What does Jew mean in the Bible?

Greek / Hebrew Translation Occurance
ἰουδαῖος Jewish 10
ἰουδαίου Jewish 4
ἰουδαῖός Jewish 3
הַיְּהוּדִ֔י Jew. 2
ἰουδαϊκῶς Jewishly 1
ἰουδαίῳ Jewish 1
ἰουδαῖον Jewish 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֗י Jew. 1
יְהוּדִ֔י Jew. 1
יְהוּדִֽי Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֑י Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִ֖י Jew. 1
הַיְּהוּדִי֙ Jew. 1
בִּיהוּדִ֥י Jew. 1
יְהוּדִ֜י Jew. 1

Definitions Related to Jew

G2453


   1 Jewish, belonging to the Jewish race.
   2 Jewish as respects to birth, race, religion.
   

H3064


   1 Jew.
   

G2452


   1 Jewishly, after the manner of the Jews.
   

Frequency of Jew (original languages)

Frequency of Jew (English)

Dictionary

Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Jew
The name ‘Jew’ was not used in Old Testament times before the division of the Israelite kingdom. After the death of King Solomon, the kingdom was split into two parts, the northern part being known as Israel and the southern part as Judah. People of the southern kingdom, though Israelites by blood (since they were descended from Jacob, or Israel) were called Judeans, to distinguish them from those of the northern kingdom. The name ‘Judean’ was later shortened to ‘Jew’ (Jeremiah 34:9).
Both northern and southern kingdoms were eventually destroyed and the people taken captive to foreign lands. When the descendants of these captives were later allowed to return to the land of Israel, most of those who returned belonged to the former southern kingdom (the Judeans, or Jews).
By this time the name ‘Jew’ was in common use. It was freely applied to all those now living back in the ancient homeland, without having any specific reference to the tribe they originally came from. In other words, it was used in general as a name for all Israelites (Ezra 6:7; Nehemiah 6:6; Esther 3:6; Esther 3:10; Jeremiah 44:1; Daniel 3:8). By the time of the New Testament, the names ‘Hebrew’, ‘Israelite’ and ‘Jew’ were used interchangeably (Matthew 2:2; John 1:19; Acts 2:5; Romans 1:16; Romans 2:28-29; Romans 11:1; 1 Corinthians 9:20; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Galatians 2:14; Philippians 3:5; see also HEBREW; ISRAEL; JUDAH, TRIBE AND KINGDOM).
Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Jew, Jewess
The term ‘Jew’ (Heb. יְהוּדִי, Gr. Ἰουδαῖος) originally signified an inhabitant of the province of Judaea , or, more strictly, a member of the tribe of Judah in contrast with the people of the Northern Kingdom of the ten tribes. After the Babylonian captivity, however, the term was applied to any member of the ancient race of Israel, wherever settled and to whatever tribe he may have belonged. Josephus, referring to Nehemiah, use of the term in addressing the returned exiles, says: ‘That is the name they are called by from the day that they came up from Babylon, which [1] is taken from the tribe of Judah, which came first to these places; and thence both they and the country gained that appellation’ (Ant. xi. v. 7).
The name is almost always regarded as a purely racial designation, marking off all who belonged to the ancient nation; but as the nation was distinguished from the heathen world by its religious views, the term came to signify one who was separated not only by race but by religion from the rest of mankind. The Jew himself preferred to be called an ‘Israelite,’ as the latter was the name of national honour and privilege (cf. article Israel), and we find ‘Jew’ to be the designation usually applied by foreigners to members of the Chosen People.
In the NT the term is found applied to those who belonged to the ancient race in contrast with various other groups or classes of men. The Jews themselves divided the whole world into Jews and Gentiles; and we find the Apostle Paul using this contrast in speaking of God’s judgment on sin: ‘tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile’ (Romans 2:9). Again the term is used in contrasting Jews and Samaritans (John 4:9), the latter being descended from the mixed race of ancient Israelites and the settlers introduced by the Assyrian conquerors (cf. 2 Kings 17:24-41).
The Jew is also contrasted with the proselyte who was a Jew by his adopted religious beliefs, but not by birth (Acts 2:10). In the Fourth Gospel we find the term ‘Jews’ applied to those who opposed the teaching of Jesus, as contrasted with believers in Christ, whatever their nationality might be; but generally the Jewish rulers seem to be indicated by the name in this Gospel. Thus ‘the Jews’ censure the man for carrying his bed on the Sabbath (Acts 5:10), and contend with the man born blind (Acts 9:22). Perhaps this usage of the Fourth Gospel arose from the influence of later times, when the Jews, and especially the Jewish authorities, were bitterly opposed to the teaching of Jesus. In the other parts of the NT the term is never used in contrast with believers in Christ. Thus in Galatians 2:13 ‘the Jews’ are the Christians of Jewish race. In the Epistle to the Romans (Romans 2:28-29) we find a distinction made between a Jew who is such outwardly and a Jew who is such inwardly. Here, as also in Romans 3:1, the Apostle uses the term ‘Jew,’ where we should naturally expect to find ‘Israelite,’ to designate a member of the Chosen People as a recipient of special Divine favour. Some who belong to the Jewish race are not spiritually partakers of the blessings which attach to it. In the passage where the writer of the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9) speaks of those ‘who say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan,’ he may be referring to men who made a false claim to belong to the Jewish nation, or to Jews by race who were far from belonging to the true Israel of God.
One of the most remarkable features in connexion with the Jews in the apostolic times was their world-wide dispersion. From Spain in the West to the Persian Gulf in the East Jews had settled in every large city. Their exclusive religion and their contempt of the heathen kept them together as a community within the larger population where they found a home, and their capacity for commerce often enabled them to become extremely wealthy. Their exclusiveness and the commercial dishonesty of many of them led to their being hated by the common people, while their wealth made them exceedingly useful to rulers and princes, who thus were induced to protect them. The Dispersion was one of the most important factors in the spread of the Christian faith in apostolic and sub-apostolic times. Wherever the apostolic missionaries went, they found a Jewish synagogue, where they had access not merely to the Jewish population, but to the more earnest among the heathen who had been attracted by the monotheism and the moral characteristics of Judaism, and who often formed the nucleus of a Christian Church. The Jewish religion was tolerated in the Roman Empire, being regarded as a religio licita; and, so long as Christianity grew up and flourished in the shelter of the synagogue, it too might be regarded as enjoying the same toleration. This fact no doubt enabled the new faith to secure a footing in these early days. In the Acts of the Apostles we see how the Roman proconsul Gallio (Acts 18:12-17) simply regards Christianity as an insignificant variation of Judaism, and the same view is taken by King Agrippa (Acts 26:32), as well as by the town-clerk of Ephesus (Acts 19:37). The author of the Acts is careful to state these favourable opinions of officials. Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent religion. The Jews themselves became the most persistent and implacable persecutors of the Christians. They were ever ready to stir of the disaffected people and divert attention from themselves by turning it on the adherents of the new faith. Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius (Acts 18:2) was the result of dissensions regarding the new religion, which had sprung from Judaism and threatened to overwhelm it. The reference of Suetonius (Claudius, 25) to Chrestus, which is probably a mistake for Christus, seems to favour this idea, although various views have been taken of the passage (cf. R. J. Knowling, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Acts,’ p. 384f.).
In Rome, as well as in many other cities of the Empire, Jews obtained considerable influence, in spite of the popular aversion to them. Their wealth opened many doors which otherwise would have remained shut against them. Jews, and especially Jewesses, were to be found in many prominent Roman families, and intermarriage between Jewish women and Gentiles was by no means uncommon. Thus Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1), was a Jewess who had married a Greek, while Drusilla, the wife of Felix the governor of Syria (Acts 24:24), is also described as a Jewess. In both references the word simply implies that the women belonged to the ancient race of Israel, without any thought of the particular tribe from which they may have claimed descent.
Literature.-H. H. Milman, History of the Jews3, 1863; J. J. I. Döllinger, Heidenthum und Judenthum, 1857; O. Holtzmann, Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte (Holtzmann and others)., 1895; E. Schürer, GJV [2] 4, 1901-11; A. Harnack, Mission und Ausbreitung2, 1906; A. Berliner, Geschichte der Juden in Rom, 1893; W. M. Ramsey, The Church in the Roman Empire, 1893, St. Paul the Traveller, 1895; R. J. Knowling, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘Acts,’ 1900, M. Dods, Expositor’s Greek Testament , ‘The Gospel of St. John,’ 1897; Sanday-Headlam, Romans 5 (International Critical Commentary , 1902); articles in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia Biblica .
W. F. Boyd.
People's Dictionary of the Bible - Jew
Jew. 2 Kings 16:6. A name applied first to men of Judah. The most common title for Jews in the Old Testament is "Israel" or "Israelites," but in the New Testament "Jews" is most frequently used. The terms "Israel" and "Israelites" occur in Scriptures about 2460 times; "Jew" and "Jews" about 275 times, and "Hebrew" or "Hebrews" about 50 times. "Jew" is a broader title than Hebrews, as it may include Hellenists, Greek proselytes who became Jews, Acts 6:1; Acts 24:18, and less specific than Israelites. See John 1:47; 2 Corinthians 11:22.
Hebrew is probably from Eber, a Hebrew word meaning "to pass over," and the name of an ancestor of Abram, Genesis 10:24; Genesis 11:13. Abram is first called "the Hebrew" in Genesis 14:13. The Egyptians, Genesis 39:14; Genesis 41:12, and the Philistines, 1 Samuel 4:6, knew the people by this title. But they sometimes use it of themselves, but only when foreigners are thought of. Genesis 40:15; Deuteronomy 28:64-658. The favorite name was "Israelites," and after the captivity the title "Jews" came into vogue, but the title "Hebrews" was still used for the more strict Jews, who preferred the Hebrew language, in distinction from the Hellenists or Grecian Jews. The Hebrew people were descended directly from Abram, Genesis 12:1, through Isaac and Jacob, and are frequently called the "seed of Abraham," Psalms 105:6; John 8:37, or "children of Abraham," Galatians 3:7, or "children of Israel," Exodus 1:13. God, to carry out his purpose and preserve his church, called Abraham to leave his father's house and his country, and separated him and his household from the rest of mankind; gave him special promises, made covenants with him, and constituted him the "Father of the Faithful" to the world. From that time, for two thousand years, the visible church of God was confined to the family of this man; and for fifteen centuries the history of this family is the only sacred history of the world. During fifty generations of the children of Adam the family of this man, or rather the descendants of a part of it, "elected according to the purpose of God," Romans 9:11, enjoyed exclusive privileges; to the Israelites alone "pertaineth the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises, whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed forever. Amen." Romans 9:4-5. They were separated from the world by most stringent laws; and it was necessary during all that time for the rest of mankind, through the Jews, to learn the way to be saved. The darkness of death overshadowed all other lands. Thanks be to God 1 when the fullness of time was come, when salvation was completed by the life, death, and resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the reservoir of truth was thus filled, the gates were opened; and the command was given to the church to go forth and to proclaim the glad tidings of salvation to all nations and to preach the gospel to every creature. "The gospel preached unto Abraham," before the giving of the law: "In thee shall all nations be blessed" was the first proclamation "that God would justify the heathen through faith." Galatians 3:8. Nothing can more conclusively show the hand of God in directing the history of the world, and in controlling the affairs of nations, than the prophecies and the facts connected with the history of Abraham and of his descendants. Two thousand years after the promise was made to him; in thy seed shall all the families and all the nations of the earth be blessed. Genesis 12:3; Genesis 18:18; Genesis 22:18. It was fulfilled in the advent of the Son of God, born of the seed of Abraham. The fearful prophecies of God concerning the descendants of Abraham, Tittered before they entered the promised land, have been continually in progress of fulfillment to the letter. The Jews have not only undergone the horrors of the siege and the loss of their country, so graphically foretold and described in the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy; but they are at this day, living witnesses to the truth of God's word. More than three thousand years ago, while on a conquering march, with visions of glory before them, they were warned of their future apostacy, and were told of the judgments that would fall upon them and upon their land. It was said to them, "Thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb and a by-word among all nations, whither the Lord shall lead thee." Deuteronomy 28:37. "These curses shall be upon thee for a sign and for a wonder, and upon thy seed." Deuteronomy 28:45-46. "The Lord shall scatter thee among all people, from the one end of the earth even unto the other;... and among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the sole of thy foot have rest." 1618529061_99. This has been literally the sad lot of this wonderful people for the last eighteen hundred years. Besides these foretold judgments upon the Jews there are also in the word of God promises of blessings yet to be enjoyed by them. In some of these the world has an interest. While telling the Israelites of the woes that should come upon them, God added: "And yet, for all that, when they be in the land of their enemies, I will not cast them away, neither will I abhor them, to destroy them utterly, and to break my covenant with them: for I am the Lord their God." Leviticus 26:44. We are told "Blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob." Romans 11:25. Paul tells us, "Through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles." Romans 11:11. And he informs us that the world is again to be indebted to the Jews; he says: "Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?" Romans 11:11-12. The restoration and conversion of the Jews is thus connected with the great ingathering of all nations into the Church of Christ; and the time of this is at hand. The Jews by their talents and industry exert great influence among Christian nations. They have long been the great bankers of the world. The Rothschild family with its immense wealth has controlled the money market. The Jews have furnished great scholars and statesmen. Neander, the church historian, and Stahl, the jurist, were converted Jews; the great musicians, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Spinoza, Edersheim and Lord Beaconsfield, were of Jewish extraction. They have distinguished themselves in all the occupations except agriculture and manufactures. They are divided into orthodox and liberal or reform Jews, who differ from each other as the Pharisees and Sadducees of old. The former prevail in Russia, Poland and the East; the latter in Germany and America. Many of the Jews today are deists, or rationalists. The number of Jews in the world is estimated at 9,000,000, of whom 50,000 live in New York city, where they accumulate great wealth. The last word of Christ and the apostles concerning this wonderful people—which, like the miming bush, are never consumed—is a word of promise and hope that their blindness will be removed, and that after the fulness of the Gentiles has come in "all Israel shall be saved." Romans 11:26. We are indebted to the Jews for our knowledge of God, and of the way of salvation. All of the Scriptures were written by Jews. Moses, the prophets, and the apostles were all Jews. Jesus Christ, our Lord, "was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;" and he says: "Salvation is of the Jews." John 4:22.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Jew
JEW . The name by which the descendants of Israel have been known for many centuries. It is corrupted from Judah . After the division of the kingdom in b.c. 937, the southern portion was called by the name of the powerful tribe of Judah, which composed most of its inhabitants. It was in this kingdom that the Deuteronomic reform occurred, which was the first step in the creation of an organized religion sharply differentiated from the other religions of the world. This religion, developed during the Exile, bore the name of the kingdom of Judah. All Israelites who maintained their identity were its adherents, hence the name ‘Jew’ has absorbed the name ‘Israel.’ For their history, see Israel (I. 21 30) and Dispersion. For their religion, see Israel (II. 5, 6).
On the special meaning of ‘the Jews’ in Jn. see p. 481 b f.
George A. Barton.
Hitchcock's Bible Names - Jew
Same as Judah
Webster's Dictionary - Jew
(n.) Originally, one belonging to the tribe or kingdom of Judah; after the return from the Babylonish captivity, any member of the new state; a Hebrew; an Israelite.
Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words - Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion
A — 1: Ἰουδαῖος (Strong's #2453 — Adjective — ioudaios — ee-oo-dah'-yos ) is used (a) adjectivally, with the lit. meaning, "Jewish," sometimes with the addition of aner, "a man," Acts 10:28 ; 22:3 ; in Acts 21:39 with anthropos, in some mss. (a man in the generic sense); the best mss. omit the phrase here; in Acts 13:6 , lit., "a Jewish false-prophet;" in John 3:22 , with the word chora, "land" or "country," signifying "Judean," lit., "Judean country;" used by metonymy for the people of the country; (b) as a noun, "a Jew, Jews," e.g., Matthew 2:2 ; Mark 7:3 . The name "Jew" is primarily tribal (from Judah). It is first found in 2 Kings 16:6 , as distinct from Israel, of the northern kingdom. After the Captivity it was chiefly used to distinguish the race from Gentiles, e.g., John 2:6 ; Acts 14:1 ; Galatians 2:15 , where it denotes Christians of Jewish race; it distinguishes Jews from Samaritans, in John 4:9 ; from proselytes, in Acts 2:10 . The word is most frequent in John's Gospel and the Acts; in the former "it especially denotes the typical representatives of Jewish thought contrasted with believers in Christ ... or with other Jews of less pronounced opinions, e.g., John 3:25 ; 5:10 ; 7:13 ; 9:22 " (Lukyn Williams, in Hastings' Bib. Dic.); such representatives were found, generally, in opposition to Christ; in the Acts they are chiefly those who opposed the Apostles and the Gospel. In Romans 2:28,29 the word is used of ideal Jews, i.e., Jews in spiritual reality, believers, whether Jews or Gentiles by natural birth. The feminine, "Jewess," is found in Acts 16:1 ; 24:24 .
It also denotes Judea, e.g., Matthew 2:1 ; Luke 1:5 ; John 4:3 , the word "country" being understood [1]. In Luke 23:5 ; John 7:1 , where the AV has "Jewry," the RV translates it as usual, "Judea."
A — 2: Ἰουδαϊκός (Strong's #2451 — Adjective — ioudaikos — ee-oo-dah-ee-kos' ) denotes "Jewish," Titus 1:14 .
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews."
C — 1: Ἰουδαΐζω (Strong's #2450 — Verb — ioudaizo — ee-oo-dah-id'-zo ) lit., "to Judaize," i.e., to conform to "Jewish" religious practices and manners, is translated "to live as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .
D — 1: φυτεύω (Strong's #5452 — Verb — ioudaikos — foot-yoo'-o ) "in Jewish fashion," is translated "as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 .
King James Dictionary - Jew
JEW, n. a contraction of Judas of Judah. A Hebrew or Israelite.
Smith's Bible Dictionary - Jew
(a man of Judea ). This name was properly applied to a member of the kingdom of Judah after the separation of the ten tribes. The term first makes its appearance just before the captivity of the ten tribes. The term first makes it appearance just before the captivity of the ten tribes. ( 2 Kings 16:6 ) After the return the word received a larger application. Partly from the predominance of the members of the old kingdom of Judah among those who returned to Palestine, partly from the identification of Judah with the religious ideas and hopes of the people, all the members of the new state were called Jews (Judeans) and the name was extended to the remnants of the race scattered throughout the nations. Under the name of "Judeans" the people of Israel were known to classical writers. (Tac. H. v.2, etc.) The force of the title "Jew" is seen particularly in the Gospel of St. John, who very rarely uses any other term to describe the opponents of our Lord. At an earlier stage of the progress of the faith it was contrasted with Greek as implying an outward covenant with God, (Romans 1:16 ; 2:9,10 ; Colossians 3:11 ) etc., which was the correlative of Hellenist [1], and marked a division of language subsisting within the entire body, and at the same time less expressive than Israelite , which brought out with especial clearness the privileges and hopes of the children of Jacob. ( 2 Corinthians 11:22 ; John 1:47 )
Morrish Bible Dictionary - Jew
A man of Judah. The term does not occur until after the division of the kingdom. 2 Kings 16:6 ; 2 Kings 25:25 . It is applied to any one belonging to the two tribes, and it may have been used respecting any of the ten tribes who remained in the land at the captivity or returned thither. The name is principally found in the O.T. in Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, and Jeremiah. In Esther the name is applied to all the Hebrews in Persia. In the N.T. the name occurs most frequently in the gospel of John, where it is applied to those of Jerusalem and Judaea in distinction from 'the people' who may have been Galileans or visitors from a distance. John speaks of 'the Jews,' 'the Jews' passover,' etc., as though he were not a Jew. They had rejected the Lord, and in spirit John was separate from them.
In the addresses to the seven churches we twice read of those who "say they are Jews, and are not." The name is there used of those claiming to be the people of God by descent, but not so morally, as in another place there are some "who say they are apostles, and are not." Revelation 2:2,9 ; Revelation 3:9 . In a similar way the Jews prided themselves in being 'sons of Abraham,' whereas, the Lord declared that they were not such morally. The name JEWESS occurs only in Acts 16:1 ; Acts 24:24 .
Fausset's Bible Dictionary - Jew
At first one belonging to the kingdom of Judah, as distinguished from northern Israel (2 Kings 16:6). After the captivity, all members of the one new state were "Jews," i.e. in God's outward covenant, as contrasted with "Greeks" or Gentiles (Romans 1:16; Romans 2:9, margin). "Hebrew" on the other hand expressed their language and nationality, in contrast to "Hellenists," i.e. Greek speaking Jews. Again the term" Israelites" expresses the high theocratic privileges of descent from the patriarch who "as a prince had power with God" (2 Corinthians 11:22; Romans 9:4). John uses "Jews" of the faction hostile to the Lord Jesus.
By the time that he wrote the Jews had definitely rejected the gospel offered to them by the apostles at home and abroad (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16); so they are no longer regarded as the covenant people, the kingdom of God having passed from them to the Gentiles (Acts 13:45-46) The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple formally effected the transference, forever since the Jew professes a religion enjoining what God's providence makes it impossible for him to fulfil, namely, the observance of the great feasts and the sacrificial system in the temple at Jerusalem. B. F. Westcott (Smith's Bible Dictionary) notices the preparation for the last or gospel revelation by the disciplining of the Jews under
(1) the Persian supremacy (536-333 B.C.), in organization, order, and ritual;
(2) under the Greek (333-167 B.C.), in liberty and speculation;
(3) under the Asmonsean Maccabees, in independence and faith;
(4) under the Herods, in the separation between the temporal and the spiritual kingdom. JEWRY means Judea (Daniel 5:13). "The Jews' language" signifies both the Hebrew (2 Kings 18:26) and the Aramaic Hebrew acquired in the captivity (Nehemiah 13:24), "the language (lip) of Canaan" (Isaiah 19:18). (See HEBREW LANGUAGE.)

Sentence search

Jewess - (jew' ehssss) Female Jew. Timothy's mother was Jewish, but his father was not (Acts 16:1 ). Drusilla, the wife of Felix the Roman governor, was a Jewess (Acts 24:24 )
Yid - (Yiddish) Jew...
Yid - ) A Jew
Partition - Ephesians 2:14 (a) There is a separation between the Jew and the Gentile. To the Jew was given the oracles of GOD, but not to the Gentile. The Jews were redeemed by the blood of the Passover lamb, but the Gentiles were not. The Jews had GOD for their Father, but the Gentiles did not. By the coming of CHRIST and His sacrifice at Calvary, and His ascension to GOD the Father in His physical body, those differences have been broken down, and now all believers in CHRIST JESUS, both Jew and Gentile, are made one in CHRIST. Nothing now needs to separate the Jew and the Gentile
Tradescantia - ) A genus including spiderwort and Wandering Jew
Greek - The former is (1) a Greek by race (Acts 16:1-3 ; 18:17 ; Romans 1:14 ), or (2) a Gentile as opposed to a Jew (Romans 2:9,10 ). The latter, meaning properly "one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew who dwelt in Palestine
Israelite - A descendant of Israel or Jacob a Jew
Atonement - “return”); repentance, return to a Jew’s true essence ...
Nazarite - A Jew who professed extraordinary purity of life and devotion
Teshuvah - �return�); repentance, return to a Jew�s true essence ...
Jew - Jew, n
Usury - The Old Testament laws prohibited a Jew from charging another Jew usury but permitted it when money was loaned to a Gentile (Deuteronomy 23:19-20 )
Judean - ) A native of Judea; a Jew
Judahite - ) One of the tribe of Judah; a member of the kingdom of Judah; a Jew
Herodion - HERODION A Christian mentioned in Romans 16:11 , apparently a Jew, and perhaps a freedman of the Herods
Athlai - A Jew who married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:28 ; called in Esther 9:29 Esther 9:29 Emmatheis )
Jeremai - A Jew of the family of Hashum who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:33 [1])
Aziza - A Jew who had married a foreign wife ( Ezra 10:27 ); called in Esther 9:28 Esther 9:28 Zardeus
Sce'va, - a Jew residing at Ephesus at the time of St
Jehudi - A Jew, son of Nethaniah
Mechirat chametz - "sale of leavened"); the sale to a non-Jew of leavened goods or vessels which cannot remain in one�s property over Passover...
Sosthenes - A Jew at Corinth who was seized and beaten in the presence of Gallio
Sos'Thenes - (saviour of his nation ) was a Jew at Corinth who was seized and beaten in the presence of Gallio
Elymas - Magician or sorcerer, the Arabic name of the Jew Bar-jesus, who withstood Paul and Barnabas in Cyprus
Sceva - a Jew, and chief of the priests, Acts 19:14-16
Cerinthian - ) One of an ancient religious sect, so called from Cerinthus, a Jew, who attempted to unite the doctrines of Christ with the opinions of the Jews and Gnostics
Drusilla - Drusilla was a Jew and listened to Paul's arguments with her husband (Acts 24:24 ). She had been engaged to Antiochus Ephiphanes of Commagene, but he refused to become a Jew
R. levi yitzchak of berdtichev - 1740-1809, Chassidic leader, one of the foremost disciples of the Maggid of Mezritch; renowned for his all-encompassing love and compassion for the Jewish people and for every individual Jew ...
Ragu'el, - ) ...
A pious Jew of "Ecbatane, a of Media," father of Sara, the wife of Tobias
Israelite - (a) A member of the Jewish people (usually a definition for a person of biblical times). (b) A Jew not descending from the tribe of Levi
Evaristus, Pope Saint - He was the son of a Hellenist Jew of Bethlehem
Jew - The name ‘Jew’ was not used in Old Testament times before the division of the Israelite kingdom. The name ‘Judean’ was later shortened to ‘Jew’ (Jeremiah 34:9). When the descendants of these captives were later allowed to return to the land of Israel, most of those who returned belonged to the former southern kingdom (the Judeans, or Jews). ...
By this time the name ‘Jew’ was in common use. By the time of the New Testament, the names ‘Hebrew’, ‘Israelite’ and ‘Jew’ were used interchangeably (Matthew 2:2; John 1:19; Acts 2:5; Romans 1:16; Romans 2:28-29; Romans 11:1; 1 Corinthians 9:20; 2 Corinthians 11:22; Galatians 2:14; Philippians 3:5; see also HEBREW; ISRAEL; JUDAH, TRIBE AND KINGDOM)
Mordecai - A Jew in the Persian court who caused the deliverance of the Jews from the destruction plotted by Haman
Faithless - ]'>[1] , it means, not untrustworthy, but unbelieving, just as in the Merchant of Venice Shylock is called ‘a faithless Jew,’ simply because he was an unbeliever in Christ
Israel - Means "prince of G-d"; Israel is (a) another name for the patriarch Jacob (b) the Jewish people (c) an Israelite - a Jew who is neither a Kohen nor a Levite (d) a common given name (e) the Land of Israel
Sosipater - ” He is said to be a kinsman (a Jew) of Paul who sent greetings to Rome (Romans 16:21 )
Recian - ) A Jew who spoke Greek; a Hellenist
Gre'Cian - The term Grecian, or Hellenist, denotes a Jew by birth or religion who spoke Greek. It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes in contrast with the Hebrews speaking the vernacular Hebrew or Aramaean
Baal teshuvah - �master of return�); a person who turns to G d in repentance, after willful or unknowing transgression of the Torah�s commandments; a Jew of secular or not fully observant background who has decided to undertake full Torah observance ...
Tyrannus - Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that his "school" was a private synagogue
Elymas - A name signifying 'magician,' applied to BAR-JESUS, a Jew
Abdi - A Jew who had married a foreign wife, Ezra 10:26 = Oabdius , Esther 9:27 Esther 9:27
Jews - Originally, a Jew was a member of the state of Judah during the period of the division of Israel into two nations: Judah and Israel. Today it is used of adherents of the Jewish religion
Jehu'di - (a Jew ), son of Nethaniah, a man employed by the princes of Jehoiakim's court to fetch Baruch to read Jeremiah's denunciation, ( Jeremiah 36:14 ) and then by the king to fetch the volume itself and read it to him
Hebrew servant - Law of: If a Jew stole and could not afford to make restitution, the courts would sell him into servitude for a six year term and payment from his "sale" would go towards paying his debt
Pagan - ) One who worships false gods; an idolater; a heathen; one who is neither a Christian, a Mohammedan, nor a Jew
Maccabees, Books of the - Its object is to encourage and admonish the Jews to be faithful to the religion of their fathers. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian Jews in their persecution. Its writer was evidently an Alexandrian Jew. The fifth contains a history of the Jews from B. It is a compilation made by a Jew after the destruction of Jerusalem, from ancient memoirs, to which he had access
Israelite - It is a name of honour, and is to be distinguished from both ‘Hebrew’ and ‘Jew,’ the former being, at least in NT times, a Jew with purely national sympathies, who spoke the native Hebrew or Aramaic dialect of Palestine; while the Jew was one who belonged to the ancient race wherever he might be settled and whatever his views. Every Jew, however, regarded himself as a true Israelite, and prided himself on the privileges which he, as a member of the favoured nation, had received when other nations had been passed by. He knows the way in which the Jew boasts of them, and claims that he can share in that boasting as well as any of his detractors. This feeling of exclusive national privilege led in many cases to the rejection of the gospel by the Jews, who did not wish their privileges to be extended to the heathen world
Eved ivri - ("the Hebrew servant") If a Jew stole and could not afford to make restitution, the courts would sell him into servitude for a six-year term and payment from his "sale" would go towards paying his debt
Arah - A Jew whose grand-daughter married Tobiah the Ammonite, who greatly hindered the building of the city Nehemiah 6:18
Alexander - (al ehx an' dehr) names five New Testament men including the son of Simon of Cyrene (Mark 15:21 ), a relative of Annas (Acts 4:6 ), a Jew of Ephesus (Acts 19:33 ), a false teacher (1 Timothy 1:19-20 ), and a coppersmith (2 Timothy 4:14 )
Zacch us - A Jew—a tax-collector at or near Jericho
Haman - Jew-hating descendant of Amalek, appointed by King Ahasuerus to be prime minister of the Persian Empire. He plotted to annihilate the Jews, but was thwarted by Mordecai and Esther
Hebrew - in the line of Jacob; an Israelite; a Jew
Luke - The diction of these books in the New Testament, the gospel and the Acts, is such as to persuade some that he must have been a Jew. The inference is that Luke was not a Jew
Apollo - (1century) Learned Jew, born Alexandria
Jehudi - JEHUDI (generally = ‘a Jew,’ but appears to be a proper name in Jeremiah 36:14 ; Jeremiah 36:21 ; Jeremiah 36:23 )
Alexander - A Jew of Ephesus
Mordecai - Mordecai was a Jew who lived in the Persian capital and whose cousin Esther became queen to the Persian Emperor (Esther 2:5-7; Esther 2:17). Between them, Mordecai and Esther saved the Jewish people from threatened destruction, and Mordecai later became the Emperor’s chief minister (Esther 10:3)
Entile - ) One of a non-Jewish nation; one neither a Jew nor a Christian; a worshiper of false gods; a heathen. ) Belonging to the nations at large, as distinguished from the Jews; ethnic; of pagan or heathen people
Jew - Jew . All Israelites who maintained their identity were its adherents, hence the name ‘Jew’ has absorbed the name ‘Israel. ...
On the special meaning of ‘the Jews’ in Jn
Tribute - In Matthew 17:24-27 the word denotes the temple rate (the "didrachma," the "half-shekel," as rendered by the RSV) which was required to be paid for the support of the temple by every Jew above twenty years of age ( Exodus 30:12 ; 2 Kings 12:4 ; 2 Chronicles 24:6,9 ). In Matthew 22:17 , Mark 12:14 , Luke 20:22 , the word may be interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans imposed on the Jewish people. It was the tax paid by every Jew to the Romans
Apollyon - As the twofold names Αbba (Hebrew) Father (Greek) in Mark 14:36 combine Jew and Gentile in the common salvation, so Satan's two names abaddon (Hebrew) and Αpollos (Greek) combine them in a common destruction
Hebrew - ...
One of the descendants of Eber, or Heber but particularly, a descendant of Jacob, who was a descendant of Eber an Israelite a Jew
Haman - His pride was hurt because Mordecai, the Jew, refused to how and do him reverence. The Jews, on the mention of his name on the day of Purim, hiss
Drusilla - She married Aziz king of Emesa on his becoming a Jew, but was subsequently seduced into leaving her husband and marrying Felix, procurator of Judaea
Didrachma - A Greek coin worth two drachmas or a Jewish half shekel, the amount of the Temple tax paid by every male Jew above age 19 (Matthew 17:24 )
R. yaakov yitzchak of peshischa - (Yid Hakadosh): Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchak of Peshischa, 1766-1813, known in the chassidic world by the title "The Holy Jew" (Yid Hakadosh), was the leading disciple of the "Seer of Lublin," but subsequently split off to form the famous Peshischa movement of Chassidut
Sceva - A Jew at Ephesus, a leader among the priests, perhaps the head of one of the twenty-four courses
Egyptian, the - ...
Such a sizeable following suggests that either an Egyptian Jew or a proselyte to Judaism was the leader of the revolt rather than a pagan Egyptian. This presumption together with Paul's response that he was a Jew of Tarsus, an important city of Cilicia, suggests a rural origin for the Egyptian rebel
Justin Martyr, Saint - His only extant works are his two "Apologies" and his "Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon
Enmity - By the abrogation of the Mosaic institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed
Martyr, Justin, Saint - His only extant works are his two "Apologies" and his "Dialogue with the Jew Tryphon
Zeresh - Haman's wife, who instigated him to erect a high gallows and to prevail on the king to hang on it Mordecai, then to go in merrily with the king unto the banquet, but predicted Haman's own fall when she heard Mordecai was a Jew (Esther 5:10; Esther 5:14; Esther 6:13)
Aquila - A Jew born in Pontus, a tent-maker by occupation, who with his wife Priscilla joined the Christian church at Rome. When the Jews were banished from that city by the emperor Claudius, Aquilla and his wife retired to Corinth
Drusilla - The fair but loose daughter of Herod Agrippa I and Cypros (Acts 12); sister of Herod Agrippa II; married to Azizus, king of Emesa, on his becoming a Jew; seduced by Felix, procurator of Judea, through Simon the Cyprian sorcerer (Josephus, Junias - a Jew
Nicodemus - a disciple of Jesus Christ, a Jew by nation, and a Pharisee, John 3:1 , &c
Avraham avinu - " (1813-1638 BCE) The first of the three Patriarchs; the first Jew
Hedge - "(he put) a hedge (around);" Mark 12:1 ; Luke 14:23 ; (b) metaphorically, of the "partition" which separated Gentile from Jew, which was broken down by Christ through the efficacy of His expiatory sacrifice, Ephesians 2:14
Nicanor - It is more than likely, therefore, that he was a Hellenist Jew of Syria
Elymas - Arabic (alim , "wise," related to ulema ) for Barjesus, the Jew sorcerer associated with Sergius Paulus
Boar - Though a forbidden food to the Moslem as well as the Jew ( Leviticus 11:7 , Deuteronomy 14:8 ), the flesh is eaten by the nominally Moslem Bedouin of Palestine
Theudas - An insurgent, Jew, mentioned by Gamaliel, A
Haman - He was a fierce enemy of the Jews, and he devised a plot to exterminate them. Through the intervention of Esther, however, his scheme was unmasked; and he was hanged on the gallows he had designed for Mordecai the Jew
Tertullus - According to the longer Western text (Acts 24:7 ), Tertullus was a Jew
Heldai - A Jew from Babylon, from whom and Tobijah and Jedaiah the gold and silver which they presented toward building the temple were to be taken, and crowns made for Joshua's head, afterward to be deposited in the temple as a memorial of the donors (as Cornelius' prayers and ahns of faith "came up for a memorial before God," Acts 10:4), until Messiah should come
Sceva - A Jew at Ephesus, a chief of the priests, whose seven sons sought by the name of Jesus to cast out a demon
Inclose - 1: συγκλείω (Strong's #4788 — Verb — sunkleio — soong-kli'-o ) "to shut together, shut in on all sides" (sun, "with," kleio, "to shut"), is used of a catch of fish, Luke 5:6 ; metaphorically in Romans 11:32 , of God's dealings with Jew and Gentile, in that He has "shut up (AV, concluded) all onto disobedience, that He might have mercy upon all. 26, and, in reference to the Gentiles, in the light of verses 12-25; in Galatians 3:22,23 ("the Scripture hath shut up all things under sin"), the Apostle shows that, by the impossibility of being justified by keeping the Law, all, Jew and Gentile, are under sin, so that righteousness might be reckoned to all who believe
Hebrew - A third name, which came into use later, was ‘Jew’, and this has remained in common use till the present day (Jeremiah 34:9; John 1:19; Acts 2:5; Romans 11:1; see Jew)
Drusilla - She was first betrothed to Antiochus Epiphanes, prince of Commagene; but, as he refused to become a Jew, she was married to Azizus, prince of Emesa
Abraham - (a) (1813-1638 BCE) The first of the three Patriarchs; the first Jew. (b) A common Jewish name
Avrohom - (a) (1813-1638 BCE) The first of the three Patriarchs; the first Jew. (b) A common Jewish name
Haman - He is called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings. He was hanged on the gallows which he had erected for Mordecai the Jew (Esther 7:10 )
Dositheus - A renegade Jew who frustrated the plot of Theodotus to assassinate king Ptolemy Philopator ( 3M Malachi 1:3 )
Sabbath Day's Journey - Distance a Jew in Jesus' day considered ritually legal to walk on the seventh day. That was the farthest that a loyal Jew should be from his center of worship on the Sabbath
Antinomians - One has but to read carefully the epistle to the Galatians to see that for Gentile believers to place themselves under the law is to fall from grace; and Paulexhorted them to be as he was, for he was (though a Jew by birth) as free from the law by the death of Christ as they were as Gentiles. They had not injured him at all by saying he was not a strict Jew, New Man - In His death Christ broke down the wall of partition between Jew and Gentile to create the two in Himself into 'one new man,' reconciling both unto God in one body by the cross, there remaining thus as before God no longer Jew or Gentile, but a man of an entirely new order
Mordecai - This poor despised Jew could not in conscience bow down and do homage to one of the spawn of Agag. ) What I had you your harem full of women for the riot of your lustful hours, concubines upon concubines, and the king's favour so great that none of the princes stood so high as yourself, and shall the sight of one poor miserable Jew, because he pays you no reverence, be enough to throw down all the props of this boasted grandeur? Must the blood of this man be shed before that Haman will acknowledge himself to be happy? yea, not this one poor. Jew only, but every Jew shall, die. Nothing can make the prosperous sinner truly happy so long as this spectre, like the Jew at the gate, riseth up and haunts the imagination
Partition - 1: φραγμός (Strong's #5418 — Noun Masculine — phragmos — frag-mos' ) primarily "a fencing in" (akin to phrasso, "to fence in, stop, close"), is used metaphorically in Ephesians 2:14 , of "the middle wall of partition;" "the partition" is epexegetic of "the middle wall," namely, the "partition" between Jew and Gentile
Gentile - ...
In the scriptures, a pagan a worshipper of false gods any person not a Jew or a christian a heathen. gentes, and imitated the Jews in giving the name gentiles to all nations who were not Jews nor christians
Abba - ...
The use of the Hebrew and of the Greek appellation addressed to the one Father beautifully suggests that the Spirit of adoption from Jesus, who first used the double invocation, inspires in both Jew and Gentile alike the experimental knowledge of God as our Father, because He is Father of Jesus with whom faith makes us one, and as our God because He is Jesus' God. and to My God and (therefore) your God"; Galatians 3:28, "there is neither Jew nor Greek, for ye are all one in Jesus Christ"; Ephesians 2:18, "through Him we both have access by one Spirit unto the leather
Trophimus - The Jews, seeing Trophimus with the Apostle in the city, hastily concluded that St. Paul had brought him into the inner court of the Temple, separated from the outer ‘Court of the Gentiles’ by a barrier on which were inscriptions in Greek and Latin forbidding any non-Jew to enter on pain of death
Caraites - A Jewish sect, which adheres closely to the text and letter of the Scriptures, rejecting the rabbinical interpretations and the cabbala. The Talmud appearing in the beginning of the sixth century, those of the best sense among the Jews were disgusted at the ridiculous fables with which it abounded. But about the year 750, Anan, a Babylonish Jew, declared openly for the written word of God alone, exclusive of all tradition; and this declaration produced a schism
Stop - 1: φράσσω (Strong's #5420 — Verb — phrasso — fras'-so ) "to fence in" (akin to phragmos, "a fence"), "close, stop," is used (a) metaphorically, in Romans 3:19 , of "preventing" all excuse from Jew and Gentile, as sinners; in 2 Corinthians 11:10 , lit
Alexander - The would-he spokesman of the Jews in the riot at Ephesus, which endangered them as well as the Christians ( Acts 19:33 ); not improbably the same as the coppersmith ( 2 Timothy 4:14 ) who did St. Paul ‘much evil,’ and who was probably an Ephesian Jew; possibly the same as the Alexander of 1 Timothy 1:20 (see Hymenæus), in which case we may regard him as an apostate Christian who had relapsed into Judaism
Carpenter - Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some handicraft: Paul was a tentmaker
Alexander - One of the leaders among the Jews when Peter and John were arrested. A Jew at Ephesus who sought to address the crowd in the theatre
Citizenship - The Jew had no citizenship: he belonged to Jehovah
Year Sabbatical - There was, moreover, a general release; no debt to a Jew was allowed to stand, but must be forgiven
Haggai - One of the minor prophets, probably accompanied Zerubbabel in the first return of the Jew from Babylon, B
aq'Uila - (an eagle ), a Jew whom St. D, 52,) He was a native of Pontus, but had fled with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
Become - ...
To the Jew, I became a Jew
Sophronius, Ecclesiastical Writer - Sophronius had, in dispute with a Jew, quoted from the Psalms, but the Jew said that the passages read differently in Hebrew
Tertullus - This name (a diminutive of Tertius ) is that of the advocate hired by the Jews to speak for them against St. From his name we should judge him to be a Roman; probably he was not a Jew. It is a gross piece of flattery, for the Jews were in constant opposition to Felix
Jason - (jay' ssuhn) Personal name often used by Jews as a substitute for Hebrew Joshua or Joseph and also used by Gentiles. He was brought up on charges before the city officials when the angry Jewish mob were unable to find Paul (Acts 17:6-7 ). He is identified as a Jew who joined Paul and others in greeting the Romans. A Jewish high priest during the final years of Seleucid control of Palestine. His Greek name reflects the Hellenistic influence that increasingly permeated Jewish life during the period before the Maccabean revolt
Fifteen, Fifteenth - translations give the number as 75 in Genesis 46:27 and in Exodus 1:5 , and this Stephen follows, being a Grecian Jew
Ammonians - Milner calls him "a Pagan Christian," who imagined that all religions, vulgar and philosophical, Grecian and barbarous, Jewish and Gentile, meant the same thing in substance. He undertook, by allegorizing and subtilizing various fables and systems, to make up a coalition of all sects and religions; and from his labours, continued by his disciples,—some of whose works still remain,—his followers were taught to look on Jew, philosopher, vulgar, Pagan, and Christian, as all of the same creed," and worshippers of the same God, whether denominated "Jehovah, Jove, or Lord
Wall - 2), occurs in Ephesians 2:14 , figuratively of the separation of Gentile from Jew in their unregenerate state, a partition demolished by the Cross for both on acceptance of the Gospel
Jew, Jewess - The term ‘Jew’ (Heb. The Jew himself preferred to be called an ‘Israelite,’ as the latter was the name of national honour and privilege (cf. article Israel), and we find ‘Jew’ to be the designation usually applied by foreigners to members of the Chosen People. The Jews themselves divided the whole world into Jews and Gentiles; and we find the Apostle Paul using this contrast in speaking of God’s judgment on sin: ‘tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first, and also of the Gentile’ (Romans 2:9). Again the term is used in contrasting Jews and Samaritans (John 4:9), the latter being descended from the mixed race of ancient Israelites and the settlers introduced by the Assyrian conquerors (cf. ...
The Jew is also contrasted with the proselyte who was a Jew by his adopted religious beliefs, but not by birth (Acts 2:10). In the Fourth Gospel we find the term ‘Jews’ applied to those who opposed the teaching of Jesus, as contrasted with believers in Christ, whatever their nationality might be; but generally the Jewish rulers seem to be indicated by the name in this Gospel. Thus ‘the Jews’ censure the man for carrying his bed on the Sabbath (Acts 5:10), and contend with the man born blind (Acts 9:22). Perhaps this usage of the Fourth Gospel arose from the influence of later times, when the Jews, and especially the Jewish authorities, were bitterly opposed to the teaching of Jesus. Thus in Galatians 2:13 ‘the Jews’ are the Christians of Jewish race. In the Epistle to the Romans (Romans 2:28-29) we find a distinction made between a Jew who is such outwardly and a Jew who is such inwardly. Here, as also in Romans 3:1, the Apostle uses the term ‘Jew,’ where we should naturally expect to find ‘Israelite,’ to designate a member of the Chosen People as a recipient of special Divine favour. Some who belong to the Jewish race are not spiritually partakers of the blessings which attach to it. In the passage where the writer of the Apocalypse (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9) speaks of those ‘who say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan,’ he may be referring to men who made a false claim to belong to the Jewish nation, or to Jews by race who were far from belonging to the true Israel of God. ...
One of the most remarkable features in connexion with the Jews in the apostolic times was their world-wide dispersion. From Spain in the West to the Persian Gulf in the East Jews had settled in every large city. Wherever the apostolic missionaries went, they found a Jewish synagogue, where they had access not merely to the Jewish population, but to the more earnest among the heathen who had been attracted by the monotheism and the moral characteristics of Judaism, and who often formed the nucleus of a Christian Church. The Jewish religion was tolerated in the Roman Empire, being regarded as a religio licita; and, so long as Christianity grew up and flourished in the shelter of the synagogue, it too might be regarded as enjoying the same toleration. Probably, however, the popular hatred of the Jews, which was always smouldering and ready to burst forth at any moment among the excitable populace, was one of the first causes of Christian persecution, as it took some considerable time before Christianity was fully recognized as an independent religion. The Jews themselves became the most persistent and implacable persecutors of the Christians. Probably the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by Claudius (Acts 18:2) was the result of dissensions regarding the new religion, which had sprung from Judaism and threatened to overwhelm it. ...
In Rome, as well as in many other cities of the Empire, Jews obtained considerable influence, in spite of the popular aversion to them. Jews, and especially Jewesses, were to be found in many prominent Roman families, and intermarriage between Jewish women and Gentiles was by no means uncommon. Thus Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1), was a Jewess who had married a Greek, while Drusilla, the wife of Felix the governor of Syria (Acts 24:24), is also described as a Jewess. Milman, History of the Jews3, 1863; J
Sopater - He is described as a native of that place (Βεροιαῖος), and was perhaps a Hellenistic Jew, one of those who contrasted so favourably with the Jews of Thessalonica, one of the ‘many’ who believed during the Apostle’s visit (Acts 17:10-14). If he was not a Jew he cannot be identified, as is sometimes suggested, with Sosipater (q. fellow-Jews
Apollos - A Jew of Alexandria, a learned and eloquent man, who through the Scriptures and the ministry of John the Baptist became a Christian. Passing thence into Achia, he preached with great power and success, especially among the Jews, Acts 19:1 1 Corinthians 3:6
Stranger - Such persons enjoyed many privileges in common with the Jews, but still were separate from them. The relation of the Jews to strangers was regulated by special laws (Deuteronomy 23:3 ; 24:14-21 ; 25:5 ; 26:10-13 ). In Genesis 23:4 it denotes one resident in a foreign land; Exodus 23:9 , one who is not a Jew; Numbers 3:10 , one who is not of the family of Aaron; Psalm 69:8 , an alien or an unknown person. The Jews were allowed to purchase strangers as slaves (Leviticus 25:44,45 ), and to take usury from them (Deuteronomy 23:20 )
Asmodaeus - It would seem that the Book of Tobit is really a Median folk-story, adapted for edification by a Jew, with sundry uncomprehended features of the original left unchanged
Sceva - An implement, a Jew, chief of the priests at Ephesus (Acts 19:13-16 ); i
Agabus - He came from Judaea to Antioch while Paul and Barnabas were there, and foretold the famine which occurred the next year in Palestine (for a Jew would mean the Jewish world, by "throughout all the world
Aquila - A converted Jew of Pontus, husband of Priscilla, whom Paul first met at Corinth. Aquila and Priscilla had been driven from Rome as Jews by an edict of the emperor Claudius
Countenance - The form of the face of the Jew identifies him at once in every part of the world
Asaph - An officer, probably a Jew, controller of the forests of king Artaxerxes in Judaea
Ditch - Paul’s taunt of the Jew as ‘a guide of the blind’ (Romans 2:19)
a'Saph - ...
The keeper of the royal forest or "paradise" of Artaxerxes, (Nehemiah 2:8 ) a Jew, in high office at the court of Persia
Nathanael - He appears to have been a pious Jew who waited for the Messiah: and upon Jesus saying to him, "Before Philip called thee, I saw thee under the fig tree," Nathanael, convinced, by some circumstance not explained, of his omniscience, exclaimed, "Master, thou art the Son of God, and the King of Israel
Aquila - A Jew of Pontus whom Paul found at Corinth on his arrival from Athens. He had fled, with his wife Priscilla, from Rome, in consequence of an order of Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city
he'Brew - ( Genesis 10:24 ) The term Israelite was used by the Jews of themselves among themselves; the term Hebrew was the name by which they were known to foreigners. The latter was accepted by the Jews in their external relations; and after the general substitution of the word Jew, it still found a place in that marked and special feature of national contradistinction, the language
Zacchaeus - He was a rich man, a Jew ( Luke 19:8 ), of a higher grade than St
Thunder - (Psalm 81:7 ) Thunder was, to the mind of the Jew, the symbol of divine power (Psalm 29:3 ) etc
Access - By his death, also, the middle wall of partition was broken down, and Jew and Gentile had both free access to God; whereas, before, the Gentiles had no nearer access in the temple worship than to the gate of the court of Israel
Rabshakeh - He was the chief spokesman; and from the fact of his being able to speak in the Jews' language, he is supposed to have been either a proselyte or an apostate Jew
Matthew - An apostle and evangelist, was son of Alpheus, a Galilean by birth, a Jew by religion, and a publican by profession, Matthew 9:9 10:3 Luke 6:15
Apol'Los - (given by Apollo ) a Jew from Alexandria, eloquent (which may also mean learned ) and mighty in the Scriptures; one instructed in the way of the Lord, according to the imperfect view of the disciples of John the Baptist, ( Acts 18:24 ) but on his coming to Ephesus during a temporary absence of St
Isaacus Senior, Disciple of Ephraim the Syrian - 409) with Isaac the converted Jew who calumniated pope Damasus. Assemani thinks that the silence of Gennadius and his epitomizer Honorius renders it doubtful that Isaac Senior, the author of the Libellus Fidei , was a Jew
Purification, - The idea of uncleanness was not peculiar to the Jew; but with all other nations simple ablution sufficed: no sacrifices were demanded. The Jew alone was taught by the use of expiatory offerings to discern to its fullest extent the connection between the outward sign and the inward fount of impurity
Esther - At the death of her father and mother she was adopted by her cousin Mordecai, the descendant of a Jew who had been carried away captive with Jehoiachin. By her influence the plot of Haman to destroy the Jews was frustrated. The Jews revenged themselves on their foes, and Mordecai was advanced to a high place in the empire
Shekel, Half Shekel - , due from every adult Jew for the maintenance of the Temple services, Matthew 17:24 (twice)
Alexander - ...
...
A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33 ). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It was probably intended that he should show that he and the other Jews had no sympathy with Paul any more than the Ephesians had
Fringe - Tassels of twisted cords fastened to the four corners of the outer garment, worn by observant Jews as a reminder of covenant obligations (Numbers 15:38-39 ; Deuteronomy 22:12 ; compare Zechariah 8:23 ). Such translation contributes to a picture of a Jesus who was not really a Jew
Tradition - Among the Jews, they had certain sayings and opinions supposed to be received from the earliest fathers, and handed down from one generation to another, which they called traditions. ) It were to be devoutly wished that the weakness, and in some instances the wickedness, of traditions had ceased with Jews and Christians. But the trumpery of legends and reliques; and the like; which some have held with equal veneration to the Scriptures, plainly prove that those things, are in common from the folly and corruption of poor fallen nature, both of Jew and Gentile
Inward, Inwardly - , "in (the) secret, or hidden" ("part" being understood) is rendered "inwardly," said of a spiritual Jew, in contrast to the one who is merely naturally circumcised and so is one outwardly
Schoolmaster - When a Jew came to a believing knowledge of Christ, this office of the law ceased. ...
Little is known respecting the schools of the Jews, nor when and how far they took the place of domestic instruction, Deuteronomy 6:7-9 11:18-20 . At the time of Christ, it would appear that the Jews in general were able at least to read and write
Jews in the New Testament - The word Jew is derived ultimately from the tribe of Judah through Middle English Iewe , Old French Ieu , Latin Iudaeus , and Greek Ioudaios (compare the woman's name Judith , which originally meant “Jewess”). Mordecai, who is called a “Jew” in Esther 2:5 ) were those from Judah, hence the name Jews (Nehemiah 1:2 ). This is the name used in the treaty between Judas Maccabeus and the Romans, described in 1 Maccabees 8:23-32 : “May all go well with the Romans and with the nation of the Jews”...
Matthew, Mark, Luke The term Ioudaios occurs relatively rarely in the Synoptic Gospels, the first three Gospels which are closely parallel to each other. The word occurs but five times in Matthew, seven times in Mark, and five times in Luke, usually in the expression “King of the Jews” (12 of the total of 17). Of the remaining occurrences only Matthew 28:15 designates Jews as contrasted to Christian believers. In John 4:9 the woman says to Jesus, “thou, being a Jew,” and in John 4:22 Jesus says, “salvation is of the Jews. ” Many of the Jews believed in Jesus ( John 8:31 ; John 11:45 ; John 12:11 ). Other references are neutral as in John 3:1 , where Nicodemus is described as a ruler of the Jews. Whereas the former names Jesus' enemies as scribes and Pharisees, high priests and Sadducees, the Gospel of John simply uses the general term “Jews. ” The term often implies Jewish authorities as in John 7:13 ; John 9:22 ; John 19:38 ; John 20:19 . ...
The Jews impugned Jesus' birth and His sanity (John 8:48 ), and even alleged that He was demon possessed (John 8:52 ). The Jews questioned His statements about the Temple (John 2:20 ) and were scandalized at His claim to be the bread from heaven (John 6:41 ). ...
The heightened use of the term “Jews” in John to serve as a general designation for those who denied that Jesus was the Christ may be explained by the fact that John's Gospel was composed at a later date than the Synoptics—after such events as the destruction of Jerusalem in A. 80 had increased mutual hostilities between Jews and Christians. ...
Acts Paul was a Jew from Tarsus (Acts 21:39 ; Acts 22:3 ). After his dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus, his fellow Jews sought to kill him (Acts 9:23 ). King Herod Agrippa I arrested Peter and killed the Apostle James, believing this would please the Jews (Acts 12:1-3 ). ...
Following his conviction that the gospel should be preached first to the Jews (Romans 1:16 ), Paul on his missionary journeys began his preaching in the Jewish synagogues—at Salamis on Cyprus (Acts 13:5 ), at Iconium (Acts 14:1 ), at Thessalonica (Acts 17:1 ), at Athens (Acts 17:15-17 ), and at Corinth (Acts 18:1 ). Though he made some converts among the Jews, even converting the synagogue ruler at Corinth (Acts 18:8 ), and no doubt had success among the “god fearers” or proselytes who were interested in converting to Judaism (Acts 13:43 ; Acts 15:1-57 ), the majority of the Jews reacted violently against Paul's message (Acts 13:50 ; Acts 14:2 ; Acts 17:5 ; Acts 18:12 ). Paul therefore turned his efforts increasingly toward the Gentiles, the non-Jews. ...
Pauline Letters As the “apostle to the Gentiles,” Paul argued against “Judaizers” that Gentile converts did not have to be circumcized, that is, become Jews first, before they became christians (1618529061_39 ). Paul, who had been “an Hebrew of the Hebrews; as touching the law, a Pharisee” (Philippians 3:5 ) and had been more zealous in his pursuit of Judaism than his peers (Galatians 1:13-14 ), came to the radical conclusion that a true Jew is not one who was physically descended from Abraham (compare John 8:31-41 ), adhered to the Torah or Law of Moses (Romans 2:17 ,Romans 2:17,2:28 ) and was circumcized. For Paul a true Jew is one who believes that Jesus is the Messiah or Christ (Galatians 3:26-29 ), relies on God's grace and not works of the law (Ephesians 2:8-9 ), and has been circumcized in his heart by the Holy Spirit (Galatians 2:2-9 ; Galatians 5:6 ). In spite of his grief that most of his fellow Jews did not accept his message, Paul did not teach that God had abandoned the Jews but believed that God still has a plan for them (Romans 9-11 ). )...
Revelation The two references in the Book of Revelation are to the church at Smyrna (Revelation 2:9 ) and the church at Philadelphia (Revelation 3:9 ), where there were those who claimed to be Jews but who were denounced as the “synagogue of Satan” because they opposed Christians
Apollos - A Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures and eloquent (Acts 18:24 ; RSV, "learned")
Tobiah - One of the major adversaries to Nehemiah's rebuilding efforts at Jerusalem, Tobiah was a practicing Jew who lived in a residence chamber in the Temple
Simeon - A devout Jew who lived in Jerusalem during the time of Jesus' birth
Walls - The “wall of partition” (Ephesians 2:14 ) represented Temple worship and Jewish practice separating Jew from Gentile
Loss - The old things as a Jew were a liability to him
Israel - So again, Exodus 6:6-7) But what endears this name yet infinitely more is, that the Lord Jesus himself, as the glorious Head of his church and people, including both Jew and Gentile, calls himself by this name; and JEHOVAH doth the same by Christ
Haman - In order to revenge himself upon Mordecai the Jew, he plotted the extermination of all the Jews in the kingdom; but in the providence of God he as thwarted by Esther, fell into disgrace with the king, and wrought his own ruin and the upbuilding of the Jews. He is called an Agaite; and as Agag was a common name of the Amalekite kings, the Jews believe he was of that race. This would help to explain his malice against the Jews
Tribute - Every Jew throughout the world was required to pay an annual tribute or capitation-tax of half a shekel, about twenty-five cents, in acknowledgment of God's sovereignty and for the maintenance of the temple service, Exodus 30:12-15
Zacchae'us - ( Luke 19:1-10 ) Zacchaeus was a Jew, as may be inferred from his name and from the fact that the Saviour speaks of him expressly as "a son of Abraham
Ampliatus - It is possible that he was a Jew who had taken a Latin name (cf. a Jew, Romans 16:21)
Sheshbazzar - ’...
If, then, Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel were two different men, was Sheshbazzar a Jew or a foreigner? In all probability he was a Jew. It was quite in accordance with the policy of the Persians to appoint a Jew to act as governor in Jerusalem, while the name Sheshbazzar , being of Bab
Taxes - First mentioned in the command (Exodus 30:11-16 ) that every Jew from twenty years and upward should pay an annual tax of "half a shekel for an offering to the Lord
Mattathias - A Jew, who had married a foreign wife ( 1Es 9:33 ); called in Ezra 10:33 Mattattah
Sin - He shows that everyone, both Jew and Greek, is under sin (Romans 3:9)
Tema - ...
Teyma, a small town, preserves the name (Themme in Ptolemy 5:19, section 6); commanded by the castle El Ablak of a Jew Samuel (A
Zelotes - In their opinion it was a high crime to pay tribute to the Romans and rebellion was the duty of every patriotic Jew
Aquila And Priscilla - 25, who, confounding Judaism with Christianity, writes: "he banished from Rome the Jews who were constantly making disturbances instigated by one Chrestus," i. ...
Aquila was a Jew, born in Pontus (as was the Aquila who translated the Old Testament into Greek); the name is Latin, assumed as Jews often took a Roman name, when thrown into much intercourse with Romans. Paul probably availed himself of his intercourse in their common trade to bring the gospel home to the Jew Aquila, he to his wife. She and he together, as true yokefellows in the Lord, to all within their reach; to Apollos, who became the mighty champion of Christianity, convincing the Jews from the Scriptures at Corinth; setting up "a church in their house" wherever they were: in Ephesus; then at Rome, risking their lives for Paul, and earning thanks of "all the churches of the Gentiles
Reconciliation - It is a relationship that comes between man and wife as well as Jew and Gentile. It is the cross of Christ that reconciles both Jew and Gentile. Because of this, Jew and Gentile have access to the Father by one spirit. Gentile and Jewish believers are reconciled to God and the middle wall of partition is broken down; both are brought near by the blood of Christ
Modin - Here Mattathias, by slaying a Jew who conformed to the paganizing commands of Antiochus, struck the first blow for Jewish religious freedom ( 1Ma 2:1-28 ). There are numerous rock-tombs about, some of them traditionally known as Qabûr el-Yehûd , or ‘the Jews’ tombs,’ but nothing is to be seen in any way suggestive of the Maccabæan mausoleum
Custom - ) of half a shekel was annually paid by every adult Jew for the temple. It had to be paid in Jewish coin (Matthew 22:17-19 ; Mark 12:14,15 ). ) were necessary, to enable the Jews who came up to Jerusalem at the feasts to exchange their foreign coin for Jewish money; but as it was forbidden by the law to carry on such a traffic for emolument (Deuteronomy 23:19,20 ), our Lord drove them from the temple (Matthew 21:12 : Mark 11:15 )
Spinosism - The doctrines of Spinoza, who was born a Jew at Amsterdam in 1632
Sanballat - Although addressed by his Babylonian name (probably acquired during the Exile), Sanballat was a practicing Jew
Jason - This Greek name was adopted by many Jews whose Hebrew designation was Joshua (Jesus). a Jew), is probably the same man
Popery - Lightfoot observes:– 'Yoke-fellows, indeed, are the Jew and Romanist above all people of the world, in a deluded fancying their own bravery and privilege above all the world besides. He that comes to read the Jewish writings, especially those that are of the nature of sermons, will find this to be the main stuffing of them, almost in every leaf and page. 'How choice a people is Israel! how dearly God is in love with Israel! what a happy thing it is to be of the seed of Abraham! how blessed the nation of the Jews above all nations!' And such stuff as this all along
Sabbath-Day's Journey - This is mentioned as the greatest distance a Jew was allowed to travel on the Sabbath
Haman - King Ahasuerus, having taken him into favour, promoted him above all the princes of his court, who bent the knee to him (probably prostrated themselves wholly before him, as to a deity) when he entered the palace: this Mordecai the Jew declined, for which slight, Haman plotted the extirpation of the whole Jewish nation; which was providentially prevented
Corner, Cornerstone - So Christ unites Jew and Gentile, Ephesians 2:20 ; again, as one may carelessly stumble over the "corner stone," when turning the "corner," so Christ proved a stumbling stone to Jews, 1 Peter 2:6
Theophilus - Theophilus (13) a Christian who discussed Christianity with Simon a Jew in a treatise published by a Gallic writer named EVAGRIUS in 5th cent. The Jew begins by objecting that Christ cannot be God because in Deuteronomy it is said "There is no other God beside Me," and Isaiah says "I am the first and the last and beside Me there is no God. Simon then raises the favourite difficulty of the Jews from 2nd cent. ) has a learned monograph on this and discusses the Jewish controversy as it was maintained by the Fathers
Ananias - A Jew of Jerusalem, the husband of Sapphira, who attempted to join the Christians, and pretended to give them the entire price of his lands, but died instantly on being convicted of falsehood by Peter, Acts 5:1-10 . A high priest of the Jews, the son of Nebedaeus
Alexander - A Jew of Ephesus, who sought in vain to quiet the popular commotion respecting Paul, Acts 4:6 ...
5
Haman - A survivor of such a race would instinctively hate Israel and every Jew
New Man - Converts to Christ, whether Jew, Greek, male, female, slave, or free, have become part of one new person, the body of Jesus. ...
Speaking of Jews and Gentiles as disparate entities, Paul declares that Christ's "purpose was to create in himself one new man ("humanity" NRSV) out of the two, thus making peace, and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility
Gentiles - goi , γοι, ἔθνος, is translated 'nation,' and refers to the Jewish nation. Ἕλλην (in plural) is translated 'Gentiles' in John 7:35 ; Romans 2:9,10 ; Romans 3:9 ; 1 Corinthians 10:32 ; 1 Corinthians 12:13 , in contrast to the Jews; but would be better translated 'Greeks,' as it is in most places. ...
God had raised a wall between the Jews and the Gentiles, which in Christ's death was broken down for believers, "to make in himself of twain one new man. "There is neither Jew nor Greek . This does not touch unbelieving Jews and Gentiles, who are kept separate in God's present and future dealings
Abel - Abel is a type of Christ, as Cain is that of the Jew. As the Jews broke the law against both God and their neighbour, so Cain disregarded God's judgement on man, and slew his brother
Tithes - If, however, the Jew could not with convenience carry his tithe thither, he was permitted to sell it and to take the money, adding one-fifth of the amount-that is, if he sold the tithe for a dollar, he should bring, in money, a dollar and twenty cents—and to purchase therewith what was required at the feast after he came to the sanctuary
Abel - Abel is a type of Christ, as Cain is that of the Jew. As the Jews broke the law against both God and their neighbour, so Cain disregarded God's judgement on man, and slew his brother
Dispersion - Still, connection with the temple was kept up by each Jew everywhere contributing the half shekel to its support (Matthew 17:24). , took with him, and settled, many Jews in the trans-Tiberine quarter of Rome. The apostles in every city followed God's order, as Paul told the Jews at Antioch in Pisidia, "it was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken unto you" (Acts 3:26; Acts 13:46); so Romans 1:16, "to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. Besides the Jews, in the several cities there were the "devout" Gentiles who in some degree acknowledged the God of Israel
Jew, Jews, Jewess, Jewish, Jewry, Jews' Religion - meaning, "Jewish," sometimes with the addition of aner, "a man," Acts 10:28 ; 22:3 ; in Acts 21:39 with anthropos, in some mss. , "a Jewish false-prophet;" in John 3:22 , with the word chora, "land" or "country," signifying "Judean," lit. , "Judean country;" used by metonymy for the people of the country; (b) as a noun, "a Jew, Jews," e. The name "Jew" is primarily tribal (from Judah). , John 2:6 ; Acts 14:1 ; Galatians 2:15 , where it denotes Christians of Jewish race; it distinguishes Jews from Samaritans, in John 4:9 ; from proselytes, in Acts 2:10 . The word is most frequent in John's Gospel and the Acts; in the former "it especially denotes the typical representatives of Jewish thought contrasted with believers in Christ . or with other Jews of less pronounced opinions, e. In Romans 2:28,29 the word is used of ideal Jews, i. , Jews in spiritual reality, believers, whether Jews or Gentiles by natural birth. The feminine, "Jewess," is found in Acts 16:1 ; 24:24 . In Luke 23:5 ; John 7:1 , where the AV has "Jewry," the RV translates it as usual, "Judea. " ...
A — 2: Ἰουδαϊκός (Strong's #2451 — Adjective — ioudaikos — ee-oo-dah-ee-kos' ) denotes "Jewish," Titus 1:14 . ...
B — 1: Ἰουδαϊσμός (Strong's #2454 — Noun Masculine — ioudaismos — ee-oo-dah-is-mos' ) "Judaism," denotes "the Jews' religion," Galatians 1:13,14 , and stands, not for their religious beliefs, but for their religious practices, not as instituted by God, but as developed and extended from these by the traditions of the Pharisees and scribes. In the Apocrypha it denotes comprehensively "the Government, laws, institutions and religion of the Jews. , to conform to "Jewish" religious practices and manners, is translated "to live as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14 . ...
D — 1: φυτεύω (Strong's #5452 — Verb — ioudaikos — foot-yoo'-o ) "in Jewish fashion," is translated "as do the Jews," in Galatians 2:14
Nations, the - ...
The intertestamental period, as indicated by the books of the Apocrypha, exhibits a continued distinction between the Jews and the "nations. The defilement of the temple by Antiochus IV and the Jewish response dramatizes the struggle between Judaism and the forces of Hellenization. All these terms reflect the distinction between Jew and non-Jew in first-century Palestine. Early in his ministry he directed his efforts toward his fellow Jews. Still, even after referring to non-Jews with the image of "dogs" (Mark 7:27 ), Jesus drove the demon from the Greek woman's daughter. "...
