupt than might have been expected. Much discussion has been occasioned by the peculiar character of the LXX [4] as restored to its original form by means of the Sahidic translation first published in 1889. This version differs in extent from the Massoretic text more widely in Job than in any other book. There are two interesting additions: the expansion of Job 2:8 and the appendix at the end of the book; but the chief characteristic is omission. A little less than one-fifth of the Heb. text is absent about 400 lines out of, roundly speaking, 2200 for the whole book and 2075 for the poetic portions. A few have found in this shorter edition the original text of the book, but most ascribe the minus of the LXX [4] to defective understanding of the Hebrew, imperfect acquaintance with the structure of Heb. poetry, and the desire to conform to Hellenic standards, etc., rather than to variation of text. This version therefore, in the opinion of most competent judges, is of little use for the restoration of the text. Here and there it suggests a better reading, e.g. in Jeremiah 20:14-182 a ‘latter end’ for ‘paths,’ but in the main the Massoretic text is greatly to be preferred. It is not improbable, however, that the arrangement of the latter is wrong in a few passages: e.g. in ch. 31, where 8:35 37 form a more fitting close than 8:38 40.
(3) Analysis . The book, as we have it, is a poem framed in prose, with bits of prose interspersed. The prose portions are as follows: the introduction, often called the Prologue (ch. 1 f.), stating the problem, ‘the undeserved suffering of a good man,’ giving a partial solution, and bringing on the scene the hero’s three friends; short headings ( Job 3:1 , Job 4:1 etc.); a supplementary note ( Job 31:40 c.); a brief introduction to the speeches of Elihu ( Job 32:1-6 ); and the sequel, often called the Epilogue ( Job 42:7-17 ). The poem opens with a monologue in which Job curses the day of his birth (ch. 3). This is followed by a series of three dialogues extending over chs. 4 28: (i.) 4 14; (ii.) 15 21; (iii.) 22 28.
The three friends in succession, probably in order of seniority, reason with Job, all from the generally accepted standpoint that suffering is a sure indication of sin. As the discussion proceeds they become more and more bitter, until the most moderate and dignified of them, Eliphaz, actually taxes Job with flagrant iniquity ( Job 22:5-9 ). In the third dialogue, as we have it, one of the speakers, Zophar, is silent. Job replies at length to each expostulation, sometimes sinking into depression on the verge of despair ( Job 14:1-12 etc.), occasionally rising for a moment or two into confidence ( Job 16:19 , Job 19:25-27 ), but throughout maintaining his integrity, and, notwithstanding passionate utterances which seem near akin to blasphemy ( Job 10:8-17 , Job 16:7-17 ), never wholly losing his faith in God.
The dialogues are followed by a monologue spoken by Job (chs. 29 31), consisting of a vivid retrospect of the happy past (ch. 29), a dismal picture of the wretched present (ch. 30), and what Marshall calls ‘Job’s oath of self-vindication’ an emphatic disavowal of definite forms of transgression, in a series of sentences most of which begin with ‘if,’ sometimes followed by an imprecation (ch.31). The succeeding six chapters (32 37) are ascribed to a new character, a young man, Elihu the Buzite, who is dissatisfied] with both Job and his friends. The distinctive note of his argument is the stress laid on the thought that God teaches by means of affliction; in other words, that the purpose, or at least one main purpose, of trial is discipline (1618416427_27 , Job 36:10 ; Job 36:15 ). Elihu then drops out of the book, and the remainder of the poem (chs. 38 42:6) is devoted to Jahweh’s answer to Job’s complaint, calling attention to the Divine power, wisdom, and tenderness revealed in creation, in the control of natural forces and phenomena, in the life of birds and beasts, and in the working of Providence in human history, and suggesting that He who could do all this might surely he trusted to care for His servant; and Job’s penitent retraction of his ‘presumptuous utterances.’
(4) Integrity . On the question whether the book, as we have it, is a single whole or a combination of two or more parts, there is a general agreement among scholars in favour of the latter alternative. There are clear indications of at least two hands. The speeches of Elihu (chs. 32 37) are ascribed by most (not by Budde, Cornill, Wildehoer, Briggs, and a few others) to a later writer, who desired to supplement, and to some extent correct, the work of his predecessor.
The chief reasons alleged for this conclusion are: (1) the silence about Elihu in the Epilogue. (2) The fact that the whole section can be removed without any break of continuity, Job 31:40 c. linking on naturally to Job 38:1 . (3) The Aramaic character of the diction, and the occurrence of words and phrases not found elsewhere in the poem. (4) Literary inferiority. (5) Theological diversity, the conception of God differing from what is met with in the rest of the book (Marshall, Job and his Friends , p. 82ff.).
The third of these reasons has been shown to be inconclusive. The language of Elihu is not inconsistent with the view that these chapters were written by the author of the dialogues. The fourth reason is not without weight, but it must be allowed that there are some very fine things in these chapters, and it must be remembered that they have probably been handed down less carefully than some other parts of the book, on account of the disfavour with which some of the ancient Jews regarded Elihu (‘inspired by Satan’ Test. of Job , ch. 41). In any case, Friedrich Delitzsch has gone too far in describing the author as ‘a fifth-rate poet.’ The remaining three reasons, however, seem to be nearly decisive.
The fine poem in ch. 28, which contrasts the success of man in finding precious ore with his utter failure to find wisdom, does not fit in with the context, and is therefore regarded by many as an addition. The striking, but rather turgid, descriptions of the hippopotamus and the crocodile in chs. 40, 41 are also held by many to be an interpolation. Some question the verses about the ostrich (Job 39:13-18 ). The Prologue and Epilogue are considered by some to be the relies of an earlier work in prose.
A few scholars go much further in critical analysis. Bickell, for instance, in his search after the original text, expunges not only the speeches of Elihu and the Prologue and Epilogue, but also the whole of the speeches of Jahweh, and many smaller portions. Cheyne (in EBi [7] ) seems to find four main elements in the book, as we have it, ‘which has grown, not been made’: (1) the Prologue and the Epilogue; (2) the dialogue; (3) the speeches of Jahweh; (4) the speeches of Elihu. Marshall (in Com .), on the ground that there are different strata of theological belief, also finds four elements, but only in part the same. (1) The dialogues up to Job 27:23 , with the Epilogue, and part of the Prologue; (2) chs. 28 31, and the speeches of Jahweh; (3) the speeches of Elihu; (4) the references to the heavenly council in chs. 1 and 2.
(5) Nature of the Book . The class of Heb. literature to which the Book of Job belongs is clearly the Chokhmah or Wisdom group, the other representatives of which are Pr., Ec., and Sir. the group which deals with questions of practical ethics, religious philosophy, and speculation. The book is mainly not entirely, as one of the Rabbis thought ( Baba bathra , 15 a ) a work of imagination, but, in the judgment of most, with a traditional nucleus, the extent of which, however, is uncertain, as there are features in both the Prologue and the Epilogue which suggest literary invention: e.g. , the recurrence of the words ‘I only am escaped alone to tell thee’ ( Job 1:15-17 ; Job 1:19 ), the use of the Numbers 3:1-51 ( Job 1:2 ; JOba 1:17 , Job 2:11 , Job 42:13 ) and 7 ( Job 27:2-68 f., Job 42:8 ; Job 42:13 ), and the doubling of Job’s possessions ( Job 27:5-14 ). The poem, as handed down to us, can hardly he described in modern terms. It contains lyrical elements, but could not appropriately he designated lyrical. It has more than one dramatic feature, but is not really a drama. It reminds one of the epos, but is not an epic. It is didactic, but, as Baudissin has observed, soars high above a mere didactic poem. It is emphatically sui generis . It stands absolutely alone, not merely in the literature of Israel, but in the literature of the world.
(6) Poetic Form . The Austrian scholar Bickell, who has been followed by Duhm, and in England by Dillon, has tried to show that the poem was written throughout in quatrains, but the textual havoc wrought in the attempt seems to prove clearly that he is, in part at least, on the wrong track. Very few critics accept the theory. The only thing that seems to be certain about the poetic method of the writer or writers is the use throughout of the parallelism of members, which has long been known as the leading feature of ancient Oriental poetry. A verse usually consists of two lines or members, but there are many instances where there are three ( Job 26:1-4 ff., Job 3:9 ), and one at least where there is only one ( Job 14:4 ). More than eight hundred out of about a thousand verses, according to Ley, consist of two lines, each of which has three independent words. But here again there are many exceptions, some no doubt due to textual corruption, but more in all probability to the poet’s mastery of the forms which he employed.
(7) Purpose and teaching . The chief object of the poet to whom we owe the dialogues, and probably the Prologue and the Epilogue, and the speeches of Jahweh, and we may add, of the compiler or editor of the whole book, is to give a better answer to the question, ‘Why are exceptionally good men heavily afflicted?’ than that generally current in Jewish circles down to the time of Christ. A subsidiary object is the delineation of spiritual experience under the conditions supposed, of the sufferer’s changing moods, and yet indestructible longing for the God whom he cannot understand. The poet’s answer, as stated in the speeches of Jahweh, seems at the first reading no answer at all, but when closely examined is seen to be profoundly suggestive. There is no specific reply to Job’s bitter complaints and passionate outcries. Instead of reasoning with His servant, Jahweh reminds him of a few of the wonders of creation and providence, and leaves him to draw the inference. He draws it, and sees the God whom he seemed to have lost sight of for ever as he never saw Him before, even in the time of his prosperity; sees Him, indeed, in a very real sense for the first time ( Job 42:5 ). The book also contains other partial solutions of the problem. The speeches of Elihu lay stress, as already observed, on the educational value of suffering. God is a peerless teacher ( Job 36:22 b), who ‘delivereth the afflicted by his affliction, and openeth (uncovereth) their ear by adversity’ ( Job 36:15 ). The Prologue lifts the curtain of the unseen world, and reveals a mysterious personality who is Divinely permitted to inflict suffering on the righteous, which results in manifestation of the Divine glory. The intellectual range of the book is amazingly wide. Marshall observes that ‘every solution which the mind of man has ever framed [7]6 is to be found in the Book of Job.’ On the question of the hereafter the teaching of the book as a whole differs little from that of the OT in general. There is yearning for something better ( Numbers 14:13-16 ), and perhaps a momentary conviction ( Job 19:25-27 ), but the general conception of the life after death is that common to Hebrews, Assyrians, and Babylonians.
(8) The characters . The interest of the Book of Job is concentrated mainly on the central figure, the hero. Of the other five leading characters by far the most interesting is the Satan of the Prologue, half-angel half-demon, by no means identical with the devil as usually conceived, and yet with a distinctly diabolical tendency. The friends are not very sharply differentiated in the book as we have it, but it is probable that the parts are wrongly distributed in the third dialogue, which is incomplete, no part being assigned to Zophar. Some ascribe Job 27:7-10 ; Job 27:13-23 to Zophar, and add to Bildad’s speech (which in the present arrangement consists only of ch. 25) Job 42:12 of ch. 26. what is left of Job’s reply being found in Job 3:4 , 1618416427_49 ; Job 27:11 f. Marshall finds Zophar’s third speech in chs. 25 and Job 26:5-14 , and Bildad’s in Job 24:18-21 . There seems to be considerable confusion in chs. 25 27, so that it is difficult to utilize them for the study of the characters of Bildad and Zophar. Eliphaz seems to be the oldest and most dignified of the three, with something of the seer or prophet about him ( Job 4:12-21 ). Bildad is ‘the traditionalist.’ Zophar , who is probably the youngest, is very differently estimated, one scholar designating him as a rough noisy fellow, another regarding him as a philosopher of the agnostic type. It must be allowed that the three characters are not as sharply distinguished as would be the case in a modern poem, the writer being concerned mainly with Job, and using the others to some extent as foils. Elihu , who has been shown to be almost certainly the creation of another writer, is not by any means a copy of one of the three. He is an ardent young man, not free from conceit, but with noble thoughts about God and insight into God’s ways not attained by them.
(9) Date . In the Heb. Sirach ( Sir 49:8-10 ) Job is referred to after Ezekiel and before ‘the Twelve.’ which may possibly suggest that the writer regarded the book as comparatively late. The oldest Rabbinic opinion ( Baba bathra , 14 b ) ascribed the book to Moses. Two Rabbis placed Job in the period of the return from the Exile ( ib. 15 a ), one as late as the Persian period ( ib. 15 b ). These opinions have no critical value, but the first has exercised considerable influence. Modern students are generally agreed on the following points: (1) The book in all its parts implies a degree of reflexion on the problems of life which fits in better with a comparatively late than with a very early age. (2) The dialogue, which is unquestionably one of the oldest portions, indicates familiarity with national catastrophes, such as the destruction of the kingdom of Samaria, the overthrow of Damascus, and the leading away of large bodies of captives, including priests and nobles, from Jerusalem to Babylon ( Job 12:17-25 ), which again, on the assumption that the writer is an Israelite, points to an advanced stage of Israelitish history. Many take a further step. ‘The prophet Jeremiah in his persecutions, Job who is called by Jahweh “my servant Job” ( Job 42:7 ), and the suffering Servant of Jahweh in the exilic prophet are figures which seem to stand in the connexion of a definite period’ (Baudissin, Einleitung , 768), and so point at the earliest to the Exile and the decades immediately preceding it. These and other considerations have led most recent critics to date the main poem near, or during, or after the Exile.
Some earlier scholars (Luther, Franz Delitzsch, Cox, and Stanley) recommended the age of Solomon, others (Nöldeke, Hitzig, and Reuss) the age of Isaiah, and others (Ewald, Riehm, and apparently Bleek) the period between Isaiah and Jeremiah. Marshall thinks that the dialogue may have been written as early as the time of Tiglath-pileser iii (b.c. 745 726), but not earlier. Dillmann, König, Davison (in Hastings’ DB [4] ), and Driver favour the period of the Exile; Cheyne (in EBi [7] ) puts the earliest part after b.c. 519; G. Hoffmann, c [9] . b.c. 500; Duhm, from 500 to 450; Budde, E.Kautzsch, and Peake, c [9] . 400; the school of Kuenen, the 4th or 3rd cent.; O. Holtzmann the age of the Ptolemys; and Siegfried (in the JE [8] ), the time of the Maccabees.
At present the period from c [9] . b.c. 600 to c [9] . 400 seems to command most approval. The later portions of the book, especially the speeches of Elihu, may have been written a century or more after the main poem. Marshall thinks that the latest element may be as late as the age of Malachi, and Duhm confidently assigns ‘Elihu’ to the 2nd cent. b.c. A definite date is evidently unattainable either for the whole or for parts, but it seems to be tolerably certain that even the earlier portions are much later than used to be assumed.
(10) Authorship . Besides the Talmudic guess cited above, very few attempts have been made to fix on an author. Calmet suggested Solomon , Bunsen Baruch , and Royer (in 1901) Jeremiah . None of these views needs to be discussed. Whoever was the author of the main poem, he was undoubtedly an Israelite, for a Gentile would not have used the Tetragrammaton so freely. Of familiarity with the Law there are, indeed, very few traces, but that is doubtless owing to the poet’s wonderful skill, which has enabled him to maintain throughout a Gentile and patriarchal colouring. There is no reason for thinking that he wrote either in Babylonia or in Egypt. He must have lived in some region where he could study the life of the desert. It has been remarked that all the creatures he names (except the hippopotamus and the crocodile, which may have been introduced by a later hand) are desert creatures. He was intimately acquainted with the life of caravans ( Job 6:15-20 ). He knew something of the astronomy of his time ( Job 9:9 , cf. Job 38:31 f.). He had some acquaintance with the myths and superstitions of Western Asia: cf. Job 9:13 , Job 25:2 , Joshua 11:1 , where there may be allusions to the Babylonian myth about the struggle between the dragon of Chaos and Marduk, the god of light; Job 3:8 , Job 26:13 , where reference may be made to popular notions about eclipses and to the claims of magicians; and perhaps Job 29:18 b., where some find an allusion to the fabulous phœnix. He was probably familiar with the Wisdom-lore of Israel, and possibly of Edom, and may safely be assumed to have known all that was worth knowing in other departments of Heb. literature (cf. Job 7:17 f. with Psalms 8:4 f., and Job 3:3 ; Job 3:10 with 1618416427_72 , although the order of dependence is by no means certain in the latter case). The poetic execution reveals the hand of a master. It seems most natural to look for his home in the south or southeast of the Holy Land, not far from Edom, where he would come in frequent contact with Gentile sages, and could glean much from travellers.
(11) Parallels to Job . Cheyne (in EBi [7] ) has endeavoured to connect the story of Job with the Babylonian legend of Eabani, but the similarity is too slight to need discussion. A far closer parallel is furnished by a partially preserved poem from the library of Ashurbanipal, which probably reproduces an ancient Babylonian text. It represents the musings of an old king, who has lived a blameless and devout life, but is nevertheless terribly afflicted in body and mind pursued all day, and without rest at night and is apparently forsaken of the gods. He cannot understand the ways of Deity towards either himself or others. ‘What seems good to a man is bad with his god.… Who could understand the counsel of the gods in heaven?’ The poem ends with a song of praise for deliverance from sin and disease ( Der Alte Orient , vii. No. 3, pp. 27 30, and extra vol. ii. 134 139; and M. Jastrow in JBL [29] xxv [30], p. 135 ff.).
The Jesuit missionary, Père Bouchet, called attention in 1723 to the story of the ancient Indian king Arichandiren who, in consequence of a dispute in an assembly of gods and goddesses and holy men as to the existence of a perfect prince, was very severely tested by the leader of the sceptical party. He was deprived of his property, his kingdom, his only son, and his wife, but still trod the path of virtue, and received as rewards the restoration of wife and son, and other marks of Divine favour. These parallels, however, interesting as they are, do not in the least interfere with the originality and boldness of the Hebrew poem, which must ever be regarded as the boldest and grandest effort of the ancient world to ‘justify the ways of God to men.’
W. Taylor Smith.
Chabad Knowledge Base - Job
A righteous man who was tested with tremendous suffering yet remained steadfastly loyal to G-d. The Talmud cites many opinions as to when Job lived, ranging from the times of Jacob until Ahasuerus. Others maintain that the story is only a parable.
Job, the book of: A book of Tanach relating Job's suffering and his reaction thereto.
Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Job
Ezekiel 14:14 (a) An example of one who can and did pray the prayer of faith which moved GOD to perform miracles. (See also James 5:11).
The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Job
The man of Uz. His name signifies, what he himself was, one that weePs His name is quoted with great honour by the Lord himself. (Ezekiel 14:14) and his patience recommended very forcibly by an Apostle. (James 5:11)
Whyte's Dictionary of Bible Characters - Job
THE greatest of all the men of the East, as Job afterwards became, he began his life with having nothing. In his own lowly-minded words, Job was at one time poor even to nakedness. When he was at the top of his shining prosperity, and when he suddenly lost it all in one day, his utter desolation threw his mind back on his absolutely destitute youth. The Lord gave, he said, with splendid thankfulness and with splendid submission, and the Lord hath taken away; blessed be the name of the Lord. But, far worse than all his early poverty, and far more difficult to escape and to surmount, were the long-lived sins of his youth. I have been in the same great trespass, says old Bishop Andrewes, from my youth up, and even to this day. Perfect and upright, and one that feared God and eschewed evil, as Job had now for such a long time been, at the same time he tells us that the heels of his feet still left an accusing and an arresting mark behind him, whatever he did, and wherever he dwelt. Job had been freely and fully forgiven of God, but vengeance was still being taken of God on all Job's inventions, as God's way has always been with His best saints, and always will be. My sins are ever before me, was Job's continual confession made toward God; while, all the time, he held fast his integrity toward all men, and in the face of all men. To his three friends, who so cruelly accused him of hypocrisy, and who kept insisting that there must be some cloked-up sin in Job's present life that was the cause of all his terrible troubles, he replied with a magnificent and a conclusive vindication of his absolute innocence and perfect integrity. But, all the time, we see Job turning from all men to God and confessing, with the most poignant shame and sorrow, both his past sins and his present sinfulness. 'How many are mine iniquities and my sins! For Thou writest bitter things against me, and makest me to possess the iniquities of my youth. Thou puttest my feet also into the stocks, and lookest narrowly to all my paths. Thou settest a print on the heels of my feet. If I wash myself with snow water, and make my hands never so clean, yet Thou wilt plunge me into the ditch, and mine own clothes shall abhor me.' The truth is: Job is both guilty and not guilty. Job is both unclean and vile. Job is absolutely innocent of all that Eliphaz and his fellows insinuate and impute to him. The Philistines understand me not, says John Bunyan in his Grace Abounding. But Job is not without much sin in his past life, and much sinfulness in his present heart. And it is this-with his unparalleled sufferings, and with the incessant insinuations and insults of his three friends-it is all this that so racks and tortures Job's tender conscience, and so darkens and crushes his pious heart, and so embitters and exasperates, sometimes almost to rank blasphemy, his far too many defences of himself.
'How long have I to live?' said Barzillai to David, when, at his restoration to the throne, David invited the loyal, hospitable, Highland chieftain to a thanksgiving feast in Jerusalem. 'I am this day fourscore years old. Can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women?' And in like manner, when Job's sons and daughters said to their old father, 'Come to our feasts with us!' Job answered them thus: 'No, my children. There is a time for everything. I am no longer young as you are. Rejoice,' said the genial old man, 'in the days of your youth. Go your way; eat the fat and drink the sweet, and send portions unto them for whom nothing is prepared.' Only, all the time, Job had not forgotten his own early days. He knew to his lasting cost that folly is bound up in a young man's heart, and that eating and drinking and dancing, more than anything else, lets all that folly out. And thus it was that Job's sons and daughters had no sooner set out to the days of their feasting and the nights of their dancing, than their father set himself to his days and nights of prayer on behalf of his children. And every morning and every evening till the days of their feasting were all gone about Job never ceased his sacrifices and intercessions in his children's behalf. For each one of his sons and daughters their old father offered a special sacrifice, and set apart for each a special diet of intercession. So much so, that there is not a father or a mother among us to this day to whom God has not often said, Hast thou, in this matter of thy children, considered my servant Job? No. We confess with pain and shame and guilt concerning our children, that Job here condemns us to our face. But we feel tonight greatly drawn, if it is not too late, to imitate Job henceforth in behalf of our children. We have not wholly neglected them, nor the Great Sacrifice in their behalf. But we have not remembered it and them together at all with that regularity, and point, and perseverance, and watchfulness, that all combined to make Job such a good father to his children, and such a good servant to his God. But if our children are still about us, and if it is not yet too late, we shall vow before God tonight that whilst they are still with us we shall not again so forget them. When they set out to school we shall look out of our windows after them, and we shall imagine and picture to ourselves the life into which they must all enter and cannot escape. We shall remember the streets and the playgrounds of our own schooldays, and the older boys and their conversations. And we shall reflect that the games, and sports, and talks of the playground will bring things out of our children's hearts that we never see nor hear at home. And, then, when they come the length of taking walking and cycling tours, and fishing and shooting expeditions; and, still more, when they are invited out to eat and to drink and to dance, till they must now have a latch-key of their own-by that time it is more than time we had done with all our own late hours, and had taken ourselves to almost nothing in this world but intercessory prayer. We shall not go with them, but we shall not sleep till they have all come home and shut the door to our hearing behind them. And we shall every such night, and in as many words, plead before God the sacrifice of Jesus Christ, for each several one of our own and our neighbours' children. We shall go over their names, one after another. We shall spread out our fears and our hopes before God. We shall go over their ages, their temperaments, their inherited virtues and vices. We shall call up and remember where we were living, and what we were doing at their age; and that will make us fall on our face and plead with God that the heels of our son's feet shall leave no such marks behind them as our feet have left. It had been better they had never been born; it were better they died even now than that they should live to possess the iniquities of their youth, and to be put into those terrible stocks that God still keeps for young sinners. And, then, when they come home late at night, and see his candle still burning in their father's room, without any one pointing it out to them, or casting it up to them, they will understand their father's wistful ways, and that will bring them to their own knees also for the day past, and for the night past, and for their own souls, and for the souls of their companions. Thus did Job and his sons and his daughters continually.
The curse that always waits in this world on controversy and contradiction has never been clearer seen than it is seen in Job's case. For never was so much shrewd truth, and so many truly pious positions, and so much divine and human eloquence heard on both sides, and from any other five debating men, as was heard all round Job's ash-heap. The authorities on these things tell us that the debating in the Book of Job is the most wonderful piece of genius that has ever been heard or read since debating genius was. And, yet, such is the malignant and incurable curse of all controversy, even at its best, that Job and all his four friends seem sometimes as if they are to be consumed one of another-out of the same mouth so much blessing and so much cursing both proceed. If Job could have but endured to the end the near neighbourhood, and the suspicious looks, and the significant gestures, and the open broadsides of his four friends, 'that daily furnace of men's tongues,' as Augustine has it, Job would have been far too patient and far too perfect for an Old Testament saint. For, till Christ came, no soul was ever made such a battle-ground between heaven and hell, as Job's soul was made. Job's sorrows came not in single spies, but in battalions. Like the Captain of Salvation Himself, Job, His forerunner, took up successful arms against a whole sea of sorrows, and he would have won every battle of them all had he only been able to bear up under the suspicious looks and the reproving speeches of his four friends. But what Satan could not do with all his Sabeans, and all his Chaldeans, and all his winds from the wilderness to help him, that he soon did with the help of the debating approaches and the controversial assaults of Eliphaz, and Zophar, and Bildad, and Elihu. Oh, the unmitigable curse of controversy! Oh, the detestable passions that corrections and contradictions kindle up to fury in the proud heart of man! Eschew controversy, my brethren, as you would eschew the entrance to hell itself. Let them have it their own way. Let them talk. Let them write. Let them correct you. Let them traduce you. Let them judge and condemn you. Let them slay you. Rather let the truth of God itself suffer, than that love suffer. You have not enough of the divine nature in you to be a controversialist. He was oppressed, and He was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth; He is brought as a Iamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so He opened not His mouth. Who, when He was reviled, reviled not again; when He suffered, He threatened not: by whose stripes ye were healed. Heal me, prays Augustine again and again, of this lust of mine of always vindicating myself. Read Santa Teresa's advice about self-excusing.
But, splendid, and, to this day, unapproached composition as the Book of Job is; and, magnificent victory of faith and patience as Job at last achieved; at the same time, the whole tragedy, down to its completion and coronation, is all displayed on an immensely lower stage of things than are a thousand far greater tragedies at present in progress among ourselves. For, after all, both Job's trials, and his triumphs of faith and patience also, savour somewhat too much of this present world. Job suffers first the loss of his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his camels, and his servants; and then, with that, the loss of his sons and daughters; after which the patriarch is smitten in his own body with such a dreadful disease that he is more like a rotten carcass than a living man. All of which was surely tribulation enough for that day and that dispensation. But the fatal loss and the absolute despair of ever attaining to any true holiness of heart; to any true and spiritual love either to God or man; that is a trial of faith and patience to some men in our day that Job with all his battalions of trials knew nothing about. The Lord chastens some men among us with a heart so full of the blains, and boils, and elephantiasis of spiritual sin that a single day of it would have driven Job downright mad. Under it, in his day, Job would have cursed God, and died. But let those among us who are God's elect to the sanctification of the Spirit take comfort. And let them have patience; ay, and far more patience than all the patience of Job, even as they are called to endure far more than all the accumulated losses and all the intolerable diseases of Job. Let them be absolutely sure that when God has sufficiently tried them, they, too, shall come forth as gold. Behold, we count them happy which endure. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. The time is long; but the thing is true. Behold, I am vile; what shall I answer Thee? I shall lay my hand upon my mouth. I have heard of Thee by the hearing of the ear; but now mine eye seeth Thee. Therefore, I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes. It was when Job had been taught of God to see and to say all that, as never before; it was then that the Lord took pity and turned the captivity of Job. And it will just be when you both see and feel all that; and that a thousand times clearer and a thousand times keener than Job could either see it or feel it; it will just be then that the Lord will turn your captivity also till you will be like men that dream. For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand at the latter day upon the earth. And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God. Whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another; though my reins be consumed within me. For the which cause I also suffer these things; for I know in whom I have believed, and am persuaded that He is able to keep that which I have committed unto Him against that day. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us. Be ye also patient, and stablish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord draweth nigh.
Webster's Dictionary - Job
(1):
(v. i.) To seek private gain under pretense of public service; to turn public matters to private advantage.
(2):
(v. t.) To strike or stab with a pointed instrument.
(3):
(v. t.) To buy and sell, as a broker; to purchase of importers or manufacturers for the purpose of selling to retailers; as, to job goods.
(4):
(n.) A situation or opportunity of work; as, he lost his job.
(5):
(n.) A public transaction done for private profit; something performed ostensibly as a part of official duty, but really for private gain; a corrupt official business.
(6):
(n.) Any affair or event which affects one, whether fortunately or unfortunately.
(7):
(v. t.) To hire or let by the job or for a period of service; as, to job a carriage.
(8):
(n.) The hero of the book of that name in the Old Testament; the typical patient man.
(9):
(v. i.) To carry on the business of a jobber in merchandise or stocks.
(10):
(n.) A piece of chance or occasional work; any definite work undertaken in gross for a fixed price; as, he did the job for a thousand dollars.
(11):
(n.) A sudden thrust or stab; a jab.
(12):
(v. t.) To thrust in, as a pointed instrument.
(13):
(v. t.) To do or cause to be done by separate portions or lots; to sublet (work); as, to job a contract.
(14):
(v. i.) To do chance work for hire; to work by the piece; to do petty work.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Job
(persecuted ), the third son of Issachar, ( Genesis 46:13 ) called in another genealogy JASHUB . (1 Chronicles 7:1 )
Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Job
a patriarch celebrated for his patience, and the constancy of his piety and virtue. That Job was a real, and not a fictitious, character, may be inferred from the manner in which he is mentioned in the Scriptures. Thus, the Prophet Ezekiel speaks of him: "Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God," Ezekiel 14:14 . Now since Noah and Daniel were unquestionably real characters, we must conclude the same of Job. "Behold," says the Apostle James, "we count them happy which endure: ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord, that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy," James 5:11 . It is scarcely to be believed that a divinely inspired Apostle would refer to an imaginary character as an example of patience, or in proof of the mercy of God. But, beside the authority of the inspired writers, we have the strongest internal evidence, from the book itself, that Job was a real person; for it expressly specifies the names of persons, places, facts, and other circumstances usually related in true histories. Thus, we have the name, country, piety, wealth, &c, of Job described, Job i; the names, number, and acts of his children are mentioned; the conduct of his wife is recorded as a fact, Job ii; his friends, their names, countries, and discourses with him in his afflictions are minutely delineated, Job 2:11 , &c.
Farther: no reasonable doubt can be entertained respecting the real existence of Job, when we consider that it is proved by the concurrent testimony of all eastern tradition: he is mentioned by the author of the book of Tobit, who lived during the Assyrian captivity; he is also repeatedly mentioned by Arabian writers as a real character. The whole of his history, with many fabulous additions, was known among the Syrians and Chaldeans; and many of the noblest families among the Arabs are distinguished by his name, and boast of being descended from him.
Since, then, says Horne, the book of Job contains the history of a real character, the next point is the age in which he lived, a question concerning which there is as great a diversity of opinion, as upon any other subject connected with this venerable monument of sacred antiquity. One thing, however, is generally admitted with respect to the age of the book of Job, namely, its remote antiquity. Even those who contend for the later production of the book of Job are compelled to acquiesce in this particular. Grotius thinks the events of the history are such as cannot be placed later than the sojourning of the Israelites in the wilderness. Bishop Warburton, in like manner, admits them to bear the marks of high antiquity; and Michaelis confesses the manners to be perfectly Abrahamic, that is, such as were common to all the seed of Abraham, Israelites, Ishmaelites, and Idumeans. The following are the principal circumstances from which the age of Job may be collected and ascertained:—
1. The Usserian or Bible chronology dates the trial of Job about the year 1520 before the Christian era, twenty-nine years before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt; and that the book was composed before that event, is evident from its total silence respecting the miracles which accompanied the exode; such as the passage of the Red Sea, the destruction of the Egyptians, the manna in the desert, &c; all of which happened in the vicinity of Job's country, and were so apposite in the debate concerning the ways of Providence that some notice could not but have been taken of them, if they had been coeval with the poem of Job.
2. That it was composed before Abraham's migration to Canaan, may also be inferred from its silence respecting the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, and the other cities of the plain, which were still nearer to Idumea, where the scene is laid.
3. The length of Job's life places him in the patriarchal times. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, Job 42:16 , and was probably not younger at that time; for we read that his seven sons were all grown up, and had been settled in their own houses for a considerable time, Job 1:4-5 . He speaks of the sins of his youth, Job 13:26 , and of the prosperity of his youth; and yet Eliphaz addresses him as a novice: "With us are both the gray-headed and very aged men, much elder than thy father," Job 15:10 .
4. That he did not live at an earlier period, may be collected from an incidental observation of Bildad, who refers Job to their forefathers for instruction in wisdom:—
"Inquire, I pray thee, of the former age,
And prepare thyself to the search of their fathers:"
assigning as a reason the comparative shortness of human life, and consequent ignorance of the present generation:—
"For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing; Because our days upon earth are a shadow."
Job 8:8-9 .
But the fathers of the former age, or grandfathers of the present, were the contemporaries of Peleg and Joktan, in the fifth generation after the deluge; and they might easily have learned wisdom from the fountain head by conversing with Shem, or perhaps with Noah himself; whereas, in the seventh generation, the standard of human life was reduced to about two hundred years, which was a shadow compared with the longevity of Noah and his sons.
5. The general air of antiquity which pervades the manners recorded in the poem, is a farther evidence of its remote date. The manners and customs, indeed, critically correspond with that early period. Thus, Job speaks of the most ancient kinds of writing, by sculpture, Job 19:24 ; his riches also are reckoned by his cattle, Job 42:12 . Farther: Job acted as high priest in his family, according to the patriarchal usage, Genesis 8:20 ; for the institution of an established priesthood does not appear to have taken place any where until the time of Abraham. Melchizedec, king of Salem, was a priest of the primitive order, Genesis 14:18 ; such also was Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses, in the vicinity of Idumea, Exodus 18:12 . The first regular priesthood was probably instituted in Egypt, where Joseph was married to the daughter of the priest of On, Genesis 41:45 .
6. The slavish homage of prostration to princes and great men, which prevailed in Egypt, Persia, and the east in general, and which still subsists there, was unknown in Arabia at that time. Though Job was one of the greatest men of all the east, we do not find any such adoration paid to him by his contemporaries, in the zenith of his prosperity, among the marks of respect so minutely described in the twenty-ninth chapter: "When the young men saw him, they hid themselves," (rather, shrunk back, through respect or rustic bashfulness,) "the aged arose and stood up in his presence, (more correctly, ranged themselves about him, ) "the princes refrained from talking, and laid their hand upon their mouth; the nobles held their peace," and were all attention while he spoke. All this was highly respectful, indeed, but still it was manly, and showed no cringing or servile adulation. With this description correspond the manners and conduct of the genuine Arabs of the present day, a majestic race, who were never conquered, and who have retained their primitive customs, features, and character, with scarcely any alteration.
7. The allusion made by Job to that species of idolatry alone, which by general consent is admitted to have been the most ancient, namely, Zabianism, or the worship of the sun and moon, and also to the exertion of the judicial authority against it, Job 31:26-28 , is an additional and most complete proof of the high antiquity of the poem, as well as a decisive mark of the patriarchal age. 8. A farther evidence of the remote antiquity of this book is the language of Job and his friends; who, being all Idumeans, or at least Arabians of the adjacent country, yet conversed in Hebrew. This carries us up to an age so early as that in which all the posterity of Abraham, Israelites, Idumeans, and Arabians, yet continued to speak one common language, and had not branched into different dialects.
The country in which the scene of this poem is laid, is stated, Job 1:1 , to be the land of Uz, which by some geographers has been placed in Sandy, and by others in Stony, Arabia. Bochart strenuously advocated the former opinion, in which he has been powerfully supported by Spanheim, Calmet, Carpzov, Heidegger, and some later writers; Michaelis and Ilgen place the scene in the valley of Damascus; but Bishops Lowth and Magee, Dr. Hales, Dr. Good, and some later critics and philologers, have shown that the scene is laid in Idumea. In effect, nothing is clearer than that the history of an inhabitant of Idumea is the subject of the poem which bears the name of Job, and that all the persons introduced into it were Idumeans, dwelling in Idumea, in other words, Edomite Arabs. These characters are, Job himself, of the land of Uz; Eliphaz, of Teman, a district of as much repute as Uz, and which, it appears from the joint testimony of Jeremiah. Ezekiel, Amos, and Obadiah, Jeremiah 49:7 ; Jeremiah 49:20 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ; Amos 1:11-12 ; Obadiah 1:8-9 , formed a principal part of Idumea; Bildad, of Shuah, who is always mentioned in conjunction with Sheba and Dedan, the first of whom was probably named after one of the brothers of Joktan or Kahtan, and the two last from two of his sons, all of them being uniformly placed in the vicinity of Idumea, Genesis 25:2-3 ; Jeremiah 49:8 ; Zophar of Naama, a city importing pleasantness, which is also stated by Joshua, Joshua 15:21 ; Joshua 15:41 , to have been situate in Idumea, and to have lain in a southern direction toward its coast, on the shores of the Red Sea; and Elihu, of Buz, which, as the name of a place, occurs only once in Sacred Writ, Jeremiah 25:23 , but is there mentioned in conjunction with Temen and Dedan; and hence necessarily, like them, a border city upon Uz or Idumea. Allowing this chirography to be correct, (and such, upon a fair review of facts, we may conclude it to be,) there is no difficulty in conceiving that hordes of nomadic Chaldeans as well as Sabeans, a people addicted to rapine, and roving about at immense distances for the sake of plunder, should have occasionally infested the defenceless country of Idumea, and roved from the Euphrates even to Egypt.
The different parts of the book of Job are so closely connected together, that they cannot be detached from each other. The exordium prepares the reader for what follows, supplies us with the necessary notices concerning Job and his friends, unfolds the scope, and places the calamities full in our view as an object of attention. The epilogue, or conclusion, again, has reference to the exordium, and relates the happy termination of Job's trials; the dialogues which intervene flow in regular order. Now, if any of these parts were to be taken away, the poem would be extremely defective. Without the prologue the reader would be utterly ignorant who Job was, who were his friends, and the cause of his being so grievously afflicted. Without the discourse of Elihu, Job 32-37, there would be a sudden and abrupt transition from the last words of Job to the address of God, for which Elihu's discourse prepares the reader. And without the epilogue, or conclusion, we should remain in ignorance of the subsequent condition of Job. Hence it is evident, that the poem is the composition of a single author; but who that was, is a question concerning which the learned are very much divided in their sentiments. Elihu, Job, Moses, Solomon, Isaiah, an anonymous writer in the reign of Manasseh, Ezekiel, and Ezra, have all been contended for. The arguments already adduced respecting the age of Job, prove that it could not be either of the latter persons. Dr. Lightfoot, from an erroneous version of Job 32:16-17 , has conjectured that it is the production of Elihu; but the correct rendering of that passage refutes this notion. Ilgen ascribes it probably to a descendant of Elihu. Another and more generally received opinion attributes this book to Moses; this conjecture is founded on some apparent striking coincidences of sentiment, as well as from some marks of later date which are supposed to be discoverable in it. But, independently of the characters of antiquity already referred to, and which place the book of Job very many centuries before the time of Moses, the total absence of even the slightest allusion to the manners, customs, ceremonies, or history of the Israelites, is a direct evidence that the great legislator of the Hebrews was not, and could not have been the author. To which may be added, that the style of Job, as Bishop Lowth has remarked, is materially different from the poetical style of Moses; for it is much more compact, concise, or condensed, more accurate in the poetical conformation of the sentences; as may be observed also in the prophecies of Balaam the Mesopotamian, a foreigner, indeed, with respect to the Israelites, but not unacquainted either with their language, or with the worship of the true God. Upon the whole, then, we have sufficient ground to conclude that this book was not the production of Moses, but of some earlier age. Bishop Lowth favours the opinion of Schultens, Peters, and others, which is adopted by Bishop Tomline and Dr. Hales, who suppose Job himself, or some contemporary, to have been the author of this poem; and there seems to be no good reason for supposing that it was not written by Job himself. It appears, indeed, highly probable that Job was the writer of his own story, of whose inspiration we have the clearest evidence in the forty-second chapter of this book, in which he thus addresses the Almighty: "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear, but now mine eye seeth thee." It is plain that in this passage some privilege is intended which he never had enjoyed before, and which he calls the sight of God.
The book of Job contains the history of Job, a man equally distinguished for purity and uprightness of character, and for honours, wealth and domestic felicity, whom God permitted, for the trial of his faith, to be suddenly deprived of all his numerous blessings, and to be at once plunged into the deepest affliction, and most accumulated distress. It gives an account of his eminent piety, patience, and resignation under the pressure of these severe calamities, and of his subsequent elevation to a degree of prosperity and happiness, still greater than that which he had before enjoyed. How long the sufferings of Job continued, we are not informed; but it is said, that after God turned his captivity, and blessed him a second time, he lived one hundred and forty years, Job 42:16 . Its style is in many parts peculiarly sublime; and it is not only adorned with poetical embellishments, but most learned men consider it as written in metre. Through the whole work we discover religious instruction shining forth amidst the venerable simplicity of ancient manners. It every where abounds with the noblest sentiments of piety, uttered with the spirit of inspired conviction. It is a work unrivalled for the magnificence of its language and for the beautiful and sublime images which it presents. In the wonderful speech of the Deity, Job 38, 39, every line delineates his attributes, every sentence opens a picture of some grand object in creation, characterized by its most striking features. Add to this, that its prophetic parts reflect much light on the economy of God's moral government; and every admirer of sacred antiquity, every inquirer after religious instruction, will seriously rejoice that the enraptured sentence of Job, Job 19:23 , is realized to a more effectual and unforeseen accomplishment; that while the memorable records of antiquity have mouldered from the rock, the prophetic assurance and sentiments of Job are graven in Scriptures that no time shall alter, no changes shall efface.
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Job
A patriarch distinguished for his integrity and piety, his wealth, honors, and domestic happiness, whom God permitted, for the trial of his faith, to be deprived of friends, property, and health, and at once plunged into deep affliction. He lived in the land of Uz, lying, it is generally thought, in Eastern Edom, probably not far from Bozrah.
THE BOOK OF JOB, has originated much criticism, and on many points a considerable diversity of opinion still exists. Sceptics have denied its inspiration, and called it a mere philosophical romance; but no one who respects revelation can entertain this notion, or doubt that Job was a real person. Inspired writers testify to both. See Ezekiel 14:14 James 5:11 , and compare 1 Corinthians 3:19 with Job 5:13 . The book itself specifies persons, places, and circumstances in the manner of true history. Moreover, the name and history of Job are spread throughout the East; Arabian writers mention him, and many Mohammedan families perpetuate his name. Five different places claim the possession of his tomb.
The precise period of his life cannot be ascertained, yet no doubt can exist as to its patriarchal antiquity. The book seems to allude to the flood, Job 22:15-17 , but not to the destruction of Sodom, to the exodus from Egypt, or the giving of the Law. No reference is made to any order of priesthood, Job himself being the priest of his household, like Noah and Abraham. There is allusion to the most ancient form of idolatry, star-worship, and to the earliest mode of writing, Job 19:24 . The longevity of Job also places him among the patriarchs. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, and was an old man before his trial began, for his children were established each at the head of his own household, Job 1:4 42:16 . The period of long lives had not wholly passed away, Job 15:10 . Hales places the trial of Job before the birth of Abraham, and Usher, about thirty years before the exodus, B. C. 1521.
As to the authorship of the book, many opinions have been held. It has all the freedom of an original composition, bearing no marks of its being a translation; and if so, it would appear that its author must have been a Hebrew, since it is written in the purest Hebrew. It exhibits, moreover, the most intimate acquaintance with both Egyptian and Arabian scenery, and is in the loftiest style of oriental poetry. All these circumstances are consistent with the views of those who regard Moses as its probable author. It has, however, been ascribed to various other persons. IT presents a beautiful exhibition of patriarchal religion. It teaches the being and perfections of God, his creation of all things, and his universal providence; the apostasy and guilt of evil spirits and of mankind; the mercy of God, on the basis of a sacrifice, and on condition of repentance and faith, Job 33:27-30 42:6,8 ; the immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body, Job 14:7-15 19:25-27 .
The main problem discussed in Job is the justice of God in suffering the righteous to be afflicted, while the wicked prosper. It is settled, by showing that, while the hand of a just God is manifest in his providential government of human affairs, it is his sovereign right to choose his own time and mode of retribution both to the evil and the good, and to subject the graces of his people to whatever trials he deems best.
The conference of Job and his friends may be divided into three parts. In the first, Eliphaz addresses Job, and Job replies; then Bildad and Job, and Zophar and Job speak, in turn. In the second part, the same order is observed and in the third also, except that after Job's reply to Bildad, the three friends have no more to urge, and instead of Zophar, a fourth friend named Elihu takes up the word; and the whole is concluded by the decision of Jehovah himself. The friends of Job argue that his remarkable afflictions must have been sent in punishment of highly aggravated transgressions, and urge him to confession and repentance. The pious patriarch, conscious of his own integrity and love to God cast down and bewildered by his sore chastisements, and pained by the suspicions of his friends, warmly vindicates his innocence, and shows that the best of men are sometimes the most afflicted; but forgets that his inward sins merit far heavier punishment, and though he still maintains faith in God, yet he charges Him foolishly. Afterwards he humbly confesses his wrong, and is cheered by the returning smile of God, while his uncharitable friends are reproved. The whole book is written in the highest style of Hebrew poetry, except the two introductory chapters and part of the last, which are prose. As a poem, it is full of sublime sentiments and bold and striking images.
The DISEASE of Job is generally supposed to have been the elephantiasis, or black leprosy. The word rendered "boils" does not necessarily mean abscesses, but burning and inflammation; and no known disease better answers to the description given, Job 2:7,8 7:5,13,13 19:17 30:17 , than the leprosy referred to above. See LEPER .
King James Dictionary - Job
JOB, n. of unknown origin, but perhaps allied to chop, primarily to strike or drive.
1. A piece of work any thing to be done, whether of more or less importance. The carpenter or mason undertakes to build a house by the job. The erection of Westminster bridge was a heavy job and it was a great job to erect Central wharf, in Boston. The mechanic has many small jobs on hand. 2. A lucrative business an undertaking with a view to profit. No cheek is known to blush nor heart to throb,
Save when they lose a question or a job.
3. A sudden stab with a pointed instrument. This seems to be nearly the original sense. To do the job for one, to kill him.
JOB, To strike or stab with a sharp instrument.
1. To drive in a sharp pointed instrument. JOB, To deal in the public stocks to buy and sell as a broker.
The judge shall job, the bishop bite the town,
and mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Job
(persecuted ), the third son of Issachar, ( Genesis 46:13 ) called in another genealogy JASHUB . (1 Chronicles 7:1 )
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Job, Book of
All that is known of the history of Job is found in the book bearing his name. He lived in the land of Uz, which was probably named after Uz, or Huz (the Hebrew is the same), the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. Another link with that family is also found in that Elihu was the son of Barachel the Buzite, for Buz was the brother of Huz. Genesis 22:21 . The land of Uz is supposed to be in the S.E. of Palestine toward Arabia Deserta. Job is called "the greatest of all the men of the east." No date is given to the book, but there being no reference in it to the law, or to Israel, makes it probable that Job lived in patriarchal times, as the name Almighty, which was revealed to Abraham, was known to Job, his three friends, and Elihu. He is described as "perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil;" yet he suffered the loss of all his property; his children were killed; and his body was grievously afflicted. The great problem of the book is, the government of God, not directly as with Israel, but providentially in a world into which sin and death had entered, and where Satan, if permitted of God, can exercise his antagonistic power. God's dealings with men in government and chastening are for good; but this brings out another question, How can man be just with God? — a question answered only in the gospel.
Job's three friends entirely misunderstood this government of God, asserting that he must have been doing evil or he would not have been thus dealt with. Job resented their judgement of him, and in justifying himself blamed God in His ways with him. The key to this part of the book is that Job was being tested: his heart was being searched that his true state might be brought out, and that he might learn to know God in His wisdom and power, and that His ways are in view of blessing to man.
The testing, all came from God: it was He who introduced Job to the notice of Satan, in the wonderful vision of the unseen, where the 'sons of God' presented themselves before God. Satan was ever ready to afflict man and to impute motives; but he was foiled. When all Job's property and his sons and daughters were swept away, still he worshipped, saying the Lord who gave was the Lord who had taken away; and he blessed the name of the Lord. Then, when his body was full of sores, his wife was used of Satan to try and induce him to curse God; but he replied, "What! shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?" "In all this did not Job sin with his lips." Satan was defeated, and he is not again mentioned in the book.
Then come Job's three friends, and though thus far he had not sinned with his lips , yet his friends bring out what was in his heart. Though they did not understand God's government with him, and falsely accused him, they said many right things as to that government in other cases. In short, Eliphaz went upon personal experience. He said "I have seen they that plough iniquity, and sow wickedness, reap the same." Job 4:8 . Bildad is the voice of tradition and the authority of antiquity. He said, "Enquire, I pray thee, of the former age, and prepare thyself to the search of their fathers." Job 8:8 . Zophar exhibited law and religiousness. He said, "If iniquity be in thine hand, put it far away, . . . . then shalt thou lift up thy face without spot." Job 11:14,15 .
All this led Job to assert his integrity as among men. He said to God, "Thou knowest that I am not wicked; and there is none that can deliver out of thine hand. Thine hands have made me, and fashioned me together round about; yet thou dost destroy me." Job 10:7,8 . "I will maintain mine own ways before him . . . . behold now, I have ordered my cause: I know that I shall be justified." Job 13:15,18 . Then, provoked by the suspicions and misjudgement of his friends, he falsely judged God, saying, "God hath delivered me to the ungodly, and turned me over into the hands of the wicked." "Behold, I cry out of wrong, but I am not heard: I cry aloud, but there is no judgement." "Let me be weighed in an even balance, that God may know mine integrity." Job 16:11 ; Job 19:7 ; Job 31:6 . Yet, as before God, he owned, "If I justify myself, mine own mouth shall condemn me;" and again, "If I wash myself with snow-water, and make my hands never so clean, yet shalt thou plunge me in the ditch and mine own clothes shall abhor me." Job 9:20-30,31 . But the unsolved question in Job's mind was, Why should God set his heart upon man? He so great, and man so fleeting and wretched: why would not God let him alone to fill out his day? For Job had the sense that it was God who was dealing with him, and that he was not suffering from ordinary providential causes. His friends could not explain it.
Elihu then came forward: he is a type of Christ as mediator, and spoke on God's behalf. He said, "The Spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life . . . . . I am according to thy wish in God's stead." Job 33:4-6 . He showed that Job was not just in justifying himself rather than God. He spoke of God's dealings with mankind; how He speaks to man, even in dreams, to give him instruction; and if there be an interpreter, one among a thousand, who can show him how his soul can stand in truth before God, he may be delivered from going down to the pit; for God has found a ransom. God chastises man to bring him into subjection, so that He may be favourable to him.
In Job 36 Elihu ascribes righteousness to his Maker, and assures Jobthat "He that is perfect in knowledge is with thee." God despiseth not any and He withdraweth not His eyes from the righteous; and if they areafflicted it is for their blessing. He closes with dwelling on the incomprehensible power of God.
God Himself then takes up the case of Job, and, by speaking of the acts of His own divine wisdom and power in nature, shows by contrast the utter insignificance of Job. As to the wisdom of God's ways, would Job pretend to instruct Him? Job replied 'I am vile ,' and is silent. God continues to argue with him, "Wilt thou disannul my judgement? wilt thou condemn me, that thou mayest be righteous?" And He again points to His power in nature. Job confesses that he had uttered what he understood not: things too wonderful for him, which he knew not. He said, "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee: wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes."
Job had now learned the lesson God intended to teach him: he is in his proper place of nothingness before God. There God can take him up. In 1Cor. 1Christ is seen to be the wisdom and power of God when man is brought to nothing by the cross. Job had seen God, and all was changed. God reproved Job's friends: they had not spoken of Him what was right as Job had. They must take a sacrifice, and Job must pray for them: Job was God's servant, and him God would accept. God blessed his latter end more than the beginning: he had great possessions, and seven sons and three daughters. He lived after his restoration 140 years.