The work of the apostle Paul reflects the conflict between Jew and non-Jew in early Christian communities. The requirements for Jewish and non-Jewish Christians were problematic for the early church. Among these the incident between Paul and Peter concerning the necessity of circumcision for the non-Jewish Christian (Galatians 2 ) highlights this problem. But in the final analysis, there is "neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus
Eternity - ...
The idea of eternity, like the idea of immortality, was probably beyond the range of early Jewish thought. (1) The pious Jew, turning away more and more from the anthropomorphism of cruder religions, strove to differentiate the infinite God from finite man. (2) With the Exile came a decay of national ideals, and the Jew began to consider more his own personality and its relation to this eternal God. The Jew found himself in an evil world. ) for the Jew himself. Whether this עוֹלָם הַכָּא would be endless the Jew did not at first stop to inquire. ...
In the time of Christ, Jewish thought on the future had developed very much, and had assumed many forms (see Eschatology)
Bar-Jesus - The name of ‘a certain Magian, a false prophet, a Jew’ ( Acts 13:6 ) whom St
Sennacherib - He says he captured forty-six fenced cities, and the fortresses and villages round about them belonging to Hezekiah the Jew, and carried away 200,150 souls, and horses, mules, asses, camels, oxen, and sheep without number, etc
Ancient of Days - ...
Disliking the anthropomorphic picture of God in Daniel 7:1 , Jephet, an 11th century Qaraite Jew, identified the Ancient of days as an angel like other angels in the Book of Daniel
Simeon - An aged godly Jew residing at Jerusalem, who had been favored with a divine intimation that he should live to see the Lord's Christ
Redeemer - In the law of Moses, Leviticus 25:25,48 , this title is given to one who has the right of redemption in an inheritance, especially to a near kinsman, who may redeem it from a stranger or any Jew who had bought it
Edomites - In the time of the Maccabees John Hyrcanus compelled the Edomites to be circumcised and to conform to the Jewish laws, or leave the country. They were circumcised, and one of them became procurator Of Judaea — Antipater, the father of HEROD THE GREAT, who was an Edomite, or Idumean, by birth, though nominally a Jew
Judaizers - Those who adopted Jewish religious practices or sought to influence others to do so. In the Septuagint this verb is used in relation to the Gentiles in Persia who adopted Jewish practices in order to avoid the consequences of Esther's decree (Esther 8:13 ), which permitted Jews to avenge the wrongs committed against them. The Septuagint not only uses ioudaizo [ ]'>[1] to translate the Hebrew mityahadim ("to become a Jew"), but adds that these Gentiles were circumcised. ...
In Galatians 2:14 it means to "live like Jews" (RSV, neb, NASB, Phillips), "follow Jewish customs" ( NIV ), or "live by the Jewish law" (Barclay). Peter's actions are viewed by Paul as a serious compromise of the gospel of salvation by grace through faith alone, lending support to the position that sought to impose Jewish ceremonial law on the Gentiles. Thus, Paul interprets Peter's withdrawal in terms of its effect in compelling Gentile Christians to live like Jews. In this sense, "Judaizers" refers to Jewish Christians who sought to induce Gentiles to observe Jewish religious customs: to "judaize. Amidst the rising pressures of Jewish nationalism in Palestine during the mid-first century, and increased Zealot animosity against any Jew who had Gentile sympathies, it would appear that these Jewish Christians embarked on a judaizing mission among Paul's converts in order to prevent Zealot persecution of the Palestinian church. Jewett, New Testament Studies ; R
Letters - But to the ordinary Jew γρ. ...
With the rudiments of the Law every Jew was made thoroughly and intimately conversant from his earliest intelligent years (see Education). The education of the Jewish child had the primary purpose of enabling him to read the passages which it was essential for him to know for the proper discharge of his religious duties
Fullness of Time - A major theme of Ephesians is that Christ has already broken down the dividing wall of hostility between Jew and Gentile (1 John 2:11-22 , especially 1John 2:14,1 John 2:21 )
si'Las - (Acts 15:32 ) His name, derived from the Latin silva , "wood," betokens him a Hellenistic Jew, and he appears to have been a Roman citizen
Well - Samaritan, Jewish, Christian, and Moslem traditions support this identification with absolute unanimity. While surprised that a Jew, even when urged by thirst, should thus accost a Samaritan, the woman did not deny the Saviour’s request
Difference - There is no difference between the Jew and the Greek
Apelles - (Ἀπελλῆς, a Greek name possibly contracted from Apollodorus, and apparently common among Jews of the Dispersion [1]). Nothing is known of Apelles beyond this reference...
Assuming the Roman destination of these salutations, he was probably a Jewish convert residing in Rome as a member of the Imperial household
Esther (2) - It has generally been held in high estimation among the Jews, who class it with Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Solomon's Song, and the Lamentations, as the five megilloth or rolls, and solemnly read it at the feast of Purim. " The circumstantial minuteness of detail, the vividness of the portraits, the Persian words, and the whole tone of the book indicate that the author was a Jew who lived about the time of the events recorded, at the court of Persia, where he had access to the official documents of the kingdom
Gentiles - A little before the last rebellion of the Jews, some mutineers would have persuaded the priests to accept no victim not presented by a Jew; and obliged them to reject those which were offered by command of the emperor, for the Roman people. ...
From the above particulars, we learn the meaning of what the Apostle Paul calls "the middle wall of partition," between Jews and Gentiles, broken down by the Gospel
Key - Peter, that he should first open the gate of his kingdom, both to Jew and Gentile, in making the first converts among them, Matthew 16:19 . The term binding and loosing was customarily applied by the Jews to a decision respecting doctrines or rites, establishing which were lawful and which unlawful
Aquila - Aquila came thither, not long before, from Italy, being obliged to leave Rome upon the edict which the emperor Claudius had published, banishing the Jews from that city. Paul afterward quitted Aquila's house, and abode with Justus, near the Jewish synagogue at Corinth; probably, as Calmet thinks, because Aquila was a converted Jew, and Justus was a convert from Paganism, that in this case the Gentiles might come and hear him with more liberty
Mat'Thew - His original name was Levi, and his name Matthew was probably adopted as his new apostolic name was a Jew
Jew - John speaks of 'the Jews,' 'the Jews' passover,' etc. , as though he were not a Jew. ...
In the addresses to the seven churches we twice read of those who "say they are Jews, and are not. In a similar way the Jews prided themselves in being 'sons of Abraham,' whereas, the Lord declared that they were not such morally. The name JewESS occurs only in Acts 16:1 ; Acts 24:24
Barnabas, Feast of Saint - Barnabas was born at Cyprus, but was a Jew of thetribe of Levi. Barnabas, but tradition tells us that he returned to Cyprus,spending the remainder of his life among his countrymen, and thathe suffered martyrdom, being stoned to death by the unbelievingJews at Salamis
Banking - These institutions both pagan and Jewish had the general confidence of the people. ...
Old Testament The law protected the poor by forbidding a Jew to charge interest to a fellow Jew (Exodus 22:25 ; Leviticus 25:35:38 ; Deuteronomy 23:19-20 ; compare Psalm 15:5 ; Proverbs 28:8 ; Ezekiel 18:8 ,Ezekiel 18:8,18:13 ; Ezekiel 22:12 ). It was necessary to change foreign money into Jewish money to pay the Temple tax. Because of this challenge the Jewish leaders started looking for a way to destroy Jesus (Mark 11:18 )
Banking - These institutions both pagan and Jewish had the general confidence of the people. ...
Old Testament The law protected the poor by forbidding a Jew to charge interest to a fellow Jew (Exodus 22:25 ; Leviticus 25:35:38 ; Deuteronomy 23:19-20 ; compare Psalm 15:5 ; Proverbs 28:8 ; Ezekiel 18:8 ,Ezekiel 18:8,18:13 ; Ezekiel 22:12 ). It was necessary to change foreign money into Jewish money to pay the Temple tax. Because of this challenge the Jewish leaders started looking for a way to destroy Jesus (Mark 11:18 )
Matthew, Saint - A Galilean Jew by birth, the son of Alpheus, he was a publican by trade, and therefore despised by the Pharisees; he possessed some education and a knowledge of Greek
to'Bit, Book of, - The scene of the book is placed in Assyria, whither Tobit, a Jew, had been carried as a captive by Shalmaneser. Nowhere else is there preserved so complete and beautiful a picture of the domestic life of the Jews after the return. A doctrinal feature of the book is the firm belief in a glorious restoration of the Jewish people
Idumaea - In the early part of the Jewish exile many of the Edomites overran the south of Judaea, and when the Nabataeans, at some time during the Persian period, conquered their own land, many more joined the earlier settlers in South Judaea, and that district became known as Idumaea. By the law of Deuteronomy 23:7-8 they thus became full Jews in the third generation, though Herod himself was sometimes reproached as a ‘half-Jew’ (Josephus Ant. Although the Idumaeans were ‘sons of Esau,’ their interests from this time were entirely merged with those of the Jews, and their country was reckoned to Judaea, Idumaea being counted one of the eleven toparchies of Judaea in Roman times (Josephus BJ iii
Changers of Money - They set up their tables in the court of the Gentiles, to exchange at a price the foreign coin of Jews and proselytes coming from distant lands for the Hebrew half shekel (which was required from every adult from 20 years old and upward: Exodus 38:26) in presenting themselves to worship at the tabernacle or temple. The court of the Gentiles, as distinguished from that of Israel and that of the priests, was designed not only for an unclean Jew, but also for the uncircumcised Gentile proselytes. ...
The Jewish traffic here was an insult to the Gentiles
Israelite - It has the particular significance, suggested by the story of Jacob in Genesis 32:28 ; Genesis 35:10 , of one belonging to the Jewish race, with special reference to the privileges conferred by God on His people: ‘whose is the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the temple service, and the promises’ ( Romans 9:4 ). Its use (as distinct from ‘Jew’ and ‘Hebrew’) became closely associated with belief in the Messianic hope (cf. We may compare the attitude of ‘the Jews,’ in ch
Highway - The idea is clear—where men both good and bad, Jew and Gentile, are most likely to be found
Beni Khaibir - Samuel Brett, who wrote a narrative of the proceedings of the great council of the Jews in Hungary, A. Wolff, a converted Jew, gives the following account in a late journal. He inquired of the rabbins at Jerusalem, relative to these wandering Jews, and received the following information: "Rabbi Mose Secot is quite certain that the Beni Khaibir are descendants of the Rechabites; at this present moment they drink no wine, and have neither vineyard, nor field, nor seed; but dwell, like Arabs, in tents, and are wandering nomades
Jew - Partly from the predominance of the members of the old kingdom of Judah among those who returned to Palestine, partly from the identification of Judah with the religious ideas and hopes of the people, all the members of the new state were called Jews (Judeans) and the name was extended to the remnants of the race scattered throughout the nations. ) The force of the title "Jew" is seen particularly in the Gospel of St
Judas - A Jew holding some important position at Jerusalem; he is named in the title of a letter sent from the Jews of Jerusalem and Judæa and the Jewish Senate to their brethren in Egypt, and to a certain Aristobulus ( 2M Malachi 1:10 ). Judas, a Jew of Damascus ( Acts 9:11 )
Approve, Approved - ...
In the next chapter, the Apostle speaks of the Jew as "approving things that are excellent," Romans 2:18 . The Jew knew God's will, and mentally "approved" of the things in which God had instructed him out of the Law
Claim - ...
There were, however, two great relationships in the Hebrew-Roman world that were strangely marked by aloofness and disruption, namely, spiritual fellowship between God and man, and the racial status of Jew and Greek. Among the Jews the voice of prophecy and of direct communication with God had ceased. ...
With regard to the mutual recognition of Jew and Gentile, the antagonism was regarded on both sides as radical and permanent. The Jew despised the Gentile as ‘flesh and blood,’ humanity without religion; the Gentile saw in the Jew the negation of all social instinct, the genius of unnatural hate, religion without humanity. It was a great task that was soon to confront the gospel, for the Jew had to be convinced that the alien had been divinely provided for in the promises (Ephesians 2:19), and the Gentile had to learn that there was no place for pride where a wild branch had been grafted contrary to custom into a cultivated stem, and owed not only its sustenance but the higher quality of its new fruit to that incorporation (Romans 11:17-24). And yet in a quarter of a century after Christ’s death it could be stated as something that had passed beyond comment and controversy,—‘There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus’ (Galatians 3:28; See Power)
Grecians - ...
Zechariah (Zechariah 9:13) represents Judah and Ephraim as the arrows filling God's bow, "when I have raised up thy son, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece" (Javan) thus foretelling that the Jewish Maccabees would punish Greece in the person of Antiochus Epiphanes, one of Alexander's successors, in just retribution for her purchasing from Tyre as slaves" the children of Judah and Jerusalem. " Isaiah (Isaiah 66:19) foretells that the Jews who survive His judgments He will send as missionaries to Javan to "declare My glory among the Gentiles. The Greek of the New Testament and of the Grecians or Hellenist Jews was not Classical Greek, but Hebrew modes of thought and idiom clothed with Greek words. The Grecians or Greek-speaking Jews were at once Jewish missionaries to the pagan, witnessing everywhere against the prevalent polytheism, and pioneers to prepare unconsciously the way for the gospel missionary. They formed the connecting link between the Hebrew Jews and the Gentiles. ...
"Greek" means either a native of Greece or else a Gentile in general (Romans 10:12; Romans 2:9-10, margin) "Grecian" is a foreign Jew, literally, one who speaks Greek, as contrasted with a home Jew, a "Hebrew," dwelling in Palestine, or rather one speaking the sacred tongue, Hebrew, whether dwelling in Palestine or elsewhere. The first church at Jerusalem was composed of these two classes, the "Hebrew" and the "Grecian" Jews; from whence, when the Grecian widows complained of being "neglected in the daily ministrations" of alms, the seven chosen to rectify matters were all "Grecians," judging from their Greek names, Stephen, Prochorus, etc. At first those scattered abroad "preached to, the Jews only" (the word is not "Hebrew" but "Jews," including "Grecians"); afterward some of them preached to pagan "Greeks. The "also" marks a further step than their "preaching unto the Jews (including 'Grecians') only. Their Grecian or foreign culture and education made them clever disputants; hence, their keenness in controverting the new convert who had before sided with them against Stephen; the latter also was once a Grecian (Hellenist) Jew before his conversion to Christianity (Acts 7:58; Acts 6:9-14)
Prevail - God's promises to Israel provided no guarantee that an unrepentant Jew would escape doom
Excuse - 1, below), is used, Romans 1:20 , "without excuse," of those who reject the revelation of God in creation; Romans 2:1 , RV, for AV, "inexcusable," of the Jew who judges the Gentile
Dung - ...
A major disgrace for a Jew was to have one's carcass treated as dung (2 Kings 9:37 )
Fall - Esther 6:13 (a) This expression is used to describe the defeat of Haman at the hands of the Jews. ...
Esther 9:3 (a) The word is used to describe the great fear and apprehension that fell upon the people because of the power given to Mordecai, the Jew
Peace - ' He also is peace between believers, having on the cross broken down the barrier between Jew and Gentile
Gerizim - The Samaritan sect regard it as holy, it being to them what Jerusalem and Mount Zion are to the Jew
Apostasy - In Acts 21:21 Paul was told that he was accused of teaching the Jews who were among the Gentiles to apostatise from Moses. Paul taught freedom from the law by the death of the Christ and this would appear to a strict Jew as apostasy
Corinth'Ians, First Epistle to the, - (Acts 18:11 ) A short time after the apostle had left the city the eloquent Jew of Alexandria, Apollos, went to Corinth, (Acts 19:1 ) and gained many followers, dividing the church into two parties, the followers of Paul and the followers of Apollos
Pollution - linere), and is therefore a natural word for Jews to use of idol offerings (Leviticus 3:17). It is a real ‘Jewish Greek’ word, very rare, and is a translation of (gâ’al, root-meaning ‘loathe,’ afterwards ‘pollute’). The Council did not adopt it, and changed it to the more colourless εἰδωλόθυτον, ‘idol offering,’ wishing perhaps to avoid a racial word which might suggest a separation in the matter of ordinary food between Jew and Gentile, such as afterwards actually happened (Galatians 2:9) under the influence of those who ‘came from James
Messiah - Being dissatisfied with the state of things under Adrian, he set himself up as the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed himself their long expected messiah. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their messiah. He chose a forerunner, raised an army, was anointed king, coined money inscribed with his own name, and proclaimed himself messiah and prince of the Jewish nation. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans in defence of this false messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it. The Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the Emperor Justinian, A. 1138, the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the messiah. A false messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba in Spain, A. The wiser and better sort looked upon him as a madman, but the great body of the Jews in the nation believed in him. On this occasion nearly all the Jews in Spain were destroyed. 1167, which brought great troubles and persecutions upon the Jews that were scattered throughout that country. Not long after this, a Jew who dwelt beyond the Euphrates, called himself the messiah, and drew vast multitudes of people after him. 1174, who seduced many of the common people, and brought the Jews into great tribulation. He pretended he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death, and a heavy fine laid upon the Jews. Vast numbers of the Jews were butchered for taking part with this impostor. Rabbi Lemlem, a German Jew of Austria, declared himself a forerunner of the messiah, A. 1615, and was greatly followed by the Portuguese Jews who are scattered over that country. He was born at Aleppo, and imposed on the Jews for a considerable time; but afterward, with a view of saving his life, he turned Mohammedan, and was at last beheaded. The last false christ that made any considerable number of converts was one rabbi Mordecai, a Jew of Germany: he appeared, A
Tithe - The paying of the tithes was an important part of the Jewish religious worship. ...
Every Jew was required by the Levitical law to pay three tithes of his property (1) one tithe for the Levites; (2) one for the use of the temple and the great feasts; and (3) one for the poor of the land
Luke, Saint - He was not a Jew, and from the perfection and fluency of his literary style, it is inferred that he was a Greek
Lois - Probably Lois was a Jewess and the mother of Eunice, who in Acts 16:1 is described as a believing Jewess who had married a Greek. It is, however, not impossible that Lois may have been the mother-in-law of Eunice and a Gentile, in which case we must assume that she had married a Jew. This theory would account for the fact that both Lois and Eunice are Greek names, and also for the description of Eunice as a Jewess. But it was not uncommon for Hellenistic Jews to bear purely Gentile names, and the supposition that Lois was the mother of Eunice is on the whole more probable. As we find Eunice described as a ‘Jewess who believed’ on the occasion of St. Timothy’s knowledge of the Hebrew Scriptures to which the Apostle refers (2 Timothy 3:15) was probably due not only to his mother but also to Lois, whom we may regard as a faithful Jewish matron attached to the ancient hopes of Judaism, and who, influenced by her knowledge of the Scriptures, readily accepted St
Aristo Pellaeus - Jason, a Jewish Christian, argues so conclusively that the Messianic prophecies are fulfilled in our Lord that his opponent, the Jew Papiscus, begs to be baptized
Tribute - the Jews paid tribute to the Romans in the shape of taxes. in another signification, as when the Jews asked Peter if his teacher paid 'tribute. ' Here the word is διδραχμον (double drachma), and signifies the sum each Jew paid to the temple
Abba - It has been suggested that in the two words the Jew and the Gentile each say 'Father' in his own language — the Aramaic being then spoken by the Jews, and Greek the language of the Gentiles in Palestine and many other places
Boaz - Was it to shew the astonishing condescension of Jesus? And was it not to shew also, that long before the great events of redemption were to be accomplished, the Jew and Gentile church were both in Christ? (Galatians 3:28-29)...
See Harlot...
Boaz (2)...
One of the pillars in the porch of Solomon's temple, (1 Kings 7:21) It was on the left hand, as Jachin, the other pillar corresponding to it, was placed on the right
Christian - Some have indeed thought that this name was given by the disciples to themselves; others, that it was imposed on them by divine authority; in either of which cases surely we should have met with it in the subsequent history of the Acts, and in the Apostolic Epistles, all of which were written some years after; whereas it is found in but two more places in the New Testament, Acts 26:28 , where a Jew is the speaker, and in 1 Peter 4:16 , where reference appears to be made to the name as imposed upon them by their enemies
Reconciliation - ...
Christ also abolished the system of the law that Jew and Gentile might be reconciled together unto God, the two being formed in Christ into one new man
Ethiopia - As this courtier is said to have gone up to Jerusalem "to worship," he was probably a Jew by religion, if not by birth. There appear to have been many Jews in that country
Burial, Sepulchres - ...
"The manner of the Jews" included the use of spices, where they could command the means. ...
The precedent of Jacob's and Joseph's remains being returned to the land of Canaan was followed, in wish at least, by every pious Jew
Oil - Oil was used by the Jews for anointing the body, e. As so important a necessary of life, the Jew was required to include oil among his firstfruit offerings
Jew - After the captivity, all members of the one new state were "Jews," i. Greek speaking Jews. John uses "Jews" of the faction hostile to the Lord Jesus. ...
By the time that he wrote the Jews had definitely rejected the gospel offered to them by the apostles at home and abroad (1 Thessalonians 2:14-16); so they are no longer regarded as the covenant people, the kingdom of God having passed from them to the Gentiles (Acts 13:45-46) The destruction of Jerusalem and the temple formally effected the transference, forever since the Jew professes a religion enjoining what God's providence makes it impossible for him to fulfil, namely, the observance of the great feasts and the sacrificial system in the temple at Jerusalem. Westcott (Smith's Bible Dictionary) notices the preparation for the last or gospel revelation by the disciplining of the Jews under...
(1) the Persian supremacy (536-333 B. JewRY means Judea (Daniel 5:13). "The Jews' language" signifies both the Hebrew (2 Kings 18:26) and the Aramaic Hebrew acquired in the captivity (Nehemiah 13:24), "the language (lip) of Canaan" (Isaiah 19:18)
Kill - , separation from God, realized through the presentation of the commandment to conscience, breaking in upon the fancied state of freedom; the argument shows the power of the Law, not to deliver from sin, but to enhance its sinfulness; in 2 Corinthians 3:6 , "the letter killeth," signifies not the literal meaning of Scripture as contrasted with the spiritual, but the power of the Law to bring home the knowledge of guilt and its punishment; in Ephesians 2:16 "having slain the enmity" describes the work of Christ through His death in annulling the enmity, "the Law" ( Ephesians 2:15 ), between Jew and Gentile, reconciling regenerate Jew and Gentile to God in spiritual unity "in one body
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The subject of the letter is "the union of all the faithful, both Jew and Gentile, with Christ and in Christ, as members of the one mystical Body of which Christ is the Head
Tertullus - Tertullus, a diminutive of Tertius, was the name of the ‘orator’ employed by the Jews to lay their case against St. In all probability Tertullus was a Roman, and not a Jew, as has been supposed by Blass (Com. The fact that in his speech Tertullus uses the plural form and speaks of ‘our law’ does not by any means prove Jewish birth or nationality
Exorcism - The Jews made great pretences to this power. One Eleazer, a Jew, cured many daemoniacs, he says, by means of a root set in a ring
Judgment, the Final - ...
The rule of judgment is the standard of God's law as revealed to men, the heathen by the law as written on their hearts (Luke 12:47,48 ; Romans 2:12-16 ); the Jew who "sinned in the law shall be judged by the law" (Romans 2:12 ); the Christian enjoying the light of revelation, by the will of God as made known to him (Matthew 11:20-24 ; John 3:19 )
Stephen - When some of the Greek-speaking Jews in the early Jerusalem church complained that their widows were being neglected, Stephen was one of seven men chosen to help sort out the problem. ...
Being a Greek-speaking Jew himself, Stephen went to the synagogue for Greek-speaking Jews in Jerusalem to try to turn his fellow Jews to Christ. The Jewish laws, ceremonies, temple and priesthood had fulfilled their purpose and were no longer necessary. When Stephen preached these things, the Jews accused him of blasphemy and brought him before their Council, the Sanhedrin (Acts 6:12-15). He applied these two points to the Jews of his time by saying that they were mistaken in thinking God dwelt in the Jerusalem temple, and that their rejection of Christ was in keeping with the stubbornness of their forefathers (Acts 7:48-53). ...
Furious at Stephen’s words, the Jews rushed upon him, dragged him out of the city and stoned him to death (Acts 7:54-60). They then drove all the other Greek-speaking Jewish Christians out of Jerusalem (Acts 8:1-3)
Great Commission, the - The Good News is to be shared with all peoples, for all are sinners, Jews and Gentile alike, and in need of deliverance from sin (Romans 3 ). In Christ, all distinctions between Jew and Gentile disappear (Romans 10:12-13 ; Galatians 3:28 )
Publican - Among the Romans they had tax-gatherers, who were called publicans; and as the office was odious to all Jews being under the government of the Roman power, and as the office itself was invidious, so was the person collecting. It became proverbial to join publicans and sinners together; and especially if a Jew, for the sake of gain, hired himself out to gather the taxes for the Romans, and thereby exacted it from his brethren, his name and character became altogether detestable
Apollos - (ay pahl' lahss), meaning “destroyer,” names an Alexandrian Jew who came to Ephesus following Paul's first visit and was taught Christian doctrine by Priscilla and Aquila
Epistle to the Ephesians - The subject of the letter is "the union of all the faithful, both Jew and Gentile, with Christ and in Christ, as members of the one mystical Body of which Christ is the Head
Collection For the Poor Saints - The Jews in Jerusalem may have isolated Christian Jews from the economic system. The fact that the Gentiles were willing to aid the Jews in this manner validated Paul's Gentile mission. The offering was evidence that in the Christian family there was neither “Jew nor Greek” (Galatians 3:28 )
Stephen - " He seems from his name to have been a Hellenistic Jew, (see GRECIANS,) and to have been chosen in part as being familiar with the language, opinions, and customs of the Greeks, Acts 6:1-6
Luke - He was not born a Jew, for he is not reckoned among those "of the circumcision" by St
Joppa - , had his vision teaching that the middle wall separating Jew and Gentile is broken down, and that the gospel is for all nations (Acts 10)
Jesus - The name Jesus was by no means an uncommonname among the Jews. 4:11), and in Acts 13:6, we read of "a certain sorcerer, afalse prophet, a Jew, whose name was Bar-Jesus," i
Sinners - Thus it indicates the distinction between Jew and Gentile from the ethnico-religious standpoint. Paul thus later used the word, Galatians 2:15 ‘We who are Jews by nature and not sinners of the Gentiles. Thus it seems to indicate the distinction between the righteousness of the Law-burdened Jew and his more ignorant brethren, who, not knowing the Law and therefore continually trespassing its commandments, were deemed ‘accursed. In this connexion the latter term does not qualify the moral status of the publican, but rather points to the forced association of the ignorant and ostracized elements of Jewish society with the hated minions of Rome
Romans, Theology of - Briefly, the church at Rome, which originally had strong Jewish Christian leadership (its founders may have been Roman Jewish pilgrims to Jerusalem at Pentecost who carried the gospel back to Rome), defaulted to Gentile leadership at the expulsion of Jews from Rome by edict of Emperor Claudius in the 40s. Following his death Jewish Christians returned with the result that there was bad feeling between the two groups in the church, the Gentiles with their larger numbers and leadership assuming superiority, the returning Jews claiming their own priority because they had been there first and had a more noble heritage. 16-18): On the positive side, the gospel is powerful to save everyone who has faith, Jew and Gentile alike; but it also has a negative cut like the sword of Hebrews 4:12 , for those who suppress the truth in unrighteousness receive the gospel as the wrath of God against their ungodliness. In 2:1-16 he reveals the indefensible position of the moral person, whether Gentile or Jew, who criticizes others yet is equally guilty and is therefore also liable to divine wrath. Paul is not teaching a general works theology in this section, which would be antithetical to his justification by faith in Christ alone theology in the letter as a whole, but is addressing his Gentile and Jewish readers who have been guilty of hypocritical judgment. Only doers of the Law will be justified before God, whether Jew or Gentile; hence prideful superiority among Christians is unacceptable. Paul addresses Jewish believers more directly in 2:14-16 and again in 2:17-3:8 for their pride and ineffectiveness as witnesses, and then makes the notable observation that being a Jew in the true sense is a matter of inner not outer circumcision (2:28-29), thus establishing an inclusive category of Jew-Gentile that Jesus had already intimated in his teaching on inward intention (Matthew 6:4,6,18 ). Jew and Gentile believers are on the same footing within the church and are brought to the level of humility. 9-11Paul will level the Gentile believers specifically for discounting the fact that ethnic Jews still are being welcomed to faith. ) Yet in spite of the special advantage of the Jews in being entrusted with the oracles of God (3:2), they are now no better off under the leveling justice of God (3:9). Paul's theological argument is now complete on the negative side and his boasting and strife-ridden Roman audience of Jewish and Gentile Christians are properly brought down from pride to humility. It is in faith in Christ and in his faithful work that salvation for Jew and Gentile resides (but note that objective faith in Jesus rests on Jesus' subjective faithfulness). Boasting is therefore excluded (3:27), for both Jew and Gentile are justified on the ground of the faith in Christ, who has kept the Law for us. ...
Paul now proceeds to show the continuity between the old and the new by citing Abraham as a primary example of the person of faith and humility (4:1-25), making the point that the faith principle was operating before Abraham became technically a Jew by circumcision. The Abraham of faith is therefore to be seen as the father of both Gentile and Jew—of the Jew because David personifies the grace and faith principle operative in the Mosaic period (vv. While Abraham functions as a secondary figure as patriarch of righteousness by faith for Gentile and Jewish believers, Adam and Christ represent archetypal progenitors of the human race where works are the primary focus. The gospel is for Jews and Gentiles (1:16). Finally, Paul discloses the real purpose of his writing such a carefully drawn out and persuasive argument: to enlist his Roman readers in supporting a mission to unreached Gentiles in Spain and the delivery of a love gift to suffering Jewish Christians in Jerusalem (15:14-33)
Sabbatical Year - In a consideration of the regulations connected with the Sabbatical and Jubilee years, it is of the greatest importance to keep distinct the various stages of the Jewish legislation on the subject. In Deuteronomy 15:1-3 the 7th year is assigned as the period at which all the liabilities of a Jew were suspended (or possibly, as Josephus supposes, entirely cancelled); this provision was to be of universal operation. All slaves were to be emancipated (this may be a modified substitute for the earlier provisions with regard to emancipation after 7 years); no mention is made of the possibility of perpetual slavery, but it is ordained that the Hebrew slave of a foreigner may be redeemed by a relative, all Jews being essentially Jehovah’s servants. Their principles of rest and redemption, though never practised as a piece of social politics, were preached as ideals, and may have had some effect in discouraging slave-owning, land-grabbing, and usury, and in encouraging a more merciful view of the relations between Jew and Jew
Neighbor - This lawyer-scribe unknowingly expresses a fundamental issue in all of ethics: For whom are we responsible in issues of justice and mercy? Jesus' answer was the parable of the Good Samaritan and the fundamental ideas of the parable find their roots in both Old Testament and Jewish soil. With such tendencies, it is not surprising that legislation had to be given to Israel to encourage compassion and justice for the non-Jew. ...
Thus, when we enter into the New Testament period we are to understand the biblical laws of the Old Testament that speak of neighborliness as injunctions for special treatment of fellow Jews. Jews showed special love for fellow Jews because they were covenantally and racially bound together. The social realities of Jewish history, with the constant battering of the people of Israel by other nations, also inclined the Jewish people to favor their own. Social realities also reveal that Jews were kind to Gentiles in general and for those Jews who lived in the diaspora there was also a general social friendliness to be observed. Early Christianity showed a similar kind of "prejudiced love" (Galatians 6:10 ) and it would be wrong to vilify either Jews or Christians for their "prejudiced love" unless that love becomes neglect, or even contempt, of outsiders in need. ...
Jesus sought to expand the concept of "neighbor" to include non-Jews; while this is not contrary to Jewish law or to Jewish practice, it clearly was challenging to many in Judaism. Jewish practice had come to the general conviction that a "neighbor, " in purely legal terms, was a Jew or proselyte to Judaism. For Jesus, a neighbor was anyone with whom you came into contact—whether Jew, Samaritan, or Gentile (Luke 10:25-37 ). In fact, this focus on an expanding definition led to the breaking down of Jewish barriers that were constructed around the traditional interpretations of cleanness and uncleanness. Paul urges the Galatians to love their neighbors as themselves and here the implication is that it involved both Jewish and Gentile Christians (Galatians 5:14 ) and we find in Matthew an emphasis on loving one's enemy (=Gentile Matthew 5:43-48 ). Once again, while this idea is not new to Judaism, the emphasis of seeing neighbors as Gentiles as well clearly expanded the Jewish horizons. Paul can say that one is to do good especially to other believers (Galatians 6:10 ) and James can see the principle of Leviticus 19:18 applying to what was probably Jewish Christians (2:1-14). 259-65; idem, A Light among the Gentiles: Jewish Missionary Activity in the Second Temple Period ; E
Tal'Mud - doctrine , from the Hebrew word "to learn") is a large collection of writings, containing a full account of the civil and religious laws of the Jews. It was a fundamental principle of the Pharisees, common to them with all orthodox modern Jews, that by the side of the written law, regarded as a summary of the principles and general laws of the Hebrew people, there was an oral law, to complete and to explain the written law.
The MISHNA, or "second law," which contains a compendium of the whole ritual law, was reduced to writing in its present form by Rabbi Jehuda the Holy, a Jew of great wealth and influence, who flourished in the second century of the Christian era
Slay, Slain, Slew - , for AV, "to slay," in Luke 11:49 ; Acts 7:52 ; Revelation 2:13 ; 9:15 ; 11:13 ; 19:21 ); in the following the verb "to kill" would not be appropriate, Romans 7:11 , "slew," metaphorically of sin, as using the commandment; Ephesians 2:16 , "having slain," said metaphorically of the enmity between Jew and Gentile
Concubine - The desire of offspring in the Jew was associated with the hope of the promised Redeemer
Guile - The guile which characterized Jacob the Jew as well as Ulysses the Greek was indeed often admired as a national trait by which duller races could be outwitted
Advantage - A — 1: περισσός (Strong's #4053 — Adjective — perissos — per-is-sos' ) primarily, "what is above and over, super-added," hence came to denote "what is superior and advantageous," Romans 3:1 , in a comparison between Jew and Gentile; only here with this meaning
Taxes - A little later the third became a half, and under the name of the didrachma , ( Matthew 17:24 ) was paid by every Jew, in whatever part of the world he might be living. Under the Persian empire the taxes paid by the Jews were, in their broad outlines, the same in kind as those of other subject races. Under the Egyptian and Syrian kings the taxes paid by the Jews became yet heavier. ( Matthew 17:24 ; Romans 13:7 ) In addition to this there was the poll-tax paid by every Jew, and looked upon, for that reason, as the special badge of servitude
Spain - Sanday-Headlam (‘Romans’5 [1], 414) ask: ‘Is it quite certain that a Jew, as Clement probably was, speaking of St. Paul, another Jew, would not look upon Rome relatively to Jerusalem as the τέρμα τῆς δύσεως, “the western limit”?’ It is significant that the Pastoral Epistles contain no suggestion of a campaign, possible or actual, in the West
Septuagint - The Greek version of Old Testament, made for the Greek speaking (Hellenistic) Jews at Alexandria. * Its wide circulation among Hellenistic Jews before Christ providentially prepared the way for the gospel. The Jews in Justin Martyr's Apology questioned its accuracy. Aristeas' letter is probably a forgery of an Alexandrian Jew; nevertheless the story gave its title to the Septuagint (70, the round number for 72). The Alexandrian Macedonic Greek forms in the Septuagint disprove the coming of 72 interpreters from Jerusalem, and show that the translators were Alexandrian Jews. ), it helps towards arriving at the true text in doubtful passages; so Psalms 22:16, where Septuagint "they pierced" gives the true reading instead of "as a lion," Aquila a Jew (A. " The Septuagint is an impartial witness, being ages before the controversy between Jews and Christians
Romans, the Epistle to the - The constant contact between Judaea and Rome through commerce, the passing of soldiers back and forward from Caesarea, and the repairing of Jewish settlers at Rome to Jerusalem for the three great feasts, ensured an early entrance of the gospel into Rome. Its members were in part Jews originally, in part Gentiles (compare as to the Jewish element Romans 2; Romans 3; Romans 7; Romans 9; Romans 11:13). A considerable number saluted in Romans 16 were Jew-Christians: Mary, Aquila, Priscilla, Andronicus and Junia, Paul's kinsmen, Herodion, Apelles, Aristobulus (of the Herodian family). ...
The Jews at Rome were so numerous that Augustus assigned them a separate quarter beyond the Tiber, and permitted them freely to exercise their religion (Philo, Leg. That Gentiles, however, composed the bulk of the Roman church appears from Romans 1:5; Romans 1:13; Romans 9:3-4; Romans 10:1, "my prayer to God for them" (the Jews, as distinguished from the Gentiles whom he here more directly addresses; so Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus manuscripts read for "Israel"), Romans 11:23; Romans 11:25; Romans 11:30. The names in the salutations (Romans 16) are generally Greek; and the Latin names, Aquila, Priscilla, Junia, Rufus, were Jews. The legend of Peter and Paul presiding together over the church at Rome probably represents the combination of Jews and Gentiles in it. The joint episcopate of Linus and Cletus subsequently may be explained by supposing one ruled over the Jewish, the other over the Gentile congregation; this gives point to the general argument of Romans 1-3 and Romans 10:12, that there is no respect of nationality with God. ) The theme is stated Romans 1:16-17, "the gospel is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek; for therein is the righteousness of God revealed from faith to faith. The pagan and Jew alike under condemnation (Romans 1; 2). The casting away of the Jew, though most sad, is neither universal now (for there is a remnant according to the election of grace, and God's foreordaining is to be accepted not criticized by finite man), nor final, for "all Israel shall be saved" in the coming age, and their being received will be as life from the dead to the Gentile world (Romans 9; Romans 11). Their exclusion from justification now is because they seek it by the law, whereas God's way is by faith, open to Jew and Gentile alike; therefore preaching to the Gentiles is not, as the Jews imagined, unlawful, but foretold by Isaiah and required by the necessities of the case (Romans 10)
Fast, the - For the Jew, navigation was possible only from the Feast of Pentecost to the Feast of Tabernacles (Lewin, Life and Epp. This Fast occurred five days before the Feast of Tabernacles, when, according to Jewish reckoning, sailing was no longer possible. In this connexion we must note that, in all probability, the phrase ὄντος ἤδη ἐπισφαλοῦς τοῦ πλοός refers to the Roman mode of reckoning, and that there is a studied contrast (implied in καί) in the verse between the Roman and the Jewish Calendar. Paul would of course reckon after the Jewish Calendar (1 Corinthians 16:8), and it is quite natural that St. Paul in Acts is therefore a Tendenz-product, we may find in this passage an important confirmation of Harnack’s position that a mere theory of accommodation to Jewish customs for the sake of peace on St. He observed the Fast because he was a Jew, who at the same time did not seek to bind such observances on Gentile Christians. His one aim was to promote a sense of brotherhood ‘in Christ’ between Jew and Gentile
Ephesians, Theology of - ...
Paul's entire life after this experience was guided by this commission he had received to take the gospel as a Jew to the Gentiles (Galatians 1:15-16 ). ...
The key to the theology of Ephesians is the second chapter, where Paul sets forth the implications of the equal union of Jews and Gentiles in the one body, the church. 1) and Jews (vv. Nevertheless, the Jews had prepared the way for the Messiah and were the first to be called into the church. ...
It if foundational to the theology of Paul, in Acts and in his generally accepted letters as well as in Ephesians, that both Gentiles and Jews are made alive together with Christ, have been raised up together, and made to sit together with Christ in the heavenly places (vv. Thus, the Gentile disciples are fellow citizens with the Jewish disciples and members together with them of the household of God (v. ...
The church, Paul argues, was built upon the Jewish foundation of apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus as the chief (Jewish) cornerstone (2:20; 3:5). The Gentiles have now been included and, being "joined together" with the Jewish foundation, they grow together into a holy temple in the Lord (2:20-21). ...
A number of key theological terms and arguments in Ephesians revolve around these two concepts: (1) the historical and cosmological role of the Jews in God's redemptive history from the time of Abraham; and (2) Paul's own place in that process, that of bringing in the Gentiles as full participants in the kingdom, which evil forces in the cosmos conspired to prevent and thus to destroy the work of Christ. The first chapter asserts that the Jews, God's saints or holy ones, were "chosen" to bring the blessing of redemption to all nations in fulfillment of the promise to Abraham. It was the Jews who were foreordained unto adoption for this purpose (v. Another key to understanding Ephesians is recognizing that in this book a Jewish author is writing to a Gentile audience. " However, unlike Romans, where Paul addresses his dual audience on the one hand as Jews "who know the law" (7:1) and then on the other as Gentiles (11:13), Paul never addresses Jews directly in Ephesians using the second-person pronoun. In the first part of the letter, down to 2:3, they refer to Jews or Jewish Christians. At this point, following Paul's declaration of the inclusion of the Gentiles with the Jews, the first-person pronouns henceforth refer to Jews and Gentiles combined. After the epistolary greeting in 1:1-2, the Gentiles are not referred to until verse 13, where they are said to have been added to God's redemptive work among the Jews, who thus far have been designated by first-person plural pronouns. "...
Thus, the Jew and Gentile are differentiated by these pronouns down to the second chapter. Then in 2:1-5 , after the declaration that the Gentiles now have been brought together with the Jews into the body of Christ, the first-person plural pronouns henceforth refer to Jews and Gentiles together . The transition point is verse 3, where Paul concludes that "allof us [1] also lived among them [2]. 1) just as we Jews were (v. But God has now forgiven us (Jew and Gentile alike) by his grace (vv. ...
Therefore, from this point on (2:3) the first-person plural pronouns include the Gentiles as well, who have been grafted as wild olive branches into the Jewish tree (Romans 11:17-24 ) and are henceforth, like the Jews, included among the descendants of Abraham, "in order that the blessing given to Abraham might come to the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, so that by faith we [1] might receive the promise of the Spirit" ( Galatians 3:14 ). ...
The first example and the most significant perhaps is in 2:5 where, following three compound verbs describing the uniting of Jews and Gentiles together in Christ ("made alive together, raised together, and made to sit together"—sunezoopoiesen, sunegeiren [4], and sunekathisen ), Paul states (v. 7) that God's rich grace is manifested toward us , the first-person plural pronoun now meaning Jew and Gentile together, who are declared to be his workmanship (v. The compounds themselves do not refer to any union including ChristChrist and Jews, Christ and Gentiles, or Christ and Christians but to that of Jews and Gentiles. The Jews and Gentiles thus brought together, are then together, as an entity, united with Christ. " The result is that the Gentiles are now "fellow citizens with God's people, " the Jews. ...
A third example is in 3:8, where Paul calls himself the "less than the least of all God's people (Jewish Christians)" who was given the commission to "preach to the Gentiles the unsearchable riches of Christ. 12) signifying that we [5] can now approach God with freedom and confidence. ...
A fourth example may be found in 4:13, where it is stated that the work of God's people (Jewish Christians) in building up the body of Christ by including the Gentiles, will continue until we all attain unto the oneness of the faith. Then in verses 14,15, first-person plurals are used (" we will no longer be" and " we will grow up") referring to the newly created union of Jews and Gentiles who should no longer be babes but grow up in every way into him who is the head, even Christ. ...
If this analysis is correct, 2:3 is the transition point in the letter, with all the first-person pronouns from this point on referring to the union of Jews and Gentiles. Prior to this they refer to the Jews as a people or to Jewish Christians. The third verse is the decisive point, indicated by the phrase "we all" which appears also in 4:13, in both instances expanding the first-person pronoun references to Jews to include the Gentiles as well. " A third key element in the theology of Ephesians is the differentiation between Jewish and Gentile Christians by the consistent use of the words "God's people" in reference to Jewish Christians. This designation of Jewish Christians as God's people occasionally occurs in special contexts in other Pauline literature as well. ...
That the author of Ephesians considers himself among God's people and that they are Jewish Christians is clear from 3:1,8. " Further, the mystery in 1:9, which Paul says was made known to "us" (Jews), is identified in 3:3-5 as a revelation to God's people (Jews), that the Gentiles were to be fellow participants in God's eternal purpose. ...
The celestial world was highly structured in the Hellenistic Jewish thought of Paul's time, having multiple heavens, usually seven in number, and containing both angels and demons. The major dogmas of Jewish Christianity were developed along cosmological lines, although they were concerned with Christology rather than cosmology, and used cosmological data simply as a medium of expression. These heavenly places are not synonymous with "heaven" because they include not only God and Christ, but also Jewish and Gentile Christians, as well as demonic powers (1:3,10, 20; 2:2,6; 3:10,15; 4:10; 6:9,12). Satan, the "ruler of the kingdom of the air " (2:2) dwells in a lower heaven around the earth known as the firmament in Jewish apocalyptic thought
Judas - " ...
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A Jew of Damascus (Acts 9:11 ), to whose house Ananias was sent
Name - In Isaiah 65:15, "ye shall leave your name for a curse unto My chosen, for the Lord shall call His servants by another name": instead of a "curse," as the name of Jew had been, the elect Jews shall have a new name, God's delight, "Hephzibah," and married to Him, "Beulah," instead of "forsaken" and "widow" (Isaiah 62:2-4)
Nehemiah - A Jew of piety and zeal, born during the exile; but his family and tribe are not known
Trance - As in many miracles, there is a natural form of trance analogous to the supernatural, namely, in ecstatic epilepsy the patient is lost to outward impressions and wrapped in a world of imagination; Frank, who studied catalepsy especially, stated he never knew the case of a Jew so affected
Lamb of God - The Iamb was the most common victim in the Jewish sacrifices, and the most familiar type to a Jew of an offering to God. Again, in Isaiah 53:7 (a passage which exercised great influence on the Messianic hope of the Jews, and is definitely referred to Christ in Acts 8:32 ) the lamb is used as the type of vicarious suffering
Stephen - He was a Greek-speaking Jew, who, though appointed to an office, yet in the energy of the Holy Ghost, bore witness of the power consequent on Christ being glorified, and the Holy Spirit here. They suborned evil men to falsely accuse him, and he was dragged before the Jewish council, to whom his face appeared like that of an angel. He sketched the history of the people from Abraham, with which they were all familiar; but he laid bare from the outset the opposition of the Jews and of their fathers
Apollos - In Acts he is described as an Alexandrian Jew, an eloquent man, with an effective knowledge of the OT
Image - No sin is so strongly and repeatedly condemned in the Old Testament as that of idolatry, to which the Jews, in the early part of their history, were much addicted, and for which they were constantly punished. These distinctions would be scarcely understood by the common people; and formerly an enlightened Heathen or Jew would probably have urged the same thing
Naz'Areth - But Nazareth labored under a special opprobrium, for it was a Galilean and not a southern Jew who asked the reproachful question whether "any good thing" could come from that source
Luke, Gospel of - Grace to man — 'to the Jew first, and also to the Greek,' as Paul expresses it — is the key-note of Luke's gospel. ...
After the transfiguration ( Luke 9 ), which is recounted earlier, as to the contents of the gospel, than by the other evangelists, we find the judgement of those who rejected the Lord, and the heavenly character of the grace which, because it is grace, addresses itself to the nations, to sinners, without any particular reference to the Jews, overturning the legal principles according to which the latter pretended to be, and as to their external standing were originally called at Sinai to be, in connection with God. ...
After this (Luke 19 , Luke 20 , Luke 21 ), details are given as to that which should happen to the Jew according to the righteous government of God; and, at the end, the account of the death and resurrection of the Lord, accomplishing the work of redemption. ...
Luke morally sets aside the Jewish system and introduces the Son of man as the Man before God, presenting Him as the One who is filled with all the fulness of God dwelling in Him bodily, as the Man before God, according to His own heart, and thus as Mediator between God and man, centre of a moral system much more vast than that of Messiah among the Jews. While occupied with these new relations (ancient in fact as to the counsels of God), Luke nevertheless gives the facts belonging to the Lord's connection with the Jews, owned in the pious remnant of that people, with much more development than the other evangelists, as well as the proofs of His mission to that people, in coming into the world — proofs which ought to have gained their attention, and fixed it upon the child who was born to them
Profession - To the Christian Jew of Palestine He was the ‘Messiah’; to the Hellenistic Christian Jew He was the ‘Christ’; to the Christian Gentile He was the ‘Lord
Persecution - Persecution of the Jews by the Seleucid kings. -It is universally admitted that the Exile introduced a new epoch in the history of the Jew. Pure religion was the sole possession of the Jew. The post-Exilic Jew was conscious of his superiority among the nations of the Semitic world, and his tendency was to stand aloof in contemptuous isolation. The Jew owed no less to the universalism of the former than to the particularism of the latter his sense of superiority to the rest of the world. According to Ezekiel the Jew would come to his inheritance through the annihilation of the heathen. The Jew found a solid foundation for his religious exclusivism in Deutero-Isaiah as well as in Ezekiel. ‘You are the only people,’ said Agrippa, in his effort to dissuade the Jews from rebelling against Rome, ‘who think it a disgrace to be servants of those to whom all the world hath submitted. It was during the exile in Babylon that the Jew thoroughly mastered the prophetic doctrine of the uniqueness of Jahweh and of His religion. In exile the Jew learnt how to resist the pressure of a hostile environment, and the lesson stood him in good stead throughout the post-Exilic period, for the position of Judah in the Semitic world was precisely the position of the exiles in Babylon. The Book of Daniel, which purports to describe the situation of the Jew in exile, could not be otherwise than a powerful appeal to Judah in the 2nd cent. But it was the desecration of the Temple, and the attempt to force loyal Jews to sacrifice to heathen deities that roused the are of the nation, and moved the Maccabaean family to defend the national religion. He was concerned solely with his dream of a homogeneous Empire, but Judaism was inspired by this ‘intense faith,’ with the result that the Jew, as afterwards the Christian believer, constituted a problem to the rulers of the ancient world. It was not an inheritance in the case of the Christian Church from the Jewish synagogue, but the outcome of the ‘intense faith’ which inspired Jew and Christian to endure torture, not accepting deliverance (Hebrews 11:35). Persecution of Jesus by the Jews. They were rigorously and exclusively Jewish in their outlook. The dream of a world-wide kingdom troubled the long sleep of Jewish oppression, and occasionally the sleep was disturbed by a violent effort to realize the national ambition and shake off the yoke which weighed like an incubus upon the nation’s soul
Ecclesiastes - The book contains the outpourings of the mind of a rich Jew, at the beginning of the 2nd cent. The impression which the book made upon the orthodox Jew may be seen in the Book of Wisdom, in which ( Ecclesiastes 2:1-9 ) the writer collects some of Koheleth’s despairing reflexions; and, placing them in the mouth of the ungodly, raises his protest against them. But there is nothing at which a thinking Jew, of a philosophical temper of mind, could not have arrived independently. And he gains no relief from the expectation of Messianic peace and perfection, which animated the orthodox Jew
Sim'Eon - ...
A devout Jew, inspired by the Holy Ghost, who met the parents of our Lord in the temple, took him in his arms, and gave thanks for what he saw and knew of Jesus
Crucifixion - It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the curse in Deuteronomy 21:23
Simon - This word "Canaanite" does not mean a native of Canaan, but is derived from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was the name of a Jewish sect. ...
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A Jew of Cyrene, in North Africa, then a province of Libya. A hundred thousand Jews from Palestine had been settled in this province by Ptolemy Soter (B
Neighbor - For them a neighbor was a Jew who strictly observed the Law
Barbarian - Even the Romans called themselves Barbarians till Greek literature came to be naturalized in Rome; and both Philo and Josephus regard the Jews and their tongue as barbarous. (3) In the statement (Romans 1:14), ‘I am a debtor both to Greeks and to barbarian,’ St Paul uses the common conventional division of mankind; and, like Philo and Josephus, classes the Jews among the Barbarians. (4) In Colossians 3:11 we have a looser use of the term ‘Greek and Jew … barbarian and Scythian
Mat'Thew, Gospel of - It is almost certain that our Lord spoke in Greek with foreigners, but with his disciples and the Jewish people in Aramaic (a form of language closely allied to the Hebrew). The Jewish historian Josephus furnishes an illustration of the fate of the Hebrew original of Matthew. Josephus himself informs us that he, wrote his great work "The History of the Jewish Wars," originally in Hebrew, his native tongue, for the benefit of his own nation, and he afterward translated it into Greek. -- This Gospel was probably written in Palestine for Jewish Christians. Matthew is the Gospel for the Jew
Peraea - ...
The removal of the Jews from the Peræa by Judas ( 1Ma 5:45 ) left it in Gentile hands. Later, the Jews resumed possession and control. It furnished the retreat from Jewish enmity, whence He was summoned by the distress at Bethany ( John 10:40 etc. In the Peræa to-day the Jew is represented only by the travelling tinsmith and the pedlar
Captivities of the Jews - The present article is confined to the forcible deportation of the Jew; from their native land, and their forcible detention, under the Assyrian or Babylonian kings. 713) is stated to have carried into Assyria 200,000 captives from the Jewish cities which he took.
Some returned and mixed with the Jews. ...
Some were left in Samaria, mingled with the Samaritans, (Ezra 6:21 ; John 4:12 ) and became bitter enemies of the Jews
Naaman - This afforded a complete justification of His own action, and was, further, a very pointed rebuke to them if, as seems the case, they were annoyed that He had neglected them for Capernaum, which, situated in that region known as ‘Galilee of the Gentiles,’ might be considered as less a Jewish town than their own. And, further, our Lord in these words rebuked Jewish exclusiveness in general, and quite clearly indicated the great truth that the benefits of His gospel, whether bodily or spiritual, were not only for the Jew, but also for the Gentile
Bar-Jesus - In Acts 13:6 Bar-Jesus is described as ‘a certain sorcerer, a false prophet, a Jew’ whom Barnabas and Paul found at Paphos in the retinue of the proconsul in Cyprus. Amongst Jewish surroundings Paul’s Jewish name ‘Saul’ was used naturally; but ‘by a marvellous stroke of historic brevity’ (Ramsay, 83) the author sets forth by a formula how in the court of the Roman governor, when the Apostle challenged the system represented by Bar-Jesus, he stood forth as Paul the Roman citizen, a freeborn member of that Greek-Roman world to which he carried his universal gospel. Does not the same explanation hold good for his opponent? Bar-Jesus is a Jewish name-the name of ‘a Jew, a false prophet. From the Jewish point of view the encounter was between Saul the Jewish teacher and Bar-Jesus the Jewish prophet. It was not only Bar-Jesus the Jewish false prophet whom Paul blinded, but Elymas the Magian, the representative of that Oriental theosophy which Christianity was destined to meet so often
Jew - Jew. The most common title for Jews in the Old Testament is "Israel" or "Israelites," but in the New Testament "Jews" is most frequently used. The terms "Israel" and "Israelites" occur in Scriptures about 2460 times; "Jew" and "Jews" about 275 times, and "Hebrew" or "Hebrews" about 50 times. "Jew" is a broader title than Hebrews, as it may include Hellenists, Greek proselytes who became Jews, Acts 6:1; Acts 24:18, and less specific than Israelites. The favorite name was "Israelites," and after the captivity the title "Jews" came into vogue, but the title "Hebrews" was still used for the more strict Jews, who preferred the Hebrew language, in distinction from the Hellenists or Grecian Jews. They were separated from the world by most stringent laws; and it was necessary during all that time for the rest of mankind, through the Jews, to learn the way to be saved. The Jews have not only undergone the horrors of the siege and the loss of their country, so graphically foretold and described in the 28th chapter of Deuteronomy; but they are at this day, living witnesses to the truth of God's word. Besides these foretold judgments upon the Jews there are also in the word of God promises of blessings yet to be enjoyed by them. And he informs us that the world is again to be indebted to the Jews; he says: "Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fulness?" Romans 11:11-12. The restoration and conversion of the Jews is thus connected with the great ingathering of all nations into the Church of Christ; and the time of this is at hand. The Jews by their talents and industry exert great influence among Christian nations. The Jews have furnished great scholars and statesmen. Neander, the church historian, and Stahl, the jurist, were converted Jews; the great musicians, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Spinoza, Edersheim and Lord Beaconsfield, were of Jewish extraction. They are divided into orthodox and liberal or reform Jews, who differ from each other as the Pharisees and Sadducees of old. Many of the Jews today are deists, or rationalists. The number of Jews in the world is estimated at 9,000,000, of whom 50,000 live in New York city, where they accumulate great wealth. We are indebted to the Jews for our knowledge of God, and of the way of salvation. All of the Scriptures were written by Jews. Moses, the prophets, and the apostles were all Jews. Jesus Christ, our Lord, "was made of the seed of David according to the flesh;" and he says: "Salvation is of the Jews
Inn - ...
Numerous passages are cited from the Talmud to prove the extent to which hospitality prevailed among the Jews; but this traditional virtue was probably more praised than practised in the 1st century. It is true that, at the Passover, if a Jew came up to Jerusalem from any part of the empire, he would find entertainment at a private house. 128); but what if the Jew came at some other time than at one of the great national feasts? What if a Samaritan came? Moreover, there was a large population of heathen; and even if Jewish habits of hospitality to Jews were equal in practice to the theory, no provision was made for the Gentile. Even to a Jew a Jew would shut his door. At any rate, it is misleading to make the general statement, as though it applied to all periods of Jewish history, that ‘inns in our sense of the term were, as they still are, unknown in the East’ (M‘Clintock and Strong, Cyc. A truer view is given in the Jewish Encye. Franz Delitzsch, Jewish Artizan Life in the Time of Christ, p. Not only heathen were innkeepers, but Jews; not only men, but women. ‘A Jewish woman dealing in wine once left her keys in charge of a heathen, and the question came up whether her wine she has in the tavern is allowed’ (Aboda Zara, v. The Greek name shows that inns were largely a product of the Hellenistic period (see Schürer, P Proselyte - ) that the first term means proselytes in the technical sense, and the other two those who, without having submitted to the rite of circumcision, joined in Jewish worship, has gained a wider acceptance. The following passage from Theodore Reinach well illustrates this:...
‘Judaism possessed the prudence and tact not to exact from its adepts [2] at the outset full and complete adoption of the Jewish Law. The neophyte was at first simply a “friend” to the Jewish customs, observing the least enthralling ones-the Sabbath and the lighting of a fire on the previous evening; certain fast-days; abstention from pork. … In the third generation, according to Deuteronomy 23:8, there existed no distinction between the Jew by race and the Jew by adoption’ (JE_ iv. 94) in his conversations as a matter of common knowledge: ‘When a man,’ he says, ‘takes upon himself the arduous life of the baptized and the elect (τοῦ βεβαμμένου καὶ ᾑρημένου), then he is really what he calls himself, a Jew’ (Arrian, Diss. It was designated in later times ‘the immersion of proselytism,’ and the manner of its administration was as follows: ‘The individual who desired to become a Jew was conducted to the bath, and there immersed himself in the presence of the Rabbis, who recited to him portions of the Law’ (cf. The chamberlain of Candace is included by Reinach among the ‘distinguished recruits’ of the Jewish faith (JE_ iv. -Conversions to Judaism went on unimpeded in NT times, both before and after the Jewish war (Parting of the Roads, pp. _ ‘Baptism (Jewish),’ in ERE_ ii. _ ‘Creeds (Jewish),’ ib
Messiah - The ancient Jews had just notions of the Messiah, which came gradually to be corrupted, by expecting a temporal monarch and conqueror; and finding Jesus Christ to be poor, humble, and of an unpromising appearance, they rejected him. Most of the modern rabbis, according to Buxtorf, believe that the Messiah is come, but that he lies concealed because of the sins of the Jews. A few of the ancient ceremonies are indeed adhered to, but as one of the Jewish writers acknowledges. " Let every Jew therefore, ask himself this question. So much is said of his descending from David, that we need not refer to particular proofs; and the rather as no Jew will deny it. And though, in both it is traced in the name of Joseph, yet this appears to be only in conformity to the Jewish custom of tracing no pedigree in the name of a female. It was foretold that the great body of the Jewish nation would not believe in him, and that he would set up his kingdom among the Gentiles; Is. Being dissatisfied with the state of things under Adrian, he set himself up at the head of the Jewish nation, and proclaimed himself their long expected Messiah. He was one of those banditti that infested Judea, and committed all kinds of violence against the Romans; and had become so powerful, that he was chosen king of the Jews, and by them acknowledged their Messiah. He chose a forerunner, raised an army, was anointed king, coined money inscribed with his own name, and proclaimed himself Messiah and prince of the Jewish nation. The Jews themselves allow, that, during this short war against the Romans, in defense of this false Messiah, they lost five or six hundred thousand souls. He pretended to be a second Moses, sent to deliver the Jews who dwelt in Crete, and promised to divide the sea, and give them a safe passage through it. In the year 529 the Jews and Samaritans rebelled against the emperor Justinian, and set up one Julian for their king; and accounted him the Messiah. At first he professed himself to be the Messiah who was promised to the Jews. In the year 1138 the Persians were disturbed with a Jew, who called himself the Messiah. In the year 1157, a false Messiah stirred up the Jews at Corduba, in Spain. The wiser and better sort looked upon him as a madman, but the great body of the Jews in that nation believed in him. On this occasion almost all the Jews in Spain were destroyed. In the year 1167, another false Messiah rose in the kingdom of Fez, which brought great trouble and persecution upon the Jews that were scattered through that country. Not long after this, a Jew who dwelt beyond Euphrates, called himself the Messiah, and drew vast multitudes of people after him. He pretended that he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death, and a heavy fine laid upon his brethren the Jews. He pretended that he could make himself invisible; but he was soon taken and put to death and a heavy fine laid upon his brethren the Jews. Vast numbers of the Jews were butchered for taking part with this impostor. Here we may observe, that no less than ten false Christs arose in the twelfth century, and brought prodigious calamities and destruction upon the Jews in various quarters of the world. In the year 1497, we find another false Christ, whose name was Ismael Sophus, who deluded the Jews in Spain. In the year 1500, Rabbi Lemlem, a German Jew of Austria, declared himself a forerunner of the Messiah, and pulled down his own oven, promising his brethren that they should bake their bread in the Holy Land next year. In the year 1509, one whose name was Plefferkorn, a Jew of Cologne, pretended to be the Messiah. In the year 1615, a false Christ arose in the East Indies, and was greatly followed by the Portuguese Jews, who were scattered over that country. He was born at Aleppo, imposed on the Jews for a considerable time; but afterwards, with a view of saving his life, turned Mahometan, and was at last beheaded. He promised the Jews deliverance and a prosperous kingdom. The Jews now attended to no business, discoursed of nothing but their return, and believed Sabatai to be the Messias as firmly as we Christians believe any article of faith. A right reverend person, then in Turkey, meeting with a Jew of his acquaintance at Aleppo, he asked him what he thought of Sabatai. The Jew replied, that he believed him to be the Messias; and that he was so far of that belief, that, if he should prove an impostor, he would then turn Christian. Sabatai Sevi was the son of Moredecai Sevi, a mean Jew of Smyrna. ...
At Jerusalem he began to reform the Jews' constitutions, and abolish one of their solemn fasts, and communicated his designs of professing himself tha Messias to one Nathan. He was pleased with it, and set up for his Elias, or forerunner, and took upon him to abolish all the Jewish fasts, as not beseeming, when the bridegroom was not come. " And now, throughout Turkey, the Jews were in great expectation of glorious times. All which, says the relator, were certainly true, being effects of diabolical delusions, as the Jews themselves have since confessed. Whereas the Jews, in their synagogues, were wont to pray for the Grand Seignior, he orders those prayers to be forborne for the future, thinking it an indecent thing to pray for him who was shortly to be his captive; and, instead of praying for the Turkish emperor, he appoints prayers for himself. He also elected princes to govern the Jews in their march towards the Holy Land, and to minister justice to them when they should be possessed of it. When Sabatai was before the Cadi (or justice of peace, ) some affirmed they saw a pillar of fire between him and the Cadi; and after some had affirmed it, others were ready to swear it, and did swear it also; and this was presently believed by the Jews of that city. The Jews pay him their visits; and they of this city are as infatuated as those in Smyrna. Some of our English merchants not knowing how to recover their debts from the Jews, took this occasion to visit Sabatai, and make their complaints to him against his subjects; whereupon he wrote the following letter to the Jews. "To you of the nation of the Jews, who expect the appearance of the Messias, and the salvation of Israel, peace without end. He, therefore, removed him to the Dardanelli, a better air indeed, but yet out of the way, and consequently importing less danger to the city; which occasioned the Jews to conclude that the Turks could not, or durst not, take away his life; which had, they concluded, been the surest way to have removed all jealousy. The Jews flocked in great numbers to the castle where he was a prisoner; not only those that were near, but from Poland, Germany, Leghorn, Venice, and other places: they received Sabatai's blessing, and promises of advancement. He commands the Jews to keep it on the ninth day of the month Ab, and to make it a day of great joy, to celebrate it with pleasing meats and drinks, with illuminations and music. This day was a solemn day of fasting among the Jews, formerly in memory of the burning of the temple by the Chaldees: several other sad things happened in this month, as the Jews observe; that then, and upon the same day, the second temple was destroyed; and that in this month it was decreed in the wilderness that the Israelites should not enter into Canaan, &c. ...
Sabatai was born on this day; and, therefore, the fast must be turned to a feast; whereas, in truth, it had been well for the Jews had he not been born at all; and much better for himself, as will appear from what follows. The Jews of that city paid Sabatai Sevi great respect. Upon which he consented to turn Mahometan, to the great confusion of the Jews. And yet some of the Jews were so vain as to affirm that it was not Sabatai himself, but his shadow, that professed the religion, and was seen in the habit of a Turk; so great was their obstinacy and infidelity, as if it were a thing impossible to convince these deluded and infatuated wretches. After all this, several of the Jews continued to use the forms, in their public worship prescribed by this Mahometan Messias, which obliged the principal Jews of Constantinople to send to the synagogue of Smyrna to forbid this practice. During these things, the Jews, instead of minding their trade and traffic, filled their letters with news of Sabatai their Messias, and his wonderful works. Upon the fame of these things the Jews of Italy sent legates to Smyrna, to enquire into the truth of these matters. The last falst Christ that had made any considerable number of converts was one Rabbi Mordecai, a Jew of Germany: he appeared in the year 1632
Mordecai - Xerxes sent Matacas to spoil Apollo's temple at Delphi (Miletus?) a work congenial to a Jew, as the order was to the iconoclastic king. ) The instrument under Providence in saving the Jews from extermination by Haman, as his not bowing to that Amaleldte was the occasion of Haman's murderous spite against the chosen race. At Xerxes' death, or even before, Mordecai probably led to Jerusalem a body of Jews, as recorded in Ezra 2:2; Nehemiah 7:7
Romans, Epistle to the - At this time the Jews were very numerous in Rome, and their synagogues were probably resorted to by Romans also, who in this way became acquainted with the great facts regarding Jesus as these were reported among the Jews. Thus a church composed of both Jews and Gentiles was formed at Rome. " Himself deeply impressed with a sense of the value of the doctrines of salvation, he opens up in a clear and connected form the whole system of the gospel in its relation both to Jew and Gentile. The subject is here treated argumentatively, and is a plea for Gentiles addressed to Jews
Unclean Meats - As Orientals have minds sensitive to teaching by types, there can be little doubt that such cere menial distinctions not only tended to keep Jew and Gentile apart (and so prevented the Jews from becoming contaminated with the idolatry of the Gentiles), but were a perpetual reminder to the former that he and the latter were not on one level before God
Jacob - One of the reputed progenitors of the Jewish nation. These three were grouped from early times (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 3:6; Exodus 3:15-16, Leviticus 26:42, 1 Kings 18:36, 2 Kings 13:23, Jeremiah 33:26, 1 Chronicles 29:18, 2 Chronicles 30:6), and occupied a place apart in Jewish thought. As a descendant of these three, a Jew might claim nobility and a special relationship to God. also Stanley, Jewish Church, i
Shiloh - One of the names of the Messiah, given by the dying patriarch Jacob under the spirit of prophecy, and to which both Jew and Gentile agree; though in the application of the name to the person of Christ they differ
Apollos - was a Jew of Alexandria, who came to Ephesus in the year of our Lord 54, during the absence of St
Judas - He was accustomed, however, even at this time, to appropriate part of their common stock to his own use, John 12:6 ; and at length sealed his infamy by betraying his Lord to the Jews for money. For the paltry sum of about , he engaged with the Jewish Sanhedrin to guide them to a place where they could seize him by night without danger of a tumult. In company with one Sadoc, he attempted to excite a sedition among the Jews, but was destroyed by Quirinus, or Cyrenius, at that time governor of Syria and Judea, Acts 5:37 . A Jew at Damascus, with whom Paul lodged, Acts 9:11
Proselyte - (a stranger, a new comer ), the name given by the Jews to foreigners who adopted the Jewish religion. The dispersion of the Jews in foreign countries, which has been spoken of elsewhere [1], enabled them to make many converts to their faith. The converts who were thus attracted joined, with varying strictness, in the worship of the Jews. In Palestine itself, even Roman centurions learned to love the conquered nation built synagogues for them, (Luke 7:5 ) fasted and prayed, and gave alms after the pattern of the strictest Jews, (Acts 10:2,30 ) and became preachers of the new faith to the soldiers under them. The Jews of Palestine were eager to spread their faith by the same weapons as those with which they had defended it. The vices of the Jew were engrafted on the vices of the heathen
Esther - Esther was a Jewess who lived in Persia and became queen to the Persian king Ahasuerus, also known as Xerxes I. ...