Twice Job is mentioned along with Noah and Daniel in connection with 'righteousness' when the state of Israel had become so iniquitous that if these three men had been there, even their righteousness would have delivered their own souls only, but would not have saved so much as a son or a daughter. Ezekiel 14:14,20 . Job is also held up as an example of endurance, and as showing what the end of the Lord is, that He is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. James 5:11 .
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Job, Book of
This book has given rise to much discussion and criticism, some believing the book to be strictly historical; others a religious fiction; others a composition based upon facts. By some the authorship of the work was attributed to Moses, but it is very uncertain. Luther first suggested the theory which, in some form or other, is now most generally received. He says, "I look upon the book of Job as a true history, yet I do not believe that all took place just as it is written, but that an ingenious, pious and learned man brought it into its present form." The date of the book is doubtful, and there have been many theories upon the subject. It may be regarded as a settled point that the book was written long before the exile, probably between the birth of Abraham and the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt --B.C. 2000-1800. If by Moses, it was probably written during his sojourn in Midian. "The book of Job is not only one of the most remarkable in the Bible, but in literature. As was said of Goliath's sword, 'There is none like it;' none in ancient or in modern literature." --Kitto. "A book which will one day, perhaps, be seen towering up alone far above all the poetry of the world." --J.A. Froude. "The book of Job is a drama, and yet subjectively true. The two ideas are perfectly consistent. It may have the dramatic form, the dramatic interest, the dramatic emotion, and yet be substantially a truthful narrative. The author may have received it in one of three ways: the writer may have been an eyewitness; or have received it from near contemporary testimony; or it may have reached him through a tradition of whose substantial truthfulness he has no doubt. There is abundant internal evidence that the scenes and events recorded were real scenes and real events to the writer. He gives the discussions either as he had heard them or as they had been repeated over and over in many an ancient consensus . The very modes of transmission show the deep impression it had made in all the East, as a veritable as well as marvellous event." --Tayler Lewis. the design of the book. --Stanley says that "The whole book is a discussion of that great problem of human life: what is the intention of Divine Providence in allowing the good to suffer?" "The direct object is to show that, although goodness has a natural tendency to secure a full measure of temporal happiness, yet that in its essence it is independent of such a result. Selfishness in some form is declared to be the basis on which all apparent goodness rests. That question is tried in the case of Job." --Cook. Structure of the book .-The book consists of five parts: -- I. Chs. 1-3. The historical facts. II. Chs. 4-31. The discussions between Job and his three friends. III. Chs. 32-37. Job's discussion with Elihu. IV. Chs. 38-41. The theophany --God speaking out of the storm. V. Ch. 42. The successful termination of the trial. It is all in poetry except the introduction and the close. The argument .--
One question could be raised by envy: may not the goodness which secures such direct and tangible rewards be a refined form of selfishness? Satan, the accusing angel, suggests the doubt, "Doth Job fear God for nought ?" and asserts boldly that if those external blessings were withdrawn, Job would cast off his allegiance" he will curse thee to thy face." The problem is thus distinctly propounded which this book is intended to discuss and solve: can goodness exist irrespective of reward ? The accuser receives permission to make the trial. He destroys Job's property, then his children; and afterward, to leave no possible opening for a cavil, is allowed to inflict upon him the most terrible disease known in the East. Job's wife breaks down entirely under the trial. Job remains steadfast. The question raised by Satan is answered.
Then follows a discussion which arises in the most natural manner from a visit of condolence on the part of three men who represent the wisdom and experience of the age. Job's friends hold the theory that there is an exact and invariable correlation between sin and suffering. The fact of suffering proves the commission of some special sin. They apply this to Job, but he disavows all special guilt. He denies that punishment in this life inevitably follows upon guilt, or proves its commission. He appeals to facts. Bad men do sometimes prosper. Here, at ch. 14, there is a pause. In the second colloquy the three friends take more advanced ground. They assume that Job has been actually guilty of sins, and that the sufferings and losses of Job are but an inadequate retribution for former sins. This series of accusations brings out the in most thoughts of Job. He recognizes God's hand in his afflictions, but denies they are brought on by wrong-doing; and becomes still clearer in the view that only the future life can vindicate God's justice. In his last two discourses, chs. 26-31, he states with incomparable force and eloquence his opinion of the chief point of the controversy: man cannot comprehend God's ways; destruction sooner or later awaits the wicked; wisdom consists wholly in the fear of the Lord and departing from evil."--Cook.
Elihu sums up the argument "The leading principle of Elihu's statement is that calamity, in the shape of triad, is inflicted on comparatively the best of men; but that God allows a favorable turn to take place as soon as its object has been realized." The last words are evidently spoken while a violent storm is coming on.
It is obvious that many weighty truths have been developed in the course of the discussion: nearly every theory of the objects and uses of suffering has been reviewed, while a great advance has been made toward the apprehension of doctrines hereafter to be revealed, such as were known only to God. But the mystery is not us yet really cleared up; hence the necessity for the theophany. ch. (Job 38:41 ) From the midst of the storm Jehovah speaks. In language of incomparable grandeur he reproves and silences the murmurs of Job. God does not condescend, strictly speaking to argue with his creatures. The speculative questions discussed in the colloquy are unnoticed, but the declaration of God's absolute power is illustrated by a marvellously beautiful and comprehensive survey of the glory of creation and his all-embracing providence. A second address completes the work. It proves that a charge of injustice against God involves the consequence that the accuser is more competent that he to rule the universe.
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Job, the Book of
(See JOB.)
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Job
1. The 'perfect and upright man' whose history is given in the book of Job.
2. Son of Issachar. Genesis 46:13 . See JASHUB.
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Job
The Old Testament book of Job is among the group of writings known as the wisdom books. In ancient Israel people recognized wisdom writings as being different from other writings. Wisdom teachers were a category distinct from other religious guides and leaders.
Wisdom teachers did not teach the law as did the priests, nor bring revelations from God as did the prophets. Rather they looked at the practical affairs of life and, as those who feared God and knew his law, gave advice for living. Sometimes they gave common sense instruction based on their observations of the experiences of life in general. Other times they investigated the puzzles of life when the facts of experience seemed to contradict the generally accepted beliefs. The book of Proverbs gives an example of the former kind of teaching, the book of Job an example of the latter. (See also WISDOM LITERATURE.)
Understanding the book
There is no certainty concerning who wrote the book of Job or when it was written. The book takes its name from the chief person in the story.
Job was a wealthy, intelligent, God-fearing man who lived in Uz, somewhere in the region east of Palestine. When a series of disasters ruined his prosperity, destroyed his family and struck him down with a terrible disease, his friends argued that his troubles must have resulted from his secret sins. Job denied this, even though it was the commonly held traditional belief. Job knew he was not perfect, but he also knew that the traditional belief did not explain everything. The long and bitter argument that followed takes up most of the book.
The reader of the book, however, knows what neither Job nor his friends knew. Satan had made the accusation that people serve God only because of the benefits they can get from him. If, instead, they receive only hardship and suffering, they will curse him (Job 1:9-11; Job 2:4-5). God allowed disasters to fall upon Job to prove the genuineness of Job’s faith and at the same time enrich Job’s experience of God. Job’s sufferings were not a sign of God’s judgment on him, but proof of God’s confidence in him (Job 1:8; Job 2:3).
As the friends persisted with their unjust and cruel accusations, Job increasingly lost patience with them. Job’s frustration drove him to protest to God, whom he saw as his only hope. In making his protests, Job may have been guilty of rash language, but at least he took his protests to the right person (Job 7:11-21; Job 13:13-28; Job 14:13-17; Job 17:3-4). He was finally satisfied, not through having all his questions answered, but through meeting the God to whom he had cried. God is not answerable to Job or any other human being, and he gave Job no explanation of his sufferings. Yet Job was content. He realized now that the unseen God was in control of all events and his wisdom was perfect (Job 42:1-6).
God then declared that the friends, in accusing Job of great sin, were wrong (Job 42:7). He also showed the error of the commonly held belief that suffering was always the result of personal sin. In addition he proved Satan to be wrong in his accusation that people worship God because of what they can get from him. Job had remained true to God even though he had lost everything. God now blessed Job with greater blessings than he had ever had before (Job 42:10).
Outline of contents
The book opens with a narrative section that recounts Satan’s challenge to God and his attack on Job (1:1-2:13). The remainder of the book, except for the closing narrative, is in poetry. It starts with a complaint from Job (3:1-26) and this begins a long debate between Job and his three friends.
Eliphaz, the first of the friends to speak, states that Job’s suffering must be because of his sin. Therefore, if Job repents he will have good health and prosperity again (4:1-5:27). Job rejects Eliphaz’s accusations and complains to God about his unjust suffering (6:1-7:21). Bildad heartlessly reminds Job of his misfortunes, pointing out that they are a fitting punishment. He emphasizes that the traditional teaching is all-important (8:1-22). In his response, Job again complains to God about the injustice he suffers (9:1-10:22). Zophar, the shallowest thinker and most hot tempered of the three friends, then attacks Job (11:1-20), to which Job gives a lengthy and at times sarcastic reply (12:1-14:22).
The second round of argument follows the same sequence as the first. Eliphaz speaks and Job replies (15:1-17:16), Bildad speaks and Job replies (18:1-19:29), then Zophar speaks and Job replies (20:1-21:34). The third round begins in the same fashion, with Eliphaz speaking, followed by Job (22:1-24:25). Bildad speaks only briefly, followed by Job (25:1-26:14), but Zophar does not speak at all. Job therefore proceeds to give a summary of his position (27:1-31:40).
A young man named Elihu, having listened to the debate in silence, now decides to speak. Angry that the friends have not convinced Job of his wrongdoing, Elihu claims he will answer Job with different arguments. But he adds little to what the other three have said (32:1-37:24).
As a fierce storm breaks, God himself now speaks to Job. He reminds Job, through chapter after chapter, of his divine wisdom in controlling all things, and he challenges Job to take the place of the Almighty and govern the moral order of the universe (38:1-41:34). Job cannot accept God challenge; he realizes he has been conquered. At last he submits, and in doing so he finds peace (42:1-6). God then rebukes the friends and expresses his approval of Job (42:7-17).

Sentence search

Zophar - A Naamathite, one of Job's three friends. Job 2:11 ; Job 11:1 ; Job 20:1 ; Job 42:9 . See Job
Bildad - One of Job's friends, called the Shuhite. Job 2:11; Job 8:1; Job 18:1; Job 25:1; Job 42:9. He is abrupt, almost unfeeling in the part he takes in the discussion with Job; and his arguments are not always to the point See Job
Bildad - One of Job's friends, 'the Shuhite,' perhaps a descendant of Shuah the son of Abraham and Keturah. He in no way understood Job's case, and could only judge that Job was being punished for wickedness, whereas God had called Job a righteous man. God's anger was kindled against Bildad: but he, with his two companions, brought a sacrifice, and when Job prayed for them God accepted him. Job 2:11 ; Job 8:1 ; Job 18:1 ; Job 25:1 ; Job 42:9
Naamathite - Designation of Zophar, one of Job's friends. Job 2:11 ; Job 11:1 ; Job 20:1 ; Job 42:9
Bildad - ” One of the three friends of Job (Job 2:11 ). He argues that a just God does not punish the innocent (Job 8:1 ). Job should admit he was suffering the just fate of the wicked (Job 18:1 ), and no person can be righteous before the awesome God (Job 25:1 ). See Job
Naamathite - (nay' uh muh thite) Title meaning, “resident of Na'ameh,” given to Zophar, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11 ; Job 11:1 ; Job 20:1 ; Job 42:9 )
Eliphaz - A native of Teman, and friend of Job, Job 2:11 . He seems to have been older than Bildad and Zophar, and was the first address Job, Job 4:1-5:27 15:1-35 22:1-30
Shuah - Bildad the Shuhite ( Job 2:11 ; Job 8:1 ; Job 18:1 ; Job 25:1 ; Job 42:9 ) is prob
Job - The Old Testament book of Job is among the group of writings known as the wisdom books. The book of Proverbs gives an example of the former kind of teaching, the book of Job an example of the latter. )...
Understanding the book...
There is no certainty concerning who wrote the book of Job or when it was written. ...
Job was a wealthy, intelligent, God-fearing man who lived in Uz, somewhere in the region east of Palestine. Job denied this, even though it was the commonly held traditional belief. Job knew he was not perfect, but he also knew that the traditional belief did not explain everything. ...
The reader of the book, however, knows what neither Job nor his friends knew. If, instead, they receive only hardship and suffering, they will curse him (Job 1:9-11; Job 2:4-5). God allowed disasters to fall upon Job to prove the genuineness of Job’s faith and at the same time enrich Job’s experience of God. Job’s sufferings were not a sign of God’s judgment on him, but proof of God’s confidence in him (Job 1:8; Job 2:3). ...
As the friends persisted with their unjust and cruel accusations, Job increasingly lost patience with them. Job’s frustration drove him to protest to God, whom he saw as his only hope. In making his protests, Job may have been guilty of rash language, but at least he took his protests to the right person (Job 7:11-21; Job 13:13-28; Job 14:13-17; Job 17:3-4). God is not answerable to Job or any other human being, and he gave Job no explanation of his sufferings. Yet Job was content. He realized now that the unseen God was in control of all events and his wisdom was perfect (Job 42:1-6). ...
God then declared that the friends, in accusing Job of great sin, were wrong (Job 42:7). Job had remained true to God even though he had lost everything. God now blessed Job with greater blessings than he had ever had before (Job 42:10). ...
Outline of contents...
The book opens with a narrative section that recounts Satan’s challenge to God and his attack on Job (1:1-2:13). It starts with a complaint from Job (3:1-26) and this begins a long debate between Job and his three friends. ...
Eliphaz, the first of the friends to speak, states that Job’s suffering must be because of his sin. Therefore, if Job repents he will have good health and prosperity again (4:1-5:27). Job rejects Eliphaz’s accusations and complains to God about his unjust suffering (6:1-7:21). Bildad heartlessly reminds Job of his misfortunes, pointing out that they are a fitting punishment. In his response, Job again complains to God about the injustice he suffers (9:1-10:22). Zophar, the shallowest thinker and most hot tempered of the three friends, then attacks Job (11:1-20), to which Job gives a lengthy and at times sarcastic reply (12:1-14:22). Eliphaz speaks and Job replies (15:1-17:16), Bildad speaks and Job replies (18:1-19:29), then Zophar speaks and Job replies (20:1-21:34). The third round begins in the same fashion, with Eliphaz speaking, followed by Job (22:1-24:25). Bildad speaks only briefly, followed by Job (25:1-26:14), but Zophar does not speak at all. Job therefore proceeds to give a summary of his position (27:1-31:40). Angry that the friends have not convinced Job of his wrongdoing, Elihu claims he will answer Job with different arguments. ...
As a fierce storm breaks, God himself now speaks to Job. He reminds Job, through chapter after chapter, of his divine wisdom in controlling all things, and he challenges Job to take the place of the Almighty and govern the moral order of the universe (38:1-41:34). Job cannot accept God challenge; he realizes he has been conquered. God then rebukes the friends and expresses his approval of Job (42:7-17)
Job, the Book of - (johb) Job apparently lived in the patriarchal or prepatriarchal days, for not only does he not mention the Law or the Exodus, but he is pictured as a wealthy nomad (Job 1:3 ; Job 42:12 ) who is still offering sacrifices himself (Job 1:5 ; Job 42:8 ). Undoubtedly, Job was a most respected man, for not only did the prophet Ezekiel refer to him as one of the greatest of Israel's ancestors (Ezekiel 14:14 ), but even James used him as an excellent example of patient and persistent faith (James 5:11 ). The Book of Job presents many problems concerning the person, time, and nature of its composition. The text never speaks of Job as its author, just its subject. Thus, many have concluded that Job was written by Elihu, one of the three friends, or simply some anonymous writer of that or some other age. Second, though most will agree that the character Job lived in patriarchal times, many believe that the book was written many years later. Third, to further complicate the issue, many believe that Job is a compilation of several different stories coming from several different ages. ...
Job is a Perfect Illustration of True Faith. Certainly this question was prominent in Job's day, for ancient society believed that human suffering was the result of one's sin or at least a god's displeasure. Even the meaning of the name Job (the persecuted one) seems to support this suggestion, but that may not be all that is involved in the book. In this case, Job becomes the nation Israel. ...
Job Is Unique in World Literature. Though Job shows many similarities with other Ancient Near Eastern texts, none come near to Job's beauty and message. Because the three friends have Edomite backgrounds, some have speculated that Job may have been an Edomite and that the setting for the book may have been Edom. Others have seen similarities between Job and the Egyptian poems concerning “The Protest of the Eloquent Peasant” and “A Dispute Over Suicide” or the Babylonian poems of “The Babylonian Theodicy” and “I Will Praise the Lord of Wisdom. Still others have suggested that Job is written in the form of a court room trial. ...
Job's Encounter with Life Brought Him Face to Face with God. The Book of Job is most frequently pictured as a drama with a prologue (1–2) and an epilogue (Job 42:7-17 ) enclosing three cycles of poetic speeches between Job and his three friends (3–27), a beautiful wisdom poem from Job (28), Job's concluding remarks (29–31), the mysterious Elihu speeches (32–37), and God's whirlwind speeches (Job 38:1-42:6 ). Job was a very wealthy and religious man who seemed to have life under control (Job 1:1-5 ). God allowed the challenge, but limited Satan's power to Job's possessions (Job 1:6-12 ). In quick succession, Satan destroyed all of Job's possessions including even his children. However, Job did not blame God nor question His integrity (Job 1:13-22 ). Satan then challenged God to let him attack Job's personal health. God agreed, but warned him not to kill Job (Job 2:1-6 ). Without warning, a loathsome disease fell upon Job; yet he still refused to blame God (Job 2:7-10 ). Job's friends were shocked and dismayed, but nevertheless came to encourage him and offer their help (Job 2:11-13 ). To this point Job displayed a traditional faith accepting suffering as inevitable and patiently enduring it. ...
After the traditional time of mourning had passed, Job cried out wondering why he was ever born or allowed to reach maturity (Job 3:1-26 ). Job's faith turned to a challenging, seeking faith, confronting God, demanding escape and explanation. In all the bitter questioning, faith lived, for Job turned only and always to God for answers. At this point, Job's friends could remain silent no longer and thus began to speak. The first to speak was Eliphaz who told Job that he must have sinned for God was surely punishing him. However, there was still hope if he would confess his sin and turn to God (Job 4:1-5:27 ). Job was stunned and assured his friends that he was ready to meet God and work out any problem that he might have (Job 6:1-7:21 ). Bildad added that if Job had not sinned it must have been his children, for obviously God was punishing him for some wrong. However, he, too, held out hope if Job would just confess (Job 8:1-22 ). Job was deeply hurt and wondered aloud whether or not he could get a hearing before God (Job 9:1-10:22 ). Zophar, the most brash of the friends, called upon God to meet with Job, for he was sure that when the two met, Job would see the error of his ways and repent (Job 11:1-20 ). Job held to his integrity, but continued to seek an audience with God so that he could come to understand what was happening and why (Job 12:1-14:22 ). ...
Job's friends were not satisfied, so Eliphaz spoke again and reminded him that all people (including Job) had sinned and needed to repent. Thus, if he would just repent, God would forgive him (Job 15:1-35 ). Job realized that he was getting nowhere with his friends, so he called upon the rest of creation to witness to his integrity (Job 16:1-17:16 ). Bildad reminded Job of the many proverbs which spoke of the fate of the wicked. In so doing, he was implying that what had happened to Job was the result of his sin (Job 18:1-21 ). Job was becoming increasingly frustrated, for his friends and family seemed to have abandoned him; yet he was unwilling to give up on God. Thus, in a most beautiful way he affirmed that he would be vindicated, if not in this world, then in the world to come (Job 19:1-29 ). No doubt, Zophar included Job in this group (Job 20:1-29 ). Job turned to Zophar and harshly said, “No”; for as he observed, sometimes the wicked did prosper. However, that did not mean that God was not in control or that He would not one day bring about real justice (Job 21:1-34 ). ...
Though they listened to him patiently, Job's friends were also becoming increasingly frustrated. Thus, Eliphaz intensified his charge that Job's suffering was the result of his own sinfulness by listing the various sins of which he thought Job was guilty. Then he called upon Job to repent (Job 22:1-30 ). By this time Job was in such pain that he all but ignored Elipaz's comments and cried out for relief (Job 23:1-24:25 ). Bildad, not to be outdone, reminded Job again to consider the nature and character of God, for since He was not unjust, Job surely must have sinned (Job 25:1-6 ). Job, in sarcastic tones, asked the friends where they got their wisdom and then pleaded with them to look to God for real understanding and faith (Job 26:1-27:23 ). ...
Job then turned and reflected both upon the true nature of wisdom and his own place in existence. In one of the most beautiful descriptions of wisdom found in the entire Bible, Job concluded that real wisdom (or meaning to life) can only be found in a proper faith relationship with God (“the fear of the Lord”) (Job 28:1-28 ). Though Job knew this was true and though he sought to live a righteous life, he was still hurting and did not understand why. Thus, in a beautiful soliloquy he cried out unto God, reminding God of how he had lived faithfully in the past and had been respected for it (Job 29:1-25 ), but now when he was suffering everyone had turned against him, and death seemed very near (Job 30:1-31 ). Thus, Job issued a final plea for God to vindicate him (Job 31:1-40 ). With this, Job's case was made. First, Elihu contended that God speaks to all people, and thus, even though he was a young man, he had every right to speak and even had the understanding to do so (Job 32:1-33:33 ). Second, he reiterated the view that God was just and thus what had happened to Job was well deserved (Job 34:1-37 ). Third, he sought to show that God honored the righteous and condemned the prideful, just like He had Job (Job 35:1-16 ). Fourth, he then pleaded with Job to accept what had happened to him as an expression of God's discipline and to humbly repent and seek His forgiveness (Job 36:1-37:24 ). Finally, Elihu realized that Job really was not listening, and so he stopped speaking. First, He described the marvels of creation and then asked Job if he could have done any better (Job 38:1-40:2 ). Job quickly responded that he could not for he, too, was just a creature (Job 40:3-5 ). Second, God described how He controlled the world and everything in it and then asked Job if he could do a better Job (Job 40:6-41:34 ). Job admitted that he could not and that he did not need to for now he had seen God and clearly realized that God had everything well under control (Job 42:1-6 ). ...
God was apparently very pleased with Job and his responses. However, He rebuked the three friends and commanded that they ask Job to seek intercession for them (Job 42:7-9 ). Then, God restored all Job's fortunes and even gave him more children (Job 42:10-17 ). In the end Job found meaningful life, not in intellectual pursuits or even in himself, but in experiencing God and his faith relationship to Him. ...
Job's Message Is Still Relevant for Us Today. The Book of Job thus wrestles with issues all people eventually face. The different speakers in Job address the issues from different perspectives, forcing us to admit the complexity of the issue before we accept simple answers. Job begins by accepting suffering as a part of human life to be endured through trust in God in good and bad times. Bildad notes that Job's punishment is not as bad as it could have been; after all, his children died. Being alive means Job's sin is not unforgiveable and his suffering can be endured. ...
Zophar emphasizes Job's sin but notes that he could suffer even more. Elihu pleaded for Job to listen to God's word in the experience, for his suffering should become a means of seeing God's will and God's way in the situation. This should lead Job to confess his sin and praise God. Job's complaint is that he cannot find God. Prologue: A Righteous Man Can Endure Injustice Without Sinning (Job 1:1-2:10 ). First Round: Will a Just God Answer a Righteous Sufferer's Questions? (Job 2:11-14:22 ). Job: Why must a person be born to a life of suffering? (Job 2:11-3:26 ). Eliphaz: Do not claim to be just, but seek the disciplining God, who is just (Job 4:1-5:27 ). Job: Death is the only respite for a just person persecuted by God (Job 6:1-7:21 ). Bildad: A just God does not punish the innocent (Job 8:1-22 ). Job: Humans cannot win an argument in court against the Creator (Job 9:1-10:22 ). Zophar: Feeble, ignorant humans must confess sins (Job 11:1-20 ). Job: An intelligent person demands an answer from the all-powerful, all-knowhying God, not from other humans (Job 12:1-14:22 ). Second Round: Does the Fate of the Wicked Prove the Mercy and Justice of God? (Job 15:1-21:34 ). Eliphaz: Be quiet, admit your guilt, and accept your punishment (Job 15:1-35 ). Job: Oh that an innocent person might plead my case with the merciless God (Job 16:1-17:16 ). Bildad: Wise up and admit you are suffering the just fate of the wicked (Job 18:1-21 ). Job: In a world without justice or friends, a just person must wait for a Redeemer to win his case (Job 19:1-29 ). Zophar: Your short-lived prosperity shows you are a wicked oppressor (Job 20:1-29 ). Job: Lying comforters do not help my struggle against the injustice of God (Job 21:1-34 ). Third Round: Can the Innocent Sufferer Ever Know God's Ways and Will? (Job 22:1-28:28 ). Eliphaz: You wicked sinner, return to Almighty God and be restored (Job 22:1-30 ). Job: I cannot find God, but evidence shows He pays undue attention to me but gives no attention to the wicked (Job 23:1-24:25 )
Elihu - The Buzite, a friend of Job, and, perhaps, the arbitrator between him and his three acquaintances who had come to sympathize with him in his calamities. Job 32:1-22; Job 33:1-33; Job 34:1-37; Job 35:1-16; Job 36:1-33; Job 37:1-24
Kezia - Second daughter of Job after his restoration. Job 42:14
Job - Job, n. The carpenter or mason undertakes to build a house by the Job. The erection of Westminster bridge was a heavy Job and it was a great Job to erect Central wharf, in Boston. The mechanic has many small Jobs on hand. No cheek is known to blush nor heart to throb, ...
Save when they lose a question or a Job. To do the Job for one, to kill him. ...
Job, To strike or stab with a sharp instrument. Job, To deal in the public stocks to buy and sell as a broker. ...
The judge shall Job, the bishop bite the town, ...
and mighty dukes pack cards for half a crown
Eschew - ]'>[1] it occurs only in Job 1:1 ; Job 1:8 ; Job 2:3 of Job himself, as Job 1:1 ‘one that feared God, and eschewed evil,’ and in 1 Peter 3:11 ‘Let him eschew evil, and do good
Barachel - Father of Elihu, ‘the Buzite’ ( Job 32:2 ; Job 32:6 )
Elihu - one of Job's friends, a descendant of Nahor, Job 32:2 . See Job
Jemima - Eldest daughter of Job after his restoration to health and prosperity. Job 42:14
Eliphaz - Chief of Job's three friends, a 'Temanite,' or descendant of Teman. They therefore condemned Job as an evil doer, considering that this was proved by what God had brought upon him. They were directed to take seven bullocks and seven rams and offer them as a burnt offering: Job, His servant, should pray for them, and God would accept him. Job 2:11 ; Job 4:1 ; Job 15:1 ; Job 22:1 ; Job 42:7,9
zo'Phar - (sparrow ), one of the three friends of Job. ( Job 2:11 ; 11:1 ; 20:1 ; 42:9 )
Keziah - The name of the second daughter born to Job after his restoration to prosperity ( Job 42:14 )
Kezi'a - (cassia ), the second of the daughters of Job born to him after his recovery. ( Job 42:14 ) (B
Jemi'ma - (dove ), the eldest of the three daughters born to Job after the restoration of his prosperity. ( Job 42:14 )
Zophar - One of Job's three friends, a native of some unknown place called Naamah. He appears but twice in the dialogue, once less than his two associates, whose general sentiments he shares, with perhaps more severity of judgment against Job, Job 2:11 ; 11:1-20 ; Job 20:1 - 29
Bildad - ) Second of Job's (Job 2:11; Job 2:8; Job 2:18; Job 2:25) three friends
Naamathite - Zophar the Naamathite (Job 2:11; Job 11:1)
Eschew - ...
Job--feared God and eschewed evil. Job 1 ...
Land of Hus - (Asitus in Jeremiah 25) The home of Job (Job 1), situated north of the Sabeans and west of Chaldea, near the great desert
Hus, Land of - (Asitus in Jeremiah 25) The home of Job (Job 1), situated north of the Sabeans and west of Chaldea, near the great desert
Marsh - Tract of soft, wet land (Job 8:11 ; Job 40:21 )
Moth - Job 4:18 ; Job 13:28 ; Job 27:18 , Psalms 39:12 , Isaiah 50:9 ; Isaiah 51:8 , Hosea 5:12 ; Gr. Job 4:19 etc. The fragile cases of these moths are referred to in Job 27:18 , if the MT ke'Ren-Hap'Puch - (the horn of beauty ), the youngest of the daughters of Job, born to him during the period of his reviving prosperity. ( Job 42:14 )
Nettle - Job 30:7, "brambles" (Umbreit). But the bushmen of whom Job speaks "gathered together under the (tall) nettles" to boil them for potherbs (see Job 30:4)
Spark - A literal flame of fire (Job 18:5 ) used in a figurative sense of a person's dying. Also used figuratively to show that humanity lives a troubled life (Job 5:7 ). Leviathan is pictured with a flaming mouth (Job 41:19-21 )
Ice - God demanded of Job, "Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?" It is answered in the Psalms: it is God who "casteth forth his ice like morsels: who can stand before his cold?" Job 6:16 ; Job 38:29 ; Psalm 147:17
Kerenhappuch - Youngest daughter of Job after his restoration to prosperity. Job 42:14
Bildad - the Shuhite, one of Job's friends, thought by some to have descended from Shuah, the son of Abraham, by Ketura h, Job 2:11 ; Job 8;...
Keren-Happuch - ” The youngest daughter born to Job after his restoration to prosperity (Job 42:14 )
Leviathan - , and once in the margin, Job 3:8, where the text has "mourning. " In Hebrew the word livya-than is found only in Job 3:8; Job 41:1; Psalms 74:14; Psalms 104:26; Isaiah 27:1. In the margin of Job 3:8 and text of Job 41:1 the crocodile is no doubt the animal meant, and also in Psalms 74:14
Gold - Emblem of purity (Job 23:10), of nobility (Lamentations 4:1). Ρaz , "native gold" (Job 28:17; Song of Solomon 5:15). raw ore (Job 22:24). Κethem , figuratively (Job 37:22 margin) "golden splendor"; but Maurer literally, "gold is to be found in northern regions, but God cannot, be found out because of His majesty" (compare Job 28). Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir, Uphaz, and Parvaim (used for "gold" in Job 22:24), were the gold producing countries
Lightning - God is the Maker of lightning and thunder (Job 28:26 ; Jeremiah 10:13 ) which reveal God's power and majesty (Psalm 77:18 ; Psalm 97:4 ). In poetic language God's voice is identified with the thunder (Job 37:3-5 ). Lightning also appears as God's weapon in those passages in which God is portrayed as a warrior (arrows: 2 Samuel 22:15 ; Psalm 18:14 ; Psalm 77:17 ; Psalm 144:6 ; fire: Psalm 97:3 ; Job 36:32 ). The Book of Revelation develops the association with power and majesty (Job 4:5 ; Job 11:19 ) and with weapons/judgment (Job 8:5 ; Job 16:18 )
Elihu - He is introduced abruptly in the history of Job. He was young and had not spoken until Job and his three friends had ceased. His wrath was kindled against Job because he justified himself rather than God, and against his three friends because they had condemned Job though they had not understood his case. Job was a righteous man, but needed God's discipline. Job 32 — Job 36
Elihu - He came to condole with Job in his calamities. Young, ardent, sagacious, and devout, he listened attentively to the discourses of Job and his three friends; and at length broke in, with profuse apologies, to set them all right, Job 32:1-22 . His address to Job he blames for condemning him as a hypocrite, in their ignorance of the wonders of God's providence. In several sentences he beautifully expresses his faith in the pardoning and restoring grace of God towards sinners, Job 33:23,24,27-30 , passages in probably the oldest book of the Bible in the very spirit of the parable of the prodigal son
Crystal - This word is translated "crystal" in Ezekiel 1:22 ; and "frost," Genesis 31:40 ; Job 37:10 ; Jeremiah 36:30 ; and "ice," Job 6:16 ; Job 38:29 ; Psalms 147:17 ; κρυσταλλος , Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 22:1 . The word, זכוכית , is translated crystal, in Job 28:17
el'Iphaz - (Genesis 36:4 ; 1 Chronicles 1:35,36 ) ...
The chief of the "three friends" of Job. Job 4,5,15,22 . (Job 4:12-21 ; 15:12-16 ) [1]
Poison - Deuteronomy 32:24,33 ; Job 6:4 ; Job 20:16 ; Psalm 58:4 ; Psalm 140:3 ; Romans 3:13 . Job 6:4 apparently alludes to arrows being poisoned
Arcturus - Job 9:9; Job 38:32, in A. Arcturus is the name of a fixed star of the first magnitude in the constellation Bootes; but the Hebrew word in Job refers to the constellation Ursa Major, or Great Bear
Worm - Those that breed in putrefied bodies, רסה , Exodus 16:20 ; Exodus 16:24 ; Job 7:5 ; Job 17:14 ; Job 21:26 ; Job 24:20 ; Job 25:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 ; ακωληξ , Sir_7:17 ; Sir_10:11 ; 1Ma_2:62 ; 2Ma_9:9 ; Jdt_16:17 ; Mark 9:44 ; Mark 9:46 ; Mark 9:48 ; Acts 12:23 . That which, perforating the leaves and bark of trees, causes the little excrescences called kermes, whence is made a crimson dye, תולע , Deuteronomy 28:39 ; Job 25:6 ; Psalms 22:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 ; Isaiah 41:14 ; Isaiah 66:24 ; Exodus 16:20 ; Jonah 4:7
Orion - Job 9:9. The constellation is also mentioned, in Job 38:31 and Amos 5:8
Worms - Job 17:14 ; Job 25:6 . Job 21:26 ; Job 24:20 ; Isaiah 14:11 . In Job 25:6 man is compared to a worm — literally 'a maggot' — an apt figure of moral corruption
Age - Used to denote the period of a man's life (Genesis 47:28 ), the maturity of life (John 9:21 ), the latter end of life (Job 11:17 ), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8 ), and an indefinite period (Ephesians 2:7 ; 3:5,21 ; Colossians 1:26 ). The aged supposed to excel in understanding (Job 12:20 ; 15:10 ; 32:4,9 ; 1 Kings 12:6,8 ). A full age the reward of piety (Job 5:26 ; Genesis 15:15 )
Eliphaz - One of three men who visited Job and engaged the sufferer in dialogue (Job 2:11 ). His recorded speeches to Job are marked by a simplistic theological traditionalism and a tone of moral superiority. See Job
Cockle - Job asked that if he had done wickedly cockle might grow instead of barley: in the margin it reads 'noisome weeds. ' Job 31:40
Butter - Jael brought Sisera 'butter' to drink, Judges 5:25 ; and Job in Job 29:6 speaks of his steps being washed with butter when the Almighty was with him in prosperity. Job 20:17
Blade - Applied to the glittering point of a spear (Job 39:23 ) or sword (Nahum 3:3 ), the blade of a dagger (Judges 3:22 ); the "shoulder blade" (Job 31:22 ); the "blade" of cereals (Matthew 13:26 )
Constellations - The Hebrew word is kesil, and is translated ORION in Job 9:9 ; Job 38:31 ; Amos 5:8
Uz - Job’s country ( Job 1:1 ). ]'>[5] of Job 42:19 Uz is affirmed, on the authority of ‘the Syriac book,’ to lie on the borders of ldumæa and Arabia. The evidence of the Book of Job itself about its hero’s home seems to favour the neighbourhood of Edom or N. Teman ( Job 2:11 ) was an Edomite district containing the city of Bozrah ( Amos 1:12 ), and Eliphaz was an Edomite name ( Genesis 36:4 ). The Sabœans ( Job 1:15 ; Job 6:19 ) were a S. Tema ( Job 6:19 ) lay in N. The description of Job, however, as one of ‘the children of the East’ ( Job 1:3 ) is most naturally understood to refer to the east of Palestine. ...
Modern tradition, which can be traced back to early Christian times, locates Job in the Hauran, where the German explorer J. Wetzstein found a monastery of Job, a tomb and fountain and stone of Job, and small round stones called ‘worms of Job. Decision at present is unattainable, both on the general question of the signification of Uz in OT and on the special question of its meaning in the Book of Job. of Palestine, and that the Book of Job appears to represent its hero as living in the neighbourhood of the Arabian or Syro-Arabian desert
Black - Often used to denote the color of physical objects: hair (Leviticus 13:31 ,Leviticus 13:31,13:37 ; Song of Song of Solomon 5:11 ), skin (Job 30:30 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:5-6 ; Lamentations 4:8 ), the sky as a sign of rain (1 Kings 18:45 ), and animals (Genesis 30:32-43 ; Zechariah 6:2 ,Zechariah 6:2,6:6 ; Revelation 6:5 ). “Black” is also used figuratively to describe mourning (Job 30:28 ; Jeremiah 4:28 ; Jeremiah 8:21 ; Jeremiah 14:2 ), a visionless day (Micah 3:6 ), the abode of the dead (Job 3:5 ; Jude 1:13 ), and the treachery of Job's friends (Job 6:16 )
Job, the Book of - (See Job
Behemoth - Job 40:15 . Jehovah calls the attention of Job to this wonderful animal that he might see the wisdom and power of its Creator
Bildad - See Job
Worm - Rimmah synonymous with toleah ; applied to the worm bred in the manna when kept more than a day (Exodus 16:26), tolaim , answering to rimmah (Exodus 16:24); so in Job 25:6; maggots and larvae of insects which feed on putrefying matter (Job 21:26; Job 24:20; Job 7:5; Job 17:4); maggots were bred in Job's sores produced by elephantiasis. ...
In Job 19:26; Hebrew "though after my skin (is destroyed) this (body) is destroyed," Job omits "body" because it was so wasted as not to deserve the name
Pleiades, - Job 9:9 ; Job 38:31 . Job 38:31 is better translated, "Canst thou fasten the bands of the Pleiades, or loosen the cords of Orion?"...
Keren Happuch - Job's youngest daughter, born in his renewed prosperity ("horn of antimony"), the pigment used by Eastern ladies to darken their eyelashes, that the eye might shine more lustrous (Job 42:14). In contrast to his "horn defiled in the dust" (Job 16:15)
Zophar - The third in order of Job’s three friends, described in the LXX [1] as ‘king of the Minæans’ ( Job 2:11 ); probably the chief of a tribe on the borders of Idumæa. Job, esp
Daysman - Job 9:33 (a) This name is given to our Lord JESUS who is the only mediator between GOD and man, the only intercessor, and the only advocate. Job sought to know such a person
Rotten - Job 13:28 (b) Job seems to think that GOD is working on him as rot works on any substance or as a moth works upon a garment
Organ - Pandean pipe or syrinx (still a pastoral instrument in Syria) as distinguished from the HARP, stringed instruments (Genesis 4:21; Job 21:12; Job 30:31; Psalms 150:4)
Age, Aged, Old Age - The aged man is zâqen , perhaps ‘grey-bearded’ ( Genesis 48:10 , 2 Samuel 19:32 , Job 12:20 ; Job 32:9 , Psalms 71:18 , Jeremiah 6:11 ); ‘old age’ is also sêbhâh , i. But in Job 15:10 (cf. Job 29:8 ) yâshîsh , i. The idea that ‘hale old age’ ( kelach ) is a blessing is expressed in Job 5:26 ; the contrast is furnished by the gloomy picture ( Job 30:2 ) of the ‘fathers’ whose old age lacks vigour. ...
The wisdom of the old was proverbial (Job 12:12 ; Job 32:7 ), though there were exceptions ( Job 32:9 , Psalms 119:100 )
Elihu - The son of Barachel the Buzite who addressed Job after the latter's first three friends had ended their speeches (Job 32:2 ). Elihu's words fill Job 32-37 . His words seem to be somewhat more insightful than those of the other three friends, yet they still prove finally unsatisfactory as an explanation of Job's suffering. See Job 32-37
Gall - ]'>[1] ‘hemlock,’ Hosea 10:4 ; ‘poison,’ Job 20:16 . (2) merçrah ( Job 16:16 ) and merôrah ( Job 20:25 ) refer to the bile. The poison of serpents was supposed to lie in their bile ( Job 20:14 )
Whirlwind - words sûphâh ( Job 37:9 , Proverbs 1:27 etc. ]'>[1] ‘storm’ in Job 21:13 , Psalms 83:15 , Isaiah 29:6 etc. ), and sa‘ar or sĕ‘ârâh ( 2 Kings 2:1 , Job 38:1 , Jeremiah 23:19 etc. From the context, however, in certain passages, we gather that whirlwind is intended a violent wind moving in a circle round its axis ( 2 Kings 2:1 ; 2 Kings 2:11 , Job 38:1 etc. God spake to Job from the whirlwind ( Job 40:6 ); the modern Arabian regards it with superstitious dread, as the residence of demons
Nettles - In Job the poor outcasts are described as taking shelter under them. Job 30:7 ; Proverbs 24:31 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Hosea 9:6 ; Zephaniah 2:9
Den - words represented by ‘den’ signify respectively ‘hollow place’ ( Isaiah 32:14 ), ‘thicket’ ( Psalms 10:9 ), ‘place of ambush’ ( Job 37:8 ), ‘dwelling’ ( Job 38:40 ), ‘light hole’ or ‘eyeball’ ( Isaiah 11:8 ); but the last passage, may be corrupt
Job, Book of - All that is known of the history of Job is found in the book bearing his name. Job is called "the greatest of all the men of the east. " No date is given to the book, but there being no reference in it to the law, or to Israel, makes it probable that Job lived in patriarchal times, as the name Almighty, which was revealed to Abraham, was known to Job, his three friends, and Elihu. ...
Job's three friends entirely misunderstood this government of God, asserting that he must have been doing evil or he would not have been thus dealt with. Job resented their judgement of him, and in justifying himself blamed God in His ways with him. The key to this part of the book is that Job was being tested: his heart was being searched that his true state might be brought out, and that he might learn to know God in His wisdom and power, and that His ways are in view of blessing to man. ...
The testing, all came from God: it was He who introduced Job to the notice of Satan, in the wonderful vision of the unseen, where the 'sons of God' presented themselves before God. When all Job's property and his sons and daughters were swept away, still he worshipped, saying the Lord who gave was the Lord who had taken away; and he blessed the name of the Lord. Then, when his body was full of sores, his wife was used of Satan to try and induce him to curse God; but he replied, "What! shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?" "In all this did not Job sin with his lips. ...
Then come Job's three friends, and though thus far he had not sinned with his lips , yet his friends bring out what was in his heart. " Job 4:8 . " Job 8:8 . " Job 11:14,15 . ...
All this led Job to assert his integrity as among men. " Job 10:7,8 . " Job 13:15,18 . " Job 16:11 ; Job 19:7 ; Job 31:6 . " Job 9:20-30,31 . But the unsolved question in Job's mind was, Why should God set his heart upon man? He so great, and man so fleeting and wretched: why would not God let him alone to fill out his day? For Job had the sense that it was God who was dealing with him, and that he was not suffering from ordinary providential causes. " Job 33:4-6 . He showed that Job was not just in justifying himself rather than God. ...
In Job 36 Elihu ascribes righteousness to his Maker, and assures Jobthat "He that is perfect in knowledge is with thee. ...
God Himself then takes up the case of Job, and, by speaking of the acts of His own divine wisdom and power in nature, shows by contrast the utter insignificance of Job. As to the wisdom of God's ways, would Job pretend to instruct Him? Job replied 'I am vile ,' and is silent. Job confesses that he had uttered what he understood not: things too wonderful for him, which he knew not. "...
Job had now learned the lesson God intended to teach him: he is in his proper place of nothingness before God. Job had seen God, and all was changed. God reproved Job's friends: they had not spoken of Him what was right as Job had. They must take a sacrifice, and Job must pray for them: Job was God's servant, and him God would accept. ...
Twice Job is mentioned along with Noah and Daniel in connection with 'righteousness' when the state of Israel had become so iniquitous that if these three men had been there, even their righteousness would have delivered their own souls only, but would not have saved so much as a son or a daughter. Job is also held up as an example of endurance, and as showing what the end of the Lord is, that He is very pitiful, and of tender mercy
Jobbed - ) of Job...
Keren-Happuch - The youngest daughter born to Job in his second estate of prosperity ( Job 42:14 )
Job - ...
THE BOOK OF Job, has originated much criticism, and on many points a considerable diversity of opinion still exists. Sceptics have denied its inspiration, and called it a mere philosophical romance; but no one who respects revelation can entertain this notion, or doubt that Job was a real person. See Ezekiel 14:14 James 5:11 , and compare 1 Corinthians 3:19 with Job 5:13 . Moreover, the name and history of Job are spread throughout the East; Arabian writers mention him, and many Mohammedan families perpetuate his name. The book seems to allude to the flood, Job 22:15-17 , but not to the destruction of Sodom, to the exodus from Egypt, or the giving of the Law. No reference is made to any order of priesthood, Job himself being the priest of his household, like Noah and Abraham. There is allusion to the most ancient form of idolatry, star-worship, and to the earliest mode of writing, Job 19:24 . The longevity of Job also places him among the patriarchs. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, and was an old man before his trial began, for his children were established each at the head of his own household, Job 1:4 42:16 . The period of long lives had not wholly passed away, Job 15:10 . Hales places the trial of Job before the birth of Abraham, and Usher, about thirty years before the exodus, B. It teaches the being and perfections of God, his creation of all things, and his universal providence; the apostasy and guilt of evil spirits and of mankind; the mercy of God, on the basis of a sacrifice, and on condition of repentance and faith, Job 33:27-30 42:6,8 ; the immortality of the soul, and the resurrection of the body, Job 14:7-15 19:25-27 . ...
The main problem discussed in Job is the justice of God in suffering the righteous to be afflicted, while the wicked prosper. ...
The conference of Job and his friends may be divided into three parts. In the first, Eliphaz addresses Job, and Job replies; then Bildad and Job, and Zophar and Job speak, in turn. In the second part, the same order is observed and in the third also, except that after Job's reply to Bildad, the three friends have no more to urge, and instead of Zophar, a fourth friend named Elihu takes up the word; and the whole is concluded by the decision of Jehovah himself. The friends of Job argue that his remarkable afflictions must have been sent in punishment of highly aggravated transgressions, and urge him to confession and repentance. ...
The DISEASE of Job is generally supposed to have been the elephantiasis, or black leprosy. The word rendered "boils" does not necessarily mean abscesses, but burning and inflammation; and no known disease better answers to the description given, Job 2:7,8 7:5,13,13 19:17 30:17 , than the leprosy referred to above
Ut - ) ...
The country in which Job lived. (Job 1:1 ) As far as we can gather, "the land of Uz" lay either east or southeast of Palestine, (Job 1:3 ) adjacent to the Sabaeans and the Chaldaeans, (Job 1:15,17 ) consequently north of the southern Arabians and west of the Euphrates; and, lastly, adjacent to the Edomites of Mount Seir, who at one period occupied Uz, probably as conquerors, (Lamentations 4:21 ) and whose troglodyte habits are described in (Job 30:6,7 ) From the above data we infer that the land of Uz corresponds to the Arabia Deserta of classical geography, at all events to so much of it as lies north of the 30th parallel of latitude
Chambers of the South - Since “chambers of the south” is mentioned along with other stellar constellations (Job 9:9 ), the phenomenon is usually taken to mean some sort of constellation or group of constellations. Compare Job 37:9 ; Job 38:22
Abaddon - Abaddon occurs six times in the Hebrew Bible ( Job 26:6 ; Job 28:22 ; Job 31:12 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; Proverbs 27:20 ; Psalm 88:11 )
Fodder - belil, (Job 6:5 ), meaning properly a mixture or medley (Lat. farrago), "made up of various kinds of grain, as wheat, barley, vetches, and the like, all mixed together, and then sown or given to cattle" (Job 24:6 , A
Motheaten - Job 13 ...
Uz - A country and a people near the Sabeans and the Chaldees (Job 1:1; Job 1:15; Job 1:17); accessible to the Temanites, the Shuhites (Job 2:11), and the Buzites (Job 32:2). Suited for sheep, oxen, asses, and camels (Job 1:3)
Crystal - The same Hebrew word is rendered by our translators, crystal, Ezekiel 1:22 ; frost, Genesis 31:40 ; and ice, Job 6:16 . The word primarily denotes ice; and the name is given to a perfectly transparent and glass-like gem, from its resemblance, Job 28:17 ; Revelation 4:6 ; 21:11
Job - Job...
1. The man Job . Job is referred to in the OT in the book bearing his name, and in Ezekiel 14:12-20 , where he is mentioned as a conspicuous example of righteousness; in the Apocr [3] of Tob 2:12 ; and in the NT in Job 16:7-1740 , the last two passages alluding to his patience. shows that righteous Job was a familiar figure in some Jewish circles in the 6th cent. On the assumption that the Job of the book is sketched, as to the main outlines, after ancient tradition, probably the same in substance as that known to Ezk. The Tetragrammaton, which is used 31 times by the writer in the prose parts, occurs only once in the poetic portions (Job 19:25-2751 ), and is ascribed to Job only in one verse in the Prologue ( Job 1:21 ). Adonai is also met with once ( Job 28:28 ). God is usually referred to by Job and his associates by names not distinctively Jewish: Et , 55 times; Etoah , 41 times out of 57 in the whole OT; and Shaddai , 31 times out of 48 in OT; Etohim is comparatively rare in the poem. The great word torah , ‘law,’ is used only once ( Job 22:22 ), and then in the general sense of ‘instruction. ]'>[4] , said to be taken from a Syriac book but standing in some relation to Aristeas, Job is to be identified with Jobab, king of Edom ( Genesis 36:33 ). This identification, which appears also in the Testament of Job , a work probably containing an ancient Jewish nucleus, although critically worthless, is not without interest and value, as possibly preserving a fragment of old tradition. The name Job , which probably belongs to the traditional story, is in Heb. The apparently similar name Job (AV [5] ) of Job 22:5-95 , a son of Issachar, is differently spelt (in Heb. Jobab , which is met with in several connexions ( Genesis 10:29 Joktanite; Genesis 36:33 Edomite; Joshua 11:1 Canaanite; 1 Chronicles 8:9 Benjamite), seems to be quite distinct, although Cheyne remarks (in EBi
(1) Place in the Canon . , Job, Wis. , Job, Proverbs. ]'>[3] Job usually comes first, and this order is generally adopted in European versions, owing no doubt to the influence of the Latin Bible. text of Job was long regarded as excellent, but has been much questioned in recent years, some critics resorting very largely to emendation with the help of the Versions and free conjecture. This version differs in extent from the Massoretic text more widely in Job than in any other book. There are two interesting additions: the expansion of Job 2:8 and the appendix at the end of the book; but the chief characteristic is omission. in Job 8:13 a ‘latter end’ for ‘paths,’ but in the main the Massoretic text is greatly to be preferred. ), stating the problem, ‘the undeserved suffering of a good man,’ giving a partial solution, and bringing on the scene the hero’s three friends; short headings ( Job 3:1 , Job 4:1 etc. ); a supplementary note ( Job 31:40 c. ); a brief introduction to the speeches of Elihu ( Job 32:1-6 ); and the sequel, often called the Epilogue ( Job 42:7-17 ). The poem opens with a monologue in which Job curses the day of his birth (ch. ...
The three friends in succession, probably in order of seniority, reason with Job, all from the generally accepted standpoint that suffering is a sure indication of sin. As the discussion proceeds they become more and more bitter, until the most moderate and dignified of them, Eliphaz, actually taxes Job with flagrant iniquity ( 1618416427_57 ). Job replies at length to each expostulation, sometimes sinking into depression on the verge of despair ( Job 14:1-12 etc. ), occasionally rising for a moment or two into confidence ( Job 16:19 , Job 19:25-27 ), but throughout maintaining his integrity, and, notwithstanding passionate utterances which seem near akin to blasphemy ( Job 10:8-17 , 1618416427_6 ), never wholly losing his faith in God. ...
The dialogues are followed by a monologue spoken by Job (chs. 30), and what Marshall calls ‘Job’s oath of self-vindication’ an emphatic disavowal of definite forms of transgression, in a series of sentences most of which begin with ‘if,’ sometimes followed by an imprecation (ch. The succeeding six chapters (32 37) are ascribed to a new character, a young man, Elihu the Buzite, who is dissatisfied] with both Job and his friends. The distinctive note of his argument is the stress laid on the thought that God teaches by means of affliction; in other words, that the purpose, or at least one main purpose, of trial is discipline (Job 33:19-28 , Job 36:10 ; Job 36:15 ). 38 42:6) is devoted to Jahweh’s answer to Job’s complaint, calling attention to the Divine power, wisdom, and tenderness revealed in creation, in the control of natural forces and phenomena, in the life of birds and beasts, and in the working of Providence in human history, and suggesting that He who could do all this might surely he trusted to care for His servant; and Job’s penitent retraction of his ‘presumptuous utterances. linking on naturally to Job 38:1 . (5) Theological diversity, the conception of God differing from what is met with in the rest of the book (Marshall, Job and his Friends , p. of Job , ch. Some question the verses about the ostrich (Job 39:13-18 ). (1) The dialogues up to Job 27:23 , with the Epilogue, and part of the Prologue; (2) chs. literature to which the Book of Job belongs is clearly the Chokhmah or Wisdom group, the other representatives of which are Pr. , the recurrence of the words ‘I only am escaped alone to tell thee’ ( Job 1:15-17 ; Job 1:19 ), the use of the Numbers 3:1-51 ( Job 1:2 ; JOba 1:17 , Job 2:11 , Job 42:13 ) and 7 ( Job 1:2 f. , Job 42:8 ; Job 42:13 ), and the doubling of Job’s possessions ( Job 42:12 ). A verse usually consists of two lines or members, but there are many instances where there are three ( Job 31:40 ff. , Job 3:9 ), and one at least where there is only one ( Job 14:4 ). There is no specific reply to Job’s bitter complaints and passionate outcries. He draws it, and sees the God whom he seemed to have lost sight of for ever as he never saw Him before, even in the time of his prosperity; sees Him, indeed, in a very real sense for the first time ( Job 42:5 ). God is a peerless teacher ( Job 36:22 b), who ‘delivereth the afflicted by his affliction, and openeth (uncovereth) their ear by adversity’ ( Job 36:15 ). Marshall observes that ‘every solution which the mind of man has ever framed [20] is to be found in the Book of Job. The interest of the Book of Job is concentrated mainly on the central figure, the hero. Some ascribe Job 27:7-10 ; Job 27:13-23 to Zophar, and add to Bildad’s speech (which in the present arrangement consists only of ch. 25) Job 27:5-14 of ch. what is left of Job’s reply being found in Job 26:1-4 , Job 27:2-6 ; Job 27:11 f. 25 and Job 26:5-14 , and Bildad’s in Job 24:18-21 . Eliphaz seems to be the oldest and most dignified of the three, with something of the seer or prophet about him ( Job 4:12-21 ). It must be allowed that the three characters are not as sharply distinguished as would be the case in a modern poem, the writer being concerned mainly with Job, and using the others to some extent as foils. Sirach ( 1618416427_8 ) Job is referred to after Ezekiel and before ‘the Twelve. Two Rabbis placed Job in the period of the return from the Exile ( ib. (2) The dialogue, which is unquestionably one of the oldest portions, indicates familiarity with national catastrophes, such as the destruction of the kingdom of Samaria, the overthrow of Damascus, and the leading away of large bodies of captives, including priests and nobles, from Jerusalem to Babylon ( Job 12:17-25 ), which again, on the assumption that the writer is an Israelite, points to an advanced stage of Israelitish history. ‘The prophet Jeremiah in his persecutions, Job who is called by Jahweh “my servant Job” ( Job 42:7 ), and the suffering Servant of Jahweh in the exilic prophet are figures which seem to stand in the connexion of a definite period’ (Baudissin, Einleitung , 768), and so point at the earliest to the Exile and the decades immediately preceding it. He was intimately acquainted with the life of caravans ( Job 6:15-20 ). He knew something of the astronomy of his time ( Job 9:9 , cf. Job 38:31 f. Job 9:13 , Job 25:2 , Job 26:12 , where there may be allusions to the Babylonian myth about the struggle between the dragon of Chaos and Marduk, the god of light; Job 3:8 , Job 26:13 , where reference may be made to popular notions about eclipses and to the claims of magicians; and perhaps Job 29:18 b. Job 7:17 f. , and Job 3:3 ; Job 3:10 with Jeremiah 20:14-18 , although the order of dependence is by no means certain in the latter case). ...
(11) Parallels to Job . ]'>[7] ) has endeavoured to connect the story of Job with the Babylonian legend of Eabani, but the similarity is too slight to need discussion
Pit - )...
(2) Shachath , "sunk and lightly covered [1]" to entrap animals (Psalms 9:16; Psalms 35:7); typifying "hopeless doom" (Job 33:18; Job 33:24; Job 33:28; Job 33:30)
Behemoth - The behemoth is apparently an animal that lives near water (Job 40:15-22 ). This animal demonstrates the power, knowledge, and majesty of God, qualities Job did not have
Ashes - " (Genesis 18:27) Job saith, that he "abhorred himself, and repented in dust and ashes. " (Job 42:6 See Daniel 9:3; Psalms 102:9; Lamentations 3:16)...
Post - ‘Post’ is used in 2 Chronicles 30:6 , Esther 8:14 , Job 9:25 , Jeremiah 51:31 for ‘a bearer of despatches,’ ‘a runner. ’ These runners were chosen from the king’s bodyguard, and were noted for their swiftness, whence Job’s simile ( Job 9:25 ), ‘My days are swifter than a post
Abaddon - It occurs six times in the Old Testament, in three of which it is associated with hell (sheol): Job 26:6 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; Proverbs 27:20 ; once with death: 'Destruction and Death say,' etc. , Job 28:22 ; and once with the grave. In all these passages, and in Job 31:12 , it is translated 'destruction'
Kesitah - ) After God restored his fortunes, Job received a kesitah from each of his friends (Job 42:11 )
Saltwort - SALTWORT ( Job 30:4 RV Bar'Achel - ( Job 32:2,6 ) [1]
Lion - ...
(2) kĕphîr , a young strong lion ( Judges 14:6 , Job 4:10 , Ezekiel 19:2 etc. ]'>[1] , labwah ), specially lioness ( Genesis 49:9 , Numbers 23:24 , Job 4:11 etc. ...
(4) layîsh , particularly in poetry ( Job 4:11 , Proverbs 30:30 , Isaiah 30:6 etc. ‘the roarer’ ( Job 4:10 ; Job 10:18 ; Job 28:8 , Hosea 5:14 , Psalms 91:13 ). ]'>[3] of Job 28:8 ‘lion s whelps,’ but ought to be, as in RVm Encamp - Job 19:12 (b) The sorrow and trouble which came upon Job are compared to soldiers who surrounded him in order to remove from him all his pleasure and comfort
Job - The Talmud cites many opinions as to when Job lived, ranging from the times of Jacob until Ahasuerus. ...
Job, the book of: A book of Tanach relating Job's suffering and his reaction thereto
Leek - The same word is elsewhere rendered "grass," 1 Kings 18:5; 2 Kings 19:26; Job 40:15; Psalms 37:2;" herb," Job 8:12 : "hay," Proverbs 27:25, Neezings - (neez ingss) KJV term meaning, “sneezings” or “sneezes” (Job 41:18 )
Saltwort - (ssalt' wohrt) REB translation of “mallows” (Job 30:4 )
Orion - (Job 9:9)...
Bosses - the thickest and strongest parts of a buckler, Job 15:20
Ice - Job's poetry has several references to ice. Ice is described as hard as stone (Job 38:30 ). In picturesque language, ice is frozen by the “breath of God” (Job 37:10 ). In an even bolder image, the Lord demanded to know “Out of whose womb came the ice? and the hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?” (Job 38:29 )
Eliphaz - First of Job's three friends, the "Temanite," sprung from the former Eliphaz Teman answers to Edom (Jeremiah 49:20), part of Arabia Petraea. Calmer and less vehement against Job than Bildad and Zophar, but condemned at the end for the same error, in spite. of the facts of daily life, that God's retributions here are complete, and that severe trial proved Job's past piety to be but hypocrisy. God's unapproachable majesty and purity are well get forth by him (Job 4; Job 5:14-16)
Daysman - Job 9:33; "neither is there any daysman betwixt us that might lay his hand upon us both. An arbitrator could have been found on a level with Job; but none on a level with Jehovah, the other Party with whom Job was at issue
Age, Old - In private life they were looked up to as the depositaries of knowledge, ( Job 15:10 ) the young were ordered to rise up in their presence, (Leviticus 19:32 ) they allowed them to give their opinion first, (Job 32:4 ) they were taught to regard gray hair as a "crown of glory," (Proverbs 16:31 ; 20:29 ) The attainment of old age was regarded as a special blessing. (Job 5:26 ) In pubic main qualification of those who acted as the representatives of the people in all matter of difficulty and deliberation
Sons of God - The angels who came to present themselves to God in the days of Job, and who shouted for joy when the foundations of the earth were laid, are called 'sons of God. ' Job 1:6 ; Job 2 : l; Job 38:7
Satan - The proper name appears five times in the Old Testament, 1 Chronicles 21:1; Job 1:6; Job 1:12; Job 2:1; Zechariah 3:1; in the New Testament 25 times; the word "devil" occurs 25 times; "the prince of this world," three times; "the wicked one," six times; "the tempter," twice. The most striking mention of Satan is in Job, where he appears among "the sons of God," This is in itself sufficient to prove the subordination of the powers of evil unto God and the permissive nature of sin, and that Satan has no authority to vex save as God grants it
Behemoth - ) An animal, probably the hippopotamus, described in Job xl
See Thing Pot - A vessel for boiling provisions in (Job 41:20 ; Jeremiah 1:13 )
Put-up - ) Arranged; plotted; - in a bad sense; as, a put-up Job
Laugh - Laughter can serve as a sign of contempt (Genesis 38:23 ; 2 Chronicles 30:10 ; Job 22:19 ) or of confidence (Job 5:22 ; Job 39:18 ,Job 39:18,39:22 NAS). Laughter is frequently contrasted with signs of mourning (Job 8:21 ; Psalm 126:2 ; Luke 6:21 ,Luke 6:21,6:25 )
Ass - Genesis 12:16 ; Job 1:3 ; Job 42:12 ; Ezra 2:67 ; Nehemiah 7:69 . Job 11:12 . Jehovah demanded of Job "Who hath sent out the wild ass free? or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass?" Job 39:5 : cf
Job - ) To buy and sell, as a broker; to purchase of importers or manufacturers for the purpose of selling to retailers; as, to Job goods. ) A situation or opportunity of work; as, he lost his Job. ) To hire or let by the Job or for a period of service; as, to Job a carriage. ) To carry on the business of a Jobber in merchandise or stocks. ) A piece of chance or occasional work; any definite work undertaken in gross for a fixed price; as, he did the Job for a thousand dollars. ) To do or cause to be done by separate portions or lots; to sublet (work); as, to Job a contract
Hedge - To put a hedge around someone means to protect (Job 1:10 ). To hedge in means to hem in or obstruct (Job 3:23 ; Lamentations 3:7 ; Hosea 2:6 )
Buz - Elihu, one of the friends of Job ( Job 32:2 ), is called a Buzite , and may have belonged to a tribe of that name against which judgments are denounced by Jeremiah ( Jeremiah 25:23 )
Lead, - Job speaks of it, apparently, as being used for filling in the engravings on stones. Numbers 31:22 ; Job 19:24 ; Jeremiah 6:29 ; Ezekiel 22:18,20 ; Ezekiel 27:12 ; Zechariah 5:7,8
Orion - Job 38:31 perhaps alludes to this myth. God is consistently portrayed as the creator of the Orion constellation ( Job 9:9 ; Amos 5:8 )
Job - That Job was a real, and not a fictitious, character, may be inferred from the manner in which he is mentioned in the Scriptures. Thus, the Prophet Ezekiel speaks of him: "Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God," Ezekiel 14:14 . Now since Noah and Daniel were unquestionably real characters, we must conclude the same of Job. "Behold," says the Apostle James, "we count them happy which endure: ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord, that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy," James 5:11 . But, beside the authority of the inspired writers, we have the strongest internal evidence, from the book itself, that Job was a real person; for it expressly specifies the names of persons, places, facts, and other circumstances usually related in true histories. Thus, we have the name, country, piety, wealth, &c, of Job described, Job i; the names, number, and acts of his children are mentioned; the conduct of his wife is recorded as a fact, Job ii; his friends, their names, countries, and discourses with him in his afflictions are minutely delineated, Job 2:11 , &c. ...
Farther: no reasonable doubt can be entertained respecting the real existence of Job, when we consider that it is proved by the concurrent testimony of all eastern tradition: he is mentioned by the author of the book of Tobit, who lived during the Assyrian captivity; he is also repeatedly mentioned by Arabian writers as a real character. ...
Since, then, says Horne, the book of Job contains the history of a real character, the next point is the age in which he lived, a question concerning which there is as great a diversity of opinion, as upon any other subject connected with this venerable monument of sacred antiquity. One thing, however, is generally admitted with respect to the age of the book of Job, namely, its remote antiquity. Even those who contend for the later production of the book of Job are compelled to acquiesce in this particular. The following are the principal circumstances from which the age of Job may be collected and ascertained:—...
1. The Usserian or Bible chronology dates the trial of Job about the year 1520 before the Christian era, twenty-nine years before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt; and that the book was composed before that event, is evident from its total silence respecting the miracles which accompanied the exode; such as the passage of the Red Sea, the destruction of the Egyptians, the manna in the desert, &c; all of which happened in the vicinity of Job's country, and were so apposite in the debate concerning the ways of Providence that some notice could not but have been taken of them, if they had been coeval with the poem of Job. The length of Job's life places him in the patriarchal times. He survived his trial one hundred and forty years, Job 42:16 , and was probably not younger at that time; for we read that his seven sons were all grown up, and had been settled in their own houses for a considerable time, Job 1:4-5 . He speaks of the sins of his youth, Job 13:26 , and of the prosperity of his youth; and yet Eliphaz addresses him as a novice: "With us are both the gray-headed and very aged men, much elder than thy father," Job 15:10 . That he did not live at an earlier period, may be collected from an incidental observation of Bildad, who refers Job to their forefathers for instruction in wisdom:—...
"Inquire, I pray thee, of the former age, ...
And prepare thyself to the search of their fathers:" ...
assigning as a reason the comparative shortness of human life, and consequent ignorance of the present generation:—...
"For we are but of yesterday, and know nothing; Because our days upon earth are a shadow. " ...
Job 8:8-9 . Thus, Job speaks of the most ancient kinds of writing, by sculpture, Job 19:24 ; his riches also are reckoned by his cattle, Job 42:12 . Farther: Job acted as high priest in his family, according to the patriarchal usage, Genesis 8:20 ; for the institution of an established priesthood does not appear to have taken place any where until the time of Abraham. Though Job was one of the greatest men of all the east, we do not find any such adoration paid to him by his contemporaries, in the zenith of his prosperity, among the marks of respect so minutely described in the twenty-ninth chapter: "When the young men saw him, they hid themselves," (rather, shrunk back, through respect or rustic bashfulness,) "the aged arose and stood up in his presence, (more correctly, ranged themselves about him, ) "the princes refrained from talking, and laid their hand upon their mouth; the nobles held their peace," and were all attention while he spoke. The allusion made by Job to that species of idolatry alone, which by general consent is admitted to have been the most ancient, namely, Zabianism, or the worship of the sun and moon, and also to the exertion of the judicial authority against it, Job 31:26-28 , is an additional and most complete proof of the high antiquity of the poem, as well as a decisive mark of the patriarchal age. A farther evidence of the remote antiquity of this book is the language of Job and his friends; who, being all Idumeans, or at least Arabians of the adjacent country, yet conversed in Hebrew. ...
The country in which the scene of this poem is laid, is stated, Job 1:1 , to be the land of Uz, which by some geographers has been placed in Sandy, and by others in Stony, Arabia. In effect, nothing is clearer than that the history of an inhabitant of Idumea is the subject of the poem which bears the name of Job, and that all the persons introduced into it were Idumeans, dwelling in Idumea, in other words, Edomite Arabs. These characters are, Job himself, of the land of Uz; Eliphaz, of Teman, a district of as much repute as Uz, and which, it appears from the joint testimony of Jeremiah. ...
The different parts of the book of Job are so closely connected together, that they cannot be detached from each other. The exordium prepares the reader for what follows, supplies us with the necessary notices concerning Job and his friends, unfolds the scope, and places the calamities full in our view as an object of attention. The epilogue, or conclusion, again, has reference to the exordium, and relates the happy termination of Job's trials; the dialogues which intervene flow in regular order. Without the prologue the reader would be utterly ignorant who Job was, who were his friends, and the cause of his being so grievously afflicted. Without the discourse of Elihu, Job 32-37, there would be a sudden and abrupt transition from the last words of Job to the address of God, for which Elihu's discourse prepares the reader. And without the epilogue, or conclusion, we should remain in ignorance of the subsequent condition of Job. Elihu, Job, Moses, Solomon, Isaiah, an anonymous writer in the reign of Manasseh, Ezekiel, and Ezra, have all been contended for. The arguments already adduced respecting the age of Job, prove that it could not be either of the latter persons. Lightfoot, from an erroneous version of Job 32:16-17 , has conjectured that it is the production of Elihu; but the correct rendering of that passage refutes this notion. But, independently of the characters of antiquity already referred to, and which place the book of Job very many centuries before the time of Moses, the total absence of even the slightest allusion to the manners, customs, ceremonies, or history of the Israelites, is a direct evidence that the great legislator of the Hebrews was not, and could not have been the author. To which may be added, that the style of Job, as Bishop Lowth has remarked, is materially different from the poetical style of Moses; for it is much more compact, concise, or condensed, more accurate in the poetical conformation of the sentences; as may be observed also in the prophecies of Balaam the Mesopotamian, a foreigner, indeed, with respect to the Israelites, but not unacquainted either with their language, or with the worship of the true God. Hales, who suppose Job himself, or some contemporary, to have been the author of this poem; and there seems to be no good reason for supposing that it was not written by Job himself. It appears, indeed, highly probable that Job was the writer of his own story, of whose inspiration we have the clearest evidence in the forty-second chapter of this book, in which he thus addresses the Almighty: "I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear, but now mine eye seeth thee. ...
The book of Job contains the history of Job, a man equally distinguished for purity and uprightness of character, and for honours, wealth and domestic felicity, whom God permitted, for the trial of his faith, to be suddenly deprived of all his numerous blessings, and to be at once plunged into the deepest affliction, and most accumulated distress. How long the sufferings of Job continued, we are not informed; but it is said, that after God turned his captivity, and blessed him a second time, he lived one hundred and forty years, Job 42:16 . In the wonderful speech of the Deity, Job 38, 39, every line delineates his attributes, every sentence opens a picture of some grand object in creation, characterized by its most striking features. Add to this, that its prophetic parts reflect much light on the economy of God's moral government; and every admirer of sacred antiquity, every inquirer after religious instruction, will seriously rejoice that the enraptured sentence of Job, Job 19:23 , is realized to a more effectual and unforeseen accomplishment; that while the memorable records of antiquity have mouldered from the rock, the prophetic assurance and sentiments of Job are graven in Scriptures that no time shall alter, no changes shall efface
Hound - To harass continually (Job 19:28 ; Psalm 109:16 ; Ezekiel 36:3 NIV)
Taskwork - ) Work done as a task; also, work done by the Job; piecework
Ice - Frequently mentioned (Job 6:16 ; 38:29 ; Psalm 147:17 , etc
Barethel - ("blessing of God"): implying his separation from the surrounding idolatry (Job 32:2-6)
Destruction - In Job 26:6,28:22 (Heb
Wonderful - Job 42
Thunder - Often referred to in Scripture (Job 40:9 ; Psalm 77:18 ; 104:7 ). In Job 39:19 , instead of "thunder," as in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version translates (ra'amah) by "quivering main" (marg. It was regarded as the voice of God (Job 37:2 ; Psalm 18:13 ; 81:7 ; Compare John 12:29 )
Elihu -
"The son of Barachel, a Buzite" (Job 32:2 ), one of Job's friends. When the debate between Job and his friends is brought to a close, Elihu for the first time makes his appearance, and delivers his opinion on the points at issue (Job 3237-37 )
Nest - Used literally of birds’ nests ( Deuteronomy 22:6 ; Deuteronomy 32:11 , Job 39:27 , Psalms 84:3 ; Psalms 104:17 , Proverbs 27:8 , Isaiah 16:2 ); metaphorically for a lofty fortress ( Numbers 24:21 , Jeremiah 49:16 , Obadiah 1:4 , Habakkuk 2:9 ); Job refers to his lost home as a nest ( Job 29:18 ); in Genesis 6:14 the ‘ rooms ’ of the ark are (see mg
Arm - Such power can oppress people (Job 35:9 ), but such arms will be broken (Job 38:15 ). No human arm or power is comparable to God's (Job 40:9 )
Arcturus - (ehrc tyoo' ruhss) A constellation of stars God created (Job 9:9 ; Job 38:32 ) of which exact identification was not clear to the earliest Bible translators and continues to be debated
Ghost - It is the translation of the Hebrew Nephesh_ and the Greek _pneuma , Both meaning "breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" ( Job 11:20 ; Jeremiah 15:9 ; Matthew 27:50 ; John 19:30 ). The expression "to give up the ghost" means to die (Lamentations 1:19 ; Genesis 25:17 ; 35:29 ; 49:33 ; Job 3:11 )
Mazzaroth - Job 38:32, "canst thou bring forth the signs of the zodiac at their respective seasons?" Mazzaloth in 2 Kings 23:5 margin, the 12 lodgings or stopping places (from Arabic menzil , "an inn"), in which the sun successively stays or appears to stay in the sky. Gesenius supports margin Job 38:32, "the 12 signs," literally, "premonitions," i
Nettle - Coarse plants with stinging hairs belonging to the family Urtica ; generally, any prickly or stinging plant (Job 30:7 ; Proverbs 24:31 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Hosea 9:6 ; Zephaniah 2:9 ). The Hebrew term used at Job 30:7 and Zephaniah 2:9 perhaps refers to wild mustard
Bildad - Shuah and his brethren were located in Arabia Petraea; and thus Bildad the Shuhite was a neighbor and friend of Job, and came to condole with him in his affliction, Job 2:11 ; 8:1-22 ; 18:1-21 ; 25:1-6
Shuhite - A designation of Bildad (Job 2:11 ), probably because he was a descendant of Shuah
Expressman - ) A person employed in the express business; also, the driver of a Job wagon
Integrity - Several Old Testament characters are designated persons of integrity: Noah ( Genesis 6:9 ); Abraham (Genesis 17:1 ); Jacob (Genesis 25:27 ); Job (Genesis 27:5-2762 ,Job 1:1,1:8 ; Job 2:3 ); and David (1 Kings 9:4 )
Flowers - ziz , Isaiah 28:1 ; Isaiah 28:4 ; Isaiah 40:6 , Job 14:2 , ‘blossoms’ Numbers 17:8 . nizzah used of the inconspicuous flowers of vine and olive, Isaiah 18:5 , Job 15:33 . Job 15:4 . Hence they are an appropriate symbol of the evanescence of human life ( Job 14:2 , Psalms 103:15 etc
Asp - KJV translation for a dangerous, poisonous snake (Deuteronomy 32:33 ; Job 20:14 ,Job 20:14,20:16 ; Isaiah 11:8 ; Romans 3:13 ). Riches that become the center of life turn out to be as poisonous as asps (Job 20:14 ,Job 20:14,20:16 )
Reed - אגמון , Job 40:21 ; Job 41:2 ; Job 41:20 ; Isaiah 9:14 ; Isaiah 19:15 ; Isaiah 58:5 ; καλαμος , Matthew 11:7 ; a plant growing in fenny and watery places; very weak and slender, and bending with the least breath of wind, Matthew 11:7 ; Luke 7:24 . The Hebrew word in these places is קנה , as also in Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; Ezekiel 29:6
Kezia - ) Psalms 45:8; Job 42:14. An aromatic herb, expressing the beauty of Job's daughter
Barachel - ” Father of Job's friend Elihu (Job 32:2 )
Keziah - One of Job's daughters, (Job 42:14) from Katza, or bassia, meaning, a sweet-scented plant
Jemima - Dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial (Job 42:14 )
Pleiades - (play' uh deez) A brilliant grouping of six or seven visible stars located in the shoulder of the constellation Taurus (Job 9:9 ; Job 38:31 ; Amos 5:8 )
Challenge - ]'>[2] of Calvin’s Job , p. ’ The word occurs in Exodus 22:9 , in the heading of Isaiah 45 ‘By his omnipotency he challengeth obedience;’ and in Job 3:5 AVm Mine - The process of mining is described in Job 28:1-11 . Job 28:4 is rightly thus rendered in the Revised Version, "He breaketh open a shaft away from where men sojourn; they are forgotten of the foot [1]; they hang afar from men, they swing to and fro
Ashes - We find it adopted by Job, Job 2:8 ; by many Jews when in great fear, Esther 4:3 ; and by the king of Nineveh, Jonah 3:6
Posts - Job says, "My days are swifter than a post," Job 9:25
Hawk - (Leviticus 11:16 ; 14:15; Job 39:26 ) The hawk includes various species of the Falconidae . With respect to the passage in Job (l
Jobab - JobAB. Glaser identifies Jobab with YHYBB (likely Yuhaybab ), a tribe mentioned in the Sabæan inscriptions. ]'>[1] version of Job, with Job (see Job, § 1)
Barachel - Whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of Job's friends (Job 32:2,6 )
Fodder - FODDER ( belîl , Job 6:5 and Judges 19:21 RV Boss - Job 15:26
Jemimah - The eldest of Job’s daughters born to him after his restoration to prosperity ( Job 42:14 )
Jemima - One of Job's daughters. (Job 42:14) The meaning of the name implies, beautiful as the day
Cockle - This word may denote troublesome or offensive weeds in general Job 31:40
Ostrich - bath ya‘ănâh , Leviticus 11:15 , Deuteronomy 14:15 , Job 30:29 , Isaiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Isaiah 43:26 , Jeremiah 50:39 , and Micah 1:8 . yĕnânîm , Job 39:13 AV
The popular view of the ostrich’s neglect of her eggs appears in Job 39:14-15 , but the following is her real habit. The feathers ( Job 39:13 ), the swift pace ( Job 39:18 ), and the mournful cry ( Micah 1:8 ) of the ostrich are all referred to in Scripture, and in Job 30:28 its cry is associated with that other melancholy night-cry the ‘wailing’ of the jackals
Hoarfrost, Hoar Frost - KJV terms for frost from “hoar” (white) and “frost” (Exodus 16:14 ; Job 38:29 ; Psalm 147:16 )
Temanite - A man of Teman, the designation of Eliphaz, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11 ; 22:1 )
Angle - word is translated ‘book’ in Job 41:1
Astronomy - In the Book of Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star" (Revelation 2:28 ; Compare Isaiah 14:12 ), the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8 ; Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ), "the crooked serpent," Draco (Job 26:13 ), the Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11 ). The oldest divisions of time were mainly based on the observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, the "ordinances of heaven" (Genesis 1:14-18 ; Job 38:33 ; Jeremiah 31:35 ; 33:25 ). " The word "Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32 ) means, as the margin notes, "the twelve signs" of the zodiac
North - The word occurs only in Job 37:9 . Job 37:9 , etc
Candle - ner, Job 18:6 ; 29:3 ; Psalm 18:28 ; Proverbs 24:20 , in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. It is used as a figure of conscience (Proverbs 20:27 ), of a Christian example (Matthew 5:14,15 ), and of prosperity (Job 21:17 ; Proverbs 13:9 )
Ori'on - ( Job 9:9 ) Also alluded to in (Job 38:31 )
Eyelids of the Morning - A phrase meaning “the glow of dawn” used to describe the eyes of Leviathan (Job 41:18 )
Potsherd - , anything severed, as a fragment of earthenware (Job 2:8 ; Proverbs 26:23 ; Isaiah 45:9 )
Shuhite - Designation of Bildad, one of Job's friends. Job 2:11 ; etc
Unripe (Rapes) - Job 15:33 (b) This describes the unfinished labor and the untimely destruction of the works of wicked men
Jab - See Job, v
Steps - ...
Job 14:16 (c) In this way Job describes the care with which GOD watched over His servant. He knew how many steps Job took, and why he took them. (See also Job 31:4, Job 31:37). ...
Job 29:6 (b) In this way Job is telling us that he lived in luxury
Egg - Eggs deserted (Isaiah 10:14 ), of a bird (Deuteronomy 22:6 ), an ostrich (Job 39:14 ), the cockatrice (Isaiah 59:5 ). In Job 6:6 ("the white of an egg") the word for egg (hallamuth') occurs nowhere else. Job applies this expression to the speech of Eliphaz as being insipid and dull
Whirlwind - The Lord used the raging wind to take Elijah to heaven (2Kings 2:1, 2 Kings 2:11 ) and to talk with Job (Job 38:1 ; Job 40:6 )
Asp - ...
Job 20:14 (a) The feeling expressed by Job caused his friends to say that he was feeding from the poison that comes from the snake. Job was considering and meditating in his heart the things that were bitter, harsh and evil in his life
Gold - A well-known valuable metal, found in many parts of the world, and obtained anciently in Ophir, Job 28:16 ; Parvaim, 2 Chronicles 3:6 ; Sheba, and Raamah, Ezekiel 27:22 . Job alludes to gold in various forms, Job 22:24 28:15-19
Set in Order - The word is used several times in the Book of Job with reference to “arranging” or “setting” words “in order,” as in an argument or rebuttal (Job 32:14; 33:5; 37:19). In Job 13:18, Job declares: “Behold now, I have ordered my cause [2]
Leviathan - (jointed monster ) occurs five times in the text of the Authorized Version, and once in the margin of ( Job 3:8 ) where the text has "mourning. " In the Hebrew Bible the word livyathan , which is, with the foregoing exception, always left untranslated in the Authorized Version, is found only in the following passages: ( Job 3:8 ; 41:1 ; Psalm 74:14 ; 104:26 ; Isaiah 27:1 ) In the margin of (Job 3:8 ) and text of (Job 41:1 ) the crocodile is most clearly the animal denoted by the Hebrew word
Rush - The papyrus (Job 8:11 )
Web - See Job 8:14 )
Noose - A loop of rope used as a trap (Job 18:10 NAS, NIV; Proverbs 7:22 NIV)
Barachel - (Job 32:2) His name signifies, one who blesseth God; from Barach, to bless; and El, God
Uz - This was the land made memorable by the dwelling of Job
Jashub -
The third of Issachar's four sons (1 Chronicles 7:1 ); called also Job (Genesis 46:13 )
Naught - ...
Doth Job serve God for naught? Job 1
Mantle - Many of the prophets wore them (1 Samuel 15:27 ; 1 Kings 19:13 ), as did women in Jerusalem (Isaiah 3:22 ) and Job (Job 1:20 )
Boil - The boils were doubtless malignant when sent as a plague in Egypt, Exodus 9:9-11 ; and they were severe in the case of Job when smitten by Satan. Job 2:7
Loins - God said to Job, "Gird up now thy loins like a man. " Job 38:3
Outrun - , 1 Samuel 8:11 ; in some texts, Job 41:13 , "destruction runneth before him," in the Eng. versions, Job 41:22
Topaz - פטדה , Exodus 28:17 ; Exodus 39:10 ; Job 28:19 ; Ezekiel 28:13 ; τοπαζιον , Revelation 21:20 ; a precious stone of a pale dead green, with a mixture of yellow; and sometimes of fine yellow, like gold. Those of Ethiopia were celebrated for their wonderful lustre, Job 28:19
Orion - Job 9:9 , one of the brightest constellations of the Southern Hemisphere. In Job 38:31 , fetters are ascribed to him; and this coincides with the Greek fable of the giant Orion, bound in the heavens for an unsuccessful war against the gods
Vile - ...
Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed as vile in your sight? Job 18 . Behold I am vile what shall I answer? Job 40
Nephew - Often used in the old English sense "grandson" (1 Timothy 5:4; Judges 12:14; Isaiah 14:29; Job 18:19)
Straw - Used figuratively in Job 41:27 ; Isaiah 11:7 ; 25:10 ; 65:25
Arguing - ...
What doth your arguing reprove? Job 6
Cockle - A plant growing among wheat, Job 31:40
Dayspring - (Job 38:12 ; Luke 1:78 ), the dawn of the morning; daybreak
Tabbath - (Judges 7:22) The word means goodness from Job, good
Worm - These two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable (Job 25:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 ). Tola'im in some places denotes the caterpillar (Deuteronomy 28:39 ; Jonah 4:7 ), and rimmah, the larvae, as bred from putridity (Job 17:14 ; 21:26 ; 24:20 ). ...
The word is used figuratively in Job 25:6 ; Psalm 22:6 ; Isaiah 41:14 ; Mark 9:44,46,48 ; Isaiah 66:24
Frost - kerah, from its smoothness) Job 37:10 (RSV, "ice"); Genesis 31:40 ; Jeremiah 36:30 ; rendered "ice" in Job 6:16,38:29 ;; and "crystal" in Ezekiel 1:22 . kephor, so called from its covering the ground) is mentioned in Exodus 16:14 ; Job 38:29 ; Psalm 147:16
Gall - In the OT it is used (a) of a plant characterized by bitterness (probably wormwood), Deuteronomy 29:18 ; Hosea 10:4 ; Amos 6:12 ; (b) as the translation of the word mererah, "bitterness," Job 13:26 , e. " In Job 20:25 , the gall bladder is referred to (the receptacle of bile). The ancients supposed that the poison of serpents lay in the gall (see Job 20:14 )
Pillar - Job speaks of the pillars of heaven and the pillars of the earth, Job 9:6 ; Job 26:11 ; which are strong metaphorical expressions, that suppose the heavens and the earth to be an edifice raised by the hand of the almighty Creator, and founded upon its basis
Reins - The substitutions made by the NRSV are illustrative of those of other modern translations: literal sense as “kidneys” (Job 16:13 ), “inward parts” (Psalm 139:13 ), and “loins” (Isaiah 11:5 ); figurative sense as “heart” (Job 19:27 ; Psalm 7:9 ; Psalm 16:7 ; Psalm 26:2 ; Psalm 73:21 ; Jeremiah 11:20 ) with the exception of Proverbs 23:16 (“soul”)
Looking Glass - In biblical times mirrors were made of polished metal (molten mirror, Job 37:18 ) which yielded a somewhat distorted image (1 Corinthians 13:12 ). The KJV often refers to a mirror as a glass (Job 37:18 ; Isaiah 3:23 ; 1 Corinthians 13:12 ; James 1:23 )
Organ - KJV term for a musical instrument which modern translations identify as a pipe or shrill flute (Genesis 4:21 ; Job 21:12 ; Job 30:31 ; Psalm 150:4 )
Mazzaroth - Prognostications, found only Job 38:32 , probably meaning "the twelve signs" (of the zodiac), as in the margin (Compare 2 Kings 23:5 )
Keren-Happuch - Horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job's third daughter (Job 42:14 ), born after prosperity had returned to him
Ram - (Job 32:2) Perhaps from Ramah, lifted up
Neesing - Translated sneezing in 2 Kings 4:35 ; used in Job 41:18 to describe the violent breathing of the enraged leviathan, or crocodile
Job, Theology of - The reader who desires to unlock the rich theological treasures contained in the Book of Job should assume its literary unity. ...
Although the Book of Job is a complex work composed of many different speeches, its almost architectonic symmetry argues for a literary unity. After Job's initial monologue (chap. 3) a dialogue of three cycles occurs between Job and his three friends, Eliphaz, Bildad, and Zophar ( Job's response to each friend is always longer than the corresponding speech, the short speech by Bildad (chap. 25) and the absence of Zophar's speech in the final cycle may indicate Job's verbal victory over his friends, who fail to refute him (see Elihu's remarks in 32:3,5). Chapter 28, a wisdom interlude between the three cycles of dialogue and the three monologues by Job, Elihu, and the Lord, marks the futility of dialogue as long as Job and his friends rely on human reasoning (see vv. Job's closing monologues (chaps. ...
Critics interpret the inconsistency between the "patient Job" who never complains (see 1:21-22) and the "impatient Job" of the poetic body who curses the day of his birth (chap. It is better to view these two contrasting portraits of Job as intentionally displaying that Job was no "plaster saint" who suffered stoically. ...
Since most of the Book of Job contains human reasoning, one must interpret each individual unit within the contest of the book as a whole and of the main purpose of the book. The former notifies the reader (like the narrator in a dramatic production) that Job is innocent and that Satan is the instigator of Job's sufferings. The latter is the most determinative part, since God himself addresses Job. ...
Though many suppose that the main purpose of the Book of Job is to explain the mystery of the suffering of the righteous, it does not provide a definitive answer to this matter (and neither do the Lord's speeches address it directly); therefore, it must not be the main issue. Though the three friends basically have an orthodox view of God, they often misapply the doctrine to Job's situation. Eliphaz accuses Job of possessing a distorted view of God's transcendence (22:12-14)—that he is so lofty in heaven that he cannot see what is happening on earth. ...
Wrongly assuming that Job's condition indicates some secret sin, all three friends urge him to repent so God can deliver him (5:8,18-20; 8:5; 11:13-14; 22:21-24). ...
Job's View of God . Job possesses an ambivalent view of his Maker. This belief affects Job's understanding of God's attributes and actions. ...
Although Job acknowledges that God is wise and so mighty in strength (9:4-6; 12:13) that he is omnipotent (9:12; 23:13; 42:2), he seems to abuse his power in an arbitrary way (9:13-24; 12:14-25; Job (6:4; 27:2) or to punish the wicked who deserve it (21:15,30; 27:10,11, 15). Also Job portrays God as unjust Judge (9:22-24) who is cruel (30:21-22) and unfair to him (19:6-22) and to many innocent victims of social injustice (24:1-12). Job depicts the Lord as an angry God who punishes him harshly (9:13-24; 10:17; 16:9-14; 19:11-22). ...
On a positive note, Job agrees with his friends that God is sovereign Creator and Ruler who has done unsearchable things (9:10) in the creation and control of the cosmos (9:5-9; 26:7-14). He realizes that all things are in God's hand (12:9), including Job's persecution (30:21) and his disease (19:21). Job has believed from the outset that God is responsible for his circumstances (
see 1:21). Yet the prologue reveals that this was only God's permissive will since he had given limited authority over Job into Satan's hand (1:12; 2:6). Thus, Job trusts that god's hand controls the elements of chaos in creation such as the sea, the storm cloud, and the cosmic sea monster Rahab (26:12-13). He corrects Job's view of God's hiddenness by arguing that God reveals himself in mysterious ways (including dreams, pain and illness, and angels) (33:13-23). Elihu calls God the sovereign Teacher (36:22) who will instruct Job (chaps. Although Elihu errs in assuming Job has had pride from the beginning of his suffering, the speeches of Job and of the Lord reveal the subsequent pride of Job. ...
Elihu corrects Job's theology by arguing that God is mighty but not arbitrary in his power (36:5-6). He is the exalted and sovereign Teacher whom Job should not try to correct; rather Job should magnify his strength and power through song (36:21-24) and meditate reverently on his awesome majesty and wonderful works in nature (37:1-2,14-18,22-24). This epithet is used in the Book of Job by all the characters in the poetic body for a total of thirty-one times in contrast to seventeen times in the rest of the Old Testament. ...
Ignoring Job's cries for a verdict of innocent or an indictment of specific charges, the Lord confronts Job with his ignorance of Yahweh's ways in governing the universe (38:2). Questions beginning with "where?" (38:4,19, 24), "on what?" (38:6), and sentence questions including the pronoun "you" or "your" (38:12,16, 17,18, 22,31, 32,33, 34,35, 39; 39:1,2, 9,10, 11,12, 19,20, 26,27; 40:8,9) expose Job's impotence and finiteness in light of God's sovereignty and infinite greatness. Since God is nobody's equal, Job's audacious attempt to subpoena God (31:35) and to wage a "lawsuit" to enforce his rights (40:2) is absurd. ...
Yahweh confronts Job's prideful questioning of his justness as ruler of the universe (see 40:8-14). Since Job does not dare rouse Leviathan (41:1-10a), how much more absurd that he has challenged the authority of Yahweh, the maker and ruler of Leviathan (41:10b-11). One common denominator between the theology of Job and his friends is a belief in the retribution dogma, a simplistic understanding of the principle of divine retribution: God (without exception) punishes the wicked and rewards the righteous. Since the righteous are always blessed and the wicked always receive God's judgment, Job must be a sinner since God has removed his physical blessings. Because God never punishes the godly man or preserves the evildoer, all three friends contend that Job's suffering is a sign of hidden sin (4:7-11; 5:8-16; 8:11-22; 11:4-6,14-20; 18:5-21). 7-10) and Bildad (8:4) states that Job's children were killed as punishment for their sins. Both Eliphaz (15:17-35) and Zophar (20:4-29) explain Job's initial prosperity by the prevailing idea that the wicked many enjoy temporary prosperity before God metes out retributive judgment. ...
Job denies the accusations of his three friends that he is being punished for sin and openly questions the validity of the retribution dogma by citing counterexamples of the prosperity of the wicked (21:7-16,31). Yet, when Job accuses God of unjustly punishing him for sin (in order to maintain his own innocence — 9:20-23; 40:8), he unconsciously retains the dogma of divine retribution. ...
The purpose of the Book of Job (negatively stated) involves the refutation of this retribution dogma, which assumes an automatic connection between one's material and physical prosperity and one's spirituality. Both Job and his friends unknowingly restrict God's sovereignty by their assumption that he must always act according to their preconceived dogma. Because of this dogma, Job impugns God's justice in order to justify himself (see 40:8). ...
The Book of Job also refutes the corollary that God is obligated to bless man if he obeys. This issue surfaces in the prologue, when Satan claims that Job serves God only for profit (1:9-11). After Job's numerous possessions are removed, Job demands that God give him a fair trial in court (10:2). Because God does not answer his plea to specify charges against him, Job dares to challenge the sovereign power of the Almighty by trying (as it were) to subpoena him for testimony (31:35). When Job assumes that God owes him physical blessing since he has been obedient to Him, he was imbibing a concept that undergirded ancient Near Eastern religions—that the human relationship to the gods was like a business contract of mutual claims that was binding in court. The Book of Job shows the absurdity of demanding that God operate in this manner since he is obligated to no one: "Who has a claim against me that I must pay? Everything under heaven belongs to me" (41:11). Since Job perceives of God as unjust and inaccessible, he expresses a desire for an impartial mediator (9:33—Heb. ...
The identity of Job's "witness" or "legal advocate" (16:19) in heaven is disputed. Job's appeal to God (17:3) to act as his advocate by laying down a pledge (i. , to provide the bail or surety needed in his desired court case) may support that Job refers to God in 16:19. However, Job's wish for an impartial "mediator" between God and himself (9:33) and the context of 16:21 suggest that Job is using a legal metaphor for an advocate who would plead for him with God. ...
In 19:25 Job expresses his confidence in his living redeemer. 26 and the prior context of 17:3), the context of 9:33 (his desire for a neutral party) and of 16:19-21 implies that Job more likely refers to someone other than God. By again using the legal metaphor, Job expresses his conviction that he would be vindicated as innocent (which in an earthly lawsuit would require a vindicator or legal advocate). Job believes that surely there is a legal advocate in his "lawsuit" against God. Though Job probably uses a legal metaphor for someone other than God, his longing for a "vindicator" is eventually fulfilled in God (see 42:7, where God says his servant Job spoke what was right about him ). One must not assume that Job had any knowledge of Christ as his Redeemer (a truth revealed only in the New Testament); nonetheless the paramount fulfillment of Job's need for a mediator and legal advocate has now been found in the person of Jesus Christ. Job longs for death as an escape from God and the unrelenting trouble that God has caused him (3:10-13,20-22; 7:15,19-21). At first Job perceives of the grave as a place of rest and quiet (3:11-13,17) in contrast to life (3:26) and as freedom from bondage (3:18-19) and as separation from God (7:21). Yet Job stresses that it is dark, gloomy, and without order (10:18-22). Job portrays Sheol as a house (or home — 17:13) and a meeting house appointed for all the living (30:23). ...
Though Sheol is very deep and far away (11:8), dark (10:21-22), and sealed up (7:9-10), Job believes that Sheol is not concealed from God's purview (26:5-6). ...
Thus, Job expresses confidence of seeing God after death (19:26). mibbesari ) "from [5] my flesh" determines whether Job conceives of bodily resurrection or merely conscious awareness of God after death. The Book of Job presents a lofty view of God as One worthy of our worship and trust no matter how enigmatic our circumstances. The Lord does not give a direct answer to Job's question "why?", but communicates that when things seem chaotic and senseless he himself is still in charge. ...
The heated debate between the impatient Job and his dogmatic "friends" must not overshadow Job's overall example of practical holiness and ethical purity. Job's model of a blameless servant fearing God (1:1,8; 2:3; 42:2-6,7-8) and the message of the book demonstrate that reverential submission is always the proper response for believers—whether in prosperity or tragedy. Job's blameless record as a neighbor and city official (29:12-17; 31:16-23), including pure inward motivations (31:1-2,24-25,33-34) and attitudes (see 31:1,7,9,26-27,29-30) toward God and neighbor, are lofty ethical standards to emulate. , The Book of Job: God's Answer to the Problem of Undeserved Suffering ; E. Dhorme, A Commentary on the Book of Job ; J. Hartley, The Book of Job ; G
Cloud - They serve also for figures of instability and transitoriness ( Hosea 6:4 ), calamity ( Lamentations 2:1 ), the gloom of old age ( Ecclesiastes 12:2 ), great height ( Job 20:6 ), immense numbers ( Hebrews 12:1 ). The poetic treatment in Job. The waters are bound up securely in the clouds, so that the rain does not break through ( Job 26:8 ); when the ocean issues from chaos like a new-born child, God wraps it in the swaddling-bands of clouds ( Job 38:9 ); the laws of their movements are impenetrable mysteries ( Job 36:29 , Job 37:16 , Job 38:37 )
Left Hand - Among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9 ; Genesis 14:15 ), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east
Fish-Hooks - Were used for catching fish (Amos 4:2 ; Compare Isaiah 37:29 ; Jeremiah 16:16 ; Ezekiel 29:4 ; Job 41:1,2 ; Matthew 17:27 )
Jemima - ” Job's first daughter after God restored his fortunes (Job 43:14 )
Naamathite - The designation of Zophar, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11 ; 11:1 ), so called from some place in Arabia, called Naamah probably
Job - The 'perfect and upright man' whose history is given in the book of Job
Leek - hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered "grass" in 1Kings 1 Kings 19:26 , Job 40:15 , etc. ; "herb" in Job 8:12 ; "hay" in Proverbs 27:25 , and Isaiah 15:6 ; "leeks" only in Numbers 11:5
Furrow - A narrow trench cut in the earth by a plow (1 Samuel 14:14 ; Job 31:38 ; Job 39:10 ; Psalm 65:10 ; Psalm 129:3 ; Hosea 10:4 ; Hosea 12:11 )
Naamah - Zophar the Naamathite is mentioned in Job ( Job 2:11 etc
Stocks - Job 13:27 ; Job 33:11 ; Acts 16:24 (ξύλον)
Stubble - Job 13:25 (b) Job uses this figure to describe himself as one who has been cut down, cast out and is no longer useful
Organ - (Genesis 4:21 ; Job 21:12 ; 30:31 ; Psalm 150:4 ) The Hebrew word thus rendered probably denotes a pipe or perforated wind-instrument. In (Job 21:12 ) are enumerated three kinds of musical instruments which are possible under the general terms of the timbrel harp and oryan
Moth - In Job 4:19 "crushed before the moth" alludes apparently to the fact that woolen materials, riddled by the larvae of "moths," become so fragile that a touch demolishes them. In Job 27:18 "He buildeth his house as a moth" alludes to the frail covering which a larval "moth" constructs out of the material which it consumes
Shuttle - The well-known weaver's implement which carries a thread, mentioned as early as Job 7:6 ; it is referred to as an emblem of swiftness
Wearisome - Job 7
Mazzaroth - The margin of the Authorized Version of ( Job 38:32 ) gives Mazzaroth as the name of the twelve signs of the zodiac
Lightning - ’ôr ( Job 37:3 ) is lit. for ‘lightnings’ ( Exodus 20:18 ); a word of uncertain meaning, châzÄ­z ( Job 28:26 ; Job 38:35 , Zechariah 10:1 ), is evidently related to thunder , and should probably in each case be tr. Ezekiel 21:10 , Nahum 3:3 , Habakkuk 3:11 ), and for the glittering weapon itself ( Job 20:25 ). ), and He alone can control it ( Job 38:33 , Psalms 18:14 )
Job - (Ἰώβ)...
Job is named by Ezekiel (Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20)-in the 6th cent. , probably about two centuries before the writing of the Book of Job-along with Noah and Daniel as a proverbially righteous man. ‘Ye have heard of the patience (τὴν ὑπομονήν) of Job’ (Job 5:11). ‘And remember Job; when he cried unto the Lord, saying, Verily evil hath afflicted me: but thou art the most merciful of all those who show mercy
Bosses - The projecting parts of a shield (Job 15:26 )
Aha! - In Isaiah 44:16 it signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25 , RSV
Rahab - Primeval sea monster representing the forces of chaos God overcame in creation (Job 9:13 ; Job 26:12 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 ; compare Psalm 74:12-17 )
Physician - Job 13:4 (a) These three friends had come to Job as helpers and sympathizers
Compass - Job 16:13 (b) The suffering saint felt like his sorrows were as enemies shooting arrows at him. (See Job 19:5-6)
Birth-Day - It is thought by some that the sons of Job who feasted 'every one his day' did so on their birth-days. Job 1:4,13
uz - The native land of Job, perhaps the district peopled by the descendants of one of the above, or of Huz the son of Nahor. Job 1:1 ; Jeremiah 25:20 ; Lamentations 4:21
Rahab - Primeval sea monster representing the forces of chaos God overcame in creation (Job 9:13 ; Job 26:12 ; Psalm 89:10 ; Isaiah 51:9 ; compare Psalm 74:12-17 )
Uz - The land in which Job dwelt, Job 1:1 Jeremiah 25:20 Lamentations 4:21
Bookwork - ) Work done upon a book or books (as in a printing office), in distinction from newspaper or Job work
Liking - So Job 39:4 ‘Their young ones are in good liking
Piecework - ) Work done by the piece or Job; work paid for at a rate based on the amount of work done, rather than on the time employed
Bil'Dad - (son of contention ), the second of Job's three friends. ( Job 2:11 ) (B
Job - Job (jôb). The opinions of Job and his Mends are thus interesting as showing a phase of patriarchal religion outside of the family of Abraham, and not controlled by the legislation of Moses. Job is represented as a chieftain of immense wealth and high rank, blameless in all the relations of life, subjected to special trials, which he endured with humility, and finally was rewarded by marked blessings and great prosperity
Will, Be Willing - 24:5, where Abraham’s servant who is about to be sent to find a wife for Isaac says: “Peradventure the woman will not be willing to follow me unto this land …?”...
It is to be noted that in all but 2 instances of its use in the Old Testament (Job 39:9; Job asks: “Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee …?” (Job 39:9); and Isaiah seems almost hopeless as he says to Judah: “If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land” ( Gold - paz, native or pure gold (Job 28:17 ; Psalm 19:10 ; 21:3 , etc. betzer, "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine (Job 36:19 , where it means simply riches). , something concealed or separated (Job 28:16,19 ; Psalm 45:9 ; Proverbs 25:12 ). It was found in Arabia, Sheba, and Ophir (1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:1 ; Job 28:16 ), but not in Palestine
Gnash - harak, meaning "to grate the teeth", (Job 16:9 ; Psalm 112:10 ; Lamentations 2:16 ), denotes rage or sorrow
Mazzaroth - of Job 38:32 gives Mazzaroth as the name of the twelve signs of the zodiac
Rush - גמא , Exodus 2:3 ; Job 8:11 ; Isaiah 18:2 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; a plant crowing in the water at the sides of rivers, and in marshy grounds
Leviathan - ) An aquatic animal, described in the book of Job, ch
Zophar - One of Job's three friends. Job 2:11, is called the Naamathite, probably because he belonged to Naamah, Joshua 15:41, a town assigned to Judah
Council, Heavenly - ...