Features of the book...
When an earlier Persian king gave the Jews permission to return to their homeland, many preferred not to go. Their prosperity increased, but they showed little interest in re-establishing the Jewish religious order as a spiritual force among the Jewish people. ...
This attitude is reflected in the book of Esther, whose story is built around Jews in Persia. ...
Summary of the story...
When the Persian king decided to replace his queen, the woman chosen was Esther, an orphan Jew who had been brought up by her cousin Mordecai. Haman hated the Jews, and when Mordecai refused to bow to him, he determined to destroy all Jews throughout the Empire (3:1-15). While Haman cast lots (purim) to find the right day for the Jews’ slaughter, Mordecai persuaded Esther to appeal to the king to have mercy on her people (4:1-5:14). Esther then revealed to the king that she was Jewish. The day that had been chosen by the casting of lots (purim) for the slaughter of the Jews now became the day when the Jews took revenge on their enemies. The Jews’ celebration of their victory was the origin of an annual Jewish festival known as the Feast of Purim (8:1-9:32). Through Mordecai the Jews enjoyed increased freedom and prosperity (10:1-3)
Jacob - One of the reputed progenitors of the Jewish nation. These three were grouped from early times (Exodus 2:24; Exodus 3:6; Exodus 3:15-16, Leviticus 26:42, 1 Kings 18:36, 2 Kings 13:23, Jeremiah 33:26, 1 Chronicles 29:18, 2 Chronicles 30:6), and occupied a place apart in Jewish thought. As a descendant of these three, a Jew might claim nobility and a special relationship to God. also Stanley, Jewish Church, i
Fear - Paul draws up against both Jew and Gentile-comprehensive and explanatory of all the rest-is that there is no fear of God before their eyes (Romans 3:18). ...
This was the religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God
Law of Moses - In accordance with this, Paul, as a Jew, could say, "The law was our schoolmaster unto Christ;" and the Lord said, "Had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me. A converted Jew was no longer under the law — how much less a Gentile believer whom God had never put under the law! See SCHOOLMASTER
Fear - Paul draws up against both Jew and Gentile-comprehensive and explanatory of all the rest-is that there is no fear of God before their eyes (Romans 3:18). ...
This was the religion of the devout Jew, and when the Gentile, dissatisfied alike with the old gods of Olympus and the cold abstractions of philosophy, came to the synagogues of the ‘dispersion’ in search of a higher faith and a purer morality, he was taught to ‘fear God
Philo - Philo of Alexandria, the Jew, a contemporary of the apostles, was so highly esteemed by early Christian theologians as to be counted among the Christian authors (Jerome, de Vir. ]'>[1], and, for the background, to the papyri dealing with persecutions of the Jews in Alexandria. ...
Philo belonged to one of the noblest and wealthiest Jewish families of Alexandria. He had also heard Jewish interpreters of the Torah, probably in the synagogue; and it seems as if, like other serious young men, e. In consequence of the anti-Semitic riots at Alexandria under Flaccus, Philo, as the leader of a Jewish embassy, went to Rome to see the Emperor Caligula. -‘Philo the Jew’-that is his main characteristic. He is a Jew in his strict monotheism, his faith in God’s providence, and his high moral standard. As a Jew he is devoted to the Law and the Lawgiver. ...
On the other hand, Philo is a typical Jew of the Diaspora. Philo the Jew has a place among the Greek philosophers. The characteristic feature with Philo is the combination with Jewish religion: as this rests on revelation, a certain character of authority alien to ancient philosophy is impressed upon Philo’s speculations. ...
From Plato, whom he mentions next to Moses and with nearly equal reverence, Philo borrows the doctrine of the Ideas, combining them, however, with the Stoic doctrine of the Logos and the logoi, and clothing it in the form of the biblical doctrines of Wisdom and of angels (it is still disputed whether in this late Jewish theory, as well as in the Stoic theory, there is a reminiscence of polytheism, ancient gods being turned into divine attributes, or only a poetical mode of personification. ...
From the Sceptics Philo borrows the criticism of sense perception; their doubts at the same time are helpful for refuting Stoic fatalism, which is incompatible with the Jewish faith in God. They did not realize that he was neither the only nor the earliest representative of a Jewish Philosophy of religion. They did not know, nor could they, that non-Jewish Hellenism had produced something similar, and that it also influenced early Christianity independently. Apollos, a certain Jew born at Alexandria, an eloquent man, mighty in the Scriptures (Acts 18:24), was not necessarily a pupil of Philo; there were other interpreters of the Scriptures at Alexandria besides him, as Philo himself mentions occasionally
Esther, Book of - It was not without much discussion that Esther was admitted into the Canon, for its right to be there was disputed both by the Jewish authorities and by the early Christian Church. the greatest Jewish teacher of his day, Rabbi Jehudah, said, ‘The Book of Esther defileth not the hands’ [1]. Moreover, the spirit of the book points to the time when great bitterness and hatred had been engendered between Jew and Gentile. Of its authorship we know nothing further than that the writer was a Jew who must have been in some way connected with Persia; the book shows him to have been one whose racial prejudice was much stronger than his religious fervour; it is extraordinary that a book of the Bible should never once mention the sacred name of God; the secular spirit which is so characteristic of the book must have been the main reason of the disinclination to incorporate it into the Scriptures, which has been already referred to. The book purports to give the history of how the Jewish feast of Purim (‘Lots’) first originated. Esther is the adopted daughter of a Jew named Mordecai , who had been the means of saving the king from the hands of assassins. The petition was that a royal decree should be put forth to the effect that all Jews were to be killed, and their belongings treated as spoil. On this becoming known, there is great grief among the Jews. During this Esther makes her petition to the king on behalf of her people, as well as for her own life, which is threatened, for the royal decree is directed against all Jews and Jewesses within his domains; she also discloses Haman’s plot against Mordecai. Esther then has letters sent in all directions in order to avert the threatened destruction of her people; but the attempt is yet made by the enemies of the Jews to carry out Haman’s intentions. The Jews defend themselves with success, and a great feast is held on the 14th of Adar, on which the Jews ‘rested, and made it a day of feasting and gladness. ’ Moreover, two days of feasting are appointed to be observed for all time; they are called Purim , because of the lot ( pûr ) which Haman cast for the destruction of the Jews (chs. The main reasons for this conclusion are, that the book is full of improbabilities; that it is so transparently written for specific purposes, namely, the glorification of the Jewish nation, and as a means of expressing Jewish hatred of and contempt for Gentiles (see also § 5 ); that a ‘strictly historical interpretation of the narrative is beset with difficulties’; that the facts it purports to record receive no substantiation from such books as Chron. Purim may, in this case, have been, as Jensen suggests, a feast commemorating the victory of Babylonian over Elamite gods which was taken over and adapted by the Jews
Pharisees - " On the return from Babylon the Jews became more exclusive than ever. The Mishna or "second law," the first portion of the Talmud, is a digest of Jewish traditions and ritual, put in writing by rabbi Jehudah the Holy in the second century. "Moses received the oral law from Sinai, and delivered it to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and these to the prophets, and these to the men of the great synagogue" (Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), 1). The oral law defined the time before which in the evening a Jew must repeat the Shema, i. ) So it defines the kind of wick and oil to be used for lighting the lamps which every Jew must burn on the Sabbath eve. The treatise Cholin in the Mishna lays down a regulation as to "clean and unclean" (Leviticus 20:25; Leviticus 22:4-7; Numbers 19:20) which severs the Jews socially from other peoples; "anything slaughtered by a pagan is unfit to be eaten, like the carcass of an animal that died of itself, and pollutes him who carries it. "...
An orthodox Jew still may not eat meat of any animal unless killed by a Jewish butcher; the latter searches for a blemish, and attaches to the approved a leaden seal stamped kashar , "lawful. ...
Juvenal (14:102-104) alleges a Jew would not show the road or a spring to a traveler of a different creed. The Jews' question merely took for granted that some sin had caused the blindness, without defining whose sin, "this man" or (as that is out of the question) "his parents
Cyprus - Yet in this unpromising soil Christianity took early root, the Jews having prepared the way. Its copper mines in the mountains were once farmed to Herod the Great; hence, the number of Jews on the island was natural. ...
Moreover those scattered abroad in the persecution whereby Stephen suffered "traveled as far as Cyprus, preaching the word to none but unto the Jews only. With John Mark as their minister they preached in the Jews' synagogue at Salamis; and then passing by the Roman road to Paphos, the proconsular residence in the W. Elymas or Barjesus, a sorcerer and false prophet, a Jew, withstood Paul and Barnabas, "seeking to turn away the deputy from the faith"; but on his being struck with blindness at Paul's word the deputy was astonished and believed
Abaddon - Just as, in beautiful contrast, the Spirit of adoption enables both Jew and Gentile believers to call God, in both their respective tongues, Αbba (Hebrew in marked alliteration with Αbaddon Father (Greek, pater )
Unclean - Now Peter is to be sent to the Gentiles, who were considered only as unclean animals in the sight of the Jews. The converted Jew thinks that pork is unclean for him to eat, and he refuses it
Silas - His name from the Latin sylva , "a wood," implies he was a Hellenistic Jew
Flock, Fold - Ephesians 2:14) which separated the Jews from the Gentiles and made them a nation by themselves. Within this Jewish fold (αὑλή), our Lord tells us that, at the time when He spoke, He had a number of sheep who were His own; and also that, outside of it, among the Gentiles, dark and miserable as their condition was, He had other sheep, who were His already, and were known to Him, even if they knew it not themselves. These too, He announces, He must bring, and put them along with His Jewish-born sheep; ‘and,’ He adds, ‘there shall be one flock (He uses here the other word ποίμνη), one shepherd. He has unity in view for His sheep—union; but not such as is to be secured by the erection round His flock of such outwardly-enclosing, or constraining ‘walls of partition’—geographical or racial—as had hitherto divided nation from nation and Jew from Gentile
Lamentations of Jeremiah - This book of Lamentations is divided into five chapters; in the first, second, and fourth, the prophet speaks in his own person, or by an elegant and interesting personification introduces the city of Jerusalem as lamenting her calamities, and confessing her sins; in the third chapter a single Jew, speaking in the name of a chorus of his countrymen, like the Coryphaeus of the Greeks, describes the punishment inflicted upon him by God, but still acknowledges his mercy, and expresses some hope of deliverance; and in the fifth chapter, the whole nation of the Jews pour forth their united complaints and supplications to almighty God
Onesiphorus - 159, refers to 2 Maccabees 12:44 in support of the contention that an orthodox Jew of the time of Christ could have prayed for the dead
Righteousness - ...
This is an entirely different principle from that on which the Jew went, namely, that of seeking to establish their own righteousness, and not submitting to the righteousness of God
Barnabas - He was a Jew from Cyprus (Acts 4:36) and was related to John Mark, whose family home was in Jerusalem (Colossians 4:10; Acts 12:12). When many of the Jewish Christians in Jerusalem were doubtful about Paul and his reported conversion, Barnabas gained acceptance for Paul with the leaders of the church (Acts 9:26-29). Being more open-minded than most of the Jewish Christians, he was later sent by the Jerusalem leaders to help at Antioch in Syria, where many non-Jewish people had become Christians. ...
After returning to Antioch, the two missionaries met trouble when Jews from the Jerusalem church taught that Gentile Christians had to keep the Jewish law (Acts 15:1; Acts 15:5). The Jewish teachers argued so cleverly that they persuaded Barnabas to believe them (Galatians 2:11-13). He then opposed the Jewish teachers and even went with Paul to Jerusalem to discuss the matter with the church leaders (Acts 15:2; Acts 15:12)
Peace - The Lord came to sinful humankind, historically first to the Jews and then to the Gentiles, desiring to enter into a relationship with them. Paul described the difference as follows: "There will be trouble and distress for every human being who does evil: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile; but glory, honor and peace for everyone who does good: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile" (Romans 2:9-10 )
Matthew (2) - 514), it was common in Galilee for a man to have two names, one strictly Jewish and the other Galilaean. The work of a publican excited the scorn so often shown beyond the limits of Israel to fiscal officers; and when he was a Jew, as was Matthew, he was condemned for impurity by the Pharisees. A Jew serving on a great highway was prevented from fulfilling requirements of the Law, and was compelled to violate the Sabbath law, which the Gentiles, who conveyed their goods, did not observe. Schürer makes the statement that the customs raised in Capernaum in the time of Christ went into the treasury of Herod Antipas, while in Judaea they were taken for the Imperial fiscus (HJP Hebrews - ’ Jewish tradition gives the more accurate form ὁ περαΐτης, ‘the man from the other side,’ i. It was, he holds, rather the name commonly in use among the people themselves from the earliest times up to the time of the kings, when it was displaced by ‘Israel’ as the name of national privilege, which again was in turn displaced in common use by the term ‘Jews’ from the time of the Exile. ...
In the NT the word ‘Hebrew’ is seldom found applied to members of the ancient race of Israel, ‘Jew’ having become the usual designation of the period. In apostolic times the term became specialized, and was applied not to any member of the ancient race, but to Palestinian Jews of pronounced national sympathies who spoke the Aramaic dialect and retained the national customs, in contrast with the Hellenistic Jews (Authorized Version ‘Grecians’ Apollos - An Alexandrine Jew, "eloquent (or learned) and mighty in the Scriptures" (which had been translated into the famous Greek version, the Septuagint, at his birthplace) (Acts 18:24-25). " His deep knowledge of the Old Testament gave him especial power with the Jews, "for he mightily convinced them publicly, showing by the Scriptures that Jesus is the Christ
Reckon, Reckoning - be reckoned," RV (AV, "counted"), of "reckoning" uncircumcision for circumcision by God's estimate in contrast to that of the Jew regarding his own condition (ver
Hunting - To the scandal of Jew and Moslem, Christians sometimes hunt the wild boar in the Huleh marshes, and in the thickets beyond Jordan
Taxes - This became an annual payment on the return from Babylon; at first only a third of a shekel (Nehemiah 10:32); afterward a half, the didrachma (Matthew 17:24); paid by every Jew wherever in the world he might be (Josephus Jewish kings, Mendhem, Hoshea, Hezekiah, Josiah (2 Kings 15:20; 2 Kings 17:4; 2 Kings 18:14; 2 Kings 23:35)
Quartus - The name Quartus itself might of course have been borne by a Jew (cf. It is frequently found in Acts addressed to Jews by Jews (Acts 2:29; Acts 2:37, etc
Joel - ’ Was he, like the prophet himself, still a particularist, extending the promised blessing to all the Jews of the Diaspora, but limiting it to them, and so making the old distinction of lsrael from the heathen more marked than ever? Or did he there and then change his standpoint so as to include the nations in his purview? Did he in that hour of inspiration read into Joel’s words the later universalism of St. Time would also show that there was to be no limit of race (Jew or Gentile); for however men (even prophets) may limit ‘all flesh,’ to Christ and His Church it means ‘all humanity
Grecians Greeks - In the NT the term is correctly used of those who are of Greek descent (Acts 16:1; Acts 18:4, Romans 1:14), although we also find it used as a general designation for all who do not belong to the Jewish race. Thus the foreigners who came desiring to see Jesus at the Passover are referred to as Greeks (John 12:20); so the Apostle Paul divides mankind into two classes when he says (Romans 10:12): ‘There is no difference between the Jew and the Greek’ (cf. ...
The term ‘Grecians’ (Ἑλληνισταί), on the other hand (Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29), is applied to Greek-speaking Jews as opposed to the Jews of Palestine, who spoke Aramaic and are designated Hebrews. From the days of Alexander the Great onwards, large numbers of Jewish emigrants were to be found all over the known world. In Alexandria in particular a great number had settled, but in all the cities of the West, in all the centres of trade, Jews found a home. Many of these Jewish settlers acquired great wealth, and adopted Greek speech, manners, and customs. They read the Greek poets, and many of them studied Greek philosophy, while at the same time they adhered to the Jewish hopes and regarded Jerusalem as the centre of their life and worship. They were free from the narrowness and provincialism of the native Jews of Palestine, and the message of the Christian missionaries found much more willing hearers among this class than among the prejudiced and exclusive Palestine Jews. Are we to read here ‘Grecians’ or ‘Greeks’? Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached Jews or Gentiles, Grecians or Greeks? Internal evidence and the mass of manuscript authority seem to conflict
Samaritans - Josephus speaks of him as Manasseh, and relates that Sanballat built a temple for him at Gerizim, which became a refuge for apostate Jews. This naturally increased the hatred between the Jews and the Samaritans. The woman of Samaria in John 4 alluded to the differences between Jews and Samaritans, and in Luke 9:52,53 it is said of a village of the Samaritans that the inhabitants would not receive the Lord because His face was turned towards Jerusalem. A Jew regarded it as the extreme of opprobrium, to be called a Samaritan, and those of Judaea added this to the other insults they heaped on the blessed Lord. The woman of Samaria said to the Lord, "Art thou greater than our father Jacob, who gave us the well?" As to their religion, she spoke of 'this mountain' as the proper place to worship; but the Lordsaid, "Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews. ...
It is remarkable that while the Jews have lost all means of keeping their feasts at Jerusalem, a few, still calling themselves Samaritans, at Nablus, in a humble synagogue at the foot of the mountain, continue their worship, and annually ascend the mountain and keep the feast of the Passover with a roasted lamb: a marked instance of imitation, now so common in Christendom
Gospel - The First Gomel was prepared by Matthew for the Jew. He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the Jews, the Messianic royalty of Jesus
People of the Land - Disapproval is expressed in Ezra and Nehemiah for the pagan half-Jew and half-Gentile, essentially non-observant Jews (see Ezra 10:2 ,Ezra 10:2,10:11 ; Nehemiah 10:28-31 )
Murder - ...
Thus during the time of Felix and Festus there arose the Sicarii (see Assassins), whose Jewish patriotism took a murderous shape. An Egyptian Jew gave himself out as a prophet and held out to a crowd in the wilderness the alluring promise that the walls of Jerusalem would fall down at his word and so make the city theirs once more
Grecians Greeks - In the NT the term is correctly used of those who are of Greek descent (Acts 16:1; Acts 18:4, Romans 1:14), although we also find it used as a general designation for all who do not belong to the Jewish race. Thus the foreigners who came desiring to see Jesus at the Passover are referred to as Greeks (John 12:20); so the Apostle Paul divides mankind into two classes when he says (Romans 10:12): ‘There is no difference between the Jew and the Greek’ (cf. ...
The term ‘Grecians’ (Ἑλληνισταί), on the other hand (Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29), is applied to Greek-speaking Jews as opposed to the Jews of Palestine, who spoke Aramaic and are designated Hebrews. From the days of Alexander the Great onwards, large numbers of Jewish emigrants were to be found all over the known world. In Alexandria in particular a great number had settled, but in all the cities of the West, in all the centres of trade, Jews found a home. Many of these Jewish settlers acquired great wealth, and adopted Greek speech, manners, and customs. They read the Greek poets, and many of them studied Greek philosophy, while at the same time they adhered to the Jewish hopes and regarded Jerusalem as the centre of their life and worship. They were free from the narrowness and provincialism of the native Jews of Palestine, and the message of the Christian missionaries found much more willing hearers among this class than among the prejudiced and exclusive Palestine Jews. Are we to read here ‘Grecians’ or ‘Greeks’? Were those to whom the men of Cyprus and Cyrene preached Jews or Gentiles, Grecians or Greeks? Internal evidence and the mass of manuscript authority seem to conflict
Reconcile, Reconciliation - 1, "to change from one condition to another," so as to remove all enmity and leave no impediment to unity and peace, is used in Ephesians 2:16 , of the "reconciliation" of believing Jew and Gentile "in one body unto God through the Cross;" in Colossians 1:21 not the union of Jew and Gentile is in view, but the change wrought in the individual believer from alienation and enmity, on account of evil works, to "reconciliation" with God; in Colossians 1:20 the word is used of the Divine purpose to "reconcile" through Christ "all things unto Himself
Tyrannus - Paul’s sojourn at Ephesus we are told that after he had spent three months in arguing with the Jews in the synagogue he succeeded in rousing the hostility of their rulers to such an extent that he was compelled to withdraw from the synagogue altogether, and that he remained in the city for a period of two years, ‘reasoning daily in the school of Tyrannus’ (Acts 19:9). But may not the words have been inserted by one who did not understand the reference to the school of Tyrannus and who desired to make it more intelligible?...
It is impossible to settle the question whether this Tyrannus supposed to be teaching at Ephesus at the date of the Apostle’s visit was a Jew or a Gentile. It is unlikely that an unconverted Jew would give his building for the Apostle’s use and thus incur the hatred of his co-religionists, and the reference seems to imply that St. Paul had left the unbelieving Jews behind him in the synagogue and taken his adherents with him to the new meeting-place
Access - Jew and Gentile) have our access in one spirit unto the Father. Dale, The Jewish Temple and the Christian Church, 1877, p
Maccabees - This name, formed by abbreviation according to the common practice of the Jews, distinguished Judas Maccabaeus by way of eminence, as he succeeded his father, B. It is supposed to have been written by John Hyrcanus, the son of Simon, who was prince and high priest of the Jews near thirty years, and began his government at the time where this history ends. The second book of the Maccabees begins with two epistles sent from the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt and Alexandria, to exhort them to observe the feast of the dedication of the new altar erected by Judas, on his purifying the temple. After these epistles follows the preface of the author to his history, which is an abridgment of a larger work, composed by one Jason, a Jew of Cyrene, who wrote in Greek the history of Judas Maccabaeus, and his brethren, and the wars against Antiochus Epiphanes, and Eupator his son. For a farther account of Judas Maccabaeus, and of his brothers, whose history is recorded in the first and second books of the Maccabees, and also by Josephus, we refer to the article JewS. The third book of the Maccabees contains the history of the persecution of Ptolomy Philopater against the Jews in Egypt, and their sufferings under it; and seems to have been written by some Alexandrian Jew in the Greek language, not long after the time of Siracides
Access - Jew and Gentile) have our access in one spirit unto the Father. He is the peace-maker, the προσαγωγεύς between us, Jew and Gentile, who were once far off from each other]'>[5] who hath made both one’ by His blood [3]). Dale, The Jewish Temple and the Christian Church, 1877, p
Ephesians Epistle to the - 1-3 deal with the respective positions of Jew and Gentile in the unity of the Church, from which we may conjecture that this was one of the main difficulties in the churches founded by St. The danger is no longer that of the Judaizing teacher, but rather lest the growing Gentile communities should tend to despise the Jewish Christians in their midst (Ephesians 2:1; Ephesians 1:12-1490; Ephesians 2:11-15; cf. Against the dangers of the hour he sets the inspiration of a great ideal, the One Body of Christ who died for Jew and Gentile alike, the One Church, ordered by Christ Himself, in which every man, if he will, may lead the life of the Spirit. The unity of the Church, regarded as that in which Jew and Gentile are at last one. Thanksgiving that in the Holy Spirit both Jew and Gentile have even here and now an earnest of that great heritage. A further thanksgiving for all that is implied in this conception of the Church, worked out especially in relation to the position of Jews and Gentiles therein. The power of God which was shown in Christ has been shown too upon all individual Christians, whether Gentile (Ephesians 2:1-2) or Jew (Ephesians 2:3), raising them from the death of sin (Ephesians 2:5; contrast Ephesians 5:15-17), causing them to ascend with Christ into the heavenly sphere (Ephesians 2:6; cf. The barriers set up by the Jewish Law are broken down (Ephesians 1:14-15). Jew and Gentile now stand together in one fellowship, both having their access to the Father through Christ in one Spirit (Ephesians 1:16-18)
Superstitious - Once more, δεισιδαιμονία is used of the Jewish religion in Acts 25:19, and must there have been intended in a good sense. ]'>[1] 378) that the ominous word ‘demon’ could never have conveyed anything but a bad sense to a Jew, which is borne out by Josephus’ use of the word
Salamis - But after a few years Cyprus was again in the possession of the Egyptian king, and it was probably during his reign that Jews began to settle in the island, to which a letter is said to have been sent by the Roman Senate on behalf of this people about 139 b. Many Jews must have made their home in Salamis, where Barnabas (himself a Cypriote, Acts 4:36) and St. 117), the Jews of Salamis, grown numerous and wealthy, rose and massacred their fellow-citizens, and the once populous city became almost a desert. He defeated the Jews, expelled them from the island, to whose beautiful coasts no Jew was ever after permitted to approach. of the Jews4, London, 1866, ii
Enmity - ...
(2) The enmity of Jew and Gentile was notorious. By His Cross He ‘abolished’ and ‘slew’ the enmity (Ephesians 2:15-16), creating a new manhood which is neither Jewish, Greek, nor Roman, but comprehensive, cosmopolitan, catholic, fulfilling the highest classical ideal of human fellowship-‘humani nihil a me alienum puto’ (Terence, Heaut. Paul says of the Jews, ‘They are enemies for your sake’ (Romans 11:28)
Lying - the Cretan (Titus 1:12), lying is bad; in the Jew (Revelation 2:9) it is worse; in the Christian it should be impossible
Divisions - Apollos was a Jew of Alexandria (Acts 18:24-28), a disciple of the Baptist, who, being more fully instructed by Aquila and Priscilla, was baptized into the Christian Church
Abolish - ...
The barren tree was cumbering the ground, making it useless for the purpose of its existence, Luke 13:7 ; the unbelief of the Jews could not "make of none effect" the faithfulness of God, Romans 3:3 ; the preaching of the Gospel could not "make of none effect" the moral enactments of the Law, Romans 3:31 ; the Law could not make the promise of "none effect," Romans 4:14 ; Galatians 3:17 ; the effect of the identification of the believer with Christ in His death is to render inactive his body in regard to sin, Romans 6:6 ; the death of a woman's first husband discharges her from the law of the husband, that is, it makes void her status as his wife in the eyes of the law, Romans 7:2 ; in that sense the believer has been discharged from the Law, Romans 7:6 ; God has chosen things that are not "to bring to nought things that are," i. , He is going to render them inactive, 1 Corinthians 15:24 ; the last enemy that shall be abolished, or reduced to inactivity, is death, 1 Corinthians 15:26 ; the glory shining in the face of Moses, "was passing away," 2 Corinthians 3:7 , the transitoriness of its character being of a special significance; so in 2 Corinthians 3:11,13 ; the veil upon the heart of Israel is "done away" in Christ, 2 Corinthians 3:14 ; those who seek justification by the Law are "severed" from Christ, they are rendered inactive in relation to Him, Galatians 5:4 ; the essential effect of the preaching of the Cross would become inoperative by the preaching of circumcision, Galatians 5:11 ; by the death of Christ the barrier between Jew and Gentile is rendered inoperative as such, Ephesians 2:15 ; the Man of Sin is to be reduced to inactivity by the manifestation of the Lord's Parousia with His people, 2 Thessalonians 2:8 ; Christ has rendered death inactive for the believer, 2 Timothy 1:10 , death becoming the means of a more glorious life, with Christ; the Devil is to be reduced to inactivity through the death of Christ, Hebrews 2:14
Cock - ...
The rabbies tell us that cocks were not permitted to be kept in Jerusalem on account of the holiness of the place; and that for this reason some modern Jews cavil against this declaration of the Evangelists; but the cock is not among the birds prohibited in the law of Moses. If there was any restraint in the use and domestication of the animal, it must have been an arbitrary practice of the Jews, and could not have been binding on foreigners, of whom many resided at Jerusalem as officers or traders. Strangers would not be willing to forego an innocent kind of food in compliance with a conquered people; and the trafficking spirit of the Jews would induce them to supply aliens, if it did not expressly contradict the letter of their law. The celebrated Reland admits that it was not allowed to breed cocks in the city, but that the Jews were not prohibited from buying them to eat, and that therefore the cock mentioned in the Gospel might be in the house of a Jew who designed to kill it for his own table; or may have been kept in the precincts of Pilate, or of a Roman officer or soldier. ...
During the time of our Saviour, the night was divided into four watches, a fourth watch having been introduced among the Jews from the Romans, who derived it from the Greeks
Daniel - He was chosen, with his three companions, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, to reside at Nebuchadnezzar's court, where he received a suitable education, and made great progress in all the sciences of the Chaldeans, but declined to pollute himself by eating provisions from the king's table, which would often be ceremonially unclean to a Jew, or defiled by some connection with idol-worship. During this period he earnestly labored, by fasting and prayer as well as by counsel, to secure the return of the Jews to their own land, the promised time having come, Daniel 9:1-27 . In the third year of Cyrus, he had a series of visions disclosing the state of the Jews till the coming of the promised Redeemer; and at last we see him calmly awaiting the peaceful close of a well-spent life, and the gracious resurrection of the just
Symmachus, Author o.t. in Greek - 420), adds that this Juliana was a virgin who lived in Caesarea of Cappadocia, and gave refuge to Origen for two years during a persecution, adducing as his authority an entry which he found in Origen's own hand "This book I found in the house of Juliana the virgin in Caesarea, when I was hiding there; who said that she had received it from Symmachus himself, the interpreter of the Jews" ( Hist. Epiphanius's account is therefore to be rejected; and with it the theory of Geiger, who seeks to identify him with the Jew Symmachus, son of Joseph
Jews - Jews, history of the. Judah was invaded by Sennacherib; but Hezekiah's piety, and Isaiah's prayer, were the means of their preservation: but under Manasseh, the Jews abandoned themselves to horrid impiety: for which they were punished by Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, who invaded and reduced the kingdom, and carried Manasseh prisoner to Babylon. In the seventieth year from the begun captivity, the Jews, according to the edict of Cyrus, king of Persia, who had overturned the empire of Chaldea, returned to their own country. About eight years after, he transported another multitude of Jews to Egypt, and gave them considerable privileges. ...
About the same time, Seleucus Nicator, having built about thirty new cities in Asia, settled in them as many Jews as he could; and Ptolemy Philadelphus, of Egypt, about 3720, bought the freedom of all the Jew slaves in Egypt. Multitudes were killed, and ten thousand prisoners carried off; the temple was dedicated to Olympius, an idol of Greece, and the Jews exposed to the basest treatment. Under these three reigns alone the Jewish nation was independent after the captivity. About twenty years before our Saviour's birth, he, with the Jews' consent began to build the temple. ...
About this time the Jews had hopes of the Messiah; and about A. The Jews, however, a few excepted, rejected the Messiah, and put him to death. The Jews since that time, have been scattered, contemned, persecuted, and enslaved among all nations, not mixed with any in the common manner, but have remained as a body distinct by themselves. Jews, sentiments of. The Jews commonly reckon but thirteen articles of their faith. Maimonides, a famous Jewish rabbi, reduced them to this number when he drew up their confession about the end of the eleventh century, and it was generally received. All the Jews are obliged to live and die in the profession of these thirteen articles, which are as follow:...
1. The modern Jews adhere still as closely to the Mosaic dispensation, as their dispersed and despised condition will permit them. They abstain from meats prohibited by the Levitical law; for which reason, whatever they eat must be dressed by Jews, and after a manner peculiar to themselves. ...
The Jews pray for the souls of the dead, because they suppose there is a paradise for the souls of good men, where they enjoy glory in the presence of God. They suppose no Jew, unless guilty of heresy, or certain crimes specified by the rabbins, shall continue in purgatory above a twelvemonth; and that there are but few who suffer eternal punishment. Almost all the modern Jews are Pharisees, and are as much attached to tradition as their ancestors were; and assert that whoever rejects the oral law deserves death. ...
There are to this day some remains of the ancient sect of the Samaritans, who are zealous for the law of Moses, but are despised by the Jews, because they receive only the Pentateuch, and observe different ceremonies from theirs. David Levi, a learned Jew, who in 1796 published "Dissertations on the Phrophecies of the Old Testament, " observes in that work, that deism and infidelity have made such large strides in the world, that they have at length reached even to the Jewish nation; many of whom are at this time so greatly infected with scepticism, by reading Bolingbroke, Hume, Voltaire, &c. Jews, calamities of. ...
All history cannot furnish us with a parallel to the calamities and miseries of the Jews; rapine and murder, famine and pestilence, within; fire and sword, and all the terrors of war, without. " It is hardly possible to consider the nature and extent of their sufferings, and not conclude the Jews' own imprecation to be singularly fulfilled upon them, Matthew 27:25 . " At Cesarea twenty thousand of the Jews were killed. At Damascus ten thousand unarmed Jews were killed: and at Bethshan the Heathen inhabitants caused their Jewish neighbours to assist them against their brethren, and then murdered thirteen thousand of these inhabitants. ...
At Alexandria the Jews murdered multitudes of the Heathens, and were murdered in their turn to about fifty thousand. They murdered almost every Jew they met with. Titus was bent to save the temple, but could not: there were six thousand Jews who had taken shelter in it, all burnt or murdered! The outcries of the Jews, when they saw it, were most dreadful: the whole city, except three towers and a small part of the wall, was razed to the ground, and the foundations of the temple and other places were ploughed up. About fifty years after, the Jews murdered about five hundred thousand of the Roman subjects, for which they were severely punished by Trajan. About 130, one Barocaba pretended that he was the Messiah, and raised a Jewish army of two hundred thousand, who murdered all the Heathens and Christians who came in their way; but he was defeated by Adrian's forces. In this war, it is said, about sixty thousand Jews were slain, and perished. No Jew was allowed to enter the city, or to look to it at a distance, under pain of death. Jews, preservation of. ...
"The preservation of the Jews, " says Basnage, "in the midst of the miseries which they have undergone during 1700 years, is the greatest prodigy that can be imagined. The Jews have been expelled, in different times, from every part of the world, which hath only served to spread them in all regions. To the Jew only hath God refused the possession of this small tract of ground, so supremely necessary for him, since he ought to worship on this mountain. ...
A Jewish writer hath affirmed, that it is long since any Jew has been settled near Jerusalem: scarcely can they purchase there six feet of land for a burying-place. The Jew ought to be weary of expecting a Messiah, who so unkindly disappoints his vain hopes: and the Christian ought to have his attention and his regard excited towards men whom God preserves, for so great a length of time, under calamities which would have been the total ruin of any other people. Jews, number and dispersion of...
They are looked upon to be as numerous at present as they were formerly in the land of Canaan. Jews, restoration of. ...
From the declarations of Scripture we have reason to suppose the Jews shall be called to a participation of the blessings of the Gospel, Romans 11:1-36 : 2 Corinthians 3:16 . Josephus's History of the Jews; Spect. 4:; Levi's Ceremonies of the Jewish Religion; Buxtorf de Synagoga Judiaca; Spencer de Legibus Heb. ; Warburton's Address to the Jews, in the Dedication of the 2d vol. of his Legation; Sermons preached to the Jews at Berry-street, by Dr. of the Jews; Shaw's Philosophy of Judiasm; Hartley on Man, vol. 455, 487; Bicheno's Restoration of the Jews; Jortin's Rem. 153; Neale's History of the Jews; Pirie's Posth
the Samaritan Who Shewed Mercy - But however he set out, psalm or no psalm, and however this Samaritan was occupied as he rode down the Jericho-pass, as God would have it, Behold, there is a half-dead Jew lying in the ditch at the roadside. Were ever any of you as full as you could hold of mortal hatred at any enemy of yours? At any enemy of your church or your country? Were you ever in such a diabolical state of mind at any man, or at any race of men, that it would have made you glad to see him lying wounded and half dead? Well, that was the very way that the Jews and the Samaritans felt to one another in our Lord's day. But to do it to a Jew,-that is why this Samaritan's name is so celebrated in heaven. What do you think would be the thoughts of the half-dead Jew as he saw his own temple-kinsmen passing by on the other side, and then saw this dog of a Samaritan leaping off his mule? What would he think and say all night as he saw this excommunicated Samaritan lighting the candle to pour oil and wine into his wounds and watching all night at his bedside? That Samaritan mule hobbling down the Jericho-pass with that half-dead burden on its back always reminds me of Samuel Johnson hobbling along to Bolt Court with the half-dead streetwalker on his back and laying her down on old Mrs. Many who have their own beasts to ride upon, and who are quite able to pay their own bill to the inn-keeper and your bill also: many such stand in as much need of your love and your services of love as did that half-dead Jew on the road to Jericho
Building - As a celebration of Jew-Gentile unity and equality in Christ, Ephesians 2:20-22 portrays the church as building ( oikodome [ Psalm 118:22 ; Isaiah 28:16 ; Matthew 21:42 ; Acts 4:11 ; 1 Peter 2:7 ) and provides the whole with life and growth (Ephesians 2:21 ), while the apostles and New Testament prophets provide a solid foundation (2:20; cf. Images of nation, building, body, and temple converge but the central message is clear: Because Christ's death has established peace, union with Christ dissolves all barriers between Jew and Gentile
Raca - ” “Raca,” saith the Jew, “I must not eat of clean beasts with you. Augustine speaks of having heard from a Jew, that Raca is vocum non significantem aliquid, sed indignantis animi motum exprimentem. It is interesting to note that Maclean’s Dictionary of the Dialects of Vernacular Syriac gives the vocalization ܪܩܵܐ rçca (or rica) for the present dialect of the Azerbaijani Jews
High Priest (2) - The office of high priest in the Jewish nation can be traced back to the early years of post-exilic times. It very soon became evident that this hope was impossible of fulfilment, and the secular functions, so far as they were exercised by the Jews, were merged in the duties of the high priest. Moreover, internal conditions in the Jewish community were of themselves sufficient to have unsettled the principle. ...
As far as concerns the high priest proper, he occupied the position of chief political authority among the Jews, as head of the Sanhedrin. The Gospel narrative of these events, so far from being confused or improbable, is confirmed as entirely consistent and probable by the records of Jewish practice of those days. The religion of the Jew was a matter quite distinct from the rites and ceremonies of the temple, though he might observe these with care. He does not allude to it because it was something vital in the religious experience of the Jew. He describes it as he knew it out of the Jewish Scriptures, and he reflects upon it as dispassionately as a philosopher or a theologian
Food - ...
In the first Christian churches, where Jew and Gentile were united, in order to avoid offending Jewish prejudice in things indifferent the council at Jerusalem (Acts 15:29) ordained abstinence "from things strangled (wherein the blood would remain), and from blood. ...
The prohibition "thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk" (Exodus 23:19) is thought by Abarbauel to forbid a pagan harvest superstition designed to propitiate the gods; to which a Karaite Jew, quoted by Cudworth (Speaker's Commentary), adds, it was usual when the crops were gathered in to sprinkle the fruit trees, fields, and gardens as a charm
Formalism - Paul accuses the Jews of formalism with regard to circumcision (Romans 2:25-29), admonishing them that ‘he is not a Jew who is one outwardly … circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, not in the letter,’ Otherwise it is become ‘uncircumcision,’ a falsehood against which the virtue of the unprivileged Gentile will rise up in judgment. The typical Jew gloried in the lofty moral standards of Ins race, ‘resting upon the law,’ ‘approving the things that are excellent’; but according to the Apostle’s indictment be too often regarded an enlightened sense of duty as the goal rather than as the starting-point of moral life
Celsus, Polemical Adversary of Christianity - To him Christianity is an "exitiabilis superstitio"; he gives credence to every story against it on which he can lay his hands; he dwells with coarse jocularity on the Jewish tradition of Panthera and the Virgin Mary (i. He begins with a dialogue between a Jew and a Christian, in which the Jew sets forth his objections to Christianity. He treats Moses and the Jewish Scriptures with a contempt which amusingly contrasts with the uncritical reverence which he pays to the Galactophagi of Homer, the Druids, and the Getae, whom he terms "wise and ancient nations" (i. In one of the most unpleasing passages of his work, he compares Jews and Christians to a set of worms or frogs squabbling in the mud, and saying, "God is, and we are next to Him, and it is for our sake that the whole world is made; and God will come and take us up to heaven, except those who are bad, whom He will burn with fire
Ptolemae'us, - It was impossible on the Jew who was now become us true a citizen of the world as the Greek, should remain passive in the conflict of opinions. It is enough now to observe the greatness of the consequences involved in the union of Greek language with Jewish thought. From this time the Jew was familiarized with the great types of western literature, and in some degree aimed at imitating them. A sudden paralysis hindered his design; but when he returned to Alexandria he determined to inflict on the Alexandrine Jews the vengeance for his disappointment. The reign of Ptolemy Epiphanes was a critical epoch in the history of the Jews
Justification - ) "The just shall live by faith" (Habakkuk 2:4) is thrice quoted by Paul:...
(1) Romans 1:17, where the emphasis is on "just," the gospel plan of saving men sets forth "the righteousness (justice) of God" as excluding the righteousness of man, Gentile and Jew alike (Romans 1:17 ff; Romans 2; Romans 3:25). Paul's epistle to Romans proves Jew and Gentile guilty of breaking God's universal law, therefore incapable of being justified by their own righteousness, i
Hellenists - But if this be all that the phrase imports, there seems to be very little occasion for the Apostle's using it immediately after having declared, that he was "of the stock of Israel, and the tribe of Benjamin;" which, on Godwin's supposition, is the same as a Hebrew of the Hebrews; for the Jews were not allowed to marry out of their own nation; or if they sometimes married proselytes, yet their number was comparatively so small among them, especially while they were under oppression, as they were at that time by the Romans, that methinks Paul would hardly have mentioned it as a distinguishing privilege and honour, that neither of his parents were proselytes. It is therefore a much more probable sense, that a Hebrew of the Hebrews signifies a Hebrew both by nation and language, which multitudes of Abraham's posterity, in those days, were not; or one of the Hebrew Jews, who performed their public worship in the Hebrew tongue; for such were reckoned more honourable than the Hellenistic Jews, who in their dispersion having, in a manner, lost the Hebrew, used the Greek language in sacris, and read the Scripture out of the Septuagint version. We meet with this distinction among the converted Jews, in the Acts of the Apostles: "In those days, when the number of the disciples was multiplied, there arose a murmuring of the Grecians or Hellenists against the Hebrews," Acts 6:1 . In one sense, these were convertible terms, both signifying Jews by nation and religion; but in the sense just mentioned, there were many, in those days, who were Israelites, but not Hebrews. Paul was both, not only an Israelite by birth, but a Hebrew, and not a Hellenistic Jew. Godwin expresses himself inaccurately, when he says that those who lived in Palestine, and who, as using the Hebrew text in their public worship, were opposed to the ‘Ελληνισται , are called Hebrews, or Jews. For, though Hebrew and Jew are convertible terms, when opposed to Gentiles, as denoting the seed of Abraham, and professors of the Mosaic religion, see Jeremiah 34:9 ; yet, as opposed to the ‘Ελληνισται , they are not convertible terms, there being Hebrew Jews and Hellenistic Jews; for it is said, that when "they, who were scattered by the persecution that arose about Stephen, travelled into several countries, preaching the word to none but Jews only," yet they spoke, προς τους ‘Ελληνιστας , to the Hellenists or Grecians, Acts 11:19-20 . The former were Greeks by nation, and as such distinguished from Jews, Acts 16:1 ; Acts 19:10 ; and the Greek empire having been rendered by Alexander in a manner universal, and their language being then the most common and general, the appellation Greeks is sometimes given to the whole Heathen world, or to all who were not Jews, Romans 1:16 ; Romans 2:9 . And this is decisive against it—that from the words immediately preceding, it is evident that these Grecians were by nation Jews, and not Greeks; it being expressly said, that those who were scattered on the persecution "preached the Gospel to the Jews only. John's Gospel, as being come to Jerusalem at the passover to worship in the temple, John 12:20 , and likewise those mentioned in the Acts, as worshipping along with the Jews in the synagogues, Acts 14:1 ; Acts 18:4 ; they were doubtless Greeks by birth and nation, yet proselytes to the Jewish religion. There is a distinction made between Jews and proselytes, Acts 2:10 ; but none between Hebrews and proselytes, because a proselyte might be either a Hebrew or a Hellenist, according to the language in which he performed public worship. That the Hellenists or Grecians were Jews, is farther argued from the account we have, that when at Jerusalem St. Paul "disputed against the Grecians, they went about to slay him," Acts 9:29 , as the Jews at Damascus had done before, Acts 9:23 . Now had these Grecians been strangers of a different nation, it cannot be imagined they durst have attempted to kill a Jew, among his own countrymen, in the capital, and without a formal accusation of him before any of their tribunals. Upon the whole, the ‘Ελληνισται , or Grecians being Jews, who used the Greek tongue in their sacred exercises, the Hebrew Jews and Grecian Jews were distinguished in those days, in like manner as the Portuguese and Dutch Jews are among us, not so much by the place of their birth, (many being born in England, others abroad,) as by the language they use in their public prayers and sermons. Neander, by which the coming of Christianity was prepared, must be placed the spreading of the Jews among the Greeks and Romans. Reverence for the national God of the Jews, as a mighty Being, and reverence for the secret sanctuary of the splendid temple of Jerusalem, had long gained admittance among the Heathen. Jewish goetae (enchanters, jugglers, &c) permitted themselves to make use of a thousand acts of delusion, in which they were very skilful, to make an impression of astonishment on the minds of those around them. Confidence in Judaism had in consequence made such wide progress, especially in large capital towns, that the Roman writers in the time of the first emperors openly complain of it; and Seneca, in his book upon superstition, said of the Jews, "The conquered have given laws to the conquerors. " The Jewish proselyte-makers, "blind leaders of the blind,"...
who had themselves no conception of the real nature of religion, could give to others no insight into it. The former often embraced all the fanaticism and superstition of the Jews, and allowed themselves to be blindly led by their Jewish teachers. The more difficult it had been to them to subject themselves to the observance of the Jewish ceremonial law, necessarily so irksome to a Greek or a Roman, the less could they find it in their hearts to believe, that all this had been in vain, that they had obtained no advantage by it, and that they must renounce their presumed holiness. What Justin Martyr says to the Jews, holds good of these proselytes: "The proselytes not only do not believe, but they calumniate the name of Christ twice as much as you, and they wish to murder and torture us who believe on him, because they are desirous to resemble you in every thing. Without becoming entirely Jews, they had become acquainted with the Holy Scriptures of the Jews, they had heard of the promised messenger from God, of the King armed with power from God, of whom a report had been spread, as Suetonius says in the life of Vespasian, over the whole of the east. Much of that which they had heard from their Jewish teachers, whose writings they had read, had remained dark to them, and they were still to seek in them. By the notions which they had received from the Jews, of one God, of the divine government of the world, of God's judgment, and of the Messiah, they were more prepared for the Gospel than other Heathens; and because they still thought that they had too little, because they had no determined religious system, and were curious after more instruction in divine things, and because they had not received many of the prejudices which swayed the Jews, they were more fitted to receive the Gospel than many of the Jews. From the very beginning they must have been attentive to the preaching of the Gospel, which secured to them, without making them Jews, a full share in the fulfilment of those promises of which the Jews had spoken to them. To these proselytes of the gate, (the φοβουμενοι τον Θεον , the ευσεβεις of the New Testament,) passed therefore, according to the Acts, the preaching of the Gospel, when it had been rejected by the blinded Jews; and here the seed of the divine word found a fitting soil in hearts desirous of holiness. There were, however, doubtless, among the proselytes of the gate, some who, wanting in proper earnestness in their search after religious truth, only desired, in every case, an easy road to heaven, which did not require any self-denial; and who, in order to be sure of being on the safe side, whether power and truth lay with the Jews or the Heathens, sometimes worshipped in the synagogue of Jehovah, sometimes in the temples of the gods, and who, therefore, fluttered in suspense between Judaism and Heathenism
Palestine - A small country east of the Mediterranean Sea, sacred alike to Jew, Mohammedan, and Christian
Sil'Oam - " A little way below the Jewish burying-ground, but on the opposite side of the valley, where the Kedron turns slightly westward and widens itself considerable, is the fountain of the Virgin, or Um'ed'Deraj , near the beginning of that saddle-shaped projection of the temple hill supposed to be the Ophel of The Bible and the Ophlas of Josephus. Siloam is a mere spot even to the Moslem; much more to the Jew
Praise - 1 (epi, upon), denotes "approbation, commendation, praise;" it is used (a) of those on account of, and by reason of, whom as God's heritage, "praise" is to be ascibed to God, in respect of His glory (the exhibition of His character and operations), Ephesians 1:12 ; in Ephesians 1:14 , of the whole company, the church, viewed as "God's own possession" (RV); in Ephesians 1:6 , with particular reference to the glory of His grace towards them; in Philippians 1:11 , as the result of "the fruits of righteousness" manifested in them through the power of Christ; (b) of "praise" bestowed by God, upon the Jew spiritually (Judah == "praise"), Romans 2:29 ; bestowed upon believers hereafter at the judgment seat of Christ, 1 Corinthians 4:5 (where the definite article indicates that the "praise" will be exactly in accordance with each person's actions); as the issue of present trials, "at the revelation of Jesus Christ," 1 Peter 1:7 ; (c) of whatsoever is "praiseworthy," Philippians 4:8 ; (d) of the approbation by churches of those who labor faithfully in the ministry of the Gospel, 2 Corinthians 8:18 ; (e) of the approbation of well-doers by human rulers, Romans 13:3 ; 1 Peter 2:14 . , "I will hymn Thee;" (b) intransitively, "to sing," Matthew 26:30 ; Mark 14:26 , in both places of the singing of the paschal hymns (Psalm 113-118 ; 136 ), called by Jews the Great Hallel
Food Offered to Idols - It reflects the perspective and conclusion of someone who spoke as a Jew or Christian. At the end of the debate the acceptance of Gentile Christians by Jewish Christians was supported by a letter from the Jerusalem church which listed “what has been sacrificed to idols” as one thing from which it was expected that even Gentile Christians would obstain (Acts 15:29 )
Account - Paul applies this doctrine, which is found in the Synoptic Gospels and was an integral part of primitive Christian teaching, to Jew and Gentile, to himself and his converts, to those who have died before the Parousia and those who are alive at it
Red Sea (Reed Sea) - ” In the eleventh century the French Jewish scholar Rashi spoke of yam suph in terms of a marsh overgrown with weeds. In the twelfth century Ibn Ezra, a Spanish Jew, commented that yam suph in Exodus 13:18 may be so named because reeds grow around it
Malachi - ...
Background to the book...
As a result of the Persian king’s decree that released captive peoples (539 BC), many Jews returned to Jerusalem. In spite of some initial selfishness among themselves and opposition from local people, the Jews completed the rebuilding of their temple in 516 BC. ...
In 458 BC a Jewish priest named Ezra came from Persia to Jerusalem to carry out much-needed reforms among the Jewish people (Ezra 7:7; Ezra 7:11-26). He was joined in 445 BC by another Jew from Persia, Nehemiah, who became Judea’s new governor (Nehemiah 2:1-8). ...
The Jews of Jerusalem thought that because they were back in their land and the temple was in operation again, they would now enjoy the unlimited blessings of God
Queen (2) - Without setting aside these suggestions, it is more to the point to observe that our Lord brings into juxtaposition the two characteristics—so strongly emphasized in the case of Jew and Gentile—of the desire for a sign, and the seeking after wisdom; and it has been suggested that St. ’ Solomon was ‘wiser than all men’ (1 Kings 4:31), and later Jewish literature delighted to magnify his wisdom (cf. For our Lord, then, to claim before a Jewish audience to be ‘something more’ than Solomon, was to claim to be Wisdom itself
Law of Christ - In Galatians, Paul argues vigorously that the law given at Sinai makes no claim on those who believe in Christ, whether Gentile or Jew (2:15-21; 3:10-14,23-26; 4:4-5; 4:21-5:6). By way of illustration Paul says in verses 19-23 that he adopts certain Jewish customs when among Jews, although he is not under the Jewish law, and that he adopts some Gentile customs when among Gentiles, although he is not without the law of God but rather "in the law of Christ" ( ennomos Christou ). ...
It seems fairly clear from these two texts that Paul uses the phrase to mean something other than the law given to Israel at Sinai and considered by most Jews to be their special possession. On one occasion, having been asked to identify the greatest commandment, Jesus concurs with the Jewish wisdom of his time (Mark 12:32-33 ) that the greatest commandments are to love God supremely and to love one's neighbor as oneself (Mark 12:28-31 )
Aquila And Priscilla - Aquila was a Jew of Eastern origin ‘a man of Pontus by race’ ( Acts 18:2 ). As the unrest among the Jews, which led to their expulsion, arose ‘through the instigation of Chrestus,’ it is not improbable that Aquila and Priscilla were at least sympathizers with Christianity before they met St
Cilicia - Paul, who boasted of being ‘a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia’ (Acts 21:39; Acts 22:3), should regard ‘the regions of Syria and Cilicia’ as forming a unity (Galatians 1:21). ...
The presence of Jews in Cilicia probably dated from the time of the early Seleucids, who settled many Jewish families in their Hellenistic cities, giving them equal rights with Macedonians and Greeks. Paul enjoyed the citizenship of Tarsus not as an individual, but as a unit in a Jewish colony which had been incorporated in the State. Jews of Cilicia are mentioned by Philo in his Leg. Among the Jews of Jerusalem who rose against Stephen there was a synagogue of Cilicians (Acts 6:9)
Alexander - After the healing of the impotent man we are told that Alexander was present at a meeting of the Jewish authorities along with Annas, Caiaphas, and John, and ‘as many as were of the kindred of the high priest’ (Acts 4:6). A leading member of the Jewish community at Ephesus (Acts 19:33), who was put forward by the Jews at the time of the Ephesian riot to clear themselves of any complicity with St. He may have been one of the ‘craftsmen,’ though on the whole it is unlikely that a Jew would have any connexion with the production of the symbols of idolatry. There are, however, slight variations in the Manuscripts of Acts 19:33, and different views have been taken with regard to Alexander and the intention of the Jews. Meyer holds that Alexander was a Jewish Christian who was put forward maliciously by the Jews in the hope that he might be sacrificed (cf
Meats - So in Luke 24:41 ; "Have ye here any meat?" literally, anything to eat? The "meat-offerings" of the Jews were made of flour and oil, etc. As to the animal food used by the Jews, see CLEAN, and FOOD . The Jews were also forbidden to kill a cow and its calf in the same day; or a sheep, or goat, and its young one, at the same time. They ate of nothing dressed by any other than a Jew, nor did thy ever dress their victuals with the kitchen implements of any but one of their own nation. ...
The prohibition of eating blood, or animals that are strangled, has been always rigidly observed by the Jews. They took the same liberty in buying meat sold in the market, not regarding whether it were pure or impure according to the Jews; or whether it had been offered to idols or not
Greece - ...
The Jews and the Greeks appear to have had little intercourse with each other, until after Alexander the Great overran Egypt, Syria, and the East. The Jews extended the name of Greeks to include the people conquered and ruled by Greeks; and the word is thus nearly synonymous in the New Testament with Gentiles, Mark 7:26 Acts 20:21 Romans 1:16 . The term "Grecian" or Hellenists, on the contrary, denotes a Jew by birth or religion, who spoke Greek. It is used chiefly of foreign Jews and proselytes, in contrast with the Hebrews, that is, those speaking the vernacular Hebrew, or Aramaean, Acts 6:1 9:29 . The Greeks were a vivacious, acute, and polished, but superficial people, compared with the Jews
Philip - a Greek-speaking Jew; at all events he was a man of liberal sympathies, and he greatly helped in the extension of the gospel to the Gentiles
Purification - Paul was Jew enough to respond to these forms, and Christian enough to extract value out of them (Acts 18:18)-to make them ‘days of separation’ (Numbers 6:4, Hebrews 7:26) in the religious life. ...
The Jewish sacrificial system is the specially Divine one among the primitive systems of sacrifice and tabu
Apocrypha - But their rejection by the Jewish Palestinian body of worshippers, as well as by the larger proportion of the early Church, gradually stamped the name ‘apocryphal’ as a term of reproach, indicating inferiority in content and a spurious authorship. Bibles to-day are to be traced to the different ideas of the Canon on the part of the Jews of Palestine, where the Hebrew Bible was on its native soil, and on the part of the Jews of Alexandria who translated that same Hebrew Bible into Greek. ...
Most of these books are found in their original form in Greek, with the exceptions noted below, and not in the Hebrew; therefore the Jewish religious leaders did not regard them as inspired. Furthermore, some of their writers ( 1Ma 4:46 ; 1Ma 9:27 , 2Ma 2:23 ) disclaim inspiration as the Jews understood it. Their existence in the Greek Bible of the times of Christ does not seem to have given them any prestige for the Jewish authorities of that day. This is a historical work of rare value on the Jewish war of independence against the encroachments and invasions of Antiochus Epiphanes (b. Its author is unknown, though thought to have been a Jew of Palestine, who wrote between b. It is prefaced by two letters said to have been sent from the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt. This book deals with the history of the Jews from the reign of Seleucus IV. It recites the overthrow of Jerusalem, the Babylonian exile, the return under Zerubbabel, and Ezra’s part in the reorganization of the Jewish State. This editorial work is thought to have been done by an Egyptian Jew somewhere in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor (b. Judith is a thrilling tale of how Judith, a Jewish widow, secured the confidence of Holofernes, an Assyrian commander who was besieging Bethulia. Its purpose seems to have been (1) to quiet the souls of the Jews in exile by telling them that they would soon return to their native land; and (2) to admonish them to flee the idolatry that was everywhere prevalent in Babylonia. It was written by a Jew called Jesus, son of Sirach, probably early in the 3rd cent. 50, and to have been a Jew of Alexandria. Third Maccabees describes an attempt to massacre the Jews in the reign of Ptolemy Philopator (b
Romans, Epistle to the - ’ The parallel references to Jewish plots in Romans 15:31 and Acts 20:3 are also noteworthy. The Church at Rome contained both Jews and Gentiles; through Priscilla and Aquila and others St. He is anxious to impart some spiritual gift to the Roman Christians, just because they are in Rome, and therefore, lest Jewish plots thwart his plans, he unfolds to them the essentials of his message. His readers consist of a small band of Christians with strong Jewish sympathies, and perhaps even tending towards Jewish exclusiveness. 5 8), and the rejection of the Jews (chs. Both Jew and Gentile will be judged alike, the conscience in the Gentile corresponding to the Law in the case of the Jew ( Romans 2:1-16 ). This passage is usually referred to the Jews, whose habit of judging and condemning others is rebuked in Matthew 7:1 . The remainder of the chapter deals with the Jews. The privileges of the Jew will not excuse him in the eyes of God. The true Jew must be a Jew inwardly: the actual Jews have by their crimes caused the name of God to be blasphemed. A Gentile who does not know the Law and yet obeys it is better than the Jew who knows and disobeys ( Romans 2:17-23 ). But is not this condemnation a denial of the Jews’ privileges? No, the privileges are real, though the Jews are unworthy of them; and the mercy of God is magnified by their ingratitude. Paul only lays down the broad truth that God must judge the world in righteousness, and apparently he further replies to Jewish objectors by a tu quoque argument. Jew and Gentile here stand on the same level (Romans 3:21-30 ). The rejection of the Jews, by which the grace of God has come to the Gentile, grieves him to the heart. How is God’s treatment of the Jews to be justified? There was from the first an element of selectiveness in God’s dealings with the race of Abraham. The justice of God’s rejection of the Jews cannot be questioned a priori . But what are the facts? The Jews, in seeking to establish their own righteousness, have failed to find the righteousness of God. But though God has the right to reject His people, and though the Jews are themselves responsible for, their refusal to accept the gospel, yet St. What larger blessing will not God bestow when He restores His people? The Gentiles must see in the fall of Israel the goodness of God towards themselves, and the possibilities of mercy for the Jews. The Jews are enemies now, in order that God may bless the Gentiles. The problem of the rejection of the Jews is really raised, not so much by their previous privileges as by God’s present mercy
Womanliness - ’ In the Christian society ‘the conventional distinctions of religious caste or of social rank, even the natural distinction of sex, are banished,’ for ‘there can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be no male and female; for ye are all one man in Christ Jesus’ (Galatians 3:28). In this sense, too, there is in Him neither male nor female, bond nor free, Jew nor Greek, learned nor unlearned. the rebuke of Peter, Matthew 16:23); His repulse of the Syrophœnician mother (Mark 7:27) was His own indignant protest against Jewish exclusiveness; His requirement that the woman healed by touching His garment should confess her deed was no violence done to her sense of modesty, but was intended to replace the uncertainty of a cure snatched unawares by the assurance of healing willingly bestowed (Mark 5:34)
Hexapla - The first of those versions, or (reckoning the Septuagint) the second, was that of Aquilla, a proselyte Jew, the first edition of which he published in the 12th year of the emperor Adrian, or about the year of Christ 128; the third was that of Symmachus, published, as is commonly supposed, under Marcus Aurelius, but, as some say, under Septinius Severus, about the year 200; the fourth was that of Theodotion, prior to that of Symmachus, under Commodus, or about the year 175. Kennicott, were made by the Jews from their corrupted copies of the Hebrew, and were designed to stand in the place of the Seventy, against which they were prejudiced, because it seemed to favour the Christians. Now, Origen, who had held frequent disputations with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that they always objected to those passages of Scripture quoted against them, appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages, and confound the Jews, by showing that the Seventy had given the sense of the Hebrew; or rather to show, by a number of different versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easily confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other
Titus - Paul does not fear, as he does in the case of Timothy, that Titus will yield to pressure; but he may have dreaded that, not being a Jew, he would pay too much heed to the prestige of Judaism, and attach a fictitious importance to these Jewish teachers and their fables (Titus 1:10-16, Titus 3:9)
Ananias - Cumanus the procurator, his adversary, was not successful but was banished; so that Ananias seems not to have lost office then, but lost it before Felix left the province; and was at last assassinated by the Sicarii (zealot assassins and robbers) early in the last Jewish war. A Jew Christian at Damascus, "a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews which dwelt there" (Acts 9:10, etc
Levites - ...
The relation of assistantship which associated the Levites with the priests was similar to that which connected deacons with bishops in the Christian Church; and it is not improbable that that connexion was suggested by the arrangement of the functions of the Temple officers with which the Jewish converts to Christianity were familiar. In the first of these, the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-35), a priest and a Levite, representatives of the religion of Israel and at the same time examples of Jewish traditionalism, are unfavourably contrasted with a Samaritan, one of a people with whom the Jews had no dealings. The parable is the answer of Jesus to the lawyer who asked, ‘Who is my neighbour?’ and it seems evident that the Levite, described by Jesus, when he looked on the wounded man and passed by on the other side, recognized that he was not a Jew, and therefore not a neighbour to be humanely treated according to the commandment, ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself’ (Leviticus 19:18). The Levite, it may be concluded, accepted a Jewish traditional conception of ‘neighbour’ which excluded all those who were not of Israel. Clement of Alexandria wrote that Jesus, ‘on His interlocutor inquiring, “Who is my neighbour?” did not, in the same way with the Jews, specify the blood-relation, or the fellow-citizen, or the proselyte, or him that had been similarly circumcised, or the man who uses one and the same law. —Schürer, HJP Drunkenness (2) - To the ordinary Jew, however, habitual indulgence was a matter of course. ’ It bases this opinion on an arbitrary and erroneous interpretation of Numbers 6:20 (see Jewish Encyc
First-Fruits - —On the offering of first-fruits as a Jewish institution see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, vol. —Schürer, HJP Baruch - In the fourth year of the reign of Zedekiah, Baruch went to Babylon, carrying with him a long letter from Jeremiah, in which the Prophet foretold the judgments that should come upon Babylon, and promised the Jews, who were then captives in that country, that they should again be restored to their own land. Grotius thinks it a fiction written by some Hellenistic Jew; and St. Jerome gives as the reason why he did not write a commentary upon it, that the Jews themselves did not deem it canonical
Journey, Journeyings - , the journey which a Jew was allowed to take on the Sabbath, viz
Gos'Pels - There were four Gospels because Jesus was to be commended to four races or classes of men, or to four phases of human thought,--the Jewish, Roman, Greek and Christian. In all ages, the Jewish, Roman and Greek natures reappear among men, and, in fact, make up the world of natural men, while the Christian nature and wants likewise remain essentially the same. The FIRST GOSPEL was prepared by Matthew for the Jew. He gives us the Gospel of Jesus, the Messiah of the Jews, the Messianic royalty of Jesus
Pride - of Greek towards barbarian and especially of Jew towards Gentile, as done away in Christ, is a common theme with the same apostle; cf
Christ in Mohammedan Literature - The commentators say that Jesus was specially set apart to speak in the cradle, and later on to the Jews. ” ’...
Mohammed says that Jesus was sent as an apostle to the Jews, in order to show that his Mission was limited, whilst that of Mohammed was for all people. The Jews are reproached for speaking against Mary, and—...
‘for their saying, “Verily we have slain the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, an apostle of God. ” ’ It is said that when the Jews found her and the child under the tree, they began to make a tumult and reproached her, saying, ‘Neither thy father nor mother were evildoers. Having witnessed the miracle, the Jews gave up their suspicion and reproach, and said that this was the prophet of whose birth the preceding prophets had spoken. ...
Then Jesus, having received from God the gift of prophecy, returned to Jerusalem and invited the Jews to embrace the strong religion; but they were displeased, and only his apostles followed him. ’ The grave opened, and the corpse came forth and said: ‘O Lord, why didst thou call me?’ The Jews said: ‘We have never seen such a sorcerer. ...
One day Jesus met a Jew with two loaves. The Jew agreed to share food; but when he saw Jesus had only one loaf, he hid one of his, and next morning appeared with one only, and denied that he had more. ’ Then Jesus asked the Jew where the two loaves were. At the next stage he had a calf killed, and they all ate of it, and again he restored the calf to life and gave it back to its owner, and again asked the Jew where the two loaves were. Then the Jew told the nobles that he could cure all diseases and even raise the dead. Jesus, seeing this, said: ‘If I raise your king, will you forgive my friend?’ Jesus raised the king and released the Jew. The Jew was profuse in his thanks. Jesus said: ‘Where is the second loaf?’ The Jew said he had only one. ’...
Some say that the Jews, by the advice of that bad king, and by means of an old Apostle, seized Jesus and imprisoned him all night, and in the morning prepared a cross on which to crucify him. The Jews, thinking he was Jesus, quickly killed him, and he was crucified, though he protested that he was not Jesus, but the man who had betrayed him. The Jews did not believe it. Others say the Jews watched and guarded the cave where Jesus was, but Jesus at night was taken up under cover of darkness. In the morning the Jews sent a man to find Jesus, but he returned and said that no one was there. Then the Jews said: ‘Thou art Jesus,’ and crucified him. ...
Others say the Jews imprisoned him with eighteen men in a house. In the morning the Jews said, ‘There were eighteen men with Jesus; one is short. ’ The prisoners said Jesus had gone on high; but the Jews saw one like Jesus and crucified him
Dispersion - ἡ διασπορά (from διασπείρω ‘to scatter,’ as ἀγορά from ἀγείρω ‘to gather’) is used collectively in the Septuagint and the NT for the Jews settled abroad. It was the bridge between the Jew and the Greek, and soon the sound of many feet speeding over it with their message of good tidings was heard; or it was the viaduct by which the living waters that went forth from Jerusalem were led to the cities of the Roman Empire. ...
The Diaspora partly originated from causes over which the Jews had no control, and was partly the result of a spontaneous movement outwards. The various trans-plantations suffered by the Jews need not be recounted here. The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. 92a), enable us to see how much at home the Jews were in Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, and the Greek cities and islands, and all the data now available afford grounds for believing that they numbered at this period from three to four and a half millions, and that they formed about seven per cent of the population of the Roman Empire (Encyclopaedia Biblica i. Iulius Caesar, 84) reminds us of the mourning of the Jews in London for Edward VII. ...
The Jews could not carry on their sacrificial worship in foreign lands-we may let pass the schismatic attempt to do so at Leontopolis in Egypt-but they kept in full communion with Jerusalem by making pilgrimages to the great feasts, and by sending the yearly poll-tax of half a shekel for the upkeep of the Temple (cf. It was a precedent that proved of immense advantage to the Jews settled in Rome. In Roman law, Jewish societies were collegia licita, privileged clubs or gilds. 757; Jewish Encyclopedia iv. 433), but if they refer to tumults in the Jewish quarter caused by the preaching of the gospel, we may conjecture that Aquila, a Jew of the Dispersion, had been one of its preachers (Acts 18:2). This Emperor seems to have been as favourable to the Jews as his predecessors (Jos. ...
Long before they had acquired a political status in Rome, a great inward change had been working among the Jews of the Dispersion. So long as this conception predominated, their relations with their non-Jewish neighbours were little more than ordinary business relations. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. The Jews of Rome whom Cicero mentions as possessing the Roman civitas (pro Flacco, 28) probably belonged to the class of libertini or enfranchised slaves (cf. Jews of Ephesus, Sardis, Delos, etc. Himself a Jew of the Dispersion, educated in a strict Rabbinical school, he had the two-fold advantage of becoming proficient in Judaism, the religion of his fathers (Galatians 1:13), and of growing up in his Cilician home under the penetrating influence of Greek civilization. The question of Romans 3:29, ‘Is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles, also?’ was one that he must have often asked himself in his Pharisaic days; and when the sight and the call of Jesus had given him the decisive answer, ‘Yea, of the Gentiles also,’ this became the moving force of his strenuous life (cf. This brief account must be qualified, however, by the statement in Acts (18:28), that it was a gifted Alexandrian Jew, Apollos, who, after ‘the way of God had been expounded to him more carefully,’ demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus publicly, before the Jews in Corinth, with energy and success (cf. The long list of foreign Jews present at Pentecost shows how widely scattered their settlements were. The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad. James may be addressing the Christian Jews of the Eastern Dispersion, and in 1 Peter 1:1 St. ...
There are few data to satisfy our curiosity about what happened to the Jewish Diaspora from a. The rebellion against the Roman authority seems to have met with no sympathy on the part of the Jews of Rome. They had no share in the insurrections under Vespasian, Trajan, or Hadrian, and were left unmolested (Jewish Encyclopedia iv. Those Jews who had had their home in Jerusalem were compelled after a. [5]: ‘The Jews in the Graeco-Asiatic Cities,’ 7th ser
Dispersion - ἡ διασπορά (from διασπείρω ‘to scatter,’ as ἀγορά from ἀγείρω ‘to gather’) is used collectively in the Septuagint and the NT for the Jews settled abroad. It was the bridge between the Jew and the Greek, and soon the sound of many feet speeding over it with their message of good tidings was heard; or it was the viaduct by which the living waters that went forth from Jerusalem were led to the cities of the Roman Empire. ...
The Diaspora partly originated from causes over which the Jews had no control, and was partly the result of a spontaneous movement outwards. The various trans-plantations suffered by the Jews need not be recounted here. The conquests of Alexander the Great turned what had hitherto been barred avenues and dangerous tracks into safe and open roads, and the Jews were not slow to take advantage of the openings, both in the direction of secular culture and of commercial enterprise, that lay before them. 92a), enable us to see how much at home the Jews were in Syria, Egypt, Asia Minor, and the Greek cities and islands, and all the data now available afford grounds for believing that they numbered at this period from three to four and a half millions, and that they formed about seven per cent of the population of the Roman Empire (Encyclopaedia Biblica i. Iulius Caesar, 84) reminds us of the mourning of the Jews in London for Edward VII. ...
The Jews could not carry on their sacrificial worship in foreign lands-we may let pass the schismatic attempt to do so at Leontopolis in Egypt-but they kept in full communion with Jerusalem by making pilgrimages to the great feasts, and by sending the yearly poll-tax of half a shekel for the upkeep of the Temple (cf. It was a precedent that proved of immense advantage to the Jews settled in Rome. In Roman law, Jewish societies were collegia licita, privileged clubs or gilds. 757; Jewish Encyclopedia iv. 433), but if they refer to tumults in the Jewish quarter caused by the preaching of the gospel, we may conjecture that Aquila, a Jew of the Dispersion, had been one of its preachers (Acts 18:2). This Emperor seems to have been as favourable to the Jews as his predecessors (Jos. ...
Long before they had acquired a political status in Rome, a great inward change had been working among the Jews of the Dispersion. So long as this conception predominated, their relations with their non-Jewish neighbours were little more than ordinary business relations. ...
From the founding of Alexandria and Antioch, the Jews were πολῖται (cives), but in the older Greek cities, except those of which the constitutions were altered by Alexander or his successors (Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) v. The Jews of Rome whom Cicero mentions as possessing the Roman civitas (pro Flacco, 28) probably belonged to the class of libertini or enfranchised slaves (cf. Jews of Ephesus, Sardis, Delos, etc. Himself a Jew of the Dispersion, educated in a strict Rabbinical school, he had the two-fold advantage of becoming proficient in Judaism, the religion of his fathers (Galatians 1:13), and of growing up in his Cilician home under the penetrating influence of Greek civilization. The question of Romans 3:29, ‘Is God the God of the Jews only? Is he not the God of the Gentiles, also?’ was one that he must have often asked himself in his Pharisaic days; and when the sight and the call of Jesus had given him the decisive answer, ‘Yea, of the Gentiles also,’ this became the moving force of his strenuous life (cf. This brief account must be qualified, however, by the statement in Acts (18:28), that it was a gifted Alexandrian Jew, Apollos, who, after ‘the way of God had been expounded to him more carefully,’ demonstrated the Messiahship of Jesus publicly, before the Jews in Corinth, with energy and success (cf. The long list of foreign Jews present at Pentecost shows how widely scattered their settlements were. The names of Barnabas of Cyprus, Philip of Caesarea, Lucius of Cyrene, Timothy of Lystra, Jason of Thessalonica, Sopater of Berœa, Crispus of Corinth, Aquila of Pontus, illustrate how largely the Church’s assets consisted of Jews settled abroad. James may be addressing the Christian Jews of the Eastern Dispersion, and in 1 Peter 1:1 St. ...
There are few data to satisfy our curiosity about what happened to the Jewish Diaspora from a. The rebellion against the Roman authority seems to have met with no sympathy on the part of the Jews of Rome. They had no share in the insurrections under Vespasian, Trajan, or Hadrian, and were left unmolested (Jewish Encyclopedia iv. * [5]: ‘The Jews in the Graeco-Asiatic Cities,’ 7th ser
Thessalonica - Evidence of the presence of Jews in Macedonia is to be found in Philo’s version of an Epistle of Agrippa to Caligula (de Virtut. Their numbers and influence in Thessalonica are indicated by the ‘great multitude’ of Greeks who had accepted the Jewish faith (Acts 17:4), as well as by the case with which they made the city crowd the instrument of their will. Luke 4:16), his rule being to go ‘to the Jew first’ (Romans 2:9-10). His preaching and reasoning on three successive Sabbaths-or perhaps during three whole weeks (σάββατα)-ended in the inevitable quarrel between Jew and Jewish Christian. Paul’s work in the city did not extend beyond the synagogue, and that Jewish intrigues compelled him to leave at the end of three weeks; but that can scarcely be the historian’s meaning. ...
As the hostile Jews of Thessalonica knew that they could not silence St. The Messianic hope cherished by every devout Israelite was counted no crime, yet the actual proclamation of ‘another king, Jesus,’ is set down as an act of open rebellion, and the Jews of Thessalonica, like those of Jerusalem, have no king but Caesar. ’ It has now a population of 130,000, of whom 60,000 are Sephardic Jews, speaking a corrupt form of Spanish, called Ladino
Justification - No justification within the law would allow anyone (Jew or not) to sidestep faith in Jesus Christ. Paul eliminated all doubt when he argued that being a Jew is neither a prerequisite (Romans 4:1-25 ) nor a prerogative (Romans 9:1-33 ) for justification
Pseudepigrapha - (pssewd eh pih' gra fuh) Intertestamental literature not accepted into the Christian or Jewish canon of Scripture and often attributed to an ancient hero of faith. They give much information about the development of Jewish religion and culture. ...
Both Palestinian and Hellenistic Jews authored books in the Pseudepigrapha. The author argues for a calendar based on the movement of the sun in distinction to the standard Jewish lunar calendar. ...
Second Baruch is apocalyptic and shows how some Jews responded to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans in A. The Jews took over the originally pagan writings and modified them by inserting ideas about monotheism, Mosaic requirements, and Jewish history. , is the most important and the most Jewish. It traces Jewish history from the time of Abraham to the building of the second Temple. The writer strongly opposed the Gentile influences he found coming into Judaism urging Jews to keep separate from the Gentiles. The book shows how a conservative, priestly Jew about 150 B. It tells about the attempt of Ptolemy IV to kill the Jews in Egypt. God foiled his efforts resulting in the advancement of the Jews. It seeks to show that the Jewish law was in conformity with the highest ideals of Greek thought and life. It indicates that it is possible for Jew and Greek to live together in peace
Paul - As the Jews sought his life at Damascus, he departed into Arabia, where doubtless he had deep exercise of heart and learnt more of the Lord. The Jews again seeking his life, he was conducted to Caesarea, and sent to Tarsus, his native place. ...
The Jews seeking his life, Paul went through Macedonia, sailed from Philippi, and preached at Troas. In order to prove himself a good Jew he was advised by the brethren to associate himself with four men who had a vow on them, and to be at charges with them. But while carrying this out he was seized by some Asiatic Jews, and beaten, but was rescued by Lysias, the Roman chief captain. Two years later, when superseded by Festus, Felix, to please the Jews, left Paul in bonds. ...
On his arrival at Rome, Paul sent for the chief men of the Jews and preached to them: some of them believed, though the majority rejected God's grace (thus fulfilling Isaiah 6:9,10 ), which should henceforth go to the Gentiles. To him was revealed the truth that the assembly was the body of Christ, and the doctrine of new creation in Christ Jesus, in which evidently there is no distinction between Jew and Gentile. This caused great persecution from the Jews and from Judaising teachers, who could not readily give up the law, nor endure the thought of Gentiles having an equal place with themselves
Ephesians, Epistle to the - ...
In 1 Corinthians 15:32 Paul speaks of having fought with beasts at Ephesus, doubtless alluding to the strong opposition manifested towards him there by the Jews. Jews and Gentiles are the subjectsof salvation according to the purpose of God, believers from among both beingsealed by the Holy Spirit, who is also the earnest of their inheritance — aninheritance which will be to the praise of God's glory when everything is headed up in Christ. ), in that having been dead in sins they had been quickened with Christ, had been raised up together (Jew and Gentile), and made to sit down together in the heavenlies in Christ Jesus. Jew and Gentile believers had access by one Spirit to the Father, while the latter were now fellow-citizens of the saints, and were of the household of God, being part of the holy temple He was building
Judas the Galilaean - This discrepancy may be due to a confusion of a Galilaean Gamala with the better-known town of the same name east of Jordan; or to the fact that the activities of Judas were largely confined to Galilee; or to the loose use of the word ‘Galilaean’ to describe a Jew born near Galilee. 275a), Judas allied himself with a Pharisee named Zadok and raised the signal for a theocratic or Messianic revolt, calling upon the Jews to refuse to pay tribute to the Romans and to recognize God alone as their ruler (Ant. 1 he is said ‘to have persuaded not a few of the Jews not to submit to the census. ’ That he was the centre of actual disturbance is by no means improbable in the light of succeeding events; for from this combination of revolutionary spirit and Pharisaism emerged the fourth party of the Jews, the Zealots
Talmud - Jewish commentaries. 220,500 the rabbinic schools in Palestine and Babylonia amplified and applied the teachings of the Mishnah for their Jewish communities. By this means, the decisions of rabbis resident in Babylon became normative for a broad cross section of ancient Jewish life. How strongly rabbinic decisions influenced the average Jew we cannot know. ...
The Talmud represents a continuation of the application of the oral law (halakah ) to every sphere of Jewish life. This process probably began with the early Jewish sect known as the Pharisees . ...
The Babylonian Talmud became the most authoritative of the two written Talmuds due both to the political fortunes of the Jewish communities in Palestine and Babylon in the first four centuries A. Later generations of Jewish scholars also recognized that the Babylonian Talmud was completed later and so supposed that it absorbed or superseded the Jerusalem one. For example, discussion of the segments of Mishnah that deal with the Temple service are omitted, presumably because the Jewish community in Babylon did not anticipate the rebuilding of the Temple in the near future (interestingly, the Jerusalem Talmud does discuss these sections). ...
The Babylonian Talmud also contains theoretical legal discussion as well as information on the daily life of Jewish people in the first six centuries, history, medicine, astronomy, commerce, agriculture, demonology, magic, botany, zoology, and other sciences. ...
The Jerusalem Talmud was not compiled in Jerusalem but in the centers of Tiberias, Caesarea, and Sepphoris in Palestine, since Jerusalem ceased to be a major center of Jewish learning after the destruction of the second Temple in A. ...
The importance of the Talmud to Jewish life until the modern period can hardly be overestimated. The Talmud became the central document for Jewish education during the medieval period. Some of the halakah embodied in the Talmud is attributed to early rabbis and may reflect Jewish practice in the time of the writers of the New Testament or of Jesus
Mark (John) - ...
(1) John Mark was a Jew and son of Mary, who was a leading Christian woman at Jerusalem. ‘Mark’ would be an added name such as the Jews often took, in Roman fashion; it was a Roman prœnomen , much used among Greek-speaking people, but not common among the Jews. ]'>[4] ), probably of the Jewish colony of Cyprus, and a Levite ( Acts 4:36 ). It is usually held that ‘Babylon’ means Rome, as there seems not to have been a Jewish colony in the real Babylon at the time, and as all ecclesiastical tradition connects St
si'Mon - ...
Simon of Cyrene, a Hellenistic Jew, born at Cyrene, on the north coast of Africa, who was present at Jerusalem at the time of the crucifixion of Jesus, either as an attendant at the feast, (Acts 2:10 ) or as one of the numerous settlers at Jerusalem from that place
Samar'Itans - They then desire to be allowed to participate in the rebuilding of the temple at Jerusalem; but on being refused, the Samaritans throw off the mask, and become open enemies, frustrate the operations of the Jews through the reigns of two Persian kings, and are only effectually silenced in the reign of Darius Hystaspes, B. They are sid to have done everything in their power to annoy the Jews. To their copy of the law they arrogated an antiquity and authority greater than attached to any copy in the possession of the Jews. the five books of Moses) was their sole code; for they rejected every other book in the Jewish canon. The Jews, on the other hand, were not more conciliatory in their treatment of the Samaritans. Certain other Jewish renegades had from time to time taken refuge with the Samaritans; hence by degrees the Samaritans claimed to partake of Jewish blood, especially if doing so happened to suit their interest. Very far were the Jews from admitting this claim to consanguinity on the part of these people. The traditional hatred in which the Jew held the Samaritan is expressed in Sirach 50:25,26 . Such were the Samaritans of our Lord's day; a people distinct from the Jews, though lying in the very midst of the Jews; a people preserving their identity, though seven centuries had rolled away since they had been brought from Assyria by Esar-haddon, and though they had abandoned their polytheism for a sort of ultra Mosaicism; a people who, though their limits had gradually contracted and the rallying-place of their religion on Mount Gerizim had been destroyed one hundred and sixty years before by John Hyrcanus (B. 130), and though Samaria (the city) had been again and again destroyed, still preserved their nationality still worshipped from Shechem and their impoverished settlements toward their sacred hill, still retained their peculiar religion, and could not coalesce with the Jews
Heir - A Jew could never wholly alienate his land by sale (Leviticus 25:23-24). Houses in walled towns (not in unwalled villages, as being connected with the land) and movables could be alienated for ever; a wise law, essential to progress and marking the superiority of Jewish legislation to that of most nations. ...
Wills were unknown among the Jews until Herod made one
Mark - It was not unusual for Jews in the Roman Empire to have both Jewish and Roman names. In the case of John Mark, his two names reflect respectively this Jewish and Roman background. ...
In Jerusalem...
Mark was a Jew brought up in Jerusalem
Camel, Camel's Hair - Its flesh was forbidden to the Jew (Leviticus 11:4, Deuteronomy 14:7)
Felix - ) calls Drusilla, confusing her, no doubt, with the Jewish princess with whom Felix allied himself later. It seems reasonable to follow Schürer (History of the Jewish People (Eng. ’ The boundless cruelty with which he repressed the more open opposition of the ‘Zealots’ to the Roman rule stimulated the formation of the secret associations of the ‘Assassins’ (Sicarii), whose hand was against all-Jew not less than Roman-who did not further their designs. Although possessed of information Concerning the Way,’ which would have justified him in releasing the prisoner when he was first brought before him, he decided to adjourn the case in definitely (Acts 24:22), partly to curry favour with the Jews, and partly to serve his own rapacious ends. Paul was brought to Caesarea, Felix was recalled to Rome in connexion with a strife which had broken out at Caesarea between the Jews and the Syrians in that town-the Jews asserting for themselves certain exclusive rights, which the others denied
Flock - Both Jew and Gentile are brought into it, and hereafter will form "one in the general assembly and church of the first-born, whose names are written in heaven
am ha'Arez - In Rabbinical literature, where he is always regarded as a Jew, many definitions of the ‘am hâ’ârez are given. —Jewish Encyclopedia (art. 40 Caesarea - The judge had trembled before his prisoner; and now a second occasion offered, in which, for the admiration and the triumph of the Christian world, one of the bitterest persecutors of the name of Christ, and a Jew, appeals, in the public tribunal of a large and populous city, to all its chiefs and its rulers, its governor and its king, for the truth of his conversion founded on the highest evidence
Romans - It is addressed to the church at Rome, which consisted partly of Jewish and partly of Heathen converts; and throughout the epistle it is evident that the Apostle has regard to both these descriptions of Christians. Among those who witnessed the effect of the first effusion of the Holy Ghost are mentioned "strangers of Rome, Jews and proselytes," Acts 2:10 ; that is, persons of the Jewish religion, who usually resided at Rome, but who had come to Jerusalem to be present at the feast of pentecost. Paul takes occasion to enlarge upon the nature of the Mosaic institution; to explain the fundamental principles and doctrines of Christianity; and to show that the whole human race, formerly divided into Jews and Gentiles, were now to be admitted into the religion of Jesus, indiscriminately, and free from every other obligation. The Apostle, after expressing his affection to the Roman Christians, and asserting that the Gospel is the power of God unto salvation to all who believe, takes a comprehensive view of the conduct and condition of men under the different dispensations of Providence; he shows that all mankind, both Jews and Gentiles, were equally "under sin," and liable to the wrath and punishment of God; that therefore there was a necessity for a universal propitiation and redemption, which were now offered to the whole race of men, without any preference or exception, by the mercy of him who is the God of the Gentiles as well as of the Jews; that faith in Jesus Christ, the universal Redeemer, was the only means of obtaining this salvation, which the deeds of the law were wholly incompetent to procure; that as the sins of the whole world originated from the disobedience of Adam, so the justification from those sins was to be derived from the obedience of Christ; that all distinction between Jew and Gentile was now abolished, and the ceremonial law entirely abrogated; that the unbelieving Jews would be excluded from the benefits of the Gospel, while the believing Gentiles would be partakers of them; and that this rejection of the Jews, and call of the Gentiles, were predicted by the Jewish Prophets Hosea and Isaiah. He then points out the superiority of the Christian over the Jewish religion, and earnestly exhorts the Romans to abandon every species of wickedness, and to practice the duties of righteousness and holiness, which were now enjoined upon higher sanctions, and enforced by more powerful motives
Hexapla - The first of those versions, or, reckoning the Septuagint, the second, was that of Aquila, a proselyte Jew, the first edition of which he published in the twelfth year of the Emperor Adrian, or about A. Kennicott, were made by the Jews from their corrupted copies of the Hebrew, and were designed to stand in the place of the LXX, against which they were prejudiced, because it seemed to favour the Christians. Now, Origen, who had held frequent disputations with the Jews in Egypt and Palestine, observing that they always objected against those passages of Scripture quoted against them, and appealed to the Hebrew text, the better to vindicate those passages and confound the Jews, by showing that the LXX had given the sense of the Hebrew, or rather, to show, by a number of different versions, what the real sense of the Hebrew was, undertook to reduce all these several versions into a body, along with the Hebrew text, so as they might be easily confronted, and afford a mutual light to each other
Captivity - God often punished the sins of the Jews be captivities or servitudes, according to his threatenings, Deuteronomy 28:1-68 . In the last year of Jehoiakim, when Nebuchadnezzar carried 3,023Jews to Babylon; or rather, under Jehoiachin, when this prince also was sent to Babylon, that is, in the seventh and eighth years of Nebuchadnezzar, B. While at Babylon the Jews had judges and elders who governed them, and decided matters in dispute juridically according to their laws. The book of Daniel shows us a Jew in a high position at court, and the book of Esther celebrates their numbers and power in the Persian empire. ...
The last captivity of the Jews, A. 133, a similar crushing blow fell on the Jews who had again assembled in Judea; and at this day they are scattered all over the world, yet distinct from the people among whom they dwell, suffering under the woe which unbelief has brought upon their fathers and themselves, and awaiting the time when Christ "shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob," Romans 11:25,26
Pharisees (2) - The Pharisees were an outgrowth of the long conflict between the Jews and surrounding heathenism, from the Babylonian Captivity onward. In these international relations—Jews in Palestine and in the Dispersion—Judaism grew gradually into a Church, and as such had an inner circle of the pious in contrast with mere adherents—‘children of the world. The denationalizing process prepared by Greece and introduced by Rome affected even the Jews, and helped to produce the Synagogue church system. Jesus refers little to it, and when it disappeared the religion of the Jews went on without a break. ‘Pharisees’ in JE Herod - Second, the religious genius of Judaism, and its relation to the political elements in the experience of the Jews. The Maccabæan War gave rise to the second Jewish State. The rise of the Pharisees and the development of the Essenes plainly showed that the fortune of the Jews was not to be made in the political field. Apparently the Idumæans, converted by the sword, were never Jewish to the core. More than once the Pharisees flung the reproach ‘half-Jew’ in the teeth of Herod. An independent Jewish power was impossible. At the same time, while he was but ‘half-Jew,’ he sincerely desired to do large things for Judaism. He was a stout defender of the rights of the Jews in the Diaspora. But his supreme gift to the Jews, a gift which they were not capable of appreciating, was a native Palestinian power, which, whatever its methods, was by profession Jewish. 4), and the Jews petitioned the Emperor for direct Roman rule (Jos. The Jews now had their own wish. For now was born what Josephus calls ‘the fourth philosophical sect’ amongst the Jews ( Ant . The Jews could not build a State themselves. The corroding immorality of his race shows itself in his marriage with Herodias , his brother’s wife, and the wanton offence thereby given to Jewish sensibilities. In high favour with Caligula’s successor, he came to Jerusalem in the year 39, and was welcomed by the Jews with open arms. He was quite willing to gratify the Jews by putting leading Christians to death ( Acts 12:1-25 ). Jews and Christians alike looked on his end as a fitting punishment for his heathenism. The house of Herod was ‘half-Jew’ to the last. ...
Baptism - The substantive is used ( a ) of Jewish ceremonial washings ( Mark 7:4 , Hebrews 9:10 ); ( b ) in a metaphorical sense ( Mark 10:38 , Luke 12:50 ; cf. It has been disputed whether the practice of baptizing proselytes on their reception into the Jewish community was already established in the 1st cent. Christian baptism, although it finds a formal analogy in the baptism of John, which in its turn represents a spiritualizing of ancient Jewish ideas of lustration, appears as in its essential character a new thing after the descent of the Holy Spirit. But of one thing we may be sure: had the acceptance of Christianity involved anything so startling to the Jewish or the Gentile mind as a distinction between the religious standing of the father of a family and his children, the historian would have recorded it, or the Apostles would have found themselves called to explain and defend it. For such a distinction would have been in direct contradiction to the most deeply rooted convictions of Jew and of Gentile alike. From the time of Abraham onwards the Jew had felt it a solemn religious obligation to claim for his sons from their earliest infancy the same covenant relation with God as he himself stood in. Colossians 2:11 ) for the Jewish-Christian father to expect the baptism of his children to follow his own as a matter of course. Thus it is because, to the mind of Jew and Gentile alike, the baptism of infants and children yet unable to supply the conditions for themselves was so natural, that St
Slave, Slavery (2) - Except in the latter form the institution did not flourish amongst the Jews in NT times. In large houses, especially of a Gentile (Luke 7:2) or foreign type, there would be slaves, generally of non-Jewish or mixed blood, as also in the great establishments of the Sadducaean and priestly aristocracy. In Palestine the institution was familiar enough in experience as well as tradition to supply popular illustrations and give point to practical religious teaching; but features met with in Greek and especially in Roman usage must not be transferred without modification to the Jewish practice. Jewish slaves abroad. —On several occasions before the Fall of Jerusalem, large numbers of Jews had been deported and sold into captivity. The supply of Jewish slaves was kept up almost entirely from among prisoners taken in the numerous campaigns, and the children of those who were already in captivity, with a few who lost their freedom under the laws of the foreign country or city in which they resided. In such hesitating improvements of their condition Jewish slaves abroad would share. ...
The redemption of Jewish slaves was regarded in theory as a sacred duty (cf. Ptolemy Philadelphus redeemed Jewish captives in Egypt at the price of 120 drachmae, or about £4 each (Josephus Ant. And Nicanor endeavoured to raise the Roman tribute of 2000 talents by the sale of Jews at the rate of ninety per talent (2 Maccabees 8:10 f. —Nehemiah’s influence had made it a fundamental rule in Jewish practice that no Jew should be held as a slave by another Jew (cf. Even thieves were not to be reduced to a state of permanent slavery; and while the disorganization of trade due to a strict observance of the Sabbatic law of Deuteronomy 15:1-11 was prevented by Hillel’s statute of Prosbol, which made registered debts always recoverable, other means were adopted of freeing poor Jews from the burden of their mortgages than that of their reduction to actual servitude. In Jewish houses free service was the rule for men, whilst some of the girls might be servile in status, though comparatively unrestrained. 4) required the slave to make compensation on his release, and thus has clearly in view a case of temporary servitude amongst Jews, akin to those met with in the OT. ...
At a time when Pharisaism was predominant, such slaves as were found in a Jewish household, whether Hebrews or aliens by birth, had on religious grounds to be treated humanely. And in later literature the life of the Jewish home is represented as united and happy, master and slave partaking of the same food, exchanging words of respect and tenderness, and mourning over the separation effected by death (Berakhôth 16b, Kethubôth 61). —Articles in the handbooks of Jewish Archaeology, and in such Cyclopaedias as those of Hamburger, Riehm, and Herzog-Hauck; Winter, Die Stellung der Sklaven bei den Juden … nach talm. For the conditions in non-Jewish districts see Mommsen, and Smith’s Dict
Apollos - In Acts 18:24-25 Apollos is described as ‘a Jew, an Alexandrian by race, a learned man, mighty in the Scriptures, instructed in the way of the Lord, fervent in spirit,’ who came to Ephesus when Aquila and Priscilla had been left there by St. Wendt throws out the whole of Acts 18:25, regarding Apollos as a Jew having no connexion with John or with Jesus, McGiffert is of opinion that the description of Apollos as ‘instructed in the way of the Lord’ and as teaching ‘the things concerning Jesus’ is erroneous; Acts 18:25 a must have been added by St. (1) He was ‘a Jewish Christian versed in the Alexandrian philosophy,’ whose ‘method of teaching differed from that of Paul, in the first place in being presented in a strikingly rhetorical form, and also by the use of Alexandrian speculation and allegorical interpretation of Scripture. It seems likely that his preaching had this Jewish tone all through, and lacked the spiritual note so dominant in St. ...
The last NT reference to Apollos (Titus 3:13) connects him with ‘Zenas the lawyer,’ probably a convert from the Jewish scribes
Paul - He was a Jew of pure Hebrew descent, of the tribe of Benjamin, circumcised according to the law when eight days old, born at Tarsus in Cilicia, and by birth a free Roman citizen. He was taught, according to Jewish custom, a trade, that of tentmaker—i. His advocacy of Jesus as the Jewish Messiah exposed him everywhere to the hatred and malice of his countrymen. He was accused by the rulers of the Jews, arrested at Jerusalem by the Roman officers, and after being detained for two years or more at Cæsarea, he was sent to Rome for trial, baying himself appealed to Cæsar. ...
45-49...
Apostolic Council at Jerusalem; conflict between Jewish and Gentile Christianity; Paul's third journey to Jerusalem, with Barnabas and Titus; settlement of the difficulty: agreement between the Jewish and Gentile apostles; Paul's return to Antioch; his difference with Peter and Barnabas at Antioch, and temporary separation from the latter...
Paul's second missionary journey from Antioch to Asia Minor, Cilicia, Lycaonia, Galatia, Troas, and Greece (Philippi, Thessalonica, Beræa, Athens, and Corinth)
Head - The Jewish notion was that the heart was the center or seat of the intellect. The Jew swore by his head (Matthew 5:36 )
Shekinah - The word is not found in OT, but occurs often in other Jewish literature, always of God. Insisting one-sidedly on the transcendence or aloofness of God, the Jew had to bring Him to earth again by such mediatorial agencies, which were semi-personal and Divine, but not God, and by the development of an elaborate angelology. Romans 9:4 speaks of ‘the glory’ as a Jewish privilege; Hebrews 9:5 of ‘the cherubim of glory. ’ The vagueness of the Jewish conception gives place to the definite presence of the personal Christ
Sep'Tuagint - [1] The Jews of Alexandria had probably still less knowledge of Hebrew than their brethren in Palestine their familiar language was Alexandrian Greek. They would naturally follow the same practice as the Jews in Palestine; and hence would arise in time an entire Greek version. ; the Jewish slaves whom he set free, paying their ransom himself the letter of the king: the answer of the high priest; the choosing of six interpreters from each of the twelve tribes and their names; the copy of the law, in letters of gold; the feast prepared for the seventy two, which continued for seven days; the questions proposed to each of the interpreters in turn, with the answers of each; their lodging by the seashore and the accomplishment of their work in seventy. But it is now generally admitted that the letter is spurious and is probably the fabrication of an Alexandrian Jew shortly before the Christian era. The Septuagint version was highly esteemed by the Hellenistic Jews before the coming of Christ. Wherever, by the conquests of Alexander or by colonization, the Greek language prevailed wherever Jews were settled and the attention of the neighboring Gentiles was drawn to their wondrous history and law there was found the Septuagint, which thus became, by divine Providence the means of spreading widely the knowledge of the one true God and his promises of it Saviour to come, throughout the nations. To the wide dispersion of this version we may ascribe in great measure that general persuasion which prevailed over the whole East of the near approach of the Redeemer, and led the Magi to recognize the star which, reclaimed the birth of the King of the Jews
Matthew - ’ We also find in Eusebius’ review of the canon of Scripture the statement: ‘The first (Gospel) is written according to Matthew, the same that was once a publican but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ, who, having published it for the Jewish converts, wrote it in the Hebrew’ (Historia Ecclesiastica (Eusebius, etc. Probably Matthew the ex-publican and apostle did form such a collection of the Sayings of our Lord which were wrought into a connected narrative of the Life of Christ by the First Evangelist, a Palestinian Jew of the 1st century
Burnt-Offering - The offering was made publicly, in the presence not merely of the large group of ministering priests, but also of ‘the men of station,’ representatives of what may be called the Jewish laity. As a Jew, acquainted with the OT, He could not have been unacquainted with the Pentateuchal legislation on this point; nor is it conceivable that as a visitor to the Temple He failed to be a witness of this rite. ; Girdle-stone, Synonyms of OT; Schürer, HJP Bible - ...
The second copy consisted of the Old Testament, from Hebrew into Greek by a Jew named Aquila, being converted to the Christian faith, in the time of the Emperor Adrian
One - , there is not "one" God for the Jew and one for the Gentile; cp
Aloe - The quantity has been exclaimed against by certain Jews as being enough for fifty bodies. " It may not be amiss to observe that the Persian translator renders ahalim, sandal wood; and the same was the opinion of a certain Jew in Arabia who was consulted by Neibuhr
Prochorus, a Deacon - The greater part of the subsequent narrative is occupied with the wondrous deeds of the apostle in his banishment, his victorious encounters with demons and sorcerers, his refutation of a learned Jew in a public dispute, numerous miracles of healing and raising from the dead, and triumphant issues out of every conflict in which his persecuting enemies involve him
Old Testament - Origen in the Hexapla, and especially Jerome, instructed by Palestinian Jews in preparing the Vulgate, show a text identical with ours in even the traditional unwritten vowel readings. The twofold Gemara, or commentary, completed the Talmud; the Jerusalem Gemara of the Jews of Tiberias was written at the end of the fourth century; the Babylonian emanated from the schools on the Euphrates at the end of the fifth century. ...
Walton's Polyglot gives readings also of the Palestinian and of the Babylonian Jews; the former printed first in the Bomberg Bible by R. Jacob, a Babylonian Jew, having collated manuscripts in the 11th century, mention 864 different readings of vowels, accents, and makkeph , and (Song of Solomon 8:6) the division of a word. The Masorah henceforward settled the text of Jewish manuscripts; older manuscripts were allowed to perish as incorrect. ...
In 1494 Gersom printed at Brescia the edition from which Luther made his German translated Bomberg at Venice printed in 1518 the first edition with Masorah, targums, and rabbinical comments; Felix del Prato, a converted Jew, being editor. Jacob ben Chaim, a Tunisian Jew. He and Brans of Helinstadt collated 581 Jewish and 16 Samaritan manuscripts (half of them throughout, the rest only in select passages), and 40 printed editions. 133), a Jew, reads "they disfigured," confirming the reading in KJV, "they pierced my hands," in opposition to "they enclosed as a lion my hands," etc. Later Jewish writers searched for recondite meanings in the places, construction, and orthography, apart from the logical context
Stephen - ) His Grecian name (meaning "crown"; by a significant coincidence he was the first who received the crown of martyrdom) and his anti-Judaistic speech indicate that he was a Hellenist or Greek speaking foreign Jew as contrasted with a home born Hebrew speaking Jew. He was, like the rest of the seven, "of honest report, full of the Holy Spirit and wisdom"; also "full of faith and power," so that the disputants of the synagogue of the Libertines, Cyrenians, Alexandrians, Cilicians, all like himself Grecian Jews, "were not able to resist the wisdom and the spirit by which he spoke. ...
(3) That God nevertheless by ways seeming most unlikely to man ultimately exalted the exile Abraham, the outcast slave Joseph, and the despised Moses to honour and chiefship; so it will be in Messiah's case in spite of the humiliation which makes the Jews reject Him. ...
(4) That Solomon the builder of the temple recognized that which the Jews lose sight of, namely, that the Most High dwelleth not in temples made with hands, as though His presence was confined to a locality (1 Kings 8:27; 2 Chronicles 2:6; 2 Chronicles 6:18), and which Jehovah through Isaiah (Isaiah 66:1) insists on
Cerinthus, Opponent of Saint John - It will probably always remain an open question whether his fundamentally Ebionite sympathies inclined him to accept Jewish rather than Gnostic additions. Modern scholarship has therefore preferred to view his doctrine as a fusing together and incorporating in a single system tenets collected from Jewish, Oriental, and Christian sources; but the nature of that doctrine is sufficiently clear, and its opposition to the instruction of St. ...
Cerinthus was of Egyptian origin, and in religion a Jew. He refused in the spirit of a true Jew to consider the "God of the Jews" identical with that author of the material world who was alleged by Gnostic teachers to be inferior and evil. Cerinthus derived this notion from Jewish sources. His notions of eschatology are radically Jewish: they may have originated, but do not contain, the Valentinian notion of a spiritual marriage between the souls of the elect and the Angels of the Pleroma
James, Epistle of - ’ It has indeed been doubted whether a Jew of his position could have written such good Greek as we find in this Epistle, but we know really very little of the scope of Jewish education; there was every opportunity for intercourse with Greeks in Galilee, and a priori arguments of this nature can at most be only subsidiary. James means a certain belief, mainly intellectual, in the one God ( James 2:19 ), the fundamental creed of the Jew, to which a belief in Christ has been added. ) that the history of Abraham, and in particular Genesis 15:6 , figured frequently in Jewish theological discussions. But the antithesis between ‘faith and works’ seems to be essentially Christian; we cannot, therefore, on the ground of the Jewish use of Genesis 15:1-21 , deny any relationship between the writings of the two Apostles. Hence the suggestion has been made by Spitta that we have really a Jewish document which has been adapted by a Christian writer, as happened, e. The parallels with our Lord’s teaching already noticed, could not be explained as due to independent borrowing from earlier Jewish sources, even on the very doubtful assumption that any such existed containing the substance of His teaching. The type of organization implied is primitive, and is described mainly in Jewish phraseology: synagogue ( James 2:2 ), elders of the Church ( James 5:14 ), anointing with oil and the connexion of sin and sickness ( ib. James remained to the end of his life a strict Jew, noted for his devotion to the Law ( Acts 15:1-41 ; Acts 21:20 ), and in the Epistle the Law, though transformed, is to the writer almost a synonym for the Gospel. 141) bears witness to the claim of the Jews, ‘that if they are sinners and know God, the Lord will not impute to them sin. His Epistle then is Judaic, because it shows us Christianity as it appeared to the ordinary Jewish Christian, to whom it was a something added to his old religion, not a revolutionary force altering its whole character, as it was to St. It seems to belong to the period described in the early chapters of the Acts, when the separation between Jews and Christians was not complete; we have already, on other grounds, seen that it seems to come before the Council. 456) points out that its attitude towards the rich agrees with what we know of Jewish society during this period, when the tyranny of the wealthy Sadducean party was at its height (cf. 2); there are still apparently local Jewish tribunals ( James 2:6 ). The movement from city to city supposed in James 4:13 may point to the frequent Jewish migrations for purposes of trade, and the authority which the writer exercises over the Diaspora may be paralleled by that which the Sanhedrin claimed outside Palestine. Perhaps more may be said for the view that the Epistle incorporates Jewish fragments, e
Jews, Judaism - The Judahites became the Jews in Babylon. Even Mordecai of the tribe of Benjamin is identified as a Jew (Esther 2:5 ), although the designation "Israel" also continued in use to identify the whole of the ethnic and cultic community (Ezra 2:70 ). The first Jews to return from the Babylonian exile to Jerusalem rebuilt the temple; however, the religious practices of the next generation did not conform to the vision of Judaism that the Babylonian Jewish community held. Thus, a Jew was one born of a Jewish mother. Thereafter the Jews were identified as the people of the Book, a people committed to keeping the law of Moses. ...
Jewish tradition holds that the shekinah , the Spirit of Divine Inspiration, departed Israel after Ezra, who was himself ranked second to Moses. ...
Despite the departure of the prophetic spirit, certain devout Jews were inspired to write religious works during the intertestamental period. These survive as the Apocrypha, works found in the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, but later denied a place in the Hebrew Bible by Jewish leaders. However, in the Roman Empire outside Palestine, the Septaugint was the Bible of Jewish communities and the early church until the end of the first century a. ...
The noncanonical writings of the intertestamental period attest to the development of Jewish religious thought. Jews thought much about the cause and manifestation of human sin and conflict between good and evil. High priests continued to control the temple until its destruction in the first revolt of the Jews against the Romans in a. ...
Early Jewish Sects . The Samaritans became the earliest Jewish sect. Jewish leaders in Jerusalem tended to assimilate Hellenistic culture, subtly undermining the strict religious practices of the Judaism Ezra had mandated. The Essenes separated themselves from much of Jewish society. ...
Christianity also began as a Jewish sect. The first revolt of the Jews against the Romans deeply affected both Judaism and Christianity. The Jewish-Christian sect in Palestine was superseded by Gentile Christianity due to the missionary efforts of Paul, the destruction of the Jerusalem temple, and the defensive efforts of rabbinical Judaism to separate the church and the synagogue. The word "Jew" (Gk. ...
References to Jews and Judaism, however, bear a range of negative, neutral, and positive connotations. For example, John's Gospel contains sixty-three references to the Jews, of which approximately 60 percent are negative in nature, with another 20 percent neutral and a group of 20 percent that reflect a positive image. When Luke refers to Jews in Acts, the references tend toward anti-Judaism. Overall, when Jews are mentioned in the New Testament, the connotation usually is negative, reflecting the developing rift between the church and the synagogue. And in exile the people of Judah became the Jews, the people of the Book, transforming the territorial temple-centered religion of their forefathers into a uNIVersal religion devoted to the worship of the one true God. ...
The intertestamental period established the Jewish matrix into which Jesus of Nazareth was born at the turn of the era. This environment stimulated Jews to develop ideas that would be important in the rise of Christianity. The Jewish soil in which the church sprouted and grew reflects the fullness of time (Galatians 4:4 ). Mansoor, Jewish History and Thought: An Introduction ; E. Shermis, Jewish-Christian Relations: An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide ; M. , Evangelicals and Jews in Conversation ; R
Habakkuk - Habakkuk complains that the Chaldees are worse than the Jews whom they are to be the instruments of chastising; they deal treacherously, sweep all into their net, and then "they sacrifice unto their net and burn incense unto their drag," i. ...
The issue must be awaited with patience, for it shall not disappoint; the lifted up soul, as that of the Chaldean foe and the unbelieving apostatizing Jew, is not accounted upright before God and therefore shall perish; but the just shall be accounted just by his faith and so shall live. Paul quotes Habakkuk 1:5 in his warning to the unbelieving Jews at Antioch in Pisidia
Tribes - After the return from the Exile many members of other tribes probably came to Jerusalem along with Jews strictly so called, i. The apostle Paul, a Jew brought up in the Roman province of Cilicia, claims to belong to the tribe of Benjamin (Romans 11:1, Philippians 3:5). The fact that the writer has taken over a Jewish apocalypse and worked it into a Christian setting makes it difficult to settle who exactly are meant here by the servants of God who are sealed in their foreheads. Are the ‘servants of God’ of Revelation 7:3 identical with the ‘multitude’ of Revelation 7:9 ‘whom no man can number’? Can this be the case when the sealed are numbered so definitely? If not, who then are the sealed? Are they faithful Jews of the OT dispensation, or are they Jewish Christians, and are the Gentile Christians not to be sealed? The first suggestion is impossible, as the sealed are evidently still on the earth. The view that Jewish Christians are the sealed, while possible, is unlikely, as the whole trend of the Apocalypse is to identify Christians as the true Jews, the Israel of God
Joppa - ...
Down to the time of the Maccabees, Joppa was a heathen town, which the Jews sometimes used but never possessed. From that time, with but few interruptions, Joppa remained in the possession of the Jews for more than two centuries. 4); and Julius Caesar decreed ‘that the city of Joppa, which the Jews had originally when they made a league of friendship with the Romans, shall belong to them as it formerly did’ (x. Yet this stronghold of Jewish legalism was the city in which St. Peter received the vision which taught him that Jew and Gentile, as spiritually equal before God, must be impartially welcomed into the Church of Christ (Acts 10:9-16). To his Jewish instincts such contamination was intolerable. Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng
Legs - The Jews did not make their request to Pilate with the desire to intensify the sufferings of Jesus and the robbers, but because only in this way could they have the bodies taken down. ‘To understand what John felt at the moment which he here recalls, we must suppose a believing, Jew, familiar with the OT, seeing the soldiers approach who are to break the legs of the three victims
Regeneration - " What a dreadful confession this for a man in his dying hours!...
Our blessed Lord, who brought life and immortality to light by his Gospel, brought this doctrine of regeneration also, as a fundamental part of that Gospel, to the full and complete testimony of it in his conversation with Nicodemus the Jew
Form - Paul speaks of the Jew as ‘having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth
Pontus - There is little doubt that the adjective Pontikos , applied to Aquila in Acts 18:2 , means that, though a Jew, he was a native of the Roman province, and it is interesting in connexion with this to mention that an inscription has recently been found referring to one Aquila at Sinope, one of the principal cities of the Roman province Pontus
Gospel - Matthew writes as "an Israelite indeed," a guileless converted Jew instructing his brethren. Mark wrote primarily for the Gentiles, as appears from his frequent explanations of Jewish customs, etc
Jude, the Epistle of - But as Jude differs a little from the Book of Enoch, written probably by a Jew thoroughly imbued with Daniel's sacred writings, it is likely he rather sanctions the current tradition of the Jews as to Enoch's prophecies, just as Paul names the Egyptian magicians "Jannes and Jambres," though the Old Testament does not. The references to Old Testament history (Judges 1:5; Judges 1:7) and to Jewish tradition (Judges 1:14 ff) render it probable Jude addressed Jewish Christians primarily, then all Christians (Judges 1:1). ...
As Peter wrote his first epistle (see 1 Peter 5:13) and probably his second also at Babylon it is not unlikely that Jude too addressed primarily the Jewish Christians in and about Mesopotamian Babylon (a place of much resort of the Jews), or else the Christian Jews dispersed in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, whom Peter, his model, addresses. 70), some think Jude would have scarcely omitted allusion to an event which uprooted the whole Jewish polity
Ephesians, Letter to the - ...
God saves helpless sinful people by his grace (2:1-10), and brings them into a united body, the church, where there is no distinction between Jew and Gentile. God unites Jews and Gentiles in one body, and this divine work displays God’s wisdom
City - It was the wall that originally constituted the πόλις, though in later times its position amongst the Jews was determined by its ability to produce ten men qualified for office in the Synagogue (see Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible, art. 6), in every Jewish city there was a Council of twenty-three which was responsible to the Sanhedrin (Matthew 5:22). The blending of the Jewish with the Greek civilization must have given to these cities a striking picturesqueness alike in manners, customs, attire, and architecture. Its palace, citadel, and public buildings were of the most imposing description, but it was almost wholly Gentile, no Jew who had the pride of his race setting foot within the walls of a city polluted alike by the monuments of idolatry and by its site on an ancient burial-place. Cities like Bethsaida and Capernaum, again, were preponderantly Jewish. 3) as a stronghold of Jewish patriotism. Samaria was itself a beautiful city—one of the cities rebuilt on a magnificent scale by Herod the Great owing to its strategic situation—the population being mixed, half-Greek, half-Samaritan, wholly alien, therefore, in sympathy from the Jews, alike through the Samaritan hostility and the Greek culture. ...
But to the Jew the city of cities—the city that symbolized all that was highest alike in his political and religious aspirations—was Jerusalem. Matthew’s Gospel is Jerusalem called ‘the holy city’ (Matthew 4:5; Matthew 27:53), and as such it was enshrined in every Jewish heart through the noble poetry of the Psalter. Though some were preponderantly Jewish, and others, such as Tiberias, almost exclusively Gentile, there was yet in them all a mingling of races and a tolerably free and humane intercourse. But Jerusalem remained a city of the Jews, cherishing its own ecclesiastical traditions, and holding its patriotic exclusiveness with a narrowness all the greater from the pressure of the Roman subjection. Caesarea was the seat of the Roman Procurator, except during the great Jewish feasts, when he found it necessary to reside at Jerusalem to restrain the turbulence of a fanatically patriotic people who were ready to court martyrdom for the national cause. ...
In the time of our Lord, then, the Jews had made the transition from a life mainly pastoral and agricultural to the more advanced life of the city. —Schürer, HJP Pre-Eminence - In Him all, both Jew and Gentile, are built up a holy temple, Himself the Chief Corner-stone (Ephesians 2:20-22). To him, as a well-instructed Jew, that was the Glory of God’s revealed presence
Cross - Pilate had probably hoped the Jews would be content with this scourging, and still let Him escape crucifixion (Luke 23:22; John 19:1). The approach of the Passover sabbath, one of peculiar solemnity, led to his permitting the Jewish law to be carried out which forbids bodies to hang after sunset (Deuteronomy 21:22-23). By a striking retribution in kind, the Jewish people, whose cry was "crucify Him," were crucified in such numbers by Titus "that there was not room enough for the crosses, nor crosses enough for their bodies" (Joseptius, B. 326, is: Helena the empress, mother of Constantine, then nearly 80 years old, made a pilgrimage to the holy places, and there, by help of a Jew who understood her superstitious tastes, found three crosses, among which Christ's cross was recognized by its power of working miracles, at the suggestion of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem. The falsity of the whole story appears from the fact that the Jews' law required the cross to be burnt; Eusebius is silent as to the alleged discovery of it
Cyprus - ...
Jews first settled in Cyprus under the Ptolemys, and their numbers there were considerable before the time of the Apostles. Barnabas is described as a Cypriot Jew, and when he and St. The Jews of Cyprus took part in the great rising of their race which took place in a. The revolt was suppressed without mercy, and all Jews were expelled from the island
ir-ha-Heres - ]'>[4] , in which the ancient rites of his people might be carried on without molestation, and which might form a religions centre for the Jews settled in Egypt. of Heliopolis, near which there are remains of a Jewish necropolis (Naville, The Mound of the Jew and the City of Onias , pp. MSS), being the original reading, which was altered afterwards by the Jews of Palestine into heres , ‘destruction,’ in order to obtain a condemnation of the Egyptian temple, and by the Jews of Egypt into tsedek , ‘righteousness’ (LXX [4] , but of Jewish colonies in Egyp. 290, when there were undoubtedly many Jewish settlements in Egypt: the original reading, these scholars suppose with Dillmann, was ‘city of the sun,’ the meaning being that one of these colonies, preserving loyally the faith of their fathers, should flourish even in Heliopolis, the city of the sun-god; the reading was altered afterwards, when the Jews of Palestine began to show hostility towards the Egyptian temple, by the Jews of Egypt into ‘city of righteousness’ (LXX [11] ), and then further, by the Jews of Palestine, as a counter-blow, into ‘city of destruction’ (Heb
Lasciviousness - 154): ‘Here the reference is probably to the dissolute life of the Herodian court, and of the Greek cities of Galilee and the Decapolis; if δόλος characterized the Jew, his Greek neighbour was yet more terribly branded by ἀσέλγεια
Italy - Josephus mentions the Jewish colony of Puteoli in his story of the Jewish impostor who claimed to be Alexander the son of Herod (circa, about 4 b. ‘He was also no fortunate, upon landing, as to bring the Jews that were there under the same delusion’ (Ant. Paul enjoyed for a week on his way to Rome (Acts 28:14), were evidently drawn from that same Jewish community and its proselytes. The presence of a great Jewish colony in Rome, dating from the time when Pompey brought his prisoners of war from Jerusalem, is abundantly attested by Latin historians and poets. The swindling of Fulvia, ‘a woman of great dignity, and one that had embraced the Jewish religion’ (Ant. 5), by another Jew of the baser type was the signal for an outburst against the whole colony in the time of Tiberius (Tac. According to Acts 18:2 Claudius went the length of expelling all the Jews from Rome (cf. Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng
Humour - When He bade His hearers take no care for the morrow, because caring for the morrow was the distinguishing mark of the Gentile as contrasted with the Jew (Matthew 6:32), He spoke with full knowledge of Jewish character, and must have known that His hearers would smile
Son of David - The passage is a repudiation of the notion of the Jews—implied in their use of the title—that it fully expresses the functions of the Messiah. The proper answer to Jesus’ question would have involved an entire reconstruction of the ideas of the Jews concerning the Messiah, of which they were, of course, utterly incapable. To the Jew of the later pre-Christian centuries, David stood for much else besides military prowess and political prestige
Garden - " (Song of Song of Solomon 6:9) The Jerusalem which is above, and which is the mother of us all, knows but of one church, of which Jesus is the Head; for both Jew and Gentile will ultimately be brought into one fold
Sabbath - The observance of the Sabbath is central to Jewish life. For the pious Jew, keeping the Sabbath holy is a mitzvah, or duty, before God. To "remember the Sabbath" meant that the Jew identified the seven-day-a-week rhythm of life as belonging to the Creator. This connection is particularly important in light of the Jewish doctrine that human beings are co-partners with God. " Here the acknowledgment that God is the Creator of life is intensified by the acknowledgment that he is also the saving presence in the history of the Jewish people, and by that means of the entire creation. No fires were to be kindled in Jewish dwellings (Exodus 35:3 ), and no one was to leave their place (Exodus 16:29 ). In Jewish homes the benedictions of kiddush (Friday evening) and habdalaha (Saturday evening) were recited, and there were morning and afternoon services at the synagogue. The joyous character of the Sabbath is reflected in, among other things, the Jewish tradition of eating richly, which derives from its inclusion in the list of "festivals of the Lord" ( Leviticus 23 ) the prohibition of fasting, and the forbidding of outward expressions of grief and mourning. ...
The consistency of the prophets' call to honor the Sabbath testifies in part to the growing need, especially during the exilic period, to preserve Jewish identity in a pagan environment. In his characteristic refusal to allow such things to become a basis for judging fellow believers, Paul seems, especially if Romans 14:5 refers to Sabbath keeping, a claim not unanimously accepted, to support one's freedom either to observe or not observe the Jewish sabbath, though he evidently continued to observe it for himself ( Acts 17:2 ). Baron, The Jewish Community ; D. Jewett, The Lord's Day
Adoption - The Jews, though not having exactly the same customs, were familiar with the Roman usage's. Producing the filial cry of prayer in all, Jew and Gentile alike (See ABBA) (Galatians 4:6); and the fruit of the Spirit, conformity to Christ (Romans 8:29), and renewal in the image of our Father (Matthew 6:8-93)
Barnabas, Epistle of - He and His apostles believed in the Jewish religion, as the only true religion, used the Jewish Scriptures as the very word of God, and observed the national forms of worship as the Divinely-appointed mode of serving God. How then did His followers ever come to abandon the Law? Did they at any point make a complete break with all that was Jewish and begin afresh on an entirely new basis? By no means; there was no break, but merely a reorganization. Hence, though believing Jews may continue to observe the Law if they will, there is not sufficient ground for compelling Gentiles who turn to God and believe on Jesus to do so also. The next step was to admit that it was not necessary for believing Jews to observe the Law, when such observance caused them to separate from their Gentile brethren. The last step was to condemn all observance of the Law, whether by Jewish or by Gentile believers. There is, however, this peculiarity about its position: the main stream of Christian thought believed that the Mosaic Law had been given by God to the Jews to be literally fulfilled. Our author, however, does not believe that the Law ever was intended to be taken literally; he says it was uttered in a spiritual sense which the Jews did not understand (x. This error of the Jews was the work of an evil angel (ix. In dealing with circumcision, our author seizes on those passages which speak of a circumcision of the heart (Jeremiah 4:4, Deuteronomy 10:16; Jeremiah 9:26), and argues that the Jewish circumcision ‘is abolished, for he hath said that a circumcision not of the flesh should be practised’ (9:4). 16); thus all that is outwardly distinctive of the Jewish religion is interpreted in a spiritual sense: distinctions of clean and unclean, circumcision, the Sabbath and the Temple. If the Messiah has indeed come in the person of Jesus, then the national religion of the Jews is not destroyed but proved to be the true service of the Living God, and its claim that it had received a direct Divine revelation is not exploded but vindicated by God Himself. Every one who believed in Jesus, believed that He came in fulfilment of promises made by God to the Jewish fathers; hence a Christian believer could not but regard the ancient Jewish Scriptures as the record of a unique revelation and treat them as the very word of God. The OT was his only source of authority in religion; ho does not appeal to any Christian writing, or even to the words of Jesus; he feels he has fully proved his point if he can show that his doctrine is grounded in the Jewish Scriptures. Those who refused to believe and obey Him refused to obey and believe God, and by this act of disobedience cut themselves off from the Covenant and the mercies of God, On the other hand, those who did believe God and were obedient to His Messiah, became the true people of God, the New Israel, the present possessors of all the privileges that once belonged to the Jewish nation, and the recipients of all the Messianic blessings. If the purpose of God in creating the world and in calling Abraham had been fulfilled in Jesus, then it was not for the sake of unbelieving Jews but for the sake of the believers in the Messiah that the world had been created and Abraham called. Thus the Christians denied to the Jews any share whatever in the glorious heritage of the Jewish nation, and claimed it entirely for themselves. A Covenant, he says, was given to Moses to deliver to the Jews, but it was never really received. ...
Our author does not cut Christianity away from all historic connexion with the Jewish past; on the contrary, he denies a place of privilege to the Jews after Mount Sinai, in order to show that that place really belonged to the Christians. There are two peoples-the Jews and the Christians. Of these, the Jews, the elder, are in the position of Esau and of Manasseh, who, though the first-born of their respective fathers, did not inherit the blessing; the Christians, like Jacob and Ephraim, though in each case the younger, have been made the recipients of the promise (ch. ’ Our author accepts the Jewish Scriptures, the patriarchs, the promises, Moses, and the Law in its (to his mind) correct spiritual interpretation. His animus is against the Jews, not against the Jewish religion; from Sinai onwards they have in reality stood outside that religion; its privileges were always the peculiar property of the Christians, held in reserve for them until the coming of the Messiah. The ‘Son of Consolation’ belonged to the earliest stage of the Jewish Christian controversy; he was ready to give the Gentiles liberty, but by no means ready to say that the Jews might abandon the Law altogether (Galatians 2:13). It is, of course, quite possible that, after the incident of Galatians 2, Barnabas might have come to acknowledge the entire freedom of the Jews, but even this would not bring him into the atmosphere of our Epistle; for here there is no question as to whether a believing Jew may or may not abandon the Law; the main idea is that no Jew, believing or unbelieving, ought ever to have observed the Law at any time, even before Christ came. And it is difficult to think that any Jew, born under the Law, and nurtured in the stirring traditions of its maintenance in the face of cruel persecution, could come to feel so little enthusiasm for and interest in the national struggles and heroisms that he could sweep them all away as things which never ought to have been. A soul so dead to patriotism was no true Jew. None but an alien could be so unsympathetic to the national history of the Jews. At Alexandria, again, the Jews were particularly strong, and in constant conflict with the Christians. Hence the bitter opposition to the Jews as a nation, and the anxiety to cut off all sympathy with Jewish practices. It has been observed that there are serious blunders in the descriptions of Jewish rites; our author agrees neither with the OT nor with the Talmud. Kohler, in Jewish Encyclopedia ii. 537, remarks that the letter shows an astonishing familiarity with Jewish rites. Many commentators, including Harnack, take this as referring to the material Temple at Jerusalem, which they say the Jews expected Hadrian to rebuild. Kohler in Jewish Encyclopedia ii
Circumcision - is from the Latin, circumcidere, "to cut all around," because the Jews, in circumcising their children, cut off after this manner the skin which covers the prepuce. ...
The Jews have always been very exact in observing this ceremony, and it appears that they did not neglect it when in Egypt. "That the promise might be sure to all the seed, not only to that which is by the law, but to that also which is by the faith, of Abraham, who is the father of us all," —of all believing Gentiles as well as Jews. This covenant with Abraham, therefore, although it respected a natural seed, Isaac, from whom a numerous progeny was to spring; and an earthly inheritance provided for this issue, the land of Canaan; and a special covenant relation with the descendants of Isaac, through the line of Jacob, to whom Jehovah was to be "a God," visibly and specially, and they a visible and "peculiar people;" yet was, under all these temporal, earthly, and external advantages, but a higher and spiritual grace embodying itself under these circumstances, as types of a dispensation of salvation and eternal life, to all who should follow the faith of Abraham, whose justification before God was the pattern of the justification of every man, whether Jew or Gentile, in all ages. But when our Lord commanded the Gospel to be preached to "all nations," and opened the gates of the "common salvation" to all, whether Gentiles or Jews, circumcision, as the sign of a covenant of peculiarity and religious distinction, was also done away. He declares that in Christ there is neither circumcision nor uncircumcision; that neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircumcision, but "faith that worketh by love;" faith in the Seed of Abraham already come and already engaged in his mediatorial and redeeming work; faith, by virtue of which the Gentiles came into the church of Christ on the same terms as the Jews themselves, and were justified and saved. The doctrine of the non-necessity of circumcision, he applies to the Jews as well as to the Gentiles, although he specially resists the attempts of the Judaizers to impose this rite upon the Gentile converts; in which he was supported by the decision of the Holy Spirit when the appeal upon this question was made to the "Apostles and elders at Jerusalem," from the church at Antioch. " The second is that milder view which he himself must have had when he circumcised Timothy to render him more acceptable to the Jews; and which also appears to have led him to abstain from all allusion to this practice when writing his epistle to the believing Hebrews, although many, perhaps most of them, continue to circumcise their children, as did the Jewish Christians for a long time afterward. This appears to have been the view of those among the Galatian Christians who submitted to circumcision, and of the Jewish teachers who enjoined it upon them; for St. ) But there are two grounds on which circumcision may be conceived to have been innocently, though not wisely, practiced, among the Christian Jews. The first was that of preserving an ancient national distinction on which they valued themselves; and were a converted Jew in the present day disposed to perform that rite upon his children for this purpose only, renouncing in the act all consideration of it as a sign and seal of the old covenants, or as obliging to ceremonial acts in order to justification, no one would censure him with severity. Paul circumcised Timothy, whose mother was a Jewess; he did it because of "the Jews which were in those quarters," that is, because of their national prejudices, "for they knew that his father was a Greek. " The second was a lingering notion, that, even in the Christian church, the Jews who believed would still retain some degree of eminence, some superior relation to God; a notion which, however unfounded, was not one which demanded direct rebuke, when it did not proudly refuse spiritual communion with the converted Gentiles, but was held by men who "rejoiced that God had granted to the Gentiles repentance unto life. ...
Not only might circumcision be practised with views so opposite that one might be wholly innocent, although an infirmity of prejudice; the other such as would involve a rejection of the doctrine of justification by faith in Christ; but some other Jewish observances also stood in the same circumstances. He saw their danger on this point; he saw that they were taking steps to this fatal result, by such an observance of these "days," &c, as had a strong leaning and dangerous approach to that dependence upon them for justification, which would destroy their faith in Christ's solely sufficient sacrifice; but his very doubting, not of the fact of their being addicted to these observances, but of the animus with which they regarded them, supposes it possible, however dangerous this Jewish conformity might be, that they might be observed for reasons which would still consist with their entire reliance upon the merits of Christ for salvation. Even he himself, strongly as he resisted the imposition of this conformity to Jewish customs upon the converts to Christianity as a matter of necessity, yet in practice must have conformed to many of them, when no sacrifice of principle was understood; for in order to gain the Jews, he became "as a Jew
Esther - ” Heroine of biblical Book of Esther whose Jewish name was Hadassah. Esther is the story of a Jewish orphan girl raised by her uncle, Mordecai, in Persia. Esther did not reveal that she was Jewish. Haman was made prime minister and began to plot against Mordecai and the Jews because they would not pay homage to him. She asked Mordecai and the Jews to fast with her while she decided. At a banquet, Esther revealed Haman's plot to destroy her and her people, the Jews. Mordecai was promoted, and Esther got the king to revoke Haman's decree to destroy the Jews. The Jews killed and destroyed their enemies. It considers the question of destruction or survival of the Jews under persecution. The Purim festival was a Jewish commemoration of deliverance—deliverance of the Jews from the hands of the Babylonians. Mordecai's insistence that Esther must intervene to save her people is based on the idea that a good Jew must worship and be loyal to the covenant God and to Him alone. ” During the days of oppressive persecution the very survival of the people depended upon the Jews doing something
Gentiles - Though Jesus directed His work to Jews (Matthew 15:24 ) and at first limited His disciples to them (Matthew 10:5 ), He threatened that the kingdom would be taken from the Jews and given to a nation bringing its fruits (Matthew 21:43 ). Though Jesus was crucified by Gentiles (Matthew 20:19 ), equal blame is placed on both Gentiles and Jews (Acts 4:27 ). ...
Paul experienced great resentment among the Jews because of the opportunity he was offering the Gentiles (Romans 2:15-16 ). Nevertheless, in New Testament thought, the church made up of Jew and Gentile was the holy nation, God's own people (1 Peter 2:9 )
Reconcilation - The Jewish rabbis realized this and taught that a person could be reconciled to God only by good deeds, repentance, and confession. Paul in Ephesians 2:14-18 dramatically proclaimed that through the cross Christ reconciled both Gentile and Jew into one new humanity by terminating the hostility that existed between them
Scythian - ...
To the Jews the name ‘Scythian’ became synonymous with ‘barbarian. When the apostle Paul is speaking of the absolute way in which the gospel of Christ abolishes all racial distinctions, he mentions in the list ‘Greek and Jew … barbarian, Scythian’ (Colossians 3:11), where undoubtedly ‘Scythian’ is referred to as being universally regarded as the lowest in the scale of humanity, the most savage of barbarians-‘Scythae barbaris barbariores’ (Bengal) (cf
Idolatry - So deep-rooted was the Jewish hatred of idolatry, and so general had been the condemnation of the practice, that our Lord found no reason for insistence upon the generally accepted commandments on the subject. God’s glory must come first; neither Jew nor Greek nor the Church must be needlessly offended
Guest - Her astonishment at the request reminds us that between Jew and Samaritan there was no recognition of the law of hospitality (cf. ‘Meals,’ ‘Stranger’; Jewish Encyc
Chief Priests - —In the Gospels ἀρχιερεύς properly denotes the individual who for the time being held the office of Jewish high priest; and when the word occurs in its singular form, ‘high priest’ is the almost invariable rendering it receives throughout the NT, both in Authorized Version and Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 (in Luke 3:2 ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἄννα καὶ Καιάφα is rendered in Authorized Version ‘Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests,’ and in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ‘in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas. ’ In Acts 19:14 ἀρχιερεύς, as applied to ‘one Sceva, a Jew,’ is rendered ‘chief of the priests’ in Authorized Version, ‘a chief priest’ in Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885). A common explanation used to be that these ‘chief priests’ were the heads or presidents of the twenty-four courses into which the Jewish priesthood was divided (1 Chronicles 24:4, 2 Chronicles 8:14, Luke 1:5; Luke 1:8; Josephus Ant. Thus there were usually several ex-high priests alive at the same time, and these men, though deprived of office, still retained the title of ἀρχιερεῖς and still exercised considerable power in the Jewish State (cf. 6); and that this was really the case becomes clear upon an examination of the list which Schürer has compiled, from the various references given by the Jewish historian, of the twenty-eight holders of the office during the Romano-Herodian period (HJP Antiochus - Under him, however, the Jews of Asia Minor gained many civic rights. , he was a great colonizer, and induced 2000 Jewish families to go from Mesopotamia into Lydia and Phrygia, thus laying the foundation for the influential Jewish Dispersion in those regions. His motives were probably more political than religious, but as a part of his programme he undertook to compel the Jews to worship heathen gods as well as, if not in place of, Jehovah. Pagan sacrifices were ordered in every town in Judæa, and every month a search was made to discover whether any Jew possessed a copy of the Law or had circumcised his children. a pagan altar, probably to Olympian Zeus, was erected on the altar of burnt-offering, and the entire Jewish worship seemed threatened with extinction. After defeating Trypho, he undertook to establish his sovereignty over the Jews. These terms laid very heavy demands upon the Jews, and included the destruction of the fortifications of the city
Synagogue - They were often erected by general contributions, though at times by a rich Jew, or in some instances by a Gentile, as the one built by the centurion at Capernaum. Prayers also were doubtless offered, but how far these resembled the modern Jewish ritual is not known. " It is recorded that the people were in the habit of freely expressing their opinions respecting what was taught, and here they said, "Is not this Joseph's son?" In Acts 13:45 the Jews "spake against those things which were spoken by Paul, contradicting and blaspheming. "...
Paul also was permitted to speak in the synagogue at Damascus, when he showed the Jews that Jesus was the Son of God, Acts 9:20 ; and often afterwards he 'reasoned' or 'disputed' (διαλέγομαι)with the Jews in their synagogues. ...
To be "put out of the synagogue" was the Jewish excommunication. ...