God's heavenly council was made up of angelic servants often called “sons of God” (Job 1:6 ; Job 2:1 ). God sent these servants from the council from time to time to do His bidding (Job 1-2 ). Satan, the adversary, was among these “sons of God” in the prologue to Job. Eliphaz questioned Job's status with God: “Have you listened in the council of God?” ( Job 15:8 )
Worm - rimmâh ( Exodus 16:24 , Job 25:6 , Isaiah 14:11 ). tôlâ ‘, tôlç‘âh ’ or tôla‘ath ( Exodus 16:20 , Job 25:6 , Isaiah 14:11 ; Isaiah 66:24 , Jonah 4:7 etc. These are very common in Palestine, occurring even on neglected sores and, of course, on dead bodies ( Job 19:26 ; Job 21:26 ; Job 24:20 )
Job (2) - Job, Book of. After the outbreak of Job's despair, chap. 3, there are three series of controversies, in which each of Job's friends makes an address, to which Job replies—save that in the 32d series Zophar is silent. Then Job makes a closing address to all three, 27, 28, followed by a striking soliloquy, 29-31. Elihu utters four discourses, 32-37, after which Jehovah speaks out of the whirlwind, 38-41, and Job is humbled and yet vindicated. The Book of Job may be better understood by reading it in the Revised English Version
Ostrich - ' Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ; Job 30:29 ; Isaiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Isaiah 43:20 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ; Micah 1:8 . notsah, signifying 'plumage,' is translated ostrich in Job 39:13-18 ; the ostrich, however, is referred to in Job 39:13 by the word renanim, pl. ' The passage is obscure, but Job 39:13 may be better translated thus: "The wing of the ostrich beats joyously: but is it the stork's pinion and plumage?" The passage then speaks of the ostrich leaving its eggs unprotected, and being hardened against its young. Some suppose that Job 39:16 refers to other birds laying eggs in the ostrich's nest, from which are hatched birds that are 'not hers. ' Job 39:18 refers to the speed of the bird, which has often exceeded that of the best horses
Sheol - Sheol was thought to be deep within the earth (Psalm 88:6 ; Ezekiel 26:20 ; Ezekiel 31:14-15 ; Amos 9:2 ) and was entered by crossing a river (Job 33:18 ). Sheol is described as a place of dust (Psalm 30:9 ; Job 17:16 ) and of gloom and darkness (Job 10:21 ). Various terms are used by English translators to describe the residents of Sheol (Job 26:5 ; Isaiah 14:9 ), including shades (NRSV, REB), spirits of the dead (TEV), or simply, the dead (KJV). ...
Sheol was regarded as the abode of all the dead, both righteous and wicked (Job 30:23 ). Job 24:19 speaks of Sheol snatching sinners. ...
Though the overall picture of Sheol is grim, the Old Testament nevertheless affirms that God is there (Psalm 139:8 ; Proverbs 15:11 ) or that it is impossible to hide from God in Sheol (Job 26:6 ; Amos 9:2 ). The Old Testament also affirms that God has power over Sheol and is capable of ransoming souls from its depths (Psalm 16:10 ; Psalm 30:3 ; Psalm 49:15 ; Psalm 86:13 ; Job 33:18 ,Job 33:18,33:28-30 )
Breath - It identifies God as the source of life ( Genesis 2:7 ; Job 27:3 ; Job 33:4 ; Daniel 5:23 ). He gave breath to humans initially in creation (Genesis 2:7 ), but He also takes breath away eventually at death (Genesis 7:22 ; Job 34:14 ). He controls nature and the weather by His breath (Job 37:9-10 ). More important is the impact of God's breath on national life, for He can breathe anger and judgment on threatening enemies bringing festive joy to God's people (Isaiah 30:33 ; compare Job 41:21 ). His breath also sustains life (Job 12:10 ; Psalm 104:29 ). It is also an indication that God is always watching our lives (Job 9:18 ). This became frustrating to Job because he wanted to be free from the pressure of knowing that God knew everything about him. God even knew the strained relationship between Job and his wife who came to detest Job's breath (Job 19:17 ). As a rule, God's judgment was breathed through the experience of natural calamities (Psalm 18:15 ), expressing His anger (Isaiah 11:4 ; Job 4:9 )
Hood - Rendered "diadem," Job 29:14 ; high priest's "mitre," Zechariah 3:5 ; "royal diadem," Isaiah 62:3
Organ - Some kind of wind instrument, probably a kind of Pan's pipes (Genesis 4:21 ; Job 21:12 ; Psalm 150:4 ), which consisted of seven or eight reeds of unequal length
Kemuel - Nahor's son by Milcah, father of Bethuel (Rebekah's father) and Aram or Ram (Genesis 22:21; compare Job 32:2)
Cockle - ba'esha , from a root "to stink" (Job 31:40)
Tabrimon - (1 Kings 15:18) His name is compounded of Job, good—and Rimmon, the fruit pomegranate
Eliphaz -
One of Job's "three friends" who visited him in his affliction (4:1). He first enters into debate with Job. His language is uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the other two, although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause of his present sufferings
Sackcloth - People put on sackcloth as a sign of mourning, whether for those who had just died (Genesis 37:34; 2 Samuel 3:31), for some personal distress (Job 16:15), or for a national disaster (Esther 4:1; Lamentations 2:10). The sackcloth was worn either over the top of, or instead of, their normal clothing (2 Kings 6:30; Job 16:15; Jonah 3:6; see DRESS)
Mallow - , the shrubby orache, is a salt marsh plant and unpleasant food (Job 30:4 ; “plant of the salt marshes,” NAS margin). Its fading flowers provide an image for the unrighteous according to one interpretation of Job 24:24 (NRSV, REB)
Bellows - The idea of a bellows is alluded to elsewhere in the Bible (See Job 20:26 ; Job 41:21 ; Isaiah 54:16 ; Ezekiel 22:20-21 )
Pleiades - Amos 5:8; Job 9:9; Job 38:31; literally, "the heap (Arabic knot ) of stars
Stock - The trunk of a tree, Job 14:8 , or a reproachful name for the idols carved out of it, Jeremiah 2:27 ; Hosea 4:12 . Stocks were frequently erected in market places, that the insults of the populace might be added to the pain of confinement, Job 13:27 ; Jeremiah 20:2
Eli'hu -
One of the interlocutors in the book of Job. [1] He is described as the "son of Baerachel the Buzite
Spider - An animal in Palestine known in the Bible for spinning a web (Job 8:14 ; Isaiah 59:5 )
Abaddon - 1) Hebrew word meaning ruin, place of destruction, realm of the dead (Job 31) ...
2) A prince of Hell, evil angel of death and disaster (Apocalypse 9); same as Apollyon, Destroyer
Coral - The Hebrew word is ramoth, and occurs only in Job 28:18 and Ezekiel 27:16 : it signifies high priced or costly things
Cockle - ” It appears in Scripture only at Job 31:40 , and is identified as Lolium temulentum
Thereby - Job 22
Job - The comforters, "Job's comforters," to use the expression they occasioned, insist that he must have provoked God's punishment by his sins. Job protests his innocence. After eight dialogues between them and Job another appears as arbiter, insisting that no one is sinless in the sight of God, that suffering is not necessarily a visitation on account of sin, that it is permitted by God to preserve man from pride and its consequent sins. God Himself intervenes to warn Job that he has not appreciated God's providence in ruling men in His own way, and to rebuke the would-be consolers for their lack of judgment and their harshness. Job is a type of all the faithful, and also of the Redeemer
Crib - Feeding trough for the ox (Proverbs 14:1 ;Proverbs 14:1;4:1 KJV) or the ass ( Isaiah 1:3 ; compare Job 39:9 ) and probably for any number of other domesticated animals
Channel - ...
...
The "chanelbone" (Job 31:22 marg
Jashub - Apparently the same as Job in Genesis 46:13
Daysman - The word signifies 'mediator,' or 'umpire,' as in the margin : one "that might lay his hand upon us both," Job 9:33 : as the Lord Jesus is mediator between God and men
Abaddon - In the OT text ‘ăbhaddôn occurs six times (only in the Wisdom literature), Authorized Version in each case rendering ‘destruction,’ while Revised Version gives ‘Destruction’ in Job 28:22; Job 31:12, Psalms 88:11, but ‘Abaddon’ in Job 26:6, Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 27:20, on the ground, as stated by the Revisers in their Preface, that ‘a proper name appears to be required for giving vividness and point. ’ Etymologically the word is an abstract term meaning ‘destruction,’ and it is employed in this sense in Job 31:12. Its use, however, in parallelism with Sheol in Job 26:6, Proverbs 15:11; Proverbs 27:20 and with ‘the grave’ in Psalms 88:11 shows that even in the OT it had passed beyond this general meaning and had become a specialized term for the abode of the dead. In Job 28:22, again, it is personified side by side with Death, just as Hades is personified in Revelation 6:6. ]'>[1] on Job 26:6), the lowest part of Gehenna, the deepest deep of hell (‘Emek Hammelech, 15. ...
In Revelation 9:11 Abaddon is not merely personified in the free poetic manner of Job 28:22, but is used as the personal designation in Hebrew of a fallen angel described as the king of the locusts and ‘the angel of the abyss,’ whose name in the Greek tongue is said to be Apollyon
Breach - Job 16:14 (a) Here we learn that GOD had broken down all the defense that Job had set up. That in which Job rejoiced, his many friends, his family, his farm, and his business were all taken from him, and in his poverty and loneliness he was exposed to his enemies
Ransom - Job 33:24 (b) The Lord JESUS CHRIST is the only ransom that can deliver us. Job found that ransom, and it may be that Elihu did as well. ...
Job 36:18 (b) This represents the great price which GOD accepted from the Lord JESUS CHRIST at Calvary where the Saviour paid the debt for the sinner
Pleiades - kimah, "a cluster" (Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ; Amos 5:8 , A
Reins - The "kidneys"; the supposed seat of the desires and affections (Psalms 7:9; Psalms 26:2; Jeremiah 11:20; Jeremiah 17:10; Job 19:27)
Jobbing - ) Using opportunities of public service for private gain; as, a Jobbing politician. ) Doing chance work or add Jobs; as, a Jobbing carpenter. ) of Job...
Winds - wind is tempestuous (Job 27:21) and, withering (Genesis 41:23). wind is first invoked (Song of Solomon 4:16) to clear the air (Job 37:22); then the warm S. wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55); so the Holy Spirit first clears away mists of gloom, error, unbelief, and sin, which intercept the light of the Sun of righteousness, then infuses warmth (2 Corinthians 4:6), causing the graces to exhale their odor. wind, "the wind of the wilderness" (Job 1:19; Job 27:21; Jeremiah 13:24). wind symbolizes empty violence (Job 15:2; Hosea 12:1; Israel "followeth after" not only vain but pernicious things) and destruction (Jeremiah 18:17; Isaiah 27:8). Wind indicates speed (Psalms 104:4; Hebrews 1:7), transitoriness (Job 7:7; Psalms 78:39), the Holy Spirit (John 3:8; Acts 2:2; Genesis 3:8 margin)
Dust - Dust is used in figures of speech for a multitude (Genesis 13:16 ; Numbers 23:10 ; Isaiah 29:5 ) or for an abundance (of flesh, Psalm 78:27 ; of silver, Job 27:16 ; of blood, Zephaniah 1:17 ). Dust is used as a metaphor for death, the grave, or Sheol (Job 10:9 ; Ecclesiastes 12:7 ; Daniel 12:2 ). Human lowliness in relationship with God as well as humanity's close relationship with the rest of creation is expressed in the making of persons from dust (Genesis 2:7 ; Job 4:19 ; Psalm 104:29 ). To return to dust is to die (Genesis 3:19 ; Job 10:9 ; Job 17:16 ). To lay one's horn (glory) in the dust was to experience humiliation and loss of standing (Job 16:15 )
Ashes - ...
Job 2:8 (c) The disease which afflicted Job was probably the one which we know as elephantiasis. Job sat in the ash pile so that the potash would continually cover his limbs, and thereby he would recover. ...
Job 13:12 (b) These ashes represent references made by Job's comforters to the glory which he once had, but now had lost. ...
Job 42:6 (a) Job not only sat in actual ashes, but those mentioned in this passage represent also his feeling of great humility and shame
Leper - The progress and effect of the disease are described in Job 2:7-8; Job 2:12; Job 6:2; Job 7:3-5; Job 19:14-21. , "the hill of scraping," Jeremiah 31:40; Job 2:8—and the leper was compelled to wear mourning
Spider - ]'>[1] ‘ankabût ), Job 8:14 , Isaiah 59:5-6
Messenger - angelos), an angel, a messenger who runs on foot, the bearer of despatches (Job 1:14 ; 1 Samuel 11:7 ; 2 Chronicles 36:22 ); swift of foot (2 Kings 9:18 )
Kettle, - (1 Samuel 2:14 ) The Hebrew word is also rendered "basket" in (Jeremiah 24:2 ) "caldron" in (2 Chronicles 35:13 ) and "pot" in (Job 41:20 )
Arrow - Used by the Jews both in hunting and in war; sometimes merely a sharpened reed, sometimes feathered, barbed, and even poisoned, Job 6:4 . The word is applied symbolically to children, Psalm 127:4,5 ; to the lightning, Psalm 18:14 Habakkuk 3:11 ; to sudden calamities, Job 6:4 Psalm 38:2 91:5 Ezekiel 5:15 ; and to the deceitful and bitter words of an evil tongue, Psalm 64:3 120:4
Net - Job 18 . Job 19
Jaw - Job 29:17 (b) A graphic description of the way Job hindered the wicked from injuring the poor, the widows, and others who were helpless
Blains - It has been thought to be the black leprosy, a virulent kind of elephantiasis, "the botch of Egypt," "a sore botch that cannot be healed," Deuteronomy 28:27; Deuteronomy 28:35; that same disease which afflicted Job. Job 2:7
Kite - איח , Leviticus 11:14 ; Deuteronomy 14:13 ; Job 28:7 . This faculty is referred to in Job 28:7 where the word is rendered "vulture
Lead - Job refers to its use in preserving a permanent record of events, by being melted and poured into letters deeply cut in a rock, Job 19:24
Brother - (Amos 1:9 ) ...
Any friend, (Job 5:15 ) ...
One of the same office. (Leviticus 19:17 ) ...
Metaphorically of any similarity, as in (Job 30:19 ) The word adelphos has a similar range of meanings in the New Testament
Job - THE greatest of all the men of the East, as Job afterwards became, he began his life with having nothing. In his own lowly-minded words, Job was at one time poor even to nakedness. Perfect and upright, and one that feared God and eschewed evil, as Job had now for such a long time been, at the same time he tells us that the heels of his feet still left an accusing and an arresting mark behind him, whatever he did, and wherever he dwelt. Job had been freely and fully forgiven of God, but vengeance was still being taken of God on all Job's inventions, as God's way has always been with His best saints, and always will be. My sins are ever before me, was Job's continual confession made toward God; while, all the time, he held fast his integrity toward all men, and in the face of all men. To his three friends, who so cruelly accused him of hypocrisy, and who kept insisting that there must be some cloked-up sin in Job's present life that was the cause of all his terrible troubles, he replied with a magnificent and a conclusive vindication of his absolute innocence and perfect integrity. But, all the time, we see Job turning from all men to God and confessing, with the most poignant shame and sorrow, both his past sins and his present sinfulness. ' The truth is: Job is both guilty and not guilty. Job is both unclean and vile. Job is absolutely innocent of all that Eliphaz and his fellows insinuate and impute to him. But Job is not without much sin in his past life, and much sinfulness in his present heart. And it is this-with his unparalleled sufferings, and with the incessant insinuations and insults of his three friends-it is all this that so racks and tortures Job's tender conscience, and so darkens and crushes his pious heart, and so embitters and exasperates, sometimes almost to rank blasphemy, his far too many defences of himself. Can thy servant taste what I eat or what I drink? Can I hear any more the voice of singing men and singing women?' And in like manner, when Job's sons and daughters said to their old father, 'Come to our feasts with us!' Job answered them thus: 'No, my children. ' Only, all the time, Job had not forgotten his own early days. And thus it was that Job's sons and daughters had no sooner set out to the days of their feasting and the nights of their dancing, than their father set himself to his days and nights of prayer on behalf of his children. And every morning and every evening till the days of their feasting were all gone about Job never ceased his sacrifices and intercessions in his children's behalf. So much so, that there is not a father or a mother among us to this day to whom God has not often said, Hast thou, in this matter of thy children, considered my servant Job? No. We confess with pain and shame and guilt concerning our children, that Job here condemns us to our face. But we feel tonight greatly drawn, if it is not too late, to imitate Job henceforth in behalf of our children. But we have not remembered it and them together at all with that regularity, and point, and perseverance, and watchfulness, that all combined to make Job such a good father to his children, and such a good servant to his God. Thus did Job and his sons and his daughters continually. ...
The curse that always waits in this world on controversy and contradiction has never been clearer seen than it is seen in Job's case. For never was so much shrewd truth, and so many truly pious positions, and so much divine and human eloquence heard on both sides, and from any other five debating men, as was heard all round Job's ash-heap. The authorities on these things tell us that the debating in the Book of Job is the most wonderful piece of genius that has ever been heard or read since debating genius was. And, yet, such is the malignant and incurable curse of all controversy, even at its best, that Job and all his four friends seem sometimes as if they are to be consumed one of another-out of the same mouth so much blessing and so much cursing both proceed. If Job could have but endured to the end the near neighbourhood, and the suspicious looks, and the significant gestures, and the open broadsides of his four friends, 'that daily furnace of men's tongues,' as Augustine has it, Job would have been far too patient and far too perfect for an Old Testament saint. For, till Christ came, no soul was ever made such a battle-ground between heaven and hell, as Job's soul was made. Job's sorrows came not in single spies, but in battalions. Like the Captain of Salvation Himself, Job, His forerunner, took up successful arms against a whole sea of sorrows, and he would have won every battle of them all had he only been able to bear up under the suspicious looks and the reproving speeches of his four friends. ...
But, splendid, and, to this day, unapproached composition as the Book of Job is; and, magnificent victory of faith and patience as Job at last achieved; at the same time, the whole tragedy, down to its completion and coronation, is all displayed on an immensely lower stage of things than are a thousand far greater tragedies at present in progress among ourselves. For, after all, both Job's trials, and his triumphs of faith and patience also, savour somewhat too much of this present world. Job suffers first the loss of his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his camels, and his servants; and then, with that, the loss of his sons and daughters; after which the patriarch is smitten in his own body with such a dreadful disease that he is more like a rotten carcass than a living man. But the fatal loss and the absolute despair of ever attaining to any true holiness of heart; to any true and spiritual love either to God or man; that is a trial of faith and patience to some men in our day that Job with all his battalions of trials knew nothing about. The Lord chastens some men among us with a heart so full of the blains, and boils, and elephantiasis of spiritual sin that a single day of it would have driven Job downright mad. Under it, in his day, Job would have cursed God, and died. And let them have patience; ay, and far more patience than all the patience of Job, even as they are called to endure far more than all the accumulated losses and all the intolerable diseases of Job. Ye have heard of the patience of Job, and have seen the end of the Lord; that the Lord is very pitiful, and of tender mercy. It was when Job had been taught of God to see and to say all that, as never before; it was then that the Lord took pity and turned the captivity of Job. And it will just be when you both see and feel all that; and that a thousand times clearer and a thousand times keener than Job could either see it or feel it; it will just be then that the Lord will turn your captivity also till you will be like men that dream
uz, the Land of - Where Job lived (1:1; Jeremiah 25:20 ; Lamentations 4:21 ), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom
Moth - In Job 4:19 man is said to be "crushed before the moth"—that is, more easily than the moth
Harpoon - A barbed (KJV) spear or javelin used in hunting large fish or whales, mentioned as an inadequate weapon for catching the sea monster Leviathan (Job 41:7 ) and thus showing God's sovereignty over human inadequacy
Maggot - A soft-bodied, legless grub that is the intermediate stage of some insects (Job 25:6 ; Isaiah 14:11 )
Falcon - ]'>[3] ‘kite’), Job 28:7 (AV Nettle - A different Hebrew word in Job 30:7 Proverbs 24:31 Zephaniah 2:9 , seems to indicate a larger species
Prevent - In the Bible means, not to hinder, but to proceed, Psalm 59:10 1 Thessalonians 4:15 ; to anticipate, Psalm 119:147,148 Matthew 17:25 ; or to seize, 2 Samuel 22:6 Job 30:27
Chaos - God's power caused mighty leaders and princes to wander in the pathless wastes (Job 12:24 , Psalm 107:40 ). Job compared his friends to waterless riverbeds that had lost themselves in nothingness (Job 6:18 ). Later Job longed for a place of deep shadow, of utter gloom without order (Job 10:21-22 ). He quieted the sea, shattering Rahab, making the heavens fair, and piercing the fleeing serpent (Job 26:12-13 ). His victory over Leviathan is well-known (Job 41:1-8 ; Isaiah 27:1 ); Leviathan and the sea are at His command (Psalm 104:26 ). In creation He curbed the unruly sea and locked it into its boundaries (Job 38:1-11 ). He stretched out the heavens and trampled the back of Yam, the sea (Job 9:8 )
Moth - Job 4:19; "houses of clay crushed (as a garment) before the moth" (compare Job 13:28); but Maurer, "crushed after the manner of the moth," whose lustrous satiny wings and body are soon crushed. Job says of the man enriched by wrong, (Job 27:18) "he buildeth his house as a moth," whose house, in and of the garment, is broken, so frail is it whenever the garment is shaken out
Abaddon - ...
The word only occurs once in the New Testament (Revelation 9:11 ) and five times in the Old Testament (Job 26:6 ; 28:22 ; 31:12 ; Psalm 88:11 ; Proverbs 15:11 ). In Psalm 88:11 Destruction is parallel to the grave; in Job 26:6 and Proverbs 26:6 it is parallel to Sheol; in Job 28:22 it is parallel to Death. Job 31:12 says sin is a fire that burns to destruction
Sons of God - In Job, the earliest Greek translation translated “sons of God” as “angels of God” ( Job 1:6 ; Job 2:1 ) and “my angels” (Job 38:7 )
Archippus - The "sons" of Arcturus are probably the smaller stars adjacent, Job 9:9 ; 38:32
Chore - ) A small Job; in the pl
Boss - Only Job 15:26 , where it is doubtful whether metal bosses for strengthening the shield are implied in the figure, or whether we should render ‘the stout curves of his bucklers
Web - Job 8:14 (a) In this typical way the Lord describes the frail and worthless character of the expedience used by the unsaved as a false trust for future peace
Bene-ke'Dem - It occurs in ( Genesis 29:1 ; Judges 6:3,33 ; 7:12 ; 8:10 ; Job 1:3 )
Elephant - for 'Behemoth' in Job 40:15 ; and in 'elephants' teeth' for 'ivory' in 1 Kings 10:22 ; Flag - âchû ( Job 8:11 ), prop
Craftiness - Job 5
Terrify - Job 7 ...
Whale - , Genesis 1:21 ; Job 3:8 ; 9:13 ; 26:12 ; Jonah 1:17 (twice); 2:1,10
Hid - ...
Job 3:23 (b) Job bewails the fact that although he is well educated and enlightened, yet he cannot use this knowledge while he is an outcast and despised. (See also Job 21:2-13; Psalm 73:3-17)
Gall - Another word, merĕrah, or merorah, means the gall of the human body, Job 16:13; Job 20:25, and that of asps, Job 20:14, the poison being supposed to lie in the gall
Pass On, Pass Away - 21:1), and of God Himself (Job 9:11). The word has the meaning of “to pass away or to vanish,” with reference to days (Job 9:26), the rain (Song of Job 14:7)
Gall -
Mereerah , denoting "that which is bitter;" hence the term is applied to the "bile" or "gall" (the fluid secreted by the liver), from its intense bitterness, ( Job 16:13 ; 20:25 ) it is also used of the "poison" of serpents, (Job 20:14 ) which the ancients erroneously believed was their gall. ...
Rosh , generally translated "gall" in the English Bible, is in ( Hosea 10:4 ) rendered "hemlock:" in (32:33) and Job 20:16 rosh denotes the "poison" or "venom" of serpents
Graving - Job 19:24 , rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest. Ezekiel 4:1 , engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;" Job 19:23 , "written
Leviathan - The term is found in the Latin Vulgate in Job 3:8,40:20; Isaiah 27:1. In Psalms 103:26; Job 3:8,40:20, it surely means the whale, especially in Psalms 103:25-26, where the home of leviathan is "the sea great and wide
Ashes - Sitting down in, or covering one's self with, is the symbol of mourning (Job 2:8; Job 42:6; Esther 4:1; Isaiah 61:3; Matthew 11:21)
Exactor - Most often the KJV translated the underlying Hebrew word as oppressor (Job 3:18 ; Isaiah 3:12 ; Isaiah 9:3 ; Isaiah 14:2 ,Isaiah 14:2,14:4 ; Zechariah 9:8 ; Zechariah 10:4 ). The image is of one who drives people like a mule driver drives his beast (Job 39:7 )
Harrow - The biblical references to harrowing or breaking clods (Job 39:10 ; Isaiah 28:24 ; Hosea 10:11 ) distinguish this process from plowing. The NIV replaced harrow with “till” (Job 39:10 ) and with “break up the ground” (Hosea 10:11 )
Rahab (2) - Rahab occurs in the Hebrew, Job 9:13; Job 26:12
Contrite - Humiliation under a sense of it, Job 42:5 ; Job 6:1-30 :...
3
Spark - Job 5:7 (c) When trouble comes upon the Christian, he should at once fly upward to GOD. ...
Job 41:19 (c) Probably this is just poetical language to describe the terrible hatred and anger that exists in this case
Asp - Hence Moses describes it, (Deuteronomy 32:33) and Job, (Job 20:14) and Paul
Manger - The word φάτνη occurs in the LXX in 2 Chronicles 32:28 ; Job 6:5 ; Job 39:9 ; Proverbs 14:4 ; Isaiah 1:3 ; Joel 1:17 : Habakkuk 3:17
Ple'Iades - The Hebrew word (cimah ) so rendered occurs in ( Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ; Amos 6:8 ) In the last passage our Authorized Version has "the seven stars," although the Geneva version translates the word "Pleiades" as in the other cases. The rendering "sweet influences" of the Authorized Version, (Job 38:31 ) is a relic of the lingering belief in the power which the stars exerted over human destiny
Mallows - Job 30:4 , supposed by Bochart to signify the plant called Orach, the Atriplex Halimus of Linnaeus
Darkness - Darkness is a place for evil doers to hide (Job 34:22 ); however, darkness does not hide one from God (Psalm 139:11-12 ; Daniel 2:22 ). Thus the Old Testament speaks of death as a land of darkness (Job 10:21-22 ; Job 17:13 ; Psalm 88:6 ). Elsewhere darkness forms part of God's punishment on the disobedient (Deuteronomy 28:29 ; 1 Samuel 2:9 ; Job 5:14 ; Job 15:30 ; Job 20:26 ; Psalm 107:10 ; Isaiah 47:5 ; Jeremiah 13:16 ; Ezekiel 32:8 )
Arms - baraq, often translated 'lightning;' it is 'glittering sword' in Job 20:25 . Job 33:18 ; Job 36:12 ; Joel 2:8 . Joshua 8:18,26 ; Job 41:29 ; Jeremiah 6:23 . Job 41:7 . Job 20:24
Ear - To give ear was to pay careful attention (Job 32:11 ). Open ears are a gift of God (Psalm 40:6 ) who sometimes uses adversity to open deaf ears (Job 36:15 ). Thus the ear exercised judgment (Job 12:11 ) and understanding (Job 13:1 )
Poison - ...
Job 6:4 (a) Job thus describes the sorrow of his heart and the distress of his spirit because of what he thought was GOD's wrath against him. ...
Job 20:16 (a) Zophar is telling Job that the reason he is having all these sorrows is because he has been a wicked man. He is comparing Job's troubles to the poison of serpents, which was of course absolutely untrue
Incomprehensibility of God - This is a relative term, and indicates a relation between an object and a faculty; between God and a created understanding; so that the meaning of it is this, that no created understanding can comprehend God; that is, have a perfect and exact knowledge of him, such a knowledge as is adequate to the perfection of the object, Job 11:7 . Job 37: 25. Job 37:19 . Caryl on Job 27: 25; Tillotson's sermons, sermon 156; Abernethy's Sermons, vol
Reins - Job 16:13 (a) The word is used as a type of feelings, experiences, desires and thoughts
Collar - Job 30:18; "my affliction (disease) bindeth me about as the collar of my (inner) coat"; just as in the preceding clause, "my (outer) garment is changed into affliction "; comprising Job's trials, both those from without and those from within
Garnish - In Job 26:13 (Heb
Rimmon Parez - ") Probably the scene of God's breaking forth in wrath, as at Korah's rebellion (compare 2 Samuel 6:8; Job 16:14)
Hawk - In its migrations, it illustrates the wise providence of the Creator, Job 39:26
Ox - bakar, "cattle;" "neat cattle", (Genesis 12:16 ; 34:28 ; Job 1:3,14 ; 42:12 , etc
Looking-Glasses - Or rather, mirrors, were anciently made of metal, chiefly copper, Exodus 38:8 ; Job 37:18 , melted and cast in a circular form, highly polished, and attached to an ornamental handle
Nettle, - A different Hebrew word in (Job 30:7 ; Proverbs 24:31 ; Zephaniah 2:9 ) seems to indicate a different species
Job, Book of - He says, "I look upon the book of Job as a true history, yet I do not believe that all took place just as it is written, but that an ingenious, pious and learned man brought it into its present form. "The book of Job is not only one of the most remarkable in the Bible, but in literature. "The book of Job is a drama, and yet subjectively true. That question is tried in the case of Job. The discussions between Job and his three friends. Job's discussion with Elihu. --
One question could be raised by envy: may not the goodness which secures such direct and tangible rewards be a refined form of selfishness? Satan, the accusing angel, suggests the doubt, "Doth Job fear God for nought ?" and asserts boldly that if those external blessings were withdrawn, Job would cast off his allegiance" he will curse thee to thy face. He destroys Job's property, then his children; and afterward, to leave no possible opening for a cavil, is allowed to inflict upon him the most terrible disease known in the East. Job's wife breaks down entirely under the trial. Job remains steadfast. Job's friends hold the theory that there is an exact and invariable correlation between sin and suffering. They apply this to Job, but he disavows all special guilt. They assume that Job has been actually guilty of sins, and that the sufferings and losses of Job are but an inadequate retribution for former sins. This series of accusations brings out the in most thoughts of Job. (Job 38:41 ) From the midst of the storm Jehovah speaks. In language of incomparable grandeur he reproves and silences the murmurs of Job
Thistle - hoah (2 Kings 14:9 ; Job 31:40 ). In Job 41:2 the Hebrew word is rendered "thorn," but in the Revised Version "hook
Arcturus - Greek, answering to the Latin-named constellation Ura Major; Hebrew 'ash , or 'aish (Job 9:9; Job 38:32-33)
Coral - More precious in ancient times than now, when it is more easily procured (Job 28:18; Ezekiel 27:16). In the Mediterranean, on the African coast off Tunis, attached to the rock at a considerable depth, and broken off from them by long hooked poles, and thus drawn out (Hebrew for "price," Job 28:18, is meshek , "the drawing out"
Boil - The boils suffered by Job (Job 2:7 ) have been identified with smallpox or with treponematosis (a parasitic infection)
Coat - ...
Job 30:18 (c) The disease which Job had, which was probably elephantiasis, fastened itself upon his body tenaciously and clung to him as a garment
Spider - To the slenderness of this filmy workmanship Job compares the hope of the wicked, Job 8:14
Cord - So in Job 4:21, "is not their cord in them unstrung?" or "snapped," so that their earthly tabernacle comes down (2 Corinthians 5:1). "He hath loosed my cord" (Job 30:11) is animate from a bow unstrung (contrast Job 29:20)
Unicorn - The unicorn's characteristics are:...
(1) great strength, Numbers 23:22; Job 39:11;...
(2) two horns, Deuteronomy 33:17;...
(3) fierceness, Psalms 22:21;...
(4) untameableness, Job 39:9-11, where the unicorn, probably the wild bison, buffalo, ox, or urus (now only found in Lithuania, but then spread over northern temperate climes, Bashan, etc. , and in the Hercynian forest, described by Caesar as almost the size of an elephant, fierce, sparing neither man nor beast) stands in contrast to the tame ox used in plowing, Job 39:11-12;...
(5) playfulness of its young, Psalms 29:6;...
(6) association with "bullocks and bulls" for sacrifice, Isaiah 34:6-7;...
(7) lifting up the horn, Psalms 92:10, as bovine animals lower the head and toss up the horn
Mouth - Synonymn for lips (1 Kings 19:18 ; 2 Kings 4:34 ; Job 31:27 ; Proverbs 30:20 ; Song of Song of Solomon 1:2 ); 2 . Organ of eating and drinking (Judges 7:6 ; 1 Samuel 14:26-27 ), sometimes used in figurative expressions such as when wickedness (Job 20:12 ) or God's word (Psalm 119:10 ) is described as sweet to the mouth. Organ of speech (Genesis 45:12 ; Deuteronomy 32:1 ) or laughter (Job 8:21 ; Psalm 126:2 )
Skin - Human skin is also mentioned in relationship to hairiness (Genesis 27:11-12 ,Genesis 27:11-12,27:16 ,Genesis 27:16,27:22-23 ); to sickness (Job 7:5 ; Lamentations 5:10 ); and to the color (Jeremiah 13:23 ). The skin was also used in several proverbial sayings: “Skin for skin” (Job 2:4 ), “the skin of my teeth” (Job 19:20 ), and “Can the Ethiopian change his skin or the leopard his spots?” (Jeremiah 13:23 )
Whale - The Hebrew word Tan (Plural, tannin) is so rendered in Job 7:12 (A. The words of ( Job 7:12 ), uttered in bitter irony, where he asks, "Am I a sea or a whale?" simply mean, "Have I a wild, untamable nature, like the waves of the sea, which must be confined and held within bounds, that they cannot pass?" "The serpent of the sea, which was but the wild, stormy sea itself, wound itself around the land, and threatened to swallow it up. Job inquires if he must be watched and plagued like this monster, lest he throw the world into disorder" (Davidson's Job)
Mourning - Genesis 23:2; Job 1:20; Job 2:12. In later times for the employment of persons hired for the purpose of mourning, Ecclesiastes 12:5; Jeremiah 9:17; Amos 5:16; Matthew 9:23, friends or passers-by to join in the lamentations of bereaved or afflicted persons, Genesis 50:3; Judges 11:40; Job 2:11; Job 30:25, etc
Branch - words rendered by our ‘branch’ may be gathered from the following list of passages, in each of which a different term is used: Genesis 40:10 , Exodus 25:33 , Numbers 13:23 , Isaiah 16:8 ; Isaiah 27:10 , Jeremiah 11:16 , Zechariah 4:12 , Psalms 104:12 , Job 15:32 ; Job 18:16 . daughters ’), Proverbs 11:28 (‘leaf’) Job 8:16 (‘shoot’). ‘Branch’ is used figuratively for human offspring ( Job 15:32 ), especially for the scion of a royal house ( Daniel 11:7 ); also for persons in lofty station ( Isaiah 9:14 )
Blot - A stain or reproach (Job 31:7 ; Proverbs 9:7 )
Buz - Elihu was one of his descendants (Job 32:2 )
Nettle - A different Hebrew word in Job 30:7; Proverbs 24:31; Zephaniah 2:9, seems to indicate a different species
Temanites - The Temanites were renowned for their wisdom (Job 2:11 ; compare Jeremiah 49:7 )
Design - Modern translations' reading for an artistic pattern (Exodus 31:4 ; Exodus 39:3 ; 2 Chronicles 2:14 ; KJV, “cunning works”); RSV translation for plans, generally in the negative sense of schemes or wiles (Job 10:3 ; 2 Corinthians 2:11 )
Behemoth - Hebrew word for beasts, left untranslated in Job 40, where it indicates a particular animal, probably mythical, in description similar to the hippopotamus and corresponding to the mythical Egyptian water-ox, p-ehe-mu, probably adapted into Hebrew as behemah, plural behemothj hence, monstrous beast
Checker Work - The Hebrew word also denotes a lattice (2 Kings 1:2 ) or net (Job 18:8 )
Gold - It was one of the gifts of the Magi to the Infant Jesus (Matthew 2) offered to Him as symbol of His kingship; a symbol of purity (Job 23), and great value (Isaiah 13)
Hitherto - Job 38 ...
Juniper - Is found in the English Bible, 1 Kings 19:4,5 ; Job 30:4 ; Psalm 120:4
Tema - It is associated with Dedan, Isaiah 21:14 ; Jeremiah 25:23 , and was famous for its caravans, Job 6:19
Safety - Job 3
Doors - Job 3:10 (a) This is a graphic way of saying that Job was sorry that he was born, that he proceeded out of his mother's womb, and was delivered as all babies are. ...
Job 38:8 (a) Here is a reference to the boundaries of the sea as though they were doors through which the sea could proceed no further. (See also Job 38:10). ...
Job 38:17 (a) The departure out of this life into eternity is described as though the soul were passing through a door. ...
Job 41:14 (a) The mouth of the great monster referred to in this passage is described as a door through which the food enters the body
Complete - God reminded Job of His uninhibited independence and absolute self-sufficiency: “Who hath prevented me, that I should repay him? Whatsoever is under the whole heaven is mine” (Job 41:11). And Job himself admitted: “And who shall repay him what he hath done?” (Job 21:31). Job is told by his friend: “If thou wert pure … he would make the habitation of thy righteousness prosperous” (Job 8:6). Job, suspected of not rendering the required obedience to his Maker, is therefore urged to “be at peace [2]” (Job 22:21)
Boil - It designates the disease of (Job 2:7 ), which was probably the black leprosy
Zophar - Chirping, one of Job's friends who came to condole with him in his distress (Job 2:11
Habergeon - Job 41:26, margin, "breast-plate
Gin - With the exception of Amos 3:5 , all scriptural uses are figurative, either of the fate of the wicked (Job 18:9 ; Isaiah 8:14 ) or of the schemes of the wicked (Psalm 140:5 ; Psalm 141:9 )
Rubies - peniyim , peninim (Job 28:18; Proverbs 3:15; Proverbs 8:11; Proverbs 31:10; Lamentations 4:7), "more ruddy than rubies," but Bochart "pearls
Mallows - "salt-wort," Job 30:4, is derived from melahh = "salt;" and seems to designate a saline plant—perhaps a species of salt-wort; or perhaps the garden mallow, reared in Egypt, and boiled with meat, is intended
Club - Only Job 41:29 RV Mortal - Subject to death in contrast to God, who is immortal or free from death (Job 4:17 ; Romans 1:23 )
Collar - In Job 30:18 it is merely the collar of a coat: the mouth or opening for the throat
Post - (1 Kings 6:33 ) ...
A courier or carrier of messages, used among other places in (Job 9:25 )
Plead - ’ The substantive ‘pleading’ is used in the same sense in Job 13:8 ‘Hearken to the pleadings of my lips
Sackcloth - Job 46
Winds - The east wind was parching (Ezekiel 17:10 ; 19:12 ), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind (Job 27:21 ; Isaiah 27:8 ). The south was a hot wind (Job 37:17 ; Luke 12:55 )
Kadmonite - Job (Job 1:3 ), the camel-riding Midianite kings (Judges 8:10-12 ,Judges 8:10-12,8:21 ,Judges 8:21,8:26 ) and the wise men whose names have Arabian associations (1 Kings 4:30-31 ) are all described as sons of the east
Bit, Bridle - ‘bridle,’ Proverbs 26:3 , but ‘halter,’ Job 30:11 . The crocodile’s ‘double bridle’ ( Job 41:13 ) is his jaws, but the text is doubtful
Adore - "To kiss the hand with the mouth" in homage (Job 31:26-27. Laying the hand on the mouth expresses deep reverence and submission (Job 40:4)
Spider - עכביש , Job 8:14 ; Isaiah 59:5 . To the slenderness of this filmy workmanship, Job compares the hope of the wicked
North - "Fair weather," says Job, or golden weather, "cometh out of the north," Job 37:22
Whirlwinds - Were very frequent in the deserts of Arabia, Job 37:9 38:1 Nahum 1:3 , and travelers in the East have encountered many. Most of them are not formidable, Isaiah 17:13 ; but one now and then occurs, sudden, swift, and awful in its devastating course; houses and trees are no obstruction in its way, and the traveler is buried alive under the pillar of sand it raises and bears along, like a water-spout at sea, Job 1:19 Isaiah 21:1
Pitfall - RSV used pitfall four times (Job 18:8 ; Psalm 119:85 ; Lamentations 3:47 ; Romans 11:9 ; the latter changed by NRSV to stumbling block)
Mazzaroth - (maz' zuh rahth) Puzzling term in Job 38:22
Snow - Snow is used in the Bible figuratively: whiteness (Isaiah 1:18 ), cleanness (Job 9:30 ), refreshing coolness (Proverbs 25:13 )
Grinder - But in Job 29:17 m the ‘grinders’ are the molar teeth
Hagiographa - It comprises Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles
Naamathite - We read of Zophar the Naamathite, Job 2:11
Topaz - It was one of the twelve gems in the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 28:17 ; 39:10 , and was a highly prized product of Cush, or Southern Arabia, Job 28:19 ; Ezekiel 28:13
Astronomy - The following heavenly bodies are alluded to particularly in Scripture: Venus, the morning star, Isaiah 14:12 Revelation 2:28 ; Orion, and the Pleiades, Job 9:9 38:31 Amos 5:8 ; the Great Bear, called "Arcturus," Job 9:9 38:32 ; Draco, "the crooked serpent" Job 26:13 ; and Gemini, "the twins," 2 Kings 23:5 Acts 28:11
Elihu - Son of Barachel ("God blesses"); the names indicating the piety of the family and their separation from idolatry) the Buzite (Buz being a region of Arabia Deserta, Jeremiah 25:23, called from Buz son of Nahor, Abraham's brother), of the kindred of Ram (probably Aram, nephew of Buz): Job 32:2. Elihu's reasoning is not condemned, as is that of the three elder friends and previous speakers, for whom and not for Elihu Job is directed to sacrifice and intercede (See Job)
Gall - Poetically used for a vital part, Job 16:13; Job 20:25. Job 20:14, "the gall of asps," i
Cord - ...
Job 30:11 (c) This cord represents those bonds and bands which bound Job to GOD in sweet favor and rich prosperity. The Lord loosened the bands and permitted Job to fall into affliction and poverty
Shuttle - Only Job 7:6 , where it is doubtful whether the reference is to the shuttle-rod of the loom or to the loom itself
Ram - Head of the family to which Job's friend Elihu belonged (Job 32:2 )
Cockle - COCKLE ( bo’shâh , Job 31:40 )
Circuit - In Job 22:14 , "in the circuit of heaven" (RSV marg
Ruby - It is mentioned in Job 28:18 , and Proverbs 8:11 , &c
Bier - 1: σορός (Strong's #4673 — Noun Feminine — soros — sor-os' ) originally denoted a receptacle for containing the bones of the dead, "a cinerary urn;" then "a coffin," Genesis 50:26 ; Job 21:32 ; then, "the funeral couch of bier" on which the Jews bore their dead to burial, Luke 7:14
Pleiades - The sun enters Taurus about the middle of April; and the appearance of the Pleiades, therefore, marks the return of spring, Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ; Amos 5:8
Horites or Horim - They are supposed to have lived in caves, like the men referred to in Job 30:6 , and to have been divided into several tribes, Genesis 36:20-30
Mirror - (Exodus 38:8 ; Job 37:18 ) The Hebrew women on coming out of Egypt probably brought with them mirrors like those which were used by the Egyptians, and were made of a mixed metal, chiefly copper, wrought with admirable skill, and susceptible of a bright lustre
Topaz - Job (Job 28:19) represents it as from Ethiopia,; so Strabo (xvi
Portion - Wisdom writings often designate one's lot in life as one's portion (Job 20:29 ; Job 27:13 ; Ecclesiastes 9:9 )
Teman - Eliphaz the Temanite is mentioned as a wise man in Job 2:11; Job 22:1
Candle - Job said of God, "when his candle shined upon my head," Job 29:3 ; "the candle of the wicked shall be put out," Proverbs 24:20 ; whereas respecting 'the wise woman' it is said "her candle goeth not out by night
Posts, - Job said, "Now my days are swifter than a post. " Job 9:25
Sabeans - Some were marauders who swept away the oxen and asses of Job. Job 1:15
Ashes - The penitent and the afflicted might also sit ( Job 2:8 , Jonah 3:6 ) or even wallow in ashes ( Jeremiah 6:25 , Ezekiel 27:30 ). ’...
In a figurative sense the term ‘ashes’ is often used to signify evanescence, worthlessness, insignificance (Genesis 18:27 , Job 30:19 ). ]'>[1] ) is Job’s equivalent for the modern ‘rot
Thunder - Job 26:14 (a) This was used to indicate that though our sense of hearing may realize that GOD is working, our minds are unable to understand the manner of it. ...
Job 39:19 (b) The type is used to illustrate man's helplessness, either to give strength to the horse, or power to the elements
Cockle - This word occurs only in Job 31:40 . He says that this interpretation is certain, because, as Celsius had observed, ביש , in Arabic, denotes the aconite; and he intimates that it best suits Job 31:40 , where it is mentioned as growing instead of barley
Ass - (Compare Job 11:12 ; Isaiah 30:6 . Asses constituted a considerable portion of wealth in ancient times (Genesis 12:16 ; 30:43 ; 1 Chronicles 27:30 ; Job 1:3 ; 42:12 ). Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1) that called in Hebrew 'Arod , Mentioned Job 39:5 and Daniel 5:21 , noted for its swiftness; and (2) that called Pe're , The wild ass of Asia ( Job 39:6-8 ; 6:5 ; 11:12 ; Isaiah 32:14 ; Jeremiah 2:24 ; 14:6 , etc
Sheol - It is the final resting place of all men: “They spend their days in wealth, and in a moment go down to the grave (Job 21:13). “Sheol” is parallel to Hebrew words for “pit” or “hell” (Job 26:6), “corruption” or “decay” (Job 24:19) and a refuge for the righteous (Job 14:13)
Hireling - A labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1 ; 14:6 ; Mark 1:20 )
Tabret - In Job 17:6 the word (Heb
Purslane - (puhrss' layne) Fleshy-leaved, trailing plant used as a pot herb or in salads, which the RSV of Job 6:6 used as an illustration of tasteless food
Breach - in 2 Samuel 6:8 and 1 Chronicles 13:11 ‘the Lord had made a breach upon Uzzah,’ and in Job 16:14 ‘He breaketh me with breach upon breach
Laughter - (1) It is opposed to weeping, as Ecclesiastes 3:4 ; Ecclesiastes 7:3 , Job 8:21 , Psalms 126:2 , Luke 6:21
North - Job 26:7 (c) There are many ideas about this expression
Hawk - ...
Job 39:26 (b) This is a symbol of the unsearchable ways of GOD which cannot be controlled nor understood by men
Sprout - Job 14:7 (b) This is a word of encouragement to those who fall or fail in life
en-Rogel - Some place it at the "well of Job," in the valley of Hinnom
Land-Mark - See also Job 24:2
Cheese - The cheese was like a small saucer in size, Job 10:10
Coal - The following passages are those which most strongly suggest this substance, 2 Samuel 22:9,13 ; Job 41:21
Arctu'Rus - The Hebrew words 'Ash and 'Aish , rendered "Arcturus" in the Authorized Version of ( Job 9:9 ; 38:32 ) in conformity with the Vulgate of the former passages are now generally believed to be identical, and to represent the constellation Ursa Major, known commonly as the Great Bear or Charles' Wain
Sinew - The tendons which connect the bones of the body (Job 10:11 )
Kite - The Hebrew word used, 'Ayet , Is rendered "vulture" in Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, "falcon" in Revised Version
Daysman - An umpire or arbiter or judge (Job 9:33 )
Piece of Money - Translation of the Hebrew qesitah, a coin of uncertain weight and value (Genesis 33:19 ; Job 42:11 KJV, NAS, NRSV)
Neesing - ’ But the ‘neesing’ ( Job 41:18 ) of leviathan (the crocodile) means hard breathing, snorting, and does not come from the same A
Elephant - Job 40:16 AVm Nest - Nest is often used as a simile or metaphor for a human dwelling (Numbers 24:21 ; Job 29:18 ; Habakkuk 2:9 ; Proverbs 27:8 )
Broad - Job 36:16 (a) By this is declared the liberty, largeness, and freedom of that one who is blessed by the Lord
Viper - (Job 20:16; Isaiah 30:6) And the Lord Jesus in the gospel called the children of the evil one a generation of vipers
Stacte, - The wordnataph signifies 'a drop' and is so translated in Job 36:27
Gold - Several places axe mentioned by the sacred writers as abounding in gold; such as Ophir, Job 28:16; Parvaim, 2 Chronicles 3:6; Sheba and Raamah, Ezekiel 27:22
Leviathan - An aquatic animal, described in Job 41 , and mentioned in other passages of Scripture
Sinew - The tendons which connect the bones of the body (Job 10:11 )
Milk - In Job 21:24 translated for "breasts" "his milk vessels (Lee: Umbreit, his watering places for his herds) are full of milk. " Also Job 20:17; Job 29:6, "I washed my steps with butter," i
Kidney - When the word is used figuratively of humans, KJV usually translates the term as “reins” (for example, Jeremiah 12:2 ; Revelation 2:23 ); NRSV uses “mind” (Revelation 2:23 ), “heart” (Job 19:27 ; Psalm 7:9 ; Psalm 16:7 , Psalm 73:21 ; Jeremiah 12:2 ), “vitals” (Lamentations 3:13 ), “soul” (Proverbs 23:16 ), or “inward parts” (Psalm 139:13 ; but see Job 16:13 ). Because the areas around the kidneys are sensitive, the Hebrews believed the kidneys were the seat of the emotions (see Job 19:27 ; Psalm 73:21 ; Proverbs 23:16 )
Blessed - The state that the blessed one enjoys does not always appear to be “happy”: “Behold, blessed [1] is the man whom God correcteth: therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty: for he maketh sore, and bindeth up …” (Job 5:17-18). Eliphaz was not describing Job’s condition as a happy one; it was “blessed,” however, inasmuch as God was concerned about him. Because it was a blessed state and the outcome would be good, Job was expected to laugh at his adversity (Job 5:22)
Child Birth - It was the custom at a very ancient period, for the father, while music in the mean while was heard to sound, to clasp the new born child to his bosom, and by this ceremony was understood to declare it to be his own, Genesis 50:23 ; Job 3:12 ; Psalms 22:11 . The birth day of a son, especially, was made a festival, and on each successive year was celebrated with renewed demonstrations of festivity and joy, Genesis 40:20 ; Job 1:4 ; Matthew 14:6 . The messenger, who brought the news of the birth of a son, was received with joy, and rewarded with presents, Job 3:3 ; Jeremiah 20:15
Lamp - This gives force to the words in Job 18:5-6; Job 21:17; Job 29:3; "The light of the wicked shall be put out;
River - It is always applied to the Nile and its various canals, except in Job 28:10 Daniel 12:5,6,7 2 . Nahal, a torrent-bed, or valley through which water flows in the rainy season only, Numbers 34:5 , etc; frequently rendered "brook," Numbers 13:28 Job 6:15-201 , etc
Nose, Nostrils - NOSE, NOSTRILS ( ’aph is the usual word; něch îrîm only in Job 41:20 ; nachar in Job 39:20 , AV Ashes - 'Dust and ashes' was the figure Abraham used of himself before Jehovah, Genesis 18:27 ; and Job said he had become like them by the hand of God. Job 30:19
Curse - The words "curse God and die" (RSV, "renounce God and die"), used by Job's wife (Job 2:9 ), have been variously interpreted. Perhaps they simply mean that as nothing but death was expected, God would by this cursing at once interpose and destroy Job, and so put an end to his sufferings
Glass - The Hebrew word Zekukith ( Job 28:17 ), rendered in the Authorized Version "crystal," is rightly rendered in the Revised Version "glass. In Job 37:18 , the word rendered "looking-glass" is in the Revised Version properly rendered "mirror," formed, i
Branch - Spreading branches can symbolize fruitfulness and prosperity (Genesis 49:22 ; Job 8:16 ; Psalm 80:11 ), while withered, burnt, or cut branches symbolize destruction (Job 8:16 ; Isaiah 9:14 ; Jeremiah 11:16 ; Ezekiel 15:2 )
Flesh - In the Bible, besides the ordinary sense, Job 33:25 , it denotes mankind as a race, Genesis 6:12 Psalm 145:21 Isaiah 40:5-6 ; and all living creatures on the earth, Genesis 6:17,19 . It is often used in opposition to "spirit," as we use body and soul, Job 14:22 ; and sometimes means the body as animated and sensitive, Matthew 26:41 , and the seat of bodily appetites, Proverbs 5:11 2 Corinthians 7:1
Beth-Pelet - ]'>[2] Beth-palet , Job 15:27 , Beth-phelet , Nehemiah 11:26 )
East, Children of the - A common designation of the inhabitants of the Syrian desert, who were partly Aramæan and partly Arabian ( Judges 6:3 ; Judges 8:10 , Ezekiel 25:4 ; Ezekiel 25:10 , Isaiah 11:14 , Jeremiah 49:28 , Job 1:3 )
White of an Egg - ]'>[1] Job 6:6 , RVm te'ma - (a desert ), the ninth son of Ishmael, ( Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ) whence the tribe called after him, mentioned in (Job 6:19 ; Jeremiah 25:23 ) and also the land occupied by this tribe
Lightning - Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2 Samuel 22:15 ; Job 28:26 ; 37:4 ; Psalm 135:7 ; 144:6 ; Zechariah 9:14 )
na'Amathite, - the Gentile name of one of Job's friends, Zophar the Naamathite. (Job 2:11 ; 11:1 ; 20:1 ; 42:9 ) There is no other trace of this name in the Bible, and the town whence it is derived is unknown
Birth-Day - The observance of birth-days was common in early times (Job 1:4,13,18 )
Kesitah - , "lambs;" Joshua 24:32 , "pieces of silver;" Job 42:11 , "piece of money")
Collar - peh), means in Job 30:18 the mouth or opening of the garment that closes round the neck in the same way as a tunic ( Exodus 39:23 )
Redeemer - , one charged with the duty of restoring the rights of another and avenging his wrongs (Leviticus 25:48,49 ; Numbers 5:8 ; Ruth 4:1 ; Job 19:25 ; Psalm 19:14 ; 78:35 , etc
Topaz - pitdah (Ezekiel 28:13 ; Revelation 21:20 ), a golden yellow or "green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19 )
Juniper - The same plant is mentioned in Job 30:4 and Psalm 120:4
Cheese - " ...