It is evident from what Pilate said to the Jews in reference to the Lord — "Take ye him, and judge him according to your law" — that they were allowed to judge certain matters and to inflict limited punishments. Some who professed, like Jews, to have a claim to be considered the people of God on the ground of hereditary right. In both cases they may be Jews actually, though disowned of God
Wells And Springs - Wilson, in 1842, sent down with ropes a Jew named Jacob, to explore the well and recover a Bible dropped into it by Rev
Coins - After Judah's defeat at Megiddo, the victorious pharaoh appointed a puppet king and required the Jews to pay Egypt a heavy tribute in silver and gold (2 Kings 23:33 ). , about the time the Jews were returning from Babylon to Judah. the reigning high priest minted in bronze the first real Jewish coins. In accord with the Second Commandment, Jewish coins did not bear the image of any ruler, but they used symbols such as a wreath, a cornucopia, or the seven-branched lampstand of the Temple. Such symbols continued to be used by Herod and other appointed Jewish rulers after Palestine submitted to Roman domination. Every male Jew was required to pay an annual head tax of half shekel to the Temple treasury (Exodus 30:13 ). Whatever currency they might bring, it had to be exchanged for coins that were acceptable by Jewish standards, that is, bearing no symbols violating the Second Commandment
Passover - ...
The Jews called the Passover Paschah or Pesach, and the original meaning is flight or passage—perhaps in allusion to the flight or hasty departure of Israel from Egypt. " (Revelation 13:8)...
If the lamb appointed in the Jewish Passover was to be a male of the first year without blemish and without spot; such was Christ. And if the Jewish lamb was roasted whole with fire, and not a bone of him broken, who but must see in this a type of him who, in the accomplishment of salvation sustained all the fire of divine wrath against sin in his sacrifice, and whose bones, it is expressly said, were not broken, that this Scripture might be fulfilled? (John 19:36)...
Various are the accounts given by various writers of the manner in which the Jews of modern times observe the Passover. Nothing would hurt the mind of a Jew more than the discovery of any thing disposed to fermentation, or to make leaven. " (See the relation of this Passover at large, Matthew 26:1-75; Mark 14:1-72; Luke 22:1-71; John 12:1-50 and John 13:1-38)...
I would only make one observation upon the whole in this place, namely, if the Lord Jesus never once during his ministry omitted his attendance on the Passover, how hath he thereby endeared to his redeemed his holy Supper, instituted and appointed as it was by himself to take place in his church in the room of the Jewish Passover! Surely by this Jesus might be supposed to intimate his holy pleasure, that his people should be always present at the celebration of it
Oneness - In the Kingdom of God, Jew and Gentile were reconciled, these two types being made ‘both one’ (Ephesians 2:14) in a union based on the deeper reconciliation of both to God (Ephesians 2:16). The oneness of Christ’s people as constituting a Body or Church, is expressed in the metaphor of the one flock (John 10:16 Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885 ), divided amongst Jewish and Gentile folds
Hebrews, Letter to the - This was particularly so among some of the Jewish Christians, who began to wonder if they had done right in giving up their Jewish religion and becoming Christians. ...
These people had believed, from the teaching of Jesus and his followers, that the Jewish religion no longer served God’s purposes. But, thirty years after Jesus’ death, the temple was still standing and the Jewish religion was still functioning. ...
Because of the suffering that came through the persecution, some of the discouraged Jewish Christians were doubting Christianity’s claim to be God’s new and triumphant way to the eternal kingdom. It seemed to them that the Jewish religion was as firm as ever, whereas Christianity was heading for disaster. He was probably a Jew (Hebrews 1:1), though he wrote polished Greek and took his Old Testament quotations from the Greek version known as the Septuagint. ...
Most likely the people who received the letter were a group of Jewish Christians who were part of a larger church. ...
The writer wanted to show these discouraged Jewish Christians that Christ was the true fulfilment of the Jewish religion. Christ is far above prophets, angels, leaders and priests, and his sacrifice has done what all the Jewish sacrifices could never do
Josephus - 64 he visited Rome, where, through the influence of a Jewish actor named Alityrus, he succeeded in gaining the ear of the Empress Poppaea-first the mistress, and from a. 62 the wife, of Nero-and so securing the liberation of some Jewish priests who had been put in bonds by Felix. 66, he was drawn into the movement which, springing from the long-accumulating hatred of Rome among the Jews, and fanned by the agitation of certain fanatics, soon burst forth in the lurid flames of revolt and war. He undertook the command of Galilee, where, in spite of the personal hostility of the zealot John of Gischala, he organized the Jewish defence during the winter of 66-67. A thorough Jew, he was always able to make the most of his opportunities, and was not over-scrupulous as to the means he employed. Works...
(a) The Jewish War. a history of the Jewish war against Rome (Bellum Judaicum [2]). As against the many unreliable and merely hearsay reports of the war, and the mischievous distortions of fact emanating from anti-Jewish feeling, Josephus proposed, as an eye-witness, to give an unbiased and veracious chronicle, which, by means of a just estimate of the Jewish people, of their good qualities and their military achievements, should not only exhibit in a clearer light the tragic element in the catastrophe they had brought upon themselves, but should also make manifest the real greatness of the Roman triumph. Accordingly, in the seven books of this work, after a survey of Jewish history from the Maccabaean revolt to the death of Herod the Great (bk. -He fulfilled this design in his Antiquities of the Jews, which he completed in a. ]'>[4] and he also projected an account of the Jewish faith and the Jewish Law in four books (ib. The former was probably written by an Alexandrian Jew; the latter, which survives only in a small fragment, is in all likelihood the work of Hippolytus. But perhaps the most characteristic instance of his hellenizing tendency is his description of the Jewish sects (xiii. Thus Josephus, in spite of his Hellenic guise, is in all things a genuine Jew, a Palestinian Rabbi: witness, for instance-as compared with the tractates of Philo-his version of the story of Moses, where he not only gives us the name of Pharaoh’s daughter (Thermuthis), but also relates how Moses as a child was presented to Pharaoh, and how, when the king put his diadem on the child’s head, the latter threw it upon the ground; and again, how, when Moses had grown to manhood, and was in command of an Egyptian army in a war against Ethiopia, he broke a way into that all but inaccessible country by making use of ibises to destroy the serpents which obstructed the march, and further, how he captured the impregnable city of Saba (or Meroë; Philae, an island in the Nile?) by gaining the love of Tharbis, the daughter of the Ethiopian king (Ant. [17]), as also the many references to superstitions which the Jews of the day had in common with the Greeks, as e. ]'>[18]): here Josephus states that he had personally witnessed an exorcism which a Jew named Eleazar performed before Vespasian and his officers by means of a ring, a root, and certain incantations, all associated with Solomon. How little the horizon of Josephus extended beyond Palestine is shown also by the brevity with which he treats of the persecutions of the Jews in Alexandria, and of the famous embassy of Philo to the court of Gaius Caligula (xviii. Next, after recounting the two Jewish tumults referred to, he relates two events which evidently had already been conjoined in the Roman tradition (Cluvius Rufus?), for only the second belongs to his subject (as giving an example of the ill-fortune that beset the Jews): the first deals with the outrage in the Temple of Isis in Rome, where the priests lent themselves to a trick by which a Roman lady of repute was beguiled sub praetextu religionis to yield herself to a lover (xviii. ]'>[18]); the second with the fraud practised by four Jews upon another Roman matron-an incident which led to the expulsion of the Jews from Rome by the decree of Tiberius, and to the drafting of 4,000 recruits from amongst them to Sardinia (a. 3 [34]):...
‘Now about this time appeared Jesus, a wise man, if indeed one may call Him a man; for He was a doer of marvellous works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with gladness, and He drew to Himself many of the Jews, as also many of the Greeks. (The view, proposed by Burkitt and strengthened by Harnack, that Josephus used the failure of the Messianic movement in the case of Jesus for the purpose of demonstrating that no Messianic aspirations were left after this in the Jewish people, is not supported by the text as it stands. Hence, if we reject the hypothesis of Berendts, the only theory that we have to fall back upon is that of an early Jewish redaction, as proposed by R
Children of God, Sons of God - Paul, therefore, generally uses it to denote the relationship between God and the disciples of Christ, whether Jews or Gentiles. Writing in the stress of the Jewish controversy, he finds it necessary to vindicate the claims of the Gentile Christians to the name ‘children or sons of God. But we must remember that He was speaking to Jews, who had long been accustomed to think of God’s Fatherhood as a term specially applicable to the pious Jew, or to the Jewish nation. His hearers would not, therefore, necessarily have read a universalistic sense into His words, and He nowhere explicitly speaks of God as Father of all men outside His own disciples (members of the Jewish nation). For the term ‘Father’ as applied to God in the OT and in the later Jewish pre-Christian literature, where it is generally used to denote the relationship between God and the individual pious Jew, see W. ...
If we now try to summarize the teaching of the Apostolic Age as expressed in the writings of the NT on the conception of sonship of God, the following appear to be the main lines of thought: (1) There is a recognition of the universal Fatherhood of God, to be seen in the teaching of Christ when once it was detached from a literal Jewish interpretation (cf
Luke, the Gospel According to - the parable of the prodigal son, the tracing of Christ's genealogy up to Adam the common parent of Jew and Gentile, not only to Abraham, as Matthew. ...
Theophilus, to whom he writes, was a Gentile believer, as appears from the geographical and other explanations given of many things, which would have been needless had he been a Jew (Luke 1:26, Nazareth; Luke 4:31, Capernaum; Luke 23:51, Arimathea; Luke 24:13, Emmaus; Acts 1:12, Olivet)
Righteousness - And he justifies Jew and Greek alike on precisely the same basis, by faith alone without works, and he makes no distinction whatsoever between the people of the Old Covenant and the Gentiles. In fact, Paul confessed that the power of the gospel to be the word of salvation to both Jew and Greek was based on the revelation of the righteousness of God thereinof God the Father acting justly for the sake of his Son (Romans 1:16-17 )
Elesbaan, a King, Hermit, And Saint of Ethiopia - In retaliation for the sufferings of the Jews throughout the Christian empire, he exacted heavy tolls from all Christian merchants who came through his territory to the port of Aden and the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, and, according to John of Asia (cf. 519 he crossed the straits, utterly defeated the Arabian forces, and driving the Jew to refuge in the hills, left a viceroy to bear Christian rule over the Homeritae and returned to Ethiopia (ib. Simeon of Beth-Arsam thus closes his letter, praying that the news may be spread throughout the church and the martyrs receive the honour of commemoration, and that the king of Ethiopia may be urged to help the Homeritae against the oppression of the Jew (cf
Septuagint - Horne, the Alexandrian or Septuagint is the most ancient and valuable, and was held in so much esteem both by the Jews as well as by the first Christians, as to be constantly read in the synagogues and churches. This version has derived its name either from the Jewish account of seventy-two persons having been employed to make it, or from its having received the approbation of the sanhedrim or great council of the Jews, which consisted of seventy, or, more correctly, of seventy-two persons. For this purpose, it is reported, that he sent Aristeas and Andreas, two distinguished officers of his court, to Jerusalem, on an embassy to Eleazar, then high priest of the Jews, to request of the latter a copy of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that there might also be sent to him seventy-two persons, six chosen out of each of the twelve tribes, who were equally well skilled in the Hebrew and Greek languages. If, as there is every reason to believe is the case, this piece is a forgery, it was made at a very early period; for it was in existence in the time of Josephus, who has made use of it in his Jewish Antiquities. Philo, the Jew, who also notices the Septuagint version, was ignorant of most of the circumstances narrated by Aristeas; but he relates others which appear not less extraordinary. ...
According to him, Ptolemy Philadelphus sent to Palestine for some learned Jews, whose number he does not specify; and these, going over to the island of Pharos, there executed so many distinct versions, all of which so exactly and uniformly agreed in sense, phrases, and words, as proved them to have been not common interpreters, but men prophetically inspired and divinely directed, who had every word dictated to them by the Spirit of God throughout the entire translation. He adds, that an annual festival was celebrated by the Alexandrian Jews in the isle of Pharos, where the version was made, until his time, to preserve the memory of it, and to thank God for so great a benefit. ...
It is not a little remarkable that the Samaritans have traditions in favour of their version of the Pentateuch, equally extravagant with these preserved by the Jews. In the Samaritan chronicle of Abul Phatach, which was compiled in the fourteenth century from ancient and modern authors, both Hebrew and Arabic, there is a story to the following effect: that Ptolemy Philadelphus, in the tenth year of his reign, directed his attention to the difference subsisting between the Samaritans and Jews concerning the law, the former receiving only the Pentateuch, and rejecting every other work ascribed to the prophets by the Jews. The Jews entrusted this mission to Osar, the Samaritans to Aaron, to whom several other associates were added. Thus were the law and other Scriptures translated by the Samaritans; whose version being most carefully examined, the king was convinced that their text was more complete than that of the Jews. Such is the narrative of Abul Phatach, divested, however, of numerous marvellous circumstances with which it has been decorated by the Samaritans, who are not surpassed, even by the Jews, in their partiality for idle legends. Farther, this version was neither made by the command of Ptolemy, nor at the request nor under the superintendence of Demetrius Phalereus; but was voluntarily undertaken by the Jews for the use of their countrymen. It is well known, that, at the period above noticed, there was a great number of Jews settled in Egypt, particularly at Alexandria: these, being most strictly observant of the religious institutions and usages of their forefathers, had their sanhedrim or grand council composed of seventy or seventy-two members, and very numerous synagogues, in which the law was read to them on every Sabbath; and as the bulk of the common people were no longer acquainted with Biblical Hebrew, the Greek language alone being used in their ordinary intercourse, it became necessary to translate the Pentateuch into Greek for their use. The five books of Moses, indeed, were the only books read in the synagogues until the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria; who having forbidden that practice in Palestine, the Jews evaded his commands by substituting for the Pentateuch the reading of the prophetic books. When, afterward, the Jews were delivered from the tyranny of the kings of Syria, they read the law and the prophets alternately in the synagogues; and the same custom was adopted by the Hellenistic or Graecising Jews. This hypothesis, however ingenious and plausible, is by no means determinate; and what militates most against it is, the inveterate enmity subsisting between the Jews and Samaritans, added to the constant and unvarying testimony of antiquity, that the Greek version of the Pentateuch was executed by Jews. There is no other way by which to reconcile these conflicting opinions than by supposing either that the manuscript used by the Egyptian Jews approximated toward the letters and text of the Samaritan Pentateuch, or that the translators of the Septuagint made use of manuscripts written in ancient characters. ...
The Septuagint version, though originally made for the use of the Egyptian Jews, gradually acquired the highest authority among the Jews of Palestine, who were acquainted with the Greek language, and subsequently also among Christians: it appears, indeed, that the legend above confuted, of the translators having been divinely inspired, was invented in order that the LXX might be held in the greater estimation. Philo, the Jew, a native of Egypt, has evidently followed it in his allegorical expositions of the Mosaic law; and though Dr. Hody was of opinion that Josephus, who was a native of Palestine, corroborated his work on Jewish antiquities from the Hebrew text, yet Salmasius, Bochart, Bauer, and others, have shown that he has adhered to the Septuagint throughout that work. How extensively this version was in use among the Jews, appears from the solemn sanction given to it by the inspired writers of the New Testament, who have in very many passages quoted the Greek version of the Old Testament
Synagogue - They appear to have arisen during the exile, in the abeyance of the temple-worship, and to have received their full development on the return of the Jews from captivity. Where the Jews were not in sufficient numbers to be able to erect and fill a building, there was the proseucha ( proseuche ), or place of prayer, sometimes open, sometimes covered in, commonly by a running stream or on the seashore, in which devout Jews and proselytes met to worship, and perhaps to read. To it we may ascribe the tenacity with which, after the Maccabaean struggle, the Jews adhered to the religion of their fathers, and never again relapsed into idolatry. Jerusalem was the Kibleh of Jewish devotion. Sometimes it was built by a rich Jew, or even, as in ( Luke 7:5 ) by a friend or proselyte. The transfer of the sanctity of the Sabbath to the Lord's day involved a corresponding change in the order of the week, and the first, the fourth the sixth became to the Christian society what the other days had been to the Jewish
Psalms the Book of - The "praise" or hymn-book of Jew and Christian for thousands of years
Wealth - If the builder of larger barns is termed the ‘foolish one,’ his folly is shown not to have been mere acquisition of wealth, but that acquisition apart from riches ‘toward God’ ( Luke 12:21 ); and if Dives is in Hades, it is evident that be is not there merely because of his riches, for Lazarus lies in the bosom of Abraham, the typical rich Jew
Conscience - Romans 2:14-15 is used in its context as an illustration that the Gentiles are in one sense superior to the Jews. , values) than the Jews' is to theirs (i. The Jews resisted the law's role as convictor while the Gentiles' convictor (conscience) worked. The illustration serves to shame the Jews in their position of greater privilege. The Gentiles are demonstrating a more consistent "moral" consciousness, "the work of the law" (its function, not its content is in view), in regard to their values than the privileged Jew is in regard to the value of God's law. Jewett, Paul's Anthropological Terms ; C
Nations - ]'>[2] the word ‘Greeks’ is rightly substituted, though the sense is the same, for to the Jews of the time Greek culture and religion stood for the culture and religion of the non-Jewish world. This reformation, as also the Rechabite movement ( Jeremiah 35:1-19 ), had a profound influence upon the thoughts and feelings of Jews, widening the gulf between them and alien nations. ...
The feeling of national exclusiveness and antipathy was intensified by the captivity in Babylon, when the prophetic and priestly instructors of the exiled Jews taught them that their calamities came upon them on account of their disloyalty to Jahweh and the ordinances of His religion, and because they compromised with idolatrous practices and heathen nations. Some time after the Return, Ezra and Nehemiah had to contend with the laxity to which Jews who had remained in the home land and others had yielded; but they were uncompromising, and won the battle for nationalism in religion. , both the religion and the language of the Jew might, humanly speaking, have perished. ...
The NT reveals the same attitude towards foreign nations on the part of the Jews (see Acts 10:45 et passim ). In Rabbinical writings Jewish exclusiveness manifested itself even more decisively (see Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum , vol. But, as in the OT a broader spirit shows itself constantly, culminating in the universalism of Christianity, so enlightened and broadminded Jews in all ages have deprecated the fanatical race-hatred which many of their compatriots have displayed
Unclean And Clean - So Peter's vision (Acts 10:11-15) of the "sheet bound by four (the number for worldwide extension) rope ends (archais , Alford) containing all kinds of four footed beasts, creeping things and fowls," of all which he was commanded to eat, was the appropriate type of the abolition of distinction, not only between meats (compare 1 Timothy 4:4; Matthew 15:11) but between Jew and Gentile. The decree of the Jerusalem council (Acts 15:20-21) rested simply on the desire to avoid offending needlessly the prejudices of Jews and Jewish Christians, "for Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him
Alexander - Alexander at the sight of the linen arrayed priests, and the high priest in blue and gold with the miter and gold plate on his head bearing Jehovah's name, adored it, and embraced him; and having been shown Daniel's prophecies concerning him, he sacrificed to God in the court of the temple, and granted the Jews liberty to live according to their own laws, and freedom from tribute in the sabbatical years. But their silence may be accounted for, as they notoriously despised the Jews. Jews were in his army. Jews were a strong element in the population of that city which he founded and which still bears his name, Alexandria. The Greek language, that most perfect medium of human thought, became widely diffused, so that a Greek version of the Old Testament was needed and made (the Septuagint) for the Greek speaking Jews at Alexandria and elsewhere in a succeeding generation; and the fittest lingual vehicle for imparting the New Testament to mankind soon came to be the language generally known by the cultivated of every land. Commerce followed the breaking down of national exclusiveness, and everywhere the Jews had their synagogues for prayer and reading of the Old Testament in the leading cities. preparing the way and the place for the proclamation of the gospel, which rests on the Old Testament, to the Jews first, and then to the Gentiles. A kinsman of Annas the high priest (Acts 4:6); supposed the same as Alexander the alabarch (governor of the Jews) at Alexandria, brother of Philo-Judaeus, an ancient friend of the emperor Claudius. A Jew whom the Jews put forward during Demetrius' riot at Ephesus to plead their cause before the mob who suspected that the Jews were joined with the Christians in seeking to overthrow Diana's worship (Acts 19:33). Calvin thought him a convert to Christianity from Judaism, whom the Jews would have sacrificed as a victim to the fury of the rabble
Jealousy (2) - —This word is not used in the Gospels, though John 2:17 has ὅ ζῆλος τοῦ οἴκου σου = קנִאַת בֵּיתף (Psalms 69:10) = ‘jealousy for thy house’; and one of Jesus’ disciples was Simon ὁ ζηλωτής (Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13) = Simon ὅ Καναναῖος (Mark 3:18), a man who had belonged to that party in the Jewish State which was so jealous for the sole sovereignty of God in Israel that it regarded the recognition of any other (. Nevertheless, it is the primary virtue of a Christian, just as the keeping of the first commandment was the primary virtue of a Jew
Son of Man - The only instance in the NT outside the Gospel records of a direct reference to Jesus as ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου occurs in the speech of Stephen before the Jewish Sanhedrin (Acts 7:56). Assuming its genuineness, it is significant that the expression is used by a Hellenistic Jew recently converted to Christianity. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh, 1912, p. The expression has become native to Palestinian thought and was a terminus technicus of Jewish eschatological speculation
Veil - "...
And as Jesus had now opened a new and living way of his people, so he had broken down all the vails of separation between himself and his redeemed The Jew and the Gentile were now brought into one fold, the vail of mysteries, of ordinances, of darkness, of ignorance, of blindness, in short the vail of all obstructions was now no more
Cosmopolitanism - —That the Jews were of all nations the most exclusive, was familiar to classic writers (cf. Decapolis was almost entirely Greek; in Galilee there had for long been a large Gentile population; and foreigners as well as proselytes from all parts of the empire found their way to Jerusalem (Acts 2:7; see Schürer, HJP
Jewish exclusiveness was apparently endorsed by Christ Himself (Matthew 5:47 ( Revised Version NT 1881, OT 1885) 6:7, 32); the Twelve are forbidden to go into any way of the Gentiles (Matthew 10:5); and the Syrophœnician woman is at first addressed in thoroughly Jewish language (Matthew 15:21, Mark 7:24). Simeon welcomes the infant Messiah as a light to lighten the Gentiles (Luke 2:32), in spite of the markedly Jewish tone of Luke 1, 2. ...
It is true that the Gospels are full of protests against Jewish exclusiveness (Matthew 3:9 ‘Think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father’; cf. So far as this break with the Jews shows itself, it rests on (a) enthusiasm for humanity; cf. Paul (Acts 15:5): but it reaches its full statement in Romans 10:12, Galatians 3:28, Colossians 3:11 (‘neither Jew nor Greek, bond nor free’), and Philippians 3:20 (‘our citizenship is in heaven’). —that the Jews were a reprobate people
Circumcision - The origin of circumcision and its practice by the Jews and other peoples may be studied in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . It must be remembered that the first Christians were Jews, born and brought up in the Law and taught to observe it. ’ They recognized that their sphere was among the Gentiles, as that of the other apostles was among the Jews. The result of the conference was a compromise: Gentiles were not to be circumcised, but they were to abstain from certain practices which were offensive to their Jewish brethren. The true Jew is he who is circumcised in heart, i. of Christ and the Gospels , and Jewish Encyclopedia, with Literature there cited; the relevant Commentaries, esp
Cerinthians - Burton gives the following account: Cerinthus is said to have been one of those Jews who, when St. He appears undoubtedly to have been a Jew; and there is evidence that, after having studied philosophy in Egypt, he spread his doctrines in Asia Minor. The institution of the jubilee, and the glowing descriptions given by the prophets of the restoration of the Jews, and the reign of the Messiah, may have led the later Jews to some of their mystical fancies; and when all these systems were blended together by the Gnostics, it is not strange, if a millennium formed part of their creed long before the time of Cerinthus
Luke - It is probable that he was by birth a Jew, and a native of Antioch in Syria; and I see no reason to doubt that "Luke, the beloved physician," mentioned in the Epistle to the Colossians, Colossians 4:14 , was Luke the evangelist. Townson observes, that the evangelist has inserted many explanations, particularly concerning the scribes and Pharisees, which he would have omitted if he had been writing for those who were acquainted with the customs and sects of the Jews
Palm Tree - The Jews called the palm tree Tamar. What could have induced the whole multitude to have honoured Christ with those palm trees in the days of his flesh, when in the garb of a poor Jew, but the power of God overruling the whole mind of the people as the mind of one man? And wherefore the same display made in heaven, but to testify the approbation of God?...
I cannot prevail upon myself to dismiss our attention to the palm tree before that I have first remarked some of the properties of it, by way of illustrating the beauty of our Lord's comparing his church to it
Man - ...
Notes: (1) In Galatians 3:28 , the RV adds the italicized word "man" ("ye all are one man in Christ Jesus"), in accordance with Ephesians 2:15 , which speaks of Jew and Gentile as becoming "one new man" in Christ
Election - All who believe in Jesus, whether Jew or Gentile, are the true people of God, the true descendants of Abraham (Romans 9:6-9; Galatians 3:14; Galatians 3:26-29)
Nicodemus - He is described as a Pharisee and a ruler of the Jews. He was simply unable to conceive what kind of new birth could be needed by one who was already a Jew and a keeper of the Law
Prodigal Son - Without a friend and in the direst straits, he is forced to take service as a swine-herd—a grade of employment esteemed by Jewish society as the lowest. ...
In the first instance, no doubt, the parable was meant to point out the defect in the Jewish way of dealing with those who had sinned. But what was true for the Jews is true for all. In that of the Good Samaritan, the Priest and the Levite saw no duty they owed to the wounded Jew, whereas the heart of the Samaritan—a member of a despised race—responded at once to the demands of the situation
Son of Man - The only instance in the NT outside the Gospel records of a direct reference to Jesus as ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου occurs in the speech of Stephen before the Jewish Sanhedrin (Acts 7:56). Assuming its genuineness, it is significant that the expression is used by a Hellenistic Jew recently converted to Christianity. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh, 1912, p. The expression has become native to Palestinian thought and was a terminus technicus of Jewish eschatological speculation
Circumcision - The origin of circumcision and its practice by the Jews and other peoples may be studied in Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics . It must be remembered that the first Christians were Jews, born and brought up in the Law and taught to observe it. ’ They recognized that their sphere was among the Gentiles, as that of the other apostles was among the Jews. The result of the conference was a compromise: Gentiles were not to be circumcised, but they were to abstain from certain practices which were offensive to their Jewish brethren. The true Jew is he who is circumcised in heart, i. of Christ and the Gospels , and Jewish Encyclopedia, with Literature there cited; the relevant Commentaries, esp
Bethlehem - It will be observed from the above enumeration that Bethlehem does not contain a single Jew. As in Nazareth so in Bethlehem, the associations with Jesus make residence repugnant to the Jews, and they have accordingly no desire to settle in the Christian Holy Places. 72), ‘the Jew is even more a stranger than in any other spot of his own land; and during the Middle Ages neither Crusader nor Saracen suffered him to settle there. With Ruth the Moabitess, through her marriage with Boaz, the ‘mighty man of wealth’ of Bethlehem-judah (Ruth 2:1), there entered a strain of Gentile blood,—although we remember that Lot, the ancestor of Moab, was the nephew of the great ancestor of Israel—into the pedigree of Christ according to the flesh (Matthew 1:5), as if in token that, in a day still far off, Jew and Gentile should be one in Him
Baruch, Apocalypse of - The subject of this article is a Jewish work composed not long after the Destruction of Jerusalem in a. To the captive Jews in Babylon he sends a letter by hand (lxxvii. -The chief problems connected with the Apocalypse of Baruch are (1) its place in Jewish thought, especially in connexion with 4 Ezra (i. It should be added that there is nothing to suggest that the Syriac translator of the Apocalypse was a Christian rather than a Jew. ] Ὕψιστος in a Jewish writing corresponds to עליון (Aram. Ἰσχυρός, on the other hand, is only found as a name of God in translations, and implies אל (El); it is characteristic of the later Jewish translators Aquila and Theodotion, to a leas degree of Symmachus, and not at all of the genuine Septuagint , which only uses ἰσχυρός as an adjective in the ordinary sense of ‘strong’ (Psalms 7:12; Psalms 41:3). The legends incidentally referred to are specifically Jewish, and can be illustrated from the Talmud, such as that of Behemoth and Leviathan created to be the food of the saints (xxix. But this is hardly to be expected in a work which reflects the mind of an orthodox Jew just after the Destruction of Jerusalem. The individual Jews that remained were left with nothing but the Law and a tumult of impossible hopes. A Jewish apocalyptist may vary in his anticipations of the future, but after a. is an address by Baruch to the Jews left in the land after the Fall of Jerusalem. -The Apocalypse of Baruch, then, is here regarded as a unity, and as the work of a Palestinian Jew writing soon after a. This is the message of the last of the great series of Jewish Apocalypses
Lois And Eunice - " And thus it came about that Timothy, unhappy enough in his birth, and handicapped enough in starting on the race of life, was more than compensated for all that through the labours and the prayers of his mother and his grandmother, and through the beneficial operation of that noble New Testament law,-"He is not a Jew who is one outwardly: neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh. But he is a Jew who is one inwardly: and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit, and not in the letter whose praise is not of men but of God
Sabbath - The Jewish Sabbath in apostolic days. It is enough if here we briefly set forth what were its chief features as a Jewish festival in the days of the early Church. The importance of the synagogue as a centre of Jewish life became greater and greater as the central sanctuary of the Temple declined and ultimately perished. So in the Acts of the Apostles the synagogue is the main scene of the first appeal of Christian preachers to the Jews, and the Sabbath was the special day on which they carried on their propaganda. ...
Moreover, the observance of the Sabbath by cessation from labour was one outstanding peculiarity of the Jews which most forcibly struck the heathen observer. It is one special mark of the Jew as we meet him in the generally unfriendly pages of Roman authors. Augustine as ignorantly condemning the Sabbath-keeping of the Jews: ‘quod per illos singulos septem interpositos dies septimam fere partem aetatis suae perdant vacando et multa in tempore urgentia non agendo laedantur’ (de Civ. ...
This shows indubitably how well Sabbath was kept by the Jews. At an earlier period, indeed, we read of certain Jews who perished rather than violate the Sabbath by fighting on that day (1 Maccabees 2:34-38). Ultimately the Romans were obliged to release the Jews from military service, and that, among other things, on account of the great inconveniences attendant on Sabbath observance (Jos. ...
Beside this we have the enormous importance attached to the Sabbath by tradition and instruction amongst the Jews themselves. It may seem as if the day were thus made burdensome to the community, but, if we are to believe the testimony of Jewish writers who are worthy of all esteem, it was not so in reality. -As far as we can see, there was no thought on the part of the first ‘disciples’ of ever discontinuing an observance to which as Jews they had been accustomed all their lives. What mainly marked them off from their fellow-Jews was their testimony and declaration that ‘Jesus was the Christ’ (Acts 5:42; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5). ...
The inclusion of the Gentiles within the scope of the gospel brought with it inevitable complications-this among the rest: How far were the religious customs of the Jews to be considered as binding upon them? St. Paul, who was certainly revolutionary and advanced in his teaching in comparison with the Church at Jerusalem, was even openly taxed with advising Jews who lived amongst Gentiles to abandon Moses and ‘the customs’ (see Acts 21:17 ff. At the same time he certainly disapproved of all attempts to make the observance of the Sabbath and other peculiarly Jewish customs binding on Gentile converts to the faith (Colossians 2:16). ...
Where Jews continued to form the main personnel of Christian communities, Sabbath observance still lived on. This is unimportant; the main point is that the ancient Jewish institution was carried over into the Christian Church, and lived on in some form or other. Even to this day in the liturgical names for the days of the week, in both the Roman and the Greek Church, Saturday is known by its Jewish name, sabbatum, σάββατον. As Christian became more and snore distinct from Jew, this and other things would naturally follow. , attributed to Ignatius, we meet with an early admonition, emphasizing the distinction: ‘Let us, therefore, no longer keep Sabbath after the Jewish manner (Ἰουδαϊκῶς) and rejoice in days of idleness. This inevitably resulted from transferring the sanctions and some of the features of the Jewish Sabbath to the Lord’s Day, and from the incorporation of the unaltered Decalogue as a norm in Christian ethics. Some supporters of the former have argued even that the seventh day is the true Sabbath and ought still to be observed by Christians (see a curious work by Francis Bampfield written to show that the seventh-day Sabbath is the desirable day and according to ‘an unchangeable Law of well-establisht Order both in the Revealed Word and in Created Nature’ [1]). ...
The Jews have long suffered special disabilities in Christian countries in this respect, but this has not availed to cause them to abandon Sabbath-keeping. Schürer, HJP Galilee - The Lake of Galilee could never be sufficiently praised by the Jewish Rabbis. Only in the more secluded towns among the hills would Jewish life be preserved in its characteristic purity. In spite, however, of the mingling of nationalities, the Galilaeans were thoroughly and patriotically Jewish during the 1st cent. Wherever a true Jew settled abroad, he kept himself distinct from his neighbours, clinging tenaciously to his religion and to his racial customs. And the same thing happened with the Jew at home, when Gentile immigrants settled within his borders. carried away most of the inhabitants, and after this depopulation very few Jews re-settled in the district till the extension of the Jewish State under John Hyrcanus (135-104 b. 44, Claudius reverted to the method of government by procurator-a change which greatly displeased the Jews as a whole and especially stirred the animosity of the zealots. 64-66) the revolt began which ended in the destruction of the Jewish State. 70) and the Jewish State was dissolved. 44) with the tetrarchs, the details of daily life were regulated by the Jews’ own religious laws (Dict. Schürer, History of the Jewish People (Eng
Sabbath - The Jewish Sabbath in apostolic days. It is enough if here we briefly set forth what were its chief features as a Jewish festival in the days of the early Church. The importance of the synagogue as a centre of Jewish life became greater and greater as the central sanctuary of the Temple declined and ultimately perished. So in the Acts of the Apostles the synagogue is the main scene of the first appeal of Christian preachers to the Jews, and the Sabbath was the special day on which they carried on their propaganda. ...
Moreover, the observance of the Sabbath by cessation from labour was one outstanding peculiarity of the Jews which most forcibly struck the heathen observer. It is one special mark of the Jew as we meet him in the generally unfriendly pages of Roman authors. Augustine as ignorantly condemning the Sabbath-keeping of the Jews: ‘quod per illos singulos septem interpositos dies septimam fere partem aetatis suae perdant vacando et multa in tempore urgentia non agendo laedantur’ (de Civ. ...
This shows indubitably how well Sabbath was kept by the Jews. At an earlier period, indeed, we read of certain Jews who perished rather than violate the Sabbath by fighting on that day (1 Maccabees 2:34-38). Ultimately the Romans were obliged to release the Jews from military service, and that, among other things, on account of the great inconveniences attendant on Sabbath observance (Jos. ...
Beside this we have the enormous importance attached to the Sabbath by tradition and instruction amongst the Jews themselves. It may seem as if the day were thus made burdensome to the community, but, if we are to believe the testimony of Jewish writers who are worthy of all esteem, it was not so in reality. -As far as we can see, there was no thought on the part of the first ‘disciples’ of ever discontinuing an observance to which as Jews they had been accustomed all their lives. What mainly marked them off from their fellow-Jews was their testimony and declaration that ‘Jesus was the Christ’ (Acts 5:42; Acts 17:3; Acts 18:5). ...
The inclusion of the Gentiles within the scope of the gospel brought with it inevitable complications-this among the rest: How far were the religious customs of the Jews to be considered as binding upon them? St. Paul, who was certainly revolutionary and advanced in his teaching in comparison with the Church at Jerusalem, was even openly taxed with advising Jews who lived amongst Gentiles to abandon Moses and ‘the customs’ (see Acts 21:17 ff. At the same time he certainly disapproved of all attempts to make the observance of the Sabbath and other peculiarly Jewish customs binding on Gentile converts to the faith (Colossians 2:16). ...
Where Jews continued to form the main personnel of Christian communities, Sabbath observance still lived on. This is unimportant; the main point is that the ancient Jewish institution was carried over into the Christian Church, and lived on in some form or other. Even to this day in the liturgical names for the days of the week, in both the Roman and the Greek Church, Saturday is known by its Jewish name, sabbatum, σάββατον. As Christian became more and snore distinct from Jew, this and other things would naturally follow. , attributed to Ignatius, we meet with an early admonition, emphasizing the distinction: ‘Let us, therefore, no longer keep Sabbath after the Jewish manner (Ἰουδαϊκῶς) and rejoice in days of idleness. This inevitably resulted from transferring the sanctions and some of the features of the Jewish Sabbath to the Lord’s Day, and from the incorporation of the unaltered Decalogue as a norm in Christian ethics. Some supporters of the former have argued even that the seventh day is the true Sabbath and ought still to be observed by Christians (see a curious work by Francis Bampfield written to show that the seventh-day Sabbath is the desirable day and according to ‘an unchangeable Law of well-establisht Order both in the Revealed Word and in Created Nature’ [1]). ...
The Jews have long suffered special disabilities in Christian countries in this respect, but this has not availed to cause them to abandon Sabbath-keeping. Schürer, HJP [1] II. Cheyne), Jewish Encyclopedia (J
Jews - ...
After a period of approximately 70 years, Cyrus, King of Persia, gave the exiles permission to return, and about 50,000 Jews followed Zorobabel to Palestine in 538 BC. Jerusalem and the Temple were rebuilt, and a tiny Jewish state was formed, subject to Persia, but under the jurisdiction of the Jewish high priest and a council of elders. Antiochus IV (Epiphanes), King of Syria, made a violent attempt to hellenize the Jews; but a priest of Modin named Mattathias, and his sons, Judas Machabeus, Jonathan, and Simon, carried on a long and successful struggle against the armies of Syria, and at length, in 143 BC, gained complete independence for Judea. The rapacity and cruelty of these procurators led at length to an organized revolt against Rome, which terminated in the destruction of Jerusalem and of its Temple in the year 70 AD, and in the dispersion of the Jews of Palestine throughout the civilized world. ...
Jewish colonies existed long before this date in many states both of the East and of the West. Josephus (Antiquities, xiv,7,2) quotes Strabo as saying: "Now these Jews are already in all cities, and it is hard to find a place on the habitable earth that hath not admitted this trihe of men, and is not possessed by it. " Since the Jews were forbidden by the Law to mingle with Gentiles, these colonies remained distinct, and formed "a nation within a nation. " As a rule, the colonial Jews obtained the rights of citizenship, along with religious liberty and the privilege of governing themselves according to their Law. What happened in the Roman Empire was repeated in every state where the Jews settled. From Galilee they migrated to Babylonia, which remained for nearly five centuries the chief center of Jewish life. In the 10th century Spain became the principal center of Jewish activity, where in addition to further commentaries on the Law, books of philosophy, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, and poetry appeared. In Germany the Jews had settlements since 321 AD, principally along the Rhine, where Jew was synonymous with merchant. Universal persecution of the Jews broke out in Europe at the beginning of the First Crusade, 1096. The Crusaders massacred the Jews of the various German cities through which they passed. In the course of the 13th century the Jews were exiled from France and England, and in the 14th, severe laws were passed against them and bloody assaults made on them in France (where they had been readmitted), in Spain, Germany, and Bohemia. During this and earlier centuries, the popes were the staunchest defenders of the Jews, and by a series of Bulls tried to protect them from oppression and mob violence. In 1492 all Jews were banished from Spain, and in 1496 from Portugal. During the last century brief anti-Semitic outbreaks occurred in various states, notably in Russia and Rumania, which were the occasion of vast Jewish emigration, especially to the United States. The following religious sects exist today: ...
Orthodox Jews, who believe in the inspiration of Scripture and who cling to the prescriptions of the Mishna and Talmud
Conservative Jews, who also hold the inspiration of Scripture, but who have adapted the prescriptions of tradition to modern Conditions
Liberal or Reformed Jews, who have very lax views about the inspiration of Scripture, who try to make their beliefs conform to modern rationalistic theories, and who have abandoned many of the ancient customs and practises
Zionism is a movement to make Palestine the national home of the Jews and the chief center of Jewish culture. It also aims at restoring the ancient Hebrew language among the Jews
Sabbath - In whatever ways the Jew might err respecting it, he had altogether ceased to neglect it
Tarsus - Tarsus, whose most famous son was a Jew, a Hellenist, and a Roman citizen, resembled a composite photograph, in which the Greek type had been superimposed upon the Oriental, and the Roman upon both. ), and Ramsay thinks it probable that this king reconstituted Tarsus as an autonomous Greek city, and that, according to the practice of the Seleucids, he planted a colony of Jews there, giving them equal rights of citizenship (ἰσοτιμία) with the Greeks (The Cities of St. The citizens of Greek towns were divided into ‘tribes’ (φυλαί), each observing its own special religious rites; and, as the individual could not enjoy civic privileges except in his relation to the tribe, there must have been a φυλή of Jews in Tarsus, each member of which could boast of being ‘a Tarsian of Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city’ (Acts 21:39). The far-reaching change which this Antiochus, who was at first no enemy of the Jews, made in Tarsus was commemorated by the new name given to the city-‘Antioch on the Cydnus’-which, however, was soon dropped, as there were already so many Antiochs, and as Tarsus was still essentially an Oriental city
Timothy - -Assuming that 2 Timothy contains reliable historical data, it seems probable that Timothy was born at Derbe or Lystra, his father being a Greek, his mother Eunice a Christian Jewess. His name (Τιμόθεος) is no indication as to whether he was regarded as a Jew or as a Greek, but Acts 16:3 favours the latter view. In preparation for his missionary work Paul had him circumcised, because the presence in his company of an uncircumcised son of a Greek father would prejudice his influence among the Jews
Canon of the Old Testament - Accordingly (as the rabbis allege, compare 2 Esdras) it was at the return from the Babylonian captivity that Ezra and "the great synagogue" (a college of 120 scholars) collected and promulgated all the Old Testament Scriptures in connection with their reconstruction of the Jewish church. Israel is the real speaker throughout; and the features of the psalm suit the Jews' position just after their return from Babylon. , are reckoned, in the Jewish use of the term "prophet" for inspired historian or writer, among" the former prophets. Josephus says: "it is an innate principle with every Jew to regard them as announcements of the divine will, perseveringly to adhere to them, and if necessary willingly to die for them. ) in persecuting the Jews sought out "the books of the law" and burnt them (1 Maccabees 1:56). ...
The Alexandrine Jews, though more lax in their views, had at the beginning of the Christian era the same canon as the Hebrew of Palestine. To the Jews, saith Scripture," were committed the oracles of God" (Romans 3:2)
Paul - He was a full-blooded Jew, born in Tarsus in south-east Asia Minor (Acts 9:11; Acts 22:3; Philippians 3:5). ...
As a religiously zealous young man, Paul moved to Jerusalem, where he received instruction in the Jewish law according to the strict traditions of the Pharisees. Like all Jewish young men he learnt a trade, in his case, tent-making (Acts 18:3). ...
Zeal for the Jewish law stirred up Paul against the Christians. With the support of the Jewish Council (the Sanhedrin), Paul then led the persecution against the Christians, imprisoning men and women alike (Acts 8:3; Acts 9:1-2; Acts 26:10-11; Galatians 1:13; 1 Timothy 1:13). )...
Preparation for future ministry...
After his conversion, Paul remained for a while in Damascus, trying to convince the Jews that Jesus was Lord and Messiah. When violent opposition from the Jews threatened his life, he escaped to Jerusalem (Acts 9:22-26; Galatians 1:17-18). But attempts by the Jews on his life again forced him to flee
Body of Christ - In Ephesians, the bodily death of Jesus on the cross is what abolishes the enmity between Jew and Gentile (2:13-15), and replaces it with reconciliation and unity (2:16)
Death - Now it was also that he threw down the wall of partition which had so long divided the Gentile from the Jew; and gathered into one all the faithful, out of every kindred and people. It was to be assumed as the distinction of the most powerful monarchs, and to wave in the banner of victorious armies, when the memory of Herod and Pilate should be accursed; when Jerusalem should be reduced to ashes, and the Jews be vagabonds over all the world
Love - When asked to define "neighbor, " however, Jesus cited the parable of the good Samaritana person who knowingly crossed traditional boundaries to help a wounded Jew (Luke 10:29-37 )
Head, Headship - Jews regarded this as typical of Gentiles. Jewish communities of the New Testament period were strict about this. ...
Jewish men often refused to cover their heads because it represented subjection to foreigners. ...
Poorer Jewish women might feel such customs were done to attract men. It is not surprising Paul introduces this passage by an exhortation not to offend Jew or Greek. Genesis Rabbah, an ancient Jewish commentary, stated her husband is adorned by her
Israel - It differs from both ‘Hebrew’ and ‘Jew,’ the former standing, at least in NT times, for Jews of purely national sympathies who spoke the Hebrew or Aramaic dialect (Acts 6:1); the latter, a term originally applied to all who belonged to the province of Judah, and, after the Babylonian captivity, to all of the ancient race wherever located. Thus frequently a Jewish orator addressed the people as ‘men of Israel’ (Acts 2:22; Acts 3:12; Acts 4:8; Acts 4:10; Acts 5:35; Acts 13:16 etc. ...
In the Acts of the Apostles we find the word used historically with reference to the ancestors of the Jews of apostolic times and also applied to these Jews themselves. It is usually assumed or suggested in the Acts that the Jews of the time, to whom the gospel was being preached, are the Israel of the day, the people for whom God had a special favour and who might expect special blessings (Acts 5:31; Acts 13:23). ...
But the refusal of the message of the apostles by many of those who by birth were Jews led to a change in the use of the term, which gives us what we may call the metaphorical or spiritual significance of the word. The Apostle Paul’s contention with the legalistic Jews of his day led him to draw a distinction between the actual historical Israel and the true Israel of God. He speaks on the one hand of ‘Israel after the flesh’ (1 Corinthians 10:18), or of those who belong to the ‘stock of Israel’ (Philippians 3:5), and on the other hand of a ‘commonwealth of Israel’ (Ephesians 2:12), from which many, even Jews by birth, are aliens, and into which the Ephesians have been admitted (v. James (James 1:1), applies the passage 1618529061_5 regarding the sealing of the tribes taken from a Jewish source, to the true spiritual Israel, who are to be kept secure in the day of the world’s overthrow
Sorcery - ...
In Acts 13:6; Acts 13:8 the name μάγος is applied to the Jew Bar-Jesus of Paphos
Samaritan Pentateuch - Kings, Galatians 3:10; Eusebius of Caesarea, who observes that Septuagint and Samaritan agree (against received text) in the number of years from the flood to Abraham) and Jewish writers; M. Levysohn, a Christian Jew, with Kraus, is said to have found it in this scroll. , for then the Jews and Samaritans brought their rival claims before Ptolemy Soter, appealing to their respective copies of the law as to this passage. The division of the sections (ketsin ) differs from that of the Jews. ...
(2) A Greek version of the Samaritan was made, as the Jews made the Septuagint from the Hebrew text
Lord, Lordship - ...
"Thus the usage of the word in the NT follows two main lines: one-- a-f, customary and general, the other, g, peculiar to the Jews, and drawn from the Greek translation of the OT. To associate with the Creator one known to be a creature, however exalted, though possible to Pagan philosophers, was quite impossible to a Jew
Marriage - In the time of Christ there is no mention of polygamy as prevalent among the Jews. By the Levirate law, as it is termed, if a Jew died without children, his nearest brother or kinsman was bound to marry the widow, that her firstborn son after this marriage might be reckoned the son and heir of the first husband, Genesis 38:1-30 Deuteronomy 25:5-10 Matthew 22:23-26 . ...
Jewish parents were wont to arrange with other parents as to the marriage of their children, sometimes according to the previous choice of the son, and not without some regard to the consent of the daughter, Genesis 21:21 24:1-67 34:4-6 Judges 14:2-3 . ...
The Jews affirm, that before Jerusalem was laid in ruins, the bridegroom and bride wore crowns at their marriage. " The modern Jews, in some places, throw handfuls of wheat on the newly married couple, particularly on the bride, saying "Increase and multiply. No doubt the restrictions laid upon the ancient people of God contain a lesson for all periods, and the recorded ill results of forbidden marriages among the Jews, if heeded, would prevent the serious evils which often result form union between a Christian and a worldling
Pharisees - What should be put in its place? In solving this problem the Jews created a community which, while it was half-State, was also half-Church. The working capital of the Jews was the monotheism of the prophets, the self-revelation of God in His character of holy and creative Unity, and, inseparable from this, the belief in the perfectibility and indestructibility of the Chosen Nation (the Messianic idea). And by the same necessity the Jews were taught to separate themselves from their heathen neighbours ( Ezra 10:11 ). The more zealous Jews drew apart, calling themselves the ‘Holy Men’ ( Chasîdîm ), Puritans, or those self-dedicated to the realization of Ezra’s ideal. The Jewish Puritans became a distinct class called the ‘Pharisees,’ or men who separated themselves from the heathen, and no less from the heathenizing tendencies and forces in their own nation. Into it went the deepest elements among the forces which built the Jewish church and nation. They developed the spirit of proud and arrogant orthodoxy, until the monotheism of the prophets became in their hands wholly incompetent to found a society where Jew and Gentile should be one (Galatians 3:28 , Colossians 3:11 )
Zephyrinus - 202, issued an edict which forbade any person to become a Jew or a Christian (Aelii Spartiani Severus , c
Ideas (Leading) - ’...
It is plain that among the Jews in our Lord’s time there was a widely spread expectation of some great person who was to be leader of the chosen people, and through whom that people were to be established as a great world-power. The Jews of that age were looking for a kingdom. He holds that our Lord shared the eschatological ideas of the Jews of His time, but that the essence of His teaching is that the Kingdom is the rule of God in the heart of the individual). To enforce the lesson, our Lord selected as the hero of His parable a man belonging to a race which was hated and despised by the Jews. Why not have made a Jew assist a Samaritan, or even a Gentile, in order to illustrate the principle? But our Lord wished to teach by an example appealing rather to the humanity than to the national feelings of His hearer. Had the act of mercy been shown by a Jew to a Samaritan it might have seemed condescension, a work of supererogation. Shown by a Samaritan to a Jew, the true character of the goodness it reveals becomes, from the Jewish point of view, far more evident. Underlying the whole Jewish system was the idea of a privileged people
Matthew, Gospel According to - —‘The power of God unto salvation—to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. Luke may be characterized respectively as the Gospel of the Jew and the Gospel of the Greek. Matthew, on the other hand, presents to us the Christ as He was conceived by the Jewish Christians of Palestine. Each Evangelist has a certain amount of matter peculiar to himself; and it will be found that whilst in the First Gospel this is very largely matter which lends itself to the Christianity of one who was glad to emphasize the prior claim of the Jew to the blessings of the Kingdom, that in St. He was therefore born ‘king of the Jews’ (Matthew 2:2). The history of the supernatural birth was, of course, an easy mark for Jewish calumny, but nevertheless it was a fact which had been Divinely foreordained (Matthew 1:22); and in the history of the Davidic family there had been women of old time (Rahab, Bathsheba, Tamar, Ruth) whose lives should have taught the calumniators of the Virgin that God overrules and uses circumstances for His own Divine ends. Moreover, if in Jesus the prophecies of a Coming Davidic king, supernaturally born, had found at last their fulfilment, so also in Him were summed up all the many strands in the web of Jewish anticipation. They would be distinct from the existing Jewish polity, because the Jews as a people, the ‘sons of the kingdom,’ i. according to Jewish usage, not they who already live in or possess the Kingdom, but those who are destined to inherit it when it comes. 1618529061_92 and Matthew 22:1-10 are historical forecasts of the fate of the Jewish nation. It must have been written by a Jewish-Christian, probably by a Jewish-Christian of Palestine, and it cannot date from long after the fall of Jerusalem. It is markedly anti-Pharisaic, and strongly Jewish-Christian in outlook
Hellenism - Jewish Hellenism. ...
(a) Babylon, where the largest number of Jews was settled, felt the Greek influence, after the Persian period, but only for a comparatively short time. ...
(b) Palestine itself, the native soil of Judaism, came under the political and cultural influence of the Ptolemys of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria, and this influence became so strong that we find the religious leaders of the Jewish people, the priestly aristocracy, calling their sons by Greek names (Menelaus [2] or Jason [3]), and making them practise athletics according to the Greek usage. to introduce Greek idol-worship in place of the Jewish cult caused a reaction, when the Maccabees revolted and succeeded in delivering their country from the political domination of the Seleucids. To learn the Greek language, to be in touch with the Western culture, was still an aim of most cultured Jews. All the time, until the destruction of Jerusalem, two tendencies were at work side by side: the tendency to isolate Judaism by prohibiting all relations with Hellenistic surroundings, and the tendency to give Judaism more influence by encouraging Jewish boys to learn the Greek language and to assimilate Greek ideas. ,; we see it further in many notions of Jewish psychology and even eschatology: it is Hellenistic individualism which distinguishes later from earlier Jewish theories. -The real Jewish Hellenism, however, was to be found among the colonies of Jews scattered all over the Graeco-Roman world, the so-called Diaspora. *
This Jewish Hellenism of the Diaspora was in fact Judaism, akin to the true Palestinian Judaism in substance, but it was a special kind of Judaism. Many things were possible to these Hellenistic Jews which would have been intolerable to the Palestinian Rabbis; and many things were uncertain to the former regarding which there was no question among the latter. They took the moral injunctions from the Law without being compelled to take circumcision and other strange rites; they accepted these moral views, together with the great hope of the Jewish people, from the Greek Bible. Oriental, but was this not in itself a sign of something Divine or an evidence of venerable age? Thus many a heathen became an adherent of this broad Judaism, being admitted as a worshipper and supporting the Jewish congregation by means of his wealth, and lending it his influence. It was for the benefit of such faithful proselytes that the Jews composed a moral catechism in poetical form under the name of Phokylides, or wrote the Sibylline Oracles, embodying the hope of the Jewish people, or interpolated hints to Jewish believers into the works of the famous Greek authors. This Jewish propaganda succeeded in gathering around the synagogues of the Diaspora numbers of proselytes who approached Judaism in various degrees. ...
Comparatively few Jews were led by contact with Hellenism to apostasy, like Philo’s nephew Tiberius Alexander. For the most part the Jew remained a Jew, faithful to his people and its religion even amidst Hellenistic surroundings; and the hatred which the average Greek population felt for this strange element in their midst caused the Jews to cling together even more. The ideal of many Jews of the Diaspora was to go to Jerusalem, not only for a short pilgrimage, but with the purpose of staying there and being buried there at their death. Thus a considerable colony of Hellenistic Jews from all parts of the world settled in Jerusalem: they had their own synagogues; they retained the habit of speaking Greek, and nourished their peculiar notions about the Law and the universalism of salvation. It is from these circles of Hellenistic Jews in Jerusalem that the name ‘Hellenist’ is derived (
Acts 6:1; Acts 9:29). The primitive community which arose in Jerusalem after Jesus’ Death and Resurrection was a purely Jewish one. But it is remarkable that very soon, if not from the very first, Hellenistic Jews joined this community of Galilaeans. ...
It was the Hellenists that occasioned the first struggle of Christianity with the Jewish authorities; St. Having seen the propaganda carried on by Jewish Hellenism among the Gentiles, we may readily understand the attitude of the Christian Hellenists. The facts are that Hellenism, as we have seen, was in itself a mixture, which, in addition to the Greek element, included much that was Oriental; the Rabbinical education also comprehended a good many Greek notions; and the reasoning of the Jewish teachers was often very similar to the Stoic philosophy, as
Paul the Apostle - Instead, as Paul himself suggests, he was a Jew in terms of his circumcision, Benjaminite lineage, Hebrew ancestry, and Pharisaic training (Philippians 3:5 ). It is not clear whether his family moved to Jerusalem (where both Greek and Jewish schooling was offered) while he was young, or whether Paul was simply sent there for his education. As he traveled the 150 miles from Jerusalem to Damascus armed with legal authority to hunt down Jewish Christians (Acts 9:1-2 ), bright light and a heavenly voice stopped him dead in his tracks. Paul's theology is Christ's own authorized extension of the gospel of salvation for Jew and Gentile alike (Acts 9:15 ). The Galatian letter was occasioned by a move within a number of churches to establish circumcision and other traditional Jewish observances as necessaryand sufficientfor salvation
Zechariah, Theology of - After a time God raised up Cyrus, the Persian king, to defeat Babylon (539) and to release the Jews from captivity by issuing an edict in 538 allowing them to return to their land. When the Jews returned from Babylon, they followed the restoration program of the earlier prophets, Ezekiel and Jeremiah. Sheshbazzar led the first group of Jews home. In order for the Jews to reestablish themselves in the land, they had to rebuild the temple and restore the priesthood; they also had to set up a form of governance. One of the reasons for the punishment of exile was that the Jews had been participating in the Canaanite fertility cult. Because some of the local peoples opposed the Jews, the returnees were concerned about their security. Zechariah exhorts the Jews not to repeat the past. ...
There is also a warning not to mistreat God's chosen people, the Jews, for they are "the apple of his eye" (Zechariah 2:8 ). Today, however, God's people is a more inclusive group comprised of Jews and Gentiles who have believed in Jesus (Romans 11:13-24 ). But God has not rejected the Jews (Romans 11:2 ) who will one day return to the Lord as a people (Romans 11:26 ). Zechariah anticipated the day when the door of salvation would be opened to non-Jews. They will take hold of the robe of a Jew and say, "We have heard that God is with you" (8:20-23). The Jews were to be a light to the nations (Isaiah 42:6 ; 49:6 ); they were to be God's witnesses (Isaiah 43:12 ). Foreign peoples, including some of their rulers, would come to the Jews bringing their wealth and acknowledging the God of Israel to be the only deity (Isaiah 45:14 ; 49:7,22-23 ). ...
Although Judaism has not been a missionary religion throughout most of its history, there were those Jews in the second temple period who endeavored to convert Gentiles to Judaism (Matthew 23:15 ). They could enter the court of the Gentiles in the Jerusalem temple but were forbidden upon pain of death from going beyond the wall of partition between Jews and Gentiles. The separating wall has been destroyed by the death of Christ so that all may come to God through him, whether Jew or Gentile (Ephesians 2:13-16 ). As mentioned above, the postexilic Jews were following the restoration plan of Ezekiel
Jesuits - Amongst the "Jews they shall strive to abolish the "truth, and shall come very near to do "it. For these sorts will turn them- "selves into several forms; with the "heathen, a heathenist; with the atheist "an atheist; with the Jews, a Jew; "with the reformers, a reformade, pur- "posely to know your intentions, your "minds, your hearts, and your inclina- "tions, and thereby bring you, at last, to "be like the fool that said in his heart, "there was no god. They shall be worse than "Jews, having no resting place upon "earth; and then shall a Jew have "more favour than a Jesuit
Herod - The chief sources are the references in the New Testament, the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, and a few obscure references by Roman historians, such as Dio Cassius, Plutarch, and Strabo. He routed some persistently threatening robber bands in Galilee and gained the esteem of the Romans and even the support of some of the Jews by his decisive action. Jewish people refused to support him because he was not a full-blooded Jew, but a descendant of Esau. He received the Wise Men and sent them on to the Christ child with orders to return to him and let him know where he could find the newly born “King of the Jews” (Matthew 2:2-8 )
Jonah, Theology of - The Book of Jonah is not a story about Jew and Gentile but about how God relates to total repentance by those who are least expected to exhibit it
Restitution - On the ground of this saying the expectation of Elijah’s reappearance to herald the advent of the Messiah had become general among the Jews (Sirach 48:10-11; cf. Schürer, HJP Rock - He never builds on anything that is not Jewish. The Catholic Popes are Italian, and not Jewish. GOD never builds anything on men outside the Jewish faith. "Salvation is of the Jews" ( John 4:22). He is an offense to both Jew and Gentile
Home (2) - ...
No people ever prized the sanctities and blessings of the home more than the Jews. ...
The general conditions of Jewish home life in our Lord’s day offered marked points of contrast with what largely obtains among Western peoples. There was considerable leisure, and the Palestinian Jew had much time for contemplation, like the Arab of today. In this respect the Jews shared the sentiment of other Oriental peoples; but the lot of the Jewish woman was much superior to that of non-Jewish women in the East, and her position in the home was better than that of the Roman matron of that period. Some of the Jewish Rabbis also (as Shammai) set themselves against the laxity that had grown up. A religious atmosphere surrounded the Jewish child from the first, and the mother was the earliest teacher. Actual information as to the life in that home is of the scantiest; but there can be no question that the best traditions of the Jewish home at its best were all exemplified there
Immanence - ...
In the later Platonic philosophy of the School of Alexandria the principle of the λόγος, especially in the hands of Philo the Jew, also suggests the idea of immanence
Judaizing - To the Jew it must have seemed almost incredible that he should divest himself of the observance of Mosaic Law, and equally incredible that the Gentile should be admitted into the Kingdom of God without accepting the same Law. It was inevitable that the question should soon arise in the early days of the Church, whether the Church of the future should be Catholic or Jewish. The four precepts required are not to be regarded simply as concessions to Jewish prejudices. The Galatians had been ‘bewitched’ by the Jewish emissaries. We do find however a dangerous fondness for Jewish trifling, both of the legendary and of the legal or casuistical kind. Jews who became Christians were not forbidden to observe the laws and customs to which they were attached, but were enjoined to seek beneath the letter of the ordinance for the truth of which it was the exponent
Spirits in Prison - Luke 24:37; Luke 24:39), and φυλακή of Sheol or Hades, in which after death they are imprisoned, according to Jewish belief. This has already been discussed under Descent into Hades, where it has been shown that various opinions were held by the early Christian theologians as to the scope of Christ’s mission to the under world, some confining it to Jews, some to Gentiles, and some admitting all the departed, righteous or unrighteous, to a share in its benediction. It must be remembered, however, that the two topics-Hades and the Flood-were closely associated in Jewish thought, although to the modern mind they are quite distinct. ...
Hence the mention of the Descensus would at once suggest to a Jew the abyss, whence the waters of judgment burst forth at the Flood. Charles, Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish, and Christian, London, 1899
Samaria - In Ezra's (Ezra 4:1-4) time they claim no community of descent, but only of religion, with the Jews. The Pentateuch was their sole code; for their copy they claimed an antiquity and authority above any Jewish manuscript Jewish renegades joined them; hence they began to claim Jewish descent, as the Samaritan woman (John 4:12) says "Jacob our father. The Jews recognized no Israelite connection in the Samaritans. The Jews' charge against Jesus was, "Thou art a Samaritan" (John 8:48), probably because He had conversed with the Samaritans for their salvation (John 4). ...
In sending forth the twelve Christ identifies the Samaritans with Gentiles (Matthew 10:5-6); He distinguishes them from Jews (Acts 1:8; John 4:22). Dositheus an apostate Jew became their leader
Aquila And Priscilla - The careful description of Aquila as ‘a Jew, a man of Pontus by race’ (Acts 18:2), rather implies that Priscilla his wife was not a Jewess; because her name is usually put first, it is thought that she was of higher social standing than her husband. ’ Ramsay strongly urges this theory, and it explains much in the story-their social position, their command of money, their influence in Rome, their freedom from Jewish prejudices, etc. ...
Aquila and Priscilla came from Italy to Corinth, ‘because Claudius had commanded all the Jews to depart from Rome’ (Acts 18:2). For this reason they were compelled to leave the country, though the edict was not rigidly enforced on all Jews. Priscilla accompanied her Jewish husband to Corinth, where they followed their trade as tent-makers. The decree of expulsion was not enforced permanently; their connexion with a leading Roman family made it more possible for them to return to Rome than for Jews with no influence; whilst their knowledge of the city, their social standing, as well as their experience in Corinth and in Ephesus, with their devotion to himself, fitted them pre-eminently for such work as St. It is supposed that both were Jews (so Weizsäcker, McGiffert; cf. The influence of the Roman wife probably preponderated over the Jewish influence of the husband. At the same time, the discussion of a Jew’s difficulties by such a vigorous mind as Priscilla possessed may have qualified Aquila to write ‘Hebrews’ with his wife’s help
Matthew - Though a Jew, he was a publican or tax-gatherer under the Romans; and his office seems to have consisted in collecting the customs due upon commodities which were carried, and from persons who passed, over the lake of Gennesareth. It is certain that the Apostles, immediately after the descent of the Holy Ghost, which took place only ten days after the ascension of our Saviour into heaven, preached the Gospel to the Jews with great success; and surely it is reasonable to suppose, that an authentic account of our Saviour's doctrines and miracles would very soon be committed to writing, for the confirmation of those who believed in his divine mission, and for the conversion of others; and, more particularly, to enable the Jews to compare the circumstances of the birth, death, and resurrection of Jesus with their ancient prophecies relative to the Messiah; and we may conceive that the Apostles would be desirous of losing no time in writing an account of the miracles which Jesus performed, and of the discourses which he delivered, because the sooner such an account was published, the easier it would be to inquire into its truth and accuracy; and, consequently, when these points were satisfactorily ascertained, the greater would be its weight and authority. After the destruction of Jerusalem, the language of the Jews, and every thing which belonged to them, fell into great contempt; and the early fathers, writing in Greek, would naturally quote and refer to the Greek copy of St
Only Begotten - But in the first place this is not quite correct, and again in itself it is much more likely that John [5] knew the philosophy of Philo than that he was acquainted with the Orphic system
Purification (2) - —From the time of the Exile onwards, the interest of the Jew had largely centred around ritual observance, conditioned, to begin with, by the necessity of maintaining the separateness of the Remnant that remained. The result, however, as is well known, was that Jewish life became completely fettered by these ordinances, written and oral. —The particular ritual connected with the ceremonial washing of hands affected Jewish life many times a day. —If the Jews were so particular to ensure ceremonial purity before an ordinary meal, they insisted on absolute ritual purity before the celebration of the Passover (Leviticus 7:20-21)
Samaria, Samaritans - There seems, however, good reason to fix it farther north at this point, as Karn Sartabeh seems to have been in the hands of the Jews (M. 4), unless, indeed, it was a border hill accessible alike to Jews and Samaritans. This seems the more likely, as it was the only signalling station in the neighbourhood of Samaritan territory where false lights could be kindled to deceive the Jews on the occasion of the new moons, and this the Samaritans are accused of having done (Bab. ’ But, notwithstanding its superiority in richness and beauty to the south country, the Jews of the 1st cent, were very unwilling to admit that Samaria was part of the Holy Land. 2),—always omitting Samaria, as not being Jewish soil. History of the Samaritans in their relationship to the Jews. 2 and 6), probably ultimately outnumbering the original colonists, and the manifest reversion to the pure Semitic type, induce us to believe that the existing Samaritan race has but little connexion with the old Turanian colonists, and is probably now of almost as pure Hebrew blood as the modern Jew. ...
For their rejection from all participation in the rebuilding of the Temple the Samaritans never forgave the Jews (Ezra 4:3-4, Nehemiah 2:20), and for their attempted hindrance of that work the Jews bore the Samaritans no less a grudge. Jewish and Samaritan tradition agree as to the date of this event, which Josephus sets down wrongly in the time of Alexander the Great and Jaddua the high priest (b. 198), the Samaritans, being then in a flourishing condition, are accused of having harassed the Jews and carried away captives to serve as slaves (Ant. In his account of Maccabaean times Josephus continually accuses them of denying all kinship with the Jews, when they see them in suffering and difficulties, and of claiming to be Sidonians (Ant. 5); but, on the contrary, when good fortune befalls the Jews, they claim to belong to that race, and to derive their descent from Joseph (ib. This led to civil war for a time, then to the intervention of the Roman authorities, and ultimately to a decision in favour of the Jews by Claudius himself (a. At a still later period we find the Jews excluding the Samaritans, as also Christians and pagans, from Capernaum, Nazareth, and Sepphoris (Epiphanius, adv. Alexander and Ptolemy Lagi had taken many Jews and Samaritans to Egypt (Ant. ...