Job 10:10 , curdled milk is meant by the word
Hori - The HORITES (troglodytes or inhabitants of caves, probably excavators of the remarkable ones near Petra) inhabited mount Seir (the thickly bushy, or rugged, shaggy) before Esau's invasion (Genesis 14:6; Deuteronomy 2:12; Deuteronomy 2:22; Job 30:6-7)
Caravan - A company of travelers (usually merchants) on a journey through desert or hostile regions with a train of pack animals (see Genesis 37:25 ; Judges 5:6 ; 1 Kings 10:2 ; Job 6:18-19 ; Isaiah 21:13 )
Cheese - Job 10:10 refers to cheese; 1 Samuel 17:18 speaks literally of a “slice of milk,” and 2 Samuel 17:29 uses a word usually interpreted as meaning, “curds of the herd
Venom - Venom is a translation of rosh ( Deuteronomy 32:33 ; Job 20:16 )
Cassia - One of Job's daughters was named Kezia(h) (Job 42:14 ), a name that means “cassia
Disannul - ...
Wilt thou also disannul my judgment? Job 40
Eliphaz - See Job [1]
Aged - Job 29
Comforter - Job 16
Hireling - Contemptuous name for one who works for wages only, and makes the reward his only motive (Job 7); through Our Lord's use of the word, it has come to express one who has no interest in his work and is unfaithful in performing it (John 10), the difference between the true and the mercenary shepherd of souls
Crafty - Job 5
Conduit - channel), Job 38:25, or a "trench
Pricks - Compare Job 15:25-26
Ophir - The gold was proverbial for its fineness, so that "gold of Ophir" is several times used as an expression for fine gold, 1 Chronicles 29:4; Job 28:16; Psalms 45:9; Isaiah 13:12; and in one passage, Job 22:24, the word Ophir by itself is used for gold of Ophir and for gold generally
Tabret - ]'>[2] ‘ timbrel ’ in Exodus 15:20 , Jdg 11:34 , 2 Samuel 6:5 , 1 Chronicles 13:8 , Job 21:12 , Psalms 81:2 ; Psalms 149:3 ; Psalms 150:4 . ]'>[1] rendering of Job 17:6 ‘aforetime I was as a tabret,’ has arisen from a confusion of tôpheth ‘spitting’ with tôph ‘tambourine
Unicorn - ; rçm , Job 39:9 ; RV Bottle - In Job 32:19 (Compare Matthew 9:17 ; Luke 5:37,38 ; Mark 2:22 ) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to burst through the fermentation of the wine. ...
The clouds are figuratively called the "bottles of heaven" ( Job 38:37 )
Candle - Of prosperity; the sinner's short candle soon goes out, the righteous shall shine as the sun forever (Job 21:17; Job 18:5; Proverbs 13:9; Matthew 13:43)
Naked - This word denotes (1) absolute nakedness (Genesis 2:25 ; Job 1:21 ; Ecclesiastes 5:15 ; Micah 1:8 ; Amos 2:16 ); (2) being poorly clad (Isaiah 58:7 ; James 2:15 ). It is used figuratively, meaning "being discovered" or "made manifest" (Job 26:6 ; Hebrews 4:13 )
Mouth - chçk ( Job 12:11 etc. ) is the inward part of the mouth, the palate, or ‘roof of the mouth’ ( Job 29:10 etc
Bones - The “shaking of bones” denoted fear (Job 4:14 ) or sadness (Jeremiah 23:9 ). Various other expressions using “bones” referred to mental distress (Job 30:17 ; Psalm 6:2 ; Psalm 22:14 ; Psalm 31:10 ; Psalm 38:3 ; Psalm 51:8 ; Lamentations 3:4 )
Robbery - Predatory incursions were frequent on the part of the Chaldaeans and Sabeans (Job 1:15; Job 1:17)
Stocks - Job 13:27; Job 33:11) survived in lands further west till a comparatively recent period
Sapphire - Ezekiel 1:26; Ezekiel 10:1; Job 28:6; Job 28:16; Song of Solomon 5:14, sapphire, sparkling in the girdle round Him; Isaiah 54:11; Lamentations 4:7, "their polishing was of sapphire," they were like beautifully cut and polished sapphires
Hart, Hind - The hind is mentioned in Genesis 49:21 , Job 39:1 , Psalms 29:9 etc. Its care of its young ( Jeremiah 14:5 ), the secrecy of its hiding-place when calving ( Job 39:1 ), and its timidity at such times ( Psalms 29:9 ) are all noticed
Coral - ראמות , Job 28:18 ; Ezekiel 27:16 ; a hard, cretaceous, marine production resembling in figure the stem of a plant, divided into branches. This, though no gem, is ranked by the author of the book of Job 28:18 , with the onyx and sapphire
Path - The path of the wicked (Proverbs 4:14 ) who forget God (Job 8:13 ) is crooked (Proverbs 2:15 ). This alternate path is called the path of God (compare Psalm 17:5 ; Psalm 25:4 ,Psalms 25:4,25:10 ) and of light (Job 24:13 )
Hunting - The smaller of catching animals was, first, either by digging a pitfall; or, secondly, by a trap which was set under ground, (Job 18:10 ) in the run of the animal, (Proverbs 22:5 ) and caught it by the leg, (Job 18:9 ) or lastly by the use of the net, of which there were various kinds, as or the gazelle, (Isaiah 51:20 ) Authorized Version, "wild bull," and other animals of that class
Hook, Hooks - (Job 41:2 ; Isaiah 19:8 ); Habb 1:15 ...
A ring, such as in our country is placed through the nose of a bull, and similarly used in the East for leading about lions -- (Ezekiel 19:4 ) where the Authorized Version has "with chains --camels and other animals. Called "thorn" in (Job 41:2 ) A similar method was adopted for leading prisoners
Pipe - The word ’ûgâb, also translation by Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘pipe,’ in the Targums was an instrument of similar structure, and has been translated by the Vulgate organum and Authorized Version ‘organ’ (Genesis 4:21, Job 21:12; Job 30:31, Psalms 150:4)
Balances - Job 6:2 (b) Job is indicating that GOD knows just how heavy each burden is and each sorrow. ...
Job 31:6 (b) This figure is used to illustrate the way GOD estimates man's activities and motives
Pleiades - We find twice mention made in the book of Job of the heavenly constellations. (Job 9:9 and Job 38:31) The sacred writer enumerates but some of them, Arcturus, Orion, the Pleiades, and Mazzaroth; but we may suppose the whole are equally included as those whose influences we cannot bring forth nor bind
Mourn - ...
...
For calamities, (Job 1:20,21 ; 2:8 ); Israel (Exodus 33:4 ); the Ninevites (Jonah 3:5 ); Israel, when defeated by Benjamin (Judges 20:26 ), etc. ); (2) by loud lamentation (Ruth 1:9 ; 1 Samuel 6:19 ; 2 Samuel 3:31 ); (3) by the disfigurement of the person, as rending the clothes (Genesis 37:29,34 ; Matthew 26:65 ), wearing sackcloth (Genesis 37:34 ; Psalm 35:13 ), sprinkling dust or ashes on the person (2 Samuel 13:19 ; Jeremiah 6:26 ; Job 2:12 ), shaving the head and plucking out the hair of the head or beard (Leviticus 10:6 ; Job 1:20 ), neglect of the person or the removal of ornaments (Exodus 33:4 ; Deuteronomy 21:12,13 ; 2 Samuel 14:2 ; 19:24 ; Matthew 6:16,17 ), fasting (2 Samuel 1:12 ), covering the upper lip (Leviticus 13:45 ; Micah 3:7 ), cutting the flesh (Jeremiah 16:6,7 ), and sitting in silence (Judges 20:26 ; 2 Samuel 12:16 ; 13:31 ; Job 1:20 )
Leviathan - " So Job 41:15-17. Lips are wanting, so that the teeth are seen even when the mouth is closed, illustrating Job 41:14, "who can open the doors of his face? his teeth are terrible round about. In Job 3:8 translated "let them curse it (my day of birth) . " Foiled on one side he tries to gain on the other side (Job 26:13; 2 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Corinthians 2:11)
Clothe - Many times it is used in a figurative sense, as in Job 7:5: “My flesh is clothed [1] with worms. Job says, “I put on righteousness, and it clothed me …” (Job 29:14). “They that hate thee shall be clothed with shame” (Job 8:22)
Pearl - gabish, Job 28:18 ; Gr
Harrow - verb Sadad , To harrow a field, break its clods ( Job 39:10 ; Isaiah 28:4 ; Hosea 10 :: 11 )
Butter - hemah), curdled milk (Genesis 18:8 ; Judges 5:25 ; 2 Samuel 17:29 ), or butter in the form of the skim of hot milk or cream, called by the Arabs kaimak, a semi-fluid (Job 20:17 ; 29:6 ; Deuteronomy 32:14 )
Northward - A Hebrew in speaking of the points of the compass was considered as always having his face to the east, and hence "the left hand" (Genesis 14:15 ; Job 23:9 ) denotes the north
Fleece - The wool of a sheep, whether shorn off or still attached to the skin (Deuteronomy 18:4 ; Job 31:20 )
Fate - The Old Testament similarly speaks of violent death as the destiny of the wicked (Job 15:22 ; Isaiah 65:12 ; Hosea 9:13 )
Nephew - When KJV was translated, nephew was used in the broader sense of a lineal descendant, especially a grandson (Judges 12:14 ; Job 18:19 ; Isaiah 14:22 ; 1 Timothy 5:4 )
Mirror - Throughout the biblical period mirrors were made of polished metal (bronze, Exodus 38:8 ; molten [1], Job 37:18 )
Noon - Noon is also associated with blessings and vindication (Job 11:17 ; Psalm 37:6 ; Isaiah 58:10 )
Potsherd - It is employed literally in Job 2:8 ; Proverbs 26:23 , and translated 'sherd' in Isaiah 30:14 ; Ezekiel 23:34
Steel - So in Job 20:24; Psalms 18:34, translated "brass" or "copper
Shelving - ) The act of fitting up shelves; as, the Job of shelving a closet
Hypocrite - Job 8 ...
2
Spider - Job 8:14 (b) It represents the sinner in his fruitless efforts to provide for himself a refuge from the wrath of GOD
Harrow - In Job 39:10; Isaiah 28:24; Hosea 10:12, breaking the clods is alluded to; but this was before sowing the seed, just to level the ground
Jobber - ) One who works by the Job. ) A dealer in the public stocks or funds; a stockjobber
Brass - The "brass" frequently spoken of in Scripture is not that compound metal to which we give the name of brass; for it Is described as dug from the mine, Deuteronomy 8:9; Job 28:2, Very frequently copper is meant; and, no doubt, also bronze, which is a composition of copper and tin, while brass is copper and zinc
Teman - Compare the sayings of Eliphaz the Temanite in the book of Job
Unprofitable - Job 15
Heifer - (1 Samuel 6:7-12 ; Job 21:10 ; Isaiah 7:21 ) The heifer or young cow was not commonly used for ploughing, but only for treading out the corn
Brass - Indeed a simple metal was obviously intended, as we see from (8:9; 33:25; Job 28 ) Copper was known at a very early period
Harrow - The verb rendered "to harrow," (Job 39:10 ; Isaiah 28:24 ; Hosea 10:11 ) expresses apparently the breaking of the clods, and is so far analogous to our harrowing --but whether done by any such machine as we call a "harrow" is very doubtful
Lamp - " Job describes the destruction of a family among the Arabs, and the desolation of their dwellings, in the very language of the prophet: "How oft is the candle of the wicked put out, and how oft cometh their destruction upon them!" Job 21:17 . The light shall be dark in his tabernacle, and his candle shall be put out with him," Job 18:5-6 . A burning lamp is, on the other hand, the chosen symbol of prosperity, a beautiful instance of which occurs in the complaint of Job: "O that I were as in months past, as in the days when God preserved me; when his candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked through darkness," Job 29:2-3
Wisdom Literature - The best known of these are the books of Proverbs, Job and Ecclesiastes. The second, represented by the books of Job and Ecclesiastes, looks at the exceptions; for example, the righteous often have all sorts of troubles, while the wicked enjoy peace and prosperity (Job 12:4; Job 21:7-13; Ecclesiastes 7:15; Ecclesiastes 8:14). The book of Proverbs recognizes that the same principle may not apply equally in all cases (Proverbs 26:4-5), while the books of Job and Ecclesiastes recognize that the general principles are still the basis for wise teaching (Job 28:20-28; Ecclesiastes 7:1-13). Though they were aware of an afterlife (Job 19:26), their main concern was to deal with problems in the present life. For them, the fear of God was the basis of true wisdom (Job 28:28; Proverbs 1:7; Ecclesiastes 12:13)
Hell - The King James Version translates thirty-one of the occurrences as “hell”; another thirty-one occurrences as “grave”; and three occurrences as “pit” ( Numbers 16:30 ,Numbers 16:30,16:33 ; Job 17:16 ). Four times Sheol is described as the farthest point from heaven (Job 11:8 ; Psalm 139:8 ; Isaiah 7:11 ; Amos 9:2 ). Often Sheol is parallel with the “pit” (Job 17:13-14 ; Job 33:18 ; Psalm 30:3 ; Psalm 88:3-4 ; Proverbs 1:12 ; Isaiah 14:15 ; Isaiah 38:18 ; Ezekiel 31:14-17 ). Sometimes, Sheol is pictured as a hunter setting snares for its victim, binding them with cords, snatching them from the land of the living (2 Samuel 22:6 ; Job 24:19 ; Psalm 116:3 ); Sheol is a prison with bars, a place of no return (Job 7:9 ; Job 10:21 ; Job 16:22 ; Job 21:13 ; Psalm 49:14 ; Isaiah 38:10 ). With rare exceptions, such as Elijah (2 Kings 2:1-12 ), all people were believed to go to Sheol when they die (Job 3:11-19 ; Psalm 89:48 )
Crystal - “Crystal” is the modern translation of several Hebrew and Greek words used to describe something valuable (Job 28:18 ), a clear sky (Ezekiel 1:22 ), a calm sea or river (Revelation 4:6 ; Revelation 22:1 ), or the radiance of the new Jerusalem (Revelation 21:11 )
Mallows - MALLOWS ( mallûach , connected with melach ‘salt’), Job 30:4 , RV Moth - 'ash, from a root meaning "to fall away," as moth-eaten garments fall to pieces (Job 4:19 ; 13:28 ; Isaiah 50:9 ; 51:8 ; Hosea 5:12 )
Quiver - The Hebrew word (aspah) thus commonly rendered is found in Job 39:23 ; Psalm 127:5 ; Isaiah 22:6 ; 49:2 ; Jeremiah 5:16 ; Lamentations 3:13
East Wind - The wind coming from the east (Job 27:21 ; Isaiah 27:8 , etc
Hiss - To express contempt (Job 27:23 )
Target - , "spear;" RSV, "javelin"); Job 39:23 (A
Sabeans - " Another tribe, apparently given to war, is mentioned in Job 1:15
Goel - " It is rendered in the Authorized Version "kinsman," Numbers 5:8 ; Ruth 3:12 ; 4:1,6,8 ; "redeemer," Job 19:25 ; "avenger," Numbers 35:12 ; Deuteronomy 19:6 , etc
Balance - The emblem of justice (Job 31:6; Psalms 62:9; Proverbs 11:1) the test of truth and honesty
Hawk - The migratory habits of many species of Palestine hawks are referred to in Job 39:26
Stocks - An instrument that secured the feet (and sometimes the neck and hands) of a prisoner (Job 13:27 ; Jeremiah 29:26 ; Acts 16:24 )
Fine - ‘refine’) is used in Job 28:1 ‘Surely there is a vein for silver, and a place for gold where they fine it’ (RV Night Monster - The term occurs only here in Scripture unless textual emendations are accepted ( Job 18:15 ; Isaiah 2:18 )
Rind - Job 31:10 (b) This is a symbol of subserviency and recompense
Cockle - Occurs only in Job 31:40 (marg
Dance - Job 21:11 (b) This is used as a type of the careless, indifferent lives of the ungodly
Cheek - Smiting on the cheek was accounted a grievous injury and insult (Job 16:10 ; Lamentations 3:30 ; Micah 5:1 )
Peacocks - In Job 39:13 is the word renanim, and this is supposed to refer to the ostrich: q
Abjects, Nekeh - " He thinks Job 30:1 , seq
Sabeans - Possibly a third tribe is spoken of in Job 1:15
Peacock - Modern translations replaced peacock with ostrich at Job 39:13
Chastisement - Job 34
Kir'Iah, - ( Job 29:7 ; Proverbs 8:3 ) As a proper name it appears in the Bible under the forms of Kerioth, Kartah, Kartan, besides those immediately following
Hand - " It is the symbol of human action (Psalm 9:16 ; Job 9:30 ; Isaiah 1:15 ; 1 Timothy 2:8 ). The right hand denoted the south, and the left the north ( Job 23:9 ; 1 Samuel 23:19 ). To kiss the hand is an act of homage (1 Kings 19:18 ; Job 31:27 ), and to pour water on one's hands is to serve him (2 Kings 3:11 )
Age, Old - " Their experience made them to be regarded as depositories of knowledge (Job 15:10); they gave their opinion first (Job 32:4). A full age was the reward of piety (Job 5:26; Genesis 15:15); premature death was a temporal judgment for sin (1 Samuel 2:32); (spiritually, and as a taking out from the evil to come, it was sometimes a blessing; as in the case of Abijah, Jeroboam's son, 1 Kings 14; Isaiah 57:1)
Consumed, To Be - Similarly, when the notation is made in Job 31:40, “The words of Job are ended [1],” this indicates that the cycle of Job’s speeches is “complete. ” When the adjectival form tâm is used to describe Job (1:1), the meaning is not that he was really “perfect” in the ultimate sense, but rather that he was “blameless” (RSV) or “had integrity
Cloud - Clouds brought darkness, symbolizing disaster (Job 3:5 ; Lamentations 2:1 ; Lamentations 3:4 ; Ezekiel 32:7 ). They also vanished quickly in the sun, symbolizing the brief nature of human life (Job 7:9 ) but also the brief life of human sin when God forgives (Isaiah 44:22 ). They symbolize His sovereign power over all creation, even the heavenly bodies others would worship (Job 26:8-9 )
Rush, Rushes - ]'>[2] ‘papyrus’), Job 8:11 , Isaiah 18:2 (AV Bulrush - It used to be platted into rope; Job 41:2," canst thou put an hook (rather a rope of rushes) into his nose?" Moses' ark was woven of it (gomeh ): Exodus 2:3; Isaiah 18:2. In Exodus 2:3; Isaiah 18:2, it means the papyrus of which the Egyptians made light boats for the Nile; the same Hebrew (gomeh ) is translated rush (Job 8:11; Isaiah 35:7)
Thunder - Job 26:14, translated "and how faint is the word whisper that we hear of Him! but the thunder (i. ) Job 39:19, "hast thou clothed his (the horse's) neck with thunder?" i
Nose - ...
Nostrils are often associated with the breath of life (Genesis 2:7 ; Genesis 7:22 ; Job 27:3 ; Isaiah 2:22 ). The Lord's nostrils pile up the waters, allowing passage through the sea (Exodus 15:8 ; 2 Samuel 22:16 ) and are associated with judgment (2 Samuel 22:9 ; Job 41:20 ; Psalm 18:8 ; Isaiah 65:5 )
Night - Night is frequently a time of encounter with God, either through dreams or visions (Genesis 20:3 ; Genesis 31:24 ; Genesis 46:2 ; 1 Kings 3:5 ; Job 33:15 ; Daniel 2:19 ; Daniel 7:2 ,Daniel 7:2,7:7 ,Daniel 7:7,7:13 ; Acts 16:9 ; Acts 18:9 ), appearances (Genesis 26:24 ; Numbers 22:20 ; 1 Chronicles 17:3 ; 2 Chronicles 1:7 ; 2 Chronicles 7:12 ; Acts 23:11 ; Acts 27:23 ), or by speech (Judges 6:25 ; Judges 7:9 ; 1 Samuel 15:16 ). Night can also be associated with God's acts of deliverance (Deuteronomy 16:1 ; 2 Kings 19:35 ; Job 34:25 )
Stocks - The other Hebrew term,...
(2), sad , is our "stocks" (Job 13:27; Job 33:11; Acts 16:24), in which the feet alone are confined; the Roman nervous, which could be made at the jailer's will an instrument of torture by drawing asunder the feet;...
(3) Proverbs 7:22, rather "a fetter"; akasim , used for "the tinkling ornaments on women's feet" in Isaiah 3:16-18
Ashes (2) - Micah 1:10, Job 42:6). use of אפֶר in Job 2:8, Jonah 3:6)
Mother - Our grave is called by Job our mother's womb, Job 1:21
Drive Out - …” Job complained that any resource he once possessed no longer existed, for it “is … driven quite from me” (Job 6:13)
Far - 12:21), as when Job felt that his friends kept themselves “aloof” from him (Job 30:10)
Discipline - The word occurs only in Job 36:10 , but the Hebrew word, musar, is found elsewhere, and is often translated 'instruction,' and at times 'chastening' and 'correction. ' In Job it is God opening men's ears for instruction or discipline
Nettles - The first is חרול , Job 30:7 ; Proverbs 24:31 ; Zephaniah 2:9 . From the passage in Job, the nettle could not be intended; for a plant is referred to large enough for people to take shelter under
Shadow - Travelers sought rest under a tree (Genesis 18:4 ; compare Job 40:22 ) or in a house (Genesis 19:8 ). Especially at midday when shade virtually vanished, people looked for a shadow (Isaiah 16:3 ; compare Genesis 21:15 ; Jonah 4 ; Job 7:2 ). ...
Human life itself is only a brief shadow (Job 8:9 ; Job 14:2 ; Psalm 102:11 ; Psalm 144:4 ; Ecclesiastes 6:12 ; Ecclesiastes 8:13 )
Fatherless - In societies where the basic social unit was the clan headed by a father (the eldest male relative, perhaps a grandfather or uncle), those without a father or husband were social misfits without one to provide for their material needs and represent their interests in the court (Job 31:21 ). They suffered loss of their homes (Psalm 109:10 ), land rights (Proverbs 23:10 ), and livestock (Job 24:3 ). The fatherless were subject to acts of violence (Job 22:9 ), were treated as property to be gambled for (Job 6:27 TEV, NRSV, NAS, NIV), and were even murdered ( Psalm 94:6 )
Coral - The value of wisdom surpasses the value of gold, silver, a variety of precious stones, crystal, or coral (Job 28:12-18 )
Extinct - Job 17 ...
4
Lotus Trees - ]'>[2] of tse’ělim ( Job 40:21 f
Peacock - The word so rendered in Job 39:13 literally means wild, tumultuous crying, and properly denotes the female ostrich (q
Tema - South; desert, one of the sons of Ishmael, and father of a tribe so called (Genesis 25:15 ; 1 Chronicles 1:30 ; Job 6:19 ; Isaiah 21:14 ; Jeremiah 25:23 ) which settled at a place to which he gave his name, some 250 miles south-east of Edom, on the route between Damascus and Mecca, in the northern part of the Arabian peninsula, toward the Syrian desert; the modern Teyma'
Iob - (i' ohb) Personal name of uncertain meaning but of different Hebrew spelling than the biblical sufferer Job, a difference not made in KJV
Restless - , Job 31:11
Ram - ...
...
A person mentioned in Job 32:2 as founder of a clan to which Elihu belonged
Bar - Used to denote the means by which a door is bolted (Nehemiah 3:3 ); a rock in the sea (Jonah 2:6 ); the shore of the sea (Job 38:10 ); strong fortifications and powerful impediments, etc
Char - ) Work done by the day; a single Job, or task; a chore
Bossed, Bosses - Job 15:26 says that the wicked oppose God with thick-bossed shield—that is, a reinforced shield
Reap - Reaping is used as a symbol of recompense for good (Hosea 10:12 ; Galatians 6:7-10 ) and evil (Job 4:8 ; Proverbs 22:8 ; Hosea 8:7 ; Hosea 10:13 ), of evangelism (Matthew 9:37-38 ; Luke 10:2 ; John 4:35-38 ), and of final judgment (Matthew 13:30 ,Matthew 13:30,13:39 ; Revelation 14:14-16 )
Crime - It is possible, that in Job 31:11 ‘crime’ is used in the more modern sense; elsewhere it means ‘charge
Arcturus - The name is mentioned four times in the Vulgate and twice in the Authorized Version, the only common reference being in Job 9
Ascribe - Job 36
Ashes - Job 42
In - Job 18:9 (a) This figure is used to describe a trap laid for him by his enemies
Wound - Job 34:6 (a) This suffering man called his affliction and sorrow, a wound, for which there was no remedy
Infinite - ' Eliphaz, quite unintelligent as to Job's case, said there was 'no end' of his iniquities. Job 22:5
Habergeon - Nehemiah 4:16 ; Job 41:26 , a coat of mail; an ancient piece of defensive armor, in the form of a coat or tunic, descending from the neck to the middle of the body, and formed of tough hide, or many quilted linen folds, or of scales of brass overlapping each other like fishes' scales, or of small iron rings or meshes linked into each other, Exodus 28:32 ; 39:23
Organ - It cannot, however, mean the modern organ, which was unknown to the ancients; but refers probably to the ancient syrinx, or pipes, similar to the Pandean pipes, a series of seven or more tubes of unequal length and size, closed at one end, and blown into with the mouth at the other, Genesis 4:21 Job 21:12
Shadow - ...
The long shadows cast by the declining sun are alluded to in Job 7:2 Jeremiah 6:4
Owl - (Job 30:29 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ) Some of these species were common in Palestine, and, as is well known, were often found inhabiting ruins
Jobab - Ptolemy mentions the Jobaritoe (perhaps Jobabitae ought to be read) among the Arabs. His association in kindred with Eliphaz (2) gives color to the conjecture that Jobab equates to Job
Wind - Winds from the mountains and sea to the north and west brought rain and storm ( 1 Kings 18:43-45 ; see Exodus 10:19 ; Ezekiel 1:4 ); those coming from the deserts of the south and east could at times be balmy but more often would sear the land and dry up the vegetation (Genesis 41:6 ; Job 37:1-2 ). God answered Job out of the whirlwind (Job 38:1 ), and the four living creatures appeared to Ezekiel in a strong wind from the north (Job 1:4 ). ...
Wind was a symbol of transience (Psalm 78:39 ), fruitless striving (Ecclesiastes 1:14 NRSV), and desperateness ( Job 6:26 ). So closely is the wind connected with God's will that it is called His breath which He blew on the sea to cover the chariots of Pharaoh ( Exodus 15:10 ), or by which He froze rivers (Job 37:10 ) and withered grass (Isaiah 40:7 ). The breath which brings death when it is withdrawn is identified as God's breath (Job 34:14-15 ). This same breath of the Almighty is the spirit of wisdom and understanding in a person (Job 32:8 NRSV)
Angels - Christ has angels and so has Satan (Job 4:18; Matthew 25:31; Matthew 25:41; Judges 1:9; Revelation 12:7-9). Satan and the evil angels who follow him can do their evil work only within the limits that God allows (Job 1:12; Job 2:6; see SATAN). Again these expressions may apply to good angels and bad angels (Revelation 5:11-148; Job 2:1; Job 5:1; Job 15:15; Job 38:7; Psalms 89:5; Psalms 89:7; Revelation 9:1; Revelation 12:3-4; Revelation 12:9)
Behemoth - (Job 40:15-24. " Job cannot have been a Hebrew, or he would not adduce Jordan, where there were no river horses. Jehovah's first discourse (Job 38-39) was limited to land animals and birds; this second discourse requires therefore the animal classed with the crocodile to be amphibious, as the river horse
Flee - Sometimes it is necessary to “flee” from weapons (Job 20:24). ...
In its figurative use, the word describes days “fleeing” away (Job 9:25) or frail man “fleeing” like a shadow (Job 14:2)
Dragon - The second term has four possible uses: (1) “great sea monster” (KJV, “great whales”) in the sense of a large sea creature (Genesis 1:21 ; Psalm 148:7 ), possibly a whale; this sense of tannin as created being may serve as a correction of sense 4; (2) a snake ( Exodus 7:9-10 ,Exodus 7:9-10,7:12 ; Deuteronomy 32:33 ; Psalm 91:13 ); (3) a crocodile (Jeremiah 51:34 ; Ezekiel 29:3 ; Ezekiel 32:3 ); here the beast is used as a symbol of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon or the Egyptian Pharaoh; (4) a mythological sea monster symbolic of the forces of chaos and evil in opposition to God's creative and redemptive work (Psalm 74:12-14 ; Job 7:12 ; Job 26:12-13 ; Isaiah 27:1 ; Isaiah 51:9-10 ). As in the Old Testament texts, the dragon is put under guard (Revelation 20:1-3 ; see (Job 7:12 ) and later released for final destruction (Revelation 20:7-10 ; see Isaiah 27:1 )
Bridle - ...
Job 30:11 (a) Perhaps this represents the criticism which Job's friends loosed upon Him without restraining. These friends wanted Job to express himself freely without hindrance, hoping thereby to catch him in his words. ...
Job 41:13 (a) If this has a typical meaning, it might refer to GOD's restraining power over both the body and the soul
Fence - ...
Job 10:11 (a) Because of Job's great troubles, trials and suffering, he wanted to die. ...
Job 19:8 (a) Job felt that his hope of escape could not be found
Candle - Job 18:6 (b) This is a type of the personal testimony of a man during his daily life. (See also Job 21:17, and Proverbs 31:18). ...
Job 29:3 (b) GOD's care and GOD's comfort, together with the light brought about by GOD's presence in the soul are compared to the candle
Birds - The law of Moses did not allow Israelites to use any of these birds as food (Leviticus 11:13-19; Job 9:26; Job 28:7; Job 39:26; Psalms 79:2; Isaiah 34:15; Jeremiah 49:16; Ezekiel 39:4; Matthew 24:28)
Poor - The considerate provisions of the law for the poor (based on principles already recognized by the patriarchs: Job 20:19; Job 24:3-4; Job 24:9-10; especially Job 29:11-16; Job 31:17) were:...
(1) The right of gleaning; the corners of the field were not to be reaped, nor all the grapes to be gathered, nor the olive trees to be beaten a second time; the stranger, fatherless, and widow might gather the leavings; the forgotten sheaf was to be left for them (Leviticus 19:9-10; Deuteronomy 24:19; Deuteronomy 24:21; Ruth 2:2). , thirst after prostrating the poor by oppression, so as to lay their heads in the dust; or less simply (Pusey) "grudge to the poor debtor the dust which as a mourner he strewed on his head" (2 Samuel 1:2; Job 2:12)
Ass - Wealthy persons owned numbers of asses (Genesis 12:16 ; Genesis 32:15 ; 1 Chronicles 27:30 ; Job 1:3 ). They grazed the grasslands for food (Job 1:14 ). The young wild ass can also be called yir ( Job 11:12 ). Arad and arod refers to the wild ass ( asinus hemippus ) that God created for freedom in the wilderness rather than to do slave labor for humans (Job 39:5 ). Such animals explore mountain pastures for food (Job 39:8 ). The wild donkey was known for its braying and for eating grass ( Job 6:5 ). Such a wild animal can never be human (Job 11:12 ; compare various translations). It lives in the wilderness searching for food and helpless before the cold and rain (Job 24:5-8 ; compare Job 39:5 )
Shuah - Home of Job's friend Bildad (Job 2:11 ), possibly to be identified with people mentioned in 1
Hireling - The work of hired laborers was generally difficult (Job 7:1-2 )
Arcturus - In the Authorized Version (Job 9:9 ; 38:32 ) it is the rendering of the Hebrew word 'Ash , which probably designates the constellation the Great Bear
Steel - ) 2 Samuel 22:35 ; Job 20:24 ; Psalm 18:34 is in the Revised Version "bow of brass" (Heb
Diadem - The tiara of a king (Ezekiel 21:26 ; Isaiah 28:5 ; 62:3 ); the turban (Job 29:14 )
Crystal - " Job 28:17; "the gold and the crystal cannot equal wisdom
Bowels - In the KJV, “bowels” is also used to refer to the sexual reproductive system (2 Samuel 16:11 ; Psalm 71:6 ) and, figuratively, to strong emotions (Job 30:27 ), especially love (Song of Song of Solomon 5:4 ) and compassion (Colossians 3:12 )
Shu'Hite - This ethnic appellative "Shuhite" is frequent in the book of Job, but only as the apithet of one person, Bildad The local indications of this book point to a region on the western side of Chaldea, bordering on Arabia; and exactly in this locality, above Hit and on both sides of the Euphrates, are found, in the Assyrian inscriptions, the Tsahi , a powerful people
Whale - " The crocodile in Ezekiel 29:3; Ezekiel 32:2; the "dragon" in Isaiah 27:1; tan means the crocodile; also Job 7:12
Elihu - See Job [1]
Cast - Job 18:8 (b) Here is a description of the sudden calamity that comes upon one who is engaged in wicked practices
Ditch - Job 9:31 (a) This is an expression which describes the utterly abject condition of one whom GOD casts down in derision and despair
Abaddon - It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22 ; 31:12 ; 26:6 ; Proverbs 15:11 ; 27:20
Kite, - The same Hebrew word is translated 'vulture' in Job 28:7 , 'falcon' in the R
Shaving - The Jews shaved their beards and hair in time of mourning, repentance, or distress, Job 1:20 Jeremiah 48:37 , and in certain ceremonial purifications, Leviticus 14:9 Numbers 8:7
Pillar - The stately column which adorns and supports the front of a temple, Judges 16:25-30 Job 9:6 26:11 , illustrates the position of prophets, Jeremiah 1:18 , apostles, Galatians 2:9 , believers, Revelation 3:12 , and the church itself, respecting the truth, 1 Timothy 3:15
Rubies - (Job 28:18 ) see also Proverbs 3:15 ; 8:11 ; 31:10 Some suppose "coral" to be in tended; others "pearl," supposing that the original word signifies merely "bright in color," or "color of a reddish tinge
Juniper - rothem , the Spanish broom, Genista monosperma , white blossoming (1 Kings 19:4-6; Job 30:4; Psalms 120:4). The eating of its bitter roots for food is Job's illustration of the degradation and famine to which the outcasts he describes were reduced
Hook - ...
...
Hakkah, a fish "hook" (Job 41:2 , Heb. ...
...
'Agmon (Job 41:2 , Heb
Bulrush - It was sometimes platted into ropes (Job 41:2 ; A. In Isaiah 35:7 and Job 8:11 it is rendered "rush
Stork - STORK ( chăs îdâh , Leviticus 11:19 , Deuteronomy 14:18 , Job 39:13 , Psalms 104:17 , Jeremiah 8:7 , Zechariah 5:9 ). No doubt this powerful flight caused its wings to be noted ( Job 39:13 , Zechariah 5:8 )
Holocaust - They appear to have been in use long before the institution of other Jewish sacrifices by the law of Moses, Job 1:5 . Job 42:8
Bow, Bend - To “bow down upon” a woman was a euphemism for sexual intercourse (Job 31:10). Tottering or feeble knees are those that “bend” from weakness or old age (Job 4:4)
Trees - ...
Among the other trees mentioned in the Bible are algum (2 Chronicles 2:8; 2 Chronicles 9:10), cypress (2 Chronicles 2:8), plane (Isaiah 60:13), myrtle (Isaiah 41:19; Nehemiah 8:15), balsam (2 Samuel 5:23), oak (Judges 6:11; 2 Samuel 18:9), willow (Job 40:22; Psalms 137:2), sycamine (Luke 17:6), broom (1 Kings 19:4), lotus (Job 40:22) and palm (Exodus 15:27; Psalms 92:12)
Behemoth - The hippopotamus ( Job 40:15 ), as leviathan ( Job 41:1 ) is the crocodile
Stars - The Lord asked Job, “Can you bind the chains of Pleiades, or loose the cords of Orion?” (Job 38:31 NAS)
Shaaraim - But frequently it is alone, as Numbers 24:4; Num 24:16; Job 6:4. Indeed if I mistake not, it is used in the book of Job not less than thirty times
Arrow - ...
Job 6:4 (b) The misfortunes which GOD permitted to come upon Job are described as arrows
Balances - Job asked to be weighed in an even balance, Job 31:6 : cf
Iron - This metal is mentioned as early as Genesis 4:22 , when it was used by artificers; and Job speaks of it as dug out of the earth. Job 28:2
Orion - The constellation (Job 9:9; Job 38:31-32; Amos 5:8)
Iron - This metal is mentioned as early as Genesis 4:22 , when it was used by artificers; and Job speaks of it as dug out of the earth. Job 28:2
Eagle, - No sooner does an animal fall than these birds congregate in numbers on its carcase, according to Job 9:26 ; Matthew 24:28 . Job 39:27 ; Jeremiah 49:16
Hook - Some biblical uses, for example, hanging curtains (Exodus 26:32 ; Exodus 27:10 ) or fishing (Isaiah 19:8 ; Job 40:24 ; Habakkuk 1:15 ; Matthew 17:27 ), are familiar today
Curds - They are frequently served with honey and wine and are considered a delicacy among the nomads in the ancient Near East (see Genesis 18:8 ; Deuteronomy 32:14 ; Judges 5:25 ; 2 Samuel 17:29 ; Job 20:17 ; Isaiah 7:15 ,Isaiah 7:15,7:22 )
Ram - The family to which Elihu belonged ( Job 32:2 )
Dawn - Job 3:9 indicates that the stars are still visible at dawn
Sleep - God causes state called “deep sleep,” sometimes for revelation (Genesis 2:21 ; Genesis 15:12 ; Job 4:13 ), and sometimes to prevent prophetic vision (Isaiah 29:10 ; compare 1 Samuel 26:12 )
Brook - ...
It is also applied to winter torrents (Job 6:15 ; Numbers 34:5 ; Joshua 15:4,47 ), and to the torrent-bed or wady as well as to the torrent itself (Numbers 13:23 ; 1 Kings 17:3 )
Mallows - Occurs only in Job 30:4 (RSV, "saltwort")
Ruby - A comparison is made between the value of wisdom and rubies (Job 28:18 ; Proverbs 3:15 ; 8:11 )
Air - This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew Ruah ( Job 41:16 ); elsewhere it is the rendering of Shamaiyim , usually translated "heavens
Uz - Unspecified territory, most likely in Hauran south of Damascus (Jeremiah 25:20 ) or else between Edom and northern Arabia (Job 1:1 ; Lamentations 4:21 )
Poison - Poison served as a frequent image for wickedness, especially lying speech (Deuteronomy 32:32-33 ; Job 20:16 ; Psalm 58:4 ; Psalm 140:3 )
Nettle - chârûl ( Job 30:7 , Proverbs 24:31 , Zephaniah 2:9 ), more probably a generic name for thorn bushes growing in the wilderness, such as the Zizyphus and varieties of acacia
Broad Place - To be set in a broad place (Job 36:16 ) is to be delivered from danger, anxiety, want, or distress
Sapphire - sappir ), a precious stone, apparently of a bright-blue color, set: ( Exodus 24:10 ) the second stone in the second row of the high priest's breastplate, (Exodus 28:18 ) extremely precious, (Job 28:16 ) it was one of the precious stones that ornamented the king of Tyre
Wool - (Leviticus 13:47 ; 22:11; Job 31:20 ; Proverbs 31:13 ; Ezekiel 34:3 ; Hosea 2:5 ) The importance of wool is incidentally shown by the notice that Mesha's tribute was paid in a certain number of rams "with the wool
Hawk - Europe and parts of Asia; so Job 39:26, "doth the hawk fly by thy wisdom, and stretch her wings toward the S
Satan - In Job 1-2 ; Zechariah 3:2 ; and 1 Chronicles 21:1 the same term is translated as a proper name
Blain - ]'>[1] of Job 2:7 ‘He smot Iob with the werste stinkende bleyne fro the sole of the fot unto the nol
Moth - The moth's weakness is used to speak of the frailty of man (Job 4:19 )
Wisdom Literature - It is comprised chiefly in the books of Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes, and Wisdom of Solomon
Raven - The eyes of its victim are the first part to be devoured, Proverbs 30:17 ; and it drives away its young as soon as they can begin to shift for themselves, Job 38:41 ; Psalm 147:9
Pen - For parchment, cloth, and similar substances, a reed pen was used, or a fine hair pencil, with ink, Judges 5:14 Job 19:24 Isaiah 8:1 Jeremiah 36:23 3 John 1:13
Yesterday - Job 8
Kite - The Hebrew word thus rendered occurs in three passages -- ( Leviticus 11:14 ; 14:13; Job 28:7 ) In the two former it is translated "kite" in the Authorized Version, in the latter "vulture
Job, Book of - Others argue that it was written by Job himself, or by Elihu, or Isaiah, or perhaps more probably by Moses, who was "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and mighty in words and deeds" (Acts 7:22 ). Job was a historical person, and the localities and names were real and not fictious. ...
The subject of the book is the trial of Job, its occasion, nature, endurance, and issue. Job's desponding lamentation (ch. 3) is the occasion of the controversy which is carried on in three courses of dialogues between Job and his three friends. This is followed by the solution of the controversy in the speeches of Elihu and the address of Jehovah, followed by Job's humble confession (42:1-6) of his own fault and folly. Dawson in "The Expositor" says: "It would now seem that the language and theology of the book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [1] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way
Sheol - They saw that all people eventually die and go to sheol, whether they be rich or poor, good or bad (Job 3:13-19; Psalms 88:1-5; Isaiah 38:18; Ezekiel 31:17; Ezekiel 32:18-32; cf. The mysterious, silent, shadowy existence that lay beyond it was not something they looked forward to (Job 10:21-22; Job 17:13-16; Psalms 94:17; Psalms 115:17; Isaiah 14:9-11; Ezekiel 26:19-20). The hope of the Old Testament believers was that God would not desert them in sheol, but would bring them into a new and joyful experience of life in the presence of God (Job 19:26; Psalms 16:10-11; Psalms 49:15; Psalms 73:24; cf. For the wicked, however, sheol would bring nothing but terror (Deuteronomy 32:22; Job 31:11-12; Psalms 55:15; Isaiah 14:19-20; Ezekiel 32:18-32)
Bone - ” In Job 10:11, ‛etsem is used to denote the bone as one of the constituent parts of the human body: “Thou hast clothed me with skin and flesh, and hast fenced me with bones and sinews. ...
Another nuance of this meaning appears in Job 2:5 where, used with “flesh,” ‛etsem represents one’s “body”: “But put forth thine hand now, and touch his bone and his flesh [2]. In several passages, the plural form represents the “seat of vigor or sensation”: “His bones are full of the sin of his youth …” (Job 20:11; Job 30:17). In Job 21:23, the word means “full”: “One dieth in his full strength
Providence - The Book of Job has been called ‘the book of Providence,’ because it not only gives the author’s solution of perplexing problems, but also ‘furnishes reasons for believing in the righteous providence of God from the consideration of His character and His dominion over nature’ (Oehler, Theology of OT , ii. Job 27:1-23 ; Job 34:10 ; Job 36:22 ; Job 37:21 )
Condemn - ...
“Condemn” is also used in making everyday personal judgments as in the Book of Job. Feeling helpless before God's power and righteousness, Job knew that no matter how he tried to defend himself, his own mouth would condemn him (Psalm 9:20 ). After Job's advisors had had their say, Elihu saw that all three “had condemned Job” (Psalm 32:3 ). On the other hand, the Lord asked Job whether he wanted to condemn Him just to prove his own righteousness ( Job 40:8 )
Answer - It also means, to sing in choruses or responses, 1 Samuel 18:7 ; and to give account of one's self in judgment, Genesis 30:33 ; Job 9:3
Brimstone - This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment ( Job 18:15 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; 34:9 ; Psalm 11:6 ; Ezekiel 38:22 )
Habergeon - In Job 41:26 (Heb
Bildad - Son of contention, one of Job's friends. He took part in each of the three controversies into which Job's friends entered with him (Job 8:1 ; 18:1 ; 25:1 ), and delivered three speeches, very severe and stern in their tone, although less violent than those of Zophar, but more so than those of Eliphaz
Fishhook - A curved or bent device of bone or iron in biblical times used for catching or holding fish (Job 41:1-2 ; Isaiah 19:8 —KJV, “angle”; Matthew 17:27 )
Og - The term translated “bed” (compare Job 7:13 ; Amos 3:12 ) is perhaps better rendered “resting place” in the sense of burial place
Naked - Being without clothes (Genesis 2:25 ; Job 1:21 ; Ecclesiastes 5:15 ; Amos 2:16 ; Micah 1:8 ) or else poorly clothed (Deuteronomy 28:48 ; Matthew 25:36-44 ; James 2:15 )
Kesitah - word rendered ‘ piece of money ’ in the three passages Genesis 33:19 , Joshua 24:32 , and Job 42:11
Leprosy - This term, as used in Scripture, seems to include not only true leprosy ( elephantiasis ) probably the disease of Job but also such skin diseases as psoriasis , ring-worm, and vitiligo
Sodomites - Not inhabitants of Sodom, but those "devoted" (qedeeshim ) to unnatural lust in Ashtoreth's honour, as a religious rite! (Deuteronomy 23:17; 1 Kings 14:24; 2 Kings 23:7; Job 36:14 margin) There were women similarly "desecrated" to lust as a religious rite (Genesis 38:21-22; Hosea 4:14; translated 1 Kings 22:38), "the dogs licked his blood while the 'harlots' (zonot ) were bathing in the pool" early in the morning, as their custom was
Fowl - Used for birds of prey: 'ayit (Genesis 15:11; Job 28:7; Isaiah 18:6)
Den - Job 37
Witness - root is to repeat, re-assert, and we find the word used in the following connexions: (1) Witness meaning evidence , testimony , sign (of things): a heap of stones ( Genesis 31:44 ), the Song of Moses ( Deuteronomy 31:26 ), Job’s disease ( Job 16:8 ), the stone set up by Joshua at Shechem ( Joshua 24:27 ). God is witness between Jacob and Laban ( Genesis 31:50 ); so Job says, ‘My witness is in heaven’ ( Job 16:19 , cf
Lions - , "shaggy"), the young lion ( Judges 14:5 ; Job 4:10 ; Psalm 91:13 ; 104:21 ), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies (Psalm 34:10 ; 35:17 ; 58:6 ; Jeremiah 2:15 ). ...
Shahal (The "roarer"), the mature lion ( Job 4:10 ; Psalm 91:13 ; Proverbs 26:13 ; Hosea 5:14 ). ...
Laish , So called from its strength and bravery ( Job 4:11 ; Proverbs 30:30 ; Isaiah 30:6 )
Firmament - God spreads out (verbal form of raqiaspro ) the sky (Job 37:18 ). ...
Some scholars argue that the Hebrews had a primitive cosmology where the firmament was visualized as a rigid, solid dome—a celestial dam (Genesis 7:11 ; 2 Samuel 22:8 ; Job 26:8 ; Job 37:18 ; Proverbs 8:28 ; Malachi 3:10 )
Rahab - ...
A mythical sea monster...
Rahab the mythical sea monster was considered by people of the Middle East to symbolize the forces of chaos over which God had victory in creating an orderly world (Job 9:13; Job 26:12; Job 38:8-11)
Winds - " (Job 1:19 ; Jeremiah 13:14 ) It blows with violence, and is hence supposed to be used generally for any violent wind. (Job 27:21 ; 38:24 ; Psalm 48:7 ; Isaiah 27:8 ; Ezekiel 27:26 ) In Palestine the east wind prevails from February to June. (Job 37:17 ; Luke 12:55 ) The west and southwest winds reach Palestine loaded with moisture gathered from the Mediterranean, and are hence expressly termed by the Arabs "the fathers of the rain
Raven - Genesis 8:7, Noah's first messenger from the ark, which kept going forth and returning, resting on the ark but never entering, feeding on the floating carcasses; type of the carnal soul that having left God finds no rest (Isaiah 57:20-21); like Satan (Job 1:7; Job 2:2). When even the voracious ravens were against their nature made to care for him more than for themselves, his confidence was strengthened in Jehovah's illimitable resources to help him in his coming conflict with the idolatrous priests, dislikes the raven as of ill omen God cares for it (Job 38:41; Psalms 147:9; Luke 12:24)
Consolation - Consolation is the attendant to mourning (Job 29:25 ; Jeremiah 16:7 ), due perhaps to the loss of a close relative (2 Samuel 12:24 ; 1 Chronicles 7:22 ; John 11:19 ). The thoughtful comforter does not forget to offer food and drink (Jeremiah 16:7 ) or financial help (Job 42:11 ). Job's friends agree to go and sympathize with him (Job 2:11 ), but Job calls them "miserable comforters": All they offer him are long-winded speeches (16:2-3; 21:34). Although the three imagine their wisdom is "God's consolations" (15:11), Job remains nearly disconsolate (but see 6:10). Job 30:25 )
Understanding - The basic Hebrew word so translated is the verb biyn [ Job 8:10 ; 12:24 ). In answer to the question, "Where shall wisdom or understanding be found?" the response is, "God alone knows" (Job 28:12,20,23 ). ...
Understanding has a moral character (Job 28:28 ). ...
A person can perceive data with the senses: with the eyes (Job 13:1 ; 23:8 ), with the ears (Job 23:5 ; Proverbs 29:19 ), with the touch (pots can feel the heat — Psalm 58:9 ), and with the taste (Job 6:30 )
Reproach - A state of shame, disgrace, or humiliation (Nehemiah 1:3 ; Job 19:5 ; Job 27:6 ; Psalm 15:3 )
Desertion - Some of the best men in all ages have suffered a temporary suspension of divine enjoyments, Job 29:2 . on Job 23:3
Slothful - A same or related Hebrew root describes a loose tongue or mind as deceitful (Job 13:7 ; Job 27:4 ; Psalm 32:2 ; Psalm 52:4 ; Micah 6:12 )
Flower - ...
Job 14:2 (a) Man's birth is thus compared to the development of the flower. ...
Job 15:33 (a) In this way the Lord describes the failure of the hypocrite to succeed in life, and to develop into that which GOD would like him to be
Butter - Job 20:17 (b) Butter and honey are the products of living animals. ...