Jewish literature is full of manifestations of the same spirit. Still, in every proof they bring forward in favour of their sanctuary as the one holy place, there is implied or expressed the idea that the Jew is schismatical, if not heretical. They use the designation ‘Israelite’ for themselves alone, and refuse it to the Jews. They have an intense dislike to Jerusalem, and the bitterness of their hate culminates in their play upon its name, when they describe the Jews as אדורי שלם—‘accursed to perfection’ or ‘perfectly cursed’ (el-Tolidoth). The more moderate attitude of which we have spoken seems to have been, on the whole, later than the days of the Gospels, and may have been caused by the Samaritans having made common cause with the Jews against Vespasian (BJ iii. Some twenty years ago, the Samaritans, fearing the extinction of their sect, sought to arrange for intermarriage with the Jews, but this was refused. —The basis of the Samaritan religion is the Pentateuch, as they read and understand it; and to this they have been as loyal as the Jews to their Law. Not only are they the enemies or images and every visible representation of the Deity, but they have ever resented as strongly as do the Jewish Targums every anthropomorphic representation of God; and, so far as we can judge, they have made no concessions to heathenism. From the Jewish point of view another offence against the Law was that they pronounced the Sacred Name—Jahweh—with its own vowels (Jerus. For some centuries, however, they have been accustomed to pronounce it Shima (‘the name’), just as the Jews use hasshem in conversation (Letter to Ludolf). In the matter of their ritual orthodoxy we have even the testimony of Josephus; for, when he tells of Jewish fugitives accused of ritual irregularities being received by the Samaritans, he adds that they complained of being falsely accused (Ant. Only at the Passover season, however, do they offer sacrifices, and, as the arrangements at that time bring before us much more vividly the occasion of the institution of that feast than the calm order of the Jewish ritual, it claims our attention. As among the Sephardic Jews also, a second wife is allowed during the life of the first when she has had no children. They were never called upon to go through a stirring national crisis, like the Jews during the Maccabaean times, and so they never rose to the same vigour and intellectual life. The written sources of their dogma are late, but from these and from Jewish sidelights we can learn something. It is discussed in the Talmud as to whether they are to be classed with the Sadducees in belief, and the Jews seem to have had some ground for thinking so, for they are represented as saying that ‘no resurrection is recorded in the Law’ (Bab. In John 4:25 we find that the woman of Samaria looked forward to the coming of a prophet whom she, like the Jews, designated ‘the Messiah. § 3); and, besides, we must see that it would be impossible for a faith like theirs, continually under the pressure of a foreign bondage, to survive without absorbing many of the elements of Jewish eschatology; and of these the Messianic idea was the most widely spread in the 1st cent. From the Jews they adopted the synagogue system; and, apart from the feast days kept on Gerizim, all their worship is conducted in Kenîset es-Sâmiré, the synagogue of the Samaritans, in the S. The Jews were wont to accuse the Samaritans of having corrupted the Law; and the charge was well founded. ’...
This, according to the Samaritan division of the Decalogue, was reckoned the Tenth Commandment, and, like the others, of perpetual obligation, so that the Samaritans regarded not only the Temple at Jerusalem, but also the tabernacle at Shiloh, though in Ephraim, and the whole Jewish priesthood after the settlement of the land, as schismatical. ...
The synagogue system, which among the Jews led to the formation of the Targums, was also the means of producing an Aramaic-Samaritan Pentateuch (תרגום שמרוני), which, however, Nöldeke dates at not earlier than the 4th cent. In addition to these they possess a few historical works:—Kitab es-Satir, a history of the period from Adam to Moses; et-Tabakh, an account of judgments which befell the Jews; the Book of Joshua (in Arabic, but probably in parts from a Heb. ...
Samaritan books are all un-vowelled, and in their pronunciation of both Hebrew and Aramaic this people differs widely from the Jews and Syrians. However, when we come to compare the modern Samaritan pronunciation of both Hebrew and Aramaic with that of the Jews and the Syrians, we see that the former in nearly every detail bears to the latter the same relationship as the vulgar Palestinian Arabic dialects bear to the older classical speech. —To understand even imperfectly the beauty and tenderness of the attitude of Jesus to this despised race, we must remember that His ministry occurred during the period when the separation of Jew and Samaritan was most absolute, and the bitterness of feeling most intense. It was the one Samaritan and not the nine Jews who returned to give thanks (Luke 17:16), and who was contented to wait for the official verdict, and the freedom it would bring, that he might continue in the company of Jesus; and all that is related of the conversation at the well, and of the relations with the villagers of Sychar, reveals the same attractiveness and consideration
Science (2) - This latter was a power extending throughout the Graeco-Roman world, and tending to influence every department of life; and so, despite the innate conservatism of the Jews, the more external elements of Palestinian culture received a strong Hellenistic tincture. The mind of the Jew was equipped against it. Acts 21:40; Acts 22:2), and, though Herod surrounded himself with Greek literati and many Jews received a Greek education abroad, these facts indicate the limit of the penetration of Greek science into the life of the Jews. To the Hebrew mode of thought and Rabbinic logic—inward and characteristic elements of Jewish culture—he tenaciously clung. His writings are all those of a Jew rather than of a Hellenist. This comes out in strong relief in the Jewish notion of history. When he said ‘What is truth?’ (John 18:38), he was moving in a universe of thought foreign to the Jews. Hence the indiscriminate Jewish doctrine of inspiration, which made no distinction between styles of literature, ascribing to all passages of the Canon an equal measure of truth. ...
The Jews did, of course, accumulate, as the Talmud and the OT sufficiently show, a mass of valid technical knowledge. ‘The Jews,’ says Ernst von Meyer, ‘did indeed possess a certain disjointed knowledge of chemical processes acquired accidentally, but these were applied for their practical results alone, and not with the object of deducing any comprehensive scientific explanation from them. Of all scientific efforts the Jewish teachers seem to have been most successful in Astronomy. —It follows from what we have seen that the Jews had no sound body of scientific doctrine. Thus the literary and legal ‘science’ of the scribes had all the defects of the ‘scientific’ temper of the Jews—the criterion of truth was not descriptive accuracy, but edification, the method was inventive and metaphysical, there was an absence of generalizing and systematizing power, and an over-emphasis of the particular and concrete. In other words, the Jewish idea of truth was religious, while the modern idea is scientific. But the Jewish idea was never purely religious. But although ‘truth,’ according to the mind of Christ, was a Hebrew and religious concept and not the modern scientific notion, the thought of Jesus was free from all the extravagances which we have seen to be characteristic of the Jews, though it shared some of their conceptions as to natural phenomena. * Church - The history of the Church in the Apostolic Age may be treated under the following heads; (1) Sources, (2) Importance, (3) Name, (4) Origin, (5) Growth, (6) Conflict between Jewish and Gentile elements, (7) Character, (8) Relation to the State and other systems. , we have the Epistle of Clement of Rome to the Corinthians and the Epistle of Barnabas, one representing Gentile and the other Jewish Christianity. From outside the Christian Church we have good material, especially respecting the great crisis of the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, from the Jewish writer, Josephus; and also some important statements from the heathen writers, Tacitus, Suetonius, and Pliny, who were contemporary with Clement, Ignatius, and Polycarp. (c) This age exhibits the first effects which the gospel produced upon Jew and Gentile-two very different soils, which might bear very different fruits. Perhaps for this very reason the less sacred term συναγωγή was more commonly used by the Jews in our Lord’s time, and probably influenced the first believers in adopting ἐκκλησία for Christian use. συναγωγή quickly went out of use for a Christian assembly (James 2:2), except in sects which were more Jewish than Christian. Owing to the growing hostility of the Jews, it came to indicate opposition to the Church (Revelation 2:9; Revelation 3:9). He used it or its equivalent in a Christian sense (Matthew 16:18); but Matthew 18:17, though capable of being transferred to Christians, must at the time when it was spoken have meant a Jewish assembly. It had already become a technical term with strongly religious associations, which were partly borrowed from a Jewish ideal, but had been so enriched and transfigured as to indicate a body that was entirely new. The Jewish idea of a chosen people in relation to God received a fuller meaning, and to this was added the idea of a chosen people in relation to the Incarnate and Risen Son of God and to the Spirit of God. The first missionary efforts of the original believers were confined to Jerusalem and its immediate neighbourhood, and the converts were Palestinian or Hellenistic Jews who were living or sojourning in or near the capital. Persecution caused flight from Jerusalem, and then missionary effort was extended to Jews of the Dispersion and to Gentiles. At Antioch in Syria the momentous change was made to a mixed congregation containing both Jews and Christians. Then what had seemed even to the Jews themselves to be a mere Jewish sect became a universal Church (Acts 11:19-26). ...
(a) The dispersion of the Jews in civilized countries secured a knowledge of monotheism and a sound moral code. Through the Septuagint , Greek was a Jewish as well as a pagan instrument of thought, and had become very flexible and simple, capable of expressing new ideas, and yet easily intelligible to plain men. The Jew might be won by the conviction that the law was transfigured in the gospel and that prophecy was fulfilled in Christ and His Church. Peter began his Pentecostal address to the assembled Jews by pointing out that the outpouring of the Spirit was a fulfilment of Jewish prophecy (Joel 2:28-31) and an inauguration of ‘the last days,’ which were to precede the coming of the Messiah in glory. He selected Roman colonies, whore, as a Roman citizen, he would have rights, and where he would be likely to find Jews, and men of other religions, trading under the protection of Rome. But very soon the Jews became too hostile; so far from listening to the preachers, they stirred up the heathen against them (T. Conflict between Jewish and Gentile elements. Not long after Christianity was born, it was severed from the nation which gave it birth, and, since the final destruction of Jerusalem, it has only in rare cases found a secure hold on Jewish soil. Christianity did not come forward at first as a new religion aiming at ousting the Jews. Its Founder was the Jewish Messiah, the fulfilment of OT prophecies. It was the Jews who forced the opposition. And, as it was the energetic Jew of Tarsus who led the first persecution of the Christians, so it was the Apostle of the Gentiles who caused the final separation of the Church from the Synagogue. In the Fourth Gospel, ‘the Jews’ are the opponents of the Christ. Barnabas goes still further: the Jews have never been in covenant with God (iv. 1); the Jews are the sinners (xii. ...
It was inevitable that the Jews should resent such claims on the part of Christians, and especially of Gentile Christians; and the resentment became furious hostility when they saw the rapidity with which Christians made converts as compared with their own slowness in making proselytes here and there. Under their roof both Jews and Gentiles could meet to hear the word of God (Acts 18:7). The Jewish war of a. That catastrophe destroyed both the centre of Jewish worship and also the Jews themselves as a nation. The destruction of Jerusalem left the Gentile Churches, and especially the Church of Rome, without a rival, for the Jewish Church of Jerusalem sank into obscurity, and never recovered; nor did any other community of Jewish Christiana take its place. Jewish Christianity was far on the road towards extinction. Peter had been willing to make unworthy concessions to the prejudices of Jewish converts who were fresh from headquarters, by ceasing to eat with Gentile converts. … Such conduct, though in form it was not an expulsion of the Gentile converts, but only a self-withdrawal from their company, was in effect a summons to them to become Jews if they wished to remain in the fullest sense Christians. When the Apostolic Age began, the Church was overwhelmingly Jewish; before it ended, the Church was overwhelmingly Gentile. Paul-‘a Hebrew of Hebrews’-whose Jewish birth and training moulded his thoughts and language, but never induced him to sacrifice the freedom of the gospel to the bondage of the law, the break with Judaism became absolute, and, as Gentile converts increased, the restrictions of Judaism were almost forgotten
Talmud - The Jews have always drawn a distinction between the ‘Oral Law,’ which was handed down for centuries by word of mouth, and the ‘Written Law,’ i. ’ The first explanatory term applied by the Jews to the ‘Oral Law’ was midrash (‘investigation’), and the Bible itself witnesses to the way in which such investigations were made and expounded to the people: ‘Also Jeshua and Bani … and the Levites, caused the people to understand the law; and the people stood in their place. … The history of the origin of the Talmud is the same as that of the Mishna a tradition, transmitted orally for centuries, was finally cast into definite literary form, although from the moment in which the Talmud became the chief subject of study in the academies it had a double existence (see below), and was accordingly, in its final stage, redacted in two different forms’ (Bacher in JE Kingdom of God - " Finally, we know that "heaven" was frequently used as a circumlocution for "God" by devout Jews. Due to respect for the third commandment ("You shall not misuse the name of the Lordyour God" [1]), pious Jews used various circumlocutions for the sacred name of God (YHWH) in order to avoid the danger of breaking this commandment. " Any eschatological thoughts associated with this expression were seen as unrefined, primitive, Jewish apocalyptic thinking that Jesus never outgrew and that was only the "husk" and not the "kernel" of his teachings. It became evident that Jesus was not a nineteenth-century liberal but a first-century Jew. As a result it was clear that Jesus must have thought to a great extent like a first-century Jew. Since the kingdom of God was seen by most Jews in Jesus' day as a future, supernatural kingdom that would bring history to a close, it was logical to think that Jesus thought similarly
Justice (2) - ...
One characteristic of the NT doctrine of justice, as compared with the views current in the Jewish and classical worlds, is a noteworthy enlargement of its sphere. The Jew hated the Samaritan (Luke 9:54) and despised the Gentile, with whom he would not share his privileges (Acts 21:27-30). Thus Jew and Gentile alike acknowledged no moral relationship between themselves and the vast majority of the race
Language of Christ - And though, as a non-Semitic language, the adoption of Greek could not come so readily to the Jews as Aramaic, yet the circumstances were such as to tend in no small degree to counterbalance the disadvantage under which Greek thus lay. For not only was it the official language alike of the Lagid, Seleucid, and, after the Maccabaean interregnum, of the Idumaean Roman rulers to whom the Jews were successively subject; but its cause was furthered by the Hellenizing policy which these rulers generally followed, and by the existence, more or less, all through of a party among the Jews themselves favourable to that policy. For, as undoubtedly spoken by some of the Palestinian Jews, as the language of perhaps the great majority of His countrymen scattered throughout the Roman world, as the predominant language of the representatives of the Gentile world in Palestine and of that Gentile world itself, which, though wide, was not yet wider than He conceived the scope of His mission to be, and as, besides, the language of the Septuagint Version of the OT, which had no doubt acquired considerable popularity, it may reasonably be assumed that Christ would acquire some knowledge of Greek, and be able, in some measure at least, to speak it. All that it certainly establishes is that Christ knew Aramaic, and, apart from His employment of Aramaic terms and proper names, on which perhaps little stress is to be laid, as these terms and proper names may have formed part of the ordinary vocabulary of Greek-speaking Jews, expressed Himself in Aramaic on three different occasions. 3, Josephus records how during the siege of Jerusalem the Jewish watchmen warned their compatriots of the discharge of the Roman missiles by crying out in their native tongue (τῇ πατρίῳ γλώσσῃ), ὁ ἰὸς ἔρχεται. ’...
That a Palestinian Jew such as Josephus, who was of a distinguished priestly family, who received a careful rabbinic education and studied in the various schools of the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes, should not only characterize Aramaic as ‘the language of our own country,’ but should write his first book in that language, is in itself conclusive proof that Aramaic had not then been materially driven from its position as the vernacular of Palestine. To the same difficulty he refers in the closing paragraphs of the Antiquities:...
‘I am so bold as to say, now that I have completed the task set before me, that no other person, either Jew or Greek, with whatever good intentions, would have been able to set forth this history to the Greeks as accurately as I have done; for I am acknowledged by my countrymen to excel them far in our national learning. 260; Schürer, HJP Peter, the Epistles of - 1 Peter 1:1; "to the elect strangers (pilgrims spiritually) of the dispersion," namely, Jewish Christians primarily. 1 Peter 2:9-10; 1 Peter 4:3, prove that Gentile Christians, as grafted into the Christian Jewish stock and so becoming of the true Israel, are secondarily addressed. Thus the apostle of the circumcision seconded the apostle of the uncircumcision in uniting Jew and Gentile in the one Christ. Pontus was the country of the Christian Jew Aquila. In Pisidia was Antioch, where Paul preached (Acts 13) so effectively, but from which he was driven out by the Jews. The apostle of the circumcision would naturally be at Chaldaean Babylon where was "a great multitude of Jews" (Josephus, Jewish party to whom especially he ministered
Temple - But this opinion is, very properly, rejected by the Jews; who do not allow the third to be a new temple, but only the second temple repaired and beautified: and this opinion corresponds with the prophecy of Haggai 2:9 , "that the glory of this latter house," the temple built by Zerubbabel, "should be greater than that of the former;" which prediction was tittered with reference to the Messiah's honouring it with his presence and ministry. But though Herod accomplished his original design in the time above specified, yet the Jews continued to ornament and enlarge it, expending the sacred treasure in annexing additional buildings to it; so that they might with great propriety assert, that their temple had been forty and six years in building, John 2:20 . This outer court being assigned to the Gentile proselytes, the Jews, who did not worship in it themselves, conceived that it might lawfully be put to profane uses: for here we find that the buyers and sellers of animals for sacrifices, and also the money-changers, had stationed themselves; until Jesus Christ, awing them into submission by the grandeur and dignity of his person and behaviour, expelled them; telling them that it was the house of prayer for all nations, and was not to be profaned, Matthew 21:12-13 ; Mark 11:15-17 . ...
Paul most evidently alludes in Ephesians 2:13-14 : "But now in Christ Jesus, ye, who sometimes were far off, are made nigh by the blood of Christ: for he is our peace, who hath made both one, (united both Jews and Gentiles into one church,) and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us;" having abolished the law of ordinances, by which, as by the wall of separation, both Jews and Gentiles were not only kept asunder, but also at variance. From this the sanctuary, or holy place, was separated from the holy of holies by a double veil, which is supposed to have been the veil that was rent in twain at our Saviour's crucifixion; thus emblematically pointing out that the separation between Jews and Gentiles was abolished; and that the privilege of the high priest was communicated to all mankind, who might henceforth have access to the throne of grace through the one great Mediator, Jesus Christ, Hebrews 10:19-22 . There were, continues the Jewish historian, in that building, several stones which were forty-five cubits in length, five in height, and six in breadth. ' Improbable as this prediction must have appeared to the disciples at that time, in the short space of about thirty years after it was exactly accomplished; and this most magnificent temple, which the Jews had literally turned into a den of thieves, through the righteous judgment of God upon that wicked and abandoned nation, was utterly destroyed by the Romans A. 70, or 73 of the vulgar era, on the same month, and on the same day of the month, when Solomon's temple had been razed to the ground by the Babylonians!"...
Both the first and second temples were contemplated by the Jews with the highest reverence. The least injurious slight of it, real or apprehended, instantly awakened all the choler of a Jew, and was an affront never to be forgiven. Our Saviour, in the course of his public instructions, having said, "Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up again,"...
John 2:19 , it was construed into a contemptuous disrespect, designedly thrown out against the temple; his words instantly descended into the heart of the Jews, and kept rankling there for some years; for, upon his trial, this declaration, which it was impossible for a Jew ever to forget or to forgive, was immediately alleged against him, as big with the most atrocious guilt and impiety; they told the court they had heard him publicly assert, "I am able to destroy this temple," Matthew 26:61 . It only remains to add, that it appears, from several passages of Scripture, that the Jews had a body of soldiers who guarded the temple, to prevent any disturbances during the ministration of such an immense number of priests and Levites
Peter - Although they had never studied in the Jewish religious colleges, they developed skills in teaching and debate through their association with Jesus (Acts 4:13). Even when dragged before the Jewish authorities, he boldly denounced them and unashamedly declared his total commitment to Jesus (Acts 4:8-13; Acts 4:19-20; Acts 5:18-21; Acts 5:29-32; Acts 5:40-42). ...
Peter had been brought up an orthodox Jew and did not immediately break his association with traditional Jewish practices (Acts 3:1; Acts 5:12-17). Yet he saw that the church was something greater than the temple, and he readily accepted Samaritans into the church on the same bases as the Jews (Acts 8:14-17). ...
In spite of all this, a special vision from God was necessary to convince Peter that uncircumcised Gentiles were to be accepted into the church freely, without their first having to submit to the Jewish law (Acts 10:9-16). As a result of the vision he went to Caesarea, where a God-fearing Roman centurion, along with his household, believed the gospel and received the Holy Spirit the same as Jewish believers (Acts 10:17-48). More traditionally minded Jews in the Jerusalem church criticized Peter for his broad-mindedness. ...
Although Peter understood his mission as being primarily to the Jews (Galatians 2:7), he visited the mainly Gentile church in Syrian Antioch and ate freely with the Gentile Christians. When Jewish traditionalists criticized him for ignoring Jewish food laws, he withdrew from the Gentiles
Lord's Supper - The wine was mixed with water simply because the Jews drank wine ordinarily. ...
The Holy Communion was at first regularly connected with these lovefeasts; "the breaking of bread," with the customary thanksgiving blessing of the master of the feast, referred not to the eucharist consecration but to the lovefeast, as Acts 27:35 proves, where the eucharist is out of the question, and where simply as a devout Jew Paul gave thanks before "breaking bread" and eating
Truth - Paul felt free to acknowledge that the Jew might claim that he had in the law ‘the form (μόρφωσιν) of knowledge and of the truth’ (Romans 2:20). Paul especially this fact of experience brought the assurance of God’s readiness to save and bless all men through faith in Jesus Christ without the necessity of their submitting to any rite of Jewish origin
Grace - Formally, and in point of method, grace stands opposed to ‘ the law ,’ ‘which worketh wrath’ ( Romans 3:19-26 ; Romans 4:15 , Galatians 2:15-21 ; Galatians 5:4 ); it supersedes the futile ‘works’ by which the Jew had hoped, in fulfilling the Law, to merit salvation ( Romans 4:2-8 ; Romans 11:6 , Galatians 2:16-20 , Ephesians 2:8 f
Inheritance - As every Jew regarded himself as an inheritor of the land of Canaan, so also is each Christian an inheritor of the Kingdom of heaven. ( a ) The Jews never lost the conviction that Jehovah was the supreme overlord of the land, and of the people that dwelt in it. ’ ( b ) The Jews also recognized that the possession of Canaan had value only in so far as it assured them of the free exercise of their religion, and all other spiritual blessings
Hadrianus, Publius Aelius, Emperor - The work of rebuilding was placed in the hands of a Jew Aquila of Pontus and the Jews petitioned for permission to rebuild their temple. The city was filled with Roman emigrants the Jews were forbidden to enter the city but allowed as if in bitter irony on the anniversary of its capture by Titus to bewail their fate within its gates. On one of the gates a marble statue of the unclean beast was a direct insult to Jewish feeling while Christian feeling was outraged by a statue of Jupiter on the site of the resurrection and of Venus on that of the crucifixion. Severus was recalled from Britain the rebellion suppressed with a strong hand and edicts of extreme stringency issued against the Jews forbidding them to circumcise their children keep the Sabbath or educate their youth in the Law. ; Lardner, Jewish and Heathen Testimonies ; c
Prophets, the - In the church there is neither Jew nor Gentile, and the prophets recognise both, while carefully maintaining the distinction between them. The return of a portion of the Jews to Palestine, who in unbelief will rebuild the temple, and re-establish their ordinances. It will at first exercise a protectorate over the Jewish nation. The casting out of the devil and his angels from heaven, when Satan will energise the beast (head of the Roman empire) and the false prophet (Antichrist): they will persecute the pious Jews, will abolish the worship of Jehovah at Jerusalem, and enforce idolatry and the worship of the image of the beast everywhere
Galatians, Epistle to the - The Jews' religion, by which they were so attracted, had led him to be a bitter persecutor, but it had pleased God to reveal His Son in him that he might preach Him among the Gentiles. Subsequently, at Antioch, Paul had actually withstood Peter to the face as to the truth of the gospel, which Peter was fatally compromising from fear of the Jews. In Christ distinctions between Jew and Gentile disappeared: all were one, and the Gentile believers being of Christ were Abraham's seed and heirs according to promise. Though heirs, the Jews were, under law, in the condition of children under age, held in bondage under the elements of the world, with which indeed the law had to do
Dositheus (1), Leader of Jewish Sect - It was rather a Jewish sect than a Christian heresy, for Dositheus was regarded rather as a rival than as a disciple of our Lord, but trustworthy information as to his history and his doctrines is very scanty. A statement that Dositheus was a Jew by birth was understood by Epiphanius to mean that he had deserted from the Jews to the Samaritans a change which Epiphanies attributes to disappointed ambition. He describes the sect as still existing observing the Sabbath circumcision and other Jewish ordinances abstaining from animal food and many of them from sexual intercourse either altogether or at least after having had children; but the reading here is uncertain. ) shew that this was according to Jewish tradition the name of one of the priests who was sent (2Ki_17:27) to teach the manner of the God of the land and that the same name was borne by other Samaritans. Probably the Dositheans were a Jewish or Samaritan ascetic sect, something akin to the Essenes, existing from before our Lord's time, and the stories connecting their founder with Simon Magus and with John the Baptist may be dismissed as merely mythical
Diseases - Foster: "May 15th, 1763, I myself saw a case of the bohak in a Jew at Mocha
Universalism (2) - Should the missionary impulse be given free scope? And should life be simplified—in the first instance, for those of Gentile birth—by abrogation of OT law? Or should the missionary impulse be slowly throttled by Jewish laws and customs? Both parties were pushed back, and led to define their principles more sharply. Paul (though in mere custom he himself ‘became a Jew to win Jews,’ 1 Corinthians 9:20). In the end the various sections of Christian Jews all died out, or merged themselves in the rival camps—the Synagogue and the Catholic Church. Christianity has been known to history as a Gentile and non-Jewish institution—a strange state of matters, were we not blinded by familiarity. The Jewish people excludes itself. (Individual Jews, of course, are entangled in hereditary custom, and can break away only by self-will or moral heroism). If religion consists in the belief of God’s Fatherhood and in love to man, there is no reason why a Jew should be preferred to a Gentile. He rejects, as lacking Divine authority, that tradition (Matthew 15:3-9 ||) by means of which the Pharisees, morally the most earnest among the Jews, safeguarded the OT law and applied it to new details, at the cost of making it ever more and more a burden. He bids His disciples, at their first going out, confine themselves to Jews (Matthew 10:6). It was plausible for Jewish Christians to hold that the Master’s example sanctioned particularism rather than universalism. Very Possibly Matthew 10—as borrowed by the author of our Gospel from an older document (the Logia? one version of the Logia?, see Logia)—was originally a gathering together in a single context of sayings that might throw light on the permanent duties of an evangelist; if so, the original draft of the chapter confines the itinerant preacher to an audience of Jews. —The present writer’s Christ and the Jewish Law, 1886, quotes older literature
Forgiveness - He evidently assumed that Israel was the totality of Jews who were faithful to the covenant. ...
One must remember that for a Jew repentance meant more than simple remorse; it included moral reformation. ...
Paul writes that Jesus' death is the means by which eschatological forgiveness comes not only to the Jew but also to the Gentile (Galatians 3:7-9 ; cf
Ebionism And Ebionites - ...
The records of the church of Jerusalem contained in Acts prove how strong was the zeal for the Law of Moses among the Jewish converts to Christianity. 70), the church was formed at Pella under Symeon, and the Jewish Christians were brought face to face with two leading facts: firstly, that the temple being destroyed, and the observance of the Law and its ordinances possible only in part, there was valid reason for doubting the necessity of retaining the rest; secondly, that if they adopted this view, they must expect to find in the Jews their most uncompromising enemies. Both prediction and act were resented by the Jews, as is shewn not only by the contemptuous term (Minim) they applied to the Jewish Christians (Grätz, Gesch. The breach was further widened by the refusal of the Jewish Christians to take part in the national struggles—notably that of Bar-Cocheba (a. The Jews were forbidden to enter it, while the Jewish and Gentile Christians who crowded there read in Hadrian's imperial decree the abolition of the most distinctively Jewish rites, and practically signified their assent by electing as their bishop a Gentile and uncircumcised man—Mark (Eus. Jewish Christians, with predilections for Gentile Christianity and its comparative freedom, found the way made clear to them; others, attempting to be both Jews and Christians, ended in being neither, and exposed themselves to the contempt of Rabbin as well as Christian (Grätz, p. was produced for the benefit of those who declined the LXX adopted by the orthodox Christians, or the Greek versions of Aquila and Theodotion accepted by the Jews. 26]'>[2]); its restoration would take place in the millennial kingdom of Messiah and the Jews would return there as the manifestly chosen people of God. They are said to have freed themselves from the common Jewish notion that the Messiah was to be an earthly king; they were not shocked as were so many of the Jews at the humbleness of the birth the sufferings and crucifixion of Jesus; but they agreed with them in looking upon the advent of Messiah as future and in deferring the restitution of all things to the millennium. They even asserted that by birth he was not a Jew but a Gentile (wresting his words in Act_21:39 who had become a proselyte in the hope of marrying the High Priest's daughter but that having failed in this he had severed himself from the Jews and occupied himself in writing against circumcision and the observance of the sabbath (Epiph. To the observance of the Jewish sabbath they added that of the Christian Lord's day. Circumcision was sacred to them from the practice of the patriarchs and of Jesus Christ; and they declined all fellowship with the uncircumcised but repudiated the sacrifices of the altar and the reverence of the Jew for the Temple. was that of men who wished to stand clear of any sympathy with Jewish customs; the language of Justin Martyr and of Hegesippus was the language of the representatives of the Samaritan and the Hebrew Christianity of the day, not of the Ebionite. Jewish practices—notably as regards the observance of Easter—were unhesitatingly rejected
Philanthropy - But it may well be considered whether even this system is not left far behind by the Jew, who held that the Gentiles without the Law were accursed, thus excluding all foreigners not only from the regard of man but even from that of God. He limits the ministry of His disciples to the villages of Judaea, bidding them avoid the villages of the Samaritans (Matthew 10:5); and in His interview with the Syrophœnician woman (Mark 7:26) He not only repeats the limitation given to His disciples as binding also upon Himself, declaring that He was not sent save to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but speaks of the woman as a dog, and claims for the Jews that they are the children of the household. Jews, driven in utter weariness from them into Gentile territory, He assumes for the time being the narrow spirit which belonged to them, that His disciples might see how Pharisaic doctrine looked when reduced to act in dealing with the sorrow and need of the world. Whether He spoke the words to Nicodemus or not, it is clear that John learnt from Him that the love of God was not the exclusive privilege of the Jew, but that God loved ‘the world,’ and that His salvation was within the reach of whosoever should believe (John 3:16)
Temptation, Trial - Paul met with ‘trials’ which befell him by the plots of the Jews (Acts 20:19; cf. The Jew ‘approveth’ the things that are excellent (? Romans 2:18)
Joseph (2) - —A rich and pious Israelite (Matthew 27:57), a member of the Sanhedrin (Mark 15:43), who, secretly for fear of the Jews, was Jesus’ disciple (John 19:38). Jewish law required that the body of a person who had been executed should not remain all night upon the tree, but should ‘in any wise’ be buried (Deuteronomy 21:22-23). But at the crucifixion of Jesus and of the two malefactors, the Jews, anxious that the bodies should not remain upon the cross during the Sabbath, besought Pilate that the legs of the crucified might be broken and death hastened, and that then the bodies might be taken away (John 19:31). The petition required boldness (Mark 15:43), since Joseph, with no kinship in the flesh with Jesus, would be forced to make a confession of discipleship, which the Jews would note. Pilate, too, neither loved nor was loved by Israel, and his anger might be kindled at the coming of a Jew, and the member of the Sanhedrin be assailed with insults. Joseph, now with no fear of the Jews, acted openly, and had to act with speed, as the day of preparation for the Sabbath was nearly spent
Blood - The Spirit came upon Jew and Gentile (all flesh), sons and daughters, younger men and older men, and upon men-servants and maid-servants
Image - In this perfected likeness to God human distinctions, whether of nationality, religious ceremonial, culture, or caste, fall away-‘in it there is no room for Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free man; Christ is everything and everywhere
Nehemiah - Jewish tradition says Ezra or Nehemiah was the author. That Nehemiah, a Jew and a captive, served this Gentile king in such a strategic capacity was an unusual credit and honor to this man of strong character. Again Sanballat and other non-Jews made several attempts to lure Nehemiah away from the job and shut it down
New Creation - It is the broader idea, which goes back to passages in the latter part of Isaiah, developments in apocalyptic Jewish thought, and Qumran, which probably gave rise to Paul's specific application. During a period of time when Jewish communities felt increasingly the pressure of dominion under foreign powers, religious literature emerged to encourage hope in an imminent, final intervention of God. " In 4:26 the term "new creation" appears to have become a technical term within the vocabulary of this stream of Jewish eschatology ("the Garden of Eden, and the Mount of the East, Mount Sinai, and Mount Zion will be sanctified in the new creation"); connected with the concept are the ideas of the purification of the earth and God's people from sin. In what is probably the latest phase of Jewish apocalyptic literature (4Edras 7:75; Syr. Then, with the Jew/Gentile debate in view—circumcision versus uncircumcisionChrist's work of "creating" a "new" humanity is introduced to demonstrate how the old distinctions and privileges have been rendered obsolete
Scribes - The scribes by whom the Old Testament was written in its present characters and form, and its canon settled, are collectively in later times called "the men of the great synagogue, the true successors of the prophets" (Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), i. Rabbinical sayings, Jewish fables (Titus 1:14), and finally the Gemara ("completeness") filled up the scheme; and the Mishna and Gemara together formed the Τalmud ("instruction"), the standard of orthodoxy for the modern Jew. The scanty notice of him in rabbinic literature makes the identification likely; the Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers") does not name him
Synagogue - The Jews' malice against Christianity caused Christians to leave the term "synagogue" to the Jews (Revelation 2:9). When the Jews could not afford to build a synagogue they built "an oratory" (proseuchee ) by a running stream or the seashore (Acts 16:13). The synagogue was the means of rekindling the Jewish devotion and patriotism which shone so brightly in the Maccabean struggle with Antiochus. Sometimes a wealthy Jew or a proselyte built the synagogue (Luke 7:5). The custom of ending the Saturday Sabbath with a feast formed the connecting link between the seventh day Jewish sabbath and the first day, Christian Lord's day and Lord's supper (1 Corinthians 11:20; Revelation 1:10). 7:40) as the Jews at the tersanctus of Isaiah 6 (Vitringa 1100, Buxtorf 10), are all reproductions of synagogue customs. ...
The Great Synagogue (Mark 7:3 "the elders"; Matthew 5:21-27; Matthew 5:33, "they of old time") is represented in the rabbinical book, Ρirke Αboth ("The Sayings of the [1] Fathers"), of the second century A. In all these respects they betray their later origin, as vitally differing from the known form of synagogue and tenets of the earlier Jews. Their erection began probably at the close of the second century, the Jews employing Roman workmen, at the dictation of Roman rulers in the time of Antoninus Pins and Alexander Severus, during the spiritual supremacy of the Jewish patriarch of Tiberias
Feasting - The Jew incurred pollution through partaking of food offered to idols. Christian feasts (for the Jewish feasts mentioned in the NT see articles New Moon, Passover, Pentecost, Sabbath, etc
Brother - And hence, what we read in the Old Testament Scripture of the Jewish brother, and the precepts so frequently given of regarding him, had a special reference to Jesus. " (Leviticus 25:25-35)...
Who is the brother waxen poor, having fallen into decay, and sold away some of his possession, but our poor ruined nature; ruined by the fall, and by sin, having sold away our possession? And who is the brother to whom the precept is given, and by whom it hath been fulfilled, and is fulfilling, but the Lord Jesus Christ? Who but him could redeem our mortgaged inheritance? Who but him had a right so to do, as the nearest of all kin, and the most compassionate of all relations? And do observe in those gracious precepts how blessedly provision is made, in this almighty Brother's obedience to this precept, for all the relations of Jesus, both Jew and Gentile; "Yea, (saith the command of JEHOVAH,) though he be a stranger, or a sojourner, that he may live with thee
Timotheus - His father was a Gentile; but his mother, whose name was Eunice, was a Jewess, Acts 16:1 , and educated her son with great care in her own religion, 2 Timothy 1:5 ; 2 Timothy 3:15 . Paul caused him to be circumcised, not as a thing necessary to his salvation, but to avoid giving offence to the Jews, as he was a Jew by the mother's side, and it was an established rule among the Jews that partus sequitur ventrem. Paul was completely out of the power of the Jews; and, so little was he there considered, as having been guilty of any capital crime, that he was suffered to dwell "two whole years," that is, the whole time of his confinement, "in his own hired house, and to receive all that came in unto him, preaching the word of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ with all confidence, no man forbidding him, Acts 28:30-31
Reconciliation - So, in Romans 11:28 , the Jews, rejected and punished for refusing the Gospel, are said by the Apostle, "as concerning the Gospel," to be "enemies for your sakes;" treated and accounted such; "but, as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes. Man is not spoken of as reconciling himself to God; but Christ is said to reconcile Jews and Gentiles together, and both to God, "by his cross. " The ceremonial law only is here, probably meant; for by its abolition, through its fulfilment in Christ, the enmity between Jews and Gentiles was taken away; but still it was not only necessary to reconcile Jew and Gentile together, but to "reconcile both unto God. Paul properly treats of the peace made between Jews and Gentiles; for neither does it follow from this argument, that it was beside his purpose to mention the peace made for each with God. Gentiles and Jews, therefore, are made friends among themselves by friendship with God. Whitby observes, on the words καταλλαττειν and καταλλαγη , "that they naturally import the reconciliation of one that is angry or displeased with us, both in profane and Jewish writers
Jeremiah - Some have supposed his father to have been that Hilkah, the high priest, by whom the book of the law was found in the temple in the reign of Josiah: but for this there is no better ground than his having borne the same name, which was no uncommon one among the Jews; whereas, had he been in reality the high priest, he would doubtless have been mentioned by that distinguishing title, and not put upon a level with priests of an ordinary and inferior class. At length, after the destruction of Jerusalem, being carried with the remnant of the Jews into Egypt, whither they had resolved to retire, though contrary to his advice, upon the murder of Gedaliah, whom the Chaldeans had left governor in Judea, he there continued warmly to remonstrate against their idolatrous practices, foretelling the consequences that would inevitably follow. But his freedom and zeal are said to have cost him his life; for the Jews at Tahpanhes, according to tradition, took such offence at him that they stoned him to death. He foretold the fate of Zedekiah, Jeremiah 34:2-5 ; 2 Chronicles 36:11-21 ; 2 Kings 25:5 ; Jeremiah 52:11 ; the Babylonish captivity, the precise time of its duration, and the return of the Jews. He describes the destruction of Babylon, and the downfall of many nations, Jeremiah 25:12 ; Jeremiah 9:26 ; Jeremiah 25:19-25 ; Jeremiah 42:10-18 ; Jeremiah 46, and the following chapters, in predictions, of which the gradual and successive completion kept up the confidence of the Jews for the accomplishment of those prophecies, which he delivered relative to the Messiah and his period, Joshua 21:18 ; Jeremiah 30:9 ; Jeremiah 31:15 ; Jeremiah 32:14-18 ; Jeremiah 33:9-26 . What were the feelings of a patriotic and religious Jew at this tremendous crisis, he has left on record in his unrivalled elegies
Education - ...
Descending the stream of history, we reach an epoch-making event in the history of education, not less than of religion, among the Jews, in the assembly convened by Ezra and Nehemiah (Nehemiah 8:1 ff. Henceforward the Jews were pre-eminently, in Mohammed’s phrase, ‘the people of the Book. ’ But if the Jewish community was henceforth to regulate its whole life, not according to the living word of priest and prophet, but according to the requirements of a written law, it was indispensable that provision should be made for the instruction of all classes in this law. see), which, from the Jewish point of view, was essentially a meeting-place for religious instruction, and, indeed, is expressly so named by Philo. … Piety and education were inseparable; whoever could not read was no true Jew. ...
Passing now, as this brief sketch requires, to the period of Jewish history that lies between the triumph of the Maccabees and the end of the Jewish State in a. The chief feature of the teaching was learning by rote, and that audibly, for the Jewish teachers were thorough believers in the Latin maxim, repetitio mater studiorum . ...
For the mass of young Jews of the male sex, for whom alone public provision was made, the girls being still restricted to the tuition of the home, the teaching of the primary school sufficed
Promise (2) - It was, indeed, the strength with which this idea was rooted in the mind of the Jew (‘whose is the adoption and the glory and … the promises,’ Luke 24:25-2866) that made it so hard for him to understand how the Gentile could come within the full scope of the gospel. But whatever critical view be held of the records, and leaving undecided the question whether Matthew 24 and other similar passages which contain a considerable eschatological element are to be taken as representing a part of the actual teaching of Jesus, or rather His teaching as coloured by passing through minds steeped in the ideas of Jewish eschatology, it is sufficiently evident that Jesus habitually used the expression ‘Kingdom of heaven’ in a different sense from the ordinary and popular one, and preferred to divest it of the usual patriotic and eschatological associations
John, Gospel of (Critical) - The author is a Jew. The author is a Jew of Palestine. —The works of Justin that are relevant in this connexion are the two Apologies and the Dialogue with Trypho the Jew
Jerusalem - As Jerusalem was the centre of the true worship, Psalms 122:4 , and the place where God did in a peculiar manner dwell, first in the tabernacle, 2 Samuel 6:7 ; 2 Samuel 6:12 ; 1 Chronicles 15:1 ; 1 Chronicles 16:1 ; Psalms 132:13 ; Psalms 135:2 , and afterward in the temple, 1 Kings 6:13 ; so it is used figuratively to denote the church, or the celestial society, to which all that believe, both Jews and Gentiles, are come, and in which they are initiated, Galatians 4:26 ; Hebrews 12:22 ; Revelation 3:12 ; Revelation 21:2 ; Revelation 21:10 . ...
Through the reigns of David and Solomon, Jerusalem was the metropolis of the whole Jewish kingdom, and continued to increase in wealth and splendour. ...
During seventy years, the city and temple lay in ruins: when those Jews who chose to take immediate advantage of the proclamation of Cyrus, under the conduct of Zerubbabel, returned to Jerusalem, and began to build the temple; all the vessels of gold and silver belonging to which, that had been taken away by Nebuchadnezzar, being restored by Cyrus. ...
His successor, Smerdis, the Magian, however, who in Scripture is called Artaxerxes, to whom a similar petition was sent, representing the Jews as a factious and dangerous people, listened to it, and, in the true spirit of a usurper, issued a decree putting a stop to the farther building of the temple, Ezra 4:7 , &c; which, in consequence, remained in an unfinished state till the second year, according to the Jewish, and third, according to the Babylonian and Persian account, of Darius Hystaspes, who is called simply Darius in Scripture. To him also a representation hostile to the Jews was made by their inveterate enemies, the Samaritans; but this noble prince refused to listen to it, and having searched the rolls of the kingdom, and found in the palace at Acmetha the decree of Cyrus, issued a similar one, which reached Jerusalem in the subsequent year, and even ordered these very Samaritans to assist the Jews in their work; so that it was completed in the sixth year of the same reign, Ezra 4:24 ; Ezra 5; Ezra 6:1-15 . Accordingly, under the direction of this zealous servant of God, the walls were speedily raised, but not without the accustomed opposition on the part of the Samaritans; who, despairing of the success of an application to the court of Persia, openly attacked the Jews with arms. But in the frequent wars which followed between the kings of Syria and those of Egypt, called by Daniel, the kings of the north and south, it belonged sometimes to one and sometimes to the other,—an unsettled and unhappy state, highly favourable to disorder and corruption,—the high priesthood was openly sold to the highest bidder; and numbers of the Jews deserted their religion for the idolatries of the Greeks. 170, Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, enraged at hearing that the Jews had rejoiced at a false report of his death, plundered Jerusalem, and killed eighty thousand men. Not more than two years afterward, this cruel tyrant, who had seized every opportunity to exercise his barbarity on the Jews, sent Apollonius with an army to Jerusalem; who pulled down the walls, grievously oppressed the people, and built a citadel on a rock adjoining the temple, which commanded that building, and had the effect of completely overawing the seditious. Having thus reduced this unfortunate city into entire submission, and rendered resistance useless, the next step of Antiochus was to abolish the Jewish religion altogether, by publishing an edict which commanded all the people of his dominions to conform to the religion of the Greeks: in consequence of which, the service of the temple ceased, and a statue of Jupiter Olympus was set up on the altar. But this extremity of ignominy and oppression led, as might have been expected, to rebellion; and those Jews who still held their insulted religion in reverence, fled to the mountains, with Mattathias and Judas Maccabeus; the latter of whom, after the death of Mattathias, who with his followers and successors, are known by the name of Maccabees, waged successful war with the Syrians; defeated Apollonius, Nicanor, and Lysias, generals of Antiochus; obtained possession of Jerusalem, purified the temple, and restored the service, after three years' defilement by the Gentile idolatries. ...
From this time, during several succeeding Maccabean rulers, who were at once high priests and sovereigns of the Jews, but without the title of king, Jerusalem was able to preserve itself from Syrian violence. But the Jews had caused themselves to be sufficiently respected to obtain conditions of peace on both occasions, and to save their city; till, at length, Hyrcanus, in the year 130 B. His successor, Judas, made an important change in the Jewish government, by taking the title of king which dignity was enjoyed by his successors forty-seven years, when a dispute having arisen between Hyrcanus II, and his brother Aristobulus, and the latter having overcome the former, and made himself king, was, in his turn, conquered by the Romans under Pompey, by whom the city and temple were taken, Aristobulus made prisoner, and Hyrcanus created high priest and prince of the Jews, but without the title of king. Julius Caesar, having defeated Pompey, continued Hyrcanus in the high priesthood, but bestowed the government of Judea upon Antipater, an Idumaean by birth, but a Jewish proselyte, and father of Herod the Great. For the siege and destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans, See JewS . In this state Jerusalem continued, under the name of AElia, and inhabited more by Christians and Pagans than by Jews, till the time of the Emperor Constantine, styled the Great; who, about the year 323, having made Christianity the religion of the empire, began to improve it, adorned it with many new edifices and churches, and restored its ancient name. About thirty-five years afterward, Julian, named the Apostate, not from any love he bore the Jews, but out of hatred to the Christians, whose faith he had abjured, and with the avowed design of defeating the prophecies, which had declared that the temple should not be rebuilt, wrote to the Jews, inviting them to their city, and promising to restore their temple and nation. This miraculous interposition of Providence is attested by many credible witnesses and historians; and, in particular, by Ammianus Marcellinus, a Heathen, and friend of Julian; Zemuch David, a Jew; Nazianzen, Chrysostom, Ambrose Ruffinus, Theodoret, Sozomen, and Socrates, who wrote his account within fifty years after the transaction, and while many eye-witnesses of it were still living. The Persians, however, did not hold it long, as they were soon after entirely defeated by the Emperor Heraclius, who rescued Jerusalem, and restored it, not to the unhappy Jews, who were forbidden to come within three miles of it, but to the Christians. To see the Jews scattered over the whole world, according to the word of God, must doubtless excite surprise. The sight of a poor Jew in Jerusalem has in it something peculiarly affecting. In whatever part of the world he may live, the heart's desire of a Jew is to be buried in Jerusalem. The burial place of the Jews is over the valley of Kedron, and the fees for breaking the soil afford a considerable revenue to the governor. Not a vestige remains of the capital of David and Solomon; not a monument of Jewish times is standing. Richardson remarks, "It is a tantalizing circumstance for the traveller who wishes to recognize in his walks the site of particular buildings, or the scenes of memorable events, that the greater part of the objects mentioned in the description both of the inspired and the Jewish historian, are entirely removed, and razed from their foundation, without leaving a single trace or name behind to point out where they stood
Originality - 1879), Bauer seriously undertakes to prove that Christianity is not Jewish in its origin, but is really the product of Graeco-Roman thought. Augustus was the prince of peace who healed the wounds of the Civil War; Tiberius, the servant of the community; Caligula, the god-man and world-judge; Nero, the philanthropist who dedicated himself to the service of humanity; Vespasian caused the Jewish oracle, which had called him to be ruler of the world, to be carried before his legions; Nerva and his successors gave to the Roman world an example of mildness and tranquillity. The Jewish element in the NT is persistently denied. The author of the Urevangelium is ‘an Italian by birth, who was at home in Rome and Alexandria’; the author of Matthew, no Jewish Christian, but ‘a Roman nourished by Seneca’s spirit. ...
There are, Havet thinks, three elements to be taken into account in considering the origin of Christianity, the Hellenic, the Jewish, represented by the Prophets and the Psalms, and a third which he calls the Galilaean, by which he means the sentiments and ideas which developed at first among the turbulent population of Galilee under the misery of the Roman dominion, and then raised up Jesus, and determined His action and destiny, and which gradually spread throughout the great cities of the Roman Empire. He was a Jew, ardent to fanaticism, a Galilaean zealot who had inflamed the people of His country, and, in the end, so agitated Jerusalem itself that the Jewish authorities, whom He had compromised, handed Him over to the Roman police, by whom He was put to death as a disturber of the peace. He was Himself a Christian only in His manner of feeling; otherwise He was a pure Jew, and there is neither word nor act in His life that is not thoroughly Jewish. ’ The news spread among the Jewish communities scattered throughout the Roman Empire, and from them to the Roman world in the midst of which they lived, that the Christ, who was to come to inaugurate the kingdom of the God of the Jews in place of that of the Romans, had actually appeared, that He had been crucified, and had risen from the dead, and was to reappear to destroy the sinners, and to raise up from the dead all the righteous, and reunite them in an eternal life with those who were still alive. Both essays result in the attempt to explain Christianity without the Person of Christ; for though Havet does not, like Bauer, deny the existence of Christ altogether, there are few Christians who will recognize, in the Jewish fanatic whom he presents to us, the Saviour whom they worship. The 40 days’ fast of Moses (Exodus 34:28, Deuteronomy 9:9) and that of Elijah (1 Kings 19:8) at once suggest themselves as parallels which do not take us beyond the limits of Jewish history. ...
(3) Seydel finds a parallel to Christ’s words to the Jews, ‘Before Abraham was, I am’ (John 8:58), in Buddha’s assertion of his pre-existence. But the doetrine of the pre-existence of the soul was not unknown to the Jews (cf. The roots of Christianity go deep down into Jewish soil. Christ was a Jew by birth and education. His whole thought and teaching were cast in Jewish moulds. The very title He bears—the Christ—is meaningless apart from the background of Jewish history in which it had its origin
Woman - Although Athaliah was a wicked queen, Esther, who came to power in Persia under most unusual circumstances, used her position to save her Jewish kinsfolk. The first-century Jewish world shared many of the cultural assumptions of the Old Testament concerning women. In two instances their faith is particularly praised (the hemmorhaging woman Matthew 9:22 ), even when one is not a Jew but a Syrophoenician (Matthew 15:21-28 anticipating the church's ministry to Gentiles ). In another episode, the woman healed was Jewish but still illustrates Jesus' ministry of compassion to the outcasts of society (Simon's mother-in-law [3]), as the third in a series of such miracles (cf. Jesus specifically praises Mary of Bethany for choosing to "sit at his feet" and learn from him (Luke 10:38-42 )a quasi-technical reference to a disciple being trained by a rabbi and a practice usually denied to women in Jewish circles. Despite strong cultural taboos against any social exchange between a Jewish holy man and a sexually promiscuous Samaritan woman, Jesus speaks to this woman in private, affirms her personhood and leads her to faith in himself and to service as an evangelist (John 4:1-42 ). Galatians 3:28 proves even more programmatic, declaring that in Christ, "there is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor free, male nor female. As an initiation rite that included women (unlike Jewish circumcision), baptism publicly affirmed the equal value of women and men in a way that suggests that the church should continue to seek outward, visible forms for demonstrating this equality
Synagogue (2) - The two senses of each were retained, as an assembly and a place of ‘assembly; but a strictly Christian or Jewish association was definitely attached to each. A feature of normal Jewish life. synagogues abounded wherever a Jewish population was found. In addition, there was a synagogue within the Temple itself, with others for the communities of foreign Jews settled in the city (Acts 6:9; cf. And in our Lord’s time the synagogue was as common a feature of Jewish life as places of worship are of conventional life in our own country to-day. ; and Abrahams, Jew. From the example of the Baptist in teaching his disciples to pray, and from the request for similar instruction addressed to Jesus (Luke 11:1), it may be inferred that forms of prayer were not yet familiar to the Jews, and possibly that a disposition towards the adoption of such forms was now arising. For advanced studies and for technical Jewish training, provision was made in some of the towns or near the residence of some distinguished Rabbi; but everywhere the elementary school was an inseparable adjunct of the synagogue. Boyhood (Jewish), and Education. Hence, in places where the population was preponderantly Jewish, local administration was in the hands of a court, which took cognizance of all the Jewish interests of the neighbourhood, and of which the Roman over-rule was apt to avail itself for both executive and minor judicial business. Where the Jews were outclassed in numbers or influence, the synagogal authority was proportionately reduced, though without any loss of respect within the Jewish community. If there were several synagogues in a Jewish town, all were knit together into some kind of organization, under a controlling council which regulated also all the civil affairs of the community. Excommunication was the punishment of offences that were thought to imperil the stability of the Jewish community (Luke 6:22, John 9:22; John 12:42; John 16:2). —There are indications in early Jewish literature, belonging some of them to the 1st cent. They became increasingly a common meeting-ground for the Jews of the neighbourhood, where their affairs might be discussed informally or in a summoned assembly, and a variety of matters might be conveniently settled. Thus a secularizing—or, from a Jewish point of view, a communal—tendency developed, such as had already shown itself in the case of the courts of the Temple (Matthew 21:12, Mark 11:15, John 2:14 ff. The synagogue was not only a place of authoritative instruction in the Law, but the centre of the Jewish life of a district, and, as such, its purposes were determined by both social and racial needs. In some cases a wealthy man, Jew or Gentile, wishing to ingratiate himself with the people or out of pure kindness, may have provided a synagogue (cf. ; Dembitz, Jewish Services in Syn
Revelation, the Book of - The sealing of the 144,000 (Revelation 7:1-8 ) employs Jewish symbols to describe those who know God through Jesus Christ. Clearly, John is referring to Christians as the 144,000 for Revelation 7:3 refers to the “bond-servants” of God, a term consistently used throughout the Revelation ( Revelation 1:1 ; Revelation 2:20 ; Revelation 10:7 ; Revelation 11:18 ; Revelation 19:2 ,Revelation 19:2,19:5 ; Revelation 12:13-17 ,Revelation 22:3,22:6 ) to refer either to Christians in general or the Christian prophet, but never to the non-Christian Jew (or Gentile). Language employed in the Old Testament to refer to the Jews is characteristically used in the New Testament to refer to those who know God through Jesus Christ (see 2 Corinthians 6:16-18 ; Galatians 3:29 ; 1 Peter 2:9-10 ; and Revelation 1:6 ). The number 144,000 is an intensification (12 12 10 10 10) of the original number twelve (itself an obvious allusion to the twelve tribes, the Old Testament people of God), which indicates that the 144,000 comprise the full number of God's people, God's people now being all (Jew or Gentile) who are followers of Jesus. The number “three-and-a-half” was associated by Christians and Jews with times of evil and judgment
Barnabas, Epistle of - What he says is that a remark of Herodotus to the effect that the Syrians who live in Palestine are circumcised proves that historian's acquaintance with the Jews because the Jews were the only inhabitants of Palestine by whom that rite was practised and it must have been of them therefore that he was speaking and he quotes Herodotus and without any word of dissent as saying that the Syrians about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius that is in the northern parts of Syria did submit to circumcision. We must call to mind the allegorical explanations of both Jewish and heathen schools, whose influence passed largely into the Christian church. with regard to the rites and ceremonies of Judaism, mistakes to all appearance inconsistent with the idea that he could be a Jew, a Levite, who had lived long in Jerusalem, and must have been acquainted with the ceremonial institutions of the Jews. And how came the great Fathers whose names have been already mentioned, how came the church at large, to value the epistle as it did if in the mention of them we have nothing but absurdity and error? We are hardly less puzzled to account for such inaccuracies if the writer was an Alexandrian Christian of heathen origin than if he were a Jew and a Levite. ...
To these arguments recent writers have added that the strong anti-Judaistic tendency of the epistle is inconsistent with its ascription to Barnabas inasmuch as he erred in too great attachment to the Jewish party (Gal_2:13). —Two points are especially insisted on by the writer: first, that Judaism, in its outward and fleshly form, had never been commended by the Almighty to man, had never been the expression of God's covenant; secondly, that that covenant had never belonged to the Jews at all. To whom, then, does God's covenant belong? It is indeed a legitimate conclusion from, the previous argument that the Jews cannot claim the covenant as theirs. These men, as appears from the tenor of the whole chapter, must have been Jews, and their statement could have no other meaning than that Judaism, as the Jews understood and lived it, was God's covenant, that it was to be preferred to Christianity, and that the observance of its rites and ceremonies was the true divine life to which men ought to be called. Yet Christians were shewing a disposition to listen to such teaching, and many of them were running the serious risk of being shattered against the Jewish law (c. Here is at once an explanation of all the most peculiar phenomena of our epistle, of its polemical zeal pointed so directly against Judaism that, as Weizäcker has observed, it might seem to be directed as much against Jews as against Judaizers ; of its effort to shew that the whole O. cultus had its meaning only in Christ; of its denial of all value to outward Judaism; of its aim to prove that the inward meaning of that ancient faith was really Christian; of its exclusion of Jews, as such, from all part in God's covenant; and of its dwelling precisely upon those doctrines of the Christian faith which were the greatest stumbling-block to the Jewish mind, and those graces of the Christian life to the importance of which it had most need to be awakened
Christian - ...
(2) It cannot have been applied to the followers of Jesus by the Jews . The Jews believed in ‘the Christ,’ i. It is true that Agrippa, a Jewish king, makes use of the name; but this was nearly 20 years after, and when, in that Roman world with which he lived in close relations, it had become the recognized designation of the new faith. In Acts 26:28 we find it on the lips of a Jewish ruler, speaking in Cæsarea before an audience of Roman officials and within 20 years after it was first used in Antioch. Hitherto, to outsiders, Christianity had been only a Jewish sect (cf. But the Antiochenes saw that Christ’s disciples must be distinguished from the Jews and put into a category of their own. It was not the way of Jewish Rabbis to proffer Judaism to Greeks in the market-place. Christianity appeared in Antioch as a universal religion, making no distinction between Jew and Gentile. Up to this time Christians as well as Jews looked to Jerusalem in everything as the mother of them all
Ezra, Book of - The permanence of the Jews was threatened by opposition from non-Jews and by the Jews' careless disregard for the things of God. Ezra's teaching was needed to give solidity and strength to the Jewish community struggling against pressures to surrender its ethnic and theological identity. Jewish tradition is strong that Ezra was the actual author of the entire book, as well as Chronicles and Nehemiah. One is that Sheshbazzar was a real historical person who actually led a small group of anxious Jews to Jerusalem. But it seems unlikely that a Jew would have two Babylonian names. This was a widely used language of Ezra's era, related to Hebrew, used by Jews and Gentiles alike. Establishing the legitimacy of the Jews was an important objective, and these helped do that. ...
Ezra begins with the story of Sheshbazzar and Zerubbabel and the first Jews to return to Jerusalem from captivity in 538 B. ...
Soon Ezra was informed of the most glaring sin of the Jews, intermarriage with non-Jews, those not in covenant relation with Yahweh (Ezra 9:2 ). ...
Ezra's greatest contribution was his teaching, establishing, and implementing “the book of the law of the Lord” (Nehemiah 9:3 ) among the Jews. Jewish tradition says he authored Chronicles and Ezra-Nehemiah. Also, he is credited with initiating what became Jewish isolationism and separatism, seen graphically in the New Testament. He led Jews to divorce their foreign wives and send them and their children away. ...
The value of the contributions of Ezra to the Jews is immeasurable. He might not have been the father of Judaism, but he contributed greatly to saving the Jews' identity as a people of God
Trinity - In Jewish thought the name represented the person (see NAME). ...
As a God-fearing Jew, Jesus gave his complete allegiance to the one and only true God, and he taught others to do likewise (Deuteronomy 6:4; Matthew 22:37)
Psalms, Book of - When the attitude of the Jews at the time the Lord was here is remembered, and their bitter opposition to their Messiah, which exists to this day, light is thrown upon their feelings when, under tribulation, their eyes will be opened to see that it was indeed their Messiah that they crucified. ...
BOOK 1 extends to the end of Psalm 41 , and is occupied with the state of the Jewish remnant of the future (Judah), before they are driven out of Jerusalem: cf. ...
In Psalm 2 (and Psalm 1 and Psalm 2 may be said to be introductory to the whole) we have Christ rejected by Jew and Gentile, yet set as King in Zion, and declared to be the Son of God, having the earth for His possession, and judging His enemies, the nations. The thought is not so much limited, as the previous books, to the Jewish remnant, though faithful ones are spoken of
Old Testament - The old Jewish tradition, repeated by Origen and Jerome, ascribed the change to Ezra. And yet more important are the proofs of the firm establishment of the text, and of its substantial with our own, supplied by the translation of Jerome, who was instructed by the Palestinian Jews, and mainly relied upon their authority for acquaintance not only with the text itself, but also with the traditional unwritten vocalization of brings us to the middle of the Talmudic period. From the end of the Masoretic period onward, the Masorah became the great authority by which the text given in all the Jewish MSS. --The history of the printed text of the Hebrew Bible commences with the early Jewish editions of the separate books. The editor was the learned Tunisian Jew R
Nationality - Of these ideals the former rested on the Messianic Hope, the latter on the Mosaic Law, which were the key-notes of the most ancient Scriptures of the Jews—the Prophets and the Pentateuch respectively. He declared to the Samaritan woman that salvation is of the Jews (John 4:22). It was in the name of the Messianic Hope that He was mocked by the soldiers, and over His cross were written as accusation the words, ‘The King of the Jews’ (Mark 15:26). ...
But with all this tenderness for the obligations of Jewish religion as ties, He resented them as bonds. It is true the company of original Apostles remained Christian Jews; but the leaders came to recognize that they enjoyed no distinctive privilege of the Kingdom which was withheld from the Gentiles. The harriers had been broken down between Jew and Gentile, Greek and barbarian, bond and free; they being brought by the blood of the Cross near to God, and so to one another, in order that henceforth the bonds of brotherhood might be of a purely human character, and that the parables of the Good Samaritan and of the Shepherd-judgment might be the pattern and sanction for next-door philanthropies and world-wide missions
Wisdom - This Wisdom literature strongly influenced both the Jewish and the Christian Church, but it is, perhaps, in its later developments, in the Book of Wisdom and Sirach, and, above all, in the other Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the OT, that we can see the developments of thought that enriched and guided Judaism in the age 180 b. The indications point rather to a blend of elements from Eastern faiths with notions and practices current among Jewish circles which were sensible to semi-Alexandrian influences (cf. ...
It was not strange, therefore, that these parties should be perpetuated inside the Christian Church, where Jew and Greek met one another, each with his contribution to the preparation for the gospel, or his idiosyncrasy of thought inherited from his fathers. whose leading idea is that the Divinely ordained preparation for the gospel ran in two parallel lines, that of the Jewish Law and Prophets, and that of Greek Philosophy (cf. ...
The intellectual ferment imported from the city and the schools into the church at Corinth manifested itself in an outcrop of party-feeling and division which at first was of Jewish origin. ’...
Yet, while the Apostle rebukes and resists the superficial σοφία of the Corinthians, he also has his wisdom by which he relates the fact of Christ and ‘the word of the cross’ to his general view of the world: ‘unto them that are called, both Jews and Greeks, [4] Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God’ (1 Corinthians 1:24). Thus he appropriates for the Crucified the ‘power’ and ‘wisdom’ of God, terms which were recognized ‘synonyms of the Λόγος in the Alexandrian-Jewish speculations’ (EGT , in loc. Cleon has heard of Paulus and of Christus, but who can suppose that a mere barbarian Jew...
‘Hath access to a secret shut from us’?...
The doctrine of Christ preached on the island by certain slaves is reported by an intelligent listener to be one which no sane man can accept
Herod - Thus the Herods, though aliens by birth, were Jews in faith. Eschewing Antiochus Epiphanes' design to Graecize Jerusalem by substituting the Greek worship and customs for the Jewish law, the Herod's, while professing to maintain the law, as effectively set at nought its spirit by making it a lever for elevating themselves and their secular kingdom. ...
Thus a descendant of Esau tried still to get from Jacob the forfeited blessing (Genesis 27:29; Genesis 27:40), in vain setting up an earthly kingdom on a professed Jewish basis, to rival Messiah's spiritual kingdom, as it was then being fore-announced by John Baptist. The Jewish religion thus degraded into a tool of ambition lost its spiritual power, and the theocracy becoming a lifeless carcass was the ready prey for the Roman eagles to pounce upon and destroy (Matthew 24:28). ...
Herod being a professed Jew his swine as unclean were safe from death, his sons were not. The wise men's question, "Where is he that is born king of the Jews?" was precisely one to excite Herod's jealousy. For Herod was not a born Jew, much less born king of the Jews, but an Idumean alien, made king by the anti-Jewish world power, Rome. For its sake he compromised the Jewish religion which he professed, in order to conciliate Rome, by offerings to the Capitoline Jupiter at his elevation to the throne. The stricter Jews were so offended that ten men conspired to kill him in the theater at Jerusalem. But still fresh additions continued to be made, so that at the beginning of Jesus' ministry the Jews said, "Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt Thou rear it up in three days?"...
At that time He was 30 years old, which added to 16 years (for 20 B. Herodias having gained this first step, like her prototype Jezebel, found the next step an easy one; at the first "convenient day" (his birthday, which he observed with the Herodian characteristic aping of Roman ways, in defiance of Jewish abhorrence of the pagan custom) when Herod made a supper to his lords, and Herodias' daughter by dancing so pleased him that he promised to give whatever she might ask, Herodias prompted her to ask for John's head. " Christ would not gratify Herod's idle curiosity, but He did answer Pilate when the honour of His Messianic kingship was at stake, "Art Thou the King of the Jews?" (Luke 23:3-12). A legend states that once he burst into tears on reading in a public service Deuteronomy 17:15, on which the Jews exclaimed, "Be not distressed, thou art our brother," namely, by half-descent from the Hasmonaeans. It was on his entreaty at the risk of his interest and life that Caligula desisted from his attempt to set up his statue in the temple, which so engrossed the Jews that for a time they let the Christians alone (Acts 9:31). To "please the Jews" he slew James the brother of John, and imprisoned Peter with the intention of bringing him forth to the people for execution after the Passover ("Easter". Five years later Paul pleaded before him, who naturally consulted him on a question of Jewish law)
Law - Matthew 9:9-13 ||s and, generally, the attitude of Jesus to publicans and sinners), and to regard faith as of more importance than the distinction between Jew and Gentile (cf. In the evangelical record, moreover, the early Church had preserved the recollection of its Lord’s outspoken utterances regarding the merely relative validity of the Jewish ceremonial Law (e. He thus came into direct conflict with the Pharisaic group of Jewish Christians-those who asserted that the salvation of the Gentiles depended upon their being circumcised and their acceptance of the Law (Acts 15:1-5, Galatians 2:1-5). The reason given for the proposal (Acts 15:21 : ‘For Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath’) probably means simply that the four prohibitions in question-which formed the kernel of the so-called Noachian commandments, and correspond to the laws for proselytes-had come to be so impressed upon the minds of the Jews that they could not countenance any disobedience to them if their intercourse with their Gentile brethren in the Church was to be unconstrained. Peter had in that city ignored the Jewish regulations about food, and had eaten in the company of Gentile Christians, this did not coincide with the views of those who ‘came from James. Peter’s practice-just as the Jewish Christians at Jerusalem had resented his action at Caesarea (Acts 10; cf. )-manifestly assuming that Jewish Christians, as the circumcised, were under an absolute obligation to the Mosaic Law, and that they ought not, even for the sake of Christian fellowship, to make any concession whatever to the liberty of the converted heathen. If concessions were to be made at all, they must come from the Gentile, not the Jewish, side. It is probable, however, that in his view of the matter his concern for Israel bulked more largely than his regard for the Gentiles, and that accordingly he would have preferred to surrender the possibility of perfect Christian communion between Jewish and Gentile Christians rather than grant the former a dispensation from their regulations regarding food. ...
To this type of Jewish Christianity corresponds generally the religious standpoint of the Epistle which is ascribed to St. The letter shows so little of a distinctively Christian character, that Spitta has in all seriousness hazarded the theory of its being in reality a Jewish work in which the name of Jesus has been inserted here and there. He betrays his Jewish Christian mode of thought, however, when, in enjoining his readers to be doers, and not merely hearers, of the word (James 1:22), he presently replaces ‘word’ by ‘law,’ although ‘the perfect law of liberty’ means the law as given to, or as fulfilled in, human freedom. Further, if the Epistle was addressed to Jewish Christians who had not as yet broken off relations with the Synagogue (cf. What they required rather was to be reminded of the ethical aspect of the Law, and above all, to be warned against the common Jewish delusion that hearing and speaking the word could take the place of doing it. James, the most outstanding representative of the Jewish Christian position in the primitive Church was St. James of the merely relative obligation of the Law even for Jewish Christians. In certain circumstances he thought himself justified, for the sake of brotherly intercourse with Gentile Christians, in disregarding the rigour of the Law, since, after all, salvation did not depend upon the Law, whose yoke, indeed, neither the fathers nor the Jews then living were able to bear, but Jew and Gentile alike could look for salvation only to the grace of Jesus Christ, and to faith in Him (cf. Peter at Antioch (Galatians 2:12 b) was nothing but dissimulation, as it was due, not to any change of conviction, but simply to fear of the Jews. Peter recognized the religious freedom of the Jewish Christians, not merely as regards the more general intercourse with their Gentile brethren sanctioned by the Apostolic Decree, but also as regards the closer intimacy involved in eating with them (cf. Paul, actually acknowledged that the Jewish Christians had the right to accommodate themselves to the freedom of the Gentiles. The Second Epistle obviously dates from a time when the question regarding the Law had given place to other controversies, and, at all events, it is concerned with a libertinism and a doctrine that lie beyond the purview of Jewish legalism. Weiss and Kühl suppose, to Jewish Christians, i. Peter discern the merely relative validity of the Jewish legal system, and especially of the Temple ritual; and although his adversaries, in charging him with having in his preaching attacked the Holy Place and the Law, were undoubtedly doing him an injustice, yet the accusation was not altogether unfounded. His trenchant speech (Acts 7) not only attacks the Jews for their persistent rejection of the Prophets, but also pointedly criticizes their over-estimation of the Temple: ‘the Most High dwelleth not in houses made with hands’ (Acts 7:47-50). The very Law to which the Jews appealed they had not kept (Acts 7:53). It need, therefore, occasion no surprise that in his conversion Saul had become convinced of the universality of Christianity, or that thereafter he maintained that the Law was not in a religious sense binding upon either Gentile or Jewish Christians (Galatians 1:2). It is true that νόμος, even without the article, may mean the historically-given Law of Moses, the possession of which was the special prerogative of the Jews as distinguished from the Gentiles (Romans 2:12-14; Romans 3:20 f. The law of God, which in the heathen was but an inward and therefore vague surmise, was for the Jews formulated objectively and unmistakably in the written Law (Romans 2:17-20; cf. 2 Corinthians 3:7), and the Jews, even if they broke that Law (Romans 2:21 ff
Luke - That Luke was a Greek rather than a Jew is possibly true, but the evidence is poor. The facts seem to be quite adequately covered if we suppose that Luke was a Hellenistic Jew
Acts of the Apostles - ...
The author was a Gentile, not a Jew (Colossians 4:10 f. On the other hand, it must be said that against his having been a native of Philippi are the facts that he had no home there, but went to lodge with Lydia ( Acts 16:15 ), and that he only supposed that there was a Jewish place of prayer at Philippi ( Acts 16:13 RV [3] ). Yet he was quite probably a Macedonian [5], of a Greek family once settled at Antioch; he was a Gentile not without some contempt for the Jews, and certainly not a Roman citizen like St. So he tells us practically nothing of the missionary journey through Cyprus ( Acts 13:6 ), though much work must have been done among the Jews then; while great space is given to the epoch-making interview with Sergius Paulus. a Gentile who had become a circumcised Jew); the conversion of St. Paul; the episode of Cornelius (who was only a ‘proselyte of the gate,’ or ‘God-fearing,’ one who was brought into relation with the Jews by obeying certain elementary rules, such, probably, as those of Acts 15:29 , but not circumcised [11]; this means, therefore, a further step towards Pauline Christianity); the first meeting of Paul and Barnabas with a Roman official in the person of Sergius Paulus in Cyprus, the initial step in the great plan of St. ( a ) The author describes the Apostle as beginning new missionary work by seeking out the Jews first; only when they would not listen he turned to the Gentiles, Acts 13:5 ; Acts 13:14 , Acts 14:1 , Acts 16:13 (no synagogue at Philippi, only a ‘place of prayer’) Acts 17:1 f. , Acts 28:17 ; we may perhaps understand the same at places where it is not expressly mentioned, Acts 14:7 ; Acts 14:21 ; Acts 14:25 , or the Jews may have been weak and without a synagogue in those places. Hence may be understood his zeal for Gentile liberty, and his breaking away from the idea of Jewish exclusiveness
Paul - (Acts 21:39, "I am a Jew of Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city. Here too he learned the Cilician trade of making tents of the goats' hair cloth called "cilicium " (Acts 18:3); not that his father was in straitened circumstances, but Jewish custom required each child, however wealthy the parents might be, to learn a trade. Ananias, being "a devout man according to the law, having a good report of all the Jews there," was the suitable instrument of giving him bodily and spiritual sight in his transition stage. From Arabia he returned to Damascus, where with his increased spiritual "strength" he confounded the Jews. After staying only 15 days at Jerusalem, wherein there was not time for his deriving his gospel commission from Peter with whom he abode, having had a vision that he should depart to the Gentiles (Acts 22:18-19), and being plotted against by Hellenistic Jews (Acts 9:29), he withdrew to the seaport Caesarea (Acts 9:30), thence by sea to Tarsus in Cilicia (Galatians 1:21), and thence to Syria. Luke marks the transition point between Saul's past ministrations to Jews and his new ministry among Gentiles, which was henceforth to be his special work, by his Gentile designation, borne from infancy but now first regularly applied to him, Paul. In Paul's remarkable address we have a specimen of his mode of dealing with "the Jews . "...
After the congregation was broken up many Jews and proselytes followed Paul and Barnabas, and heard more of "the grace of God. " But when almost the whole city came together the next Sabbath to hear the word of God, envy of the admission of Gentiles to gospel privileges without being first proselytized to Judaism incited the Jews to blaspheme and to contradict Paul. The Gentiles rejoiced, and many believed; but the Jews influenced their proselyte women of the higher class, and chief men, to drive Paul and Barnabas away. Certain Pharisees however rose up, insisting on it, but Paul would not yield "for an hour" (Galatians 2); the council followed, in which Peter silenced arguments by the logic of facts, God having given the Holy Spirit to the Gentiles, who believed through him, even as He did to the believing Jews. The decree followed, binding the Gentiles only to abstinence from idol pollutions, fornication, and, in deference to the Jews' feelings, from things strangled and blood. The realization of the brotherly bond uniting the whole church (circumcision no longer separating the Jew from the Gentile) was further to be kept up by alms for the poor brethren (Galatians 2). If Paul had proselytized Gentiles as the Jews always received proselytes, namely, with circumcision, persecution would have ceased. Unable to deny that Gentiles are admissible to the Christian covenant without circumcision, they denied that they were so to social intercourse with Jews; pleading the authority of James, they induced Peter, in spite of his own avowed principles (Acts 15:7-11) and his practice (Acts 11:2-17), through fear of man (Proverbs 29:25), to separate himself from those Gentiles with whom he had heretofore eaten; this too at Antioch, the stronghold of universality and starting point of Paul's missions to Gentiles. ...
The rest of the Jews there "dissembled" with Peter, and "Barnabas was carried away with their dissimulation"; then Paul "before them all withstood to the face" (compare
Old Testament - -By the opening of the Christian era the limits of the OT Canon had been practically fixed, and a high doctrine of its inspiration developed within the Jewish Church. -So long as the preaching of the gospel was confined to Jews, the new wine was easily kept within the old bottles. But a conflict was inevitable when the wine began to ferment, and the freedom of the faith to assert itself against Jewish limitations. Like his Jewish teachers, the Apostle continued to read the Scriptures as a body of independent ‘words,’ each charged with a life and force of its own. a forecast of Christian ‘tongues’ (1 Corinthians 14:21), betrays the unrestrained liberty of interpretation exercised by the Jewish exegete. Apart from these few survivals from a dead past, which touch only the periphery of his thought, there is nothing in his Epistles that reminds us of the arbitrary and highly extravagant exegetical results of his Jewish contemporaries. ...
In his preaching to the Jews St. ), while proof-texts are adduced for the promise of the Spirit (Galatians 3:14), the destruction of human wisdom through the foolishness of preaching (1 Corinthians 1:19), the universal range of the preaching of salvation (Romans 10:18), the vital principle of righteousness by faith (Romans 1:17, Romans 3:21, Galatians 3:11), the fatal unbelief of the Jews (Romans 10:16 ff. ...
So far, then, the OT is treated as a Jewish book, pointing to the fulfilment of the ‘promise’ in Christ. As a Jewish book, the OT made no direct appeal to other nations. Irrespective, then, of the Jewish origin and cast of the whole, he deliberately transformed it into a Christian book, in which Christ was openly identified with the God of the Jews (cf. The true Israel unto whom the Word was given is no more Abraham’s seed according to the flesh, but ‘the children of the promise,’ whether Jew or Gentile (Romans 9:6 ff. But to impose the Law on Gentile Christians as a necessary condition of their salvation would inevitably reduce Christianity to a mere Jewish sect. Only the Jews have obscured its true character by the fatal emphasis they have placed on the Law. But, as a Jew of the school of Alexandria, he is much more influenced by the allegorical spirit than St. Paul to Contemporary Jewish Thought, London, 1900; the New Testament Theologies of B
Proverbs - He did not use the jargon of the schools, but expressed His heavenly teaching, albeit profounder than either Jewish theology or Greek philosophy, in language which the simplest could understand. Hebrews 11:36-38); but in truth it was not peculiarly Jewish. ]'>[2] 21; Schürer, HJP
The general sentiment is well illustrated by Origen’s sneer at Celsus’ imaginary Jew who quoted Euripides, that Jews were not wont to be so well versed in Greek literature (c. A Jew with Greek quotations at his finger ends was an absurd fiction. 743: ἀγκθὸν δὲ ὀντα διαφερόντως καὶ πλούσιον εἱναι διαφερόντως ἀδύνατον); and Origen’s reply is most just: ‘Who that is even moderately able to handle the subject would not laugh at Celsus, whether a believer in Jesus or one of the rest of mankind, hearing that Jesus, who had been born and bred among Jews, and was supposed to be the son of Joseph the carpenter, and had studied no literature, neither Greek nor even Hebrew, according to the testimony of the veracious scriptures that tell his story, read Plato?’...
Nevertheless, despite their exclusiveness, it was impossible for the Jews to escape the leaven of external influences. What wonder if the Jews caught up also some of the foreign merchantmen’s proverbs?...
(2) The traders were not the only strangers who visited the Holy Land. They were, indeed, devout and patriotic Jews, but they had settled in foreign countries, and had acquired the languages and manners of the strangers among whom they dwelt and traded
Christians, Names of - They describe, in part, the Old Testament Jewish roots of Christianity, the role of the Godhead within Christianity, the union of believers with God and Christ, the nature of Christian life and conduct, and the importance of the gospel. For this reason, Paul stresses that all believers-Jew and Gentile-legitimately stand as Abraham's offspring ( Romans 4:16 ; 9:8 ), seed (Galatians 3:29 ), Abraham's children (1 Peter 1:13-16 ; Galatians 3:7 ), and children of the free woman (1 Corinthians 12:15-19,21 ) and the promise (Romans 9:8 ; Galatians 4:28 )
Israel, Israelite - ‘Jew’ (Ἰουδαῖος) implies national descent; originally used for those who were members of the tribe of Judah, and lived in the country of Judah, it became a wider term, after the return from Babylon, for all who were members of the Hebrew race. The one decisive breach that He made with Jewish legalism was in dealing with the distinction between clean and unclean foods, and with ceremonial washings ( Mercy, Merciful - His parables use the term to describe the mercy of a master on his indebted servant (Matthew 18:27 ), the compassion of a father for his prodigal son (Luke 15:20 ), and a Samaritan's pity for a wounded Jew (Luke 10:33 )
Unity - In this, racial and social distinctions-Jew and Gentile, bond and free-serve only to emphasize and enhance the fact that those who are united in Christ, however different in all else, have immeasurably more in common than those who are separated by Christ, however alike in every other respect (1 Corinthians 7:22, Galatians 3:28, Ephesians 2:11-22)
Pilgrimage - Mecca is the grand place to which they go; and this pilgrimage is so necessary a point of practice, that, according to a tradition of Mahomet, he who dies without performing it, may as well die a Jew or a Christian; and the same is expressly commanded in the Koran
Headship - ’ Psalms 118:22 was applied by Christ to His relation to the Church as uniting Jew and Gentile, and to His approaching rejection by Israel
Atonement - There is no difference between Jew and Gentile in this respect, “for all have sinned and come short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23 )
Head - ...
Psalm 44:14 (b) This action on the part of the nations among whom Israel is scattered indicates their contempt of the Jew
Angel - Indeed, the ancient Sadducees are represented as denying all spirits; and yet the Samaritans, and Caraites, who are reputed Sadducees, openly allowed them: witness Abusaid, the author of an Arabic version of the Pentateuch; and Aaron, a Caraite Jew, in his comment on the Pentateuch; both extant in manuscript in the king of France's library. The Jews reckon four orders or companies of angels, each headed by an archangel; the first order being that of Michael; the second, of Gabriel; the third, of Uriel; and the fourth, of Raphael. ...
Though the Jews, in general, believed the existence of angels, there was a sect among them, namely, the Sadducees, who denied the existence of all spirits whatever, God only excepted, Acts 23:8 . But, without noticing all the wild reveries which have been propagated by bold or ignorant persons, let it suffice to observe, that by "the sons of God" we are evidently to understand the descendants of Seth, who, for the great piety wherein they continued for some time, were so called; and that "the daughters of men" were the progeny of wicked Cain As to the doctrine of tutelary or guarding angels, presiding over the affairs of empires, nations, provinces, and particular persons, though received by the later Jews, it appears to be wholly Pagan in its origin, and to have no countenance in the Scriptures. The passages in Daniel brought to favour this notion are capable of a much better explanation; and when our Lord declares that the "angels" of little children "do always behold the face of God," he either speaks of children as being the objects of the general ministry of angels, or, still more probably, by angels he there means the disembodied spirits of children; for that the Jews called disembodied spirits by the name of angels, appears from Acts 12:15
Proselyte - the ‘stranger’ had become a member of the Jewish Church a proselyte in the technical sense (Bertholet, Stellung der Israeliten , p. ...
Other expressions are used in the NT to indicate a more or less close sympathy with Jewish religious thought and life without implying absolute identity with and inclusion in Judaism. Proselytizing activity of the Jews . ...
This spiritual enthusiasm for God’s honour and man’s salvation continued till about the time of the Maccabees, when the tenderer springs of the Jewish spirit were dried up, and the sword became the instrument of national idealism, and whole cities and tribes were given the option of circumcision or exile, if not slaughter ( 1Ma 2:46 ; 1Ma 13:48 ; 1Ma 14:14 ; 1Ma 14:36 ; Jos. of our era, when the dissatisfaction of the Jews with the Roman supremacy culminated in insurrection. 14; Schürer, HJP
Among individual Jewish teachers there was difference of opinion as to the necessity of circumcision and baptism, but all early usage seems to confirm their actual observance. It is true that Izates, king of Adiahene, for a time refrained from circumcision under the guidance of his first Jewish teacher, Ananias, but this counsel was given, not because it was at the time deemed unnecessary for a proselyte to be circumcised, but because circumcision might alienate the sympathies of his people from Izates and endanger his throne. All through the Dispersion we find the same disposition to conciliate the Gentiles who were willing to share in the Jewish faith in any measure, by relaxing the ritual demands. And we cannot withhold our appreciation of the action of the Jews, for they wisely discriminated between the real and the formal side of their religion. Those proselytes who had embraced Judaism in its entirety seem to have accepted the attitude of the Jews generally towards Christianity. If the experience of Justin be any indication of the general attitude of the proselytes to the Church, they must have deemed it a duty to their adopted faith to manifest a violence of speech and an aggressiveness of action unsurpassed by the Jews themselves; for he says, ‘the proselytes not only do not believe, but twofold more than yourselves blaspheme His name, and wish to torture and put to death us who believe in Him’ ( Dial . ...
But the proselytes must always have formed a very small minority of those amongst the Gentiles who had lent an ear to Jewish teaching. Amongst the Jews both the proselyte and the devout worshipper occupied an inferior place, but here was a faith that made no distinction between Jew or Gentile, a faith whose conception of God was tenderer and whose ethical standards were higher, that made love and not law the interpreter of duty and the inspiration of service, that lived not in an evening twilight of anticipation of a glorious Messianic morning, but in warm fellowship with a Personality that was the evidence of its power and truth. One can easily understand with what feelings of combined jealousy and hate the Jews would see these worshippers detached from the synagogue and formed into a church. Failure drove the Jews in sullenness upon themselves
Nathanael - This private sign to Nathanael was a prelude to those public miracles in which Christ ‘manifested His glory’ to the Jewish nation and through it to all the world. ’...
The narrative of the call of Nathanael, like the rest of John 1, strongly confirms the belief that the writer is a Jew of Palestine, well acquainted with the Messianic hopes, and with the traditions and phraseology current in Palestine at the time of Christ’s ministry; able also to give a lifelike picture of Christ’s first disciples
Inspiration And Revelation - -The Jew under the OT rose up from the contemplation of Nature with an intense belief in Divine Providence. -This, then, is substantially what we find in the OT, and in the Jewish writings which follow upon the OT. The most instructive passages from this point of view are to be found in the speeches of Acts, both in those addressed to heathen (as in Acts 14:15-17; Acts 17:22-31) and in those addressed to Jews (as in Acts 7; Acts 13:16-41). And here, too, there was many a pagan who, though without the privileges which the Jew enjoyed through the possession of a written law, faithfully observed such inner law as he had. Paul fully recognized this, and used it as an a fortiori argument addressed to his own Jewish converts, and to those whom he desired to make his converts. -When the apostles or Christians of the first generation preach to Jews, their preaching, so far as we have record of it, is always an appeal to history, sometimes on a larger scale, sometimes on a smaller
Turning - ’ And this use of the word ‘turn,’ we must remember, was not only a natural figure to denote a great spiritual transformation, but one that was especially familiar to every pious Jew. Paul’s claim, as he stands before King Agrippa, is that he has declared alike to Jew and Gentile ‘that they should repent and turn to God’ (Acts 26:20). Paul combines the two when he says to the elders of the Ephesian Church, as he sums up his ministry among them, that both to Jews and Greeks his testimony has been this: ‘repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus Christ’ (Acts 20:21)
Sin - Not less guilty was the Jew who failed to keep the Law of the possession of which he made his boast (Romans 2:23). Paul regard sin as a personal agent? As a Jew he believed in Satan and a host of evil spirits; and probably, if pressed to explain the power of sin, he would have appealed to this personal agency; but we must not assume that when he thus speaks of sin he is always thinking of Satan
John, Gospel of - ...
It has been usual to arrange the evidence in narrowing circles; to show that the author must have been a Jew, a Palestinian, an eye-witness, one of the Twelve, and lastly the Apostle John. It must suffice to say that a close familiarity with Jewish customs and observances, such as could not have been possessed by an Ephesian in a. 7), the Dedication (John 10:22 ), Jews and Samaritans ( John 4:19-20 ), conversation with women in public ( John 4:27 ), ceremonial pollution ( John 18:28 ), and other minute touches, each slight in itself, but taken together of great weight. and indeed throughout the Gospel, indicate one who was thoroughly acquainted with Jewish views and expectations from within. Familiarity with the Jewish Scriptures and a free but reverent use of them are apparent throughout. It is quite conceivable that a Jew of the 2nd cent
Announcements of Death - ...
(g) It is not till the death of Lazarus that the disciples realize that Jesus may be put to death (John 11:8); and then as a dread growing out of the last attempt of the Jews to kill Him at the feast of Dedication (John 10:39). By His death the middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile, and between both and God, will be broken down (Ephesians 2:14-18). To the multitude Jesus boldly announces that His lifting up (on the cross) will be the means of drawing all men (Gentile as well as Jew) to Him (John 12:32). ...
(f) In the famous controversy with the Jewish rulers in the temple on the last Tuesday, Jesus identified Himself as the rejected Stone in the Messianic prophecy in Psalms 118:22, and pronounced condemnation on those who collided with the rejected Stone (Matthew 21:44). ...
(g) It is on Tuesday night (beginning of Jewish Wednesday) that Jesus definitely foretells the time of His death (Matthew 26:2)
Paul the Apostle - pseudo-Clementine literature, he gathered that there were originally two bitterly opposed factions in the Church, Jewish and Gentile, headed respectively by St. Bishop Lightfoot has shown that the Colossian heresy is a very incipient form of semi-Jewish Gnosticism, such as we should expect in the 1st cent. Colossians 2:3 , 1 Corinthians 8:1 ; 1 Corinthians 12:8 ), a heresy more Jewish in tone than even that which appears in Colossians ( Titus 1:14 ); because the ministry is said to be too fully developed for the lifetime of St. But while Saul was his Jewish name, he must, as a Roman citizen, have had three Roman names. The existence of alternative names side by side, a Jewish and a Greek or Roman name, was quite a common thing among Jews of the 1st cent. 1 Corinthians 9:15 , 1 Thessalonians 2:9 , 2 Thessalonians 3:8 ); for it is very probable that his family cast him off because of his conversion, and especially because of his attitude to the Gentiles; and moreover, it was the custom for all Jewish boys to be taught a trade. He was brought up a strict Pharisee ( Acts 23:6 ; Acts 26:5 , Galatians 1:14 , Philippians 3:5 ), and long after his conversion he retained a certain pride in his Jewish hirth and a great affection for his own people ( Romans 4:1 ; Romans 9:3 ; Romans 10:1 ; Romans 11:1 , 2 Corinthians 11:22 ). Though born outside Palestine, he was brought up, not as a Greek-speaking Jew or Hellenist, but as a Hebrew; for this last term denotes a difference of language and manners ( Philippians 3:5 ; see Lightfoot’s note). Paul a zealous and bigoted Jew, determined with all the ardour of youth to uphold the traditions of his fathers
John, the Gospel by - Israel is viewed as reprobate throughout: the feasts are not spoken of as the feasts of Jehovah, but as 'of the Jews,' and 'the Jews' (those of Jerusalem and Judaea) are distinguished from 'the people,' who may have been Galileans or visitors at the feasts from districts outside Judaea. The Jews, 'his own,' received Him not; but to those who received Him He gave authority to become children of God. Man, being a sinner, his whole status as in the flesh, whether Jew or Gentile, is regarded as judged and set aside in the lifting up of the Son of man, the antitype of the brazen serpent, and life is found for man beyond death. The love of God is not limited to the Jews. " The Jews are left in dissension and darkness. The testimony of His own word as the light of the world follows, and is definitely rejected by the Jews; and when He at length bears witness, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am," they took up stones to cast at Him. The leaders of the Jews were themselves blind, and said of Jesus, "We know that this man is a sinner. But the Jew is made blinder by the light that has come in. If the Jews cast His disciples out of the synagogue, it was the Lord who led them out of the Jewish fold. By Him if any one entered in he should be saved, and find liberty and food, in contrast to the Jewish system in which these were not found. Also there is no fold now, but one flock and one Shepherd: thus Jews and Gentiles are joined in one flock. The Jews seeking again to take Him, He departed beyond Jordan. In the resurrection of Lazarus this is set forth in pattern; but at the same time a crisis was reached as regards His testimony to the Jews, and He is now conspired against by the leaders of the people, who decide that it was expedient that one man should die for the nation. He could not take the kingdom, and bring in blessing either for Jews or Greeks without dying; and, while the kingdom glory would be deferred, He would Himself be glorified as Son of man, and would, in dying as the grain of wheat, bring forth much fruit. The chapter closes with the utter rejection of the Jews. The Jews choose Barabbas. Jesus is pronounced to be guiltless, but is condemned by Pilate, after being presented to the Jews as their king. Thomas, who saw and believed, represents the Jewish remnant in the latter day, who will believe when they see the Lord
Wine And Strong Drink - It is even improbable that with the means at their disposal the Jews could have so preserved it had they wished (cf. Romans 14:13-21 ) appeals to the individual conscience with greater urgency and insistence than ever before in the experience of Jew or Christian
Canon of the New Testament - If the argument were true the Jews could use it with tenfold power against all Christians, for the Jews unquestionably are the witnesses and transmitters of the Old Testament to us (Romans 3:2); and on Rome's principle we should be bound to accept the Jews' interpretation of it, renounce Christianity and become Jews. ...
Nothing but almighty Providence could have constrained both the Jews (in the case of the Old Testament) and the Roman and Greek apostate churches (in the case of the New Testament) to witness for the very Scriptures which condemn them. ...
Their previous habits (as being some of them illiterate, and all bigoted Jew) prove that nothing but divine power could have so changed them from their former selves as to be the founders of a spiritual and worldwide dispensation (see Luke 24:25; Luke 24:49), utterly alien to their Jewish prejudices
Zebedee - —As in the rest of Galilee, the Jewish population here had come in during the later days of the Maccabees and the reign of Herod. 3) tells us of the innate enmity of the Syrian to the Jew; but here such feelings would be less intense
Lord - On the other hand, the Jewish rebels denied the political authority of the caesar. Being exempt from the cult of the caesar, Jews could easily call the caesar: “lord. Origen reported that when Jews read the divine name Yahweh, they would pronounce it adonai , while non-Jews would pronounce it kurios . In this way Christians preserved and continued the Jewish understanding of God. ...
Before His resurrection, Jesus was addressed with the Jewish title of honor Rabbi (“teacher”, Mark 9:5 ; Mark 11:21 , for example). According to Mark only once did a non-Jew address Jesus as Lord ( Mark 7:28 ), but even that was simply a polite and courteous way of speaking (equivalent to our “sir”)
Majesty (2) - Was it not this majesty of a pure soul that arrested and troubled Pilate himself in the midst of his keen concern for his own selfish interests and his lofty Roman contempt for a mere Jew? And was it not this same majesty of holiness that smote upon the heart of the very centurion who carried out the sentence of crucifixion, so that he exclaimed, ‘Certainly this was a righteous man’ (Luke 23:47)? Sometimes we see Christ’s moral majesty flashing out so overwhelmingly that it works with a kind of physical effect, as when the profane traffickers in the Temple cringe and flee before Him; or when, in the Garden, as He steps out of the shadows, saying, ‘I am he,’ His enemies go backward, and fall to the ground (John 18:5 f
Hardening - ...
He approaches the painful subject of the hardening of the Jews under the preaching of the gospel from two different sides. When his object is to humble their pride and pretension, he emphasizes (what no Jew would deny) the absoluteness of God; when his aim is to silence their excuses, he shows them that it is for their own sins that they are rejected
Holy Day - The term was employed in the Jewish Law to denote a day set apart for the service of God. The scope of this article is confined to the attitude adopted by the Apostolic Church towards the Jewish ‘holy days. ’ The subject is really part of a much larger one-the question of its attitude towards the Jewish Law. Jesus, while completely abrogating the ceremonial Law (see article Holiness), yet attended Jewish feasts; and St. Paul, notwithstanding his attitude towards the Jewish Law, is represented in Acts 20:16 as hastening his sea-journey, in order to be at Jerusalem for the day of Pentecost. ...
To discuss the whole question of the Sabbath in relation to the Apostolic Church would be to transgress the limits of this article, but the position that must in general be adopted is that there is no trace in the NT of an arbitrary and conscious substitution of the Lord’s Day for the Jewish Sabbath. Indeed, the original motive of the institution of the Jewish Sabbath, before its observance was overlaid with minute Rabbinical details, was not so much that the Israelite should rest himself, as that he should give others rest. The life and work, the example and precept, and above all the Resurrection of Jesus, implied the complete abrogation of the Mosaic dispensation; but as that dispensation was still part of the personal environment, and eventually bound up with the personal religion of individual Christians-both Jew and Gentile-for many generations, it is not to be expected that its cogency would at once cease to be felt. Paul is really combating the influence of those who wore making the attempt to judaize, insisting that submission to Jewish rites was necessary for salvation, and discrediting the freedom of the Pauline gospel as antinomianism. Paul, and those who adhered to him, from the observance of Jewish holy days
Jephthah - The Mischna, or traditional law of the Jews, is pointedly against it: "If a Jew should devote his son or daughter, his man or maid servant, who are Hebrews, the devotement would be void; because no man can devote what is not his own, or of whose life he has not the absolute disposal
David - ' David was the son of Jesse, a descendant of Boaz and Ruth, a Jew and a Gentile: both Jews and Gentiles are to be blessed in the Christ whom David typified. The Lord Jesus is often called the Son of David, and yet He is David's Lord, about which fact He Himself asked the Jews
Divination - We have an instance of this in Esther, when Haman wanted to find a lucky day on which his plans against the Jews should be carried out. , besides the case referred to of the damsel possessed by a spirit of Python, we read of others, such as Simon who used sorcery and bewitched the people of Samaria for a long time, Acts 8:9-11 ; and Elymas the sorcerer, a Jew who was met with in Cyprus, who perverted the right ways of the Lord
Daniel, Book of - The king had to learn that the God of the Jews was the Most High God, who was able to set him and all his powers at defiance. In the last days the faithful Jews will be in the furnace of tribulation for not complying with the Imperial religion. Typically, Darius represents the last Gentile emperor, who will be worshipped; Daniel, the godly Jews who will be saved from the very jaws of destruction; his opposers, the future infidel accusers of God's people. Daniel 11:36-39 are a parenthesis and refer to Antichrist as a king: he will be a Jew and not regard 'the God of his fathers,' nor the Messiah as 'the desire of women,' nor regard any known god; but will set himself up above all. ...
Daniel 12 : This is the deliverance and blessing of the Jewish remnant. It is important to remember that Daniel's prophecy embraces the 'times of the Gentiles' — running on from the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar to the restoration of the Jews whenruled over by the Son of David
Gospels - We know that the Jews kept up their traditions orally ( Matthew 15:2 ff. 120) probably incorporates an old Jewish tract on the ‘Way of Life and the Way of Death,’ and was itself afterwards incorporated and freely treated in later documents such as the Apostolic Constitutions ( c [6] ), probably natives of Kerioth in Judæa; Joseph of Arimathæa, ‘a city of the Jews’ ( Luke 23:51 ); the household at Bethany; and Simon the leper ( Mark 14:3 ). Internal evidence shows that its author was an eyewitness, a Palestinian Jew of the 1st cent
Education - Jewish. -The Jews from early times prized education in a measure beyond the nations around them. The value of education was understood among the Jews before the Christian era. 12), comparing the Jews with other nations, ‘is to educate our children well, and to observe the laws, and we think it to be the most necessary business of our whole life to keep this religion which has been handed down to us. ’ Among the Jews every child had to learn to read; scarcely any Jewish children were to be found to whom reading of a written document was strange, and therefore were there so many poor Jewish parents ready to deny themselves the necessaries of life in order to let their children have instruction (c. The result of instruction from the earliest years in the home, and of teaching received on the Sabbath, and on the frequent occasions of national festivals, is, according to the Jewish historian, ‘that if anybody do but ask any one of our people about our laws, he could more easily tell them all than he could tell his own name. ’ Philo speaks of Jewish youth ‘being taught, so to speak, from their very swaddling clothes by parents and teachers and inspectors, even before they receive instruction in the holy laws and unwritten customs of their religion, to believe in God the one Father and Creator of the world’ (Legat. At the age of six the Jewish boy would go to the elementary school (Bêth ha-Sçpher), but before this he would have received lessons in Scripture from his parents and have learned the Shʿma‘ and the Hallçl, From the sixth to the tenth year he would make a study of the Law, along with writing and arithmetic. The love of sacred learning and the study of the Law in synagogue and school saved the Jewish people from extinction. When Jerusalem had been destroyed and the Jewish population had been scattered after the disastrous events of a. Jamnia, between Joppa and Ashdod, then became the headquarters of Jewish learning, and retained the position till the unhappy close of Bar Cochba’s rebellion. Wherever the Jews were settled, the family gathering of the Passover, the household instruction as to its origin and history, and the training in the knowledge of the Law, served to knit them together and to intensify their national feeling even in the midst of heathen surroundings. To make the Jewish boy familiar with the Hebrew characters in every jot and tittle, and to make him able to produce them himself, was the business of the Bêth ha-Sçpher, ‘the House of the Book. ’ Reading thus came to be a universal accomplishment among the Jewish people, and it was a necessary qualification where the sacred books were not the exclusive concern of a priestly caste, but were meant to be read and studied in the home as well as read aloud and expounded in the synagogue. The case of Timothy already referred to is evidence of this; and the Scriptures which the Jewish converts of Berœa ‘examined daily’ were no doubt the OT in Greek which they were trained to study for themselves. This can be inferred from the numerous copies of the Scripture books which had to be produced; and from the prevalence of tʿphillîn (‘phylacteries’) and mʿzûzôth, little metal cases containing the Shʿma‘, the name of God, and texts of Scripture, fastened to the ‘doorposts’ of Jewish houses, which were in use before the Apostolic Age. The simple rules of arithmetic would be wanted to calculate the weeks, months, and festivals of the Jewish year. It is said to have been a rule of the Jewish schools not to allow all and sundry, without regard to age, to read all the books of Holy Scripture, but to give to the young all those portions of Scripture whose literal sense commanded universal acceptance, and only after they had attained the age of twenty-five to allow them to read the whole. Origen lefts of the scruples of the Jewish teachers in regard to the reading of the Song of Solomon by the young (Harnack, Bible Reading in the Early Church, 1912, p. Abrahams, Short History of Jewish Literature, 1906, ch. ...
In the education of the Jewish boy, punishment, we may be sure, was not withheld. Paul, addressing a self-righteous Jew, exposes the inconsistency of the man who professes to be a guide of the blind (ὀδηγὸν τυφλῶν), a corrector of the foolish (παιδευτὴν ἀφρόνων), and a teacher of infants (διδάσκαλον νηπίων), and yet does not know the inwardness of the Law (Romans 2:19 f. ...
Games had some part in the life of Jewish schoolboys. ...
Whilst the education of Jewish youth on the theoretical side centred in the Law and was calculated to instil piety towards God, no instruction was complete without the knowledge of some trade or handicraft. ‘He that teacheth not his son a trade doeth the same as if he taught him to be a thief,’ is a Jewish saying. ...
The education of the Jewish youth began at home, and the parents were the first instructors. ...
The girls in Jewish families were not by any means left without instruction. The example of Priscilla, the wife of Aquila, shows that a Jewess (who did not owe all her training to Christianity) might be possessed of high gifts and attainments (Acts 18:26). Büchler, The Economic Conditions of Judœa after the Destruction of the Second Temple, 1912 article ‘Education (Jewish)’ by Morris Joseph in Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics v. Whilst among the Jews education was meant for all, without respect of rank or class, among the Greeks it was intended for the few-the wealthy and the well-born. It is from school life, both Jewish and Greek, that St. In the Psalms of Solomon, a Jewish book written under Greek influence, there is reference both to the rod (ῥάβδος, 7:8) and to the lash (μάστιξ, 18:8) as instruments of punishment; and ‘chastening,’ ‘correction’ (παιδεία), occurs again and again in this sense (Ephesians 6:4, 2 Timothy 3:16, Hebrews 12:11; cf. -The sentiment which caused education to be so prized among the Jews must in course of time have caused it to be greatly desired among the followers of Christ. ‘Among the Jewish Christians,’ as Harnack points out, ‘the private use of the Holy Scriptures simply continued; for the fact that they had become believers in the Messiahship of Jesus had absolutely no other effect than to increase this use, in so far as it was now necessary to study not only the Law but also the Prophets and the Kethubim, seeing that these afforded prophetic proofs of the Messiah-ship of Jesus, and in so far as the religious independence of the individual Christian was still greater than that of the ordinary Jew’ (Bible Reading in the Early Church, p
Mental Characteristics - But it is impossible, for all that, to regard Jesus as a typical, or as a perfect Jew. He rose above them all; and while nothing truly Jewish was discarded or denied, the Jew was left below
Law - Hence we frequently read of the law of Moses as expressive of the whole religion of the Jews, Hebrews 9:19 ; Hebrews 10:28 . Sometimes, in a more restricted sense, for the ritual or ceremonial observances of the Jewish religion. "...
Ephesians 2:15 ; Hebrews 10:1 ; and which, being only "a shadow of good things to come," Christ Jesus abolished by his death, and so in effect destroyed the ancient distinction between Jew and Gentile, Galatians 3:17 . If we examine the Jewish law, to discover the principle on which the whole system depends, the primary truth, to inculcate and illustrate which is its leading object, we find it to be that great basis of all religion, both natural and revealed, the self-existence, essential unity, perfections, and providence of the supreme Jehovah, the Creator of heaven and earth. "...
This, then, is one great leading doctrine of the Jewish code. Is it not then highly remarkable, that it is under this character the Divinity is described on his first manifestation to the Jewish lawgiver? The Deity at first reveals himself unto him as the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob; and therefore the peculiar national and guardian God of the Jewish race. To confute and resist this false principle was, therefore, one great object of the Jewish scheme. Hence the unity of God is inculcated with perpetual solicitude; it stands at the head of the system of moral law promulgated to the Jews from Sinai by the divine voice, heard by the assembled nation, and issuing from the divine glory, with every circumstance which could impress the deepest awe upon even the dullest minds: "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage; thou shalt have no others gods beside me," Exodus 20:2-3 . ...
This self-existent, supreme and only God is moreover described as possessed of every perfection which can be ascribed to the Divinity: "Ye shall be holy," says the Lord to the people of the Jews; "for I the Lord your God am holy," Leviticus 19:2 . In truth, this fact of the perpetual providence of God extending even to the minutest events, is inseparably connected with every motive which is offered to sway the conduct of the Jews, and forcibly inculcated by every event of their history. And, finally, it is most evident, that, contrary to all other lawgivers, the Jewish legislator renders his civil institutions entirely subordinate to his religious; and announces to his nation that their temporal adversity or prosperity would entirely depend, not on their observance of their political regulations; not on their preserving a military spirit, or acquiring commercial wealth, or strengthening themselves by powerful alliances; but on their continuing to worship the one true God according to the religious rites and ceremonies by him prescribed, and preserving their piety and morals untainted by the corruptions and vices which idolatry tended to introduce. ...
Such was the theology of the Jewish religion, at a period when the whole world was deeply infected with idolatry; when all knowledge of the one true God, all reverence for his sacred name, all reliance on his providence, all obedience to his laws, were nearly banished from the earth; when the severest chastisements had been tried in vain; when no hope of reformation appeared from the refinements of civilization or the researches of philosophy; for the most civilized and enlightened nations adopted with the greatest eagerness, and disseminated with the greatest activity, the absurdities, impieties, and pollutions of idolatry. Then was the Jewish law promulgated to a nation, who, to mere human judgment, might have appeared incapable of inventing or receiving such a high degree of intellectual and moral improvement; for they had been long enslaved to the Egyptians, the authors and supporters of the grossest idolatry; they had been weighed down by the severest bondage, perpetually harassed by the most incessant manual labours; for the Egyptians "made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service in the field," Exodus 1:14 . ...
It is an obvious, but it is not therefore a less important remark, that to the Jewish religion we owe that admirable summary of moral duty, contained in the ten commandments. By commanding to keep holy the Sabbath, as the memorial of the creation, it establishes the necessity of public worship, and of a stated and outward profession of the truths of religion, as well as of the cultivation of suitable feelings; and it enforces this by a motive which is equally applicable to all mankind, and which should have taught the Jew that he ought to consider all nations as equally creatures of that Jehovah whom he himself adored; equally subject to his government, and, if sincerely obedient, entitled to all the privileges his favour could bestow. ...
But the Jewish religion promoted the interests of moral virtue, not merely by the positive injunctions of the decalogue; it also inculcated clearly and authoritatively the two great principles on which all piety and virtue depend, and which our blessed Lord recognised as the commandments on which hang the law and the prophets,—the principles of love to God and love to our neighbour. With what solemnity does the Jewish lawgiver impress it at the commencement of his recapitulation of the divine law: "Hear, O Israel: the Lord our God is one Lord; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might," Deuteronomy 6:4-5 . ...
Thus, on a review of the topics we have discussed, it appears that the Jewish law promulgated the great principles of moral duty in the decalogue, with a solemnity suited to their high preeminence; that it enjoined love to God with the most unceasing solicitude, and love to our neighbour, as extensively and forcibly, as the peculiar design of the Jewish economy, and the peculiar character of the Jewish people, would permit; that it impressed the deepest conviction of God's requiring, not mere external observances, but heart-felt piety, well regulated desires, and active benevolence; that it taught sacrifice could not obtain pardon without repentance, or repentance without reformation and restitution; that it described circumcision itself, and, by consequence, every other legal rite, as designed to typify and inculcate internal holiness, which alone could render men acceptable to God; that it represented the love of God as designed to act as a practical principle, stimulating to the constant and sincere cultivation of purity, mercy, and truth; and that it enforced all these principles and precepts by sanctions the most likely to operate powerfully on minds unaccustomed to abstract speculations and remote views, even by temporal rewards and punishments; the assurance of which was confirmed from the immediate experience of similar rewards and punishments, dispensed to their enemies and to themselves by that supernatural Power which had delivered the Hebrew nation out of Egypt, conducted them through the wilderness, planted them in the land of Canaan, regulated their government, distributed their possessions, and to which alone they could look to obtain new blessings, or secure those already enjoyed
Paul - was born at Tarsus, the principal city of Cilicia, and was by birth both a Jew and a citizen of Rome, Acts 21:39 ; Acts 22:25 . In his youth he appears to have been taught the art of tent making, Acts 18:3 ; but we must remember that among the Jews of those days a liberal education was often, accompanied by instruction in some mechanical trade. The boldness and success with which he enforced the truths of Christianity so irritated the unbelieving Jews, that they resolved to put him to death, Acts 9:23 ; but, this design being known, the disciples conveyed him privately out of Damascus, and he went to Jerusalem, A. Paul preached at Jerusalem had the same effect as at Damascus: he became so obnoxious to the Hellenistic Jews, that they began to consider how they might kill him, Acts 9:29 ; which when the brethren knew, they thought it right that he should leave the city. Paul, as well as of the other Apostles and teachers, had been confined to the Jews; but the conversion of Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, A. Paul, in which he was accompanied and assisted by Barnabas, is supposed to have occupied about two years; and in the course of it many, both Jews and Gentiles, were converted to the Gospel. ...
Paul and Barnabas continued at Antioch a considerable time; and while they were there, a dispute arose between them and some Jewish Christians of Judea. Thence he went through Amphipolis and Apollonia to Thessalonica, Acts xvii, where he preached in the synagogues of the Jews on three successive Sabbath days. Some of the Jews, and many of the Gentiles of both sexes, embraced the Gospel; but the unbelieving Jews, moved with envy and indignation at the success of St. 51, and lived in the house of Aquila and Priscilla, two Jews, who, being compelled to leave Rome in consequence of Claudius's edict against the Jews, had lately settled at Corinth. At first he preached to the Jews in their synagogue; but upon their violently opposing his doctrine, he declared that from that time he would preach to the Gentiles only; and, accordingly, he afterward delivered his instructions in the house of one Justus, who lived near the synagogue. Among the few Jews who embraced the Gospel, were Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue, and his family; and many of the Gentile Corinthians "hearing believed, and were baptized. Paul was encouraged in a vision, to persevere in his exertions to convert the inhabitants of Corinth; and although he met with great opposition and disturbance from the unbelieving Jews, and was accused by them before Gallio, the Roman governor of Achaia, he continued there a year and six months, "teaching the word of God. He preached for the space of three months in the synagogue; but the Jews being hardened beyond conviction, and speaking reproachfully of the Christian religion before the multitude, he left them; and from that time he delivered his instructions in the school of a person called Tyrannus, who was probably a Gentile. Paul continued to preach in this place about two years, so that all the inhabitants of that part of Asia Minor "heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks. Paul's intention was to have sailed from Corinth into Syria; but being informed that some unbelieving Jews, who had discovered his intention, lay in wait for him, he changed his plan, passed through Macedonia, and sailed from Philippi to Troas in five days, A. Paul, if he went to Jerusalem, would suffer much from the Jews. Paul was received by the Apostles and other Christians at Jerusalem with great joy and affection; and his account of the success of his ministry, and of the collections which he had made among the Christians of Macedonia and Achaia, for the relief of their brethren in Judea, afforded them much satisfaction; but not long after his arrival at Jerusalem, some Jews of Asia, who had probably in their own country witnessed St. Paul's zeal in spreading Christianity among the Gentiles, seeing him one day in the temple, endeavoured to excite a tumult, by crying out that he was the man who was aiming to destroy all distinction between Jew and Gentile; who taught things contrary to the law of Moses; and who had polluted the holy temple, by bringing into it uncircumcised Heathens. " During his confinement he converted some Jews resident at Rome, and many Gentiles, and, among the rest, several persons belonging to the emperor's household, Php_4:22 . He was conversant with Grecian and Jewish literature; and gave early proofs of an active and zealous disposition. Though emphatically styled the great Apostle of the Gentiles, he began his ministry, in almost every city, by preaching in the synagogue of the Jews, and though he owed by far the greater part of his persecutions to the opposition and malice of that proud and obstinate people, whose resentment he particularly incurred by maintaining that the Gentiles were to be admitted to an indiscriminate participation of the benefits of the new dispensation, yet it rarely happened in any place, that some of the Jews did not yield to his arguments, and embrace the Gospel. The harsh tone of his mind inclined him to the principles of Pharisaism, which had all the appearance of severity, and was the predominant party among the Jews
Cross, Crucifixion - According to Jewish law (Deuteronomy 21:22-23 ) the offenders were “hung on a tree,” which meant they were “accursed of God” and outside the covenant people. ), but on the whole the Jews condemned and seldom used the method. Several aspects of Jesus' passion are predicted; 1) it occurred by divine necessity (“must” in Mark 8:31 ); 2 ) both Jews (“delivered”) and Romans (“killed”) were guilty (Mark 9:31 ); 3 ) Jesus would be vindicated by being raised from the dead; 4) the death itself entailed glory (seen in the “lifted up” sayings which imply exaltation in John 3:14 ; John 8:28 ; John 12:32-33 ). ...
The narration of Jesus' crucifixion in the Gospels emphasized Jewish guilt, but all four carefully separated the leaders from the common people, who supported Jesus all along and were led astray by the leaders at the last. ” The Jewish elements in the crucifixion of Jesus were the wine mixed with myrrh (Mark 15:23 ), the hyssop reed with vinegar (Mark 15:36 ), and the removal of Jesus' body from the cross before sunset (John 19:31 ). John noted that the inscription on the cross (“JESUS OF NAZARETH, THE KING OF THE JewS”) was written in Aramaic, Latin, and Greek (John 19:19-20 ), thereby changing it into a universal proclamation of Jesus' royal status. It forged a new unity between Jew and Gentile by breaking down “the dividing wall of hostility” and “made the two one” (Ephesians 2:14-15 NIV), thereby producing “peace” by creating a new access to the Father ( Ephesians 2:18 )
Jesus, Life And Ministry of - Rather, He was born (as the Jewish messiah must be) in Bethlehem, the “city of David,” as a descendant of David's royal line (Matthew 1:1-17 ; Matthew 2:1-6 ). Jesus made no attempt to defend or make use of His divine sonship but appealed instead to an authority to which any devout Jew of His day might have appealed—the holy Scriptures—and through them to the God of Israel. The crowds appear to have concluded that He must be the Messiah, the anointed King of David's line expected to come and deliver the Jews from Roman rule. ” Though He made no explicit messianic claims and avoided the ready-made titles of honor that the Jews customarily applied to the Messiah, Jesus spoke and acted with the authority of God Himself. Jesus was challenged on one occasion for enjoying table fellowship with social outcasts (known to the religious Jews as “sinners”) in the house of Levi, the tax collector in Capernaum. ...
We have little evidence that Jesus included non-Jews among the “sinners” to whom He was sent
Corinth - At the time of Paul's visit Claudius' decree banishing the Jews from Rome caused an influx of them to Corinth. Hence, many Jewish converts were in the Corinthian church (Acts 18), and a Judaizing spirit arose. Paul had been instrumental in converting many Gentiles (1 Corinthians 12:2) and some Jews (Acts 18:8), notwithstanding the Jews' opposition (Acts 18:5-6), during his one year and a half sojourn. Sosthenes, the ruler of the Jews' synagogue, after being beaten, seems to have been won by Paul's love to an adversary in affliction (Acts 18:8). ...
They alleged too that he was always threatening severe measures, but was too cowardly to execute them (1618529062_68; 2 Corinthians 13:2); that he was inconsistent, for he had circumcised Timothy but did not circumcise Titus, a Jew among the Jews, a Greek among the Greeks (1 Corinthians 9:20, etc
Moses - The Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch was an assumption of Jewish tradition and, as such, seems to have been taken over by Jesus and His apostles without criticism of any sort. While the religion of the OT revolved around the two foci, Law and Promise, primitive Christianity-in contrast to later Judaism-laid the chief emphasis upon the Promise; and, if the Jews exploited Moses in their controversies with the Christians, the latter could always appeal to his Messianic prediction; cf. Luke 16:29-31), and the primitive community in Jerusalem could never have entertained the thought of disparaging the authority of Moses for Christians as well as Jews. Still, the relation of the disciples of Jesus to the Mosaic Law could not permanently remain the same as that of the unbelieving Jews; the differentiating factor of belief in Jesus was felt more and more to be paramount, and at length it was fully realized that salvation could be secured not by the Law but by faith, or grace, and that it came not from Moses, but from Jesus Christ. ]'>[2] Yet this does not in any sense imply that the mother church in Jerusalem and the rest of the Jewish Christians believed themselves to be exempt from the obligation of the Law. On the contrary, we are told in Acts that the many thousands of Jewish Christians continued to be ‘zealous for the law’ (Acts 21:20), and in a continuation of the passage we are shown that the rumour of St. Paul’s having taught the Jewish Christians in his churches to forsake Moses was without foundation (Acts 21:21-26), while we learn from St. Paul’s own letters that within certain limits he desired the distinction made by Moses between Jew and Gentile to be maintained in his churches (cf. A further result was a certain relaxation of the Mosaic ordinances relating to practical life, enabling the Jewish Christians to live in brotherly intercourse with the believing Gentiles. Such a reading of the passage would be as follows: Since, not only in the Holy Land, but also in heathen lands, the doctrines of Moses are every Sabbath inculcated upon those who attend the Synagogue, it is necessary that the believing Gentiles-like the so-called ‘God-fearing’ (οἱσεβόμενοιτὸν θεόν)-should give some consideration to the Mosaic Law, and should at least abstain from taking part in those heathen practices which were most revolting to the Jewish mind. The prohibitions of the Apostolic Decree, which resemble those imposed upon Jewish proselytes, were probably framed in conformity with Leviticus 17, 18, which contain, inter alia, laws to be observed by aliens resident in the land of Israel. For not only is the golden rule introduced most inaptly in a formal respect, but the purely ethical character of the decree as thus transformed presupposes the conditions of a later time-a time when the Church was no longer concerned with the specific problem that had called for the attention of the Apostolic Council; in the West, where the ‘ethical’ form of the Decree took its rise, Jewish Christianity was a relatively insignificant force, and what was wanted there was a brief compendium of the anti-heathen morality of Christianity. Nor, strangely enough, does he mention the Decree in Galatians 2:1-10; this, however, would be sufficiently explained on the ground that the Apostle had emphasized its provisions (which, be it remembered, were not new, but had already found a regular place in the Jewish propaganda) in his missionary labours in the Galatian region (Acts 16:6)
Cross, Cross-Bearing - But there is no need of this supposition, for the figure of bearing one’s cross would be quite intelligible to Jews since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Jannaeus, and Varus. The Jews themselves had not favoured crucifixion, save Alexander Jannaeus, the ‘Thracian’ in spirit. Peter in his great address on the day of Pentecost charges the Jews with having crucified Jesus (Acts 2:36). Paul, as opposed to Jewish spectacular apocalyptics and Greek philosophizing; and he preached nothing else, not simply at Corinth, for he had done so at Athens (Acts 17:31), and this was the settled purpose of his ministry (1 Corinthians 2:2). ’ So both Jew and Gentile have ‘access in one Spirit unto the Father,’ and the middle wall of partition is broken down. The Jews considered as accursed one whose dead body merely was hung upon a gibbet, and St. It remained to the unbelieving Jews an insuperable barrier. Paul found that Christ crucified was to the sign-seeking Jews a stumbling-block (1 Corinthians 1:23)
Parable - The Jews were invited to the feast, but would not come. This was a needful lesson for the Jew. Doubtless this parable has another application, bearing upon the Jews as to their jealousy of grace being shown to the Gentiles. The debt of the Gentiles to them is expressed in the hundred pence [2]; whereas the indebtedness of the Jews to God is seen in the ten thousand talents [2]. " The virgins signify Christians, and not the faithful Jewish remnant, for these will not sleep (persecution will prevent that), nor be a mixed company, nor have to wait a long time for their Deliverer
Apocrypha, New Testament - This large group of writings can be further classified into infancy gospels, passion gospels, Jewish-Christian gospels, and gospels originating from heretical groups. Now when a certain Jew saw what Jesus was doing in his play on the sabbath, he at once went and told his father Joseph And when Joseph came to the place and saw it, he cried out to him saying: “Why do you do on the sabbath what ought not to be done?' But Jesus clapped his hands and cried to the sparrows: “Off with you!' And the sparrows took flight and went away chirping. The Jews were amazed when they saw this, and went away and told their elders what they had seen Jesus do. ...
Jewish-Christian Gospels are works that originated among Jewish-Christian groups
Apocrypha - Jews did not stop writing for centuries between the Old Testament and the New. They were ultimately preserved by the Christians rather than by the Jews. This book begins with two letters written to Jews in Egypt urging them to celebrate the cleansing of the Temple by Judas. In the remainder of the writing, the author insisted that the Jews' trouble came as the result of their sinfulness. Obedience to the law is central along with separation of Jews from Gentiles. In this book Nebuchadnezzar, the king of the Assyrians, reigned at the time the Jews returned from Exile. This shows it is not historically accurate, for Cyrus of Persia was king when the Jews returned from Exile (538 B. The Jews resisted. The result was a great victory for the Jews over their enemies. The first section of the book gave comfort to oppressed Jews and condemned those who had turned from their faith in God. The writer was a devout Jew, highly educated, with the opportunity to travel outside Palestine. Thus he included in his writing not only traditional Jewish wisdom but material that he found of value from the Greek world. This writing is an apocalypse, a type of writing popular among the Jews in the Intertestamental Period and which became popular among Christians
James the Lord's Brother - And, if ever he was a bishop at all, he was the bishop of a half-enlightened Jewish ghetto rather than of a Christian church. Whether it was that he had been too long an unbeliever, and never could make up for the opportunities he had lost; or whether it was that he yielded to his natural temper too much, and let it take too deep a hold of him; or whether it was that he was never able to suppress himself so as to submit to sit at Paul's feet; or whether it was that he could never shake off the hard and narrow men who hampered and hindered him; or whether it was his life-long chastisement and impoverishment for neglecting the incomparably glorious opportunity God had given him for thirty-three years,-whatever was the true explanation of it, the fact is only too clear on too many pages of the New Testament, that James, all his days, was far more of a Jew than a genuine Christian
Alexander the Coppersmith - But, taking the text just as it has been put into our hands tonight, what are we able to make of it? What shall we succeed in taking out of it tonight for our own guidance tomorrow, and for every day we live on the earth?...
The first time we come on Alexander he is a Jew of Ephesus, and a clever speaker to an excitable crowd. Many were the clever speeches the coppersmith made during his baptized days also; the Christians putting him forward to speak, just as the Jews were wont to put him forward when he was one of themselves
Church - The first Christians were Jews who used the Greek translation of the Old Testament. The earliest Christians were Palestinian Jewish followers of Jesus and found it difficult to witness to non-Jews (Acts 10:1-48 ). The bridge to the Gentiles was the Hellenistic Jewish Christianity, which sprang into existence with the conversion of Jews from the dispersion who were visiting in Jerusalem and converted at Pentecost (Ephesians 2:19 ). These Jews whose residence had been in the cities of the Roman Empire were called Hellenistic because they were generally more open to the Greco-Roman culture than their Palestinian colleagues. ...
Paul was a Hellenistic Jew (Acts 21:39 ); and when he became a Christian, he was called to and accepted a ministry to the Gentiles (Acts 22:21 ; Ephesians 3:1-13 ). Significantly, he inaugurated his ministry of founding new churches from the base of a church composed of both Gentiles and Hellenistic Jewish Christians (Acts 11:19-26 ; Acts 13:1-3 ). The usual result was that some Jews and some Gentiles who were interested in Judaism (called God-fearers, Acts 18:7 ) believed in Christ, were expelled from the synagogue, and formed the nucleus for a growing church (Acts 18:5-11 ; Acts 19:8-10 )
Nation (2) - Ἰουδαῖοι is used under the former category, and most frequently by John, who wrote when the Jewish and Christian communities were decisively separated from one another;* John, the Gospel According to - Containing a large Christian church, a synagogue of zealous Jews, and the most famous of pagan temples that of Artemis or Diana, it was a common meeting ground for widely diverse creeds. 70), when that event was generally understood as being the Lord's coming, namely, in judgment upon the Jews. ...
His adversaries are called "the Jews," the nation by the time of John writing having become through continued resistance of the truth identified With their hierarchical chiefs, Jesus' opponents; whereas in the synoptists the several classes of opponents are distinguished, "Pharisees," "scribes," "lawyers," "chief priests," etc. After Jerusalem's fall Jehu living among the Gentiles regarded the Jews as no longer the people of God; an undesigned confirmation of authenticity. That the writer was a Jew appears from his quoting the Hebrew Old Testament (not Septuagint): John 12:40; John 19:37
John, Gospel of (ii. Contents) - But even the most scientific of ancient historians did not scruple to put his own views of the political situation into the mouths of the chief characters in his period; and among the Jews the composer of a haggâdah had no fear of being branded as a romancer or a forger. ’ But the Gospel is not an apologia written for the Jews. But for what Christians? It has often been maintained or assumed that his object is to teach a philosophy of religion—that he is, in fact, the author of the formula ‘Jesus Christ, the promised Messiah of the Jews, is the Incarnate Logos of God. There can be little doubt that Apollos, the learned Jew of Alexandria, made this identification in his preaching, which was so mightily convincing. ‘The Jews’ demanded miracles, ‘the Greeks’ a philosophy; this Gospel, like St. The form and substance of the discourses are also very different, the Christ of the Synoptics speaking as a man to men, as a Jew to Jews; conveying His message in pithy aphorisms, easily understood and remembered, and in homely parables, adapted to the comprehension of country folk. Our Evangelist, on the other hand, represents Jesus as taking part in long polemical disputations with ‘the Jews,’ who are as much His enemies as they were the enemies of the Christian Church 80 years later; the parables have disappeared, and their place is taken by ‘proverbs’ or symbolic language; and, above all, His whole teaching is centred upon faith in and devotion to Himself. Whenever the Johannine Christ begins to teach—whether His words are addressed to Nicodemus, the Samaritan woman, ‘the Jews,’ or His own disciples—He nearly always begins by enunciating a proposition which contains, under a sensible and symbolic image, a religious truth. The symbolism reaches its height in some of the discourses to the Jews; the last discourses to the disciples are more plain, and in ch. And so he may have felt that ‘the Temple’ might mean Christ’s natural body as well as the stone building and the Church of Christ, which last must have been mainly in his mind when he foresaw the downfall of the Jewish sanctuary and all which it represented
Hieronymus, Eusebius (Jerome) Saint - A Jew who had become a Christian was his instructor in Hebrew (xviii. Immediately on settling at Bethlehem, he set to work to perfect his knowledge of Hebrew with the aid of a Jew named Bar Anina (called Barabbas by Jerome's adversaries, who conceived that through this teacher his version was tainted with Judaism; see Ruf
Christ in Jewish Literature - CHRIST IN JewISH LITERATURE. —In spite of the fact that Jewish literature covers the whole period from the time of Christ to the present day, and that the relations between Jews and Christians during that period have usually been far from friendly, the references to Christ in the writings of Jews are, comparatively speaking, few and unimportant. Such interest as they possess is due to their significance as indications of the way in which Jews were wont to think and speak amongst themselves of the Founder of Christianity. But there is good ground for saying that this book was not countenanced by the best representatives of the Jewish religion, and did not express their opinion. Instances are to be found in which leaders of Jewish thought in the Middle Ages have made reference to Christ in the language of civil courtesy, or even of appreciation. But there is evidence to show that in writings intended only for Jews the writers could refer to Jesus without bitterness, and point out what they deemed to be His mistakes without blackening His character. In modern literature the chief Jewish historians write of Jesus as of a great historical personage; and though they, naturally, do not see in Him as much as Christians see, they honestly try to present historical truth and to avoid traditional prejudice. It is only in modern literature that there is to be found a serious and deliberate Jewish opinion about Jesus, a real contribution to the study of His life and character. The earlier references illustrate chiefly the effect of persecution and mutual hatred upon the Jewish mind. Until recently, Jewish writers have usually answered this in the negative. It is now generally admitted by Jewish writers that the reference is to the historical Jesus. There is sufficient likeness between the general outlines of the Jewish and the Christian traditions to show that the same person is referred to; but it is very doubtful if the Jewish tradition rests upon a knowledge of the Gospels. The former is a coarse interpretation of the Christian assertion that Jesus was not the son of Joseph, while the latter is due to His reputation as a worker of miracles, and to the undoubted fact that He had created a serious dissension amongst the adherents of the Jewish religion. Christ in Mediaeval Jewish Literature. —There are to be distinguished a popular and a serious treatment of the subject by Jewish writers in the Middle Ages. On the one hand, there is the book called the Tôl’dôth Jçshû, which relates the story of Jesus as of a vulgar impostor; on the other hand, there are references to Jesus by Jews of repute which are dignified and respectful in tone, and show a real desire to be fair towards the Founder of that Christian religion whose adherents had inflicted such injuries on Jews. It is merely a rather stupid and silly tale intended to tickle the ears of ignorant Jews, and to satisfy their contempt and hatred of the Christian religion by mockery of its Founder. But it should be remembered that the book was not written for Christians, and also that Christian treatment of Jews made such retaliation only natural. From this time onwards the Tôl’dôth has never wholly disappeared; but it was, naturally, never published by Jews, or even acknowledged by them. Christian writers who succeeded in finding a copy speak of it as being jealously secreted by Jews, and to be obtained only by bribery. The translation into Hebrew was presumably made in order to render the book accessible to all Jews. The leaders of the Jews, becoming alarmed, set up Judas, one of themselves, as an antagonist to Jesus. The queen believed this, and the Jews were again alarmed. The Christians were furious against the Jews. One of the latter, Simon Kepha, undertook to solve the problem by completely separating the Christians from the Jews. The remainder of the story is variously embellished with wonderworking and low comedy, and that word-play in which Jewish wit delighted. It is rather the wretched device by which ignorant and persecuted Jews revenged themselves, and found a pitiful amusement in mocking the Christ of their persecutors. ...
The references to Jesus in the mediaeval Jewish literature, apart from the Tôl’dôth, are not numerous. The reasons for this seem to be two: (1) that in controversy with Christians the Jews were not disposed to say more than they could help upon a subject where every word was likely to give offence and draw down persecution upon themselves; and (2) that the Jews were well aware of the difference between the Founder of Christianity and His followers. To the Jews He was, of course, only a man. The controversy between Jews and Christians was fought in regard to principles, not persons, and was further embittered by mutual hatred. The Jews, if left to themselves, would never have mentioned Jesus at all, though armed at all points against Christians. Even in their own writings intended for Jewish readers, they say extremely little about Jesus, and in what they do say there is no attempt to estimate His character. It may be described in the phrase ‘cold neutrality’; and it remained unaltered until the great Jewish historians of the last century made a serious study of Jesus as a figure in their national history. The attitude of Jews towards Christians began to change much earlier; but that does not come within the scope of this article. ...
The mediaeval Jewish references to Jesus may be illustrated from the report of a disputation, held at Paris on June 25, 1240, between R. The Christian, who was a converted Jew, quoted the passages from the Talmud (described in § i. of this article) as evidence of Jewish blasphemy. The Jewish champion denied that these referred to the Jesus whom Christians worshipped:...
‘In truth, we have not spoken thus against the God of the Gentiles (i. Jew. ’...
The fullest and most elaborate statements of the chronological argument, from the Jewish side, are those of R. ...
There are, however, one or two mediaeval Jewish works which deal with more than the chronological question
Hermas, Known as the Shepherd - The inference was natural, if Pauline Christianity is so much in the background in Hermas, that he must have been an anti-Pauline Jewish Christian; and this may seem confirmed by the fact that the N. It is scarcely credible that one brought up a Jew should seem so unfamiliar with O. The Jewish nation and its privileges are not even mentioned, nor the distinction between Jew and Gentile. Zahn conjectures that Hermas was born in Egypt because the architecture of the tower of Hermas's visions resembles the description in Josephus of the Jewish temple in the Egyptian Heliopolis
Clemens Romanus of Rome - A more modern attempt to reconcile these accounts is Cave's hypothesis that Linus and after him Cletus had been appointed by Paul to preside over a Roman church of Gentile Christians; Clement by Peter over a church of Jewish believers, and that ultimately Clement was bishop over the whole Roman church. Clement death or banishment was inflicted by Domitian on several persons addicted to Jewish customs and amongst them Flavius Clemens a relation of his own whose consulship had but just expired was put to death on a charge of atheism while his wife Domitilla also a member of the emperor's family was banished. ...
As to whether the writer was a Jew or a Gentile, the arguments are not absolutely decisive; but it seems more conceivable that a Hellenistic Jew resident at Rome could have acquired the knowledge of Roman history and heathen literature exhibited in the epistle, than that one not familiar from his childhood with the O. No such disputes appear in the dissensions at Corinth; and at Rome the Gentile and Jewish sections of the church seem in Clement's time to be completely fused. The whole Christian community is regarded as the inheritor of the promises to the Jewish people. The writer is distinctly a Gentile, and contrasts himself and his readers with the Jewish nation in a manner quite unlike the genuine Clement; and his quotations are not, like Clement's, almost exclusively from O
Jews - After the Babylonish captivity, when many individuals of these ten tribes returned with the men of Judah and Benjamin to rebuild Jerusalem, the term JewS included them also, or rather was then extended to all the descendants of Israel who retained the Jewish religion, whether they belonged to the two or to the ten tribes, whether they returned into Judea or not. Hence, not only all the Israelites of future times have been called Jews, but all the descendants of Jacob, from the earliest times, are frequently so called by us at present, and we speak even of their original dispensation as the Jewish dispensation. 536,) under whom were united the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylon, issued a decree, permitting all the Jews to return to their own land, and to rebuild their temple at Jerusalem. But it was in the reign of Artaxerxes Longimanus, called in Scripture Ahasuerus, that Ezra obtained his commission, and was made governor of the Jews in their own land, which government he held thirteen years: then Nehemiah was appointed with fresh powers, probably through the interest of Queen Esther; and Ezra applied himself solely to correcting the canon of the Scriptures, and restoring and providing for the continuance of the worship of God in its original purity. The first care of the Jews, after their arrival in Judea, was to build an altar for burnt-offerings to God: they then collected materials for rebuilding the temple; and all necessary preparations being made, in the beginning of the second year after their return under Zerubbabel, they began to build it upon the old foundations. The Samaritans, affirming that they worshipped the God of Israel, offered to assist the Jews; but their assistance being refused, they did all in their power to impede the work; and hence originated that enmity which ever after subsisted between the Jews and Samaritans. Though this second temple, or, as it is sometimes called, the temple of Zerubbabel, who was at that time governor of the Jews, was of the same size and dimensions as the first, or Solomon's temple, yet it was very inferior to it in splendour and magnificence; and the ark of the covenant, the Shechinah, the holy fire upon the altar, the Urim and Thummim, and the spirit of prophecy, were all wanting to this temple of the remnant of the people. At the feast of the dedication, offerings were made for the twelve tribes of Israel, which seems to indicate that some of all the tribes returned from captivity; but by far the greater number were of the tribe of Judah, and therefore from this period the Israelites were generally called Judaei or Jews, and their country Judea. 430; and we must have recourse to uninspired writings, principally to the books of the Maccabees, and to Josephus, for the remaining particulars of the Jewish history, to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans. This refusal irritated Alexander; and when he had taken Tyre, he marched toward Jerusalem to revenge himself upon the Jews. Alexander, visibly struck with this solemn appearance, immediately laid aside his hostile intentions, advanced toward the high priest, embraced him, and paid adoration to the name of God, which was inscribed upon the frontlet of his mitre: he afterward went into the city with the high priest, and offered sacrifices in the temple to the God of the Jews. This sudden change in the disposition of Alexander excited no small astonishment among his followers; and when his favourite Parmenio inquired of him the cause, he answered, that it was occasioned by the recollection of a remarkable dream he had in Macedonia, in which a person, dressed precisely like the Jewish high priest, had encouraged him to undertake the conquest of Persia, and had promised him success: he therefore adored the name of that God by whose direction he believed he acted, and showed kindness to his people. Before he left Jerusalem he granted the Jews the same free enjoyment of their laws and their religion, and exemption from tribute every sabbatical year, which they had been allowed by the kings of Persia; and when he built Alexandria, he placed a great number of Jews there, and granted them many favours and immunities. Whether any Jews settled in Europe so early as while the nation was subject to the Macedonian empire, is not known; but it is believed that they began to Hellenize about this time. But Ptolemy Soter, son of Lagus, king of Egypt, soon after made himself master of it by a stratagem: he entered Jerusalem on a Sabbath day, under pretence of offering sacrifice, and took possession of the city without resistance from the Jews, who did not on this occasion dare to transgress their law by fighting on a Sabbath day. Ptolemy carried many thousands captive into Egypt, both Jews and Samaritans, and settled them there: he afterward treated them with kindness, on account of their acknowledged fidelity to their engagements, particularly in their conduct toward Darius, king of Persia; and he granted them equal privileges with the Macedonians themselves at Alexandria. Ptolemy Philadelphus is said to have given the Jews who were captives in Egypt their liberty, to the number of a hundred and twenty thousand. He commanded the Jewish Scriptures to be translated into the Greek language, which translation is called the Septuagint. ) After the Jewish nation had been tributary to the kings of Egypt for about a hundred years, it became subject to the kings of Syria. Antiochus the Great granted considerable favours and immunities to the city of Jerusalem; and, to secure Lydia and Phrygia, he established colonies of Jews in those provinces. The evils to which the Jews were exposed from these foreign powers were considerably aggravated by the corruption and misconduct of their own high priests, and other persons of distinction among them. Antiochus Epiphanes, irritated at having been prevented by the Jews from entering the holy place when he visited the temple, soon after made a popular commotion the pretence for the exercise of tyranny: he took the city, (B. His first care was to repair and purify the temple for the restoration of divine worship; and, to preserve the memory of this event, the Jews ordained a feast of eight days, called the feast of the dedication, to be yearly observed. Julius Caesar confirmed Hyrcanus in the pontificate, and granted fresh privileges to the Jews; but about four years after the death of Julius Caesar, Antigonus, the son of Aristobulus, with the assistance of the Parthians, while the empire of Rome was in an unsettled state, deposed his uncle Hyrcanus, (B. ...