Job 29:6 (b) This is a type of great prosperity and abundant riches in the things of earth
Argob - But the name seems to mean ‘arable land’ ( regeb = ‘clod,’ Job 21:33 ; Job 38:38 )
Eagle - Job 39:27 ; Job 39:30 and Jeremiah 49:16 well describe its habits; and its powerful and rapid flight is referred to in Isaiah 40:31 , Deuteronomy 28:49 , Habakkuk 1:8
Dragon - ]'>[2] ‘jackals,’ Isaiah 13:22 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Isaiah 35:7 , Job 30:29 , Psalms 44:19 , Jeremiah 10:22 ; Jeremiah 49:33 . ]'>[2] of Genesis 1:21 and Job 7:12 ‘ sea monster(s) ’ (AV Hippopotamus - The Hebrew behemoth ( Job 40:15-24 ) is sometimes understood as the hippopotamus (NAS, TEV margins)
Afflictions - Common to all (Job 5:7 ; 14:1 ; Psalm 34:19 ); are for the good of men (James 1:2,3,12 ; 2 co 12:7 ) and the glory of God (2 Corinthians 12:7-10 ; 1 Peter 4:14 ), and are to be borne with patience by the Lord's people (Psalm 94:12 ; Proverbs 3:12 )
Booth - The booth is also used as a symbol of that which is flimsy and impermanent (Job 27:18 )
Not - Job 7
Lotus - The lotus which serves as the habitat for behemoth (Job 40:21-22 ) is a thorny shrub (Zizyphus lotus ) which flourishes in hot, damp areas of North Africa and Syria
Marrow - Good health was characterized by bones with moist marrow (Job 21:24 )
Mist - In Job 36:27 rain distills from the mist or fog rising from the earth
Footman - Swift running was much valued in a warrior (Psalms 19:5; Joel 2:7; Job 16:14)
Issachar - He had four sons, Tola, Phovah, Job, and Shimron
Lead - עפרת , Exodus 15:10 ; Numbers 31:22 ; Job 19:24 ; Jeremiah 6:29 ; Ezekiel 22:18 ; Ezekiel 27:12 ; Zechariah 5:7-8 ; a mineral of a bluish white colour
Clay - See Job 38:14
Thief - Job 30 3
Generation - from thirty to forty years ( Job 42:16 ) (Generation is also used to signify the men of an age or time, as contemporaries, (Genesis 6:9 ; Isaiah 53:8 ) posterity , especially in legal formulae, ( Leviticus 3:17 ) etc
Juniper, - In Job 30:4 reference is made to its roots being used for food by the poor
Hind, - (Jeremiah 14:5 ) Its shyness and remoteness from the haunts of men are also alluded to, (Job 39:1 ) and its timidity, causing it to cast its young at the sound of thunder
Topaz - , Exodus 28:17 ; 39:10 ; Job 28:19 ; Psalm 119:127 , "(gold and) topaz;" Ezekiel 28:13
Rock - Rocks were the haunt of the eagle ( Job 39:28 ), of the wild goat (v. Deuteronomy 32:13 emphasizes the fact that in Palestine even the rocks are the home of bees ( Psalms 81:16 , Isaiah 7:19 ), and the rocky soil produces olives ( Job 29:6 ). ...
Rocks, particularly the soft sandstone of Edom, were primitive dwelling places (Job 24:8 ; Job 30:6 ; cf. Job 19:24 refers to the permanence of the rock inscription; Job 28:9 (a somewhat unusual word, ‘flinty rock’ RV Providence - God's interest in His own creation is Job's argument for God's restoring him (Job 10:3; Job 10:9-12; Job 14:15). ) The plagues, earthquakes, drought, flood, frost, and famine subserve ends of providence which we only in part see; and they also suggest to us the need of a providence to control them within appointed bounds, and that without such a providence all nature would fall into disorder (Jeremiah 5:22; Job 26:7-11; Job 38:4-14). s (See Job. times to be brought, as Job at last was, to abase themselves under God's visiting hand, and instead of calling God to account to acknowledge His ways are right and we are sinful, even though we do not see the reason why He contends with us (Job 40:4-5; Job 42:2-6; contrast Job 10:2; Job 33:13). ...
(6) The issue of wickedness is seen even in this life generally, that though flourishing for a time (Jeremiah 12:1) the wicked are "set in slippery places, and brought into desolation as in a moment" (Psalm 73; Psalms 37:35-37; Job 20:5). Christ upholdeth all things by the word of His power" (Hebrews 1:3); "by Him all things consist" (Colossians 1:17; Job 38-41)
Bosses - Job 15:26; "he (the rebel) runneth upon Him (God), even on (rather with) his neck (i
Bramble - ...
...
Hebrew Hoah , Isaiah 34:13 (RSV "thistles"); "thickets" in 1 Samuel 13:6 ; "thistles" in 2Kings 2 Kings 25:18 , Job 31:40 ; "thorns" in 2 Chronicles 33:11 , Song of Solomon 2:2 , Hosea 9:6
Zophar - One of Job's three friends who came to sit with him in his misery (1 Chronicles 2:11 ). He was the sharpest critic of the three men and was more philosophical in his criticism of Job
Sand - For ‘sand,’ in Job 29:18 , we should probably read, with RVm Daysman - The KJV term for a mediator, arbitrator, or umpire (Job 9:33 ). Job's point is that no human is capable of standing in judgment of God
Flag - , or rather Egyptian, ahu, Job 8:11 ), rendered "meadow" in Genesis 41:2,18 ; probably the Cyperus esculentus, a species of rush eaten by cattle, the Nile reed
Onyx - shoham), a precious stone adorning the breast-plate of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod (Exodus 28:9-12,20 ; 35:27 ; Job 28:16 ; Ezekiel 28:13 )
Orion - , "the fool", the name of a constellation (Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ; Amos 5:8 ) consisting of about eighty stars
Spider - The Hebrew word 'accabish in ( Job 8:24 ; Isaiah 59:5 ) is correctly rendered "spider
Bands - (1) Of love (Hosea 11:4 ); (2) of Christ (Psalm 2:3 ); (3) uniting together Christ's body the church (Colossians 2:19 ; 3:14 ; Ephesians 4:3 ); (4) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezekiel 34:27 ; Isaiah 28:22 ; 52:2 ); (5) of brotherhood (Ezekiel 37:15-28 ); (6) no bands to the wicked in their death (Psalm 73:4 ; Job 21:7 ; Psalm 10:6 )
Sapphire - It was one of the stones in the high priest's breastplate, Exodus 28:18 ; 39:11 ; as an intimation of its value see Job 28:16 ; Ezekiel 28:13
Den - A lair of wild beasts (Psalm 10:9 ; 104:22 ; Job 37:8 ); the hole of a venomous reptile (Isaiah 11:8 ); a recess for secrecy "in dens and caves of the earth" (Hebrews 11:38 ); a resort of thieves (Matthew 21:13 ; Mark 11:17 )
Omniscience - Such knowledge is cause for alarm for the unrighteous but for confidence for God's saints (Job 23:10 ; Psalm 34:15-16 ; Psalm 90:8 ; Proverbs 15:3 ; 1 Peter 3:12 )
Neginah, Neginoth - Other references suggest that neginah designates a taunt song ( Job 30:9 ; Psalm 69:12 ; Lamentations 3:14 )
Kite - ]'>[1] renders this word by ‘kite’ in Job 28:7 by ‘vulture’; RV Acquaint - Job 22
Arrow - Job 6
Daysman - ’ The word occurs in Job 9:33 ‘Neither is there any daysman betwixt us’ (AV Instead - Job 31
Hawk - Some at least of the hawks are migratory, and this is supposed to be alluded to in Job 39:26 , in the expression "stretch her wings toward the south
Asp - Romans 3:13 ), and the inward misery of those who are secretly wicked, Job 20:14,16
Teman, Temani, Temanites - One of Job's friends was Eliphaz the Temanite. Genesis 36:11,15,34,42 ; 1 Chronicles 1:36,45,53 ; Job 2:11 ; Jeremiah 49:7,20 ; Ezekiel 25:13 ; Amos 1:12 ; Obadiah 9 ; Habakkuk 3:3 , in the margin 'south
Sit (And Forms) - ...
Ruth 3:18 Expectation...
2 Kings 7:3 Discouragement...
Job 2:8 Distress...
Psalm 1:1 Determination...
Psalm 29:10 Power...
Psalm 69:12 Authority...
Psalm 107:10 Hopelessness...
Isaiah 40:22 Sovereignty...
Isaiah 42:7 Helplessness...
Isaiah 47:1 Humbleness...
Jeremiah 17:11 Industry...
Lamentations 1:1 Indifference...
Malachi 3:3 Attentiveness...
Luke 9:14 Anticipation...
Ephesians 2:6 Security...
River - It is also used as a symbol for plenty, Job 29:6 ; Psalms 36:8
Pots - Job 41:20 , applied in Scripture to a great variety of domestic vessels, of earthenware, iron, brass, and gold, used for cooking and serving food, etc
Trance - Compare also Genesis 2:21-24 15:12-21 Job 4:13-21
Collar - This word is used to translate various Hebrew words and may describe (1) the opening for the head in a garment (Exodus 28:32 NIV; Job 30:18 ; Psalm 133:2 NIV), (2) a decorative ornament around the necks of the Midianite Kings (NRSV) or their camels ( Judges 8:26 ; see Proverbs 1:9 ; Song of Song of Solomon 4:9 ), (3) stocks or a pillory used to restrain a person (Jeremiah 29:26 NRSV, NAS), and (4) a shackle of iron placed around the neck of a prisoner ( Psalm 105:18 NRSV, REB, TEV)
Devil - The other work, the slandering or accusing men before God, is the imputation of selfish motives, (Job 1:9,10 ) and its refutation is placed in the self-sacrifice of those "who loved not their own lives unto death
Birthday - The custom of observing birthdays is very ancient, (Genesis 40:20 ; Jeremiah 20:15 ) and in (Job 1:4 ) etc. , we read that Job's sons "feasted every one his day
Goat - As to the "wild goats," ( 1 Samuel 24:2 ; Job 39:1 ; Psalm 104:18 ) it is not at all improbable that some species of ibex is denoted
Girdle - 'ezor, something "bound," worn by prophets (2 Kings 1:8 ; Jeremiah 13:1 ), soldiers (Isaiah 5:27 ; 2 Samuel 20:8 ; Ezekiel 23:15 ), Kings (Job 12:18 ). ...
The girdle was a symbol of strength and power (Job 12:18,21 ; 30:11 ; Isaiah 22:21 ; 45:5 )
Net - The fowling-nets were (1) the trap, consisting of a net spread over a frame, and supported by a stick in such a way that it fell with the slightest touch (Amos 3:5 , "gin;" Psalm 69:22 ; Job 18:9 ; Ecclesiastes 9:12 ). (2) The snare, consisting of a cord to catch birds by the leg (Job 18:10 ; Psalm 18:5 ; 116:3 ; 140:5 )
Brass - With us a mixed metal, consisting of copper and zinc; but the brass of the Bible is one dug simple out of the earth (Deuteronomy 8:9; Job 28:2), probably copper. invulnerable (Job 6:12)
Reen - Job 8:16 (b) This type is used to describe the hypocrite who is unstable and is soon destroyed. ...
Job 15:32 (b) By this figure we see that the man who is deceived and is not true to GOD's Word, and is not really linked up with GOD, will not prosper, and shall not be productive in his life
Onyx - Job (Job 28:16) calls it "precious," but not so much so as "wisdom," priceless in worth
Firmament - Raqi'ah , "the expanse stretched out as a curtain" over the earth (Isaiah 40:22; Psalms 104:2), resting on the mountains as its pillars (the language is phenomenal, as indeed necessarily is that of even men of science often): Job 26:11. The sky in Job 37:18 is termed "strong, as a molten looking glass," namely, a polished copper mirror
Decree - Job 28...
6. Job 22 ...
Let us not be solicitous to know what God has decreed concerning us
Tempest - Job 9:17 (b) This type describes the tremendous, overwhelming sorrow that had come upon Job because of the losses described in the first two chapters of the book
Remain - ”...
While it is usually used concerning human beings spending the night, lûn is sometimes used of animals, such as the wild ox (Job 39:9, NASB; KJV, “unicorn”), the pelican and the hedgehog (Job 19:4); “… Righteousness lodged in it …” ( Leek - הציר , in Numbers 11:5 , translated "leek;" in 1 Kings 18:5 ; 2 Kings 19:26 ; Job 40:15 ; Psalms 37:2 ; Psalms 90:5 ; Psalms 103:15 ; Psalms 104:14 ; Psalms 129:6 ; Psalms 147:8 ; Isaiah 35:7 ; Isaiah 37:27 ; Isaiah 40:6 , it is rendered "grass;" in Job 8:12 , "herb;" in Proverbs 27:25 ; Isaiah 15:6 , "hay;" and in Isaiah 34:13 , "a court
Way - ( b ) Figuratively, of a course of conduct or character ( Job 17:9 , Psalms 91:11 ), either in a good sense as approved by God ( Deuteronomy 31:29 , Psalms 50:23 , Isaiah 30:21 ), or in a bad sense of man’s own choosing ( Psalms 139:24 , Isaiah 65:2 , Jeremiah 18:11 ). ( c ) Of the way of Jehovah, His creative power ( Job 26:14 ), His moral rule and commandments ( Job 21:14 , Psalms 18:30 , Proverbs 8:32 )
Bottle - ...
So Elihu, the young friend of Job, after the older ones had failed to comfort him, compares himself, filled with the spirit which inspired him so as to be full of words seeking for utterance, to new bottles of wine: "my belly is as wine which hath no vent, it is ready to burst like new bottles" (Job 32:19). ...
The clouds pouring down water are figuratively "the bottles of heaven" (Job 38:37)
Glass - The value of glass in ancient times may be indicated in Job where the value of glass is equated with that of gold and is used in parallel with jewels (Job 28:17 ). ...
The KJV uses glass in five other passages where a polished metal mirror is probably being referred to (Job 37:18 ; Isaiah 3:23 ; 1 Corinthians 13:12 ; 2 Corinthians 3:18 ; James 1:23 )
Needy Person - He has come into difficult financial straits (Job 30:25) and perhaps lacks clothing (Job 31:19) or food (Job 29:16; cf
Seal - Job says, Job 9:7 , that he keeps the stars as under his seal, and allows them to appear when he thinks proper. He says also, "My transgression is sealed up in a bag," Job 14:7
Irony - In the Hebrew text of Job 1:5 , Job offered sacrifices because he feared his children may have “blessed” (Hebrew text) God. This is easily seen in Job's bitter retort in Job 12:2 , “No doubt but ye are the people, and wisdom shall die with you. ” Job was really saying that his so-called comforters were not as important or wise as they thought they were
Mallows - ) Therefore rather "saltwort," orache , Αtriplex halimus , used as a salad; found in "waste and desolate wildernesses" (Job 30:4)
Tale - In Job 37:2 this word is rendered "sound;" Revised Version margin, "muttering;" and in Ezekiel 2:10 , "mourning
Ophir - ...
...
Some region famous for its gold (1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:11 ; 22:48 ; Job 22:24 ; 28:16 ; Isaiah 13:12 )
Hagiographa - The hagiographa in their Hebrew order include: Psalms, Proverbs, and Job; the “five scrolls” (Megilloth ) read at major festivals, namely, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther; Daniel; and Ezra-Nehemiah and Chronicles
Countenance - The face as an indication of mood, emotion, or character (see Genesis 4:5-6 ; Deuteronomy 28:50 ; Job 9:27 ; Psalm 10:4 ; Proverbs 15:13 ; Ecclesiastes 7:3 ; Mark 10:22 )
Godliness - The same word is used in the LXX for 'the fear of God' in Genesis 20:11 , and for 'the fear of the Lord' in Job 28:28
Spider - The trust of the hypocrite is compared to the spider's web or house (Job 8:14 )
Willows - are mentioned in (Leviticus 23:40 ; Job 40:22 ; Psalm 137:2 ; Isaiah 44:4 ) With respect to the tree upon which the captive Israelites hung their harps, there can be no doubt that the weeping willow Salix babylonica , is intended
Alligator - ) a kind of Job press, called also alligator press
Broom Tree - Its foliage and roots were often used as fuel (Job 30:4 ; Psalm 120:4 )
Juniper - In Job 30:4 mention is made of the roots being cut up for food
Keturah - The name Qetûrâh = ‘incense,’ is a perfume-name like Keziah ( Job 42:14 )
Buckler - ...
Job 15:26 (b) This may refer to the excuses, reasonings and arguments of the ungodly who want none of GOD in their lives
Stacte - " One ingredient in the holy perfume (Exodus 30:34), nataph ; also in Job 36:27
High - Any elevated place ( Job 11:8)
Comely - Job 41
Idol, Idolatry - It can be anything that takes the place of God: a car, a Job, money, a person, a desire, etc
Glass - The only mention of glass in the Ola Testament is in Job 28:17, R
Devil - ) Satan, (Job 2:6
Geez - The first grammar and dictionary were compiled by Job Ludolf
Clay - This may help to explain Job 38:14 , in which the earth is represented as assuming form and imagery from the brightness of the rising sun, as rude clay receives a figure from the impression of a seal or signet
Coral - It is ranked by Job 28:18 , and Ezekiel 27:16 , among precious stones
Dragon - Thus in Deuteronomy 32:33 Jeremiah 51:34 Revelation 12:1-17 , it evidently implies a huge serpent; in Isaiah 27:1 51:9 Ezekiel 29:3 , it may mean the crocodile, or any large sea-monster; while in Job 30:29 Lamentations 4:3 Micah 1:8 , it seems to refer to some wild animal of the desert, most probably the jackal
Pledge - Compare Job 22:6 24:3,7
Whale - The largest known inhabitant of the sea, Job 7:12 , put by our translators for a Hebrew word including all the huge marine monsters, as in Genesis 1:21
Nose - Several expressions in Scripture grew out of the fact that anger often shows itself by distended nostrils, hard breathing, and in animals by snorting, 2 Samuel 22:9 Job 39:20 Psalm 18:8
Peacocks - ]'>[2] in Job 39:13 ‘peacock
Nave - gao ), anything convex or arched, as the boss of a shield, ( Job 15:26 ) the eyebrows, (Leviticus 14:9 ) an eminent place
East - ( Job 23:8,9 ) The term as generally used refers to the lands lying immediately eastward of Palestine, viz
Crystal, -
Zecucith occurs only in ( Job 28:17 ) where "glass" probably is intended
Honesty - Job 31:6 prays God's judgment to be weighed in an honest balance so God can know the person's integrity. Scripture often refers to honest or right speech ( Job 6:25 ; Proverbs 12:17 ; Proverbs 16:13 ; Proverbs 24:26 )
Apparel - One who had only this tunic on was spoken of as "naked" (1 Samuel 19:24 ; Job 24:10 ; Isaiah 20:2 ). Those in high stations sometimes wore two tunics, the outer being called the "upper garment" (1 Samuel 15:27 ; 18:4 ; 24:5 ; Job 1:20 )
New Moon - (Numbers 28:11) But this was accompanied with no precept for any particular day, neither any service with it; and the new moon festival, it should seem to have been rather in the view of a pious sanctification of families, when meeting together as Job did, (Job 1:5) than any immediate religious service towards the Lord
Widow - Widows from their poverty and unprotectedness, are regarded in OT as under the special guardianship of God ( Psalms 68:6 ; Psalms 146:9 , Proverbs 15:25 , Deuteronomy 10:18 , Jeremiah 49:11 ); and consequently due regard for their wants was looked upon as a mark of true religion, ensuring a blessing on those who showed it ( Job 29:13 ; Job 31:16 , Isaiah 1:17 , Jeremiah 7:6-7 ; Jeremiah 22:3-4 ); while neglect of, cruelty or injustice towards them were considered marks of wickedness meriting punishment from God ( Job 22:9-10 ; Job 24:20-21 , Psalms 94:6 , Isaiah 1:23 ; Isaiah 10:2 , Zechariah 7:10 ; Zechariah 7:14 , Malachi 3:5 )
Breathing - ’ The figure of human life depending on the breath of God is frequent in the Bible; besides above passages, see Job 12:10; Job 33:4, Psalms 33:6, Isaiah 42:5, Daniel 5:23, Acts 17:25. In the following the breath of God is synonymous with the manifestation of His power: 2 Samuel 22:16, Job 37:10; Job 41:21, Isaiah 11:4
Arm - The importance attached to the functions discharged by this organ are incidentally referred to by Job in his solemn repudiation of conscious wrong-doing (‘Let my shoulder fall from the shoulder-blade, and mine arm be broken from the bone’ Job 31:22 ). Psalms 10:15 , Job 38:15 , Ezekiel 30:21 f. , Job 40:9 , Isaiah 40:16 ; Isaiah 51:5 , Jeremiah 27:5 ; Jeremiah 32:17 )
Behemoth - By some, among whom are Bythner and Reiske, it is regarded in Job 40:16 , as a plural noun for beasts in general: the peculiar name of the animal immediately described not being mentioned, as unnecessary, on account of the description itself being so easily applied at the time. " It is also used in the same sense in Job 35:11 , of the book of Job: "Who teacheth us more than the beasts," behemoth, "of the earth. " The greater number of critics, however, have understood the word behemoth, in the singular number, as the peculiar name of the quadruped described, Job 40, of whatever kind or nature it may be; although they have materially differed upon this last point, some regarding it as the hippopotamus, or river horse, and others as the elephant
River - ...
...
Tel'alah, a conduit, or water-course (1 Kings 18:32 ; 2 Kings 18:17 ; 20:20 ; Job 38:25 ; Ezekiel 31:4 ). , 'divisions']'>[1] of waters" (Job 20:17 ; 29:6 ; Proverbs 5:16 ). , "great river", probably from an Egyptian word (Aur), commonly applied to the Nile (Genesis 41:1-3 ), but also to other rivers (Job 28:10 ; Isaiah 33:21 )
Job, Book of - Containing 42 chapters, it presents an investigation into the causes of evil and human adversity experienced by the just, and inculcates the lesson that man should not attempt a close scrutiny of the ways of Providence; secondarily it depicts Job as a model of faith, fortitude, and patience. Quite apart from the prologue (1:2), as well as the epilogue (42:7-16), three parts may be distinguished: ...
three discussions of Job with his friends and two monologues (3-31)
four discourses of Eliu, rebuking Job and his friends for some of their views, and extolling the wisdom and justice of God (32-38)
utterances of God Himself teaching that His ways are not matters for the curious searching of human intellect (38-42:6)
Composed in the highest style of Hebrew poetry, it indicates great technical skill on the part of the author, and is embellished with rich oriental imagery. There are significant passages concerning God's supremacy, passing human comprehension (38:39), and Job's humble confession (42:1-6)
Hunt - ...
The tools of the hunter include bows and arrows (Genesis 21:20 ; Genesis 27:3 ), nets (Job 18:8 ; Ezekiel 12:13 ), snares or pitfalls (Job 18:8 ), if the term does not refer to part of the net (NAS, NIV, REB); traps, snares, ropes (Job 18:9-10 )
Band, Army - When Job described the glory of days gone by, he said he “dwelt as a king in the army [1]” (Job 29:25). Bildad asks the rhetorical question concerning God, “Is there any number [2] of his armies?” (Job 25:3)
Take, Handle - In His wrath, God “seized” Job by the neck (Job 16:12). Horror “seizes” the people of the east (Job 18:20)
Leviathan - Psalm 74:14 104:26 , an aquatic monster described in the book of Job, Job 41:1-34 . Probably the animal denoted is the crocodile, the terror of the Nile; as Job 40:1-24 , is the hippopotamus of the same river
Disease - The book of Job shows that no one should judge another with the accusation that the sufferer’s experience is because of personal sin (Job 42:7; see Job; SUFFERING)
Remove, Depart - A special use of this emphasis occurs in Job 6:2, where Job prays that his trouble be laid (“lifted up”) in the balances because he believes his trouble far outweighs his sin. 2:22), or to anticipate that things will go well (Job 22:26). This phrase can mean “to be well disposed toward” or “to respect” (2 Kings 3:14), and “to be biased in favor of” (Job 13:8). Se’et occurs 14 times, with 2 senses: (1) a “lifting up,” such as an “uprising” (Job 41:25), and “dignity” (Job 20:6) occur only once
Son of Man -
Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their weakness and frailty (Job 25:6 ; Psalm 8:4 ; 144:3 ; 146:3 ; Isaiah 51:12 , etc
Habergeon - Modern translations agree that the second term (Job 41:26 ) refers to an offensive weapon, the javelin
Abase - ...
Whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased, Matthew 23; Job 40; 2 Corinthians 11
Gnashing of Teeth - In the Old Testament, gnashing of teeth was an expression of anger reserved for the wicked and for one's enemies (Job 16:9 ; Psalm 35:16 ; Psalm 37:12 ; Lamentations 2:16 )
Raven - Its glossy plumage is referred to in Song of Solomon 5:11 ; it often dwells in the wilderness ( Isaiah 34:11 ), and yet God cares for and watches over it ( Job 38:41 , Psalms 147:8 , Luke 12:24 )
Constellation - " This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion ( Job 9:9 ; 38:31 ), a constellation which represented Nimrod, the symbol of folly and impiety
Arrows - The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4 ; 34:6 ; Psalm 38:2 ; Deuteronomy 32:23
Flowers - They are referred to as affording an emblem of the transitory nature of human life (Job 14:2 ; Psalm 103:15 ; Isaiah 28:1 ; 40:6 ; James 1:10 )
Reed - Job 40:21 ; Ezekiel 29:6 , "a reed with jointed, hollow stalk"); (b) "a reed staff, staff," Matthew 27:29,30,48 ; Mark 15:19,36 (cp
Gin - ...
...
Job 18:9 , Isaiah 8:14 , Heb
Brimstone - An image of every visitation of God's vengeance on the ungodly, especially of the final one (Deuteronomy 29:23; Job 18:15; Psalms 11:6; Isaiah 34:9; Ezekiel 38:22; Revelation 19:20; Revelation 20:10; Revelation 21:8)
Viper - In Job 20:16 , Isaiah 30:6 ; 59:5 , the Heb
Balance - A "pair of balances" is a symbol of justice and fair dealing (Job 31:6 ; Psalm 62:9 ; Proverbs 11:1 )
Bribery - The poor, because they had no bribe to offer, were either discriminated against when the judgment was handed down or had difficulty getting a trial at all (see Job 6:22 where a bribe is necessary to get justice done)
Devil - ...
Satan, Job 2:6
Whale - KJV translation (Genesis 1:21 ; Job 7:12 ; Ezekiel 32:2 ; and in Matthew 12:40 with reference to Jonah) for Hebrew tan
Season - An indefinite part of a day (Job 30:17 ; Psalm 22:2 )
Brook - , a mountain torrent often dry in summer, and thus often disappointing, as in Job 6:15
Crystal - zekukith, Job 28:17 : probably glass highly ornamented, such as was made in Egypt: it is here classed with gold; but wisdom, the gift of God, far exceeds such things in value
Zaphon - Mountain viewed as home of the gods in Canaanite thought, perhaps referred to in Psalm 48:2 (NIV), Isaiah 14:13 (NRSV), and Job 26:7 (NRSV), showing Yahweh controls what Canaan thought their gods possessed
Conceal - Job 6
Fain - Job 28
Cane - It is rendered "reed" in 1 Kings 14:15 ; Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ; 35:7
Post - Couriers from the earliest times (Job 9:25) carried messages, especially royal despatches
Topaz - Job 28:19 speaks of 'the topaz of Ethiopia
Whale - The word tannin, Genesis 1:21 ; Job 7:12 ; Ezekiel 32:2 ; and κῆτος Matthew 12:40 ; refer to any sea monsters, without defining any particular one
Thunder - ' Doubtless lightning is referred to, as when the 'fire of God' fell from heaven and burnt up Job's sheep. Job 1:16
Cheese - (1 Samuel 17:18 ; 2 Samuel 17:29 ; Job 10:10 ) It is difficult to decide how far these terms correspond with our notion of cheese, for they simply express various degrees of coagulation
Lead - The words of Job 19:24, "that they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock forever," refer to the custom of pouring molten lead into letters carved in the rock in order to make them more striking to the eye
Looking-Glass - This word occurs in Exodus 38:8; Job 37:18; also in Isaiah 3:23, where it is simply "glasses
Provender - bĕlîl , Job 6:5 ‘ fodder ’; bĕlîl châmîts , Isaiah 30:24 ‘clean (AVm Willow - A very common tree, which grows in marshy places, Job 40:22 Isaiah 44:4 , with a leaf much like that of the olive
Vanity - Does not usually denote, in Scripture, self-conceit or personal pride, 2 Peter 2:18 , but sometimes emptiness and fruitlessness, Job 7:3 Psalm 144:4 Ecclesiastes 1:1-18
Ruby - The word "rubies" occurs several times in the English Bible, as Job 28:18 ; Proverbs 3:15 ; 8:11 ; but the corresponding word in Hebrew is thought to denote red coral, or perhaps pearls; while the true ruby is more naturally designated by the "agate" or "carbuncle" of Isaiah 54:12 ; Ezekiel 27:16
Drought - A drought therefore is threatened as one of God's sorest judgments, Job 24:19 Jeremiah 50:38 Joel 1:10-20 Haggai 1:11 ; and there are many allusions to its horrors in Scripture, Deuteronomy 28:23 Psalm 32:4 102:4
Moth - Reference to the destructive habits of the clothes-moth is made in ( Job 4:19 ; 13:28 ; Psalm 39:11 ) etc
Fool, Foolishness, And Folly - Job chastised his wife for behaving as the foolish do when she denied the steadfast love of God (Job 2:10 ). ...
Since numerous examples of foolishness can be found in the Old Testament, additional references provide a more complete perspective: Job 2:10 ; Job 30:8 ;Job 30:8;42:8 ; Psalm 53:1 ; Proverbs 17:7-21 ; Isaiah 9:17 ; Jeremiah 4:22
Ostrich - Job 30:29; Isaiah 13:21; Isaiah 34:13; Jeremiah 50:39; Micah 1:8; Lamentations 4:3. " And this is sufficient to justify the statement in the book of Job
Rest - This heavenly rest includes not only freedom from labour, as in OT ( Job 3:13 ; Job 3:17 Gall - mererah, meaning "bitterness" (Job 16:13 ); i. In Deuteronomy 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents
Sabean - Sabeans destroyed Job's flocks and herds and servants (Job 1:15 ). They were known as “travelling merchants” (Job 6:19 REB; compare Psalm 72:10 ,Psalms 72:10,72:15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; Joel 3:8 )
Lye - Job recognized the depth of his own sin. Nothing, not even lye, could cleanse his dirty hands (Job 9:30 NAS, NRSV, REB; compare NIV, “washing soda
Robe - Job 29:14 (a) Throughout the Scriptures a godly, upright character is represented as a robe or a garment. Job is indicating that he was righteous in all his ways, his actions, and his words
South - The rarefaction produced by the sun’s rays on the bare desert gave rise to whirlwinds, which gathered up the dust in tall swaying columns that moved like evil genii over the land until they suddenly broke and dispersed (Job 37:9, Zechariah 9:14). The allusion in Job 37:17 is either to the lethargy induced by its enervating influence, or to the cool refreshment of the showers that usually follow it
Pearl - Job 28:18. ...
The godly love even the sharp rebuke which heals their souls (Proverbs 15:31; Psalms 141:5; Job 13:23; Isaiah 39:8, Hezekiah; the Virgin, John 2:4-5; Galatians 2:14; 2 Peter 3:16
Fool - " (Isaiah 27:11) Now, that it might not be supposed, that this being void of understanding was the natural and unavoidable condition of idiotism, which brought upon them the displeasure of God, and for which the Lord would shew them no favour, the Holy Ghost, by his servant Job, hath very fully shewn in what that want of understanding consisted. " (Job 28:28)...
Splendor - This concept is equally prominent when the word is used of God: “Fair weather cometh out of the north: with God is terrible majesty” (Job 37:22). The proud carriage of a war horse and seeming bravery in the face of battle lead God to say “The glory of his nostrils is terrible” (Job 39:20)
Scatter - According to Job, “the clouds scatter his lightning” (Job 37:11, RSV)
Dreams - Though associated in some passages with trifles and vanities, Job 7:14 ; Ecclesiastes 5:7 , there is yet abundant evidence in the scriptures that God often conveyed His mind to people by means of dreams, and this not only to those who obeyed Him, but also to the heathen. " Job 33:14-17
Brimstone - נפרית , Genesis 19:24 ; Deuteronomy 29:23 ; Job 18:15 ; Psalms 11:6 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; Isaiah 34:9 ; Ezekiel 38:22 . In Job 18:15 , Bildad, describing the calamities which overtake the wicked person, says, "Brimstone shall be scattered upon his habitation
Birth - ...
When a son was born, he was placed immediately on his father's knees (Genesis 50:23 ; Job 3:12 ). The untimely birth—here, stillborn (see Untimely Birth)—enters the dark, finds rest, and does not know the agony of life (Ecclesiastes 6:4-5 ; Job 3:11-13 ). If life became unbearable, one might be moved to curse the day of birth (Job 3:3 ; Jeremiah 20:14 ). The birthing process is also used as an image to describe God's creative activity (Job 38:29 )
Water - He controls the natural processes of precipitation and evaporation, as well as the courses of bodies of water (Job 5:10 ; Job 36:27 ; Job 37:10 ; Psalm 33:7 ; Psalm 107:33 ; Proverbs 8:29 ). For example, in the Old Testament water is a metaphor or simile for fear (Joshua 7:5 ), death (2 Samuel 14:14 ), sin (Job 15:16 ), God's presence (Psalm 72:6 ), marital fidelity (Proverbs 5:15-16 ), the knowledge of God (Isaiah 11:9 ), salvation (Isaiah 12:3 ), the Spirit (Isaiah 44:3-4 ), God's blessings (Isaiah 58:11 ), God's voice (Ezekiel 43:2 ), God's wrath (Hosea 5:10 ), and justice (Amos 5:24 )
Heredity - Not a philosophical people, the Hebrews start from the obvious fact of the unity of the race in the possession of common flesh and blood ( Job 14:1 ; Job 15:14 ), the son being begotten after the image of the father ( Genesis 5:3 ; cf. But the Bible never commits itself to a theory of the generation or procreation of the spirit, which is apparently given by God to each individual ( Genesis 2:7 ; Genesis 7:22 , Job 33:4 ) constitutes the personality (‘life’ 2 Samuel 1:9 , ‘soul’ Numbers 5:6 ), and is withdrawn at death ( Ecclesiastes 12:7 ). This principle involves corporate guilt; which, though sometimes reduced to a pardonable weakness inseparable from flesh ( Psalms 78:39 ; Psalms 103:14 , Job 10:9 ), and therefore suggestive of heredity, yet, as involving Divine wrath and punishment, cannot be regarded as a palliation of transgression ( Exodus 34:7 , Psalms 7:11 , Romans 1:18 )
Redeemer - Our Boaz has not "left off His kindness to the living and to the dead" (Ruth 2:20); translated Job 19:25-27 "I know that my Redeemer (vindicator, avenger; redressing my wrongs on Satan their inflicter) liveth, and that He shall arise the Last (1 Corinthians 15:45; Revelation 1:17) above the dust (with which is mingled man's crumbling body: 1 Corinthians 15:20; 1 Corinthians 15:23; Romans 8:23; Ephesians 1:14), and though after my skin (is destroyed) this (body) is destroyed, yet from my flesh (mibesari ; as from a window, Song of Solomon 2:9) shall I see God, whom I shall see for myself (on my side), no longer estranged" (zar ) from me. ...
The redemption of our now weak body will be our grand vindication from present wrongs such as Job's. As the body (not merely the soul) was the sufferer, the body's restoration in incorruption must be the vindication; this alone would disprove the imputation of guilt thrown on Job because of its sufferings. Job elsewhere hoped for the resurrection after his being "hidden in the grave" for a time (Job 14:13-15; John 5:21-26; John 5:28; Isaiah 26:19-21; Psalms 17:15)
Sheol - No one could avoid Sheol (Psalm 49:9 ; 89:48 ), which was thought to be down in the lowest parts of the earth (Deuteronomy 32:22 ; 1 Samuel 28:11-15 ; Job 26:5 ; Psalm 86:13 ; Isaiah 7:11 ; Ezekiel 31:14-16,18 ). Descriptions are bleak: There is no light (Job 10:21-22 ; 17:13 ; Psalm 88:3-528 ; 143:3 ), no remembrance (Psalm 6:5 ; 88:12 ; Ecclesiastes 9:5 ), no praise of God (Psalm 6:5 ; 30:9 ; 88:10-12 ; 115:17 ; Isaiah 38:18)— ;in fact, no sound at all (Psalm 94:17 ; 115:17 ). Its inhabitants are weak, trembling shades (Job 26:5 ; Psalm 88:10-12 ; Isaiah 14:9-10 ) who can never hope to escape from its gates (Job 10:21 ; 17:13-16 ; Isaiah 38:10 )
Proverbs, the Book of - In Job 27:1 "parable" (Job 29:1) means a figurative, sententious, weighty embodiment of wisdom, not in this case short, but containing Job's whole argument (Psalms 49:4, maashaal). enigmatical (Job 33:17-306). ) gives the order, Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, Ezra (including Nehemiah), Chronicles. ...
Warning against envy at the sinner's seeming prosperity appears (Proverbs 3:31; Proverbs 23:17; Proverbs 24:1; Proverbs 24:19) as in Job. The disciplinary design of chastisement ("instruction," musar , Greek paideia , correction by discipline), Proverbs 3:11-13; so Job (1618416428_65; Job 5:17); wisdom (Proverbs 2:4; Proverbs 3:14; Proverbs 3:8; Job 28; Proverbs 3:23; Job 5:22; Proverbs 8:25; Job 15:7-8). The similarity is probably due to Solomon's having become imbued with the spirit of the book of Job, through study of it. The introduction of a foreigner's (Lemuel) words into the inspired canon of Israel is paralleled by Balaam's and Job's words being part of Scripture
Satan - The Hebrew word for ‘adversary’ is satan, which later became the name used in the Bible for this leader of evil (Job 1:6). Job 1:6-12; Zechariah 3:1). Like all created beings, he is under the rule and authority of God and he can do his evil work only within the limits God allows (Luke 22:31-325; Job 2:6; cf. He is still the servant of God, even though a rebellious one (Job 1:6-7; Job 2:1-2; Zechariah 3:1-2). In spite of the evil he loves to do, he is still fulfilling God’s purposes, even though unwillingly (Job 1:9-12; 1 Kings 22:19-23; cf
Winepress - The wine-presses of the Jews consisted of two receptacles or vats placed at different elevations, in the upper one of which the grapes were trodden, Isaiah 63:3; Lamentations 1:15; Job 24:11, while the lower one received the expressed juice
Arabia Petraea - The patriarch Job was familiar with its scenery
Shock, Stack - So in the beautiful figure, Job 5:25 , render ‘like as a heap of corn cometh up (to the threshing-floor) in its season
Tema - It was noted for its caravan traffic ( Job 6:19 , Isaiah 21:14 ), as might be expected from its position on the great trade routes
Horse - The war-horse is described Job 39:19-25
Lip - To "open the lips" is to begin to speak (Job 11:5 ); to "refrain the lips" is to keep silence (Psalm 40:9 ; 1 Peter 3:10 )
Fear of the Lord the - Is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety (Proverbs 1:7 ; Job 28:28 ; Psalm 19:9 )
Eclipse - Eclipses were regarded as tokens of God's anger (Joel 3:15 ; Job 9:7 )
Spirit - It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is distinguished ( Acts 7:59 ; 1 Corinthians 5:5 ; 6:20 ; 7:34 ), and the soul in its separate state (Hebrews 12:23 ), and hence also an apparition (Job 4:15 ; Luke 24:37,39 ), an angel (Hebrews 1:14 ), and a demon (Luke 4:36 ; 10:20 )
Wise, Wisdom - True wisdom is a gift from God to those who ask it (Job 28:12-28 ; Proverbs 3:13-18 ; Romans 1:22 ; 16:27 ; 1 Corinthians 1:17-21 ; 2:6-8 ; James 1:5 )
Snow - The word is frequently used figuratively by the sacred writers (Job 24:19 ; Psalm 51:7 ; 68:14 ; Isaiah 1:18 )
Tema - Job 6:19 alludes to Tema's importance as a caravan stop
Spy - , Job 19:12 ; 31:9
Worm - It is also used in the Bible as a figure of lowliness or weakness (Psalm 22:6 ; Job 17:14 ; Isaiah 41:14 )
Acquaintance - Job 19
Example - ...
Job, the model of patience
Blow - Job 20:26 (b) This represents the terrible judgment which GOD will bring on a disobedient person without a human instrument
Dew - Job 29:19 (b) A symbol of the gracious, refreshing blessing of GOD that was upon Job's life and efforts at one time
Suretiship - The hand was given in token of undertaking the office or becoming responsible for a debt (Job 17:13; Proverbs 6:1; Psalms 119:122; Isaiah 38:14): "undertake (harbeeni ) for me," Hebrew "be surety for me
Iron - The book of Job contains passages which indicate that iron was a metal well known
Bitterness - 1 Samuel 1; Job 7 ...
In the gall of bitterness, in a state of extreme impiety or enmity to God
Going - Job 34 ...
5
Slip - ...
Job 12:5 (c) The description is that of a person who is about to depart from GOD and to take paths that lead away from the Lord and downward toward destruction
Swaddle (And Forms) - Job 38:9 (a) GOD is describing the fact that He created darkness, or rather He caused darkness to abound by shutting out the light
Potsherd - In Job 2:8 not a potsherd but an instrument for scratching is meant
Peacocks - 1 Kings 10:22; 2 Chronicles 9:21; in Job 39:13 for "peacocks" translated "ostrich hen"
Leviathan - In Job 3:8 it should be translated 'leviathan,' instead of 'their mourning,' and this confirms the general meaning of some monster
Bowels - The Hebrews also sometimes place wisdom and understanding in the bowels, "Who hath put wisdom in the inner parts?" or bowels, Job 38:36
Lead - In (Job 19:24 ) the allusion is supposed to be to the practice of carving inscriptions upon stone and pouring molten lead into the cavities of the letters, to render them legible and at the same time preserve them from the action of the air
Potsherds - Broken pieces of earthenware, Job 2:8 Isaiah 30:14 , fit types of the worthlessness and fragility of man, Psalm 22:15 Proverbs 26:23 Isaiah 45:9
Bulrush - Or papyrus, a reed growing on the banks of the Nile, in marshy ground, Job 8:11 , to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, Isaiah 35:7
Righteousness - Rectitude, justice, holiness; an essential perfection of God's character, Job 36:3 ; Isaiah 51:5-8 ; John 17:25 ; and of his administration, Genesis 18:25 ; Romans 3:21,22 ; 10:3
Mouth - The Hebrew word for mouth is often translated "command," Genesis 45:21 Job 39:27 Ecclesiastes 8:2 ; and the unclean spirits out of the mouth of the dragon, Revelation 16:14 , are the ready executors of his commands
Baldness (Natural or Artificial) - It was customary among eastern nations to cut off the hair of the head, or to shave the head, as a token of mourning, on the death of a relative, Job 1:20 Jeremiah 16:6
Terror - Job 6 ...
2
Upright - Job 1
Earrings - The size of the earrings still worn in eastern countries far exceeds what is usual among ourselves; hence they formed a handsome present, (Job 42:11 ) or offering to the service of God
Cloud - Proverbs 25:14 The cloud is a figure of transitoriness, ( Job 30:15 ; Hosea 6:4 ) and of whatever intercepts divine favor or human supplication
Dew - (2 Samuel 1:21 ; 1 Kings 17:1 ; Haggai 1:10 ) It becomes a leading object in prophetic imagery by reason of its penetrating moisture without the apparent effort of rain, (32:2; Job 29:19 ; Psalm 133:3 ; Hosea 14:5 ) while its speedy evanescence typifies the transient goodness of the hypocrite
Wilderness, Desert - It is the place where wild animals roam: pelicans ( Psalms 102:6 ), wild asses ( Job 24:5 , Jeremiah 2:24 ), ostriches ( Lamentations 4:3 ), jackals ( Malachi 1:3 ); and is without settled inhabitants, though towns or settlements of nomadic tribes may be found ( Joshua 15:61-62 , Isaiah 42:11 ). ]'>[2] : Job 30:3 (RV Father - "Father" is used also for protector, patron (Job 29:16; Psalms 68:5; Deuteronomy 32:6). The inventor of any art is called "father" of it or of its practicers (Genesis 4:20-21; John 8:44; Job 38:28; Job 17:14)
Children (Sons) of God - Although the phrase refers at times to heavenly beings (Genesis 6:1-4 ; Job 1:6 ; Job 2:1 ; Job 38:7 ; Psalm 29:1 ; Psalm 89:6 ), it usually denotes those people who acknowledge God as the source and goal of their life and who enter into a relationship of trust and love with God
Poetry - There are no lyrics in the world comparable with the Psalms of David, no gnomic poetry equal to the Proverbs, and no didactic poem so perfect in form, so profound and majestic in thought or so exalted and spiritual in conception as the book of Job. There are five so-called poetical books in the Old Testament: Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon
Hiss - The patriarch Job, (Job 27:23) saith, that the hypocrite shall be so confounded, that men shall clap their hands at him, and shall hiss him out of his place
Seven - Seven is the number of sacrifice (2 Chronicles 29:21 ; Job 42:8 ), of purification and consecration (Leviticus 42:6,17 ; 8:11,33 ; 14:9,51 ), of forgiveness (Matthew 18:21,22 ; Luke 17:4 ), of reward (Deuteronomy 28:7 ; 1 Samuel 2:5 ), and of punishment (Leviticus 26:21,24,28 ; Deuteronomy 28:25 ). It is used for any round number in such passages as Job 5:19 ; Proverbs 26:16,25 ; Isaiah 4:1 ; Matthew 12:45
Balances - Balances were well known to the Hebrews and in common use in the Old Testament (Leviticus 19:36 ; Job 6:2 ; Hosea 12:7 ). ) In a figurative sense the balance was employed in the Bible to ask for a fair trial or judgment for the persecuted (Job 31:6 ; Psalm 62:9 )
Nest - ...
Job 29:18 (a) Job uses this term to describe his own lovely, comfortable home life before he was attacked by Satan
Heel - ...
Job 13:27 (c) This may be taken as a figurative statement that our walk is marked before GOD, and so that the walk of each person is different from every other person. ...
Job 18:9 (b) By this we understand that the evildoer will be caught in his sin in various peculiar and unknown ways
Comfort - Job 2 . Job 10
Set, Place - When Job cries: “Oh … that thou wouldest appoint me a set time, and remember me!” (Job 14:13), he wants limits “set” for him
Suffering - The wicked would surely suffer for their evil ways (Psalm 7:15-16 ; Psalm 37:1-3 ; Psalm 73:12-20 ; Psalm 139:19 ), even though they might prosper for a time (Job 21:28-33 ). It was explained variously as a way for God to gain peoples' attention (Job 33:14 ; Job 36:15 ), to correct sin into obedience (2 Chronicles 20:9-10 ; Malachi 3:3 ), to develop or refine character (Mark 13:12-132 ; Psalm 66:10 ). Ultimately, the writers consigned themselves to trust in God's sometimes hidden wisdom (Job 42:2-3 ; Psalm 135:6 )
Creation - Job alluded to creation in two speeches (Job 10:8 ; Job 26:7 ), and God's answer to Job contains one reference to the subject (Job 38:4 ). ...
Job lamented that God's hands “made and fashioned” him but for some unexplained reason turned about to “destroy” him (Job 10:8 ). In a later speech Job expressed the effortless manner in which God created the universe (Job 26:7-11 ) and defeated Rahab and the serpent (Job 26:12-13 ). The Lord's speech in response to Job (Job 38-39 ) makes clear that God is the Creator and that man had no part in creation
Dragon - The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins (Job 30:29 ; Psalm 44:19 ; Isaiah 13:22 ; 34:13 ; 43:20 ; Jeremiah 10:22 ; Micah 1:8 ; Malachi 1:3 ); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q
Fellowship -
With God, consisting in the knowledge of his will (Job 22:21 ; John 17:3 ); agreement with his designs (Amos 3:2 ); mutual affection (Romans 8 :: 3839,39 ); enjoyment of his presence (Psalm 4:6 ); conformity to his image (1 John 2:6 ; 1:6 ); and participation of his felicity (1 John 1:3,4 ; Ephesians 3:14-21 )
Scoffer - The wisdom writers repeatedly warned their students not to become scoffers (Job 11:3 ; Proverbs 9:7-12 ; Proverbs 13:1 ; Proverbs 14:6 ; Proverbs 15:12 ; Proverbs 19:25 ; Proverbs 21:24 ; Proverbs 22:10 ; Proverbs 24:9 ; compare Psalm 1:1 ; Isaiah 28:14 ,Isaiah 28:14,28:22 )
Teman - Its inhabitants were renowned for wisdom ( Jeremiah 49:7 ), and the chief of Job’s counsellors was Eliphaz ‘the Temanite ’ ( Job 2:11 )
Willow - WILLOW ( ‘ăr âbîm , Leviticus 23:40 , Job 40:22 , Psalms 137:2 , Isaiah 15:7 ; Isaiah 44:4 Coral - , "high-priced" or valuable things, or, as some suppose, "that which grows high," like a tree (Job 28:18 ; Ezekiel 27:16 ), according to the Rabbins, red coral, which was in use for ornaments
Leaf - The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity (Psalm 1:3 ; Jeremiah 17:8 ; Ezekiel 47:12 ); the faded, of decay (Job 13:25 ; Isaiah 1:30 ; 64:6 ; Jeremiah 8:13 )
Bridle - In Job 30:11 the restraints of law and humanity are called a bridle
Soap - "The ancients made use of alkali mingled with oil, instead of soap ( Job 9:30 ), and also in smelting metals, to make them melt and flow more readily and purely" (Gesenius)
Sabaoth - sometimes has Kurios Sabaoth as the equivalent of "the LORD of hosts," sometimes Kurios Pantokrator, in Job, it uses Pantokrator to render the Hebrew Divine title Shadday (see ALMIGHTY)
Ships - Moses (Deuteronomy 28:68 ) and (Job 9:26 ) make reference to them, and Balaam speaks of the "ships of Chittim" (Numbers 24:24 )
Jasper - The NIV used jasper to translate an obscure Hebrew term at Job 28:18
Kinsman - God is the Goel of his people because he redeems them (Exodus 6:6 ; Isaiah 43:1 ; 41:14 ; 44:6,22 ; 48:20 ; Psalm 103:4 ; Job 19:25 , etc
Accuser - Compare Job 1:6 ; Zechariah 3:1 ), as seeking to uphold his influence among men by bringing false charges against Christians, with the view of weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which they are identified
Landmark - In Job 24:2 , removal of a marker parallels theft
Deserve - Job 11
Snare - Figuratively, snares spoke of peril or death and the destruction of persons (Job 22:10 ; Psalm 18:5 ; compare 1 Samuel 28:9 )
Chamber - The "chambers of the south" (Job 9:9 ) are probably the constelations of the southern hemisphere
East Wind - Job 15:2 (b) This figure is used to express Job's opinion of the vain talk and the useless conversation of his three friends, and of others who talk vaguely of GOD's business
Comprehend - Job 37
Darkness - Job 10...
Harrow - Will he harrow the valleys after thee? Job 39 ...
2
Life - Human life is the continuance or duration of our present state, and which the Scriptures represent as short and vain, Job 14:1-2
Breath - First, the word represents human “breath” as a transitory thing: “I loathe it; I would not live always: let me alone; for my days are vanity [1]” (Job 7:16)
Deceit - Eliphaz described the ungodly as those who trust in “emptiness” or “deception,” though they gain nothing but emptiness as a reward for that trust (Job 15:31)
Earring - In Genesis 24:47; Proverbs 11:22; Isaiah 3:21; Ezekiel 16:12, it is as clearly a nose-jewel; while in Judges 8:24-25; Job 42:11; Proverbs 25:12; Hosea 2:13, it is uncertain
Circuit - The human eye views heaven as a circular vault or dome, where God takes His daily walk (Job 22:14 )
Kiss - Images and the heavenly bodies were worshipped by kissing the hand towards them, 1 Kings 19:18 Job 31:27 Hosea 13:2
Lamp - See Job 18:5,6 Proverbs 13:9 20:20 Jeremiah 25:10,11 ; while a constant light was significant of prosperity and perpetuity, 2 Samuel 21:17 1 Kings 11:36 Psalm 132:17
Pearl - In Job 28:10 gâbîsh is in AV Darkness - Darkness is also, as in the expression "land of darkness," used for the state of the dead, (Job 10:21,22 ) and frequently, figuratively, for ignorance and unbelief, as the privation of spiritual light
Hell - It is (a) the abode of the wicked (Numbers 16:33 ; Job 24:19 ; Psalm 9:17 ; 31:17 , etc. ...