Herod, by birth an Idumean, but of the Jewish religion, whose father, Antipater, as well as himself, had enjoyed considerable posts of honour and trust under Hyrcanus, immediately set out for Rome, and prevailed upon the senate, through the interest of Antony and Augustus, to appoint him king of Judea. Herod considerably enlarged the kingdom of Judea, but it continued tributary to the Romans; he greatly depressed the civil power of the high priesthood, and changed it from being hereditary and for life to an office granted and held at the pleasure of the monarch; and this sacred office was now often given to those who paid the highest price for it, without any regard to merit: he was an inexorable, cruel tyrant to his people, and even to his children, three of whom he put to death; a slave to his passions, and indifferent by what means he gratified his ambition; but to preserve the Jews in subjection, and to erect a lasting monument to his own name, he repaired the temple of Jerusalem at a vast expense, and added greatly to its magnificence. ...
At this time there was a confident expectation of the Messiah among the Jews; and indeed, a general idea prevailed among the Heathen, also, that some extraordinary conqueror or deliverer would soon appear in Judea. Herod, misled by the opinion, which was then common among the Jews, that the Messiah was to appear as the temporal prince, and judging from the inquiries of the wise men of the east, that the child was actually born, sent to Bethlehem, and ordered that all the children of two years old and under should be put to death, with the hope of destroying one whom he considered as the rival of himself, or at least of his family. ) Archelaus acted with great cruelty and injustice; and in the tenth year of his government, upon a regular complaint being made against him by the Jews, Augustus banished him to Vienne, in Gaul, where he died. The power of life and death was now taken out of the hands of the Jews, and taxes were from this time paid immediately to the Roman emperor. Several of the Roman governors severely oppressed and persecuted the Jews; and at length, in the reign of Nero, and in the government of Florus, who had treated them with greater cruelty than any of his predecessors, they openly revolted from the Romans. Then began the Jewish war, which was terminated, after an obstinate defence and unparalleled sufferings on the part of the Jews, by the total destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, by the overthrow of their civil and religious polity, and the reduction of the people to a state of the most abject slavery; for though, in the reign of Adrian, numbers of them collected together, in different parts of Judea, it is to be observed, they were then considered and treated as rebellious slaves; and these commotions were made a pretence for the general slaughter of those who were taken, and tended to complete the work of their dispersion into all countries under heaven. Since that time the Jews have no where subsisted as a nation. JewS, MODERN. The Jews divide the books of the Old Testament into three classes: the law, the prophets, and the hagiographa, or holy writings. Beside the Scriptures, the Jews pay great attention to the Targums, or Chaldee paraphrases of them. It seems probable that these were written either during the Babylonish captivity, or immediately afterward, when the Jews had forgotten their own language, and acquired the Chaldee of the Targums, at present received by the Jews. ...
The Jews also regard with great veneration, what is called the Talmud. The Jews suppose that God first dictated the text of the law to Moses, which he commanded to be put in writing, and which exists in the Pentateuch, and then gave him an explication of every thing comprehended in it, which he ordered to be committed to memory. The last month of Moses's life was spent, according to the Jews, in repeating and explaining the law to the people, and especially to Joshua, his successor. This law was only oral till the days of Rabbi Jehuda, who, perceiving that the students of the law were gradually decreasing, and that the Jews were dispersed over the face of the earth, collected all the traditions, arranged them under distinct heads, and formed them into a methodical code of traditional law; thus the Mishna was formed. The Jews in Chaldea, however, not being satisfied with this Gemara, one of their rabbies compiled another; which, together with the Mishna, forms the Babylonian Talmud. By the cabala, the Jews mean those mystical interpretations of the Scripture, and metaphysical speculations concerning the Deity, angels, &c, which they regard as having been handed down by a secret tradition from the earliest ages. In the eleventh century, the famous Rabbi Maimonides drew up a summary of the doctrines of Judaism, which every Jew is required to believe, on pain of excommunication in this world, and condemnation in the next. ...
The Jewish religion is, perhaps, more a religion of minute and trifling rites and ceremonies than even the Catholic religion. They are enjoined to be said by all Jews above the age of thirteen, wherever they may be, three times a day. Every Jew, of whatever rank, must assist in the preparation for the Sabbath. ...
Of the festivals of the Jews we can mention only a few, and those merely in a cursory manner. The feast of the passover commences on the fifteenth day of the month Nisan, and continues among Jews who live in or near Jerusalem seven days, and elsewhere eight days
Person of Christ - The title Messiah (‘Christ’), familiar to Jewish religion from Psalms 2:1-12 , denotes in general the anointed Head of the Kingdom of God, the new King of a redeemed people; and Jesus, retaining the outline of the traditional idea, infused into it a new spiritual meaning, which, as applied to Himself, signified that He was not a new Teacher or Lawgiver or even the Founder of a new faith, but the Bearer and Finisher of divinely wrought salvation. ‘Jesus was condemned by His heathen judge as a usurper of the throne, by the Jewish tribunal as One who pretended to such a dignity as had never been conceded even to the Messiah’ (Dalman). ‘With the recognition of Jesus as the Messiah the closest possible connexion was established, for every devout Jew, between Jesus’ message and His person, for it is in the Messiah’s activity that God Himself comes to His people, and the Messiah who does God’s work and sits at His right hand has a right to be worshipped’ (Harnack). Its absence from NT writings other than the Gospels (except Acts 7:56 ) is intelligible if we consider that ho huios tou anthrôpou is a phrase which, to any one but a Jew, would require too much explanation for convenience. Later Jewish thought, however, read the passage in a Messianic sense; and in the Similitudes of the Book of Enoch (probably b. It is quite un-Biblical to interpret the title as equivalent to ‘the idea of man’ or ‘the ideal man’; this conception is Hellenic rather than Jewish, and though it is embodied in the character of the Son of Man as realized in Jesus, it is not strictly present in the name. by the possessed ( Mark 3:11 ), by unbelieving Jews ( Matthew 27:40 ), by the centurion ( Mark 15:39 ), and constructively by Caiaphas ( Matthew 26:63 ) where it cannot have anything like its full significance for a Christian mind
Teaching of the Twelve Apostles - The word was used by Jews to denote an envoy sent by the authorities at Jerusalem to Jews in foreign places especially the envoy charged with the collection of the Temple tribute. Now a study of the Didaché , as compared with Jewish literature, shews very clearly its origin among men with Jewish training, and the work from which both borrowed may have been not only Jewish but pre-Christian. We must, then, in comparing Barnabas with the Didaché , distinguish carefully the specially Christian element from those parts which might have been written by a Jew unacquainted with Christianity. If Barnabas and the Didaché independently copied an originally Jewish document, the Christian elements they might add would not be likely to be the same. language, very little that might not have been written by a Jew before our Lord's coming
Palestine - Dale, ‘from the preceding history of the Jewish race … Many people seem to suppose that they may approach the subject as if the Lord Jesus Christ had appeared in Spain or in China, instead of in Judaea and Galilee’ (Living Christ and the Four Gospels, 89). ‘If, negatively,’ says Hausrath, ‘it be self-evident that Jesus’ mission would have assumed another character had He grown up under the oaks of Germany instead of under the palms of Nazareth, that the subject of Arminius or Maroboduus would have been different from that of Antipas, that the opponent of the Druids would have differed from the opponent of the Rabbis, so, positively, it is indisputable that for Jesus Himself the facts of His consciousness were given Him under those forms of viewing things in which Jewish thought in general was cast. The accusation on the Cross is ‘Jesus, the King of the Jews’ (Matthew 27:37 etc. Rome’s ideal of secular empire confronted the Jewish hope of the universal reign of Messiah. So hateful was the Roman to the Jew, that Jews were a worthless commodity in the Roman slave-market. So unintelligible was the Jew to the Roman, that Tacitus speaks of the nation as ‘given over to superstition, disinclined to religion’ (Hausrath, i. Far from the centre of Jewish exclusiveness, crossed by great high roads from the sea to the east, and actually inhabited by multitudes of Gentiles from various lands, Galilee was the most open-minded and tolerant part of the land
Perfection (of Jesus) - And so, though born among the most exclusive of nations, a son of Abraham after the flesh, He is no Jew: He is the first Citizen of the world; in Paul’s revealing phrase, ‘the last Adam. He rather inspired a spirit which sooner or later would burst all the swaddling-bands that confined humanity, and which expressed itself in the words of him who understood best the spirit of the Master, ‘Where there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, barbarian, Seythian, bond nor free’ (Colossians 3:11)
Tertullianus, Quintus Septimius Florens - It forbad proselytizing by either Jew or Christian. ...
b ₄ is in answer to the questions, Why did Jews and Christians differ? Did not these differences argue worship of different gods? Tertullian's reply (c. the Jewish inference from the humility of Christ that He was only man, and from His miraculous power that He was a magician, and not the Logos of God; the record of the darkening of the sun at the crucifixion preserved in the secret archives of the empire; the reason for the seclusion of the Lord after the resurrection, viz. "that the wicked should be freed from their error, and that faith destined for so glorious a reward should be established upon difficulty"; his own opinion that Caesars (such as Tiberius) would have believed in Christ, if they could have been Caesars and Christians at the same time; the sufferings of the disciples at the hands of the Jews; and at last, through Nero's cruelty, the sowing the seed of Christianity at Rome in their blood (cf. Every Jew believed and hoped it
Lord - -In the Septuagint κύριος is employed consistently to represent אַדֹנָי, which the Jews substituted in reading for the name יהוה, and hence it became the general designation of God. ), and, as we have seen, the practice of the Septuagint had made this term the familiar one to the Jew for his God Jahweh
Sympathy - Dale, Jew
Hebrews, Epistle to - For these and similar reasons it is generally believed that our author was a scholar of Hellenistic training, and most probably an Alexandrian Jew of philosophic temperament and education (see Bacon, Introd. The argument on which this theory is mainly based has to do with the discrepancies between the writer’s descriptions of Levitical worship and that which obtained in the Jewish Temple in accordance with the Mosaic code (cf. We are thus reduced to the balancing of probabilities in selecting an objective for our Epistle, and in so doing we have to ask ourselves the much canvassed question, What were the antecedents of the readers? Were they Gentile or Jewish converts? Until a comparatively recent date it was believed universally that the writer had Jewish Christians before his mind. That the addressees included Jews cannot be denied (see Hebrews 6:6 f. At the same time, it would be futile to base an argument for the purely Jewish destination of the Epistle upon such passages as speak of OT prophetic revelations having been made to ‘the fathers’ ( Hebrews 1:1 ), or of ‘the seed of Abraham’ ( Hebrews 2:16 ) as constituting the basis of Jesus’ human nature
Meals - In our Lord’s day, as we learn from the Gospels, great importance was attached by the Jewish authorities to the ‘ washing of hands ’ before meals. In the event of a Jew of some position resolving to entertain his friends at dinner, it was usual to send the invitations by his servants ( Matthew 22:3 ), and later to send them again with a reminder on the appointed day ( Matthew 22:4 , Luke 14:17 )
James - to announce His Messiahship, which He did not conceal in Samaria as in Judaea and Galilee: John 4:26; Luke 9:54), because His face was as though He would go to Jerusalem, whereas they expected the Messiah would confirm their anti-Jewish worship in the mount Gerizim temple. 44 Herod Agrippa I, a pliant politician but strict Jew, "very ambitious to oblige the people, exactly careful in the observance of the laws. " "The sword" was the instrument of his execution, Herod preferring the Roman method to the Jewish punishment of seducers to strange worship, namely, stoning. , 2:1), Hegesippus, a Jewish Christian in the middle of the second century, writes much of James, that he drank not strong drink, nor had a razor upon his head, and wore no woolen clothes, but linen, so that he alone might go into the holy place; in short he was a rigid Nazarite ascetic, following after legal righteousness, so that the Jews regarded him as possessing priestly sanctity; such a one when converted to Christ was likely to have most influence with the Jews, who called him "the just one," and therefore to have been especially suited to preside over the Jerusalem church. Thus the Jews wreaked their vengeance on him, exasperated at his prophecy of their national doom in his epistle, which was circulated not only in Jerusalem but by those who came up to the great feasts, among "the twelve tribes scattered abroad" to whom it is addressed
Scribes - —The Scribes were a class of learned Jews who devoted themselves to a scientific study of the Law, and made its exposition their professional occupation. —(1) After the return from the Exile the Jewish community was organized under Ezra and Nehemiah on the basis of the regulations of the so-called Mosaic Law. ...
(2) During the Grecian period of Jewish history, a strong feeling of opposition was developed between the Scribes and, at least, the higher order of the priests. The attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to suppress the Jewish religion compelled them to change their character, and drove them into open rebellion. Among the most strenuous opponents of his endeavour to Hellenize the Jews were the Hasidaeans, or party of ‘the pious,’ who may be taken to represent the strictest adherents of the teaching of the Scribes, and who carried their ideas of the sanctity of the Law to the suicidal extent of refusing to defend themselves when attacked on the Sabbath. But it was only the maintenance of the Jewish religion for which they fought, and they had no objections to alien rule, provided they were allowed freedom of faith. But they were to be found elsewhere as well, in Galilee and among the Jews in other lands, wherever the Law and its precepts were held in esteem. —The Mosaic Law, as embodied in their sacred records, was definitely recognized by the Jews as the absolute rule of life. To direct his conduct in accordance with it in every minute detail was the ideal of the pious Jew. So diligently did they pursue this course, and so extensive and complicated did Jewish Law in consequence become, that only by the assiduous study of a lifetime could a man become an expert in its various branches. Imagination was given free play, so long as its products would fit in with the general framework of Jewish thought, and to its influence was largely due the circle of religious ideas existing in New Testament times. In order that people should obey the Law, it was necessary that they should know it; and an elaborate system of rules such as was contained in the Jewish tradition could be learned only with the assistance of a teacher. Every History of the Jews, every Life of Christ, every Commentary on the Gospels, deals to some extent with the Scribes. Schürer’s HJP [3]
Woman - Although Paul faced the need to preserve order in the early church, he exclaimed in Galatians 3:28 : “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus. The phrase “something objectionable” was variously interpreted by the Jews and ran the gamut from adultery to burned toast!...
Inequity between boy and girl babies existed from the very beginning of life. He often fell back on Jewish social customs of the day to ensure that the fledgling church would not be seen unfavorably by the rest of the world. ...
Paul moved ahead of his Jewish background when he called for mutual submission between husbands and wives (Ephesians 5:21-33 ). Paul was concerned that the Christians should “give no offense to Jews or to Greeks or to the church of God” (1 Corinthians 10:32 NRSV). For example, he spoke of meat offered to idols ( Romans 14:1 ), and women wearing Jewelry and braiding their hair (1 Timothy 2:8-12 ). On occasion she rose above those roles and led the Jewish nation in times of crisis
Law - Christ has abolished in his flesh the commandments and regulations that separated Jew from Gentile (Ephesians 2:15 )
Eschatology - The Jewish background of ideas. The Jewish ‘background of ideas. ’-The type of thought reflected in these early Christian writings is thoroughly and distinctively Jewish. Especially is this the case in the earlier chapters of Acts, where the ideas of Jewish apocalyptic form the ‘background’ of the preaching-a background so familiar that it never needs to be explained or expounded in detail, but yet never allows itself to be altogether forgotten. ; and they were accustomed to think and speak of their religious hopes in the terms of Jewish apocalyptic. ...
The comparative uniformity with which these ‘fixed points’ recur in the Jewish apocalyptic eschatology may be traced in part to the Jewish idea of predestination. Modern writers generally hold that the value of prophecy consists primarily in its insight into spiritual truths, and only indirectly in its foresight into the future; but to the Jew, a coincidence between a prophetic prediction and a subsequent event was a signal proof of Divine inspiration, for it showed that God had ‘unveiled’ before the vision of His prophet some detail of that future which was already predestined and lying spread out before His all-seeing eyes (cf. ...
But, while emphasizing the background of ideas common to primitive Christianity and Jewish apocalyptic, we must not ignore the distinctiveness of the former; and this now claims our attention. In the Jewish apocalypses, two Messianic ideals are manifested. Now, if Jesus was the Messiah, then, since He had actually come, and had been rejected by His people, several consequences seemed (to Jewish minds) to follow inevitably, viz. -In Jewish apocalyptic, the coming of the Messiah is invariably associated with the end of this world and the beginning of the New Era. So, when the apostles proclaimed that the Messiah had come, they thereby conveyed to their Jewish hearers the impression that the Last Days had also come-not merely that they were at hand, but that they had actually begun and were in progress. Although the Jews had incurred the severest penalties of the Divine judgment by crucifying the Messiah (Acts 3:14 f. -Most early Christians doubtless conceived of this in the traditional dramatic form, in accordance with the teaching of Enoch and other Jewish apocalypses. , it is contended that the passages should be interpreted in accordance with the methods of Jewish apocalyptic; and that their main purpose is to teach that the ‘good tidings’ have been proclaimed by Christ to those who had died before His Coming, so that at His Return they may have the same opportunities of repentance as those who are alive at the time
Lord (2) - We agree with him in regarding κύριος (Lord) as a word added by the Evangelist to interpret the Jewish title Messiah (χριστός) to his Gentile readers. To the Jewish Christian, Jesus was the ‘Messiah,’ to the Hellenistic Christian Jew He was ‘the Christ,’ and to the Gentile Christian He was ‘the Lord. The higher significance of the title was most likely assisted also by the fact that among Hellenistic Jewish Christians κύριος was in use as a Divine title applied to God. The adoring cry of Thomas, ‘My Lord and my God’ (ὁ κύριός μου καὶ ὁ θεός μου) John 20:28, is an illustration of how among Jewish Christians the title of respect addressed to a teacher became one of Divine honour. Yet, as Dalman says, ‘it must … be remembered that the Aramaic-speaking Jews did not, save exceptionally, designate God as “Lord,” so that in the Hebraic section of the Jewish Christians the expression “our Lord” was used in reference to Jesus only, and would be quite freh from ambiguity’ (p. It is very unlikely that it was in use among Aramaic-speaking Jews at the time of our Lord
Commission - By the mention of ‘all nations’ the restriction of Mark 10:5-6 is now removed: for the middle wall of partition, that divided Jew from Gentile, was broken down by Christ’s death
Cup - The first of these passages is plainly an explanatory parenthesis furnished by the Evangelist for the information of readers unacquainted with Jewish customs. ποτήρια, he says, are amongst the things subject to ‘washings’ (βαπτισμοί)—which washings I were not such as simple cleanliness required, but were prescribed by the decrees ‘intended to separate the Jew from all contact with the Gentiles. Instances of this phraseology in the Gospels are (in the words of Jesus) Mark 9:1 (= Matthew 16:28) and (in the words of the Jews) John 8:52. ...
But the cup was an important feature in other Jewish festivals and solemn seasons besides the Passover. And even though the institution took place at the close of an ordinary meal, the bread and the cup were accompanied with the due Jewish graces (Matthew 26:26 f. In the course of time we get chalices of great price and wonderful workmanship, corresponding to the rare and costly Passover and other festal cups which Jews similarly cherish as art treasures. 67), accords with Jewish precedent. Speaking of the Jewish use, Lightfoot (Hor. And if it were not, nothing is more likely than that the Apostles, in observing the rite, would follow the Jewish custom of mixture. ...
In the course of time various fanciful suggestions came to be made as to a symbolic purpose in connexion with the mixed chalice in the Eucharist, ignoring its simple origin in an earlier Jewish custom. Such might be disposed to welcome a sort of precedent in the use permitted by Jewish regulations in certain cases as regards their festival cups. , where wine was not accessible as a daily beverage for the mass of the Jews, syrup, juice of fruits, beer or mead, etc
Sanballat - How fierce you always make me when you so rejoice in the truth and go about spreading it! I am a Jew, and I want no dealings with the Samaritans
Adoption - Paul in the five passages named above is taking up an entirely non-Jewish position; so much so that some have doubted whether a Jew, even after he had become a Christian, could have written Epistles which contained such statements (cf. -The Apostle applies the metaphor to the relation of both Jews and Christians to the Father. (a) Somewhat emphatically he applies it to the Jews in Romans 9:4. the promises, the fathers, all belonged to the Israelites, ‘my kinsmen according to the flesh,’ of whom is Christ concerning the flesh-a passage showing the intense Jewish feeling of St. Athanasius argues that, since before the Incarnation the Jews were sons [5], and since no one could be a son except through our Lord
(c) Just as the adoption of Jews was inferior to that of Christians, so that of Christians is not yet fully realized. Paul of the figure of adoption in the case of Jews and Christians leads us by a natural consequence to the doctrine that our Lord is the Son of God by nature. In the case of the ‘potential’ adoption of the Jews (to borrow Lightfoot’s phrase), it is the expression of the covenant between God and His people, and therefore must be ascribed to the moment of entering into the covenant at circumcision, the analogue of baptism
Advent (2) - As the Son of God (Matthew 10:32, John 3:16-17), revealing and representing God in His own person (John 5:30; John 14:9-10), whose mission it was to redeem men from sin (Matthew 18:11, Luke 4:43; Luke 17:21), Jesus was to prove Himself in the truest sense the Messiah whom the Jewish people had long been expecting,—‘a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord’ (Luke 2:11). —The expectation entertained by the Jews had its roots in a promise enshrined in their earliest literature and dating from the dawn of history, that a signal deliverance from sin should be brought to the human race,—the promise contained in the sentence pronounced on the tempter, that the seed of the woman should bruise his head (Genesis 3:15). Undoubtedly, among the Jewish people at that period religion was a dominating interest, and was based on principles far higher than any that obtained in other nations. The Jew in his fulfilment of the Law found himself at every turn brought under the pressure of hard and fast exacting rules,—in his food, his clothes, his daily occupations, his devotions, and the smallest acts of his life. —The Jewish people, fretting under political depression, had flung themselves with impassioned eagerness on the hope that the long-desired Messiah and His kingdom must be drawing nigh. 4) may be taken at least as an echo of views disseminated throughout the Roman Empire by the Jews of the Dispersion. When Jesus was born into the world, however, an event had transpired vastly grander than Jewish expectation at the time conceived. —For a lengthened treatment of the Messianic hope and its transformations, see Riehm, Messianic Prophecy3 [1] (English translation 1900); Drummond, The Jewish Messiah (1877); Stanton, The Jewish and Christian Messiah (1886); Briggs, Messianic Prophecy (1886); Orelli, OT Prophecy of the Consummation of God’ Kingdom (English translation); and for a more condensed survey, Schürer, HJP Passover (ii. in Relation to Lord's Supper). - It may be assumed as certain that the Last Supper of Jesus took place not on the night of the general Jewish Passover, but on the evening preceding. This has been called a ‘significant omission’; a remark which assumes that, if Jesus had been observing the Passover, the Evangelists would naturally have given some account of the proceedings at the Jewish meal. The fact that at the Jewish meal there was a cup for each person present is surely no reason why Jesus, in appointing the new rite of the Christian brotherhood, should not have taken one cup and passed it round to His disciples, saying, ‘Drink ye all of it. For, unless Jesus was altogether lacking in this respect, He must have foreseen, as clearly as we can see today, that the broken loaf of bread was infinitely better suited than a piece of the Jewish Paschal lamb to serve to the Church of the future as the symbol of His sacrifice of love. And since it was held on the evening before the general Jewish observance, it must have been an anticipated Passover (cf. But Chwolson, an expert in Jewish antiquities, anticipates these and similar objections, and shows how precarious the grounds are on which they rest (Das letzte Passamahl Christi, p. And he further makes the interesting suggestion that a very slight textual error at this point in a supposed Aramaic source would account for the apparent identification by the three Synoptics (Matthew 26:17, Mark 14:12, Luke 22:7) of the occasion of the Last Supper with the regular night of the Jewish Passover (ib. But it seems safe to conclude that archaeological considerations such as these were not uppermost in the mind of Jesus when He said to His disciples, ‘With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer’ (Luke 22:15), and that what He and they alike were thinking of was the Passover of Jewish history and tradition. Nothing could be further from the minds of a pious Jewish company at the dawn of the Christian era than the notion that God would partake of human food, or that they could enter into communion with the Highest by drinking the blood of a slain animal, or even by drinking wine considered as a substitute for blood (cf. In any case, in the time of our Lord, the Jewish Passover was an annual covenanting feast at which the nation’s covenant fellowship with Jehovah was solemnly renewed. —(c) Once more, the Passover was a joyful social meal, the meal of Jewish brotherhood, in which the participants, as members of the Divine covenant, gave expression to their covenant fellowship with one another as well as with Israel’s God. The thought of the Jewish Passover underlies the Supper, helping us to determine its true nature and purpose and religious significance. Spitta’s elaborate efforts to dissociate the Last Supper altogether from the Jewish Passover find their chief motive in his theory that the Supper had no bearing whatsoever on the death of Jesus, but was meant to have a purely eschatological reference, as an anticipation of the glorious Messianic meal in the heavenly Kingdom (op. But to a Jew the Passover was essentially a memorial feast to be kept by Israel throughout all her generations (Exodus 12:14). The Passover was not only a renewal of the covenant fellowship with God, but a festive social meal at which the links of Jewish brotherhood were forged afresh. Mackie, ‘Jewish Passover in the Chr
Temple - (There were 183,000 Jews and strangers employed on it --of Jews 30,000, by rotation 10,000 a month; of Canaanites 153,600, of whom 70,000 were bearers of burdens, 80,000 hewers of wood and stone, and 3600 overseers. --We have very few particulars regarding the temple which the Jews erected after their return from the captivity (about B. From these dimensions we gather that if the priests and Levites and elders of families were disconsolate at seeing how much more sumptuous the old temple was than the one which on account of their poverty they had hardly been able to erect, ( Ezra 3:12 ) it certainly was not because it was smaller; but it may have been that the carving and the gold and the other ornaments of Solomon's temple far surpassed this, and the pillars of the portico and the veils may all have been far more splendid; so also probably were the vessels and all this is what a Jew would mourn over far more than mere architectural splendor. 20 or 19, his intention of restoring the temple; (probably a stroke of policy on the part of Herod to gain the favor of the Jews and to make his name great. It is minutely described by Josephus, and the New Testament has made us familiar with the pride of the Jews in its magnificence
Evangelize, Evangelism - ...
The good news concerns the fulfillment of promises made to the Jews (13:32), so it is right that the proclamation be made to them first (3:26; 13:46). ...
For Paul the audience to be evangelized includes both unbelieving Jew and Gentile, although he notes Jewish rejection and Gentile receptivity
Woman - There can be neither Jew nor Greek, there can be neither bond nor free, there can be no male and female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus’ (Galatians 3:27-28). Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers2. The Jewish wife, it is true, held a legal position decidedly inferior to that of the husband. Consequently, the family life of the Hebrew-Jewish people, in some measure, prepared for the applications of the principle of woman’s religions equality made by apostolic Christianity (cf. The Jewish training of Paul, for example, accounts for much in his attitude, such as the argument that women should be veiled ‘because of the angels’ (1 Corinthians 11:10). Westermarck’s criticism of this ultimately Jewish emphasis on woman’s subjection to man, as being ‘agreeable to the selfishness of men’ (Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, i. Clemen, Primitive Christianity and its Non-Jewish Sources, Edinburgh
Homosexuality - References to the city later become common extrabiblical Jewish euphemisms for sexual perversion in general and homosexual practices in particular (in the New Testament, see 2 Peter 2:6-7 ; and Jude 7 ). Some modern revisionists point to the subsequent Jewish tradition condemning Sodom for inhospitality and argue that the passage does not have homosexual rape in view. The later references to inhospitality in relation to Sodom are not due to a misunderstanding of the sin of Sodom on the part of the Jews, but to their habit of speaking indirectly of sexual matters out of modesty. Modern revisionists often dismiss these strong passages on the grounds that they are part of the Old Testament purity code and therefore irrelevant to a gospel that frees believers from the constraints of Jewish cultural taboos. Perhaps Paul himself, who knew and used the Septuagint extensively, or some other Hellenistic Jew not long before Paul's time, derived from the passages in Leviticus a compound word that described homosexual Acts in general. The argument is that Paul portrays homosexual Acts as impure but carefully avoids the language of sin; he intends merely to distinguish a Gentile practice considered by Jews to be "unclean" in order to draw Jews (or "weaker brethren") into his subsequent explanation of the gospel
Entry Into Jerusalem - describes the entry in keeping with his representation of Jesus as the Malkâ Mĕshihâ of the Jews, and in consonance with the prophecy of Zechariah 9:9. Here He devises the entry on the lines of Jewish prophecy, which, though free from any hostile intention, was equivalent to a declaration that He was the Messiah, and implied that He was more. It was not directly urged against Him at His trial; but it supplied Pilate with his question, ‘Art thou the King of the Jews?’ and, accordingly, with the legal basis for his sentence. 94), not in the sense of Home Rule for the Jews, had always been the text of Jesus’ public addresses (Matthew 4:17). ]'>[4] , the ideal son to whose descendants that throne was ensured (2 Samuel 7:16), upon which the prophets of the OT continued to build their hopes—hopes which had become greatly modified and materialized during the struggle with Antiochus and Rome, and by contact with Grecian thought, and which made the ordinary Jew dream of a deliverer with all the heroic qualities of a Judas Maceabaeus, and the more philosophic think of an earthly empire, cosmopolitan and world-ruling like the Roman. It was the idea in the prophets, chiefly in Daniel 7:13-14; Daniel 7:17, of a kingdom, holy, supernatural, universal and eternal, that Jesus sought to recover from the lumber-room of tradition; and in this He was assisted by the gradual revival of more spiritual Messianic hopes among thoughtful and devout Jews like Simeon and Anna (cf. The Messiah was not to come from Galilee but from Bethlehem (Matthew 2:5), was king of the Jews (Matthew 2:2), was to perform miracles (John 7:31), to be a prophet (John 4:29), to appear mysteriously (John 7:27), to be a descendant of David (Matthew 9:27), and to restore again the kingdom to Israel (Acts 1:6). Matthew 8:9), and on this occasion depicts Him as the Malkâ Mĕshìhâ of the Jews. The attraction of the provincial crowds, the Jerusalem populace, the Greeks and proselytes, if not the impressing of the Jewish hierarchy, this was the end desired, and in a great measure attained
Man (2) - ...
(2) But Jesus was also a Jew and a citizen. How often would He have gathered her children together as a hen gathereth her brood under her wings!...
(3) It seems certain that the Jews, as a body, could never have accepted Jesus as their Messiah. If the God of the Jews should show Himself favourable unto such, it would have to be by some special act of grace. ...
What was it that led Jesus to teach and to associate Himself, not simply with Jews, but with men as men? What was it that carried Him willingly and of set purpose into all classes of society, and especially among the outcast and unfavoured folk? What led Him to seek, not the righteous, but sinners, and not the whole, but the sick? To answer this question we must pass to—...
2
the Pharisee - PUSEY has said somewhere that a Pharisee was just a Jew with divine light but without divine love
Apocalyptic Literature - The apocalypse as a literary form of Jewish literature first appears during the Hellenistic period. In the course of time this conception was supplemented by the further expectation of a judgment for Jews as well as for heathen ( Amos 2:3-8 ; Amos 3:9-15 ; Amos 5:10-13 , Zechariah 1:2-18 ; Zechariah 2:4-13 ; Joel 2:18-28 , Ezekiel 30:2 f. Because of their religion, literature was the only form of aesthetic expression (except music) which was open to the art impulses of the Jews. In the apocalypse we thus can see a union of the symbolism and myths of Babylonia with the religious faith of the Jews, under the influence of Hellenistic culture. As it now exists, the collection is a survival of a wide-spread Enoch literature, and its constituent sections have been to a considerable extent edited by both Jews and Christians. 1 36 deal chiefly with the portrayal of the punishment to be awarded the enemies of the Jews and sinners generally on the Day of Judgment. In them we have probably the oldest piece of Jewish literature touching the general resurrection of Israel and representing Gehenna as a place of final punishment (see Gehenna). ’ These sections are one of the curiosities of scientific literature, and may be taken as a fair representative of the astronomical and meteorological beliefs of the Palestinian Jews about the time of Christ. The author (or authors) was probably a Hellenistic Jew living in the first half of the 1st cent. The chief object of the book is to incite the Jews to a greater devotion to the Law, and the book is legalistic rather than idealistic. ...
The ‘new age’ was to be inaugurated by wide-spread study of the Law, to which the Jews would be forced by terrible suffering. The picture of this king as set forth in Psalms 17:1-15 ; Psalms 18:1-50 is one of the noblest in Jewish literature. God’s judgment on wicked men and demons is, however, elaborately pictured, sometimes in terms hard to reconcile with the less transcendental accounts of the blessings assured to the Jewish nation. The book is no doubt closely related to the Apocalypse of Baruch , and both apparently reproduce the same originally Jewish material. The Apocalypse of Baruch is a composite work which embodies in itself a ground-work which is distinctly Jewish, and certain sections of which were probably written before the destruction of Jerusalem. Like Second Esdras, it is marked by a despair of the existing age, and looks forward to a transcendental reign of the Messiah, in which the Jews are to be supremely fortunate. As the work now exists, it is a collection of various writings dealing with the historical and future conditions of the Jewish people. In it the punishment of the enemies of the Jews is elaborately foretold, as are also the future and the Messianic Judgment
Expediency - Better that the whole Jewish nation should perish than that a Jewish legislature should steep its hand in the blood of one innocent. Jew and Greek, as well as the Christian Church, are to be objects of our Christian solicitude
Magi - He was not only excellently skilled in all the learning of the east that prevailed in his time, but likewise thoroughly versed in the Jewish religion, and in all the sacred writings of the Old Testament that were then extant: whence some have inferred that he was a native Jew both by birth and profession; and that he had been servant to one of the prophets, probably Ezekiel or Daniel. " Fire, by Zerdushta, appears to have been used emblematically only; and the ceremonies for preserving and transmitting it, introduced by him, were manifestly taken from the Jews, and the sacred fire of their tabernacle and temple. The Jews were sent into captivity to Babylon to be reformed from their idolatrous propensities, and their reformation commenced with their calamity. Every reason, religious and political, urged the Jews to make the prediction a matter of notoriety; and from Cyrus's decree in Ezra it is certain that he was acquainted with it; because there is in the decree an obvious reference to the prophecy. That the effect did not terminate in Cyrus, we know; for, from the book of Ezra, it appears that both Darius and Artaxerxes made decrees in favour of the Jews, in which Jehovah has the emphatic appellation repeatedly given to him, "the God of heaven," the very terms used by Cyrus himself. That the God of the Jews was Jehovah, the self-subsistent, the eternal God;...
2. From the other sacred books of the Jews, who mixed with the Persians in every part of the empire, he evidently learned more. This cannot but be looked upon as one instance of several merciful dispensations of God to the Gentile world, through his own peculiar people, the Jews, by which the idolatries of the Heathen were often checked, and the light of truth rekindled among them. In this view the ancient Jews evidently considered the Jewish church as appointed not to preserve only but to extend true religion
Word - The Chaldee paraphrasts, the most ancient Jewish writers extant, generally make use of the word memra, which signifies "the Word," in those places where Moses puts the name Jehovah. As to the source from which the term Logos was drawn by the Apostle, some have held it to be taken from the Jewish Scriptures; others, from the Chaldee paraphrases; others, from Philo and the Hellenizing Jews. The Hebrew Scriptures contain frequent intimations of a distinction of Persons in the Godhead; one of these Divine Persons is called Jehovah; and, though manifestly represented as existing distinct from the Father, is yet arrayed with attributes of divinity, and was acknowledged by the ancient Jews to be, in the highest sense, "their God," the God with whom, through all their history, they chiefly "had to do. ...
Celebrated as this title of the Logos was in the Jewish theology, it is not, however, the appellation by which the Spirit of inspiration has chosen that our Saviour should be principally designated. But, although there is dignity and propriety in omitting the mention of his name, it was necessary, in laying down the positions that were to meet his errors, to adopt some of his words, because the Christians of those days would not so readily have applied the doctrine of the Apostle to the refutation of those heresies which Cerinthus was spreading among them, if they had not found in the exposition of that doctrine some of the terms in which the heresy was delivered; and as the chief of these terms, Logos, which Cerinthus applied to an inferior spirit, was equivalent to a phrase in common use among the Jews, ‘the Word of Jehovah,' and was probably borrowed from thence, John by his use of Logos rescues it from the degraded use of Cerinthus, and restores it to a sense corresponding to the dignity of the Jewish phrase. We might, indeed, have wondered much had he decidedly adopted the Platonic or Gnostic notions, in preference to the Jewish; but that he should harmonize with the latter, is by no means surprising; first, because he was a Jew himself; and, secondly, because Christianity was plainly to be shown to be connected with, and, as it were, regularly to have sprung out of, Judaism. John and others of the sacred writers expressing themselves in terms not only familiar to the Jews under the old covenant, but, in such as might tend, by a perfect revelation of the truth, to give instruction to all parties; correcting the errors of the Platonic and oriental systems, and confirming, in the clearest manner, the hopes and expectations of the Jews
Psalms - " With regard to the Jews, Bishop Chandler very pertinently remarks, that "they must have understood David, their prince, to have been a figure of Messiah. Were the Messiah not concerned in the Psalms, it would have been absurd to celebrate twice a day, in their public devotions, the events of one man's life, who was deceased so long ago, as to have no relation now to the Jews and the circumstances of their affairs; or to transcribe whole passages from them into their prayers for the coming of the Messiah. " Upon the same principle it is easily seen that the objections, which may seem to lie against the use of Jewish services in Christian congregations, may cease at once. For let it not pass unobserved, that when, upon the first publication of the Gospel, the Apostles had occasion to utter their transports of joy, on their being counted worthy to suffer for the name of their Lord and Master, which was then opposed by Jew and Gentile, they brake forth into an application of the second Psalm to the transactions then before their eyes, Acts 4:25 . King David gave a regular and noble form to the musical part of the Jewish service
Nazirite - But this was a precept for all Jews, and cannot be regarded as in any way a peculiar mark of the Nazirite. The reader must consult Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) or Jewish Encyclopedia . ...
In the ascetic abstinence from wine and the abhorrence of everything connected with the vine, we find probably the remnant of a protest on the part of those who regarded themselves as true Jews against the adoption by Israel of Canaanitish culture. We may suppose that the same variety of reason as might induce a Catholic to undertake a pilgrimage-penance, discipline, thanksgiving, or the acquisition of merit-would lead the Jew to take a Nazirite vow. (For a fuller account of Naziritism in Rabbinical literature see Jewish Encyclopedia ix. As we have seen, the vow was a common thing among Jews, and we could easily conjecture plausible grounds for St. of Christ and the Gospels , Encyclopaedia Biblica , Jewish Encyclopedia , PRE Temple - ...
The place chosen for erecting this magnificent structure was Mount Moriah, Genesis 2:2,14 2 Chronicles 3:1 , the summit of which originally was unequal, and its sides irregular; but it was a favorite object of the Jews to level and extend it. It was in this court of the women, called the "treasury," that our Savior delivered his striking discourse to the Jews, related in John 8:1-20 . It was in the same court of the women that the Jews laid hold of Paul, when they judged him a violator of the temple by taking Gentiles within the sacred fence, Acts 21:26-29 . ...
After lying in ruins for fifty-two years, the foundations of the second temple were laid by Zerubbabel, and the Jews who had availed themselves of the privilege granted by Cyrus and returned to Jerusalem, Ezra 1:1-4 2:1 3:8-10 . All the Jewish writers praise this temple exceedingly for its beauty and the costliness of its workmanship. The temple area is now occupied by two Turkish mosques, into which, until recently, neither Jew nor Christian was permitted to enter. Near the southwest corner certain huge stones mark the beginning of an arch, a part of the stately bridge which anciently connected the temple are with Mount Zion; and a little north of this spot is the celebrated wailing-place of the Jews. ...
The utmost veneration and love were always cherished towards the temple by pious Jews, Psalm 84:1-12
Nazirite - But this was a precept for all Jews, and cannot be regarded as in any way a peculiar mark of the Nazirite. The reader must consult Hasting's Dictionary of the Bible (5 vols) or Jewish Encyclopedia . ...
In the ascetic abstinence from wine and the abhorrence of everything connected with the vine, we find probably the remnant of a protest on the part of those who regarded themselves as true Jews against the adoption by Israel of Canaanitish culture. We may suppose that the same variety of reason as might induce a Catholic to undertake a pilgrimage-penance, discipline, thanksgiving, or the acquisition of merit-would lead the Jew to take a Nazirite vow. (For a fuller account of Naziritism in Rabbinical literature see Jewish Encyclopedia ix. As we have seen, the vow was a common thing among Jews, and we could easily conjecture plausible grounds for St. of Christ and the Gospels , Encyclopaedia Biblica , Jewish Encyclopedia , PRE Passover (i.) - —The most distinctive festival of the Jewish religion. Jewish expositors distinguish between ‘the Egyptian Passover’ and those which were subsequently observed,—‘the perpetual Passover’ or ‘Passover for the generations,’—and narrate the points in which they differ from each other; in the former the impure partook, the blood was sprinkled on the lintels, the fat was not burned, and no hymn was sung; with other details. 200), the Gemara, an ancient supplement of the same, the commentaries of later Jewish Rabbis, as Maimonides and Bartenora. Every male Jew residing within fifteen miles of Jerusalem, and not ceremonially unclean, was required to do so, and in addition, numerous visitors from other parts of the Holy Land, and from other countries near and far, travelling with their gifts, and with song, swelled the number of residents. An ancient Jewish tradition gives the number of Passover lambs on one occasion as 1,200,000. ...
The feast proper began with the evening of the 14th Nisan; it must be borne in mind that, according to Jewish reckoning, this was the first half of the day. ]'>[5]
, the JE Paul - His father was of the straitest sect of the Jews, a Pharisee, of the tribe of Benjamin, of pure and unmixed Jewish blood (Acts 23:6 ; Philippians 3:5 ). Though a Jew, his father was a Roman citizen. " ...
According to Jewish custom, however, he learned a trade before entering on the more direct preparation for the sacred profession. ...
His preliminary education having been completed, Saul was sent, when about thirteen years of age probably, to the great Jewish school of sacred learning at Jerusalem as a student of the law. At length Stephen, one of the seven deacons, gave forth more public and aggressive testimony that Jesus was the Messiah, and this led to much excitement among the Jews and much disputation in their synagogues. 11:33) from the Jews and betake himself to Jerusalem. ...
While at Jerusalem, at the feast of Pentecost, he was almost murdered by a Jewish mob in the temple. His rooms were resorted to by many anxious inquirers, both Jews and Gentiles (Acts 28:23,30,31 ), and thus his imprisonment "turned rather to the furtherance of the gospel," and his "hired house" became the centre of a gracious influence which spread over the whole city. According to a Jewish tradition, it was situated on the borders of the modern Ghetto, which has been the Jewish quarters in Rome from the time of Pompey to the present day
Colossians, Theology of - ...
There has been much discussion whether the heresy in view here is Hellenistic or Jewish. The reference to observing Sabbaths (2:16) indicates a Jewish flavor, while the emphasis on ascetic practice and heavenly mediaries, like the angels, has a Hellenistic character, although a connection to mystery influence is more likely than a Gnostic one. " Taken in this sense, the heresy comes to have a strong Hellenistic background, for a Jewish monotheist would be unlikely to worship these mediatorial spirits. Those who have criticized this view have argued that Jews would not be drawn to a teaching that elevated the angelic realm so highly as to challenge monotheism, but this misunderstands the view. ...
A second description of the new community is that it is the "new man" or "new humanity, " the incorporation of a new community before God in Christ, where there is no "Greek or Jew, circumcised or uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave or free, but Christ is all, and is in all" (3:10-11)
Mission - Any devout Jew would think that somehow the Gentiles were to reap advantage from the Messianic reign (Luke 2:30-32), and though it was deemed absurd to suppose that preference could be given by the Messiah to heathen men (1618529062_81), even the Pharisees were zealous in making proselytes (Matthew 23:15). It is quite in harmony with the Saviour’s love for the outcast and despised, the publicans and sinners amongst the Jews (Matthew 9:9-13, John 5:46; Luke 15:1-2 ff
Baptism - ...
Baptism has been supposed by many learned persons to have had its origin from the Jewish church; in which, they maintain, it was the practice, long before Christ's time, to baptize proselytes or converts to their faith, as part of the ceremony of their admission. Doddridge, "that any should doubt of this, when it is plain, from express passages in the Jewish law, that no Jew who had lived like a Gentile for one day could be restored to the communion of this church without it. and many other precepts relating to ceremonial pollutions, in which may be seen, that the Jews were rendered incapable of appearing before God in the tabernacle or temple, till they were washed either by bathing or sprinkling. " Others, however, insist, that the Jewish proselyte baptism is not by far so ancient; and that John the Baptist was the first administrator of baptism among the Jews. John's baptism was confined to the Jews; but the Christian was common to Jews and Gentiles, Matthew 3:5 ; Matthew 3:7 . ...
The baptism of John was the concluding scene of the legal dispensation, and, in fact, part of it; and to be considered as one of those "divers washings" among the Jews; for he did not attempt to make any alteration in the Jewish religion, nor did the persons he baptized cease to be members of the Jewish church on the account of their baptism; but Christian baptism is the regular entrance into, and is a part of, the evangelical dispensation, Galatians 3:27 . None of the Jews had any apprehension of the rejection of infants, which they must have had, if infants had been rejected. As the word in Greek is used for the various ablutions among the Jews, such as sprinkling, pouring, &c
Maccabees - The name commonly given to the Jewish family otherwise known as Hasmonæans , who led the revolt against Syria under Antiochus iv. , the royal officer attempted to establish heathen sacrifices in that town, Mattathias refused to conform, killed the officer and a Jew about to offer sacrifices, levelled the heathen altar to the ground, and fled with his five sons to the mountains. Judas was essentially a warrior, whose plans involved not only the re-establishment of the Torah, but also, in all probability, the re-establishment of the Jewish State in at least a semi-independent position. For a year and a half he waged war on his enemies on the east of the Jordan, while his brother Simon brought the Jews scattered throughout Galilee back to Judæa for safety. Jerusalem surrendered, but Lysias did not attempt again to disestablish the Jewish faith. to desist from fighting the Jews, the allies of the Romans. Demetrius did not find himself strong enough to punish the Jews, but apparently bought off the siege by adding to Judæa three sections of Samaria, and granting remission of tribute. In May 142Samimon was able to seize the citadel, and in September 141, at a great assembly of priests and people, and princes of the people, and elders of the land, he was elected to be high priest and military commander and civil governor of the Jews, ‘for ever until there should arise a faithful prophet. Under this son of Simon, the Jewish State reached its greatest prosperity. The affairs of Syria growing ever more desperate under the succession of feeble kings, John ceased payment of the tribute which had been exacted by Antiochus, and established a brilliant court, issuing coins as high priest and head of the Congregation of the Jews. Judæa might then have become a province of Egypt had not the Jewish counsellors of Cleopatra advised against the subjection of the land. For six years the war raged, and it is said that 50,000 Jews perished. Thereupon, however, feeling that they were in danger of falling again into subjection to Syria, many of the Jews went over to Alexander and assisted him in putting down the rebellion. The two brothers pleaded their cause, as did also an embassy of the Jewish people, which asked that the monarchy be abolished, and the government by the high priest he re-established. ’ Great numbers of Jews were taken by Pompey to Rome at this time, together with Aristobulus, and became the nucleus of the Jewish community in the capital. In gratitude Cæsar gave many rights and privileges to the Jews throughout the Roman world. At this critical juncture Antipater was killed, and his two sons, Phasael and Herod, were appointed by Antony tetrarchs of the country of the Jews
Gentiles - When the Koine [4] became the international language, those Jews who spoke it began to apply the handy designation of ‘Greeks’ to all non-Jews in order to distinguish them from themselves; hence the phrase Ἰουδαῖοι τε καὶ Ἕλληνες came to be the colloquial equivalent of ὁ λαὸς καὶ τὰ ἔθνη. The Jews, filled with jealousy, contradict and rail at the preaching of the gospel. The history of the Apostolic Age is mainly the history of how Christ was brought to the Gentile world, and how the Jewish nation ‘hardened its heart more and more against the appeal of Christianity’ (Harnack, op. It is true that a beginning was made, but only by the Jews of the Dispersion. The home-Jews, led by Nehemiah, took the course of setting up an impenetrable fence between them and their nearest neighbours. Hirsch says that the necessities of the situation justified the narrower policy in this case (Jewish Encyclopedia v. But it is far otherwise with Jewish apocalyptic, the Book of Daniel and its numerous extra-canonical successors-far inferior to it in religious value-in which much true spiritual insight is mixed with carnal views and human passion. ‘His house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples’ (Isaiah 56:7), but it is Jewish feasts that the nations shall keep there (Zechariah 14:16-19), and they shall be joined to Israel by absorption, not by co-ordination (Isaiah 45:20-25, Jeremiah 12:16, Zephaniah 3:9, Zechariah 8:20-23). A great concession in the direction of equality is made in Isaiah 66:21, if it be Gentiles whom God is to take to minister in His sanctuary; but the promise may relate to Jews of the Dispersion. -Was there present to the mind of Christ, while accomplishing the work of Him that sent Him, a purpose of salvation that included the Gentiles? Did He look beyond ‘the lost sheep of the house of Israel’ to other sheep far off from the mountains of Canaan, who had also to be sought and found? When Satan showed Him the kingdoms of the world, did He turn away from the sight of the world with the repugnance of a Jew of His time, or did the sight move Him to compassion, and enkindle a great hope in His heart? It is not easy to see how the Christian Church can cease believing that Christ had a purpose of mercy for the world, and the expectation of subduing it unto Himself, unless she is to revise her whole doctrine of the Person of her Lord. In Luke, too, Samaritans are exhibited as excelling Jews in compassionate and grateful love (Luke 10:38; Luke 17:16). For here Jesus calls Himself ‘the light of the world,’ speaks of ‘giving his flesh for the life of the world,’ and of ‘sending his disciples into the world in like manner as the Father sent him into the world’; to the woman at the well He speaks of the hour when, not the coming to God at the ancient sanctuaries, but the coming to the Father ‘in spirit and truth,’ will be the mark of the sincere worshipper; He resides two days with the Samaritans; He proclaims to the leaders of the Jewish Church that He has ‘other sheep, not of this fold,’ whom
Ethics - The morality of the Jews, again, was very different from that of the Greeks, fur the Jews took little interest in purely philosophical problems; but they also had a system, and a very elaborate one, of law and of ceremonial observance, with which their morality was closely bound up. Although the Christians inherited so much from the Jews, this system, after being, as it were, raised to its highest power in the Sermon on the Mount, was definitely set aside in the Apostolic Age. The Neo-Platonist went further, and sought complete severance from the world of sense, Jewish thought was on different lines, but there was an even keener sense of sin and failure, although this was redeemed from despair by the hope of a Messianic Age which would redress all the evils of the existing order. It is the Jewish view, carried to its natural conclusion, and its chief characteristics may be set down under three heads. And in doing so it brings to its natural conclusion the course of ethical thought among the Jews. Early Jewish ideas about God are anthropomorphic, but the anthropomorphism is of a very different kind from that of the Greeks, The deities of Greek mythology who aroused the contemptuous disgust of Plato were constructed out of human experience with all the evil and good qualities of actual men emphasized and heightened. To the Jew God is an ideal, the source of the Moral Law, rebellion against which is sin
Messiah - No Israelite or Jew living in the year b. The ‘sure mercies of David’ to which the Jews still clung, though with feeble hope, in the dark days of exile (Isaiah 55:3), began in the age of Isaiah to take root in the national imagination. When we turn to Ezekiel’s ideal scheme of the restored Jewish theocracy (chs. Not even in the lyrical collection (60–62) is the faintest note to be heard of a Messianic Jewish King
Helena, Saint, Mother of Constantine the Great - He says that Helena went to rescue the holy places, adorned the site of our Lord's Birth in addition to the other three sites, and discovered the place of the Passion by the concurrent testimony of many Jews and Christians in the city. 709), and the cross found by the aid of a Jew, afterwards baptized as Quiriacus ( Hist
Joseph - Every Jew kept a record of his lineage, and was very proud if he could claim royal or priestly descent; and Joseph could boast himself ‘a son of David’ ( Matthew 1:20 ). (1) He was a pious Israelite, faithful in his observance of the Jewish ordinances ( Luke 2:21-24 ) and feasts ( 1618529062_64 )
Evolution (Christ And) - He was a Jew, conforming to the special conditions and demands of His own times, and limited by the intellectual and social horizon of His day
Egypt - In early times it reached a high state of culture in art and literature, and is of great interest to Jew and Christian as the early home of the Israelites and of their great lawgiver Moses. In this inscription is a figure with a strong resemblance to Jewish features, which bears Egyptian characters that have been translated "the king of Judah. Among the various other allusions to Egypt in the Bible are those to its fertility and productions, Genesis 13:10; Exodus 16:3; Numbers 11:5; to its mode of irrigation as compared with the greater advantages of Canaan, which had rain and was watered by natural streams, Deuteronomy 11:10; its commerce with Israel and the people of western Asia, Genesis 37:25; Genesis 37:36; 1 Kings 10:28-29; Ezekiel 27:7; its armies equipped with chariots and horses, Exodus 14:7; Isaiah 31:1; its learned men and its priests, Genesis 41:8; Genesis 47:22; Exodus 7:11; 1 Kings 4:30; its practice of embalming the dead, Genesis 50:3; its aversion to shepherds, and its sacrifices of cattle, Genesis 46:34; Exodus 8:26; how its people should be admitted into the Jewish Church, Deuteronomy 23:7-8; the warnings to Israel against any alliance with the Egyptians, Isaiah 30:2; Isaiah 36:6; Ezekiel 17:15; Ezekiel 29:6; and to the towns of the country
Pre-Existence of Christ - ...
(a) Jewish apocalyptic. -‘Even as a Jew, Saul believed the Messiah to be already in existence’ (H. ‘Jewish Messianic speculation had already imagined a picture for the completion of which really nothing was wanting but the Nicene dogmas’ (ib. And to connect the Historical Christ with the being of Eternal God, the category of pre-existence was indispensable; for to Jewish monotheism the idea of θεοποίησις-that any one should become God-was unthinkable
Israel, History of - In Israel's case it ultimately precipitated the emergence of the hybrid people despised by the “pure” Jew. This provided the basis for the emergence of what authentically is Judaism and the Jews, “the people of the book. 70, the synagogues preserved Judaism wherever Jews were settled. Unfortunately, Zerubbabel mysteriously disappeared, probably because the Persians recognized the inherent dangers associated with some of the Jews thinking Zerubbabel to be the anticipated messiah (Haggai 2:20-23 ). Malachi addressed the need for reformation in worship, condemned the activities of the priesthood, denounced the intermarriage of Jews with non-Jews, and criticized the popular piety so prevalent in his day
Christ, Christology - Astounding is Jesus' announcement that forgiveness of sins is present in response to himself, and still more startling is that lost Gentile sinners (including Jews who have made themselves like Gentiles) are forgiven and welcomed into table fellowship. Matthew 5:39b-41 also substitutes unusual teaching for the traditional Jewish understanding of the messianic age: "If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also. There is no longer clean and unclean according to the old typologies of food and ethnic priorities, but equality between Jew and Gentile through the far-reaching forgiveness of the Messiah that brings inner transformation
Christianity - In the Fourth Gospel we find Jesus Himself affirming that ‘salvation is of the Jews’ ( John 4:22 ); and in that very sermon in which He sets forth the manifesto of His own Kingdom, He proclaims that He came to fulfil and not to destroy the Law and the Prophets of Israel ( Matthew 5:17 ). Moreover, His attitude of independence towards Judaism is illustrated by the opposition of the Jewish leaders to Himself. 52); that Christianity was not a mere spiritualized Judaism, but a new and universal religion recognizing no distinction between Jew and Greek, circumcision and uncircumcision, and seeing in Christ Himself the ‘all in all. Peter called upon the Jews in Jerusalem to repent and be baptized ‘in the name of Jesus Christ unto the remission of sins’ ( Acts 2:38 )
Faith - Gentiles (11:21; 13:12,48; 15:7; 17:34; 21:25), Jews (6:7; 15:5; 16:1; 18:8; 21:20) and people of both genders (5:14) will be saved when they believe in the Lord Jesus Christ. The fundamental Jewish position—that the law is God's love-gift to his people and that by fulfilling its requirements they could attain the righteousness of Godis countered in the Epistles by the claim that salvation is by faith in the crucified and risen Christ. Saul, a Jew whose persecution of the Christians was based on this premise (Acts 22:3-5 ), after meeting the risen Christ becomes a Paul who with opened eyes receives the Holy Spirit and preaches that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God (Acts 9 ; Galatians 1:23 )
Hezekiah - ), so that the sentence of exile and humiliation, "tossed like a ball into a large country, and there the chariots of his glory becoming the shame of his lord's house," was apparently reversed, though Jewish tradition says he was tied to the horses' tails by the enemy to whom he designed to betray Jerusalem, but who thought he mocked them. The Assyrian annals are silent as to Sennacherib's second expedition in the fifth year of his reign, which began by his "treacherously" (Isaiah 33:1) attacking Lachish, and which ended in the destruction recorded in 2 Kings 19:35; for, unlike the faithful Jewish historians, they never record any of their monarch's disasters. In the former invasion Sennacherib in his first, expedition inflicted a decisive blow on the united forces of Egypt and Ethiopia at Altagu (possibly the Eltekon of Joshua 15:59); but now he was forced to raise the siege of Pelusium by Tirhakah, and send an imperious letter to Hezekiah by Rabshakeh, whose sneers at his religious reforms in removing the high places (2 Kings 18:22-32) and flattering promises in fluent Hebrew to the people favor the idea that he was a renegade Jew. wide), wherein the Jewish physiognomy of the captives is discernible, after mentioning the capture of the 200,150 Jews he adds, "then I prayed unto God," the only instance of God's name in an inscription without a pagan adjunct. On returning to Nineveh Sennacherib, according to Tobit 1:18, revenged himself on the Jews then in his power; but that apocryphal book makes him die 55 days afterward, whereas 17 years elapsed: see above
Revelation of John, the - Justin held his controversy with the learned Jew Trypho at Ephesus, John's residence 35 years previously; he says "the Revelation was given to John, one of the twelve apostles of Christ. ...
The Jews had a succession of prophets to guide them by the light of prophecy; He never would leave the New Testament church without similar guidance for the 1,700 or 1,800 years since John's age; what the prophets were to the Jews, that Revelation is to us
Ideal - In this He was coming, so far, into touch with the prevalent Jewish conceptions of His time; for it was a social, not an individual good for which Israel looked. But whereas the Jews conceived of this social good on purely national lines, Jesus enlarged the bounds of the blessed society so as to make room in it for men of all nations. This was where His teaching differed so greatly from the contemporary Jewish expectation, and from the thoughts of many in modern times who have been seized by the greatness of Christ’s social purposes without grasping the individuality and spirituality of His methods. The Kingdom of God in popular Jewish hope was an exaltation of Israel brought about by deeds like those of Judas Maccabaeus. —His character is not merely perfect in some aspects, but perfect in all—so rounded and complete as to become an ideal for the woman as well as for the man, for the Greek as well as for the Jew, for the modern as well as for the ancient world
Canon of the Old Testament - Jews recognize no NT, and have a polemic interest in avoiding this designation of their Holy Scripture. This third group was defined, and the OT Canon finally fixed, by the Synod of Palestinian Jews held at Jamnia, near Joppa, about the year a. Similarly Islam admitted the superiority of ‘the people of a book’ (Jews and Christians), and were easily induced to accord like sanctity to their own Koran. Many of the Jews remained in Babylon, and continued their activity in the study of the national literature. 300) may possibly have suggested to the Jews an Increase of their own sacred Canon. 100), defending his earlier books against adverse reviews, maintains that Jewish records had been made by trained historians. … Though so great an interval of time has passed, no one has ventured either to add or to remove or to alter a syllable; and it is the instinct of every Jew from the day of his birth to consider these books as the teaching of God, to abide by them, and, if need be, cheerfully to lay down life in their behalf. The Interpretation of the OT must differ among Jews and Christians
Sibylline Oracles - ), the new harvest of Sibyllina included some Jewish Alexandrian productions, which influenced Vergil. ), the new harvest of Sibyllina included some Jewish Alexandrian productions, which influenced Vergil. It is true, as we have seen, that the very diffusion of such verses led to the partial discrediting of the entire literature as a religious authority of impartial value, but long before this shadow fell upon the Sibyllina at Rome the Hellenistic Jews of Alexandria had taken advantage of the current Sibylline verse as a literary genre and started a new, ingenious development of the method. The Jewish Sibylline oracles. -We come upon Jewish Sibylline oracles before we hear of a Jewish Sibyl. It is necessary to say ‘apparently,’ for serious doubts have been thrown recently upon Alexander’s indebtedness to a Jewish source; both Geffcken [Note: In his ‘Komposition und Entstehungszeit der Oracula Sibyllina’ (TU xxiii. The exact relations between the Jewish Sibyl and the Chaldaean have not yet been cleared up. the literary method of the Sibylline oracles had been exploited by one or more Jewish authors at Alexandria, in the interests of religious apologetic and propaganda. Like the older Philo, Theodotus, and possibly the author of the pseudo-Phocylidaean verses, the Jews who composed these Sibylline oracles of their own could write Greek hexameters. Why should not the Sibyl, this recognized exponent of Divine things, voice the true inspiration of Israel as well as the secondary revelation of the nations? Why should not this authoritative channel convey the living water of Jewish truth, or rather of truth as only the Jews knew it? And so this form of pseudonymous literature came into vogue. ), the new harvest of Sibyllina included some Jewish Alexandrian productions, which influenced Vergil. ]'>[19] The Church appropriated them, appealed to them, edited them in her own interests, composed fresh ones, and, in general, treated the Jewish Sibylline oracles much as the Alexandrian Jews had treated the pagan ones. It is true that the composition of Jewish Sibyllines continued sporadically till the reign of Marcus Aurelius at any rate, and even later. But the extant collection is due to Christians, and one of the intricate problems of this literature is to determine how far Christians have edited sources which were originally Jewish. ) are evidently Jewish, others as evidently Christian; hut large passages seem to show no distinct soil in one or the other religion. Some of them are not definitely pre-Christian, and even those that are to be dated in the Christian era may be Jewish compositions worked over by a Christian hand. ...
An instance of the difficulty of deciding whether a passage of the Sibyllina was written by a Jew or by a Christian is afforded by the first of the fragments which Theophilus of Antioch has preserved (ad Autol. ), the new harvest of Sibyllina included some Jewish Alexandrian productions, which influenced Vergil. ’...
A passage like this breathes so much of the monotheistic moralism which was common to Orphism, Judaism, and Christianity that we have no definite criteria for assigning it to either a Jewish or a Christian Sibyllinist; either might have written it, subordinating his dogmatic idiosyncrasies to the need of preserving the dramatic probabilities of the situation. Thou, Lord's Supper. (i.) - ...
(a)The Jewish-Christian Community. The average Jew, having become a deist, could not feel sky, earth, and sea palpitate with the Divine Spirit, and so was impervious to sacramental conceptions (W. With respect to this also we must assume that Jesus was a creator of spiritual truth, for the consistency of the Synoptic portraiture of Jesus, and the purity of His own views as to His mission, demand that our interpretation of His outlook into the future of the Kingdom should not be limited by the current ideas of Jewish apocalypses, or by the literal symbolism of OT prophecy. It would appear that, according to contemporary Jewish practice, Passover, the 14th Nisan, was spoken of as the beginning of the feast Maẓẓoth, though originally Unleavened Bread began on 15th Nisan (Wellhausen, Evangelium Marci, 115; Schürer, ThLZ
The easiest explanation of this conflicting evidence is that Jesus did not eat the regular Passover feast with His disciples, but that He did eat a meal by anticipation on Nisan 13, the night before the regular Jewish celebration, which was in some sort a keeping of the Passover by this little group (but see Robinson, art. and in Jewish Encyc
Descent Into Hades - Those who accepted the Jewish cosmogony believed that, at death, every soul passed to this hidden region. ]'>[3] are cited as testifying to Jewish belief: ‘When they that are bound, they that are in Gehinnom, saw the light of the Messiah, they rejoiced to receive him’; and ‘This is that which stands written, We shall rejoice and exult in thee. So wide-spread was this belief in the early Christian period that a controversy arose as to whether the souls of Jews or of Gentiles or of both were included in the deliverance wrought by Christ in Hades. ]'>[11] and his school included both Jew and Gentile in its grace
Offerings, the - In the Epistle to the Hebrews is brought out in detail the contrast between the status of the Jew, for whom all the sacrifices needed to be repeated (the typical system existing on repetition), and that of Christians, who by the one sacrifice of Christ (non-repetition) are perfected for ever, and also have access to the holiest, because the great high Priest has entered in
Christian Life - We must go for our enlightenment, not to any general studies of Christian ethics, but to the extant authorities of the age, which treat of the Christian life in: (1) the Jewish-Christian period; (2) the Pauline period; and (3) the post-Pauline period. Jewish Christianity. -The followers of Christ at the time of His death were distinguished from the majority of their fellow-Jews by their conviction that Jesus was the Messiah. Their Master, while condemning the defects of representative leaders of religion, like the Pharisees, had never rejected the observances of the Jewish religion-true to the spirit of His mission, which, was rather to fulfil than to destroy. ...
The primitive Christians of Jerusalem, while following the rules of the Jewish religion for everyday life (Acts 15), and for worship and devotion observances (Acts 3:1), come before us in the early chapters of the Acts as a distinctive community, given to prayer (Acts 1:14). ’ The appointment of the seven Hellenists (Acts 7) which quelled the internal differences between the Hebrews or pure Jews and the Hellenists, their Greek-speaking brethren of the Dispersion, indicates not only the large-hearted charity of the Christian apostles, but their gradual alienation from the narrowness of Judaic legalism. Peter, who still maintained a loyal observance of Jewish law and felt scruples about entering a Gentile house (Acts 10) and joining St. The Apostolic Decree (Acts 15), which was intended to solve the differences of Jewish and Gentile Christianity, was a compromise which shows at once the strength and the weakness of the Jewish-Christian position: its strength lay in its jealousy for pure morality-Gentile Christians are to abstain from meat offered to idols, blood, things strangled, and fornication; its weakness lay in its ceremonialism and in its distrust of the Gentile per se. The later factors of