Sheol is described as deep (Job 11:8 ), dark (10:21,22), with bars (17:16)
Corner - The angle of a house (Job 1:19 ) or a street (Proverbs 7:8 ). ...
Corner-stone (Job 38:6 ; Isaiah 28:16 ), a block of great importance in binding together the sides of a building
Darkness - It is a symbol of misery and adversity (Job 18:6 ; Psalm 107:10 ; Isaiah 8:22 ; Ezekiel 30:18 ). It is also a symbol of ignorance (Isaiah 9:2 ; 60:2 ; Matthew 6:23 ) and of death (Job 10:21 ; 17:13 )
Manger - ’çbûs , ‘a place where cattle are fattened’ ( Job 39:9 etc. In Job 39:9 , Proverbs 14:4 ’çbûs may mean the stall or shelter; in Isaiah 1:3 it is probably the crib in which the food was placed
Kidneys - ]'>[1] ’s arrows ( Job 16:13 ; cf. Job 19:27 , Lamentations 3:13 )
Bow (Rainbow) - ...
Job 29:20 (b) Here we find a figure of the strength and power which once belonged to Job when he had many possessions and a position of honor
Maker - (Ecclesiastes 12:1) So again in Job, (Job 35:10) the word is plural, where is God my Makers? And yet that the church night never lose sight of the unity of the divine Essence, while thus believing in the existence of a threefold character of person in the GODHEAD, the Lord, by Moses, delivered this glorious fundamental truth in the plainest and strongest terms; "Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord!" (Deuteronomy 6:4) Oh! that these sacred, hallowed truths, were both duly and reverently considered and pondered over, agreeably to their immense sublimity, in these days of Arian and Socinian blasphemy!...
...
Consider - ...
Hast thou considered my servant Job? Job 1
Eye - Keren-happuch ( Job 42:14 ) means ‘horn of eyepaint. ...
‘Eye’ is used in many figurative phrases: as the avenue of temptation ( Genesis 3:6 , Job 31:1 ); of spiritual knowledge and blindness, as indicating feelings pride ( 2 Kings 19:22 ), favour [3], hostility ( Psalms 10:8 )
Loose Conduct - The word means “purpose” in Job 42:2: “I know that thou canst do all things, and that no purpose of time can be thwarted” (RSV). …” In Job 21:27 the word is used to mean “evil thoughts,” and in Rest, Remain - 9:16), from trouble (Job 3:26), and in death (Job 3:17)
Hireling - A hireling's days or year is a kind of proverb, signifying a full year, without abating any thing of it: "His days are like the days of a hireling," Job 7:1 ; the days of man are like those of a hireling; as nothing is deducted from them, so nothing, likewise, is added to them. And again: "Till he shall accomplish as a hireling his day," Job 14:6 ; to the time of death, which he waits for as the hireling for the end of the day
Hawk - נ , from the root נצה , to fly, because of the rapidity and length of flight for which this bird is remarkable, Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ; Job 39:26 . The hawk, therefore, is produced, in Job 39:26 , as a specimen of that astonishing instinct which teaches birds of passage to know their times and seasons, when to migrate out of one country into another for the benefit of food, or a warmer climate, or both
Gardens - Gardens were inclosed by walls, or by hedges of rose bushes, wild pomegranate trees, or to her shrubs, many of which in Palestine have long and sharp thorns, 2 Samuel 23:6,7 Job 1:10 Proverbs 15:19 Hosea 2:6 . In this a solitary keeper is stationed, who remains day and night until the fruits are gathered, Job 27:18 Isaiah 1:8
Dew - In the Book of Job the formation of dew is pointed to as one of the mysteries of nature insoluble by man ( Job 38:28 ); but in Pr
Mines, Mining - A highly-poetical description given by the author of the book of Job of the operations of mining as known in his day is the only record of the kind which we inherit from the ancient Hebrews. (Job 28:1-11 ) In the Wady Magharah, "the valley of the cave," are still traces of the Egyptian colony of miners who settled there for the purpose of extracting copper from the freestone rocks, and left their hieroglyphic inscriptions upon the face of the cliff
Hedge - Job 1:10 (b) This figure represents GOD's protection and care for Job, His servant. ...
Job 3:23 (a) This represents those hindrances which GOD puts around a man to close him in and prevent progress
Arm - The related word ‘ezroa’ appears twice (Job 31:22; Jeremiah 32:21). In Job 26:2, the poor are described as the arm that hath no strength. Job 40:9)
Affliction - ”...
Old Testament The two primary Hebrew words used for affliction mean “to lower, humble, or “deny” (anah ) (Leviticus 16:29 ,Leviticus 16:29,16:31 ; Leviticus 23:27 ,Leviticus 23:27,23:32 ; Isaiah 58:3 ,Isaiah 58:3,58:5 ) and “depressed” (oni ) (Genesis 16:11 ; Deuteronomy 16:3 ; Job 30:15 , Job 30:29 ). ...
In the Old Testament, the source of affliction is (1) God's retribution upon disobedience (Lamentations 3:32-33 ; Isaiah 30:20 ; Jeremiah 30:15 ); (2) the natural conditions of life (Genesis 16:11 ; Genesis 29:32 ; Psalm 25:18 ); (3) personal sin (Psalm 107:17 ); (4) forces of opposition (Isaiah 51:21-23 ); and (5) evil spirits and/or Satan (1 Samuel 16:14 ; Job 1:6-12 )
Grave - It is "the place appointed for all living" (Job 30:23 ). It is a place with no class distinctions (Job 3:14-19 ). It is a place of no return, where there is gloom, deep shadow, and disorder (Job 10:21-22 ). Human beings will lie there until the heavens are no more (Job 14:12 )
Ashtaroth - , (1) Ashtaroth, the ancient city of Og, 6 miles from Abila, and (2) Karnaim Ashtaroth, a village in the corner of Bashan, where Job’s village is shown (cf. Eusebius’ Karnaim Ashtaroth evidently lay in the corner or angle formed by the rivers Nahr er-Rukkad and Sharî‘at el-Manadireh , in which vicinity tradition places Uz, Job’s fatherland. Its base is watered by the Moyet en-Nebî Ayyûb (‘stream of the prophet Job’). , passing through the Hammam Ayyûb (‘Job’s bath’), is found its source, a spring said to have welled forth when Job in his impatience stamped upon the ground. , Job’s grave is shown. Furthermore, upon the hill at whose base these two places are situated lies the village of Sa‘dîyeh or Sheikh Sa‘d , whose mosque contains the Sakhret Ayyûb , a large basalt boulder against which Job is said to have leant while receiving his friends. of Sa dîyeh at el-Merkez , another grave (modern) of Job is shown, and a Der (‘monastery’) Ayyûb , according to tradition built by the Ghassanide Amr I
Debts - See Job 24:3 ; Proverbs 22:27 . See Leviticus 25:39 ; Job 24:9 ; Job 2...
Kings Job 4:1 ; Isaiah 50:1 ; Nehemiah 5
Agriculture - Latter rain due (Deuteronomy 11:14 ; Jeremiah 5:24 ; Hosea 6:3 ; Zechariah 10:1 ; James 5:7 ; Job 29:23 ). Ploughs of a simple construction were known in the time of Moses ( Deuteronomy 22:10 ; Compare Job 1:14 ). They were drawn by oxen (Job 1:14 ), cows (1Samuel 6:7), and asses (Isaiah 30:24 ); but an ox and an ass must not be yoked together in the same plough (Deuteronomy 22:10 ). The "harrow" mentioned in Job 39:10 was not used to cover the seeds, but to break the clods, being little more than a thick block of wood. The corn when cut was generally put up in sheaves (Genesis 37:7 ; Leviticus 23:10-15 ; Ruth 2:7,15 ; Job 24:10 ; Jeremiah 9:22 ; Micah 4:12 ), which were afterwards gathered to the threshing-floor or stored in barns (Matthew 6:26 ). The shovel and the fan for winnowing are mentioned in Psalm 35:5 , Job 21:18 , Isaiah 17:13
Think, Devise - ” God asked Job if he could tame the Leviathan, who “… esteemeth him as straw, and brass as rotten wood” (Job 41:27). ” Bildad declared to Job, “Wherefore are we counted as beasts, and reputed vile in your sight?” (Job 18:3). Job chided his friends: “Do ye imagine to reprove words, and the speeches of one that is desperate …” (Job 6:26); David’s enemies “imagined” a mischievous device ( Providence of God - Second, the one and only God created the world; hence, it is his and subject to him (Deuteronomy 10:14 ; Job 9:5-10 ; Psalm 89:11 ; 95:3-5 ; 1 Corinthians 10:26 ). We are not capable of grasping what it ultimately means because God himself is ultimately beyond us (Job 11:7-9 ; 26:14 ; 36:26 ; Ecclesiastes 3:11 ; Ecclesiastes 11:5 ; Isaiah 40:28 ; 55:8 ). Sun, moon and stars (Psalm 104:2,19 ; Isaiah 40:26 ; Jeremiah 31:35 ; Matthew 5:45 ), celestial activity (Job 9:7 ; Ezekiel 32:7-8 ; Amos 8:9 ), clouds (Job 37:15-16 ; Psalm 135:7 ), dew (Genesis 27:28 ), frost (Psalm 147:16 ), hail (Job 38:22 ; Psalm 147:17 ), lightning (2 Samuel 22:13-15 ; Job 36:30,32 ), rain (Deuteronomy 28:12 ; 1 Kings 18:1 ; Job 5:10 ), snow (Job 37:6 ), thunder (Exodus 9:23 ; Jeremiah 10:13 ), and wind (Psalm 147:18 ; Ezekiel 13:13 ) are all subject to God's command. God works his will through earthquakes (Job 9:6 ; Isaiah 13:13 ), famine (Leviticus 26:18-20 ; Amos 4:6 ), drought (Psalm 107:33-34 ; Amos 4:7-8 ), fire (Ezekiel 20:45-48 ; Amos 7:4 ), plagues and calamities (Exodus 9:1-4 ; Ezekiel 38:22 ), floods (Genesis 6:17 ), and normal supply of water (Psalm 104:10-13 ; Genesis 17:3-8 ). Birds (Matthew 6:26 ; 10:29 ), fish (Jonah 1:17 ; Matthew 17:27 ), animals (Psalm 147:9 ; Hosea 2:18 ; Joel 2:21-22 ), indeed, every living thing is God's (Job 12:10 ; Psalm 145:13-16 ) and in their own way they are all praising God (Psalm 148:3,4,7-10 ). He is their king and ruler (Job 12:23 ; Psalm 22:27-28 ; 47:7-9 ; Isaiah 14:24-26 ; Ezekiel 29:19-20 ). He has foreseen all that will take place in the course of time (Isaiah 22:11 ; 44:7 ), guides the national destinies of the peoples of the earth (Amos 9:7 ), uses them in his service (Job 12:23 ; Isaiah 10:5-14 ; Jeremiah 27:3-7 ), and makes the choice as to who will do what in the accomplishment of his purposes (Isaiah 49:1-7 ; 54:16 ; Daniel 2:21 ; 4:34-35 ). God formed us in the womb (Job 10:8-12 ;
Hemlock - rosh (Hosea 10:4 ; rendered "gall" in Deuteronomy 29:18 ; 32:32 ; Psalm 69:21 ; Jeremiah 9:15 ; 23:15 ; "poison," Job 20:16 ; "venom," Deuteronomy 32:33 )
Pledge - Job denounced abuses in the taking of pledges from family (Deuteronomy 22:6 ), from orphans and widows (Deuteronomy 24:3 ), as well as the practice of taking children as pledges (Deuteronomy 24:9 )
te'Man - , see (Job 9:9 ; Isaiah 43:6 ) and it is probable that the land of Teman was a southern portion of the land of Edom, or, in a wider sense, that of the sons of the east
Humility - It is a state of mind well pleasing to God (1 Peter 3:4 ); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Psalm 69:32,33 ), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22 )
Branch - A symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors (Ezekiel 17:3,10 ; Daniel 11:7 ); of prosperity (Job 8:16 ); of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isaiah 11:1 ), the "beautiful branch" (4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jeremiah 23:5 ), "the Branch" (Zechariah 3:8 ; 6:12 )
Leviathan - " In Job 3:8 , Revised Version, and marg
Meadow - " So Job 8:11 "rush," the paper reed or papyrus of the Nile; "can the achu grow without water?" The fat kine fed on the reed grass which in the plenteous years grew to the very margin of the water, but the lean stood on the dry "brink" (Genesis 41:2-3)
Bags - The currency in the East being mainly in silver, large sums ready counted, and sealed with a known seal in a bag; passed current (compare 2 Kings 5:23; 2 Kings 12:10; Luke 12:33; Job 14:17, "my transgression is sealed up in a bag"; Deuteronomy 32:34; Hosea 13:12, sealed securely for punishment)
Doe - Ayalah is the female fallow deer ( Genesis 49:21 ; 2 Samuel 22:34 ; Job 39:1 ; Psalm 18:33 ; Psalm 29:9 ; Jeremiah 14:5 ; Habakkuk 3:19 ; Song of Song of Solomon 2:7 ; Song of Song of Solomon 3:5 )
Bond - Used figuratively to speak of the bonds of wickedness or sin (Isaiah 58:6 ; Luke 13:16 ; Acts 8:23 ), of affliction and judgment (Isaiah 28:22 ; Isaiah 52:2 ; Jeremiah 30:8 ; Nahum 1:13 ), the authority of kings (Job 12:18 ; Psalm 2:3 ), the obligation to keep the covenant (Jeremiah 2:20 ; Jeremiah 5:5 ; see Colossians 2:14 ), the bonds of peace and love (Ephesians 4:3 ; Colossians 3:14 ), and the bonds of an evil woman (Ecclesiastes 7:26 )
Wages - They should be paid every night (Leviticus 19:13; Deuteronomy 24:14-15; compare Job 24:11; James 5:4; Jeremiah 22:13; Malachi 3:5); spiritually, John 4:36; Romans 6:28
Almighty - Job is the only book to use El Shaddai extensively, 31 times in all
Poison - " In Job 6:4 allusion is made to poisoned arrows, symbolizing the burning pains which penetrated into Job's inmost parts ("spirit" as contrasted with surface flesh wounds of his body)
Horn - In the sense of honor, as "my horn," Job 16:15; "all the horn of Israel," Lamentations 2:3—and hence for the supreme authority
Horse - Once the horse is said to tread out some species of corn, Isaiah 28:28; but it is a war-horse, strong and fierce, that is poetically described in Job 39:19-25
Redeemer - Under these views Job joyfully exclaims, "I know that my Redeemer," my Goel, "liveth," &c
be'Hemoth - There can be little or no doubt that by this word, ( Job 40:15-24 ) the hippopotamus is intended since all the details descriptive of the behemoth accord entirely with the ascertained habits of that animal
Trace - , Job 5:9 ; 9:10 ; 34:24
Stars - At the creation ‘the morning stars sang together’ ( Job 38:7 ); at the battle between Barak and Sisera ‘the stars in their courses fought against Sisera’ ( Judges 5:20 ): in the former passage it may be that the angels are described as stars (cf. ]'>[1] Arcturus ), Orion , and the Pleiades occur; all three in Job 9:9 ; Job 38:31-32 , the last two also in Amos 5:8 . The mazzaroth ( Job 38:32 ) are most probably the signs of the Zodiac (RVm House - Job 4:19 ; Job 15:28 ; Job 24:16 ; Matthew 24:43
Reed - Used to form a rope: Job 41:2, "canst thou put a rush rope ('agmon ) into his nose?" in Job 41:20 'agmon is a "caldron" from agam , "to flow. Used to form boats on the Nile, also garments, shoes, baskets, and paper (Isaiah 18:2); Job 8:11 "can the papyrus plant grow without mire?" so the godless thrive only in outward prosperity, which soon ends, for they are without God "the fountain of life" (Psalms 36:9)
Abaddon - The Hebrew in Job 31:12 and Proverbs 27:20, "destruction," or the place of destruction, sheol (Hebrew); Ηades (Greek). As king of the locusts, that had power to torment not kill (Revelation 9:3-11), Satan is permitted to afflict but not to touch life; so in the case of Job (Job 1-2)
Part - In Job 18:13 the word represents the members or parts of the wicked (cf. Job 41:12— “limbs” of a crocodile). The gates of a city are badim (Job 17:16)
Wisdom (1) - Thus it is said by Moses, that Pharaoh dealt wisely with the Israelites, when he opposed them in Egypt, Exodus 1:10 ; it is observed of Jonadab; the friend of Ammon, and nephew of David, that he was very wise, that is, very subtle and crafty, 2 Samuel 13:3 ; and Job 5:13 , says, that God "taketh the wine in their own craftiness. " Wisdom means also doctrine, learning, and experience: "With the ancient is wisdom, and in length of days understanding," Job 12:12 . It is put for true piety, or the fear of God, which is spiritual wisdom: "So teach us to number our days, that we may apply or hearts unto wisdom," Psalms 90:12 ; "The fear of the Lord that is wisdom," Job 28:28
Cottage - These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter (Job 27:18 )
Curtain - Similar expressions are found in Psalm 104:2 l; Compare Isaiah 44:24 ; Job 9:8
Merchant - " In the East, in ancient times, merchants travelled about with their merchandise from place to place (Genesis 37:25 ; Job 6:18 ), and carried on their trade mainly by bartering (Genesis 37:28 ; 39:1 )
Raven - Ravens feed mostly on carrion, and hence their food is procured with difficulty (Job 38:41 ; Psalm 147:9 )
Publican - In New Testament times people bid for the Job of chief tax collector and then exacted the tax plus a profit from the citizens
Thunder - on (Amos 4:7 ) In the imaginative philosophy of the Hebrews, thunder was regarded as the voice of Jehovah, (Job 37:2,4,5 ; 40:9 ; Psalm 18:13 ; 29:3-9 ; Isaiah 30:30,31 ) who dwelt behind the thunder-cloud
Peace - permanent, Job 34:22
Navel - Ezekiel 16:4 graphically portrays Jerusalem's hopeless state before God's adoption in the image of a child whose navel string (umbilical cord) is not cut (See Job 40:16 ; Proverbs 3:8 ; Song of Song of Solomon 7:2 )
Device - Job 5
Village - The main Job in the villages was farming
Clay - Clay was used for sealing (Job 38:14 ; Jeremiah 32:14 )
Dream - Job 20:8 (a) By this figure is described the evanescent and transient character of the wicked man who appears on earth for a little while, and then disappears
Footsteps - (See also Job 33:13)
Pearl - In Job 28:18 the word is gabish, which signifies 'ice' and hence 'crystal
Hearing - Job 42 ...
And to the others he said in my hearing
Ruby (Stone) - ...
Job 28:18 (a) Here the ruby, which has greater value than the diamond, is contrasted with the great value of wisdom
Crystal - This word occurs in the Common English Version of Job 28:17
Son of Man - The term son of man is applied to Ezekiel and Daniel, meaning merely "man," as it does in Numbers 23:19; Job 25:6; Psalms 8:4, etc
Viper - Hence the viper is a symbol of whatever is most evil and destructive, Job 20:16 Isaiah 30:6
Candle - In scripture, the candle of the Lord is the divine favor and blessing, Job 14
Darkness - The absence of natural light, Genesis 1:2 , and hence figuratively a state of misery and adversity, Job 18:6 Exodus 10:21-23 Isaiah 8:22 9:1 ; also the absence of the sun and stars, and hence the fall of chief men and national convulsions, Isaiah 13:10 Acts 2:20
Dew - It was prized as a precious boon of Providence, Genesis 27:28 Deuteronomy 33:28 1 Kings 17:1 Job 29:19 Haggai 1:10 Zechariah 8:12
Dog, - (Job 30:1 ) Then also, as now troops of hungry and semi-wild dogs used to wander about the fields and the streets of the cities, devouring dead bodies and other offal, (1 Kings 14:11 ; 21:19,23 ; 22:38 ; Psalm 59:6 ) and thus became so savage and fierce and such objects of dislike that fierce and cruel enemies are poetically styled dogs in (Psalm 22:16,20 ) moreover the dog being an unclean animal, (Isaiah 66:3 ) the epithets dog, dead dog, dog's head, were used as terms of reproach or of humility in speaking of one's self
Clay - (Job 38:14 ) Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed, (Matthew 27:66 ) as also the earthen vessel containing the evidences of Jeremiah's purchase
Gold - (1 Kings 9:28 ; 10:1 ; Job 28:16 )
Way - …” Deeds, or specific acts, may be connoted by this noun: “Lo, these are parts of his ways; but how little a portion is heard of him? But the thunder of his power who can understand?” (Job 26:14). Job 26:14; 36:23; 40:19; Job 30:12 the word seems to represent an obstruction or dam: “… They push away my feet, and they raise up against me the ways of their destruction. Job 16:22 mentions the “way whence I shall not return,” or death, while other passages speak of life actions (Job 34:11; literally, “conduct”) or life-style (Job 34:7-8: “What man is like Job … which goeth in company with the workers of iniquity, and walketh with wicked men
Death - ...
...
"I go whence I shall not return" (Job 10:21 ); "Make me to know mine end" (Psalm 39:4 ); "to depart" (Philippians 1:23 ). The grave is represented as "the gates of death" (Job 38:17 ; Psalm 9:13 ; 107:18 )
Diadem - ...
Tsaniph or tseniphah is the turban worn by a man ( Job 29:14 ) or woman (Isaiah 3:23 ) or by the king (Isaiah 62:3 ) or high priest (Zechariah 3:5 ). ...
The word “diadem” was used in a metaphorical sense of the prudent person (Proverbs 14:18 ), of justice (Job 29:14 ), of God (Isaiah 28:5 ), of God's presence (Ezekiel 21:26 ), and of Jerusalem (Isaiah 62:3 )
Providence - God's providence extends to the natural world (Psalm 104:14 ; 135:5-7 ; Acts 14:17 ), the brute creation (Psalm 104:21-29 ; Matthew 6:26 ; 10:29 ), and the affairs of men (1 Chronicles 16:31 ; Psalm 47:7 ; Proverbs 21:1 ; Job 12:23 ; Daniel 2:21 ; 4:25 ), and of individuals (1 Samuel 2:6 ; Psalm 18:30 ; Luke 1:53 ; James 4:13-15 ). We only know that it is a fact that God does govern all his creatures and all their actions; that this government is universal (Psalm 103:17-19 ), particular (Matthew 10:29-31 ), efficacious (Psalm 33:11 ; Job 23:13 ), embraces events apparently contingent (Proverbs 16:9,33 ; 19:21 ; 21:1 ), is consistent with his own perfection (2 Timothy 2:13 ), and to his own glory (Romans 9:17 ; 11:36 )
Leviathan - Job 3:8 ; Job 41:1-9 present the sea creature as too formidable a foe for a person to consider arousing
Loan - The pledge must not threaten the debtor's dignity (Deuteronomy 24:10-11 ), livelihood (Deuteronomy 24:6 ), family (Job 24:1-3 ,Job 24:1-3,24:9 ), or physical necessities (Exodus 22:26-27 ; Deuteronomy 24:12-13 )
Perfect - Genesis 6:9 Noah was perfect in obedience...
Genesis 17:1 Abraham was perfect in trust...
Job 1:1 Job was perfect in uprightness...
Ezekiel 28:15 Satan was perfect in his actions at that time...
Matthew 5:48 The Christian is to be perfect in forgiveness of others...
Matthew 19:21 The Christian is to be perfect in devotion to CHRIST...
Luke 6:40 The Christian is to be perfect in discipleship...
Luke 13:32 CHRIST was perfect in His training course on earth...
John 17:23 The Christian is to be perfect in his relationship to GOD...
1 Corinthians 2:6 The Christian is to be perfect in understanding...
2 Corinthians 13:11 The Christian is to be perfect in fellowship...
Ephesians 4:13 The Christian is to be perfect in his development...
Philippians 3:15 The Christian is to be perfect in his efforts and desires...
Colossians 1:28 The Christian is perfect in salvation...
Colossians 4:12 The Christian is to be perfect in obedience...
2 Timothy 3:17 The Christian is to be perfect in instruction...
Hebrews 2:10 CHRIST is perfect in His experience ( 5:9)...
Hebrews 12:23 The Christian is perfect in the culmination...
James 1:4 The Christian is to be perfect in patience...
James 3:2 The Christian is to be perfect in conversation...
1 Peter 5:10 The Christian is to be perfect in his training...
The word "perfect" as it pertains to the Christian always refers to the subject under consideration
Cloud - The word is used as a symbol of the Divine presence, as indicating the splendour of that glory which it conceals (Exodus 16:10 ; 33:9 ; Numbers 11:25 ; 12:5 ; Job 22:14 ; Psalm 18:11 ). A cloud is the figure of that which is transitory (Job 30:15 ; Hosea 6:4 )
Physician - Job, in the bitterness of his soul, found his friends to be physicians of no value. Job 13:4
Fear - Job speaks of the terrors of God, as set in array against him, Job 6:4 ; the Psalmist, that he had suffered the terrors of the Lord with a troubled mind, Psalms 88:15
Darkness - "The land of darkness" is the grave, Job 10:22 ; Psalms 107:10 . "Let that day be darkness; let darkness stain it,"— let it be reckoned among the unfortunate days, Job 3:4-5
Copper - Job speaks of bows of copper, Job 20:24 ; and when the Philistines had Samson in their power, they bound him with fetters of copper
Chald a - Chaldæa is noticed in Scripture as the native country of Abram, Genesis 11:31; its people attacked Job, Job 1:17, and it was the term by which the empire of Nebuchadnezzar was sometimes called
Wait - Job 14 . Job 15
Wisdom - Job 39 . Job 28
Ostrich, - It seeks retired places, (Job 30:29 ; Lamentations 4:13 ) and has a peculiar mournful cry that is sometimes mistaken by the Arabs for that of the lion. (Micah 1:8 ) In (Job 39:13-18 ) will be found a description of the bird's habits
Satan - ...
In the Book of Job, the word śâṭân always has the definite article preceding it (Job 1:6-12; 2:1-7), so the term emphasizes Satan’s role as “the adversary. ” God permitted Satan to test Job’s faith, and the adversary inflicted the patriarch with many evils and sorrows. Satan was not all-powerful because he indicated that he could not get beyond God’s protection of Job (Job 1:10). Job became the battleground between the forces of darkness and light
Moth - עיש , Job 4:19 ; and עשש , Job 13:28 ; Job 27:18 ; Psalms 6:7 ; Psalms 31:9-10 ; Psalms 39:11 ; Isaiah 50:9 ; Hosea 5:12 . Such, in the estimation of Job, is the fading prosperity of a wicked man: "He buildeth his house as a moth, and as a booth that the keeper maketh," Job 27:18
Nettle - , "wild vetches"); Job 30:7 ; Zephaniah 2:9
Father - , Jabal and Jubal (Genesis 4:20,21 ; Compare Job 38:28 )
Unicorn - , "ox-antelope;" 24:8; Isaiah 34:7 , RSV, "wild oxen"), and untamable (Job 39:9 )
Doors - They were fastened by a lock (Judges 3:23,25 ; Song of Solomon 5:5 ) or by a bar (Judges 16:3 ; Job 38:10 )
Naked - Job 1
Fowler - A variety of means are mentioned in Scripture: snares (Psalm 91:3 ; Psalm 124:7 ); traps (Psalm 141:9 ; Jeremiah 5:26-27 ); ropes (Job 18:10 KJV, “snare”); and nets ( Hosea 7:12 )
Pit - Three times KJV translated the word Sheol as “pit” ( Numbers 16:30 ,Numbers 16:30,16:33 ; Job 17:16 )
Drink, Strong - " "Drinking iniquity like water himself (Job 15:16), he corrupts others thirsting for it
Dayspring - It occurs in Job 38:12 ‘Hast thou … caused the dayspring to know his place?’; Wis 16:28 ‘at the dayspring pray unto thee’ (RV Earth - (See also1Ch 16:31; Job 20:27; Psalm 96:11; Isaiah 24:4; Isaiah 45:22)
Bitter - Job 23; Jeremiah 6:31
Clay - Job 4
Gape - Job 16 ...
Cast Down - Trees “shed” or “cast off” wilted blossoms (Job 15:33)
Dragon - " So in Job 30:29, the R
Pavilion - Elsewhere in modern translations, pavilion appears in poetic passages: a pavilion for the sun (Psalm 19:5 NIV); God's pavilion of clouds ( Job 36:29 NAS, REB, NIV, NRSV); a pavilion protecting Jerusalem from heat and rain ( Isaiah 4:5 , RSV)
Gall - In Job 16:13 20:14,25 , it means the animal secretion usually called the bile
Lip - Job 2
Field - Job 24:2 ; Proverbs 22:28 ; 23:10 The absence of fences rendered the fields liable to damage from straying cattle, ( Exodus 22:5 ) or fire, (Exodus 22:6 ; 2 Samuel 14:30 ) hence the necessity of constantly watching flocks and herds
Iron - Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deuteronomy 28:48 ) denotes hard service; a rod of iron (Psalm 2:9 ), a stern government; a pillar of iron (Jeremiah 1:18 ), a strong support; a furnace of iron (Deuteronomy 4:20 ), severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18 ), strength; fetters of iron (Psalm 107:10 ), affliction; giving silver for iron (Isaiah 60:17 ), prosperity
Hypocrisy - RSV, NIV) often use “godless” or “ungodly” (Job 8:13 ; Job 15:34-35 ; Job 17:8 ; Isaiah 9:17 ; Isaiah 33:14 , etc
Moon - So Job 16:19, "my witness is in heaven," namely, God knows my innocence. ...
Sabaism (from tsaabaa' "the heavenly hosts") was the earliest of false worships; it appears in our pagan names Sun day, Mon (moon) day; and in Job 31:26, "if I beheld the sun . Before Jehovah the moon has no brightness (Job 25:5; Isaiah 24:23; Isaiah 60:19-20)
Mourning - ...
Job for his calamities, with rent mantle, shaven head, sitting in ashes; so the three friends with dust upon their heads, etc. , seven days and nights (Job 1:20-21; Job 2:8)
Rapes - ...
Job 15:33 (b) Eliphaz uses this type to illustrate his thoughts about Job. He is stating that Job is a hypocrite and will never be able to produce good fruit in his life
Gentleness - It stands in contrast to baseness (Deuteronomy 28:54,56 ), harshness (2 Samuel 18:5 ), and wildness (Job 41:3 ). Job's counsels were well received, because he spoke them gently (Job 29:22 ). His consolations are spoken gently (Job 15:11 )
Gold - As the highest quotation of earthly values, it supplies a standard for estimating what surpasses it (Job 28:17, Psalms 119:72; Psalms 119:127, Proverbs 3:14; Proverbs 8:10; Proverbs 16:16; 1 Peter 1:7; 1Pe_1:18). Job can plead that he has not made gold his hope (Job 31:24)
Independency of God - As he receives strength from no one, so he doth not act dependently on the will of the creature, Job 36:23 . Job 22:2 ; Job 3:1-26 :...
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Interpreter - (Genesis 40:8; Gen 42:23) and once in the history of Job, (Job 33:23) The office of an interpreter, in the general acceptation of the word, is not difficult to apprehend. " The character of an interpreter in this sense, is truly interesting, and throws a great beauty upon this oriental history; and no less upon the similar passage in Job, for the word is the same in both
Father - A man is said to be a father to the poor and orphans, when he supplies their necessities, and sympathizes with their miseries, as a father would do toward them: "I was a father to the poor," says Job 29:16 . Job entitles God "the Father of rain," Job 38:28 ; he produces it, and causes it to fall
Metals - ( Exodus 15:10 ) Whether the ancient Hebrews were acquainted with steel , properly so called, is uncertain; the words so rendered in the Authorized Version, ( 2 Samuel 22:35 ; Job 20:24 ; Psalm 18:34 ; Jeremiah 15:12 ) are in all others passages translated brass , and would be more correctly copper . (8:9; Job 28:2 ) It was plentiful in the days of Solomon, and the quantity employed in the temple could not be estimated, it was so great. Arms, (2 Samuel 21:16 ; Job 20:24 ; Psalm 18:34 ) and armor, (1 Samuel 17:5,6,38 ) were made of copper, which was capable of being so wrought as to admit of a keen and hard edge
Gold - As the highest quotation of earthly values, it supplies a standard for estimating what surpasses it (Job 28:17, Psalms 119:72; Psalms 119:127, Proverbs 3:14; Proverbs 8:10; Proverbs 16:16; 1 Peter 1:7; 1Pe_1:18). Job can plead that he has not made gold his hope (Job 31:24)
Spirit; Breath - 15:8; Job 4:9; 19:17). ...
Second, this word can be used with emphasis on the invisible, intangible, fleeting quality of “air”: “O remember that my life is wind: mine eyes shall no more see good” (Job 7:7). “Windy words” are really “empty words” (Job 16:3), just as “windy knowledge” is “empty knowledge” (Job 15:2; cf. 5:1; Job 15:13). ...
Ninth, the “spirit” may also be used of that which enables a man to do a particular Job or that which represents the essence of a quality of man: “And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him …” ( Satan - ) Four times in Old Testament as a proper name (Job 1:6; Job 1:12; Job 2:1; Zechariah 3:1, with ha- , the article); without it in 1 Chronicles 21:1; 1 Chronicles 21:25 times in New Testament; the Devil also 25 times; "the prince of this world" three times, for Satan had some mysterious connection with this earth and its animals before man's appearance. In Job his power is only over outward circumstances, by God's permission. They are free now to tempt and hurt only to the length of their chain; Revelation 12:7-9 describes not their original expulsion, but a further step in their fall, owing to Christ's ascension, namely, exclusion from access to accuse the saints before God (Job 1:11; Zechariah 3). Restless energy, going to and fro as the "roaring lion"; subtle instilling of venom, gliding steadily on his victim, as the "serpent" or "dragon"; shameless lust (Job 1:7; Matthew 12:43); so his victims (Isaiah 57:20). The opposition of Satan in spite of himself will be overruled to the believer's good, the latter thereby learning patience, submission, faith, and so his end being blessed, as in Job's case. Satan slanders God to man (Genesis 3:1-5), as envious of man's happiness and unreasonably restraining his enjoyments; and man to God (Job 1:9-11; Job 2:4-5)
Kendrick, Francis Patrick - His literary works include a new translation of the Bible with a commentary, "The Primacy of Peter," and "Commentary on the Book of Job
Francis Kenrick - His literary works include a new translation of the Bible with a commentary, "The Primacy of Peter," and "Commentary on the Book of Job
Ostrich - " In Job 39:13 this word in the Authorized Version is the rendering of a Hebrew word (notsah) which means "feathers," as in the Revised Version
Birth - As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt (Ezekiel 16:4 ), and then swathed with bandages (Job 38:9 ; Luke 2:7,12 )
Mill - That used by the Hebrews consisted of two circular stones, each 2 feet in diameter and half a foot thick, the lower of which was called the "nether millstone" (Job 41:24 ) and the upper the "rider
Mire - Job 30:19 (b) Job's sorrow, trouble, and poverty are compared to mud which is so unpleasant and so hard to get out from when one is submerged in it
Head-Dress - It was used especially for purposes of ornament ( Job 29:14 ; Isaiah 3:23 ; 62:3 )
Paper - It is mentioned by ( Job 8:11 ) and (Isaiah 35:7 )
Sleep - Apart from having its common meaning of physical rest, ‘sleep’ is used in the Bible as another word for physical death (1 Kings 2:10; Job 14:12; Jeremiah 51:39; Matthew 27:52; John 11:11-14; 1 Corinthians 11:30; 1 Corinthians 15:20; 1 Corinthians 15:51)
Kite - The red kite, Μilvus regalis , remarkable for its sharp sight (Job 28:7, where for "vulture" translated "kite," 'ayyah even its eye fails to penetrate the miner's hidden "path"; Deuteronomy 14:13)
Wine-Press - hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Nehemiah 13:15 ; Job 24:11 ; Isaiah 63:2,3 ; Haggai 2:16 ; Joel 2:24 )
Dog - Dogs were used by the Hebrews as a watch for their houses (Isaiah 56:10 ), and for guarding their flocks (Job 30:1 )
Weaving, Weavers - No mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the "shuttle" (Job 7:6 ), "the pin" of the beam (Judges 16:14 ), "the web" (13,14), and "the beam" (1 Samuel 17:7 ; 2 Samuel 21:19 )
Meadow - It occurs again in Job 8:11 (EV Dog - See Isaiah 56:10 ; Job 30:1 ) and for the dwelling (Exodus 11:7 )
Worm, - In ( Job 19:26 ; 21:26 ; 24:20 ) there is an allusion to worms (insect larvae) feeding on the dead bodies of the buried
Tabitha - The Christian woman at Joppa, "full of good works and alms deeds" (as making coats and garments for poor widows, compare Job 31:19-20), who was raised from the dead by Peter's prayer and words under the Spirit, "Tabitha, arise
Whirlwind - In Job 37:9 "out of the south (literally, chamber, God's unseen regions in the southern hemisphere) cometh the whirlwind" (Isaiah 21:1); the south wind driving before it burning sands comes from the Arabian deserts upon Babylon (Zechariah 9:14)
Barren, Barrenness - Also described as “solitary” (Job 3:7 ), “desolate” (2 Samuel 13:20 ; Isaiah 49:21 ; Isaiah 54:1 ), or “dead, deadness” (Romans 4:19 )
Conduit - A water-course or channel (Job 38:25 )
Number (And Forms) - Job 14:16 (c) This seems to indicate that the Lord watches every step that is taken by His child, and knows how many there are, and what is the number of each step that he takes
Array - Job 40
Awake - Job 14
Bag - Job 14:17 (a) We are to learn from this that GOD is keeping a careful record of every sin, none are overlooked, none are forgotten
Chaff - Job 21:18 (a) As chaff has no value to the farmer, so the wicked have no value to GOD
Crooked - Job 26:13 (c) This word probably describes the wicked, cruel ways of Satan
Hail - Job 38:22 (c) This scourge represents the wisdom and the power of GOD in judging His enemies and punishing those who refuse His Presence, and His Word
Broken - ...
Job 22:9 (a) This is a picture of the helplessness of orphans when some cruel man has taken from them their living
Ointment - Except in Exodus 30:25 (where the Hebrew words are mishchah and roqach, and may be translated "an oil of holy ointment, a perfume"), and in 1 Chronicles 9:30 ; Job 41:31 (where the words are derived from roqach ), the Hebrew word is shemen, which is constantly translated 'oil
Heap - Though the wicked heap up silver as the dust--Job 27 ...
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Tent - 'tabernacle,' and is used also for 'dwelling' or 'habitation,' as in Job 8:22 ; Psalm 91:10 ; etc
Kiss - A few Scriptures are given herewith to show the many ways in which the word "kiss" is used in the Scriptures:...
Genesis 27:26 (c) Kiss of devotion...
Genesis 45:15 (c) Kiss of reconciliation...
Genesis 50:1 (c) The farewell kiss...
Ruth 1:14 (c) Kiss of desertion...
1 Samuel 10:1 (c) Kiss of honor...
1 Samuel 20:41 (c) Kiss of confidence...
2 Samuel 15:5 (c) Kiss of treason...
2 Samuel 20:9 (c) Kiss of hypocrisy...
Job 31:27 (c) Kiss of connivance...
Psalm 2:12 (c) Kiss of trust...
Psalm 85:10 (c) Kiss of justice...
Proverbs 7:13 (c) Kiss of impudence...
Proverbs 27:6 (c) The enemy's kiss...
Song of Solomon 1:2 (c)Kiss of affection...
Luke 7:45 (c) Kiss of gratitude...
Luke 22:48 (c) Kiss of betrayal...
Acts 20:37 (c) Kiss of sorrow...
Romans 16:16 (c) Holy kiss of saints...
Kiss - In the case of distant objects of worship, like the sun and moon, they kissed the hand (Job 31:26,27 ), hence the most usual word for worship in the N
Reprove - ” Negative judgments may lead to reproof, especially by God (Job 5:17)
Behemoth - A mammoth animal, described in Job 40:15-24, where the explanation is added in the margin of the R
Horn - The Lord exalted the horn of David, and of his people; he breaketh the horn of salvation, and of defiling the horn in the dust, Deuteronomy 33:17 1 Samuel 2:1,10 Job 16:15 Psalm 75:10 Daniel 7:20-24 Luke 1:69
Streets - Here, and especially at the prominent points and corners, men loved, as the Turks do now, to spread their piece of carpet and sit, 1 Samuel 4:13 ; Job 29:7 ; and here at the hours of prayer they performed their devotions, Matthew 6:5
Snow - Is often alluded to in Scripture, for its whiteness, Exodus 4:6 ; Numbers 12:10 ; 2 Kings 5:27 ; Psalm 51:7 ; Isaiah 1:18 , and for its cleansing qualities, Job 9:30
Timbrel - An instrument of music, early and often mentioned in Scripture, Genesis 31:27 Job 21:12
Thunder - ...
See also Job 37:1-5 40:9 Jeremiah 10:13
Moth - Allusions to the moth, as devouring clothes, and as a frail and feeble insect, are frequent in Scripture, Job 4:19 13:28 27:18 Isaiah 50:9 Hosea 5:12 Matthew 6:19,20
Heaven - (33:26; Job 35:5 ) St
Flowers - Because of this the Bible sometimes refers to them as symbols of the brevity and impermanence of life (Job 14:2; Nahum 1:4; James 1:10-11; 1 Peter 1:24)
Horse - ...
Horses are often used as symbols of swiftness (Jeremiah 4:13 ), strength (Job 39:19 ), and sure-footedness (Isaiah 63:13 ). The most detailed description of a horse is found in Job 39:19-25
Rebuke - , Job 21:4 , "reproof;" Job 23:2 , "pleading
Fear - There is an external fear of God, an outward show and profession of it, which is taught by the precepts of men: as in the men of Samaria, who pretended to fear the Lord, as the priest instructed them, and yet served their own gods; and such an external fear of God, Job's friends supposed was all that he had, and that even he had cast that off. There is an hypocritical fear, when men make a profession of religion; but only serve him for some sinister end and selfish view, which Satan insinuated was Job's case. "Doth Job fear God for nought?" Job 1:9
Vows - (Genesis 28:18-22 ; 31:13 ) Vows in general are also mentioned in the book of Job, (Job 22:27 ) The law therefore did not introduce, but regulated the practice of, vows
Abyss - In our English Bibles, the Greek word abyssos [ Isaiah 44:27 ), MeshuLam (Job 41:22 ), and Racha ( Job 36:16 )
Rain - Υoreh , "the early rain of autumn"; malkosh , "the latter rain of spring" (Proverbs 16:15; Job 29:23; Jeremiah 3:3; Hosea 6:3; Zechariah 10:1). Ζerem , "violent rain," "hailstorm" (Job 24:8)
East - " Job 23:8-9, "forward," i. Job 1:3; "the children of the E
Pillar - ...
Job 9:6 (b) This probably represent the uncertainty of life. In this figurative language, Job is describing the mighty power of GOD
Dragon - ...
Job 30:29 (a) Job compares his companions to evil, ugly, horrible animals who brought only dismay to his heart
Clean - Job 11:4 (b) This word is used to indicate a life that was not soiled by sinful or selfish actions. ...
Job 17:9 (a) These hands have not been soiled with sinful and wicked practices
Ophir - Gold from Ophir was apparently highly valued, the phrase becoming a stock descriptive term in Ancient Near Eastern commercial language (Isaiah 13:12 ; Job 22:24 ; Job 28:16 ; Psalm 45:10 )
Deep - Job 12...
6. Job x1i
Lip - On the other hand, the “lip” (speech) of the people of God is described as not sinful (Job 2:10), rejoicing (Job 8:21), prayerful ( Rock - 61:2), firmness (Job 14:18), and something that endures (Job 19:24)
Ethiopia - Moses married an Ethiopian, Numbers 12:1; Ethiopians were in Shishak's army, 2 Chronicles 12:3; Zerah, an Ethiopian king, had an army of a million soldiers, 2 Chronicles 14:9-12 : Job mentioned the precious stones of Ethiopia, Job 28:19; the Israelites were familiar with the merchandise of that country, Isaiah 45:14; and Isaiah foretold the subjugation of Ethiopia by the Assyrians
Bulrush - גמא , Exodus 2:3 ; Job 8:11 ; Isaiah 18:2 ; Isaiah 35:7 . This explains Job 8:11 , where the circumstance is referred to as an image of transient prosperity: "Can the flag grow without water? Whilst it is yet in its greenness, and not cut down, it withereth before any other herb
Gold - In Job 28:15-19 , gold is mentioned five times, and four of the words are different in the original:...
1. We are assured by Sanchoniathon, as quoted by Eusebius, and by Herodotus, that the Phenicians carried on a considerable traffic with this gold even before the days of Job, who speaks of it, Psalms 22:24
Whale - תן and תנין , Genesis 1:21 ; Job 7:12 ; Ezekiel 32:2 ; κητος , Matthew 12:40 ; the largest of all the inhabitants of the water. The word in Job 7:12 , must also be taken for the crocodile
Eagle - Job 39:27-30 , a large and very powerful bird of prey, hence called the King of birds. To this circumstance there are several striking allusions in the sacred volume, 2 Samuel 1:23 Job 9:26 Lamentations 4:19
Sabeans - A branch of this family, it is thought, located themselves near the head of the Persian Gulf; and the Sabeans mentioned in Job 1:15 were probably Cushites. ...
The queen of Sheba, who visited Solomon, 1 Kings 10:1-29 2 Chronicles 9:1-31 Matthew 12:42 , and made him presents of gold, ivory, and costly spices, was probably the mistress of this region; indeed, the Sabeans were celebrated, on account of their important commerce in these very products, among the Greeks also, Job 6:19 Isaiah 60:6 Jeremiah 6:20 Ezekiel 27:22 38:13 Psalm 72:10,15 Joel 3:8
Dancing - The exceptions to this latter assertion are "vain fellows," alluded to by Michal, 2 Samuel 6:20 , the ungodly rich families referred to by Job, Job 21:11 , and the daughter of Herodias, Matthew 14:6
Seal, Sealing - Instead of the impression of a seal, probably on account of the heat of the climate, Job 38:14 . The seal was a token of possession and of careful preservation, Deuteronomy 32:34 Job 9:7 14:17
Sun - (Genesis 3:8 ) The sun also served to fix the quarters of the hemisphere, east, west north and south, which were represented respectively by the rising sun, the setting sun, (Isaiah 45:6 ; Psalm 50:1 ) the dark quarter, (Genesis 13:14 ; Joel 2:20 ) and the brilliant quarter, (33:23; Job 37:17 ; Ezekiel 40:24 ) or otherwise by their position relative to a person facing the rising sun--before, behind, on the left hand and on the right hand. (Job 23:8,9 ) The worship of the sun, as the most prominent and powerful agent in the kingdom of nature, was widely diffused throughout the countries adjacent to Palestine. The Arabians appear to have paid direct worship to it without the intervention of any statue or symbol, (Job 31:26,27 ) and this simple style of worship was probably familiar to the ancestors of the Jews in Chaldaea and Mesopotamia
Tongue - * Nets - The ‘fisher-partners’ of Job 41:6 are Phœnicians; the fishermen of Isaiah 19:8 are Egyptians. Fish were taken along the Mediterranean coast with ‘line and book’ ( Job 41:1 , Isaiah 19:8 , Amos 4:2 ), and the ‘fish-spear’ or ‘harpoon’ ( Job 41:7 )
Lion - They are, among other things, strong (Proverbs 30:30 ), especially in their teeth (Job 4:10 ) and paws (1 Samuel 17:37 ), fearless (Proverbs 28:1 ; 30:30 ), stealthy (Psalm 17:12 ), frightening (Ezra 19:7 ; Hosea 11:10 ; Amos 3:8 ), destructive (1 Samuel 17:34 ; Micah 5:8 ), and territorially protective (Isaiah 31:4 ). Yet for all its seeming autonomy, the lion is ultimately dependent on God (Job 38:39-40 ; Psalm 104:21 ), answerable to him (Job 4:10 ), and subdued in the millennial age (Isaiah 11:6-7 )
Abyss - In Job 38:16 f. the abyss in the sense of the depths of the sea is used as a parallel to Hades; and in Job 41:23 (Septuagint ) the sea-monster regards the Tartarus of the abyss as his captive. Job 3:17, Ecclesiastes 9:5), and has become a sphere of definite moral retribution, the conception of the abyss has also undergone a moral transformation
Armor - Job 33:18; Job 36:12; Joel 2:8. From an allusion in Job 6:4 they would seem to have been sometimes poisoned; and Psalms 120:4 may point to a practice of using arrows with some burning material attached to them
Arms - Job 33:18; Job 36:12; Joel 2:8. From an allusion in Job 6:4 they would seem to have been sometimes poisoned; and Psalms 120:4 may point to a practice of using arrows with some burning material attached to them
Lift - Job 31 . Job 22 . Job 22
Tongue - * Abyss - In Job 38:16 f. the abyss in the sense of the depths of the sea is used as a parallel to Hades; and in Job 41:23 (Septuagint ) the sea-monster regards the Tartarus of the abyss as his captive. Job 3:17, Ecclesiastes 9:5), and has become a sphere of definite moral retribution, the conception of the abyss has also undergone a moral transformation
Suffering - The book of Job makes it plain that a person cannot know the moral reasons for another’s suffering. God alone knows (Job 42:2; Job 42:7). ...
Satan takes pleasure in causing people to suffer (Luke 13:16; 2 Corinthians 12:7), but he can do his cruel work only to the extent God allows (Job 1:8-12; Job 2:1-8)
Eye - The eye can thus approve actions (Job 29:11 ). The eyes despise (Esther 1:17 ), are dissatisfied (Proverbs 27:20 ; Ecclesiastes 4:8 ), and can dwell on past provocation (Job 17:2 ). Job even spoke of entering a covenant with his eyes as if they were a second party (Job 31:1 ). The eyes can scorn and mock (Proverbs 30:17 ), spare an enemy (1 Samuel 24:10 ; Isaiah 13:18 ), or wait for a time to sin (Job 24:15 )
Glory - When used in reference to natural objects "glory" may refer to the brightness of heavenly bodies (Acts 22:11 ; 1Col 15:41), the fruitfulness of a forest (Isaiah 35:2 ; 60:13 ), the awesomeness of a horse's snorting (Job 39:20 ), or the ornateness of expensive clothing (Luke 7:25 ). ...
"The glory of young men is their strength" (Proverbs 20:29 ), and glory as strength is illustrated in the righteous Job (Job 29:20 ), the arrogant king of Assyria (Isaiah 8:7 ), and the long life of the elderly (Proverbs 16:31 ). ...
In keeping with this thought, glory is spoken of as attaching to God's kingly rule (Psalm 145:11-12 ) and his presence (Psalm 96:6 ), and as being his clothing (Job 40:10 ; Psalm 93:1 ; 104:1 ) and above the heavens (Psalm 8:1 ; 113:4 ; 148:13 ). It is in the thunderstorm (Job 37:22 ; Psalm 29:4 ) and more commonly in the events and institutions surrounding the exodus from Egypt
Minerals And Metals - Other lists are found in Job 28:15-19 ; Isaiah 54:11-12 ; and Ezekiel 27:16 . Coral (Job 28:18 ; Ezekiel 27:16 ) Calcium carbonate formed by the action of marine animals. ” In Job 28:18 , KJV has “pearls”; the NIV, “jasper”; but NRSV, NAS, read, “crystal,” while REB has “alabaster. Pearl (Job 28:18 NAS, NRSV; KJV, NIV, “rubies”; REB, “red coral”) Formed around foreign matter in some shellfish. Sapphire (Exodus 24:10 ; Exodus 28:18 ; Exodus 39:11 ; Job 28:6 ,Job 28:6,28:16 ; Isaiah 54:11 ; Lamentations 4:7 ; Ezekiel 1:26 ; Ezekiel 10:1 ; Ezekiel 28:13 ; Revelation 21:19 ) The Hebrew sappir is a blue variety of corundum. Topaz Second stone of Aaron's breastplate (Exodus 28:17 ; Exodus 39:10 ); also mentioned in the wisdom list (Job 28:19 ) and the list of the king of Tyre's precious stones (Ezekiel 28:13 ). Buring sulfur deposits created extreme heat, molten flows, and noxious fumes, providing a graphic picture of the destruction and suffering of divine judgment ( Deuteronomy 29:23 ; Job 18:15 ; Psalm 11:6 ; Isaiah 30:33 ; Ezekiel 38:22 ; Luke 17:29 ). Salt Sodium chloride is an abundant mineral, used as a seasoning for food (Job 6:6 ) and offerings (Leviticus 2:13 ; Ezekiel 43:24 )
Poetry of the Hebrews - ...
Doth the wild ass bray when he hath grass? Or loweth the ox over his fodder? Job 6:5 . ...
So also the song of Lamehc, Genesis 4:23 Job 7:1 , etc. ...
Thus far we have had regard to the simplest and most perfect parallelisms of two members, such as are more usually found in the Psalms, Job, etc. ...
Of compound parallelisms there are various kinds; as when the verse has three members either parallel with each other, a sin Job 3:4 , or two of them standing opposed to the third: as for example, ...
The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel do the not know, my people doth not consider. ...
More than a third of the Old Testament is poetry in Hebrew, including most of Job, the Psalms, Solomon's books, and the greater part of the prophets; technically, however, in the usage of the Jews, the three poetic books of the Old Testament are Job, Psalms, and Proverbs, which have a system of accentuation peculiar to themselves
Ant - The inferior animals are in many respects wiser than sinful man, Job 12:7,8
Girdle - Several items of clothing in KJV: (1) an ornate sash worn by the officiating priests (Exodus 28:4 ,Exodus 28:4,28:40 ) and by the wealthy of Jerusalem (Isaiah 3:24 ); (2) a decorated band (NRSV), woven belt (TEV, NAS), or waistband (NIV, REB) for the high priest's ephod (Exodus 28:8 ,Exodus 28:8,28:27-28 ); (3) a belt on which a sword or bow might be carried (1 Samuel 18:4 ; 2 Samuel 20:8 ; perhaps Isaiah 5:27 ); a leather belt forming part of the proverbial garb of the prophets (2 Kings 1:8 ; Matthew 3:4 ); (4) an undergarment (Job 12:18 ; Jeremiah 13:1-11 ), often rendered waistcloth or loincloth
Soap - ’ The cognate word bôr is commonly rendered ‘cleanness,’ but in Job 9:30 , Isaiah 1:25 RVm Stocks - The stocks, properly so called, are noticed in (Job 13:27 ; 33:11 ; Acts 16:24 ) The term used in (Proverbs 7:22 ) (Authorized Version "stocks") more properly means a fetter
Moon - The great brilliance of the moon in Eastern countries led to its being early an object of idolatrous worship (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 17:3 ; Job 31:26 ), a form of idolatry against which the Jews were warned (Deuteronomy 4:19 ; 17:3 )
Measure - " (b) Mad, Job 11:9 ; Jeremiah 13:25 , elsewhere "garment
Divine - , Exodus 31:3 ; 35:31 ; Job 27:3 ; 33:4 ; Proverbs 2:17
Jackal - nighttime wailing (Job 30:28-31 ; Micah 1:8 )
South - In Job 37:9 the word "south" is literally "chamber," used here in the sense of treasury (comp 38:22; Psalm 135:7 )
Fellowship - Fellowship with God, consists in knowledge of his will, Job 22:21
Robbery - Practised by the Ishmaelites (Genesis 16:12 ), the Chaldeans and Sabeans (Job 1:15,17 ), and the men of Shechem (Judges 9:25
Engrave - Engraving was frequently done with an iron pen, a stylus, sometimes with a diamond point (Job 19:24 ; Jeremiah 17:1 )
Tema - Founder of an Arab tribe in the northern Arabia Deserta, on the border of the Syrian desert (Job 6:19); "the troops of Tema" are the caravans on the direct road anxiously "looking for" the return of their companions gone to look for water; the failure of it in the wady and the disappointment depict Job's disappointment at not finding comfort from his friends whose professions promised so much (Isaiah 21:14; Jeremiah 25:23)
Crocodile - (1) livyâthân , Psalms 74:14 , Isaiah 27:1 , Job 41:1 f
Dread - Job 13
Landmark - The form of land-grabbing by setting back a neighbour’s boundary-line must have been common in OT times, to judge by the frequent references to, and condemnations of, the practice ( Deuteronomy 19:14 ; Deuteronomy 27:17 , Hosea 5:10 , Proverbs 22:28 ; Proverbs 23:10 , Job 24:2 )
Archer - ...
Job 16:13 (b) The word is used in this passage to describe those who find fault with GOD's people
Arnish - Job 26:13 (a) This word is used to describe the beautiful and artistic decorations of the heavens in the arrangement of the stars, constellations, sun and moon
Sabeans - We meet with them Job 1:15
Interesting Facts About the Bible - ...
Micah and Nahum...
Middle chapter of...
Job 29:1-25
Choose - Job 34
Complain - Job 7
Complaint - Job 23
Consume - Job 38
Endure - Job 8 ...
2
Esteem - Will he esteem thy riches? Job 36 ...
3
Grant - Job 10 ...
God granted him that which he requested
Antimony - One of Job's daughters was named Keren-hapuk—that is, “horn of eye paint” (Job 42:14 )
Evening - ...
Second, in a late poetical use, the word can mean “night”: “When I lie down, I say, When shall I arise, and the night be gone? And I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day” (Job 7:4)
Discern - This verb can mean “to be acquainted with,” a kind of intellectual awareness: “… Neither shall his place know him any more” (Job 7:10; cf
Brook - To deal deceitfully "as a brook," and to "pass away as the stream thereof," is to deceive our friend when he most needs and expects our help and comfort, Job 6:15 ; because brooks, being temporary streams, are dried up in the heats of summer, when the traveller most needs a supply of water on his journey
Unicorn - This animal was distinguished for his ferocity, Isaiah 34:7, strength, Numbers 23:22; Numbers 24:8, agility, Psalms 29:6, wildness, Job 39:9, as well as for being horned, and destroying with his horns
Peleg - Noting that peleg often refers to a streams of water ( Job 29:6 ; Psalm 1:3 ; Psalm 46:4 ; Psalm 119:136 ; Proverbs 5:16 ; Proverbs 21:1 ; Isaiah 30:25 ; Isaiah 32:2 ), some suggest that the “division” of the land refers to irrigation ditches crisscrossing the landscape
Copper - Some compound of this kind may have been used for the small mirrors mentioned in Exodus 38:8 Job 37:18
Path - Job 33 ...
6
Conduit - The same Hebrew word refers to a trench built up to conduct water flow (1 Kings 18:32-38 ; Job 38:25 ; Ezekiel 31:4 )
Reed - ...
Usually, however, the word reed denotes a reed or cane growing in marshy grounds, Job 40:21 Isaiah 19:6 ; slender and fragile, and hence taken as an emblem of weakness, 1 Kings 18:21 Isaiah 36:6 Ezekiel 29:6 ; and of instability, Matthew 11:7
Wander - Job 15
Horses - The finest description of the war-horse ever written is found in one of the most ancient books, Job 39:19-25
Diseases - Besides the natural causes of diseases, evil spirits were charged with producing them among the Hebrews, Job 2:7 Mark 9:17 Luke 13:16 2 Corinthians 12:7
Moon - The worship of the heavenly bodies is referred to in (Job 31:26,27 ) and Moses directly warns the Jews against it
Dragon -
The former is used, always in the plural, in (Job 30:29 ; Psalm 44:19 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; 43:20 ; Jeremiah 9:11 ) It is always applied to some creatures inhabiting the desert, and we should conclude from this that it refers rather to some wild beast than to a serpent
Nest - They observed the home-like motive of rest and safety in the selection and construction of birds’ nests (Job 29:18, Psalms 84:3; Psalms 104:17, Jeremiah 48:28; Jeremiah 49:16)
Wisdom And Wise Men - Certainly, much of the Books of Job and Ecclesiastes seem to deal with just such existential issues of life (see particularly Job 30:29-31 ). Thus, though it will involve observation and instruction, it really begins with God and one's faith in Him as Lord and Savior (Proverbs 1:7 ; Job 28:28 ). ...
Wisdom Became the Guide for Daily Living Though in recent years many parts of the sacred Scripture have been considered under wisdom's umbrella, no doubt the greatest contribution of Israel's sages has been the three books found in the “writings” (Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes). See Ecclesiastes; Job; Proverbs
Man - 'enosh, man as mortal, transient, perishable (2 Chronicles 14:11 ; Isaiah 8:1 ; Job 15:14 ; Psalm 8:4 ; 9:19,20 ; 103:15 ). methim, men as mortal (Isaiah 41:14 ), and as opposed to women and children (Deuteronomy 3:6 ; Job 11:3 ; Isaiah 3:25 )
Shame And Honor - The desire to maintain one's honor and to avoid shame or dishonor was a powerful incentive for right action (Job 11:3 ; Psalm 70:3 ; Ezekiel 43:10 ). Having rejected the framework for values, such will do anything (Job 19:3 ; Jeremiah 6:15 )
Eagle - nesher; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for its swiftness of flight (Deuteronomy 28:49 ; 2 Samuel 1:23 ), its mounting high in the air (Job 39:27 ), its strength (Psalm 103:5 ), its setting its nest in high places (Jeremiah 49:16 ), and its power of vision (Job 39:27-30 )
Naked (And Forms) - ...
Job 1:21 (c) This is one way of saying that he came into the world owning nothing, and possessing nothing. ...
Job 26:6 (a) We have not seen hell, but GOD has seen it, for He made it; therefore, everything about hell is clearly seen and understood by the Lord
Brother - ...
Job 30:29 (a) Job felt so disgraced, so discouraged, and so wretched that he claimed kin with animals
Chaldeans, Chaldees - After the mention of Ur of the Chaldees in Genesis 11:28,31 ; Genesis 15:7 ; and the Chaldeans who fell upon Job's camels (Job 1:17 ) we do not read of them for some fifteen hundred years, when God sent them to punish Judah. They had formerly dwelt in the wilderness (as when they fell upon Job's camels, Job 1:17 )
Birthright - Job, in Arabia, acted in the same capacity, Job 1:5 ; and it is highly probable that, among the ancient Heathen nations in general, the first-born were entitled not only to the civil authority, but also to the priesthood
Soul - Hence the Hebrew and Greek words which, when they refer to man, in our Bibles are translated "soul," are usually rendered "life" or "breath" when they refer to animals, Genesis 2:7 7:15 Numbers 16:22 Job 12:10 34:14,15 Psalm 104:29 Ecclesiastes 12:7 Acts 17:25 . Compare Genesis 50:22 Numbers 23:10 1 Samuel 28:13-15 2 Samuel 12:23 Job 19:25,26 Ecclesiastes 12:7 Hebrews 11:13-16
o'Phir - The gold was proverbial for its fineness, so that "gold of Ophir" is several times used as an expression for fine gold, (1 Chronicles 29:4 ; Job 28:16 ; Psalm 45:9 ; Isaiah 13:12 ) and in one passage (Job 22:24 ) the word "Ophir" by itself is used for gold of Ophir, and for gold generally
Goodness - ...
The biblical words translated ‘good’ contained a range of meanings, such as pleasant, beneficial, fitting, beautiful and honourable (Genesis 1:4; Deuteronomy 6:18; Job 2:10; Ephesians 5:9). His people should recognize this, even when they meet hardships and difficulties (Job 2:10; Matthew 7:11; Romans 8:28; Hebrews 12:10; James 1:17; see also CHASTISEMENT)
Bind - ...
...
Job 5:18 (b) This indicates the loving care of the Lord in graciously healing His people who have been hurt and wounded in the tragedies of life. ...
Job 26:8 (c) Here we see GOD's power to carry out His own will in regard to the great, restless sea, or any other great matters. ...
Job 31:36 (b) Job would value a book about his life because he thought it would vindicate his integrity and uprightness
Ostrich - " (Micah 1:8), Job 30:29 - "I am a companion to ostriches" (not "owls"), living among solitudes. " renanim ; Job 39:13, "peacocks. " Rather, "the ostrich hen," literally, "cries," referring to its dismal night cries, as in Job 30:29. : the argument is, her very seeming lack of wisdom is not without the wise design of God, just as in the saint's trials, which seem so unreasonable to Job, there lies hidden a wise design
Fish, Fishing - ...
Methods of catching fish included angling with a hook (Job 41:1 ), harpoons and spears (Job 41:7 ), use of dragnets (John 21:8 ), and thrown hand nets (Matthew 4:18 ). ...
The Job of fishermen included catching the fish, salting and marketing the fish, mending nets, and keeping fishing boats in repair (Ezekiel 26:5 ; Mark 1:19 )
Ass - ...
The young ass (Isaiah 30:5 ; Isaiah 30:24 ) or colt ( Job 11:12 , Zechariah 9:9 , Luke 19:33 etc. ...
Wild asses are not to-day found in Palestine, though, it is said, plentiful in the deserts to the East (Job 24:5 ), where they roam in herds and run with extraordinary fleetness ( Job 39:5 )
Kinsman - So again Job 19:25 "For I know that my Redeemer liveth," In the original it is the same word Goel, meaning kinsman, Redeemer. Job found it so in an eminent degree; and so ought all the faithful. " (Job 19:25-26) Reader! if you can join the man of Uz in this precious testimony, and his creed and your creed on this great point are the same, you will enter into the beauty and blessedness of this relationship of kinsman as belonging to the Lord Jesus Christ, and enjoy the privilege of it in your heart
Lamentations - Lamentations corresponds in tone to Job and Isaiah 40:1 to Lamentations 46. " Compare Lamentations 3:35-36; with Job 8:3; Job 34:12; Lamentations 3:7; Lamentations 3:14; with Job 3:23; Job 19:8; Job 30:9; Lamentations 3:10-12-30; with Job 7:20; Job 10:16
Hope - ), oftener appears as ‘trust’ and sometimes as ‘confidence’ ‘hope’ in Job 6:20 , Psalms 16:9 , Proverbs 14:32 , Ecclesiastes 9:4 , Jeremiah 17:7 . ]'>[4] in Job 8:14 ; Job 31:24 ; also Job 4:6 , Psalms 49:13 ; Psalms 78:7 ; Psalms 85:8 , Proverbs 3:26 , Ecclesiastes 7:25 ). in Job 6:11 ; Job 14:14 , Psalms 33:18-22 ; Psalms 42:5 , Lamentations 3:24 ). verb for ‘believe’; Genesis 49:18 , Ruth 1:12 , Job 14:7 , Psalms 25:5 ; Psalms 25:21 , Ezekiel 37:11 , Hosea 2:16 afford good examples. in the latest times, the resurrection of the dead ( Isaiah 25:8 ; Isaiah 26:19 , Daniel 12:2 ; probably Job 19:25 ff
sa'Tan - (with the article) in (Job 1:6 ; 12 ; 2:1 ; Zechariah 2:1 ) and without the article in (1 Chronicles 21:1 ) It is with the scriptural revelation on the subject that we are here concerned; and it is clear, from this simple enumeration of passages, that it is to be sought in the New rather than in the Old Testament. In the book of Job we find for the first time a distinct mention of "Satan" the "adversary" of Job. The slander of man to God is illustrated by the book of Job. (Job 1:9-11 ; 2:4,5 ) IV
Milk - This Hebrew word is also sometimes used for milk in general (Deuteronomy 32:14 ; Job 20:17 )
Fade - , Job 15:30 ; 24:24
Sheba - They even engaged in slave trade (Joel 3:8) and, like other Arab nomads, they raided farms and villages (Job 1:15)
Wages - (Leviticus 19:13 ; 24:14,15) The employer who refused to give his-laborers sufficient victuals is censured (Job 22:11 ) and the iniquity of withholding wages is denounced
Women - Polygamy transferred power from the wives to the queen mother (called therefore gebiraah "powerful"), 1 Kings 2:19; 1 Kings 15:13; separate establishments were kept for the wives collectively or individually, "the house of the women" (Esther 2:3; Esther 2:9; 1 Kings 7:8); the wives had severally a separate tent (Genesis 31:33); the women were present at table (John 2:3; John 12:2; Job 1:4)
Brass - In some of the references, such as those to mining ( Deuteronomy 8:9 ‘out of whose hills thou mayest dig brass’) and smelting ( Job 28:2 ‘Iron is taken out of the earth, and brass is molten out of the stone’), it is clear that only copper can be meant, and RVm Cock - Talmudic tradition finds references to the cock in Isaiah 22:17 , Job 38:36 , and Proverbs 30:31 , but all these are very doubtful
Discover - Job 12
Mock - ...
When thou mockest, shall no man make thee ashamed? Job 11 ...
MOCK, n
Chasten, Chastisement - God's people should not despise God's chastening, for it leads to healing (Job 5:17-18 ; compare Proverbs 3:11 ; Hebrews 12:5 )
Coal - " The latter of these words is used in Job 41:21 ; Proverbs 6:28 ; Isaiah 44:19
Advantage - What advantage will it be to thee? Job 35
Belly - Job 15:2 (b) This figure represents those who live on gossip, tale-bearing and falsehood
Fly - Job 5:7 (a) As the sparks ascend heavenward from the fire, so we should speed our way at once to GOD when trouble comes
Silver - ...
Silver is found in the earth (Job 28:1 ), and before it can be compared to 'the words of the Lord' it must be purified seven times
Constrain - Job 32
Contend - Job 9
Harden - Job 6 ...
6
Wickedness - Belı̂ya‛alis a synonym for rasha’ (“wicked rebellious one”) in Job 34:18
Adoration - (Psalm 72:9 ; Micah 7:17 ) Similar adoration was paid to idols, (1 Kings 19:18 ) sometimes, however, the act consisted simply in kissing the hand to the object of reverence, (Job 31:27 ) and in kissing the statue itself
Ass - Arôd occurs only in Job 39:5; but in what respect it diners from the former is uncertain
Iron - Canst thou fill his skin with barbed irons? Job 41 ...
3
Rain - Nothing can more expressively represent spiritual blessings than copious showers of rain after this trying season is past, Deuteronomy 32:2 Job 29:23 Isaiah 44:3 Hosea 10:12
Understanding - Job 32
Alms - " The theological estimate of alms-giving among the Jews is indicated in the following passages: (Job 31:17 ; Proverbs 10:2 ; 11:4 ; Esther 9:22 ; Psalm 112:9 ; Acts 9:36 ) the case of Dorcas; (Acts 10:2 ) of Cornelius; to which may be added Tobit 4:10,11 ; 14:10,11 , and Sirach 3:30 ; 40:24
Head-Dress - (Exodus 28:40 ) The tsaniph (something like a turban) is noticed as being worn by nobles, ( Job 29:14 ) ladies, (Isaiah 3:23 ) and kings, (Isaiah 62:3 ) while the peer was an article of holiday dress, ( Isaiah 61:3 ) Authorized Version "beauty;" (Ezekiel 24:17,23 ) and was worn at weddings
Dancing - ...
Children liked to dance in some of the games they played (Job 21:11; Matthew 11:17), and people in general liked to dance at some of Israel’s more joyous religious festivals (Judges 21:19-21)
Priest - Afterwards that office devolved on the head of the family, as in the cases of Noah (Genesis 8:20 ), Abraham (12:7; 13:4), Isaac (26:25), Jacob (31:54), and Job (Job 1:5 )
Leviathan - ’ The leviathan of Job 41:1-34 is the crocodile, with added traits drawn from the ancient Creation myths. ]'>[2]5 ‘their mourning’) aroused by magicians ( Job 3:8 ) is most likely a denizen of the abyss which threatens the world with destruction
Harden (the Heart) - ...
Job 9:4 (a) This word describes the firm determination of any person to rebel against GOD, to refuse the teaching of His Word, and to reject GOD's counsel. ...
Job 39:16 (a) In this figure we see that the mother bird has lost her love for her babies and goes away to leave them without care, food or protection
Bands - ...
Job 38:31 (a) There seems to be some strange, unknown influence issuing from these stars which we do not understand or comprehend. ...
Job 39:5 (b) Here we understand that there is no hindrance of any kind to the wickedness of the wicked as represented by the actions of this animal
Dark (Darkness) - ...
-"Eternal darkness" is undoubtedly the meaning of the passage in Matthew 8:12 and in Matthew 25:30; Job 10:21. ...
For other examples of "mental darkness," see Matthew 6:23; Psalm 69:23; Romans 11:10; Zechariah 11:17; Romans 1:21; Job 38:2; Amos 5:18
Labor - Job 4:8). ” In Job 3:20 ‛âmel refers to a “sufferer”: “Wherefore is light given to him that is in misery
Might - 147:10) and crocodiles (Job 41:4). The Lord’s “might” is a manifestation of His wisdom: “With him is wisdom and strength, he hath counsel and understanding” (Job 12:13)
Sun - This is expressed in Job’s assertion ( Job 9:7 ) that God ‘commandeth the sun and it riseth not. ’ The power of the sun affects the complexion (‘I go blackened, but not by the sun,’ Job 30:28 RVm Intercession - The priests had intercession as part of their Job description (Joel 2:17 ). In the final analysis, even the most righteous of people need an intercessor with God (Job 9:32-35 ; Job 19:25 ; Job 23:1-17 )
Mines - ) Job (Job 28:1-11) graphically describes mining operations in his times. So, the Lord in purifying His elect (Romans 8:29; Job 23:10; Psalms 66:10; Proverbs 17:8; Isaiah 27:8; Isaiah 48:10) keeps therein the furnace only until they reflect His image (Hebrews 12:10; 1 Peter 1:7). High skill at all events is implied in Deuteronomy 9:21, "very small as dust"; he burnt it in the fire first, and strawed the gold dust on the water and made the Israelites drink it; illustrating the spiritual principle that sinners must "eat the fruit of their own ways" (Proverbs 1:31; Proverbs 14:14; Proverbs 22:8; Job 4:8; Isaiah 3:11; Jeremiah 2:19; Jeremiah 6:19)
Root - ...
Job 29:19 (a) This figure represents the prosperity and the blessing that were in the life of Job before he was afflicted. Job also raised this question, for he was distressed by it. (See Job 21:7-14)
Lie - ...
Basically this verb signifies a person’s lying down—though in Job 30:17 and Job remarks that his gnawing pains “take no rest” (Job 30:17; cf. ...
Another special nuance is “to put something on its side”: “Who can number the clouds in wisdom? Or who can [7] the bottles of heaven, when the dust groweth into hardness, and the clods cleave fast together?” (Job 38:37-38)
Justice - These groups include widows, orphans, resident aliens (also called “sojourners” or “strangers”), wage earners, the poor, and prisoners, slaves, and the sick (Job 29:12-17 ; Psalm 146:7-9 ; Malachi 3:5 ). Injustice is depriving others of their basic needs or failing to correct matters when those rights are not met (Jeremiah 5:28 ; Job 29:12-17 ). Other needs are those essential for mere physical existence and well being: food (Deuteronomy 10:18 ; Psalm 146:7 ), clothing (Deuteronomy 24:13 ), and shelter (Psalm 68:6 ; Job 8:6 ). Job 22:5-9 ,Job 22:5-9,22:23 ; Job 24:1-12 decries the injustice of depriving people of each one of these needs, which are material and economic
Feet - ...
Job 12:5 (b) By this picture we may understand one who is willing to go astray in paths of sin and wants no one to enlighten him on the error of his way, nor warn him of its consequences. ...
Job 29:15 (a) Job is using this illustration to describe his ministry as a messenger to those who could not walk. ...
Job 30:12 (a) This describes to us those young people who were insulting the old servant of GOD, and who rejected both his company and his counsel. ...
Job 33:11 (a) GOD had so afflicted Job that he could not go about his business as he would like, nor enter into the activities of life
Obsolete or Obscure Words in the English av Bible - ...
Astonied, Job 17:8—astonished. ...
Bosses, Job 15:26—stud; knob: buckle. ...
Cockle, Job 31:40—refers to weed in grain. ...
Collops, Job 15:27—slices of fat. ...
Daysman, Job 9:33—umpire; arbiter. ...
Habergeon, Job 41:26—coat-of-mail. ...
Neesings, Job 41:18—old form of "sneezing
Thorns, Thistles, Etc - chôach ( 2 Kings 14:9 , 2 Chronicles 25:18 , and Job 31:40 ‘thistle’; 2 Chronicles 33:11 , Song of Solomon 2:2 , and Hosea 9:6 ‘thorns’; Isaiah 34:13 AV [1] ‘brambles’ ; 1 Samuel 13:6 ‘thickets’; Job 41:2 ‘thorn,’ where ‘book,’ as in RV High - 19:11), the heavens (Job 35:5), and a man (Job 36:7). It may also refer to “exaltation” or “grandeur” (Job 40:10), and to “haughtiness” or “pride” ( Walk - 104:3) or in the heavens (Job 22:14); these are probably anthropomorphisms (God is spoken of as if He had bodily parts). It may also mean “traveling-company” or “caravan as in Job 6:19 or a “procession as in Job 29:6)
Strife - In Job 29:16, Job defends his righteousness by asserting that he became an advocate for the defenseless: “I was a father to the poor: and the cause which I knew not I searched out. Earlier in the Book of Job (13:6), rı̂yb represents the argument for the defense: “Hear now my reasoning, and hearken to the pleadings of my lips
Ostrich - ...
The ostrich is described in Job 39:13-18 ; and in various places where our translation calls it the "owl," Job 30:29 Jeremiah 50:39 ; or "daughter of the owl," Isaiah 13:21 34:13 43:20 Micah 1:8 . Job speaks particularly of the speed of the ostrich," She scorneth the horse and his rider
Reed - kaneh (1 Kings 14:15 ; Job 40:21 ; Isaiah 19:6 ), whence the Gr
Mantle - It was worn not only by priests but by kings (1 Samuel 24:4 ), prophets (15:27), and rich men (Job 1:20 ; 2:12 )
Oil - The Hebrews used olive oil as butter and as animal fat is used with us, Deuteronomy 32:13; Job 24:11; Ezekiel 16:13
Holy Ghost - (3) Creation is ascribed to him (Genesis 1:2 ; Job 26:13 ; Psalm 104:30 ), and the working of miracles (Matthew 12:28 ; 1 Corinthians 12:9-11 )
Bible, Books of the - According to the Council of Trent, there are three groups in the Old Testament, embracing 46 books: ...
21 historical books:
Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Josue
Judges
Ruth
1,2Kings (1,2Samuel)
3,4Kings (1,2Kings)
1,2Paralipomenon (1,2Chronicles)
Esdras
Nehemiah
Tobias
Judith
Esther
1,2Machabees
7 didactical books:
Job
Psalms
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Canticle of Canticles (Song of Solomon)
Wisdom and
Ecclesiasticus (Sirach)
18 prophetical books:
Isaias
Jeremias (with Lamentations)
the major prophets
Baruch
Ezechiel
Daniel
the minor prophets
Osee
Joel
Amos
Abdias or Obadiah
Jonas
Micah
Nahum
Habacuc
Sophonias or Zephaniah
Aggeus or Haggai
Zacharias
Malachias
The difference between the Jewish and Catholic counting is due to the fact that the Catholics accept also the so-called deuterocanonical books
Ethiopia - Country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is rendered (Genesis 2:13 ; 2 Kings 19:9 ; Esther 1:1 ; Job 28:19 ; Psalm 68:31 ; 87:4 ), a country which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezekiel 29:10 ; 30:6 ), and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue Nile
Copper - The "bow of steel" (Job 20:24 ; Psalm 18:34 ) should have been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the RSV)
Hell - It is used of both the righteous (Psalms 16:10; Psa 30:3; Isaiah 38:10) and the wicked (Numbers 16:33; Job 24:19; Psalms 9:17)
Juniper - It afforded material for fuel, and also in cases of extremity for human food (Psalm 120:4 ; Job 30:4 )
Innocence, Innocency - The basic idea of the first is clean or free from ( Exodus 23:7 ; 2 Kings 24:4 ); that of the second, righteousness (Genesis 20:4 ; Deuteronomy 25:1 ; Job 9:15 )
Kiss - Also used in religious "adoration" (derived from the Latin, ad os "to the mouth," namely, kissing the hand in homage), whether of idols (Job 31:27; 1 Kings 19:18; Hosea 13:2) or of Jehovah (Psalms 2:12)
Day - In Job 3:1 it denotes a birthday, and in Isaiah 2:12 , Acts 17:31 , and 2 Timothy 1:18 , the great day of final judgment
Horn - Probably with some dainty ornamentation, they were used to hold eye-paint ( Job 42:14 , Keren-happuch )
Frame - Frame is also used in reference to the human form (Job 41:12 ; Psalm 103:14 ; Psalm 139:15 )
Way - ...
Since the way of God led to true life and true enjoyment, that ‘way’ may have meant God’s will and God’s commandments (Job 21:14; Psalms 37:23-24; Psalms 119:27; Psalms 119:37; Jeremiah 5:4; Matthew 22:16; Romans 11:33; Revelation 15:3)
Grass - ]'>[3] dethe ), Jeremiah 14:5 , Proverbs 27:25 , Job 38:27 , Isaiah 66:14 (‘pasture land’), Daniel 4:15 ; Daniel 4:23 (‘tender grass’)
Knee, Kneel - from terror ( Job 4:4 , Daniel 5:8 ), or fasting ( Psalms 109:24 )
Cloak - " It was worn by the high priest under the ephod (Exodus 28:31 ), by kings and others of rank (1 Samuel 15:27 ; Job 1:20 ; 2:12 ), and by women (2 Samuel 13:18 )
Coin - The "piece of money" mentioned in Job 42:11 ; Genesis 33:19 (marg
Pot - Job 41:20 (c) This animal, the whale, or some other great sea monster blowing the water from the head in some form, is likened to the boiling pot
Moth - Job 4:19 (b) This insect which weighs very little is used as a type of GOD's wrath in its least and lightest form
Canaanites, the - The same Hebrew word is translated 'merchant' in Job 41:6 ; Proverbs 31:24 ; Isaiah 23:8 ; so the passage in Zechariah 14:21 may signify "there shall no more be the merchant in the house of the Lord of hosts
Sheba - ' (The name 'Sheba' occurs also in Job 6:19 ; Psalm 72:10,15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22,23 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; but it is uncertain to which of the above three races each passage refers
Spider - Job 8:14, "the hypocrite's trust shall be a spider's web," namely, frail and transitory, notwithstanding its ingenuity; the spider's web sustains it, the hypocrite's trust will not sustain him
Conceive - Job 15
Hard - Job 17:1 in Coverdale, ‘I am harde at deathes dore
Harrow - ]'>[3] ‘harrow’ in Job 39:10 is elsewhere correctly rendered ‘break the clods’ ( Hosea 10:11 ; also Isaiah 28:24 , but Amer
How - Behold, he putteth no trust in his servants--how much less in them that dwell in houses of clay-- Job 4 ...
By how much they would diminish the present extent of the sea, so much they would impair the fertility and fountains and rivers of the earth
Air - English versions translate Hebrew ruach, “wind, breath, spirit,” as “air” in Job 41:16 to describe empty space between objects on earth
Come Near, Approach - Inanimate objects, such as the close-fitting scales of the crocodile, are said to be so “near” to each other that no air can come between them (Job 41:16)
Desolate, To Be - , be speechless]'>[1]” (Job 21:5)
Mirrors - If they were thus made in the country of Elihu, the image made use of by him will appear very lively: "Hast thou with him spread out the sky, which is strong, and as a molten looking glass?" Job 37:18
Providence - The Bible shows us all nature looking up to him and depending upon him, Job 38:41 ; Psalm 104:1-35 ; 145:15,16 ; 147:8-9 ; and uniformly declares that every occurrence, as well as every being, is perfectly controlled by him
Ophir - A country to which the ships of Solomon traded, and which had for a long time been celebrated for the purity and abundance of its gold, Job 22:24 28:16
Plough - A slight and inefficient instrument in the East, but used from the earliest times, Genesis 45:6 Deuteronomy 22:10 Job 1:14
Club - ...
T otha ch appears only in Job 41:29 , and its meaning is not certain: KJV, “darts”; NAS, NIV, NRSV, “club(s)
Though - Job 13 ...
That is, grant or admit that he shall slay me, yet will I trust in him
Rephaim - Job 26:5 ); Psalm 88:10 ; Proverbs 2:18 ; 21:16 , etc
Scorn - Job 16
Scrape - Job 2
Garden - (Proverbs 24:31 ) For further protection lodges, (Isaiah 1:8 ; Lamentations 2:6 ) or watchtowers, (Mark 12:1 ) were built in them, in which sat the keeper, (Job 27:18 ) to drive away the wild beasts and robbers, as is the case to this day
Sheba - ' (The name 'Sheba' occurs also in Job 6:19 ; Psalm 72:10,15 ; Isaiah 60:6 ; Jeremiah 6:20 ; Ezekiel 27:22,23 ; Ezekiel 38:13 ; but it is uncertain to which of the above three races each passage refers
Joannes (509), Monk - , Job, Jer
Music, Instrumental - Of wind instruments mention is made of, ...
...
The 'ugab (Genesis 4:21 ; Job 21:12 ; 30:31 ), probably the so-called Pan's pipes or syrinx. Of instruments of percussion mention is made of, ...
...
The toph, an instrument of the drum kind, rendered "timbrel" (Exodus 15:20 ; Job 21:12 ; Psalm 68:25 ); also "tabret" (Genesis 31:27 ; Isaiah 24:8 ; 1 Samuel 10:5 )
Tabernacle - Thus, Eliphas adviseth Job to put away iniquity from his tabernacles. (Job 22:23) But in a much higher sense than every other, Christ's human nature is said to be the true tabernacle which "the Lord pitched, and not man
Sanctification - Humility, Job 42:5 ; Job 6:1-30 :...
8
Poetry - In the Hebrew scriptures there are found three distinct kinds of poetry, (1) that of the Book of Job and the Song of Solomon, which is dramatic; (2) that of the Book of Psalms, which is lyrical; and (3) that of the Book of Ecclesiastes, which is didactic and sententious. ) ...
...
Synthetic or constructive or compound parallelism, where each clause or sentence contains some accessory idea enforcing the main idea (Psalm 19:7-10 ; 85:12 ; Job 3:3-9 ; Isaiah 1:5-9 )
Nature - , Psalms 147:1-20 , Proverbs 8:22-30 , Job 38:1-41 ; Job 39:1-30 ); but the sum of created things is not hypostatized and personified apart from God, as in much current modern thinking
Hart - The case of their parturition, through the instinct given them by God's care, stands in contrast to the shepherd's anxiety in numbering the months of the flock's pregnancy, and is an argument to convince Job (Job 39:1-3) of God's consummate wisdom; why then should he harbour for a moment the thought that God, who cares so providentially for the humblest creature, could be capable of harshness and injustice toward His noblest creature, man?...
The masculine ayal , Septuagint elafos , is the fallow deer (Dama commonis ) or the Barbary deer (Cervus Βarbarus ) according to Appendix, Smith's Bible Dictionary Timid and fleet especially when seeking and not able to find pasture (Lamentations 1:6); emblem of Zion's captive princes at Babylon
Oil - ...
Job 29:6 (b) This is an indication of the great wealth and opportunity enjoyed by Job when he lived in prosperity and peace
Sun - And hence, under diving teaching, Job could and did say, that he dared to kiss his hand in token of adoration when he saw the Sun shining, in his strength, or the Moon walking in her brightness. (Job 31:26-28)...
The Holy Ghost hath been pleased to teach the church to consider the Sun as the servant of the Lord Jesus, and as becoming a faint emblem of his glorious shining
Fish - The casting net or the larger drag net was the chief instrument used for catching fish (Habakkuk 1:15); the line and hook, and the "barbed iron" or spear, were also used (Amos 4:2; Matthew 17:27; Job 41:7). ...
In Job 41:2, "canst thou put an hook (or 'agmon , "rope of rushes") into leviathan's nose, or bore his jaw through with a thorn?" or hook by which fish were secured, when thrown into the water, to keep them alive
Gadara - " On the keepers informing the people of what had happened, "the whole city came out to meet Jesus," and "besought Him to depart out of their coasts" (Job 21:14-15; Job 22:17)
Gestures - The glance of the eye may mean appeal, as the upward look in prayer ( Job 22:26 , Mark 6:41 etc. One who narrowly escapes danger, describing his experience, will crack his thumb nail off the edge of his front teeth, suggesting Job’s ‘with the skin of my teeth’ (Job 19:20 )
Asp - פָתָן (pethen) in the Septuagint (pethen is translated ‘asp’ in Deuteronomy 32:33, Job 20:14; Job 20:18, and Isaiah 11:8, but ‘adder’ in Psalms 58:4; Psalms 91:13)
Die - At one point, this verb is also used to refer to the stump of a plant (Job 14:8). 47:19) or wisdom (Job 12:2)
Gold - The word can also be used of “gold” which has already been refined: “But he knoweth the way that I take: when he hath tried me, I shall come forth as gold” (Job 23:10). Consequently, the word is used in comparisons: “The gold and the crystal cannot equal it: and the exchange of it shall not be for jewels of fine gold” (Job 28:17)
Devil - He tempted Eve, Genesis 3:1; he tried Job, Job 1:7; provoked David to number Israel, 1 Chronicles 21:1; he tempted our Lord in the wilderness
Healing - He may protect people from diseases or he may not (Exodus 15:26; Exodus 32:35; Job 1:12; Job 2:5-6; Jeremiah 24:10)
Age, Old (the Aged) - A rich, full life is one that is satiated in time, as Job was "full of years" (Job 42:17 ; cf. This term's derivative (yaso) designates those worthy of respect due to their age (Job 15:10 ; 32:6 ). Hebrew also uses kelah, which usually connotes "wealth, " for ripe old age (NIV's "full vigor, " Job 5:26 )
Soul - The breathing organs and the breath blown out from them also express individual life in animals as well as human beings (Job 11:20 ; Job 41:21 ; Acts 20:10 ). Satan is permitted by God to take health, that is flesh and blood, but Satan cannot take the bare life of a person (Job 2:5-6 )
Light, Noun, And Verb, Lighten - ...
"Apart from natural phenomena, light is used in Scripture of (a) the glory of God's dwelling-place, 1 Timothy 6:16 ; (b) the nature of God, 1 John 1:5 ; (c) the impartiality of God, James 1:17 ; (d) the favor of God, Psalm 4:6 ; of the King, Proverbs 16:15 ; of an influential man, Job 29:24 ; (e) God, as the illuminator of His people, Isaiah 60:19,20 ; (f) the Lord Jesus as the illuminator of men, John 1:4,5,9 ; 3:19 ; 8:12 ; 9:5 ; 12:35,36,46 ; Acts 13:47 ; (g) the illuminating power of the Scriptures, Psalm 119:105 ; and of the judgments and commandments of God, Isaiah 51:4 ; Proverbs 6:23 , cp. Psalm 43:3 ; (h) the guidance of God, Job 29:3 ; Psalm 112:4 ; Isaiah 58:10 ; and, ironically, of the guidance of man, Romans 2:19 ; (i) salvation, 1 Peter 2:9 ; (j) righteousness, Romans 13:12 ; 2 Corinthians 11:14,15 ; 1 John 2:9,10 ; (k) witness for God, Matthew 5:14,16 ; John 5:35 ; (l) prosperity and general well-being, Esther 8:16 ; Job 18:18 ; Isaiah 58:8-10 . , Job 3:9 ; Psalm 27:1 ; 44:3 ; 78:14 ; 90:8 ; 139:11
Water - Job 9:30 speaks of slush or snow water: “If I wash myself with snow water, and make my hands never so clean. Thus the word is used to picture something impetuous, violent, and overwhelming: “Terrors take hold on him as waters, a tempest stealeth him away in the night” (Job 27:20). Related to this nuance is the connotation “transitory”: “… Because thou shalt forget thy misery, and remember it as waters that pass away” (Job 11:16). 5:10), justice (Amos 5:24; KJV, “judgment”), and strong feelings (Job 3:24). ...
The word represents the “deep water” whose surface freezes when cold: “The waters are hid as with a stone, and the face of the deep is frozen” (Job 38:30)
Righteous, To Be - Nowhere is the issue of righteousness more appropriate than in the problem of the suffering of the righteous presented to us in Job, where the verb occurs 17 times. Apart from the Book of Job the frequency of tsâdaq in the various books is small. God “is righteous” in all of His relations, and in comparison with Him man is not righteous: “Shall mortal man be more just [1] than God?” (Job 4:17). Job was concerned about his case and defended it before his friends: “… Though I were righteous, yet would I not answer, but I would make supplication to my judge” (9:15). Job believed that the Lord would ultimately vindicate him against his opponents (Job 13:18). ...
Job’s ultimate hope was in God’s declaration of justification
Sandals, Shoes - The removal of the guest's sandals was the Job of the lowliest servant who was also required to wash the dusty and soiled feet of the visitor
Eye - "To set the eyes" on any one is to view him with favour (Genesis 44:21 ; Job 24:23 ; Jeremiah 39:12 )
Aram - Another Aram (Genesis 22:21), son of Kemuel, descended from Nahor; probably head of the tribe Ram, to which belonged Elihu, Job's friend (Job 32:2)
Earth - A distinct term expresses the material of which the earth consists damaah , the "ground," "soil," from whence Adam was named (Genesis 2:7), his body coming from and returning to the earth (Genesis 3:19), a different word "dust" (Job 10:9; Ecclesiastes 12:7)
Weaving - Job 7:6, Isaiah 38:12), is not directly mentioned in the Gospels
Loom - Job 7:6 compares the brevity of life to the speed of the weaver's shuttle, the devise used to quickly pass the woof thread between the threads of the warp
Kiss - The kiss was a token of love ( Song of Solomon 1:2 ; Song of Solomon 8:1 ), of homage and submission ( Genesis 41:40 , Job 31:27 , Psalms 2:12 ), and was also an act of idolatrous worship ( 1 Kings 19:18 , Hosea 13:2 )
Works, Good - Evidence our regeneration, Job 15:5
Whelp - ...
Job 4:11 (c) Probably this type may represent the descendants of great men, especially kings
Sling - Translated Zechariah 9:15, "they (the Jews) shall tread under foot the sling stones" hurled at them by the foe, and falling harmless at their feet (Job 41:28)
Seal - Judah probably wore his suspended from the neck over the breast (Genesis 38:18; Song of Solomon 8:6; Job 38:14)
Crush - Job 4
Suck - ...
Job 20:16 (b) Zophar is making the statement that the hypocrite and the wicked live on lies and flourish on wicked sayings and evil conversation
Ancient of Days - ”...
Several biblical passages are related in terms and ideas with Daniel 7:1 ( Genesis 24:1 ; Job 36:26 ; Psalm 50:1-6 ; Psalm 55:19 ; 1 Kings 22:19-20 ; Isaiah 26:1-27:1 ; Isaiah 44:6 ; Ezekiel 1:1 ; Joel 3:2 )
Dream - ” It is used of the ordinary dreams of sleep: “Then thou scarest me with dreams, and terrifiest me through visions …” (Job 7:14)
Stupid Fellow - The meaning of “confidence” also appears in Job 31:24: “If I have made gold my hope
Night - Layil also figures deep calamity without the comforting presence and guidance of God, and/or other kinds of distress: “Where is God my maker, who giveth songs in the night …?” (Job 35:10)
Net - , figuratively of a snare, Job 18:8 ; Proverbs 29:5
Noah - Ezekiel (Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20) knows of three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, efficient mediators to deliver the people by their righteousness; but in the present case, even the three shall be able to deliver only themselves (see also Hebrews 11:7)
Viper - אפעה , Job 20:16 ; Isaiah 30:6 ; Isaiah 59:5 ; εχιδνα , Matthew 3:7 ; Matthew 12:34 ; Matthew 23:33 ; Luke 3:7 ; Acts 28:3 ; a serpent famed for the venomousness of its bite, which is one of the most dangerous poisons in the animal kingdom
Rain - Job 20
Redeemer - So Christ became a partaker of flesh and blood, that as our near kinsman he might redeem for us the heavenly inheritance, Job 19:25,26
Death - "The gates of death," Job 38:17 , signify the unseen world occupied by departed spirits
Doctrine - ‘what is received’ ( Deuteronomy 32:2 , Job 11:4 , Proverbs 4:2 , Isaiah 29:24 )
Lion - Lions were common in Palestine, (See Job 4:10,11
Satisfy - Job 38
Satan - Hence it is used particularly of the grand adversary of souls, the devil, the prince of the fallen angels, the accuser and calumniator of men before God, Job 1:7,12 Zechariah 3:1,2 Revelation 12:10
Restrain - Job 15
Pearl - The Hebrew word in ( Job 28:18 ) probably means "crystal
Ass - ...
Air , the name of a wild ass, which occurs ( Genesis 32:15 ; 49:11 ) ...
Pere , a species of wild ass mentioned ( Genesis 12:16 ) ...
Arod occurs only in ( Job 39:5 ) but in what respect it differs from the Pere is uncertain
Craft Workers - Among the crafts workers mentioned in the Bible are metal-workers (Exodus 31:3-4; Isaiah 44:12; Isaiah 54:16; Jeremiah 10:9; 2 Timothy 4:14), carpenters (2 Samuel 5:11; Isaiah 44:13; Mark 6:3), wood-carvers (Exodus 31:5; 1 Kings 6:32), stone-workers (2 Samuel 5:11; 1 Kings 6:7), jewellers (Exodus 28:11; Exodus 31:5), potters (Isaiah 41:25; Jeremiah 18:1-4), spinners and weavers (Exodus 35:25; Job 7:6; Isaiah 19:9), dyers (Exodus 26:1; 2 Chronicles 2:7; Acts 16:14), tanners (Exodus 26:14; Matthew 3:4; Acts 9:43) and tent-makers (Genesis 4:20; Acts 18:3)
Noah - Ezekiel (Ezekiel 14:14; Ezekiel 14:20) knows of three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, efficient mediators to deliver the people by their righteousness; but in the present case, even the three shall be able to deliver only themselves (see also Hebrews 11:7)
Cush - Job saw Cush as a rich source of minerals, especially topaz (Job 28:19 )
Rahab - Further references to the Rahab-myth are to be found in Psalms 89:9-10 , Job 9:13 ; Job 26:10-11 ; it is important to note how in all these passages the myth is treated as well known, it is taken for granted that the reference is perfectly understood
Enemy - Job felt that God had become his enemy, too (Job 13:24 )
Kinsman-Redeemer - In Job 19:25 the term "redeemer" in context refers to God who, as friend and kinsman of Job, through faith will ultimately defend and vindicate him
Glass - Job 28:17, "crystal" or "glass", the only allusion to glass in Old Testament The paintings at Benihassan and in tombs show that it was known in the reign of Osirtasin I, 1600 B. Job 37:18, "the sky
Leviathan - In the book of Job we meet with the mention of this huge creature, Job 41:1-34
Surety - (Genesis 43:8) And Job and, Solomon both take notice of the same, under the article of suretyship. (See Job 17:3; Proverbs 6:1-2) But I should not have thought it necessary to have introduced the subject in this place, had it not been with a view to have brought the reader into a more intimate acquaintance with the nature of a surety as it concerns the person of our Lord Jesus Christ
Seraphim - " Two wings alone of the six were kept ready for instant flight in God's service; two veiled their faces as unworthy to look on the holy God or pry into His secret counsels which they fulfilled (Exodus 3:6; Job 4:18; Job 15:15; 1 Kings 19:13)
Sheba (2) - SHEBA was a wealthy region of Arabia Felix or Yemen (1 Kings 10:1; Psalms 72:10; Psalms 72:15, where "Sheba" is Joktanite, "SEBA" Cushite ; Job 1:15, the Keturahite Sheba, Job 6:19; Isaiah 60:6; Jeremiah 6:20; Ezekiel 27:22, it was the Sheba son of Raamah and grandson of Cush that carried on the Indian traffic with Palestine in conjunction with the Keturahite Sheba (Joel 3:8)
Consume - This nuance is used especially of clouds: “As the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away …” (Job 7:9). ” One’s sight may also “vanish” and one may go blind: “But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall not escape …” (Job 11:20)
Salt - It well-known preservative qualities, and its importance as a seasoning for food, Job 6:6 , are implied in most of the passages where it is mentioned in Scripture: as in the miraculous healing of a fountain, 2 Kings 2:21 ; in the sprinkling of salt over the sacrifices consumed on God's altar, Leviticus 2:13 Ezekiel 43:24 Mark 9:49 ; and its use in the sacred incense, Exodus 30:35 . 33 ; Job 39
Pride - , the "pride" of the land of Israel [1] or, God's "pride/majesty/excellency" [2]), its negative sense predominates, occurring in sixty-one texts. ...
The main Hebrew root is gh [3]; the most common term is gaon [2]7, which occurs a total of twenty-three times. Five references are in poetical texts (Job 35:12 ; Psalm 10:2 ; 17:10 ; 73:8 ; Proverbs 8:13 ), and three others are found in Deuteronomy 1:43 ; 1 Samuel 2:3 ; 15:23 . Most of the synonyms give a negative sense: contempt (Psalm 31:18 ); wrongdoing (Job 33:17 ); trust (Psalm 62:10 ); arrogance (Proverbs 8:13 ; Isaiah 2:11,17 ; 9:9 ); insolence (Isaiah 16:6 ); and conceit (Jeremiah 48:29 )
Prepare - Kûn can be used of the “establishing” of one’s descendants, of seeing them prosperous (Job 21:8). ” A somewhat different nuance appears in Job 18:12; Bildad says that wherever godlessness breaks out, there is judgment: “… Destruction shall be ready at his side. Tekunah, which makes 3 appearances, means “fixed place” as in Job 23:3 or “fixed matter” as in Sea - ...
In some instances the word yâm may represent the Canaanite god Yamm, “which alone spreadeth out the heavens, and treadeth upon the waves of the sea” (Job 9:8). ” Especially note Job 7:12: “Am I a sea [1], or a whale, that thou settest a watch over me?” (cf. Job 26:12; Mediator, Mediation - ]'>[2] has the term once in Job 9:33 (EV Devil, Satan, Evil, Demonic - ...
The most extensive Old Testament discussion of Satan is in Job. He makes a wager with God using Job as the stake. He acts, however, with the express permission of God and keeps within the limits which God has fixed for him (Job 1:12 ; Job 2:6 )
Set On, Set Up - In Job 4:18 the word means to charge someone with an error, or “to put it down” against or to him. So Job says: “Lay down now, put me in a surety with thee … ,” or give a pledge for me (Job 17:3). In Job 5:8 this giving constitutes handing over one’s cause to another, while in Birds - Among the birds specifically named in the RSV translation of the Bible are: cock (Proverbs 30:31 ; Matthew 26:34 ,Matthew 26:34,26:74-75 ; Mark 14:30 ,Mark 14:30,14:72 ; Luke 22:34 ,Luke 22:34,22:60-61 ; John 13:38 ; John 18:27 ), carrion vulture (Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:17 ), crane (Isaiah 38:14 ; Jeremiah 8:7 ), dove/turtledove (1618416428_8 ; Isaiah 38:14 ; Isaiah 59:11 ; Matthew 3:16 ; Matthew 10:16 ; Luke 2:24 ; John 1:32 ), eagle (Exodus 19:4 ; Leviticus 11:13 ; Deuteronomy 14:12 ; Deuteronomy 32:11 ; Job 9:26 ; Job 39:27-30 ; 1 Kings 17:4-6 ; Proverbs 30:19 ; Jeremiah 4:13 ; Jeremiah 49:16 ,Jeremiah 49:16,49:22 ), falcon (Leviticus 11:14 ; Job 28:7 ), hawk (Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ; Ezekiel 39:17-20 ), hen (Matthew 23:37 ; Luke 13:34 ), heron (Leviticus 11:19 ; Deuteronomy 14:18 ), kite (Leviticus 11:14 ; Deuteronomy 14:13 ), osprey (Leviticus 11:13 ; Deuteronomy 14:12 ), ostrich (Leviticus 11:16 ; Deuteronomy 14:15 ; Job 30:29 ; Job 39:13-18 ; Isaiah 13:21 ; Isaiah 34:13 ; Isaiah 43:20 ; Jeremiah 50:39 ; Lamentations 4:3 ; Micah 1:8 ), owl (Leviticus 11:17 ; Deuteronomy 14:16 ), partridge (1 Samuel 26:20 ; Jeremiah 17:11 ), peacock (1 Kings 10:22 ; 2 Chronicles 9:21 ), pelican (Leviticus 11:18 ; Deuteronomy 14:17 ), pigeon (Genesis 15:9